WorldWideScience

Sample records for satellite images blanketing

  1. Satellite image collection optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William

    2002-09-01

    Imaging satellite systems represent a high capital cost. Optimizing the collection of images is critical for both satisfying customer orders and building a sustainable satellite operations business. We describe the functions of an operational, multivariable, time dynamic optimization system that maximizes the daily collection of satellite images. A graphical user interface allows the operator to quickly see the results of what if adjustments to an image collection plan. Used for both long range planning and daily collection scheduling of Space Imaging's IKONOS satellite, the satellite control and tasking (SCT) software allows collection commands to be altered up to 10 min before upload to the satellite.

  2. Geostationary Satellite (GOES) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from radiometer instruments on SMS (ATS) and GOES satellites in geostationary orbit. These satellites produced...

  3. Shadow imaging of geosynchronous satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Dennis Michael

    Geosynchronous (GEO) satellites are essential for modern communication networks. If communication to a GEO satellite is lost and a malfunction occurs upon orbit insertion such as a solar panel not deploying there is no direct way to observe it from Earth. Due to the GEO orbit distance of ~36,000 km from Earth's surface, the Rayleigh criteria dictates that a 14 m telescope is required to conventionally image a satellite with spatial resolution down to 1 m using visible light. Furthermore, a telescope larger than 30 m is required under ideal conditions to obtain spatial resolution down to 0.4 m. This dissertation evaluates a method for obtaining high spatial resolution images of GEO satellites from an Earth based system by measuring the irradiance distribution on the ground resulting from the occultation of the satellite passing in front of a star. The representative size of a GEO satellite combined with the orbital distance results in the ground shadow being consistent with a Fresnel diffraction pattern when observed at visible wavelengths. A measurement of the ground shadow irradiance is used as an amplitude constraint in a Gerchberg-Saxton phase retrieval algorithm that produces a reconstruction of the satellite's 2D transmission function which is analogous to a reverse contrast image of the satellite. The advantage of shadow imaging is that a terrestrial based redundant set of linearly distributed inexpensive small telescopes, each coupled to high speed detectors, is a more effective resolved imaging system for GEO satellites than a very large telescope under ideal conditions. Modeling and simulation efforts indicate sub-meter spatial resolution can be readily achieved using collection apertures of less than 1 meter in diameter. A mathematical basis is established for the treatment of the physical phenomena involved in the shadow imaging process. This includes the source star brightness and angular extent, and the diffraction of starlight from the satellite

  4. Smoothing of Fused Spectral Consistent Satellite Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsson, Johannes; Aanæs, Henrik; Benediktsson, Jon Atli

    2006-01-01

    on satellite data. Additionally, most conventional methods are loosely connected to the image forming physics of the satellite image, giving these methods an ad hoc feel. Vesteinsson et al. (2005) proposed a method of fusion of satellite images that is based on the properties of imaging physics...

  5. Egypt satellite images for land surface characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    images used for mapping the vegetation cover types and other land cover types in Egypt. The mapping ranges from 1 km resolution to 30 m resolution. The aim is to provide satellite image mapping with land surface characteristics relevant for roughness mapping.......Satellite images provide information on the land surface properties. From optical remote sensing images in the blue, green, red and near-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum it is possible to identify a large number of surface features. The report briefly describes different satellite...

  6. SALIENCY BASED SEGMENTATION OF SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sharma

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Saliency gives the way as humans see any image and saliency based segmentation can be eventually helpful in Psychovisual image interpretation. Keeping this in view few saliency models are used along with segmentation algorithm and only the salient segments from image have been extracted. The work is carried out for terrestrial images as well as for satellite images. The methodology used in this work extracts those segments from segmented image which are having higher or equal saliency value than a threshold value. Salient and non salient regions of image become foreground and background respectively and thus image gets separated. For carrying out this work a dataset of terrestrial images and Worldview 2 satellite images (sample data are used. Results show that those saliency models which works better for terrestrial images are not good enough for satellite image in terms of foreground and background separation. Foreground and background separation in terrestrial images is based on salient objects visible on the images whereas in satellite images this separation is based on salient area rather than salient objects.

  7. Classification of high resolution satellite images

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Anders

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis the Support Vector Machine (SVM)is applied on classification of high resolution satellite images. Sveral different measures for classification, including texture mesasures, 1st order statistics, and simple contextual information were evaluated. Additionnally, the image was segmented, using an enhanced watershed method, in order to improve the classification accuracy.

  8. Spectrally Consistent Satellite Image Fusion with Improved Image Priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Aanæs, Henrik; Jensen, Thomas B.S.

    2006-01-01

    Here an improvement to our previous framework for satellite image fusion is presented. A framework purely based on the sensor physics and on prior assumptions on the fused image. The contributions of this paper are two fold. Firstly, a method for ensuring 100% spectrally consistency is proposed......, even when more sophisticated image priors are applied. Secondly, a better image prior is introduced, via data-dependent image smoothing....

  9. Northern Everglades, Florida, satellite image map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jean-Claude; Jones, John W.

    2002-01-01

    These satellite image maps are one product of the USGS Land Characteristics from Remote Sensing project, funded through the USGS Place-Based Studies Program with support from the Everglades National Park. The objective of this project is to develop and apply innovative remote sensing and geographic information system techniques to map the distribution of vegetation, vegetation characteristics, and related hydrologic variables through space and over time. The mapping and description of vegetation characteristics and their variations are necessary to accurately simulate surface hydrology and other surface processes in South Florida and to monitor land surface changes. As part of this research, data from many airborne and satellite imaging systems have been georeferenced and processed to facilitate data fusion and analysis. These image maps were created using image fusion techniques developed as part of this project.

  10. South Florida Everglades: satellite image map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John W.; Thomas, Jean-Claude; Desmond, G.B.

    2001-01-01

    These satellite image maps are one product of the USGS Land Characteristics from Remote Sensing project, funded through the USGS Place-Based Studies Program (http://access.usgs.gov/) with support from the Everglades National Park (http://www.nps.gov/ever/). The objective of this project is to develop and apply innovative remote sensing and geographic information system techniques to map the distribution of vegetation, vegetation characteristics, and related hydrologic variables through space and over time. The mapping and description of vegetation characteristics and their variations are necessary to accurately simulate surface hydrology and other surface processes in South Florida and to monitor land surface changes. As part of this research, data from many airborne and satellite imaging systems have been georeferenced and processed to facilitate data fusion and analysis. These image maps were created using image fusion techniques developed as part of this project.

  11. Fundamental Limitations for Imaging GEO Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-18

    Fundamental limitations for imaging GEO satellites D. Mozurkewich Seabrook Engineering , Seabrook, MD 20706 USA H. R. Schmitt, J. T. Armstrong Naval...higher spatial frequency. Send correspondence to David Mozurkewich, Seabrook Engineering , 9310 Dubarry Ave., Seabrook MD 20706 E-mail: dave

  12. Geometric calibration of ERS satellite SAR images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Johan Jacob; Madsen, Søren Nørvang

    2001-01-01

    Geometric calibration of the European Remote Sensing (ERS) Satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) slant range images is important in relation to mapping areas without ground reference points and also in relation to automated processing. The relevant SAR system parameters are discussed...

  13. Geomorphology of coastal environments from satellite images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Rocha Ribeiro, R.; Velho, L.; Schossler, V.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at recognizing coastal environments supported by data from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite. The digital processing of images, System Information Geographic (SIG) techniques and field observation in one section of the “Província Costeira do Rio Grande do Sul” between the Rio Grande and the São Gonçalo channels - resulted in a geomorphologic profile and mapping

  14. Model-based satellite image fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Sveinsson, J. R.; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2008-01-01

    A method is proposed for pixel-level satellite image fusion derived directly from a model of the imaging sensor. By design, the proposed method is spectrally consistent. It is argued that the proposed method needs regularization, as is the case for any method for this problem. A framework for pixel...... neighborhood regularization is presented. This framework enables the formulation of the regularization in a way that corresponds well with our prior assumptions of the image data. The proposed method is validated and compared with other approaches on several data sets. Lastly, the intensity......-hue-saturation method is revisited in order to gain additional insight of what implications the spectral consistency has for an image fusion method....

  15. Detection of jet contrails from satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinert, Dieter

    1994-02-01

    In order to investigate the influence of modern technology on the world climate it is important to have automatic detection methods for man-induced parameters. In this case the influence of jet contrails on the greenhouse effect shall be investigated by means of images from polar orbiting satellites. Current methods of line recognition and amplification cannot distinguish between contrails and rather sharp edges of natural cirrus or noise. They still rely on human control. Through the combination of different methods from cloud physics, image comparison, pattern recognition, and artificial intelligence we try to overcome this handicap. Here we will present the basic methods applied to each image frame, and list preliminary results derived this way.

  16. GRANULOMETRIC MAPS FROM HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Mering

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A new method of land cover mapping from satellite images using granulometric analysis is presented here. Discontinuous landscapes such as steppian bushes of semi arid regions and recently growing urban settlements are especially concerned by this study. Spatial organisations of the land cover are quantified by means of the size distribution analysis of the land cover units extracted from high resolution remotely sensed images. A granulometric map is built by automatic classification of every pixel of the image according to the granulometric density inside a sliding neighbourhood. Granulometric mapping brings some advantages over traditional thematic mapping by remote sensing by focusing on fine spatial events and small changes in one peculiar category of the landscape.

  17. Medical image transmission via communication satellite: evaluation of ultrasonographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H; Horikoshi, H; Shiba, H; Shimamoto, S

    1996-01-01

    As compared with terrestrial circuits, communication satellites possess superior characteristics such as wide area coverage, broadcasting functions, high capacity, and resistance to disasters. Utilizing the narrow band channel (64 kbps) of the stationary communication satellite JCSAT1 located at an altitude of 36,000 km above the equator, we investigated satelliterelayed dynamic medical images transmitted by video signals, using hepatic ultrasonography as a model. We conclude that the "variable playing speed transmission scheme" proposed by us is effective for the transmission of dynamic images in the narrow band channel. This promises to permit diverse utilization and applications for purposes such as the transmission of other types of ultrasonic images as well as remotely directed medical diagnosis and treatment.

  18. ASTER 2002-2003 Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID):2002-2003 consists of image data gathered by three sensors. The first image data are terrain-corrected, precision...

  19. MODIS 2002-2003 Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID):2002-2003 consists of image data gathered by three sensors. The first image data are terrain-corrected, precision...

  20. Polar-Orbiting Satellite (POES) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from camera systems or radiometer instruments on satellites in orbit around the poles. Satellite campaigns include...

  1. Wind Statistics Offshore based on Satellite Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Mouche, Alexis; Badger, Merete

    2009-01-01

    -based observations become available. At present preliminary results are obtained using the routine methods. The first step in the process is to retrieve raw SAR data, calibrate the images and use a priori wind direction as input to the geophysical model function. From this process the wind speed maps are produced....... The wind maps are geo-referenced. The second process is the analysis of a series of geo-referenced SAR-based wind maps. Previous research has shown that a relatively large number of images are needed for achieving certain accuracies on mean wind speed, Weibull A and k (scale and shape parameters......Ocean wind maps from satellites are routinely processed both at Risø DTU and CLS based on the European Space Agency Envisat ASAR data. At Risø the a priori wind direction is taken from the atmospheric model NOGAPS (Navel Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System) provided by the U.S. Navy...

  2. AUTOMATIC APPROACH TO VHR SATELLITE IMAGE CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kupidura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a proposition of a fully automatic classification of VHR satellite images. Unlike the most widespread approaches: supervised classification, which requires prior defining of class signatures, or unsupervised classification, which must be followed by an interpretation of its results, the proposed method requires no human intervention except for the setting of the initial parameters. The presented approach bases on both spectral and textural analysis of the image and consists of 3 steps. The first step, the analysis of spectral data, relies on NDVI values. Its purpose is to distinguish between basic classes, such as water, vegetation and non-vegetation, which all differ significantly spectrally, thus they can be easily extracted basing on spectral analysis. The second step relies on granulometric maps. These are the product of local granulometric analysis of an image and present information on the texture of each pixel neighbourhood, depending on the texture grain. The purpose of texture analysis is to distinguish between different classes, spectrally similar, but yet of different texture, e.g. bare soil from a built-up area, or low vegetation from a wooded area. Due to the use of granulometric analysis, based on mathematical morphology opening and closing, the results are resistant to the border effect (qualifying borders of objects in an image as spaces of high texture, which affect other methods of texture analysis like GLCM statistics or fractal analysis. Therefore, the effectiveness of the analysis is relatively high. Several indices based on values of different granulometric maps have been developed to simplify the extraction of classes of different texture. The third and final step of the process relies on a vegetation index, based on near infrared and blue bands. Its purpose is to correct partially misclassified pixels. All the indices used in the classification model developed relate to reflectance values, so the

  3. Detecting aircrafts from satellite images using saliency and conical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samik Banerjee

    automatically detect all kinds of interesting targets in satellite images. .... which is used for text and image categorization, has been also introduced for object ...... 3.4 GHz processor, 32 GB RAM and Windows 7 (64 bit). Operating System. 6.

  4. THERMAL AND VISIBLE SATELLITE IMAGE FUSION USING WAVELET IN REMOTE SENSING AND SATELLITE IMAGE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Ahrari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal remote sensing approach is based on merging different data in different portions of electromagnetic radiation that improves the accuracy in satellite image processing and interpretations. Remote Sensing Visible and thermal infrared bands independently contain valuable spatial and spectral information. Visible bands make enough information spatially and thermal makes more different radiometric and spectral information than visible. However low spatial resolution is the most important limitation in thermal infrared bands. Using satellite image fusion, it is possible to merge them as a single thermal image that contains high spectral and spatial information at the same time. The aim of this study is a performance assessment of thermal and visible image fusion quantitatively and qualitatively with wavelet transform and different filters. In this research, wavelet algorithm (Haar and different decomposition filters (mean.linear,ma,min and rand for thermal and panchromatic bands of Landast8 Satellite were applied as shortwave and longwave fusion method . Finally, quality assessment has been done with quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative parameters such as Entropy, Standard Deviation, Cross Correlation, Q Factor and Mutual Information were used. For thermal and visible image fusion accuracy assessment, all parameters (quantitative and qualitative must be analysed with respect to each other. Among all relevant statistical factors, correlation has the most meaningful result and similarity to the qualitative assessment. Results showed that mean and linear filters make better fused images against the other filters in Haar algorithm. Linear and mean filters have same performance and there is not any difference between their qualitative and quantitative results.

  5. Virtual Satellite Construction and Application for Image Classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, W G; Su, F Z; Zhou, C H

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, most remote sensing image classification uses single satellite remote sensing data, so the number of bands and band spectral width is consistent. In addition, observed phenomenon such as land cover have the same spectral signature, which causes the classification accuracy to decrease as different data have unique characteristic. Therefore, this paper analyzes different optical remote sensing satellites, comparing the spectral differences and proposes the ideas and methods to build a virtual satellite. This article illustrates the research on the TM, HJ-1 and MODIS data. We obtained the virtual band X 0 through these satellites' bands combined it with the 4 bands of a TM image to build a virtual satellite with five bands. Based on this, we used these data for image classification. The experimental results showed that the virtual satellite classification results of building land and water information were superior to the HJ-1 and TM data respectively

  6. The best printing methods to print satellite images

    OpenAIRE

    G.A. Yousif; R.Sh. Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Printing systems operate in general as a system of color its color scale is limited as compared with the system color satellite images. Satellite image is building from very small cell named pixel, which represents the picture element and the unity of color when the image is displayed on the screen, this unit becomes lesser in size and called screen point. This unit posseses different size and shape from the method of printing to another, depending on the output resolution, tools and material...

  7. Satellite Image Classification of Building Damages Using Airborne and Satellite Image Samples in a Deep Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, D.; Nex, F.; Kerle, N.; Vosselman, G.

    2018-05-01

    The localization and detailed assessment of damaged buildings after a disastrous event is of utmost importance to guide response operations, recovery tasks or for insurance purposes. Several remote sensing platforms and sensors are currently used for the manual detection of building damages. However, there is an overall interest in the use of automated methods to perform this task, regardless of the used platform. Owing to its synoptic coverage and predictable availability, satellite imagery is currently used as input for the identification of building damages by the International Charter, as well as the Copernicus Emergency Management Service for the production of damage grading and reference maps. Recently proposed methods to perform image classification of building damages rely on convolutional neural networks (CNN). These are usually trained with only satellite image samples in a binary classification problem, however the number of samples derived from these images is often limited, affecting the quality of the classification results. The use of up/down-sampling image samples during the training of a CNN, has demonstrated to improve several image recognition tasks in remote sensing. However, it is currently unclear if this multi resolution information can also be captured from images with different spatial resolutions like satellite and airborne imagery (from both manned and unmanned platforms). In this paper, a CNN framework using residual connections and dilated convolutions is used considering both manned and unmanned aerial image samples to perform the satellite image classification of building damages. Three network configurations, trained with multi-resolution image samples are compared against two benchmark networks where only satellite image samples are used. Combining feature maps generated from airborne and satellite image samples, and refining these using only the satellite image samples, improved nearly 4 % the overall satellite image

  8. Landsat TM and ETM+ Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID):2000-2001 consists of terrain-corrected, precision rectified spring, summer, and fall Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and...

  9. Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID) 2004-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID) 2004-2005 consists of terrain-corrected, precision rectified spring, summer, and fall Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM)...

  10. Velocity estimation of an airplane through a single satellite image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuxin Zhao; Gongjian Wen; Bingwei Hui; Deren Li

    2012-01-01

    The motion information of a moving target can be recorded in a single image by a push-broom satellite. A push-broom satellite image is composed of many image lines sensed at different time instants. A method to estimate the velocity of a flying airplane from a single image based on the imagery model of the linear push-broom sensor is proposed. Some key points on the high-resolution image of the plane are chosen to determine the velocity (speed and direction). The performance of the method is tested and verified by experiments using a WorldView-1 image.%The motion information of a moving target can be recorded in a single image by a push-broom satellite.A push-broom satellite image is composed of many image lines sensed at different time instants.A method to estimate the velocity of a flying airplane from a single image based on the imagery model of the linear push-broom sensor is proposed.Some key points on the high-resolution image of the plane are chosen to determine the velocity (speed and direction).The performance of the method is tested and verified by experiments using a WorldView-1 image.

  11. Satellite images to aircraft in flight. [GEOS image transmission feasibility analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, D.; Luers, J. K.; Kadlec, P. W.

    1977-01-01

    A study has been initiated to evaluate the feasibility of transmitting selected GOES images to aircraft in flight. Pertinent observations that could be made from satellite images on board aircraft include jet stream activity, cloud/wind motion, cloud temperatures, tropical storm activity, and location of severe weather. The basic features of the Satellite Aircraft Flight Environment System (SAFES) are described. This system uses East GOES and West GOES satellite images, which are interpreted, enhanced, and then retransmitted to designated aircraft.

  12. Very high resolution satellite data: New challenges in image analysis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathe, P.V.; Muraleedharan, P.M.

    with the exception that a ground-based view covers the entire optical range from 400 to 700 nm while satellite images will be wavelength-specific. Although the images will not surpass details observed by a human eye, they will, in principle, be comparable with aerial...

  13. Satellite-generated radar images of the earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schanda, E.

    1980-01-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) on board of SEASAT was the first non-military satellite-borne radar producing high-resolution images of the earth. Several examples of European scenes are discussed to demonstrate the properties of presently available optically processes images. (orig.)

  14. Medical image transmission via communication satellite. Evaluation of bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hideki; Inoue, Tomio; Endo, Keigo; Shimamoto, Shigeru.

    1995-01-01

    As compared with terrestrial circuits, the communication satellite possesses superior characteristics such as wide area coverage, broadcasting, high capacity, and robustness to disasters. Utilizing the narrow band channel (64 kbps) of the geostationary satellite JCSAT 1 located at the altitude of 36,000 km above the equator, the authors investigated satellite-relayed medical imagings by video signals, with bone scintigraphy as a model. Each bone scintigraphy was taken by a handy-video camera, digitalized and transmitted from faculty of technology located at 25 kilometers apart from our department. Clear bone scintigraphy was obtained via satellite, as seen on the view box. Eight nuclear physicians evaluated 20 cases of bone scintigraphy. ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis was performed between the scintigraphies on view box and via satellite by the rating method. The area under the ROC curve was 91.6±2.6% via satellite, and 93.2±2.4% on the view box and there was no significant difference between them. These results suggest that the satellite communication is very useful and effective system to send nuclear imagings to distant institutes. (author)

  15. [Medical image transmission via communication satellite: evaluation of bone scintigraphy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H; Inoue, T; Endo, K; Shimamoto, S

    1995-10-01

    As compared with terrestrial circuits, the communication satellite possesses superior characteristics such as wide area coverage, broadcasting, high capacity, and robustness to disasters. Utilizing the narrow band channel (64 kbps) of the geostationary satellite JCSAT1 located at the altitude of 36,000 km above the equator, the authors investigated satellite-relayed medical images by video signals, with bone scintigraphy as a model. Each bone scintigraphy was taken by a handy-video camera, digitalized and transmitted from faculty of technology located at 25 kilometers apart from our department. Clear bone scintigraphy was obtained via satellite, as seen on the view box. Eight nuclear physicians evaluated 20 cases of bone scintigraphy. ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis was performed between the scintigraphies on view box and via satellite by the rating method. The area under the ROC curve was 91.6 +/- 2.6% via satellite, and 93.2 +/- 2.4% on the view box and there was no significant difference between them. These results suggest that the satellite communication is very useful and effective system to send nuclear imagings to distant institutes.

  16. Entropy-Based Block Processing for Satellite Image Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhyun Lee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Image registration is an important task in many computer vision applications such as fusion systems, 3D shape recovery and earth observation. Particularly, registering satellite images is challenging and time-consuming due to limited resources and large image size. In such scenario, state-of-the-art image registration methods such as scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT may not be suitable due to high processing time. In this paper, we propose an algorithm based on block processing via entropy to register satellite images. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated using different real images. The comparative analysis shows that it not only reduces the processing time but also enhances the accuracy.

  17. The best printing methods to print satellite images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Yousif

    2011-12-01

    In this paper different printing systems were used to print an image of SPOT-4 satellite, caver part of Sharm Elshekh area, Sinai, Egypt, on the same type of paper as much as possible, especially in the photography. This step is followed by measuring the experimental data, and analyzed colors to determine the best printing systems for satellite image printing data. The laser system is the more printing system where produce a wider range of color and highest densities of ink and access much color detail. Followed by the offset system which it recorded the best dot gain. Moreover, the study shows that it can use the advantages of each method according to the satellite image color and quantity to be produced.

  18. Classification of Pansharpened Urban Satellite Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palsson, Frosti; Sveinsson, Johannes R.; Benediktsson, Jon Atli

    2012-01-01

    The classification of high resolution urban remote sensing imagery is addressed with the focus on classification of imagery that has been pansharpened by a number of different pansharpening methods. The pansharpening process introduces some spectral and spatial distortions in the resulting fused...... multispectral image, the amount of which highly varies depending on which pansharpening technique is used. In the majority of the pansharpening techniques that have been proposed, there is a compromise between the spatial enhancement and the spectral consistency. Here we study the effects of the spectral...... information from the panchromatic data. Random Forests (RF) and Support Vector Machines (SVM) will be used as classifiers. Experiments are done for three different datasets that have been obtained by two different imaging sensors, IKONOS and QuickBird. These sensors deliver multispectral images that have four...

  19. Autonomous Planetary 3-D Reconstruction From Satellite Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Troelz

    1999-01-01

    is discussed.Based on such features, 3-D representations may be compiled from two or more 2-D satellite images. The main purposes of such a mapping system are extraction of landing sites, objects of scientific interest and general planetary surveying. All data processing is performed autonomously onboard...

  20. The cradle of pyramids in satellite images

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    We propose the use of image processing to enhance the Google Maps of some archaeological areas of Egypt. In particular we analyse that place which is considered the cradle of pyramids, where it was announced the discovery of a new pyramid by means of an infrared remote sensing.

  1. An Image Matching Algorithm Integrating Global SRTM and Image Segmentation for Multi-Source Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Ling

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel image matching method for multi-source satellite images, which integrates global Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM data and image segmentation to achieve robust and numerous correspondences. This method first generates the epipolar lines as a geometric constraint assisted by global SRTM data, after which the seed points are selected and matched. To produce more reliable matching results, a region segmentation-based matching propagation is proposed in this paper, whereby the region segmentations are extracted by image segmentation and are considered to be a spatial constraint. Moreover, a similarity measure integrating Distance, Angle and Normalized Cross-Correlation (DANCC, which considers geometric similarity and radiometric similarity, is introduced to find the optimal correspondences. Experiments using typical satellite images acquired from Resources Satellite-3 (ZY-3, Mapping Satellite-1, SPOT-5 and Google Earth demonstrated that the proposed method is able to produce reliable and accurate matching results.

  2. 3-D Reconstruction From Satellite Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Troelz

    1999-01-01

    of planetary surfaces, but other purposes is considered as well. The system performance is measured with respect to the precision and the time consumption.The reconstruction process is divided into four major areas: Acquisition, calibration, matching/reconstruction and presentation. Each of these areas...... are treated individually. A detailed treatment of various lens distortions is required, in order to correct for these problems. This subject is included in the acquisition part. In the calibration part, the perspective distortion is removed from the images. Most attention has been paid to the matching problem...

  3. Convolutional neural network features based change detection in satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed El Amin, Arabi; Liu, Qingjie; Wang, Yunhong

    2016-07-01

    With the popular use of high resolution remote sensing (HRRS) satellite images, a huge research efforts have been placed on change detection (CD) problem. An effective feature selection method can significantly boost the final result. While hand-designed features have proven difficulties to design features that effectively capture high and mid-level representations, the recent developments in machine learning (Deep Learning) omit this problem by learning hierarchical representation in an unsupervised manner directly from data without human intervention. In this letter, we propose approaching the change detection problem from a feature learning perspective. A novel deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) features based HR satellite images change detection method is proposed. The main guideline is to produce a change detection map directly from two images using a pretrained CNN. This method can omit the limited performance of hand-crafted features. Firstly, CNN features are extracted through different convolutional layers. Then, a concatenation step is evaluated after an normalization step, resulting in a unique higher dimensional feature map. Finally, a change map was computed using pixel-wise Euclidean distance. Our method has been validated on real bitemporal HRRS satellite images according to qualitative and quantitative analyses. The results obtained confirm the interest of the proposed method.

  4. Interferometric Imaging of Geostationary Satellites: Signal-to-Noise Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, A.; Schmitt, H.; Mozurkewich, D.; Armstrong, J.; Restaino, S.; Hindsley, R.

    2011-09-01

    Geostationary satellites are generally too small to image at high resolution with conventional single-dish telescopes. Obtaining many resolution elements across a typical geostationary satellite body requires a single-dish telescope with a diameter of 10’s of m or more, with a good adaptive optics system. An alternative is to use an optical/infrared interferometer consisting of multiple smaller telescopes in an array configuration. In this paper and companion papers1, 2 we discuss the performance of a common-mount 30-element interferometer. The instrument design is presented by Mozurkewich et al.,1 and imaging performance is presented by Schmitt et al.2 In this paper we discuss signal-to-noise ratio for both fringe-tracking and imaging. We conclude that the common-mount interferometer is sufficiently sensitive to track fringes on the majority of geostationary satellites. We also find that high-fidelity images can be obtained after a short integration time of a few minutes to a few tens of minutes.

  5. The SUMO Ship Detector Algorithm for Satellite Radar Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harm Greidanus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Search for Unidentified Maritime Objects (SUMO is an algorithm for ship detection in satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images. It has been developed over the course of more than 15 years, using a large amount of SAR images from almost all available SAR satellites operating in L-, C- and X-band. As validated by benchmark tests, it performs very well on a wide range of SAR image modes (from Spotlight to ScanSAR and resolutions (from 1–100 m and for all types and sizes of ships, within the physical limits imposed by the radar imaging. This paper describes, in detail, the algorithmic approach in all of the steps of the ship detection: land masking, clutter estimation, detection thresholding, target clustering, ship attribute estimation and false alarm suppression. SUMO is a pixel-based CFAR (Constant False Alarm Rate detector for multi-look radar images. It assumes a K distribution for the sea clutter, corrected however for deviations of the actual sea clutter from this distribution, implementing a fast and robust method for the clutter background estimation. The clustering of detected pixels into targets (ships uses several thresholds to deal with the typically irregular distribution of the radar backscatter over a ship. In a multi-polarization image, the different channels are fused. Azimuth ambiguities, a common source of false alarms in ship detection, are removed. A reliability indicator is computed for each target. In post-processing, using the results of a series of images, additional false alarms from recurrent (fixed targets including range ambiguities are also removed. SUMO can run in semi-automatic mode, where an operator can verify each detected target. It can also run in fully automatic mode, where batches of over 10,000 images have successfully been processed in less than two hours. The number of satellite SAR systems keeps increasing, as does their application to maritime surveillance. The open data policy of the EU

  6. LAKE ICE DETECTION IN LOW-RESOLUTION OPTICAL SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tom

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring and analyzing the (decreasing trends in lake freezing provides important information for climate research. Multi-temporal satellite images are a natural data source to survey ice on lakes. In this paper, we describe a method for lake ice monitoring, which uses low spatial resolution (250 m–1000 m satellite images to determine whether a lake is frozen or not. We report results on four selected lakes in Switzerland: Sihl, Sils, Silvaplana and St. Moritz. These lakes have different properties regarding area, altitude, surrounding topography and freezing frequency, describing cases of medium to high difficulty. Digitized Open Street Map (OSM lake outlines are back-projected on to the image space after generalization. As a pre-processing step, the absolute geolocation error of the lake outlines is corrected by matching the projected outlines to the images. We define the lake ice detection as a two-class (frozen, non-frozen semantic segmentation problem. Several spectral channels of the multi-spectral satellite data are used, both reflective and emissive (thermal. Only the cloud-free (clean pixels which lie completely inside the lake are analyzed. The most useful channels to solve the problem are selected with xgboost and visual analysis of histograms of reference data, while the classification is done with non-linear support vector machine (SVM. We show experimentally that this straight-forward approach works well with both MODIS and VIIRS satellite imagery. Moreover, we show that the algorithm produces consistent results when tested on data from multiple winters.

  7. Lake Ice Detection in Low-Resolution Optical Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, M.; Kälin, U.; Sütterlin, M.; Baltsavias, E.; Schindler, K.

    2018-05-01

    Monitoring and analyzing the (decreasing) trends in lake freezing provides important information for climate research. Multi-temporal satellite images are a natural data source to survey ice on lakes. In this paper, we describe a method for lake ice monitoring, which uses low spatial resolution (250 m-1000 m) satellite images to determine whether a lake is frozen or not. We report results on four selected lakes in Switzerland: Sihl, Sils, Silvaplana and St. Moritz. These lakes have different properties regarding area, altitude, surrounding topography and freezing frequency, describing cases of medium to high difficulty. Digitized Open Street Map (OSM) lake outlines are back-projected on to the image space after generalization. As a pre-processing step, the absolute geolocation error of the lake outlines is corrected by matching the projected outlines to the images. We define the lake ice detection as a two-class (frozen, non-frozen) semantic segmentation problem. Several spectral channels of the multi-spectral satellite data are used, both reflective and emissive (thermal). Only the cloud-free (clean) pixels which lie completely inside the lake are analyzed. The most useful channels to solve the problem are selected with xgboost and visual analysis of histograms of reference data, while the classification is done with non-linear support vector machine (SVM). We show experimentally that this straight-forward approach works well with both MODIS and VIIRS satellite imagery. Moreover, we show that the algorithm produces consistent results when tested on data from multiple winters.

  8. ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF IMAGE QUALITY ON DIGITAL MAP GENERATION FROM SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available High resolution satellite images are widely used to produce and update a digital map since they became widely available. It is well known that the accuracy of digital map produced from satellite images is decided largely by the accuracy of geometric modelling. However digital maps are made by a series of photogrammetric workflow. Therefore the accuracy of digital maps are also affected by the quality of satellite images, such as image interpretability. For satellite images, parameters such as Modulation Transfer Function(MTF, Signal to Noise Ratio(SNR and Ground Sampling Distance(GSD are used to present images quality. Our previous research stressed that such quality parameters may not represent the quality of image products such as digital maps and that parameters for image interpretability such as Ground Resolved Distance(GRD and National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale(NIIRS need to be considered. In this study, we analyzed the effects of the image quality on accuracy of digital maps produced by satellite images. QuickBird, IKONOS and KOMPSAT-2 imagery were used to analyze as they have similar GSDs. We measured various image quality parameters mentioned above from these images. Then we produced digital maps from the images using a digital photogrammetric workstation. We analyzed the accuracy of the digital maps in terms of their location accuracy and their level of details. Then we compared the correlation between various image quality parameters and the accuracy of digital maps. The results of this study showed that GRD and NIIRS were more critical for map production then GSD, MTF or SNR.

  9. Satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.A.; Matthews, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    The present work is based on a conference: Natural Satellites, Colloquium 77 of the IAU, held at Cornell University from July 5 to 9, 1983. Attention is given to the background and origins of satellites, protosatellite swarms, the tectonics of icy satellites, the physical characteristics of satellite surfaces, and the interactions of planetary magnetospheres with icy satellite surfaces. Other topics include the surface composition of natural satellites, the cratering of planetary satellites, the moon, Io, and Europa. Consideration is also given to Ganymede and Callisto, the satellites of Saturn, small satellites, satellites of Uranus and Neptune, and the Pluto-Charon system

  10. METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITE IMAGES IN GEOGRAPHY CLASSES: a didactic possibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Correia Maia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The satellite images are still largely unexplored as didactic resource in geography classes, particularly about meteorology. This article aims to contribute to the development of new methodologies of interpretation and understanding, beyond the construction of pedagogical practices involving meteorological satellite images, concepts and issues related to climate issues. The aim of this paper is to present possibilities for the use of meteorological satellite images in the Teaching of Geography, aiming the promoting and the understanding of contents of air masses and fronts and climatic factors. RESUMO: As imagens de satélite ainda são pouco exploradas como recurso didático nas aulas de Geografia, principalmente aquelas relativas à meteorologia. Este artigo visa contribuir com o desenvolvimento de novas metodologias de interpretação e compreensão, além da construção de práticas pedagógicas envolvendo imagens de satélite meteorológico, conceitos e temas ligados às questões climáticas. Seu objetivo é apresentar possibilidades de utilização das imagens de satélite meteorológico no Ensino de Geografia, visando à promoção e ao entendimento dos conteúdos de massas de ar e frentes e de elementos climáticos. Palavras chave

  11. Recurrent Neural Networks to Correct Satellite Image Classification Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiori, Emmanuel; Charpiat, Guillaume; Tarabalka, Yuliya; Alliez, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    While initially devised for image categorization, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are being increasingly used for the pixelwise semantic labeling of images. However, the proper nature of the most common CNN architectures makes them good at recognizing but poor at localizing objects precisely. This problem is magnified in the context of aerial and satellite image labeling, where a spatially fine object outlining is of paramount importance. Different iterative enhancement algorithms have been presented in the literature to progressively improve the coarse CNN outputs, seeking to sharpen object boundaries around real image edges. However, one must carefully design, choose and tune such algorithms. Instead, our goal is to directly learn the iterative process itself. For this, we formulate a generic iterative enhancement process inspired from partial differential equations, and observe that it can be expressed as a recurrent neural network (RNN). Consequently, we train such a network from manually labeled data for our enhancement task. In a series of experiments we show that our RNN effectively learns an iterative process that significantly improves the quality of satellite image classification maps.

  12. Prospects of application of survey satellite image for meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapochkina, A. B.; Kapochkin, B. B.; Kucherenko, N. V.

    The maximal interest is represented with the information from geostationary satellites. These satellites repeat shootings the chosen territories, allowing to study dynamics of images. Most interesting shootings in IR a range. Studying of survey image is applied to studying linear elements of clouds (LEC). It is established, that "LEC " arise only above breaks of an earth's crust. In research results of the complex analysis of the satellite data, hydrometeorological supervision, seismicity, supervision over deformations of a surface of the Earth are used. It is established that before formation "LEC " in a ground layer arise anomalies of temperature and humidity. The situation above Europe 16 May, 2001 is considered. "LEC " in Europe block carry of air weights from the west to the east. Synoptic conditions above the Great Britain July, 7-10, 2000 is considered. Moving "LEC" trace distribution of deformation waves to an earth's crust. Satellite shootings Europe before earthquake in Greece 14.08.2003 are considered. These days ground supervision were conducted and the data of the geostationary satellite were analyzed. During moving "LEC " occur failures (destruction houses & of gas mains), earthquake. The situation above Iberian peninsula 12-16.11.2001 is considered. "LEC" arose before flooding in Europe. The situation before flooding in Germany June, 6-8, 2002 and flooding on the river Kuban June, 16-23, 2002 is considered. In case of occurrence of tectonic compression of an earth's crust there are "LEC ", tracer intensive movements of air upwards and downwards above negative and positive anomalies of the form of a terrestrial surface, accordingly. Such meteorological situations are dangerous to flights of aircraft, the fast gravitational anomalies influencing into orbits of movement of satellites trace. The situation above equatorial Atlantic 26.03.2003 years is considered. At tectonic compression of continental scale overcast covers the whole continents for more

  13. New and Emerging Satellite Imaging Capabilities in Support of Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.; Paquette, J.P.; Spyropoulos, N.; Rainville, L.; Schichor, P.; Hong, M.

    2015-01-01

    This abstract is focused on new and emerging commercial satellite imagery (CSI) capabilities. For more than a decade, experienced imagery analysts have been exploiting and analyzing CSI in support of the Department of Safeguards. As the remote sensing industry continues to evolve, additional CSI imagery types are becoming available that could enhance our ability to evaluate and verify States' declarations and to investigate the possible presence of undeclared activities. A newly available and promising CSI capability that may have a Safeguards application is Full Motion Video (FMV) imagery collection from satellites. For quite some time, FMV imagery has been collected from airborne platforms, but now FMV sensors are being deployed into space. Like its airborne counterpart, satellite FMV imagery could provide analysts with a great deal of information, including insight into the operational status of facilities and patterns of activity. From a Safeguards perspective, FMV imagery could help the Agency in the evaluation and verification of States' declared facilities and activities. There are advantages of FMV imaging capabilities that cannot be duplicated with other CSI capabilities, including the ability to loiter over areas of interest and the potential to revisit sites multiple times per day. Additional sensor capabilities applicable to the Safeguards mission include, but are not limited to, the following sensors: · Thermal Infrared imaging sensors will be launched in late 2014 to monitor operational status, e.g., heat from a transformer. · High resolution ShortWave Infrared sensors able to characterize materials that could support verification of Additional Protocol declarations under Article 2.a(v). · Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with individual sensors or specific sensor combinations. The Safeguards Symposium provides a forum to showcase and demonstrate safeguards applications for these emerging satellite imaging capabilities. (author)

  14. Breeding blanket for Demo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proust, E.; Giancarli, L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the main design features, their rationale, and the main critical issues for the development, of the four DEMO-relevant blanket concepts presently investigated within the framework of the European Test-Blanket Development Programme

  15. ITER convertible blanket evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Cheng, E.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) convertible blankets were reviewed. Key design difficulties were identified. A new particle filter concept is introduced and key performance parameters estimated. Results show that this particle filter concept can satisfy all of the convertible blanket design requirements except the generic issue of Be blanket lifetime. If the convertible blanket is an acceptable approach for ITER operation, this particle filter option should be a strong candidate

  16. Ice Sheet Change Detection by Satellite Image Differencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindschadler, Robert A.; Scambos, Ted A.; Choi, Hyeungu; Haran, Terry M.

    2010-01-01

    Differencing of digital satellite image pairs highlights subtle changes in near-identical scenes of Earth surfaces. Using the mathematical relationships relevant to photoclinometry, we examine the effectiveness of this method for the study of localized ice sheet surface topography changes using numerical experiments. We then test these results by differencing images of several regions in West Antarctica, including some where changes have previously been identified in altimeter profiles. The technique works well with coregistered images having low noise, high radiometric sensitivity, and near-identical solar illumination geometry. Clouds and frosts detract from resolving surface features. The ETM(plus) sensor on Landsat-7, ALI sensor on EO-1, and MODIS sensor on the Aqua and Terra satellite platforms all have potential for detecting localized topographic changes such as shifting dunes, surface inflation and deflation features associated with sub-glacial lake fill-drain events, or grounding line changes. Availability and frequency of MODIS images favor this sensor for wide application, and using it, we demonstrate both qualitative identification of changes in topography and quantitative mapping of slope and elevation changes.

