WorldWideScience

Sample records for satellite infrared sensors

  1. Infrared Astronomy Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrera, G. A.

    1981-09-01

    In 1982, the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) will be launched into a 900-km sun-synchronous (twilight) orbit to perform an unbiased, all-sky survey of the far-infrared spectrum from 8 to 120 microns. Observations telemetered to ground stations will be compiled into an IR astronomy catalog. Attention is given the cryogenically cooled, 60-cm Ritchey-Chretien telescope carried by the satellite, whose primary and secondary mirrors are fabricated from beryllium by means of 'Cryo-Null Figuring'. This technique anticipates the mirror distortions that will result from cryogenic cooling of the telescope and introduces dimensional compensations for them during machining and polishing. Consideration is also given to the interferometric characterization of telescope performance and Cryo/Thermal/Vacuum simulated space environment testing.

  2. Uncooled tunneling infrared sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Thomas W. (Inventor); Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Podosek, Judith A. (Inventor); Vote, Erika C. (Inventor); Muller, Richard E. (Inventor); Maker, Paul D. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An uncooled infrared tunneling sensor in which the only moving part is a diaphragm which is deflected into contact with a micromachined silicon tip electrode prepared by a novel lithographic process. Similarly prepared deflection electrodes employ electrostatic force to control the deflection of a silicon nitride, flat diaphragm membrane. The diaphragm exhibits a high resonant frequency which reduces the sensor's sensitivity to vibration. A high bandwidth feedback circuit controls the tunneling current by adjusting the deflection voltage to maintain a constant deflection of the membrane. The resulting infrared sensor can be miniaturized to pixel dimensions smaller than 100 .mu.m. An alternative embodiment is implemented using a corrugated membrane to permit large deflection without complicated clamping and high deflection voltages. The alternative embodiment also employs a pinhole aperture in a membrane to accommodate environmental temperature variation and a sealed chamber to eliminate environmental contamination of the tunneling electrodes and undesireable accoustic coupling to the sensor.

  3. Comparability of red/near-infrared reflectance and NDVI based on the spectral response function between MODIS and 30 other satellite sensors using rice canopy spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weijiao; Huang, Jingfeng; Wang, Xiuzhen; Wang, Fumin; Shi, Jingjing

    2013-11-26

    Long-term monitoring of regional and global environment changes often depends on the combined use of multi-source sensor data. The most widely used vegetation index is the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is a function of the red and near-infrared (NIR) spectral bands. The reflectance and NDVI data sets derived from different satellite sensor systems will not be directly comparable due to different spectral response functions (SRF), which has been recognized as one of the most important sources of uncertainty in the multi-sensor data analysis. This study quantified the influence of SRFs on the red and NIR reflectances and NDVI derived from 31 Earth observation satellite sensors. For this purpose, spectroradiometric measurements were performed for paddy rice grown under varied nitrogen levels and at different growth stages. The rice canopy reflectances were convoluted with the spectral response functions of various satellite instruments to simulate sensor-specific reflectances in the red and NIR channels. NDVI values were then calculated using the simulated red and NIR reflectances. The results showed that as compared to the Terra MODIS, the mean relative percentage difference (RPD) ranged from -12.67% to 36.30% for the red reflectance, -8.52% to -0.23% for the NIR reflectance, and -9.32% to 3.10% for the NDVI. The mean absolute percentage difference (APD) compared to the Terra MODIS ranged from 1.28% to 36.30% for the red reflectance, 0.84% to 8.71% for the NIR reflectance, and 0.59% to 9.32% for the NDVI. The lowest APD between MODIS and the other 30 satellite sensors was observed for Landsat5 TM for the red reflectance, CBERS02B CCD for the NIR reflectance and Landsat4 TM for the NDVI. In addition, the largest APD between MODIS and the other 30 satellite sensors was observed for IKONOS for the red reflectance, AVHRR1 onboard NOAA8 for the NIR reflectance and IKONOS for the NDVI. The results also indicated that AVHRRs onboard NOAA7-17 showed

  4. Multiple Usage of Existing Satellite Sensors (PREPRINT)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keeney, James T

    2006-01-01

    .... Space offers a near-perfect vacuum to operate a passive or active sensor. Volume, mass and power on satellites is limited and risk management approaches tended to remove such sensors from satellite systems...

  5. Multiple Usage of Existing Satellite Sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keeney, James T

    2006-01-01

    .... Space offers a near-perfect vacuum to operate a passive or active sensor. Volume, mass and power on satellites is limited and risk management approaches tended to remove such sensors from satellite systems...

  6. A flexible infrared sensor for tissue oximetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren Dahl; Thyssen, Anders; Engholm, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    We present a flexible infrared sensor for use in tissue oximetry with the aim of treating prematurely born infants. The sensor will detect the oxygen saturation in brain tissue through near infrared spectroscopy. The sensor itself consists of several individual silicon photo detectors fully...

  7. Smartphone Video Guidance Sensor for Small Satellites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Smartphone Video Guidance Sensor(SVGS) for Small Satellites will provide a low-cost,integrated rendezvous & proximity operations sensor system to allow an...

  8. Correlative studies of satellite ozone sensor measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovill, J.E.; Ellis, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Comparisons are made between total ozone measurements made by four satellite ozone sensors (TOMS, SBUV, TOVS and MFR). The comparisons were made during July 1979 when all sensors were operating simultaneously. The TOMS and SBUV sensors were observed to measure less total ozone than the MFR sensor, 10 and 15 Dobson units (DU) respectively. The MFR and TOMS sensors measured less ozone than the TOVS sensor, 19 an 28 DU, respectively. Latitudinal variability of the total ozone comparisons is discussed

  9. The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, G.; Habing, H. J.; Van Duinen, R.; Aumann, H. H.; Beichman, C. A.; Baud, B.; Beintema, D. A.; Boggess, N.; Clegg, P. E.; De Jong, T.

    1984-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) consists of a spacecraft and a liquid helium cryostat that contains a cooled IR telescope. The telescope's focal plane assembly is cooled to less than 3 K, and contains 62 IR detectors in the survey array which are arranged so that every source crossing the field of view can be seen by at least two detectors in each of four wavelength bands. The satellite was launched into a 900 km-altitude near-polar orbit, and its cryogenic helium supply was exhausted on November 22, 1983. By mission's end, 72 percent of the sky had been observed with three or more hours-confirming scans, and 95 percent with two or more hours-confirming scans. About 2000 stars detected at 12 and 25 microns early in the mission, and identified in the SAO (1966) catalog, have a positional uncertainty ellipse whose axes are 45 x 9 arcsec for an hours-confirmed source.

  10. Early results from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neugebauer, G.; Beichman, C.A.; Soifer, B.T.

    1984-01-01

    For 10 months the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) provided astronomers with what might be termed their first view of the infrared sky on a clear, dark night. Without IRAS, atmospheric absorption and the thermal emission from both the atmosphere and Earthbound telescopes make the task of the infrared astronomer comparable to what an optical astronomer would face if required to work only on cloudy afternoons. IRAS observations are serving astronomers in the same manner as the photographic plates of the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey; just as the optical survey has been used by all astronomers for over three decades, as a source of quantitative information about the sky and as a roadmap for future observations, the results of IRAS will be studied for years to come. IRAS has demonstrated the power of infrared astronomy from space. Already, from a brief look at a miniscule fraction of the data available, we have learned much about the solar system, about nearby stars, about the Galaxy as a whole and about distant extragalactic systems. Comets are much dustier than previously thought. Solid particles, presumably the remnants of the star-formation process, orbit around Vega and other stars and may provide the raw material for planetary systems. Emission from cool interstellar material has been traced throughout the Galaxy all the way to the galactic poles. Both the clumpiness and breadth of the distribution of this material were previously unsuspected. The far-infrared sky away from the galactic plane has been found to be dominate by spiral galaxies, some of which emit more than 50% and as much as 98% of their energy in the infrared - an exciting and surprising revelation. The IRAS mission is clearly the pathfinder for future mission that, to a large extent, will be devoted to the discoveries revealed by IRAS. 8 figures

  11. Thermoelectric infrared imaging sensors for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Masaki; Nakajima, Yasushi; Saito, Masanori; Satou, Fuminori; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes three low-cost thermoelectric infrared imaging sensors having a 1,536, 2,304, and 10,800 element thermoelectric focal plane array (FPA) respectively and two experimental automotive application systems. The FPAs are basically fabricated with a conventional IC process and micromachining technologies and have a low cost potential. Among these sensors, the sensor having 2,304 elements provide high responsivity of 5,500 V/W and a very small size with adopting a vacuum-sealed package integrated with a wide-angle ZnS lens. One experimental system incorporated in the Nissan ASV-2 is a blind spot pedestrian warning system that employs four infrared imaging sensors. This system helps alert the driver to the presence of a pedestrian in a blind spot by detecting the infrared radiation emitted from the person"s body. The system can also prevent the vehicle from moving in the direction of the pedestrian. The other is a rearview camera system with an infrared detection function. This system consists of a visible camera and infrared sensors, and it helps alert the driver to the presence of a pedestrian in a rear blind spot. Various issues that will need to be addressed in order to expand the automotive applications of IR imaging sensors in the future are also summarized. This performance is suitable for consumer electronics as well as automotive applications.

  12. Hybrid active pixel sensors in infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finger, Gert; Dorn, Reinhold J.; Meyer, Manfred; Mehrgan, Leander; Stegmeier, Joerg; Moorwood, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Infrared astronomy is currently benefiting from three main technologies providing high-performance hybrid active pixel sensors. In the near infrared from 1 to 5 μm two technologies, both aiming for buttable 2Kx2K mosaics, are competing, namely InSb and HgCdTe grown by LPE or MBE on Al 2 O 3 , Si or CdZnTe substrates. Blocked impurity band Si:As arrays cover the mid infrared spectral range from 8 to 28 μm. Adaptive optics combined with multiple integral field units feeding high-resolution spectrographs drive the requirements for the array format of infrared sensors used at ground-based infrared observatories. The pixel performance is now approaching fundamental limits. In view of this development, a detection limit for the photon flux of the ideal detector will be derived, depending only on the temperature and the impedance of the detector. It will be shown that this limit is approximated by state of the art infrared arrays for long on-chip integrations. Different detector materials are compared and strategies to populate large focal planes are discussed. The need for the development of small-format low noise sensors for adaptive optics and interferometry will be pointed out

  13. Sensors for x-ray astronomy satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Fumiyoshi; Kondo, Ichiro; Nishioka, Yonero; Kameda, Yoshihiko; Kubo, Masaki.

    1980-01-01

    For the purpose of observing the cosmic X-ray, the cosmic X-ray astronomy satellite (CORSA-b, named ''Hakucho'', Japanese for cygnus,) was launched Feb. 21, 1979 by Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science, University of Tokyo. The primary objectives of the satellite are: to perform panoramic survey of the space for X-ray bursts and to perform the spectral and temporal measurement of X-ray sources. The very soft X-ray sensor for X-ray observation and the horizon sensor for spacecraft attitude sensing were developed by Toshiba Corporation under technical support by University of Tokyo and Nagoya University for ''Hakucho''. The features of these sensors are outlined in this paper. (author)

  14. Applications of FBG sensors on telecom satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, S.; Araújo, F. M.; Ferreira, L. A.; Pedersen, F.; Esteban, M. A.; McKenzie, I.; Karafolas, N.

    2017-11-01

    Monitoring needs of spacecraft are rapidly increasing due to new and more challenging missions, along with demands to reduce launching costs by minimizing the manufacture, assembly, integration and test time and employing new low weight materials balanced by the need for maximizing system lifetime while maintaining good reliability. Conventional electronic sensors are characterized by their low multiplexing capability and their EMI/RF susceptibility and it is in this scenario that Fiber Optic Sensors (FOS) in general, and more specifically Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) technology offers important benefits, improving in various ways the already deployed sensing subsystems (e.g. reducing the weight associated with sensor cabling, increasing the number of sensing points) and enabling new monitoring applications that were not possible by using conventional sensing technologies. This work presents the activities performed and the lessons learnt in the frame of ESA's ARTES-5 project "Fiber Optic Sensing Subsystem for Spacecraft Health Monitoring in Telecommunication Satellites". This project finished in July 2009, with the implementation and testing of two different demonstrators employing FBG sensor technology: FBG sensors for temperature monitoring in high voltage environments, and in particular in several parts of electric propulsion subsystems [1], and FBG sensors for thermal monitoring of array-antennas during RF testing [2]. In addition, the contacts performed with different actors within the space community allowed the identification of a special area of interest for the substitution of regular thermocouple instrumentation by FBG technology for thermal vacuum ground testing of satellites.

  15. Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Design Concepts and Performance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Charles R.; Meister, Gerhard; Monosmith, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    800 nanometers with three additional discrete near infrared (NIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) ocean aerosol correction bands. Also, to avoid drift in sensor sensitivity from being interpreted as environmental change, climate change research requires rigorous monitoring of sensor stability. For SeaWiFS, monthly lunar imaging accurately tracked stability at an accuracy of approximately 0.1% that allowed the data to be used for climate studies [2]. It is now acknowledged by the international community that future missions and sensor designs need to accommodate lunar calibrations. An overview of ocean color remote sensing and a review of the progress made in ocean color remote sensing and the variety of research applications derived from global satellite ocean color data are provided. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the design options for ocean color satellite radiometers, performance and testing criteria, and sensor components (optics, detectors, electronics, etc.) that must be integrated into an instrument concept. These ultimately dictate the quality and quantity of data that can be delivered as a trade against mission cost. Historically, science and sensor technology have advanced in a "leap-frog" manner in that sensor design requirements for a mission are defined many years before a sensor is launched and by the end of the mission, perhaps 15-20 years later, science applications and requirements are well beyond the capabilities of the sensor. Section 3 provides a summary of historical mission science objectives and sensor requirements. This progression is expected to continue in the future as long as sensor costs can be constrained to affordable levels and still allow the incorporation of new technologies without incurring unacceptable risk to mission success. The IOCCG Report Number 13 discusses future ocean biology mission Level-1 requirements in depth.

  16. Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) Catalogs and Atlases. Explanatory Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichman, C. A. (Editor); Neugebauer, G. (Editor); Habing, H. J. (Editor); Clegg, P. E. (Editor); Chester, T. J. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) mission is described. An overview of the mission, a description of the satellite and its telescope system, and a discussion of the mission design, requirements, and inflight modifications are given. Data reduction, flight tests, flux reconstruction and calibration, data processing, and the formats of the IRAS catalogs and atlases are also considered.

  17. Thermal infrared panoramic imaging sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutin, Mikhail; Tsui, Eddy K.; Gutin, Olga; Wang, Xu-Ming; Gutin, Alexey

    2006-05-01

    Panoramic cameras offer true real-time, 360-degree coverage of the surrounding area, valuable for a variety of defense and security applications, including force protection, asset protection, asset control, security including port security, perimeter security, video surveillance, border control, airport security, coastguard operations, search and rescue, intrusion detection, and many others. Automatic detection, location, and tracking of targets outside protected area ensures maximum protection and at the same time reduces the workload on personnel, increases reliability and confidence of target detection, and enables both man-in-the-loop and fully automated system operation. Thermal imaging provides the benefits of all-weather, 24-hour day/night operation with no downtime. In addition, thermal signatures of different target types facilitate better classification, beyond the limits set by camera's spatial resolution. The useful range of catadioptric panoramic cameras is affected by their limited resolution. In many existing systems the resolution is optics-limited. Reflectors customarily used in catadioptric imagers introduce aberrations that may become significant at large camera apertures, such as required in low-light and thermal imaging. Advantages of panoramic imagers with high image resolution include increased area coverage with fewer cameras, instantaneous full horizon detection, location and tracking of multiple targets simultaneously, extended range, and others. The Automatic Panoramic Thermal Integrated Sensor (APTIS), being jointly developed by Applied Science Innovative, Inc. (ASI) and the Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) combines the strengths of improved, high-resolution panoramic optics with thermal imaging in the 8 - 14 micron spectral range, leveraged by intelligent video processing for automated detection, location, and tracking of moving targets. The work in progress supports the Future Combat Systems (FCS) and the

  18. Infrared sensor for water pollution and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudet, E.; Gutierrez-Arrovo, A.; Bailleul, M.; Rinnert, E.; Nemec, P.; Charrier, J.; Bodiou, L.; Colas, F.; Compère, C.; Boussard, C.; Bureau, B.; Michel, K.; Nazabal, V.

    2017-05-01

    Development of Mid-infrared sensors for the detection of biochemical molecules is a challenge of great importance. Mid-infrared range (4000 - 400 cm-1) contains the absorption bands related to the vibrations of organic molecules (nitrates, hydrocarbons, pesticides, etc.). Chalcogenide glasses are an important class of amorphous materials appropriate for sensing applications. Indeed, they are mainly studied and used for their wide transparency in the infrared range (up to 15 μm for selenide glasses) and high refractive index (between 2 and 3). The aim of this study is to synthesize and characterize chalcogenide thin films for developing mid-IR optical waveguides. Therefore, two (GeSe2)100-x(Sb2Se3)x chalcogenide glasses, where x=10 and 50 were chosen for their good mid-IR transparency, high stability against crystallization and their refractive index contrast suitable for mid-IR waveguiding. Chalcogenide glasses were prepared using the conventional melting and quenching method and then used for RF magnetron sputtering deposition. Sputtered thin films were characterized in order to determine dispersion of refractive index in UV-Vis-NIR-MIR. Obtained results were used for the simulation of the optical design in mid-infrared (λ = 7.7 μm). Selenide ridge waveguide were prepared by RIE-ICP dry etching process. Single-mode propagation at 7.7 μm was observed. Optical losses of 0.7 +/- 0.3 and 2.5 +/- 0.1 dB.cm-1 were measured in near-infrared (λ = 1.55 μm) and midinfrared (λ = 7.7 μm), respectively. Achieved results are promising for the fabrication of an integrated optical sensor operating in the mid-infrared.

  19. Long Wave Infrared Cavity Enhanced Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taubman, Matthew S.; Scott, David C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Myers, Tanya L.; Munley, John T.; Nguyen, Vinh T.; Schultz, John F.

    2005-12-01

    The principal goal of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL's) long wave infrared (LWIR) cavity enhanced sensor (CES) task is to explore ultra-sensitive spectroscopic chemical sensing techniques and apply them to detecting proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Our primary application is detecting signatures of WMD production, but LWIR CES techniques are also capable of detecting chemical weapons. The LWIR CES task is concerned exclusively with developing novel point sensors; stand-off detection is addressed by other PNNL tasks and projects. PNNL's LWIR CES research is distinguished from that done by others by the use quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) as the light source. QCLs are novel devices, and a significant fraction of our research has been devoted to developing the procedures and hardware required to implement them most effectively for chemical sensing. This report details the progress we have made on LWIR CES sensor development.

  20. GEO Satellites as Space Weather Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-26

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0161 GEO Satellites as Space Weather Sensors Kerri Cahoy MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 77 MASSACHUSETTS AVE CAMBRIDGE ... Cambridge , MA 02139 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AF Office of Scientific...Lohmeyer  and  Cahoy,  2013;   Lohmeyer,  et  al.,  2015].  From  the   statistical  analysis,  we  identified  that

  1. Avoiding obstacles by using a proximity infrared sensor skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Zhengcai; Fu Yili; Wu Qidi; Wang Shuguo; Wang Guangguo

    2007-01-01

    Placement and wiring of vast amount of sensor elements on the 3-dimensionally configured robot surface to form soft sensor skin is very difficult with the traditional technology, hi this paper we propose a new method to realize such a skin. By implanting infrared sensors array in an elastic body, we obtain an elastic and tough sensor skin that can be shaped freely. The developed sensor skin is a large-area, flexible array of infrared sensors with data processing capabilities. Depending on the skin electronics, it endows its carrier with an ability to sense its surroundings. The structure, the method of infrared sensor signal processing, and basic experiments of sensor skin are presented. The validity of the infrared sensor skin is investigated by preliminary obstacle avoidance trial.

  2. Thermal infrared remote sensing sensors, methods, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kuenzer, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in the field of thermal infrared remote sensing. Temperature is one of the most important physical environmental variables monitored by earth observing remote sensing systems. Temperature ranges define the boundaries of habitats on our planet. Thermal hazards endanger our resources and well-being. In this book renowned international experts have contributed chapters on currently available thermal sensors as well as innovative plans for future missions. Further chapters discuss the underlying physics and image processing techni

  3. Kinematic measurements using an infrared sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinho, F; Paulucci, L

    2016-01-01

    The use of an infrared sensor as a new alternative to measure position as a function of time in kinematic experiments was investigated using a microcontroller as the data acquisition and control device. These are versatile sensors that offer advantages over typical ultrasound devices. The setup described in this paper enables students to develop their own experiments, promoting opportunities for learning physical concepts such as the different types of forces that can act on a body (gravitational, elastic, drag, etc) and the resulting types of movements with good sensitivity within the 4–30 cm range. As a proof of concept we also present the application of a prototype designed to record the kinematics of mass-spring systems. (paper)

  4. Cloud and Thermodynamic Parameters Retrieved from Satellite Ultraspectral Infrared Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Smith, William L.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Taylor, Jonathan P.; Schluessel, Peter; Strow, L. Larrabee; Mango, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric-thermodynamic parameters and surface properties are basic meteorological parameters for weather forecasting. A physical geophysical parameter retrieval scheme dealing with cloudy and cloud-free radiance observed with satellite ultraspectral infrared sounders has been developed and applied to the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS). The retrieved parameters presented herein are from radiance data gathered during the Joint Airborne IASI Validation Experiment (JAIVEx). JAIVEx provided intensive aircraft observations obtained from airborne Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) systems, in-situ measurements, and dedicated dropsonde and radiosonde measurements for the validation of the IASI products. Here, IASI atmospheric profile retrievals are compared with those obtained from dedicated dropsondes, radiosondes, and the airborne FTS system. The IASI examples presented here demonstrate the ability to retrieve fine-scale horizontal features with high vertical resolution from satellite ultraspectral sounder radiance spectra.

  5. Stray radiation and the Infrared Astronomical Satellite /IRAS/ telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, R. J.; Harned, R.; Breault, R. P.; Malugin, R.

    1981-01-01

    Stray light control is a major consideration in the design of infrared cryogenically cooled telescopes such as the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS). The basic design of the baffle system, and the placement, shape, and coating of the secondary support struts for the telescope subsystem are described. The intent of this paper is to highlight the stray light problems encountered while designing the system, and to illustrate how computer analysis can be a useful design aid. Scattering measurements of the primary mirror, and a full system level scatter measurement are presented. Comparisons of predicted performance with the measured results are also presented.

  6. Abnormal Activity Detection Using Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomu Luo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Healthy aging is one of the most important social issues. In this paper, we propose a method for abnormal activity detection without any manual labeling of the training samples. By leveraging the Field of View (FOV modulation, the spatio-temporal characteristic of human activity is encoded into low-dimension data stream generated by the ceiling-mounted Pyroelectric Infrared (PIR sensors. The similarity between normal training samples are measured based on Kullback-Leibler (KL divergence of each pair of them. The natural clustering of normal activities is discovered through a self-tuning spectral clustering algorithm with unsupervised model selection on the eigenvectors of a modified similarity matrix. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs are employed to model each cluster of normal activities and form feature vectors. One-Class Support Vector Machines (OSVMs are used to profile the normal activities and detect abnormal activities. To validate the efficacy of our method, we conducted experiments in real indoor environments. The encouraging results show that our method is able to detect abnormal activities given only the normal training samples, which aims to avoid the laborious and inconsistent data labeling process.

  7. Sensor fault detection and recovery in satellite attitude control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrolahi, Seiied Saeed; Abdollahi, Farzaneh

    2018-04-01

    This paper proposes an integrated sensor fault detection and recovery for the satellite attitude control system. By introducing a nonlinear observer, the healthy sensor measurements are provided. Considering attitude dynamics and kinematic, a novel observer is developed to detect the fault in angular rate as well as attitude sensors individually or simultaneously. There is no limit on type and configuration of attitude sensors. By designing a state feedback based control signal and Lyapunov stability criterion, the uniformly ultimately boundedness of tracking errors in the presence of sensor faults is guaranteed. Finally, simulation results are presented to illustrate the performance of the integrated scheme.

  8. Barriers Keep Drops Of Water Out Of Infrared Gas Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Sean K.

    1996-01-01

    Infrared-sensor cells used for measuring partial pressures of CO(2) and other breathable gases modified to prevent entry of liquid water into sensory optical paths of cells. Hydrophobic membrane prevents drops of water entrained in flow from entering optical path from lamp to infrared detectors.

  9. Quantifying the clear-sky bias of satellite-derived infrared LST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermida, S. L.; Trigo, I. F.; DaCamara, C.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is one of the most relevant parameters when addressing the physical processes that take place at the surface of the Earth. Satellite data are particularly appropriate for measuring LST over the globe with high temporal resolution. Remote-sensed LST estimation from space-borne sensors has been systematically performed over the Globe for nearly 3 decades and geostationary LST climate data records are now available. The retrieval of LST from satellite observations generally relies on measurements in the thermal infrared (IR) window. Although there is a large number of IR sensors on-board geostationary satellites and polar orbiters suitable for LST retrievals with different temporal and spatial resolutions, the use of IR observations limits LST estimates to clear sky conditions. As a consequence, climate studies based on IR LST are likely to be affected by the restriction of LST data to cloudless conditions. However, such "clear sky bias" has never been quantified and, therefore, the actual impact of relying only on clear sky data is still to be determined. On the other hand, an "all-weather" global LST database may be set up based on passive microwave (MW) measurements which are much less affected by clouds. An 8-year record of all-weather MW LST is here used to quantify the clear-sky bias of IR LST at global scale based on MW observations performed by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) onboard NASA's Aqua satellite. Selection of clear-sky and cloudy pixels is based on information derived from measurements performed by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on-board the same satellite.

  10. Impact of Missing Passive Microwave Sensors on Multi-Satellite Precipitation Retrieval Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of one or two missing passive microwave (PMW input sensors on the end product of multi-satellite precipitation products is an interesting but obscure issue for both algorithm developers and data users. On 28 January 2013, the Version-7 TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA products were reproduced and re-released by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center because the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-B (AMSU-B and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager-Sounder-F16 (SSMIS-F16 input data were unintentionally disregarded in the prior retrieval. Thus, this study investigates the sensitivity of TMPA algorithm results to missing PMW sensors by intercomparing the “early” and “late” Version-7 TMPA real-time (TMPA-RT precipitation estimates (i.e., without and with AMSU-B, SSMIS-F16 sensors with an independent high-density gauge network of 200 tipping-bucket rain gauges over the Chinese Jinghe river basin (45,421 km2. The retrieval counts and retrieval frequency of various PMW and Infrared (IR sensors incorporated into the TMPA system were also analyzed to identify and diagnose the impacts of sensor availability on the TMPA-RT retrieval accuracy. Results show that the incorporation of AMSU-B and SSMIS-F16 has substantially reduced systematic errors. The improvement exhibits rather strong seasonal and topographic dependencies. Our analyses suggest that one or two single PMW sensors might play a key role in affecting the end product of current combined microwave-infrared precipitation estimates. This finding supports algorithm developers’ current endeavor in spatiotemporally incorporating as many PMW sensors as possible in the multi-satellite precipitation retrieval system called Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement mission (IMERG. This study also recommends users of satellite precipitation products to switch to the newest Version-7 TMPA datasets and

  11. Radar and Infrared Sensors for Landmine Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borchers, Brian

    2001-01-01

    .... Data from the IR camera and GPR system, in conjunction with soil water content measurements have been used to help validate theoretical models of the performance of the IR and GPR sensors for landmine detection...

  12. Micro-satellite for space debris observation by optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thillot, Marc; Brenière, Xavier; Midavaine, Thierry

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this theoretical study carried out under CNES contract is to analyze the feasibility of small space debris detection and classification with an optical sensor on-board micro-satellite. Technical solutions based on active and passive sensors are analyzed and compared. For the most appropriated concept an optimization was made and theoretical performances in terms of number of detection versus class of diameter were calculated. Finally we give some preliminary physical sensor features to illustrate the concept (weight, volume, consumption,…).

  13. Evaluating Terra MODIS Satellite Sensor Data Products for Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluating Terra MODIS Satellite Sensor Data Products for Maize Yield Estimation in South Africa. C Frost, N Thiebaut, T Newby. Abstract. The Free State Province of the Republic of South Africa contains some of the most important maize-producing areas in South Africa. For this reason this province has also been selected ...

  14. Rayleigh radiance computations for satellite remote sensing: accounting for the effect of sensor spectral response function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Menghua

    2016-05-30

    To understand and assess the effect of the sensor spectral response function (SRF) on the accuracy of the top of the atmosphere (TOA) Rayleigh-scattering radiance computation, new TOA Rayleigh radiance lookup tables (LUTs) over global oceans and inland waters have been generated. The new Rayleigh LUTs include spectral coverage of 335-2555 nm, all possible solar-sensor geometries, and surface wind speeds of 0-30 m/s. Using the new Rayleigh LUTs, the sensor SRF effect on the accuracy of the TOA Rayleigh radiance computation has been evaluated for spectral bands of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite and the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS)-1, showing some important uncertainties for VIIRS-SNPP particularly for large solar- and/or sensor-zenith angles as well as for large Rayleigh optical thicknesses (i.e., short wavelengths) and bands with broad spectral bandwidths. To accurately account for the sensor SRF effect, a new correction algorithm has been developed for VIIRS spectral bands, which improves the TOA Rayleigh radiance accuracy to ~0.01% even for the large solar-zenith angles of 70°-80°, compared with the error of ~0.7% without applying the correction for the VIIRS-SNPP 410 nm band. The same methodology that accounts for the sensor SRF effect on the Rayleigh radiance computation can be used for other satellite sensors. In addition, with the new Rayleigh LUTs, the effect of surface atmospheric pressure variation on the TOA Rayleigh radiance computation can be calculated precisely, and no specific atmospheric pressure correction algorithm is needed. There are some other important applications and advantages to using the new Rayleigh LUTs for satellite remote sensing, including an efficient and accurate TOA Rayleigh radiance computation for hyperspectral satellite remote sensing, detector-based TOA Rayleigh radiance computation, Rayleigh radiance calculations for high altitude

  15. Experimental design for the evaluation of high-T(sub c) superconductive thermal bridges in a sensor satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Elaine P.; Lee, Kasey M.

    1994-01-01

    Infrared sensor satellites, which consist of cryogenic infrared sensor detectors, electrical instrumentation, and data acquisition systems, are used to monitor the conditions of the earth's upper atmosphere in order to evaluate its present and future changes. Currently, the electrical connections (instrumentation), which act as thermal bridges between the cryogenic infrared sensor and the significantly warmer data acquisition unit of the sensor satellite system, constitute a significant portion of the heat load on the cryogen. As a part of extending the mission life of the sensor satellite system, the researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Langley Research Center (NASA-LaRC) are evaluating the effectiveness of replacing the currently used manganin wires with high-temperature superconductive (HTS) materials as the electrical connections (thermal bridges). In conjunction with the study being conducted at NASA-LaRC, the proposed research is to design a space experiment to determine the thermal savings on a cryogenic subsystem when manganin leads are replaced by HTS leads printed onto a substrate with a low thermal conductivity, and to determine the thermal conductivities of HTS materials. The experiment is designed to compare manganin wires with two different types of superconductors on substrates by determining the heat loss by the thermal bridges and providing temperature measurements for the estimation of thermal conductivity. A conductive mathematical model has been developed and used as a key tool in the design process and subsequent analysis.

  16. Satellite and ground-based sensors for the Urban Heat Island analysis in the city of Rome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabrizi, Roberto; Bonafoni, Stefania; Biondi, Riccardo

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the trend of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) of Rome is analyzed by both ground-based weather stations and a satellite-based infrared sensor. First, we have developed a suitable algorithm employing satellite brightness temperatures for the estimation of the air temperature belonging...... and nighttime scenes taken between 2003 and 2006 have been processed. Analysis of the Canopy Layer Heat Island (CLHI) during summer months reveals a mean growth in magnitude of 3-4 K during nighttime and a negative or almost zero CLHI intensity during daytime, confirmed by the weather stations. © 2010...... by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Keyword: Thermal pollution,Summer months,Advanced-along track scanning radiometers,Urban heat island,Remote sensing,Canopy layer,Atmospheric temperature,Ground based sensors,Weather information services,Satellite remote sensing,Infra-red sensor,Weather stations...

  17. Thermal infrared sensors for postharvest deficit irrigation of peach

    Science.gov (United States)

    California has been in a historic drought and the lack of water has been a major problem for agriculture especially for crops that depend on irrigation. A multi-year field study was carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of applying thermal infrared sensors for managing deficit irrigation in an ...

  18. Bias correction for rainrate retrievals from satellite passive microwave sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, David A.

    1990-01-01

    Rainrates retrieved from past and present satellite-borne microwave sensors are affected by a fundamental remote sensing problem. Sensor fields-of-view are typically large enough to encompass substantial rainrate variability, whereas the retrieval algorithms, based on radiative transfer calculations, show a non-linear relationship between rainrate and microwave brightness temperature. Retrieved rainrates are systematically too low. A statistical model of the bias problem shows that bias correction factors depend on the probability distribution of instantaneous rainrate and on the average thickness of the rain layer.

  19. Tracking big and small agriculture with new satellite sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobell, D. B.; Azzari, G.; Jin, Z.

    2017-12-01

    New sensors from both the public and private sector are opening up exciting possibilities for monitoring agriculture and its use of water. This talk will present selected examples from recent work using data from Planet's Planetscope and Skysat sensors as well as Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 missions that are part of Europe's Copernicus program. Among other things, these satellites are now helping to track crop types and productivity for fields in rainfed cropping systems of East Africa and irrigated systems in South Asia. This information should contribute to understanding land and water use decisions throughout the world.

  20. Design of the flame detector based on pyroelectric infrared sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Yu, Benhua; Dong, Lei; Li, Kai

    2017-10-01

    As a fire detection device, flame detector has the advantages of short reaction time and long distance. Based on pyroelectric infrared sensor working principle, the passive pyroelectric infrared alarm system is designed, which is mainly used for safety of tunnel to detect whether fire occurred or not. Modelling and Simulation of the pyroelectric Detector Using Labview. An attempt was made to obtain a simple test platform of a pyroelectric detector which would make an excellent basis for the analysis of its dynamic behaviour. After many experiments, This system has sensitive response, high anti-interference ability and safe and reliable performance.

  1. Comparison of Two Methodologies for Calibrating Satellite Instruments in the Visible and Near-Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Robert A.; Brown, Steven W.; Lykke, Keith R.; Guenther, Bruce; Butler, James J.; Schwarting, Thomas; Turpie, Kevin; Moyer, David; DeLuccia, Frank; Moeller, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, satellite instruments that measure Earth-reflected solar radiation in the visible and near infrared wavelength regions have been calibrated for radiance responsivity in a two-step method. In the first step, the relative spectral response (RSR) of the instrument is determined using a nearly monochromatic light source such as a lamp-illuminated monochromator. These sources do not typically fill the field-of-view of the instrument nor act as calibrated sources of light. Consequently, they only provide a relative (not absolute) spectral response for the instrument. In the second step, the instrument views a calibrated source of broadband light, such as a lamp-illuminated integrating sphere. The RSR and the sphere absolute spectral radiance are combined to determine the absolute spectral radiance responsivity (ASR) of the instrument. More recently, a full-aperture absolute calibration approach using widely tunable monochromatic lasers has been developed. Using these sources, the ASR of an instrument can be determined in a single step on a wavelength-by-wavelength basis. From these monochromatic ASRs, the responses of the instrument bands to broadband radiance sources can be calculated directly, eliminating the need for calibrated broadband light sources such as lamp-illuminated integrating spheres. In this work, the traditional broadband source-based calibration of the Suomi National Preparatory Project (SNPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor is compared with the laser-based calibration of the sensor. Finally, the impact of the new full-aperture laser-based calibration approach on the on-orbit performance of the sensor is considered.

  2. Ice contamination on satellite IR sensors: the MIPAS case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niro, F.; Fehr, T.; Kleinert, A.; Laur, H.; Lecomte, P.; Perron, G.

    2009-04-01

    MIPAS on board the ENVISAT platform is a Michelson Interferometer measuring the atmospheric limb emission in the mid-infrared (IR), from 4.15 µm to 14.5 µm [1]. The calibrated MIPAS measurements are radiance spectra as a function of wavenumber. The radiometric and spectral calibrations of the raw data are part of the Level 1 processing in the Ground Segment [2]. The accuracy of the radiometric calibration is essential in order to ensure precise temperature and trace gas retrieval in the Level 2 processing. This calibration process requires a set of cold space measurements and a series of measurements of a black body source to determine the radiometric gain function and to correct for instrument self-emission. The deep space measurements are repeated every four limb scanning sequences with the purpose of compensating the variation of instrument's temperature along the orbit. The radiometric gain function is updated every week to correct for a degraded transmission at the detector due to ice contamination. The ice contamination leads to a decrease of the signal, mainly due to ice absorption of the incoming IR radiation. This paper presents an analysis of the effect of ice contamination during the MIPAS mission; in particular we will study its impact on the radiometric accuracy and on the Level 2 retrieval precision. We will highlight the importance of the ice monitoring for the MIPAS mission and we will show that this type of monitoring allows improving the stability and the overall performances of the MIPAS instrument. The effect of ice in other ENVISAT instruments will be also mentioned (e.g., AATSR). The lessons learned during the mission about ice contamination are very important, especially for IR sensors that are the most affected by this type of problem. These lessons will be useful in order to improve the in-flight operations of present and future satellite missions. [1] H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A

  3. Application of military uncooled infrared sensors to homeland defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Chris

    2002-08-01

    During the early 1990's, uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging technology began a journey from Government and corporate laboratories to practical application in addressing military, Government, and commercial customer needs. Today, that transition could arguably be considered complete, punctuated by BAE SYSTEMS' delivery of the 10,000th microbolometer camera on 12 February 2002. While microbolometer developmental research continues to advance the state-of-the-art at an ever increasing pace, uncooled infrared cameras are widely deployed serving society in meaningful ways; from preventative maintenance and process inspection to law enforcement and rescue operations. Following last years terrorist attacks in New York and Virginia, President Bush appointed Governor Ridge to lead federal coordination efforts for defense of the homeland. While uncooled microbolometer sensors served in Homeland Security long before September 2001, it is certain that new applications will be identified for surveillance, security, law enforcement and protection needs. In this paper we will describe advances in military uncooled infrared sensor technology and how these sensors can serve in the role of Homeland Defense. Developments in uncooled sensors that will be described include the rugged performance validation of a thermal weapon sight and head-mounted imager. We will look at those areas of Homeland Defense that are most likely to benefit from the application of uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensor technology. These include: a) search & rescue camera systems, b) handheld surveillance systems and c) hands-free camera systems.

  4. Heat Flux Sensors for Infrared Thermography in Convective Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria; de Luca, Luigi; Cardone, Gennaro; Astarita, Tommaso

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the most dependable heat flux sensors, which can be used with InfraRed (IR) thermography to measure convective heat transfer coefficient distributions, and some of their applications performed by the authors' research group at the University of Naples Federico II. After recalling the basic principles that make IR thermography work, the various heat flux sensors to be used with it are presented and discussed, describing their capability to investigate complex thermo-fluid-dynamic flows. Several applications to streams, which range from natural convection to hypersonic flows, are also described. PMID:25386758

  5. Heat Flux Sensors for Infrared Thermography in Convective Heat Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Maria Carlomagno

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the most dependable heat flux sensors, which can be used with InfraRed (IR thermography to measure convective heat transfer coefficient distributions, and some of their applications performed by the authors’ research group at the University of Naples Federico II. After recalling the basic principles that make IR thermography work, the various heat flux sensors to be used with it are presented and discussed, describing their capability to investigate complex thermo-fluid-dynamic flows. Several applications to streams, which range from natural convection to hypersonic flows, are also described.

  6. Linear wide angle sun sensor for spinning satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, M. P.; Kalakrishnan, B.; Jain, Y. K.

    1983-08-01

    A concept is developed which overcomes the defects of the nonlinearity of response and limitation in range exhibited by the V-slit, N-slit, and crossed slit sun sensors normally used for sun elevation angle measurements on spinning spacecraft. Two versions of sensors based on this concept which give a linear output and have a range of nearly + or - 90 deg of elevation angle are examined. Results are presented for the application of the twin slit version of the sun sensor in the three Indian satellites, Rohini, Apple, and Bhaskara II, which was successfully used for spin rate control and spin axis orientation control corrections as well as for sun elevation angle and spin period measurements.

  7. Human Movement Detection and Identification Using Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeseok Yun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pyroelectric infrared (PIR sensors are widely used as a presence trigger, but the analog output of PIR sensors depends on several other aspects, including the distance of the body from the PIR sensor, the direction and speed of movement, the body shape and gait. In this paper, we present an empirical study of human movement detection and identification using a set of PIR sensors. We have developed a data collection module having two pairs of PIR sensors orthogonally aligned and modified Fresnel lenses. We have placed three PIR-based modules in a hallway for monitoring people; one module on the ceiling; two modules on opposite walls facing each other. We have collected a data set from eight subjects when walking in three different conditions: two directions (back and forth, three distance intervals (close to one wall sensor, in the middle, close to the other wall sensor and three speed levels (slow, moderate, fast. We have used two types of feature sets: a raw data set and a reduced feature set composed of amplitude and time to peaks; and passage duration extracted from each PIR sensor. We have performed classification analysis with well-known machine learning algorithms, including instance-based learning and support vector machine. Our findings show that with the raw data set captured from a single PIR sensor of each of the three modules, we could achieve more than 92% accuracy in classifying the direction and speed of movement, the distance interval and identifying subjects. We could also achieve more than 94% accuracy in classifying the direction, speed and distance and identifying subjects using the reduced feature set extracted from two pairs of PIR sensors of each of the three modules.

  8. Calibration Uncertainty in Ocean Color Satellite Sensors and Trends in Long-term Environmental Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpie, Kevin R.; Eplee, Robert E., Jr.; Franz, Bryan A.; Del Castillo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Launched in late 2011, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) spacecraft is being evaluated by NASA to determine whether this sensor can continue the ocean color data record established through the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). To this end, Goddard Space Flight Center generated evaluation ocean color data products using calibration techniques and algorithms established by NASA during the SeaWiFS and MODIS missions. The calibration trending was subjected to some initial sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. Here we present an introductory assessment of how the NASA-produced time series of ocean color is influenced by uncertainty in trending instrument response over time. The results help quantify the uncertainty in measuring regional and global biospheric trends in the ocean using satellite remote sensing, which better define the roles of such records in climate research.

  9. Infrared and Visible links for medical Body Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Lebas , C; Sahuguede , S; Julien-Vergonjanne , A; Combeau , P; Aveneau , L

    2018-01-01

    International audience; — Our previous studies focused on channel simulation and performance evaluation of optical wireless links for medical body sensor networks. This allowed us to increase our expertise in this field and to propose here a full optical wireless bidirectional system named as LiFi communication system for medical monitoring applications. The full duplex bidirectional communication is based on an infrared uplink and visible downlink. The studied scenario considers a patient we...

  10. Development of Infrared Lip Movement Sensor for Spoken Word Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Yoshida

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Lip movement of speaker is very informative for many application of speech signal processing such as multi-modal speech recognition and password authentication without speech signal. However, in collecting multi-modal speech information, we need a video camera, large amount of memory, video interface, and high speed processor to extract lip movement in real time. Such a system tends to be expensive and large. This is one reasons of preventing the use of multi-modal speech processing. In this study, we have developed a simple infrared lip movement sensor mounted on a headset, and made it possible to acquire lip movement by PDA, mobile phone, and notebook PC. The sensor consists of an infrared LED and an infrared photo transistor, and measures the lip movement by the reflected light from the mouth region. From experiment, we achieved 66% successfully word recognition rate only by lip movement features. This experimental result shows that our developed sensor can be utilized as a tool for multi-modal speech processing by combining a microphone mounted on the headset.

  11. 77 FR 42419 - Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International, Inc. Global Navigation Satellite Sensor Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International, Inc. Global Navigation Satellite Sensor Units AGENCY: Federal.... Model KGS200 Mercury\\2\\ wide area augmentation system (WAAS) global navigation satellite sensor units... similar Honeywell global positioning system (GPS) sensor and the same software as the Model KGS200 Mercury...

  12. The Thermal Infrared Sensor onboard NASA's Mars 2020 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, G.; Perez-Izquierdo, J.; Sebastian, E.; Ramos, M.; Bravo, A.; Mazo, M.; Rodriguez-Manfredi, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Mars 2020 rover mission is scheduled for launch in July/August 2020 and will address key questions about the potential for life on Mars. The Mars Environmental Dynamics Analyzer (MEDA) is one of the seven instruments onboard the rover [1] and has been designed to assess the environmental conditions across the rover traverse. MEDA will extend the current record of in-situ meteorological measurements at the surface [2] to other locations on Mars. The Thermal InfraRed Sensor (TIRS) [3] is one of the six sensors comprising MEDA. TIRS will use three downward-looking channels to measure (1) the surface skin temperature (with high heritage from the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station onboard the Mars Science Laboratory mission [4]), (2) the upwelling thermal infrared radiation from the surface and (3) the reflected solar radiation at the surface, and two upward-looking channels to measure the (4) downwelling thermal infrared radiation at the surface and (5) the atmospheric temperature. In combination with other MEDA's sensors, TIRS will allow the quantification of the surface energy budget [5] and the determination of key geophysical properties of the terrain such as the albedo and thermal inertia with an unprecedented spatial resolution. Here we present a general description of the TIRS, with focus on its scientific requirements and results from field campaigns showing the performance of the different channels. References:[1] Rodríguez-Manfredi, J. A. et al. (2014), MEDA: An environmental and meteorological package for Mars 2020, LPSC, 45, 2837. [2] Martínez, G.M. et al. (2017), The Modern Near-Surface Martian Climate: A Review of In-situ Meteorological Data from Viking to Curiosity, Space Science Reviews, 1-44. [3] Pérez-Izquierdo, J. et al. (2017), The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) of the Mars Environmental Dynamics Analyzer (MEDA) Instrument onboard Mars 2020, IEEE. [4] Sebastián, E. et al. (2010), The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground

  13. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 1: Explanatory supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichman, C. A. (Editor); Neugebauer, G. (Editor); Habing, H. J. (Editor); Clegg, P. E. (Editor); Chester, Thomas J. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched on January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, IRAS surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. Volume 1 describes the instrument, the mission, and data reduction.

  14. Multi-robot system using low-cost infrared sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhav Kakkar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a proposed set of the novel technique, methods, and algorithm for simultaneous path planning, area exploration, area retrieval, obstacle avoidance, object detection, and object retrieval   autonomously by a multi-robot system. The proposed methods and algorithms are built considering the use of low cost infrared sensors with the ultimate function of efficiently exploring the given unknown area and simultaneously identifying desired objects by analyzing the physical characteristics of several of the objects that come across during exploration. In this paper, we have explained the scenario by building a coordinative multi-robot system consisting of two autonomously operated robots equipped with low-cost and low-range infrared sensors to perform the assigned task by analyzing some of the sudden changes in their environment. Along with identifying and retrieving the desired object, the proposed methodology also provide an inclusive analysis of the area being explored. The novelties presented in the paper may significantly provide a cost-effective solution to the problem of area exploration and finding a known object in an unknown environment by demonstrating an innovative approach of using the infrared sensors instead of high cost long range sensors and cameras. Additionally, the methodology provides a speedy and uncomplicated method of traversing a complicated arena while performing all the necessary and inter-related tasks of avoiding the obstacles, analyzing the area as well as objects, and reconstructing the area using all these information collected and interpreted for an unknown environment. The methods and algorithms proposed are simulated over a complex arena to depict the operations and manually tested over a physical environment which provided 78% correct results with respect to various complex parameters set randomly.

  15. Online Resource for Earth-Observing Satellite Sensor Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkel, J.; Czapla-Myers, J.; Thome, K.; Wenny, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) at Railroad Valley Playa, Nevada is being developed by the University of Arizona to enable improved accuracy and consistency for airborne and satellite sensor calibration. Primary instrumentation at the site consists of ground-viewing radiometers, a sun photometer, and a meteorological station. Measurements made by these instruments are used to calculate surface reflectance, atmospheric properties and a prediction for top-of-atmosphere reflectance and radiance. This work will leverage research for RadCaTS, and describe the requirements for an online database, associated data formats and quality control, and processing levels.

  16. Satellite Sensor Requirements for Monitoring Essential Biodiversity Variables of Coastal Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller-Karger, Frank E.; Hestir, Erin; Ade, Christiana; Turpie, Kevin; Roberts, Dar A.; Siegel, David; Miller, Robert J.; Humm, David; Izenberg, Noam; Keller, Mary; hide

    2018-01-01

    The biodiversity and high productivity of coastal terrestrial and aquatic habitats are the foundation for important benefits to human societies around the world. These globally distributed habitats need frequent and broad systematic assessments, but field surveys only cover a small fraction of these areas. Satellite-based sensors can repeatedly record the visible and near-infrared reflectance spectra that contain the absorption, scattering, and fluorescence signatures of functional phytoplankton groups, colored dissolved matter, and particulate matter near the surface ocean, and of biologically structured habitats (floating and emergent vegetation, benthic habitats like coral, seagrass, and algae). These measures can be incorporated into Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs), including the distribution, abundance, and traits of groups of species populations, and used to evaluate habitat fragmentation. However, current and planned satellites are not designed to observe the EBVs that change rapidly with extreme tides, salinity, temperatures, storms, pollution, or physical habitat destruction over scales relevant to human activity. Making these observations requires a new generation of satellite sensors able to sample with these combined characteristics: (1) spatial resolution on the order of 30 to 100-m pixels or smaller; (2) spectral resolution on the order of 5 nm in the visible and 10 nm in the short-wave infrared spectrum (or at least two or more bands at 1,030, 1,240, 1,630, 2,125, and/or 2,260 nm) for atmospheric correction and aquatic and vegetation assessments; (3) radiometric quality with signal to noise ratios (SNR) above 800 (relative to signal levels typical of the open ocean), 14-bit digitization, absolute radiometric calibration less than 2%, relative calibration of 0.2%, polarization sensitivity less than 1%, high radiometric stability and linearity, and operations designed to minimize sunglint; and (4) temporal resolution of hours to days. We refer

  17. Satellite Infrared Radiation Measurements Prior to the Major Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Pulintes, S.; Bryant, N.; Taylor, Patrick; Freund, F.

    2005-01-01

    This work describes our search for a relationship between tectonic stresses and increases in mid-infrared (IR) flux as part of a possible ensemble of electromagnetic (EM) phenomena that may be related to earthquake activity. We present and &scuss observed variations in thermal transients and radiation fields prior to the earthquakes of Jan 22, 2003 Colima (M6.7) Mexico, Sept. 28 .2004 near Parkfield (M6.0) in California and Northern Sumatra (M8.5) Dec. 26,2004. Previous analysis of earthquake events has indicated the presence of an IR anomaly, where temperatures increased or did not return to its usual nighttime value. Our procedures analyze nighttime satellite data that records the general condtion of the ground after sunset. We have found from the MODIS instrument data that five days before the Colima earthquake the IR land surface nighttime temperature rose up to +4 degrees C in a 100 km radius around the epicenter. The IR transient field recorded by MODIS in the vicinity of Parkfield, also with a cloud free environment, was around +1 degree C and is significantly smaller than the IR anomaly around the Colima epicenter. Ground surface temperatures near the Parkfield epicenter four days prior to the earthquake show steady increase. However, on the night preceding the quake, a significant drop in relative humidity was indicated, process similar to those register prior to the Colima event. Recent analyses of continuous ongoing long- wavelength Earth radiation (OLR) indicate significant and anomalous variability prior to some earthquakes. The cause of these anomalies is not well understood but could be the result of a triggering by an interaction between the lithosphere-hydrosphere and atmospheric related to changes in the near surface electrical field and/or gas composition prior to the earthquake. The OLR anomaly usually covers large areas surrounding the main epicenter. We have found strong anomalies signal (two sigma) along the epicentral area signals on Dec 21

  18. History highlights and future trends of infrared sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Carlo

    2010-10-01

    Infrared (IR) technologies (materials, devices and systems) represent an area of excellence in science and technology and, even if they have been generally confined to a selected scientific community, they have achieved technological and scientific highlights constituting 'innovation drivers' for neighbouring disciplines, especially in the sensors field. The development of IR sensors, initially linked to astronomical observations, since World War II and for many years has been fostered essentially by defence applications, particularly thermo-vision and, later on, smart vision and detection, for surveillance and warning. Only in the last few decades, the impact of silicon technology has changed the development of IR detectors dramatically, with the advent of integrated signal read-outs and the opening of civilian markets (EO communications, biomedical, environmental, transport and energy applications). The history of infrared sensors contains examples of real breakthroughs, particularly true in the case of focal plane arrays that first appeared in the late 1970s, when the superiority of bi-dimensional arrays for most applications pushed the development of technologies providing the highest number of pixels. An impressive impulse was given to the development of FPA arrays by integration with charge coupled devices (CCD), with strong competition from different technologies (high-efficiency photon sensors, Schottky diodes, multi-quantum wells and, later on, room temperature microbolometers/cantilevers). This breakthrough allowed the development of high performance IR systems of small size, light weight and low cost - and therefore suitable for civil applications - thanks to the elimination of the mechanical scanning system and the progressive reduction of cooling requirements (up to the advent of microbolometers, capable of working at room temperature). In particular, the elimination of cryogenic cooling allowed the development and commercialisation of IR Smart Sensors

  19. Using infrared spectroscopy and satellite data to accurately monitor remote volcanoes and map their eruptive products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    The ability to detect the onset of new activity at a remote volcano commonly relies on high temporal resolution thermal infrared (TIR) satellite-based observations. These observations from sensors such as AVHRR and MODIS are being used in innovative ways to produce trends of activity, which are critical for hazard response planning and scientific modeling. Such data are excellent for detection of new thermal features, volcanic plumes, and tracking changes over the hour time scale, for example. For some remote volcanoes, the lack of ground-based monitoring typically means that these sensors provide the first and only confirmation of renewed activity. However, what is lacking is the context of the higher spatial scale, which provides the volcanologist with meter-scale information on specific temperatures and changes in the composition and texture of the eruptive products. For the past eleven years, the joint US-Japanese ASTER instrument has been acquiring image-based data of volcanic eruptions around the world, including in the remote northern Pacific region. There have been more ASTER observations of Kamchatka volcanoes than any other location on the globe due mainly to an operational program put into place in 2004. Automated hot spot alarms from AVHRR data trigger ASTER acquisitions using the instrument's "rapid response" mode. Specifically for Kamchatka, this program has resulted in more than 700 additional ASTER images of the most thermally-active volcanoes (e.g., Shiveluch, Kliuchevskoi, Karymsky, Bezymianny). The scientific results from this program at these volcanoes will be highlighted. These results were strengthened by several field seasons used to map new products, collect samples for laboratory-based spectroscopy, and acquire TIR camera data. The fusion of ground, laboratory and space-based spectroscopy provided the most accurate interpretation of the eruptions and laid the ground work for future VSWIR/TIR sensors such as HyspIRI, which are a critically

  20. Coherent Uncertainty Analysis of Aerosol Measurements from Multiple Satellite Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, M.; Ichoku, C.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosol retrievals from multiple spaceborne sensors, including MODIS (on Terra and Aqua), MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIOP, and SeaWiFS altogether, a total of 11 different aerosol products were comparatively analyzed using data collocated with ground-based aerosol observations from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations within the Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS, http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/mapss/ and http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/aerostat/). The analysis was performed by comparing quality-screened satellite aerosol optical depth or thickness (AOD or AOT) retrievals during 2006-2010 to available collocated AERONET measurements globally, regionally, and seasonally, and deriving a number of statistical measures of accuracy. We used a robust statistical approach to detect and remove possible outliers in the collocated data that can bias the results of the analysis. Overall, the proportion of outliers in each of the quality-screened AOD products was within 12%. Squared correlation coefficient (R2) values of the satellite AOD retrievals relative to AERONET exceeded 0.6, with R2 for most of the products exceeding 0.7 over land and 0.8 over ocean. Root mean square error (RMSE) values for most of the AOD products were within 0.15 over land and 0.09 over ocean. We have been able to generate global maps showing regions where the different products present advantages over the others, as well as the relative performance of each product over different landcover types. It was observed that while MODIS, MISR, and SeaWiFS provide accurate retrievals over most of the landcover types, multi-angle capabilities make MISR the only sensor to retrieve reliable AOD over barren and snow / ice surfaces. Likewise, active sensing enables CALIOP to retrieve aerosol properties over bright-surface shrublands more accurately than the other sensors, while POLDER, which is the only one of the sensors capable of measuring polarized aerosols, outperforms other sensors in

  1. Auto-Navigation of Micromouse Based on Infrared Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Haoming

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Micromouse is an intelligent robot that is designed to search a shortest path to the destination in a unknown maze, in order to make the mouse can memory the right complex maze information automatically after searching and dashing, different parameters decided by infrared sensors were used to record micromouse’s position in the maze, also is used as the reference to realize micromouse position compensation, which can ensure the rapidity, accuracy and good stability of micromouse in high speed exploration and dashing.

  2. Multi sensor satellite imagers for commercial remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronje, T.; Burger, H.; Du Plessis, J.; Du Toit, J. F.; Marais, L.; Strumpfer, F.

    2005-10-01

    This paper will discuss and compare recent refractive and catodioptric imager designs developed and manufactured at SunSpace for Multi Sensor Satellite Imagers with Panchromatic, Multi-spectral, Area and Hyperspectral sensors on a single Focal Plane Array (FPA). These satellite optical systems were designed with applications to monitor food supplies, crop yield and disaster monitoring in mind. The aim of these imagers is to achieve medium to high resolution (2.5m to 15m) spatial sampling, wide swaths (up to 45km) and noise equivalent reflectance (NER) values of less than 0.5%. State-of-the-art FPA designs are discussed and address the choice of detectors to achieve these performances. Special attention is given to thermal robustness and compactness, the use of folding prisms to place multiple detectors in a large FPA and a specially developed process to customize the spectral selection with the need to minimize mass, power and cost. A refractive imager with up to 6 spectral bands (6.25m GSD) and a catodioptric imager with panchromatic (2.7m GSD), multi-spectral (6 bands, 4.6m GSD), hyperspectral (400nm to 2.35μm, 200 bands, 15m GSD) sensors on the same FPA will be discussed. Both of these imagers are also equipped with real time video view finding capabilities. The electronic units could be subdivided into the Front-End Electronics and Control Electronics with analogue and digital signal processing. A dedicated Analogue Front-End is used for Correlated Double Sampling (CDS), black level correction, variable gain and up to 12-bit digitizing and high speed LVDS data link to a mass memory unit.

  3. Infrared Methods for Daylight Acquisition of LEO Satellites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, Joel

    2004-01-01

    ..., and very capable space surveillance systems. The first product of the Raven program was a family of telescopes capable of generating world-class optical observation data of deep-space satellites...

  4. Infrared Non-Contact Head Sensor for Control of Wheelchair Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Vie; Garcia, Juan Carlos

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new human-machine interface for controlling a wheelchair by head movements. The position of the head is determined by use of infrared sensors, with no parts attached to the head of the user. The placement of the infrared sensors are behind the head of the user, so that the f......This paper presents a new human-machine interface for controlling a wheelchair by head movements. The position of the head is determined by use of infrared sensors, with no parts attached to the head of the user. The placement of the infrared sensors are behind the head of the user, so...

  5. Self-adaptive calibration for staring infrared sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, William B.; Stocker, Alan D.

    1993-10-01

    This paper presents a new, self-adaptive technique for the correlation of non-uniformities (fixed-pattern noise) in high-density infrared focal-plane detector arrays. We have developed a new approach to non-uniformity correction in which we use multiple image frames of the scene itself, and take advantage of the aim-point wander caused by jitter, residual tracking errors, or deliberately induced motion. Such wander causes each detector in the array to view multiple scene elements, and each scene element to be viewed by multiple detectors. It is therefore possible to formulate (and solve) a set of simultaneous equations from which correction parameters can be computed for the detectors. We have tested our approach with actual images collected by the ARPA-sponsored MUSIC infrared sensor. For these tests we employed a 60-frame (0.75-second) sequence of terrain images for which an out-of-date calibration was deliberately used. The sensor was aimed at a point on the ground via an operator-assisted tracking system having a maximum aim point wander on the order of ten pixels. With these data, we were able to improve the calibration accuracy by a factor of approximately 100.