  17. Spatial Data Exploring by Satellite Image Distributed Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihon, V. D.; Colceriu, V.; Bektas, F.; Allenbach, K.; Gvilava, M.; Gorgan, D.

    2012-04-01

    Our society needs and environmental predictions encourage the applications development, oriented on supervising and analyzing different Earth Science related phenomena. Satellite images could be explored for discovering information concerning land cover, hydrology, air quality, and water and soil pollution. Spatial and environment related data could be acquired by imagery classification consisting of data mining throughout the multispectral bands. The process takes in account a large set of variables such as satellite image types (e.g. MODIS, Landsat), particular geographic area, soil composition, vegetation cover, and generally the context (e.g. clouds, snow, and season). All these specific and variable conditions require flexible tools and applications to support an optimal search for the appropriate solutions, and high power computation resources. The research concerns with experiments on solutions of using the flexible and visual descriptions of the satellite image processing over distributed infrastructures (e.g. Grid, Cloud, and GPU clusters). This presentation highlights the Grid based implementation of the GreenLand application. The GreenLand application development is based on simple, but powerful, notions of mathematical operators and workflows that are used in distributed and parallel executions over the Grid infrastructure. Currently it is used in three major case studies concerning with Istanbul geographical area, Rioni River in Georgia, and Black Sea catchment region. The GreenLand application offers a friendly user interface for viewing and editing workflows and operators. The description involves the basic operators provided by GRASS [1] library as well as many other image related operators supported by the ESIP platform [2]. The processing workflows are represented as directed graphs giving the user a fast and easy way to describe complex parallel algorithms, without having any prior knowledge of any programming language or application commands

  18. DETECTION OF BARCHAN DUNES IN HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Azzaoui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Barchan dunes are the fastest moving sand dunes in the desert. We developed a process to detect barchans dunes on High resolution satellite images. It consisted of three steps, we first enhanced the image using histogram equalization and noise reduction filters. Then, the second step proceeds to eliminate the parts of the image having a texture different from that of the barchans dunes. Using supervised learning, we tested a coarse to fine textural analysis based on Kolomogorov Smirnov test and Youden’s J-statistic on co-occurrence matrix. As an output we obtained a mask that we used in the next step to reduce the search area. In the third step we used a gliding window on the mask and check SURF features with SVM to get barchans dunes candidates. Detected barchans dunes were considered as the fusion of overlapping candidates. The results of this approach were very satisfying in processing time and precision.

  19. Multi sensor satellite imagers for commercial remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronje, T.; Burger, H.; Du Plessis, J.; Du Toit, J. F.; Marais, L.; Strumpfer, F.

    2005-10-01

    This paper will discuss and compare recent refractive and catodioptric imager designs developed and manufactured at SunSpace for Multi Sensor Satellite Imagers with Panchromatic, Multi-spectral, Area and Hyperspectral sensors on a single Focal Plane Array (FPA). These satellite optical systems were designed with applications to monitor food supplies, crop yield and disaster monitoring in mind. The aim of these imagers is to achieve medium to high resolution (2.5m to 15m) spatial sampling, wide swaths (up to 45km) and noise equivalent reflectance (NER) values of less than 0.5%. State-of-the-art FPA designs are discussed and address the choice of detectors to achieve these performances. Special attention is given to thermal robustness and compactness, the use of folding prisms to place multiple detectors in a large FPA and a specially developed process to customize the spectral selection with the need to minimize mass, power and cost. A refractive imager with up to 6 spectral bands (6.25m GSD) and a catodioptric imager with panchromatic (2.7m GSD), multi-spectral (6 bands, 4.6m GSD), hyperspectral (400nm to 2.35μm, 200 bands, 15m GSD) sensors on the same FPA will be discussed. Both of these imagers are also equipped with real time video view finding capabilities. The electronic units could be subdivided into the Front-End Electronics and Control Electronics with analogue and digital signal processing. A dedicated Analogue Front-End is used for Correlated Double Sampling (CDS), black level correction, variable gain and up to 12-bit digitizing and high speed LVDS data link to a mass memory unit.

  20. Materials for breeding blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.; Billone, M.C.

    1995-09-01

    There are several candidate concepts for tritium breeding blankets that make use of a number of special materials. These materials can be classified as Primary Blanket Materials, which have the greatest influence in determining the overall design and performance, and Secondary Blanket Materials, which have key functions in the operation of the blanket but are less important in establishing the overall design and performance. The issues associated with the blanket materials are specified and several examples of materials performance are given. Critical data needs are identified

  1. Materials for breeding blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.; Billone, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    There are several candidate concepts for tritium breeding blankets that make use of a number of special materials. These materials can be classified as primary blanket materials, which have the greatest influence in determining the overall design and performance, and secondary blanket materials, which have key functions in the operation of the blanket but are less important in establishing the overall design and performance. The issues associated with the blanket materials are specified and several examples of materials performance are given. Critical data needs are identified. (orig.)

  2. Chagas disease study using satellite image processing: A Bolivian case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Cuentas, Natalia I.; Roman-Gonzalez, Avid; Mantari, Alicia Alva; Muñoz, Luis AnthonyAucapuma

    2018-03-01

    Remote sensing is the technology that has enabled us to obtain information about the Earth's surface without directly contacting it. For this reason, currently, the Bolivian state has considered a list of interesting applications of remote sensing in the country, including the following: biodiversity and environment monitoring, mining and geology, epidemiology, agriculture, water resources and land use planning. The use of satellite images has become a great tool for epidemiology because with this technological advance we can determine the environment in which transmission occurs, the distribution of the disease and its evolution over time. In that context, one of the important diseases related to public health in Bolivia is Chagas disease, also known as South American Trypanosomiasis. Chagas is caused by a blood-sucking bug or Vinchuca, which causes serious intestinal and heart long term problems and affects 33.4% of the Bolivian population. This disease affects mostly humble people, so the Bolivian state invests millions of dollars to acquire medicine and distribute it for free. Due to the above reasons, the present research aims to analyze some areas of Bolivia using satellite images for developing an epidemiology study. The primary objective is to understand the environment in which the transmission of the disease happens, and the climatic conditions under which occurs, observe the behavior of the blood-sucking bug, identify in which months occur higher outbreaks, in which months the bug leaves its eggs, and under which weather conditions this happens. All this information would be contrasted with information extracted from the satellite images and data from the Ministry of Health, and the Institute of Meteorology in Bolivia. All this data will allow us to have a more integrated understanding of this disease and promote new possibilities to prevent and control it.

  3. Global Solar Radiation in Spain from Satellite Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, L.; Mora, L.; Sidrach de Cardona, M.; Navarro, A. A.; Varela, M.; Cruz, M. de la

    2003-01-01

    In the context of the present work a series of algorithms of calculation of the solar radiation from satellite images has been developed. These models, have been applied to three years of images of the Meteosat satellite and the results of the treatment have been extrapolated to long term. For the development of the models of solar radiation registered in ground stations have been used, corresponding all of them to localities of peninsular Spain and the Balearic ones. The maximum periods of data available have been used, supposing in most of the cases periods of between 6 and 9 years. From the results has a year type of images of global solar radiation on horizontal surface. The original resolution of the image of 7x7 km in the study latitudes, has been reevaluated to 5x5 km. This supposes to have a value of the typical radiation for every day of the year, each 5x5 km in the study territory. This information, supposes an important advance as far as the knowledge of the space distribution of the radiation solar, impossible to reach about alternative methods. Doubtlessly, the precision of the provided values is not comparable with pyrano metric measures in a concrete locality, but it provides a very valid indicator in places in which it is not had previous information. In addition to the radiation maps, tables of the global solar radiation have been prepared on different inclinations, from the global radiation on horizontal surface calculated for every day of the year and in each pixel of the image. (Author) 24 refs

  4. Discovering significant evolution patterns from satellite image time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitjean, François; Masseglia, Florent; Gançarski, Pierre; Forestier, Germain

    2011-12-01

    Satellite Image Time Series (SITS) provide us with precious information on land cover evolution. By studying these series of images we can both understand the changes of specific areas and discover global phenomena that spread over larger areas. Changes that can occur throughout the sensing time can spread over very long periods and may have different start time and end time depending on the location, which complicates the mining and the analysis of series of images. This work focuses on frequent sequential pattern mining (FSPM) methods, since this family of methods fits the above-mentioned issues. This family of methods consists of finding the most frequent evolution behaviors, and is actually able to extract long-term changes as well as short term ones, whenever the change may start and end. However, applying FSPM methods to SITS implies confronting two main challenges, related to the characteristics of SITS and the domain's constraints. First, satellite images associate multiple measures with a single pixel (the radiometric levels of different wavelengths corresponding to infra-red, red, etc.), which makes the search space multi-dimensional and thus requires specific mining algorithms. Furthermore, the non evolving regions, which are the vast majority and overwhelm the evolving ones, challenge the discovery of these patterns. We propose a SITS mining framework that enables discovery of these patterns despite these constraints and characteristics. Our proposal is inspired from FSPM and provides a relevant visualization principle. Experiments carried out on 35 images sensed over 20 years show the proposed approach makes it possible to extract relevant evolution behaviors.

  5. Landsat TM and ETM+ 2002-2003 Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID):2002-2003 consists of image data gathered by three sensors. The first image data are terrain-corrected, precision...

  6. Using Deep Learning Model for Meteorological Satellite Cloud Image Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, X.

    2017-12-01

    A satellite cloud image contains much weather information such as precipitation information. Short-time cloud movement forecast is important for precipitation forecast and is the primary means for typhoon monitoring. The traditional methods are mostly using the cloud feature matching and linear extrapolation to predict the cloud movement, which makes that the nonstationary process such as inversion and deformation during the movement of the cloud is basically not considered. It is still a hard task to predict cloud movement timely and correctly. As deep learning model could perform well in learning spatiotemporal features, to meet this challenge, we could regard cloud image prediction as a spatiotemporal sequence forecasting problem and introduce deep learning model to solve this problem. In this research, we use a variant of Gated-Recurrent-Unit(GRU) that has convolutional structures to deal with spatiotemporal features and build an end-to-end model to solve this forecast problem. In this model, both the input and output are spatiotemporal sequences. Compared to Convolutional LSTM(ConvLSTM) model, this model has lower amount of parameters. We imply this model on GOES satellite data and the model perform well.

  7. Synchronous atmospheric radiation correction of GF-2 satellite multispectral image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Fuqiang; Fan, Dongdong; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Dandan

    2018-02-01

    GF-2 remote sensing products have been widely used in many fields for its high-quality information, which provides technical support for the the macroeconomic decisions. Atmospheric correction is the necessary part in the data preprocessing of the quantitative high resolution remote sensing, which can eliminate the signal interference in the radiation path caused by atmospheric scattering and absorption, and reducting apparent reflectance into real reflectance of the surface targets. Aiming at the problem that current research lack of atmospheric date which are synchronization and region matching of the surface observation image, this research utilize the MODIS Level 1B synchronous data to simulate synchronized atmospheric condition, and write programs to implementation process of aerosol retrieval and atmospheric correction, then generate a lookup table of the remote sensing image based on the radioactive transfer model of 6S (second simulation of a satellite signal in the solar spectrum) to correct the atmospheric effect of multispectral image from GF-2 satellite PMS-1 payload. According to the correction results, this paper analyzes the pixel histogram of the reflectance spectrum of the 4 spectral bands of PMS-1, and evaluates the correction results of different spectral bands. Then conducted a comparison experiment on the same GF-2 image based on the QUAC. According to the different targets respectively statistics the average value of NDVI, implement a comparative study of NDVI from two different results. The degree of influence was discussed by whether to adopt synchronous atmospheric date. The study shows that the result of the synchronous atmospheric parameters have significantly improved the quantitative application of the GF-2 remote sensing data.

  8. Use of satellite images for the monitoring of water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, Gudrun; Winterscheid, Axel; Baschek, Björn; Wolf, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Satellite images are a proven source of information for monitoring ecological indicators in coastal waters and inland river systems. This potential of remote sensing products was demonstrated by recent research projects (e.g. EU-funded project Freshmon - www.freshmon.eu) and other activities by national institutions. Among indicators for water quality, a particular focus was set on the temporal and spatial dynamics of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a). The German Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG) was using the Weser and Elbe estuaries as test cases to compare in-situ measurements with results obtained from a temporal series of automatically generated maps of SPM distributions based on remote sensing data. Maps of SPM and Chl-a distributions in European inland rivers and alpine lakes were generated by the Freshmon Project. Earth observation based products are a valuable source for additional data that can well supplement in-situ monitoring. For 2015, the BfG and the Institute for Lake Research of the State Institute for the Environment, Measurements and Nature Conservation of Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany (LUBW) are in the process to start implementing an operational service for monitoring SPM and Chl-a based on satellite images (Landsat 7 & 8, Sentinel 2, and if required other systems with higher spatial resolution, e.g. Rapid Eye). In this 2-years project, which is part of the European Copernicus Programme, the operational service will be set up for - the inland rivers of Rhine and Elbe - the North Sea estuaries of Elbe, Weser and Ems. Furthermore - Lake Constance and other lakes located within the Federal State of Baden-Wuerttemberg. In future, the service can be implemented for other rivers and lakes as well. Key feature of the project is a data base that holds the stock of geo-referenced maps of SPM and Chl-a distributions. Via web-based portals (e.g. GGInA - geo-portal of the BfG; UIS - environmental information system of the

  9. Laser Guidestar Satellite for Ground-based Adaptive Optics Imaging of Geosynchronous Satellites and Astronomical Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, W. A.; Cahoy, K.; Males, J.; Carlton, A.; Yoon, H.

    2015-12-01

    Real-time observation and monitoring of geostationary (GEO) satellites with ground-based imaging systems would be an attractive alternative to fielding high cost, long lead, space-based imagers, but ground-based observations are inherently limited by atmospheric turbulence. Adaptive optics (AO) systems are used to help ground telescopes achieve diffraction-limited seeing. AO systems have historically relied on the use of bright natural guide stars or laser guide stars projected on a layer of the upper atmosphere by ground laser systems. There are several challenges with this approach such as the sidereal motion of GEO objects relative to natural guide stars and limitations of ground-based laser guide stars; they cannot be used to correct tip-tilt, they are not point sources, and have finite angular sizes when detected at the receiver. There is a difference between the wavefront error measured using the guide star compared with the target due to cone effect, which also makes it difficult to use a distributed aperture system with a larger baseline to improve resolution. Inspired by previous concepts proposed by A.H. Greenaway, we present using a space-based laser guide starprojected from a satellite orbiting the Earth. We show that a nanosatellite-based guide star system meets the needs for imaging GEO objects using a low power laser even from 36,000 km altitude. Satellite guide star (SGS) systemswould be well above atmospheric turbulence and could provide a small angular size reference source. CubeSatsoffer inexpensive, frequent access to space at a fraction of the cost of traditional systems, and are now being deployed to geostationary orbits and on interplanetary trajectories. The fundamental CubeSat bus unit of 10 cm cubed can be combined in multiple units and offers a common form factor allowing for easy integration as secondary payloads on traditional launches and rapid testing of new technologies on-orbit. We describe a 6U CubeSat SGS measuring 10 cm x 20 cm x

  10. Integration of Satellite Tracking Data and Satellite Images for Detailed Characteristics of Wildlife Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrynin, D. V.; Rozhnov, V. V.; Saveliev, A. A.; Sukhova, O. V.; Yachmennikova, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    Methods of analysis of the results got from satellite tracking of large terrestrial mammals differ in the level of their integration with additional geographic data. The reliable fine-scale cartographic basis for assessing specific wildlife habitats can be developed through the interpretation of multispectral remote sensing data and extrapolation of the results to the entire estimated species range. Topographic maps were ordinated according to classified features using self-organizing maps (Kohonen's SOM). The satellite image of the Ussuriiskyi Nature Reserve area was interpreted for the analysis of movement conditions for seven wild Amur tigers ( Panthera tigris altaica) equipped with GPS collars. 225 SOM classes for cartographic visualization are sufficient for the detailed mapping of all natural complexes that were identified as a result of interpretation. During snow-free periods, tigers preferred deciduous and shrub associations at lower elevations, as well as mixed forests in the valleys of streams that are adjacent to sparse forests and shrub watershed in the mountain ranges; during heavy snow periods, the animals preferred the entire range of plant communities in different relief types, except for open sites in meadows and abandoned fields at foothills. The border zones of different biotopes were typically used by the tigers during all seasons. Amur tigers preferred coniferous forests for long-term movements.

  11. Satellite image time series simulation for environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tao

    2014-11-01

    The performance of environmental monitoring heavily depends on the availability of consecutive observation data and it turns out an increasing demand in remote sensing community for satellite image data in the sufficient resolution with respect to both spatial and temporal requirements, which appear to be conflictive and hard to tune tradeoffs. Multiple constellations could be a solution if without concerning cost, and thus it is so far interesting but very challenging to develop a method which can simultaneously improve both spatial and temporal details. There are some research efforts to deal with the problem from various aspects, a type of approaches is to enhance the spatial resolution using techniques of super resolution, pan-sharpen etc. which can produce good visual effects, but mostly cannot preserve spectral signatures and result in losing analytical value. Another type is to fill temporal frequency gaps by adopting time interpolation, which actually doesn't increase informative context at all. In this paper we presented a novel method to generate satellite images in higher spatial and temporal details, which further enables satellite image time series simulation. Our method starts with a pair of high-low resolution data set, and then a spatial registration is done by introducing LDA model to map high and low resolution pixels correspondingly. Afterwards, temporal change information is captured through a comparison of low resolution time series data, and the temporal change is then projected onto high resolution data plane and assigned to each high resolution pixel referring the predefined temporal change patterns of each type of ground objects to generate a simulated high resolution data. A preliminary experiment shows that our method can simulate a high resolution data with a good accuracy. We consider the contribution of our method is to enable timely monitoring of temporal changes through analysis of low resolution images time series only, and usage of

  12. Spatial, Temporal and Spectral Satellite Image Fusion via Sparse Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Huihui

    Remote sensing provides good measurements for monitoring and further analyzing the climate change, dynamics of ecosystem, and human activities in global or regional scales. Over the past two decades, the number of launched satellite sensors has been increasing with the development of aerospace technologies and the growing requirements on remote sensing data in a vast amount of application fields. However, a key technological challenge confronting these sensors is that they tradeoff between spatial resolution and other properties, including temporal resolution, spectral resolution, swath width, etc., due to the limitations of hardware technology and budget constraints. To increase the spatial resolution of data with other good properties, one possible cost-effective solution is to explore data integration methods that can fuse multi-resolution data from multiple sensors, thereby enhancing the application capabilities of available remote sensing data. In this thesis, we propose to fuse the spatial resolution with temporal resolution and spectral resolution, respectively, based on sparse representation theory. Taking the study case of Landsat ETM+ (with spatial resolution of 30m and temporal resolution of 16 days) and MODIS (with spatial resolution of 250m ~ 1km and daily temporal resolution) reflectance, we propose two spatial-temporal fusion methods to combine the fine spatial information of Landsat image and the daily temporal resolution of MODIS image. Motivated by that the images from these two sensors are comparable on corresponding bands, we propose to link their spatial information on available Landsat- MODIS image pair (captured on prior date) and then predict the Landsat image from the MODIS counterpart on prediction date. To well-learn the spatial details from the prior images, we use a redundant dictionary to extract the basic representation atoms for both Landsat and MODIS images based on sparse representation. Under the scenario of two prior Landsat

  13. CLOUD DETECTION OF OPTICAL SATELLITE IMAGES USING SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-Y. Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cloud covers are generally present in optical remote-sensing images, which limit the usage of acquired images and increase the difficulty of data analysis, such as image compositing, correction of atmosphere effects, calculations of vegetation induces, land cover classification, and land cover change detection. In previous studies, thresholding is a common and useful method in cloud detection. However, a selected threshold is usually suitable for certain cases or local study areas, and it may be failed in other cases. In other words, thresholding-based methods are data-sensitive. Besides, there are many exceptions to control, and the environment is changed dynamically. Using the same threshold value on various data is not effective. In this study, a threshold-free method based on Support Vector Machine (SVM is proposed, which can avoid the abovementioned problems. A statistical model is adopted to detect clouds instead of a subjective thresholding-based method, which is the main idea of this study. The features used in a classifier is the key to a successful classification. As a result, Automatic Cloud Cover Assessment (ACCA algorithm, which is based on physical characteristics of clouds, is used to distinguish the clouds and other objects. In the same way, the algorithm called Fmask (Zhu et al., 2012 uses a lot of thresholds and criteria to screen clouds, cloud shadows, and snow. Therefore, the algorithm of feature extraction is based on the ACCA algorithm and Fmask. Spatial and temporal information are also important for satellite images. Consequently, co-occurrence matrix and temporal variance with uniformity of the major principal axis are used in proposed method. We aim to classify images into three groups: cloud, non-cloud and the others. In experiments, images acquired by the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ and images containing the landscapes of agriculture, snow area, and island are tested. Experiment results demonstrate

  14. Cloud Detection of Optical Satellite Images Using Support Vector Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan-Yi; Lin, Chao-Hung

    2016-06-01

    Cloud covers are generally present in optical remote-sensing images, which limit the usage of acquired images and increase the difficulty of data analysis, such as image compositing, correction of atmosphere effects, calculations of vegetation induces, land cover classification, and land cover change detection. In previous studies, thresholding is a common and useful method in cloud detection. However, a selected threshold is usually suitable for certain cases or local study areas, and it may be failed in other cases. In other words, thresholding-based methods are data-sensitive. Besides, there are many exceptions to control, and the environment is changed dynamically. Using the same threshold value on various data is not effective. In this study, a threshold-free method based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) is proposed, which can avoid the abovementioned problems. A statistical model is adopted to detect clouds instead of a subjective thresholding-based method, which is the main idea of this study. The features used in a classifier is the key to a successful classification. As a result, Automatic Cloud Cover Assessment (ACCA) algorithm, which is based on physical characteristics of clouds, is used to distinguish the clouds and other objects. In the same way, the algorithm called Fmask (Zhu et al., 2012) uses a lot of thresholds and criteria to screen clouds, cloud shadows, and snow. Therefore, the algorithm of feature extraction is based on the ACCA algorithm and Fmask. Spatial and temporal information are also important for satellite images. Consequently, co-occurrence matrix and temporal variance with uniformity of the major principal axis are used in proposed method. We aim to classify images into three groups: cloud, non-cloud and the others. In experiments, images acquired by the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and images containing the landscapes of agriculture, snow area, and island are tested. Experiment results demonstrate the detection

  15. Accuracy assessment of topographic mapping using UAV image integrated with satellite images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmi, S M; Ahmad, Baharin; Ahmad, Anuar

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle or UAV is extensively applied in various fields such as military applications, archaeology, agriculture and scientific research. This study focuses on topographic mapping and map updating. UAV is one of the alternative ways to ease the process of acquiring data with lower operating costs, low manufacturing and operational costs, plus it is easy to operate. Furthermore, UAV images will be integrated with QuickBird images that are used as base maps. The objective of this study is to make accuracy assessment and comparison between topographic mapping using UAV images integrated with aerial photograph and satellite image. The main purpose of using UAV image is as a replacement for cloud covered area which normally exists in aerial photograph and satellite image, and for updating topographic map. Meanwhile, spatial resolution, pixel size, scale, geometric accuracy and correction, image quality and information contents are important requirements needed for the generation of topographic map using these kinds of data. In this study, ground control points (GCPs) and check points (CPs) were established using real time kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK-GPS) technique. There are two types of analysis that are carried out in this study which are quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment is carried out by calculating root mean square error (RMSE). The outputs of this study include topographic map and orthophoto. From this study, the accuracy of UAV image is ± 0.460 m. As conclusion, UAV image has the potential to be used for updating of topographic maps

  16. Heuristic Scheduling Algorithm Oriented Dynamic Tasks for Imaging Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maocai Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging satellite scheduling is an NP-hard problem with many complex constraints. This paper researches the scheduling problem for dynamic tasks oriented to some emergency cases. After the dynamic properties of satellite scheduling were analyzed, the optimization model is proposed in this paper. Based on the model, two heuristic algorithms are proposed to solve the problem. The first heuristic algorithm arranges new tasks by inserting or deleting them, then inserting them repeatedly according to the priority from low to high, which is named IDI algorithm. The second one called ISDR adopts four steps: insert directly, insert by shifting, insert by deleting, and reinsert the tasks deleted. Moreover, two heuristic factors, congestion degree of a time window and the overlapping degree of a task, are employed to improve the algorithm’s performance. Finally, a case is given to test the algorithms. The results show that the IDI algorithm is better than ISDR from the running time point of view while ISDR algorithm with heuristic factors is more effective with regard to algorithm performance. Moreover, the results also show that our method has good performance for the larger size of the dynamic tasks in comparison with the other two methods.

  17. Galileo's first images of Jupiter and the Galilean satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, M.J.S.; Head, J. W.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Greeley, R.; McEwen, A.S.; Klaasen, K.P.; Senske, D.; Pappalardo, R.; Collins, G.; Vasavada, A.R.; Sullivan, R.; Simonelli, D.; Geissler, P.; Carr, M.H.; Davies, M.E.; Veverka, J.; Gierasch, P.J.; Banfield, D.; Bell, M.; Chapman, C.R.; Anger, C.; Greenberg, R.; Neukum, G.; Pilcher, C.B.; Beebe, R.F.; Burns, J.A.; Fanale, F.; Ip, W.; Johnson, T.V.; Morrison, D.; Moore, J.; Orton, G.S.; Thomas, P.; West, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The first images of Jupiter, Io, Europa, and Ganymede from the Galileo spacecraft reveal new information about Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) and the surfaces of the Galilean satellites. Features similar to clusters of thunderstorms were found in the GRS. Nearby wave structures suggest that the GRS may be a shallow atmospheric feature. Changes in surface color and plume distribution indicate differences in resurfacing processes near hot spots on lo. Patchy emissions were seen while Io was in eclipse by Jupiter. The outer margins of prominent linear markings (triple bands) on Europa are diffuse, suggesting that material has been vented from fractures. Numerous small circular craters indicate localized areas of relatively old surface. Pervasive brittle deformation of an ice layer appears to have formed grooves on Ganymede. Dark terrain unexpectedly shows distinctive albedo variations to the limit of resolution.

  18. Dsm Based Orientation of Large Stereo Satellite Image Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Angelo, P.; Reinartz, P.

    2012-07-01

    High resolution stereo satellite imagery is well suited for the creation of digital surface models (DSM). A system for highly automated and operational DSM and orthoimage generation based on CARTOSAT-1 imagery is presented, with emphasis on fully automated georeferencing. The proposed system processes level-1 stereo scenes using the rational polynomial coefficients (RPC) universal sensor model. The RPC are derived from orbit and attitude information and have a much lower accuracy than the ground resolution of approximately 2.5 m. In order to use the images for orthorectification or DSM generation, an affine RPC correction is required. In this paper, GCP are automatically derived from lower resolution reference datasets (Landsat ETM+ Geocover and SRTM DSM). The traditional method of collecting the lateral position from a reference image and interpolating the corresponding height from the DEM ignores the higher lateral accuracy of the SRTM dataset. Our method avoids this drawback by using a RPC correction based on DSM alignment, resulting in improved geolocation of both DSM and ortho images. Scene based method and a bundle block adjustment based correction are developed and evaluated for a test site covering the nothern part of Italy, for which 405 Cartosat-1 Stereopairs are available. Both methods are tested against independent ground truth. Checks against this ground truth indicate a lateral error of 10 meters.

  19. Images of war: using satellite images for human rights monitoring in Turkish Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Hugo; Jongerden, Joost; van Etten, Jacob

    2008-09-01

    In areas of war and armed conflict it is difficult to get trustworthy and coherent information. Civil society and human rights groups often face problems of dealing with fragmented witness reports, disinformation of war propaganda, and difficult direct access to these areas. Turkish Kurdistan was used as a case study of armed conflict to evaluate the potential use of satellite images for verification of witness reports collected by human rights groups. The Turkish army was reported to be burning forests, fields and villages as a strategy in the conflict against guerrilla uprising. This paper concludes that satellite images are useful to validate witness reports of forest fires. Even though the use of this technology for human rights groups will depend on some feasibility factors such as prices, access and expertise, the images proved to be key for analysis of spatial aspects of conflict and valuable for reconstructing a more trustworthy picture.

  20. Smoothing of Fused Spectral Consistent Satellite Images with TV-based Edge Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsson, Johannes; Aanæs, Henrik; Benediktsson, Jon Atli

    2007-01-01

    based on satellite data. Additionally, most conventional methods are loosely connected to the image forming physics of the satellite image, giving these methods an ad hoc feel. Vesteinsson et al. [1] proposed a method of fusion of satellite images that is based on the properties of imaging physics...... in a statistically meaningful way and was called spectral consistent panshapening (SCP). In this paper we improve this framework for satellite image fusion by introducing a better image prior, via data-dependent image smoothing. The dependency is obtained via total variation edge detection method.......Several widely used methods have been proposed for fusing high resolution panchromatic data and lower resolution multi-channel data. However, many of these methods fail to maintain the spectral consistency of the fused high resolution image, which is of high importance to many of the applications...

  1. Mirror reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.; Barmore, W.L.; Bender, D.J.; Doggett, J.N.; Galloway, T.R.

    1976-01-01

    The general requirements of a breeding blanket for a mirror reactor are described. The following areas are discussed: (1) facility layout and blanket maintenance, (2) heat transfer and thermal conversion system, (3) materials, (4) tritium containment and removal, and (5) nuclear performance

  2. Mapping soil heterogeneity using RapidEye satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccard, Isabelle; Eerens, Herman; Dong, Qinghan; Gobin, Anne; Goffart, Jean-Pierre; Curnel, Yannick; Planchon, Viviane

    2016-04-01

    In the frame of BELCAM, a project funded by the Belgian Science Policy Office (BELSPO), researchers from UCL, ULg, CRA-W and VITO aim to set up a collaborative system to develop and deliver relevant information for agricultural monitoring in Belgium. The main objective is to develop remote sensing methods and processing chains able to ingest crowd sourcing data, provided by farmers or associated partners, and to deliver in return relevant and up-to-date information for crop monitoring at the field and district level based on Sentinel-1 and -2 satellite imagery. One of the developments within BELCAM concerns an automatic procedure to detect soil heterogeneity within a parcel using optical high resolution images. Such heterogeneity maps can be used to adjust farming practices according to the detected heterogeneity. This heterogeneity may for instance be caused by differences in mineral composition of the soil, organic matter content, soil moisture or soil texture. Local differences in plant growth may be indicative for differences in soil characteristics. As such remote sensing derived vegetation indices may be used to reveal soil heterogeneity. VITO started to delineate homogeneous zones within parcels by analyzing a series of RapidEye images acquired in 2015 (as a precursor for Sentinel-2). Both unsupervised classification (ISODATA, K-means) and segmentation techniques were tested. Heterogeneity maps were generated from images acquired at different moments during the season (13 May, 30 June, 17 July, 31 August, 11 September and 1 November 2015). Tests were performed using blue, green, red, red edge and NIR reflectances separately and using derived indices such as NDVI, fAPAR, CIrededge, NDRE2. The results for selected winter wheat, maize and potato fields were evaluated together with experts from the collaborating agricultural research centers. For a few fields UAV images and/or yield measurements were available for comparison.

  3. Fusion fuel blanket technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, I.J.; Gierszewski, P.

    1987-05-01

    The fusion blanket surrounds the burning hydrogen core of a fusion reactor. It is in this blanket that most of the energy released by the nuclear fusion of deuterium-tritium is converted into useful product, and where tritium fuel is produced to enable further operation of the reactor. As fusion research turns from present short-pulse physics experiments to long-burn engineering tests in the 1990's, energy removal and tritium production capabilities become important. This technology will involve new materials, conditions and processes with applications both to fusion and beyond. In this paper, we introduce features of proposed blanket designs and update and status of international research. In focusing on the Canadian blanket technology program, we discuss the aqueous lithium salt blanket concept, and the in-reactor tritium recovery test program

  4. Blanket testing in NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chazalon, M.; Daenner, W.; Libin, B.

    1989-01-01

    The testing stages in NET for the performance assessment of the various breeding blanket concepts developed at the present time in Europe for DEMO (LiPb and ceramic blankets) and the requirements upon NET to perform these tests are reviewed. Typical locations available in NET for blanket testing are the central outboard segments and the horizontal ports of in-vessel sectors. These test positions will be connectable with external test loops. The number of test loops (helium, water, liquid metal) will be such that each major class of blankets can be tested in NET. The test positions, the boundary conditions and the external test loops are identified and the requirements for test blankets are summarized (author). 6

  5. Satellite Image Time Series Decomposition Based on EEMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-long Kong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Satellite Image Time Series (SITS have recently been of great interest due to the emerging remote sensing capabilities for Earth observation. Trend and seasonal components are two crucial elements of SITS. In this paper, a novel framework of SITS decomposition based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD is proposed. EEMD is achieved by sifting an ensemble of adaptive orthogonal components called Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs. EEMD is noise-assisted and overcomes the drawback of mode mixing in conventional Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD. Inspired by these advantages, the aim of this work is to employ EEMD to decompose SITS into IMFs and to choose relevant IMFs for the separation of seasonal and trend components. In a series of simulations, IMFs extracted by EEMD achieved a clear representation with physical meaning. The experimental results of 16-day compositions of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, and Global Environment Monitoring Index (GEMI time series with disturbance illustrated the effectiveness and stability of the proposed approach to monitoring tasks, such as applications for the detection of abrupt changes.

  6. Using Fuzzy SOM Strategy for Satellite Image Retrieval and Information Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yo-Ping Huang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an efficient satellite image retrieval and knowledge discovery model. The strategy comprises two major parts. First, a computational algorithm is used for off-line satellite image feature extraction, image data representation and image retrieval. Low level features are automatically extracted from the segmented regions of satellite images. A self-organization feature map is used to construct a two-layer satellite image concept hierarchy. The events are stored in one layer and the corresponding feature vectors are categorized in the other layer. Second, a user friendly interface is provided that retrieves images of interest and mines useful information based on the events in the concept hierarchy. The proposed system is evaluated with prominent features such as typhoons or high-pressure masses.

  7. A method for generating high resolution satellite image time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tao

    2014-10-01

    There is an increasing demand for satellite remote sensing data with both high spatial and temporal resolution in many applications. But it still is a challenge to simultaneously improve spatial resolution and temporal frequency due to the technical limits of current satellite observation systems. To this end, much R&D efforts have been ongoing for years and lead to some successes roughly in two aspects, one includes super resolution, pan-sharpen etc. methods which can effectively enhance the spatial resolution and generate good visual effects, but hardly preserve spectral signatures and result in inadequate analytical value, on the other hand, time interpolation is a straight forward method to increase temporal frequency, however it increase little informative contents in fact. In this paper we presented a novel method to simulate high resolution time series data by combing low resolution time series data and a very small number of high resolution data only. Our method starts with a pair of high and low resolution data set, and then a spatial registration is done by introducing LDA model to map high and low resolution pixels correspondingly. Afterwards, temporal change information is captured through a comparison of low resolution time series data, and then projected onto the high resolution data plane and assigned to each high resolution pixel according to the predefined temporal change patterns of each type of ground objects. Finally the simulated high resolution data is generated. A preliminary experiment shows that our method can simulate a high resolution data with a reasonable accuracy. The contribution of our method is to enable timely monitoring of temporal changes through analysis of time sequence of low resolution images only, and usage of costly high resolution data can be reduces as much as possible, and it presents a highly effective way to build up an economically operational monitoring solution for agriculture, forest, land use investigation

  8. USING SATELLITE IMAGES FOR WIRELESS NETWORK PLANING IN BAKU CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gojamanov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available It is a well known fact that the Information-Telecommunication and Space research technologies are the fields getting much more benefits from the achievements of the scientific and technical progress. In many cases, these areas supporting each other have improved the conditions for their further development. For instance, the intensive development in the field of the mobile communication has caused the rapid progress of the Space research technologies and vice versa.Today it is impossible to solve one of the most important tasks of the mobile communication as Radio Frecance planning without the 2D and 3D digital maps. The compiling of such maps is much more efficient by means of the space images. Because the quality of the space images has been improved and developed, especially at the both spectral and spatial resolution points. It has been possible to to use 8 Band images with the spatial resolution of 50 sm. At present, in relation to the function 3G of mobile communications one of the main issues facing mobile operator companies is a high-precision 3D digital maps. It should be noted that the number of mobile phone users in the Republic of Azerbaijan went forward other Community of Independent States Countries. Of course, using of aerial images for 3D mapping would be optimal. However, depending on a number of technical and administrative problems aerial photography cannot be used. Therefore, the experience of many countries shows that it will be more effective to use the space images with the higher resolution for these issues. Concerning the fact that the mobile communication within the city of Baku has included 3G function there were ordered stereo images wih the spatial resolution of 50 cm for the 150 sq.km territory occupying the central part of the city in order to compile 3D digital maps. The images collected from the WorldView-2 satellite are 4-Band Bundle(Pan+MS1 stereo images. Such kind of imagery enable to automatically

  9. Using Satellite Images for Wireless Network Planing in Baku City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojamanov, M.; Ismayilov, J.

    2013-04-01

    It is a well known fact that the Information-Telecommunication and Space research technologies are the fields getting much more benefits from the achievements of the scientific and technical progress. In many cases, these areas supporting each other have improved the conditions for their further development. For instance, the intensive development in the field of the mobile communication has caused the rapid progress of the Space research technologies and vice versa.Today it is impossible to solve one of the most important tasks of the mobile communication as Radio Frecance planning without the 2D and 3D digital maps. The compiling of such maps is much more efficient by means of the space images. Because the quality of the space images has been improved and developed, especially at the both spectral and spatial resolution points. It has been possible to to use 8 Band images with the spatial resolution of 50 sm. At present, in relation to the function 3G of mobile communications one of the main issues facing mobile operator companies is a high-precision 3D digital maps. It should be noted that the number of mobile phone users in the Republic of Azerbaijan went forward other Community of Independent States Countries. Of course, using of aerial images for 3D mapping would be optimal. However, depending on a number of technical and administrative problems aerial photography cannot be used. Therefore, the experience of many countries shows that it will be more effective to use the space images with the higher resolution for these issues. Concerning the fact that the mobile communication within the city of Baku has included 3G function there were ordered stereo images wih the spatial resolution of 50 cm for the 150 sq.km territory occupying the central part of the city in order to compile 3D digital maps. The images collected from the WorldView-2 satellite are 4-Band Bundle(Pan+MS1) stereo images. Such kind of imagery enable to automatically classificate some required

  10. Limitations on blanket performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.

    1999-01-01

    The limitations on the performance of breeding blankets in a fusion power plant are evaluated. The breeding blankets will be key components of a plant and their limitations with regard to power density, thermal efficiency and lifetime could determine to a large degree the attractiveness of a power plant. The performance of two rather well known blanket concepts under development in the frame of the European Blanket Programme is assessed and their limitations are compared with more advanced (and more speculative) concepts. An important issue is the question of which material (structure, breeder, multiplier, coatings) will limit the performance and what improvement would be possible with a 'better' structural material. This evaluation is based on the premise that the performance of the power plant will be limited by the blankets (including first wall) and not by other components, e.g. divertors, or the plasma itself. However, the justness of this premise remains to be seen. It is shown that the different blanket concepts cover a large range of allowable power densities and achievable thermal efficiencies, and it is concluded that there is a high incentive to go for better performance in spite of possibly higher blanket cost. However, such high performance blankets are usually based on materials and technologies not yet developed and there is a rather high risk that the development could fail. Therefore, it is explained that a part of the development effort should be devoted to concepts where the materials and technologies are more or less in hand in order to ensure that blankets for a DEMO reactor can be developed and tested in a given time frame. (orig.)

  11. The Application of the Technology of 3D Satellite Cloud Imaging in Virtual Reality Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-fang Xie

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Using satellite cloud images to simulate clouds is one of the new visual simulation technologies in Virtual Reality (VR. Taking the original data of satellite cloud images as the source, this paper depicts specifically the technology of 3D satellite cloud imaging through the transforming of coordinates and projection, creating a DEM (Digital Elevation Model of cloud imaging and 3D simulation. A Mercator projection was introduced to create a cloud image DEM, while solutions for geodetic problems were introduced to calculate distances, and the outer-trajectory science of rockets was introduced to obtain the elevation of clouds. For demonstration, we report on a computer program to simulate the 3D satellite cloud images.

  12. Design of an Image Motion Compenstaion (IMC Algorithm for Image Registration of the Communication, Ocean, Meteorolotical Satellite (COMS-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taek Seo Jung

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an Image Motion Compensation (IMC algorithm for the Korea's Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS-1. An IMC algorithm is a priority component of image registration in Image Navigation and Registration (INR system to locate and register radiometric image data. Due to various perturbations, a satellite has orbit and attitude errors with respect to a reference motion. These errors cause depointing of the imager aiming direction, and in consequence cause image distortions. To correct the depointing of the imager aiming direction, a compensation algorithm is designed by adapting different equations from those used for the GOES satellites. The capability of the algorithm is compared with that of existing algorithm applied to the GOES's INR system. The algorithm developed in this paper improves pointing accuracy by 40%, and efficiently compensates the depointings of the imager aiming direction.

  13. Satellite image atlas of glaciers of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.; Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    1988-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386, Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World, contains 11 chapters designated by the letters A through K. Chapter A provides a comprehensive, yet concise, review of the "State of the Earth's Cryosphere at the Beginning of the 21st Century: Glaciers, Global Snow Cover, Floating Ice, and Permafrost and Periglacial Environments," and a "Map/Poster of the Earth's Dynamic Cryosphere," and a set of eight "Supplemental Cryosphere Notes" about the Earth's Dynamic Cryosphere and the Earth System. The next 10 chapters, B through K, are arranged geographically and present glaciological information from Landsat and other sources of historic and modern data on each of the geographic areas. Chapter B covers Antarctica; Chapter C, Greenland; Chapter D, Iceland; Chapter E, Continental Europe (except for the European part of the former Soviet Union), including the Alps, the Pyrenees, Norway, Sweden, Svalbard (Norway), and Jan Mayen (Norway); Chapter F, Asia, including the European part of the former Soviet Union, China, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, and Bhutan; Chapter G, Turkey, Iran, and Africa; Chapter H, Irian Jaya (Indonesia) and New Zealand; Chapter I, South America; Chapter J, North America (excluding Alaska); and Chapter K, Alaska. Chapters A–D each include map plates.

  14. Roads Data Conflation Using Update High Resolution Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, A.; Riyahi Bakhtiari, H. R.

    2017-11-01

    Urbanization, industrialization and modernization are rapidly growing in developing countries. New industrial cities, with all the problems brought on by rapid population growth, need infrastructure to support the growth. This has led to the expansion and development of the road network. A great deal of road network data has made by using traditional methods in the past years. Over time, a large amount of descriptive information has assigned to these map data, but their geometric accuracy and precision is not appropriate to today's need. In this regard, the improvement of the geometric accuracy of road network data by preserving the descriptive data attributed to them and updating of the existing geo databases is necessary. Due to the size and extent of the country, updating the road network maps using traditional methods is time consuming and costly. Conversely, using remote sensing technology and geographic information systems can reduce costs, save time and increase accuracy and speed. With increasing the availability of high resolution satellite imagery and geospatial datasets there is an urgent need to combine geographic information from overlapping sources to retain accurate data, minimize redundancy, and reconcile data conflicts. In this research, an innovative method for a vector-to-imagery conflation by integrating several image-based and vector-based algorithms presented. The SVM method for image classification and Level Set method used to extract the road the different types of road intersections extracted from imagery using morphological operators. For matching the extracted points and to find the corresponding points, matching function which uses the nearest neighborhood method was applied. Finally, after identifying the matching points rubber-sheeting method used to align two datasets. Two residual and RMSE criteria used to evaluate accuracy. The results demonstrated excellent performance. The average root-mean-square error decreased from 11.8 to 4.1 m.

  15. ITER shielding blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strebkov, Yu [ENTEK, Moscow (Russian Federation); Avsjannikov, A [ENTEK, Moscow (Russian Federation); Baryshev, M [NIAT, Moscow (Russian Federation); Blinov, Yu [ENTEK, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shatalov, G [KIAE, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vasiliev, N [KIAE, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vinnikov, A [ENTEK, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chernjagin, A [DYNAMICA, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-03-01

    A reference non-breeding blanket is under development now for the ITER Basic Performance Phase for the purpose of high reliability during the first stage of ITER operation. More severe operation modes are expected in this stage with first wall (FW) local heat loads up to 100-300Wcm{sup -2}. Integration of a blanket design with protective and start limiters requires new solutions to achieve high reliability, and possible use of beryllium as a protective material leads to technologies. The rigid shielding blanket concept was developed in Russia to satisfy the above-mentioned requirements. The concept is based on a copper alloy FW, austenitic stainless steel blanket structure, water cooling. Beryllium protection is integrated in the FW design. Fabrication technology and assembly procedure are described in parallel with the equipment used. (orig.).

  16. Tritium breeding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.; Billone, M.; Gohar, Y.; Baker, C.; Mori, S.; Kuroda, T.; Maki, K.; Takatsu, H.; Yoshida, H.; Raffray, A.; Sviatoslavsky, I.; Simbolotti, G.; Shatalov, G.

    1991-01-01

    The terms of reference for ITER provide for incorporation of a tritium breeding blanket with a breeding ratio as close to unity as practical. A breeding blanket is required to assure an adequate supply of tritium to meet the program objectives. Based on specified design criteria, a ceramic breeder concept with water coolant and an austenitic steel structure has been selected as the first option and lithium-lead blanket concept has been chosen as an alternate option. The first wall, blanket, and shield are integrated into a single unit with separate cooling systems. The design makes extensive use of beryllium to enhance the tritium breeding ratio. The design goals with a tritium breeding ratio of 0.8--0.9 have been achieved and the R ampersand D requirements to qualify the design have been identified. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Dual coolant blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Schleisiek, K.

    1994-11-01

    A self-cooled liquid metal breeder blanket with helium-cooled first wall ('Dual Coolant Blanket Concept') for a fusion DEMO reactor is described. This is one of the four blanket concepts under development in the frame of the European fusion technology program with the aim to select in 1995 the two most promising ones for further development. Described are the design of the blankets including the ancillary loop system and the results of the theoretical and experimental work in the fields of neutronics, magnetohydrodynamics, thermohydraulics, mechanical stresses, compatibility and purification of lead-lithium, tritium control, safety, reliability, and electrically insulating coatings. The remaining open questions and the required R and D programme are identified. (orig.) [de

  18. Blankets for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Koichi; Fukumoto, Hideshi.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To produce tritium more than consumed, through thermonuclear reaction. Constitution: The energy spectrum of neutron generated by neutron multiplying reaction in a neutron multiplying blanket and moderated neutrons has a large ratio in a low energy section. In the low-energy absorption region of stainless steel which is a material of cooling pipes constituting a neutron multiplying blanket cooling channel, the neutrons are absorbed, lessening the neutron multiplying effect. To prevent this, the neutron multiplying blanket cooling channel is covered with tritium breeding blankets, thereby enabling the production of a substantially great amount of tritium more than the amount of tritium to be consumed by the thermonuclear reaction by preventing neutron absorption by the component materials of the cooling channel, improving the tritium breeding ratio by 20 to 25 %, and increasing the efficiency of use of neutrons for tritium generation. (Horiuchi, T.)

  19. ITER blanket designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.; Parker, R.; Rebut, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    The ITER first wall, blanket, and shield system is being designed to handle 1.5±0.3 GW of fusion power and 3 MWa m -2 average neutron fluence. In the basic performance phase of ITER operation, the shielding blanket uses austenitic steel structural material and water coolant. The first wall is made of bimetallic structure, austenitic steel and copper alloy, coated with beryllium and it is protected by beryllium bumper limiters. The choice of copper first wall is dictated by the surface heat flux values anticipated during ITER operation. The water coolant is used at low pressure and low temperature. A breeding blanket has been designed to satisfy the technical objectives of the Enhanced Performance Phase of ITER operation for the Test Program. The breeding blanket design is geometrically similar to the shielding blanket design except it is a self-cooled liquid lithium system with vanadium structural material. Self-healing electrical insulator (aluminum nitride) is used to reduce the MHD pressure drop in the system. Reactor relevancy, low tritium inventory, low activation material, low decay heat, and a tritium self-sufficiency goal are the main features of the breeding blanket design. (orig.)

  20. AN APPROACH FOR STITCHING SATELLITE IMAGES IN A BIGDATA MAPREDUCE FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sarı

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present a two-step map/reduce framework to stitch satellite mosaic images. The proposed system enable recognition and extraction of objects whose parts falling in separate satellite mosaic images. However this is a time and resource consuming process. The major aim of the study is improving the performance of the image stitching processes by utilizing big data framework. To realize this, we first convert the images into bitmaps (first mapper and then String formats in the forms of 255s and 0s (second mapper, and finally, find the best possible matching position of the images by a reduce function.

  1. An Approach for Stitching Satellite Images in a Bigdata Mapreduce Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarı, H.; Eken, S.; Sayar, A.

    2017-11-01

    In this study we present a two-step map/reduce framework to stitch satellite mosaic images. The proposed system enable recognition and extraction of objects whose parts falling in separate satellite mosaic images. However this is a time and resource consuming process. The major aim of the study is improving the performance of the image stitching processes by utilizing big data framework. To realize this, we first convert the images into bitmaps (first mapper) and then String formats in the forms of 255s and 0s (second mapper), and finally, find the best possible matching position of the images by a reduce function.

  2. Radiation exposure near Chernobyl based on analysis of satellite images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Marvin; Ustin, Susan [University of California, Laboratory for Energy-related Health Research, CA (United States); Warman, Edward A [Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., Boston, MA (United States)

    1987-12-01

    Radiation-induced damage in conifers adjacent to the damaged Chernobyl nuclear power plant has been evaluated using LANDSAT Thematic Mapper satellite images. Eight images acquired between April 22, 1986 and May 15, 1987 were used to assess the extent and magnitude of radiation effects on pine trees within 10 km of the reactor site. The timing and spatial extent of vegetation damaged was used to estimate the radiation doses in the near field around the Chernobyl nuclear power station and to derive dose rates as a function of time during and after the accident. A normalized vegetation index was developed from the TM spectral band data to visually demonstrate the damage and mortality to nearby conifer stands. The earliest date showing detectable injury 1 km west of the reactor unit was June 16, 1986. Subsequent dates revealed continued expansion of the affected areas to the west, north, and south. The greatest aerial expansion of this area occurred by October 15, 1986, with vegetation changes evident up to 5 km west, 2 km south, and 2 km north of the damaged Reactor Unit 4. By May 11, 1987, further scene changes were due principally to removal and mitigation efforts by the Soviet authorities. Areas showing spectral evidence of vegetation damage during the previous growing season do not show evidence of recovery and reflectance in the TM Bands 4 and 3 remain higher than surrounding vegetation, which infers that the trees are dead. The patterns of spectral change indicative of vegetation stress are consistent with changes expected for radiation injury and mortality. The extent and the timing of these effects enabled developing an integrated radiation dose estimate, which was combined with the information regarding the characteristics of radionuclide mix to provide an estimate of maximum dose rates during the early period of the accident. The derived peak dose rates during the 10-day release in the accident are high and are estimated at about 0.5 to 1 rad per hour. These

  3. Image Positioning Accuracy Analysis for Super Low Altitude Remote Sensing Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Xu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Super low altitude remote sensing satellites maintain lower flight altitudes by means of ion propulsion in order to improve image resolution and positioning accuracy. The use of engineering data in design for achieving image positioning accuracy is discussed in this paper based on the principles of the photogrammetry theory. The exact line-of-sight rebuilding of each detection element and this direction precisely intersecting with the Earth's elliptical when the camera on the satellite is imaging are both ensured by the combined design of key parameters. These parameters include: orbit determination accuracy, attitude determination accuracy, camera exposure time, accurately synchronizing the reception of ephemeris with attitude data, geometric calibration and precise orbit verification. Precise simulation calculations show that image positioning accuracy of super low altitude remote sensing satellites is not obviously improved. The attitude determination error of a satellite still restricts its positioning accuracy.

  4. NEPR World View 2 Satellite Mosaic - NOAA TIFF Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GeoTiff is a mosaic of World View 2 panchromatic satellite imagery of Northeast Puerto Rico that contains the shallow water area (0-35m deep) surrounding...

  5. NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Imager Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) series provides continuous measurements of the atmosphere and surface over the Western Hemisphere....

  6. Auto Mission Planning System Design for Imaging Satellites and Its Applications in Environmental Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Yongming

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Satellite hardware has reached a level of development that enables imaging satellites to realize applications in the area of meteorology and environmental monitoring. As the requirements in terms of feasibility and the actual profit achieved by satellite applications increase, we need to comprehensively consider the actual status, constraints, unpredictable information, and complicated requirements. The management of this complex information and the allocation of satellite resources to realize image acquisition have become essential for enhancing the efficiency of satellite instrumentation. In view of this, we designed a satellite auto mission planning system, which includes two sub-systems: the imaging satellite itself and the ground base, and these systems would then collaborate to process complicated missions: the satellite mainly focuses on mission planning and functions according to actual parameters, whereas the ground base provides auxiliary information, management, and control. Based on the requirements analysis, we have devised the application scenarios, main module, and key techniques. Comparison of the simulation results of the system, confirmed the feasibility and optimization efficiency of the system framework, which also stimulates new thinking for the method of monitoring environment and design of mission planning systems.

  7. Feature Extraction in Sequential Multimedia Images: with Applications in Satellite Images and On-line Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu-Li

    Multimedia data is increasingly important in scientific discovery and people's daily lives. Content of massive multimedia is often diverse and noisy, and motion between frames is sometimes crucial in analyzing those data. Among all, still images and videos are commonly used formats. Images are compact in size but do not contain motion information. Videos record motion but are sometimes too big to be analyzed. Sequential images, which are a set of continuous images with low frame rate, stand out because they are smaller than videos and still maintain motion information. This thesis investigates features in different types of noisy sequential images, and the proposed solutions that intelligently combined multiple features to successfully retrieve visual information from on-line videos and cloudy satellite images. The first task is detecting supraglacial lakes above ice sheet in sequential satellite images. The dynamics of supraglacial lakes on the Greenland ice sheet deeply affect glacier movement, which is directly related to sea level rise and global environment change. Detecting lakes above ice is suffering from diverse image qualities and unexpected clouds. A new method is proposed to efficiently extract prominent lake candidates with irregular shapes, heterogeneous backgrounds, and in cloudy images. The proposed system fully automatize the procedure that track lakes with high accuracy. We further cooperated with geoscientists to examine the tracked lakes and found new scientific findings. The second one is detecting obscene content in on-line video chat services, such as Chatroulette, that randomly match pairs of users in video chat sessions. A big problem encountered in such systems is the presence of flashers and obscene content. Because of various obscene content and unstable qualities of videos capture by home web-camera, detecting misbehaving users is a highly challenging task. We propose SafeVchat, which is the first solution that achieves satisfactory

  8. Schedule Optimization of Imaging Missions for Multiple Satellites and Ground Stations Using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junghyun; Kim, Heewon; Chung, Hyun; Kim, Haedong; Choi, Sujin; Jung, Okchul; Chung, Daewon; Ko, Kwanghee

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a method that uses a genetic algorithm for the dynamic schedule optimization of imaging missions for multiple satellites and ground systems. In particular, the visibility conflicts of communication and mission operation using satellite resources (electric power and onboard memory) are integrated in sequence. Resource consumption and restoration are considered in the optimization process. Image acquisition is an essential part of satellite missions and is performed via a series of subtasks such as command uplink, image capturing, image storing, and image downlink. An objective function for optimization is designed to maximize the usability by considering the following components: user-assigned priority, resource consumption, and image-acquisition time. For the simulation, a series of hypothetical imaging missions are allocated to a multi-satellite control system comprising five satellites and three ground stations having S- and X-band antennas. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed method, simulations are performed via three operation modes: general, commercial, and tactical.

  9. Use of Openly Available Satellite Images for Remote Sensing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.-K.

    2011-09-01

    With the advent of Google Earth, Google Maps, and Microsoft Bing Maps, high resolution satellite imagery are becoming more easily accessible than ever. It have been the case that the college students may already have wealth experiences with the high resolution satellite imagery by using these software and web services prior to any formal remote sensing education. It is obvious that the remote sensing education should be adjusted to the fact that the audience are already the customers of remote sensing products (through the use of the above mentioned services). This paper reports the use of openly available satellite imagery in an introductory-level remote sensing course in the Department of Geomatics of National Cheng Kung University as a term project. From the experience learned from the fall of 2009 and 2010, it shows that this term project has effectively aroused the students' enthusiastic toward Remote Sensing.

  10. Novel blanket design for ICTR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalik, S.I.; Conn, R.W.; Wolfer, W.G.; Larsen, E.N.; Sviatoslavsky, I.N.

    1978-01-01

    A novel blanket design for ICTRs is described. This blanket is used in SOLASE, the conceptual laser fusion reactor of the University of Wisconsin. The blanket to be described offers numerous advantages, including low cost, low weight, low induced radioactivity levels, the potential for hands-on maintenance, modular construction, low pressure, ability to decouple first wall and blanket coolant temperatures, adequate breeding, low tritium inventory and leakage, and sufficiently long life

  11. Remote diagnosis via a telecommunication satellite--ultrasonic tomographic image transmission experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, I; Inokuchi, S; Tajima, T; Takahashi, T

    1985-04-01

    An experiment to transmit ultrasonic tomographic section images required for remote medical diagnosis and care was conducted using the mobile telecommunication satellite OSCAR-10. The images received showed the intestinal condition of a patient incapable of verbal communication, however the image screen had a fairly coarse particle structure. On the basis of these experiments, were considered as the transmission of ultrasonic tomographic images extremely effective in remote diagnosis.

  12. Enhancement of Satellite Image Compression Using a Hybrid (DWT-DCT) Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihab, Halah Saadoon; Shafie, Suhaidi; Ramli, Abdul Rahman; Ahmad, Fauzan

    2017-12-01

    Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) image compression techniques have been utilized in most of the earth observation satellites launched during the last few decades. However, these techniques have some issues that should be addressed. The DWT method has proven to be more efficient than DCT for several reasons. Nevertheless, the DCT can be exploited to improve the high-resolution satellite image compression when combined with the DWT technique. Hence, a proposed hybrid (DWT-DCT) method was developed and implemented in the current work, simulating an image compression system on-board on a small remote sensing satellite, with the aim of achieving a higher compression ratio to decrease the onboard data storage and the downlink bandwidth, while avoiding further complex levels of DWT. This method also succeeded in maintaining the reconstructed satellite image quality through replacing the standard forward DWT thresholding and quantization processes with an alternative process that employed the zero-padding technique, which also helped to reduce the processing time of DWT compression. The DCT, DWT and the proposed hybrid methods were implemented individually, for comparison, on three LANDSAT 8 images, using the MATLAB software package. A comparison was also made between the proposed method and three other previously published hybrid methods. The evaluation of all the objective and subjective results indicated the feasibility of using the proposed hybrid (DWT-DCT) method to enhance the image compression process on-board satellites.

  13. RELATIVE ORIENTATION AND MODIFIED PIECEWISE EPIPOLAR RESAMPLING FOR HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available High resolution, optical satellite sensors are boosted to a new era in the last few years, because satellite stereo images at half meter or even 30cm resolution are available. Nowadays, high resolution satellite image data have been commonly used for Digital Surface Model (DSM generation and 3D reconstruction. It is common that the Rational Polynomial Coefficients (RPCs provided by the vendors have rough precision and there is no ground control information available to refine the RPCs. Therefore, we present two relative orientation methods by using corresponding image points only: the first method will use quasi ground control information, which is generated from the corresponding points and rough RPCs, for the bias-compensation model; the second method will estimate the relative pointing errors on the matching image and remove this error by an affine model. Both methods do not need ground control information and are applied for the entire image. To get very dense point clouds, the Semi-Global Matching (SGM method is an efficient tool. However, before accomplishing the matching process the epipolar constraints are required. In most conditions, satellite images have very large dimensions, contrary to the epipolar geometry generation and image resampling, which is usually carried out in small tiles. This paper also presents a modified piecewise epipolar resampling method for the entire image without tiling. The quality of the proposed relative orientation and epipolar resampling method are evaluated, and finally sub-pixel accuracy has been achieved in our work.

  14. The 2017 Hurricane Season: A Revolution in Geostationary Weather Satellite Imaging and Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, A. M.; Gundy, J.; Brown-Bertold, B.; Yates, H.; Dobler, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    Since their introduction, geostationary weather satellites have enabled us to track hurricane life-cycle movement from development to dissipation. During the 2017 hurricane season, the new GOES-16 geostationary satellite demonstrated just how far we have progressed technologically in geostationary satellite imaging, with hurricane imagery showing never-before-seen detail of the hurricane eye and eyewall structure and life cycle. In addition, new ground system technology, leveraging high-performance computing, delivered imagery and data to forecasters with unprecedented speed—and with updates as often as every 30 seconds. As additional satellites and new products become operational, forecasters will be able to track hurricanes with even greater accuracy and assist in aftermath evaluations. This presentation will present glimpses into the past, a look at the present, and a prediction for the future utilization of geostationary satellites with respect to all facets of hurricane support.

  15. Magnetoconvection in HCLL blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistrangelo, C.; Buehler, L.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work we consider magneto-convective flows in one of the proposed European liquid metal blankets that will be tested in the experimental fusion reactor ITER. Here the PbLi alloy is used as breeder material and helium as coolant. In order to finalize the design of the helium cooled lead lithium (HCLL) blanket, studies are still required to fully understand the behavior of the electrically conducting breeder under the influence of the intense magnetic field that confines the fusion plasma and in case of non-uniform thermal conditions. Liquid metal HCLL blanket flows are expected to be mainly driven by buoyancy forces caused by non-isothermal operating conditions due to neutron volumetric heating and cooling of walls, since only a weak forced ow is foreseen for tritium extraction in external ancillary systems. Buoyancy can therefore become very important and modify the velocity distribution and related heat transfer performance of the blanket. The present numerical study aims at clarifying the influence of electromagnetic and thermal coupling of neighboring fluid domains on magneto-convective flows in geometries relevant for the HCLL blanket concept. According to the last design review two internal cooling plates subdivide the fluid domain into three slender flow regions, which are thermally and electrically coupled through common walls. First a uniform volumetric heat source is considered to identify the basic convective patterns that establish in the liquid metal. Results are then compared with those obtained by applying a realistic radial distribution of the power density as obtained from a neutronic analysis. Velocity and temperature distributions are discussed for various volumetric heat sources and magnetic field strengths.

  16. Moving object detection in video satellite image based on deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueyang; Xiang, Junhua

    2017-11-01

    Moving object detection in video satellite image is studied. A detection algorithm based on deep learning is proposed. The small scale characteristics of remote sensing video objects are analyzed. Firstly, background subtraction algorithm of adaptive Gauss mixture model is used to generate region proposals. Then the objects in region proposals are classified via the deep convolutional neural network. Thus moving objects of interest are detected combined with prior information of sub-satellite point. The deep convolution neural network employs a 21-layer residual convolutional neural network, and trains the network parameters by transfer learning. Experimental results about video from Tiantuo-2 satellite demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  17. AUTOMATED CONSTRUCTION OF COVERAGE CATALOGUES OF ASTER SATELLITE IMAGE FOR URBAN AREAS OF THE WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Miyazaki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We developed an algorithm to determine a combination of satellite images according to observation extent and image quality. The algorithm was for testing necessity for completing coverage of the search extent. The tests excluded unnecessary images with low quality and preserve necessary images with good quality. The search conditions of the satellite images could be extended, indicating the catalogue could be constructed with specified periods required for time series analysis. We applied the method to a database of metadata of ASTER satellite images archived in GEO Grid of National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST, Japan. As indexes of populated places with geographical coordinates, we used a database of 3372 populated place of more than 0.1 million populations retrieved from GRUMP Settlement Points, a global gazetteer of cities, which has geographical names of populated places associated with geographical coordinates and population data. From the coordinates of populated places, 3372 extents were generated with radiuses of 30 km, a half of swath of ASTER satellite images. By merging extents overlapping each other, they were assembled into 2214 extents. As a result, we acquired combinations of good quality for 1244 extents, those of low quality for 96 extents, incomplete combinations for 611 extents. Further improvements would be expected by introducing pixel-based cloud assessment and pixel value correction over seasonal variations.

  18. Improving Eastern Bluebird nest box performance using computer analysis of satellite images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Svatora

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bird conservationists have been introducing man-made boxes in an effort to increase the bluebird population. In this study we use computer analysis of satellite images to show that the performance of the boxes used by Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis in Michigan can be improved by about 48%. The analysis is based on a strongcorrelation found between the edge directionality measured in the satellite image of the area around the box, and the preferences of the birds when selecting their nesting site. The method is based on satellite images taken from Google Earth, and can be used by conservationists to select a box placement strategy that will optimize the efficacy of the boxes deployed in a given area.

  19. A fast and automatic mosaic method for high-resolution satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongshun; He, Hui; Xiao, Hongyu; Huang, Jing

    2015-12-01

    We proposed a fast and fully automatic mosaic method for high-resolution satellite images. First, the overlapped rectangle is computed according to geographical locations of the reference and mosaic images and feature points on both the reference and mosaic images are extracted by a scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm only from the overlapped region. Then, the RANSAC method is used to match feature points of both images. Finally, the two images are fused into a seamlessly panoramic image by the simple linear weighted fusion method or other method. The proposed method is implemented in C++ language based on OpenCV and GDAL, and tested by Worldview-2 multispectral images with a spatial resolution of 2 meters. Results show that the proposed method can detect feature points efficiently and mosaic images automatically.

  20. Automated Detection of Buildings from Heterogeneous VHR Satellite Images for Rapid Response to Natural Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaodan Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a novel approach for automatically detecting buildings from multiple heterogeneous and uncalibrated very high-resolution (VHR satellite images for a rapid response to natural disasters. In the proposed method, a simple and efficient visual attention method is first used to extract built-up area candidates (BACs from each multispectral (MS satellite image. After this, morphological building indices (MBIs are extracted from all the masked panchromatic (PAN and MS images with BACs to characterize the structural features of buildings. Finally, buildings are automatically detected in a hierarchical probabilistic model by fusing the MBI and masked PAN images. The experimental results show that the proposed method is comparable to supervised classification methods in terms of recall, precision and F-value.

  1. Anholt offshore wind farm winds investigated from satellite images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Volker, Patrick

    , i.e. before the wind farm was constructed. Based on these data the wind resource is estimated. Concurrent Sentinel-1 SAR data and available SCADA and lidar data, kindly provided by DONG Energy and partners, for the period January 2013 to June 2015 account for ~70 images, while ~300 images...... are available for Sentinel-1 from July 2015 to February 2017. The Sentinel-1 wind maps are investigated for wind farm wake effects. Furthermore the results on wind resources and wakes are compared to the SCADA and model results from WRF, Park, Fuga and RANS models....

  2. The effects of rectification and Global Positioning System errors on satellite image-based estimates of forest area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts

    2010-01-01

    Satellite image-based maps of forest attributes are of considerable interest and are used for multiple purposes such as international reporting by countries that have no national forest inventory and small area estimation for all countries. Construction of the maps typically entails, in part, rectifying the satellite images to a geographic coordinate system, observing...

  3. Accuracy comparison of Pléiades satellite ortho-images using GPS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    resolution satellite ortho-image when different types of ground control are used. This required the execution of two orthorectification tests where only the type of GCPs differed. The results of these tests were interesting since it highlighted the ...

  4. Review On Feasibility of Using Satellite Imaging for Risk Management of Derailment Related Turnout Component Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindar, Serdar; Kaewunruen, Sakdirat; Osman, Mohd H.

    2017-10-01

    One of the emerging significant advances in engineering, satellite imaging (SI) is becoming very common in any kind of civil engineering projects e.g., bridge, canal, dam, earthworks, power plant, water works etc., to provide an accurate, economical and expeditious means of acquiring a rapid assessment. Satellite imaging services in general utilise combinations of high quality satellite imagery, image processing and interpretation to obtain specific required information, e.g. surface movement analysis. To extract, manipulate and provide such a precise knowledge, several systems, including geographic information systems (GIS) and global positioning system (GPS), are generally used for orthorectification. Although such systems are useful for mitigating risk from projects, their productiveness is arguable and operational risk after application is open to discussion. As the applicability of any novel application to the railway industry is often measured in terms of whether or not it has gained in-depth knowledge and to what degree, as a result of errors during its operation, this novel application generates risk in ongoing projects. This study reviews what can be achievable for risk management of railway turnouts thorough satellite imaging. The methodology is established on the basis of other published articles in this area and the results of applications to understand how applicable such imagining process is on railway turnouts, and how sub-systems in turnouts can be effectively traced/operated with less risk than at present. As a result of this review study, it is aimed that the railway sector better understands risk mitigation in particular applications.

  5. Effects of satellite image spatial aggregation and resolution on estimates of forest land area

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.D. Nelson; R.E. McRoberts; G.R. Holden; M.E. Bauer

    2009-01-01

    Satellite imagery is being used increasingly in association with national forest inventories (NFIs) to produce maps and enhance estimates of forest attributes. We simulated several image spatial resolutions within sparsely and heavily forested study areas to assess resolution effects on estimates of forest land area, independent of other sensor characteristics. We...

  6. New Satellite Estimates of Mixed-Phase Cloud Properties: A Synergistic Approach for Application to Global Satellite Imager Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. L., Jr.; Spangenberg, D.; Fleeger, C.; Sun-Mack, S.; Chen, Y.; Minnis, P.

    2016-12-01

    Determining accurate cloud properties horizontally and vertically over a full range of time and space scales is currently next to impossible using data from either active or passive remote sensors or from modeling systems. Passive satellite imagers provide horizontal and temporal resolution of clouds, but little direct information on vertical structure. Active sensors provide vertical resolution but limited spatial and temporal coverage. Cloud models embedded in NWP can produce realistic clouds but often not at the right time or location. Thus, empirical techniques that integrate information from multiple observing and modeling systems are needed to more accurately characterize clouds and their impacts. Such a strategy is employed here in a new cloud water content profiling technique developed for application to satellite imager cloud retrievals based on VIS, IR and NIR radiances. Parameterizations are developed to relate imager retrievals of cloud top phase, optical depth, effective radius and temperature to ice and liquid water content profiles. The vertical structure information contained in the parameterizations is characterized climatologically from cloud model analyses, aircraft observations, ground-based remote sensing data, and from CloudSat and CALIPSO. Thus, realistic cloud-type dependent vertical structure information (including guidance on cloud phase partitioning) circumvents poor assumptions regarding vertical homogeneity that plague current passive satellite retrievals. This paper addresses mixed phase cloud conditions for clouds with glaciated tops including those associated with convection and mid-latitude storm systems. Novel outcomes of our approach include (1) simultaneous retrievals of ice and liquid water content and path, which are validated with active sensor, microwave and in-situ data, and yield improved global cloud climatologies, and (2) new estimates of super-cooled LWC, which are demonstrated in aviation safety applications and

  7. Regional thermal patterns in Portugal using satellite images (NOAA AVHRR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Lopes

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper two NOAA AVHRR diurnal images (channel 4 are used to determine the required procedures aiming at a future operational analysis system in Portugal. Preprocessing and classification operations are described. Strong correlation between air and surface temperature is verified and rather detailed air temperature patterns can be inferred.

  8. Simultaneous hierarchical segmentation and vectorization of satellite images through combined data sampling and anisotropic triangulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grazzini, Jacopo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Prasad, Lakshman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dillard, Scott [PNNL

    2010-10-21

    The automatic detection, recognition , and segmentation of object classes in remote sensed images is of crucial importance for scene interpretation and understanding. However, it is a difficult task because of the high variability of satellite data. Indeed, the observed scenes usually exhibit a high degree of complexity, where complexity refers to the large variety of pictorial representations of objects with the same semantic meaning and also to the extensive amount of available det.ails. Therefore, there is still a strong demand for robust techniques for automatic information extraction and interpretation of satellite images. In parallel, there is a growing interest in techniques that can extract vector features directly from such imagery. In this paper, we investigate the problem of automatic hierarchical segmentation and vectorization of multispectral satellite images. We propose a new algorithm composed of the following steps: (i) a non-uniform sampling scheme extracting most salient pixels in the image, (ii) an anisotropic triangulation constrained by the sampled pixels taking into account both strength and directionality of local structures present in the image, (iii) a polygonal grouping scheme merging, through techniques based on perceptual information , the obtained segments to a smaller quantity of superior vectorial objects. Besides its computational efficiency, this approach provides a meaningful polygonal representation for subsequent image analysis and/or interpretation.

  9. An Improved Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Cyclic Rotations and Multiple Chaotic Sequences: Application to Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MADANI Mohammed

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new satellite image encryption algorithm based on the combination of multiple chaotic systems and a random cyclic rotation technique is proposed. Our contribution consists in implementing three different chaotic maps (logistic, sine, and standard combined to improve the security of satellite images. Besides enhancing the encryption, the proposed algorithm also focuses on advanced efficiency of the ciphered images. Compared with classical encryption schemes based on multiple chaotic maps and the Rubik's cube rotation, our approach has not only the same merits of chaos systems like high sensitivity to initial values, unpredictability, and pseudo-randomness, but also other advantages like a higher number of permutations, better performances in Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR and a Maximum Deviation (MD.

  10. Automatic Detection of Clouds and Shadows Using High Resolution Satellite Image Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    Detecting clouds and their shadows is one of the primaries steps to perform when processing satellite images because they may alter the quality of some products such as large-area orthomosaics. The main goal of this paper is to present the automatic method developed at IGN-France for detecting clouds and shadows in a sequence of satellite images. In our work, surface reflectance orthoimages are used. They were processed from initial satellite images using a dedicated software. The cloud detection step consists of a region-growing algorithm. Seeds are firstly extracted. For that purpose and for each input ortho-image to process, we select the other ortho-images of the sequence that intersect it. The pixels of the input ortho-image are secondly labelled seeds if the difference of reflectance (in the blue channel) with overlapping ortho-images is bigger than a given threshold. Clouds are eventually delineated using a region-growing method based on a radiometric and homogeneity criterion. Regarding the shadow detection, our method is based on the idea that a shadow pixel is darker when comparing to the other images of the time series. The detection is basically composed of three steps. Firstly, we compute a synthetic ortho-image covering the whole study area. Its pixels have a value corresponding to the median value of all input reflectance ortho-images intersecting at that pixel location. Secondly, for each input ortho-image, a pixel is labelled shadows if the difference of reflectance (in the NIR channel) with the synthetic ortho-image is below a given threshold. Eventually, an optional region-growing step may be used to refine the results. Note that pixels labelled clouds during the cloud detection are not used for computing the median value in the first step; additionally, the NIR input data channel is used to perform the shadow detection, because it appeared to better discriminate shadow pixels. The method was tested on times series of Landsat 8 and Pl

  11. AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF CLOUDS AND SHADOWS USING HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGE TIME SERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Champion

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Detecting clouds and their shadows is one of the primaries steps to perform when processing satellite images because they may alter the quality of some products such as large-area orthomosaics. The main goal of this paper is to present the automatic method developed at IGN-France for detecting clouds and shadows in a sequence of satellite images. In our work, surface reflectance orthoimages are used. They were processed from initial satellite images using a dedicated software. The cloud detection step consists of a region-growing algorithm. Seeds are firstly extracted. For that purpose and for each input ortho-image to process, we select the other ortho-images of the sequence that intersect it. The pixels of the input ortho-image are secondly labelled seeds if the difference of reflectance (in the blue channel with overlapping ortho-images is bigger than a given threshold. Clouds are eventually delineated using a region-growing method based on a radiometric and homogeneity criterion. Regarding the shadow detection, our method is based on the idea that a shadow pixel is darker when comparing to the other images of the time series. The detection is basically composed of three steps. Firstly, we compute a synthetic ortho-image covering the whole study area. Its pixels have a value corresponding to the median value of all input reflectance ortho-images intersecting at that pixel location. Secondly, for each input ortho-image, a pixel is labelled shadows if the difference of reflectance (in the NIR channel with the synthetic ortho-image is below a given threshold. Eventually, an optional region-growing step may be used to refine the results. Note that pixels labelled clouds during the cloud detection are not used for computing the median value in the first step; additionally, the NIR input data channel is used to perform the shadow detection, because it appeared to better discriminate shadow pixels. The method was tested on times series of Landsat 8

  12. Study of frontal weather system using satellite images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, J.; Ershad, S.

    2005-01-01

    Pakistan which is situated in the south Asian sub continent, has a peculiar climatological position. It is one of the few countries in the world, which undergo a complete transformation from summer to winter season. However this project only pertains to the winter weather conditions in Pakistan. During winter, the land masses cool off rapidly as compared to the seas and so high pressure cells are developed over land causing, weak anti-cyclonic circulation over the country. In between these cells of anti-cyclonic flow of wind, there are zones of convergence, which offer a good breeding place for low-pressure waves. The low-pressure waves are similar to the extra tropical depressions and approach and approach Pakistan from west. From the same reason these are locally called the western Disturbances. Consequently the focus of study is on the extra tropical cyclones which originate along the boundary between polar continental and tropical or polar maritime and tropical maritime air masses. The extra tropical cyclones (also called western disturbances and westerly waves.) which are embedded in westerly flow of air move across north of Pakistan are usually originate from the Mediterranean sea. These systems consist of two types of fronts i.e. warm and cold fronts. In fact these systems can be traced right from the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. The location of frontal weather is generally associated with the surrounding synoptic situation, geographical position of the westerly wave, location of subtropical jet stream, steering wind level etc. although the satellite imageries are quite helpful for forecasting the frontal weather over our region however the weather charts (both surface and upper air ) and jet maps are also very helpful for this purpose

  13. Shadow Detection from Very High Resoluton Satellite Image Using Grabcut Segmentation and Ratio-Band Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhim, N. M. S. M.; Mourshed, M.; Bray, M. T.

    2015-03-01

    Very-High-Resolution (VHR) satellite imagery is a powerful source of data for detecting and extracting information about urban constructions. Shadow in the VHR satellite imageries provides vital information on urban construction forms, illumination direction, and the spatial distribution of the objects that can help to further understanding of the built environment. However, to extract shadows, the automated detection of shadows from images must be accurate. This paper reviews current automatic approaches that have been used for shadow detection from VHR satellite images and comprises two main parts. In the first part, shadow concepts are presented in terms of shadow appearance in the VHR satellite imageries, current shadow detection methods, and the usefulness of shadow detection in urban environments. In the second part, we adopted two approaches which are considered current state-of-the-art shadow detection, and segmentation algorithms using WorldView-3 and Quickbird images. In the first approach, the ratios between the NIR and visible bands were computed on a pixel-by-pixel basis, which allows for disambiguation between shadows and dark objects. To obtain an accurate shadow candidate map, we further refine the shadow map after applying the ratio algorithm on the Quickbird image. The second selected approach is the GrabCut segmentation approach for examining its performance in detecting the shadow regions of urban objects using the true colour image from WorldView-3. Further refinement was applied to attain a segmented shadow map. Although the detection of shadow regions is a very difficult task when they are derived from a VHR satellite image that comprises a visible spectrum range (RGB true colour), the results demonstrate that the detection of shadow regions in the WorldView-3 image is a reasonable separation from other objects by applying the GrabCut algorithm. In addition, the derived shadow map from the Quickbird image indicates significant performance of

  14. SHADOW DETECTION FROM VERY HIGH RESOLUTON SATELLITE IMAGE USING GRABCUT SEGMENTATION AND RATIO-BAND ALGORITHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. S. M. Kadhim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Very-High-Resolution (VHR satellite imagery is a powerful source of data for detecting and extracting information about urban constructions. Shadow in the VHR satellite imageries provides vital information on urban construction forms, illumination direction, and the spatial distribution of the objects that can help to further understanding of the built environment. However, to extract shadows, the automated detection of shadows from images must be accurate. This paper reviews current automatic approaches that have been used for shadow detection from VHR satellite images and comprises two main parts. In the first part, shadow concepts are presented in terms of shadow appearance in the VHR satellite imageries, current shadow detection methods, and the usefulness of shadow detection in urban environments. In the second part, we adopted two approaches which are considered current state-of-the-art shadow detection, and segmentation algorithms using WorldView-3 and Quickbird images. In the first approach, the ratios between the NIR and visible bands were computed on a pixel-by-pixel basis, which allows for disambiguation between shadows and dark objects. To obtain an accurate shadow candidate map, we further refine the shadow map after applying the ratio algorithm on the Quickbird image. The second selected approach is the GrabCut segmentation approach for examining its performance in detecting the shadow regions of urban objects using the true colour image from WorldView-3. Further refinement was applied to attain a segmented shadow map. Although the detection of shadow regions is a very difficult task when they are derived from a VHR satellite image that comprises a visible spectrum range (RGB true colour, the results demonstrate that the detection of shadow regions in the WorldView-3 image is a reasonable separation from other objects by applying the GrabCut algorithm. In addition, the derived shadow map from the Quickbird image indicates

  15. Image Fusion-Based Land Cover Change Detection Using Multi-Temporal High-Resolution Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Change detection is usually treated as a problem of explicitly detecting land cover transitions in satellite images obtained at different times, and helps with emergency response and government management. This study presents an unsupervised change detection method based on the image fusion of multi-temporal images. The main objective of this study is to improve the accuracy of unsupervised change detection from high-resolution multi-temporal images. Our method effectively reduces change detection errors, since spatial displacement and spectral differences between multi-temporal images are evaluated. To this end, a total of four cross-fused images are generated with multi-temporal images, and the iteratively reweighted multivariate alteration detection (IR-MAD method—a measure for the spectral distortion of change information—is applied to the fused images. In this experiment, the land cover change maps were extracted using multi-temporal IKONOS-2, WorldView-3, and GF-1 satellite images. The effectiveness of the proposed method compared with other unsupervised change detection methods is demonstrated through experimentation. The proposed method achieved an overall accuracy of 80.51% and 97.87% for cases 1 and 2, respectively. Moreover, the proposed method performed better when differentiating the water area from the vegetation area compared to the existing change detection methods. Although the water area beneath moderate and sparse vegetation canopy was captured, vegetation cover and paved regions of the water body were the main sources of omission error, and commission errors occurred primarily in pixels of mixed land use and along the water body edge. Nevertheless, the proposed method, in conjunction with high-resolution satellite imagery, offers a robust and flexible approach to land cover change mapping that requires no ancillary data for rapid implementation.