  6. Measuring Radiant Emissions from Entire Prescribed Fires with Ground, Airborne and Satellite Sensors RxCADRE 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Matthew B.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Zajkowski, Thomas; Loudermilk, E. Louise; Schroeder, Wilfrid; Ellison, Luke; Kremens, Robert L.; Holley, William; Martinez, Otto; Paxton, Alexander; hide

    2015-01-01

    Characterising radiation from wildland fires is an important focus of fire science because radiation relates directly to the combustion process and can be measured across a wide range of spatial extents and resolutions. As part of a more comprehensive set of measurements collected during the 2012 Prescribed Fire Combustion and Atmospheric Dynamics Research (RxCADRE) field campaign, we used ground, airborne and spaceborne sensors to measure fire radiative power (FRP) from whole fires, applying different methods to small (2 ha) and large (.100 ha) burn blocks. For small blocks (n1/46), FRP estimated from an obliquely oriented long-wave infrared (LWIR) camera mounted on a boom lift were compared with FRP derived from combined data from tower-mounted radiometers and remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS). For large burn blocks (n1/43), satellite FRP measurements from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensors were compared with near-coincident FRP measurements derived from a LWIR imaging system aboard a piloted aircraft. We describe measurements and consider their strengths and weaknesses. Until quantitative sensors exist for small RPAS, their use in fire research will remain limited. For oblique, airborne and satellite sensors, further FRP measurement development is needed along with greater replication of coincident measurements, which we show to be feasible.

  7. Miniature infrared hyperspectral imaging sensor for airborne applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnrichs, Michele; Hinnrichs, Bradford; McCutchen, Earl

    2017-05-01

    Pacific Advanced Technology (PAT) has developed an infrared hyperspectral camera, both MWIR and LWIR, small enough to serve as a payload on a miniature unmanned aerial vehicles. The optical system has been integrated into the cold-shield of the sensor enabling the small size and weight of the sensor. This new and innovative approach to infrared hyperspectral imaging spectrometer uses micro-optics and will be explained in this paper. The micro-optics are made up of an area array of diffractive optical elements where each element is tuned to image a different spectral region on a common focal plane array. The lenslet array is embedded in the cold-shield of the sensor and actuated with a miniature piezo-electric motor. This approach enables rapid infrared spectral imaging with multiple spectral images collected and processed simultaneously each frame of the camera. This paper will present our optical mechanical design approach which results in an infrared hyper-spectral imaging system that is small enough for a payload on a mini-UAV or commercial quadcopter. The diffractive optical elements used in the lenslet array are blazed gratings where each lenslet is tuned for a different spectral bandpass. The lenslets are configured in an area array placed a few millimeters above the focal plane and embedded in the cold-shield to reduce the background signal normally associated with the optics. We have developed various systems using a different number of lenslets in the area array. Depending on the size of the focal plane and the diameter of the lenslet array will determine the spatial resolution. A 2 x 2 lenslet array will image four different spectral images of the scene each frame and when coupled with a 512 x 512 focal plane array will give spatial resolution of 256 x 256 pixel each spectral image. Another system that we developed uses a 4 x 4 lenslet array on a 1024 x 1024 pixel element focal plane array which gives 16 spectral images of 256 x 256 pixel resolution each

  8. Sistem Monitoring Parkir Mobil menggunakan Sensor Infrared berbasis RASPBERRY PI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DECY NATALIANA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Masalah yang selalu timbul dalam sistem perparkiran adalah kurangnya informasi mengenai status ketersediaan lahan parkir, untuk itu diperlukan sebuah sistem monitoring parkir. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah merancang dan merealisasikan model sistem monitoring perparkiran dengan fasilitas pemilihan area parkir dengan berbasiskan Raspberry Pi serta pemanfaatan infrared sebagai sensor. Sistem ini mampu menampilkan status ketersediaan dari area parkir yang ditampilkan pada display serta dilengkapi dengan perhitungan tarif parkir. Pada sistem yang dirancang dilengkapi dengan tombol untuk memilih area parkir, 2 buah sensor pada masing-masing area parkir untuk mendeteksi kendaraan, kamera untuk kemanan dan lampu LED sebagai indikator ketersediaan area parkir. Perangkat lunak yang digunakan pada sistem ini dirancang dengan menggunakan bahasa Python 2 dan untuk sistem database digunakan SQLite3. Pengujian dilakukan secara simulasi pada miniatur perparkiran. Hasil pengujian model sistem perparkiran dapat menampilkan kondisi dari masing-masing area parkir yang ditampilkan pada display. Kedua buah LED berhasil menjadi indikator ada tidaknya lahan parkir yang masih kosong. Untuk sistem perhitungan tarif parkir telah sesuai dengan perhitungan lamanya parkir. Kata kunci : Parkir, Raspberry Pi , Infrared, Python 2, Monitoring. ABSTRACT The problem which always happens in parking system is the lack of information about the parking area. That’s why we need parking monitoring system. The purposes of this project are to devise and create parking monitoring system which has fitur for ordering parking area. The system based on Raspberry Pi. The system use infra red as sensor. Beside show the availability status of parking area in a display, this system also calculates the price of using the parking area. The System equipped with button for ordering parking area, 2 infrared sensors for each area, web camera for security and 2 LED lamps for availability

  9. AMA Conferences 2015. SENSOR 2015. 17th international conference on sensors and measurement technology. IRS2 2015. 14th international conference on infrared sensors and systems. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This meeting paper contains presentations of two conferences: SENSOR 2015 and IRS 2 (= International conference on InfraRed Sensors and systems). The first part of SENSOR 2015 contains the following chapters: (A) SENSOR PRINCIPLES: A.1: Mechanical sensors; A.2: Optical sensors; A.3: Ultrasonic sensors; A.4: Microacoustic sensors; A.5: Magnetic sensors; A.6: Impedance sensors; A.7: Gas sensors; A.8: Flow sensors; A.9: Dimensional measurement; A.10: Temperature and humidity sensors; A.11: Chemosensors; A.12: Biosensors; A.13: Embedded sensors; A.14: Sensor-actuator systems; (B) SENSOR TECHNOLOGY: B.1: Sensor design; B.2: Numerical simulation of sensors; B.3: Sensor materials; B.4: MEMS technology; B.5: Micro-Nano-Integration; B.6: Packaging; B.7: Materials; B.8: Thin films; B.9: Sensor production; B.10: Sensor reliability; B.11: Calibration and testing; B.12: Optical fibre sensors. (C) SENSOR ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION: C.1: Sensor electronics; C.2: Sensor networks; C.3: Wireless sensors; C.4: Sensor communication; C.5: Energy harvesting; C.6: Measuring systems; C.7: Embedded systems; C.8: Self-monitoring and diagnosis; (D) APPLICATIONS: D.1: Medical measuring technology; D.2: Ambient assisted living; D.3: Process measuring technology; D.4: Automotive; D.5: Sensors in energy technology; D.6: Production technology; D.7: Security technology; D.8: Smart home; D.9: Household technology. The second part with the contributions of the IRS 2 2015 is structured as follows: (E) INFRARED SENSORS: E.1: Photon detectors; E.2: Thermal detectors; E.3: Cooled detectors; E.4: Uncooled detectors; E.5: Sensor modules; E.6: Sensor packaging. (G) INFRARED SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS: G.1: Thermal imaging; G.2: Pyrometry / contactless temperature measurement; G.3: Gas analysis; G.4: Spectroscopy; G.5: Motion control and presence detection; G.6: Security and safety monitoring; G.7: Non-destructive testing; F: INFRARED SYSTEM COMPONENTS: F.1: Infrared optics; F.2: Optical modulators; F.3

  10. Satellite and Ground-Based Sensors for the Urban Heat Island Analysis in the City of Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Fabrizi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the trend of the Urban Heat Island (UHI of Rome is analyzed by both ground-based weather stations and a satellite-based infrared sensor. First, we have developed a suitable algorithm employing satellite brightness temperatures for the estimation of the air temperature belonging to the layer of air closest to the surface. UHI spatial characteristics have been assessed using air temperatures measured by both weather stations and brightness temperature maps from the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR on board ENVISAT polar-orbiting satellite. In total, 634 daytime and nighttime scenes taken between 2003 and 2006 have been processed. Analysis of the Canopy Layer Heat Island (CLHI during summer months reveals a mean growth in magnitude of 3–4 K during nighttime and a negative or almost zero CLHI intensity during daytime, confirmed by the weather stations.

  11. Saharan dust detection using multi-sensor satellite measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriharsha Madhavan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary scientists have vested interest in trying to understand the climatology of the North Atlantic Basin since this region is considered as the genesis for hurricane formation that eventually get shipped to the tropical Atlantic region and the Caribbean. The effects of atmospheric water cycle and the climate of West Africa and the Atlantic basin are hugely impacted by the radiative forcing of Saharan dust. The focus area in this paper would be to improve the dust detection schemes by employing the use of multi sensor measurements in the thermal emissive wavelengths using legacy sensors such as Terra (T and Aqua (A MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, fusing with Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI. Previous work by Hao and Qu (2007 had considered a limited number of thermal infrared channels which led to a correlation coefficient R2 value of 0.765 between the Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT at 550 nm and the modeled dust index. In this work, we extend the thermal infrared based dust detection by employing additional channels: the 8.55 μm which has shown high sensitivity to the Saharan dust, along with water vapor channel of 7.1 μm and cloud top channel of 13.1 μm. Also, the dust pixels were clearly identified using the OMI based aerosol types. The dust pixels were cleanly segregated from the other aerosol types such as sulfates, biomass, and other carbonaceous aerosols. These improvements led to a much higher correlation coefficient R2 value of 0.85 between the modified dust index and the AOT in comparison to the previous work. The key limitations from the current AOT products based on MODIS and were put to test by validating the improved dust detection algorithm. Two improvements were noted. First, the dust measurement radiometry using MODIS is significantly improved by at least an order of 2. Second the spatial measurements are enhanced by a factor of at least 10.

  12. Daily SST fields produced by blending infrared and microwave radiometer estimates

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreejith, O.P.; Shenoi, S.S.C.

    Measurement of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) using satellite based sensors have matured during the last decade. The infrared measurements, using the AVHRR sensor, flown onboard the NOAA satellites, have been used for the generation of high...

  13. The effect of lunarlike satellites on the orbital infrared light curves of Earth-analog planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovitz, Nicholas A; Gaidos, Eric; Williams, Darren M

    2009-04-01

    We have investigated the influence of lunarlike satellites on the infrared orbital light curves of Earth-analog extrasolar planets. Such light curves will be obtained by NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and ESA's Darwin missions as a consequence of repeat observations to confirm the companion status of a putative planet and determine its orbit. We used an energy balance model to calculate disk-averaged infrared (bolometric) fluxes from planet-satellite systems over a full orbital period (one year). The satellites are assumed to lack an atmosphere, have a low thermal inertia like that of the Moon, and span a range of plausible radii. The planets are assumed to have thermal and orbital properties that mimic those of Earth, while their obliquities and orbital longitudes of inferior conjunction remain free parameters. Even if the gross thermal properties of the planet can be independently constrained (e.g., via spectroscopy or visible-wavelength detection of specular glint from a surface ocean), only the largest (approximately Mars-sized) lunarlike satellites can be detected by light curve data from a TPF-like instrument (i.e., one that achieves a photometric signal-to-noise ratio of 10 to 20 at infrared wavelengths). Nondetection of a lunarlike satellite can obfuscate the interpretation of a given system's infrared light curve so that it may resemble a single planet with high obliquity, different orbital longitude of vernal equinox relative to inferior conjunction, and in some cases drastically different thermal characteristics. If the thermal properties of the planet are not independently established, then the presence of a lunarlike satellite cannot be inferred from infrared data, which would thus demonstrate that photometric light curves alone can only be used for preliminary study, and the addition of spectroscopic data will be necessary.

  14. Infrared light sensor applied to early detection of tooth decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjumea, Eberto; Espitia, José; Díaz, Leonardo; Torres, Cesar

    2017-08-01

    The approach dentistry to dental care is gradually shifting to a model focused on early detection and oral-disease prevention; one of the most important methods of prevention of tooth decay is opportune diagnosis of decay and reconstruction. The present study aimed to introduce a procedure for early diagnosis of tooth decay and to compare result of experiment of this method with other common treatments. In this setup, a laser emitting infrared light is injected in core of one bifurcated fiber-optic and conduced to tooth surface and with the same bifurcated fiber the radiation reflected for the same tooth is collected and them conduced to surface of sensor that measures thermal and light frequencies to detect early signs of decay below a tooth surface, where demineralization is difficult to spot with x-ray technology. This device will can be used to diagnose tooth decay without any chemicals and rays such as high power lasers or X-rays.

  15. Atmospheric correction using near-infrared bands for satellite ocean color data processing in the turbid western Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Menghua; Shi, Wei; Jiang, Lide

    2012-01-16

    A regional near-infrared (NIR) ocean normalized water-leaving radiance (nL(w)(λ)) model is proposed for atmospheric correction for ocean color data processing in the western Pacific region, including the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea. Our motivation for this work is to derive ocean color products in the highly turbid western Pacific region using the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) onboard South Korean Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS). GOCI has eight spectral bands from 412 to 865 nm but does not have shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands that are needed for satellite ocean color remote sensing in the turbid ocean region. Based on a regional empirical relationship between the NIR nL(w)(λ) and diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490 nm (K(d)(490)), which is derived from the long-term measurements with the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite, an iterative scheme with the NIR-based atmospheric correction algorithm has been developed. Results from MODIS-Aqua measurements show that ocean color products in the region derived from the new proposed NIR-corrected atmospheric correction algorithm match well with those from the SWIR atmospheric correction algorithm. Thus, the proposed new atmospheric correction method provides an alternative for ocean color data processing for GOCI (and other ocean color satellite sensors without SWIR bands) in the turbid ocean regions of the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea, although the SWIR-based atmospheric correction approach is still much preferred. The proposed atmospheric correction methodology can also be applied to other turbid coastal regions.

  16. Science operations management. [with Infrared Astronomy Satellite project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squibb, G. F.

    1984-01-01

    The operation teams engaged in the IR Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) project included scientists from the IRAS International Science Team. The detailed involvement of these scientists in the design, testing, validation, and operations phases of the IRAS mission contributed to the success of this project. The Project Management Group spent a substantial amount of time discussing science-related issues, because science team coleaders were members from the outset. A single scientific point-of-contact for the Management Group enhanced the depth and continuity of agreement reached in decision-making.

  17. Online Visualization and Analysis of Global Half-Hourly Infrared Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, Dana; Leptoukh, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    nfrared (IR) images (approximately 11-micron channel) recorded by satellite sensors have been widely used in weather forecasting, research, and classroom education since the Nimbus program. Unlike visible images, IR imagery can reveal cloud features without sunlight illumination; therefore, they can be used to monitor weather phenomena day and night. With geostationary satellites deployed around the globe, it is possible to monitor weather events 24/7 at a temporal resolution that polar-orbiting satellites cannot achieve at the present time. When IR data from multiple geostationary satellites are merged to form a single product--also known as a merged product--it allows for observing weather on a global scale. Its high temporal resolution (e.g., every half hour) also makes it an ideal ancillary dataset for supporting other satellite missions, such as the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), etc., by providing additional background information about weather system evolution.

  18. A climate index derived from satellite measured spectral infrared radiation. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, M. D.; Fox, S. K.

    1982-01-01

    The vertical infrared radiative emitting structure (VIRES) climate index, based on radiative transfer theory and derived from the spectral radiances typically used to retrieve temperature profiles, is introduced. It is assumed that clouds and climate are closely related and a change in one will result in a change in the other. The index is a function of the cloud, temperature, and moisture distributions. It is more accurately retrieved from satellite data than is cloudiness per se. The VIRES index is based upon the shape and relative magnitude of the broadband weighting function of the infrared radiative transfer equation. The broadband weighting curves are retrieved from simulated satellite infrared sounder data (spectral radiances). The retrieval procedure is described and the error error sensitivities of the method investigated. Index measuring options and possible applications of the VIRES index are proposed.

  19. An Object Model for Integrating Diverse Remote Sensing Satellite Sensors: A Case Study of Union Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuli Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Earth Observation sensor web environment, the rapid, accurate, and unified discovery of diverse remote sensing satellite sensors, and their association to yield an integrated solution for a comprehensive response to specific emergency tasks pose considerable challenges. In this study, we propose a remote sensing satellite sensor object model, based on the object-oriented paradigm and the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Model Language. The proposed model comprises a set of sensor resource objects. Each object consists of identification, state of resource attribute, and resource method. We implement the proposed attribute state description by applying it to different remote sensors. A real application, involving the observation of floods at the Yangtze River in China, is undertaken. Results indicate that the sensor inquirer can accurately discover qualified satellite sensors in an accurate and unified manner. By implementing the proposed union operation among the retrieved sensors, the inquirer can further determine how the selected sensors can collaboratively complete a specific observation requirement. Therefore, the proposed model provides a reliable foundation for sharing and integrating multiple remote sensing satellite sensors and their observations.

  20. An Estimation of a Passive Infra-Red Sensor Probability of Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, E.A.; El-Gazar, M.I.; Shaat, M.K.; El-Kafas, A.A.; Zidan, W.I.; Wadoud, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Passive Infera-Red (PIR) sensors are one of many detection sensors are used to detect any intrusion process of the nuclear sites. In this work, an estimation of a PIR Sensor's Probability of Detection of a hypothetical facility is presented. sensor performance testing performed to determine whether a particular sensor will be acceptable in a proposed design. We have access to a sensor test field in which the sensor of interest is already properly installed and the parameters have been set to optimal levels by preliminary testing. The PIR sensor construction, operation and design for the investigated nuclear site are explained. Walking and running intrusion tests were carried out inside the field areas of the PIR sensor to evaluate the sensor performance during the intrusion process. 10 trials experimentally performed for achieving the intrusion process via a passive infra-red sensor's network system. The performance and intrusion senses of PIR sensors inside the internal zones was recorded and evaluated.

  1. Estimating stream discharge from a Himalayan Glacier using coupled satellite sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, S. F.; Stearns, L. A.; van der Veen, C. J.; Haritashya, U. K.; Tarpanelli, A.

    2015-12-01

    The 4th IPCC report highlighted our limited understanding of Himalayan glacier behavior and contribution to the region's hydrology. Seasonal snow and glacier melt in the Himalayas are important sources of water, but estimates greatly differ about the actual contribution of melted glacier ice to stream discharge. A more comprehensive understanding of the contribution of glaciers to stream discharge is needed because streams being fed by glaciers affect the livelihoods of a large part of the world's population. Most of the streams in the Himalayas are unmonitored because in situ measurements are logistically difficult and costly. This necessitates the use of remote sensing platforms to obtain estimates of river discharge for validating hydrological models. In this study, we estimate stream discharge using cost-effective methods via repeat satellite imagery from Landsat-8 and SENTINEL-1A sensors. The methodology is based on previous studies, which show that ratio values from optical satellite bands correlate well with measured stream discharge. While similar, our methodology relies on significantly higher resolution imagery (30 m) and utilizes bands that are in the blue and near-infrared spectrum as opposed to previous studies using 250 m resolution imagery and spectral bands only in the near-infrared. Higher resolution imagery is necessary for streams where the source is a glacier's terminus because the width of the stream is often only 10s of meters. We validate our methodology using two rivers in the state of Kansas, where stream gauges are plentiful. We then apply our method to the Bhagirathi River, in the North-Central Himalayas, which is fed by the Gangotri Glacier and has a well monitored stream gauge. The analysis will later be used to couple river discharge and glacier flow and mass balance through an integrated hydrologic model in the Bhagirathi Basin.

  2. Capacity Model and Constraints Analysis for Integrated Remote Wireless Sensor and Satellite Network in Emergency Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Gengxin; Dong, Feihong; Xie, Zhidong; Bian, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the capacity problem of an integrated remote wireless sensor and satellite network (IWSSN) in emergency scenarios. We formulate a general model to evaluate the remote sensor and satellite network capacity. Compared to most existing works for ground networks, the proposed model is time varying and space oriented. To capture the characteristics of a practical network, we sift through major capacity-impacting constraints and analyze the influence of these constraints. Specifically, we combine the geometric satellite orbit model and satellite tool kit (STK) engineering software to quantify the trends of the capacity constraints. Our objective in analyzing these trends is to provide insights and design guidelines for optimizing the integrated remote wireless sensor and satellite network schedules. Simulation results validate the theoretical analysis of capacity trends and show the optimization opportunities of the IWSSN. PMID:26593919

  3. Capacity Model and Constraints Analysis for Integrated Remote Wireless Sensor and Satellite Network in Emergency Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Gengxin; Dong, Feihong; Xie, Zhidong; Bian, Dongming

    2015-11-17

    This article investigates the capacity problem of an integrated remote wireless sensor and satellite network (IWSSN) in emergency scenarios. We formulate a general model to evaluate the remote sensor and satellite network capacity. Compared to most existing works for ground networks, the proposed model is time varying and space oriented. To capture the characteristics of a practical network, we sift through major capacity-impacting constraints and analyze the influence of these constraints. Specifically, we combine the geometric satellite orbit model and satellite tool kit (STK) engineering software to quantify the trends of the capacity constraints. Our objective in analyzing these trends is to provide insights and design guidelines for optimizing the integrated remote wireless sensor and satellite network schedules. Simulation results validate the theoretical analysis of capacity trends and show the optimization opportunities of the IWSSN.

  4. Improving Satellite Retrieved Infrared Sea Surface Temperatures in Aerosol-Contaminated Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, B.; Minnett, P. J.; Szczodrak, G.; Kilpatrick, K. A.

    2017-12-01

    Infrared satellite observations of sea surface temperature (SST) have become essential for many applications in meteorology, climatology, and oceanography. Applications often require high accuracy SST data: for climate research and monitoring an absolute uncertainty of 0.1K and stability of better than 0.04K per decade are required. Tropospheric aerosol concentrations increase infrared signal attenuation and prevent the retrieval of accurate satellite SST. We compare satellite-derived skin SST with measurements from the Marine-Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (M-AERI) deployed on ships during the Aerosols and Ocean Science Expeditions (AEROSE) and with quality-controlled drifter temperatures. After match-up with in-situ SST and filtering of cloud contaminated data, the results indicate that SST retrieved from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites have negative (cool) biases compared to shipboard radiometric measurements. There is also a pronounced negative bias in the Saharan outflow area that can introduce SST errors >1 K at aerosol optical depths > 0.5. In this study, we present a new method to derive night-time Saharan Dust Index (SDI) algorithms based on simulated brightness temperatures at infrared wavelengths of 3.9, 10.8 and 12.0 μm, derived using RTTOV. We derived correction coefficients for Aqua MODIS measurements by regression of the SST errors against the SDI. The biases and standard deviations are reduced by 0.25K and 0.19K after the SDI correction. The goal of this study is to understand better the characteristics and physical mechanisms of aerosol effects on satellite retrieved infrared SST, as well as to derive empirical formulae for improved accuracies in aerosol-contaminated regions.

  5. Satellite Map of Port-au-Prince, Haiti-2010-Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Christopher J.; Sloan, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey produced 1:24,000-scale post-earthquake image base maps incorporating high- and medium-resolution remotely sensed imagery following the 7.0 magnitude earthquake near the capital city of Port au Prince, Haiti, on January 12, 2010. Commercial 2.4-meter multispectral QuickBird imagery was acquired by DigitalGlobe on January 15, 2010, following the initial earthquake. Ten-meter multispectral ALOS AVNIR-2 imagery was collected by the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) on January 12, 2010. These data were acquired under the Remote Sensing International Charter, a global team of space and satellite agencies that provide timely imagery in support of emergency response efforts worldwide. The images shown on this map were employed to support earthquake response efforts, specifically for use in determining ground deformation, damage assessment, and emergency management decisions. The raw, unprocessed imagery was geo-corrected, mosaicked, and reproduced onto a cartographic 1:24,000-scale base map. These maps are intended to provide a temporally current representation of post-earthquake ground conditions, which may be of use to decision makers and to the general public.

  6. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) - Space Weather Sensors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) maintains a constellation of sun-synchronous, near-polar orbiting satellites. The orbital period is 101 minutes...

  7. A Simple Test to Evaluate the Calibration Stability and Accuracy of Infrared Thermocouple Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Pinnock, Derek R.; Bugbee, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Accurately measuring surface temperature is not difficult when the surface, the sensor, and air temperatures are similar, but it is challenging when the surface temperature is significantly different than air and sensor temperatures. We tested three Infrared Thermocouple sensors (IRT’s) that had been used for two years in a greenhouse environment. The importance of the correction for sensor body temperature was also examined.

  8. Assimilating All-Sky Himawari-8 Satellite Infrared Radiances: A Case of Typhoon Soudelor (2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Honda, Takumi; Miyoshi, Takemasa; Lien, Guo-Yuan; Nishizawa, Seiya; Yoshida, Ryuji; Adachi, Sachiho A.; Terasaki, Koji; Okamoto, Kozo; Tomita, Hirofumi; Bessho, Kotaro

    2018-01-01

    Japan’s new geostationary satellite Himawari-8, the first of a series of the third-generation geostationary meteorological satellites includingGOES-16, has been operational since July 2015. Himawari-8 produces highresolution observations with 16 frequency bands every 10 min for full disk, and every 2.5 min for local regions. This study aims to assimilate all-sky every-10-min infrared (IR) radiances from Himawari-8 with a regional numerical weather prediction model and to investigate its impac...

  9. In vivo near infrared (NIRS) sensor attachment using fibrin bioadhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnab, Andrew; Pagano, Roberto; Kwon, Brian; Dumont, Guy; Shadgan, Babak

    2018-02-01

    Background: `Tisseel' (Baxter Healthcare, Deerfield, IL) is a fibrin-based sealant that is commonly used during spine surgery to augment dural repairs. We wish to intra-operatively secure a near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) sensor to the dura in order to monitor the tissue hemodynamics of the underlying spinal cord. To determine if `Tisseel' sealant adversely attenuates NIR photon transmission. Methods: We investigated `Tisseel' in both an in vitro and in vivo paradigm. For in vitro testing, we used a 1 mm pathlength cuvette containing either air or `Tisseel' interposed between a NIR light source (760 and 850 nm) and a photodiode detector and compared transmittance. For in vivo testing, a continuous wave (760 and 850 nm) spatiallyresolved NIRS device was placed over the triceps muscle using either conventional skin apposition (overlying adhesive bandage) or bioadhesion with `Tisseel'. Raw optical data and tissue saturation index (TSI%) collected at rest were compared. Results: In-vitro NIR light absorption by `Tisseel' was very high, with transmittance reduced by 95% compared to air. In-vivo muscle TSI% values were 80% with conventional attachment and 20% using fibrin glue. Conclusion: The optical properties of `Tisseel' significantly attenuate NIR light during in-vitro transmittance and critically compromise photon transmission in-vivo.

  10. Combined Geometric and Neural Network Approach to Generic Fault Diagnosis in Satellite Actuators and Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldi, P.; Blanke, Mogens; Castaldi, P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel scheme for diagnosis of faults affecting the sensors measuring the satellite attitude, body angular velocity and flywheel spin rates as well as defects related to the control torques provided by satellite reaction wheels. A nonlinear geometric design is used to avoid t...

  11. Overview of benefits, challenges, and requirements of wheeled-vehicle mounted infrared sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John Lester; Clayton, Paul; Olsson, Stefan F.

    2013-06-01

    Requirements for vehicle mounted infrared sensors, especially as imagers evolve to high definition (HD) format will be detailed and analyzed. Lessons learned from integrations of infrared sensors on armored vehicles, unarmored military vehicles and commercial automobiles will be discussed. Comparisons between sensors for driving and those for situation awareness, targeting and other functions will be presented. Conclusions will be drawn regarding future applications and installations. New business requirements for more advanced digital image processing algorithms in the sensor system will be discussed. Examples of these are smarter contrast/brightness adjustments algorithms, detail enhancement, intelligent blending (IR-Vis) modes, and augmented reality.

  12. Quality assurance tests of the CBM silicon tracking system sensors with an infrared laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teklishyn, Maksym [FAIR GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); KINR, Kyiv (Ukraine); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Double-sided 300 μm thick silicon microstrip sensors are planned to be used in the Silicon Tracking System (STS) of the future CBM experiment. Different tools, including an infrared laser, are used to induce charge in the sensor medium to study the sensor response. We use present installation to develop a procedure for the sensor quality assurance during mass production. The precise positioning of the laser spot allows to make a clear judgment about the sensor interstrip gap response which provides information about the charge distribution inside the sensor medium. Results are compared with the model estimations.

  13. Poster abstract: A machine learning approach for vehicle classification using passive infrared and ultrasonic sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Warriach, Ehsan Ullah; Claudel, Christian G.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the implementation of four different machine learning techniques for vehicle classification in a dual ultrasonic/passive infrared traffic flow sensors. Using k-NN, Naive Bayes, SVM and KNN-SVM algorithms, we show that KNN

  14. Impact of Soil Water Content on Landmine Detection Using Radar and Thermal Infrared Sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong, Sung-ho

    2001-01-01

    .... The most important of these is water content since it directly influences the three other properties in this study, the ground penetrating radar and thermal infrared sensors were used to identify non...

  15. Vehicle Classification and Speed Estimation Using Combined Passive Infrared/Ultrasonic Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Odat, Enas M.; Shamma, Jeff S.; Claudel, Christian

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a new sensing device that can simultaneously monitor traffic congestion and urban flash floods is presented. This sensing device is based on the combination of passive infrared sensors (PIRs) and ultrasonic rangefinder, and is used

  16. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Sensor Data Record (SDR) from IDPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sensor Data Records (SDRs), or Level 1b data, from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) are the calibrated and geolocated radiance and reflectance...

  17. Fluxgate sensor for the vector magnetometer onboard the ’Astrid-2’ satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauer, Peter; Risbo, T.; Merayo, José M.G.

    2000-01-01

    satellite called 'Orsted'. To obtain good axial stability special attention is drawn to the mechanical construction of the tri-axial sensor configuration. Almost all parts of the sensor are machined from the glassy material MACOR(R) that has approximately the same thermal expansion coefficient as the core...... ribbon. The single axis compensated ringcore sensors are known to have some linearity problems with large uncompensated fields perpendicular to the measuring axis, This phenomenon is also seen for the Astrid-2 sensor, and from a coil-calibration of the flight-spare sensor we observe: non-linearities...

  18. Sensores ópticos com detecção no infravermelho próximo e médio Near and mid infrared optical sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kássio M. G. Lima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical chemical sensors with detection in the near and mid infrared region are reviewed. Fundamental concepts of infrared spectroscopy and optical chemical sensors are briefly described, before presenting some aspects on optical chemical sensors, such as synthesis of NIR and IR reagents, preparation of new materials as well as application in determinations of species of biological, industrial and environmental importance.

  19. Human action pattern monitor for telecare system utilizing magnetic thin film infrared sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osada, H.; Chiba, S.; Oka, H.; Seki, K.

    2002-01-01

    The magnetic thin film infrared sensor (MFI) is an infrared sensing device utilizing a temperature-sensitive magnetic thin film with marked temperature dependence in the room temperature range. We propose a human action pattern monitor (HPM) constructed with the MFI, without a monitor camera to save the clients' privacy, as a telecare system

  20. Integrated fiber optic sensors for hot spot detection and temperature field reconstruction in satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, S; Baier, H

    2010-01-01

    Large satellites are often equipped with more than 1000 temperature sensors during the test campaign. Hundreds of them are still used for monitoring during launch and operation in space. This means an additional mass and especially high effort in assembly, integration and verification on a system level. So the use of fiber Bragg grating temperature sensors is investigated as they offer several advantages. They are lightweight, small in size and electromagnetically immune, which fits well in space applications. Their multiplexing capability offers the possibility to build extensive sensor networks including dozens of sensors of different types, such as strain sensors, accelerometers and temperature sensors. The latter allow the detection of hot spots and the reconstruction of temperature fields via proper algorithms, which is shown in this paper. A temperature sensor transducer was developed, which can be integrated into satellite sandwich panels with negligible mechanical influence. Mechanical and thermal vacuum tests were performed to verify the space compatibility of the developed sensor system. Proper reconstruction algorithms were developed to estimate the temperature field and detect thermal hot spots on the panel surface. A representative hardware demonstrator has been built and tested, which shows the capability of using an integrated fiber Bragg grating temperature sensor network for temperature field reconstruction and hot spot detection in satellite structures

  1. Infrared processing and sensor fusion for anti-personnel land-mine detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schavemaker, J.G.M.; Cremer, F.; Schutte, K.; Breejen, E. den

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of infrared processing and sensor fusion obtained within the European research project GEODE (Ground Explosive Ordnance DEtection) that strives for the realization of a vehicle-mounted, multi-sensor anti-personnel land-mine detection system for humanitarian

  2. Space-based infrared sensors of space target imaging effect analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Huayu; Zhang, Yasheng; Zhou, Haijun; Zhao, Shuang

    2018-02-01

    Target identification problem is one of the core problem of ballistic missile defense system, infrared imaging simulation is an important means of target detection and recognition. This paper first established the space-based infrared sensors ballistic target imaging model of point source on the planet's atmosphere; then from two aspects of space-based sensors camera parameters and target characteristics simulated atmosphere ballistic target of infrared imaging effect, analyzed the camera line of sight jitter, camera system noise and different imaging effects of wave on the target.

  3. Advanced fire observation by the Intelligent Infrared Sensor prototype FOCUS on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel, D.; Haschberger, P.; Tank, V.; Lanzl, F.; Zhukov, B.; Jahn, H.; Briess, K.; Lorenz, E.; Roeser, H.-P.; Ginati, A.; Tobehn, C.; Schulte in den Bäumen, J.; Christmann, U.

    1999-01-01

    Current and planned operational space-borne Earth observation systems provide spatially, radiometrically or temporally crude data for the detection and monitoring of high temperature phenomena on the surface of our planet. High Temperature Events (HTE) very often cause environmental disasters. Such HTE are forest and savannah fires, fires of open coal mines, volcanic activities and others (e.g. fires of oil wells, pipelines etc.). A simultaneous co-registration of a combination of infrared (IR) and visible (VIS) channels is the key for a reliable autonomous on-board detection of High Temperature Events (HTE) on Earth surface, such as vegetation fires and volcano eruptions. This is the main feature of the FOCUS experiment. Furthermore there are ecology-oriented objectives of the FOCUS experiment mainly related to spectrometric/imaging remote inspection and parameter extraction of selected HTEs, and to the assessment of some ecological consequences of HTEs, such as aerosol and gas emission. Based on own experimental work and supported by Co-Investigators from Italy, Greece, France, Spain, Russia and Germany, DLR proposed in 1997 to use the International Space Station (ISS) in its early utilization phase as a platform and test-bed for an Intelligent Infrared Sensor prototype FOCUS of a future Environmental Disaster Recognition Satellite System. FOCUS is considered by ESA as an important mission combining a number of proven technologies and observation techniques to provide the scientific and operational user community with key data for the classification and monitoring of forest fires. FOCUS was selected as one of five European ``Groupings'' to be flown as an externally mounted payload during the early utilisation phase of the ISS. The FOCUS Phase A Study will be performed by OHB-System, DLR and Zeiss from September 1998 until May 1999.

  4. Optical Passive Sensor Calibration for Satellite Remote Sensing and the Legacy of NOAA and NIST Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datla, Raju; Weinreb, Michael; Rice, Joseph; Johnson, B Carol; Shirley, Eric; Cao, Changyong

    2014-01-01

    This paper traces the cooperative efforts of scientists at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to improve the calibration of operational satellite sensors for remote sensing of the Earth's land, atmosphere and oceans. It gives a chronological perspective of the NOAA satellite program and the interactions between the two agencies' scientists to address pre-launch calibration and issues of sensor performance on orbit. The drive to improve accuracy of measurements has had a new impetus in recent years because of the need for improved weather prediction and climate monitoring. The highlights of this cooperation and strategies to achieve SI-traceability and improve accuracy for optical satellite sensor data are summarized.

  5. Evaluation of satellites and remote sensors for atmospheric pollution measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, J.; Eldridge, R.; Friedman, E.; Keitz, E.

    1976-01-01

    An approach to the development of a prioritized list of scientific goals in atmospheric research is provided. The results of the analysis are used to estimate the contribution of various spacecraft/remote sensor combinations for each of several important constituents of the stratosphere. The evaluation of the combinations includes both single-instrument and multiple-instrument payloads. Attention was turned to the physical and chemical features of the atmosphere as well as the performance capability of a number of atmospheric remote sensors. In addition, various orbit considerations were reviewed along with detailed information on stratospheric aerosols and the impact of spacecraft environment on the operation of the sensors.

  6. Identifying clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared satellite data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Pedro; et al.,

    2013-12-01

    We describe a new method of identifying night-time clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared data from the Imager instruments on the GOES-12 and GOES-13 satellites. We compare cloud identifications resulting from our method to those obtained by the Central Laser Facility of the Auger Observatory. Using our new method we can now develop cloud probability maps for the 3000 km^2 of the Pierre Auger Observatory twice per hour with a spatial resolution of ~2.4 km by ~5.5 km. Our method could also be applied to monitor cloud cover for other ground-based observatories and for space-based observatories.

  7. Characterization of Land Surfaces with Satellite-borne Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Y.

    Hot groundwater is a kind of valuable natural resources to be explored utilized. Shanxi Province, located in the eastern Loess Plateau of China, is rich in geothermal resources, most of which was found in irrigation well drilling or geological survey. Basic study is weak. Now new developed Remote Sensing technique provides geothermal study with an advanced way. Air-RS information of thermal infrared and dada from thermal channel of Meteorological Landset AVHRR has been used widely. A thermal infrared channel (TM6) was installed in the U.S. second Landset, Its resolving power of space is as high as 120m, 10 times more than one of AVHRR. A Landset earth recourses launched by China and Brazil (CBERS-1) in 1999, including a spectrum of thermal infrared. It is paid a great interested and attention to survey geothermal resources using thermal infrared. This article is a brief introduction of finding hot groundwater with on the bases of differences of thermal radiation of objects reflected by thermal infrared in the Landset, and treated with HIS colors changes. This study provides an advanced way widely used to exploit hot groundwater and to promote the development of tourism and geothermal medical in China.

  8. Visible-infrared micro-spectrometer based on a preaggregated silver nanoparticle monolayer film and an infrared sensor card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Peng, Jing-xiao; Ho, Ho-pui; Song, Chun-yuan; Huang, Xiao-li; Zhu, Yong-yuan; Li, Xing-ao; Huang, Wei

    2018-01-01

    By using a preaggregated silver nanoparticle monolayer film and an infrared sensor card, we demonstrate a miniature spectrometer design that covers a broad wavelength range from visible to infrared with high spectral resolution. The spectral contents of an incident probe beam are reconstructed by solving a matrix equation with a smoothing simulated annealing algorithm. The proposed spectrometer offers significant advantages over current instruments that are based on Fourier transform and grating dispersion, in terms of size, resolution, spectral range, cost and reliability. The spectrometer contains three components, which are used for dispersion, frequency conversion and detection. Disordered silver nanoparticles in dispersion component reduce the fabrication complexity. An infrared sensor card in the conversion component broaden the operational spectral range of the system into visible and infrared bands. Since the CCD used in the detection component provides very large number of intensity measurements, one can reconstruct the final spectrum with high resolution. An additional feature of our algorithm for solving the matrix equation, which is suitable for reconstructing both broadband and narrowband signals, we have adopted a smoothing step based on a simulated annealing algorithm. This algorithm improve the accuracy of the spectral reconstruction.

  9. SENSOR++: Simulation of Remote Sensing Systems from Visible to Thermal Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paproth, C.; Schlüßler, E.; Scherbaum, P.; Börner, A.

    2012-07-01

    During the development process of a remote sensing system, the optimization and the verification of the sensor system are important tasks. To support these tasks, the simulation of the sensor and its output is valuable. This enables the developers to test algorithms, estimate errors, and evaluate the capabilities of the whole sensor system before the final remote sensing system is available and produces real data. The presented simulation concept, SENSOR++, consists of three parts. The first part is the geometric simulation which calculates where the sensor looks at by using a ray tracing algorithm. This also determines whether the observed part of the scene is shadowed or not. The second part describes the radiometry and results in the spectral at-sensor radiance from the visible spectrum to the thermal infrared according to the simulated sensor type. In the case of earth remote sensing, it also includes a model of the radiative transfer through the atmosphere. The final part uses the at-sensor radiance to generate digital images by using an optical and an electronic sensor model. Using SENSOR++ for an optimization requires the additional application of task-specific data processing algorithms. The principle of the simulation approach is explained, all relevant concepts of SENSOR++ are discussed, and first examples of its use are given, for example a camera simulation for a moon lander. Finally, the verification of SENSOR++ is demonstrated.

  10. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Gridded Satellite Data from ISCCP B1 (GridSat-B1) Infrared Channel Brightness Temperature, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Gridded Satellite (GridSat-B1) data provides a uniform set of quality controlled geostationary satellite observations for the visible, infrared window and...

  11. Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer for investigation of Jupiter and its satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aptaker, I.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Near-Infrared-Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) is one of the science instruments in the Galileo mission, which will explore Jupiter and its satellites in the mid-1990's. The NIMS experiment will map geological units on the surfaces of the Jovian satellites and characterize their mineral content; and, for the atmosphere of Jupiter, investigate cloud properties and the spatial and temporal variability of molecular abundances. The optics are gold-coated reflective and consist of a telescope and a grating spectrometer. The balance of the instrument includes a 17-detector (silicon and indium antimonide) focal plane array, a tuning fork chopper, microprocessor-controlled electronics, and a passive radiative cooler. A wobbling secondary mirror in the telescope provides 20 pixels in one dimension of spatial scanning in a pushbroom mode with 0.5 mr x 0.5 mr instantaneous field of view. The spectral range is 0.7-5.2 microns; resolution is 0.025 micron. NIMS is the first infrared experiment to combine both spatial and spectral mapping capability in one instrument

  12. Very Small Satellite Design for Space Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Literature Review 25 Clyde Space Power Pumpkin Computer Microhard Comm SSTL GPS User Payload Pumpkin Structure Figure 2-10. CUTE-I CubeSat [69...Structure Pumpkin [244] Skeletonized 155 $1,350* $810* EPS Clyde Space [245] CubeSat EPS 310 $25,240* $19,252* DH Pumpkin [244] FM430 90 $1,200* $720...satellite miniaturisation since 1993 and probably before. Furthermore, the term itself has been diluted from the pure literal form, eventually

  13. Airborne and satellite remote sensors for precision agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remote sensing provides an important source of information to characterize soil and crop variability for both within-season and after-season management despite the availability of numerous ground-based soil and crop sensors. Remote sensing applications in precision agriculture have been steadily inc...

  14. Will the aerosol derived from the OCM satellite sensor be representative of the aerosol over Goa?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Talaulikar, M.; Suresh, T.; Rodrigues, A.; Desa, E.; Chauhan, P.

    Most of the ocean color satellite sensors such as IRS-P4 OCM, SeaWiFS and MODIS are sun synchronous and have pass over the regions during noon. From our measurements of aerosol optical properties using five-channel sunphotometer over the coastal...

  15. Fault Diagnosis for Satellite Sensors and Actuators using Nonlinear Geometric Approach and Adaptive Observers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldi, P.; Blanke, Mogens; Castaldi, P.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a novel scheme for diagnosis of faults affecting sensors that measure the satellite attitude, body angular velocity, flywheel spin rates, and defects in control torques from reaction wheel motors. The proposed methodology uses adaptive observers to provide fault estimates that...

  16. Investigation of fluids as filling of a biomimetic infrared sensor based on the infrared receptors of pyrophilous insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, T.; Li, N.; Schmitz, H.; Bousack, H.

    2012-04-01

    The beetle Melanophila acuminata is highly dependent on forest fires. The burned wood serves as food for the larvae and the adults copulate on the burned areas to put their eggs in the freshly burned trees. To be able to detect forest fires from great distances the beetle developed a highly sensitive infrared receptor which works according to a photomechanical principle. The beetle has two pit organs, one on each lateral side, of which each houses around 70 dome shaped infrared receptors. These IR-receptors consist of a hard outer cuticular shell and an inner microfluidic core. When IR-radiation is absorbed, the pressure in the core increases due to the thermal expansion. This results in a deflection of a dendritic tip of a mechanosensitiv neuron which generates the signal. This biological principle was transferred into a new kind of un-cooled technical infrared receptor. To demonstrate the functional principle and the feasibility of this IR-sensor a macroscopic demonstrator sensor was build. It consisted of an inner fluid filled cavity (pressure chamber), an IR-transmissive window and a membrane. The deflection of the membrane due to the absorbed IR-energy was measured by a sensitive commercial capacitive sensor. In the experiments ethanol with added black ink, a mix of ethanol and glucose with additional absorber, air with additional absorber and water were used as fillings of the cavity and compared against each other. In order to get insights into the physics of the results of the experiments accompanying simulations using FEM methods and analytical calculations have been performed. The results showed that ethanol and air as fillings of the cavity caused the largest deflection of the membrane. Furthermore it turned out that the thermal expansion of the sensor housing material has an important influence. The comparison of the measured deflection with calculated deflections showed a good concordance.

  17. Characterizing Temporal and Spatial Changes in Land Surface Temperature across the Amazon Basin using Thermal and Infrared Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cak, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    The Amazon Basin has faced innumerable pressures in recent years, including logging, mining and resource extraction, agricultural expansion, road building, and urbanization. These changes have drastically altered the landscape, transforming a predominantly forested environment into a mosaic of different types of land cover. The resulting fragmentation has caused dramatic and negative impacts on its structure and function, including on biodiversity and the transfer of water and energy to and from soil, vegetation, and the atmosphere (e.g., evapotranspiration). Because evapotranspiration from forested areas, which is affected by factors including temperature and water availability, plays a significant role in water dynamics in the Amazon Basin, measuring land surface temperature (LST) across the region can provide a dynamic assessment of hydrological, vegetation, and land use and land cover changes. It can also help to identify widespread urban development, which often has a higher LST signal relative to surrounding vegetation. Here, we discuss results from work to measure and identify drivers of change in LST across the entire Amazon Basin through analysis of past and current thermal and infrared satellite imagery. We leverage cloud computing resources in new ways to allow for more efficient analysis of imagery over the Amazon Basin across multiple years and multiple sensors. We also assess potential drivers of change in LST using spatial and multivariate statistical analyses with additional data sources of land cover, urban development, and demographics.

  18. Energy-Efficient Optimal Power Allocation in Integrated Wireless Sensor and Cognitive Satellite Terrestrial Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shengchao; Li, Guangxia; An, Kang; Gao, Bin; Zheng, Gan

    2017-09-04

    This paper proposes novel satellite-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which integrate the WSN with the cognitive satellite terrestrial network. Having the ability to provide seamless network access and alleviate the spectrum scarcity, cognitive satellite terrestrial networks are considered as a promising candidate for future wireless networks with emerging requirements of ubiquitous broadband applications and increasing demand for spectral resources. With the emerging environmental and energy cost concerns in communication systems, explicit concerns on energy efficient resource allocation in satellite networks have also recently received considerable attention. In this regard, this paper proposes energy-efficient optimal power allocation schemes in the cognitive satellite terrestrial networks for non-real-time and real-time applications, respectively, which maximize the energy efficiency (EE) of the cognitive satellite user while guaranteeing the interference at the primary terrestrial user below an acceptable level. Specifically, average interference power (AIP) constraint is employed to protect the communication quality of the primary terrestrial user while average transmit power (ATP) or peak transmit power (PTP) constraint is adopted to regulate the transmit power of the satellite user. Since the energy-efficient power allocation optimization problem belongs to the nonlinear concave fractional programming problem, we solve it by combining Dinkelbach's method with Lagrange duality method. Simulation results demonstrate that the fading severity of the terrestrial interference link is favorable to the satellite user who can achieve EE gain under the ATP constraint comparing to the PTP constraint.

  19. Design of the driving system for visible near-infrared spatial programmable push-broom remote CCD sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhipeng; Wei, Jun; Zhou, Qianting; Weng, Dongshan; Li, Jianwei

    2010-11-01

    VNIR multi-spectral image sensor has wide applications in remote sensing and imaging spectroscopy. An image spectrometer of a spatial remote programmable push-broom sensing satellite requires visible near infrared band ranges from 0.4μm to 1.04μm which is one of the most important bands in remote sensing. This paper introduces a method of design the driving system for 1024x1024 VNIR CCD sensor for programmable push-broom remote sensing. The digital driving signal is generated by the FPGA device. There are seven modules in the FPGA program and all the modules are coded by VHDL. The driving system have five mainly functions: drive the sensor as the demand of timing schedule, control the AD convert device to work, get the parameter via RS232 from control platform, process the data input from the AD device, output the processed data to PCI sample card to display in computer end. All the modules above succeed working on FPGA device APA600. This paper also introduced several important keys when designing the driving system including module synchronization, critical path optimization.

  20. A design of an on-orbit radiometric calibration device for high dynamic range infrared remote sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yicheng; Jin, Weiqi; Dun, Xiong; Zhou, Feng; Xiao, Si

    2017-10-01

    With the demand of quantitative remote sensing technology growing, high reliability as well as high accuracy radiometric calibration technology, especially the on-orbit radiometric calibration device has become an essential orientation in term of quantitative remote sensing technology. In recent years, global launches of remote sensing satellites are equipped with innovative on-orbit radiometric calibration devices. In order to meet the requirements of covering a very wide dynamic range and no-shielding radiometric calibration system, we designed a projection-type radiometric calibration device for high dynamic range sensors based on the Schmidt telescope system. In this internal radiometric calibration device, we select the EF-8530 light source as the calibration blackbody. EF-8530 is a high emittance Nichrome (Ni-Cr) reference source. It can operate in steady or pulsed state mode at a peak temperature of 973K. The irradiance from the source was projected to the IRFPA. The irradiance needs to ensure that the IRFPA can obtain different amplitude of the uniform irradiance through the narrow IR passbands and cover the very wide dynamic range. Combining the internal on-orbit radiometric calibration device with the specially designed adaptive radiometric calibration algorithms, an on-orbit dynamic non-uniformity correction can be accomplished without blocking the optical beam from outside the telescope. The design optimizes optics, source design, and power supply electronics for irradiance accuracy and uniformity. The internal on-orbit radiometric calibration device not only satisfies a series of indexes such as stability, accuracy, large dynamic range and uniformity of irradiance, but also has the advantages of short heating and cooling time, small volume, lightweight, low power consumption and many other features. It can realize the fast and efficient relative radiometric calibration without shielding the field of view. The device can applied to the design and

  1. Evaluating the MSG satellite Multi-Sensor Precipitation Estimate for extreme rainfall monitoring over northern Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoussen Dhib

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge and evaluation of extreme precipitation is important for water resources and flood risk management, soil and land degradation, and other environmental issues. Due to the high potential threat to local infrastructure, such as buildings, roads and power supplies, heavy precipitation can have an important social and economic impact on society. At present, satellite derived precipitation estimates are becoming more readily available. This paper aims to investigate the potential use of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG Multi-Sensor Precipitation Estimate (MPE for extreme rainfall assessment in Tunisia. The MSGMPE data combine microwave rain rate estimations with SEVIRI thermal infrared channel data, using an EUMETSAT production chain in near real time mode. The MPE data can therefore be used in a now-casting mode, and are potentially useful for extreme weather early warning and monitoring. Daily precipitation observed across an in situ gauge network in the north of Tunisia were used during the period 2007–2009 for validation of the MPE extreme event data. As a first test of the MSGMPE product's performance, very light to moderate rainfall classes, occurring between January and October 2007, were evaluated. Extreme rainfall events were then selected, using a threshold criterion for large rainfall depth (>50 mm/day occurring at least at one ground station. Spatial interpolation methods were applied to generate rainfall maps for the drier summer season (from May to October and the wet winter season (from November to April. Interpolated gauge rainfall maps were then compared to MSGMPE data available from the EUMETSAT UMARF archive or from the GEONETCast direct dissemination system. The summation of the MPE data at 5 and/or 15 min time intervals over a 24 h period, provided a basis for comparison. The MSGMPE product was not very effective in the detection of very light and light rain events. Better results were obtained for the slightly

  2. Sensor and computing resource management for a small satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Abhilasha; Goehner, Kyle; Sand, John; Straub, Jeremy; Mohammad, Atif; Korvald, Christoffer; Nervold, Anders Kose

    A small satellite in a low-Earth orbit (e.g., approximately a 300 to 400 km altitude) has an orbital velocity in the range of 8.5 km/s and completes an orbit approximately every 90 minutes. For a satellite with minimal attitude control, this presents a significant challenge in obtaining multiple images of a target region. Presuming an inclination in the range of 50 to 65 degrees, a limited number of opportunities to image a given target or communicate with a given ground station are available, over the course of a 24-hour period. For imaging needs (where solar illumination is required), the number of opportunities is further reduced. Given these short windows of opportunity for imaging, data transfer, and sending commands, scheduling must be optimized. In addition to the high-level scheduling performed for spacecraft operations, payload-level scheduling is also required. The mission requires that images be post-processed to maximize spatial resolution and minimize data transfer (through removing overlapping regions). The payload unit includes GPS and inertial measurement unit (IMU) hardware to aid in image alignment for the aforementioned. The payload scheduler must, thus, split its energy and computing-cycle budgets between determining an imaging sequence (required to capture the highly-overlapping data required for super-resolution and adjacent areas required for mosaicking), processing the imagery (to perform the super-resolution and mosaicking) and preparing the data for transmission (compressing it, etc.). This paper presents an approach for satellite control, scheduling and operations that allows the cameras, GPS and IMU to be used in conjunction to acquire higher-resolution imagery of a target region.

  3. Uncooled infrared sensors: rapid growth and future perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Raymond S.

    2000-07-01

    The uncooled infrared cameras are now available for both the military and commercial markets. The current camera technology incorporates the fruits of many years of development, focusing on the details of pixel design, novel material processing, and low noise read-out electronics. The rapid insertion of cameras into systems is testimony to the successful completion of this 'first phase' of development. In the military market, the first uncooled infrared cameras will be used for weapon sights, driver's viewers and helmet mounted cameras. Major commercial applications include night driving, security, police and fire fighting, and thermography, primarily for preventive maintenance and process control. The technology for the next generation of cameras is even more demanding, but within reach. The paper outlines the technology program planned for the next generation of cameras, and the approaches to further enhance performance, even to the radiation limit of thermal detectors.

  4. Miniaturized multi channel infrared optical gas sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöllenstein, Jürgen; Eberhardt, Andre; Rademacher, Sven; Schmitt, Katrin

    2011-06-01

    Infrared spectroscopy uses the characteristic absorption of the molecules in the mid infrared and allows the determination of the gases and their concentration. Especially by the absorption at longer wavelengths between 8 μm and 12 μm, the so called "fingerprint" region, the molecules can be measured with highest selectivity. We present an infrared optical filter photometer for the analytical determination of trace gases in the air. The challenge in developing the filter photometer was the construction of a multi-channel system using a novel filter wheel concept - which acts as a chopper too- in order to measure simultaneously four gases: carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and ammonia. The system consists of a broadband infrared emitter, a long path cell with 1.7m optical path length, a filter wheel and analogue and digital signal processing. Multi channel filter photometers normally need one filter and one detector per target gas. There are small detection units with one, two or more detectors with integrated filters available on the market. One filter is normally used as reference at a wavelength without any cross-sensitivities to possible interfering gases (e.g. at 3.95 μm is an "atmospheric window" - a small spectral band without absorbing gases in the atmosphere). The advantage of a filter-wheel set-up is that a single IR-detector can be used, which reduces the signal drift enormously. Pyroelectric and thermopile detectors are often integrated in these kinds of spectrometers. For both detector types a modulation of the light is required and can be done - without an additional chopper - with the filter wheel.

  5. Integrative Multi-Spectral Sensor Device for Far-Infrared and Visible Light Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Tiezhu; Chen, Lulu; Pang, Yusong; Yan, Gaowei

    2018-06-01

    Infrared and visible light image fusion technology is a hot spot in the research of multi-sensor fusion technology in recent years. Existing infrared and visible light fusion technologies need to register before fusion because of using two cameras. However, the application effect of the registration technology has yet to be improved. Hence, a novel integrative multi-spectral sensor device is proposed for infrared and visible light fusion, and by using the beam splitter prism, the coaxial light incident from the same lens is projected to the infrared charge coupled device (CCD) and visible light CCD, respectively. In this paper, the imaging mechanism of the proposed sensor device is studied with the process of the signals acquisition and fusion. The simulation experiment, which involves the entire process of the optic system, signal acquisition, and signal fusion, is constructed based on imaging effect model. Additionally, the quality evaluation index is adopted to analyze the simulation result. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed sensor device is effective and feasible.

  6. Vehicle Classification and Speed Estimation Using Combined Passive Infrared/Ultrasonic Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Odat, Enas M.

    2017-09-18

    In this paper, a new sensing device that can simultaneously monitor traffic congestion and urban flash floods is presented. This sensing device is based on the combination of passive infrared sensors (PIRs) and ultrasonic rangefinder, and is used for real-time vehicle detection, classification, and speed estimation in the context of wireless sensor networks. This framework relies on dynamic Bayesian Networks to fuse heterogeneous data both spatially and temporally for vehicle detection. To estimate the speed of the incoming vehicles, we first use cross correlation and wavelet transform-based methods to estimate the time delay between the signals of different sensors. We then propose a calibration and self-correction model based on Bayesian Networks to make a joint inference by all sensors about the speed and the length of the detected vehicle. Furthermore, we use the measurements of the ultrasonic and the PIR sensors to perform vehicle classification. Validation data (using an experimental dual infrared and ultrasonic traffic sensor) show a 99% accuracy in vehicle detection, a mean error of 5 kph in vehicle speed estimation, a mean error of 0.7m in vehicle length estimation, and a high accuracy in vehicle classification. Finally, we discuss the computational performance of the algorithm, and show that this framework can be implemented on low-power computational devices within a wireless sensor network setting. Such decentralized processing greatly improves the energy consumption of the system and minimizes bandwidth usage.

  7. Study of GeSn Alloy for Low Cost Monolithic Mid Infrared Quantum Well Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash PAREEK

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on theoretical study of Tin incorporated group IV alloys particularly GeSn and design of quantum well sensor for mid infrared sensing applications. Initially, the physics behind the selection of material for midinfrared sensor is explained. The importance of controlling strain in GeSn alloy is also explained. The physical background and motivation for incorporation of Tin(Sn in Germanium is briefly narrated. Eigen energy states for different Sn concentrations are obtained for strain compensated quantum well in G valley conduction band (GCB, heavy hole (HH band and light hole (LH band by solving coupled Schrödinger and Poisson equations simultaneously. Sn concentration dependent absorption spectra for HH- GCB transition reveals that significant absorption observed in mid infrared range (3-5 µm. So, Ge1-x Snx quantum well can be used for mid infrared sensing applications.

  8. Wireless Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy Sensor Network for Automatic Carbon Dioxide Fertilization in a Greenhouse Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianing Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a wireless mid-infrared spectroscopy sensor network was designed and implemented for carbon dioxide fertilization in a greenhouse environment. A mid-infrared carbon dioxide (CO2 sensor based on non-dispersive infrared (NDIR with the functionalities of wireless communication and anti-condensation prevention was realized as the sensor node. Smart transmission power regulation was applied in the wireless sensor network, according to the Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI, to realize high communication stability and low-power consumption deployment. Besides real-time monitoring, this system also provides a CO2 control facility for manual and automatic control through a LabVIEW platform. According to simulations and field tests, the implemented sensor node has a satisfying anti-condensation ability and reliable measurement performance on CO2 concentrations ranging from 30 ppm to 5000 ppm. As an application, based on the Fuzzy proportional, integral, and derivative (PID algorithm realized on a LabVIEW platform, the CO2 concentration was regulated to some desired concentrations, such as 800 ppm and 1200 ppm, in 30 min with a controlled fluctuation of <±35 ppm in an acre of greenhouse.

  9. Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargion, Giulietta S.; Mueller, James L.

    2000-01-01

    The document stipulates protocols for measuring bio-optical and radiometric data for the Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project activities and algorithm development. This document supersedes the earlier version (Mueller and Austin 1995) published as Volume 25 in the SeaWiFS Technical Report Series. This document marks a significant departure from, and improvement on, theformat and content of Mueller and Austin (1995). The authorship of the protocols has been greatly broadened to include experts specializing in some key areas. New chapters have been added to provide detailed and comprehensive protocols for stability monitoring of radiometers using portable sources, abovewater measurements of remote-sensing reflectance, spectral absorption measurements for discrete water samples, HPLC pigment analysis and fluorometric pigment analysis. Protocols were included in Mueller and Austin (1995) for each of these areas, but the new treatment makes significant advances in each topic area. There are also new chapters prescribing protocols for calibration of sun photometers and sky radiance sensors, sun photometer and sky radiance measurements and analysis, and data archival. These topic areas were barely mentioned in Mueller and Austin (1995).