  16. V-SIPAL - A VIRTUAL LABORATORY FOR SATELLITE IMAGE PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Buddhiraju

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a virtual laboratory for the Satellite Image Processing and Analysis (v-SIPAL being developed at the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay is described. v-SIPAL comprises a set of experiments that are normally carried out by students learning digital processing and analysis of satellite images using commercial software. Currently, the experiments that are available on the server include Image Viewer, Image Contrast Enhancement, Image Smoothing, Edge Enhancement, Principal Component Transform, Texture Analysis by Co-occurrence Matrix method, Image Indices, Color Coordinate Transforms, Fourier Analysis, Mathematical Morphology, Unsupervised Image Classification, Supervised Image Classification and Accuracy Assessment. The virtual laboratory includes a theory module for each option of every experiment, a description of the procedure to perform each experiment, the menu to choose and perform the experiment, a module on interpretation of results when performed with a given image and pre-specified options, bibliography, links to useful internet resources and user-feedback. The user can upload his/her own images for performing the experiments and can also reuse outputs of one experiment in another experiment where applicable. Some of the other experiments currently under development include georeferencing of images, data fusion, feature evaluation by divergence andJ-M distance, image compression, wavelet image analysis and change detection. Additions to the theory module include self-assessment quizzes, audio-video clips on selected concepts, and a discussion of elements of visual image interpretation. V-SIPAL is at the satge of internal evaluation within IIT Bombay and will soon be open to selected educational institutions in India for evaluation.

  17. An Investigation on Water Quality of Darlik Dam Drinking Water using Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Alparslan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Darlik Dam supplies 15% of the water demand of Istanbul Metropolitan City of Turkey. Water quality (WQ in the Darlik Dam was investigated from Landsat 5 TM satellite images of the years 2004, 2005, and 2006 in order to determine land use/land cover changes in the watershed of the dam that may deteriorate its WQ. The images were geometrically and atmospherically corrected for WQ analysis. Next, an investigation was made by multiple regression analysis between the unitless planetary reflectance values of the first four bands of the June 2005 Landsat TM image of the dam and WQ parameters, such as chlorophyll-a, total dissolved matter, turbidity, total phosphorous, and total nitrogen, measured at satellite image acquisition time at seven stations in the dam. Finally, WQ in the dam was studied from satellite images of the years 2004, 2005, and 2006 by pattern recognition techniques in order to determine possible water pollution in the dam. This study was compared to a previous study done by the authors in the Küçükçekmece water reservoir, also in Istanbul City.

  18. Road Network Extraction from VHR Satellite Images Using Context Aware Object Feature Integration and Tensor Voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Maboudi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Road networks are very important features in geospatial databases. Even though high-resolution optical satellite images have already been acquired for more than a decade, tools for automated extraction of road networks from these images are still rare. One consequence of this is the need for manual interaction which, in turn, is time and cost intensive. In this paper, a multi-stage approach is proposed which integrates structural, spectral, textural, as well as contextual information of objects to extract road networks from very high resolution satellite images. Highlights of the approach are a novel linearity index employed for the discrimination of elongated road segments from other objects and customized tensor voting which is utilized to fill missing parts of the network. Experiments are carried out with different datasets. Comparison of the achieved results with the results of seven state-of-the-art methods demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  19. Improving Sediment Transport Prediction by Assimilating Satellite Images in a Tidal Bay Model of Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerical models being one of the major tools for sediment dynamic studies in complex coastal waters are now benefitting from remote sensing images that are easily available for model inputs. The present study explored various methods of integrating remote sensing ocean color data into a numerical model to improve sediment transport prediction in a tide-dominated bay in Hong Kong, Deep Bay. Two sea surface sediment datasets delineated from satellite images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectra-radiometer (MODIS were assimilated into a coastal ocean model of the bay for one tidal cycle. It was found that remote sensing sediment information enhanced the sediment transport model ability by validating the model results with in situ measurements. Model results showed that root mean square errors of forecast sediment both at the surface layer and the vertical layers from the model with satellite sediment assimilation are reduced by at least 36% over the model without assimilation.

  20. Blanket for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Yoshihiro; Uda, Tatsuhiko; Maki, Koichi.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention provides a blanket of a thermonuclear device which produces tritium fuels consumed in plasmas while converting neutrons generated in the plasmas into heat energy. That is, zirconium is coated to at least one of neutron breeder pebbles and breeder pebbles, to suppress reaction between them by being in direct contact with each other at a high temperature. Further, fins are attached to a cooling pipe at a pitch smaller than the diameter of both of the pebbles, to prevent direct contact at whole surface of the pebbles and the cooling pipe, which would lower a temperature excessively. The length of the fin is controlled to control the thickness of a helium gas gap. With such constitution, direct contact of neutron breeder pebbles and the breeder pebble which are to be filled and mixed, and tend to react at a high temperature, can be prevented. The temperature of the breeding blanket is reliably prevented from lowering below a tritium emitting temperature. The structure is simplified and the production is facilitated. (I.S.)

  1. Research on active imaging information transmission technology of satellite borne quantum remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Siwen; Zhen, Ming; Yang, Song; Lin, Xuling; Wu, Zhiqiang

    2017-08-01

    According to the development and application needs of Remote Sensing Science and technology, Prof. Siwen Bi proposed quantum remote sensing. Firstly, the paper gives a brief introduction of the background of quantum remote sensing, the research status and related researches at home and abroad on the theory, information mechanism and imaging experiments of quantum remote sensing and the production of principle prototype.Then, the quantization of pure remote sensing radiation field, the state function and squeezing effect of quantum remote sensing radiation field are emphasized. It also describes the squeezing optical operator of quantum light field in active imaging information transmission experiment and imaging experiments, achieving 2-3 times higher resolution than that of coherent light detection imaging and completing the production of quantum remote sensing imaging prototype. The application of quantum remote sensing technology can significantly improve both the signal-to-noise ratio of information transmission imaging and the spatial resolution of quantum remote sensing .On the above basis, Prof.Bi proposed the technical solution of active imaging information transmission technology of satellite borne quantum remote sensing, launched researches on its system composition and operation principle and on quantum noiseless amplifying devices, providing solutions and technical basis for implementing active imaging information technology of satellite borne Quantum Remote Sensing.

  2. Automatic Registration Method for Fusion of ZY-1-02C Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Automatic image registration (AIR has been widely studied in the fields of medical imaging, computer vision, and remote sensing. In various cases, such as image fusion, high registration accuracy should be achieved to meet application requirements. For satellite images, the large image size and unstable positioning accuracy resulting from the limited manufacturing technology of charge-coupled device, focal plane distortion, and unrecorded spacecraft jitter lead to difficulty in obtaining agreeable corresponding points for registration using only area-based matching or feature-based matching. In this situation, a coarse-to-fine matching strategy integrating two types of algorithms is proven feasible and effective. In this paper, an AIR method for application to the fusion of ZY-1-02C satellite imagery is proposed. First, the images are geometrically corrected. Coarse matching, based on scale invariant feature transform, is performed for the subsampled corrected images, and a rough global estimation is made with the matching results. Harris feature points are then extracted, and the coordinates of the corresponding points are calculated according to the global estimation results. Precise matching is conducted, based on normalized cross correlation and least squares matching. As complex image distortion cannot be precisely estimated, a local estimation using the structure of triangulated irregular network is applied to eliminate the false matches. Finally, image resampling is conducted, based on local affine transformation, to achieve high-precision registration. Experiments with ZY-1-02C datasets demonstrate that the accuracy of the proposed method meets the requirements of fusion application, and its efficiency is also suitable for the commercial operation of the automatic satellite data process system.

  3. Sun glitter imaging analysis of submarine sand waves in HJ-1A/B satellite CCD images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaguo; He, Xiekai; Yang, Kang; Fu, Bin; Guan, Weibing

    2014-11-01

    Submarine sand waves are a widespread bed-form in tidal environment. Submarine sand waves induce current convergence and divergence that affect sea surface roughness thus become visible in sun glitter images. These sun glitter images have been employed for mapping sand wave topography. However, there are lots of effect factors in sun glitter imaging of the submarine sand waves, such as the imaging geometry and dynamic environment condition. In this paper, several sun glitter images from HJ-1A/B in the Taiwan Banks are selected. These satellite sun glitter images are used to discuss sun glitter imaging characteristics in different sensor parameters and dynamic environment condition. To interpret the imaging characteristics, calculating the sun glitter radiance and analyzing its spatial characteristics of the sand wave in different images is the best way. In this study, a simulated model based on sun glitter radiation transmission is adopted to certify the imaging analysis in further. Some results are drawn based on the study. Firstly, the sun glitter radiation is mainly determined by sensor view angle. Second, the current is another key factor for the sun glitter. The opposite current direction will cause exchanging of bright stripes and dark stripes. Third, brightness reversal would happen at the critical angle. Therefore, when using sun glitter image to obtain depth inversion, one is advised to take advantage of image properties of sand waves and to pay attention to key dynamic environment condition and brightness reversal.

  4. Image Quality Assessment of High-Resolution Satellite Images with Mtf-Based Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z.; Luo, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Guo, F.; He, L.

    2018-04-01

    A Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)-based fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method was proposed in this paper for the purpose of evaluating high-resolution satellite image quality. To establish the factor set, two MTF features and seven radiant features were extracted from the knife-edge region of image patch, which included Nyquist, MTF0.5, entropy, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), average difference, edge intensity, average gradient, contrast and ground spatial distance (GSD). After analyzing the statistical distribution of above features, a fuzzy evaluation threshold table and fuzzy evaluation membership functions was established. The experiments for comprehensive quality assessment of different natural and artificial objects was done with GF2 image patches. The results showed that the calibration field image has the highest quality scores. The water image has closest image quality to the calibration field, quality of building image is a little poor than water image, but much higher than farmland image. In order to test the influence of different features on quality evaluation, the experiment with different weights were tested on GF2 and SPOT7 images. The results showed that different weights correspond different evaluating effectiveness. In the case of setting up the weights of edge features and GSD, the image quality of GF2 is better than SPOT7. However, when setting MTF and PSNR as main factor, the image quality of SPOT7 is better than GF2.

  5. Detecting Weather Radar Clutter by Information Fusion With Satellite Images and Numerical Weather Prediction Model Output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøvith, Thomas; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    A method for detecting clutter in weather radar images by information fusion is presented. Radar data, satellite images, and output from a numerical weather prediction model are combined and the radar echoes are classified using supervised classification. The presented method uses indirect...... information on precipitation in the atmosphere from Meteosat-8 multispectral images and near-surface temperature estimates from the DMI-HIRLAM-S05 numerical weather prediction model. Alternatively, an operational nowcasting product called 'Precipitating Clouds' based on Meteosat-8 input is used. A scale...

  6. Development and Analysis of Image Registration Program for the Communication, Ocean, Meteorological Satellite (COMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Un-Seob Lee

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We developed a software for simulations and analyses of the Image Navigation and Registration (INR system, and compares the characteristics of Image Motion Compensation (IMC algorithms for the INR system. According to the orbit errors and attitude errors, the capabilities of the image distortions are analyzed. The distortions of images can be compensated by GOES IMC algorithm and Modified IMC (MIMC algorithm. The capabilities of each IMC algorithm are confirmed based on compensated images. The MIMC yields better results than GOES IMC although both the algorithms well compensate distorted images. The results of this research can be used as valuable asset to design of INR system for the Communication, Ocean, Meteorological Satellite (COMS.

  7. Spatial resolution enhancement of satellite image data using fusion approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestiana, H.; Sukristiyanti

    2018-02-01

    Object identification using remote sensing data has a problem when the spatial resolution is not in accordance with the object. The fusion approach is one of methods to solve the problem, to improve the object recognition and to increase the objects information by combining data from multiple sensors. The application of fusion image can be used to estimate the environmental component that is needed to monitor in multiple views, such as evapotranspiration estimation, 3D ground-based characterisation, smart city application, urban environments, terrestrial mapping, and water vegetation. Based on fusion application method, the visible object in land area has been easily recognized using the method. The variety of object information in land area has increased the variation of environmental component estimation. The difficulties in recognizing the invisible object like Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD), especially in tropical area, might be decreased by the fusion method. The less variation of the object in the sea surface temperature is a challenge to be solved.

  8. Backthinned TDI CCD image sensor design and performance for the Pleiades high resolution Earth observation satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materne, A.; Bardoux, A.; Geoffray, H.; Tournier, T.; Kubik, P.; Morris, D.; Wallace, I.; Renard, C.

    2017-11-01

    The PLEIADES-HR Earth observing satellites, under CNES development, combine a 0.7m resolution panchromatic channel, and a multispectral channel allowing a 2.8 m resolution, in 4 spectral bands. The 2 satellites will be placed on a sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 695 km. The camera operates in push broom mode, providing images across a 20 km swath. This paper focuses on the specifications, design and performance of the TDI detectors developed by e2v technologies under CNES contract for the panchromatic channel. Design drivers, derived from the mission and satellite requirements, architecture of the sensor and measurement results for key performances of the first prototypes are presented.

  9. NEAR REAL-TIME AUTOMATIC MARINE VESSEL DETECTION ON OPTICAL SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Máttyus

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Vessel monitoring and surveillance is important for maritime safety and security, environment protection and border control. Ship monitoring systems based on Synthetic-aperture Radar (SAR satellite images are operational. On SAR images the ships made of metal with sharp edges appear as bright dots and edges, therefore they can be well distinguished from the water. Since the radar is independent from the sun light and can acquire images also by cloudy weather and rain, it provides a reliable service. Vessel detection from spaceborne optical images (VDSOI can extend the SAR based systems by providing more frequent revisit times and overcoming some drawbacks of the SAR images (e.g. lower spatial resolution, difficult human interpretation. Optical satellite images (OSI can have a higher spatial resolution thus enabling the detection of smaller vessels and enhancing the vessel type classification. The human interpretation of an optical image is also easier than as of SAR image. In this paper I present a rapid automatic vessel detection method which uses pattern recognition methods, originally developed in the computer vision field. In the first step I train a binary classifier from image samples of vessels and background. The classifier uses simple features which can be calculated very fast. For the detection the classifier is slided along the image in various directions and scales. The detector has a cascade structure which rejects most of the background in the early stages which leads to faster execution. The detections are grouped together to avoid multiple detections. Finally the position, size(i.e. length and width and heading of the vessels is extracted from the contours of the vessel. The presented method is parallelized, thus it runs fast (in minutes for 16000 × 16000 pixels image on a multicore computer, enabling near real-time applications, e.g. one hour from image acquisition to end user.

  10. Near Real-Time Automatic Marine Vessel Detection on Optical Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máttyus, G.

    2013-05-01

    Vessel monitoring and surveillance is important for maritime safety and security, environment protection and border control. Ship monitoring systems based on Synthetic-aperture Radar (SAR) satellite images are operational. On SAR images the ships made of metal with sharp edges appear as bright dots and edges, therefore they can be well distinguished from the water. Since the radar is independent from the sun light and can acquire images also by cloudy weather and rain, it provides a reliable service. Vessel detection from spaceborne optical images (VDSOI) can extend the SAR based systems by providing more frequent revisit times and overcoming some drawbacks of the SAR images (e.g. lower spatial resolution, difficult human interpretation). Optical satellite images (OSI) can have a higher spatial resolution thus enabling the detection of smaller vessels and enhancing the vessel type classification. The human interpretation of an optical image is also easier than as of SAR image. In this paper I present a rapid automatic vessel detection method which uses pattern recognition methods, originally developed in the computer vision field. In the first step I train a binary classifier from image samples of vessels and background. The classifier uses simple features which can be calculated very fast. For the detection the classifier is slided along the image in various directions and scales. The detector has a cascade structure which rejects most of the background in the early stages which leads to faster execution. The detections are grouped together to avoid multiple detections. Finally the position, size(i.e. length and width) and heading of the vessels is extracted from the contours of the vessel. The presented method is parallelized, thus it runs fast (in minutes for 16000 × 16000 pixels image) on a multicore computer, enabling near real-time applications, e.g. one hour from image acquisition to end user.

  11. FFT-enhanced IHS transform method for fusing high-resolution satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Y.; Ehlers, M.; Usery, E.L.; Madden, M.

    2007-01-01

    Existing image fusion techniques such as the intensity-hue-saturation (IHS) transform and principal components analysis (PCA) methods may not be optimal for fusing the new generation commercial high-resolution satellite images such as Ikonos and QuickBird. One problem is color distortion in the fused image, which causes visual changes as well as spectral differences between the original and fused images. In this paper, a fast Fourier transform (FFT)-enhanced IHS method is developed for fusing new generation high-resolution satellite images. This method combines a standard IHS transform with FFT filtering of both the panchromatic image and the intensity component of the original multispectral image. Ikonos and QuickBird data are used to assess the FFT-enhanced IHS transform method. Experimental results indicate that the FFT-enhanced IHS transform method may improve upon the standard IHS transform and the PCA methods in preserving spectral and spatial information. ?? 2006 International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS).

  12. Determination of the Impact of Urbanization on Agricultural Lands using Multi-temporal Satellite Sensor Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, S.; Alganci, U.; Sertel, E.; Ustundag, B.

    2015-12-01

    Throughout the history, agricultural activities have been performed close to urban areas. Main reason behind this phenomenon is the need of fast marketing of the agricultural production to urban residents and financial provision. Thus, using the areas nearby cities for agricultural activities brings out advantage of easy transportation of productions and fast marketing. For decades, heavy migration to cities has directly and negatively affected natural grasslands, forests and agricultural lands. This pressure has caused agricultural lands to be changed into urban areas. Dense urbanization causes increase in impervious surfaces, heat islands and many other problems in addition to destruction of agricultural lands. Considering the negative impacts of urbanization on agricultural lands and natural resources, a periodic monitoring of these changes becomes indisputably important. At this point, satellite images are known to be good data sources for land cover / use change monitoring with their fast data acquisition, large area coverages and temporal resolution properties. Classification of the satellite images provides thematic the land cover / use maps of the earth surface and changes can be determined with GIS based analysis multi-temporal maps. In this study, effects of heavy urbanization over agricultural lands in Istanbul, metropolitan city of Turkey, were investigated with use of multi-temporal Landsat TM satellite images acquired between 1984 and 2011. Images were geometrically registered to each other and classified using supervised maximum likelihood classification algorithm. Resulting thematic maps were exported to GIS environment and destructed agricultural lands by urbanization were determined using spatial analysis.

  13. a Semi-Empirical Topographic Correction Model for Multi-Source Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Sa; Tian, Xinpeng; Liu, Qiang; Wen, Jianguang; Ma, Yushuang; Song, Zhenwei

    2018-04-01

    Topographic correction of surface reflectance in rugged terrain areas is the prerequisite for the quantitative application of remote sensing in mountainous areas. Physics-based radiative transfer model can be applied to correct the topographic effect and accurately retrieve the reflectance of the slope surface from high quality satellite image such as Landsat8 OLI. However, as more and more images data available from various of sensors, some times we can not get the accurate sensor calibration parameters and atmosphere conditions which are needed in the physics-based topographic correction model. This paper proposed a semi-empirical atmosphere and topographic corrction model for muti-source satellite images without accurate calibration parameters.Based on this model we can get the topographic corrected surface reflectance from DN data, and we tested and verified this model with image data from Chinese satellite HJ and GF. The result shows that the correlation factor was reduced almost 85 % for near infrared bands and the classification overall accuracy of classification increased 14 % after correction for HJ. The reflectance difference of slope face the sun and face away the sun have reduced after correction.

  14. Foodstuff Survey Around a Major Nuclear Facility with Test of Satellite Image Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fledderman, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    'A foodstuff survey was performed around the Savannah River Site, Aiken SC. It included a census of buildings and fields within 5 km of the boundary and determination of the locations and amounts of crops grown within 80 km of SRS center. Recent information for this region was collected on the amounts of meat, poultry, milk, and eggs produced, of deer hunted, and of sports fish caught. The locations and areas devoted to growing each crop were determined in two ways: by the usual process of assuming uniform crop distribution in each county on the basis of agricultural statistics reported by state agencies, and by analysis of two LANDSAT TM images obtained in May and September. For use with environmental radionuclide transfer and radiation dose calculation codes, locations within 80 km were defined for 64 sections by 16 sectors centered on the Site and by 16-km distance intervals from 16 km to 80 km. Most locally-raised foodstuff was distributed regionally and not retained locally for consumption. For four food crops, the amounts per section based on county agricultural statistics prorated by area were compared with the amounts per section based on satellite image analysis. The median ratios of the former to the latter were 0.6 - 0.7, suggesting that the two approaches are comparable but that satellite image analysis gave consistently higher amounts. Use of satellite image analysis is recommended on the basis of these findings to obtain site-specific, as compared to area-averaged, information on crop locations in conjunction with radionuclide pathway modelling. Some improvements in technique are suggested for satellite image application to characterize additional crops.'

  15. Spatial scales of pollution from variable resolution satellite imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Alexandra A; Kostinski, Alex; Lyapustin, Alexei; Koutrakis, Petros

    2013-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides daily global coverage, but the 10 km resolution of its aerosol optical depth (AOD) product is not adequate for studying spatial variability of aerosols in urban areas. Recently, a new Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm was developed for MODIS which provides AOD at 1 km resolution. Using MAIAC data, the relationship between MAIAC AOD and PM(2.5) as measured by the EPA ground monitoring stations was investigated at varying spatial scales. Our analysis suggested that the correlation between PM(2.5) and AOD decreased significantly as AOD resolution was degraded. This is so despite the intrinsic mismatch between PM(2.5) ground level measurements and AOD vertically integrated measurements. Furthermore, the fine resolution results indicated spatial variability in particle concentration at a sub-10 km scale. Finally, this spatial variability of AOD within the urban domain was shown to depend on PM(2.5) levels and wind speed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Spatial scales of pollution from variable resolution satellite imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, Alexandra A.; Kostinski, Alex; Lyapustin, Alexei; Koutrakis, Petros

    2013-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides daily global coverage, but the 10 km resolution of its aerosol optical depth (AOD) product is not adequate for studying spatial variability of aerosols in urban areas. Recently, a new Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm was developed for MODIS which provides AOD at 1 km resolution. Using MAIAC data, the relationship between MAIAC AOD and PM 2.5 as measured by the EPA ground monitoring stations was investigated at varying spatial scales. Our analysis suggested that the correlation between PM 2.5 and AOD decreased significantly as AOD resolution was degraded. This is so despite the intrinsic mismatch between PM 2.5 ground level measurements and AOD vertically integrated measurements. Furthermore, the fine resolution results indicated spatial variability in particle concentration at a sub-10 km scale. Finally, this spatial variability of AOD within the urban domain was shown to depend on PM 2.5 levels and wind speed. - Highlights: ► The correlation between PM 2.5 and AOD decreases as AOD resolution is degraded. ► High resolution MAIAC AOD 1 km retrieval can be used to investigate within-city PM 2.5 variability. ► Low pollution days exhibit higher spatial variability of AOD and PM 2.5 then moderate pollution days. ► AOD spatial variability within urban area is higher during the lower wind speed conditions. - The correlation between PM 2.5 and AOD decreases as AOD resolution is degraded. The new high-resolution MAIAC AOD retrieval has the potential to capture PM 2.5 variability at the intra-urban scale.

  17. Automatic Centerline Extraction of Coverd Roads by Surrounding Objects from High Resolution Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamangir, H.; Momeni, M.; Satari, M.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents an automatic method to extract road centerline networks from high and very high resolution satellite images. The present paper addresses the automated extraction roads covered with multiple natural and artificial objects such as trees, vehicles and either shadows of buildings or trees. In order to have a precise road extraction, this method implements three stages including: classification of images based on maximum likelihood algorithm to categorize images into interested classes, modification process on classified images by connected component and morphological operators to extract pixels of desired objects by removing undesirable pixels of each class, and finally line extraction based on RANSAC algorithm. In order to evaluate performance of the proposed method, the generated results are compared with ground truth road map as a reference. The evaluation performance of the proposed method using representative test images show completeness values ranging between 77% and 93%.

  18. Lineament systems indentification in Banten site using Spot 5 satellite image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuliastuti; Heni Susiati; Yunus Daud; A-Sarwiyana Sastratenaya

    2013-01-01

    Lineament systems identification in Banten site using SPOT 5 satellite image has been performed. Based on regional site survey in Java Island, Banten is one of the potential candidate sites. The objective of this study was to determine direction and chronology of regional lineament morphology which was consider as fault or faulting in Banten site. The methodology used this study covered satellite image cropping, band selection, edge enhancement filtering, lineament extraction and lineament analysis. Result of the study showed that there were three dominant lineament groups, namely N-S, NW-SE, and E-W. Based on the forming chronology of the lineament, N-S group was the oldest one, followed by E-W group and NW-SE as the youngest group. These lineament groups have been confirmed as a manifestation of fault system structure. (author)

  19. A Low-Complexity UEP Methodology Demonstrated on a Turbo-Encoded Wavelet Image Satellite Downlink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salemi Eric

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Realizing high-quality digital image transmission via a satellite link, while optimizing resource distribution and minimizing battery consumption, is a challenging task. This paper describes a methodology to optimize a turbo-encoded wavelet-based satellite downlink progressive image transmission system with unequal error protection (UEP techniques. To achieve that goal, we instantiate a generic UEP methodology onto the system, and demonstrate that the proposed solution has little impact on the average performance, while greatly reducing the run-time complexity. Based on a simple design-time distortion model and a low-complexity run-time algorithm, the provided solution can dynamically tune the system's configuration to any bitrate constraint or channel condition. The resulting system outperforms in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR, a state-of-the-art, fine-tuned equal error protection (EEP solution by as much as 2 dB.

  20. A Low-Complexity UEP Methodology Demonstrated on a Turbo-Encoded Wavelet Image Satellite Downlink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Salemi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Realizing high-quality digital image transmission via a satellite link, while optimizing resource distribution and minimizing battery consumption, is a challenging task. This paper describes a methodology to optimize a turbo-encoded wavelet-based satellite downlink progressive image transmission system with unequal error protection (UEP techniques. To achieve that goal, we instantiate a generic UEP methodology onto the system, and demonstrate that the proposed solution has little impact on the average performance, while greatly reducing the run-time complexity. Based on a simple design-time distortion model and a low-complexity run-time algorithm, the provided solution can dynamically tune the system's configuration to any bitrate constraint or channel condition. The resulting system outperforms in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR, a state-of-the-art, fine-tuned equal error protection (EEP solution by as much as 2 dB.

  1. Optimizing the Attitude Control of Small Satellite Constellations for Rapid Response Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, S.; Li, A.

    2016-12-01

    Distributed Space Missions (DSMs) such as formation flight and constellations, are being recognized as important solutions to increase measurement samples over space and time. Given the increasingly accurate attitude control systems emerging in the commercial market, small spacecraft now have the ability to slew and point within few minutes of notice. In spite of hardware development in CubeSats at the payload (e.g. NASA InVEST) and subsystems (e.g. Blue Canyon Technologies), software development for tradespace analysis in constellation design (e.g. Goddard's TAT-C), planning and scheduling development in single spacecraft (e.g. GEO-CAPE) and aerial flight path optimizations for UAVs (e.g. NASA Sensor Web), there is a gap in open-source, open-access software tools for planning and scheduling distributed satellite operations in terms of pointing and observing targets. This paper will demonstrate results from a tool being developed for scheduling pointing operations of narrow field-of-view (FOV) sensors over mission lifetime to maximize metrics such as global coverage and revisit statistics. Past research has shown the need for at least fourteen satellites to cover the Earth globally everyday using a LandSat-like sensor. Increasing the FOV three times reduces the need to four satellites, however adds image distortion and BRDF complexities to the observed reflectance. If narrow FOV sensors on a small satellite constellation were commanded using robust algorithms to slew their sensor dynamically, they would be able to coordinately cover the global landmass much faster without compensating for spatial resolution or BRDF effects. Our algorithm to optimize constellation satellite pointing is based on a dynamic programming approach under the constraints of orbital mechanics and existing attitude control systems for small satellites. As a case study for our algorithm, we minimize the time required to cover the 17000 Landsat images with maximum signal to noise ratio fall

  2. Cyclone track forecasting based on satellite images using artificial neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kovordanyi, Rita; Roy, Chandan

    2009-01-01

    Many places around the world are exposed to tropical cyclones and associated storm surges. In spite of massive efforts, a great number of people die each year as a result of cyclone events. To mitigate this damage, improved forecasting techniques must be developed. The technique presented here uses artificial neural networks to interpret NOAA-AVHRR satellite images. A multi-layer neural network, resembling the human visual system, was trained to forecast the movement of cyclones based on sate...

  3. Use of high resolution satellite images for monitoring of earthquakes and volcano activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Baeza, Alonso A.

    Our studies have shown that the strain energy accumulation deep in the Earth's crust that precedes a strong earthquake can be detected by applying a lineament extraction technique to the high-resolution multispectral satellite images. A lineament is a straight or a somewhat curved feature in a satellite image, which it is possible to detect by a special processing of images based on directional filtering and or Hough transform. We analyzed tens of earthquakes occurred in the Pacific coast of the South America with the Richter scale magnitude ˜4.5, using ASTER/TERRA multispectral satellite images for detection and analysis of changes in the system of lineaments previous to a strong earthquake. All events were located in the regions with small seasonal variations and limited vegetation to facilitate the tracking of features associated with the seismic activity only. It was found that the number and orientation of lineaments changed significantly about one month before an earthquake approximately, and a few months later the system returns to its initial state. This effect increases with the earthquake magnitude. It also was shown that the behavior of lineaments associated to the volcano seismic activity is opposite to that obtained previously for earthquakes. This discrepancy can be explained assuming that in the last case the main reason of earthquakes is compression and accumulation of strength in the Earth's crust due to subduction of tectonic plates, whereas in the first case we deal with the inflation of a volcano edifice due to elevation of pressure and magma intrusion. The results obtained made it possible to include this research as a part of scientific program of Chilean Remote Sensing Satellite mission to be launched in 2010.

  4. IoSiS: a radar system for imaging of satellites in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirousek, M.; Anger, S.; Dill, S.; Schreiber, E.; Peichl, M.

    2017-05-01

    Space debris nowadays is one of the main threats for satellite systems especially in low earth orbit (LEO). More than 700,000 debris objects with potential to destroy or damage a satellite are estimated. The effects of an impact often are not identifiable directly from ground. High-resolution radar images are helpful in analyzing a possible damage. Therefor DLR is currently developing a radar system called IoSiS (Imaging of Satellites in Space), being based on an existing steering antenna structure and our multi-purpose high-performance radar system GigaRad for experimental investigations. GigaRad is a multi-channel system operating at X band and using a bandwidth of up to 4.4 GHz in the IoSiS configuration, providing fully separated transmit (TX) and receive (RX) channels, and separated antennas. For the observation of small satellites or space debris a highpower traveling-wave-tube amplifier (TWTA) is mounted close to the TX antenna feed. For the experimental phase IoSiS uses a 9 m TX and a 1 m RX antenna mounted on a common steerable positioner. High-resolution radar images are obtained by using Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) techniques. The guided tracking of known objects during overpass allows here wide azimuth observation angles. Thus high azimuth resolution comparable to the range resolution can be achieved. This paper outlines technical main characteristics of the IoSiS radar system including the basic setup of the antenna, the radar instrument with the RF error correction, and the measurement strategy. Also a short description about a simulation tool for the whole instrument and expected images is shown.

  5. Blanket comparison and selection study. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    This volume contains extensive data for the following chapters: (1) solid breeder tritium recovery, (2) solid breeder blanket designs, (3) alternate blanket concept screening, and (4) safety analysis. The following appendices are also included: (1) blanket design guidelines, (2) power conversion systems, (3) helium-cooled, vanadium alloy structure blanket design, (4) high wall loading study, and (5) molten salt safety studies

  6. Application of SVM on satellite images to detect hotspots in Jharia coal field region of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, R.S.; Singh, D.; Mittal, A.; Sajin, P. [Indian Institute for Technology, Roorkee (India)

    2008-07-01

    The present paper deals with the application of Support Vector Machine (SVM) and image analysis techniques on NOAA/AVHRR satellite image to detect hotspots on the Jharia coal field region of India. One of the major advantages of using these satellite data is that the data are free with very good temporal resolution; while, one drawback is that these have low spatial resolution (i.e., approximately 1.1 km at nadir). Therefore, it is important to do research by applying some efficient optimization techniques along with the image analysis techniques to rectify these drawbacks and use satellite images for efficient hotspot detection and monitoring. For this purpose, SVM and multi-threshold techniques are explored for hotspot detection. The multi-threshold algorithm is developed to remove the cloud coverage from the land coverage. This algorithm also highlights the hotspots or fire spots in the suspected regions. SVM has the advantage over multi-thresholding technique that it can learn patterns from the examples and therefore is used to optimize the performance by removing the false points which are highlighted in the threshold technique. Both approaches can be used separately or in combination depending on the size of the image. The RBF (Radial Basis Function) kernel is used in training of three sets of inputs: brightness temperature of channel 3, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Global Environment Monitoring Index (GEMI), respectively. This makes a classified image in the output that highlights the hotspot and non-hotspot pixels. The performance of the SVM is also compared with the performance obtained from the neural networks and SVM appears to detect hotspots more accurately (greater than 91% classification accuracy) with lesser false alarm rate. The results obtained are found to be in good agreement with the ground based observations of the hotspots.

  7. AUTOMATIC CLOUD DETECTION FROM MULTI-TEMPORAL SATELLITE IMAGES: TOWARDS THE USE OF PLÉIADES TIME SERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Champion

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to aerial images, satellite images are often affected by the presence of clouds. Identifying and removing these clouds is one of the primary steps to perform when processing satellite images, as they may alter subsequent procedures such as atmospheric corrections, DSM production or land cover classification. The main goal of this paper is to present the cloud detection approach, developed at the French Mapping agency. Our approach is based on the availability of multi-temporal satellite images (i.e. time series that generally contain between 5 and 10 images and is based on a region-growing procedure. Seeds (corresponding to clouds are firstly extracted through a pixel-to-pixel comparison between the images contained in time series (the presence of a cloud is here assumed to be related to a high variation of reflectance between two images. Clouds are then delineated finely using a dedicated region-growing algorithm. The method, originally designed for panchromatic SPOT5-HRS images, is tested in this paper using time series with 9 multi-temporal satellite images. Our preliminary experiments show the good performances of our method. In a near future, the method will be applied to Pléiades images, acquired during the in-flight commissioning phase of the satellite (launched at the end of 2011. In that context, this is a particular goal of this paper to show to which extent and in which way our method can be adapted to this kind of imagery.

  8. TESIS experiment on XUV imaging spectroscopy of the Sun onboard the CORONAS-PHOTON satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzin, S. V.; Zhitnik, I. A.; Bogachev, S. A.; Shestov, S. V.; Bugaenko, O. I.; Suhodrev, N. K.; Pertsov, A. A.; Mitrofanov, A. V.; Ignat'ev, A. P.; Slemzin, V. A.

    We present a brief description of new complex of space telescopes and spectrographs, TESIS, which will be placed aboard the CORONAS-PHOTON satellite. The complex is intended for high-resolution imaging observation of full Sun in the coronal spectral lines and in the spectral lines of the solar transition region. TESIS will be launched at the end of 2007 - early of 2008. About 25 % of the daily TESIS images will be free for use and for downloading from the TESIS data center that is planned to open 2 months before the TESIS launching at http://www.tesis.lebedev.ru

  9. Reconstruction of Missing Pixels in Satellite Images Using the Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Function (DINEOF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Wang, M.

    2016-02-01

    For coastal and inland waters, complete (in spatial) and frequent satellite measurements are important in order to monitor and understand coastal biological and ecological processes and phenomena, such as diurnal variations. High-frequency images of the water diffuse attenuation coefficient at the wavelength of 490 nm (Kd(490)) derived from the Korean Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) provide a unique opportunity to study diurnal variation of the water turbidity in coastal regions of the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea. However, there are lots of missing pixels in the original GOCI-derived Kd(490) images due to clouds and various other reasons. Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Function (DINEOF) is a method to reconstruct missing data in geophysical datasets based on Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF). In this study, the DINEOF is applied to GOCI-derived Kd(490) data in the Yangtze River mouth and the Yellow River mouth regions, the DINEOF reconstructed Kd(490) data are used to fill in the missing pixels, and the spatial patterns and temporal functions of the first three EOF modes are also used to investigate the sub-diurnal variation due to the tidal forcing. In addition, DINEOF method is also applied to the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite to reconstruct missing pixels in the daily Kd(490) and chlorophyll-a concentration images, and some application examples in the Chesapeake Bay and the Gulf of Mexico will be presented.

  10. An evaluation of fast reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterkamp, W.J.

    1974-01-01

    A comparative study of different types of fast reactor radial blankets is presented. Included are blankets of fertile material UO 2 , THO 2 and Th-metal blankets of pure reflectors C, BeO, Ni and combinations of reflecting and fertile blankets. The results for 1000MWe cores indicate that there is no incentive to use other than fertile blankets. The most favorable fertile material is thorium due to the prospective higher price of U-233

  11. High resolution satellite image indexing and retrieval using SURF features and bag of visual words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouteldja, Samia; Kourgli, Assia

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the performance of SURF descriptor for high resolution satellite imagery (HRSI) retrieval through a BoVW model on a land-use/land-cover (LULC) dataset. Local feature approaches such as SIFT and SURF descriptors can deal with a large variation of scale, rotation and illumination of the images, providing, therefore, a better discriminative power and retrieval efficiency than global features, especially for HRSI which contain a great range of objects and spatial patterns. Moreover, we combine SURF and color features to improve the retrieval accuracy, and we propose to learn a category-specific dictionary for each image category which results in a more discriminative image representation and boosts the image retrieval performance.