  10. Satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.A.; Matthews, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    The present work is based on a conference: Natural Satellites, Colloquium 77 of the IAU, held at Cornell University from July 5 to 9, 1983. Attention is given to the background and origins of satellites, protosatellite swarms, the tectonics of icy satellites, the physical characteristics of satellite surfaces, and the interactions of planetary magnetospheres with icy satellite surfaces. Other topics include the surface composition of natural satellites, the cratering of planetary satellites, the moon, Io, and Europa. Consideration is also given to Ganymede and Callisto, the satellites of Saturn, small satellites, satellites of Uranus and Neptune, and the Pluto-Charon system

  11. Tracking and Recognition of Multiple Human Targets Moving in a Wireless Pyroelectric Infrared Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Xiong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With characteristics of low-cost and easy deployment, the distributed wireless pyroelectric infrared sensor network has attracted extensive interest, which aims to make it an alternate infrared video sensor in thermal biometric applications for tracking and identifying human targets. In these applications, effectively processing signals collected from sensors and extracting the features of different human targets has become crucial. This paper proposes the application of empirical mode decomposition and the Hilbert-Huang transform to extract features of moving human targets both in the time domain and the frequency domain. Moreover, the support vector machine is selected as the classifier. The experimental results demonstrate that by using this method the identification rates of multiple moving human targets are around 90%.

  12. The Infrared Astronomical Satellite /IRAS/ Scientific Data Analysis System /SDAS/ sky flux subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagner, J. R.; Girard, M. A.

    1980-01-01

    The sky flux subsystem of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite Scientific Data Analysis System is described. Its major output capabilities are (1) the all-sky lune maps (8-arcminute pixel size), (2) galactic plane maps (2-arcminute pixel size) and (3) regional maps of small areas such as extended sources greater than 1-degree in extent. The major processing functions are to (1) merge the CRDD and pointing data, (2) phase the detector streams, (3) compress the detector streams in the in-scan and cross-scan directions, and (4) extract data. Functional diagrams of the various capabilities of the subsystem are given. Although this device is inherently nonimaging, various calibrated and geometrically controlled imaging products are created, suitable for quantitative and qualitative scientific interpretation.

  13. Dynamic sensor tasking and IMM EKF estimation for tracking impulsively maneuvering satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lace, Arthur A.

    In order to efficiently maintain space situational awareness, care must be taken to optimally allocate expensive observation resources. In most situations the available sensors capable of tracking spacecraft have their time split between many different monitoring responsibilities. Tracking maneuvering spacecraft can be especially difficult as the schedule of maneuvers may not be known and will often throw off previous orbital models. Effectively solving this tasking problem is an ongoing focus of research in the area of space situational awareness. Most methods of automated tasking do not make use of interacting multiple model extended Kalman filter techniques to better track satellites during maneuvers. This paper proposes a modification to a Fisher information gain and estimated state covariance based sensor tasking method to take maneuver probability and multiple model dynamics into account. By incorporating the probabilistic maneuvering model, sensor tasking can be improved during satellite maneuvers using constrained resources. The proposed methods are verified through the use of numerical simulations with multiple maneuvering satellites and both orbital and ground-based sensors.

  14. MODVOLC2: A Hybrid Time Series Analysis for Detecting Thermal Anomalies Applied to Thermal Infrared Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeppen, W. C.; Wright, R.; Pilger, E.

    2009-12-01

    We developed and tested a new, automated algorithm, MODVOLC2, which analyzes thermal infrared satellite time series data to detect and quantify the excess energy radiated from thermal anomalies such as active volcanoes, fires, and gas flares. MODVOLC2 combines two previously developed algorithms, a simple point operation algorithm (MODVOLC) and a more complex time series analysis (Robust AVHRR Techniques, or RAT) to overcome the limitations of using each approach alone. MODVOLC2 has four main steps: (1) it uses the original MODVOLC algorithm to process the satellite data on a pixel-by-pixel basis and remove thermal outliers, (2) it uses the remaining data to calculate reference and variability images for each calendar month, (3) it compares the original satellite data and any newly acquired data to the reference images normalized by their variability, and it detects pixels that fall outside the envelope of normal thermal behavior, (4) it adds any pixels detected by MODVOLC to those detected in the time series analysis. Using test sites at Anatahan and Kilauea volcanoes, we show that MODVOLC2 was able to detect ~15% more thermal anomalies than using MODVOLC alone, with very few, if any, known false detections. Using gas flares from the Cantarell oil field in the Gulf of Mexico, we show that MODVOLC2 provided results that were unattainable using a time series-only approach. Some thermal anomalies (e.g., Cantarell oil field flares) are so persistent that an additional, semi-automated 12-µm correction must be applied in order to correctly estimate both the number of anomalies and the total excess radiance being emitted by them. Although all available data should be included to make the best possible reference and variability images necessary for the MODVOLC2, we estimate that at least 80 images per calendar month are required to generate relatively good statistics from which to run MODVOLC2, a condition now globally met by a decade of MODIS observations. We also found

  15. Spectralon BRDF and DHR Measurements in Support of Satellite Instruments Operating Through Shortwave Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Butler, James J.; Thome, Kurt; Cooksey, Catherine; Ding, Leibo

    2016-01-01

    Satellite instruments operating in the reflective solar wavelength region require accurate and precise determination of the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDFs) of the laboratory and flight diffusers used in their pre-flight and on-orbit calibrations. This paper advances that initial work and presents a comparison of spectral Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) and Directional Hemispherical Reflectance (DHR) of Spectralon*, a common material for laboratory and onorbit flight diffusers. A new measurement setup for BRDF measurements from 900 nm to 2500 nm located at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is described. The GSFC setup employs an extended indium gallium arsenide detector, bandpass filters, and a supercontinuum light source. Comparisons of the GSFC BRDF measurements in the ShortWave InfraRed (SWIR) with those made by the NIST Spectral Trifunction Automated Reference Reflectometer (STARR) are presented. The Spectralon sample used in this study was 2 inch diameter, 99% white pressed and sintered Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) target. The NASA/NIST BRDF comparison measurements were made at an incident angle of 0 deg and viewing angle of 45 deg. Additional BRDF data not compared to NIST were measured at additional incident and viewing angle geometries and are not presented here The total combined uncertainty for the measurement of BRDF in the SWIR range made by the GSFC scatterometer is less than 1% (k=1). This study is in support of the calibration of the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Radiation Budget Instrument (RBI) and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) of and other current and future NASA remote sensing missions operating across the reflected solar wavelength region.

  16. SensorWeb Evolution Using the Earth Observing One (EO-1) Satellite as a Test Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, Daniel; Frye, Stuart; Cappelaere, Pat; Ly, Vuong; Handy, Matthew; Chien, Steve; Grossman, Robert; Tran, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite was launched in November 2000 as a one year technology demonstration mission for a variety of space technologies. After the first year, in addition to collecting science data from its instruments, the EO-1 mission has been used as a testbed for a variety of technologies which provide various automation capabilities and which have been used as a pathfinder for the creation of SensorWebs. A SensorWeb is the integration of variety of space, airborne and ground sensors into a loosely coupled collaborative sensor system that automatically provides useful data products. Typically, a SensorWeb is comprised of heterogeneous sensors tied together with a messaging architecture and web services. This paper provides an overview of the various technologies that were tested and eventually folded into normal operations. As these technologies were folded in, the nature of operations transformed. The SensorWeb software enables easy connectivity for collaboration with sensors, but the side benefit is that it improved the EO-1 operational efficiency. This paper presents the various phases of EO-1 operation over the past 12 years and also presents operational efficiency gains demonstrated by some metrics.

  17. Time series analysis of infrared satellite data for detecting thermal anomalies: a hybrid approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeppen, W. C.; Pilger, E.; Wright, R.

    2011-07-01

    We developed and tested an automated algorithm that analyzes thermal infrared satellite time series data to detect and quantify the excess energy radiated from thermal anomalies such as active volcanoes. Our algorithm enhances the previously developed MODVOLC approach, a simple point operation, by adding a more complex time series component based on the methods of the Robust Satellite Techniques (RST) algorithm. Using test sites at Anatahan and Kīlauea volcanoes, the hybrid time series approach detected ~15% more thermal anomalies than MODVOLC with very few, if any, known false detections. We also tested gas flares in the Cantarell oil field in the Gulf of Mexico as an end-member scenario representing very persistent thermal anomalies. At Cantarell, the hybrid algorithm showed only a slight improvement, but it did identify flares that were undetected by MODVOLC. We estimate that at least 80 MODIS images for each calendar month are required to create good reference images necessary for the time series analysis of the hybrid algorithm. The improved performance of the new algorithm over MODVOLC will result in the detection of low temperature thermal anomalies that will be useful in improving our ability to document Earth's volcanic eruptions, as well as detecting low temperature thermal precursors to larger eruptions.

  18. Research on the Multiple Factors Influencing Human Identification Based on Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Ping; Hu, Jianmin

    2018-01-01

    Analysis of the multiple factors affecting human identification ability based on pyroelectric infrared technology is a complex problem. First, we examine various sensed pyroelectric waveforms of the human body thermal infrared signal and reveal a mechanism for affecting human identification. Then, we find that the mechanism is decided by the distance, human target, pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensor, the body type, human moving velocity, signal modulation mask, and Fresnel lens. The mapping relationship between the sensed waveform and multiple influencing factors is established, and a group of mathematical models are deduced which fuse the macro factors and micro factors. Finally, the experimental results show the macro-factors indirectly affect the recognition ability of human based on the pyroelectric technology. At the same time, the correctness and effectiveness of the mathematical models is also verified, which make it easier to obtain more pyroelectric infrared information about the human body for discriminating human targets. PMID:29462908

  19. Optical satellite data volcano monitoring: a multi-sensor rapid response system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Kenneth A.; Ramsey, Michael; Wessels, Rick L.; Dehn, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    of the ASTER Urgent Request Protocol (URP) for natural disaster monitoring and scientific analysis, has expanded the project to other volcanoes around the world and is in progress through 2011. The focus on ASTER data is due to the suitability of the sensor for natural disaster monitoring and the availability of data. The instrument has several unique facets that make it especially attractive for volcanic observations (Ramsey and Dehn, 2004). Specifically, ASTER routinely collects data at night, it has the ability to generate digital elevation models using stereo imaging, it can collect data in various gain states to minimize data saturation, it has a cross-track pointing capability for faster targeting, and it collects data up to ±85° latitude for better global coverage. As with any optical imaging-based remote sensing, the viewing conditions can negatively impact the data quality. This impact varies across the optical and thermal infrared wavelengths as well as being a function of the specific atmospheric window within a given wavelength region. Water vapor and cloud formation can obscure surface data in the visible and near infrared (VNIR)/shortwave infrared (SWIR) region due mainly to non-selective scattering of the incident photons. In the longer wavelengths of the thermal infrared (TIR), scattering is less of an issue, but heavy cloud cover can still obscure the ground due to atmospheric absorption. Thin clouds can be optically-transparent in the VNIR and TIR regions, but can cause errors in the extracted surface reflectance or derived surface temperatures. In regions prone to heavy cloud cover, optical remote sensing can be improved through increased temporal resolution. As more images are acquired in a given time period the chances of a clear image improve dramatically. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) routine monitoring, which commonly collects 4-6 images per day of any north Pacific volcano, takes advantage of this fact. The rapid

  20. AMA Conferences 2015. SENSOR 2015. 17th international conference on sensors and measurement technology. IRS{sup 2} 2015. 14th international conference on infrared sensors and systems. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    This meeting paper contains presentations of two conferences: SENSOR 2015 and IRS{sup 2} (= International conference on InfraRed Sensors and systems). The first part of SENSOR 2015 contains the following chapters: (A) SENSOR PRINCIPLES: A.1: Mechanical sensors; A.2: Optical sensors; A.3: Ultrasonic sensors; A.4: Microacoustic sensors; A.5: Magnetic sensors; A.6: Impedance sensors; A.7: Gas sensors; A.8: Flow sensors; A.9: Dimensional measurement; A.10: Temperature and humidity sensors; A.11: Chemosensors; A.12: Biosensors; A.13: Embedded sensors; A.14: Sensor-actuator systems; (B) SENSOR TECHNOLOGY: B.1: Sensor design; B.2: Numerical simulation of sensors; B.3: Sensor materials; B.4: MEMS technology; B.5: Micro-Nano-Integration; B.6: Packaging; B.7: Materials; B.8: Thin films; B.9: Sensor production; B.10: Sensor reliability; B.11: Calibration and testing; B.12: Optical fibre sensors. (C) SENSOR ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION: C.1: Sensor electronics; C.2: Sensor networks; C.3: Wireless sensors; C.4: Sensor communication; C.5: Energy harvesting; C.6: Measuring systems; C.7: Embedded systems; C.8: Self-monitoring and diagnosis; (D) APPLICATIONS: D.1: Medical measuring technology; D.2: Ambient assisted living; D.3: Process measuring technology; D.4: Automotive; D.5: Sensors in energy technology; D.6: Production technology; D.7: Security technology; D.8: Smart home; D.9: Household technology. The second part with the contributions of the IRS{sup 2} 2015 is structured as follows: (E) INFRARED SENSORS: E.1: Photon detectors; E.2: Thermal detectors; E.3: Cooled detectors; E.4: Uncooled detectors; E.5: Sensor modules; E.6: Sensor packaging. (G) INFRARED SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS: G.1: Thermal imaging; G.2: Pyrometry / contactless temperature measurement; G.3: Gas analysis; G.4: Spectroscopy; G.5: Motion control and presence detection; G.6: Security and safety monitoring; G.7: Non-destructive testing; F: INFRARED SYSTEM COMPONENTS: F.1: Infrared optics; F.2: Optical

  1. Uncertainty Evaluations of the CRCS In-orbit Field Radiometric Calibration Methods for Thermal Infrared Channels of FENGYUN Meteorological Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Rong, Z.; Min, M.; Hao, X.; Yang, H.

    2017-12-01

    Meteorological satellites have become an irreplaceable weather and ocean-observing tool in China. These satellites are used to monitor natural disasters and improve the efficiency of many sectors of Chinese national economy. It is impossible to ignore the space-derived data in the fields of meteorology, hydrology, and agriculture, as well as disaster monitoring in China, a large agricultural country. For this reason, China is making a sustained effort to build and enhance its meteorological observing system and application system. The first Chinese polar-orbiting weather satellite was launched in 1988. Since then China has launched 14 meteorological satellites, 7 of which are sun synchronous and 7 of which are geostationary satellites; China will continue its two types of meteorological satellite programs. In order to achieve the in-orbit absolute radiometric calibration of the operational meteorological satellites' thermal infrared channels, China radiometric calibration sites (CRCS) established a set of in-orbit field absolute radiometric calibration methods (FCM) for thermal infrared channels (TIR) and the uncertainty of this method was evaluated and analyzed based on TERRA/AQUA MODIS observations. Comparisons between the MODIS at pupil brightness temperatures (BTs) and the simulated BTs at the top of atmosphere using radiative transfer model (RTM) based on field measurements showed that the accuracy of the current in-orbit field absolute radiometric calibration methods was better than 1.00K (@300K, K=1) in thermal infrared channels. Therefore, the current CRCS field calibration method for TIR channels applied to Chinese metrological satellites was with favorable calibration accuracy: for 10.5-11.5µm channel was better than 0.75K (@300K, K=1) and for 11.5-12.5µm channel was better than 0.85K (@300K, K=1).

  2. Satellite infrared imagery for thermal plume contamination monitoring in coastal ecosystem of Cernavoda NPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, M. A.; Zoran, Liviu Florin V.; Dida, Adrian I.

    2017-10-01

    Satellite remote sensing is an important tool for spatio-temporal analysis and surveillance of NPP environment, thermal heat waste of waters being a major concern in many coastal ecosystems involving nuclear power plants. As a test case the adopted methodology was applied for 700x2 MW Cernavoda nuclear power plant (NPP) located in the South-Eastern part of Romania, which discharges warm water affecting coastal ecology. The thermal plume signatures in the NPP hydrological system have been investigated based on TIR (Thermal Infrared) spectral bands of NOAA AVHRR, Landsat TM/ETM+/OLI, and MODIS Terra/Aqua time series satellite data during 1990-2016 period. If NOAA AVHRR data proved the general pattern and extension of the thermal plume signature in Danube river and Black Sea coastal areas, Landsat TM/ETM and MODIS data used for WST (Water Surface Temperature) change detection, mapping and monitoring provided enhanced information about the plume shape, dimension and direction of dispersion in these waters. Thermal discharge from two nuclear reactors cooling is dissipated as waste heat in Danube-Black -Sea Channel and Danube River. From time-series analysis of satellite data during period 1990-2016 was found that during the winter season thermal plume was localized to an area of a few km of NPP, and the mean temperature difference between the plume and non-plume areas was about 1.7 oC. During summer and fall, derived mean temperature difference between the plume and non-plume areas was of about 1.3°C and thermal plume area was extended up to 5- 10 km far along Danube Black Sea Channel.

  3. A μ-biomimetic uncooled infrared sensor based on the infrared receptors of Melanophila acuminata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebke, Georg

    2015-11-01

    The pyrophilous beetle Melanophila acuminata possesses an organ sensitive to IR radiation. It employs a photomechanic detection principle: A liquid filled pressure chamber is heated by absorbing the radiation. The liquid expands and leads to the deflection of a mechanosensitive dendrite. In addition, a sophisticated compensation mechanism prevents the build-up of large pressures. In this work, a biomimetic IR sensor based on the IR receptors of Melanophila acuminata is developed by means of microsystems technology. The sensor consists of two liquid-filled chambers that are connected by a micro-fluidic system. Absorption of IR radiation by one of the chambers leads to the heating and expansion of a liquid. The increasing pressure deflects a membrane which is part of a plate capacitor with a diameter of 500 μm and an electrode distance of 500 nm. The micro-fluidic system and the second chamber represent a fluidic low-pass filter, preventing slow, but large pressure changes. A theoretical model is developed which is able to predict the modulation frequency dependent response. It allows to calculate the filter properties of the compensation mechanism which is verified by an experimental test. A simplified sensor without the compensation mechanism is manufactured to analyse the influence of several parameters on the sensor's sensitivity. Finally, a solution for the fabrication of the μ-capacitor is presented. The large aspect ratio between electrode diameter and distance prevents to use a standard sacrificial layer process. The obtained capacitors pave the way to fabricate the complete full-featured sensor.

  4. A μ-biomimetic uncooled infrared sensor based on the infrared receptors of Melanophila acuminata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebke, Georg

    2015-11-15

    The pyrophilous beetle Melanophila acuminata possesses an organ sensitive to IR radiation. It employs a photomechanic detection principle: A liquid filled pressure chamber is heated by absorbing the radiation. The liquid expands and leads to the deflection of a mechanosensitive dendrite. In addition, a sophisticated compensation mechanism prevents the build-up of large pressures. In this work, a biomimetic IR sensor based on the IR receptors of Melanophila acuminata is developed by means of microsystems technology. The sensor consists of two liquid-filled chambers that are connected by a micro-fluidic system. Absorption of IR radiation by one of the chambers leads to the heating and expansion of a liquid. The increasing pressure deflects a membrane which is part of a plate capacitor with a diameter of 500 μm and an electrode distance of 500 nm. The micro-fluidic system and the second chamber represent a fluidic low-pass filter, preventing slow, but large pressure changes. A theoretical model is developed which is able to predict the modulation frequency dependent response. It allows to calculate the filter properties of the compensation mechanism which is verified by an experimental test. A simplified sensor without the compensation mechanism is manufactured to analyse the influence of several parameters on the sensor's sensitivity. Finally, a solution for the fabrication of the μ-capacitor is presented. The large aspect ratio between electrode diameter and distance prevents to use a standard sacrificial layer process. The obtained capacitors pave the way to fabricate the complete full-featured sensor.

  5. Protection of High Ceiling Nuclear Facilities Using Photoelectric Sensors and Infrared Fire Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadoud, A.A.; El Eissawi, H.M.; Saleh, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    A variety of different security systems and components are commercially available and widely used. Before implementing a security system, it is important to understand the characteristics and requirements of the facility area to be protected. Technology and manufacturers of security devices are rapidly changing. It is necessary to use optimal security equipment suitable for the surrounding environment of the facility to be protected. Several security sensors can be used to protect the nuclear facilities, such as passive infrared detectors and glass breakage sensors, vibration detectors, and microwave sensors. This work introduces technical specifications, operation and method of installation for these detectors in nuclear facilities. Also a comparative study of different security sensors or equipment is provided. The photoelectric detectors and infrared fire beam smoke detectors are reliable, suitable and advanced security equipment. They can be used in special cases because of their advantages, this includes their long ranges and accuracy in performance. This paper presents a new concept for adapting the use infrared optical fire beam smoke detector as intrusion detection equipment in high ceiling buildings or towering height facilities. This is in addition to their main function, namely fire detection.The paper also provides a study for their types and installation method. Focus is made on the installation and operation method for two advanced security systems, and wireless control circuit for the overall system operation

  6. ATTIRE (analytical tools for thermal infrared engineering): A sensor simulation and modeling package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, S.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Sensor Development Laboratory (ASDL) at the Stennis Space Center develops, maintains and calibrates remote sensing instruments for the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA). To perform system design trade-offs, analysis, and establish system parameters, ASDL has developed a software package for analytical simulation of sensor systems. This package called 'Analytical Tools for Thermal InfraRed Engineering' - ATTIRE, simulates the various components of a sensor system. The software allows each subsystem of the sensor to be analyzed independently for its performance. These performance parameters are then integrated to obtain system level information such as Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), Noise Equivalent Radiance (NER), Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD) etc. This paper describes the uses of the package and the physics that were used to derive the performance parameters.

  7. Infrared sensors and sensor fusion; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, May 19-21, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buser, R.G.; Warren, F.B.

    1987-01-01

    The present conference discusses topics in the fields of IR sensor multifunctional design; image modeling, simulation, and detection; IR sensor configurations and components; thermal sensor arrays; silicide-based IR sensors; and IR focal plane array utilization. Attention is given to the fusion of lidar and FLIR for target segmentation and enhancement, the synergetic integration of thermal and visual images for computer vision, the 'Falcon Eye' FLIR system, multifunctional electrooptics and multiaperture sensors for precision-guided munitions, and AI approaches to data integration. Also discussed are the comparative performance of Ir silicide and Pt silicide photodiodes, high fill-factor silicide monolithic arrays, and the characterization of noise in staring IR focal plane arrays

  8. Observability of satellite launcher navigation with INS, GPS, attitude sensors and reference trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Yanick; Desbiens, André; Gagnon, Eric; Landry, René

    2018-01-01

    The navigation system of a satellite launcher is of paramount importance. In order to correct the trajectory of the launcher, the position, velocity and attitude must be known with the best possible precision. In this paper, the observability of four navigation solutions is investigated. The first one is the INS/GPS couple. Then, attitude reference sensors, such as magnetometers, are added to the INS/GPS solution. The authors have already demonstrated that the reference trajectory could be used to improve the navigation performance. This approach is added to the two previously mentioned navigation systems. For each navigation solution, the observability is analyzed with different sensor error models. First, sensor biases are neglected. Then, sensor biases are modelled as random walks and as first order Markov processes. The observability is tested with the rank and condition number of the observability matrix, the time evolution of the covariance matrix and sensitivity to measurement outlier tests. The covariance matrix is exploited to evaluate the correlation between states in order to detect structural unobservability problems. Finally, when an unobservable subspace is detected, the result is verified with theoretical analysis of the navigation equations. The results show that evaluating only the observability of a model does not guarantee the ability of the aiding sensors to correct the INS estimates within the mission time. The analysis of the covariance matrix time evolution could be a powerful tool to detect this situation, however in some cases, the problem is only revealed with a sensitivity to measurement outlier test. None of the tested solutions provide GPS position bias observability. For the considered mission, the modelling of the sensor biases as random walks or Markov processes gives equivalent results. Relying on the reference trajectory can improve the precision of the roll estimates. But, in the context of a satellite launcher, the roll

  9. Backthinned TDI CCD image sensor design and performance for the Pleiades high resolution Earth observation satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materne, A.; Bardoux, A.; Geoffray, H.; Tournier, T.; Kubik, P.; Morris, D.; Wallace, I.; Renard, C.

    2017-11-01

    The PLEIADES-HR Earth observing satellites, under CNES development, combine a 0.7m resolution panchromatic channel, and a multispectral channel allowing a 2.8 m resolution, in 4 spectral bands. The 2 satellites will be placed on a sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 695 km. The camera operates in push broom mode, providing images across a 20 km swath. This paper focuses on the specifications, design and performance of the TDI detectors developed by e2v technologies under CNES contract for the panchromatic channel. Design drivers, derived from the mission and satellite requirements, architecture of the sensor and measurement results for key performances of the first prototypes are presented.

  10. Signal Conditioning for the Kalman Filter: Application to Satellite Attitude Estimation with Magnetometer and Sun Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Segundo; Girón-Sierra, Jose M; Polo, Óscar R; Angulo, Manuel

    2016-10-31

    Most satellites use an on-board attitude estimation system, based on available sensors. In the case of low-cost satellites, which are of increasing interest, it is usual to use magnetometers and Sun sensors. A Kalman filter is commonly recommended for the estimation, to simultaneously exploit the information from sensors and from a mathematical model of the satellite motion. It would be also convenient to adhere to a quaternion representation. This article focuses on some problems linked to this context. The state of the system should be represented in observable form. Singularities due to alignment of measured vectors cause estimation problems. Accommodation of the Kalman filter originates convergence difficulties. The article includes a new proposal that solves these problems, not needing changes in the Kalman filter algorithm. In addition, the article includes assessment of different errors, initialization values for the Kalman filter; and considers the influence of the magnetic dipole moment perturbation, showing how to handle it as part of the Kalman filter framework.

  11. Signal Conditioning for the Kalman Filter: Application to Satellite Attitude Estimation with Magnetometer and Sun Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segundo Esteban

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Most satellites use an on-board attitude estimation system, based on available sensors. In the case of low-cost satellites, which are of increasing interest, it is usual to use magnetometers and Sun sensors. A Kalman filter is commonly recommended for the estimation, to simultaneously exploit the information from sensors and from a mathematical model of the satellite motion. It would be also convenient to adhere to a quaternion representation. This article focuses on some problems linked to this context. The state of the system should be represented in observable form. Singularities due to alignment of measured vectors cause estimation problems. Accommodation of the Kalman filter originates convergence difficulties. The article includes a new proposal that solves these problems, not needing changes in the Kalman filter algorithm. In addition, the article includes assessment of different errors, initialization values for the Kalman filter; and considers the influence of the magnetic dipole moment perturbation, showing how to handle it as part of the Kalman filter framework.

  12. Evaluation Of Spatial Filters For Background Suppression In Infrared Mosaic Sensor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, T. L.; Mazaika, P. K.

    1982-12-01

    Spaceborne infrared mosaic sensors have been proposed for future surveillance systems. Because these systems will generate a large volume of data, background suppression will require algorithms which use innovative architectures and minimal storage. This paper analyzes the implementation and performance of candidate temporal and spatial filters. Spatial filters are attractive because they require far less memory, can effectively exploit a parallel, pipelined architecture, and are relatively insensitive to target speed. However, the performance of spatial filtering is substantially worse than that of temporal filtering when the sensor has good line-of-sight stability.

  13. Poster abstract: A machine learning approach for vehicle classification using passive infrared and ultrasonic sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Warriach, Ehsan Ullah

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the implementation of four different machine learning techniques for vehicle classification in a dual ultrasonic/passive infrared traffic flow sensors. Using k-NN, Naive Bayes, SVM and KNN-SVM algorithms, we show that KNN-SVM significantly outperforms other algorithms in terms of classification accuracy. We also show that some of these algorithms could run in real time on the prototype system. Copyright © 2013 ACM.

  14. Expansion of Smartwatch Touch Interface from Touchscreen to Around Device Interface Using Infrared Line Image Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Soo-Chul; Shin, Jungsoon; Kim, Seung-Chan; Park, Joonah

    2015-01-01

    Touchscreen interaction has become a fundamental means of controlling mobile phones and smartwatches. However, the small form factor of a smartwatch limits the available interactive surface area. To overcome this limitation, we propose the expansion of the touch region of the screen to the back of the user’s hand. We developed a touch module for sensing the touched finger position on the back of the hand using infrared (IR) line image sensors, based on the calibrated IR intensity and the maxi...

  15. Detection, Emission Estimation and Risk Prediction of Forest Fires in China Using Satellite Sensors and Simulation Models in the Past Three Decades—An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Liu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires have major impact on ecosystems and greatly impact the amount of greenhouse gases and aerosols in the atmosphere. This paper presents an overview in the forest fire detection, emission estimation, and fire risk prediction in China using satellite imagery, climate data, and various simulation models over the past three decades. Since the 1980s, remotely-sensed data acquired by many satellites, such as NOAA/AVHRR, FY-series, MODIS, CBERS, and ENVISAT, have been widely utilized for detecting forest fire hot spots and burned areas in China. Some developed algorithms have been utilized for detecting the forest fire hot spots at a sub-pixel level. With respect to modeling the forest burning emission, a remote sensing data-driven Net Primary productivity (NPP estimation model was developed for estimating forest biomass and fuel. In order to improve the forest fire risk modeling in China, real-time meteorological data, such as surface temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction,have been used as the model input for improving prediction of forest fire occurrence and its behavior. Shortwave infrared (SWIR and near infrared (NIR channels of satellite sensors have been employed for detecting live fuel moisture content (FMC, and the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI was used for evaluating the forest vegetation condition and its moisture status.

  16. Detection, emission estimation and risk prediction of forest fires in China using satellite sensors and simulation models in the past three decades--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Hua; Yao, Feng-Mei; Liu, Cheng; Yang, Li-Min; Boken, Vijendra K

    2011-08-01

    Forest fires have major impact on ecosystems and greatly impact the amount of greenhouse gases and aerosols in the atmosphere. This paper presents an overview in the forest fire detection, emission estimation, and fire risk prediction in China using satellite imagery, climate data, and various simulation models over the past three decades. Since the 1980s, remotely-sensed data acquired by many satellites, such as NOAA/AVHRR, FY-series, MODIS, CBERS, and ENVISAT, have been widely utilized for detecting forest fire hot spots and burned areas in China. Some developed algorithms have been utilized for detecting the forest fire hot spots at a sub-pixel level. With respect to modeling the forest burning emission, a remote sensing data-driven Net Primary productivity (NPP) estimation model was developed for estimating forest biomass and fuel. In order to improve the forest fire risk modeling in China, real-time meteorological data, such as surface temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, have been used as the model input for improving prediction of forest fire occurrence and its behavior. Shortwave infrared (SWIR) and near infrared (NIR) channels of satellite sensors have been employed for detecting live fuel moisture content (FMC), and the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) was used for evaluating the forest vegetation condition and its moisture status.

  17. Detection, Emission Estimation and Risk Prediction of Forest Fires in China Using Satellite Sensors and Simulation Models in the Past Three Decades—An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Hua; Yao, Feng-Mei; Liu, Cheng; Yang, Li-Min; Boken, Vijendra K.

    2011-01-01

    Forest fires have major impact on ecosystems and greatly impact the amount of greenhouse gases and aerosols in the atmosphere. This paper presents an overview in the forest fire detection, emission estimation, and fire risk prediction in China using satellite imagery, climate data, and various simulation models over the past three decades. Since the 1980s, remotely-sensed data acquired by many satellites, such as NOAA/AVHRR, FY-series, MODIS, CBERS, and ENVISAT, have been widely utilized for detecting forest fire hot spots and burned areas in China. Some developed algorithms have been utilized for detecting the forest fire hot spots at a sub-pixel level. With respect to modeling the forest burning emission, a remote sensing data-driven Net Primary productivity (NPP) estimation model was developed for estimating forest biomass and fuel. In order to improve the forest fire risk modeling in China, real-time meteorological data, such as surface temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, have been used as the model input for improving prediction of forest fire occurrence and its behavior. Shortwave infrared (SWIR) and near infrared (NIR) channels of satellite sensors have been employed for detecting live fuel moisture content (FMC), and the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) was used for evaluating the forest vegetation condition and its moisture status. PMID:21909297

  18. Feasibility study for Japanese Air Quality Mission from Geostationary Satellite: Infrared Imaging Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagi, K.; Kasai, Y.; Philippe, B.; Suzuki, K.; Kita, K.; Hayashida, S.; Imasu, R.; Akimoto, H.

    2009-12-01

    A Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellite is potentially able to monitor the regional distribution of pollution with good spatial and temporal resolution. The Japan Society of Atmospheric Chemistry (JSAC) and the Japanese Space Exploration Agency (JAXA) initiated a concept study for air quality measurements from a GEO satellite targeting the Asian region [1]. This work presents the results of sensitivity studies for a Thermal Infrared (TIR) (650-2300cm-1) candidate instrument. We performed a simulation study and error analysis to optimize the instrumental operating frequencies and spectral resolution. The scientific requirements, in terms of minimum precision (or error) values, are 10% for tropospheric O3 and CO and total column of HN3 and nighttime HNO2 and 25% for O3 and CO with separating 2 or 3 column in troposphere. Two atmospheric scenarios, one is Asian background, second is polluted case, were assumed for this study. The forward calculations and the retrieval error analysis were performed with the AMATERASU model [2] developed within the NICT-THz remote sensing project. Retrieval error analysis employed the Optimal Estimation Method [3]. The geometry is off-nadir observation on Tokyo from the geostationary satellite at equator. Fine spectral resolution will allow to observe boundary layer O3 and CO. We estimate the observation precision in the spectral resolution from 0.1cm-1 to 1cm-1 for 0-2km, 2-6km, and 6-12km. A spectral resolution of 0.3 cm-1 gives good sensitivity for all target molecules (e.g. tropospheric O3 can be detected separated 2 column with error 30%). A resolution of 0.6 cm-1 is sufficient to detect tropospheric column amount of O3 and CO (in the Asian background scenario), which is within the required precision and with acceptable instrumental SNR values of 100 for O3 and 30 for CO. However, with this resolution, the boundary layer ozone will be difficult to detect in the background abundance. In addition, a spectral resolution of 0.6 cm

  19. Atmospheric influences on infrared-laser signals used for occultation measurements between Low Earth Orbit satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schweitzer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available LEO-LEO infrared-laser occultation (LIO is a new occultation technique between Low Earth Orbit (LEO satellites, which applies signals in the short wave infrared spectral range (SWIR within 2 μm to 2.5 μm. It is part of the LEO-LEO microwave and infrared-laser occultation (LMIO method that enables to retrieve thermodynamic profiles (pressure, temperature, humidity and altitude levels from microwave signals and profiles of greenhouse gases and further variables such as line-of-sight wind speed from simultaneously measured LIO signals. Due to the novelty of the LMIO method, detailed knowledge of atmospheric influences on LIO signals and of their suitability for accurate trace species retrieval did not yet exist. Here we discuss these influences, assessing effects from refraction, trace species absorption, aerosol extinction and Rayleigh scattering in detail, and addressing clouds, turbulence, wind, scattered solar radiation and terrestrial thermal radiation as well. We show that the influence of refractive defocusing, foreign species absorption, aerosols and turbulence is observable, but can be rendered small to negligible by use of the differential transmission principle with a close frequency spacing of LIO absorption and reference signals within 0.5%. The influences of Rayleigh scattering and terrestrial thermal radiation are found negligible. Cloud-scattered solar radiation can be observable under bright-day conditions, but this influence can be made negligible by a close time spacing (within 5 ms of interleaved laser-pulse and background signals. Cloud extinction loss generally blocks SWIR signals, except very thin or sub-visible cirrus clouds, which can be addressed by retrieving a cloud layering profile and exploiting it in the trace species retrieval. Wind can have a small influence on the trace species absorption, which can be made negligible by using a simultaneously retrieved or a moderately accurate background wind speed profile. We

  20. Estimating the marine signal in the near infrared for atmospheric correction of satellite ocean-color imagery over turbid waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdet, Alice; Frouin, Robert J.

    2014-11-01

    The classic atmospheric correction algorithm, routinely applied to second-generation ocean-color sensors such as SeaWiFS, MODIS, and MERIS, consists of (i) estimating the aerosol reflectance in the red and near infrared (NIR) where the ocean is considered black (i.e., totally absorbing), and (ii) extrapolating the estimated aerosol reflectance to shorter wavelengths. The marine reflectance is then retrieved by subtraction. Variants and improvements have been made over the years to deal with non-null reflectance in the red and near infrared, a general situation in estuaries and the coastal zone, but the solutions proposed so far still suffer some limitations, due to uncertainties in marine reflectance modeling in the near infrared or difficulty to extrapolate the aerosol signal to the blue when using observations in the shortwave infrared (SWIR), a spectral range far from the ocean-color wavelengths. To estimate the marine signal (i.e., the product of marine reflectance and atmospheric transmittance) in the near infrared, the proposed approach is to decompose the aerosol reflectance in the near infrared to shortwave infrared into principal components. Since aerosol scattering is smooth spectrally, a few components are generally sufficient to represent the perturbing signal, i.e., the aerosol reflectance in the near infrared can be determined from measurements in the shortwave infrared where the ocean is black. This gives access to the marine signal in the near infrared, which can then be used in the classic atmospheric correction algorithm. The methodology is evaluated theoretically from simulations of the top-of-atmosphere reflectance for a wide range of geophysical conditions and angular geometries and applied to actual MODIS imagery acquired over the Gulf of Mexico. The number of discarded pixels is reduced by over 80% using the PC modeling to determine the marine signal in the near infrared prior to applying the classic atmospheric correction algorithm.

  1. Non-Dispersive Infrared Sensor for Online Condition Monitoring of Gearbox Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus S. Rauscher

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The condition of lubricating oil used in automotive and industrial gearboxes must be controlled in order to guarantee optimum performance and prevent damage to machinery parts. In normal practice, this is done by regular oil change intervals and routine laboratory analysis, both of which involve considerable operating costs. In this paper, we present a compact and robust optical sensor that can be installed in the lubrication circuit to provide quasi-continuous information about the condition of the oil. The measuring principle is based on non-dispersive infrared spectroscopy. The implemented sensor setup consists of an optical measurement cell, two thin-film infrared emitters, and two four-channel pyroelectric detectors equipped with optical bandpass filters. We present a method based on multivariate partial least squares regression to select appropriate optical bandpass filters for monitoring the oxidation, water content, and acid number of the oil. We perform a ray tracing analysis to analyze and correct the influence of the light path in the optical setup on the optical parameters of the bandpass filters. The measurement values acquired with the sensor for three different gearbox oil types show high correlation with laboratory reference data for the oxidation, water content, and acid number. The presented sensor can thus be a useful supplementary tool for the online condition monitoring of lubricants when integrated into a gearbox oil circuit.

  2. Use of Real Time Satellite Infrared and Ocean Color to Produce Ocean Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffer, M. A.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Westhaver, D.; Gawlikowski, G.; Upton, M.; Hall, C.

    2014-12-01

    Real-time data products derived from infrared and ocean color satellites are useful for several types of users around the world. Highly relevant applications include recreational and commercial fisheries, commercial towing vessel and other maritime and navigation operations, and other scientific and applied marine research. Uses of the data include developing sampling strategies for research programs, tracking of water masses and ocean fronts, optimizing ship routes, evaluating water quality conditions (coastal, estuarine, oceanic), and developing fisheries and essential fish habitat indices. Important considerations for users are data access and delivery mechanisms, and data formats. At this time, the data are being generated in formats increasingly available on mobile computing platforms, and are delivered through popular interfaces including social media (Facebook, Linkedin, Twitter and others), Google Earth and other online Geographical Information Systems, or are simply distributed via subscription by email. We review 30 years of applications and describe how we develop customized products and delivery mechanisms working directly with users. We review benefits and issues of access to government databases (NOAA, NASA, ESA), standard data products, and the conversion to tailored products for our users. We discuss advantages of different product formats and of the platforms used to display and to manipulate the data.

  3. Objective estimation of tropical cyclone innercore surface wind structure using infrared satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changjiang; Dai, Lijie; Ma, Leiming; Qian, Jinfang; Yang, Bo

    2017-10-01

    An objective technique is presented for estimating tropical cyclone (TC) innercore two-dimensional (2-D) surface wind field structure using infrared satellite imagery and machine learning. For a TC with eye, the eye contour is first segmented by a geodesic active contour model, based on which the eye circumference is obtained as the TC eye size. A mathematical model is then established between the eye size and the radius of maximum wind obtained from the past official TC report to derive the 2-D surface wind field within the TC eye. Meanwhile, the composite information about the latitude of TC center, surface maximum wind speed, TC age, and critical wind radii of 34- and 50-kt winds can be combined to build another mathematical model for deriving the innercore wind structure. After that, least squares support vector machine (LSSVM), radial basis function neural network (RBFNN), and linear regression are introduced, respectively, in the two mathematical models, which are then tested with sensitivity experiments on real TC cases. Verification shows that the innercore 2-D surface wind field structure estimated by LSSVM is better than that of RBFNN and linear regression.

  4. Mapping global precipitation with satellite borne microwave radiometer and infrared radiometer using Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, S.; Sasashige, K.; Katagami, D.; Ushio, T.; Kubota, T.; Okamoto, K.; Iida, Y.; Kida, S.; Shige, S.; Shimomura, S.; Aonashi, K.; Inoue, T.; Morimoto, T.; Kawasaki, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Estimates of precipitation at a high time and space resolution are required for many important applications. In this paper, a new global precipitation map with high spatial (0.1 degree) and temporal (1 hour) resolution using Kalman filter technique is presented and evaluated. Infrared radiometer data, which are available globally nearly everywhere and nearly all the time from geostationary orbit, are used with the several microwave radiometers aboard the LEO satellites. IR data is used as a means to move the precipitation estimates from microwave observation during periods when microwave data are not available at a given location. Moving vector is produced by computing correlations on successive images of IR data. When precipitation is moved, the Kalman filter is applied for improving the moving technique in this research. The new approach showed a better score than the technique without Kalman filter. The correlation coefficient was 0.1 better than without the Kalman filter about 6 hours after the last microwave overpasses, and the RMS error was improved about 0.1 mm/h with the Kalman filter technique. This approach is unique in that 1) the precipitation estimates from the microwave radiometer is mainly used, 2) the IR temperature in every hour is also used for the precipitation estimates based on the Kalman filter theory

  5. Assimilation of Real-Time Satellite And Human Sensor Networks for Modeling Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulov, O.; Halem, M.; Lary, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    We describe the development of underlying technologies needed to address the merging of a web of real time satellite sensor Web (SSW) and Human Sensor Web (HSW) needed to augment the US response to extreme events. As an initial prototyping step and use case scenario, we consider the development of two major system tools that can be transitioned from research to the responding operational agency for mitigating coastal oil spills. These tools consist of the capture of Situation Aware (SA) Social Media (SM) Data, and assimilation of the processed information into forecasting models to provide incident decision managers with interactive virtual spatial temporal animations superimposed with probabilistic data estimates. The system methodologies are equally applicable to the wider class of extreme events such as plume dispersions from volcanoes or massive fires, major floods, hurricane impacts, radioactive isotope dispersions from nuclear accidents, etc. A successful feasibility demonstration of this technology has been shown in the case of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill where Human Sensor Networks have been combined with a geophysical model to perform parameter assessments. Flickr images of beached oil were mined from the spill area, geolocated and timestamped and converted into geophysical data. This data was incorporated into General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment (GNOME), a Lagrangian forecast model that uses near real-time surface winds, ocean currents, and satellite shape profiles of oil to generate a forecast of plume movement. As a result, improved estimates of diffusive coefficients and rates of oil spill were determined. Current approaches for providing satellite derived oil distributions are collected from a satellite sensor web of operational and research sensors from many countries, and a manual analysis is performed by NESDIS. A real time SA HSW processing system based on geolocated SM data from sources such as Twitter, Flickr, YouTube etc., greatly

  6. Synergistic Use of Thermal Infrared Field and Satellite Data: Eruption Detection, Monitoring and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The ASTER-based observational success of active volcanic processes early in the Terra mission later gave rise to a funded NASA program designed to both increase the number of ASTER scenes following an eruption and perform the ground-based science needed to validate that data. The urgent request protocol (URP) system for ASTER grew out of this initial study and has now operated in conjunction with and the support of the Alaska Volcano Observatory, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the University of Hawaii, the USGS Land Processes DAAC, and the ASTER science team. The University of Pittsburgh oversees this rapid response/sensor-web system, which until 2011 had focused solely on the active volcanoes in the North Pacific region. Since that time, it has been expanded to operate globally with AVHRR and MODIS and now ASTER visible and thermal infrared (TIR) data are being acquired at numerous active volcanoes around the world. This program relies on the increased temporal resolution of AVHRR/MODIS midwave infrared data to trigger the next available ASTER observation, which results in ASTER data as frequently as every 2-5 days. For many new targets such as Mt. Etna, the URP has increased the observational frequency by as much 50%. Examples of these datasets will be presented, which have been used for operational response to new eruptions as well as longer-term scientific studies. These studies include emplacement of new lava flows, detection of endogenous dome growth, and interpretation of hazardous dome collapse events. As a means to validate the ASTER TIR data and capture higher-resolution images, a new ground-based sensor has recently been developed that consists of standard FLIR camera modified with wavelength filters similar to the ASTER bands. Data from this instrument have been acquired of the lava lake at Kilauea and reveal differences in emissivity between molten and cooled surfaces confirming prior laboratory results and providing important constraints on lava

  7. Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    underlying physics. There are now at least six different disciplines that deal with infrared radiation in one form or another, and in one or several different spectral portions of the whole IR range. These are spectroscopy, astronomy, thermal imaging, detector and source development and metrology, as well the field of optical data transmission. Scientists working in these fields range from chemists and astronomers through to physicists and even photographers. This issue presents examples from some of these fields. All the papers—though some of them deal with fundamental or applied research—include interesting elements that make them directly applicable to university-level teaching at the graduate or postgraduate level. Source (e.g. quantum cascade lasers) and detector development (e.g. multispectral sensors), as well as metrology issues and optical data transmission, are omitted since they belong to fundamental research journals. Using a more-or-less arbitrary order according to wavelength range, the issue starts with a paper on the physics of near-infrared photography using consumer product cameras in the spectral range from 800 nm to 1.1 µm [1]. It is followed by a series of three papers dealing with IR imaging in spectral ranges from 3 to 14 µm [2-4]. One of them deals with laboratory courses that may help to characterize the IR camera response [2], the second discusses potential applications for nondestructive testing techniques [3] and the third gives an example of how IR thermal imaging may be used to understand cloud cover of the Earth [4], which is the prerequisite for successful climate modelling. The next two papers cover the vast field of IR spectroscopy [5, 6]. The first of these deals with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the spectral range from 2.5 to 25 µm, studying e.g. ro-vibrational excitations in gases or optical phonon interactions within solids [5]. The second deals mostly with the spectroscopy of liquids such as biofuels and special

  8. Land use change detection based on multi-date imagery from different satellite sensor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stow, Douglas A.; Collins, Doretta; Mckinsey, David

    1990-01-01

    An empirical study is conducted to assess the accuracy of land use change detection using satellite image data acquired ten years apart by sensors with differing spatial resolutions. The primary goals of the investigation were to (1) compare standard change detection methods applied to image data of varying spatial resolution, (2) assess whether to transform the raster grid of the higher resolution image data to that of the lower resolution raster grid or vice versa in the registration process, (3) determine if Landsat/Thermatic Mapper or SPOT/High Resolution Visible multispectral data provide more accurate detection of land use changes when registered to historical Landsat/MSS data. It is concluded that image ratioing of multisensor, multidate satellite data produced higher change detection accuracies than did principal components analysis, and that it is useful as a land use change enhancement method.

  9. Design of a temperature control system using incremental PID algorithm for a special homemade shortwave infrared spatial remote sensor based on FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhipeng; Wei, Jun; Li, Jianwei; Zhou, Qianting

    2010-11-01

    An image spectrometer of a spatial remote sensing satellite requires shortwave band range from 2.1μm to 3μm which is one of the most important bands in remote sensing. We designed an infrared sub-system of the image spectrometer using a homemade 640x1 InGaAs shortwave infrared sensor working on FPA system which requires high uniformity and low level of dark current. The working temperature should be -15+/-0.2 Degree Celsius. This paper studies the model of noise for focal plane array (FPA) system, investigated the relationship with temperature and dark current noise, and adopts Incremental PID algorithm to generate PWM wave in order to control the temperature of the sensor. There are four modules compose of the FPGA module design. All of the modules are coded by VHDL and implemented in FPGA device APA300. Experiment shows the intelligent temperature control system succeeds in controlling the temperature of the sensor.

  10. The 2010 Eyja eruption evolution by using IR satellite sensors measurements: retrieval comparison and insights into explosive volcanic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscini, A.; Corradini, S.; Merucci, L.; Scollo, S.

    2010-12-01

    The 2010 April-May Eyja eruption caused an unprecedented disruption to economic, political and cultural activities in Europe and across the world. Because of the harming effects of fine ash particles on aircrafts, many European airports were in fact closed causing millions of passengers to be stranded, and with a worldwide airline industry loss estimated of about 2.5 billion Euros. Both security and economical issues require robust and affordable volcanic cloud retrievals that may be really improved through the intercomparison among different remote sensing instruments. In this work the Thermal InfraRed (TIR) measurements of different polar and geostationary satellites instruments as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the Spin Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI), have been used to retrieve the volcanic ash and SO2 in the entire eruption period over Iceland. The ash retrievals (mass, AOD and effective radius) have been carried out by means of the split window BTD technique using the channels centered around 11 and 12 micron. The least square fit procedure is used for the SO2 retrieval by using the 7.3 and 8.7 micron channels. The simulated TOA radiance Look-Up Table (LUT) needed for both the ash and SO2 column abundance retrievals have been computed using the MODTRAN 4 Radiative Transfer Model. Further, the volcanic plume column altitude and ash density have been computed and compared, when available, with ground observations. The results coming from the retrieval of different IR sensors show a good agreement over the entire eruption period. The column height, the volcanic ash and the SO2 emission trend confirm the indentified different phases occurred during the Eyja eruption. We remark that the retrieved volcanic plume evolution can give important insights into eruptive dynamics during long-lived explosive activity.

  11. Leaf Chlorophyll Content Estimation of Winter Wheat Based on Visible and Near-Infrared Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Han, Wenting; Huang, Lvwen; Zhang, Zhiyong; Ma, Yimian; Hu, Yamin

    2016-03-25

    The leaf chlorophyll content is one of the most important factors for the growth of winter wheat. Visual and near-infrared sensors are a quick and non-destructive testing technology for the estimation of crop leaf chlorophyll content. In this paper, a new approach is developed for leaf chlorophyll content estimation of winter wheat based on visible and near-infrared sensors. First, the sliding window smoothing (SWS) was integrated with the multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) or the standard normal variable transformation (SNV) to preprocess the reflectance spectra images of wheat leaves. Then, a model for the relationship between the leaf relative chlorophyll content and the reflectance spectra was developed using the partial least squares (PLS) and the back propagation neural network. A total of 300 samples from areas surrounding Yangling, China, were used for the experimental studies. The samples of visible and near-infrared spectroscopy at the wavelength of 450,900 nm were preprocessed using SWS, MSC and SNV. The experimental results indicate that the preprocessing using SWS and SNV and then modeling using PLS can achieve the most accurate estimation, with the correlation coefficient at 0.8492 and the root mean square error at 1.7216. Thus, the proposed approach can be widely used for winter wheat chlorophyll content analysis.

  12. Thin-Film Quantum Dot Photodiode for Monolithic Infrared Image Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Pawel E; Georgitzikis, Epimitheas; Maes, Jorick; Vamvaka, Ioanna; Frazzica, Fortunato; Van Olmen, Jan; De Moor, Piet; Heremans, Paul; Hens, Zeger; Cheyns, David

    2017-12-10

    Imaging in the infrared wavelength range has been fundamental in scientific, military and surveillance applications. Currently, it is a crucial enabler of new industries such as autonomous mobility (for obstacle detection), augmented reality (for eye tracking) and biometrics. Ubiquitous deployment of infrared cameras (on a scale similar to visible cameras) is however prevented by high manufacturing cost and low resolution related to the need of using image sensors based on flip-chip hybridization. One way to enable monolithic integration is by replacing expensive, small-scale III-V-based detector chips with narrow bandgap thin-films compatible with 8- and 12-inch full-wafer processing. This work describes a CMOS-compatible pixel stack based on lead sulfide quantum dots (PbS QD) with tunable absorption peak. Photodiode with a 150-nm thick absorber in an inverted architecture shows dark current of 10 -6 A/cm² at -2 V reverse bias and EQE above 20% at 1440 nm wavelength. Optical modeling for top illumination architecture can improve the contact transparency to 70%. Additional cooling (193 K) can improve the sensitivity to 60 dB. This stack can be integrated on a CMOS ROIC, enabling order-of-magnitude cost reduction for infrared sensors.

  13. GHRSST Level 2P Global Sea Surface Temperature from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi NPP satellite (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Visible and Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a multi-disciplinary instrument that is being flown on the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) series of...

  14. Ultra-Trace Chemical Sensing with Long-Wave Infrared Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopic Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taubman, Matthew S.; Myers, Tanya L.; Cannon, Bret D.; Williams, Richard M.; Schultz, John F.

    2003-02-20

    The infrared sensors task of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL's) Remote Spectroscopy Project (Task B of Project PL211) is focused on the science and technology of remote and in-situ spectroscopic chemical sensors for detecting proliferation and coun-tering terrorism. Missions to be addressed by remote chemical sensor development in-clude detecting proliferation of nuclear or chemical weapons, and providing warning of terrorist use of chemical weapons. Missions to be addressed by in-situ chemical sensor development include countering terrorism by screening luggage, personnel, and shipping containers for explosives, firearms, narcotics, chemical weapons, or chemical weapons residues, and mapping contaminated areas. The science and technology is also relevant to chemical weapons defense, air operations support, monitoring emissions from chemi-cal weapons destruction or industrial activities, law enforcement, medical diagnostics, and other applications. Sensors for most of these missions will require extreme chemical sensitivity and selectiv-ity because the signature chemicals of importance are expected to be present in low con-centrations or have low vapor pressures, and the ambient air is likely to contain pollutants or other chemicals with interfering spectra. Cavity-enhanced chemical sensors (CES) that draw air samples into optical cavities for laser-based interrogation of their chemical content promise real-time, in-situ chemical detection with extreme sensitivity to specified target molecules and superb immunity to spectral interference and other sources of noise. PNNL is developing CES based on quantum cascade (QC) lasers that operate in the mid-wave infrared (MWIR - 3 to 5 microns) and long-wave infrared (LWIR - 8 to 14 mi-crons), and CES based on telecommunications lasers operating in the short-wave infrared (SWIR - 1 to 2 microns). All three spectral regions are promising because smaller mo-lecular absorption cross sections in the SWIR

  15. Observational Constraints on Cloud Feedbacks: The Role of Active Satellite Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winker, David; Chepfer, Helene; Noel, Vincent; Cai, Xia

    2017-11-01

    Cloud profiling from active lidar and radar in the A-train satellite constellation has significantly advanced our understanding of clouds and their role in the climate system. Nevertheless, the response of clouds to a warming climate remains one of the largest uncertainties in predicting climate change and for the development of adaptions to change. Both observation of long-term changes and observational constraints on the processes responsible for those changes are necessary. We review recent progress in our understanding of the cloud feedback problem. Capabilities and advantages of active sensors for observing clouds are discussed, along with the importance of active sensors for deriving constraints on cloud feedbacks as an essential component of a global climate observing system.

  16. An Ensemble Successive Project Algorithm for Liquor Detection Using Near Infrared Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Fangfang; Ren, Dong; Wang, Jihua; Zhang, Zhong; Lu, Na; Meng, Lei

    2016-01-11

    Spectral analysis technique based on near infrared (NIR) sensor is a powerful tool for complex information processing and high precision recognition, and it has been widely applied to quality analysis and online inspection of agricultural products. This paper proposes a new method to address the instability of small sample sizes in the successive projections algorithm (SPA) as well as the lack of association between selected variables and the analyte. The proposed method is an evaluated bootstrap ensemble SPA method (EBSPA) based on a variable evaluation index (EI) for variable selection, and is applied to the quantitative prediction of alcohol concentrations in liquor using NIR sensor. In the experiment, the proposed EBSPA with three kinds of modeling methods are established to test their performance. In addition, the proposed EBSPA combined with partial least square is compared with other state-of-the-art variable selection methods. The results show that the proposed method can solve the defects of SPA and it has the best generalization performance and stability. Furthermore, the physical meaning of the selected variables from the near infrared sensor data is clear, which can effectively reduce the variables and improve their prediction accuracy.

  17. An Ensemble Successive Project Algorithm for Liquor Detection Using Near Infrared Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Qu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectral analysis technique based on near infrared (NIR sensor is a powerful tool for complex information processing and high precision recognition, and it has been widely applied to quality analysis and online inspection of agricultural products. This paper proposes a new method to address the instability of small sample sizes in the successive projections algorithm (SPA as well as the lack of association between selected variables and the analyte. The proposed method is an evaluated bootstrap ensemble SPA method (EBSPA based on a variable evaluation index (EI for variable selection, and is applied to the quantitative prediction of alcohol concentrations in liquor using NIR sensor. In the experiment, the proposed EBSPA with three kinds of modeling methods are established to test their performance. In addition, the proposed EBSPA combined with partial least square is compared with other state-of-the-art variable selection methods. The results show that the proposed method can solve the defects of SPA and it has the best generalization performance and stability. Furthermore, the physical meaning of the selected variables from the near infrared sensor data is clear, which can effectively reduce the variables and improve their prediction accuracy.

  18. Incorporating Satellite Precipitation Estimates into a Radar-Gauge Multi-Sensor Precipitation Estimation Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiang He

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new and enhanced fusion module for the Multi-Sensor Precipitation Estimator (MPE that would objectively blend real-time satellite quantitative precipitation estimates (SQPE with radar and gauge estimates. This module consists of a preprocessor that mitigates systematic bias in SQPE, and a two-way blending routine that statistically fuses adjusted SQPE with radar estimates. The preprocessor not only corrects systematic bias in SQPE, but also improves the spatial distribution of precipitation based on SQPE and makes it closely resemble that of radar-based observations. It uses a more sophisticated radar-satellite merging technique to blend preprocessed datasets, and provides a better overall QPE product. The performance of the new satellite-radar-gauge blending module is assessed using independent rain gauge data over a five-year period between 2003–2007, and the assessment evaluates the accuracy of newly developed satellite-radar-gauge (SRG blended products versus that of radar-gauge products (which represents MPE algorithm currently used in the NWS (National Weather Service operations over two regions: (I Inside radar effective coverage and (II immediately outside radar coverage. The outcomes of the evaluation indicate (a ingest of SQPE over areas within effective radar coverage improve the quality of QPE by mitigating the errors in radar estimates in region I; and (b blending of radar, gauge, and satellite estimates over region II leads to reduction of errors relative to bias-corrected SQPE. In addition, the new module alleviates the discontinuities along the boundaries of radar effective coverage otherwise seen when SQPE is used directly to fill the areas outside of effective radar coverage.

  19. Elimination of ghost markers during dual sensor-based infrared tracking of multiple individual reflective markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroian, G.; Falco, T.; Seuntjens, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    The accuracy of dose delivery in radiotherapy is affected by the uncertainty in tumor localization. Motion of internal anatomy due to physiological processes such as respiration may lead to significant displacements which compromise tumor coverage and generate irradiation of healthy tissue. Real-time tracking with infrared-based systems is often used for tracking thoracic motion in radiation therapy. We studied the origin of ghost markers ('crosstalk') which may appear during dual sensor-based infrared tracking of independent reflective markers. Ghost markers occur when two or more reflective markers are coplanar with each other and with the sensors of the two camera-based infrared tracking system. Analysis shows that sensors are not points but they have a finite extent and this extent determines for each marker a 'ghost volume'. If one reflective marker enters the ghost volume of another marker, ghost markers will be reported by the tracking system; if the reflective markers belong to a surface their 'ghost volume' is reduced to a 'ghost surface' (ghost zone). Appearance of ghost markers is predicted for markers taped on the torso of an anthropomorphic phantom. This study illustrates the dependence of the shape, extent, and location of the ghost zones on the shape of the anthropomorphic phantom, the angle of view of the tracking system, and the distance between the tracking system and the anthropomorphic phantom. It is concluded that the appearance of ghost markers can be avoided by positioning the markers outside the ghost zones of the other markers. However, if this is not possible and the initial marker configuration is ghost marker-free, ghost markers can be eliminated during real-time tracking by virtue of the fact that they appear in the coordinate data sequence only temporarily

  20. Adaptive Gain and Analog Wavelet Transform for Low-Power Infrared Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Villard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A decorrelation and analog-to-digital conversion scheme aiming to reduce the power consumption of infrared image sensors is presented in this paper. To exploit both intraframe redundancy and inherent photon shot noise characteristics, a column based 1D Haar analog wavelet transform combined with variable gain amplification prior to A/D conversion is used. This allows to use only an 11-bit ADC, instead of a 13-bit one, and to save 15% of data transfer. An 8×16 pixels test circuit demonstrates this functionality.

  1. Impedance measurements on a fast transition-edge sensor for optical and near-infrared range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taralli, E; Portesi, C; Lolli, L; Monticone, E; Rajteri, M; Novikov, I; Beyer, J

    2010-01-01

    Impedance measurements of superconducting transition-edge sensors (TESs) are a powerful tool to obtain information about the TES thermal and electrical properties. We apply this technique to a 20 μm x 20 μm Ti/Au TES, suitable for application in the optical and near-infrared range, and extend the measurements up to 250 kHz in order to obtain a complete frequency response in the complex plane. From these measurements we obtain important thermal and electrical device parameters such as heat capacity C, thermal conductance G and effective thermal time constant τ eff that will be compared with the corresponding values obtained from noise measurements.

  2. Recent advances of mid-infrared compact, field deployable sensors: principles and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittel, Frank; Gluszek, Aleksander; Hudzikowski, Arkadiusz; Dong, Lei; Li, Chunguang; Patimisco, Pietro; Sampaolo, Angelo; Spagnolo, Vincenzo; Wojtas, Jacek

    2016-04-01

    The recent development of compact interband cascade lasers(ICLs) and quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) based trace gas sensors will permit the targeting of strong fundamental rotational-vibrational transitions in the mid-infrared which are one to two orders of magnitude more intense than transitions in the overtone and combination bands in the near-infrared. This has led to the design and fabrication of mid-infrared compact, field deployable sensors for use in the petrochemical industry, environmental monitoring and atmospheric chemistry. Specifically, the spectroscopic detection and monitoring of four molecular species, methane (CH4) [1], ethane (C2H6), formaldehyde (H2CO) [2] and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) [3] will be described. CH4, C2H6 and H2CO can be detected using two detection techniques: mid-infrared tunable laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) using a compact multi-pass gas cell and quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS). Both techniques utilize state-of-the-art mid-IR, continuous wave (CW), distributed feedback (DFB) ICLs and QCLs. TDLAS was performed with an ultra-compact 54.6m effective optical path length innovative spherical multipass gas cell capable of 435 passes between two concave mirrors separated by 12.5 cm. QEPAS used a small robust absorption detection module (ADM) which consists of a quartz tuning fork (QTF), two optical windows, gas inlet/outlet ports and a low noise frequency pre-amplifier. Wavelength modulation and second harmonic detection were employed for spectral data processing. TDLAS and QEPAS can achieve minimum detectable absorption losses in the range from 10-8 to 10-11cm-1/Hz1/2. Several recent examples of real world applications of field deployable gas sensors will be described. For example, an ICL based TDLAS sensor system is capable of detecting CH4 and C2H6 concentration levels of 1 ppb in a 1 sec. sampling time, using an ultra-compact, robust sensor architecture. H2S detection was realized with a THz QEPAS sensor

  3. Performance Evaluation of an Indoor Positioning Scheme Using Infrared Motion Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqiang Jing

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things (IoT for Smart Environments (SE is a new scenario that collects useful information and provides convenient services to humans via sensing and wireless communications. Infra-Red (IR motion sensors have recently been widely used for indoor lighting because they allow the system to detect whether a human is inside or outside the sensors’ range. In this paper, the performance of a position estimation scheme based on IR motion sensor is evaluated in an indoor SE. The experimental results show that we can track the dynamic position of a pedestrian in straight moving model as well as two dimensional models. Experimental results also show that higher performance in accuracy and dynamic tracking in real indoor environment can be achieved without other devices.

  4. Self Powered Non-Dispersive Infra-Red CO{sub 2} Gas Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, D R; MacGregor, C, E-mail: des@gassensing.co.uk [Gas Sensing Solutions Ltd, 60 Grayshill Road, Westfield North Courtyard, Glasgow G68 9HQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-17

    This paper describes a non-dispersive infra-red CO{sub 2} gas sensor, incorporating a mid-infra-red solid state light source/ detector combination, tuned to match the spectral absorption characteristic of CO{sub 2} gas. Injection moulded optics provide low cost manufacture. Continuous operation power consumption is < 3.5mW and pulsed mode with energy per measurement < 6mJ. Self powered operation using a solar cell is demonstrated together with wireless capability. Performance of two path length variants (20mm and 70mm) is described. The sensor shows invariant temperature output characteristic from -25 to 50 deg. C. Accuracy level is typically {+-}3% of reading.

  5. Maritime Aerosol Network optical depth measurements and comparison with satellite retrievals from various different sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Alexander; Petrenko, Maksym; Ichoku, Charles; Holben, Brent N.

    2017-10-01

    The paper reports on the current status of the Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN) which is a component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). A public domain web-based data archive dedicated to MAN activity can be found at https://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/new_web/maritime_aerosol_network.html . Since 2006 over 450 cruises were completed and the data archive consists of more than 6000 measurement days. In this work, we present MAN observations collocated with MODIS Terra, MODIS Aqua, MISR, POLDER, SeaWIFS, OMI, and CALIOP spaceborne aerosol products using a modified version of the Multi-Sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS) framework. Because of different spatio-temporal characteristics of the analyzed products, the number of MAN data points collocated with spaceborne retrievals varied between 1500 matchups for MODIS to 39 for CALIOP (as of August 2016). Despite these unavoidable sampling biases, latitudinal dependencies of AOD differences for all satellite sensors, except for SeaWIFS and POLDER, showed positive biases against ground truth (i.e. MAN) in the southern latitudes (<50° S), and substantial scatter in the Northern Atlantic "dust belt" (5°-15° N). Our analysis did not intend to determine whether satellite retrievals are within claimed uncertainty boundaries, but rather show where bias exists and corrections are needed.

  6. Thermal effects of an ICL-based mid-infrared CH4 sensor within a wide atmospheric temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Weilin; Zheng, Chuantao; Sanchez, Nancy P.; Girija, Aswathy V.; He, Qixin; Zheng, Huadan; Griffin, Robert J.; Tittel, Frank K.

    2018-03-01

    The thermal effects of an interband cascade laser (ICL) based mid-infrared methane (CH4) sensor that uses long-path absorption spectroscopy were studied. The sensor performance in the laboratory at a constant temperature of ∼25 °C was measured for 5 h and its Allan deviation was ∼2 ppbv with a 1 s averaging time. A LabVIEW-based simulation program was developed to study thermal effects on infrared absorption and a temperature compensation technique was developed to minimize these effects. An environmental test chamber was employed to investigate the thermal effects that occur in the sensor system with variation of the test chamber temperature between 10 and 30 °C. The thermal response of the sensor in a laboratory setting was observed using a 2.1 ppm CH4 standard gas sample. Indoor/outdoor CH4 measurements were conducted to evaluate the sensor performance within a wide atmospheric temperature range.

  7. Commercial Non-Dispersive Infrared Spectroscopy Sensors for Sub-Ambient Carbon Dioxide Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly S.; McMillin, Summer; Broerman, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide produced through respiration can accumulate rapidly within closed spaces. If not managed, a crew's respiratory rate increases, headaches and hyperventilation occur, vision and hearing are affected, and cognitive abilities decrease. Consequently, development continues on a number of CO2 removal technologies for human spacecraft and spacesuits. Terrestrially, technology development requires precise performance characterization to qualify promising air revitalization equipment. On-orbit, instrumentation is required to identify and eliminate unsafe conditions. This necessitates accurate in situ CO2 detection. Recursive compensation algorithms were developed for sub-ambient detection of CO2 with commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) sensors. In addition, the source of the exponential loss in accuracy is developed theoretically. The basis of the loss can be explained through thermal, Doppler, and Lorentz broadening effects that arise as a result of the temperature, pressure, and composition of the gas mixture under analysis. The objective was to develop a mathematical routine to compensate COTS CO2 sensors relying on NDIR over pressures, temperatures, and compositions far from calibration conditions. The routine relies on a power-law relationship for the pressure dependency of the sensors along with an equivalent pressure to account for the composition dependency. A Newton-Raphson iterative technique solves for actual carbon dioxide concentration based on the reported concentration. Moreover, first principles routines were established to predict mixed-gas spectra based on sensor specifications (e.g., optical path length). The first principles model can be used to parametrically optimize sensors or sensor arrays across a wide variety of pressures/temperatures/ compositions. In this work, heuristic scaling arguments were utilized to develop reasonable compensation techniques. Experimental results confirmed this approach and provided

  8. Determination of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in Water Using Highly Sensitive Mid-Infrared Sensor Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rui; Mizaikoff, Boris; Li, Wen-Wei; Qian, Chen; Katzir, Abraham; Raichlin, Yosef; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-08-01

    Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons (CHCs) are toxic and carcinogenic contaminants commonly found in environmental samples, and efficient online detection of these contaminants is still challenging at the present stage. Here, we report an advanced Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) sensor for in-situ and simultaneous detection of multiple CHCs, including monochlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,3-dichlorobenzene, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and chloroform. The polycrystalline silver halide sensor fiber had a unique integrated planar-cylindric geometry, and was coated with an ethylene/propylene copolymer membrane to act as a solid phase extractor, which greatly amplified the analytical signal and contributed to a higher detection sensitivity compared to the previously reported sensors. This system exhibited a high detection sensitivity towards the CHCs mixture at a wide concentration range of 5~700 ppb. The FTIR-ATR sensor described in this study has a high potential to be utilized as a trace-sensitive on-line device for water contamination monitoring.

  9. Unobtrusive measurement of indoor energy expenditure using an infrared sensor-based activity monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Bosun; Han, Jonghee; Choi, Jong Min; Park, Kwang Suk

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an unobtrusive energy expenditure (EE) measurement system using an infrared (IR) sensor-based activity monitoring system to measure indoor activities and to estimate individual quantitative EE. IR-sensor activation counts were measured with a Bluetooth-based monitoring system and the standard EE was calculated using an established regression equation. Ten male subjects participated in the experiment and three different EE measurement systems (gas analyzer, accelerometer, IR sensor) were used simultaneously in order to determine the regression equation and evaluate the performance. As a standard measurement, oxygen consumption was simultaneously measured by a portable metabolic system (Metamax 3X, Cortex, Germany). A single room experiment was performed to develop a regression model of the standard EE measurement from the proposed IR sensor-based measurement system. In addition, correlation and regression analyses were done to compare the performance of the IR system with that of the Actigraph system. We determined that our proposed IR-based EE measurement system shows a similar correlation to the Actigraph system with the standard measurement system.

  10. Characterization of silicon microstrip sensors with a pulsed infrared laser system for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Pradeep [Goethe Univ., Frankfurt (Germany); GSI (Germany); Eschke, Juergen [GSI (Germany); FAIR (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The Silicon Tracking System (STS) for the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR will comprise more than 1200 double-sided silicon microstrip sensors. For the quality assurance of the prototype sensors a laser test system has been built up. The aim of the sensor scans with the pulsed infrared laser system is to determine the charge sharing between strips and to measure the uniformity of the sensor response over the whole active area. The laser system measures the sensor response in an automatized procedure at several thousand positions across the sensor with focused infrared laser light (σ∼15 μm, λ=1060 nm). The duration (5 ns) and power (few mW) of the laser pulses are selected such, that the absorption of the laser light in the 300 μm thick silicon sensors produces a number of about 24k electrons, which is similar to the charge created by minimum ionizing particles in these sensors. Results from the characterization of monolithic active pixel sensors, to understand the spot-size of the laser, and laser scans for different sensors are presented.

  11. Global, Persistent, Real-time Multi-sensor Automated Satellite Image Analysis and Crop Forecasting in Commercial Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumby, S. P.; Warren, M. S.; Keisler, R.; Chartrand, R.; Skillman, S.; Franco, E.; Kontgis, C.; Moody, D.; Kelton, T.; Mathis, M.

    2016-12-01

    Cloud computing, combined with recent advances in machine learning for computer vision, is enabling understanding of the world at a scale and at a level of space and time granularity never before feasible. Multi-decadal Earth remote sensing datasets at the petabyte scale (8×10^15 bits) are now available in commercial cloud, and new satellite constellations will generate daily global coverage at a few meters per pixel. Public and commercial satellite observations now provide a wide range of sensor modalities, from traditional visible/infrared to dual-polarity synthetic aperture radar (SAR). This provides the opportunity to build a continuously updated map of the world supporting the academic community and decision-makers in government, finanace and industry. We report on work demonstrating country-scale agricultural forecasting, and global-scale land cover/land, use mapping using a range of public and commercial satellite imagery. We describe processing over a petabyte of compressed raw data from 2.8 quadrillion pixels (2.8 petapixels) acquired by the US Landsat and MODIS programs over the past 40 years. Using commodity cloud computing resources, we convert the imagery to a calibrated, georeferenced, multiresolution tiled format suited for machine-learning analysis. We believe ours is the first application to process, in less than a day, on generally available resources, over a petabyte of scientific image data. We report on work combining this imagery with time-series SAR collected by ESA Sentinel 1. We report on work using this reprocessed dataset for experiments demonstrating country-scale food production monitoring, an indicator for famine early warning. We apply remote sensing science and machine learning algorithms to detect and classify agricultural crops and then estimate crop yields and detect threats to food security (e.g., flooding, drought). The software platform and analysis methodology also support monitoring water resources, forests and other general

  12. Estimating the top altitude of optically thick ice clouds from thermal infrared satellite observations using CALIPSO data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Patrick; Yost, Chris R.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Chen, Yan

    2008-06-01

    The difference between cloud-top altitude Z top and infrared effective radiating height Z eff for optically thick ice clouds is examined using April 2007 data taken by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) and the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). For even days, the difference ΔZ between CALIPSO Z top and MODIS Z eff is 1.58 +/- 1.26 km. The linear fit between Z top and Z eff , applied to odd-day data, yields a difference of 0.03 +/- 1.21 km and can be used to estimate Z top from any infrared-based Z eff for thick ice clouds. Random errors appear to be due primarily to variations in cloud ice-water content (IWC). Radiative transfer calculations show that ΔZ corresponds to an optical depth of ~1, which based on observed ice-particle sizes yields an average cloud-top IWC of ~0.015 gm-3, a value consistent with in situ measurements. The analysis indicates potential for deriving cloud-top IWC using dual-satellite data.

  13. Development of a superconducting position sensor for the Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavier, Odile Helene

    The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP) is a joint NASA/ESA mission that proposes to measure the differential acceleration of two cylindrical test masses orbiting the earth in a drag-free satellite to a precision of 10-18 g. Such an experiment would conceptually reproduce Galileo's tower of Pisa experiment with a much longer time of fall and greatly reduced disturbances. The superconducting test masses are constrained in all degrees of freedom except their axial direction (the sensitive axis) using superconducting bearings. The STEP accelerometer measures the differential position of the masses in their sensitive direction using superconducting inductive pickup coils coupled to an extremely sensitive magnetometer called a DC-SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device). Position sensor development involves the design, manufacture and calibration of pickup coils that will meet the acceleration sensitivity requirement. Acceleration sensitivity depends on both the displacement sensitivity and stiffness of the position sensor. The stiffness must kept small while maintaining stability of the accelerometer. Using a model for the inductance of the pickup coils versus displacement of the test masses, a computer simulation calculates the sensitivity and stiffness of the accelerometer in its axial direction. This simulation produced a design of pickup coils for the four STEP accelerometers. Manufacture of the pickup coils involves standard photolithography techniques modified for superconducting thin-films. A single-turn pickup coil was manufactured and produced a successful superconducting coil using thin-film Niobium. A low-temperature apparatus was developed with a precision position sensor to measure the displacement of a superconducting plate (acting as a mock test mass) facing the coil. The position sensor was designed to detect five degrees of freedom so that coupling could be taken into account when measuring the translation of the plate

  14. Flow-through Fourier transform infrared sensor for total hydrocarbons determination in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Palacios, David; Armenta, Sergio; Lendl, Bernhard

    2009-09-01

    A new flow-through Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) sensor for oil in water analysis based on solid-phase spectroscopy on octadecyl (C18) silica particles has been developed. The C18 non-polar sorbent is placed inside the sensor and is able to retain hydrocarbons from water samples. The system does not require the use of chlorinated solvents, reducing the environmental impact, and the minimal sample handling stages serve to ensure sample integrity whilst reducing exposure of the analyst to any toxic hydrocarbons present within the samples. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra were recorded by co-adding 32 scans at a resolution of 4 cm(-1) and the band located at 1462 cm(-1) due to the CH(2) bending was integrated from 1475 to 1450 cm(-1) using a baseline correction established between 1485 and 1440 cm(-1) using the areas as analytical signal. The technique, which provides a limit of detection (LOD) of 22 mg L(-1) and a precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 5%, is considerably rapid and allows for a high level of automation.

  15. Research on Method of Photoelectric Measurement for Tilt Angle of Scanning Mirror of Infrared Earth Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, X P; Zhang, G Y; Zhang, N; Wang, L Y [Changchun University of Science and Technology, 130022, Changchun (China)

    2006-10-15

    Tilt angle of scanning mirror is one of the important qualifications of performance measurement on the earth surface for swing scanning mode infrared the earth sensor. In order to settle the problem of measuring the tilt angle of scanning mirror in dynamic, real-time and non-contact, based on laser inspecting technology and CCD probing technology, a method of laser dynamical measurement for tilt angle of scanning mirror of the infrared earth sensor is presented. The measurement system developed in this paper can accomplish the dynamic and static laser non-contact measurement for the parameters of scanning mirror such as tilt angle, swing frequency, etc. In this paper the composition and overall structure of system are introduced. Emphasis on analyzing and discussing the theory of dynamically measuring tilt angle of scanning mirror, the problems of data processing and error correction are settled by established mathematic model of system. The accuracy of measurement system is verified by experiment, the results indicated that measurement range of system for tilt angle is 0{approx}{+-}12{sup 0}, accuracy of dynamic and static measurement is less than {+-}0.05{sup 0}, this method of dynamically measuring tilt angle is suitable.

  16. Infrared Range Sensor Array for 3D Sensing in Robotic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongtae Do

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and testing of multiple infrared range detectors arranged in a two-dimensional (2D array. The proposed system can collect the sparse three-dimensional (3D data of objects and surroundings for robotics applications. Three kinds of tasks are considered using the system: detecting obstacles that lie ahead of a mobile robot, sensing the ground profile for the safe navigation of a mobile robot, and sensing the shape and position of an object on a conveyor belt for pickup by a robot manipulator. The developed system is potentially a simple alternative to high-resolution (and expensive 3D sensing systems, such as stereo cameras or laser scanners. In addition, the system can provide shape information about target objects and surroundings that cannot be obtained using simple ultrasonic sensors. Laboratory prototypes of the system were built with nine infrared range sensors arranged in a 3×3 array and test results confirmed the validity of system.

  17. Advancing satellite-based solar power forecasting through integration of infrared channels for automatic detection of coastal marine inversion layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostylev, Vladimir; Kostylev, Andrey; Carter, Chris; Mahoney, Chad; Pavlovski, Alexandre; Daye, Tony [Green Power Labs Inc., Dartmouth, NS (Canada); Cormier, Dallas Eugene; Fotland, Lena [San Diego Gas and Electric Co., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The marine atmospheric boundary layer is a layer or cool, moist maritime air with the thickness of a few thousand feet immediately below a temperature inversion. In coastal areas as moist air rises from the ocean surface, it becomes trapped and is often compressed into fog above which a layer of stratus clouds often forms. This phenomenon is common for satellite-based solar radiation monitoring and forecasting. Hour ahead satellite-based solar radiation forecasts are commonly using visible spectrum satellite images, from which it is difficult to automatically differentiate low stratus clouds and fog from high altitude clouds. This provides a challenge for cloud motion tyracking and cloud cover forecasting. San Diego Gas and Electric {sup registered} (SDG and E {sup registered}) Marine Layer Project was undertaken to obtain information for integration with PV forecasts, and to develop a detailed understanding of long-term benefits from forecasting Marine Layer (ML) events and their effects on PV production. In order to establish climatological ML patterns, spatial extent and distribution of marine layer, we analyzed visible and IR spectrum satellite images (GOES WEST) archive for the period of eleven years (2000 - 2010). Historical boundaries of marine layers impact were established based on the cross-classification of visible spectrum (VIS) and infrared (IR) images. This approach is successfully used by us and elsewhere for evaluating cloud albedo in common satellite-based techniques for solar radiation monitoring and forecasting. The approach allows differentiation of cloud cover and helps distinguish low laying fog which is the main consequence of marine layer formation. ML occurrence probability and maximum extent inland was established for each hour and day of the analyzed period and seasonal/patterns were described. SDG and E service area is the most affected region by ML events with highest extent and probability of ML occurrence. Influence of ML was the

  18. Infrared Thermography Sensor for Temperature and Speed Measurement of Moving Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usamentiaga, Rubén; García, Daniel Fernando

    2017-05-18

    Infrared thermography offers significant advantages in monitoring the temperature of objects over time, but crucial aspects need to be addressed. Movements between the infrared camera and the inspected material seriously affect the accuracy of the calculated temperature. These movements can be the consequence of solid objects that are moved, molten metal poured, material on a conveyor belt, or just vibrations. This work proposes a solution for monitoring the temperature of material in these scenarios. In this work both real movements and vibrations are treated equally, proposing a unified solution for both problems. The three key steps of the proposed procedure are image rectification, motion estimation and motion compensation. Image rectification calculates a front-parallel projection of the image that simplifies the estimation and compensation of the movement. Motion estimation describes the movement using a mathematical model, and estimates the coefficients using robust methods adapted to infrared images. Motion is finally compensated for in order to produce the correct temperature time history of the monitored material regardless of the movement. The result is a robust sensor for temperature of moving material that can also be used to measure the speed of the material. Different experiments are carried out to validate the proposed method in laboratory and real environments. Results show excellent performance.

  19. Dispersive infrared spectroscopy measurements of atmospheric CO2 using a Fabry–Pérot interferometer sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.L.; Ning, Z.; Westerdahl, D.; Wong, K.C.; Sun, Y.W.; Hartl, A.; Wenig, M.O.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present the first dispersive infrared spectroscopic (DIRS) measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) using a new scanning Fabry–Pérot interferometer (FPI) sensor. The sensor measures the optical spectra in the mid infrared (3900 nm to 5220 nm) wavelength range with full width half maximum (FWHM) spectral resolution of 78.8 nm at the CO 2 absorption band (∼ 4280 nm) and sampling resolution of 20 nm. The CO 2 concentration is determined from the measured optical absorption spectra by fitting it to the CO 2 reference spectrum. Interference from other major absorbers in the same wavelength range, e.g., carbon monoxide (CO) and water vapor (H 2 O), was taken out by including their reference spectra in the fit as well. The detailed descriptions of the instrumental setup, the retrieval procedure, a modeling study for error analysis as well as laboratory validation using standard gas concentrations are presented. An iterative algorithm to account for the non-linear response of the fit function to the absorption cross sections due to the broad instrument function was developed and tested. A modeling study of the retrieval algorithm showed that errors due to instrument noise can be considerably reduced by using the dispersive spectral information in the retrieval. The mean measurement error of the prototype DIRS CO 2 measurement for 1 minute averaged data is about ± 2.5 ppmv, and down to ± 0.8 ppmv for 10 minute averaged data. A field test of atmospheric CO 2 measurements were carried out in an urban site in Hong Kong for a month and compared to a commercial non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) CO 2 analyzer. 10 minute averaged data shows good agreement between the DIRS and NDIR measurements with Pearson correlation coefficient (R) of 0.99. This new method offers an alternative approach of atmospheric CO 2 measurement featuring high accuracy, correction of non-linear absorption and interference of water vapor. - Highlights: • Dispersive infrared

  20. Remote sensing of height of a fog layer and temperature of fog droplets using infrared thermometer and meteorological satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, K.; Abe, H.

    1998-01-01

    To study meteorological characteristics of cool foggy easterly (Yamase), by which rice production in the Tohoku region was frequently damaged, we measured temperature of the fog layer resulted from Yamase, using infrared thermal indicator and meteorological satellite (HIMAWARI). These temperature data were compared with wet-bulb and dry-bulb temperatures obtained by a ventilated psychrometer. Generally, the temperature of fog droplets estimated from infrared thermal indicator was higher than the wet-bulb temperature by about 0∼1°C. This result indicates clearly that fog droplets were cooled by evaporation on the droplet surface. Under the conditions that the fog layer is homogeneous in liquid water content and fog droplet size distribution, the height of the fog layer can be estimated by the observation of visibility and relative solar radiation flux. (author)

  1. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Nuristan mineral district in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.; Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Nuristan mineral district, which has gem, lithium, and cesium deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2008,2009), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS

  2. Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for each of the 24 mineral project areas (referred to herein as areas of interest), whose locality names, locations, and main mineral occurrences are shown on the index map of Afghanistan (fig. 1). ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420-500 nanometer, nm), green (520-600 nm), red (610-690 nm), and near-infrared (760-890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520-770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA

  3. Comparison of vehicle-mounted forward-looking polarimetric infrared and downward-looking infrared sensors for landmine detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, F.; Schavemaker, J.G.M.; Jong, W. de; Schutte, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives a comparison of two vehicle-mounted infrared systems for landmine detection. The first system is a down-ward looking standard infrared camera using processing methods developed within the EU project LOTUS. The second system is using a forward-looking polarimetric infrared camera.

  4. Design of a nano-satellite demonstrator of an infrared imaging space interferometer: the HyperCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohlen, Kjetil; Vives, Sébastien; Rakotonimbahy, Eddy; Sarkar, Tanmoy; Tasnim Ava, Tanzila; Baccichet, Nicola; Savini, Giorgio; Swinyard, Bruce

    2014-07-01

    The construction of a kilometer-baseline far infrared imaging interferometer is one of the big instrumental challenges for astronomical instrumentation in the coming decades. Recent proposals such as FIRI, SPIRIT, and PFI illustrate both science cases, from exo-planetary science to study of interstellar media and cosmology, and ideas for construction of such instruments, both in space and on the ground. An interesting option for an imaging multi-aperture interferometer with km baseline is the space-based hyper telescope (HT) where a giant, sparsely populated primary mirror is constituted of several free-flying satellites each carrying a mirror segment. All the segments point the same object and direct their part of the pupil towards a common focus where another satellite, containing recombiner optics and a detector unit, is located. In Labeyrie's [1] original HT concept, perfect phasing of all the segments was assumed, allowing snap-shot imaging within a reduced field of view and coronagraphic extinction of the star. However, for a general purpose observatory, image reconstruction using closure phase a posteriori image reconstruction is possible as long as the pupil is fully non-redundant. Such reconstruction allows for much reduced alignment tolerances, since optical path length control is only required to within several tens of wavelengths, rather than within a fraction of a wavelength. In this paper we present preliminary studies for such an instrument and plans for building a miniature version to be flown on a nano satellite. A design for recombiner optics is proposed, including a scheme for exit pupil re-organization, is proposed, indicating the focal plane satellite in the case of a km-baseline interferometer could be contained within a 1m3 unit. Different options for realization of a miniature version are presented, including instruments for solar observations in the visible and the thermal infrared and giant planet observations in the visible, and an

  5. Privacy-Preserved Behavior Analysis and Fall Detection by an Infrared Ceiling Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mineichi Kudo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An infrared ceiling sensor network system is reported in this study to realize behavior analysis and fall detection of a single person in the home environment. The sensors output multiple binary sequences from which we know the existence/non-existence of persons under the sensors. The short duration averages of the binary responses are shown to be able to be regarded as pixel values of a top-view camera, but more advantageous in the sense of preserving privacy. Using the “pixel values” as features, support vector machine classifiers succeeded in recognizing eight activities (walking, reading, etc. performed by five subjects at an average recognition rate of 80.65%. In addition, we proposed a martingale framework for detecting falls in this system. The experimental results showed that we attained the best performance of 95.14% (F1 value, the FAR of 7.5% and the FRR of 2.0%. This accuracy is not sufficient in general but surprisingly high with such low-level information. In summary, it is shown that this system has the potential to be used in the home environment to provide personalized services and to detect abnormalities of elders who live alone.

  6. Evolution of miniature detectors and focal plane arrays for infrared sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Louis A.

    1993-06-01

    Sensors that are sensitive in the infrared spectral region have been under continuous development since the WW2 era. A quest for the military advantage of 'seeing in the dark' has pushed thermal imaging technology toward high spatial and temporal resolution for night vision equipment, fire control, search track, and seeker 'homing' guidance sensing devices. Similarly, scientific applications have pushed spectral resolution for chemical analysis, remote sensing of earth resources, and astronomical exploration applications. As a result of these developments, focal plane arrays (FPA) are now available with sufficient sensitivity for both high spatial and narrow bandwidth spectral resolution imaging over large fields of view. Such devices combined with emerging opto-electronic developments in integrated FPA data processing techniques can yield miniature sensors capable of imaging reflected sunlight in the near IR and emitted thermal energy in the Mid-wave (MWIR) and longwave (LWIR) IR spectral regions. Robotic space sensors equipped with advanced versions of these FPA's will provide high resolution 'pictures' of their surroundings, perform remote analysis of solid, liquid, and gas matter, or selectively look for 'signatures' of specific objects. Evolutionary trends and projections of future low power micro detector FPA developments for day/night operation or use in adverse viewing conditions are presented in the following test.

  7. Results of agriclimatological studies using multiple satellite sensors like NOAA AVHRR; GMS IR and LANDSAT MSS and TM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, A.M.

    1990-08-01

    Bangladesh Space Research and Remote Sensing Organization (SPARRSO) routinely receives NOAA and GMS imagery and uses them in agrometeorological monitoring, it also uses LANDSAT MSS and TM data for this purpose. Analysis of multiple satellite sensor data shows advantages for high resolution sensors. However, in the ease of crop monitoring, a good correlation has been obtained between results obtained with NOAA AVHRR and LANDSAT MSS for vegetation index. Crop estimation has been made using all kinds of sensors and it has been found that higher resolution data always give more accurate results. (author). 3 refs

  8. Use of the Earth Observing One (EO-1) Satellite for the Namibia SensorWeb Flood Early Warning Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, Daniel; Frye, Stuart; Cappelaere, Pat; Handy, Matthew; Policelli, Fritz; Katjizeu, McCloud; Van Langenhove, Guido; Aube, Guy; Saulnier, Jean-Francois; Sohlberg, Rob; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite was launched in November 2000 as a one year technology demonstration mission for a variety of space technologies. After the first year, it was used as a pathfinder for the creation of SensorWebs. A SensorWeb is the integration of variety of space, airborne and ground sensors into a loosely coupled collaborative sensor system that automatically provides useful data products. Typically, a SensorWeb is comprised of heterogeneous sensors tied together with a messaging architecture and web services. Disasters are the perfect arena to use SensorWebs. One SensorWeb pilot project that has been active since 2009 is the Namibia Early Flood Warning SensorWeb pilot project. The Pilot Project was established under the auspices of the Namibian Ministry of Agriculture Water and Forestry (MAWF)/Department of Water Affairs, the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS)/Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) and moderated by the United Nations Platform for Space-based Information for Disaster Management and Emergency Response (UN-SPIDER). The effort began by identifying and prototyping technologies which enabled the rapid gathering and dissemination of both space-based and ground sensor data and data products for the purpose of flood disaster management and water-borne disease management. This was followed by an international collaboration to build small portions of the identified system which was prototyped during that past few years during the flood seasons which occurred in the February through May timeframe of 2010 and 2011 with further prototyping to occur in 2012. The SensorWeb system features EO-1 data along with other data sets from such satellites as Radarsat, Terra and Aqua. Finally, the SensorWeb team also began to examine the socioeconomic component to determine the impact of the SensorWeb technology and how best to assist in the infusion of this technology in lesser affluent areas with low levels of basic

  9. Sol-gel based mid-infrared evanescent wave sensors for detection of organophosphate pesticides in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janotta, Markus; Karlowatz, Manfred; Vogt, Frank; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2003-10-31

    This work demonstrates the application of organically modified sol-gels as recognition layers combined with mid-infrared evanescent wave sensors for in situ detection of nitrated organics in aqueous media. Sol-gels were prepared by acid-catalyzed copolymerization of phenyltrimethoxysilane (PTMOS) and tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and were spin-coated onto ZnSe attenuated total reflection (ATR) waveguides. These sensors were investigated with respect to their enrichment properties of selected organophosphates, i.e. parathion, fenitrothion and paraoxon, respectively, and their capability of suppressing interfering water background absorptions. Figures of merit are derived from calibration curves determined to assess sensitivity and reproducibility of the applied sensor system. It can be concluded that sol-gel coated infrared optical sensors enable reproducible detection of organophosphates down to the sub-ppm concentration range. Furthermore, measurement of spiked river water samples demonstrates feasibility as remote field sensor system. Once the required sensitivity is achieved, sol-gel based mid-infrared evanescent wave sensors have the potential of being an alternative to commonly applied biosensors for detection of organophosphates in environmental analysis, since they provide superior mechanical and chemical stability during application relevant periods of time.

  10. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the North Bamyan mineral district in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the North Bamyan mineral district, which has copper deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2006,2007, 2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such

  11. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Ahankashan mineral district in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Ahankashan mineral district, which has copper and gold deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2007,2008, 2009, 2010),but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this

  12. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the South Bamyan mineral district in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the South Bamyan mineral district, which has areas with a spectral reflectance anomaly that require field investigation. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2006,2007, 2008),but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that

  13. TIRCIS: A Thermal Infrared, Compact Imaging Spectrometer for Small Satellite Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will demonstrate how hyperspectral thermal infrared (TIR; 8-14 microns) image data, with a spectral resolution of up to 8 wavenumbers, can be acquired...

  14. A mid-infrared laser absorption sensor for carbon monoxide and temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderover, Jeremy

    A mid-infrared (mid-IR) absorption sensor based on quantum cascade laser (QCL) technology has been developed and demonstrated for high-temperature thermometry and carbon monoxide (CO) measurements in combustion environments. The sensor probes the high-intensity fundamental CO ro-vibrational band at 4.6 mum enabling sensitive measurement of CO and temperature at kHz acquisition rates. Because the sensor operates in the mid-IR CO fundamental band it is several orders of magnitude more sensitive than most of the previously developed CO combustion sensors which utilized absorption in the near-IR overtone bands and mature traditional telecommunications-based diode lasers. The sensor has been demonstrated and validated under operation in both scanned-wavelength absorption and wavelength-modulation spectroscopy (WMS) modes in room-temperature gas cell and high-temperature shock tube experiments with known and specified gas conditions. The sensor has also been demonstrated for CO and temperature measurements in an atmospheric premixed ethylene/air McKenna burner flat flame for a range of equivalence ratios (phi = 0.7-1.4). Demonstration of the sensor under scanned-wavelength direct absorption operation was performed in a room-temperature gas cell (297 K and 0.001-1 atm) allowing validation of the line strengths and line shapes predicted by the HITRAN 2004 spectroscopic database. Application of the sensor in scanned-wavelength mode, at 1-2 kHz acquisition bandwidths, to specified high-temperature shock-heated gases (950-3400 K, 1 atm) provided validation of the sensor for measurements under the high-temperature conditions found in combustion devices. The scanned-wavelength shock tube measurements yielded temperature determinations that deviated by only +/-1.2% (1-sigma deviation) with the reflected shock temperatures and CO mole fraction determinations that deviated by that specified CO mole fraction by only +/-1.5% (1-sigma deviation). These deviations are in fact smaller

  15. Forecasting Global Horizontal Irradiance Using the LETKF and a Combination of Advected Satellite Images and Sparse Ground Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harty, T. M.; Lorenzo, A.; Holmgren, W.; Morzfeld, M.

    2017-12-01

    The irradiance incident on a solar panel is the main factor in determining the power output of that panel. For this reason, accurate global horizontal irradiance (GHI) estimates and forecasts are critical when determining the optimal location for a solar power plant, forecasting utility scale solar power production, or forecasting distributed, behind the meter rooftop solar power production. Satellite images provide a basis for producing the GHI estimates needed to undertake these objectives. The focus of this work is to combine satellite derived GHI estimates with ground sensor measurements and an advection model. The idea is to use accurate but sparsely distributed ground sensors to improve satellite derived GHI estimates which can cover large areas (the size of a city or a region of the United States). We use a Bayesian framework to perform the data assimilation, which enables us to produce irradiance forecasts and associated uncertainties which incorporate both satellite and ground sensor data. Within this framework, we utilize satellite images taken from the GOES-15 geostationary satellite (available every 15-30 minutes) as well as ground data taken from irradiance sensors and rooftop solar arrays (available every 5 minutes). The advection model, driven by wind forecasts from a numerical weather model, simulates cloud motion between measurements. We use the Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) to perform the data assimilation. We present preliminary results towards making such a system useful in an operational context. We explain how localization and inflation in the LETKF, perturbations of wind-fields, and random perturbations of the advection model, affect the accuracy of our estimates and forecasts. We present experiments showing the accuracy of our forecasted GHI over forecast-horizons of 15 mins to 1 hr. The limitations of our approach and future improvements are also discussed.

  16. Global Sea Surface Temperature: A Harmonized Multi-sensor Time-series from Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the methods used to obtain a new global sea surface temperature (SST) dataset spanning the early 1980s to the present, intended for use as a climate data record (CDR). The dataset provides skin SST (the fundamental measurement) and an estimate of the daily mean SST at depths compatible with drifting buoys (adjusting for skin and diurnal variability). The depth SST provided enables the CDR to be used with in situ records and centennial-scale SST reconstructions. The new SST timeseries is as independent as possible from in situ observations, and from 1995 onwards is harmonized to an independent satellite reference (namely, SSTs from the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (Advanced ATSR)). This maximizes the utility of our new estimates of variability and long-term trends in interrogating previous datasets tied to in situ observations. The new SSTs include full resolution (swath, level 2) data, single-sensor gridded data (level 3, 0.05 degree latitude-longitude grid) and a multi-sensor optimal analysis (level 4, same grid). All product levels are consistent. All SSTs have validated uncertainty estimates attached. The sensors used include all Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers from NOAA-6 onwards and the ATSR series. AVHRR brightness temperatures (BTs) are calculated from counts using a new in-flight re-calibration for each sensor, ultimately linked through to the AATSR BT calibration by a new harmonization technique. Artefacts in AVHRR BTs linked to varying instrument temperature, orbital regime and solar contamination are significantly reduced. These improvements in the AVHRR BTs (level 1) translate into improved cloud detection and SST (level 2). For cloud detection, we use a Bayesian approach for all sensors. For the ATSRs, SSTs are derived with sufficient accuracy and sensitivity using dual-view coefficients. This is not the case for single-view AVHRR observations, for which a physically based retrieval is employed, using a hybrid

  17. GEONEX: Land monitoring from a new generation of geostationary satellite sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemani, R. R.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, W.; Ganguly, S.; Wang, Y.; Michaelis, A.; Hashimoto, H.; Li, S.; Higuchi, A.; Huete, A. R.; Yeom, J. M.; camacho De Coca, F.; Lee, T. J.; Takenaka, H.

    2017-12-01

    The latest generation of geostationary satellites carry sensors such as ABI (Advanced Baseline Imager on GOES-16) and the AHI (Advanced Himawari Imager on Himawari) that closely mimic the spatial and spectral characteristics of Earth Observing System flagship MODIS for monitoring land surface conditions. More importantly they provide observations at 5-15 minute intervals. Such high frequency data offer exciting possibilities for producing robust estimates of land surface conditions by overcoming cloud cover, enabling studies of diurnally varying local-to-regional biosphere-atmosphere interactions, and operational decision-making in agriculture, forestry and disaster management. But the data come with challenges that need special attention. For instance, geostationary data feature changing sun angle at constant view for each pixel, which is reciprocal to sun-synchronous observations, and thus require careful adaptation of EOS algorithms. Our goal is to produce a set of land surface products from geostationary sensors by leveraging NASA's investments in EOS algorithms and in the data/compute facility NEX. The land surface variables of interest include atmospherically corrected surface reflectances, snow cover, vegetation indices and leaf area index (LAI)/fraction of photosynthetically absorbed radiation (FPAR), as well as land surface temperature and fires. In order to get ready to produce operational products over the US from GOES-16 starting 2018, we have utilized 18 months of data from Himawari AHI over Australia to test the production pipeline and the performance of various algorithms for our initial tests. The end-to-end processing pipeline consists of a suite of modules to (a) perform calibration and automatic georeference correction of the AHI L1b data, (b) adopt the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm to produce surface spectral reflectances along with compositing schemes and QA, and (c) modify relevant EOS retrieval

  18. GEONEX: Land Monitoring From a New Generation of Geostationary Satellite Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemani, Ramakrishna; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Weile; Wang, Yujie; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Li, Shuang; Ganguly, Sangram; Michaelis, Andrew; Higuchi, Atsushi; Takaneka, Hideaki; hide

    2017-01-01

    The latest generation of geostationary satellites carry sensors such as ABI (Advanced Baseline Imager on GOES-16) and the AHI (Advanced Himawari Imager on Himawari) that closely mimic the spatial and spectral characteristics of Earth Observing System flagship MODIS for monitoring land surface conditions. More importantly they provide observations at 5-15 minute intervals. Such high frequency data offer exciting possibilities for producing robust estimates of land surface conditions by overcoming cloud cover, enabling studies of diurnally varying local-to-regional biosphere-atmosphere interactions, and operational decision-making in agriculture, forestry and disaster management. But the data come with challenges that need special attention. For instance, geostationary data feature changing sun angle at constant view for each pixel, which is reciprocal to sun-synchronous observations, and thus require careful adaptation of EOS algorithms. Our goal is to produce a set of land surface products from geostationary sensors by leveraging NASA's investments in EOS algorithms and in the data/compute facility NEX. The land surface variables of interest include atmospherically corrected surface reflectances, snow cover, vegetation indices and leaf area index (LAI)/fraction of photosynthetically absorbed radiation (FPAR), as well as land surface temperature and fires. In order to get ready to produce operational products over the US from GOES-16 starting 2018, we have utilized 18 months of data from Himawari AHI over Australia to test the production pipeline and the performance of various algorithms for our initial tests. The end-to-end processing pipeline consists of a suite of modules to (a) perform calibration and automatic georeference correction of the AHI L1b data, (b) adopt the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm to produce surface spectral reflectances along with compositing schemes and QA, and (c) modify relevant EOS retrieval

  19. Identification of dust outbreaks on infrared MSG-SEVIRI data by using a Robust Satellite Technique (RST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannazzaro, Filomena; Filizzola, Carolina; Marchese, Francesco; Corrado, Rosita; Paciello, Rossana; Mazzeo, Giuseppe; Pergola, Nicola; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Dust storms are meteorological phenomena of great interest for scientific community because of their potential impact on climate changes, for the risk that may pose to human health and due to other issues as desertification processes and reduction of the agricultural production. Satellite remote sensing, thanks to global coverage, high frequency of observation and low cost data, may highly contribute in monitoring these phenomena, provided that proper detection methods are used. In this work, the known Robust Satellite Techniques (RST) multitemporal approach, used for studying and monitoring several natural/environmental hazards, is tested on some important dust events affecting Mediterranean region in May 2004 and Arabian Peninsula in February 2008. To perform this study, data provided by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) have been processed, comparing the generated dust maps to some independent satellite-based aerosol products. Outcomes of this work show that the RST technique can be profitably used for detecting dust outbreaks from space, providing information also about areas characterized by a different probability of dust presence. They encourage further improvements of this technique in view of its possible implementation in the framework of operational warning systems.

  20. Design and fabrication of resonator-quantum well infrared photodetector for SF6 gas sensor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jason; Choi, Kwong-Kit; DeCuir, Eric; Olver, Kimberley; Fu, Richard

    2017-07-01

    The infrared absorption of SF6 gas is narrowband and peaks at 10.6 μm. This narrowband absorption posts a stringent requirement on the corresponding sensors as they need to collect enough signal from this limited spectral bandwidth to maintain a high sensitivity. Resonator-quantum well infrared photodetectors (R-QWIPs) are the next generation of QWIP detectors that use resonances to increase the quantum efficiency for more efficient signal collection. Since the resonant approach is applicable to narrowband as well as broadband, it is particularly suitable for this application. We designed and fabricated R-QWIPs for SF6 gas detection. To achieve the expected performance, the detector geometry must be produced according to precise specifications. In particular, the height of the diffractive elements and the thickness of the active resonator must be uniform, and accurately realized to within 0.05 μm. Additionally, the substrates of the detectors must be completely removed to prevent the escape of unabsorbed light in the detectors. To achieve these specifications, two optimized inductively coupled plasma etching processes were developed. Due to submicron detector feature sizes and overlay tolerance, we used an advanced semiconductor material lithography stepper instead of a contact mask aligner to pattern wafers. Using these etching techniques and tool, we have fabricated focal plane arrays with 30-μm pixel pitch and 320×256 format. The initial test revealed promising results.

  1. Drogue pose estimation for unmanned aerial vehicle autonomous aerial refueling system based on infrared vision sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanjun; Duan, Haibin; Deng, Yimin; Li, Cong; Zhao, Guozhi; Xu, Yan

    2017-12-01

    Autonomous aerial refueling is a significant technology that can significantly extend the endurance of unmanned aerial vehicles. A reliable method that can accurately estimate the position and attitude of the probe relative to the drogue is the key to such a capability. A drogue pose estimation method based on infrared vision sensor is introduced with the general goal of yielding an accurate and reliable drogue state estimate. First, by employing direct least squares ellipse fitting and convex hull in OpenCV, a feature point matching and interference point elimination method is proposed. In addition, considering the conditions that some infrared LEDs are damaged or occluded, a missing point estimation method based on perspective transformation and affine transformation is designed. Finally, an accurate and robust pose estimation algorithm improved by the runner-root algorithm is proposed. The feasibility of the designed visual measurement system is demonstrated by flight test, and the results indicate that our proposed method enables precise and reliable pose estimation of the probe relative to the drogue, even in some poor conditions.

  2. Low-cost three-dimensional gait analysis system for mice with an infrared depth sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Akihiro; Funaya, Hiroyuki; Uezono, Naohiro; Nakashima, Kinichi; Ishida, Yasumasa; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Wakana, Shigeharu; Shibata, Tomohiro

    2015-11-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) open-field gait analysis of mice is an essential procedure in genetic and nerve regeneration research. Existing gait analysis systems are generally expensive and may interfere with the natural behaviors of mice because of optical markers and transparent floors. In contrast, the proposed system captures the subjects shape from beneath using a low-cost infrared depth sensor (Microsoft Kinect) and an opaque infrared pass filter. This means that we can track footprints and 3D paw-tip positions without optical markers or a transparent floor, thereby preventing any behavioral changes. Our experimental results suggest with healthy mice that they are more active on opaque floors and spend more time in the center of the open-field, when compared with transparent floors. The proposed system detected footprints with a comparable performance to existing systems, and precisely tracked the 3D paw-tip positions in the depth image coordinates. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Analytical tools for thermal infrared engineerig: a thermal sensor simulation package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, Sandeep

    1992-09-01

    The Advanced Sensor Development Laboratory (ASDL) at the Stennis Space Center develops, maintains and calibrates remote sensing instruments for the National Aeronautics & Space Administration. To perform system design trade-offs, analysis, and establish system parameters, ASDL has developed a software package for analytical simulation of sensor systems. This package called 'Analytical Tools for Thermal InfraRed Engineering'--ATTIRE, simulates the various components of a sensor system. The software allows each subsystem of the sensor to be analyzed independently for its performance. These performance parameters are then integrated to obtain system level information such as SNR, NER, NETD etc. This paper describes the uses of the package and the physics that were used to derive the performance parameters. In addition, ATTIRE can be used as a tutorial for understanding the distribution of thermal flux or solar irradiance over selected bandwidths of the spectrum. This spectrally distributed incident flux can then be analyzed as it propagates through the subsystems that constitute the entire sensor. ATTIRE provides a variety of functions ranging from plotting black-body curves for varying bandwidths and computing the integral flux, to performing transfer function analysis of the sensor system. The package runs from a menu- driven interface in a PC-DOS environment. Each sub-system of the sensor is represented by windows and icons. A user-friendly mouse-controlled point-and-click interface allows the user to simulate various aspects of a sensor. The package can simulate a theoretical sensor system. Trade-off studies can be easily done by changing the appropriate parameters and monitoring the effect of the system performance. The package can provide plots of system performance versus any system parameter. A parameter (such as the entrance aperture of the optics) could be varied and its effect on another parameter (e.g., NETD) can be plotted. A third parameter (e.g., the

  4. Provisional maps of thermal areas in Yellowstone National Park, based on satellite thermal infrared imaging and field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Heasler, Henry; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.

    2014-01-01

    Maps that define the current distribution of geothermally heated ground are useful toward setting a baseline for thermal activity to better detect and understand future anomalous hydrothermal and (or) volcanic activity. Monitoring changes in the dynamic thermal areas also supports decisions regarding the development of Yellowstone National Park infrastructure, preservation and protection of park resources, and ensuring visitor safety. Because of the challenges associated with field-based monitoring of a large, complex geothermal system that is spread out over a large and remote area, satellite-based thermal infrared images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were used to map the location and spatial extent of active thermal areas, to generate thermal anomaly maps, and to quantify the radiative component of the total geothermal heat flux. ASTER thermal infrared data acquired during winter nights were used to minimize the contribution of solar heating of the surface. The ASTER thermal infrared mapping results were compared to maps of thermal areas based on field investigations and high-resolution aerial photos. Field validation of the ASTER thermal mapping is an ongoing task. The purpose of this report is to make available ASTER-based maps of Yellowstone’s thermal areas. We include an appendix containing the names and characteristics of Yellowstone’s thermal areas, georeferenced TIFF files containing ASTER thermal imagery, and several spatial data sets in Esri shapefile format.

  5. An Improved Mono-Window Algorithm for Land Surface Temperature Retrieval from Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Sensor Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The successful launch of the Landsat 8 satellite with two thermal infrared bands on February 11, 2013, for continuous Earth observation provided another opportunity for remote sensing of land surface temperature (LST. However, calibration notices issued by the United States Geological Survey (USGS indicated that data from the Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS Band 11 have large uncertainty and suggested using TIRS Band 10 data as a single spectral band for LST estimation. In this study, we presented an improved mono-window (IMW algorithm for LST retrieval from the Landsat 8 TIRS Band 10 data. Three essential parameters (ground emissivity, atmospheric transmittance and effective mean atmospheric temperature were required for the IMW algorithm to retrieve LST. A new method was proposed to estimate the parameter of effective mean atmospheric temperature from local meteorological data. The other two essential parameters could be both estimated through the so-called land cover approach. Sensitivity analysis conducted for the IMW algorithm revealed that the possible error in estimating the required atmospheric water vapor content has the most significant impact on the probable LST estimation error. Under moderate errors in both water vapor content and ground emissivity, the algorithm had an accuracy of ~1.4 K for LST retrieval. Validation of the IMW algorithm using the simulated datasets for various situations indicated that the LST difference between the retrieved and the simulated ones was 0.67 K on average, with an RMSE of 0.43 K. Comparison of our IMW algorithm with the single-channel (SC algorithm for three main atmosphere profiles indicated that the average error and RMSE of the IMW algorithm were −0.05 K and 0.84 K, respectively, which were less than the −2.86 K and 1.05 K of the SC algorithm. Application of the IMW algorithm to Nanjing and its vicinity in east China resulted in a reasonable LST estimation for the region. Spatial

  6. Multi-Sensor Fusion of Infrared and Electro-Optic Signals for High Resolution Night Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Lawrence

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Electro-optic (EO image sensors exhibit the properties of high resolution and low noise level at daytime, but they do not work in dark environments. Infrared (IR image sensors exhibit poor resolution and cannot separate objects with similar temperature. Therefore, we propose a novel framework of IR image enhancement based on the information (e.g., edge from EO images, which improves the resolution of IR images and helps us distinguish objects at night. Our framework superimposing/blending the edges of the EO image onto the corresponding transformed IR image improves their resolution. In this framework, we adopt the theoretical point spread function (PSF proposed by Hardie et al. for the IR image, which has the modulation transfer function (MTF of a uniform detector array and the incoherent optical transfer function (OTF of diffraction-limited optics. In addition, we design an inverse filter for the proposed PSF and use it for the IR image transformation. The framework requires four main steps: (1 inverse filter-based IR image transformation; (2 EO image edge detection; (3 registration; and (4 blending/superimposing of the obtained image pair. Simulation results show both blended and superimposed IR images, and demonstrate that blended IR images have better quality over the superimposed images. Additionally, based on the same steps, simulation result shows a blended IR image of better quality when only the original IR image is available.

  7. AT89S52 Microcontroller Based Remote Room Monitoring System Using Passive Infrared Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Gifson

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This research describes about the design of the room detection system using a Passive Infrared sensors (PIR controlled by Microcontroller AT89S52 for remote control application. The output of the PIR is a low logic when it captures the heat waves of the human body. The output PIR is connected to the port 1.7 on Microcontroller in high logic. The maximum distance is 5 meters for the sensor to detect an object. When there is a signal sent by PIR, the Microcontroller processes the data and activates the buzzer to beep and the stepper motor to stop. Microcontroller also sends data through the RS-232 that continues a signal to the personal mobile phone. In order that the message is able to be sent, then first, messages must be programmed and stored in the Microcontroller AT89S52. The average message delivery time is 8.8 seconds. The recipient can turn the alarm of system on or off by a missed call.

  8. Assessing Recent Improvements in the GOSAT TANSO-FTS Thermal InfraRed Emission Spectrum using Satellite Inter-Comparison with NASA AIRS, EUMETSAT IASI, and JPSS CrIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuteson, R.; Burgess, G.; Shiomi, K.; Kuze, A.; Yoshida, J.; Kataoka, F.; Suto, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) onboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) has been providing global space-borne observations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) since 2009 (Kuze et al. 2012). The TANSO-FTS sensor is an interferometer spectrometer measuring shortwave reflected solar radiation with high spectral resolution in three spectral bands. A bore-sighted band 4 uses the same interferometer to measure thermal infrared radiation (TIR) at the top of the atmosphere. This paper is a comparison of the TANSO-FTS TIR band with coincident measurements of the NASA Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) grating spectrometer. The time and space coincident matchups are at the Simultaneous Nadir Overpass (SNO) locations of the orbits of GOSAT and the NASA AQUA satellite. GOSAT/AQUA SNOs occur at about 40N and 40S latitude. A continuous set of SNO matchups has been found from the start of valid radiance data collection in April 2009 through the end of 2015. UW-SSEC has obtained the time, latitude, and longitude of the SNO location using the ORBNAV software at http://sips.ssec.wisc.edu/orbnav. UW-SSEC obtained the matching AIRS v5 L1B radiances from the NASA archive. JAXA has reprocessed the entire TANSO-FTS TIR band using the previous v161and a new calibration version (v203) which includes calibration parameter optimizations. The TANSO-FTS has been reduced to the AIRS spectral channels using the AIRS spectral response functions (SRFs). This paper will show the time series of observed brightness temperatures from AIRS and GOSAT TANSO-FTS TIR observations from the SNO matchups. Similar results are obtained by comparison with the EUMETSAT Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the METOP platform and the JPSS Cross-track InfraRed Sounder (CrIS) on the Suomi-NPP platform. This paper validates the improvements in the GOSAT ground calibration software by providing a reference

  9. Nighttime Infrared radiative cooling and opacity inferred by REMS Ground Temperature Sensor Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Torres, Javier; Paz Zorzano, María; Pla-García, Jorge; Rafkin, Scot; Lepinette, Alain; Sebastián, Eduardo; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; REMS Team

    2013-04-01

    Due to the low density of the Martian atmosphere, the temperature of the surface is controlled primarily by solar heating, and infrared cooling to the atmosphere and space, rather than heat exchange with the atmosphere. In the absence of solar radiation the infrared (IR) cooling, and then the nighttime surface temperatures, are directly controlled by soil termal inertia and atmospheric optical thickness (τ) at infrared wavelengths. Under non-wind conditions, and assuming no processes involving latent heat changes in the surface, for a particular site where the rover stands the main parameter controlling the IR cooling will be τ. The minimal ground temperature values at a fixed position may thus be used to detect local variations in the total dust/aerosols/cloud tickness. The Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS) and Air Temperature Sensor (ATS) in the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) on board the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover provides hourly ground and air temperature measurements respectively. During the first 100 sols of operation of the rover, within the area of low thermal inertia, the minimal nightime ground temperatures reached values between 180 K and 190 K. For this season the expected frost point temperature is 200 K. Variations of up to 10 K have been observed associated with dust loading at Gale at the onset of the dust season. We will use these measurements together with line-by-line radiative transfer simulations using the Full Transfer By Optimized LINe-by-line (FUTBOLIN) code [Martín-Torres and Mlynczak, 2005] to estimate the IR atmospheric opacity and then dust/cloud coverage over the rover during the course of the MSL mission. Monitoring the dust loading and IR nightime cooling evolution during the dust season will allow for a better understanding of the influence of the atmosphere on the ground temperature and provide ground truth to models and orbiter measurements. References Martín-Torres, F. J. and M. G. Mlynczak

  10. USING OF THE MULTITEMPORAL THERMAL INFRARED SATELLITE IMAGERY FOR NATURAL AREAS MAPPING (CASE OF MENDELEEV VOLCANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Grishchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper authors examine the mountain group of Mendeleev volcano situated on the Kunashir island, Kuril archipelago, Russia. Ground observations were led to examine the vegetation cover of the area as well as its typical landscapes. The other type of used data is Landsat imagery. Images were combined into multitemporal thermal infrared and multispectral pictures, which were classified to reveal the heterogeneity of the study area. Ground observations and comparison of the classification results with landscape map derive that the multitemporal thermal infrared image classification result describes better the vegetation cover structure of the area and particularity of its typical landscapes distribution. It leads to the proposition that miltitemporal thermal infrared imagery can be used to refine landscape and vegetation cover contours. 

  11. Poster abstract: Water level estimation in urban ultrasonic/passive infrared flash flood sensor networks using supervised learning

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa

    2014-04-01

    This article describes a machine learning approach to water level estimation in a dual ultrasonic/passive infrared urban flood sensor system. We first show that an ultrasonic rangefinder alone is unable to accurately measure the level of water on a road due to thermal effects. Using additional passive infrared sensors, we show that ground temperature and local sensor temperature measurements are sufficient to correct the rangefinder readings and improve the flood detection performance. Since floods occur very rarely, we use a supervised learning approach to estimate the correction to the ultrasonic rangefinder caused by temperature fluctuations. Preliminary data shows that water level can be estimated with an absolute error of less than 2 cm. © 2014 IEEE.

  12. Generating Land Surface Reflectance for the New Generation of Geostationary Satellite Sensors with the MAIAC Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.; Wang, Y.; Hashimoto, H.; Li, S.; Takenaka, H.; Higuchi, A.; Lyapustin, A.; Nemani, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    The latest generation of geostationary satellite sensors, including the GOES-16/ABI and the Himawari 8/AHI, provide exciting capability to monitor land surface at very high temporal resolutions (5-15 minute intervals) and with spatial and spectral characteristics that mimic the Earth Observing System flagship MODIS. However, geostationary data feature changing sun angles at constant view geometry, which is almost reciprocal to sun-synchronous observations. Such a challenge needs to be carefully addressed before one can exploit the full potential of the new sources of data. Here we take on this challenge with Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm, recently developed for accurate and globally robust applications like the MODIS Collection 6 re-processing. MAIAC first grids the top-of-atmosphere measurements to a fixed grid so that the spectral and physical signatures of each grid cell are stacked ("remembered") over time and used to dramatically improve cloud/shadow/snow detection, which is by far the dominant error source in the remote sensing. It also exploits the changing sun-view geometry of the geostationary sensor to characterize surface BRDF with augmented angular resolution for accurate aerosol retrievals and atmospheric correction. The high temporal resolutions of the geostationary data indeed make the BRDF retrieval much simpler and more robust as compared with sun-synchronous sensors such as MODIS. As a prototype test for the geostationary-data processing pipeline on NASA Earth Exchange (GEONEX), we apply MAIAC to process 18 months of data from Himawari 8/AHI over Australia. We generate a suite of test results, including the input TOA reflectance and the output cloud mask, aerosol optical depth (AOD), and the atmospherically-corrected surface reflectance for a variety of geographic locations, terrain, and land cover types. Comparison with MODIS data indicates a general agreement between the retrieved surface reflectance

  13. Sensors, Circuits, and Satellites - NGSS at it's best: the integration of three dimensions with NASA science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, G. J.; Roberts-Harris, D.