  12. An artificial neural network ensemble model for estimating global solar radiation from Meteosat satellite images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares-Rodriguez, Alvaro; Ruiz-Arias, José Antonio; Pozo-Vazquez, David; Tovar-Pescador, Joaquin

    2013-01-01

    An optimized artificial neural network ensemble model is built to estimate daily global solar radiation over large areas. The model uses clear-sky estimates and satellite images as input variables. Unlike most studies using satellite imagery based on visible channels, our model also exploits all information within infrared channels of the Meteosat 9 satellite. A genetic algorithm is used to optimize selection of model inputs, for which twelve are selected – eleven 3-km Meteosat 9 channels and one clear-sky term. The model is validated in Andalusia (Spain) from January 2008 through December 2008. Measured data from 83 stations across the region are used, 65 for training and 18 independent ones for testing the model. At the latter stations, the ensemble model yields an overall root mean square error of 6.74% and correlation coefficient of 99%; the generated estimates are relatively accurate and errors spatially uniform. The model yields reliable results even on cloudy days, improving on current models based on satellite imagery. - Highlights: • Daily solar radiation data are generated using an artificial neural network ensemble. • Eleven Meteosat channels observations and a clear sky term are used as model inputs. • Model exploits all information within infrared Meteosat channels. • Measured data for a year from 83 ground stations are used. • The proposed approach has better performance than existing models on daily basis

  13. Differential Spatio-temporal Multiband Satellite Image Clustering using K-means Optimization With Reinforcement Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Erlyn Wina Rachmawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Deforestration is one of the crucial issues in Indonesia because now Indonesia has world's highest deforestation rate. In other hand, multispectral image delivers a great source of data for studying spatial and temporal changeability of the environmental such as deforestration area. This research present differential image processing methods for detecting nature change of deforestration. Our differential image processing algorithms extract and indicating area automatically. The feature of our proposed idea produce extracted information from multiband satellite image and calculate the area of deforestration by years with calculating data using temporal dataset. Yet, multiband satellite image consists of big data size that were difficult to be handled for segmentation. Commonly, K- Means clustering is considered to be a powerfull clustering algorithm because of its ability to clustering big data. However K-Means has sensitivity of its first generated centroids, which could lead into a bad performance. In this paper we propose a new approach to optimize K-Means clustering using Reinforcement Programming in order to clustering multispectral image. We build a new mechanism for generating initial centroids by implementing exploration and exploitation knowledge from Reinforcement Programming. This optimization will lead a better result for K-means data cluster. We select multispectral image from Landsat 7 in past ten years in Medawai, Borneo, Indonesia, and apply two segmentation areas consist of deforestration land and forest field. We made series of experiments and compared the experimental results of K-means using Reinforcement Programming as optimizing initiate centroid and normal K-means without optimization process. Keywords: Deforestration, Multispectral images, landsat, automatic clustering, K-means.

  14. Performance Evaluation of Three Different High Resolution Satellite Images in Semi-Automatic Urban Illegal Building Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalilimoghadama, N.; Delavar, M. R.; Hanachi, P.

    2017-09-01

    The problem of overcrowding of mega cities has been bolded in recent years. To meet the need of housing this increased population, which is of great importance in mega cities, a huge number of buildings are constructed annually. With the ever-increasing trend of building constructions, we are faced with the growing trend of building infractions and illegal buildings (IBs). Acquiring multi-temporal satellite images and using change detection techniques is one of the proper methods of IB monitoring. Using the type of satellite images with different spatial and spectral resolutions has always been an issue in efficient detection of the building changes. In this research, three bi-temporal high-resolution satellite images of IRS-P5, GeoEye-1 and QuickBird sensors acquired from the west of metropolitan area of Tehran, capital of Iran, in addition to city maps and municipality property database were used to detect the under construction buildings with improved performance and accuracy. Furthermore, determining the employed bi-temporal satellite images to provide better performance and accuracy in the case of IB detection is the other purpose of this research. The Kappa coefficients of 70 %, 64 %, and 68 % were obtained for producing change image maps using GeoEye-1, IRS-P5, and QuickBird satellite images, respectively. In addition, the overall accuracies of 100 %, 6 %, and 83 % were achieved for IB detection using the satellite images, respectively. These accuracies substantiate the fact that the GeoEye-1 satellite images had the best performance among the employed images in producing change image map and detecting the IBs.

  15. Post launch calibration and testing of the Advanced Baseline Imager on the GOES-R satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebair, William; Rollins, C.; Kline, John; Todirita, M.; Kronenwetter, J.

    2016-05-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R (GOES-R) series is the planned next generation of operational weather satellites for the United State's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The first launch of the GOES-R series is planned for October 2016. The GOES-R series satellites and instruments are being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). One of the key instruments on the GOES-R series is the Advance Baseline Imager (ABI). The ABI is a multi-channel, visible through infrared, passive imaging radiometer. The ABI will provide moderate spatial and spectral resolution at high temporal and radiometric resolution to accurately monitor rapidly changing weather. Initial on-orbit calibration and performance characterization is crucial to establishing baseline used to maintain performance throughout mission life. A series of tests has been planned to establish the post launch performance and establish the parameters needed to process the data in the Ground Processing Algorithm. The large number of detectors for each channel required to provide the needed temporal coverage presents unique challenges for accurately calibrating ABI and minimizing striping. This paper discusses the planned tests to be performed on ABI over the six-month Post Launch Test period and the expected performance as it relates to ground tests.

  16. Simulation of seagrass bed mapping by satellite images based on the radiative transfer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagawa, Tatsuyuki; Komatsu, Teruhisa

    2015-06-01

    Seagrass and seaweed beds play important roles in coastal marine ecosystems. They are food sources and habitats for many marine organisms, and influence the physical, chemical, and biological environment. They are sensitive to human impacts such as reclamation and pollution. Therefore, their management and preservation are necessary for a healthy coastal environment. Satellite remote sensing is a useful tool for mapping and monitoring seagrass beds. The efficiency of seagrass mapping, seagrass bed classification in particular, has been evaluated by mapping accuracy using an error matrix. However, mapping accuracies are influenced by coastal environments such as seawater transparency, bathymetry, and substrate type. Coastal management requires sufficient accuracy and an understanding of mapping limitations for monitoring coastal habitats including seagrass beds. Previous studies are mainly based on case studies in specific regions and seasons. Extensive data are required to generalise assessments of classification accuracy from case studies, which has proven difficult. This study aims to build a simulator based on a radiative transfer model to produce modelled satellite images and assess the visual detectability of seagrass beds under different transparencies and seagrass coverages, as well as to examine mapping limitations and classification accuracy. Our simulations led to the development of a model of water transparency and the mapping of depth limits and indicated the possibility for seagrass density mapping under certain ideal conditions. The results show that modelling satellite images is useful in evaluating the accuracy of classification and that establishing seagrass bed monitoring by remote sensing is a reliable tool.

  17. An anti-image interference quadrature IF architecture for satellite receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Weidong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Since Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS signals span a wide range of frequency, wireless signals coming from other communication systems may be aliased and appear as image interference. In quadrature intermediate frequency (IF receivers, image aliasing due to in-phase and quadrature (I/Q channel mismatches is always a big problem. I/Q mismatches occur because of gain and phase imbalances between quadrature mixers and capacitor mismatches in analog-to-digital converters (ADC. As a result, the dynamic range and performance of a receiver are severely degraded. In this paper, several popular receiver architectures are summarized and the image aliasing problem is investigated in detail. Based on this analysis, a low-IF architecture is proposed for a single-chip solution and a novel and feasible anti-image algorithm is investigated. With this anti-image digital processing, the image reject ratio (IRR can reach approximately above 50 dB, which relaxes image rejection specific in front-end circuit designs and allows cheap and highly flexible analog front-end solutions. Simulation and experimental data show that the anti-image algorithm can work effectively, robustly, and steadily.

  18. AN EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHM FOR FAST INTENSITY BASED IMAGE MATCHING BETWEEN OPTICAL AND SAR SATELLITE IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fischer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid evolutionary algorithm for fast intensity based matching between satellite imagery from SAR and very high-resolution (VHR optical sensor systems. The precise and accurate co-registration of image time series and images of different sensors is a key task in multi-sensor image processing scenarios. The necessary preprocessing step of image matching and tie-point detection is divided into a search problem and a similarity measurement. Within this paper we evaluate the use of an evolutionary search strategy for establishing the spatial correspondence between satellite imagery of optical and radar sensors. The aim of the proposed algorithm is to decrease the computational costs during the search process by formulating the search as an optimization problem. Based upon the canonical evolutionary algorithm, the proposed algorithm is adapted for SAR/optical imagery intensity based matching. Extensions are drawn using techniques like hybridization (e.g. local search and others to lower the number of objective function calls and refine the result. The algorithm significantely decreases the computational costs whilst finding the optimal solution in a reliable way.

  19. 3D reconstruction from multi-view VHR-satellite images in MicMac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupnik, Ewelina; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Marc; Delorme, Arthur

    2018-05-01

    This work addresses the generation of high quality digital surface models by fusing multiple depths maps calculated with the dense image matching method. The algorithm is adapted to very high resolution multi-view satellite images, and the main contributions of this work are in the multi-view fusion. The algorithm is insensitive to outliers, takes into account the matching quality indicators, handles non-correlated zones (e.g. occlusions), and is solved with a multi-directional dynamic programming approach. No geometric constraints (e.g. surface planarity) or auxiliary data in form of ground control points are required for its operation. Prior to the fusion procedures, the RPC geolocation parameters of all images are improved in a bundle block adjustment routine. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated on two VHR (Very High Resolution)-satellite image datasets (Pléiades, WorldView-3) revealing its good performance in reconstructing non-textured areas, repetitive patterns, and surface discontinuities.

  20. A graph-based approach to detect spatiotemporal dynamics in satellite image time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttler, Fabio; Ienco, Dino; Nin, Jordi; Teisseire, Maguelonne; Poncelet, Pascal

    2017-08-01

    Enhancing the frequency of satellite acquisitions represents a key issue for Earth Observation community nowadays. Repeated observations are crucial for monitoring purposes, particularly when intra-annual process should be taken into account. Time series of images constitute a valuable source of information in these cases. The goal of this paper is to propose a new methodological framework to automatically detect and extract spatiotemporal information from satellite image time series (SITS). Existing methods dealing with such kind of data are usually classification-oriented and cannot provide information about evolutions and temporal behaviors. In this paper we propose a graph-based strategy that combines object-based image analysis (OBIA) with data mining techniques. Image objects computed at each individual timestamp are connected across the time series and generates a set of evolution graphs. Each evolution graph is associated to a particular area within the study site and stores information about its temporal evolution. Such information can be deeply explored at the evolution graph scale or used to compare the graphs and supply a general picture at the study site scale. We validated our framework on two study sites located in the South of France and involving different types of natural, semi-natural and agricultural areas. The results obtained from a Landsat SITS support the quality of the methodological approach and illustrate how the framework can be employed to extract and characterize spatiotemporal dynamics.

  1. Three-dimensional information extraction from GaoFen-1 satellite images for landslide monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shixin; Yang, Baolin; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Futao; Zhang, Rui; Zhao, Qing

    2018-05-01

    To more efficiently use GaoFen-1 (GF-1) satellite images for landslide emergency monitoring, a Digital Surface Model (DSM) can be generated from GF-1 across-track stereo image pairs to build a terrain dataset. This study proposes a landslide 3D information extraction method based on the terrain changes of slope objects. The slope objects are mergences of segmented image objects which have similar aspects; and the terrain changes are calculated from the post-disaster Digital Elevation Model (DEM) from GF-1 and the pre-disaster DEM from GDEM V2. A high mountain landslide that occurred in Wenchuan County, Sichuan Province is used to conduct a 3D information extraction test. The extracted total area of the landslide is 22.58 ha; the displaced earth volume is 652,100 m3; and the average sliding direction is 263.83°. The accuracies of them are 0.89, 0.87 and 0.95, respectively. Thus, the proposed method expands the application of GF-1 satellite images to the field of landslide emergency monitoring.

  2. Spatial and radiometric characterization of multi-spectrum satellite images through multi-fractal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Carmelo; Tarquis, Ana M.; Zúñiga, Ignacio; Benito, Rosa M.

    2017-03-01

    Several studies have shown that vegetation indexes can be used to estimate root zone soil moisture. Earth surface images, obtained by high-resolution satellites, presently give a lot of information on these indexes, based on the data of several wavelengths. Because of the potential capacity for systematic observations at various scales, remote sensing technology extends the possible data archives from the present time to several decades back. Because of this advantage, enormous efforts have been made by researchers and application specialists to delineate vegetation indexes from local scale to global scale by applying remote sensing imagery. In this work, four band images have been considered, which are involved in these vegetation indexes, and were taken by satellites Ikonos-2 and Landsat-7 of the same geographic location, to study the effect of both spatial (pixel size) and radiometric (number of bits coding the image) resolution on these wavelength bands as well as two vegetation indexes: the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). In order to do so, a multi-fractal analysis of these multi-spectral images was applied in each of these bands and the two indexes derived. The results showed that spatial resolution has a similar scaling effect in the four bands, but radiometric resolution has a larger influence in blue and green bands than in red and near-infrared bands. The NDVI showed a higher sensitivity to the radiometric resolution than EVI. Both were equally affected by the spatial resolution. From both factors, the spatial resolution has a major impact in the multi-fractal spectrum for all the bands and the vegetation indexes. This information should be taken in to account when vegetation indexes based on different satellite sensors are obtained.

  3. Solar resources estimation combining digital terrain models and satellite images techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, J.L.; Batlles, F.J. [Universidad de Almeria, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Ctra. Sacramento s/n, 04120-Almeria (Spain); Zarzalejo, L.F. [CIEMAT, Departamento de Energia, Madrid (Spain); Lopez, G. [EPS-Universidad de Huelva, Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica y Termica, Huelva (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    One of the most important steps to make use of any renewable energy is to perform an accurate estimation of the resource that has to be exploited. In the designing process of both active and passive solar energy systems, radiation data is required for the site, with proper spatial resolution. Generally, a radiometric stations network is used in this evaluation, but when they are too dispersed or not available for the study area, satellite images can be utilized as indirect solar radiation measurements. Although satellite images cover wide areas with a good acquisition frequency they usually have a poor spatial resolution limited by the size of the image pixel, and irradiation must be interpolated to evaluate solar irradiation at a sub-pixel scale. When pixels are located in flat and homogeneous areas, correlation of solar irradiation is relatively high, and classic interpolation can provide a good estimation. However, in complex topography zones, data interpolation is not adequate and the use of Digital Terrain Model (DTM) information can be helpful. In this work, daily solar irradiation is estimated for a wide mountainous area using a combination of Meteosat satellite images and a DTM, with the advantage of avoiding the necessity of ground measurements. This methodology utilizes a modified Heliosat-2 model, and applies for all sky conditions; it also introduces a horizon calculation of the DTM points and accounts for the effect of snow covers. Model performance has been evaluated against data measured in 12 radiometric stations, with results in terms of the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 10%, and a Mean Bias Error (MBE) of +2%, both expressed as a percentage of the mean value measured. (author)

  4. Detection and Extraction of Roads from High Resolution Satellites Images with Dynamic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzouai, Siham; Smara, Youcef

    2010-12-01

    The advent of satellite images allows now a regular and a fast digitizing and update of geographic data, especially roads which are very useful for Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications such as transportation, urban pollution, geomarketing, etc. For this, several studies have been conducted to automate roads extraction in order to minimize the manual processes [4]. In this work, we are interested in roads extraction from satellite imagery with high spatial resolution (at best equal to 10 m). The method is semi automatic and follows a linear approach where road is considered as a linear object. As roads extraction is a pattern recognition problem, it is useful, above all, to characterize roads. After, we realize a pre-processing by applying an Infinite Size Edge Filter -ISEF- and processing method based on dynamic programming concept, in particular, Fishler algorithm designed by F*.

  5. Simultaneous observation of auroral substorm onset in Polar satellite global images and ground-based all-sky images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieda, Akimasa; Kauristie, Kirsti; Nishimura, Yukitoshi; Miyashita, Yukinaga; Frey, Harald U.; Juusola, Liisa; Whiter, Daniel; Nosé, Masahito; Fillingim, Matthew O.; Honary, Farideh; Rogers, Neil C.; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Miura, Tsubasa; Kawashima, Takahiro; Machida, Shinobu

    2018-05-01

    Substorm onset has originally been defined as a longitudinally extended sudden auroral brightening (Akasofu initial brightening: AIB) followed a few minutes later by an auroral poleward expansion in ground-based all-sky images (ASIs). In contrast, such clearly marked two-stage development has not been evident in satellite-based global images (GIs). Instead, substorm onsets have been identified as localized sudden brightenings that expand immediately poleward. To resolve these differences, optical substorm onset signatures in GIs and ASIs are compared in this study for a substorm that occurred on December 7, 1999. For this substorm, the Polar satellite ultraviolet global imager was operated with a fixed-filter (170 nm) mode, enabling a higher time resolution (37 s) than usual to resolve the possible two-stage development. These data were compared with 20-s resolution green-line (557.7 nm) ASIs at Muonio in Finland. The ASIs revealed the AIB at 2124:50 UT and the subsequent poleward expansion at 2127:50 UT, whereas the GIs revealed only an onset brightening that started at 2127:49 UT. Thus, the onset in the GIs was delayed relative to the AIB and in fact agreed with the poleward expansion in the ASIs. The fact that the AIB was not evident in the GIs may be attributed to the limited spatial resolution of GIs for thin auroral arc brightenings. The implications of these results for the definition of substorm onset are discussed herein.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Fusion blanket design and optimization techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.

    2005-01-01

    In fusion reactors, the blanket design and its characteristics have a major impact on the reactor performance, size, and economics. The selection and arrangement of the blanket materials, dimensions of the different blanket zones, and different requirements of the selected materials for a satisfactory performance are the main parameters, which define the blanket performance. These parameters translate to a large number of variables and design constraints, which need to be simultaneously considered in the blanket design process. This represents a major design challenge because of the lack of a comprehensive design tool capable of considering all these variables to define the optimum blanket design and satisfying all the design constraints for the adopted figure of merit and the blanket design criteria. The blanket design techniques of the First Wall/Blanket/Shield Design and Optimization System (BSDOS) have been developed to overcome this difficulty and to provide the state-of-the-art techniques and tools for performing blanket design and analysis. This report describes some of the BSDOS techniques and demonstrates its use. In addition, the use of the optimization technique of the BSDOS can result in a significant blanket performance enhancement and cost saving for the reactor design under consideration. In this report, examples are presented, which utilize an earlier version of the ITER solid breeder blanket design and a high power density self-cooled lithium blanket design for demonstrating some of the BSDOS blanket design techniques

  7. Considerations and methods for the changes detection using satellite images in the Municipality of Paipa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riano M, Orlando

    2002-01-01

    In this article the considerations and methods are presented for the changes detection in the earth covering, using two images Landsat TM of different dates for an area of the municipality of Paipa, Boyaca. The changes detection has become an important application of the multi-spectral data and multi-temporal of the satellites programs for studies of natural resources Landsat, TM and Spot, in such a way that is possible to determine the types and extension of the changes that are given in the environment. To carry out this process some digital techniques they have been used for changes detection, such as: images superposition, differences between images and analysis of main components. These techniques allowed to observe and to analyze changes in the use and covering of the earth in this municipality

  8. Space situational awareness satellites and ground based radiation counting and imaging detector technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, Frank; Behrens, Joerg; Pospisil, Stanislav; Kudela, Karel

    2011-01-01

    We review the current status from the scientific and technological point of view of solar energetic particles, solar and galactic cosmic ray measurements as well as high energy UV-, X- and gamma-ray imaging of the Sun. These particles and electromagnetic data are an important tool for space situational awareness (SSA) aspects like space weather storm predictions to avoid failures in space, air and ground based technological systems. Real time data acquisition, position and energy sensitive imaging are demanded by the international space weather forecast services. We present how newly developed, highly miniaturized radiation detectors can find application in space in view of future SSA related satellites as a novel space application due to their counting and imaging capabilities.

  9. Space situational awareness satellites and ground based radiation counting and imaging detector technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Frank, E-mail: frank.jansen@dlr.de [DLR Institute of Space Systems, Robert-Hooke-Str. 7, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Behrens, Joerg [DLR Institute of Space Systems, Robert-Hooke-Str. 7, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Pospisil, Stanislav [Czech Technical University, IEAP, 12800 Prague 2, Horska 3a/22 (Czech Republic); Kudela, Karel [Slovak Academy of Sciences, IEP, 04001 Kosice, Watsonova 47 (Slovakia)

    2011-05-15

    We review the current status from the scientific and technological point of view of solar energetic particles, solar and galactic cosmic ray measurements as well as high energy UV-, X- and gamma-ray imaging of the Sun. These particles and electromagnetic data are an important tool for space situational awareness (SSA) aspects like space weather storm predictions to avoid failures in space, air and ground based technological systems. Real time data acquisition, position and energy sensitive imaging are demanded by the international space weather forecast services. We present how newly developed, highly miniaturized radiation detectors can find application in space in view of future SSA related satellites as a novel space application due to their counting and imaging capabilities.

  10. PROCEDURES FOR ACCURATE PRODUCTION OF COLOR IMAGES FROM SATELLITE OR AIRCRAFT MULTISPECTRAL DIGITAL DATA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Joseph S.

    1985-01-01

    Because the display and interpretation of satellite and aircraft remote-sensing data make extensive use of color film products, accurate reproduction of the color images is important. To achieve accurate color reproduction, the exposure and chemical processing of the film must be monitored and controlled. By using a combination of sensitometry, densitometry, and transfer functions that control film response curves, all of the different steps in the making of film images can be monitored and controlled. Because a sensitometer produces a calibrated exposure, the resulting step wedge can be used to monitor the chemical processing of the film. Step wedges put on film by image recording machines provide a means of monitoring the film exposure and color balance of the machines.

  11. High efficient optical remote sensing images acquisition for nano-satellite: reconstruction algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Feng; Xin, Lei; Fu, Jie; Huang, Puming

    2017-10-01

    Large amount of data is one of the most obvious features in satellite based remote sensing systems, which is also a burden for data processing and transmission. The theory of compressive sensing(CS) has been proposed for almost a decade, and massive experiments show that CS has favorable performance in data compression and recovery, so we apply CS theory to remote sensing images acquisition. In CS, the construction of classical sensing matrix for all sparse signals has to satisfy the Restricted Isometry Property (RIP) strictly, which limits applying CS in practical in image compression. While for remote sensing images, we know some inherent characteristics such as non-negative, smoothness and etc.. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to present a novel measurement matrix that breaks RIP. The new sensing matrix consists of two parts: the standard Nyquist sampling matrix for thumbnails and the conventional CS sampling matrix. Since most of sun-synchronous based satellites fly around the earth 90 minutes and the revisit cycle is also short, lots of previously captured remote sensing images of the same place are available in advance. This drives us to reconstruct remote sensing images through a deep learning approach with those measurements from the new framework. Therefore, we propose a novel deep convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture which takes in undersampsing measurements as input and outputs an intermediate reconstruction image. It is well known that the training procedure to the network costs long time, luckily, the training step can be done only once, which makes the approach attractive for a host of sparse recovery problems.

  12. Deep learning for the detection of barchan dunes in satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzaoui, A. M.; Adnani, M.; Elbelrhiti, H.; Chaouki, B. E. K.; Masmoudi, L.

    2017-12-01

    Barchan dunes are known to be the fastest moving sand dunes in deserts as they form under unidirectional winds and limited sand supply over a firm coherent basement (Elbelrhiti and Hargitai,2015). They were studied in the context of natural hazard monitoring as they could be a threat to human activities and infrastructures. Also, they were studied as a natural phenomenon occurring in other planetary landforms such as Mars or Venus (Bourke et al., 2010). Our region of interest was located in a desert region in the south of Morocco, in a barchan dunes corridor next to the town of Tarfaya. This region which is part of the Sahara desert contained thousands of barchans; which limits the number of dunes that could be studied during field missions. Therefore, we chose to monitor barchan dunes with satellite imagery, which can be seen as a complementary approach to field missions. We collected data from the Sentinel platform (https://scihub.copernicus.eu/dhus/); we used a machine learning method as a basis for the detection of barchan dunes positions in the satellite image. We trained a deep learning model on a mid-sized dataset that contained blocks representing images of barchan dunes, and images of other desert features, that we collected by cropping and annotating the source image. During testing, we browsed the satellite image with a gliding window that evaluated each block, and then produced a probability map. Finally, a threshold on the latter map exposed the location of barchan dunes. We used a subsample of data to train the model and we gradually incremented the size of the training set to get finer results and avoid over fitting. The positions of barchan dunes were successfully detected and deep learning was an effective method for this application. Sentinel-2 images were chosen for their availability and good temporal resolution, which will allow the tracking of barchan dunes in future work. While Sentinel images had sufficient spatial resolution for the

  13. Combined Use of Multi-Temporal Optical and Radar Satellite Images for Grassland Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Dusseux

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the ability of optical images, SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar images and the combination of both types of data to discriminate between grasslands and crops in agricultural areas where cloud cover is very high most of the time, which restricts the use of visible and near-infrared satellite data. We compared the performances of variables extracted from four optical and five SAR satellite images with high/very high spatial resolutions acquired during the growing season. A vegetation index, namely the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and two biophysical variables, the LAI (Leaf Area Index and the fCOVER (fraction of Vegetation Cover were computed using optical time series and polarization (HH, VV, HV, VH. The polarization ratio and polarimetric decomposition (Freeman–Durden and Cloude–Pottier were calculated using SAR time series. Then, variables derived from optical, SAR and both types of remotely-sensed data were successively classified using the Support Vector Machine (SVM technique. The results show that the classification accuracy of SAR variables is higher than those using optical data (0.98 compared to 0.81. They also highlight that the combination of optical and SAR time series data is of prime interest to discriminate grasslands from crops, allowing an improved classification accuracy.

  14. Evaluation of Multiple Kernel Learning Algorithms for Crop Mapping Using Satellite Image Time-Series Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazmardi, S.; Safari, A.; Homayouni, S.

    2017-09-01

    Crop mapping through classification of Satellite Image Time-Series (SITS) data can provide very valuable information for several agricultural applications, such as crop monitoring, yield estimation, and crop inventory. However, the SITS data classification is not straightforward. Because different images of a SITS data have different levels of information regarding the classification problems. Moreover, the SITS data is a four-dimensional data that cannot be classified using the conventional classification algorithms. To address these issues in this paper, we presented a classification strategy based on Multiple Kernel Learning (MKL) algorithms for SITS data classification. In this strategy, initially different kernels are constructed from different images of the SITS data and then they are combined into a composite kernel using the MKL algorithms. The composite kernel, once constructed, can be used for the classification of the data using the kernel-based classification algorithms. We compared the computational time and the classification performances of the proposed classification strategy using different MKL algorithms for the purpose of crop mapping. The considered MKL algorithms are: MKL-Sum, SimpleMKL, LPMKL and Group-Lasso MKL algorithms. The experimental tests of the proposed strategy on two SITS data sets, acquired by SPOT satellite sensors, showed that this strategy was able to provide better performances when compared to the standard classification algorithm. The results also showed that the optimization method of the used MKL algorithms affects both the computational time and classification accuracy of this strategy.

  15. Rule-based land cover classification from very high-resolution satellite image with multiresolution segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md. Enamul; Al-Ramadan, Baqer; Johnson, Brian A.

    2016-07-01

    Multiresolution segmentation and rule-based classification techniques are used to classify objects from very high-resolution satellite images of urban areas. Custom rules are developed using different spectral, geometric, and textural features with five scale parameters, which exploit varying classification accuracy. Principal component analysis is used to select the most important features out of a total of 207 different features. In particular, seven different object types are considered for classification. The overall classification accuracy achieved for the rule-based method is 95.55% and 98.95% for seven and five classes, respectively. Other classifiers that are not using rules perform at 84.17% and 97.3% accuracy for seven and five classes, respectively. The results exploit coarse segmentation for higher scale parameter and fine segmentation for lower scale parameter. The major contribution of this research is the development of rule sets and the identification of major features for satellite image classification where the rule sets are transferable and the parameters are tunable for different types of imagery. Additionally, the individual objectwise classification and principal component analysis help to identify the required object from an arbitrary number of objects within images given ground truth data for the training.

  16. Status of fusion reactor blanket design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Sze, D.K.

    1986-02-01

    The recent Blanket Comparison and Selection Study (BCSS), which was a comprehensive evaluation of fusion reactor blanket design and the status of blanket technology, serves as an excellent basis for further development of blanket technology. This study provided an evaluation of over 130 blanket concepts for the reference case of electric power producing, DT fueled reactors in both Tokamak and Tandem Mirror (TMR) configurations. Based on a specific set of reactor operating parameters, the current understanding of materials and blanket technology, and a uniform evaluation methodology developed as part of the study, a limited number of concepts were identified that offer the greatest potential for making fusion an attractive energy source

  17. Solar irradiance assessment in insular areas using Himawari-8 satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liandrat, O.; Cros, S.; Turpin, M.; Pineau, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    The high amount of surface solar irradiance (SSI) in the tropics is an advantage for a profitable PV production. It will allow many tropical islands to pursue their economic growth with a clean, affordable and locally produced energy. However, the local meteorological conditions induce a very high variability which is problematic for a safe and gainful injection into the power grid. This issue is even more critical in non-interconnected territories where network stability is an absolute necessity. Therefore, the injection of PV power is legally limited in some European oversea territories. In this context, intraday irradiance forecasting (several hours ahead) is particularly useful to mitigate the production variability by reducing the cost of power storage management. At this time scale, cloud cover evolves with a stochastic behaviour not properly represented in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Analysing cloud motion using images from geostationary meteorological satellites is a well-known alternative to forecasting SSI up to 6 hours ahead with a better accuracy than NWP models. In this study, we present and apply our satellite-based solar irradiance forecasting methods over two measurement sites located in the field of view of the satellite Himawari-8: Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Australia) and New Caledonia (France). In particular, we converted 4 months of images from Himawari-8 visible channel into cloud index maps. Then, we applied an algorithm computing a cloud motion vector field from a short sequence of consecutive images. Comparisons between forecasted SSI at 1 hour of time horizon and collocated pyranometric measurements show a relative RMSE between 20 and 27%. Error sources related to the tropic insular context (coastal area heterogeneity, sub-pixel scale orographic cloud appearance, convective situation…) are discussed at every implementation step for the different methods.

  18. Satellite image simulations for model-supervised, dynamic retrieval of crop type and land use intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, H.; Klug, P.; Ruf, T.; Migdall, S.; Schlenz, F.; Hank, T.; Mauser, W.

    2015-04-01

    To support food security, information products about the actual cropping area per crop type, the current status of agricultural production and estimated yields, as well as the sustainability of the agricultural management are necessary. Based on this information, well-targeted land management decisions can be made. Remote sensing is in a unique position to contribute to this task as it is globally available and provides a plethora of information about current crop status. M4Land is a comprehensive system in which a crop growth model (PROMET) and a reflectance model (SLC) are coupled in order to provide these information products by analyzing multi-temporal satellite images. SLC uses modelled surface state parameters from PROMET, such as leaf area index or phenology of different crops to simulate spatially distributed surface reflectance spectra. This is the basis for generating artificial satellite images considering sensor specific configurations (spectral bands, solar and observation geometries). Ensembles of model runs are used to represent different crop types, fertilization status, soil colour and soil moisture. By multi-temporal comparisons of simulated and real satellite images, the land cover/crop type can be classified in a dynamically, model-supervised way and without in-situ training data. The method is demonstrated in an agricultural test-site in Bavaria. Its transferability is studied by analysing PROMET model results for the rest of Germany. Especially the simulated phenological development can be verified on this scale in order to understand whether PROMET is able to adequately simulate spatial, as well as temporal (intra- and inter-season) crop growth conditions, a prerequisite for the model-supervised approach. This sophisticated new technology allows monitoring of management decisions on the field-level using high resolution optical data (presently RapidEye and Landsat). The M4Land analysis system is designed to integrate multi-mission data and is

  19. Fusion blanket inherent safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sze, D.K.; Jung, J.; Cheng, E.T.

    1986-01-01

    Fusion has significant potential safety advantages. There is a strong incentive for designing fusion plants to ensure that inherent safety will be achieved. Accordingly, both the Tokamak Power Systems Studies and MINIMARS have identified inherent safety as a design goal. A necessary condition is for the blanket to maintain its configuration and integrity under all credible accident conditions. A main problem is caused by afterheat removal in an accident condition. In this regard, it is highly desirable to achieve the required level of protection of the plant capital investment and limitation of radioactivity release by systems that rely only on inherent properties of matter (e.g., thermal conductivity, specific heat, etc.) and without the use of active safety equipment. This paper assesses the conditions under which inherent safety is feasible. Three types of accident conditions are evaluated for two blankets. The blankets evaluated are a self cooled vanadium/lithium blanket and a self-cooled vanadium/Flibe blanket. The accident conditions evaluated are: (1) loss-of-flow accident; (2) loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA); and (3) partial loss-of-coolant accident

  20. The blanket interface to TSTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Grimm, T.L.; Sze, D.K.; Anderson, J.L.; Bartlit, J.R.; Naruse, Y.; Yoshida, H.

    1988-01-01

    The requirements of tritium technology are centered in three main areas, (1) fuel processing, (2) breeder tritium extraction, and (3) tritium containment. The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) now in operation at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is dedicated to developing and demonstrating the tritium technology for fuel processing and containment. TSTA is the only fusion fuel processing facility that can operate in a continuous closed-loop mode. The tritium throughput of TSTA is 1000 g/d. However, TSTA does not have a blanket interface system. The authors have initiated a study to define a Breeder Blanket Interface (BBIO) for TSTA. The first step of the work is to define the condition of the gaseous tritium stream from the blanket tritium recovery system. This report summarizes this part of the work for one particular blanket concept, i.e., a self-cooled lithium blanket. The total gas throughput, the hydrogen to tritium ratio, the corrosive chemicals, and the radionuclides are defined. Various methods of tritium recovery from liquid lithium were assessed: yttrium gettering, permeation windows, and molten salt extraction. The authors' evaluation concluded that the best method was molten salt extraction

  1. Phase Change Material for Temperature Control of Imager or Sounder on GOES Type Satellites in GEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses phase change material (PCM) in the scan cavity of an imager or sounder on satellites in geostationary orbit (GEO) to maintain the telescope temperature stable. When sunlight enters the scan aperture, solar heating causes the PCM to melt. When sunlight stops entering the scan aperture, the PCM releases the thermal energy stored to keep the components in the telescope warm. It has no moving parts or bimetallic springs. It reduces heater power required to make up the heat lost by radiation to space through the aperture. It is an attractive thermal control option to a radiator with a louver and a sunshade.

  2. Monitoring an air pollution episode in Shenzhen by combining MODIS satellite images and the HYSPLIT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lili; Liu, Yihong; Wang, Yunpeng

    2017-07-01

    Urban air pollution is influenced not only by local emission sources including industry and vehicles, but also greatly by regional atmospheric pollutant transportation from the surrounding areas, especially in developed city clusters, like the Pearl River Delta (PRD). Taking an air pollution episode in Shenzhen as an example, this paper investigates the occurrence and evolution of the pollution episode and identifies the transport pathways of air pollutants in Shenzhen by combining MODIS satellite images and HYSPLIT back trajectory analysis. Results show that this pollution episode is mainly caused by the local emission of pollutants in PRD and oceanic air masses under specific weather conditions.

  3. Data manage and communication of lunar orbital X-ray imaging analyzer in CE-1 satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinzhou; Wang Huanyu; Zhang Chengmo; Liang Xiaohua; Gao Min; CaoXuelei; Zhang Jiayu; Peng Wenxi; Cui Xingzhu; Xu Yupeng; Zhang Yongjie

    2006-01-01

    We present the software design for data management and communication software designed for the Lunar Orbital X-ray Imaging Analyzer in CE-1 Satellite. The software uses the appropriate format to assemble science data package and appropriate command respond mode, realizes the data transferring tasks through the 1553B bus on time, event though the channel bandwidth is under the limited. Also, the memory distribution and management of LOXIA (remote terminal) that fitted the communication with BC(Bus Controller) was introduced. Furthermore, for the spatial application, the security and reliability of software are emphasized. (authors)

  4. Utilization of satellite images to understand the dynamics of Pampas shallow lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Aliaga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze satellite images of different spatial resolutions to interpret the morphometric behavior of six shallow lakes of the Pampas, Argentina. These are characterized by having different rainfall regimes. Morphometric response considering each location, site conditions and dry and wet extreme events is analyzed. Standardized Precipitation Index (IEP for determination of wet, dry and normal years was used. This analysis showed that the Pampas shallow lakes do not behave in the same way to the rainfall events. Its origin, socio-economic use and rainfall patterns affect their spatiotemporal variation and morphometric.

  5. A case of timely satellite image acquisitions in support of coastal emergency environmental response management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Werle, Dirk; Lu, Zhong; Rangoonwala, Amina; Suzuoki, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    The synergistic application of optical and radar satellite imagery improves emergency response and advance coastal monitoring from the realm of “opportunistic” to that of “strategic.” As illustrated by the Hurricane Ike example, synthetic aperture radar imaging capabilities are clearly applicable for emergency response operations, but they are also relevant to emergency environmental management. Integrated with optical monitoring, the nearly real-time availability of synthetic aperture radar provides superior consistency in status and trends monitoring and enhanced information concerning causal forces of change that are critical to coastal resource sustainability, including flooding extent, depth, and frequency.

  6. Blanket maintenance by remote means using the cassette blanket approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    Induced radioactivity in the blanket and other parts of a fusion reactor close to the plasma zone will dictate remote assembly, disassembly, and maintenance procedures. Time will be of the essence in these procedures. They must be practicable and certain. This paper discusses the reduction of a complicated Tokamak reactor to a simpler assembly via the use of a vacuum building in which to house the reactor and the introduction in this new model of cassette blanket modules. The cassettes significantly simplify remote handling

  7. kCCA Transformation-Based Radiometric Normalization of Multi-Temporal Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Bai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Radiation normalization is an essential pre-processing step for generating high-quality satellite sequence images. However, most radiometric normalization methods are linear, and they cannot eliminate the regular nonlinear spectral differences. Here we introduce the well-established kernel canonical correlation analysis (kCCA into radiometric normalization for the first time to overcome this problem, which leads to a new kernel method. It can maximally reduce the image differences among multi-temporal images regardless of the imaging conditions and the reflectivity difference. It also perfectly eliminates the impact of nonlinear changes caused by seasonal variation of natural objects. Comparisons with the multivariate alteration detection (CCA-based normalization and the histogram matching, on Gaofen-1 (GF-1 data, indicate that the kCCA-based normalization can preserve more similarity and better correlation between an image-pair and effectively avoid the color error propagation. The proposed method not only builds the common scale or reference to make the radiometric consistency among GF-1 image sequences, but also highlights the interesting spectral changes while eliminates less interesting spectral changes. Our method enables the application of GF-1 data for change detection, land-use, land-cover change detection etc.

  8. PROBLEMS AND LIMITATIONS OF SATELLITE IMAGE ORIENTATION FOR DETERMINATION OF HEIGHT MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jacobsen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The usual satellite image orientation is based on bias corrected rational polynomial coefficients (RPC. The RPC are describing the direct sensor orientation of the satellite images. The locations of the projection centres today are without problems, but an accuracy limit is caused by the attitudes. Very high resolution satellites today are very agile, able to change the pointed area over 200km within 10 to 11 seconds. The corresponding fast attitude acceleration of the satellite may cause a jitter which cannot be expressed by the third order RPC, even if it is recorded by the gyros. Only a correction of the image geometry may help, but usually this will not be done. The first indication of jitter problems is shown by systematic errors of the y-parallaxes (py for the intersection of corresponding points during the computation of ground coordinates. These y-parallaxes have a limited influence to the ground coordinates, but similar problems can be expected for the x-parallaxes, determining directly the object height. Systematic y-parallaxes are shown for Ziyuan-3 (ZY3, WorldView-2 (WV2, Pleiades, Cartosat-1, IKONOS and GeoEye. Some of them have clear jitter effects. In addition linear trends of py can be seen. Linear trends in py and tilts in of computed height models may be caused by limited accuracy of the attitude registration, but also by bias correction with affinity transformation. The bias correction is based on ground control points (GCPs. The accuracy of the GCPs usually does not cause some limitations but the identification of the GCPs in the images may be difficult. With 2-dimensional bias corrected RPC-orientation by affinity transformation tilts of the generated height models may be caused, but due to large affine image deformations some satellites, as Cartosat-1, have to be handled with bias correction by affinity transformation. Instead of a 2-dimensional RPC-orientation also a 3-dimensional orientation is possible, respecting the

  9. Problems and Limitations of Satellite Image Orientation for Determination of Height Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, K.