    2013-12-01

    A set of innovative classroom lessons were developed based on informal learning activities in the 'Sensors, Circuits, and Satellites' kit manufactured by littleBits™ Electronics that are designed to lead students through a logical science content storyline about energy using sound and light and fully implements an integrated approach to the three dimensions of the Next Generation of Science Standards (NGSS). This session will illustrate the integration of NGSS into curriculum by deconstructing lesson design to parse out the unique elements of the 3 dimensions of NGSS. We will demonstrate ways in which we have incorporated the NGSS as we believe they were intended. According to the NGSS, 'The real innovation in the NGSS is the requirement that students are required to operate at the intersection of practice, content, and connection. Performance expectations are the right way to integrate the three dimensions. It provides specificity for educators, but it also sets the tone for how science instruction should look in classrooms. (p. 3). The 'Sensors, Circuits, and Satellites' series of lessons accomplishes this by going beyond just focusing on the conceptual knowledge (the disciplinary core ideas) - traditionally approached by mapping lessons to standards. These lessons incorporate the other 2 dimensions -cross-cutting concepts and the 8-practices of Sciences and Engineering-via an authentic and exciting connection to NASA science, thus implementing the NGSS in the way they were designed to be used: practices and content with the crosscutting concepts. When the NGSS are properly integrated, students are engaged in science and engineering content through the coupling of practice, content and connection. In the past, these two dimensions have been separated as distinct entities. We know now that coupling content and practices better demonstrates what goes on in real world science and engineering. We set out to accomplish what is called for in NGSS by integrating these

  14. Comparison of dust-layer heights from active and passive satellite sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylling, Arve; Vandenbussche, Sophie; Capelle, Virginie; Cuesta, Juan; Klüser, Lars; Lelli, Luca; Popp, Thomas; Stebel, Kerstin; Veefkind, Pepijn

    2018-05-01

    Aerosol-layer height is essential for understanding the impact of aerosols on the climate system. As part of the European Space Agency Aerosol_cci project, aerosol-layer height as derived from passive thermal and solar satellite sensors measurements have been compared with aerosol-layer heights estimated from CALIOP measurements. The Aerosol_cci project targeted dust-type aerosol for this study. This ensures relatively unambiguous aerosol identification by the CALIOP processing chain. Dust-layer height was estimated from thermal IASI measurements using four different algorithms (from BIRA-IASB, DLR, LMD, LISA) and from solar GOME-2 (KNMI) and SCIAMACHY (IUP) measurements. Due to differences in overpass time of the various satellites, a trajectory model was used to move the CALIOP-derived dust heights in space and time to the IASI, GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY dust height pixels. It is not possible to construct a unique dust-layer height from the CALIOP data. Thus two CALIOP-derived layer heights were used: the cumulative extinction height defined as the height where the CALIOP extinction column is half of the total extinction column, and the geometric mean height, which is defined as the geometrical mean of the top and bottom heights of the dust layer. In statistical average over all IASI data there is a general tendency to a positive bias of 0.5-0.8 km against CALIOP extinction-weighted height for three of the four algorithms assessed, while the fourth algorithm has almost no bias. When comparing geometric mean height there is a shift of -0.5 km for all algorithms (getting close to zero for the three algorithms and turning negative for the fourth). The standard deviation of all algorithms is quite similar and ranges between 1.0 and 1.3 km. When looking at different conditions (day, night, land, ocean), there is more detail in variabilities (e.g. all algorithms overestimate more at night than during the day). For the solar sensors it is found that on average SCIAMACHY data

  15. The Dependence of Cloud Property Trend Detection on Absolute Calibration Accuracy of Passive Satellite Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Y.; Wielicki, B. A.; Sun-Mack, S.; Minnis, P.; Zelinka, M. D.

    2016-12-01

    Detecting trends in climate variables on global, decadal scales requires highly accurate, stable measurements and retrieval algorithms. Trend uncertainty depends on its magnitude, natural variability, and instrument and retrieval algorithm accuracy and stability. We applied a climate accuracy framework to quantify the impact of absolute calibration on cloud property trend uncertainty. The cloud properties studied were cloud fraction, effective temperature, optical thickness, and effective radius retrieved using the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Cloud Property Retrieval System, which uses Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer measurements (MODIS). Modeling experiments from the fifth phase of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) agree that net cloud feedback is likely positive but disagree regarding its magnitude, mainly due to uncertainty in shortwave cloud feedback. With the climate accuracy framework we determined the time to detect trends for instruments with various calibration accuracies. We estimated a relationship between cloud property trend uncertainty, cloud feedback, and Equilibrium Climate Sensitivity and also between effective radius trend uncertainty and aerosol indirect effect trends. The direct relationship between instrument accuracy requirements and climate model output provides the level of instrument absolute accuracy needed to reduce climate model projection uncertainty. Different cloud types have varied radiative impacts on the climate system depending on several attributes, such as their thermodynamic phase, altitude, and optical thickness. Therefore, we also conducted these studies by cloud types for a clearer understanding of instrument accuracy requirements needed to detect changes in their cloud properties. Combining this information with the radiative impact of different cloud types helps to prioritize among requirements for future satellite sensors and understanding the climate detection

  16. Geostationary Communications Satellites as Sensors for the Space Weather Environment: Telemetry Event Identification Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, A.; Cahoy, K.

    2015-12-01

    Reliability of geostationary communication satellites (GEO ComSats) is critical to many industries worldwide. The space radiation environment poses a significant threat and manufacturers and operators expend considerable effort to maintain reliability for users. Knowledge of the space radiation environment at the orbital location of a satellite is of critical importance for diagnosing and resolving issues resulting from space weather, for optimizing cost and reliability, and for space situational awareness. For decades, operators and manufacturers have collected large amounts of telemetry from geostationary (GEO) communications satellites to monitor system health and performance, yet this data is rarely mined for scientific purposes. The goal of this work is to acquire and analyze archived data from commercial operators using new algorithms that can detect when a space weather (or non-space weather) event of interest has occurred or is in progress. We have developed algorithms, collectively called SEER (System Event Evaluation Routine), to statistically analyze power amplifier current and temperature telemetry by identifying deviations from nominal operations or other events and trends of interest. This paper focuses on our work in progress, which currently includes methods for detection of jumps ("spikes", outliers) and step changes (changes in the local mean) in the telemetry. We then examine available space weather data from the NOAA GOES and the NOAA-computed Kp index and sunspot numbers to see what role, if any, it might have played. By combining the results of the algorithm for many components, the spacecraft can be used as a "sensor" for the space radiation environment. Similar events occurring at one time across many component telemetry streams may be indicative of a space radiation event or system-wide health and safety concern. Using SEER on representative datasets of telemetry from Inmarsat and Intelsat, we find events that occur across all or many of

  17. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Ghunday-Achin mineral district in Afghanistan, in Davis, P.A, compiler, Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.; Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Ghunday-Achin mineral district, which has magnesite and talc deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2008,2009), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As

  18. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Kunduz mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter S in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Kunduz mineral district, which has celestite deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2007,2008,2009), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the

  19. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Haji-Gak mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter C in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Haji-Gak mineral district, which has iron ore deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420-500 nanometer, nm), green (520-600 nm), red (610-690 nm), and near-infrared (760-890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520-770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency ((c)JAXA,2006,2007), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products

  20. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Dudkash mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter R in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Dudkash mineral district, which has industrial mineral deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2006,2007,2008,2009), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS

  1. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Kharnak-Kanjar mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter K in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Kharnak-Kanjar mineral district, which has mercury deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2007,2008,2010), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such

  2. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Dusar-Shaida mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter I in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Dusar-Shaida mineral district, which has copper and tin deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the

  3. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Aynak mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter E in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Aynak mineral district, which has copper deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency ((c)JAXA,2008,2010), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS

  4. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Kundalyan mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter H in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Kundalyan mineral district, which has porphyry copper and gold deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As

  5. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Herat mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter T in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Herat mineral district, which has barium and limestone deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2007,2008,2009), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As

  6. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Tourmaline mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter J in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Tourmaline mineral district, which has tin deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products

  7. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Badakhshan mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter F in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Badakhshan mineral district, which has gold deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420-500 nanometer, nm), green (520-600 nm), red (610-690 nm), and near-infrared (760-890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520-770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency ((c)JAXA,2007,2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products

  8. Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation. Volume 2; Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, James L. (Editor); Fargion, Giulietta S. (Editor); Trees, C.; Austin, R. W.; Pietras, C. (Editor); Hooker, S.; Holben, B.; McClain, Charles R.; Clark, D. K.; Yuen, M.

    2002-01-01

    This document stipulates protocols for measuring bio-optical and radiometric data for the SIMBIOS Project. It supersedes the earlier version, and is organized into four parts: Introductory Background, Instrument Characteristics, Field Measurements and Data Analysis, Data Reporting and Archival. Changes in this revision include the addition of three new chapters: (1) Fundamental Definitions, Relationships and Conventions; (2) MOBY, A Radiometric Buoy for Performance Monitoring and Vicarious Calibration of Satellite Ocean Color Sensors: Measurement and Data Analysis Protocols; and (3) Normalized Water-Leaving Radiance and Remote Sensing Reflectance: Bidirectional Reflectance and Other Factors. Although the present document represents another significant, incremental improvement in the ocean optics protocols, there are several protocols that have either been overtaken by recent technological progress, or have been otherwise identified as inadequate. Revision 4 is scheduled for completion sometime in 2003. This technical report is not meant as a substitute for scientific literature. Instead, it will provide a ready and responsive vehicle for the multitude of technical reports issued by an operational Project. The contributions are published as submitted, after only minor editing to correct obvious grammatical or clerical errors.

  9. Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation. Volume 1; Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, James L. (Editor); Fargion, Giulietta (Editor); Mueller, J. L.; Trees, C.; Austin, R. W.; Pietras, C.; Hooker, S.; Holben, B.; McClain, Charles R.; Clark, D. K.; hide

    2002-01-01

    This document stipulates protocols for measuring bio-optical and radiometric data for the SIMBIOS Project. It supersedes the earlier version, and is organized into four parts: Introductory Background, Instrument Characteristics, Field Measurements and Data Analysis, Data Reporting and Archival. Changes in this revision include the addition of three new chapters: (1) Fundamental Definitions, Relationships and Conventions; (2) MOBY, A Radiometric Buoy for Performance Monitoring and Vicarious Calibration of Satellite Ocean Color Sensors: Measurement and Data Analysis Protocols; and (3) Normalized Water-Leaving Radiance and Remote Sensing Reflectance: Bidirectional Reflectance and Other Factors. Although the present document represents another significant, incremental improvement in the ocean optics protocols, there are several protocols that have either been overtaken by recent technological progress, or have been otherwise identified as inadequate. Revision 4 is scheduled for completion sometime in 2003. This technical report is not meant as a substitute for scientific literature. Instead, it will provide a ready and responsive vehicle for the multitude of technical reports issued by an operational Project. The contributions are published as submitted, after only minor editing to correct obvious grammatical or clerical errors.

  10. Geospatial analysis of creeks evolution in the Indus Delta, Pakistan using multi sensor satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijaz, Muhammad Wajid; Mahar, Rasool Bux; Siyal, Altaf Ali; Anjum, Muhammad Naveed

    2018-01-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) in response to looming climate change is being considered as a major impediment to coastal areas. Acute wave activities and tidal propagations of semi-diurnal to mixed type are impairing the morphology of the Indus Delta in Pakistan. In this study a synthetic approach has been adopted using multi sensor satellite and ground data in order to integrate the individual effect of topography, oceanic activities and vegetative canopy for deduction of a synergic impact over the morphology of the Indus Delta creeks system from 1972 to 2017. Geomorphologic anomalies in the planform of fourteen major creeks were explored. Spatiotemporal variations suggested that a substantial amount of the delta alluvium had been engulfed by the Arabian Sea. On average, the creeks located on the right side of the Indus River were relatively less wide (3.9 km) than those of on the left side (5.2 km). Zonal statistics calculated with topographic position index (TPI) enabled to understand the tide induced inundation extents. The mangrove canopy on the right side was found greater, which is why tidal basins on that side experienced less erosive activities. Thus, it could be maintained that the coastal sedimentary processes may be monitored effectively with the remotely sensed data and temporal pattern of changes can be quantified for future planning and mitigation of adverse effects.

  11. Absorbing Aerosols Above Cloud: Detection, Quantitative Retrieval, and Radiative Forcing from Satellite-based Passive Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethva, H.; Torres, O.; Remer, L. A.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2012-12-01

    Light absorbing particles such as carbonaceous aerosols generated from biomass burning activities and windblown dust particles can exert a net warming effect on climate; the strength of which depends on the absorption capacity of the particles and brightness of the underlying reflecting background. When advected over low-level bright clouds, these aerosols absorb the cloud reflected radiation from ultra-violet (UV) to shortwave-IR (SWIR) and makes cloud scene darker-a phenomenon commonly known as "cloud darkening". The apparent "darkening" effect can be seen by eyes in satellite images as well as quantitatively in the spectral reflectance measurements made by space borne sensors over regions where light absorbing carbonaceous and dust aerosols overlay low-level cloud decks. Theoretical radiative transfer simulations support the observational evidence, and further reveal that the strength of the cloud darkening and its spectral signature (or color ratio) between measurements at two wavelengths are a bi-function of aerosol and cloud optical thickness (AOT and COT); both are measures of the total amount of light extinction caused by aerosols and cloud, respectively. Here, we developed a retrieval technique, named as the "color ratio method" that uses the satellite measurements at two channels, one at shorter wavelength in the visible and one at longer wavelength in the shortwave-IR for the simultaneous retrieval of AOT and COT. The present technique requires assumptions on the aerosol single-scattering albedo and aerosol-cloud separation which are supplemented by the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and space borne CALIOP lidar measurements. The retrieval technique has been tested making use of the near-UV and visible reflectance observations made by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for distinct above-cloud smoke and dust aerosol events observed seasonally over the southeast and tropical Atlantic Ocean

  12. Infrared Sky Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stephan D.

    2009-02-01

    A retrospective is given on infrared sky surveys from Thomas Edison’s proposal in the late 1870s to IRAS, the first sensitive mid- to far-infrared all-sky survey, and the mid-1990s experiments that filled in the IRAS deficiencies. The emerging technology for space-based surveys is highlighted, as is the prominent role the US Defense Department, particularly the Air Force, played in developing and applying detector and cryogenic sensor advances to early mid-infrared probe-rocket and satellite-based surveys. This technology was transitioned to the infrared astronomical community in relatively short order and was essential to the success of IRAS, COBE and ISO. Mention is made of several of the little known early observational programs that were superseded by more successful efforts.

  13. Advanced shortwave infrared and Raman hyperspectral sensors for homeland security and law enforcement operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klueva, Oksana; Nelson, Matthew P.; Gardner, Charles W.; Gomer, Nathaniel R.

    2015-05-01

    Proliferation of chemical and explosive threats as well as illicit drugs continues to be an escalating danger to civilian and military personnel. Conventional means of detecting and identifying hazardous materials often require the use of reagents and/or physical sampling, which is a time-consuming, costly and often dangerous process. Stand-off detection allows the operator to detect threat residues from a safer distance minimizing danger to people and equipment. Current fielded technologies for standoff detection of chemical and explosive threats are challenged by low area search rates, poor targeting efficiency, lack of sensitivity and specificity or use of costly and potentially unsafe equipment such as lasers. A demand exists for stand-off systems that are fast, safe, reliable and user-friendly. To address this need, ChemImage Sensor Systems™ (CISS) has developed reagent-less, non-contact, non-destructive sensors for the real-time detection of hazardous materials based on widefield shortwave infrared (SWIR) and Raman hyperspectral imaging (HSI). Hyperspectral imaging enables automated target detection displayed in the form of image making result analysis intuitive and user-friendly. Application of the CISS' SWIR-HSI and Raman sensing technologies to Homeland Security and Law Enforcement for standoff detection of homemade explosives and illicit drugs and their precursors in vehicle and personnel checkpoints is discussed. Sensing technologies include a portable, robot-mounted and standalone variants of the technology. Test data is shown that supports the use of SWIR and Raman HSI for explosive and drug screening at checkpoints as well as screening for explosives and drugs at suspected clandestine manufacturing facilities.

  14. Optical monitoring of kidney oxygenation and hemodynamics using a miniaturized near-infrared sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadgan, Babak; Macnab, Andrew; Nigro, Mark; Nguan, Christopher

    2017-02-01

    Background: Following human renal allograft transplant primary graft dysfunction can occur early in the postoperative period as a result of acute tubular necrosis, acute rejection, drug toxicity, and vascular complications. Successful treatment of graft dysfunction requires early detection and accurate diagnosis so that disease-specific medical and/or surgical intervention can be provided promptly. However, current diagnostic methods are not sensitive or specific enough, so that identifying the cause of graft dysfunction is problematic and often delayed. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is an established optical method that monitors changes in tissue hemodynamics and oxygenation in real time. We report the feasibility of directly monitoring kidney the kidney in an animal model using NIRS to detect renal ischemia and hypoxia. Methods: In an anesthetized pig, a customized continuous wave spatially resolved (SR) NIRS sensor was fixed directly to the surface of the surgically exposed kidney. Changes in the concentration of oxygenated (O2Hb) deoxygenated (HHb) and total hemoglobin (THb) were monitored before, during and after renal artery clamping and reperfusion, and the resulting fluctuations in chromophore concentration from baseline used to measure variations in renal perfusion and oxygenation. Results: On clamping the renal artery THb and O2Hb concentrations declined progressively while HHb rose. With reperfusion after releasing the artery clamp O2Hb and THb rose while HHb fell with all parameters returning to its baseline. This pattern was similar in all three trials. Conclusion: This pilot study indicates that a miniaturized NIRS sensor applied directly to the surface of a kidney in an animal model can detect the onset of renal ischemia and tissue hypoxia. With modification, our NIRS-based method may contribute to early detection of renal vascular complications and graft dysfunction following renal transplant.

  15. Cloud2IR: Infrared thermography and environmental sensors integrated in an autonomoussystem for long term monitoring of structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinière, Antoine; Dumoulin, Jean; Mevel, Laurent; Andrade-Barroso, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    Since late 2014, the project Cloud2SM aims to develop a robust information system able to assess the long term monitoring of civil engineering structures as well as interfacing various sensors and data. Cloud2SM address three main goals, the management of distributed data and sensors network, the asynchronous processing of the data through network and the local management of the sensors themselves [1]. Integrated to this project Cloud2IR is an autonomous sensor system dedicated to the long term monitoring of infrastructures. Past experimentations have shown the need as well as usefulness of such system [2]. Before Cloud2IR an initially laboratory oriented system was used, which implied heavy operating system to be used [3]. Based on such system Cloud2IR has benefited of the experimental knowledge acquired to redefine a lighter architecture based on generics standards, more appropriated to autonomous operations on field and which can be later included in a wide distributed architecture such as Cloud2SM. The sensor system can be divided in two parts. The sensor side, this part is mainly composed by the various sensors drivers themselves as the infrared camera, the weather station or the pyranometers and their different fixed configurations. In our case, as infrared camera are slightly different than other kind of sensors, the system implement in addition an RTSP server which can be used to set up the FOV as well as other measurement parameter considerations. The second part can be seen as the data side, which is common to all sensors. It instantiate through a generic interface all the sensors and control the data access loop (not the requesting). This side of the system is weakly coupled (see data coupling) with the sensor side. It can be seen as a general framework able to aggregate any sensor data, type or size and automatically encapsulate them in various generic data format as HDF5 or cloud data as OGC SWE standard. This whole part is also responsible of the

  16. Expansion of Smartwatch Touch Interface from Touchscreen to Around Device Interface Using Infrared Line Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Chul Lim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Touchscreen interaction has become a fundamental means of controlling mobile phones and smartwatches. However, the small form factor of a smartwatch limits the available interactive surface area. To overcome this limitation, we propose the expansion of the touch region of the screen to the back of the user’s hand. We developed a touch module for sensing the touched finger position on the back of the hand using infrared (IR line image sensors, based on the calibrated IR intensity and the maximum intensity region of an IR array. For complete touch-sensing solution, a gyroscope installed in the smartwatch is used to read the wrist gestures. The gyroscope incorporates a dynamic time warping gesture recognition algorithm for eliminating unintended touch inputs during the free motion of the wrist while wearing the smartwatch. The prototype of the developed sensing module was implemented in a commercial smartwatch, and it was confirmed that the sensed positional information of the finger when it was used to touch the back of the hand could be used to control the smartwatch graphical user interface. Our system not only affords a novel experience for smartwatch users, but also provides a basis for developing other useful interfaces.

  17. Expansion of Smartwatch Touch Interface from Touchscreen to Around Device Interface Using Infrared Line Image Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Soo-Chul; Shin, Jungsoon; Kim, Seung-Chan; Park, Joonah

    2015-07-09

    Touchscreen interaction has become a fundamental means of controlling mobile phones and smartwatches. However, the small form factor of a smartwatch limits the available interactive surface area. To overcome this limitation, we propose the expansion of the touch region of the screen to the back of the user's hand. We developed a touch module for sensing the touched finger position on the back of the hand using infrared (IR) line image sensors, based on the calibrated IR intensity and the maximum intensity region of an IR array. For complete touch-sensing solution, a gyroscope installed in the smartwatch is used to read the wrist gestures. The gyroscope incorporates a dynamic time warping gesture recognition algorithm for eliminating unintended touch inputs during the free motion of the wrist while wearing the smartwatch. The prototype of the developed sensing module was implemented in a commercial smartwatch, and it was confirmed that the sensed positional information of the finger when it was used to touch the back of the hand could be used to control the smartwatch graphical user interface. Our system not only affords a novel experience for smartwatch users, but also provides a basis for developing other useful interfaces.

  18. Expansion of Smartwatch Touch Interface from Touchscreen to Around Device Interface Using Infrared Line Image Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Soo-Chul; Shin, Jungsoon; Kim, Seung-Chan; Park, Joonah

    2015-01-01

    Touchscreen interaction has become a fundamental means of controlling mobile phones and smartwatches. However, the small form factor of a smartwatch limits the available interactive surface area. To overcome this limitation, we propose the expansion of the touch region of the screen to the back of the user’s hand. We developed a touch module for sensing the touched finger position on the back of the hand using infrared (IR) line image sensors, based on the calibrated IR intensity and the maximum intensity region of an IR array. For complete touch-sensing solution, a gyroscope installed in the smartwatch is used to read the wrist gestures. The gyroscope incorporates a dynamic time warping gesture recognition algorithm for eliminating unintended touch inputs during the free motion of the wrist while wearing the smartwatch. The prototype of the developed sensing module was implemented in a commercial smartwatch, and it was confirmed that the sensed positional information of the finger when it was used to touch the back of the hand could be used to control the smartwatch graphical user interface. Our system not only affords a novel experience for smartwatch users, but also provides a basis for developing other useful interfaces. PMID:26184202

  19. [Cotton identification and extraction using near infrared sensor and object-oriented spectral segmentation technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jin-Song; Shi, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Li-Su; Wang, Ke; Zhu, Jin-Xia

    2009-07-01

    The real-time, effective and reliable method of identifying crop is the foundation of scientific management for crop in the precision agriculture. It is also one of the key techniques for the precision agriculture. However, this expectation cannot be fulfilled by the traditional pixel-based information extraction method with respect to complicated image processing and accurate objective identification. In the present study, visible-near infrared image of cotton was acquired using high-resolution sensor. Object-oriented segmentation technique was performed on the image to produce image objects and spatial/spectral features of cotton. Afterwards, nearest neighbor classifier integrated the spectral, shape and topologic information of image objects to precisely identify cotton according to various features. Finally, 300 random samples and an error matrix were applied to undertake the accuracy assessment of identification. Although errors and confusion exist, this method shows satisfying results with an overall accuracy of 96.33% and a KAPPA coefficient of 0.926 7, which can meet the demand of automatic management and decision-making in precision agriculture.

  20. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Kandahar mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter Z in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Kandahar mineral district, which has bauxite deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420-500 nanometer, nm), green (520-600 nm), red (610-690 nm), and near-infrared (760-890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520-770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency ((c)JAXA,2006,2007,2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS

  1. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Ghazni1 mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter DD in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Ghazni1 mineral district, which has spectral reflectance anomalies indicative of clay, aluminum, gold, silver, mercury, and sulfur deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420-500 nanometer, nm), green (520-600 nm), red (610-690 nm), and near-infrared (760-890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520-770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency ((c)JAXA, 2008, 2009), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such

  2. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Bakhud mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter U in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.; Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Bakhud mineral district, which has industrial fluorite deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2006,2007, 2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As

  3. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Uruzgan mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter V in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Uruzgan mineral district, which has tin and tungsten deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA, 2008, 2009), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such

  4. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Farah mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter FF in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Farah mineral district, which has spectral reflectance anomalies indicative of copper, zinc, lead, silver, and gold deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420-500 nanometer, nm), green (520-600 nm), red (610-690 nm), and near-infrared (760-890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520-770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency ((c)JAXA, 2007, 2008, 2010), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that

  5. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Zarkashan mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter G in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Zarkashan mineral district, which has copper and gold deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2006,2007, 2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As

  6. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the South Helmand mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter O in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the South Helmand mineral district, which has travertine deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA, 2008, 2010), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such

  7. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Katawas mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter N in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Katawas mineral district, which has gold deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420-500 nanometer, nm), green (520-600 nm), red (610-690 nm), and near-infrared (760-890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520-770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©AXA, 2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA

  8. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Ghazni2 mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter EE in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Ghazni2 mineral district, which has spectral reflectance anomalies indicative of gold, mercury, and sulfur deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420-500 nanometer, nm), green (520-600 nm), red (610-690 nm), and near-infrared (760-890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520-770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency ((c)JAXA, 2008, 2009), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image

  9. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Takhar mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter Q in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Takhar mineral district, which has industrial evaporite deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA, 2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such

  10. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Khanneshin mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter A in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Khanneshin mineral district, which has uranium, thorium, rare-earth-element, and apatite deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420-500 nanometer, nm), green (520-600 nm), red (610-690 nm), and near-infrared (760-890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520-770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2007,2008,2010), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be

  11. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Panjsher Valley mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter M in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Panjsher Valley mineral district, which has emerald and silver-iron deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA, 2009, 2010), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from

  12. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the North Takhar mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter D in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the North Takhar mineral district, which has placer gold deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2006,2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such

  13. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Baghlan mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter P in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Baghlan mineral district, which has industrial clay and gypsum deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA, 2006, 2007, 2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from

  14. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Nalbandon mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter L in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Nalbandon mineral district, which has lead and zinc deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA, 2007, 2008, 2010), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As

  15. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Balkhab mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter B in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Balkhab mineral district, which has copper deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420-500 nanometer, nm), green (520-600 nm), red (610-690 nm), and near-infrared (760-890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520-770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2007,2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match

  16. Collaborative, Rapid Mapping of Water Extents During Hurricane Harvey Using Optical and Radar Satellite Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, R.; Jones, M.; Herndon, K. E.; Bell, J. R.; Anderson, E. R.; Markert, K. N.; Molthan, A.; Adams, E. C.; Shultz, L.; Cherrington, E. A.; Flores, A.; Lucey, R.; Munroe, T.; Layne, G.; Pulla, S. T.; Weigel, A. M.; Tondapu, G.

    2017-12-01

    On August 25, 2017, Hurricane Harvey made landfall between Port Aransas and Port O'Connor, Texas, bringing with it unprecedented amounts of rainfall and flooding. In times of natural disasters of this nature, emergency responders require timely and accurate information about the hazard in order to assess and plan for disaster response. Due to the extreme flooding impacts associated with Hurricane Harvey, delineations of water extent were crucial to inform resource deployment. Through the USGS's Hazards Data Distribution System, government and commercial vendors were able to acquire and distribute various satellite imagery to analysts to create value-added products that can be used by these emergency responders. Rapid-response water extent maps were created through a collaborative multi-organization and multi-sensor approach. One team of researchers created Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) water extent maps using modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2017), processed by ESA. This group used backscatter images, pre-processed by the Alaska Satellite Facility's Hybrid Pluggable Processing Pipeline (HyP3), to identify and apply a threshold to identify water in the image. Quality control was conducted by manually examining the image and correcting for potential errors. Another group of researchers and graduate student volunteers derived water masks from high resolution DigitalGlobe and SPOT images. Through a system of standardized image processing, quality control measures, and communication channels the team provided timely and fairly accurate water extent maps to support a larger NASA Disasters Program response. The optical imagery was processed through a combination of various band thresholds by using Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Modified Normalized Water Index (MNDWI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and cloud masking. Several aspects of the pre-processing and image access were run on internal servers to expedite the provision of images to

  17. Collaborative, Rapid Mapping of Water Extents During Hurricane Harvey Using Optical and Radar Satellite Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, Rebekke; Jones, Madeline; Herndon, Kelsey; Schultz, Lori; Bell, Jordan; Anderson, Eric; Markert, Kel; Molthan, Andrew; Adams, Emily; Cherrington, Emil; hide

    2017-01-01

    On August 25, 2017, Hurricane Harvey made landfall between Port Aransas and Port O'Connor, Texas, bringing with it unprecedented amounts of rainfall and record flooding. In times of natural disasters of this nature, emergency responders require timely and accurate information about the hazard in order to assess and plan for disaster response. Due to the extreme flooding impacts associated with Hurricane Harvey, delineations of water extent were crucial to inform resource deployment. Through the USGS's Hazards Data Distribution System, government and commercial vendors were able to acquire and distribute various satellite imagery to analysts to create value-added products that can be used by these emergency responders. Rapid-response water extent maps were created through a collaborative multi-organization and multi-sensor approach. One team of researchers created Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) water extent maps using modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2017), processed by ESA. This group used backscatter images, pre-processed by the Alaska Satellite Facility's Hybrid Pluggable Processing Pipeline (HyP3), to identify and apply a threshold to identify water in the image. Quality control was conducted by manually examining the image and correcting for potential errors. Another group of researchers and graduate student volunteers derived water masks from high resolution DigitalGlobe and SPOT images. Through a system of standardized image processing, quality control measures, and communication channels the team provided timely and fairly accurate water extent maps to support a larger NASA Disasters Program response. The optical imagery was processed through a combination of various band thresholds and by using Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Modified Normalized Water Index (MNDWI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and cloud masking. Several aspects of the pre-processing and image access were run on internal servers to expedite the provision of

  18. Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI)_Thermal Infared Sensor (TIRS) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract:The Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) are instruments onboard the Landsat 8 satellite, which was launched in February of...

  19. Differential optical shadow sensor for sub-nanometer displacement measurement and its application to drag-free satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoellner, Andreas; Tan, Si; Saraf, Shailendhar; Alfauwaz, Abdul; DeBra, Dan; Buchman, Sasha; Lipa, John A

    2017-10-16

    We present a method for 3D sub-nanometer displacement measurement using a set of differential optical shadow sensors. It is based on using pairs of collimated beams on opposite sides of an object that are partially blocked by it. Applied to a sphere, our 3-axis sensor module consists of 8 parallel beam-detector sets for redundancy. The sphere blocks half of each beam's power in the nominal centered position, and any displacement can be measured by the differential optical power changes amongst the pairs of detectors. We have experimentally demonstrated a displacement sensitivity of 0.87nm/Hz at 1 Hz and 0.39nm/Hz at 10 Hz. We describe the application of the module to the inertial sensor of a drag-free satellite, which can potentially be used for navigation, geodesy and fundamental science experiments as well as ground based applications.

  20. Research on the Effects of Drying Temperature on Nitrogen Detection of Different Soil Types by Near Infrared Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Pengcheng; Dong, Tao; He, Yong; Xiao, Shupei

    2018-01-29

    Soil is a complicated system whose components and mechanisms are complex and difficult to be fully excavated and comprehended. Nitrogen is the key parameter supporting plant growth and development, and is the material basis of plant growth as well. An accurate grasp of soil nitrogen information is the premise of scientific fertilization in precision agriculture, where near infrared sensors are widely used for rapid detection of nutrients in soil. However, soil texture, soil moisture content and drying temperature all affect soil nitrogen detection using near infrared sensors. In order to investigate the effects of drying temperature on the nitrogen detection in black soil, loess and calcium soil, three kinds of soils were detected by near infrared sensors after 25 °C placement (ambient temperature), 50 °C drying (medium temperature), 80 °C drying (medium-high temperature) and 95 °C drying (high temperature). The successive projections algorithm based on multiple linear regression (SPA-MLR), partial least squares (PLS) and competitive adaptive reweighted squares (CARS) were used to model and analyze the spectral information of different soil types. The predictive abilities were assessed using the prediction correlation coefficients (R P ), the root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP), and the residual predictive deviation (RPD). The results showed that the loess (R P = 0.9721, RMSEP = 0.067 g/kg, RPD = 4.34) and calcium soil (R P = 0.9588, RMSEP = 0.094 g/kg, RPD = 3.89) obtained the best prediction accuracy after 95 °C drying. The detection results of black soil (R P = 0.9486, RMSEP = 0.22 g/kg, RPD = 2.82) after 80 °C drying were the optimum. In conclusion, drying temperature does have an obvious influence on the detection of soil nitrogen by near infrared sensors, and the suitable drying temperature for different soil types was of great significance in enhancing the detection accuracy.

  1. Detection and Characterization of Low Temperature Peat Fires during the 2015 Fire Catastrophe in Indonesia Using a New High-Sensitivity Fire Monitoring Satellite Sensor (FireBird)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Elizabeth C.; Englhart, Sandra; Lorenz, Eckehard; Halle, Winfried; Wiedemann, Werner; Siegert, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Vast and disastrous fires occurred on Borneo during the 2015 dry season, pushing Indonesia into the top five carbon emitting countries. The region was affected by a very strong El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate phenomenon, on par with the last severe event in 1997/98. Fire dynamics in Central Kalimantan were investigated using an innovative sensor offering higher sensitivity to a wider range of fire intensities at a finer spatial resolution (160 m) than heretofore available. The sensor is onboard the TET-1 satellite, part of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) FireBird mission. TET-1 images (acquired every 2–3 days) from the middle infrared were used to detect fires continuously burning for almost three weeks in the protected peatlands of Sebangau National Park as well as surrounding areas with active logging and oil palm concessions. TET-1 detection capabilities were compared with MODIS active fire detection and Landsat burned area algorithms. Fire dynamics, including fire front propagation speed and area burned, were investigated. We show that TET-1 has improved detection capabilities over MODIS in monitoring low-intensity peatland fire fronts through thick smoke and haze. Analysis of fire dynamics revealed that the largest burned areas resulted from fire front lines started from multiple locations, and the highest propagation speeds were in excess of 500 m/day (all over peat > 2m deep). Fires were found to occur most often in concessions that contained drainage infrastructure but were not cleared prior to the fire season. Benefits of implementing this sensor system to improve current fire management techniques are discussed. Near real-time fire detection together with enhanced fire behavior monitoring capabilities would not only improve firefighting efforts, but also benefit analysis of fire impact on tropical peatlands, greenhouse gas emission estimations as well as mitigation measures to reduce severe fire events in the future. PMID:27486664

  2. Detection and Characterization of Low Temperature Peat Fires during the 2015 Fire Catastrophe in Indonesia Using a New High-Sensitivity Fire Monitoring Satellite Sensor (FireBird).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Elizabeth C; Englhart, Sandra; Lorenz, Eckehard; Halle, Winfried; Wiedemann, Werner; Siegert, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Vast and disastrous fires occurred on Borneo during the 2015 dry season, pushing Indonesia into the top five carbon emitting countries. The region was affected by a very strong El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate phenomenon, on par with the last severe event in 1997/98. Fire dynamics in Central Kalimantan were investigated using an innovative sensor offering higher sensitivity to a wider range of fire intensities at a finer spatial resolution (160 m) than heretofore available. The sensor is onboard the TET-1 satellite, part of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) FireBird mission. TET-1 images (acquired every 2-3 days) from the middle infrared were used to detect fires continuously burning for almost three weeks in the protected peatlands of Sebangau National Park as well as surrounding areas with active logging and oil palm concessions. TET-1 detection capabilities were compared with MODIS active fire detection and Landsat burned area algorithms. Fire dynamics, including fire front propagation speed and area burned, were investigated. We show that TET-1 has improved detection capabilities over MODIS in monitoring low-intensity peatland fire fronts through thick smoke and haze. Analysis of fire dynamics revealed that the largest burned areas resulted from fire front lines started from multiple locations, and the highest propagation speeds were in excess of 500 m/day (all over peat > 2m deep). Fires were found to occur most often in concessions that contained drainage infrastructure but were not cleared prior to the fire season. Benefits of implementing this sensor system to improve current fire management techniques are discussed. Near real-time fire detection together with enhanced fire behavior monitoring capabilities would not only improve firefighting efforts, but also benefit analysis of fire impact on tropical peatlands, greenhouse gas emission estimations as well as mitigation measures to reduce severe fire events in the future.

  3. Neuromorphic infrared focal plane performs sensor fusion on-plane local-contrast-enhancement spatial and temporal filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, Mark A.; Woolaway, James T., II; Curzan, Jon P.; McCarley, Paul L.

    1993-08-01

    An infrared focal plane has been simulated, designed and fabricated which mimics the form and function of the vertebrate retina. The `Neuromorphic' focal plane has the capability of performing pixel-based sensor fusion and real-time local contrast enhancement, much like the response of the human eye. The device makes use of an indium antimonide detector array with a 3 - 5 micrometers spectral response, and a switched capacitor resistive network to compute a real-time 2D spatial average. This device permits the summation of other sensor outputs to be combined on-chip with the infrared detections of the focal plane itself. The resulting real-time analog processed information thus represents the combined information of many sensors with the advantage that analog spatial and temporal signal processing is performed at the focal plane. A Gaussian subtraction method is used to produce the pixel output which when displayed produces an image with enhanced edges, representing spatial and temporal derivatives in the scene. The spatial and temporal responses of the device are tunable during operation, permitting the operator to `peak up' the response of the array to spatial and temporally varying signals. Such an array adapts to ambient illumination conditions without loss of detection performance. This paper reviews the Neuromorphic infrared focal plane from initial operational simulations to detailed design characteristics, and concludes with a presentation of preliminary operational data for the device as well as videotaped imagery.

  4. Thermal emission before earthquakes by analyzing satellite infra-red data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, D.; Taylor, P.; Bryant, N.; Pulinets, S.; Freund, F.

    2004-05-01

    Satellite thermal imaging data indicate long-lived thermal anomaly fields associated with large linear structures and fault systems in the Earth's crust but also with short-lived anomalies prior to major earthquakes. Positive anomalous land surface temperature excursions of the order of 3-4oC have been observed from NOAA/AVHRR, GOES/METEOSAT and EOS Terra/Aqua satellites prior to some major earthquake around the world. The rapid time-dependent evolution of the "thermal anomaly" suggests that is changing mid-IR emissivity from the earth. These short-lived "thermal anomalies", however, are very transient therefore there origin has yet to be determined. Their areal extent and temporal evolution may be dependent on geology, tectonic, focal mechanism, meteorological conditions and other factors.This work addresses the relationship between tectonic stress, electro-chemical and thermodynamic processes in the atmosphere and increasing mid-IR flux as part of a larger family of electromagnetic (EM) phenomena related to seismic activity.We still need to understand better the link between seismo-mechanical processes in the crust, on the surface, and at the earth-atmospheric interface that trigger thermal anomalies. This work serves as an introduction to our effort to find an answer to this question. We will present examples from the strong earthquakes that have occurred in the Americas during 2003/2004 and the techniques used to record the thermal emission mid-IR anomalies, geomagnetic and ionospheric variations that appear to associated with impending earthquake activity.

  5. Online analysis of H2S and SO2 via advanced mid-infrared gas sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruci, João Flavio da Silveira; Wilk, Andreas; Cardoso, Arnaldo Alves; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2015-10-06

    Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are among the most prevalent emitted pollutants in urban and rural atmospheres. Mainly because of the versatility of sulfur regarding its oxidation state (2- to 6+), VSCs are present in a wide variety of redox-environments, concentration levels, and molar ratios. Among the VSCs, hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide are considered most relevant and have simultaneously been detected within naturally and anthropogenically caused emission events (e.g., volcano emissions, food production and industries, coal pyrolysis, and various biological activities). Next to their presence as pollutants, changes within their molar ratio may also indicate natural anomalies. Prior to analysis, H2S- and SO2-containing samples are usually preconcentrated via solid sorbents and are then detected by gas chromatographic techniques. However, such analytical strategies may be of limited selectivity, and the dimensions and operation modalities of the involved instruments prevent routine field usage. In this contribution, we therefore describe an innovative portable mid-infrared chemical sensor for simultaneously determining and quantifying gaseous H2S and SO2 via coupling a substrate-integrated hollow waveguides (iHWG) serving as a highly miniaturized mid-infrared photon conduit and gas cell with a custom-made preconcentration tube and an in-line UV-converter device. Both species were collected onto a solid sorbent within the preconcentrator and then released by thermal desorption into the UV-device. Hydrogen sulfide is detected by UV-assisted quantitative conversion of the rather weak IR-absorber H2S into SO2, which provides a significantly more pronounced and distinctively detectable rovibrational signature. Modulation of the UV-device system (i.e., UV-lamp on/off) enables discriminating between SO2 generated from H2S conversion and abundant SO2 signals. After optimization of the operational parameters, calibrations in the range of 0.75-10 ppmv with a limit

  6. A Novel Solid State Non-Dispersive Infrared CO2 Gas Sensor Compatible with Wireless and Portable Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond Gibson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes development of a novel mid-infrared light emitting diode (LED and photodiode (PD light source/detector combination and use within a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR carbon dioxide gas sensor. The LED/PD based NDIR sensor provides fast stabilisation time (time required to turn on the sensor from cold, warm up, take and report a measurement, and power down again ≈1 second, longevity (>15 years, low power consumption and low cost. Described performance is compatible with “fit and forget” wireless deployed sensors in applications such as indoor air quality monitoring/control & energy conservation in buildings, transport systems, horticultural greenhouses and portable deployment for safety, industrial and medical applications. Fast stabilisation time, low intrinsic power consumption and cycled operation offer typical energy consumption per measurement of mJ’s, providing extended operation using battery and/or energy harvesting strategies (measurement interval of ≈ 2 minutes provides >10 years operation from one AA battery. Specific performance data is provided in relation to measurement accuracy and noise, temperature performance, cross sensitivity, measurement range (two pathlength variants are described covering ambient through to 100% gas concentration, comparison with NDIR utilizing thermal source/pyroelectric light source/detector combination and compatibility with energy harvesting. Semiconductor based LED/PD processing together with injection moulded reflective optics and simple assembly provide a route to low cost high volume manufacturing.

  7. A novel solid state non-dispersive infrared CO2 gas sensor compatible with wireless and portable deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Desmond; MacGregor, Calum

    2013-05-29

    This paper describes development of a novel mid-infrared light emitting diode (LED) and photodiode (PD) light source/detector combination and use within a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) carbon dioxide gas sensor. The LED/PD based NDIR sensor provides fast stabilisation time (time required to turn on the sensor from cold, warm up, take and report a measurement, and power down again ≈1 second), longevity (>15 years), low power consumption and low cost. Described performance is compatible with "fit and forget" wireless deployed sensors in applications such as indoor air quality monitoring/control & energy conservation in buildings, transport systems, horticultural greenhouses and portable deployment for safety, industrial and medical applications. Fast stabilisation time, low intrinsic power consumption and cycled operation offer typical energy consumption per measurement of mJ's, providing extended operation using battery and/or energy harvesting strategies (measurement interval of ≈ 2 minutes provides >10 years operation from one AA battery). Specific performance data is provided in relation to measurement accuracy and noise, temperature performance, cross sensitivity, measurement range (two pathlength variants are described covering ambient through to 100% gas concentration), comparison with NDIR utilizing thermal source/pyroelectric light source/detector combination and compatibility with energy harvesting. Semiconductor based LED/PD processing together with injection moulded reflective optics and simple assembly provide a route to low cost high volume manufacturing.

  8. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Parwan mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter CC in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Parwan mineral district, which has gold and copper deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2006, 2007), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such

  9. Research on cloud background infrared radiation simulation based on fractal and statistical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingrun; Xu, Qingshan; Li, Xia; Wu, Kaifeng; Dong, Yanbing

    2018-02-01

    Cloud is an important natural phenomenon, and its radiation causes serious interference to infrared detector. Based on fractal and statistical data, a method is proposed to realize cloud background simulation, and cloud infrared radiation data field is assigned using satellite radiation data of cloud. A cloud infrared radiation simulation model is established using matlab, and it can generate cloud background infrared images for different cloud types (low cloud, middle cloud, and high cloud) in different months, bands and sensor zenith angles.

  10. Simulation and analysis of Au-MgF2 structure in plasmonic sensor in near infrared spectral region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anuj K.

    2018-05-01

    Plasmonic sensor based on metal-dielectric combination of gold and MgF2 layers is studied in near infrared (NIR) spectral region. An emphasis is given on the effect of variable thickness of MgF2 layer in combination with operating wavelength and gold layer thickness on the sensor's performance in NIR. It is established that the variation in MgF2 thickness in connection with plasmon penetration depth leads to significant variation in sensor's performance. The analysis leads to a conclusion that taking smaller values of MgF2 layer thickness and operating at longer NIR wavelength leads to enhanced sensing performance. Also, fluoride glass can provide better sensing performance than chalcogenide glass and silicon substrate.

  11. A widely tunable, near-infrared laser-based trace gas sensor for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) detection in exhaled breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, M.; Mandon, J.; Neerincx, A. H.; Liu, Z.; Mink, J.; Merkus, P. J. F. M.; Cristescu, S. M.; Harren, F. J. M.

    2017-11-01

    A compact, cost-effective sensor is developed for detection of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in exhaled breath within seconds. For this, an off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy setup is combined with a widely tunable compact near-infrared laser (tunability 1527-1564 nm). For HCN a detection sensitivity has been obtained of 8 ppbv in nitrogen (within 1 s), equal to a noise equivalent absorption sensitivity of 1.9 × 10-9 cm-1 Hz-1/2. With this sensor we demonstrated the presence of HCN in exhaled breath; its detection could be a good indicator for bacterial lung infection. Due to its compact, cost-effective and user-friendly design, this laser-based sensor has the potential to be implemented in future clinical applications.

  12. An Observation Capability Semantic-Associated Approach to the Selection of Remote Sensing Satellite Sensors: A Case Study of Flood Observations in the Jinsha River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuli; Li, Jie; Lin, Xin; Chen, Nengcheng; Yang, Chao

    2018-05-21

    Observation schedules depend upon the accurate understanding of a single sensor’s observation capability and the interrelated observation capability information on multiple sensors. The general ontologies for sensors and observations are abundant. However, few observation capability ontologies for satellite sensors are available, and no study has described the dynamic associations among the observation capabilities of multiple sensors used for integrated observational planning. This limitation results in a failure to realize effective sensor selection. This paper develops a sensor observation capability association (SOCA) ontology model that is resolved around the task-sensor-observation capability (TSOC) ontology pattern. The pattern is developed considering the stimulus-sensor-observation (SSO) ontology design pattern, which focuses on facilitating sensor selection for one observation task. The core aim of the SOCA ontology model is to achieve an observation capability semantic association. A prototype system called SemOCAssociation was developed, and an experiment was conducted for flood observations in the Jinsha River basin in China. The results of this experiment verified that the SOCA ontology based association method can help sensor planners intuitively and accurately make evidence-based sensor selection decisions for a given flood observation task, which facilitates efficient and effective observational planning for flood satellite sensors.

  13. An Observation Capability Semantic-Associated Approach to the Selection of Remote Sensing Satellite Sensors: A Case Study of Flood Observations in the Jinsha River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuli Hu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Observation schedules depend upon the accurate understanding of a single sensor’s observation capability and the interrelated observation capability information on multiple sensors. The general ontologies for sensors and observations are abundant. However, few observation capability ontologies for satellite sensors are available, and no study has described the dynamic associations among the observation capabilities of multiple sensors used for integrated observational planning. This limitation results in a failure to realize effective sensor selection. This paper develops a sensor observation capability association (SOCA ontology model that is resolved around the task-sensor-observation capability (TSOC ontology pattern. The pattern is developed considering the stimulus-sensor-observation (SSO ontology design pattern, which focuses on facilitating sensor selection for one observation task. The core aim of the SOCA ontology model is to achieve an observation capability semantic association. A prototype system called SemOCAssociation was developed, and an experiment was conducted for flood observations in the Jinsha River basin in China. The results of this experiment verified that the SOCA ontology based association method can help sensor planners intuitively and accurately make evidence-based sensor selection decisions for a given flood observation task, which facilitates efficient and effective observational planning for flood satellite sensors.

  14. Geostationary Satellite (GOES) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from radiometer instruments on SMS (ATS) and GOES satellites in geostationary orbit. These satellites produced...

  15. Hoar crystal development and disappearance at Dome C, Antarctica: observation by near-infrared photography and passive microwave satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Champollion

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hoar crystals episodically cover the snow surface in Antarctica and affect the roughness and reflective properties of the air–snow interface. However, little is known about their evolution and the processes responsible for their development and disappearance despite a probable influence on the surface mass balance and energy budget. To investigate hoar evolution, we use continuous observations of the surface by in situ near-infrared photography and by passive microwave remote sensing at Dome C in Antarctica. From the photography data, we retrieved a daily indicator of the presence/absence of hoar crystals using a texture analysis algorithm. The analysis of this 2 yr long time series shows that Dome C surface is covered almost half of the time by hoar. The development of hoar crystals takes a few days and seems to occur whatever the meteorological conditions. In contrast, the disappearance of hoar is rapid (a few hours and coincident with either strong winds or with moderate winds associated with a change in wind direction from southwest (the prevailing direction to southeast. From the microwave satellite data, we computed the polarisation ratio (i.e. horizontal over vertical polarised brightness temperatures, an indicator known to be sensitive to hoar in Greenland. Photography data and microwave polarisation ratio are correlated, i.e. high values of polarisation ratio which theoretically correspond to low snow density values near the surface are associated with the presence of hoar crystals in the photography data. Satellite data over nearly ten years (2002–2011 confirm that a strong decrease of the polarisation ratio (i.e. signature of hoar disappearance is associated with an increase of wind speed or a change in wind direction from the prevailing direction. The photography data provides, in addition, evidence of interactions between hoar and snowfall. Further adding the combined influence of wind speed and wind direction results in a

  16. Multi-sensor satellite and in situ monitoring of phytoplankton development in a eutrophic-mesotrophic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörnhöfer, Katja; Klinger, Philip; Heege, Thomas; Oppelt, Natascha

    2018-01-15

    Phytoplankton indicated by its photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll-a is an important pointer on lake ecology and a regularly monitored parameter within the European Water Framework Directive. Along with eutrophication and global warming cyanobacteria gain increasing importance concerning human health aspects. Optical remote sensing may support both the monitoring of horizontal distribution of phytoplankton and cyanobacteria at the lake surface and the reduction of spatial uncertainties associated with limited water sample analyses. Temporal and spatial resolution of using only one satellite sensor, however, may constrain its information value. To discuss the advantages of a multi-sensor approach the sensor-independent, physically based model MIP (Modular Inversion and Processing System) was applied at Lake Kummerow, Germany, and lake surface chlorophyll-a was derived from 33 images of five different sensors (MODIS-Terra, MODIS-Aqua, Landsat 8, Landsat 7 and Sentinel-2A). Remotely sensed lake average chlorophyll-a concentration showed a reasonable development and varied between 2.3±0.4 and 35.8±2.0mg·m -3 from July to October 2015. Match-ups between in situ and satellite chlorophyll-a revealed varying performances of Landsat 8 (RMSE: 3.6 and 19.7mg·m -3 ), Landsat 7 (RMSE: 6.2mg·m -3 ), Sentinel-2A (RMSE: 5.1mg·m -3 ) and MODIS (RMSE: 12.8mg·m -3 ), whereas an in situ data uncertainty of 48% needs to be respected. The temporal development of an index on harmful algal blooms corresponded well with the cyanobacteria biomass development during summer months. Satellite chlorophyll-a maps allowed to follow spatial patterns of chlorophyll-a distribution during a phytoplankton bloom event. Wind conditions mainly explained spatial patterns. Integrating satellite chlorophyll-a into trophic state assessment resulted in different trophic classes. Our study endorsed a combined use of satellite and in situ chlorophyll-a data to alleviate weaknesses of both approaches and

  17. Modeling UV-B Effects on Primary Production Throughout the Southern Ocean Using Multi-Sensor Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Dan

    2001-01-01

    This study has used a combination of ocean color, backscattered ultraviolet, and passive microwave satellite data to investigate the impact of the springtime Antarctic ozone depletion on the base of the Antarctic marine food web - primary production by phytoplankton. Spectral ultraviolet (UV) radiation fields derived from the satellite data are propagated into the water column where they force physiologically-based numerical models of phytoplankton growth. This large-scale study has been divided into two components: (1) the use of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) data in conjunction with radiative transfer theory to derive the surface spectral UV irradiance throughout the Southern Ocean; and (2) the merging of these UV irradiances with the climatology of chlorophyll derived from SeaWiFS data to specify the input data for the physiological models.

  18. Comparison of Three Non-Imaging Angle-Diversity Receivers as Input Sensors of Nodes for Indoor Infrared Wireless Sensor Networks: Theory and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz R. Mendoza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In general, the use of angle-diversity receivers makes it possible to reduce the impact of ambient light noise, path loss and multipath distortion, in part by exploiting the fact that they often receive the desired signal from different directions. Angle-diversity detection can be performed using a composite receiver with multiple detector elements looking in different directions. These are called non-imaging angle-diversity receivers. In this paper, a comparison of three non-imaging angle-diversity receivers as input sensors of nodes for an indoor infrared (IR wireless sensor network is presented. The receivers considered are the conventional angle-diversity receiver (CDR, the sectored angle-diversity receiver (SDR, and the self-orienting receiver (SOR, which have been proposed or studied by research groups in Spain. To this end, the effective signal-collection area of the three receivers is modelled and a Monte-Carlo-based ray-tracing algorithm is implemented which allows us to investigate the effect on the signal to noise ratio and main IR channel parameters, such as path loss and rms delay spread, of using the three receivers in conjunction with different combination techniques in IR links operating at low bit rates. Based on the results of the simulations, we show that the use of a conventional angle-diversity receiver in conjunction with the equal-gain combining technique provides the solution with the best signal to noise ratio, the lowest computational capacity and the lowest transmitted power requirements, which comprise the main limitations for sensor nodes in an indoor infrared wireless sensor network.

  19. Modeling the distribution of Schistosoma mansoni and host snails in Uganda using satellite sensor data and Geographical Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Jørgensen, A; Kabatereine, N B

    2005-01-01

    The potential value of MODIS satellite sensor data on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and land surface temperatures (LST) for describing the distribution of the Schistosoma mansoni-"Biomphalaria pfeifferi"/Biomphalaria sudanica parasite-snail system in inland Uganda, were tested...... by developing annual and seasonal composite models, and iteratively analysing for their relationship with parasite and snail distribution. The dry season composite model predicted an endemic area that produced the best fit with the distribution of schools with > or =5% prevalence. NDVI values of 151-174, day...

  20. A SERS-active sensor based on heterogeneous gold nanostar core-silver nanoparticle satellite assemblies for ultrasensitive detection of aflatoxinB1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Aike; Tang, Lijuan; Song, Dan; Song, Shanshan; Ma, Wei; Xu, Liguang; Kuang, Hua; Wu, Xiaoling; Liu, Liqiang; Chen, Xin; Xu, Chuanlai

    2016-01-28

    A surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensor based on gold nanostar (Au NS) core-silver nanoparticle (Ag NP) satellites was fabricated for the first time to detect aflatoxinB1 (AFB1). We constructed the SERS sensor using AFB1 aptamer (DNA1)-modified Ag satellites and a complementary sequence (DNA2)-modified Au NS core. The Raman label (ATP) was modified on the surface of Ag satellites. The SERS signal was enhanced when the satellite NP was attached to the Au core NS. The AFB1 aptamer on the surface of Ag satellites would bind to the targets when AFB1 was present in the system, Ag satellites were then removed and the SERS signal decreased. This SERS sensor showed superior specificity for AFB1 and the linear detection range was from 1 to 1000 pg mL(-1) with the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.48 pg mL(-1). The excellent recovery experiment using peanut milk demonstrated that the sensor could be applied in food and environmental detection.

  1. Ground and satellite-based remote sensing of mineral dust using AERI spectra and MODIS thermal infrared window brightness temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansell, Richard Allen, Jr.

    The radiative effects of dust aerosol on our climate system have yet to be fully understood and remain a topic of contemporary research. To investigate these effects, detection/retrieval methods for dust events over major dust outbreak and transport areas have been developed using satellite and ground-based approaches. To this end, both the shortwave and longwave surface radiative forcing of dust aerosol were investigated. The ground-based remote sensing approach uses the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer brightness temperature spectra to detect mineral dust events and to retrieve their properties. Taking advantage of the high spectral resolution of the AERI instrument, absorptive differences in prescribed thermal IR window sub-band channels were exploited to differentiate dust from cirrus clouds. AERI data collected during the UAE2 at Al-Ain UAE was employed for dust retrieval. Assuming a specified dust composition model a priori and using the light scattering programs of T-matrix and the finite difference time domain methods for oblate spheroids and hexagonal plates, respectively, dust optical depths have been retrieved and compared to those inferred from a collocated and coincident AERONET sun-photometer dataset. The retrieved optical depths were then used to determine the dust longwave surface forcing during the UAE2. Likewise, dust shortwave surface forcing is investigated employing a differential technique from previous field studies. The satellite-based approach uses MODIS thermal infrared brightness temperature window data for the simultaneous detection/separation of mineral dust and cirrus clouds. Based on the spectral variability of dust emissivity at the 3.75, 8.6, 11 and 12 mum wavelengths, the D*-parameter, BTD-slope and BTD3-11 tests are combined to identify dust and cirrus. MODIS data for the three dust-laden scenes have been analyzed to demonstrate the effectiveness of this detection/separation method. Detected daytime dust and cloud

  2. Rapid and mobile determination of alcoholic strength in wine, beer and spirits using a flow-through infrared sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Godelmann, Rolf; Steiner, Markus; Ansay, Bob; Weigel, Jürgen; Krieg, Gunther

    2010-03-23

    Ever since Gay-Lussac's time, the alcoholic strength by volume (% vol) has been determined by using densimetric measurements. The typical reference procedure involves distillation followed by pycnometry, which is comparably labour-intensive and therefore expensive. At present, infrared (IR) spectroscopy in combination with multivariate regression is widely applied as a screening procedure, which allows one to determine alcoholic strength in less than 2 min without any sample preparation. The disadvantage is the relatively large investment for Fourier transform (FT) IR or near-IR instruments, and the need for matrix-dependent calibration. In this study, we apply a much simpler device consisting of a patented multiple-beam infrared sensor in combination with a flow-through cell for automated alcohol analysis, which is available in a portable version that allows for on-site measurements. During method validation, the precision of the infrared sensor was found to be equal to or better than densimetric or FTIR methods. For example, the average repeatability, as determined in 6 different wine samples, was 0.05% vol and the relative standard deviation was below 0.2%. Accuracy was ensured by analyzing 260 different alcoholic beverages in comparison to densimetric or FTIR results. The correlation was linear over the entire range from alcohol-free beers up to high-proof spirits, and the results were in substantial agreement (R = 0.99981, p wines during fermentation, and for the determination of unrecorded alcohol (i.e. non-commercial or illicit products). The flow-through infrared device is much easier to handle than typical reference procedures, while time-consuming sample preparation steps such as distillation are not necessary. Therefore, the alcoholic strength can be economically and quickly controlled (requiring less than 60 s per sample). The device also gives the opportunity for mobile on-site control in the context of labelling control of wine, beer and spirits, the

  3. Rapid and mobile determination of alcoholic strength in wine, beer and spirits using a flow-through infrared sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansay Bob

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ever since Gay-Lussac's time, the alcoholic strength by volume (% vol has been determined by using densimetric measurements. The typical reference procedure involves distillation followed by pycnometry, which is comparably labour-intensive and therefore expensive. At present, infrared (IR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate regression is widely applied as a screening procedure, which allows one to determine alcoholic strength in less than 2 min without any sample preparation. The disadvantage is the relatively large investment for Fourier transform (FT IR or near-IR instruments, and the need for matrix-dependent calibration. In this study, we apply a much simpler device consisting of a patented multiple-beam infrared sensor in combination with a flow-through cell for automated alcohol analysis, which is available in a portable version that allows for on-site measurements. Results During method validation, the precision of the infrared sensor was found to be equal to or better than densimetric or FTIR methods. For example, the average repeatability, as determined in 6 different wine samples, was 0.05% vol and the relative standard deviation was below 0.2%. Accuracy was ensured by analyzing 260 different alcoholic beverages in comparison to densimetric or FTIR results. The correlation was linear over the entire range from alcohol-free beers up to high-proof spirits, and the results were in substantial agreement (R = 0.99981, p Conclusions The flow-through infrared device is much easier to handle than typical reference procedures, while time-consuming sample preparation steps such as distillation are not necessary. Therefore, the alcoholic strength can be economically and quickly controlled (requiring less than 60 s per sample. The device also gives the opportunity for mobile on-site control in the context of labelling control of wine, beer and spirits, the process monitoring of fermentations, or the evaluation of

  4. Humidity fluctuations in the marine boundary layer measured at a coastal site with an infrared humidity sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sempreviva, A.M.; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    1996-01-01

    An extensive set of humidity turbulence data has been analyzed from 22-m height in the marine boundary layer. Fluctuations of humidity were measured by an ''OPHIR'', an infrared humidity sensor with a 10 Hz scanning frequency and humidity spectra were produced. The shapes of the normalized spectra...... follow the established similarity functions. However the 10-min time averaged measurements underestimate the value of the absolute humidity. The importance of the humidity flux contribution in a marine environment in calculating the Obukhov stability length has been studied. Deviations from Monin......-Obukhov similarity theory seem to be connected to a low correlation between humidity and temperature....

  5. Coseismic displacements from SAR image offsets between different satellite sensors: Application to the 2001 Bhuj (India) earthquake

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Teng

    2015-09-05

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image offset tracking is increasingly being used for measuring ground displacements, e.g., due to earthquakes and landslide movement. However, this technique has been applied only to images acquired by the same or identical satellites. Here we propose a novel approach for determining offsets between images acquired by different satellite sensors, extending the usability of existing SAR image archives. The offsets are measured between two multiimage reflectivity maps obtained from different SAR data sets, which provide significantly better results than with single preevent and postevent images. Application to the 2001 Mw7.6 Bhuj earthquake reveals, for the first time, its near-field deformation using multiple preearthquake ERS and postearthquake Envisat images. The rupture model estimated from these cross-sensor offsets and teleseismic waveforms shows a compact fault slip pattern with fairly short rise times (<3 s) and a large stress drop (20 MPa), explaining the intense shaking observed in the earthquake.

  6. A low cost mid-infrared sensor for on line contamination monitoring of lubricating oils in marine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Mohammadi, L.; Kullmann, F.; Holzki, M.; Sigloch, S.; Klotzbuecher, T.; Spiesen, J.; Tommingas, T.; Weismann, P.; Kimber, G.

    2010-04-01

    The chemical and physical condition of oils in marine engines must be monitored to ensure optimum performance of the engine and to avoid damage by degraded oil not adequately lubricating the engine. Routine monitoring requires expensive laboratory testing and highly skilled analysts. This work describes the adaptation and implementation of a mid infrared (MIR) sensor module for continued oil condition monitoring in two-stroke and four-stroke diesel engines. The developed sensor module will help to reduce costs in oil analysis by eliminating the need to collect and send samples to a laboratory for analysis. The online MIR-Sensor module measures the contamination of oil with water, soot, as well as the degradation indicated by the TBN (Total Base Number) value. For the analysis of water, TBN, and soot in marine engine oils, four spectral regions of interest have been identified. The optical absorption in these bands correlating with the contaminations is measured simultaneously by using a four-field thermopile detector, combined with appropriate bandpass filters. Recording of the MIR-absorption was performed in a transmission mode using a flow-through cell with appropriate path length. Since in this case no spectrometer is required, the sensor including the light source, the flowthrough- cell, and the detector can be realised at low cost and in a very compact manner. The optical configuration of the sensor with minimal component number and signal intensity optimisation at the four-field detector was implemented by using non-sequential ray tracing simulation. The used calibration model was robust enough to predict accurately the value for soot, water, and TBN concentration for two-stroke and four-stroke engine oils. The sensor device is designed for direct installation on the host engine or machine and, therefore, becoming an integral part of the lubrication system. It can also be used as a portable stand-alone system for machine fluid analysis in the field.

  7. Characterization of silicon micro-strip sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser system for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, P.

    2015-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR is composed of 8 tracking stations consisting of 1292 double sided silicon micro-strip sensors. For the quality assurance of produced prototype sensors a laser test system (LTS) has been developed. The aim of the LTS is to scan sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser driven by step motor to determine the charge sharing in-between strips and to measure qualitative uniformity of the sensor response over the whole active area. The prototype sensors which are tested with the LTS so far have 256 strips with a pitch of 50 μm on each side. They are read-out using a self-triggering prototype read-out electronic ASIC called n-XYTER. The LTS is designed to measure sensor response in an automatized procedure at several thousand positions across the sensor with focused infra-red laser light (spot size ≈ 12 μm , wavelength = 1060 nm). The pulse with duration (≈ 10 ns) and power (≈ 5 mW) of the laser pulses is selected such, that the absorption of the laser light in the 300 μm thick silicon sensors produces a number of about 24000 electrons, which is similar to the charge created by minimum ionizing particles (MIP) in these sensors. Laser scans different prototype sensors is reported

  8. AROSICS: An Automated and Robust Open-Source Image Co-Registration Software for Multi-Sensor Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Scheffler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Geospatial co-registration is a mandatory prerequisite when dealing with remote sensing data. Inter- or intra-sensoral misregistration will negatively affect any subsequent image analysis, specifically when processing multi-sensoral or multi-temporal data. In recent decades, many algorithms have been developed to enable manual, semi- or fully automatic displacement correction. Especially in the context of big data processing and the development of automated processing chains that aim to be applicable to different remote sensing systems, there is a strong need for efficient, accurate and generally usable co-registration. Here, we present AROSICS (Automated and Robust Open-Source Image Co-Registration Software, a Python-based open-source software including an easy-to-use user interface for automatic detection and correction of sub-pixel misalignments between various remote sensing datasets. It is independent of spatial or spectral characteristics and robust against high degrees of cloud coverage and spectral and temporal land cover dynamics. The co-registration is based on phase correlation for sub-pixel shift estimation in the frequency domain utilizing the Fourier shift theorem in a moving-window manner. A dense grid of spatial shift vectors can be created and automatically filtered by combining various validation and quality estimation metrics. Additionally, the software supports the masking of, e.g., clouds and cloud shadows to exclude such areas from spatial shift detection. The software has been tested on more than 9000 satellite images acquired by different sensors. The results are evaluated exemplarily for two inter-sensoral and two intra-sensoral use cases and show registration results in the sub-pixel range with root mean square error fits around 0.3 pixels and better.

  9. A near-infrared fluorescent sensor for H+ in aqueous solution and living cells

    OpenAIRE

    WU, Aibin; DUAN, Liping

    2014-01-01

    A heptamethine cyanine-based sensor (1) was designed and synthesized by incorporating heptamethine cyanine fluorophore and methylpiperazine. Sensor 1 exhibited good response to the change of pH levels, and a large Stokes shift (>100 nm) was obtained. Fluorescent image experiments in living cells further demonstrated its potential applications in biological systems.

  10. Infrared Multispectral Sensor Program, Phase 2. Field Measurements, Analysis and Modeling. Volume 1. Fourier Transform Spectrometer Sensor Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    TskY=250K) ... 5-27 6-1. Treeline Correlation With 10.1 Microns ...................... 6-2 6-2. Mean Contrast: CARC Panel vs. Treeline ...6-3 6-3. CARC Panel and Treeline .............................. 6-5 6-4. Signal-to-Clutter Ratio for CARC Panel vs. Treeline ............. 6-6 6...5. Low Emissivity Panel and Treeline ......................... 6-7 xii TABLES 4-1: Sensor Characterization Test Summary ....................... 4-2 4

  11. Assessment of near infrared and "software sensor" for biomass monitoring and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soons, Z.I.T.A.; Streefland, M.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Spectroscopic instrumentation is often seen as promising for process analytical technology (PAT) to enhance control of manufacturing (bio)pharmaceuticals. The interpretation of near infrared spectra is challenging due to the large number of wavelengths recorded and the overlapping absorbance

  12. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of the GÖKTÜRK-2 Satellite Sensor Using Tuz GÖLÜ (landnet Site) from Ndvi Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakarya, Ufuk; Hakkı Demirhan, İsmail; Seda Deveci, Hüsne; Teke, Mustafa; Demirkesen, Can; Küpçü, Ramazan; Feray Öztoprak, A.; Efendioğlu, Mehmet; Fehmi Şimşek, F.; Berke, Erdinç; Zübeyde Gürbüz, Sevgi

    2016-06-01

    TÜBİTAK UZAY has conducted a research study on the use of space-based satellite resources for several aspects of agriculture. Especially, there are two precision agriculture related projects: HASSAS (Widespread application of sustainable precision agriculture practices in Southeastern Anatolia Project Region (GAP) Project) and AKTAR (Smart Agriculture Feasibility Project). The HASSAS project aims to study development of precision agriculture practice in GAP region. Multi-spectral satellite imagery and aerial hyperspectral data along with ground measurements was collected to analyze data in an information system. AKTAR aims to develop models for irrigation, fertilization and spectral signatures of crops in Inner Anatolia. By the end of the project precision agriculture practices to control irrigation, fertilization, pesticide and estimation of crop yield will be developed. Analyzing the phenology of crops using NDVI is critical for the projects. For this reason, absolute radiometric calibration of the Red and NIR bands in space-based satellite sensors is an important issue. The Göktürk-2 satellite is an earth observation satellite which was designed and built in Turkey and was launched in 2012. The Göktürk-2 satellite sensor has a resolution 2.5 meters in panchromatic and 5 meters in R/G/B/NIR bands. The absolute radiometric calibration of the Göktürk-2 satellite sensor was performed via the ground-based measurements - spectra-radiometer, sun photometer, and meteorological station- in Tuz Gölü cal/val site in 2015. In this paper, the first ground-based absolute radiometric calibration results of the Göktürk-2 satellite sensor using Tuz Gölü is demonstrated. The absolute radiometric calibration results of this paper are compared with the published cross-calibration results of the Göktürk-2 satellite sensor utilizing Landsat 8 imagery. According to the experimental comparison results, the Göktürk-2 satellite sensor coefficients for red and NIR bands

  13. ABSOLUTE RADIOMETRIC CALIBRATION OF THE GÖKTÜRK-2 SATELLITE SENSOR USING TUZ GÖLÜ (LANDNET SITE FROM NDVI PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Sakarya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available TÜBİTAK UZAY has conducted a research study on the use of space-based satellite resources for several aspects of agriculture. Especially, there are two precision agriculture related projects: HASSAS (Widespread application of sustainable precision agriculture practices in Southeastern Anatolia Project Region (GAP Project and AKTAR (Smart Agriculture Feasibility Project. The HASSAS project aims to study development of precision agriculture practice in GAP region. Multi-spectral satellite imagery and aerial hyperspectral data along with ground measurements was collected to analyze data in an information system. AKTAR aims to develop models for irrigation, fertilization and spectral signatures of crops in Inner Anatolia. By the end of the project precision agriculture practices to control irrigation, fertilization, pesticide and estimation of crop yield will be developed. Analyzing the phenology of crops using NDVI is critical for the projects. For this reason, absolute radiometric calibration of the Red and NIR bands in space-based satellite sensors is an important issue. The Göktürk-2 satellite is an earth observation satellite which was designed and built in Turkey and was launched in 2012. The Göktürk-2 satellite sensor has a resolution 2.5 meters in panchromatic and 5 meters in R/G/B/NIR bands. The absolute radiometric calibration of the Göktürk-2 satellite sensor was performed via the ground-based measurements - spectra-radiometer, sun photometer, and meteorological station- in Tuz Gölü cal/val site in 2015. In this paper, the first ground-based absolute radiometric calibration results of the Göktürk-2 satellite sensor using Tuz Gölü is demonstrated. The absolute radiometric calibration results of this paper are compared with the published cross-calibration results of the Göktürk-2 satellite sensor utilizing Landsat 8 imagery. According to the experimental comparison results, the Göktürk-2 satellite sensor coefficients for

  14. An optical sensor network for vegetation phenology monitoring and satellite data calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklundh, L.; Jin, H.; Schubert, P.

    2011-01-01

    -board Aqua and Terra satellite platforms. PAR fluxes are partitioned into reflected and absorbed components for the ground and canopy. The measurements demonstrate that the instrumentation provides detailed information about the vegetation phenology and variations in reflectance due to snow cover variations......We present a network of sites across Fennoscandia for optical sampling of vegetation properties relevant for phenology monitoring and satellite data calibration. The network currently consists of five sites, distributed along an N-S gradient through Sweden and Finland. Two sites are located...... and vegetation development. Valuable information about PAR absorption of ground and canopy is obtained that may be linked to vegetation productivity....

  15. Three-dimensional location of target fish by monocular infrared imaging sensor based on a L-z correlation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kai; Zhou, Chao; Xu, Daming; Guo, Qiang; Yang, Xinting; Sun, Chuanheng

    2018-01-01

    Monitoring of fish behavior has drawn extensive attention in pharmacological research, water environmental assessment, bio-inspired robot design and aquaculture. Given that an infrared sensor is low cost, no illumination limitation and electromagnetic interference, interest in its use in behavior monitoring has grown considerably, especially in 3D trajectory monitoring to quantify fish behavior on the basis of near infrared absorption of water. However, precise position of vertical dimension (z) remains a challenge, which greatly impacts on infrared tracking system accuracy. Hence, an intensity (L) and coordinate (z) correlation model was proposed to overcome the limitation. In the modelling process, two cameras (top view and side view) were employed synchronously to identify the 3D coordinate of each fish (x-y and z, respectively), and the major challenges were the distortion caused by the perspective effect and the refraction at water boundaries. Therefore, a coordinate correction formulation was designed firstly for the calibration. Then the L-z correlation model was established based on Lambert's absorption law and statistical data analysis, and the model was estimated through monitoring 3D trajectories of four fishes during the day and night. Finally, variations of individuals and limits of the depth detection of the model were discussed. Compared with previous studies, the favorable prediction performance of the model is achieved for 3D trajectory monitoring, which could provide some inspirations for fish behavior monitoring, especially for nocturnal behavior study.

  16. Dispersive infrared spectroscopy measurements of atmospheric CO{sub 2} using a Fabry–Pérot interferometer sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, K.L. [School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Ning, Z., E-mail: zhining@cityu.edu.hk [School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Guy Carpenter Climate Change Centre, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Westerdahl, D. [Ability R and D Energy Research Centre, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Wong, K.C. [School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Sun, Y.W. [Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Hartl, A. [School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Wenig, M.O. [Meteorological Institute, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich (Germany)

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we present the first dispersive infrared spectroscopic (DIRS) measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) using a new scanning Fabry–Pérot interferometer (FPI) sensor. The sensor measures the optical spectra in the mid infrared (3900 nm to 5220 nm) wavelength range with full width half maximum (FWHM) spectral resolution of 78.8 nm at the CO{sub 2} absorption band (∼ 4280 nm) and sampling resolution of 20 nm. The CO{sub 2} concentration is determined from the measured optical absorption spectra by fitting it to the CO{sub 2} reference spectrum. Interference from other major absorbers in the same wavelength range, e.g., carbon monoxide (CO) and water vapor (H{sub 2}O), was taken out by including their reference spectra in the fit as well. The detailed descriptions of the instrumental setup, the retrieval procedure, a modeling study for error analysis as well as laboratory validation using standard gas concentrations are presented. An iterative algorithm to account for the non-linear response of the fit function to the absorption cross sections due to the broad instrument function was developed and tested. A modeling study of the retrieval algorithm showed that errors due to instrument noise can be considerably reduced by using the dispersive spectral information in the retrieval. The mean measurement error of the prototype DIRS CO{sub 2} measurement for 1 minute averaged data is about ± 2.5 ppmv, and down to ± 0.8 ppmv for 10 minute averaged data. A field test of atmospheric CO{sub 2} measurements were carried out in an urban site in Hong Kong for a month and compared to a commercial non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) CO{sub 2} analyzer. 10 minute averaged data shows good agreement between the DIRS and NDIR measurements with Pearson correlation coefficient (R) of 0.99. This new method offers an alternative approach of atmospheric CO{sub 2} measurement featuring high accuracy, correction of non-linear absorption and interference of water

  17. Quantifying the Global Fresh Water Budget: Capabilities from Current and Future Satellite Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Peter; Zaitchik, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    The global water cycle is complex and its components are difficult to measure, particularly at the global scales and with the precision needed for assessing climate impacts. Recent advances in satellite observational capabilities, however, are greatly improving our knowledge of the key terms in the fresh water flux budget. Many components of the of the global water budget, e.g. precipitation, atmospheric moisture profiles, soil moisture, snow cover, sea ice are now routinely measured globally using instruments on satellites such as TRMM, AQUA, TERRA, GRACE, and ICESat, as well as on operational satellites. New techniques, many using data assimilation approaches, are providing pathways toward measuring snow water equivalent, evapotranspiration, ground water, ice mass, as well as improving the measurement quality for other components of the global water budget. This paper evaluates these current and developing satellite capabilities to observe the global fresh water budget, then looks forward to evaluate the potential for improvements that may result from future space missions as detailed by the US Decadal Survey, and operational plans. Based on these analyses, and on the goal of improved knowledge of the global fresh water budget under the effects of climate change, we suggest some priorities for the future, based on new approaches that may provide the improved measurements and the analyses needed to understand and observe the potential speed-up of the global water cycle under the effects of climate change.

  18. Joint Navy and Air Force Infrared Sensor Stimulator (IRSS) Program for Installed Systems Test Facilities (ISTFs)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joyner, Tom

    1998-01-01

    ...) sensors undergoing integrated developmental and operational testing. IRSS generates digital IR scenes in real time to provide a realistic portrayal of IR scene radiance as viewed by and IR system under test in a threat engagement scenario...

  19. New optical sensor systems for high-resolution satellite, airborne and terrestrial imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckardt, Andreas; Börner, Anko; Lehmann, Frank

    2007-10-01

    The department of Optical Information Systems (OS) at the Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) has more than 25 years experience with high-resolution imaging technology. The technology changes in the development of detectors, as well as the significant change of the manufacturing accuracy in combination with the engineering research define the next generation of spaceborne sensor systems focusing on Earth observation and remote sensing. The combination of large TDI lines, intelligent synchronization control, fast-readable sensors and new focal-plane concepts open the door to new remote-sensing instruments. This class of instruments is feasible for high-resolution sensor systems regarding geometry and radiometry and their data products like 3D virtual reality. Systemic approaches are essential for such designs of complex sensor systems for dedicated tasks. The system theory of the instrument inside a simulated environment is the beginning of the optimization process for the optical, mechanical and electrical designs. Single modules and the entire system have to be calibrated and verified. Suitable procedures must be defined on component, module and system level for the assembly test and verification process. This kind of development strategy allows the hardware-in-the-loop design. The paper gives an overview about the current activities at DLR in the field of innovative sensor systems for photogrammetric and remote sensing purposes.

  20. Web-based Data Exploration, Exploitation and Visualization Tools for Satellite Sensor VIS/IR Calibration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, A.; Doelling, D. R.; Scarino, B. R.; Chee, T.; Haney, C.; Bhatt, R.

    2016-12-01

    The CERES calibration group at NASA/LaRC has developed and deployed a suite of online data exploration and visualization tools targeted towards a range of spaceborne VIS/IR imager calibration applications for the Earth Science community. These web-based tools are driven by the open-source R (Language for Statistical Computing and Visualization) with a web interface for the user to customize the results according to their application. The tool contains a library of geostationary and sun-synchronous imager spectral response functions (SRF), incoming solar spectra, SCIAMACHY and Hyperion Earth reflected visible hyper-spectral data, and IASI IR hyper-spectral data. The suite of six specific web-based tools was designed to provide critical information necessary for sensor cross-calibration. One of the challenges of sensor cross-calibration is accounting for spectral band differences and may introduce biases if not handled properly. The spectral band adjustment factors (SBAF) are a function of the earth target, atmospheric and cloud conditions or scene type and angular conditions, when obtaining sensor radiance pairs. The SBAF will need to be customized for each inter-calibration target and sensor pair. The advantages of having a community open source tool are: 1) only one archive of SCIAMACHY, Hyperion, and IASI datasets needs to be maintained, which is on the order of 50TB. 2) the framework will allow easy incorporation of new satellite SRFs and hyper-spectral datasets and associated coincident atmospheric and cloud properties, such as PW. 3) web tool or SBAF algorithm improvements or suggestions when incorporated can benefit the community at large. 4) The customization effort is on the user rather than on the host. In this paper we discuss each of these tools in detail and explore the variety of advanced options that can be used to constrain the results along with specific use cases to highlight the value-added by these datasets.

  1. Feasibility Study on the Development of 2-channel Embedded Infrared Fiber-optic Sensor for Thermometry of Secondary Water System in Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, W. J.; Jang, K. W.; Seo, J. K.; Moon, J.; Han, K. T.; Lee, B.; Park, B. G.

    2011-01-01

    Any warm object by measuring the emitted infrared (IR) radiation. The radiometers using infrared optical fibers are based on the relationship between the temperature of a heat source and the quality and the quantity of an IR radiation. To measure physical properties including a temperature, optical fiber-based sensor has many advantages, such as small size, low cost, high resolution, remote sensing and immunity to electromagnetic radiation over conventional electrical sensors. In this study, we carried out the feasibility study on the development of an embedded IR fiber-optic sensor for thermometry of the secondary water system in a nuclear power plant. The 2-channel embedded fiberoptic temperature sensor was fabricated using two identical IR optical fibers for accurate thermometry without complicated calibration processes. To decide accurate temperature of the water, we measured the difference between the IR radiations emitted from the two temperature sensing probes according to the temperature variation of the water

  2. [Development of a portable mid-infrared rapid analyzer for oil concentration in water based on MEMS linear sensor array].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhi-fan; Zeng, Li-bo; Shi, Lei; Li, Kai; Yang, Yuan-zhou; Wu, Qiong-shui

    2014-06-01

    Aiming at the existing problems such as weak environmental adaptability, low analytic efficiency and poor measuring repeatability in the traditional spectral oil analyzers, the present paper designed a portable mid-infrared rapid analyzer for oil concentration in water. To reduce the volume of the instrument, the non-symmetrical folding M-type Czerny-Turner optical structure was adopted in the core optical path. With a periodically rotating chopper, controlled by digital PID algorithm, applied for infrared light modulation, the modulating accuracy reached ±0.5%. Different from traditional grating-scanning spectrophotometers, this instrument used a fixed grating for light dispersion and avoided rotating error in the course of the measuring procedures. A new-type MEMS infrared linear sensor array was applied for modulated spectral signals detection, which improved the measuring efficiency remarkably. Optical simulation and experimental results indicate that the spectral range is 2 800 - 3 200 cm(-1), the spectral resolution is 6 cm(-1) (@3 130 cm(-1)), and the signal to noise ratio is up to 5 200 : 1. The acquisition time is 13 milliseconds per spectrogram, and the standard deviation of absorbance is less than 3 x 10(-3). These performances meet the standards of oil concentration measurements perfectly. Compared with traditional infrared spectral analyzers for oil concentration, the instrument demonstrated in this paper has many advantages such as smaller size, more efficiency, higher precision, and stronger vibration & moisture isolation. In addition, the proposed instrument is especially suitable for the environmental monitoring departments to implement real-time measurements in the field for oil concentration in water, hence it has broad prospects of application in the field of water quality monitoring.

  3. Detection of high level carbon dioxide emissions using a compact optical fibre based mid-infrared sensor system for applications in environmental pollution monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muda, R; Lewis, E; O' Keeffe, S; Dooly, G; Clifford, J, E-mail: razali.muda@ul.i [Optical Fibre Sensors Research Centre, Electronic and Computer Engineering Department, University of Limerick (Ireland)

    2009-07-01

    A novel and highly compact optical fibre based sensor system for measurement of high concentrations CO{sub 2} gas emissions in modern automotive exhaust is presented. The sensor system works based on the principle of open-path direct absorption spectroscopy in the mid-infrared wavelength range. The sensor system, which comprises low cost components and is compact in design, is well suited for applications in monitoring CO{sub 2} emissions from the exhaust of automotive vehicles. The sensor system utilises calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}) lenses and a narrow band pass (NBP) filter for detection of CO{sub 2} gas. The response of the sensor to high concentrations of CO{sub 2} gas is presented and the result is compared with that of a commercial flue gas analyser. The sensor shows response times of 5.2s and demonstrates minimal susceptibility to cross interferences of other gases present in the exhaust system.

  4. Characterization of silicon micro-strip sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser system for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Pradeep [Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Eschke, Juergen [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research, GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Silicon Tracking System (STS) of the CBM experiment at FAIR is composed of 8 tracking stations comprising of 1292 double-sided silicon micro-strip sensors. A Laser Test System (LTS) has been developed for the quality assurance of prototype sensors. The aim is to scan sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser driven by step motor to determine the charge sharing in-between strips and to measure qualitative uniformity of the sensor response over the whole active area. Several prototype sensors with strip pitch of 50 and 58 μm have been tested, as well as a prototype module with realistic mechanical arrangement of sensor and read-out cables. The LTS is designed to measure sensor response in an automatized procedure across the sensor with focused laser beam (spot-size ∼ 12 μm, wavelength = 1060 nm). The pulse with duration (∼ 10 ns) and power (∼ 5 mW) of the laser pulses is selected such, that the absorption of the laser light in the 300 μm thick silicon sensors produces a number of about 24000 electrons, which is similar to the charge created by minimum ionizing particles (MIP) in these sensors. Results from laser scans of prototype sensors and detector module are reported.

  5. Investigation of Adaptive-threshold Approaches for Determining Area-Time Integrals from Satellite Infrared Data to Estimate Convective Rain Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul L.; VonderHaar, Thomas H.

    1996-01-01

    The principal goal of this project is to establish relationships that would allow application of area-time integral (ATI) calculations based upon satellite data to estimate rainfall volumes. The research is being carried out as a collaborative effort between the two participating organizations, with the satellite data analysis to determine values for the ATIs being done primarily by the STC-METSAT scientists and the associated radar data analysis to determine the 'ground-truth' rainfall estimates being done primarily at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSM&T). Synthesis of the two separate kinds of data and investigation of the resulting rainfall-versus-ATI relationships is then carried out jointly. The research has been pursued using two different approaches, which for convenience can be designated as the 'fixed-threshold approach' and the 'adaptive-threshold approach'. In the former, an attempt is made to determine a single temperature threshold in the satellite infrared data that would yield ATI values for identifiable cloud clusters which are closely related to the corresponding rainfall amounts as determined by radar. Work on the second, or 'adaptive-threshold', approach for determining the satellite ATI values has explored two avenues: (1) attempt involved choosing IR thresholds to match the satellite ATI values with ones separately calculated from the radar data on a case basis; and (2) an attempt involved a striaghtforward screening analysis to determine the (fixed) offset that would lead to the strongest correlation and lowest standard error of estimate in the relationship between the satellite ATI values and the corresponding rainfall volumes.

  6. Determination of the Impact of Urbanization on Agricultural Lands using Multi-temporal Satellite Sensor Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, S.; Alganci, U.; Sertel, E.; Ustundag, B.

    2015-12-01

    Throughout the history, agricultural activities have been performed close to urban areas. Main reason behind this phenomenon is the need of fast marketing of the agricultural production to urban residents and financial provision. Thus, using the areas nearby cities for agricultural activities brings out advantage of easy transportation of productions and fast marketing. For decades, heavy migration to cities has directly and negatively affected natural grasslands, forests and agricultural lands. This pressure has caused agricultural lands to be changed into urban areas. Dense urbanization causes increase in impervious surfaces, heat islands and many other problems in addition to destruction of agricultural lands. Considering the negative impacts of urbanization on agricultural lands and natural resources, a periodic monitoring of these changes becomes indisputably important. At this point, satellite images are known to be good data sources for land cover / use change monitoring with their fast data acquisition, large area coverages and temporal resolution properties. Classification of the satellite images provides thematic the land cover / use maps of the earth surface and changes can be determined with GIS based analysis multi-temporal maps. In this study, effects of heavy urbanization over agricultural lands in Istanbul, metropolitan city of Turkey, were investigated with use of multi-temporal Landsat TM satellite images acquired between 1984 and 2011. Images were geometrically registered to each other and classified using supervised maximum likelihood classification algorithm. Resulting thematic maps were exported to GIS environment and destructed agricultural lands by urbanization were determined using spatial analysis.

  7. HIRS-AMTS satellite sounding system test - Theoretical and empirical vertical resolving power. [High resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder - Advanced Moisture and Temperature Sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, O. E.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the vertical resolving power of satellite-borne temperature sounding instruments. Information is presented on the capabilities of the High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) and a proposed sounding instrument called the Advanced Moisture and Temperature Sounder (AMTS). Two quite different methods for assessing the vertical resolving power of satellite sounders are discussed. The first is the theoretical method of Conrath (1972) which was patterned after the work of Backus and Gilbert (1968) The Backus-Gilbert-Conrath (BGC) approach includes a formalism for deriving a retrieval algorithm for optimizing the vertical resolving power. However, a retrieval algorithm constructed in the BGC optimal fashion is not necessarily optimal as far as actual temperature retrievals are concerned. Thus, an independent criterion for vertical resolving power is discussed. The criterion is based on actual retrievals of signal structure in the temperature field.

  8. Hyperspectral and multispectral satellite sensors for mapping chlorophyll content in a Mediterranean Pinus sylvestris L. plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Cerrillo, Rafael Mª; Trujillo, Jesus; de la Orden, Manuel Sánchez; Hernández-Clemente, Rocío

    2014-02-01

    A new generation of narrow-band hyperspectral remote sensing data offers an alternative to broad-band multispectral data for the estimation of vegetation chlorophyll content. This paper examines the potential of some of these sensors comparing red-edge and simple ratio indices to develop a rapid and cost-effective system for monitoring Mediterranean pine plantations in Spain. Chlorophyll content retrieval was analyzed with the red-edge R750/R710 index and the simple ratio R800/R560 index using the PROSPECT-5 leaf model and the Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART) and experimental approach. Five sensors were used: AHS, CHRIS/Proba, Hyperion, Landsat and QuickBird. The model simulation results obtained with synthetic spectra demonstrated the feasibility of estimating Ca + b content in conifers using the simple ratio R800/R560 index formulated with different full widths at half maximum (FWHM) at the leaf level. This index yielded a r2 = 0.69 for a FWHM of 30 nm and r2 = 0.55 for a FWHM of 70 nm. Experimental results compared the regression coefficients obtained with various multispectral and hyperspectral images with different spatial resolutions at the stand level. The strongest relationships where obtained using high-resolution hyperspectral images acquired with the AHS sensor (r2 = 0.65) while coarser spatial and spectral resolution images yielded a lower root mean square error (QuickBird r2 = 0.42; Landsat r2 = 0.48; Hyperion r2 = 0.56; CHRIS/Proba r2 = 0.57). This study shows the need to estimate chlorophyll content in forest plantations at the stand level with high spatial and spectral resolution sensors. Nevertheless, these results also show the accuracy obtained with medium-resolution sensors when monitoring physiological processes. Generating biochemical maps at the stand level could play a critical rule in the early detection of forest decline processes enabling their use in precision forestry.

  9. Energy-Efficient Transmissions for Remote Wireless Sensor Networks: An Integrated HAP/Satellite Architecture for Emergency Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Feihong; Li, Hongjun; Gong, Xiangwu; Liu, Quan; Wang, Jingchao

    2015-01-01

    A typical application scenario of remote wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is identified as an emergency scenario. One of the greatest design challenges for communications in emergency scenarios is energy-efficient transmission, due to scarce electrical energy in large-scale natural and man-made disasters. Integrated high altitude platform (HAP)/satellite networks are expected to optimally meet emergency communication requirements. In this paper, a novel integrated HAP/satellite (IHS) architecture is proposed, and three segments of the architecture are investigated in detail. The concept of link-state advertisement (LSA) is designed in a slow flat Rician fading channel. The LSA is received and processed by the terminal to estimate the link state information, which can significantly reduce the energy consumption at the terminal end. Furthermore, the transmission power requirements of the HAPs and terminals are derived using the gradient descent and differential equation methods. The energy consumption is modeled at both the source and system level. An innovative and adaptive algorithm is given for the energy-efficient path selection. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive algorithm. It is shown that the proposed adaptive algorithm can significantly improve energy efficiency when combined with the LSA and the energy consumption estimation. PMID:26404292

  10. Energy-Efficient Transmissions for Remote Wireless Sensor Networks: An Integrated HAP/Satellite Architecture for Emergency Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feihong Dong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A typical application scenario of remote wireless sensor networks (WSNs is identified as an emergency scenario. One of the greatest design challenges for communications in emergency scenarios is energy-efficient transmission, due to scarce electrical energy in large-scale natural and man-made disasters. Integrated high altitude platform (HAP/satellite networks are expected to optimally meet emergency communication requirements. In this paper, a novel integrated HAP/satellite (IHS architecture is proposed, and three segments of the architecture are investigated in detail. The concept of link-state advertisement (LSA is designed in a slow flat Rician fading channel. The LSA is received and processed by the terminal to estimate the link state information, which can significantly reduce the energy consumption at the terminal end. Furthermore, the transmission power requirements of the HAPs and terminals are derived using the gradient descent and differential equation methods. The energy consumption is modeled at both the source and system level. An innovative and adaptive algorithm is given for the energy-efficient path selection. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive algorithm. It is shown that the proposed adaptive algorithm can significantly improve energy efficiency when combined with the LSA and the energy consumption estimation.

  11. Energy-Efficient Transmissions for Remote Wireless Sensor Networks: An Integrated HAP/Satellite Architecture for Emergency Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Feihong; Li, Hongjun; Gong, Xiangwu; Liu, Quan; Wang, Jingchao

    2015-09-03

    A typical application scenario of remote wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is identified as an emergency scenario. One of the greatest design challenges for communications in emergency scenarios is energy-efficient transmission, due to scarce electrical energy in large-scale natural and man-made disasters. Integrated high altitude platform (HAP)/satellite networks are expected to optimally meet emergency communication requirements. In this paper, a novel integrated HAP/satellite (IHS) architecture is proposed, and three segments of the architecture are investigated in detail. The concept of link-state advertisement (LSA) is designed in a slow flat Rician fading channel. The LSA is received and processed by the terminal to estimate the link state information, which can significantly reduce the energy consumption at the terminal end. Furthermore, the transmission power requirements of the HAPs and terminals are derived using the gradient descent and differential equation methods. The energy consumption is modeled at both the source and system level. An innovative and adaptive algorithm is given for the energy-efficient path selection. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive algorithm. It is shown that the proposed adaptive algorithm can significantly improve energy efficiency when combined with the LSA and the energy consumption estimation.

  12. Physical assessment of coastal vulnerability under enhanced land subsidence in Semarang, Indonesia, using multi-sensor satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husnayaen; Rimba, A. Besse; Osawa, Takahiro; Parwata, I. Nyoman Sudi; As-syakur, Abd. Rahman; Kasim, Faizal; Astarini, Ida Ayu

    2018-04-01

    Research has been conducted in Semarang, Indonesia, to assess coastal vulnerability under enhanced land subsidence using multi-sensor satellite data, including the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array type L-band SAR (PALSAR), Landsat TM, IKONOS, and TOPEX/Poseidon. A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was constructed to estimate the level of vulnerability of a coastline approximately 48.68 km in length using seven physical variables, namely, land subsidence, relative sea level change, coastal geomorphology, coastal slope, shoreline change, mean tidal range, and significant wave height. A comparison was also performed between a CVI calculated using seven parameters and a CVI using six parameters, the latter of which excludes the land subsidence parameter, to determine the effects of land subsidence during the coastal vulnerability assessment. This study showed that the accuracy of coastal vulnerability was increased 40% by adding the land subsidence factor (i.e., CVI 6 parameters = 53%, CVI 7 parameters = 93%). Moreover, Kappa coefficient indicated very good agreement (0.90) for CVI 7 parameters and fair agreement (0.3) for CVI 6 parameters. The results indicate that the area of very high vulnerability increased by 7% when land subsidence was added. Hence, using the CVI calculation including land subsidence parameters, the very high vulnerability area is determined to be 20% of the total coastline or 9.7 km of the total 48.7 km of coastline. This study proved that land subsidence has significant influence on coastal vulnerability in Semarang.

  13. Simulation of olive grove gross primary production by the combination of ground and multi-sensor satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilli, L.; Chiesi, M.; Maselli, F.; Moriondo, M.; Gioli, B.; Toscano, P.; Zaldei, A.; Bindi, M.

    2013-08-01

    We developed and tested a methodology to estimate olive (Olea europaea L.) gross primary production (GPP) combining ground and multi-sensor satellite data. An eddy-covariance station placed in an olive grove in central Italy provided carbon and water fluxes over two years (2010-2011), which were used as reference to evaluate the performance of a GPP estimation methodology based on a Monteith type model (modified C-Fix) and driven by meteorological and satellite (NDVI) data. A major issue was related to the consideration of the two main olive grove components, i.e. olive trees and inter-tree ground vegetation: this issue was addressed by the separate simulation of carbon fluxes within the two ecosystem layers, followed by their recombination. In this way the eddy covariance GPP measurements were successfully reproduced, with the exception of two periods that followed tillage operations. For these periods measured GPP could be approximated by considering synthetic NDVI values which simulated the expected response of inter-tree ground vegetation to tillages.

  14. An Observation Task Chain Representation Model for Disaster Process-Oriented Remote Sensing Satellite Sensor Planning: A Flood Water Monitoring Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An accurate and comprehensive representation of an observation task is a prerequisite in disaster monitoring to achieve reliable sensor observation planning. However, the extant disaster event or task information models do not fully satisfy the observation requirements for the accurate and efficient planning of remote-sensing satellite sensors. By considering the modeling requirements for a disaster observation task, we propose an observation task chain (OTChain representation model that includes four basic OTChain segments and eight-tuple observation task metadata description structures. A prototype system, namely OTChainManager, is implemented to provide functions for modeling, managing, querying, and visualizing observation tasks. In the case of flood water monitoring, we use a flood remote-sensing satellite sensor observation task for the experiment. The results show that the proposed OTChain representation model can be used in modeling process-owned flood disaster observation tasks. By querying and visualizing the flood observation task instances in the Jinsha River Basin, the proposed model can effectively express observation task processes, represent personalized observation constraints, and plan global remote-sensing satellite sensor observations. Compared with typical observation task information models or engines, the proposed OTChain representation model satisfies the information demands of the OTChain and its processes as well as impels the development of a long time-series sensor observation scheme.

  15. Atmospheric refraction effects on optical-infrared sensor performance in a littoral-maritime environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fritz, P.; Moerman, M.M.; Jong, A.N.; Leeuw, G. de; Winkel, H.

    2004-01-01

    During a number of transmission experiments over littoral waters, quantitative measurements of atmospheric refraction phenomena were carried out to determine the range performance of optical–IR sensors. Examples of distortion and intensity gain generated by spatial variations of the atmospheric

  16. Photodiode-based cutting interruption sensor for near-infrared lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelmann, B; Schleier, M; Neumeier, B; Hellmann, R

    2016-03-01

    We report on a photodiode-based sensor system to detect cutting interruptions during laser cutting with a fiber laser. An InGaAs diode records the thermal radiation from the process zone with a ring mirror and optical filter arrangement mounted between a collimation unit and a cutting head. The photodiode current is digitalized with a sample rate of 20 kHz and filtered with a Chebyshev Type I filter. From the measured signal during the piercing, a threshold value is calculated. When the diode signal exceeds this threshold during cutting, a cutting interruption is indicated. This method is applied to sensor signals from cutting mild steel, stainless steel, and aluminum, as well as different material thicknesses and also laser flame cutting, showing the possibility to detect cutting interruptions in a broad variety of applications. In a series of 83 incomplete cuts, every cutting interruption is successfully detected (alpha error of 0%), while no cutting interruption is reported in 266 complete cuts (beta error of 0%). With this remarkable high detection rate and low error rate, the possibility to work with different materials and thicknesses in combination with the easy mounting of the sensor unit also to existing cutting machines highlight the enormous potential for this sensor system in industrial applications.

  17. Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 4, Volume IV: Inherent Optical Properties: Instruments, Characterizations, Field Measurements and Data Analysis Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, J. L.; Fargion, G. S.; McClain, C. R. (Editor); Pegau, S.; Zanefeld, J. R. V.; Mitchell, B. G.; Kahru, M.; Wieland, J.; Stramska, M.

    2003-01-01

    This document stipulates protocols for measuring bio-optical and radiometric data for the Sensor Intercomparision and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project activities and algorithm development. The document is organized into 6 separate volumes as Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 4. Volume I: Introduction, Background, and Conventions; Volume II: Instrument Specifications, Characterization and Calibration; Volume III: Radiometric Measurements and Data Analysis Methods; Volume IV: Inherent Optical Properties: Instruments, Characterization, Field Measurements and Data Analysis Protocols; Volume V: Biogeochemical and Bio-Optical Measurements and Data Analysis Methods; Volume VI: Special Topics in Ocean Optics Protocols and Appendices. The earlier version of Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 3 is entirely superseded by the six volumes of Revision 4 listed above.

  18. Analysis of satellite data for sensor improvement (detection of severe storms from space)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T. T.

    1984-01-01

    Stereo photography of clouds over southeast Asia was obtained using NOAA-7 and the Japanese GMS. Due to the breakdown of GMS2, GMS1, which had been retired, is being used as the replacement satellite. The launch of GMS should permit the US-Japan stereo experiment to be reactivated. The Lear jet experiment based at Grand Island, Nebraska was successful and provided data on the Redwood Falls clouds & Grand Island thunderstorm; an anvil-top cirrus deck; a circular thunderstorm; and jumping cirrus. The IR temperature field of the thunderstorm which induced the Andrews AFB microburst was analyzed with 1 C accuracy. The microburst and severe thunderstorm project is being planned.

  19. A New Damage Assessment Method by Means of Neural Network and Multi-Sensor Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Piscini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Neural Network (ANN is a valuable and well-established inversion technique for the estimation of geophysical parameters from satellite images. After training, ANNs are able to generate very fast products for several types of applications. Satellite remote sensing is an efficient way to detect and map strong earthquake damage for contributing to post-disaster activities during emergency phases. This work aims at presenting an application of the ANN inversion technique addressed to the evaluation of building collapse ratio (CR, defined as the number of collapsed buildings with respect to the total number of buildings in a city block, by employing optical and SAR satellite data. This is done in order to directly relate changes in images with damage that has occurred during strong earthquakes. Furthermore, once they have been trained, neural networks can be used rapidly at application stage. The goal was to obtain a general tool suitable for re-use in different scenarios. An ANN has been implemented in order to emulate a regression model and to estimate the CR as a continuous function. The adopted ANN has been trained using some features obtained from optical and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images, as inputs, and the corresponding values of collapse ratio obtained from the survey of the 2010 M7 Haiti Earthquake, i.e., as target output. As regards the optical data, we selected three change parameters: the Normalized Difference Index (NDI, the Kullback–Leibler divergence (KLD, and Mutual Information (MI. Concerning the SAR images, the Intensity Correlation Difference (ICD and the KLD parameters have been considered. Exploiting an object-oriented approach, a segmentation of the study area into several regions has been performed. In particular, damage maps have been generated by considering a set of polygons (in which satellite parameters have been calculated extracted from the open source Open Street Map (OSM geo-database. The trained

  20. A Novel Dual Traffic/Flash Flood Monitoring System Using Passive Infrared/Ultrasonic Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa; Odat, Enas M.; Claudel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Floods are the most common type of natural disaster, causing thousands of casualties every year. Among these events, urban flash floods are particularly deadly because of the short timescales on which they occur, and because of the high concentration of population in cities. Since most flash flood casualties are caused by a lack of information, it is critical to generate accurate and detailed warnings of flash floods. However, deploying an infrastructure that solely monitor flash floods makes little economic sense, since the average periodicity of catastrophic flash floods exceeds the lifetime of a typical sensor network. To address this issue, we propose a new sensing device that can simultaneously monitor urban flash floods and another phenomenon of interest (traffic congestion on the present case). This sensing device is based on the combination of an ultrasonic rangefinder with one or multiple remote temperature sensors. We show an implementation of this device, and illustrate its performance in both traffic flow and flash flood sensing. Field data shows that the sensor can detect vehicles with a 99% accuracy, in addition to estimating their speed and classifying them in function of their length. The same sensor can also monitor urban water levels with an accuracy of less than 2 cm. Two of the sensors have been deployed in a flood prone area, where they captured the only (minor) flash flood that occurred over the one-year test period, with no false detection, and an agreement in the estimated water level estimate (during the flash flood event) of about 2 cm.

  1. A Novel Dual Traffic/Flash Flood Monitoring System Using Passive Infrared/Ultrasonic Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa

    2015-10-19

    Floods are the most common type of natural disaster, causing thousands of casualties every year. Among these events, urban flash floods are particularly deadly because of the short timescales on which they occur, and because of the high concentration of population in cities. Since most flash flood casualties are caused by a lack of information, it is critical to generate accurate and detailed warnings of flash floods. However, deploying an infrastructure that solely monitor flash floods makes little economic sense, since the average periodicity of catastrophic flash floods exceeds the lifetime of a typical sensor network. To address this issue, we propose a new sensing device that can simultaneously monitor urban flash floods and another phenomenon of interest (traffic congestion on the present case). This sensing device is based on the combination of an ultrasonic rangefinder with one or multiple remote temperature sensors. We show an implementation of this device, and illustrate its performance in both traffic flow and flash flood sensing. Field data shows that the sensor can detect vehicles with a 99% accuracy, in addition to estimating their speed and classifying them in function of their length. The same sensor can also monitor urban water levels with an accuracy of less than 2 cm. Two of the sensors have been deployed in a flood prone area, where they captured the only (minor) flash flood that occurred over the one-year test period, with no false detection, and an agreement in the estimated water level estimate (during the flash flood event) of about 2 cm.

  2. Application of infrared portable sensor technology for predicting perceived astringency of acidic whey protein beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Tan, Siow-Ying; Mutilangi, William; Plans, Marcal; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis

    2016-12-01

    Formulating whey protein beverages at acidic pH provides better clarity but the beverages typically develop an unpleasant and astringent flavor. Our aim was to evaluate the application of infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics in predicting astringency of acidic whey protein beverages. Whey protein isolate (WPI), whey protein concentrate (WPC), and whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) from different manufacturers were used to formulate beverages at pH ranging from 2.2 to 3.9. Trained panelists using the spectrum method of descriptive analysis tested the beverages providing astringency scores. A portable Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy attenuated total reflectance spectrometer was used for spectra collection that was analyzed by multivariate regression analysis (partial least squares regression) to build calibration models with the sensory astringency scores. Beverage astringency scores fluctuated from 1.9 to 5.2 units and were explained by pH, protein type (WPC, WPI, or WPH), source (manufacturer), and their interactions, revealing the complexity of astringency development in acidic whey protein beverages. The WPC and WPH beverages showed an increase in astringency as the pH of the solution was lowered, but no relationship was found for WPI beverages. The partial least squares regression analysis showed strong relationship between the reference astringency scores and the infrared predicted values (correlation coefficient >0.94), giving standard error of cross-validation ranging from 0.08 to 0.12 units, depending on whey protein type. Major absorption bands explaining astringency scores were associated with carboxylic groups and amide regions of proteins. The portable infrared technique allowed rapid prediction of astringency of acidic whey protein beverages, providing the industry a novel tool for monitoring sensory characteristics of whey-containing beverages. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Utilização Do Sensor Airdas (Airborne Infrared Disaster Assessment System) no monitoramento de desflorestamentos no norte do estado do mato grosso - Brasil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldo José Lucatelli Dória de Araújo; João Antônio Raposo Pereira; Tânia Maria Vieira da Silva; Helvécio Mafra; James A. Brass; Robert N. Lockwood; Robert G. Higgins; Philip J. Riggan

    2008-01-01

    This study has as objective to assess AIRDAS (Airborne Infrared Disaster Assessment System) sensor for the monitoring of deforestation in the northern area of Mato Grosso State, between the latitudes 10° and 12° south and longitudes 54° and 56° west, within the area known as deforestation arch. The results show that the main advantage of...

  4. Optical sensors for earth observation. Chikyu kansokuyo kogaku sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, A [National Research Laboratory of Metrology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1991-10-10

    Developments are made on an optical imager (ASTER) used to collect mainly images of land areas and an infrared sounder (IMG) to measure vertical air temperature distribution and vertical concentration distribution of specific gases, as satellite mounted sensors for earth observation. All the sensor characteristics of the ASTER comprising a visible near infrared radiometer, short wave infrared radiometer and thermal infrared radiometer are required to be capable of providing measurement, evaluation and assurance at the required accuracies during the entire life time. A problem to be solved is how to combine the on-ground calibration prior to launching, on-satellite calibration, and calibration between the test site and the sensors. The IMG is a Fourier transform spectroscopic infrared sounder, which is demanded of a high wave resolution over extended periods of time as well as a high radiation measuring capability. Also required are the level elevation of analysis algorithms to solve inverse problems from the observed radiation spectra, and the data base with high accuracy. 19 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Flash Flood Detection in Urban Cities Using Ultrasonic and Infrared Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa; Zhang, Xiangliang; Claudel, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Floods are the most common type of natural disaster. Often leading to loss of lives and properties in the thousands yearly. Among these events, urban flash floods are particularly deadly because of the short timescales on which they occur, and because of the population density of cities. Since most flood casualties are caused by a lack of information on the impending flood (type, location, severity), sensing these events is critical to generate accurate and detailed warnings and short term forecasts. However, no dedicated flash flood sensing systems, that could monitor the propagation of flash floods, in real time, currently exist in cities. In the present paper, firstly a new sensing device that can simultaneously monitor urban flash floods and traffic congestion has been presented. This sensing device is based on the combination of ultrasonic range-finding with remote temperature sensing, and can sense both phenomena with a high degree of accuracy, using a combination of L1-regularized reconstruction and artificial neural networks to process measurement data. Secondly, corresponding algorithms have been implemented on a low-power wireless sensor platform, and their performance in water level estimation in a 6 months test involving four different sensors is illustrated. The results demonstrate that urban water levels can be reliably estimated with error less than 2 cm, and that the preprocessing and machine learning schemes can run in real-time on currently available wireless sensor platforms.

  6. Flash Flood Detection in Urban Cities Using Ultrasonic and Infrared Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa

    2016-07-19

    Floods are the most common type of natural disaster. Often leading to loss of lives and properties in the thousands yearly. Among these events, urban flash floods are particularly deadly because of the short timescales on which they occur, and because of the population density of cities. Since most flood casualties are caused by a lack of information on the impending flood (type, location, severity), sensing these events is critical to generate accurate and detailed warnings and short term forecasts. However, no dedicated flash flood sensing systems, that could monitor the propagation of flash floods, in real time, currently exist in cities. In the present paper, firstly a new sensing device that can simultaneously monitor urban flash floods and traffic congestion has been presented. This sensing device is based on the combination of ultrasonic range-finding with remote temperature sensing, and can sense both phenomena with a high degree of accuracy, using a combination of L1-regularized reconstruction and artificial neural networks to process measurement data. Secondly, corresponding algorithms have been implemented on a low-power wireless sensor platform, and their performance in water level estimation in a 6 months test involving four different sensors is illustrated. The results demonstrate that urban water levels can be reliably estimated with error less than 2 cm, and that the preprocessing and machine learning schemes can run in real-time on currently available wireless sensor platforms.

  7. Beach erosion control study at Pass Christian. [using remote sensors and satellite observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The methods of measuring the existence of erosion and the effects of sand stabilization control systems are described. The mechanics of sand movement, the nature of sand erosion, and the use of satellite data to measure these factors and their surrogates are discussed using the locational and control aspects of aeolian and litoral erosion zones along the sand beach of the Mississippi coast. The aeolian erosion is highlighted due to the redeposition of the sand which causes high cleanup costs, property damage, and safety and health hazards. The areas of differential erosion and the patterns of beach sand movement are illustrated and the use of remote sensing methods to identify the areas of erosion are evaluated.

  8. TIROA/NOAA (Television and Infrared Observation Satellite/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) satellites space environment monitor archive tape documentation: 1988 update. Technical memo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, V.J.; Evans, D.S.; Sauer, H.H.

    1988-05-01

    TIROS/NOAA satellite archive tapes containing data obtained with the Medium-Energy Proton and Electron Detector (MEPED), High-Energy Proton and Alpha-Particle Detector (HEPAD), and Total-Energy Detector (TED) are described. Descriptions of the data include orbital and housekeeping details and the information needed to decode and understand the data. Specifications of the data channels are supplied, with the timing information needed to convert the data to usable information. Description of the archive tape format gives the information needed to read the tape and unpack the data. Appendices supply the retrieval routines used by the Space Environment Services Center in Boulder

  9. Detection Thresholds of Falling Snow From Satellite-Borne Active and Passive Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skofronick-Jackson, Gail M.; Johnson, Benjamin T.; Munchak, S. Joseph

    2013-01-01

    There is an increased interest in detecting and estimating the amount of falling snow reaching the Earths surface in order to fully capture the global atmospheric water cycle. An initial step toward global spaceborne falling snow algorithms for current and future missions includes determining the thresholds of detection for various active and passive sensor channel configurations and falling snow events over land surfaces and lakes. In this paper, cloud resolving model simulations of lake effect and synoptic snow events were used to determine the minimum amount of snow (threshold) that could be detected by the following instruments: the W-band radar of CloudSat, Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR)Ku- and Ka-bands, and the GPM Microwave Imager. Eleven different nonspherical snowflake shapes were used in the analysis. Notable results include the following: 1) The W-band radar has detection thresholds more than an order of magnitude lower than the future GPM radars; 2) the cloud structure macrophysics influences the thresholds of detection for passive channels (e.g., snow events with larger ice water paths and thicker clouds are easier to detect); 3) the snowflake microphysics (mainly shape and density)plays a large role in the detection threshold for active and passive instruments; 4) with reasonable assumptions, the passive 166-GHz channel has detection threshold values comparable to those of the GPM DPR Ku- and Ka-band radars with approximately 0.05 g *m(exp -3) detected at the surface, or an approximately 0.5-1.0-mm * h(exp -1) melted snow rate. This paper provides information on the light snowfall events missed by the sensors and not captured in global estimates.

  10. Hydrological storage variations in a lake water balance, observed from multi-sensor satellite data and hydrological models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Alka; Seitz, Florian; Schwatke, Christian; Guentner, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    mass variations in this region; this is also verified by WGHM simulations. An important implication of this finding is the possibility of GRACE to analyses storage changes in other hydrological compartments (soil moisture, snow and groundwater) once the signal has been reduced for surface water storage changes. Therefore the congruent use of multi-sensor satellite data for hydrological studies proves to be a great source of information for assessing terrestrial water storage variations.

  11. Infrared Sensor System for Mobile-Robot Positioning in Intelligent Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pallarés Puerto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to position a Mobile Robot in an Intelligent Space, and this paper presents a sensorial system for measuring differential phase-shifts in a sinusoidally modulated infrared signal transmitted from the robot. Differential distances were obtained from these phase-shifts, and the position of the robot was estimated by hyperbolic trilateration. Due to the extremely severe trade-off between SNR, angle (coverage and real-time response, a very accurate design and device selection was required to achieve good precision with wide coverage and acceptable robot speed. An I/Q demodulator was used to measure phases with one-stage synchronous demodulation to DC. A complete set of results from real measurements, both for distance and position estimations, is provided to demonstrate the validity of the system proposed, comparing it with other similar indoor positioning systems.

  12. Effective System for Automatic Bundle Block Adjustment and Ortho Image Generation from Multi Sensor Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akilan, A.; Nagasubramanian, V.; Chaudhry, A.; Reddy, D. Rajesh; Sudheer Reddy, D.; Usha Devi, R.; Tirupati, T.; Radhadevi, P. V.; Varadan, G.

    2014-11-01

    Block Adjustment is a technique for large area mapping for images obtained from different remote sensingsatellites.The challenge in this process is to handle huge number of satellite imageries from different sources with different resolution and accuracies at the system level. This paper explains a system with various tools and techniques to effectively handle the end-to-end chain in large area mapping and production with good level of automation and the provisions for intuitive analysis of final results in 3D and 2D environment. In addition, the interface for using open source ortho and DEM references viz., ETM, SRTM etc. and displaying ESRI shapes for the image foot-prints are explained. Rigorous theory, mathematical modelling, workflow automation and sophisticated software engineering tools are included to ensure high photogrammetric accuracy and productivity. Major building blocks like Georeferencing, Geo-capturing and Geo-Modelling tools included in the block adjustment solution are explained in this paper. To provide optimal bundle block adjustment solution with high precision results, the system has been optimized in many stages to exploit the full utilization of hardware resources. The robustness of the system is ensured by handling failure in automatic procedure and saving the process state in every stage for subsequent restoration from the point of interruption. The results obtained from various stages of the system are presented in the paper.

  13. Satellite imagery in safeguards: progress and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, I.; Listner, C.

    2013-01-01

    The use of satellite imagery has become very important for the verification of the safeguards implementation under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). The main applications of satellite imagery are to verify the correctness and completeness of the member states' declarations, and to provide preparatory information for inspections, complimentary access and other technical visits. If the area of interest is not accessible, remote sensing sensors provide one of the few opportunities of gathering data for nuclear monitoring, as for example in Iraq between 1998 and 2002 or currently in North Korea. Satellite data of all available sensor types contains a considerable amount of safeguard-relevant information. Very high-resolution optical satellite imagery provides the most detailed spatial information on nuclear sites and activities up to 0.41 m resolution, together with up to 8 spectral bands from the visible light and near infrared. Thermal infrared (TIR) images can indicate the operational status of nuclear facilities and help to identify undeclared activities. Hyper-spectral imagery allows a quantitative estimation of geophysical, geochemical and biochemical characteristics of the earth's surface and is therefore useful for assessing, for example, surface cover changes due to drilling, mining and milling activities. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image data up to 1 m spatial resolution provides an all-weather, day and night monitoring capability. However, the absence (or existence) of nuclear activities can never be confirmed completely based on satellite imagery. (A.C.)

  14. Non-uniformity Correction of Infrared Images by Midway Equalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohann Tendero

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The non-uniformity is a time-dependent noise caused by the lack of sensor equalization. We present here the detailed algorithm and on line demo of the non-uniformity correction method by midway infrared equalization. This method was designed to suit infrared images. Nevertheless, it can be applied to images produced for example by scanners, or by push-broom satellites. The obtained single image method works on static images, is fully automatic, having no user parameter, and requires no registration. It needs no camera motion compensation, no closed aperture sensor equalization and is able to correct for a fully non-linear non-uniformity.

  15. Optimization of biogas production using MEMS based near infrared inline-sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saupe, Ray; Seider, Thomas; Stock, Volker; Kujawski, Olaf; Otto, Thomas; Gessner, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Due to climate protection and increasing oil prices, renewable energy is becoming extremely important. Anaerobic digestion is a particular environmental and resource-saving way of heat and power production in biogas plants. These plants can be operated decentralized and independent of weather conditions and allow peak load operation. To maximize energy production, plants should be operated at a high efficiency. That means the entire installed power production capacity (e.g. CHP) and biogas production have to be used. However, current plant utilization in many areas is significantly lower, which is economically and environmentally inefficient, since the biochemical process responds to fluctuations in boundary conditions, e.g. mixing in the conditions and substrate composition. At present only a few easily accessible parameters such as fill level, flow rates and temperature are determined on-line. Monitoring of substrate composition occurs only sporadically with the help of laboratory methods. Direct acquisition of substrate composition combined with a smart control and regulation concept enables significant improvement in plant efficiency. This requires a compact, reliable and cost-efficient sensor. It is for this reason that a MEMS sensor system based on NIR spectroscopy has been developed. Requirements are high accuracy, which is the basic condition for exact chemometric evaluation of the sample as well as optimized MEMS design and packaging in order to work in poor environmental conditions. Another issue is sample presentation, which needs an exact adopted optical-mechanical system. In this paper, the development and application of a MEMS-based analyzer for biogas plants will be explained. The above mentioned problems and challenges will be discussed. Measurement results will be shown to demonstrate its performance.