    2017-05-01

    The usual satellite image orientation is based on bias corrected rational polynomial coefficients (RPC). The RPC are describing the direct sensor orientation of the satellite images. The locations of the projection centres today are without problems, but an accuracy limit is caused by the attitudes. Very high resolution satellites today are very agile, able to change the pointed area over 200km within 10 to 11 seconds. The corresponding fast attitude acceleration of the satellite may cause a jitter which cannot be expressed by the third order RPC, even if it is recorded by the gyros. Only a correction of the image geometry may help, but usually this will not be done. The first indication of jitter problems is shown by systematic errors of the y-parallaxes (py) for the intersection of corresponding points during the computation of ground coordinates. These y-parallaxes have a limited influence to the ground coordinates, but similar problems can be expected for the x-parallaxes, determining directly the object height. Systematic y-parallaxes are shown for Ziyuan-3 (ZY3), WorldView-2 (WV2), Pleiades, Cartosat-1, IKONOS and GeoEye. Some of them have clear jitter effects. In addition linear trends of py can be seen. Linear trends in py and tilts in of computed height models may be caused by limited accuracy of the attitude registration, but also by bias correction with affinity transformation. The bias correction is based on ground control points (GCPs). The accuracy of the GCPs usually does not cause some limitations but the identification of the GCPs in the images may be difficult. With 2-dimensional bias corrected RPC-orientation by affinity transformation tilts of the generated height models may be caused, but due to large affine image deformations some satellites, as Cartosat-1, have to be handled with bias correction by affinity transformation. Instead of a 2-dimensional RPC-orientation also a 3-dimensional orientation is possible, respecting the object height

  10. Bio-Optical Data Assimilation With Observational Error Covariance Derived From an Ensemble of Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Igor; Gould, Richard W.; Frolov, Sergey; McCarthy, Sean; Penta, Brad; Anderson, Stephanie; Sakalaukus, Peter

    2018-03-01

    An ensemble-based approach to specify observational error covariance in the data assimilation of satellite bio-optical properties is proposed. The observational error covariance is derived from statistical properties of the generated ensemble of satellite MODIS-Aqua chlorophyll (Chl) images. The proposed observational error covariance is used in the Optimal Interpolation scheme for the assimilation of MODIS-Aqua Chl observations. The forecast error covariance is specified in the subspace of the multivariate (bio-optical, physical) empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) estimated from a month-long model run. The assimilation of surface MODIS-Aqua Chl improved surface and subsurface model Chl predictions. Comparisons with surface and subsurface water samples demonstrate that data assimilation run with the proposed observational error covariance has higher RMSE than the data assimilation run with "optimistic" assumption about observational errors (10% of the ensemble mean), but has smaller or comparable RMSE than data assimilation run with an assumption that observational errors equal to 35% of the ensemble mean (the target error for satellite data product for chlorophyll). Also, with the assimilation of the MODIS-Aqua Chl data, the RMSE between observed and model-predicted fractions of diatoms to the total phytoplankton is reduced by a factor of two in comparison to the nonassimilative run.

  11. Detecting the effects of hydrocarbon pollution in the Amazon forest using hyperspectral satellite images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arellano, Paul; Tansey, Kevin; Balzter, Heiko; Boyd, Doreen S.

    2015-01-01

    The global demand for fossil energy is triggering oil exploration and production projects in remote areas of the world. During the last few decades hydrocarbon production has caused pollution in the Amazon forest inflicting considerable environmental impact. Until now it is not clear how hydrocarbon pollution affects the health of the tropical forest flora. During a field campaign in polluted and pristine forest, more than 1100 leaf samples were collected and analysed for biophysical and biochemical parameters. The results revealed that tropical forests exposed to hydrocarbon pollution show reduced levels of chlorophyll content, higher levels of foliar water content and leaf structural changes. In order to map this impact over wider geographical areas, vegetation indices were applied to hyperspectral Hyperion satellite imagery. Three vegetation indices (SR, NDVI and NDVI 705 ) were found to be the most appropriate indices to detect the effects of petroleum pollution in the Amazon forest. - Highlights: • Leaf biochemical alterations in the rainforest are caused by petroleum pollution. • Lower levels of chlorophyll content are symptom of vegetation stress in polluted sites. • Increased foliar water content was found in vegetation near polluted sites. • Vegetation stress was detected by using vegetation indices from satellite images. • Polluted sites and hydrocarbon seepages in rainforest can be identified from space. - Hydrocarbon pollution in the Amazon forest is observed for first time from satellite data

  12. Technical and cost advantages of silicon carbide telescopes for small-satellite imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasunic, Keith J.; Aikens, Dave; Szwabowski, Dean; Ragan, Chip; Tinker, Flemming

    2017-09-01

    Small satellites ("SmallSats") are a growing segment of the Earth imaging and remote sensing market. Designed to be relatively low cost and with performance tailored to specific end-use applications, they are driving changes in optical telescope assembly (OTA) requirements. OTAs implemented in silicon carbide (SiC) provide performance advantages for space applications but have been predominately limited to large programs. A new generation of lightweight and thermally-stable designs is becoming commercially available, expanding the application of SiC to small satellites. This paper reviews the cost and technical advantages of an OTA designed using SiC for small satellite platforms. Taking into account faceplate fabrication quilting and surface distortion after gravity release, an optimized open-back SiC design with a lightweighting of 70% for a 125-mm SmallSat-class primary mirror has an estimated mass area density of 2.8 kg/m2 and an aspect ratio of 40:1. In addition, the thermally-induced surface error of such optimized designs is estimated at λ/150 RMS per watt of absorbed power. Cost advantages of SiC include reductions in launch mass, thermal-management infrastructure, and manufacturing time based on allowable assembly tolerances.

  13. Deep and shallow structures in the Arctic region imaged by satellite magnetic and gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaina, Carmen; Panet, Isabelle; Shephard, Grace

    2016-07-01

    , volcanic crust, but, as in the case of other oceanic Large Igneous Provinces, only deep sea drilling will be able to reveal the true nature of the underlying crust at the core of the Arctic. The oldest continental crust, usually found in the cratonic areas and as Proterozoic accreted crust, generates the largest positive magnetic anomalies. This crust contains large and deep volcanic bodies in the North American shield, Greenland, the Baltic shield in Eurasia and the Siberian platform in NE Asia, and are imaged by the satellite data. Furthermore, satellite data is not only restricted to revealing crustal and lithospheric depths. Recent workflows have shown that subducted remnants of ocean basins, now located in the lower mantle, as well as large, antipodal features on the core-mantle boundary, can be imaged by satellite gravity. Seismic tomography provides evidence for an extinct Mesozoic Arctic ocean lying around 1400 km under present-day Greenland. However, the variable resolution of seismic tomography at high latitudes, as well as ambiguity in plate reconstructions, renders the existence of the slab open to interpretation. Critically, the current location of the slab also matches perturbations in long-wavelength gravity gradients, providing further support for a deep density anomaly and a slab origin. Gravity data therefore provides a complementary and independent link in linking surface events and deep mantle structure in frontier regions like the Arctic. By revealing the present-day structure, satellite-derived magnetics and gravity offer a critical component in our understanding of Arctic history, over timescales of millions of years and scales of thousands of kilometers.

  14. Blanket safety by GEMSAFE methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Tetsuo; Saito, Masaki

    2001-01-01

    General Methodology of Safety Analysis and Evaluation for Fusion Energy Systems (GEMSAFE) has been applied to a number of fusion system designs, such as R-tokamak, Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER), and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) designs in the both stages of Conceptual Design Activities (CDA) and Engineering Design Activities (EDA). Though the major objective of GEMSAFE is to reasonably select design basis events (DBEs) it is also useful to elucidate related safety functions as well as requirements to ensure its safety. In this paper, we apply the methodology to fusion systems with future tritium breeding blankets and make clear which points of the system should be of concern from safety ensuring point of view. In this context, we have obtained five DBEs that are related to the blanket system. We have also clarified the safety functions required to prevent accident propagations initiated by those blanket-specific DBEs. The outline of the methodology is also reviewed. (author)

  15. A prototype method for diagnosing high ice water content probability using satellite imager data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Christopher R.; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Minnis, Patrick; Nguyen, Louis; Strapp, J. Walter; Palikonda, Rabindra; Khlopenkov, Konstantin; Spangenberg, Douglas; Smith, William L., Jr.; Protat, Alain; Delanoe, Julien

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies have found that ingestion of high mass concentrations of ice particles in regions of deep convective storms, with radar reflectivity considered safe for aircraft penetration, can adversely impact aircraft engine performance. Previous aviation industry studies have used the term high ice water content (HIWC) to define such conditions. Three airborne field campaigns were conducted in 2014 and 2015 to better understand how HIWC is distributed in deep convection, both as a function of altitude and proximity to convective updraft regions, and to facilitate development of new methods for detecting HIWC conditions, in addition to many other research and regulatory goals. This paper describes a prototype method for detecting HIWC conditions using geostationary (GEO) satellite imager data coupled with in situ total water content (TWC) observations collected during the flight campaigns. Three satellite-derived parameters were determined to be most useful for determining HIWC probability: (1) the horizontal proximity of the aircraft to the nearest overshooting convective updraft or textured anvil cloud, (2) tropopause-relative infrared brightness temperature, and (3) daytime-only cloud optical depth. Statistical fits between collocated TWC and GEO satellite parameters were used to determine the membership functions for the fuzzy logic derivation of HIWC probability. The products were demonstrated using data from several campaign flights and validated using a subset of the satellite-aircraft collocation database. The daytime HIWC probability was found to agree quite well with TWC time trends and identified extreme TWC events with high probability. Discrimination of HIWC was more challenging at night with IR-only information. The products show the greatest capability for discriminating TWC ≥ 0.5 g m-3. Product validation remains challenging due to vertical TWC uncertainties and the typically coarse spatio-temporal resolution of the GEO data.

  16. Development of blanket remote maintenance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Oka, Kiyoshi; Taguchi, Kou

    1998-01-01

    ITER in-vessel components such as blankets are scheduled maintenance components, including complete shield blanket replacement for breeding blankets. In-vessel components are activated by 14 MeV neutrons, so blanket maintenance requires remote handling equipment and tools able to handle heavy payloads of about 4 tons within a positioning accuracy of 2 mm under intense gamma radiation. To facilitate remote maintenance, blankets are segmented into 730 modules and rail-mounted vehicle remote maintenance was developed. According to the ITER R and D program, critical technology related to blanket maintenance was developed extensively through joint efforts of the Japan, EU, and U.S. home teams. This paper summarizes current blanket maintenance technology conducted by the Japan Home Team, including development of full-scale remote handling equipment and tools for blanket maintenance. (author)

  17. Development of blanket remote maintenance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Oka, Kiyoshi; Taguchi, Kou [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    ITER in-vessel components such as blankets are scheduled maintenance components, including complete shield blanket replacement for breeding blankets. In-vessel components are activated by 14 MeV neutrons, so blanket maintenance requires remote handling equipment and tools able to handle heavy payloads of about 4 tons within a positioning accuracy of 2 mm under intense gamma radiation. To facilitate remote maintenance, blankets are segmented into 730 modules and rail-mounted vehicle remote maintenance was developed. According to the ITER R and D program, critical technology related to blanket maintenance was developed extensively through joint efforts of the Japan, EU, and U.S. home teams. This paper summarizes current blanket maintenance technology conducted by the Japan Home Team, including development of full-scale remote handling equipment and tools for blanket maintenance. (author)

  18. Approaching bathymetry estimation from high resolution multispectral satellite images using a neuro-fuzzy technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corucci, Linda; Masini, Andrea; Cococcioni, Marco

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses bathymetry estimation from high resolution multispectral satellite images by proposing an accurate supervised method, based on a neuro-fuzzy approach. The method is applied to two Quickbird images of the same area, acquired in different years and meteorological conditions, and is validated using truth data. Performance is studied in different realistic situations of in situ data availability. The method allows to achieve a mean standard deviation of 36.7 cm for estimated water depths in the range [-18, -1] m. When only data collected along a closed path are used as a training set, a mean STD of 45 cm is obtained. The effect of both meteorological conditions and training set size reduction on the overall performance is also investigated.

  19. Satellite Images-Based Obstacle Recognition and Trajectory Generation for Agricultural Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Bodur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a method for the generation of tracking trajectory points, detection and positioning of obstacles in agricultural fields have been presented. Our principal contribution is to produce traceable GPS trajectories for agricultural vehicles to be utilized by path planning algorithms, rather than a new path planning algorithm. The proposed system works with minimal initialization requirements, specifically, a single geographical coordinate entry of an agricultural field. The automation of agricultural plantation requires many aspects to be addressed, many of which have been covered in previous studies. Depending on the type of crop, different agricultural vehicles may be used in the field. However, regardless of their application, they all follow a specified trajectory in the field. This study takes advantage of satellite images for the detection and positioning of obstacles, and the generation of GPS trajectories in the agricultural realm. A set of image processing techniques is applied in Matlab for detection and positioning.

  20. Bandwidth compression of the digitized HDTV images for transmission via satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asmari, A. KH.; Kwatra, S. C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper investigates a subband coding scheme to reduce the transmission bandwidth of the digitized HDTV images. The HDTV signals are decomposed into seven bands. Each band is then independently encoded. The based band is DPCM encoded and the high bands are encoded by using nonuniform Laplacian quantizers with a dead zone. By selecting the dead zone on the basis of energy in the high bands an acceptable image quality is achieved at an average of 45 Mbits/sec (Mbps) rate. This rate is comparable to some very hardware intensive schemes of transform compression or vector quantization proposed in the literature. The subband coding scheme used in this study is considered to be of medium complexity. The 45 Mbps rate is suitable for transmission of HDTV signals via satellites.

  1. Use of geostationary meteorological satellite images in convective rain estimation for flash-flood forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardah, T.; Abu Bakar, S. H.; Bardossy, A.; Maznorizan, M.

    2008-07-01

    SummaryFrequent flash-floods causing immense devastation in the Klang River Basin of Malaysia necessitate an improvement in the real-time forecasting systems being used. The use of meteorological satellite images in estimating rainfall has become an attractive option for improving the performance of flood forecasting-and-warning systems. In this study, a rainfall estimation algorithm using the infrared (IR) information from the Geostationary Meteorological Satellite-5 (GMS-5) is developed for potential input in a flood forecasting system. Data from the records of GMS-5 IR images have been retrieved for selected convective cells to be trained with the radar rain rate in a back-propagation neural network. The selected data as inputs to the neural network, are five parameters having a significant correlation with the radar rain rate: namely, the cloud-top brightness-temperature of the pixel of interest, the mean and the standard deviation of the temperatures of the surrounding five by five pixels, the rate of temperature change, and the sobel operator that indicates the temperature gradient. In addition, three numerical weather prediction (NWP) products, namely the precipitable water content, relative humidity, and vertical wind, are also included as inputs. The algorithm is applied for the areal rainfall estimation in the upper Klang River Basin and compared with another technique that uses power-law regression between the cloud-top brightness-temperature and radar rain rate. Results from both techniques are validated against previously recorded Thiessen areal-averaged rainfall values with coefficient correlation values of 0.77 and 0.91 for the power-law regression and the artificial neural network (ANN) technique, respectively. An extra lead time of around 2 h is gained when the satellite-based ANN rainfall estimation is coupled with a rainfall-runoff model to forecast a flash-flood event in the upper Klang River Basin.

  2. Ship Detection in Optical Satellite Image Based on RX Method and PCAnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xiu; Li, Huali; Lin, Hui; Kang, Xudong; Lu, Ting

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method for ship detection in optical satellite image based on the ReedXiaoli (RX) method and the principal component analysis network (PCAnet). The proposed method consists of the following three steps. First, the spatially adjacent pixels in optical image are arranged into a vector, transforming the optical image into a 3D cube image. By taking this process, the contextual information of the spatially adjacent pixels can be integrated to magnify the discrimination between ship and background. Second, the RX anomaly detection method is adopted to preliminarily extract ship candidates from the produced 3D cube image. Finally, real ships are further confirmed among ship candidates by applying the PCAnet and the support vector machine (SVM). Specifically, the PCAnet is a simple deep learning network which is exploited to perform feature extraction, and the SVM is applied to achieve feature pooling and decision making. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach is effective in discriminating between ships and false alarms, and has a good ship detection performance.

  3. Quantitative analysis of geomorphic processes using satellite image data at different scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. S., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    When aerial and satellite photographs and images are used in the quantitative analysis of geomorphic processes, either through direct observation of active processes or by analysis of landforms resulting from inferred active or dormant processes, a number of limitations in the use of such data must be considered. Active geomorphic processes work at different scales and rates. Therefore, the capability of imaging an active or dormant process depends primarily on the scale of the process and the spatial-resolution characteristic of the imaging system. Scale is an important factor in recording continuous and discontinuous active geomorphic processes, because what is not recorded will not be considered or even suspected in the analysis of orbital images. If the geomorphic process of landform change caused by the process is less than 200 m in x to y dimension, then it will not be recorded. Although the scale factor is critical, in the recording of discontinuous active geomorphic processes, the repeat interval of orbital-image acquisition of a planetary surface also is a consideration in order to capture a recurring short-lived geomorphic process or to record changes caused by either a continuous or a discontinuous geomorphic process.

  4. Performance Evaluation of Machine Learning Algorithms for Urban Pattern Recognition from Multi-spectral Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Wieland

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a classification and performance evaluation framework for the recognition of urban patterns in medium (Landsat ETM, TM and MSS and very high resolution (WorldView-2, Quickbird, Ikonos multi-spectral satellite images is presented. The study aims at exploring the potential of machine learning algorithms in the context of an object-based image analysis and to thoroughly test the algorithm’s performance under varying conditions to optimize their usage for urban pattern recognition tasks. Four classification algorithms, Normal Bayes, K Nearest Neighbors, Random Trees and Support Vector Machines, which represent different concepts in machine learning (probabilistic, nearest neighbor, tree-based, function-based, have been selected and implemented on a free and open-source basis. Particular focus is given to assess the generalization ability of machine learning algorithms and the transferability of trained learning machines between different image types and image scenes. Moreover, the influence of the number and choice of training data, the influence of the size and composition of the feature vector and the effect of image segmentation on the classification accuracy is evaluated.

  5. Numerical investigation of debris materials prior to debris flow hazards using satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Matsushima, T.

    2018-05-01

    The volume of debris flows occurred in mountainous areas is mainly affected by the volume of debris materials deposited at the valley bottom. Quantitative evaluation of debris materials prior to debris flow hazards is important to predict and prevent hazards. At midnight on 7th August 2010, two catastrophic debris flows were triggered by the torrential rain from two valleys in the northern part of Zhouqu City, NW China, resulting in 1765 fatalities and huge economic losses. In the present study, a depth-integrated particle method is adopted to simulate the debris materials, based on 2.5 m resolution satellite images. In the simulation scheme, the materials are modeled as dry granular solids, and they travel down from the slopes and are deposited at the valley bottom. The spatial distributions of the debris materials are investigated in terms of location, volume and thickness. Simulation results show good agreement with post-disaster satellite images and field observation data. Additionally, the effect of the spatial distributions of the debris materials on subsequent debris flows is also evaluated. It is found that the spatial distributions of the debris materials strongly influence affected area, runout distance and flow discharge. This study might be useful in hazard assessments prior to debris flow hazards by investigating diverse scenarios in which the debris materials are unknown.

  6. Cadastral Resurvey using High Resolution Satellite Ortho Image - challenges: A case study in Odisha, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, P. K.; Sanabada, M. K.; Tripathi, S.

    2014-11-01

    Advancements in satellite sensor technology enabling capturing of geometrically accurate images of earth's surface coupled with DGPS/ETS and GIS technology holds the capability of large scale mapping of land resources at cadastral level. High Resolution Satellite Images depict field bunds distinctly. Thus plot parcels are to be delineated from cloud free ortho-images and obscured/difficult areas are to be surveyed using DGPS and ETS. The vector datasets thus derived through RS/DGPS/ETS survey are to be integrated in GIS environment to generate the base cadastral vector datasets for further settlement/title confirmation activities. The objective of this paper is to illustrate the efficacy of a hybrid methodology employed in Pitambarpur Sasana village under Digapahandi Tahasil of Ganjam district, as a pilot project, particularly in Odisha scenario where the land parcel size is very small. One of the significant observations of the study is matching of Cadastral map area i.e. 315.454 Acres, the image map area i.e. 314.887 Acres and RoR area i.e. 313.815 Acre. It was revealed that 79 % of plots derived by high-tech survey method show acceptable level of accuracy despite the fact that the mode of area measurement by ground and automated method has significant variability. The variations are more in case of Government lands, Temple/Trust lands, Common Property Resources and plots near to river/nalas etc. The study indicates that the adopted technology can be extended to other districts and cadastral resurvey and updating work can be done for larger areas of the country using this methodology.

  7. Concepts for fusion fuel production blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierszewski, P.

    1986-06-01

    The fusion blanket surrounds the burning hydrogen core of the fusion reactor. It is in this blanket that most of the energy released by the DT fusion reaction is converted into useable product, and where tritium fuel is produced to enable further operation of the reactor. Blankets will involve new materials, conditions and processes. Several recent fusion blanket concepts are presented to illustrate the range of ideas

  8. Exploiting Deep Matching and SAR Data for the Geo-Localization Accuracy Improvement of Optical Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Merkle

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Improving the geo-localization of optical satellite images is an important pre-processing step for many remote sensing tasks like monitoring by image time series or scene analysis after sudden events. These tasks require geo-referenced and precisely co-registered multi-sensor data. Images captured by the high resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR satellite TerraSAR-X exhibit an absolute geo-location accuracy within a few decimeters. These images represent therefore a reliable source to improve the geo-location accuracy of optical images, which is in the order of tens of meters. In this paper, a deep learning-based approach for the geo-localization accuracy improvement of optical satellite images through SAR reference data is investigated. Image registration between SAR and optical images requires few, but accurate and reliable matching points. These are derived from a Siamese neural network. The network is trained using TerraSAR-X and PRISM image pairs covering greater urban areas spread over Europe, in order to learn the two-dimensional spatial shifts between optical and SAR image patches. Results confirm that accurate and reliable matching points can be generated with higher matching accuracy and precision with respect to state-of-the-art approaches.

  9. Effects of Per-Pixel Variability on Uncertainties in Bathymetric Retrievals from High-Resolution Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Botha

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Increased sophistication of high spatial resolution multispectral satellite sensors provides enhanced bathymetric mapping capability. However, the enhancements are counter-acted by per-pixel variability in sunglint, atmospheric path length and directional effects. This case-study highlights retrieval errors from images acquired at non-optimal geometrical combinations. The effects of variations in the environmental noise on water surface reflectance and the accuracy of environmental variable retrievals were quantified. Two WorldView-2 satellite images were acquired, within one minute of each other, with Image 1 placed in a near-optimal sun-sensor geometric configuration and Image 2 placed close to the specular point of the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF. Image 2 had higher total environmental noise due to increased surface glint and higher atmospheric path-scattering. Generally, depths were under-estimated from Image 2, compared to Image 1. A partial improvement in retrieval error after glint correction of Image 2 resulted in an increase of the maximum depth to which accurate depth estimations were returned. This case-study indicates that critical analysis of individual images, accounting for the entire sun elevation and azimuth and satellite sensor pointing and geometry as well as anticipated wave height and direction, is required to ensure an image is fit for purpose for aquatic data analysis.

  10. Blanket Manufacturing Technologies : Thermomechanical Tests on HCLL Blanket Mocks Up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laffont, G.; Cachon, L.; Taraud, P.; Challet, F.; Rampal, G.; Salavy, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    In the Helium Cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) Blanket concept, the lithium lead plays the double role of breeder and multiplier material, and the helium is used as coolant. The HCCL Blanket Module are made of steel boxes reinforced by stiffening plates. These stiffening plates form cells in which the breeder is slowly flowing. The power deposited in the breeder material is recovered by the breeder cooling units constituted by 5 parallel cooling plates. All the structures such as first wall, stiffening and cooling plates are cooled by helium. Due to the complex geometry of these parts and the high level of pressure and temperature loading, thermo-mechanical phenomena expected in the '' HCLL blanket concept '' have motivated the present study. The aim of this study, carried out in the frame of EFDA Work program, is to validate the manufacturing technologies of HCLL blanket module by testing small scale mock-up under breeder blanket representative operating conditions.The first step of this experimental program is the design and manufacturing of a relevant test section in the DIADEMO facility, which was recently upgraded with an He cooling loop (pressure of 80 bar, maximum temperature of 500 o C,flow rate of 30 g/s) taking the opportunity of synergies with the gas-cooled fission reactor R-and-D program. The second step will deal with the thermo-mechanical tests. This paper focuses on the program made to support the cooling plate mock up tests which will be carried out on the DIADEMO facility (CEA) by thermo-mechanical calculations in order to define the relevant test conditions and the experimental parameters to be monitored. (author)

  11. Use of high resolution satellite images for tracking of changes in the lineament structure, caused by earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Arellano-Baeza, A. A.; Garcia, R. V.; Trejo-Soto, M.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decades strong efforts have been made to apply new spaceborn technologies to the study and possible forecast of strong earthquakes. In this study we use ASTER/TERRA multispectral satellite images for detection and analysis of changes in the system of lineaments previous to a strong earthquake. A lineament is a straight or a somewhat curved feature in an image, which it is possible to detect by a special processing of images based on directional filtering and or Hough transform. ...

  12. Breeding blankets for thermonuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocaboy, Alain.

    1982-06-01

    Materials with structures suitable for this purpose are studied. A bibliographic review of the main solid and liquid lithiated compounds is then presented. Erosion, dimensioning and maintenance problems associated with the limiter and the first wall of the reactor are studied from the point of view of the constraints they impose on the design of the blankets. Detailed studies of the main solid and liquid blanket concepts enable the best technological compromises to be determined for the indispensable functions of the blanket to be assured under acceptable conditions. Our analysis leads to four classes of solution, which cannot at this stage be considered as final recommendations, but which indicate what sort of solutions it is worthwhile exploring and comparing in order to be in a position to suggest a realistic blanket at the time when plasma control is sufficiently good for power reactors to be envisaged. Some considerations on the general architecture of the reactor are indicated. Energy storage with pulsed reactors is discussed in the appendix, and a first approach made to minimizing the total tritium recovery [fr

  13. Neural network multispectral satellite images classification of volcanic ash plumes in a cloudy scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Picchiani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the potential use of neural networks in the characterization of eruptive events monitored by satellite, through fast and automatic classification of multispectral images. The algorithm has been developed for the MODIS instrument and can easily be extended to other similar sensors. Six classes have been defined paying particular attention to image regions that represent the different surfaces that could possibly be found under volcanic ash clouds. Complex cloudy scenarios composed by images collected during the Icelandic eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull (2010 and Grimsvötn (2011 volcanoes have been considered as test cases. A sensitivity analysis on the MODIS TIR and VIS channels has been performed to optimize the algorithm. The neural network has been trained with the first image of the dataset, while the remaining data have been considered as independent validation sets. Finally, the neural network classifier’s results have been compared with maps classified with several interactive procedures performed in a consolidated operational framework. This comparison shows that the automatic methodology proposed achieves a very promising performance, showing an overall accuracy greater than 84%, for the Eyjafjalla - jökull event, and equal to 74% for the Grimsvötn event. 

  14. The Application of Chinese High-Spatial Remote Sensing Satellite Image in Land Law Enforcement Information Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Yang, R.

    2018-04-01

    Chinese high -resolution (HR) remote sensing satellites have made huge leap in the past decade. Commercial satellite datasets, such as GF-1, GF-2 and ZY-3 images, the panchromatic images (PAN) resolution of them are 2 m, 1 m and 2.1 m and the multispectral images (MS) resolution are 8 m, 4 m, 5.8 m respectively have been emerged in recent years. Chinese HR satellite imagery has been free downloaded for public welfare purposes using. Local government began to employ more professional technician to improve traditional land management technology. This paper focused on analysing the actual requirements of the applications in government land law enforcement in Guangxi Autonomous Region. 66 counties in Guangxi Autonomous Region were selected for illegal land utilization spot extraction with fusion Chinese HR images. The procedure contains: A. Defines illegal land utilization spot type. B. Data collection, GF-1, GF-2, and ZY-3 datasets were acquired in the first half year of 2016 and other auxiliary data were collected in 2015. C. Batch process, HR images were collected for batch preprocessing through ENVI/IDL tool. D. Illegal land utilization spot extraction by visual interpretation. E. Obtaining attribute data with ArcGIS Geoprocessor (GP) model. F. Thematic mapping and surveying. Through analysing 42 counties results, law enforcement officials found 1092 illegal land using spots and 16 suspicious illegal mining spots. The results show that Chinese HR satellite images have great potential for feature information extraction and the processing procedure appears robust.

  15. Disruption problematics in segmented blanket concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutzen, Y.; Fantechi, S.; Farfaletti-Casali, F.

    1994-01-01

    In Tokamaks, the hostile operating environment originated by plasma disruption events requires that the first wall/blanket/shield components sustain the large induced electromagnetic (EM) forces without significant structural deformation and within allowable material stresses. As a consequence there is a need to improve the safety features of the blanket design concepts satisfying the disruption problematics and to formulate guidelines on the required internal reinforcements of the blanket components. The present paper describes the recent investigations on blanket reinforcement systems needed in order to optimize the first-wall/blanket/shield structural design for next step and commercial fusion reactors in the context of ITER, DEMO and SEAFP activities

  16. Reprocessing the Historical Satellite Passive Microwave Record at Enhanced Spatial Resolutions using Image Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, M.; Brodzik, M. J.; Long, D. G.; Paget, A. C.; Armstrong, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    Beginning in 1978, the satellite passive microwave data record has been a mainstay of remote sensing of the cryosphere, providing twice-daily, near-global spatial coverage for monitoring changes in hydrologic and cryospheric parameters that include precipitation, soil moisture, surface water, vegetation, snow water equivalent, sea ice concentration and sea ice motion. Currently available global gridded passive microwave data sets serve a diverse community of hundreds of data users, but do not meet many requirements of modern Earth System Data Records (ESDRs) or Climate Data Records (CDRs), most notably in the areas of intersensor calibration, quality-control, provenance and consistent processing methods. The original gridding techniques were relatively primitive and were produced on 25 km grids using the original EASE-Grid definition that is not easily accommodated in modern software packages. Further, since the first Level 3 data sets were produced, the Level 2 passive microwave data on which they were based have been reprocessed as Fundamental CDRs (FCDRs) with improved calibration and documentation. We are funded by NASA MEaSUREs to reprocess the historical gridded data sets as EASE-Grid 2.0 ESDRs, using the most mature available Level 2 satellite passive microwave (SMMR, SSM/I-SSMIS, AMSR-E) records from 1978 to the present. We have produced prototype data from SSM/I and AMSR-E for the year 2003, for review and feedback from our Early Adopter user community. The prototype data set includes conventional, low-resolution ("drop-in-the-bucket" 25 km) grids and enhanced-resolution grids derived from the two candidate image reconstruction techniques we are evaluating: 1) Backus-Gilbert (BG) interpolation and 2) a radiometer version of Scatterometer Image Reconstruction (SIR). We summarize our temporal subsetting technique, algorithm tuning parameters and computational costs, and include sample SSM/I images at enhanced resolutions of up to 3 km. We are actively

  17. An Object-Based Image Analysis Approach for Detecting Penguin Guano in very High Spatial Resolution Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandi Witharana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The logistical challenges of Antarctic field work and the increasing availability of very high resolution commercial imagery have driven an interest in more efficient search and classification of remotely sensed imagery. This exploratory study employed geographic object-based analysis (GEOBIA methods to classify guano stains, indicative of chinstrap and Adélie penguin breeding areas, from very high spatial resolution (VHSR satellite imagery and closely examined the transferability of knowledge-based GEOBIA rules across different study sites focusing on the same semantic class. We systematically gauged the segmentation quality, classification accuracy, and the reproducibility of fuzzy rules. A master ruleset was developed based on one study site and it was re-tasked “without adaptation” and “with adaptation” on candidate image scenes comprising guano stains. Our results suggest that object-based methods incorporating the spectral, textural, spatial, and contextual characteristics of guano are capable of successfully detecting guano stains. Reapplication of the master ruleset on candidate scenes without modifications produced inferior classification results, while adapted rules produced comparable or superior results compared to the reference image. This work provides a road map to an operational “image-to-assessment pipeline” that will enable Antarctic wildlife researchers to seamlessly integrate VHSR imagery into on-demand penguin population census.

  18. Fusion reactor blanket-main design aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strebkov, Yu.; Sidorov, A.; Danilov, I.

    1994-01-01

    The main function of the fusion reactor blanket is ensuring tritium breeding and radiation shield. The blanket version depends on the reactor type (experimental, DEMO, commercial) and its parameters. Blanket operation conditions are defined with the heat flux, neutron load/fluence, cyclic operation, dynamic heating/force loading, MHD effects etc. DEMO/commercial blanket design is distinguished e.g. by rather high heat load and neutron fluence - up to 100 W/cm 2 and 7 MWa/m 2 accordingly. This conditions impose specific requirements for the materials, structure, maintenance of the blanket and its most loaded components - FW and limiter. The liquid Li-Pb eutectic is one of the possible breeder for different kinds of blanket in view of its advantages one of which is the blanket convertibility that allow to have shielding blanket (borated water) or breeding one (Li-Pb eutectic). Using Li-Pb eutectic for both ITER and DEMO blankets have been considered. In the conceptual ITER design the solid eutectic blanket was carried out. The liquid eutectic breeder/coolant is suggested also for the advanced (high parameter) blanket

  19. Biomass estimation with high resolution satellite images: A case study of Quercus rotundifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Adélia M. O.; Gonçalves, Ana Cristina; Mesquita, Paulo; Marques da Silva, José R.

    2015-03-01

    Forest biomass has had a growing importance in the world economy as a global strategic reserve, due to applications in bioenergy, bioproduct development and issues related to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Current techniques used for forest inventory are usually time consuming and expensive. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop reliable, low cost methods that can be used for forest biomass estimation and monitoring. This study uses new techniques to process high spatial resolution satellite images (0.70 m) in order to assess and monitor forest biomass. Multi-resolution segmentation method and object oriented classification are used to obtain the area of tree canopy horizontal projection for Quercus rotundifolia. Forest inventory allows for calculation of tree and canopy horizontal projection and biomass, the latter with allometric functions. The two data sets are used to develop linear functions to assess above ground biomass, with crown horizontal projection as an independent variable. The functions for the cumulative values, both for inventory and satellite data, for a prediction error equal or smaller than the Portuguese national forest inventory (7%), correspond to stand areas of 0.5 ha, which include most of the Q.rotundifolia stands.

  20. Detecting long-term changes to vegetation in northern Canada using the Landsat satellite image archive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, R H; Olthof, I; Carrière, M; Deschamps, A; Pouliot, D

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of coarse resolution (∼1 km) satellite imagery has provided evidence of vegetation changes in arctic regions since the mid-1980s that may be attributable to climate warming. Here we investigate finer-scale changes to northern vegetation over the same period using stacks of 30 m resolution Landsat TM and ETM + satellite images. Linear trends in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and tasseled cap indices are derived for four widely spaced national parks in northern Canada. The trends are related to predicted changes in fractional shrub and other vegetation covers using regression tree classifiers trained with plot measurements and high resolution imagery. We find a consistent pattern of greening (6.1–25.5% of areas increasing) and predicted increases in vascular vegetation in all four parks that is associated with positive temperature trends. Coarse resolution (3 km) NDVI trends were not detected in two of the parks that had less intense greening. A range of independent studies and observations corroborate many of the major changes observed.

  1. Combining high-resolution satellite images and altimetry to estimate the volume of small lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baup, F.; Frappart, F.; Maubant, J.

    2014-05-01

    This study presents an approach to determining the volume of water in small lakes (manager of the lake. Three independent approaches are developed to estimate the lake volume and its temporal variability. The first two approaches (HRBV and ABV) are empirical and use synchronous ground measurements of the water volume and the satellite data. The results demonstrate that altimetry and imagery can be effectively and accurately used to monitor the temporal variations of the lake (R2ABV = 0.98, RMSEABV = 5%, R2HRBV = 0.90, and RMSEABV = 7.4%), assuming a time-varying triangular shape for the shore slope of the lake (this form is well adapted since it implies a difference inferior to 2% between the theoretical volume of the lake and the one estimated from bathymetry). The third method (AHRBVC) combines altimetry (to measure the lake level) and satellite images (of the lake surface) to estimate the volume changes of the lake and produces the best results (R2AHRBVC = 0.98) of the three methods, demonstrating the potential of future Sentinel and SWOT missions to monitor small lakes and reservoirs for agricultural and irrigation applications.

  2. THE ANALYSIS OF MOISTURE DEFICIT BASED ON MODIS AND LANDSAT SATELLITE IMAGES. CASE STUDY: THE OLTENIA PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ONȚEL IRINA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Satellite images are an important source of information to identify and analyse some hazardous climatic phenomena such as the dryness and drought. These phenomena are characterized by scarce rainfall, increased evapotranspiration and high soil moisture deficit. The soil water reserve depletes to the wilting coefficient, soon followed by the pedological drought which has negative effects on vegetation and agricultural productivity. The MODIS satellite images (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer allow the monitoring of the vegetation throughout the entire vegetative period, with a frequency of 1-2 days and with a spatial resolution of 250 m, 500 m and 1 km away. Another useful source of information is the LANDSAT satellite images, with a spatial resolution of 30 m. Based on MODIS and Landsat satellite images, were calculated moisture monitoring index such as SIWSI (Shortwave Infrared Water Stress Index. Consequently, some years with low moisture such as 2000, 2002, 2007 and 2012 could be identified. Spatially, the areas with moisture deficit varied from one year to another all over the whole analised period (2000-2012. The remote sensing results was corelated with Standard Precipitation Anomaly, which gives a measure of the severity of a wet or dry event.

  3. 47 CFR 25.226 - Blanket licensing provisions for domestic, U.S. Vehicle-Mounted Earth Stations (VMESs) receiving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket licensing provisions for domestic, U.S... GHz (Earth-to-space) frequency band, operating with Geostationary Satellites in the Fixed-Satellite Service. 25.226 Section 25.226 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON...

  4. Target Matching Recognition for Satellite Images Based on the Improved FREAK Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yantong Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing image target matching recognition exhibits poor robustness and accuracy because of the unfit feature extractor and large data quantity. To address this problem, we propose a new feature extraction algorithm for fast target matching recognition that comprises an improved feature from accelerated segment test (FAST feature detector and a binary fast retina key point (FREAK feature descriptor. To improve robustness, we extend the FAST feature detector by applying scale space theory and then transform the feature vector acquired by the FREAK descriptor from decimal into binary. We reduce the quantity of data in the computer and improve matching accuracy by using the binary space. Simulation test results show that our algorithm outperforms other relevant methods in terms of robustness and accuracy.

  5. TREND ASSESSMENT OF SPATIO-TEMPORAL CHANGE OF TEHRAN HEAT ISLAND USING SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Saradjian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous investigations on Urban Heat Island (UHI show that land cover change is the main factor of increasing Land Surface Temperature (LST in urban areas, especially conversion of vegetation and bare soil to concrete, asphalt and other man-made structures. On the other hand, other human activities like those which cause to burning fossil fuels, that increase the amount of carbon dioxide, may raise temperature in global scale in comparison with small scales (urban areas. In this study, multiple satellite images with different spatial and temporal resolutions have been used to determine Land Surface Temperature (LST variability in Tehran metropolitan area. High temporal resolution of AVHRR images have been used as the main data source when investigating temperature variability in the urban area. The analysis shows that UHI appears more significant at afternoon and night hours. But the urban class temperature is almost equal to its surrounding vegetation and bare soil classes at around noon. It also reveals that there is no specific difference in UHI intense during the days throughout the year. However, it can be concluded that in the process of city expansion in years, UHI has been grown both spatially and in magnitude. In order to locate land-cover types and relate them to LST, Thematic Mapper (TM images have been exploited. The influence of elevation on the LST has also been studied, using digital elevation model derived from SRTM database.