  16. Optical temperature sensor based on the Nd{sup 3+} infrared thermalized emissions in a fluorotellurite glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalla, E.A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de la Laguna, San Cristóbal de la Laguna, 38200 Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); León-Luis, S.F., E-mail: sleonlui@ull.es [Departamento de Física, Universidad de la Laguna, San Cristóbal de la Laguna, 38200 Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Malta Consolider Team, Universidad de la Laguna, San Cristóbal de la Laguna, 38200 Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Monteseguro, V. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de la Laguna, San Cristóbal de la Laguna, 38200 Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Malta Consolider Team, Universidad de la Laguna, San Cristóbal de la Laguna, 38200 Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Pérez-Rodríguez, C. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de la Laguna, San Cristóbal de la Laguna, 38200 Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Cáceres, J.M. [Departamento de Ingeniería Industrial, Universidad de la Laguna, San Cristóbal de la Laguna, 38200 Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); and others

    2015-10-15

    The temperature dependence of the infrared luminescence of a fluorotellurite glass doped with 0.01 and 2.5 mol% of Nd{sup 3+} ions was studied in order to use it as a high temperature sensing probe. For this purpose, the emission intensities of the ({sup 4}S{sub 3/2}, {sup 4}F{sub 7/2}), ({sup 2}H{sub 9/2}, {sup 4}F{sub 5/2}),{sup 4}F{sub 3/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 9/2} transitions were measured in a wide range of temperatures from 300 upto 650 K. The changes in the emission profiles were calibrated by means of the fluorescence intensity ratio technique. The calibrations showed a strong dependence on the Nd{sup 3+} ions concentration, having the low-doped concentrated sample the best response to changes of temperature. The maximum value obtained for the thermal sensibility is 17×10{sup −4} K{sup −1} at 640 K, being one of the highest values found in the literature for Nd{sup 3+} optical temperature sensors. Finally, the experimental calibrations were compared with the theoretical temperature luminescence response calculated from the Judd–Ofelt theory. - Highlights: • Nd{sup 3+}-doped fluorotellurite glasses were prepared. • The intensities of the ({sup 4}S{sub 3/2},{sup 4}F{sub 7/2}),({sup 2}H{sub 9/2},{sup 4}F{sub 5/2}), {sup 4}F{sub 3/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 9/2} transitions. • The highest thermal sensitivity has been obtained for the glass with the lowest concentration of Nd{sup 3+} ions. • The Nd{sup 3+}-doped fluorotellurite glass fits the requirement for a good temperature sensor.

  17. Thermocouple and Infrared Sensor-Based Measurement of Temperature Distribution in Metal Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdil Kus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In metal cutting, the magnitude of the temperature at the tool-chip interface is a function of the cutting parameters. This temperature directly affects production; therefore, increased research on the role of cutting temperatures can lead to improved machining operations. In this study, tool temperature was estimated by simultaneous temperature measurement employing both a K-type thermocouple and an infrared radiation (IR pyrometer to measure the tool-chip interface temperature. Due to the complexity of the machining processes, the integration of different measuring techniques was necessary in order to obtain consistent temperature data. The thermal analysis results were compared via the ANSYS finite element method. Experiments were carried out in dry machining using workpiece material of AISI 4140 alloy steel that was heat treated by an induction process to a hardness of 50 HRC. A PVD TiAlN-TiN-coated WNVG 080404-IC907 carbide insert was used during the turning process. The results showed that with increasing cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, the tool temperature increased; the cutting speed was found to be the most effective parameter in assessing the temperature rise. The heat distribution of the cutting tool, tool-chip interface and workpiece provided effective and useful data for the optimization of selected cutting parameters during orthogonal machining.

  18. Thermocouple and infrared sensor-based measurement of temperature distribution in metal cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Abdil; Isik, Yahya; Cakir, M Cemal; Coşkun, Salih; Özdemir, Kadir

    2015-01-12

    In metal cutting, the magnitude of the temperature at the tool-chip interface is a function of the cutting parameters. This temperature directly affects production; therefore, increased research on the role of cutting temperatures can lead to improved machining operations. In this study, tool temperature was estimated by simultaneous temperature measurement employing both a K-type thermocouple and an infrared radiation (IR) pyrometer to measure the tool-chip interface temperature. Due to the complexity of the machining processes, the integration of different measuring techniques was necessary in order to obtain consistent temperature data. The thermal analysis results were compared via the ANSYS finite element method. Experiments were carried out in dry machining using workpiece material of AISI 4140 alloy steel that was heat treated by an induction process to a hardness of 50 HRC. A PVD TiAlN-TiN-coated WNVG 080404-IC907 carbide insert was used during the turning process. The results showed that with increasing cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, the tool temperature increased; the cutting speed was found to be the most effective parameter in assessing the temperature rise. The heat distribution of the cutting tool, tool-chip interface and workpiece provided effective and useful data for the optimization of selected cutting parameters during orthogonal machining.

  19. Thermocouple and Infrared Sensor-Based Measurement of Temperature Distribution in Metal Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Abdil; Isik, Yahya; Cakir, M. Cemal; Coşkun, Salih; Özdemir, Kadir

    2015-01-01

    In metal cutting, the magnitude of the temperature at the tool-chip interface is a function of the cutting parameters. This temperature directly affects production; therefore, increased research on the role of cutting temperatures can lead to improved machining operations. In this study, tool temperature was estimated by simultaneous temperature measurement employing both a K-type thermocouple and an infrared radiation (IR) pyrometer to measure the tool-chip interface temperature. Due to the complexity of the machining processes, the integration of different measuring techniques was necessary in order to obtain consistent temperature data. The thermal analysis results were compared via the ANSYS finite element method. Experiments were carried out in dry machining using workpiece material of AISI 4140 alloy steel that was heat treated by an induction process to a hardness of 50 HRC. A PVD TiAlN-TiN-coated WNVG 080404-IC907 carbide insert was used during the turning process. The results showed that with increasing cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, the tool temperature increased; the cutting speed was found to be the most effective parameter in assessing the temperature rise. The heat distribution of the cutting tool, tool-chip interface and workpiece provided effective and useful data for the optimization of selected cutting parameters during orthogonal machining. PMID:25587976

  20. Push-Broom-Type Very High-Resolution Satellite Sensor Data Correction Using Combined Wavelet-Fourier and Multiscale Non-Local Means Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wonseok; Yu, Soohwan; Seo, Doochun; Jeong, Jaeheon; Paik, Joonki

    2015-01-01

    In very high-resolution (VHR) push-broom-type satellite sensor data, both destriping and denoising methods have become chronic problems and attracted major research advances in the remote sensing fields. Since the estimation of the original image from a noisy input is an ill-posed problem, a simple noise removal algorithm cannot preserve the radiometric integrity of satellite data. To solve these problems, we present a novel method to correct VHR data acquired by a push-broom-type sensor by combining wavelet-Fourier and multiscale non-local means (NLM) filters. After the wavelet-Fourier filter separates the stripe noise from the mixed noise in the wavelet low- and selected high-frequency sub-bands, random noise is removed using the multiscale NLM filter in both low- and high-frequency sub-bands without loss of image detail. The performance of the proposed method is compared to various existing methods on a set of push-broom-type sensor data acquired by Korean Multi-Purpose Satellite 3 (KOMPSAT-3) with severe stripe and random noise, and the results of the proposed method show significantly improved enhancement results over existing state-of-the-art methods in terms of both qualitative and quantitative assessments. PMID:26378532

  1. An 80x80 microbolometer type thermal imaging sensor using the LWIR-band CMOS infrared (CIR) technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankut, Firat; Cologlu, Mustafa H.; Askar, Hidir; Ozturk, Hande; Dumanli, Hilal K.; Oruc, Feyza; Tilkioglu, Bilge; Ugur, Beril; Akar, Orhan Sevket; Tepegoz, Murat; Akin, Tayfun

    2017-02-01

    This paper introduces an 80x80 microbolometer array with a 35 μm pixel pitch operating in the 8-12 μm wavelength range, where the detector is fabricated with the LWIR-band CMOS infrared technology, shortly named as CIR, which is a novel microbolometer implementation technique developed to reduce the detector cost in order to enable the use of microbolometer type sensors in high volume markets, such as the consumer market and IoT. Unlike the widely used conventional surface micromachined microbolometer approaches, MikroSens' CIR detector technology does not require the use of special high TCR materials like VOx or a-Si, instead, it allows to implement microbolometers with standard CMOS layers, where the suspended bulk micromachined structure is obtained by only few consecutive selective MEMS etching steps while protecting the wirebond pads with a simple lithograpy step. This approach not only reduces the fabrication cost but also increases the production yield. In addition, needing simple subtractive post-CMOS fabrication steps allows the CIR technology to be carried out in any CMOS and MEMS foundry in a truly fabless fashion, where industrially mature and Au-free wafer level vacuum packaging technologies can also be carried out, leading to cost advantage, simplicity, scalability, and flexibility. The CIR approach is used to implement an 80x80 FPA with 35 μm pixel pitch, namely MS0835A, using a 0.18 μm CMOS process. The fabricated sensor is measured to provide NETD (Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference) value of 163 mK at 17 fps (frames per second) and 71 mK at 4 fps with F/1.0 optics in a dewar environment. The measurement results of the wafer level vacuum packaged sensors with one side AR coating shows an NETD values of 112 mK at 4 fps with F/1.1 optics, i.e., demonstrates a good performance for high volume low-cost applications like advanced presence detection and human counting applications. The CIR approach of MikroSens is scalable and can be used to

  2. Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Pigorsch, Enrico

    1997-01-01

    This is the 5th edition of the Metra Martech Directory "EUROPEAN CENTRES OF EXPERTISE - SENSORS." The entries represent a survey of European sensors development. The new edition contains 425 detailed profiles of companies and research institutions in 22 countries. This is reflected in the diversity of sensors development programmes described, from sensors for physical parameters to biosensors and intelligent sensor systems. We do not claim that all European organisations developing sensors are included, but this is a good cross section from an invited list of participants. If you see gaps or omissions, or would like your organisation to be included, please send details. The data base invites the formation of effective joint ventures by identifying and providing access to specific areas in which organisations offer collaboration. This issue is recognised to be of great importance and most entrants include details of collaboration offered and sought. We hope the directory on Sensors will help you to find the ri...

  3. Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, H. [PBI-Dansensor A/S (Denmark); Toft Soerensen, O. [Risoe National Lab., Materials Research Dept. (Denmark)

    1999-10-01

    A new type of ceramic oxygen sensors based on semiconducting oxides was developed in this project. The advantage of these sensors compared to standard ZrO{sub 2} sensors is that they do not require a reference gas and that they can be produced in small sizes. The sensor design and the techniques developed for production of these sensors are judged suitable by the participating industry for a niche production of a new generation of oxygen sensors. Materials research on new oxygen ion conducting conductors both for applications in oxygen sensors and in fuel was also performed in this project and finally a new process was developed for fabrication of ceramic tubes by dip-coating. (EHS)

  4. Quantifying direct carbon dioxide emissions from wastewater treatment units by nondispersive infrared sensor (NDIR) - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosse, Pascal; Kleeberg, Tasja; Lübken, Manfred; Matschullat, Jörg; Wichern, Marc

    2018-08-15

    Treatment of nutrient-rich wastewater potentially results in direct release of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO 2 , N 2 O or CH 4 - and thus affects Waste Water Treatment Plant's carbon footprint. Accurate CO 2 quantification is challenging due to various chemical, physical and operational conditions. A floating chamber equipped with a nondispersive infrared, single beam, dual wavelength sensor has been evaluated for a pilot approach to quantify fugitive CO 2 emissions above different wastewater treatment units. Total average CO 2 flux was 1182gCO 2 ·m -2 ·d -1 with minimum and maximum fluxes of 829gCO 2 ·m -2 ·d -1 and 1493gCO 2 ·m -2 ·d -1 , respectively. Total observed CO 2 emissions were in 7 to 17kgCO 2 ·PE -1 ·a -1 (average 12kgCO 2 ·PE -1 ·a -1 ). The nitrification tank accounted for about 94.3% of the emissions, followed by secondary clarification (ca. 4.3%) and denitrification (ca. 1.4%), based on those average annual CO 2 emissions per population equivalent (PE). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Design And Implementation Of Smart Parking System Using Peripheral Interface Controllers And Infrared Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Thaw Htet

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the increase in world population and vehicle production parking spaces and facilities are required. As the numbers of vehicles on the road are increasing day by day parking problems which are increasing at an alarming rate in every major city cause drivers frustration traffic congestion and time wasting especially during the peak business hours. Lot of researches was being done all over the world to implement better parking management system which reduces parking problems. SPARK Smart Parking is parking garage system that utilizes various technologies to implement best parking system. The proposed system is aimed to inform drivers about the number of available parking spaces without any parking difficulties. This system is designed for two- level parking slots with twenty six parking spaces and one aisle on each floor. The condition of parking slots is detected by IR sensors and is reported periodically to main controller via floor controllers and self controllers. PIC 18F4550 is chosen to be used as controllers because it is suitable for the proposed system. Each floor contains LCD display which will show available parking spaces of that floor. LCD display at the entrance gate will show overall available parking slots of two floors. In this paper a new parking system called Smart Parking system is proposed to help drivers getting the real-time parking information and to find vacant spaces in a car park in a shorter time. This kind of system minimizes not only traffic congestion problems but also staff requirements to control the traffic in the car park.

  6. Spectral interdependence of remote-sensing reflectance and its implications on the design of ocean color satellite sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Zhongping; Shang, Shaoling; Hu, Chuanmin; Zibordi, Giuseppe

    2014-05-20

    storage and handling of large volume hyperspectral data as well as for the design of future ocean color satellite sensors.

  7. Retrieval of precipitable water using near infrared channels of Global Imager/Advanced Earth Observing Satellite-II (GLI/ADEOS-II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuji, M.; Uchiyama, A.

    2002-01-01

    Retrieval of precipitable water (vertically integrated water vapor amount) is proposed using near infrared channels og Global Imager onboard Advanced Earth Observing Satellite-II (GLI/ADEOS-II). The principle of retrieval algorithm is based upon that adopted with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite series. Simulations were carried out with GLI Signal Simulator (GSS) to calculate the radiance ratio between water vapor absorbing bands and non-absorbing bands. As a result, it is found that for the case of high spectral reflectance background (a bright target) such as the land surface, the calibration curves are sensitive to the precipitable water variation. For the case of low albedo background (a dark target) such as the ocean surface, on the contrary, the calibration curve is not very sensitive to its variation under conditions of the large water vapor amount. It turns out that aerosol loading has little influence on the retrieval over a bright target for the aerosol optical thickness less than about 1.0 at 500nm. It is also anticipated that simultaneous retrieval of the water vapor amount using GLI data along with other channels will lead to improved accuracy of the determination of surface geophysical properties, such as vegetation, ocean color, and snow and ice, through the better atmospheric correction

  8. Applications of satellite data to the studies of agricultural meteorology, 2: Relationship between air temperature and surface temperature measured by infrared thermal radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, I.; Tani, H.; Morikawa, S.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments were performed in order to establish interpretation keys for estimation of air temperature from satellite IR data. Field measurements were carried out over four kinds of land surfaces including seven different field crops on the university campus at Sapporo. The air temperature was compared with the surface temperature measured by infrared thermal radiometer (National ER2007, 8.5-12.5μm) and, also with other meteorological parameters (solar radiation, humidity and wind speed). Also perpendicular vegetation index (PVI) was measured to know vegetation density of lands by ho radio-spectralmeter (Figs. 1 & 2). Table 1 summarizes the measurements taken in these experiments.The correlation coefficients between air temperature and other meteorological parameters for each area are shown in Table 2. The best correlation coefficient for total data was obtained with surface temperature, and it suggests the possibility that air temperature may be estimated by satellite IR data since they are related to earth surface temperatures.Further analyses were done between air temperature and surface temperature measured with thermal infrared radiometer.The following conclusions may be drawn:(1) Air temperature from meteorological site was well correlated to surface temperature of lands that were covered with dense plant and water, for example, grass land, paddy field and rye field (Table 2).(2) The correlation coefficients and the regression equations on grass land, paddy field and rye field were almost the same (Fig. 3). The mean correlation coefficient for these three lands was 0.88 and the regression equation is given in Eq. (2).(3) There was good correlation on bare soil land also, but had large variations (Fig. 3).(4) The correlations on crop fields depend on the density of plant cover. Good correlation is obtained on dense vegetative fields.(5) Small variations about correlation coefficients were obtained for the time of day (Table 3).(6) On the other hand, large

  9. AN ACTIVE-PASSIVE COMBINED ALGORITHM FOR HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION RETRIEVAL OF SOIL MOISTURE FROM SATELLITE SENSORS (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, V.; Mladenova, I. E.; Narayan, U.

    2009-12-01

    Soil moisture is known to be an essential factor in controlling the partitioning of rainfall into surface runoff and infiltration and solar energy into latent and sensible heat fluxes. Remote sensing has long proven its capability to obtain soil moisture in near real-time. However, at the present time we have the Advanced Scanning Microwave Radiometer (AMSR-E) on board NASA’s AQUA platform is the only satellite sensor that supplies a soil moisture product. AMSR-E coarse spatial resolution (~ 50 km at 6.9 GHz) strongly limits its applicability for small scale studies. A very promising technique for spatial disaggregation by combining radar and radiometer observations has been demonstrated by the authors using a methodology is based on the assumption that any change in measured brightness temperature and backscatter from one to the next time step is due primarily to change in soil wetness. The approach uses radiometric estimates of soil moisture at a lower resolution to compute the sensitivity of radar to soil moisture at the lower resolution. This estimate of sensitivity is then disaggregated using vegetation water content, vegetation type and soil texture information, which are the variables on which determine the radar sensitivity to soil moisture and are generally available at a scale of radar observation. This change detection algorithm is applied to several locations. We have used aircraft observed active and passive data over Walnut Creek watershed in Central Iowa in 2002; the Little Washita Watershed in Oklahoma in 2003 and the Murrumbidgee Catchment in southeastern Australia for 2006. All of these locations have different soils and land cover conditions which leads to a rigorous test of the disaggregation algorithm. Furthermore, we compare the derived high spatial resolution soil moisture to in-situ sampling and ground observation networks

  10. Global transients in ultraviolet and red-infrared ranges from data of Universitetsky-Tatiana-2 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garipov, G. K.; Khrenov, B. A.; Klimov, P. A.; Klimenko, V. V.; Mareev, E. A.; Martines, O.; Mendoza, E.; Morozenko, V. S.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Park, I. H.; Ponce, E.; Rivera, L.; Salazar, H.; Tulupov, V. I.; Vedenkin, N. N.; Yashin, I. V.

    2013-01-01

    Light detectors sensitive to wavelength ranges 240-400 nm and beyond 610 nm (which we refer to, for simplicity, as the UV and Red bands) on board Universitetsky-Tatiana-2 satellite have detected transient flashes in the atmosphere of duration 1-128 ms. Measured ratio of the number of Red photons to the number of UV photons indicates that source of transient radiation is at high atmosphere altitude (>50 km). Distribution of events with various photon numbers Qa in the atmosphere found to be different for "luminous" events Qa = 1023 - 1026 (with exponent of differential distribution -2.2) and for "faint" events Qa = 1021 - 1023 (with exponent - 0.97). Luminous event parameters (atmosphere altitude, energy released to radiation, and temporal profiles) are similar to observed elsewhere parameters of transient luminous events (TLE) of elves, sprites, halo, and gigantic blue jets types. Global map of luminous events demonstrates concentration to equatorial zones (latitudes 30°N to 30°S) above continents. Faint events (with number of photons Qa = 1020 - 5ṡ 1021) are distributed more uniformly over latitudes and longitudes. Phenomenon of series of transients registered every minute along satellite orbit (from 3 to 16 transients in one series) was observed. Most TLE-type events belonged to series. Single transients are in average fainter than serial ones. Some transients belonging to series occurs far away of thunderstorm regions. Origin of faint single transients is not clear; several hypothetical models of their production are discussed.

  11. A data mining approach for sharpening satellite thermal imagery over land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermal infrared (TIR) imagery is normally acquired at coarser pixel resolution than that of shortwave sensors on the same satellite platform and often the TIR resolution is not suitable for monitoring crop conditions of individual fields or the impacts of land cover changes which are at significant...

  12. Improved infrared precipitation estimation approaches based on k-means clustering: Application to north Algeria using MSG-SEVIRI satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokdad, Fatiha; Haddad, Boualem

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, two new infrared precipitation estimation approaches based on the concept of k-means clustering are first proposed, named the NAW-Kmeans and the GPI-Kmeans methods. Then, they are adapted to the southern Mediterranean basin, where the subtropical climate prevails. The infrared data (10.8 μm channel) acquired by MSG-SEVIRI sensor in winter and spring 2012 are used. Tests are carried out in eight areas distributed over northern Algeria: Sebra, El Bordj, Chlef, Blida, Bordj Menael, Sidi Aich, Beni Ourthilane, and Beni Aziz. The validation is performed by a comparison of the estimated rainfalls to rain gauges observations collected by the National Office of Meteorology in Dar El Beida (Algeria). Despite the complexity of the subtropical climate, the obtained results indicate that the NAW-Kmeans and the GPI-Kmeans approaches gave satisfactory results for the considered rain rates. Also, the proposed schemes lead to improvement in precipitation estimation performance when compared to the original algorithms NAW (Nagri, Adler, and Wetzel) and GPI (GOES Precipitation Index).

  13. Satellite Observation Systems for Polar Climate Change Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2012-01-01

    The key observational tools for detecting large scale changes of various parameters in the polar regions have been satellite sensors. The sensors include passive and active satellite systems in the visible, infrared and microwave frequencies. The monitoring started with Tiros and Nimbus research satellites series in the 1970s but during the period, not much data was stored digitally because of limitations and cost of the needed storage systems. Continuous global data came about starting with the launch of ocean color, passive microwave, and thermal infrared sensors on board Nimbus-7 and Synthetic Aperture Radar, Radar Altimeter and Scatterometer on board SeaSat satellite both launched in 1978. The Nimbus-7 lasted longer than expected and provided about 9 years of useful data while SeaSat quit working after 3 months but provided very useful data that became the baseline for follow-up systems with similar capabilities. Over the years, many new sensors were launched, some from Japan Aeronautics and Space Agency (JAXA), some from the European Space Agency (ESA) and more recently, from RuSSia, China, Korea, Canada and India. For polar studies, among the most useful sensors has been the passive microwave sensor which provides day/night and almost all weather observation of the surface. The sensor provide sea surface temperature, precipitation, wind, water vapor and sea ice concentration data that have been very useful in monitoring the climate of the region. More than 30 years of such data are now available, starting with the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on board the Nimbus-7, the Special Scanning Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) on board a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on board the EOS/ Aqua satellite. The techniques that have been developed to derive geophysical parameters from data provided by these and other sensors and associated instrumental and algorithm errors and validation techniques

  14. AN INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF AMORPHOUS AND CRYSTALLINE ICES OF VINYLACETYLENE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR SATURN'S SATELLITE TITAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. S.; Kaiser, R. I.

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory infrared spectra of amorphous and crystalline vinylacetylene ices were recorded in the range of 7000-400 cm -1 . The spectra showed several amorphous features in the ice deposited at 10 K, which were then utilized to monitor a phase transition between 93 ± 1 K to form the crystalline structure. Successive heating allows monitoring of the sublimation profile of the vinylacetylene sample in the range of 101-120 K. Considering Titan's surface temperature of 94 K, vinylacetylene ice is likely to be crystalline. Analogous studies on related planetary-bound molecules such as triaceylene and cyanoacetylene may be further warranted to gain better perspectives into the composition of the condensed phases in the Titan's atmosphere (aerosol particles) and of Titan's surface. Based on our studies, we recommend utilizing the ν 1 and ν 16 //ν 11 /ν 17 fundamentals at about 3300 and 650 cm -1 to determine if solid vinylacetylene is crystalline or amorphous on Titan.

  15. On-board Data Processing to Lower Bandwidth Requirements on an Infrared Astronomy Satellite: Case of Herschel-PACS Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Reimers

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new data compression concept, “on-board processing,” for infrared astronomy, where space observatories have limited processing resources. The proposed approach has been developed and tested for the PACS camera from the European Space Agency (ESA mission, Herschel. Using lossy and lossless compression, the presented method offers high compression ratio with a minimal loss of potentially useful scientific data. It also provides higher signal-to-noise ratio than that for standard compression techniques. Furthermore, the proposed approach presents low algorithmic complexity such that it is implementable on the resource-limited hardware. The various modules of the data compression concept are discussed in detail.

  16. MISTiC Winds, a Micro-Satellite Constellation Approach to High Resolution Observations of the Atmosphere using Infrared Sounding and 3D Winds Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschhoff, K. R.; Polizotti, J. J.; Aumann, H. H.; Susskind, J.

    2017-12-01

    MISTiCTM Winds is an approach to improve short-term weather forecasting based on a miniature high resolution, wide field, thermal emission spectrometry instrument that will provide global tropospheric vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature and humidity at high (3-4 km) horizontal and vertical ( 1 km) spatial resolution. MISTiC's extraordinarily small size, payload mass of less than 15 kg, and minimal cooling requirements can be accommodated aboard a ESPA-Class (50 kg) micro-satellite. Low fabrication and launch costs enable a LEO sun-synchronous sounding constellation that would provide frequent IR vertical profiles and vertically resolved atmospheric motion vector wind observations in the troposphere. These observations are highly complementary to present and emerging environmental observing systems, and would provide a combination of high vertical and horizontal resolution not provided by any other environmental observing system currently in operation. The spectral measurements that would be provided by MISTiC Winds are similar to those of NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder. These new observations, when assimilated into high resolution numerical weather models, would revolutionize short-term and severe weather forecasting, save lives, and support key economic decisions in the energy, air transport, and agriculture arenas-at much lower cost than providing these observations from geostationary orbit. In addition, this observation capability would be a critical tool for the study of transport processes for water vapor, clouds, pollution, and aerosols. In this third year of a NASA Instrument incubator program, the compact infrared spectrometer has been integrated into an airborne version of the instrument for high-altitude flights on a NASA ER2. The purpose of these airborne tests is to examine the potential for improved capabilities for tracking atmospheric motion-vector wind tracer features, and determining their height using hyper-spectral sounding and

  17. Polar-Orbiting Satellite (POES) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from camera systems or radiometer instruments on satellites in orbit around the poles. Satellite campaigns include...

  18. Near-infrared brightness of the Galilean satellites eclipsed in Jovian shadow: A new technique to investigate Jovian upper atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsumura, K. [Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Arimatsu, K.; Matsuura, S.; Shirahata, M.; Wada, T. [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronoutical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Egami, E. [Department of Astronomy, Arizona University, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hayano, Y.; Minowa, Y. [Hawaii Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Honda, C. [Research Center for Advanced Information Science and Technology, Aizu Research Cluster for Space Science, The University of Aizu, Aizu-Wakamatsu, Fukushima 965-8589 (Japan); Kimura, J. [Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Kuramoto, K.; Takahashi, Y. [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan); Nakajima, K. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Nakamoto, T. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Surace, J., E-mail: tsumura@astr.tohoku.ac.jp [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    Based on observations from the Hubble Space Telescope and the Subaru Telescope, we have discovered that Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto are bright around 1.5 μm even when not directly lit by sunlight. The observations were conducted with non-sidereal tracking on Jupiter outside of the field of view to reduce the stray light subtraction uncertainty due to the close proximity of Jupiter. Their eclipsed luminosity was 10{sup –6}-10{sup –7} of their uneclipsed brightness, which is low enough that this phenomenon has been undiscovered until now. In addition, Europa in eclipse was <1/10 of the others at 1.5 μm, a potential clue to the origin of the source of luminosity. Likewise, Ganymede observations were attempted at 3.6 μm by the Spitzer Space Telescope, but it was not detected, suggesting a significant wavelength dependence. It is still unknown why they are luminous even when in the Jovian shadow, but forward-scattered sunlight by hazes in the Jovian upper atmosphere is proposed as the most plausible candidate. If this is the case, observations of these Galilean satellites while eclipsed by the Jovian shadow provide us with a new technique to investigate the Jovian atmospheric composition. Investigating the transmission spectrum of Jupiter by this method is important for investigating the atmosphere of extrasolar giant planets by transit spectroscopy.

  19. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...

  20. Photoelectric sensor output controlled by eyeball movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    The difference between the infrared absorption of the iris and infrared reflectivity of the eyeball controls the operation of a device consisting of an infrared source and amplifier, a cadmium selenide infrared sensor, and an infrared filter.

  1. Near Infrared Characterization of Hetero-Core Optical Fiber SPR Sensors Coated with Ta2O5 Film and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Watanabe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the characteristics of optical fiber sensors with surface plasmon resonance (SPR at 1,310 nm in which the scattering loss of silica optical fiber is low. SPR operation in the infrared wavelength range is achieved by coating a thin tantalum pentaoxide (Ta2O5 film. The novelty of this paper lies in the verification of how the hetero-core scheme could be operated as a commercial base candidate in the sense of easy fabrication, sufficient mechanical strength, and significant sensitivity as a liquid detector under the basis of a low loss transmission network in the near infrared wavelength region. The effect of Ta2O5 layer thickness has been experimentally revealed in the wavelength region extending to 1,800 nm by using the hetero-core structured optical fiber. SPR characterizations have been made in the wavelength region 1,000–1,300 nm, showing the feasible operation at the near infrared wavelength and the possible practical applications. In addition, the technique developed in this work has been interestingly applied to a multi-point water-detection and a water-level gauge in which tandem-connected SPR sensors system using hetero-core structured fibers were incorporated. The detailed performance characteristics are also shown on these applications.

  2. Diurnal variability in carbon and nitrogen pools within Chesapeake Bay and northern Gulf of Mexico: implications for future ocean color satellite sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, A.; Novak, M. G.; Tzortziou, M.; Salisbury, J.

    2016-02-01

    Relative to their areal extent, estuaries and coastal ocean ecosystems contribute disproportionately more to global biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nitrogen and other elements compared to the open ocean. Applying ocean color satellite data to study biological and biogeochemical processes within coastal ecosystems is challenging due to the complex mixtures of aquatic constituents derived from terrestrial, anthropogenic, and marine sources, human-impacted atmospheric properties, presence of clouds during satellite overpass, fine-scale spatial gradients, and time-varying processes on diurnal scales that cannot be resolved with current sensors. On diurnal scales, biological, photochemical, and biogeochemical processes are regulated by the variation in solar radiation. Other physical factors, such as tides, river discharge, estuarine and coastal ocean circulation, wind-driven mixing, etc., impart further variability on biological and biogeochemical processes on diurnal to multi-day time scales. Efforts to determine the temporal frequency required from a NASA GEO-CAPE ocean color satellite sensor to discern diurnal variability C and N stocks, fluxes and productivity culminated in field campaigns in the Chesapeake Bay and northern Gulf of Mexico. Near-surface drogues were released and tracked in quasi-lagrangian space to monitor hourly changes in community production, C and N stocks, and optical properties. While only small diurnal changes were observed in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption in Chesapeake Bay, substantial variation in particulate organic carbon (POC) and nitrogen (PN), chlorophyll-a, and inorganic nitrogen (DIN) were measured. Similar or greater diurnal changes in POC, PN, chlorophyll-a and DIN were found in Gulf of Mexico nearshore and offshore sites. These results suggest that satellite observations at hourly frequency are desirable to capture diurnal variability in carbon and nitrogen stocks, fluxes

  3. Satellite instrument provides nighttime sensing capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-12-01

    "This is not your father's low-light sensor," Steve Miller, senior research scientist and deputy director of the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere at Colorado State University, Fort Collins, said at a 5 December news briefing at the AGU Fall Meeting. He and others at the briefing were showing off the nighttime sensing capability of the day/night band of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) of instruments onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Earth-observing research satellite, a joint NASA and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellite that was launched on 28 October 2011. Noting that low-light satellite technology has been available for about 40 years, Miller said that the VIIRS day/night band "is truly a paradigm shift in the technology and capability."

  4. Parametric analysis of lava dome-collapse events and pyroclastic deposits at Shiveluch volcano, Kamchatka, using visible and infrared satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krippner, Janine B.; Belousov, Alexander B.; Belousova, Marina G.; Ramsey, Michael S.

    2018-04-01

    For the years 2001 to 2013 of the ongoing eruption of Shiveluch volcano, a combination of different satellite remote sensing data are used to investigate the dome-collapse events and the resulting pyroclastic deposits. Shiveluch volcano in Kamchatka, Russia, is one of the world's most active dome-building volcanoes, which has produced some of the largest known historical block-and-ash flows (BAFs). Globally, quantitative data for deposits resulting from such large and long-lived dome-forming eruptions, especially like those at Shiveluch, are scarce. We use Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) thermal infrared (TIR), shortwave infrared (SWIR), and visible-near infrared (VNIR) data to analyze the dome-collapse scars and BAF deposits that were formed during eruptions and collapse events in 2001, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010, and two events in 2013. These events produced flows with runout distances of as far as 19 km from the dome, and with aerial extents of as much as 22.3 km2. Over the 12 years of this period of investigation, there is no trend in deposit area or runout distances of the flows through time. However, two potentially predictive features are apparent in our data set: 1) the largest dome-collapse events occurred when the dome exceeded a relative height (from dome base to top) of 500 m; 2) collapses were preceded by thermal anomalies in six of the cases in which ASTER data were available, although the areal extent of these precursory thermal areas did not generally match the size of the collapse events as indicated by scar area (volumes are available for three collapse events). Linking the deposit distribution to the area, location, and temperature profiles of the dome-collapse scars provides a basis for determining similar future hazards at Shiveluch and at other dome-forming volcanoes. Because of these factors, we suggest that volcanic hazard analysis and mitigation at volcanoes with similar BAF emplacement behavior may

  5. New and Emerging Satellite Imaging Capabilities in Support of Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.; Paquette, J.P.; Spyropoulos, N.; Rainville, L.; Schichor, P.; Hong, M.

    2015-01-01

    This abstract is focused on new and emerging commercial satellite imagery (CSI) capabilities. For more than a decade, experienced imagery analysts have been exploiting and analyzing CSI in support of the Department of Safeguards. As the remote sensing industry continues to evolve, additional CSI imagery types are becoming available that could enhance our ability to evaluate and verify States' declarations and to investigate the possible presence of undeclared activities. A newly available and promising CSI capability that may have a Safeguards application is Full Motion Video (FMV) imagery collection from satellites. For quite some time, FMV imagery has been collected from airborne platforms, but now FMV sensors are being deployed into space. Like its airborne counterpart, satellite FMV imagery could provide analysts with a great deal of information, including insight into the operational status of facilities and patterns of activity. From a Safeguards perspective, FMV imagery could help the Agency in the evaluation and verification of States' declared facilities and activities. There are advantages of FMV imaging capabilities that cannot be duplicated with other CSI capabilities, including the ability to loiter over areas of interest and the potential to revisit sites multiple times per day. Additional sensor capabilities applicable to the Safeguards mission include, but are not limited to, the following sensors: · Thermal Infrared imaging sensors will be launched in late 2014 to monitor operational status, e.g., heat from a transformer. · High resolution ShortWave Infrared sensors able to characterize materials that could support verification of Additional Protocol declarations under Article 2.a(v). · Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with individual sensors or specific sensor combinations. The Safeguards Symposium provides a forum to showcase and demonstrate safeguards applications for these emerging satellite imaging capabilities. (author)

  6. Normalization of time-series satellite reflectance data to a standard sun-target-sensor geometry using a semi-empirical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongguang; Li, Chuanrong; Ma, Lingling; Tang, Lingli; Wang, Ning; Zhou, Chuncheng; Qian, Yonggang

    2017-10-01

    Time series of satellite reflectance data have been widely used to characterize environmental phenomena, describe trends in vegetation dynamics and study climate change. However, several sensors with wide spatial coverage and high observation frequency are usually designed to have large field of view (FOV), which cause variations in the sun-targetsensor geometry in time-series reflectance data. In this study, on the basis of semiempirical kernel-driven BRDF model, a new semi-empirical model was proposed to normalize the sun-target-sensor geometry of remote sensing image. To evaluate the proposed model, bidirectional reflectance under different canopy growth conditions simulated by Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART) model were used. The semi-empirical model was first fitted by using all simulated bidirectional reflectance. Experimental result showed a good fit between the bidirectional reflectance estimated by the proposed model and the simulated value. Then, MODIS time-series reflectance data was normalized to a common sun-target-sensor geometry by the proposed model. The experimental results showed the proposed model yielded good fits between the observed and estimated values. The noise-like fluctuations in time-series reflectance data was also reduced after the sun-target-sensor normalization process.

  7. Observing lowermost tropospheric ozone pollution with a new multispectral synergic approach of IASI infrared and GOME-2 ultraviolet satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Juan; Foret, Gilles; Dufour, Gaëlle; Eremenko, Maxim; Coman, Adriana; Gaubert, Benjamin; Beekmann, Matthias; Liu, Xiong; Cai, Zhaonan; Von Clarmann, Thomas; Spurr, Robert; Flaud, Jean-Marie

    2014-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone is currently one of the air pollutants posing greatest threats to human health and ecosystems. Monitoring ozone pollution at the regional, continental and global scale is a crucial societal issue. Only spaceborne remote sensing is capable of observing tropospheric ozone at such scales. The spatio-temporal coverage of new satellite-based instruments, such as IASI or GOME-2, offer a great potential for monitoring air quality by synergism with regional chemistry-transport models, for both inter-validation and full data assimilation. However, current spaceborne observations using single-band either UV or IR measurements show limited sensitivity to ozone in the atmospheric boundary layer, which is the major concern for air quality. Very recently, we have developed an innovative multispectral approach, so-called IASI+GOME-2, which combines IASI and GOME-2 observations, respectively in the IR and UV. This unique multispectral approach has allowed the observation of ozone plumes in the lowermost troposphere (LMT, below 3 km of altitude) over Europe, for the first time from space. Our first analyses are focused on typical ozone pollution events during the summer of 2009 over Europe. During these events, LMT ozone plumes at different regions are produced photo-chemically in the boundary layer, transported upwards to the free troposphere and also downwards from the stratosphere. We have analysed them using IASI+GOME-2 observations, in comparison with single-band methods (IASI, GOME-2 and OMI). Only IASI+GOME-2 depicts ozone plumes located below 3 km of altitude (both over land and ocean). Indeed, the multispectral sensitivity in the LMT is greater by 40% and it peaks at 2 to 2.5 km of altitude over land, thus at least 0.8 to 1 km below that for all single-band methods. Over Europe during the summer of 2009, IASI+GOME-2 shows 1% mean bias and 21% precision for direct comparisons with ozonesondes and also good agreement with CHIMERE model simulations

  8. Atmospheric Infrared Sounder on NASA's Aqua Satellite: Applications for Volcano Rapid Response, Influenza Outbreak Prediction, and Drought Onset Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, S. E.; Fetzer, E. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Olsen, E. T.; Licata, S. J.; Hall, J. R.; Penteado, P. F.; Realmuto, V. J.; Thrastarson, H. T.; Teixeira, J.; Granger, S. L.; Behrangi, A.; Farahmand, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. With its 15-year data record and near real-time capability, AIRS data are being used in the development of applications that fall within many of the NASA Applied Science focus areas. An automated alert system for volcanic plumes has been developed that triggers on threshold breaches of SO2, ash and dust in granules of AIRS data. The system generates a suite of granule-scale maps that depict both plume and clouds, all accessible from the AIRS web site. Alerts are sent to a curated list of volcano community members, and links to views in NASA Worldview and Google Earth are also available. Seasonal influenza epidemics are major public health concern with millions of cases of severe illness and large economic impact. Recent studies have highlighted the role of absolute or specific humidity as a likely player in the seasonal nature of these outbreaks. A quasi-operational influenza outbreak prediction system has been developed based on the SIRS model which uses AIRS and NCEP humidity data, Center for Disease Control reports on flu and flu-like illnesses, and results from Google Flu Trends. Work is underway to account for diffusion (spatial) in addition to the temporal spreading of influenza. The US Drought Monitor (USDM) is generated weekly by the National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) and is used by policymakers for drought decision-making. AIRS data have demonstrated utility in monitoring the development and detection of meteorological drought with both AIRS-derived standardized vapor pressure deficit and standardized relative humidity, showing early detection lead times of up to two months. An agreement was secured with the NDMC to begin a trial period using AIRS products in the production of the USDM, and in July of 2017 the operational delivery of weekly CONUS AIRS images of Relative Humidity, Surface Air Temperature

  9. Real-time new satellite product demonstration from microwave sensors and GOES-16 at NRL TC web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossuth, J.; Richardson, K.; Surratt, M. L.; Bankert, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Tropical Cyclone (TC) satellite webpage (https://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/TC.html) provides demonstration analyses of storm imagery to benefit operational TC forecast centers around the world. With the availability of new spectral information provided by GOES-16 satellite data and recent research into improved visualization methods of microwave data, experimental imagery was operationally tested to visualize the structural changes of TCs during the 2017 hurricane season. This presentation provides an introduction into these innovative satellite analysis methods, NRL's next generation satellite analysis system (the Geolocated Information Processing System, GeoIPSTM), and demonstration the added value of additional spectral frequencies when monitoring storms in near-realtime.

  10. Sensitivity Range Analysis of Infrared (IR) Transmitter and Receiver Sensor to Detect Sample Position in Automatic Sample Changer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syirrazie Che Soh; Nolida Yussup; Nur Aira Abdul Rahman; Maslina Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Sensitivity range of IR Transmitter and Receiver Sensor influences the effectiveness of the sensor to detect position of a sample. Then the purpose of this analysis is to determine the suitable design and specification the electronic driver of the sensor to gain appropriate sensitivity range for required operation. The related activities to this analysis cover electronic design concept and specification, calibration of design specification and evaluation on design specification for required application. (author)

  11. Characterization of nanometer-thick polycrystalline silicon with phonon-boundary scattering enhanced thermoelectric properties and its application in infrared sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huchuan; Kropelnicki, Piotr; Lee, Chengkuo

    2015-01-14

    Although significantly reducing the thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires has been reported, it remains a challenge to integrate silicon nanowires with structure materials and electrodes in the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process. In this paper, we investigated the thermal conductivity of nanometer-thick polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) theoretically and experimentally. By leveraging the phonon-boundary scattering, the thermal conductivity of 52 nm thick poly-Si was measured as low as around 12 W mK(-1) which is only about 10% of the value of bulk single crystalline silicon. The ZT of n-doped and p-doped 52 nm thick poly-Si was measured as 0.067 and 0.024, respectively, while most previously reported data had values of about 0.02 and 0.01 for a poly-Si layer with a thickness of 0.5 μm and above. Thermopile infrared sensors comprising 128 pairs of thermocouples made of either n-doped or p-doped nanometer-thick poly-Si strips in a series connected by an aluminium (Al) metal interconnect layer are fabricated using microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology. The measured vacuum specific detectivity (D*) of the n-doped and p-doped thermopile infrared (IR) sensors are 3.00 × 10(8) and 1.83 × 10(8) cm Hz(1/2) W(-1) for sensors of 52 nm thick poly-Si, and 5.75 × 10(7) and 3.95 × 10(7) cm Hz(1/2) W(-1) for sensors of 300 nm thick poly-Si, respectively. The outstanding thermoelectric properties indicate our approach is promising for diverse applications using ultrathin poly-Si technology.

  12. Attitude and vibration control of a satellite containing flexible solar arrays by using reaction wheels, and piezoelectric transducers as sensors and actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Ijar M.; Rade, Domingos A.; Goes, Luiz C. S.; de Paula Sales, Thiago

    2017-10-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to provide insight into control-structure interaction for satellites comprising flexible appendages and internal moving components. The physical model considered herein aiming to attend such purpose is a rigid-flexible satellite consisting of a rigid platform containing two rotating flexible solar panels. The solar panels rotation is assumed to be in a sun-synchronous configuration mode. The panels contain surface-bonded piezoelectric patches that can be used either as sensors for the elastic displacements or as actuators to counteract the vibration motion. It is assumed that in the normal mode operation the satellite platform points towards the Earth while the solar arrays rotate so as to follow the Sun. The vehicle moves in a low Earth polar orbit. The technique used to obtain the mathematical model combines the Lagrangian formulation with the Finite Elements Method used to describe the dynamics of the solar panel. The gravity-gradient torque as well as the torque due to the interaction of the Earth magnetic field and the satellite internal residual magnetic moment is included as environmental perturbations. The actuators are three reaction wheels for attitude control and piezoelectric actuators to control the flexible motion of the solar arrays. Computer simulations are performed using the MATLAB® software package. The following on-orbit satellite operating configurations are object of analysis: i) Satellite pointing towards the Earth (Earth acquisition maneuver) by considering the initial conditions in the elastic displacement equal to zero, aiming the assessment of the flexible modes excitation by the referred maneuver; ii) the satellite pointing towards the Earth with the assumption of an initial condition different from zero for the flexible motion such that the attitude alterations are checked against the elastic motion disturbance; and iii) attitude acquisition accomplished by taking into account initial conditions

  13. Oil-spill remote sensors : new tools that provide solutions to old problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.E.; Fingas, M.F.; Goodman, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    A review of remote sensors used for oil spill detection and monitoring was presented. New technologies and developments in the area were highlighted. The infrared (IR) camera or a combination infrared/ultraviolet system are the two most commonly used sensors currently being used. They can detect oil under a variety of conditions, discriminate oil from some backgrounds and they have the lowest cost of any sensor. Their weakness is that they cannot identify oil on beaches, among weeds or debris, through fog, or at dawn and dusk. Also, water-in-oil emulsions are often not detected with infrared sensors. The ability of IR sensors to detect the thickness of spills was also discussed. Present day cameras use micro-bolometer technology making them more economical and practical to operate than older IR systems. The use of satellite imagery for tracking oil spills is one important new trend that can prove to be useful for wide-area searching. 37 refs

  14. 1999-2003 Shortwave Characterizations of Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS)/Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Broadband Active Cavity Radiometer Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Smith, George L.; Wong, Takmeng

    2008-01-01

    From October 1984 through May 2005, the NASA Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS/ )/Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE)ERBE nonscanning active cavity radiometers (ACR) were used to monitor long-term changes in the earth radiation budget components of the incoming total solar irradiance (TSI), earth-reflected TSI, and earth-emitted outgoing longwave radiation (OLR). From September1984 through September 1999, using on-board calibration systems, the ERBS/ERBE ACR sensor response changes, in gains and offsets, were determined from on-orbit calibration sources and from direct observations of the incoming TSI through calibration solar ports at measurement precision levels approaching 0.5 W/sq m , at satellite altitudes. On October 6, 1999, the onboard radiometer calibration system elevation drive failed. Thereafter, special spacecraft maneuvers were performed to observe cold space and the sun in order to define the post-September 1999 geometry of the radiometer measurements, and to determine the October 1999-September 2003 ERBS sensor response changes. Analyses of these special solar and cold space observations indicate that the radiometers were pointing approximately 16 degrees away from the spacecraft nadir and on the anti-solar side of the spacecraft. The special observations indicated that the radiometers responses were stable at precision levels approaching 0.5 W/sq m . In this paper, the measurement geometry determinations and the determinations of the radiometers gain and offset are presented, which will permit the accurate processing of the October 1999 through September 2003 ERBE data products at satellite and top-of-the-atmosphere altitudes.

  15. An assessment of commonly employed satellite-based remote sensors for mapping mangrove species in Mexico using an NDVI-based classification scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama-Landeros, L; Flores-de-Santiago, F; Kovacs, J M; Flores-Verdugo, F

    2017-12-14

    Optimizing the classification accuracy of a mangrove forest is of utmost importance for conservation practitioners. Mangrove forest mapping using satellite-based remote sensing techniques is by far the most common method of classification currently used given the logistical difficulties of field endeavors in these forested wetlands. However, there is now an abundance of options from which to choose in regards to satellite sensors, which has led to substantially different estimations of mangrove forest location and extent with particular concern for degraded systems. The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of mangrove forest classification using different remotely sensed data sources (i.e., Landsat-8, SPOT-5, Sentinel-2, and WorldView-2) for a system located along the Pacific coast of Mexico. Specifically, we examined a stressed semiarid mangrove forest which offers a variety of conditions such as dead areas, degraded stands, healthy mangroves, and very dense mangrove island formations. The results indicated that Landsat-8 (30 m per pixel) had  the lowest overall accuracy at 64% and that WorldView-2 (1.6 m per pixel) had the highest at 93%. Moreover, the SPOT-5 and the Sentinel-2 classifications (10 m per pixel) were very similar having accuracies of 75 and 78%, respectively. In comparison to WorldView-2, the other sensors overestimated the extent of Laguncularia racemosa and underestimated the extent of Rhizophora mangle. When considering such type of sensors, the higher spatial resolution can be particularly important in mapping small mangrove islands that often occur in degraded mangrove systems.

  16. Development of a real-time and quantitative thrombus sensor for an extracorporeal centrifugal blood pump by near-infrared light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakota, Daisuke; Fujiwara, Tatsuki; Ohuchi, Katsuhiro; Kuwana, Katsuyuki; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Kosaka, Ryo; Nishida, Masahiro; Mizuno, Tomohiro; Arai, Hirokuni; Maruyama, Osamu

    2018-01-01

    We developed an optical thrombus sensor for a monopivot extracorporeal centrifugal blood pump. In this study, we investigated its quantitative performance for thrombus detection in acute animal experiments of left ventricular assist using the pump on pathogen-free pigs. Optical fibers were set in the driver unit of the pump. The incident light at the near-infrared wavelength of 810 nm was aimed at the pivot bearing, and the resulting scattered light was guided to the optical fibers. The detected signal was analyzed to obtain the thrombus formation level. As a result, real-time and quantitative monitoring of the thrombus surface area on the pivot bearing was achieved with an accuracy of 3.6 ± 2.3 mm 2 . In addition, the sensing method using the near-infrared light was not influenced by changes in the oxygen saturation and the hematocrit. It is expected that the developed sensor will be useful for optimal anticoagulation management for long-term extracorporeal circulation therapies.

  17. Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Gleeson, Helen; Dierking, Ingo; Grieve, Bruce; Woodyatt, Christopher; Brimicombe, Paul

    2015-01-01

    An electrical temperature sensor (10) comprises a liquid crystalline material (12). First and second electrically conductive contacts (14), (16), having a spaced relationship there between, contact the liquid crystalline material (12). An electric property measuring device is electrically connected to the first and second contacts (14), (16) and is arranged to measure an electric property of the liquid crystalline material (12). The liquid crystalline material (12) has a transition temperatur...

  18. On the use of harmonized HCHO and NO2 MAXDOAS measurements for the validation of GOME-2 and OMI satellite sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinardi, Gaia; Hendrick, François; Gielen, Clio; Van Roozendael, Michel; De Smedt, Isabelle; Lambert, Jean-Christopher; Granville, José; Compernolle, Steven; Richter, Andreas; Peters, Enno; Piters, Ankie; Wagner, Thomas; Wang, Yang; Drosoglou, Theano; Bais, Alkis; Wang, Shanshan; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso

    2017-04-01

    During the last decade, the MAXDOAS technique has been increasingly recognized as a source of Fiducial Reference Measurements (FRM) suitable for the validation of satellite nadir observations of species relevant for climate and air quality like NO2 and HCHO. As part of the EU FP7 QA4ECV (Quality Assurance for Essential Climate Variables; see http://www.qa4ecv.eu/) project, efforts have been recently made to harmonize a network of a dozen of MAXDOAS spectrometers in view of their use to assess the quality of satellite climate data records generated within the same project. Harmonization tasks have addressed both retrieval steps involved in MAXDOAS retrievals, i.e. the DOAS spectral fit providing the differential slant column densities (DSCDs) and the conversion of the retrieved DSCDs into vertical profiles and/or vertical column densities (VCDs). In this work, we illustrate the successive harmonization steps and present the resulting QA4ECV MAXDOAS database v2. The approach adopted for the conversion of slant to vertical columns is based on a simplified look-up-table approach. The strength and limitation of this approach are discussed using reference data retrieved using an optimal estimation scheme. The QA4ECV MAXDOAS database is then used to validate satellite data sets of NO2 and HCHO columns derived from the Aura/OMI and MetOp/GOME-2 sensors. The methodology of comparison, which is also a subject of the QA4ECV project, is reviewed with respect to co-location criteria, impact of vertical and horizontal smoothing and representativeness of validation sites. We conclude by assessing the current strengths and limitations of the existing MAXDOAS datasets for NO2 and HCHO satellite validation.

  19. Comparison of satellite-derived LAI and precipitation anomalies over Brazil with a thermal infrared-based Evaporative Stress Index for 2003-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Martha C.; Zolin, Cornelio A.; Hain, Christopher R.; Semmens, Kathryn; Tugrul Yilmaz, M.; Gao, Feng

    2015-07-01

    Shortwave vegetation index (VI) and leaf area index (LAI) remote sensing products yield inconsistent depictions of biophysical response to drought and pluvial events that have occurred in Brazil over the past decade. Conflicting reports of severity of drought impacts on vegetation health and functioning have been attributed to cloud and aerosol contamination of shortwave reflectance composites, particularly over the rainforested regions of the Amazon basin which are subject to prolonged periods of cloud cover and episodes of intense biomass burning. This study compares timeseries of satellite-derived maps of LAI from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and precipitation from the Tropical Rainfall Mapping Mission (TRMM) with a diagnostic Evaporative Stress Index (ESI) retrieved using thermal infrared remote sensing over South America for the period 2003-2013. This period includes several severe droughts and floods that occurred both over the Amazon and over unforested savanna and agricultural areas in Brazil. Cross-correlations between absolute values and standardized anomalies in monthly LAI and precipitation composites as well as the actual-to-reference evapotranspiration (ET) ratio used in the ESI were computed for representative forested and agricultural regions. The correlation analyses reveal strong apparent anticorrelation between MODIS LAI and TRMM precipitation anomalies over the Amazon, but better coupling over regions vegetated with shorter grass and crop canopies. The ESI was more consistently correlated with precipitation patterns over both landcover types. Temporal comparisons between ESI and TRMM anomalies suggest longer moisture buffering timescales in the deeper rooted rainforest systems. Diagnostic thermal-based retrievals of ET and ET anomalies, such as used in the ESI, provide independent information on the impacts of extreme hydrologic events on vegetation health in comparison with VI and precipitation-based drought

  20. Simulation of at-sensor radiance over land for proposed thermal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Satellite level at-sensor radiance corresponding to all four infrared channels of. INSAT-3D Imager payload is .... its heritage traces back to LOWTRAN. MOD-. TRAN includes all ... over tropical region (SeeBor dataset) are car- ried out with the ...

  1. Ultraviolet and infrared emission from lightning discharges observed at Aragats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilingarian, A.; Karapetyan, T.; Pokhsraryan, D.; Bogomolov, V.; Garipov, G.; Panasyuk, M.; Svertilov, S.; Saleev, K.

    2016-01-01

    The ultraviolet and infrared optical sensors previously used at RELEC space missions were installed at the high altitude research station Aragats at 3200 m above the sea level. The spectral composition and temporal structure of the recorded optical signals and measurements of the electrostatic field and atmospheric discharges obtained by “fast” and “slow” field sensors have been compared. Measurements of lightning and related to them phenomena observed at the mountain altitude and on board of orbiting satellites are compared. (author)

  2. Downscaling Satellite Data for Predicting Catchment-scale Root Zone Soil Moisture with Ground-based Sensors and an Ensemble Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H.; Baldwin, D. C.; Smithwick, E. A. H.

    2015-12-01

    Predicting root zone (0-100 cm) soil moisture (RZSM) content at a catchment-scale is essential for drought and flood predictions, irrigation planning, weather forecasting, and many other applications. Satellites, such as the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP), can estimate near-surface (0-5 cm) soil moisture content globally at coarse spatial resolutions. We develop a hierarchical Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) data assimilation modeling system to downscale satellite-based near-surface soil moisture and to estimate RZSM content across the Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory at a 1-m resolution in combination with ground-based soil moisture sensor data. In this example, a simple infiltration model within the EnKF-model has been parameterized for 6 soil-terrain units to forecast daily RZSM content in the catchment from 2009 - 2012 based on AMSRE. LiDAR-derived terrain variables define intra-unit RZSM variability using a novel covariance localization technique. This method also allows the mapping of uncertainty with our RZSM estimates for each time-step. A catchment-wide satellite-to-surface downscaling parameter, which nudges the satellite measurement closer to in situ near-surface data, is also calculated for each time-step. We find significant differences in predicted root zone moisture storage for different terrain units across the experimental time-period. Root mean square error from a cross-validation analysis of RZSM predictions using an independent dataset of catchment-wide in situ Time-Domain Reflectometry (TDR) measurements ranges from 0.060-0.096 cm3 cm-3, and the RZSM predictions are significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with TDR measurements [r = 0.47-0.68]. The predictive skill of this data assimilation system is similar to the Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Modeling (PIHM) system. Uncertainty estimates are significantly (p < 0.05) correlated to cross validation error during wet and dry conditions, but more so in dry summer seasons. Developing an

  3. New devices for flow measurements: Hot film and burial wire sensors, infrared imagery, liquid crystal, and piezo-electric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcree, Griffith J., Jr.; Roberts, A. Sidney, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental program aimed at identifying areas in low speed aerodynamic research where infrared imaging systems can make significant contributions is discussed. Implementing a new technique, a long electrically heated wire was placed across a laminar flow. By measuring the temperature distribution along the wire with the IR imaging camera, the flow behavior was identified.

  4. Coseismic displacements from SAR image offsets between different satellite sensors: Application to the 2001 Bhuj (India) earthquake

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Teng; Wei, Shengji; Jonsson, Sigurjon

    2015-01-01

    preearthquake ERS and postearthquake Envisat images. The rupture model estimated from these cross-sensor offsets and teleseismic waveforms shows a compact fault slip pattern with fairly short rise times (<3 s) and a large stress drop (20 MPa), explaining

  5. A GIS-based assessment of the suitability of SCIAMACHY satellite sensor measurements for estimating reliable CO concentrations in a low-latitude climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagbeja, Mofoluso A; Hill, Jennifer L; Chatterton, Tim J; Longhurst, James W S

    2015-02-01

    An assessment of the reliability of the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY) satellite sensor measurements to interpolate tropospheric concentrations of carbon monoxide considering the low-latitude climate of the Niger Delta region in Nigeria was conducted. Monthly SCIAMACHY carbon monoxide (CO) column measurements from January 2,003 to December 2005 were interpolated using ordinary kriging technique. The spatio-temporal variations observed in the reliability were based on proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, seasonal variations in the intensities of rainfall and relative humidity, the presence of dust particles from the Sahara desert, industrialization in Southwest Nigeria and biomass burning during the dry season in Northern Nigeria. Spatial reliabilities of 74 and 42 % are observed for the inland and coastal areas, respectively. Temporally, average reliability of 61 and 55 % occur during the dry and wet seasons, respectively. Reliability in the inland and coastal areas was 72 and 38 % during the wet season, and 75 and 46 % during the dry season, respectively. Based on the results, the WFM-DOAS SCIAMACHY CO data product used for this study is therefore relevant in the assessment of CO concentrations in developing countries within the low latitudes that could not afford monitoring infrastructure due to the required high costs. Although the SCIAMACHY sensor is no longer available, it provided cost-effective, reliable and accessible data that could support air quality assessment in developing countries.

  6. User requirements and user acceptance of current and next-generation satellite mission and sensor complement, oriented toward the monitoring of water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castruccio, P. A.; Loats, H. L., Jr.; Fowler, T. R.; Robinson, P.

    1975-01-01

    Principal water resources users were surveyed to determine the applicability of remotely sensed data to their present and future requirements. Analysis of responses was used to assess the levels of adequacy of LANDSAT 1 and 2 in fulfilling hydrological functions, and to derive systems specifications for future water resources-oriented remote sensing satellite systems. The analysis indicates that water resources applications for all but the very large users require: (1) resolutions on the order of 15 meters, (2) a number of radiometric levels of the same order as currently used in LANDSAT 1 (64), (3) a number of spectral bands not in excess of those used in LANDSAT 1, and (4) a repetition frequency on the order of 2 weeks. The users had little feel for the value of new sensors (thermal IR, passive and active microwaves). What is needed in this area is to achieve specific demonstrations of the utility of these sensors and submit the results to the users to evince their judgement.