  6. Vegetation classification and quatification by satellite image processing. A case study in north Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranha, J.T. [Dept. Florestal, UTAD, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal); Viana, H.F. [Instituto Politecnico de Viseu, Escola Superior Agraria, Viseu (Portugal); Rodrigues, R. [Bioflag - Consulting - Santo Tirso (Portugal)

    2008-07-01

    The expected increase in Forest Biomass demand for energy production leads to derive expeditious and non-expensive techniques in order to classify vegetal land cover and evaluate the available biomass like to be harvested. Satellite image processing and classification, combined to field work, is a suitable tool to achieve these aims. A vegetation index (NDVI) was created by means of a Landsat TM image, from 2006, manipulation, in order to create a general vegetation map. Then, the same image was submitted to a supervised classification process in order to produce a land cover map (overall accuracy of 85%). In a second stage, they were collected NDVI values for each sampling plot, in order to update the database previous developed with data collected within forestry stands and shrubland. This data merging enabled to transform general vegetation map into available biomass within forestry stands and shrubland. The results showed a range of values from 0.25 up to 6.00 dry ton./ha for recent and former burnt areas recovered by Pinus pinaster (maritime pine) young trees and from 2.00 up to 9.00 dry ton./ha for recent and former burnt areas recovered by shrubs (e.g. genista or broom).

  7. Real time deforestation detection using ann and satellite images the Amazon rainforest study case

    CERN Document Server

    Nunes Kehl, Thiago; Roberto Veronez, Maurício; Cesar Cazella, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    The foremost aim of the present study was the development of a tool to detect daily deforestation in the Amazon rainforest, using satellite images from the MODIS/TERRA sensor and Artificial Neural Networks. The developed tool provides parameterization of the configuration for the neural network training to enable us to select the best neural architecture to address the problem. The tool makes use of confusion matrices to determine the degree of success of the network. A spectrum-temporal analysis of the study area was done on 57 images from May 20 to July 15, 2003 using the trained neural network. The analysis enabled verification of quality of the implemented neural network classification and also aided in understanding the dynamics of deforestation in the Amazon rainforest, thereby highlighting the vast potential of neural networks for image classification. However, the complex task of detection of predatory actions at the beginning, i.e., generation of consistent alarms, instead of false alarms has not bee...

  8. Extracting oil palm crown from WorldView-2 satellite image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korom, A.; Phua, M.-H.; Hirata, Y.; Matsuura, T.

    2014-02-01

    Oil palm (OP) is the most commercial crop in Malaysia. Estimating the crowns is important for biomass estimation from high resolution satellite (HRS) image. This study examined extraction of individual OP crown from a WorldView-2 image using twofold algorithms, i.e., masking of Non-OP pixels and detection of individual OP crown based on the watershed segmentation of greyscale images. The study site was located in Beluran district, central Sabah, where matured OPs with the age ranging from 15 to 25 years old have been planted. We examined two compound vegetation indices of (NDVI+1)*DVI and NDII for masking non-OP crown areas. Using kappa statistics, an optimal threshold value was set with the highest accuracy at 90.6% for differentiating OP crown areas from Non-OP areas. After the watershed segmentation of OP crown areas with additional post-procedures, about 77% of individual OP crowns were successfully detected in comparison to the manual based delineation. Shape and location of each crown segment was then assessed based on a modified version of the goodness measures of Möller et al which was 0.3, indicating an acceptable CSGM (combined segmentation goodness measures) agreements between the automated and manually delineated crowns (perfect case is '1').

  9. Seagrass mapping in Greek territorial waters using Landsat-8 satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topouzelis, Konstantinos; Makri, Despina; Stoupas, Nikolaos; Papakonstantinou, Apostolos; Katsanevakis, Stelios

    2018-05-01

    Seagrass meadows are among the most valuable coastal ecosystems on earth due to their structural and functional roles in the coastal environment. This study demonstrates remote sensing's capacity to produce seagrass distribution maps on a regional scale. The seagrass coverage maps provided here describe and quantify for the first time the extent and the spatial distribution of seagrass meadows in Greek waters. This information is needed for identifying priority conservation sites and to help coastal ecosystem managers and stakeholders to develop conservation strategies and design a resilient network of protected marine areas. The results were based on an object-based image analysis of 50 Landsat-8 satellite images. The time window of image acquisition was between June 2013 and July 2015. In total, the seagrass coverage in Greek waters was estimated at 2619 km2. The largest coverages of individual seagrass meadows were found around Lemnos Island (124 km2), Corfu Island (46 km2), and East Peloponnese (47 km2). The accuracy assessment of the detected areas was based on 62 Natura 2000 sites, for which habitat maps were available. The mean total accuracy for all 62 sites was estimated at 76.3%.

  10. Extracting oil palm crown from WorldView-2 satellite image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korom, A; Phua, M-H; Hirata, Y; Matsuura, T

    2014-01-01

    Oil palm (OP) is the most commercial crop in Malaysia. Estimating the crowns is important for biomass estimation from high resolution satellite (HRS) image. This study examined extraction of individual OP crown from a WorldView-2 image using twofold algorithms, i.e., masking of Non-OP pixels and detection of individual OP crown based on the watershed segmentation of greyscale images. The study site was located in Beluran district, central Sabah, where matured OPs with the age ranging from 15 to 25 years old have been planted. We examined two compound vegetation indices of (NDVI+1)*DVI and NDII for masking non-OP crown areas. Using kappa statistics, an optimal threshold value was set with the highest accuracy at 90.6% for differentiating OP crown areas from Non-OP areas. After the watershed segmentation of OP crown areas with additional post-procedures, about 77% of individual OP crowns were successfully detected in comparison to the manual based delineation. Shape and location of each crown segment was then assessed based on a modified version of the goodness measures of Möller et al which was 0.3, indicating an acceptable CSGM (combined segmentation goodness measures) agreements between the automated and manually delineated crowns (perfect case is '1')

  11. DEM GENERATION FROM HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGES THROUGH A NEW 3D LEAST SQUARES MATCHING ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Automated generation of digital elevation models (DEMs from high resolution satellite images (HRSIs has been an active research topic for many years. However, stereo matching of HRSIs, in particular based on image-space search, is still difficult due to occlusions and building facades within them. Object-space matching schemes, proposed to overcome these problem, often are very time consuming and critical to the dimensions of voxels. In this paper, we tried a new least square matching (LSM algorithm that works in a 3D object space. The algorithm starts with an initial height value on one location of the object space. From this 3D point, the left and right image points are projected. The true height is calculated by iterative least squares estimation based on the grey level differences between the left and right patches centred on the projected left and right points. We tested the 3D LSM to the Worldview images over 'Terrassa Sud' provided by the ISPRS WG I/4. We also compared the performance of the 3D LSM with the correlation matching based on 2D image space and the correlation matching based on 3D object space. The accuracy of the DEM from each method was analysed against the ground truth. Test results showed that 3D LSM offers more accurate DEMs over the conventional matching algorithms. Results also showed that 3D LSM is sensitive to the accuracy of initial height value to start the estimation. We combined the 3D COM and 3D LSM for accurate and robust DEM generation from HRSIs. The major contribution of this paper is that we proposed and validated that LSM can be applied to object space and that the combination of 3D correlation and 3D LSM can be a good solution for automated DEM generation from HRSIs.

  12. Tree Species Classification in Temperate Forests Using Formosat-2 Satellite Image Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sheeren

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mapping forest composition is a major concern for forest management, biodiversity assessment and for understanding the potential impacts of climate change on tree species distribution. In this study, the suitability of a dense high spatial resolution multispectral Formosat-2 satellite image time-series (SITS to discriminate tree species in temperate forests is investigated. Based on a 17-date SITS acquired across one year, thirteen major tree species (8 broadleaves and 5 conifers are classified in a study area of southwest France. The performance of parametric (GMM and nonparametric (k-NN, RF, SVM methods are compared at three class hierarchy levels for different versions of the SITS: (i a smoothed noise-free version based on the Whittaker smoother; (ii a non-smoothed cloudy version including all the dates; (iii a non-smoothed noise-free version including only 14 dates. Noise refers to pixels contaminated by clouds and cloud shadows. The results of the 108 distinct classifications show a very high suitability of the SITS to identify the forest tree species based on phenological differences (average κ = 0 . 93 estimated by cross-validation based on 1235 field-collected plots. SVM is found to be the best classifier with very close results from the other classifiers. No clear benefit of removing noise by smoothing can be observed. Classification accuracy is even improved using the non-smoothed cloudy version of the SITS compared to the 14 cloud-free image time series. However conclusions of the results need to be considered with caution because of possible overfitting. Disagreements also appear between the maps produced by the classifiers for complex mixed forests, suggesting a higher classification uncertainty in these contexts. Our findings suggest that time-series data can be a good alternative to hyperspectral data for mapping forest types. It also demonstrates the potential contribution of the recently launched Sentinel-2 satellite for

  13. Development of a software for monitoring of seismic activity through the analysis of satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Pinto, C.; Poblete, A.; Arellano-Baeza, A. A.; Sanchez, G.

    2010-12-01

    A software for extraction and analysis of the lineaments has been developed and applied for the tracking of the accumulation/relaxation of stress in the Earth’s crust due to seismic and volcanic activity. A lineament is a straight or a somewhat curved feature in a satellite image, which reflects, at least partially, presence of faults in the crust. The technique of lineament extraction is based on the application of directional filters and Hough transform. The software has been checked for several earthquakes occurred in the Pacific coast of the South America with the magnitude > 4 Mw, analyzing temporal sequences of the ASTER/TERRA multispectral satellite images for the regions around an epicenter. All events were located in the regions with small seasonal variations and limited vegetation to facilitate the tracking of features associated with the seismic activity only. It was found that the number and orientation of lineaments changes significantly about one month before an earthquake approximately, and a few months later the system returns to its initial state. This effect increases with the earthquake magnitude. It also was shown that the behavior of lineaments associated to the volcano seismic activity is opposite to that obtained previously for earthquakes. This discrepancy can be explained assuming that in the last case the main reason of earthquakes is compression and accumulation of strength in the Earth’s crust due to subduction of tectonic plates, whereas in the first case we deal with the inflation of a volcano edifice due to elevation of pressure and magma intrusion.

  14. Development of a Lyman-α Imaging Solar Telescope for the Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jang

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Long term observations of full-disk Lyman-α irradiance have been made by the instruments on various satellites. In addition, several sounding rockets dating back to the 1950s and up through the present have measured the Lyman-α irradiance. Previous full disk Lyman-α images of the sun have been very interesting and useful scientifically, but have been only five-minute ``snapshots" obtained on sounding rocket flights. All of these observations to date have been snapshots, with no time resolution to observe changes in the chromospheric structure as a result of the evolving magnetic field, and its effect on the Lyman-α intensity. The Lyman-α Imaging Solar Telescope(LIST can provide a unique opportunity for the study of the sun in the Lyman-α region with the high time and spatial resolution for the first time. Up to the 2nd year development, the preliminary design of the optics, mechanical structure and electronics system has been completed. Also the mechanical structure analysis, thermal analysis were performed and the material for the structure was chosen as a result of these analyses. And the test plan and the verification matrix were decided. The operation systems, technical and scientific operation, were studied and finally decided. Those are the technical operation, mechanical working modes for the observation and safety, the scientific operation and the process of the acquired data. The basic techniques acquired through the development of satellite based solar telescope are essential for the construction of space environment forecast system in the future. The techniques which we developed through this study, like mechanical, optical and data processing techniques, could be applied extensively not only to the process of the future production of flight models of this kind, but also to the related industries. Also, we can utilize the scientific achievements which are obtained throughout the project. And these can be utilized to build a high

  15. Using Spatial Reinforcement Learning to Build Forest Wildfire Dynamics Models From Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Ganapathi Subramanian

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Machine learning algorithms have increased tremendously in power in recent years but have yet to be fully utilized in many ecology and sustainable resource management domains such as wildlife reserve design, forest fire management, and invasive species spread. One thing these domains have in common is that they contain dynamics that can be characterized as a spatially spreading process (SSP, which requires many parameters to be set precisely to model the dynamics, spread rates, and directional biases of the elements which are spreading. We present related work in artificial intelligence and machine learning for SSP sustainability domains including forest wildfire prediction. We then introduce a novel approach for learning in SSP domains using reinforcement learning (RL where fire is the agent at any cell in the landscape and the set of actions the fire can take from a location at any point in time includes spreading north, south, east, or west or not spreading. This approach inverts the usual RL setup since the dynamics of the corresponding Markov Decision Process (MDP is a known function for immediate wildfire spread. Meanwhile, we learn an agent policy for a predictive model of the dynamics of a complex spatial process. Rewards are provided for correctly classifying which cells are on fire or not compared with satellite and other related data. We examine the behavior of five RL algorithms on this problem: value iteration, policy iteration, Q-learning, Monte Carlo Tree Search, and Asynchronous Advantage Actor-Critic (A3C. We compare to a Gaussian process-based supervised learning approach and also discuss the relation of our approach to manually constructed, state-of-the-art methods from forest wildfire modeling. We validate our approach with satellite image data of two massive wildfire events in Northern Alberta, Canada; the Fort McMurray fire of 2016 and the Richardson fire of 2011. The results show that we can learn predictive, agent

  16. Design study of blanket structure for tokamak experimental fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    Design study of the blanket structure for JAERI Experimental Fusion Reactor (JXFR) has been carried out. Studied here were fabrication and testing of the blanket structure (blanket cells, blanket rings, piping and blanket modules), assembly and disassembly of the blanket module, and monitering and testing technique. Problems in design and fabrication of the blanket structure could be revealed. Research and development problems for the future were also disclosed. (author)

  17. 47 CFR 25.221 - Blanket Licensing provisions for Earth Stations on Vessels (ESVs) receiving in the 3700-4200 MHz...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the 5925-6425 MHz (Earth-to-space) frequency band, operating with Geostationary Satellite Orbit (GSO) Satellites in the Fixed-Satellite Service. 25.221 Section 25.221 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket Licensing provisions for Earth Stations...

  18. Mapping of Polar Areas Based on High-Resolution Satellite Images: The Example of the Henryk Arctowski Polish Antarctic Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurczyński, Zdzisław; Różycki, Sebastian; Bylina, Paweł

    2017-12-01

    To produce orthophotomaps or digital elevation models, the most commonly used method is photogrammetric measurement. However, the use of aerial images is not easy in polar regions for logistical reasons. In these areas, remote sensing data acquired from satellite systems is much more useful. This paper presents the basic technical requirements of different products which can be obtain (in particular orthoimages and digital elevation model (DEM)) using Very-High-Resolution Satellite (VHRS) images. The study area was situated in the vicinity of the Henryk Arctowski Polish Antarctic Station on the Western Shore of Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Western Antarctic. Image processing was applied on two triplets of images acquired by the Pléiades 1A and 1B in March 2013. The results of the generation of orthoimages from the Pléiades systems without control points showed that the proposed method can achieve Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) of 3-9 m. The presented Pléiades images are useful for thematic remote sensing analysis and processing of measurements. Using satellite images to produce remote sensing products for polar regions is highly beneficial and reliable and compares well with more expensive airborne photographs or field surveys.

  19. Automatic Matching of Multi-Source Satellite Images: A Case Study on ZY-1-02C and ETM+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The ever-growing number of applications for satellites is being compromised by their poor direct positioning precision. Existing orthoimages, such as enhanced thematic mapper (ETM+ orthoimages, can provide georeferences or improve the geo-referencing accuracy of satellite images, such ZY-1-02C images that have unsatisfactory positioning precision, thus enhancing their processing efficiency and application. In this paper, a feasible image matching approach using multi-source satellite images is proposed on the basis of an experiment carried out with ZY-1-02C Level 1 images and ETM+ orthoimages. The proposed approach overcame differences in rotation angle, scale, and translation between images. The rotation and scale variances were evaluated on the basis of rational polynomial coefficients. The translation vectors were generated after blocking the overall phase correlation. Then, normalized cross-correlation and least-squares matching were applied for matching. Finally, the gross errors of the corresponding points were eliminated by local statistic vectors in a TIN structure. Experimental results showed a matching precision of less than two pixels (root-mean-square error, and comparison results indicated that the proposed method outperforms Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT, Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF, and Affine-Scale Invariant Feature Transform (A-SIFT in terms of reliability and efficiency.

  20. Foodstuff survey around a major nuclear facility with test of satellite images application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twining, S.; Strydom, J.; Rosson, R.; Koffman, L.; Fledderman, P.; Kahn, B.

    2000-01-01

    A foodstuff survey was performed around the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina. It included a census of buildings and fields within 5 km of the boundary and determination of the locations and amounts of crops grown within 80 km of the Savannah River Site center. Recent information for this region was collected on the amounts of meat, poultry, milk, and eggs produced, of deer hunted, and of sports fish caught. The locations and areas devoted to growing each crop were determined by the usual process of applying county agricultural statistics reported by state agencies. This process was compared to crop analysis of two LANDSAT Thematic Mapper images. For use with environmental radionuclide transfer and radiation dose calculation codes, locations within 80 km were defined for 64 sections by 16 sectors centered on the site and by 16-km distance intervals from 16 km to 80 km. The median areas per section devoted to each of four food crops based on county agricultural statistics were about two-thirds of those based on satellite image analysis. Most locally-raised foodstuff was distributed regionally and not retained locally for consumption

  1. Long Short-Term Memory Neural Networks for Online Disturbance Detection in Satellite Image Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Long Kong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A satellite image time series (SITS contains a significant amount of temporal information. By analysing this type of data, the pattern of the changes in the object of concern can be explored. The natural change in the Earth’s surface is relatively slow and exhibits a pronounced pattern. Some natural events (for example, fires, floods, plant diseases, and insect pests and human activities (for example, deforestation and urbanisation will disturb this pattern and cause a relatively profound change on the Earth’s surface. These events are usually referred to as disturbances. However, disturbances in ecosystems are not easy to detect from SITS data, because SITS contain combined information on disturbances, phenological variations and noise in remote sensing data. In this paper, a novel framework is proposed for online disturbance detection from SITS. The framework is based on long short-term memory (LSTM networks. First, LSTM networks are trained by historical SITS. The trained LSTM networks are then used to predict new time series data. Last, the predicted data are compared with real data, and the noticeable deviations reveal disturbances. Experimental results using 16-day compositions of the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MOD13Q1 illustrate the effectiveness and stability of the proposed approach for online disturbance detection.

  2. Identification of flooded area from satellite images using Hybrid Kohonen Fuzzy C-Means sigma classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Kant Singh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel neuro fuzzy classifier Hybrid Kohonen Fuzzy C-Means-σ (HKFCM-σ is proposed in this paper. The proposed classifier is a hybridization of Kohonen Clustering Network (KCN with FCM-σ clustering algorithm. The network architecture of HKFCM-σ is similar to simple KCN network having only two layers, i.e., input and output layer. However, the selection of winner neuron is done based on FCM-σ algorithm. Thus, embedding the features of both, a neural network and a fuzzy clustering algorithm in the classifier. This hybridization results in a more efficient, less complex and faster classifier for classifying satellite images. HKFCM-σ is used to identify the flooding that occurred in Kashmir area in September 2014. The HKFCM-σ classifier is applied on pre and post flooding Landsat 8 OLI images of Kashmir to detect the areas that were flooded due to the heavy rainfalls of September, 2014. The classifier is trained using the mean values of the various spectral indices like NDVI, NDWI, NDBI and first component of Principal Component Analysis. The error matrix was computed to test the performance of the method. The method yields high producer’s accuracy, consumer’s accuracy and kappa coefficient value indicating that the proposed classifier is highly effective and efficient.

  3. An Ontology-Based Reasoning Framework for Querying Satellite Images for Disaster Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alirezaie, Marjan; Kiselev, Andrey; Längkvist, Martin; Klügl, Franziska; Loutfi, Amy

    2017-11-05

    This paper presents a framework in which satellite images are classified and augmented with additional semantic information to enable queries about what can be found on the map at a particular location, but also about paths that can be taken. This is achieved by a reasoning framework based on qualitative spatial reasoning that is able to find answers to high level queries that may vary on the current situation. This framework called SemCityMap, provides the full pipeline from enriching the raw image data with rudimentary labels to the integration of a knowledge representation and reasoning methods to user interfaces for high level querying. To illustrate the utility of SemCityMap in a disaster scenario, we use an urban environment-central Stockholm-in combination with a flood simulation. We show that the system provides useful answers to high-level queries also with respect to the current flood status. Examples of such queries concern path planning for vehicles or retrieval of safe regions such as "find all regions close to schools and far from the flooded area". The particular advantage of our approach lies in the fact that ontological information and reasoning is explicitly integrated so that queries can be formulated in a natural way using concepts on appropriate level of abstraction, including additional constraints.

  4. Effective System for Automatic Bundle Block Adjustment and Ortho Image Generation from Multi Sensor Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akilan, A.; Nagasubramanian, V.; Chaudhry, A.; Reddy, D. Rajesh; Sudheer Reddy, D.; Usha Devi, R.; Tirupati, T.; Radhadevi, P. V.; Varadan, G.

    2014-11-01

    Block Adjustment is a technique for large area mapping for images obtained from different remote sensingsatellites.The challenge in this process is to handle huge number of satellite imageries from different sources with different resolution and accuracies at the system level. This paper explains a system with various tools and techniques to effectively handle the end-to-end chain in large area mapping and production with good level of automation and the provisions for intuitive analysis of final results in 3D and 2D environment. In addition, the interface for using open source ortho and DEM references viz., ETM, SRTM etc. and displaying ESRI shapes for the image foot-prints are explained. Rigorous theory, mathematical modelling, workflow automation and sophisticated software engineering tools are included to ensure high photogrammetric accuracy and productivity. Major building blocks like Georeferencing, Geo-capturing and Geo-Modelling tools included in the block adjustment solution are explained in this paper. To provide optimal bundle block adjustment solution with high precision results, the system has been optimized in many stages to exploit the full utilization of hardware resources. The robustness of the system is ensured by handling failure in automatic procedure and saving the process state in every stage for subsequent restoration from the point of interruption. The results obtained from various stages of the system are presented in the paper.

  5. Impact of large field angles on the requirements for deformable mirror in imaging satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Jun; Mueller, Mark; Martinez, Ty; Agrawal, Brij

    2018-04-01

    For certain imaging satellite missions, a large aperture with wide field-of-view is needed. In order to achieve diffraction limited performance, the mirror surface Root Mean Square (RMS) error has to be less than 0.05 waves. In the case of visible light, it has to be less than 30 nm. This requirement is difficult to meet as the large aperture will need to be segmented in order to fit inside a launch vehicle shroud. To reduce this requirement and to compensate for the residual wavefront error, Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) deformable mirrors can be considered in the aft optics of the optical system. MEMS deformable mirrors are affordable and consume low power, but are small in size. Due to the major reduction in pupil size for the deformable mirror, the effective field angle is magnified by the diameter ratio of the primary and deformable mirror. For wide field of view imaging, the required deformable mirror correction is field angle dependant, impacting the required parameters of a deformable mirror such as size, number of actuators, and actuator stroke. In this paper, a representative telescope and deformable mirror system model is developed and the deformable mirror correction is simulated to study the impact of the large field angles in correcting a wavefront error using a deformable mirror in the aft optics.

  6. Satellite-based ET estimation using Landsat 8 images and SEBAL model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bonemberger da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Estimation of evapotranspiration is a key factor to achieve sustainable water management in irrigated agriculture because it represents water use of crops. Satellite-based estimations provide advantages compared to direct methods as lysimeters especially when the objective is to calculate evapotranspiration at a regional scale. The present study aimed to estimate the actual evapotranspiration (ET at a regional scale, using Landsat 8 - OLI/TIRS images and complementary data collected from a weather station. SEBAL model was used in South-West Paraná, region composed of irrigated and dry agricultural areas, native vegetation and urban areas. Five Landsat 8 images, row 223 and path 78, DOY 336/2013, 19/2014, 35/2014, 131/2014 and 195/2014 were used, from which ET at daily scale was estimated as a residual of the surface energy balance to produce ET maps. The steps for obtain ET using SEBAL include radiometric calibration, calculation of the reflectance, surface albedo, vegetation indexes (NDVI, SAVI and LAI and emissivity. These parameters were obtained based on the reflective bands of the orbital sensor with temperature surface estimated from thermal band. The estimated ET values in agricultural areas, native vegetation and urban areas using SEBAL algorithm were compatible with those shown in the literature and ET errors between the ET estimates from SEBAL model and Penman Monteith FAO 56 equation were less than or equal to 1.00 mm day-1.

  7. 3D modeling of satellite spectral images, radiation budget and energy budget of urban landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastellu-Etchegorry, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    DART EB is a model that is being developed for simulating the 3D (3 dimensional) energy budget of urban and natural scenes, possibly with topography and atmosphere. It simulates all non radiative energy mechanisms (heat conduction, turbulent momentum and heat fluxes, water reservoir evolution, etc.). It uses DART model (Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer) for simulating radiative mechanisms: 3D radiative budget of 3D scenes and their remote sensing images expressed in terms of reflectance or brightness temperature values, for any atmosphere, wavelength, sun/view direction, altitude and spatial resolution. It uses an innovative multispectral approach (ray tracing, exact kernel, discrete ordinate techniques) over the whole optical domain. This paper presents two major and recent improvements of DART for adapting it to urban canopies. (1) Simulation of the geometry and optical characteristics of urban elements (houses, etc.). (2) Modeling of thermal infrared emission by vegetation and urban elements. The new DART version was used in the context of the CAPITOUL project. For that, districts of the Toulouse urban data base (Autocad format) were translated into DART scenes. This allowed us to simulate visible, near infrared and thermal infrared satellite images of Toulouse districts. Moreover, the 3D radiation budget was used by DARTEB for simulating the time evolution of a number of geophysical quantities of various surface elements (roads, walls, roofs). Results were successfully compared with ground measurements of the CAPITOUL project.

  8. A Color-Texture-Structure Descriptor for High-Resolution Satellite Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Scene classification plays an important role in understanding high-resolution satellite (HRS remotely sensed imagery. For remotely sensed scenes, both color information and texture information provide the discriminative ability in classification tasks. In recent years, substantial performance gains in HRS image classification have been reported in the literature. One branch of research combines multiple complementary features based on various aspects such as texture, color and structure. Two methods are commonly used to combine these features: early fusion and late fusion. In this paper, we propose combining the two methods under a tree of regions and present a new descriptor to encode color, texture and structure features using a hierarchical structure-Color Binary Partition Tree (CBPT, which we call the CTS descriptor. Specifically, we first build the hierarchical representation of HRS imagery using the CBPT. Then we quantize the texture and color features of dense regions. Next, we analyze and extract the co-occurrence patterns of regions based on the hierarchical structure. Finally, we encode local descriptors to obtain the final CTS descriptor and test its discriminative capability using object categorization and scene classification with HRS images. The proposed descriptor contains the spectral, textural and structural information of the HRS imagery and is also robust to changes in illuminant color, scale, orientation and contrast. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed CTS descriptor achieves competitive classification results compared with state-of-the-art algorithms.

  9. A Multi-stage Method to Extract Road from High Resolution Satellite Image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhijian, Huang; Zhang, Jinfang; Xu, Fanjiang

    2014-01-01

    Extracting road information from high-resolution satellite images is complex and hardly achieves by exploiting only one or two modules. This paper presents a multi-stage method, consisting of automatic information extraction and semi-automatic post-processing. The Multi-scale Enhancement algorithm enlarges the contrast of human-made structures with the background. The Statistical Region Merging segments images into regions, whose skeletons are extracted and pruned according to geometry shape information. Setting the start and the end skeleton points, the shortest skeleton path is constructed as a road centre line. The Bidirectional Adaptive Smoothing technique smoothens the road centre line and adjusts it to right position. With the smoothed line and its average width, a Buffer algorithm reconstructs the road region easily. Seen from the last results, the proposed method eliminates redundant non-road regions, repairs incomplete occlusions, jumps over complete occlusions, and reserves accurate road centre lines and neat road regions. During the whole process, only a few interactions are needed

  10. An Ontology-Based Reasoning Framework for Querying Satellite Images for Disaster Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Alirezaie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework in which satellite images are classified and augmented with additional semantic information to enable queries about what can be found on the map at a particular location, but also about paths that can be taken. This is achieved by a reasoning framework based on qualitative spatial reasoning that is able to find answers to high level queries that may vary on the current situation. This framework called SemCityMap, provides the full pipeline from enriching the raw image data with rudimentary labels to the integration of a knowledge representation and reasoning methods to user interfaces for high level querying. To illustrate the utility of SemCityMap in a disaster scenario, we use an urban environment—central Stockholm—in combination with a flood simulation. We show that the system provides useful answers to high-level queries also with respect to the current flood status. Examples of such queries concern path planning for vehicles or retrieval of safe regions such as “find all regions close to schools and far from the flooded area”. The particular advantage of our approach lies in the fact that ontological information and reasoning is explicitly integrated so that queries can be formulated in a natural way using concepts on appropriate level of abstraction, including additional constraints.

  11. Band co-registration modeling of LAPAN-A3/IPB multispectral imager based on satellite attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, P. R.; Syafrudin, A. H.; Utama, S.; Jayani, A. P. S.

    2018-05-01

    One of significant geometric distortion on images of LAPAN-A3/IPB multispectral imager is co-registration error between each color channel detector. Band co-registration distortion usually can be corrected by using several approaches, which are manual method, image matching algorithm, or sensor modeling and calibration approach. This paper develops another approach to minimize band co-registration distortion on LAPAN-A3/IPB multispectral image by using supervised modeling of image matching with respect to satellite attitude. Modeling results show that band co-registration error in across-track axis is strongly influenced by yaw angle, while error in along-track axis is fairly influenced by both pitch and roll angle. Accuracy of the models obtained is pretty good, which lies between 1-3 pixels error for each axis of each pair of band co-registration. This mean that the model can be used to correct the distorted images without the need of slower image matching algorithm, nor the laborious effort needed in manual approach and sensor calibration. Since the calculation can be executed in order of seconds, this approach can be used in real time quick-look image processing in ground station or even in satellite on-board image processing.

  12. Modelling patterns of pollinator species richness and diversity using satellite image texture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Hofmann

    Full Text Available Assessing species richness and diversity on the basis of standardised field sampling effort represents a cost- and time-consuming method. Satellite remote sensing (RS can help overcome these limitations because it facilitates the collection of larger amounts of spatial data using cost-effective techniques. RS information is hence increasingly analysed to model biodiversity across space and time. Here, we focus on image texture measures as a proxy for spatial habitat heterogeneity, which has been recognized as an important determinant of species distributions and diversity. Using bee monitoring data of four years (2010-2013 from six 4 × 4 km field sites across Central Germany and a multimodel inference approach we test the ability of texture features derived from Landsat-TM imagery to model local pollinator biodiversity. Textures were shown to reflect patterns of bee diversity and species richness to some extent, with the first-order entropy texture and terrain roughness being the most relevant indicators. However, the texture measurements accounted for only 3-5% of up to 60% of the variability that was explained by our final models, although the results are largely consistent across different species groups (bumble bees, solitary bees. While our findings provide indications in support of the applicability of satellite imagery textures for modeling patterns of bee biodiversity, they are inconsistent with the high predictive power of texture metrics reported in previous studies for avian biodiversity. We assume that our texture data captured mainly heterogeneity resulting from landscape configuration, which might be functionally less important for wild bees than compositional diversity of plant communities. Our study also highlights the substantial variability among taxa in the applicability of texture metrics for modelling biodiversity.

  13. Modelling patterns of pollinator species richness and diversity using satellite image texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Sylvia; Everaars, Jeroen; Schweiger, Oliver; Frenzel, Mark; Bannehr, Lutz; Cord, Anna F

    2017-01-01

    Assessing species richness and diversity on the basis of standardised field sampling effort represents a cost- and time-consuming method. Satellite remote sensing (RS) can help overcome these limitations because it facilitates the collection of larger amounts of spatial data using cost-effective techniques. RS information is hence increasingly analysed to model biodiversity across space and time. Here, we focus on image texture measures as a proxy for spatial habitat heterogeneity, which has been recognized as an important determinant of species distributions and diversity. Using bee monitoring data of four years (2010-2013) from six 4 × 4 km field sites across Central Germany and a multimodel inference approach we test the ability of texture features derived from Landsat-TM imagery to model local pollinator biodiversity. Textures were shown to reflect patterns of bee diversity and species richness to some extent, with the first-order entropy texture and terrain roughness being the most relevant indicators. However, the texture measurements accounted for only 3-5% of up to 60% of the variability that was explained by our final models, although the results are largely consistent across different species groups (bumble bees, solitary bees). While our findings provide indications in support of the applicability of satellite imagery textures for modeling patterns of bee biodiversity, they are inconsistent with the high predictive power of texture metrics reported in previous studies for avian biodiversity. We assume that our texture data captured mainly heterogeneity resulting from landscape configuration, which might be functionally less important for wild bees than compositional diversity of plant communities. Our study also highlights the substantial variability among taxa in the applicability of texture metrics for modelling biodiversity.

  14. Field survey report and satellite image interpretation of the 2013 Super Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, E.; Bricker, J.; Kure, S.; Adriano, B.; Yi, C.; Suppasri, A.; Koshimura, S.

    2015-04-01

    Three weeks after the deadly Bohol earthquake of Mw 7.2, which claimed at least 222 victims, another disaster struck the Philippines. This time, Super Typhoon Haiyan, also known as Typhoon Yolanda in the Philippines, devastated the Eastern Visayas islands on 8 November 2013. Its classification as a super typhoon was based on its maximum sustained 1 min surface wind speed of 315 km h-1, which is equivalent to a strong Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale. This was one of the deadliest typhoon events in the Philippines' history, after the 1897 and 1912 tropical cyclones. At least 6268 individuals have been reported dead and 1061 people are missing. In addition, a wide area of destruction was observed in the Eastern Visayas, on Samar and Leyte islands. The International Research Institute of Disaster Science (IRIDeS) at Tohoku University in Sendai, Japan, has deployed several teams for damage recognition, relief support and collaboration with regard to this disaster event. One of the teams, the hazard and damage evaluation team, visited the affected areas in the Eastern Visayas in mid-January 2014. In this paper, we summarize the rapid damage assessment from satellite imagery conducted days after the event and report on the inundation measurements and the damage surveyed in the field. Damage interpretation results by satellite images were qualitatively confirmed for the Tacloban city area on Leyte Island, the most populated city in the Eastern Visayas. During the survey, significant damage was observed from wind and storm surges on poorly designed housing on the east coast of Leyte Island. Damage, mainly from surface waves and winds, was observed on the east coast of Samar Island.

  15. Blanket comparison and selection study. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    The objectives of the Blanket Comparison and Selection Study (BCSS) can be stated as follows: (1) Define a small number (approx. 3) of blanket design concepts that should be the focus of the blanket R and D program. A design concept is defined by the selection of all materials (e.g., breeder, coolant, structure and multiplier) and other major characteristics that significantly influence the R and D requirements. (2) Identify and prioritize the critical issues for the leading blanket concepts. (3) Provide the technical input necessary to develop a blanket R and D program plan. Guidelines for prioritizing the R and D requirements include: (a) critical feasibility issues for the leading blanket concepts will receive the highest priority, and (b) for equally important feasibility issues, higher R and D priority will be given to those that require minimum cost and short time

  16. Design requirement on HYPER blanket fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Woan; Lee, B. O.; Nam, C.; Ryu, W. S.; Lee, B. S.; Park, W. S.

    2000-07-01

    This document describes design requirements which are needed for designing the blanket assembly of the HYPER as design guidance. The blanket assembly of the HYPER consists of blanket fuel rods, mounting rail, spacer, upper nozzle with handling socket, bottom nozzle with mounting rail and skeleton structure. The blanket fuel rod consists of top end plug, bottom end plug with key way, blanket fuel slug, and cladding. In the assembly, the rods are in a triangular pitch array. This report contains functional requirements, performance and operational requirements, interfacing systems requirements, core restraint and interface requirements, design limits and strength requirements, system configuration and essential feature requirements, seismic requirements, structural requirements, environmental requirements, reliability and safety requirements, standard and codes, QA programs, and other requirements for the blanket fuel assembly of the HYPER

  17. Meteo-marine parameters for highly variable environment in coastal regions from satellite radar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleskachevsky, A. L.; Rosenthal, W.; Lehner, S.

    2016-09-01

    The German Bight of the North Sea is the area with highly variable sea state conditions, intensive ship traffic and with a high density of offshore installations, e.g. wind farms in use and under construction. Ship navigation and the docking on offshore constructions is impeded by significant wave heights HS > 1.3 m. For these reasons, improvements are required in recognition and forecasting of sea state HS in the range 0-3 m. Thus, this necessitates the development of new methods to determine the distribution of meteo-marine parameters from remote sensing data with an accuracy of decimetres for HS. The operationalization of these methods then allows the robust automatic processing in near real time (NRT) to support forecast agencies by providing validations for model results. A new empirical algorithm XWAVE_C (C = coastal) for estimation of significant wave height from X-band satellite-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data has been developed, adopted for coastal applications using TerraSAR-X (TS-X) and Tandem-X (TD-X) satellites in the German Bight and implemented into the Sea Sate Processor (SSP) for fully automatic processing for NRT services. The algorithm is based on the spectral analysis of subscenes and the model function uses integrated image spectra parameters as well as local wind information from the analyzed subscene. The algorithm is able to recognize and remove the influence of non-sea state produced signals in the Wadden Sea areas such as dry sandbars as well as nonlinear SAR image distortions produced by e.g. short wind waves and breaking waves. Also parameters of very short waves, which are not visible in SAR images and produce only unsystematic clutter, can be accurately estimated. The SSP includes XWAVE_C, a pre-filtering procedure for removing artefacts such as ships, seamarks, buoys, offshore constructions and slicks, and an additional procedure performing a check of results based on the statistics of the whole scene. The SSP allows an

  18. Space environment durability of beta cloth in LDEF thermal blankets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Roger C.; Whitaker, Ann F.; Finckenor, Miria M.

    1993-01-01

    Beta cloth performance for use on long-term space vehicles such as Space Station Freedom (S.S. Freedom) requires resistance to the degrading effects of the space environment. The major issues are retention of thermal insulating properties through maintaining optical properties, preserving mechanical integrity, and generating minimal particulates for contamination-sensitive spacecraft surfaces and payloads. The longest in-flight test of beta cloth's durability was on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), where it was exposed to the space environment for 68 months. The LDEF contained 57 experiments which further defined the space environment and its effects on spacecraft materials. It was deployed into low-Earth orbit (LEO) in Apr. 1984 and retrieved Jan. 1990 by the space shuttle. Among the 10,000 plus material constituents and samples onboard were thermal control blankets of multilayer insulation with a beta cloth outer cover and Velcro attachments. These blankets were exposed to hard vacuum, thermal cycling, charged particles, meteoroid/debris impacts, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and atomic oxygen (AO). Of these space environmental exposure elements, AO appears to have had the greatest effect on the beta cloth. The beta cloth analyzed in this report came from the MSFC Experiment S1005 (Transverse Flat-Plate Heat Pipe) tray oriented approximately 22 deg from the leading edge vector of the LDEF satellite. The location of the tray on LDEF and the placement of the beta cloth thermal blankets are shown. The specific space environment exposure conditions for this material are listed.

  19. Liquid metal cooled blanket concept for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Casal, V.; Arheidt, K.; Fischer, U.; Link, W.; Rust, K.

    1986-01-01

    A blanket concept for NET using liquid lithium-lead both as breeder material and as coolant is described. The need for inboard breeding is avoided by using beryllium as neutron multiplier in the outboard blanket. Novel flow channel inserts are employed in all poloidal ducts to reduce the MHD pressure drop. The concept offers a simple mechanical design and a higher tritium breeding ratio compared to water- and gas-cooled blankets. (author)

  20. Fusion blankets for high efficiency power cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.; Fillo, J.A.; Horn, F.L.; Lazareth, O.W.; Usher, J.L.