  7. Comparison of Eight Techniques for Reconstructing Multi-Satellite Sensor Time-Series NDVI Data Sets in the Heihe River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying Geng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available More than 20 techniques have been developed to de-noise time-series vegetation index data from different satellite sensors to reconstruct long time-series data sets. Although many studies have compared Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI noise-reduction techniques, few studies have compared these techniques systematically and comprehensively. This study tested eight techniques for smoothing different vegetation types using different types of multi-temporal NDVI data (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR (Global Inventory Modeling and Map Studies (GIMMS and Pathfinder AVHRR Land (PAL, Satellite Pour l’ Observation de la Terre (SPOT VEGETATION (VGT, and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS (Terra with the ultimate purpose of determining the best reconstruction technique for each type of vegetation captured with four satellite sensors. These techniques include the modified best index slope extraction (M-BISE technique, the Savitzky-Golay (S-G technique, the mean value iteration filter (MVI technique, the asymmetric Gaussian (A-G technique, the double logistic (D-L technique, the changing-weight filter (CW technique, the interpolation for data reconstruction (IDR technique, and the Whittaker smoother (WS technique. These techniques were evaluated by calculating the root mean square error (RMSE, the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC, and the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC. The results indicate that the S-G, CW, and WS techniques perform better than the other tested techniques, while the IDR, M-BISE, and MVI techniques performed worse than the other techniques. The best de-noise technique varies with different vegetation types and NDVI data sources. The S-G performs best in most situations. In addition, the CW and WS are effective techniques that were exceeded only by the S-G technique. The assessment results are consistent in terms of the three evaluation indexes for GIMMS, PAL, and SPOT data in the study

  8. Key Technologies and Applications of Satellite and Sensor Web-coupled Real-time Dynamic Web Geographic Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Nengcheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The geo-spatial information service has failed to reflect the live status of spot and meet the needs of integrated monitoring and real-time information for a long time. To tackle the problems in observation sharing and integrated management of space-borne, air-borne, and ground-based platforms and efficient service of spatio-temporal information, an observation sharing model was proposed. The key technologies in real-time dynamic geographical information system (GIS including maximum spatio-temporal coverage-based optimal layout of earth-observation sensor Web, task-driven and feedback-based control, real-time access of streaming observations, dynamic simulation, warning and decision support were detailed. An real-time dynamic Web geographical information system (WebGIS named GeoSensor and its applications in sensing and management of spatio-temporal information of Yangtze River basin including navigation, flood prevention, and power generation were also introduced.

  9. Technical Description of Radar and Optical Sensors Contributing to Joint UK-Australian Satellite Tracking, Data-fusion and Cueing Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastment, J.; Ladd, D.; Donnelly, P.; Ash, A.; Harwood, N.; Ritchie, I.; Smith, C.; Bennett, J.; Rutten, M.; Gordon, N.

    2014-09-01

    DSTL, DSTO, EOS and STFC have recently participated in a campaign of co-ordinated observations with both radar and optical sensors in order to demonstrate and to refine methodologies for orbit determination, data fusion and cross-sensor cueing. The experimental programme is described in detail in the companion paper by Harwood et al. At the STFC Chilbolton Observatory in Southern England, an S-band radar on a 25 m diameter fully-steerable dish antenna was used to measure object range and radar cross-section. At the EOS Space Systems facility on Mount Stromlo, near Canberra, Australia, an optical system comprising a 2 m alt / az observatory, with Coude path laser tracking at 400W power, was used to acquire, lock and laser track the cued objects, providing accurate orbit determinations for each. DSTO, located at Edinburgh, Australia, operated an optical system consisting of a small commercial telescope and mount, measuring the direction to the objects. Observation times were limited to the evening solar terminator period. Data from these systems was processed independently, using DSTL-developed and DSTO / EOS-developed algorithms, to perform orbit determination and to cross-cue: (i) the radar, based on the optical measurements; (ii) the optical system, based on the radar measurements; and (iii) the radar, using its own prior observations (self-cueing). In some cases, TLEs were used to initialise the orbit determination process; in other cases, the cues were derived entirely from sensor data. In all 3 scenarios, positive results were obtained for a variety of satellites in low earth orbits, demonstrating the feasibility of the different cue generation techniques. The purpose of this paper is to describe the technical characteristics of the radar and optical systems used, the modes of operation employed to acquire the observations, and details of the parameters measured and the data formats.

  10. Photometrical research geostationary satellite "SBIRS GEO-2"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhov, P. P.; Epishev, V. P; Sukhov, K. P; Kudak, V. I.

    The multicolor photometrical observations GSS "Sbirs Geo-2" were carried in B,V,R filters out during the autumn equinox 2014 and spring 2015 y. Periodic appearance of many light curves and dips of mirror reflections suggests that the GSS was not in orbit in a static position, predetermined three-axis orientation and in dynamic motion. On the basis of computer modeling suggests the following dynamics GSS "Sbirs Geo-2" in orbit. Helically scanning the visible Earth's surface infrared satellite sensors come with period P1 = 15.66 sec. and the rocking of the GSS about the direction of the motion vector of the satellite in orbit with P2 = 62.64 sec., most likely with the purpose to survey the greatest possible portion of the earth's surface.

  11. Fabrication of an infrared Shack-Hartmann sensor by combining high-speed single-point diamond milling and precision compression molding processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Zhou, Wenchen; Naples, Neil J; Yi, Allen Y

    2018-05-01

    A novel fabrication method by combining high-speed single-point diamond milling and precision compression molding processes for fabrication of discontinuous freeform microlens arrays was proposed. Compared with slow tool servo diamond broaching, high-speed single-point diamond milling was selected for its flexibility in the fabrication of true 3D optical surfaces with discontinuous features. The advantage of single-point diamond milling is that the surface features can be constructed sequentially by spacing the axes of a virtual spindle at arbitrary positions based on the combination of rotational and translational motions of both the high-speed spindle and linear slides. By employing this method, each micro-lenslet was regarded as a microstructure cell by passing the axis of the virtual spindle through the vertex of each cell. An optimization arithmetic based on minimum-area fabrication was introduced to the machining process to further increase the machining efficiency. After the mold insert was machined, it was employed to replicate the microlens array onto chalcogenide glass. In the ensuing optical measurement, the self-built Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was proven to be accurate in detecting an infrared wavefront by both experiments and numerical simulation. The combined results showed that precision compression molding of chalcogenide glasses could be an economic and precision optical fabrication technology for high-volume production of infrared optics.

  12. Proposal of ultrasonic-assisted mid-infrared spectroscopy for incorporating into daily life like smart-toilet and non-invasive blood glucose sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazaki, Tomoya; Mori, Keita; Yamamoto, Naoyuki; Wang, Congtao; Kawashima, Natsumi; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2017-07-01

    We proposed the extremely compact beans-size snap-shot mid-infrared spectroscopy that will be able to be built in smartphones. And also the easy preparation method of thin-film samples generated by ultrasonic standing wave is proposed. Mid-infrared spectroscopy is able to identify material components and estimate component concentrations quantitatively from absorption spectra. But conventional spectral instruments were very large-size and too expensive to incorporate into daily life. And preparations of thin-film sample were very troublesome task. Because water absorption in mid-infrared lights is very strong, moisture-containing-sample thickness should be less than 100[μm]. Thus, midinfrared spectroscopy has been utilized only by analytical experts in their laboratories. Because ultrasonic standing wave is compressional wave, we can generate periodical refractive-index distributions inside of samples. A high refractiveindex plane is correspond to a reflection boundary. When we use a several MHz ultrasonic transducer, the distance between sample surface and generated first node become to be several ten μm. Thus, the double path of this distance is correspond to sample thickness. By combining these two proposed methods, as for liquid samples, urinary albumin and glucose concentrations will be able to be measured inside of toilet. And as for solid samples, by attaching these apparatus to earlobes, the enhancement of reflection lights from near skin surface will create a new path to realize the non-invasive blood glucose sensor. Using the small ultrasonic-transducer whose diameter was 10[mm] and applied voltage 8[V], we detected the internal reflection lights from colored water as liquid sample and acrylic board as solid sample.

  13. First Results of a Detection Sensor for the Monitoring of Laying Hens Reared in a Commercial Organic Egg Production Farm Based on the Use of Infrared Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Zaninelli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of a monitoring system to identify the presence of laying hens, in a closed room of a free-range commercial organic egg production farm, was the aim of this study. This monitoring system was based on the infrared (IR technology and had, as final target, a possible reduction of atmospheric ammonia levels and bacterial load. Tests were carried out for three weeks and involved 7 ISA (Institut de Sélection Animale brown laying hens. The first 5 days was used to set up the detection sensor, while the other 15 days were used to evaluate the accuracy of the resulting monitoring system, in terms of sensitivity and specificity. The setup procedure included the evaluation of different color background (CB thresholds, used to discriminate the information contents of the thermographic images. At the end of this procedure, a CB threshold equal to an increase of 3 °C from the floor temperature was chosen, and a cutoff level of 196 colored pixels was identified as the threshold to use to classify a positive case. The results of field tests showed that the developed monitoring system reached a fine detection accuracy (sensitivity = 97.9% and specificity = 94.9% and the IR technology proved to be a possible solution for the development of a detection sensor necessary to reach the scope of this study.

  14. First Results of a Detection Sensor for the Monitoring of Laying Hens Reared in a Commercial Organic Egg Production Farm Based on the Use of Infrared Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaninelli, Mauro; Redaelli, Veronica; Tirloni, Erica; Bernardi, Cristian; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Savoini, Giovanni

    2016-10-21

    The development of a monitoring system to identify the presence of laying hens, in a closed room of a free-range commercial organic egg production farm, was the aim of this study. This monitoring system was based on the infrared (IR) technology and had, as final target, a possible reduction of atmospheric ammonia levels and bacterial load. Tests were carried out for three weeks and involved 7 ISA (Institut de Sélection Animale) brown laying hens. The first 5 days was used to set up the detection sensor, while the other 15 days were used to evaluate the accuracy of the resulting monitoring system, in terms of sensitivity and specificity. The setup procedure included the evaluation of different color background (CB) thresholds, used to discriminate the information contents of the thermographic images. At the end of this procedure, a CB threshold equal to an increase of 3 °C from the floor temperature was chosen, and a cutoff level of 196 colored pixels was identified as the threshold to use to classify a positive case. The results of field tests showed that the developed monitoring system reached a fine detection accuracy (sensitivity = 97.9% and specificity = 94.9%) and the IR technology proved to be a possible solution for the development of a detection sensor necessary to reach the scope of this study.

  15. Longwave infrared observation of urban landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goward, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation is conducted regarding the feasibility to develop improved methods for the identification and analysis of urban landscapes on the basis of a utilization of longwave infrared observations. Attention is given to landscape thermal behavior, urban thermal properties, modeled thermal behavior of pavements and buildings, and observed urban landscape thermal emissions. The differential thermal behavior of buildings, pavements, and natural areas within urban landscapes is found to suggest that integrated multispectral solar radiant reflectance and terrestrial radiant emissions data will significantly increase potentials for analyzing urban landscapes. In particular, daytime satellite observations of the considered type should permit better identification of urban areas and an analysis of the density of buildings and pavements within urban areas. This capability should enhance the utility of satellite remote sensor data in urban applications.

  16. Remote sensing systems – Platforms and sensors: Aerial, satellites, UAVs, optical, radar, and LiDAR: Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sudhanshu S.; Rao, Mahesh N.; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Fitzerald, James E.

    2015-01-01

    The American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing defined remote sensing as the measurement or acquisition of information of some property of an object or phenomenon, by a recording device that is not in physical or intimate contact with the object or phenomenon under study (Colwell et al., 1983). Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) in its geographic information system (GIS) dictionary defines remote sensing as “collecting and interpreting information about the environment and the surface of the earth from a distance, primarily by sensing radiation that is naturally emitted or reflected by the earth’s surface or from the atmosphere, or by sending signals transmitted from a device and reflected back to it (ESRI, 2014).” The usual source of passive remote sensing data is the measurement of reflected or transmitted electromagnetic radiation (EMR) from the sun across the electromagnetic spectrum (EMS); this can also include acoustic or sound energy, gravity, or the magnetic field from or of the objects under consideration. In this context, the simple act of reading this text is considered remote sensing. In this case, the eye acts as a sensor and senses the light reflected from the object to obtain information about the object. It is the same technology used by a handheld camera to take a photograph of a person or a distant scenic view. Active remote sensing, however, involves sending a pulse of energy and then measuring the returned energy through a sensor (e.g., Radio Detection and Ranging [RADAR], Light Detection and Ranging [LiDAR]). Thermal sensors measure emitted energy by different objects. Thus, in general, passive remote sensing involves the measurement of solar energy reflected from the Earth’s surface, while active remote sensing involves synthetic (man-made) energy pulsed at the environment and the return signals are measured and recorded.

  17. Feasibility Study on S-Band Microwave Radiation and 3D-Thermal Infrared Imaging Sensor-Aided Recognition of Polymer Materials from End-of-Life Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiu Huang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the increase the worldwide consumption of vehicles, end-of-life vehicles (ELVs have kept rapidly increasing in the last two decades. Metallic parts and materials of ELVs can be easily reused and recycled, but the automobile shredder residues (ASRs, of which elastomer and plastic materials make up the vast majority, are difficult to recycle. ASRs are classified as hazardous materials in the main industrial countries, and are required to be materially recycled up to 85–95% by mass until 2020. However, there is neither sufficient theoretical nor practical experience for sorting ASR polymers. In this research, we provide a novel method by using S-Band microwave irradiation together with 3D scanning as well as infrared thermal imaging sensors for the recognition and sorting of typical plastics and elastomers from the ASR mixture. In this study, an industrial magnetron array with 2.45 GHz irradiation was utilized as the microwave source. Seven kinds of ELV polymer (PVC, ABS, PP, EPDM, NBR, CR, and SBR crushed scrap residues were tested. After specific power microwave irradiation for a certain time, the tested polymer materials were heated up to different extents corresponding to their respective sensitivities to microwave irradiation. Due to the variations in polymer chemical structure and additive agents, polymers have different sensitivities to microwave radiation, which leads to differences in temperature rises. The differences of temperature increase were obtained by a thermal infrared sensor, and the position and geometrical features of the tested scraps were acquired by a 3D imaging sensor. With this information, the scrap material could be recognized and then sorted. The results showed that this method was effective when the tested polymer materials were heated up to more than 30 °C. For full recognition of the tested polymer scraps, the minimum temperature variations of 5 °C and 10.5 °C for plastics and elastomers were needed

  18. Built-in hyperspectral camera for smartphone in visible, near-infrared and middle-infrared lights region (second report): sensitivity improvement of Fourier-spectroscopic imaging to detect diffuse reflection lights from internal human tissues for healthcare sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Natsumi; Hosono, Satsuki; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2016-05-01

    We proposed the snapshot-type Fourier spectroscopic imaging for smartphone that was mentioned in 1st. report in this conference. For spectroscopic components analysis, such as non-invasive blood glucose sensors, the diffuse reflection lights from internal human skins are very weak for conventional hyperspectral cameras, such as AOTF (Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter) type. Furthermore, it is well known that the spectral absorption of mid-infrared lights or Raman spectroscopy especially in long wavelength region is effective to distinguish specific biomedical components quantitatively, such as glucose concentration. But the main issue was that photon energies of middle infrared lights and light intensities of Raman scattering are extremely weak. For improving sensitivity of our spectroscopic imager, the wide-field-stop & beam-expansion method was proposed. Our line spectroscopic imager introduced a single slit for field stop on the conjugate objective plane. Obviously to increase detected light intensities, the wider slit width of the field stop makes light intensities higher, regardless of deterioration of spatial resolutions. Because our method is based on wavefront-division interferometry, it becomes problems that the wider width of single slit makes the diffraction angle narrower. This means that the narrower diameter of collimated objective beams deteriorates visibilities of interferograms. By installing the relative inclined phaseshifter onto optical Fourier transform plane of infinity corrected optical systems, the collimated half flux of objective beams derived from single-bright points on objective surface penetrate through the wedge prism and the cuboid glass respectively. These two beams interfere each other and form the infererogram as spatial fringe patterns. Thus, we installed concave-cylindrical lens between the wider slit and objective lens as a beam expander. We successfully obtained the spectroscopic characters of hemoglobin from reflected lights from

  19. Time series analysis of satellite multi-sensors imagery to study the recursive abnormal grow of floating macrophyte in the lake victoria (central Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusilli, Lorenzo; Cavalli, Rosa Maria; Laneve, Giovanni; Pignatti, Stefano; Santilli, Giancarlo; Santini, Federico

    2010-05-01

    Remote sensing allows multi-temporal mapping and monitoring of large water bodies. The importance of remote sensing for wetland and inland water inventory and monitoring at all scales was emphasized several times by the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands and from EU projects like SALMON and ROSALMA, e.g. by (Finlayson et al., 1999) and (Lowry and Finlayson, 2004). This paper aims at assessing the capability of time series of satellite imagery to provide information suitable for enhancing the understanding of the temporal cycles shown by the macrophytes growing in order to support the monitor and management of the lake Victoria water resources. The lake Victoria coastal areas are facing a number of challenges related to water resource management which include growing population, water scarcity, climate variability and water resource degradation, invasive species, water pollution. The proliferation of invasive plants and aquatic weeds, is of growing concern. In particular, let us recall some of the problems caused by the aquatic weeds growing: Ø interference with human activities such as fishing, and boating; Ø inhibition or interference with a balanced fish population; Ø fish killing due to removal of too much oxygen from the water; Ø production of quiet water areas that are ideal for mosquito breeding. In this context, an integrated use of medium/high resolution images from sensors like MODIS, ASTER, LANDSAT/TM and whenever available CHRIS offers the possibility of creating a congruent time series allowing the analysis of the floating vegetation dynamic on an extended temporal basis. Although MODIS imagery is acquired daily, cloudiness and other sources of noise can greatly reduce the effective temporal resolution, further its spatial resolution can results not always adequate to map the extension of floating plants. Therefore, the integrated use of sensors with different spatial resolution, were used to map across seasons the evolution of the phenomena. The

  20. High-resolution Mapping of Permafrost and Soil Freeze/thaw Dynamics in the Tibetan Plateau Based on Multi-sensor Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Yi, Y.; Yang, K.; Kimball, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is underlain by the world's largest extent of alpine permafrost ( 2.5×106 km2), dominated by sporadic and discontinuous permafrost with strong sensitivity to climate warming. Detailed permafrost distributions and patterns in most of the TP region are still unknown due to extremely sparse in-situ observations in this region characterized by heterogeneous land cover and large temporal dynamics in surface soil moisture conditions. Therefore, satellite-based temperature and moisture observations are essential for high-resolution mapping of permafrost distribution and soil active layer changes in the TP region. In this study, we quantify the TP regional permafrost distribution at 1-km resolution using a detailed satellite data-driven soil thermal process model (GIPL2). The soil thermal model is calibrated and validated using in-situ soil temperature/moisture observations from the CAMP/Tibet field campaign (9 sites: 0-300 cm soil depth sampling from 1997-2007), a multi-scale soil moisture and temperature monitoring network in the central TP (CTP-SMTMN, 57 sites: 5-40 cm, 2010-2014) and across the whole plateau (China Meteorology Administration, 98 sites: 0-320 cm, 2000-2015). Our preliminary results using the CAMP/Tibet and CTP-SMTMN network observations indicate strong controls of surface thermal and soil moisture conditions on soil freeze/thaw dynamics, which vary greatly with underlying topography, soil texture and vegetation cover. For regional mapping of soil freeze/thaw and permafrost dynamics, we use the most recent soil moisture retrievals from the NASA SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) sensor to account for the effects of temporal soil moisture dynamics on soil thermal heat transfer, with surface thermal conditions defined by MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) land surface temperature records. Our study provides the first 1-km map of spatial patterns and recent changes of permafrost conditions in the TP.

  1. GHRSST Level 2P 1 m Depth Global Sea Surface Temperature from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi NPP satellite (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on retrievals from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)....

  2. Multi-satellite sensor study on precipitation-induced emission pulses of NOx from soils in semi-arid ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zörner

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a top-down approach to infer and quantify rain-induced emission pulses of NOx ( ≡  NO + NO2, stemming from biotic emissions of NO from soils, from satellite-borne measurements of NO2. This is achieved by synchronizing time series at single grid pixels according to the first day of rain after a dry spell of prescribed duration. The full track of the temporal evolution several weeks before and after a rain pulse is retained with daily resolution. These are needed for a sophisticated background correction, which accounts for seasonal variations in the time series and allows for improved quantification of rain-induced soil emissions. The method is applied globally and provides constraints on pulsed soil emissions of NOx in regions where the NOx budget is seasonally dominated by soil emissions. We find strong peaks of enhanced NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs induced by the first intense precipitation after prolonged droughts in many semi-arid regions of the world, in particular in the Sahel. Detailed investigations show that the rain-induced NO2 pulse detected by the OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument, GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY satellite instruments could not be explained by other sources, such as biomass burning or lightning, or by retrieval artefacts (e.g. due to clouds. For the Sahel region, absolute enhancements of the NO2 VCDs on the first day of rain based on OMI measurements 2007–2010 are on average 4 × 1014  molec cm−2 and exceed 1 × 1015  molec cm−2 for individual grid cells. Assuming a NOx lifetime of 4 h, this corresponds to soil NOx emissions in the range of 6 up to 65 ng N m−2 s−1, which is in good agreement with literature values. Apart from the clear first-day peak, NO2 VCDs are moderately enhanced (2 × 1014  molec cm−2 compared to the background over the following 2 weeks, suggesting potential further emissions during that period of about 3.3 ng N m−2

  3. Evaluating the Height of Biomass Burning Smoke Aerosols Retrieved from Synergistic Use of Multiple Satellite Sensors Over Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaehwa; Hsu, N. Christina; Bettenhausen, Corey; Sayer, Andrew M.; Seftor, Colin J.; Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Tsay, Si-Chee; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Chen, Wei-Nai

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the height of biomass burning smoke aerosols retrieved from a combined use of Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS), and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) observations. The retrieved heights are compared against space borne and ground-based lidar measurements during the peak biomass burning season (March and April) over Southeast Asia from 2013 to 2015. Based on the comparison against CALIOP, a quality assurance (QA) procedure is developed. It is found that 74 (8184) of the retrieved heights fall within 1 km of CALIOP observations for unfiltered (QA-filtered) data, with root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 1.1 km (0.81.0 km). Eliminating the requirement of CALIOP observations from the retrieval process significantly increases the temporal coverage with only a slight decrease in the retrieval accuracy; for best QA data, 64 of data fall within 1 km of CALIOP observations with RMSE of 1.1 km. When compared with Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET) measurements deployed at Doi Ang Khang, Thailand, the retrieved heights show RMSE of 1.7 km (1.1 km) for unfiltered (QA-filtered) data for the complete algorithm, and 0.9 km (0.8 km) for the simplified algorithm.

  4. Infrared detectors, focal plane arrays, and imaging sensors; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Mar. 30, 31, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereniak, Eustace L.; Sampson, Robert T.

    1989-10-01

    The present conference on advancements in IR detectors, Schottky-barrier focal plane arrays, CCD image analysis, and HgCdTe materials gives attention to a 256 x 256 PtSi array for IR astronomy, proposals for a second-generation meteosat's advanced optical payload, cryogenic bipolar technology for on-focal-plane signal processing, a parallel cellular processing system for fast generation of perspective plots, and ultrahigh-speed CCD image sensors for scanning applications. Also discussed are MBE GaAs rib waveguide experiments at 10.6 microns, an interferometric thermal detector, the development status of superconducting IR detector research, the absorption coefficients of n-type Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te samples, and the influence of the surface channel on crosstalk in HgCdTe photovoltaic arrays.

  5. IrisDenseNet: Robust Iris Segmentation Using Densely Connected Fully Convolutional Networks in the Images by Visible Light and Near-Infrared Light Camera Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsalan, Muhammad; Naqvi, Rizwan Ali; Kim, Dong Seop; Nguyen, Phong Ha; Owais, Muhammad; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2018-05-10

    The recent advancements in computer vision have opened new horizons for deploying biometric recognition algorithms in mobile and handheld devices. Similarly, iris recognition is now much needed in unconstraint scenarios with accuracy. These environments make the acquired iris image exhibit occlusion, low resolution, blur, unusual glint, ghost effect, and off-angles. The prevailing segmentation algorithms cannot cope with these constraints. In addition, owing to the unavailability of near-infrared (NIR) light, iris recognition in visible light environment makes the iris segmentation challenging with the noise of visible light. Deep learning with convolutional neural networks (CNN) has brought a considerable breakthrough in various applications. To address the iris segmentation issues in challenging situations by visible light and near-infrared light camera sensors, this paper proposes a densely connected fully convolutional network (IrisDenseNet), which can determine the true iris boundary even with inferior-quality images by using better information gradient flow between the dense blocks. In the experiments conducted, five datasets of visible light and NIR environments were used. For visible light environment, noisy iris challenge evaluation part-II (NICE-II selected from UBIRIS.v2 database) and mobile iris challenge evaluation (MICHE-I) datasets were used. For NIR environment, the institute of automation, Chinese academy of sciences (CASIA) v4.0 interval, CASIA v4.0 distance, and IIT Delhi v1.0 iris datasets were used. Experimental results showed the optimal segmentation of the proposed IrisDenseNet and its excellent performance over existing algorithms for all five datasets.

  6. IrisDenseNet: Robust Iris Segmentation Using Densely Connected Fully Convolutional Networks in the Images by Visible Light and Near-Infrared Light Camera Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arsalan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent advancements in computer vision have opened new horizons for deploying biometric recognition algorithms in mobile and handheld devices. Similarly, iris recognition is now much needed in unconstraint scenarios with accuracy. These environments make the acquired iris image exhibit occlusion, low resolution, blur, unusual glint, ghost effect, and off-angles. The prevailing segmentation algorithms cannot cope with these constraints. In addition, owing to the unavailability of near-infrared (NIR light, iris recognition in visible light environment makes the iris segmentation challenging with the noise of visible light. Deep learning with convolutional neural networks (CNN has brought a considerable breakthrough in various applications. To address the iris segmentation issues in challenging situations by visible light and near-infrared light camera sensors, this paper proposes a densely connected fully convolutional network (IrisDenseNet, which can determine the true iris boundary even with inferior-quality images by using better information gradient flow between the dense blocks. In the experiments conducted, five datasets of visible light and NIR environments were used. For visible light environment, noisy iris challenge evaluation part-II (NICE-II selected from UBIRIS.v2 database and mobile iris challenge evaluation (MICHE-I datasets were used. For NIR environment, the institute of automation, Chinese academy of sciences (CASIA v4.0 interval, CASIA v4.0 distance, and IIT Delhi v1.0 iris datasets were used. Experimental results showed the optimal segmentation of the proposed IrisDenseNet and its excellent performance over existing algorithms for all five datasets.

  7. Detection of Coccolithophore Blooms in Ocean Color Satellite Imagery: a Generalized Approach for Use with Multiple Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Timothy; Dowell, Mark; Franz, Bryan A.

    2012-01-01

    A generalized coccolithophore bloom classifier has been developed for use with ocean color imagery. The bloom classifier was developed using extracted satellite reflectance data from SeaWiFS images screened by the default bloom detection mask. In the current application, we extend the optical water type (OWT) classification scheme by adding a new coccolithophore bloom class formed from these extracted reflectances. Based on an in situ coccolithophore data set from the North Atlantic, the detection levels with the new scheme were between 1,500 and 1,800 coccolithophore cellsmL and 43,000 and 78,000 lithsmL. The detected bloom area using the OWT method was an average of 1.75 times greater than the default bloom detector based on a collection of SeaWiFS 1 km imagery. The versatility of the scheme is shown with SeaWiFS, MODIS Aqua, CZCS and MERIS imagery at the 1 km scale. The OWT scheme was applied to the daily global SeaWiFS imagery mission data set (years 19972010). Based on our results, average annual coccolithophore bloom area was more than two times greater in the southern hemisphere compared to the northern hemi- sphere with values of 2.00 106 km2 and 0.75 106 km2, respectively. The new algorithm detects larger bloom areas in the Southern Ocean compared to the default algorithm, and our revised global annual average of 2.75106 km2 is dominated by contributions from the Southern Ocean.

  8. Short-range remote spectral sensor using mid-infrared semiconductor lasers with orthogonal code-division multiplexing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbi, Zulfikar; Ho, D. B.; Ren, H.-W.; Le, Han Q.; Pei, Shin Shem

    2002-09-01

    Demonstration of short-range multispectral remote sensing, using 3 to 4-micrometers mid- infrared Sb semiconductor lasers based on code-division multiplexing (CDM) architecture, is described. The system is built on a principle similar to intensity- modulated/direct-detection optical-CDMA for communications, but adapted for sensing with synchronous, orthogonal codes to distinguish different wavelength channels with zero interchannel correlation. The concept is scalable for any number of channels, and experiments with a two-wavelength system are conducted. The CDM-signal processing yielded a white-Gaussian-like system noise that is found to be near the theoretical level limited by the detector fundamental intrinsic noise. With sub-mW transmitter average power, the system was able to detect an open-air acetylene gas leak of 10-2 STP ft3/hr from 10-m away with time-varying, random, noncooperative backscatters. A similar experiment detected and positively distinguished hydrocarbon oil contaminants on water from bio-organic oils and detergents. Projection for more advanced systems suggests a multi-kilometer-range capability for watt-level transmitters, and hundreds of wavelength channels can also be accommodated for active hyperspectral remote sensing application.

  9. Offshore Wind Energy: Wind and Sea Surface Temperature from Satellite Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna

    as the entire atmosphere above. Under conditions of light winds and strong solar insolation, warming of the upper oceanic layer may occur. In this PhD study, remote sensing from satellites is used to obtain information for the near-surface ocean wind and the sea surface temperature over the North Sea......, demonstrate that wind information from SAR is more appropriate when small scale local features are of interest, not resolved by scatterometers. Hourly satellite observations of the sea surface temperature, from a thermal infra-red sensor, are used to identify and quantify the daily variability of the sea...

  10. Monitoring the Impact of Climate Change on Soil Salinity in Agricultural Areas Using Ground and Satellite Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, D. L.; Scudiero, E.

    2017-12-01

    Changes in climatic patterns have had dramatic influence on agricultural areas worldwide, particularly in irrigated arid-zone agricultural areas subjected to recurring drought, such as California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV), or areas receiving above average rainfall for a decade or more, such as Minnesota's Red River Valley (RRV). Climate change has impacted water availability with an under or over abundance, which subsequently has impacted soil salinity levels in the root zone primarily from the upward movement of salts from shallow water tables. Inventorying and monitoring the impact of climate change on soil salinity is crucial to evaluate the extent of the problem, to recognize trends, and to formulate state-wide and field-scale irrigation, drainage, and crop management strategies that will sustain the agricultural productivity of the SJV and RRV. Over the past 3 decades, Corwin and colleagues at the U.S. Salinity Laboratory have developed proximal sensor (i.e., electrical resistivity and electromagnetic induction) and remote imagery (i.e., MODIS and Landsat 7) methodologies for assessing soil salinity at multiple scales: field (0.5 ha to 3 km2), landscape (3 to 10 km2), and regional (10 to 105 km2) scales. The purpose of this presentation is to provide an overview of these scale-dependent salinity assessment technologies. Case studies for SJV and RRV are presented to demonstrate at multiple scales the utility of these approaches in assessing soil salinity changes due to management-induced changes and to changes in climate patterns, and in providing site-specific irrigation management information for salinity control. Decision makers in state and federal agencies, irrigation and drainage district managers, soil and water resource managers, producers, agriculture consultants, extension specialists, and Natural Resource Conservation Service field staff are the beneficiaries of this information.

  11. Active Satellite Sensors for the needs of Cultural Heritage: Introducing SAR applications in Cyprus through ATHENA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouhartsiouk, Demetris; Agapiou, Athos; Lynsadrou, Vasiliki; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Nisantzi, Argyro; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola; Brcic, Ramon; Eineder, Michael; Krauss, Thomas; Cerra, Daniele; Gessner, Ursula; Schreier, Gunter

    2017-04-01

    Non-invasive landscape investigation for archaeological purposes includes a wide range of survey techniques, most of which include in-situ methods. In the recent years, a major advance in the non-invasive surveying techniques has been the introduction of active remote sensing technologies. One of such technologies is spaceborne radar, known as Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). SAR has proven to be a valuable tool in the analysis of potential archaeological marks and in the systematic cultural heritage site monitoring. With the use of SAR, it is possible to monitor slight variations in vegetation and soil often interpreted as archaeological signs, while radar sensors frequently having penetrating capabilities offering an insight into shallow underground remains. Radar remote sensing for immovable cultural heritage and archaeological applications has been recently introduced to Cyprus through the currently ongoing ATHENA project. ATHENA project, under the Horizon 2020 programme, aims at building a bridge between research institutions of the low performing Member States and internationally-leading counterparts at EU level, mainly through training workshops and a series of knowledge transfer activities, frequently taking place on the basis of capacity development. The project is formed as the consortium of the Remote Sensing and Geo-Environment Research Laboratory of the Cyprus University of Technology (CUT), the National Research Council of Italy (CNR) and the German Aerospace Centre (DLR). As part of the project, a number of cultural heritage sites in Cyprus have been studied testing different methodologies involving SAR imagery such as Amplitude Change Detection, Coherence Calculation and fusion techniques. The ATHENA's prospective agenda includes the continuation of the capacity building programme with upcoming training workshops to take place while expanding the knowledge of radar applications on conservation and risk monitoring of cultural heritage sites through

  12. Nitrogen dioxide observations from the Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) airborne instrument: Retrieval algorithm and measurements during DISCOVER-AQ Texas 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) airborne instrument is a test bed for upcoming air quality satellite instruments that will measure backscattered ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared light from geostationary orbit. GeoTASO flew on the NASA F...

  13. Connecting Satellite-Based Precipitation Estimates to Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, George J.; Bolvin, David T.; Nelkin, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Beginning in 1997, the Merged Precipitation Group at NASA Goddard has distributed gridded global precipitation products built by combining satellite and surface gauge data. This started with the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP), then the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), and recently the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission (IMERG). This 20+-year (and on-going) activity has yielded an important set of insights and lessons learned for making state-of-the-art precipitation data accessible to the diverse communities of users. Merged-data products critically depend on the input sensors and the retrieval algorithms providing accurate, reliable estimates, but it is also important to provide ancillary information that helps users determine suitability for their application. We typically provide fields of estimated random error, and recently reintroduced the quality index concept at user request. Also at user request we have added a (diagnostic) field of estimated precipitation phase. Over time, increasingly more ancillary fields have been introduced for intermediate products that give expert users insight into the detailed performance of the combination algorithm, such as individual merged microwave and microwave-calibrated infrared estimates, the contributing microwave sensor types, and the relative influence of the infrared estimate.

  14. Ultra-Sensitive Transition-Edge Sensors for the Background Limited Infrared/Sub-mm Spectrograph (BLISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, A. D.; Kenyon, M. E.; Echternach, P. M.; Chui, T.; Eom, B.-H.; Day, P. K.; Bock, J. J.; Holmes, W.A.; Bradford, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    We report progress in fabricating ultra-sensitive superconducting transition-edge sensors (TESs) for BLISS. BLISS is a suite of grating spectrometers covering 35-433 micron with R approx. 700 cooled to 50 mK that is proposed to fly on the Japanese space telescope SPICA. The detector arrays for BLISS are TES bolometers readout with a time domain SQUID multiplexer. The required noise equivalent power (NEP) for BLISS is NEP = 10(exp -19) W/Hz(exp 1/2) with an ultimate goal of NEP= 5 x 10(exp -20) W/Hz(exp 1/2) to achieve background limited noise performance. The required and goal response times are tau = 150 ms and tau = 50ms respectively to achieve the NEP at the required and goal optical chop frequency 1-5 Hz. We measured prototype BLISS arrays and have achieved NEP = 6 x 10(exp -18) W/Hz(exp 1/2) and tau = 1.4 ms with a Ti TES (T(sub C) = 565 mK) and NEP approx. 2.5 x 10(exp -19) W/Hz(exp 1/2) and tau approximates 4.5 ms with an Ir TES (T(sub C) = 130 mK). Dark power for these tests is estimated at 1-5 fW.

  15. The Feasibility of Tropospheric and Total Ozone Determination Using a Fabry-perot Interferometer as a Satellite-based Nadir-viewing Atmospheric Sensor. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larar, Allen Maurice

    1993-01-01

    Monitoring of the global distribution of tropospheric ozone (O3) is desirable for enhanced scientific understanding as well as to potentially lessen the ill-health impacts associated with exposure to elevated concentrations in the lower atmosphere. Such a capability can be achieved using a satellite-based device making high spectral resolution measurements with high signal-to-noise ratios; this would enable observation in the pressure-broadened wings of strong O3 lines while minimizing the impact of undesirable signal contributions associated with, for example, the terrestrial surface, interfering species, and clouds. The Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) provides high spectral resolution and high throughput capabilities that are essential for this measurement task. Through proper selection of channel spectral regions, the FPI optimized for tropospheric O3 measurements can simultaneously observe a stratospheric component and thus the total O3 column abundance. Decreasing stratospheric O3 concentrations may lead to an increase in biologically harmful solar ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth's surface, which is detrimental to health. In this research, a conceptual instrument design to achieve the desired measurement has been formulated. This involves a double-etalon fixed-gap series configuration FPI along with an ultra-narrow bandpass filter to achieve single-order operation with an overall spectral resolution of approximately .068 cm(exp -1). A spectral region of about 1 cm(exp -1) wide centered at 1054.73 cm(exp -1) within the strong 9.6 micron ozone infrared band is sampled with 24 spectral channels. Other design characteristics include operation from a nadir-viewing satellite configuration utilizing a 9 inch (diameter) telescope and achieving horizontal spatial resolution with a 50 km nadir footprint. A retrieval technique has been implemented and is demonstrated for a tropical atmosphere possessing enhanced tropospheric ozone amounts. An error analysis

  16. Real-Time and Label-Free Chemical Sensor-on-a-chip using Monolithic Si-on-BaTiO3 Mid-Infrared waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tiening; Li, Leigang; Zhang, Bruce; Lin, Hao-Yu Greg; Wang, Haiyan; Lin, Pao Tai

    2017-07-19

    Chip-scale chemical detection is demonstrated by using mid-Infrared (mid-IR) photonic circuits consisting of amorphous silicon (a-Si) waveguides on an epitaxial barium titanate (BaTiO 3 , BTO) thin film. The highly c-axis oriented BTO film was grown by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method and it exhibits a broad transparent window from λ = 2.5 μm up to 7 μm. The waveguide structure was fabricated by the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process and a sharp fundamental waveguide mode has been observed. By scanning the spectrum within the characteristic absorption regime, our mid-IR waveguide successfully perform label-free monitoring of various organic solvents. The real-time heptane detection is accomplished by measuring the intensity attenuation at λ = 3.0-3.2 μm, which is associated with -CH absorption. While for methanol detection, we track the -OH absorption at λ = 2.8-2.9 μm. Our monolithic Si-on-BTO waveguides establish a new sensor platform that enables integrated photonic device for label-free chemical detection.

  17. Challenges in complementing data from ground-based sensors with satellite-derived products to measure ecological changes in relation to climate – lessons from temperate wetland-upland landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Alisa L.; Sadinski, Walter J.; Brown, Jesslyn F.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Roth, Mark F.

    2018-01-01

    Assessing climate-related ecological changes across spatiotemporal scales meaningful to resource managers is challenging because no one method reliably produces essential data at both fine and broad scales. We recently confronted such challenges while integrating data from ground- and satellite-based sensors for an assessment of four wetland-rich study areas in the U.S. Midwest. We examined relations between temperature and precipitation and a set of variables measured on the ground at individual wetlands and another set measured via satellite sensors within surrounding 4 km2 landscape blocks. At the block scale, we used evapotranspiration and vegetation greenness as remotely sensed proxies for water availability and to estimate seasonal photosynthetic activity. We used sensors on the ground to coincidentally measure surface-water availability and amphibian calling activity at individual wetlands within blocks. Responses of landscape blocks generally paralleled changes in conditions measured on the ground, but the latter were more dynamic, and changes in ecological conditions on the ground that were critical for biota were not always apparent in measurements of related parameters in blocks. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of decisions and assumptions we made in applying the remotely sensed data for the assessment and the value of integrating observations across scales, sensors, and disciplines.

  18. Vacuum Radiance-Temperature Standard Facility for Infrared Remote Sensing at NIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, X. P.; Song, J.; Xu, M.; Sun, J. P.; Gong, L. Y.; Yuan, Z. D.; Lu, X. F.

    2018-06-01

    As infrared remote sensors are very important parts of Earth observation satellites, they must be calibrated based on the radiance temperature of a blackbody in a vacuum chamber prior to launch. The uncertainty of such temperature is thus an essential component of the sensors' uncertainty. This paper describes the vacuum radiance-temperature standard facility (VRTSF) at the National Institute of Metrology of China, which will serve to calibrate infrared remote sensors on Chinese meteorological satellites. The VRTSF can be used to calibrate vacuum blackbody radiance temperature, including those used to calibrate infrared remote sensors. The components of the VRTSF are described in this paper, including the VMTBB, the LNBB, the FTIR spectrometer, the reduced-background optical system, the vacuum chamber used to calibrate customers' blackbody, the vacuum-pumping system and the liquid-nitrogen-support system. The experimental methods and results are expounded. The uncertainty of the radiance temperature of VMTBB is 0.026 °C at 30 °C over 10 μm.

  19. Satellite air temperature estimation for monitoring the canopy layer heat island of Milan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichierri, Manuele; Bonafoni, Stefania; Biondi, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    across the city center from June to September confirming that, in Milan, urban heating is not an occasional phenomenon. Furthermore, this study shows the utility of space missions to monitor the metropolis heat islands if they are able to provide nighttime observations when CLHI peaks are generally......In this work, satellite maps of the urban heat island of Milan are produced using satellite-based infrared sensor data. For this aim, we developed suitable algorithms employing satellite brightness temperatures for the direct air temperature estimation 2 m above the surface (canopy layer), showing...... 2007 and 2010 were processed. Analysis of the canopy layer heat island (CLHI) maps during summer months reveals an average heat island effect of 3–4K during nighttime (with some peaks around 5K) and a weak CLHI intensity during daytime. In addition, the satellite maps reveal a well defined island shape...

  20. A Global System of in situ Sensors, Communication Satellites and in situ Actuators Dedicated to the Nearly-Real-Time Detection and Mitigation of Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevis, M.

    2009-05-01

    Most of the ~ 230,000 lives lost in the Indian Ocean Tsunami of December 2004 could have been saved if the victims had had 5 - 15 minutes notice of the tsunami's arrival, provided that the local authorities had had some evacuation plan in place, e.g. running up hill when a klaxon sounded, or retreating to low cost shelters constructed to provide a vertical escape from inundation. Similar structures, equipped with supplies of drinking water, food, blankets, etc., could save countless thousands of people from drowning in flood-prone locations such as Bangladesh or the delta region of Burma, or dying in the aftermath of such events. Given sufficiently rapid communications, a disaster nowcasting system could also order the closing of gas mains, or the powering down of electricity networks, as well as the sounding of klaxons, only tens of seconds before an earthquake wave strikes a major city such as Los Angeles. The central and critical requirement for mitigating natural disasters is two-way communication. Imagine a globally accessible internet collecting event-triggered messages from arrays of sensors (that detect inundation, for example) so they can be analyzed by centralized computer systems in nearly real-time, which then send instructions to alarm systems and actuators in the areas at risk. (Of course, local authorities would have to be involved in planning the local responses to alarms, in constructing rescue facilities, and in educating their populations accordingly). Only a constellation of satellites could provide a communications system with global accessibility and the required robustness. Such an infrastructure would allow the international community to exploit the many common elements in the detection, assessment and response to unfolding disasters. I shall describe some of the elements of such a system, for which I propose the working name CELERITY.

  1. Thermal microphotonic sensor and sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Michael R [Albuquerque, NM; Shaw, Michael J [Tijeras, NM; Nielson, Gregory N [Albuquerque, NM; Lentine, Anthony L [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-02-23

    A thermal microphotonic sensor is disclosed for detecting infrared radiation using heat generated by the infrared radiation to shift the resonant frequency of an optical resonator (e.g. a ring resonator) to which the heat is coupled. The shift in the resonant frequency can be determined from light in an optical waveguide which is evanescently coupled to the optical resonator. An infrared absorber can be provided on the optical waveguide either as a coating or as a plate to aid in absorption of the infrared radiation. In some cases, a vertical resonant cavity can be formed about the infrared absorber to further increase the absorption of the infrared radiation. The sensor can be formed as a single device, or as an array for imaging the infrared radiation.

  2. A Land Product Characterization System for Comparative Analysis of Satellite Data and Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Gallo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A Land Product Characterization System (LPCS has been developed to provide land data and products to the community of individuals interested in validating space-based land products by comparing them with similar products available from other sensors or surface-based observations. The LPCS facilitates the application of global multi-satellite and in situ data for characterization and validation of higher-level, satellite-derived, land surface products (e.g., surface reflectance, normalized difference vegetation index, and land surface temperature. The LPCS includes data search, inventory, access, and analysis functions that will permit data to be easily identified, retrieved, co-registered, and compared statistically through a single interface. The system currently includes data and products available from Landsat 4 through 8, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Terra and Aqua, Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP/Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS, and simulated data for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-16 Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI. In addition to the future inclusion of in situ data, higher-level land products from the European Space Agency (ESA Sentinel-2 and -3 series of satellites, and other high and medium resolution spatial sensors, will be included as available. When fully implemented, any of the sensor data or products included in the LPCS would be available for comparative analysis.

  3. Assessment of sensors and aircraft for oil spill remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.F.; Fruhwirth, M.

    1993-01-01

    Environment Canada has assessed sensors and aircraft suitable for remote sensing, particularly the capability of sensors to detect oil and to discriminate oil from background targets. The assessment was based on past experience and technical considerations. The first sensor recommended for use is an infrared camera or an IR/UV system. This recommendation is based on the system's ability to detect oil and discriminate this from the background, and the low cost of these sensors. The laser fluorosensor is recommended as the second device, as it is the only unit capable of positively discriminating oil on water, among weeds, and in sediment or beach material. Cameras operating in the visible region of the spectrum are recommended for two functions: documentation and providing background or location imagery for other sensors. Imaging radars, be they SAR or SLAR, are recommended for long-range searches or for oil spill work at night or when fog is present. Radars are expensive and require dedicated aircraft. Passive microwave devices are currently being developed but have not been proven as an alternative to radar or for measuring slick thickness. A laser based thickness sensor is under development. Satellite systems were also assessed. Satellite sensors operating in the visible spectrum have only limited application to major oil spills. New radar sensors show limited potential. The major limitation of any satellite system is the limited coverage time that is a function of its orbit. A study of aircraft and aircraft modifications was carried out to catalog aircraft modifications necessary to operate oil spill remote sensors. A potential user could select modifications that are already approved and thus save the high costs of aircraft modification design. The modifications already approved in Canada and the US for a given aircraft provide criteria for the selection of an aircraft

  4. Performance of the NPP CrIS Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emch, P. G.; Farrow, S. V.; Gu, D.; Wang, C.; Hagan, D. E.; Sabet-Peyman, F.

    2009-12-01

    This paper discusses the performance of the first Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) flight instrument and its data product performance. Together with ATMS, the CrIS sensor is a critical payload for National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) providing temperature and moisture profiles, and will first fly on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) mission, the risk reduction flight for NPOESS. NPOESS is the next generation weather and climate monitoring system for the Department of Defense and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), being developed under contract by Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems. The NPP flight sensor has recently completed thermal vacuum, electro-magnetic interference, and vibration testing. By the time of the presentation, the sensor sell-off is expected to have been completed as well. An overview of the sensor, the FM1 measurement performance, and details of the retrieval algorithms will be provided in this presentation.

  5. Development of Fast, Background-Limited Transition-Edge Sensors for the Background-Limited Infrared/Sub-Millimetre Spectrograph (BLISS) for SPICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Andrew D.; Runyan, M. C.; Kenyon, M.; Echternach, P. M.; Chui, T.; Bumble, B.; Bradford, C. M.; Holmes, W. A.; Bock, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    We report experimental progress toward demonstrating background-limited arrays of membrane-isolated transition-edge sensors (TESs) for the Background Limited Infrared/Sub-mm Spectrograph (BLISS). BLISS is a space-borne instrument with grating spectrometers for wavelengths lambda = 35-435 microns and with R = lambda/(delta)lambda approx. 500. The goals for BLISS TESs are: noise equivalent power (NEP) = 5x10(exp -20) W/Hz(1/2) and response time t or = 135mK) and Mo/Cu proximitized bilayers, where T(sub c) is the thermistor transition temperature. We measured the Ir TES arrays in our 50mK adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator test system, which can measure up to eight 1x32 arrays simultaneously using a time-division multiplexer, as well as our single-pixel test system which can measure down to 15mK. In our previous Ir array measurements our best reported performance was NEP=2.5x10(exp -19) W/Hz(1/2) and tapprox.5ms for straight-beam TESs. In fact, we expected NEPapprox.1.5x10(exp -19)W/Hz(1/2) for meander beam TESs, but did not achieve this previously due to 1/f noise. Here, we detail improvements toward measuring the expected NEP and demonstrate NEP=(1.3+0.2)x10(exp -19)W/Hz(1/2) in our single-pixel test system and NEP=(1.6+0.3)x10(exp -19)W/Hz(1/2) in our array test system.

  6. Development of Fast, Background-Limited Transition-Edge Sensors for the Background-Limited Infrared/Sub-mm Spectrograph (BLISS) for SPICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Andrew D.; Runyan, M. C.; Kenyon, M.; Echternach, P. M .; Chui, T.; Bumble, B.; Bradford, C. M.; Holmes, W. A.; Bock, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    We report experimental progress toward demonstrating background-limited arrays of membrane-isolated transition-edge sensors (TESs) for the Background Limited Infrared/Sub-mm Spectrograph (BLISS). BLISS is a space-borne instrument with grating spectrometers for wavelengths lambda=35-435 micron and with R=lambda/delta lambda approximately equals 500. The goals for BLISS TESs are: noise equivalent power (NEP) = 5x10 (sup -20) W/Hz(exp 1/2) and response time tau = 135mK) and Mo/Cu proximitized bilayers, where T(sub c) is the thermistor transition temperature. We measured the Ir TES arrays in our 50mK adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator test system, which can measure up to eight 1x32 arrays simultaneously using a time-division multiplexer, as well as our single-pixel test system which can measure down to 15mK. In our previous Ir array measurements our best reported performance was NEP=2.5x10(exp -19) W/Hz(sub 1/2) and Tau approximately equals 5ms for straight-beam TESs. In fact, we expected NEP approximately equals 1.5x10(exp -19)?W/Hz(sup 1/2) for meander beam TESs, but did not achieve this previously due to 1/f noise. Here, we detail improvements toward measuring the expected NEP and demonstrate NEP=(1.3+0.2)x10 (sup -19)W/Hz(exp 1/2) in our single-pixel test system and NEP=(1.6+/-0.3)x10(sup -19)W/Hz(sup 1/2) in our array test system.

  7. Satellite Detection of Orographic Gravity-wave Activity in the Winter Subtropical Stratosphere over Australia and Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckermann, S. D.; Wu, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    Orographic gravity-wave (OGW) parameterizations in models produce waves over subtropical mountain ranges in Australia and Africa that propagate into the stratosphere during austral winter and deposit momentum, affecting weather and climate. Satellite sensors have measured stratospheric GWs for over a decade, yet find no evidence of these waves. So are parameterizations failing here? Here we argue that the short wavelengths of subtropical OGWs place them near or below the detection limits of satellite sensors. To test this hypothesis, we reanalyze nine years of stratospheric radiances from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua satellite during austral winter, applying new averaging techniques to maximize signal-to-noise and improve thresholds for OGW detection. Deep climatological enhancements in stratospheric OGW variance over specific mountain ranges in Australia and southern Africa are revealed for the first time, which exhibit temporal and vertical variations consistent with predicted OGW responses to varying background winds.

  8. GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager: spectral response functions and radiometric biases with the NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite evaluated for desert calibration sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Aaron; Pogorzala, David; Cao, Changyong

    2013-11-01

    The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), which will be launched in late 2015 on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-series satellite, will be evaluated in terms of its data quality postlaunch through comparisons with other satellite sensors such as the recently launched Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite. The ABI has completed much of its prelaunch characterization and its developers have generated and released its channel spectral response functions (response versus wavelength). Using these responses and constraining a radiative transfer model with ground reflectance, aerosol, and water vapor measurements, we simulate observed top of atmosphere (TOA) reflectances for analogous visible and near infrared channels of the VIIRS and ABI sensors at the Sonoran Desert and White Sands National Monument sites and calculate the radiometric biases and their uncertainties. We also calculate sensor TOA reflectances using aircraft hyperspectral data from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer to validate the uncertainties in several of the ABI and VIIRS channels and discuss the potential for validating the others. Once on-orbit, calibration scientists can use these biases to ensure ABI data quality and consistency to support the numerical weather prediction community and other data users. They can also use the results for ABI or VIIRS anomaly detection and resolution.

  9. Modelling Angular Dependencies in Land Surface Temperatures From the SEVIRI Instrument onboard the Geostationary Meteosat Second Generation Satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mads Olander; Pinheiro, AC; Proud, Simon Richard

    2010-01-01

    on vegetation structure and viewing and illumination geometry. Despite this, these effects are not considered in current operational LST products from neither polar-orbiting nor geostationary satellites. In this paper, we simulate the angular dependence that can be expected when estimating LST with the viewing...... geometry of the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager sensor across the African continent and compare it to a normalized view geometry. We use the modified geometric projection model that estimates the scene thermal infrared radiance from a surface covered...

  10. Sensor System Performance Evaluation and Benefits from the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed-Interferometer (NAST-I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larar, A.; Zhou, D.; Smith, W.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced satellite sensors are tasked with improving global-scale measurements of the Earth's atmosphere, clouds, and surface to enable enhancements in weather prediction, climate monitoring, and environmental change detection. Validation of the entire measurement system is crucial to achieving this goal and thus maximizing research and operational utility of resultant data. Field campaigns employing satellite under-flights with well-calibrated FTS sensors aboard high-altitude aircraft are an essential part of this validation task. The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Airborne Sounder Testbed-Interferometer (NAST-I) has been a fundamental contributor in this area by providing coincident high spectral/spatial resolution observations of infrared spectral radiances along with independently-retrieved geophysical products for comparison with like products from satellite sensors being validated. This paper focuses on some of the challenges associated with validating advanced atmospheric sounders and the benefits obtained from employing airborne interferometers such as the NAST-I. Select results from underflights of the Aqua Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) obtained during recent field campaigns will be presented.

  11. Global Monitoring of Terrestrial Chlorophyll Fluorescence from Moderate-spectral-resolution Near-infrared Satellite Measurements: Methodology, Simulations, and Application to GOME-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, J.; Gaunter, L.; Lindstrot, R.; Voigt, M.; Vasilkov, A. P.; Middleton, E. M.; Huemmrich, K. F.; Yoshida, Y.; Frankenberg, C.

    2013-01-01

    Globally mapped terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence retrievals are of high interest because they can provide information on the functional status of vegetation including light-use efficiency and global primary productivity that can be used for global carbon cycle modeling and agricultural applications. Previous satellite retrievals of fluorescence have relied solely upon the filling-in of solar Fraunhofer lines that are not significantly affected by atmospheric absorption. Although these measurements provide near-global coverage on a monthly basis, they suffer from relatively low precision and sparse spatial sampling. Here, we describe a new methodology to retrieve global far-red fluorescence information; we use hyperspectral data with a simplified radiative transfer model to disentangle the spectral signatures of three basic components: atmospheric absorption, surface reflectance, and fluorescence radiance. An empirically based principal component analysis approach is employed, primarily using cloudy data over ocean, to model and solve for the atmospheric absorption. Through detailed simulations, we demonstrate the feasibility of the approach and show that moderate-spectral-resolution measurements with a relatively high signal-to-noise ratio can be used to retrieve far-red fluorescence information with good precision and accuracy. The method is then applied to data from the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2). The GOME-2 fluorescence retrievals display similar spatial structure as compared with those from a simpler technique applied to the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). GOME-2 enables global mapping of far-red fluorescence with higher precision over smaller spatial and temporal scales than is possible with GOSAT. Near-global coverage is provided within a few days. We are able to show clearly for the first time physically plausible variations in fluorescence over the course of a single month at a spatial resolution of 0.5 deg × 0.5 deg

  12. The Fertilizing Role of African Dust in the Amazon Rainforest. A First Multiyear Assessment Based on Data from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hongbin [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Chin, Mian [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Yuan, Tianle [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Bian, Huisheng [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Remer, L. A. [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Prospero, J. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States); Omar, Ali [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Winker, D. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Yang, Yuekui [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Universities Space Research Association, Columbia, MD (United States); Zhang, Yan [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Universities Space Research Association, Columbia, MD (United States); Zhang, Zhibo [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Zhao, Chun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-18

    The productivity of the Amazon rainforest is constrained by the availability of nutrients, in particular phosphorus (P). Deposition of long-range transported African dust is recognized as a potentially important but poorly quantified source of phosphorus. This study provides a first multiyear satellite-based estimate of dust deposition into the Amazon Basin using three dimensional (3D) aerosol measurements over 2007-2013 from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP). The 7-year average of dust deposition into the Amazon Basin is estimated to be 28 (8~48) Tg a-1 or 29 (8~50) kg ha-1 a-1. The dust deposition shows significant interannual variation that is negatively correlated with the prior-year rainfall in the Sahel. The CALIOP-based multi-year mean estimate of dust deposition matches better with estimates from in-situ measurements and model simulations than a previous satellite-based estimate does. The closer agreement benefits from a more realistic geographic definition of the Amazon Basin and inclusion of meridional dust transport calculation in addition to the 3D nature of CALIOP aerosol measurements. The imported dust could provide about 0.022 (0.006~0.037) Tg P of phosphorus per year, equivalent to 23 (7~39) g P ha-1 a-1 to fertilize the Amazon rainforest. This out-of-Basin P input is comparable to the hydrological loss of P from the Basin, suggesting an important role of African dust in preventing phosphorus depletion on time scales of decades to centuries.

  13. Global monitoring of terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence from moderate-spectral-resolution near-infrared satellite measurements: methodology, simulations, and application to GOME-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Joiner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Globally mapped terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence retrievals are of high interest because they can provide information on the functional status of vegetation including light-use efficiency and global primary productivity that can be used for global carbon cycle modeling and agricultural applications. Previous satellite retrievals of fluorescence have relied solely upon the filling-in of solar Fraunhofer lines that are not significantly affected by atmospheric absorption. Although these measurements provide near-global coverage on a monthly basis, they suffer from relatively low precision and sparse spatial sampling. Here, we describe a new methodology to retrieve global far-red fluorescence information; we use hyperspectral data with a simplified radiative transfer model to disentangle the spectral signatures of three basic components: atmospheric absorption, surface reflectance, and fluorescence radiance. An empirically based principal component analysis approach is employed, primarily using cloudy data over ocean, to model and solve for the atmospheric absorption. Through detailed simulations, we demonstrate the feasibility of the approach and show that moderate-spectral-resolution measurements with a relatively high signal-to-noise ratio can be used to retrieve far-red fluorescence information with good precision and accuracy. The method is then applied to data from the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2. The GOME-2 fluorescence retrievals display similar spatial structure as compared with those from a simpler technique applied to the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT. GOME-2 enables global mapping of far-red fluorescence with higher precision over smaller spatial and temporal scales than is possible with GOSAT. Near-global coverage is provided within a few days. We are able to show clearly for the first time physically plausible variations in fluorescence over the course of a single month at a spatial resolution of 0

  14. MISTiC Winds, a Micro-Satellite Constellation Approach to High Resolution Observations of the Atmosphere Using Infrared Sounding and 3D Winds Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschhoff, K. R.; Polizotti, J. J.; Aumann, H. H.; Susskind, J.

    2016-01-01

    MISTiC(TM) Winds is an approach to improve short-term weather forecasting based on a miniature high resolution, wide field, thermal emission spectrometry instrument that will provide global tropospheric vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature and humidity at high (3-4 km) horizontal and vertical ( 1 km) spatial resolution. MISTiCs extraordinarily small size, payload mass of less than 15 kg, and minimal cooling requirements can be accommodated aboard a 27U-class CubeSat or an ESPA-Class micro-satellite. Low fabrication and launch costs enable a LEO sunsynchronous sounding constellation that would collectively provide frequent IR vertical profiles and vertically resolved atmospheric motion vector wind observations in the troposphere. These observations are highly complementary to present and emerging environmental observing systems, and would provide a combination of high vertical and horizontal resolution not provided by any other environmental observing system currently in operation. The spectral measurements that would be provided by MISTiC Winds are similar to those of NASA's AIRS that was built by BAE Systems and operates aboard the AQUA satellite. These new observations, when assimilated into high resolution numerical weather models, would revolutionize short-term and severe weather forecasting, save lives, and support key economic decisions in the energy, air transport, and agriculture arenasat much lower cost than providing these observations from geostationary orbit. In addition, this observation capability would be a critical tool for the study of transport processes for water vapor, clouds, pollution, and aerosols. Key remaining technical risks are being reduced through laboratory and airborne testing under NASA's Instrument Incubator Program.

  15. MISTiC Winds: A micro-satellite constellation approach to high resolution observations of the atmosphere using infrared sounding and 3D winds measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschhoff, K. R.; Polizotti, J. J.; Aumann, H. H.; Susskind, J.

    2016-09-01

    MISTiCTM Winds is an approach to improve short-term weather forecasting based on a miniature high resolution, wide field, thermal emission spectrometry instrument that will provide global tropospheric vertical profiles of atmosph