    1980-04-01

    Definitions are given of 10 generic blanket types and the specific blanket chosen to be analyzed in detail from each of the 10 types. Dimensions, compositions, energy depositions and breeding ratios (where applicable) are presented for each of the 10 designs. Ultimately, based largely on neutronics and thermal hyraulics results, breeding an nonbreeding blanket options are selected for further design analysis and integration with a suitable power conversion subsystem

  1. Satellite Images and Aerial Photographs of the Effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on Coastal Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barras, John A.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Hurricane Katrina made landfall on the eastern coastline of Louisiana on August 29, 2005; Hurricane Rita made landfall on the western coastline of Louisiana on September 24, 2005. Comparison of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery acquired before and after the landfalls of Katrina and Rita and classified to identify land and water demonstrated that water area increased by 217 mi2 (562 km2) in coastal Louisiana as a result of the storms. Approximately 82 mi2 (212 km2) of new water areas were in areas primarily impacted by Hurricane Katrina (Mississippi River Delta basin, Breton Sound basin, Pontchartrain basin, and Pearl River basin), whereas 99 mi2 (256 km2) were in areas primarily impacted by Hurricane Rita (Calcasieu/Sabine basin, Mermentau basin, Teche/Vermilion basin, Atchafalaya basin, and Terrebonne basin). Barataria basin contained new water areas caused by both hurricanes, resulting in some 18 mi2 (46.6 km2) of new water areas. The fresh marsh and intermediate marsh communities' land areas decreased by 122 mi2 (316 km2) and 90 mi2 (233.1 km2), respectively, and the brackish marsh and saline marsh communities' land areas decreased by 33 mi2 (85.5 km2) and 28 mi2 (72.5 km2), respectively. These new water areas represent land losses caused by direct removal of wetlands. They also indicate transitory changes in water area caused by remnant flooding, removal of aquatic vegetation, scouring of marsh vegetation, and water-level variation attributed to normal tidal and meteorological variation between satellite images. Permanent losses cannot be estimated until several growing seasons have passed and the transitory impacts of the hurricanes are minimized. The purpose of this study was to provide preliminary information on water area changes in coastal Louisiana acquired shortly after the landfalls of both hurricanes (detectable with Landsat TM imagery) and to serve as a regional baseline for monitoring posthurricane wetland recovery. The land

  2. Automated Recognition of Vegetation and Water Bodies on the Territory of Megacities in Satellite Images of Visible and IR Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozgovoy, Dmitry k.; Hnatushenko, Volodymyr V.; Vasyliev, Volodymyr V.

    2018-04-01

    Vegetation and water bodies are a fundamental element of urban ecosystems, and water mapping is critical for urban and landscape planning and management. A methodology of automated recognition of vegetation and water bodies on the territory of megacities in satellite images of sub-meter spatial resolution of the visible and IR bands is proposed. By processing multispectral images from the satellite SuperView-1A, vector layers of recognized plant and water objects were obtained. Analysis of the results of image processing showed a sufficiently high accuracy of the delineation of the boundaries of recognized objects and a good separation of classes. The developed methodology provides a significant increase of the efficiency and reliability of updating maps of large cities while reducing financial costs. Due to the high degree of automation, the proposed methodology can be implemented in the form of a geo-information web service functioning in the interests of a wide range of public services and commercial institutions.

  3. Low technology high tritium breeding blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.; Baker, C.C.; Smith, D.L.

    1987-10-01

    The main function of this low technology blanket is to produce the necessary tritium for INTOR operation with minimum first wall coverage. The INTOR first wall, blanket, and shield are constrained by the dimensions of the reference design and the protection criteria required for different reactor components and dose equivalent after shutdown in the reactor hall. It is assumed that the blanket operation at commercial power reactor conditions and the proper temperature for power generation can be sacrificed to achieve the highest possible tritium breeding ratio with minimum additional research and developments and minimal impact on reactor design and operation. A set of blanket evaluation criteria has been used to compare possible blanket concepts. Six areas: performance, operating requirements, impact on reactor design and operation, safety and environmental impact, technology assessment, and cost have been defined for the evaluation process. A water-cooled blanket was developed to operate with a low temperature and pressure. The developed blanket contains a 24 cm of beryllium and 6 cm of solid breeder both with a 0.8 density factor. This blanket provides a local tritium breeding ratio of ∼2.0. The water coolant is isolated from the breeder material by several zones which eliminates the tritium buildup in the water by permeation and reduces the changes for water-breeder interaction. This improves the safety and environmental aspects of the blanket and eliminates the costly process of the tritium recovery from the water. 12 refs., 13 tabs

  4. Joint Markov Blankets in Feature Sets Extracted from Wavelet Packet Decompositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Van Dijck

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Since two decades, wavelet packet decompositions have been shown effective as a generic approach to feature extraction from time series and images for the prediction of a target variable. Redundancies exist between the wavelet coefficients and between the energy features that are derived from the wavelet coefficients. We assess these redundancies in wavelet packet decompositions by means of the Markov blanket filtering theory. We introduce the concept of joint Markov blankets. It is shown that joint Markov blankets are a natural extension of Markov blankets, which are defined for single features, to a set of features. We show that these joint Markov blankets exist in feature sets consisting of the wavelet coefficients. Furthermore, we prove that wavelet energy features from the highest frequency resolution level form a joint Markov blanket for all other wavelet energy features. The joint Markov blanket theory indicates that one can expect an increase of classification accuracy with the increase of the frequency resolution level of the energy features.

  5. Applying Support Vector Machine in classifying satellite images for the assessment of urban sprawl

    Science.gov (United States)

    murgante, Beniamino; Nolè, Gabriele; Lasaponara, Rosa; Lanorte, Antonio; Calamita, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    In last decades the spreading of new buildings, road infrastructures and a scattered proliferation of houses in zones outside urban areas, produced a countryside urbanization with no rules, consuming soils and impoverishing the landscape. Such a phenomenon generated a huge environmental impact, diseconomies and a decrease in life quality. This study analyzes processes concerning land use change, paying particular attention to urban sprawl phenomenon. The application is based on the integration of Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing adopting open source technologies. The objective is to understand size distribution and dynamic expansion of urban areas in order to define a methodology useful to both identify and monitor the phenomenon. In order to classify "urban" pixels, over time monitoring of settlements spread, understanding trends of artificial territories, classifications of satellite images at different dates have been realized. In order to obtain these classifications, supervised classification algorithms have been adopted. More particularly, Support Vector Machine (SVM) learning algorithm has been applied to multispectral remote data. One of the more interesting features in SVM is the possibility to obtain good results also adopting few classification pixels of training areas. SVM has several interesting features, such as the capacity to obtain good results also adopting few classification pixels of training areas, a high possibility of configuration parameters and the ability to discriminate pixels with similar spectral responses. Multi-temporal ASTER satellite data at medium resolution have been adopted because are very suitable in evaluating such phenomena. The application is based on the integration of Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing technologies by means of open source software. Tools adopted in managing and processing data are GRASS GIS, Quantum GIS and R statistical project. The area of interest is located south of Bari

  6. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF THE COMPARISON OF SATELLITE IMAGERS USING TUZ GÖLÜ AS A REFERENCE STANDARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Özen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Earth surfaces, such as deserts, salt lakes, and playas, have been widely used in the vicarious radiometric calibration of optical earth observation satellites. In 2009, the Infrared and Visible Optical Sensors (IVOS sub-group of the Committee of Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS Working Group on Calibration and Validation (WGCV designated eight LANDNET reference sites to focus international efforts, facilitate traceability and enable the establishment of measurement "best practices." With support from the European Space Agency (ESA, one of the LANDNET sites, the Tuz Gölü salt lake located in central Turkey, was selected to host a cross-comparison of measurement instrumentation and methodologies conducted by 11 different ground teams across the globe. This paper provides an overview of the preliminary results of the cross-comparison of the ground-based spectral measurements made during the CEOS Land Comparison 13-27 August, 2010 with the simultaneous satellite image data acquisitions of the same site.

  7. Forecasting Global Horizontal Irradiance Using the LETKF and a Combination of Advected Satellite Images and Sparse Ground Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harty, T. M.; Lorenzo, A.; Holmgren, W.; Morzfeld, M.

    2017-12-01

    The irradiance incident on a solar panel is the main factor in determining the power output of that panel. For this reason, accurate global horizontal irradiance (GHI) estimates and forecasts are critical when determining the optimal location for a solar power plant, forecasting utility scale solar power production, or forecasting distributed, behind the meter rooftop solar power production. Satellite images provide a basis for producing the GHI estimates needed to undertake these objectives. The focus of this work is to combine satellite derived GHI estimates with ground sensor measurements and an advection model. The idea is to use accurate but sparsely distributed ground sensors to improve satellite derived GHI estimates which can cover large areas (the size of a city or a region of the United States). We use a Bayesian framework to perform the data assimilation, which enables us to produce irradiance forecasts and associated uncertainties which incorporate both satellite and ground sensor data. Within this framework, we utilize satellite images taken from the GOES-15 geostationary satellite (available every 15-30 minutes) as well as ground data taken from irradiance sensors and rooftop solar arrays (available every 5 minutes). The advection model, driven by wind forecasts from a numerical weather model, simulates cloud motion between measurements. We use the Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) to perform the data assimilation. We present preliminary results towards making such a system useful in an operational context. We explain how localization and inflation in the LETKF, perturbations of wind-fields, and random perturbations of the advection model, affect the accuracy of our estimates and forecasts. We present experiments showing the accuracy of our forecasted GHI over forecast-horizons of 15 mins to 1 hr. The limitations of our approach and future improvements are also discussed.

  8. Mapping urban impervious surface using object-based image analysis with WorldView-3 satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iabchoon, Sanwit; Wongsai, Sangdao; Chankon, Kanoksuk

    2017-10-01

    Land use and land cover (LULC) data are important to monitor and assess environmental change. LULC classification using satellite images is a method widely used on a global and local scale. Especially, urban areas that have various LULC types are important components of the urban landscape and ecosystem. This study aims to classify urban LULC using WorldView-3 (WV-3) very high-spatial resolution satellite imagery and the object-based image analysis method. A decision rules set was applied to classify the WV-3 images in Kathu subdistrict, Phuket province, Thailand. The main steps were as follows: (1) the image was ortho-rectified with ground control points and using the digital elevation model, (2) multiscale image segmentation was applied to divide the image pixel level into image object level, (3) development of the decision ruleset for LULC classification using spectral bands, spectral indices, spatial and contextual information, and (4) accuracy assessment was computed using testing data, which sampled by statistical random sampling. The results show that seven LULC classes (water, vegetation, open space, road, residential, building, and bare soil) were successfully classified with overall classification accuracy of 94.14% and a kappa coefficient of 92.91%.

  9. Object-Oriented Analysis of Satellite Images Using Artificial Neural Networks for Post-Earthquake Buildings Change Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaverdi zahraee, N.; Rastiveis, H.

    2017-09-01

    Earthquake is one of the most divesting natural events that threaten human life during history. After the earthquake, having information about the damaged area, the amount and type of damage can be a great help in the relief and reconstruction for disaster managers. It is very important that these measures should be taken immediately after the earthquake because any negligence could be more criminal losses. The purpose of this paper is to propose and implement an automatic approach for mapping destructed buildings after an earthquake using pre- and post-event high resolution satellite images. In the proposed method after preprocessing, segmentation of both images is performed using multi-resolution segmentation technique. Then, the segmentation results are intersected with ArcGIS to obtain equal image objects on both images. After that, appropriate textural features, which make a better difference between changed or unchanged areas, are calculated for all the image objects. Finally, subtracting the extracted textural features from pre- and post-event images, obtained values are applied as an input feature vector in an artificial neural network for classifying the area into two classes of changed and unchanged areas. The proposed method was evaluated using WorldView2 satellite images, acquired before and after the 2010 Haiti earthquake. The reported overall accuracy of 93% proved the ability of the proposed method for post-earthquake buildings change detection.

  10. Using Sentinel-1 and Landsat 8 satellite images to estimate surface soil moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexis, Philippos-Dimitrios; Alexakis, Dimitrios D.; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis N.; Tsanis, Ioannis K.

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, the potential for more accurate assessment of Soil Moisture (SM) content exploiting Earth Observation (EO) technology, by exploring the use of synergistic approaches among a variety of EO instruments has emerged. This study is the first to investigate the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) (Sentinel-1) and optical (Landsat 8) images in combination with ground measurements to estimate volumetric SM content in support of water management and agricultural practices. SAR and optical data are downloaded and corrected in terms of atmospheric, geometric and radiometric corrections. SAR images are also corrected in terms of roughness and vegetation with the synergistic use of Oh and Topp models using a dataset consisting of backscattering coefficients and corresponding direct measurements of ground parameters (moisture, roughness). Following, various vegetation indices (NDVI, SAVI, MSAVI, EVI, etc.) are estimated to record diachronically the vegetation regime within the study area and as auxiliary data in the final modeling. Furthermore, thermal images from optical data are corrected and incorporated to the overall approach. The basic principle of Thermal InfraRed (TIR) method is that Land Surface Temperature (LST) is sensitive to surface SM content due to its impact on surface heating process (heat capacity and thermal conductivity) under bare soil or sparse vegetation cover conditions. Ground truth data are collected from a Time-domain reflectometer (TRD) gauge network established in western Crete, Greece, during 2015. Sophisticated algorithms based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) approaches are used to explore the statistical relationship between backscattering measurements and SM content. Results highlight the potential of SAR and optical satellite images to contribute to effective SM content detection in support of water resources management and precision agriculture. Keywords: Sentinel-1, Landsat 8, Soil

  11. Multiscale Geoscene Segmentation for Extracting Urban Functional Zones from VHR Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuyuan Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban functional zones, such as commercial, residential, and industrial zones, are basic units of urban planning, and play an important role in monitoring urbanization. However, historical functional-zone maps are rarely available for cities in developing countries, as traditional urban investigations focus on geographic objects rather than functional zones. Recent studies have sought to extract functional zones automatically from very-high-resolution (VHR satellite images, and they mainly concentrate on classification techniques, but ignore zone segmentation which delineates functional-zone boundaries and is fundamental to functional-zone analysis. To resolve the issue, this study presents a novel segmentation method, geoscene segmentation, which can identify functional zones at multiple scales by aggregating diverse urban objects considering their features and spatial patterns. In experiments, we applied this method to three Chinese cities—Beijing, Putian, and Zhuhai—and generated detailed functional-zone maps with diverse functional categories. These experimental results indicate our method effectively delineates urban functional zones with VHR imagery; different categories of functional zones extracted by using different scale parameters; and spatial patterns that are more important than the features of individual objects in extracting functional zones. Accordingly, the presented multiscale geoscene segmentation method is important for urban-functional-zone analysis, and can provide valuable data for city planners.

  12. Use of high-resolution satellite images for detection of geothermal reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Baeza, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    Chile has an enormous potential to use the geothermal resources for electric energy generation. The main geothermal fields are located in the Central Andean Volcanic Chain in the North, between the Central valley and the border with Argentina in the center, and in the fault system Liquiñe-Ofqui in the South of the country. High resolution images from the LANDSAT and ASTER satellites have been used to delineate the geological structures related to the Calerias geothermal field located at the northern end of the Southern Volcanic Zone of Chile and Puchuldiza geothermal field located in the Region of Tarapaca. It was done by applying the lineament extraction technique developed by author. These structures have been compared with the distribution of main geological structures obtained in the fields. It was found that the lineament density increases in the areas of the major heat flux indicating that the lineament analysis could be a power tool for the detection of faults and joint zones associated to the geothermal fields.

  13. Bottom Topographic Changes of Poyang Lake During Past Decade Using Multi-temporal Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Poyang Lake, as a well-known international wetland in the Ramsar Convention List, is the largest freshwater lake in China. It plays crucial ecological role in flood storage and biological diversity. Poyang Lake is facing increasingly serious water crises, including seasonal dry-up, decreased wetland area, and water resource shortage, all of which are closely related to progressive bottom topographic changes over recent years. Time-series of bottom topography would contribute to our understanding of the lake's evolution during the past several decades. However, commonly used methods for mapping bottom topography fail to frequently update quality bathymetric data for Poyang Lake restricted by weather and accessibility. These deficiencies have limited our ability to characterize the bottom topographic changes and understanding lake erosion or deposition trend. To fill the gap, we construct a decadal bottom topography of Poyang Lake with a total of 146 time series medium resolution satellite images based on the Waterline Method. It was found that Poyang Lake has eroded with a rate of -14.4 cm/ yr from 2000 to 2010. The erosion trend was attributed to the impacts of human activities, especially the operation of the Three Gorge Dams, sand excavation, and the implementation of water conservancy project. A decadal quantitative understanding bottom topography of Poyang Lake might provide a foundation to model the lake evolutionary processes and assist both researchers and local policymakers in ecological management, wetland protection and lake navigation safety.

  14. Analysis of Decadal Vegetation Dynamics Using Multi-Scale Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Y.; Chen, K.

    2013-12-01

    This study aims at quantifying vegetation fractional cover (VFC) by incorporating multi-resolution satellite images, including Formosat-2(RSI), SPOT(HRV/HRG), Landsat (MSS/TM) and Terra/Aqua(MODIS), to investigate long-term and seasonal vegetation dynamics in Taiwan. We used 40-year NDVI records for derivation of VFC, with field campaigns routinely conducted to calibrate the critical NDVI threshold. Given different sensor capabilities in terms of their spatial and spectral properties, translation and infusion of NDVIs was used to assure NDVI coherence and to determine the fraction of vegetation cover at different spatio-temporal scales. Based on the proposed method, a bimodal sequence of intra-annual VFC which corresponds to the dual-cropping agriculture pattern was observed. Compared to seasonal VFC variation (78~90%), decadal VFC reveals moderate oscillations (81~86%), which were strongly linked with landuse changes and several major disturbances. This time-series mapping of VFC can be used to examine vegetation dynamics and its response associated with short-term and long-term anthropogenic/natural events.

  15. Ground truth measurements plan for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, A.J.

    2000-01-03

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) have developed a diverse group of algorithms for processing and analyzing the data that will be collected by the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) after launch late in 1999. Each of these algorithms must be verified by comparison to independent surface and atmospheric measurements. SRTC has selected 13 sites in the continental U.S. for ground truth data collections. These sites include a high altitude cold water target (Crater Lake), cooling lakes and towers in the warm, humid southeastern US, Department of Energy (DOE) climate research sites, the NASA Stennis satellite Validation and Verification (V and V) target array, waste sites at the Savannah River Site, mining sites in the Four Corners area and dry lake beds in the southwestern US. SRTC has established mutually beneficial relationships with the organizations that manage these sites to make use of their operating and research data and to install additional instrumentation needed for MTI algorithm V and V.

  16. Integrating multisensor satellite data merging and image reconstruction in support of machine learning for better water quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Bai, Kaixu; Chen, Chi-Farn

    2017-10-01

    Monitoring water quality changes in lakes, reservoirs, estuaries, and coastal waters is critical in response to the needs for sustainable development. This study develops a remote sensing-based multiscale modeling system by integrating multi-sensor satellite data merging and image reconstruction algorithms in support of feature extraction with machine learning leading to automate continuous water quality monitoring in environmentally sensitive regions. This new Earth observation platform, termed "cross-mission data merging and image reconstruction with machine learning" (CDMIM), is capable of merging multiple satellite imageries to provide daily water quality monitoring through a series of image processing, enhancement, reconstruction, and data mining/machine learning techniques. Two existing key algorithms, including Spectral Information Adaptation and Synthesis Scheme (SIASS) and SMart Information Reconstruction (SMIR), are highlighted to support feature extraction and content-based mapping. Whereas SIASS can support various data merging efforts to merge images collected from cross-mission satellite sensors, SMIR can overcome data gaps by reconstructing the information of value-missing pixels due to impacts such as cloud obstruction. Practical implementation of CDMIM was assessed by predicting the water quality over seasons in terms of the concentrations of nutrients and chlorophyll-a, as well as water clarity in Lake Nicaragua, providing synergistic efforts to better monitor the aquatic environment and offer insightful lake watershed management strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Satellite-Based Imaging Instrumentation Concept for Hyperspectral Thermal Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udelhoven, Thomas; Schlerf, Martin; Segl, Karl; Mallick, Kaniska; Bossung, Christian; Retzlaff, Rebecca; Rock, Gilles; Fischer, Peter; Müller, Andreas; Storch, Tobias; Eisele, Andreas; Weise, Dennis; Hupfer, Werner; Knigge, Thiemo

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes the concept of the hyperspectral Earth-observing thermal infrared (TIR) satellite mission HiTeSEM (High-resolution Temperature and Spectral Emissivity Mapping). The scientific goal is to measure specific key variables from the biosphere, hydrosphere, pedosphere, and geosphere related to two global problems of significant societal relevance: food security and human health. The key variables comprise land and sea surface radiation temperature and emissivity, surface moisture, thermal inertia, evapotranspiration, soil minerals and grain size components, soil organic carbon, plant physiological variables, and heat fluxes. The retrieval of this information requires a TIR imaging system with adequate spatial and spectral resolutions and with day-night following observation capability. Another challenge is the monitoring of temporally high dynamic features like energy fluxes, which require adequate revisit time. The suggested solution is a sensor pointing concept to allow high revisit times for selected target regions (1-5 days at off-nadir). At the same time, global observations in the nadir direction are guaranteed with a lower temporal repeat cycle (>1 month). To account for the demand of a high spatial resolution for complex targets, it is suggested to combine in one optic (1) a hyperspectral TIR system with ~75 bands at 7.2-12.5 µm (instrument NEDT 0.05 K-0.1 K) and a ground sampling distance (GSD) of 60 m, and (2) a panchromatic high-resolution TIR-imager with two channels (8.0-10.25 µm and 10.25-12.5 µm) and a GSD of 20 m. The identified science case requires a good correlation of the instrument orbit with Sentinel-2 (maximum delay of 1-3 days) to combine data from the visible and near infrared (VNIR), the shortwave infrared (SWIR) and TIR spectral regions and to refine parameter retrieval.

  18. A Novel Approach for Forecasting Crop Production and Yield Using Remotely Sensed Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. K.; Budde, M. E.; Senay, G. B.; Rowland, J.

    2017-12-01

    Forecasting crop production in advance of crop harvest plays a significant role in drought impact management, improved food security, stabilizing food grain market prices, and poverty reduction. This becomes essential, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, where agriculture is a critical source of livelihoods, but lacks good quality agricultural statistical data. With increasing availability of low cost satellite data, faster computing power, and development of modeling algorithms, remotely sensed images are becoming a common source for deriving information for agricultural, drought, and water management. Many researchers have shown that the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), based on red and near-infrared reflectance, can be effectively used for estimating crop production and yield. Similarly, crop production and yield have been closely related to evapotranspiration (ET) also as there are strong linkages between production/yield and transpiration based on plant physiology. Thus, we combined NDVI and ET information from remotely sensed images for estimating total production and crop yield prior to crop harvest for Niger and Burkina Faso in West Africa. We identified the optimum time (dekads 23-29) for cumulating NDVI and ET and developed a new algorithm for estimating crop production and yield. We used the crop data from 2003 to 2008 to calibrate our model and the data from 2009 to 2013 for validation. Our results showed that total crop production can be estimated within 5% of actual production (R2 = 0.98) about 30-45 days before end of the harvest season. This novel approach can be operationalized to provide a valuable tool to decision makers for better drought impact management in drought-prone regions of the world.

  19. Radiation exposure near Chernobyl based on analysis of conifer injury using thematic mapper satellite images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.; Ustin, S.L.; Sadowski, F.G.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation-induced damage in conifers adjacent to the damaged Chernobyl nuclear power plant has been evaluated using LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite images. Eight images acquired between 22 April 1986 and 15 May 1987 were used to assess the extent and magnitude of radiation effects on pine trees within 10 km of the reactor site. The timing and spatial extent of vegetation damaged was used to estimate the radiation doses in the near field around the Chernobyl nuclear power station and to indirectly derive the dose rates as a function of time during and after the accident. A normalized vegetation index was developed from the TM band data to visually demonstrate the damage and mortality to nearby conifer stands. The patterns of spectral change indicative of vegetation stress are consistent with changes expected for radiation injury and mortality. The extent and timing of these effects permitted the development of an integrated dose estimate, which was combined with the information regarding the characteristics of radionuclide mix, to provide an estimate of maximum dose rates during the early period of the accident. The derived peak dose rates during the 10-day release in the accident are high and are estimated at about 0.5 to 1 rad per hour. These are not considered life-threatening and would therefore require prompt but not immediate evacuation; that is, no off-site fatalities would be likely under such conditions. The methodology employed to combine remote-sensing analyses and the estimates of source term release with the known radiation effects on conifers represent a unique integration of these scientific and technical tools. The results of the study show that remote-sensing techniques can be used to develop a quantitative methodology for dosimetric applications and for future monitoring activities related to reactor safety

  20. A Satellite-Based Imaging Instrumentation Concept for Hyperspectral Thermal Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Udelhoven

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the concept of the hyperspectral Earth-observing thermal infrared (TIR satellite mission HiTeSEM (High-resolution Temperature and Spectral Emissivity Mapping. The scientific goal is to measure specific key variables from the biosphere, hydrosphere, pedosphere, and geosphere related to two global problems of significant societal relevance: food security and human health. The key variables comprise land and sea surface radiation temperature and emissivity, surface moisture, thermal inertia, evapotranspiration, soil minerals and grain size components, soil organic carbon, plant physiological variables, and heat fluxes. The retrieval of this information requires a TIR imaging system with adequate spatial and spectral resolutions and with day-night following observation capability. Another challenge is the monitoring of temporally high dynamic features like energy fluxes, which require adequate revisit time. The suggested solution is a sensor pointing concept to allow high revisit times for selected target regions (1–5 days at off-nadir. At the same time, global observations in the nadir direction are guaranteed with a lower temporal repeat cycle (>1 month. To account for the demand of a high spatial resolution for complex targets, it is suggested to combine in one optic (1 a hyperspectral TIR system with ~75 bands at 7.2–12.5 µm (instrument NEDT 0.05 K–0.1 K and a ground sampling distance (GSD of 60 m, and (2 a panchromatic high-resolution TIR-imager with two channels (8.0–10.25 µm and 10.25–12.5 µm and a GSD of 20 m. The identified science case requires a good correlation of the instrument orbit with Sentinel-2 (maximum delay of 1–3 days to combine data from the visible and near infrared (VNIR, the shortwave infrared (SWIR and TIR spectral regions and to refine parameter retrieval.

  1. Exploring image data assimilation in the prospect of high-resolution satellite oceanic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán Moro, Marina; Brankart, Jean-Michel; Brasseur, Pierre; Verron, Jacques

    2017-07-01

    Satellite sensors increasingly provide high-resolution (HR) observations of the ocean. They supply observations of sea surface height (SSH) and of tracers of the dynamics such as sea surface salinity (SSS) and sea surface temperature (SST). In particular, the Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission will provide measurements of the surface ocean topography at very high-resolution (HR) delivering unprecedented information on the meso-scale and submeso-scale dynamics. This study investigates the feasibility to use these measurements to reconstruct meso-scale features simulated by numerical models, in particular on the vertical dimension. A methodology to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) multivariate meso-scale scenes is developed by using a HR numerical model of the Solomon Sea region. An inverse problem is defined in the framework of a twin experiment where synthetic observations are used. A true state is chosen among the 3D multivariate states which is considered as a reference state. In order to correct a first guess of this true state, a two-step analysis is carried out. A probability distribution of the first guess is defined and updated at each step of the analysis: (i) the first step applies the analysis scheme of a reduced-order Kalman filter to update the first guess probability distribution using SSH observation; (ii) the second step minimizes a cost function using observations of HR image structure and a new probability distribution is estimated. The analysis is extended to the vertical dimension using 3D multivariate empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) and the probabilistic approach allows the update of the probability distribution through the two-step analysis. Experiments show that the proposed technique succeeds in correcting a multivariate state using meso-scale and submeso-scale information contained in HR SSH and image structure observations. It also demonstrates how the surface information can be used to reconstruct the ocean state below

  2. Relasphone—Mobile and Participative In Situ Forest Biomass Measurements Supporting Satellite Image Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Molinier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high cost of traditional forest plot measurements, the availability of up-to-date in situ forest inventory data has been a bottleneck for remote sensing image analysis in support of the important global forest biomass mapping. Capitalizing on the proliferation of smartphones, citizen science is a promising approach to increase spatial and temporal coverages of in situ forest observations in a cost-effective way. Digital cameras can be used as a relascope device to measure basal area, a forest density variable that is closely related to biomass. In this paper, we present the Relasphone mobile application with extensive accuracy assessment in two mixed forest sites from different biomes. Basal area measurements in Finland (boreal zone were in good agreement with reference forest inventory plot data on pine ( R 2 = 0 . 75 , R M S E = 5 . 33 m 2 /ha, spruce ( R 2 = 0 . 75 , R M S E = 6 . 73 m 2 /ha and birch ( R 2 = 0 . 71 , R M S E = 4 . 98 m 2 /ha, with total relative R M S E ( % = 29 . 66 % . In Durango, Mexico (temperate zone, Relasphone stem volume measurements were best for pine ( R 2 = 0 . 88 , R M S E = 32 . 46 m 3 /ha and total stem volume ( R 2 = 0 . 87 , R M S E = 35 . 21 m 3 /ha. Relasphone data were then successfully utilized as the only reference data in combination with optical satellite images to produce biomass maps. The Relasphone concept has been validated for future use by citizens in other locations.

  3. (D,T) Driven thorium hybrid blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kusayer, T.A.; Khan, S.; Sahin, S.

    1983-01-01

    Recently, a project has started, with the aim to establish the neutronic performance and the basic design of an experimental fusionfission (hybrid) reactor facility, called AYMAN, in cylinderical geometry. The fusion reactor will have to be simulated by a (D,T) neutron generator. Fissile and fertile fuel will have to surround the neutron generator as a cylinderical blanket to simulate the boundary conditions of the hybrid blanket in a proper way. This geometry is consistent with Tandem Mirror Hybrid Blanket design and with most of the ICF blanket designs. A similar experimental installation will become operational around 1984 at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland known under the project LOTUS. Due to the limited dimensions of the experimental cavity of the LOTUS-hybrid reactor, the LOTUS blankets have to be designed in plane geometry. Also, the bulky form of the Haefely neutron generator of the LOTUS facility obliges one to design a blanket in the plane geometry. This results in a vacuum left boundary conditions for the LOTUS blanket. The importance of a reflecting left boundary condition on the overall neutronic performance of a hybrid blanket has been analyzed in previous work in detail

  4. Design and analysis of ITER shield blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmori, Junji; Hatano, Toshihisa; Ezato, Kouichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-12-01

    This report includes electromagnetic analyses for ITER shielding blanket modules, fabrication methods for the blanket modules and the back plate, the design and the fabrication methods for port limiter have been investigated. Studies on the runaway electron impact for Be armor have been also performed. (J.P.N.)

  5. Methods to enhance blanket power density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.Y.; Miller, L.G.; Bohn, T.S.; Deis, G.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Masson, L.S.; Wessol, D.E.; Abdou, M.A.

    1982-06-01

    The overall objective of this task is to investigate the extent to which the power density in the FED/INTOR breeder blanket test modules can be enhanced by artificial means. Assuming a viable approach can be developed, it will allow advanced reactor blanket modules to be tested on FED/INTOR under representative conditions

  6. Design of ITER shielding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Kazuyuki; Sato, Satoshi; Hatano, Toshihisa; Tokami, Ikuhide; Kitamura, Kazunori; Miura, Hidenori; Ito, Yutaka; Kuroda, Toshimasa; Takatsu, Hideyuki

    1997-05-01

    A mechanical configuration of ITER integrated primary first wall/shield blanket module were developed focusing on the welded attachment of its support leg to the back plate. A 100 mm x 150 mm space between the legs of adjacent modules was incorporated for the working space of welding/cutting tools. A concept of coolant branch pipe connection to accommodate deformation due to the leg welding and differential displacement of the module and the manifold/back plate during operation was introduced. Two-dimensional FEM analyses showed that thermal stresses in Cu-alloy (first wall) and stainless steel (first wall coolant tube and shield block) satisfied the stress criteria following ASME code for ITER BPP operation. On the other hand, three-dimensional FEM analyses for overall in-vessel structures exhibited excessive primary stresses in the back plate and its support structure to the vacuum vessel under VDE disruption load and marginal stresses in the support leg of module No.4. Fabrication procedure of the integrated primary first wall/shield blanket module was developed based on single step solid HIP for the joining of Cu-alloy/Cu-alloy, Cu-alloy/stainless steel, and stainless steel/stainless steel. (author)

  7. Coseismic displacements from SAR image offsets between different satellite sensors: Application to the 2001 Bhuj (India) earthquake

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Teng

    2015-09-05

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image offset tracking is increasingly being used for measuring ground displacements, e.g., due to earthquakes and landslide movement. However, this technique has been applied only to images acquired by the same or identical satellites. Here we propose a novel approach for determining offsets between images acquired by different satellite sensors, extending the usability of existing SAR image archives. The offsets are measured between two multiimage reflectivity maps obtained from different SAR data sets, which provide significantly better results than with single preevent and postevent images. Application to the 2001 Mw7.6 Bhuj earthquake reveals, for the first time, its near-field deformation using multiple preearthquake ERS and postearthquake Envisat images. The rupture model estimated from these cross-sensor offsets and teleseismic waveforms shows a compact fault slip pattern with fairly short rise times (<3 s) and a large stress drop (20 MPa), explaining the intense shaking observed in the earthquake.

  8. NET test blanket design and remote maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, C.; Hubert, P.

    1991-01-01

    The NET machine has three horizontal ports reserved for testing tritium breeding blanket designs during the physics phase and possibly five during the technology phase. The design of the ports and test blankets are modular to accept a range of blanket options, provide radiation shielding and allow routine replacement. Radiation levels during replacement or maintenance require that all operations must be carried out remotely. The paper describes the problems overcome in providing a port design which includes attachment to the vacuum vessel with double vacuum seals, an integrated cooled first wall and support guides for the test blanket module. The method selected to remotely replace the test module whilst controlling the spread of contamination is also adressed. The paper concludes that the provisions of a test blanket facility based on the NET machine design is feasible. (orig.)

  9. Classification Using Markov Blanket for Feature Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Luo, Jian

    2009-01-01

    Selecting relevant features is in demand when a large data set is of interest in a classification task. It produces a tractable number of features that are sufficient and possibly improve the classification performance. This paper studies a statistical method of Markov blanket induction algorithm...... for filtering features and then applies a classifier using the Markov blanket predictors. The Markov blanket contains a minimal subset of relevant features that yields optimal classification performance. We experimentally demonstrate the improved performance of several classifiers using a Markov blanket...... induction as a feature selection method. In addition, we point out an important assumption behind the Markov blanket induction algorithm and show its effect on the classification performance....

  10. Blanket materials for DT fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the critical materials issues that must be considered in the development of a tritium breeding blanket for a tokamak fusion reactor that operates on the D-T-Li fuel cycle. The primary requirements of the blanket system are identified and the important criteria that must be considered in the development of blanket technology are summarized. The candidate materials are listed for the different blanket components, e.g., breeder, coolant, structure and neutron multiplier. Three blanket concepts that appear to offer the most potential are: (1) liquid-metal breeder/coolant, (2) liquid-metal breeder/separate coolant, and (3) solid breeder/separate coolant. The major uncertainties associated with each of the design concepts are discussed and the key materials R and D requirements for each concept are identified

  11. Mangrove forests submitted to depositional processes and salinity variation investigated using satellite images and vegetation structure surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha-Lignon, M.; Kampel, M.; Menghini, R.P.; Schaeffer-Novelli, Y.; Cintrón, G.; Dahdouh-Guebas, F.

    2011-01-01

    The current paper examines the growth and spatio-temporal variation of mangrove forests in response to depositional processes and different salinity conditions. Data from mangrove vegetation structure collected at permanent plots and satellite images were used. In the northern sector important environmental changes occurred due to an artificial channel producing modifications in salinity. The southern sector is considered the best conserved mangrove area along the coast of São Paulo State, Br...

  12. Sediment plume model-a comparison between use of measured turbidity data and satellite images for model calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghian, Amir; Hudson, Jeff; Wheater, Howard; Lindenschmidt, Karl-Erich

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we built a two-dimensional sediment transport model of Lake Diefenbaker, Saskatchewan, Canada. It was calibrated by using measured turbidity data from stations along the reservoir and satellite images based on a flood event in 2013. In June 2013, there was heavy rainfall for two consecutive days on the frozen and snow-covered ground in the higher elevations of western Alberta, Canada. The runoff from the rainfall and the melted snow caused one of the largest recorded inflows to the headwaters of the South Saskatchewan River and Lake Diefenbaker downstream. An estimated discharge peak of over 5200 m 3 /s arrived at the reservoir inlet with a thick sediment front within a few days. The sediment plume moved quickly through the entire reservoir and remained visible from satellite images for over 2 weeks along most of the reservoir, leading to concerns regarding water quality. The aims of this study are to compare, quantitatively and qualitatively, the efficacy of using turbidity data and satellite images for sediment transport model calibration and to determine how accurately a sediment transport model can simulate sediment transport based on each of them. Both turbidity data and satellite images were very useful for calibrating the sediment transport model quantitatively and qualitatively. Model predictions and turbidity measurements show that the flood water and suspended sediments entered upstream fairly well mixed and moved downstream as overflow with a sharp gradient at the plume front. The model results suggest that the settling and resuspension rates of sediment are directly proportional to flow characteristics and that the use of constant coefficients leads to model underestimation or overestimation unless more data on sediment formation become available. Hence, this study reiterates the significance of the availability of data on sediment distribution and characteristics for building a robust and reliable sediment transport model.

  13. Satellite image analysis and a hybrid ESSS/ANN model to forecast solar irradiance in the tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Zibo; Yang, Dazhi; Reindl, Thomas; Walsh, Wilfred M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Satellite image analysis is performed and cloud cover index is classified using self-organizing maps (SOM). • The ESSS model is used to forecast cloud cover index. • Solar irradiance is estimated using multi-layer perceptron (MLP). • The proposed model shows better accuracy than other investigated models. - Abstract: We forecast hourly solar irradiance time series using satellite image analysis and a hybrid exponential smoothing state space (ESSS) model together with artificial neural networks (ANN). Since cloud cover is the major factor affecting solar irradiance, cloud detection and classification are crucial to forecast solar irradiance. Geostationary satellite images provide cloud information, allowing a cloud cover index to be derived and analysed using self-organizing maps (SOM). Owing to the stochastic nature of cloud generation in tropical regions, the ESSS model is used to forecast cloud cover index. Among different models applied in ANN, we favour the multi-layer perceptron (MLP) to derive solar irradiance based on the cloud cover index. This hybrid model has been used to forecast hourly solar irradiance in Singapore and the technique is found to outperform traditional forecasting models

  14. ANALYSIS AND APPLICATION OF LINEAMENTS EXTRACTION USING GF-1 SATELLITE IMAGES IN LOESS COVERED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Han

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Faults, folds and other tectonics regions belong to the weak areas of geology, will form linear geomorphology as a result of erosion, which appears as lineaments on the earth surface. Lineaments control the distribution of regional formation, groundwater, and geothermal, etc., so it is an important indicator for the evaluation of the strength and stability of the geological structure. The current algorithms mostly are artificial visual interpretation and computer semi-automatic extraction, not only time-consuming, but labour-intensive. It is difficult to guarantee the accuracy due to the dependence on the expert’s knowledge, experience, and the computer hardware and software. Therefore, an integrated algorithm is proposed based on the GF-1 satellite image data, taking the loess area in the northern part of Jinlinghe basin as an example. Firstly, the best bands with 4-3-2 composition is chosen using optimum index factor (OIF. Secondly, line edge is highlighted by Gaussian high-pass filter and tensor voting. Finally, the Hough Transform is used to detect the geologic lineaments. Thematic maps of geological structure in this area are mapped through the extraction of lineaments. The experimental results show that, influenced by the northern margin of Qinling Mountains and the declined Weihe Basin, the lineaments are mostly distributed over the terrain lines, and mainly in the NW, NE, NNE, and ENE directions. It provided a reliable basis for analysing tectonic stress trend because of the agreement with the existing regional geological survey. The algorithm is more practical and has higher robustness, less disturbed by human factors.

  15. Analysis and Application of Lineaments Extraction Using GF-1 Satellite Images in Loess Covered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, L.; Liu, Z.; Zhao, Z.; Ning, Y.

    2018-04-01

    Faults, folds and other tectonics regions belong to the weak areas of geology, will form linear geomorphology as a result of erosion, which appears as lineaments on the earth surface. Lineaments control the distribution of regional formation, groundwater, and geothermal, etc., so it is an important indicator for the evaluation of the strength and stability of the geological structure. The current algorithms mostly are artificial visual interpretation and computer semi-automatic extraction, not only time-consuming, but labour-intensive. It is difficult to guarantee the accuracy due to the dependence on the expert's knowledge, experience, and the computer hardware and software. Therefore, an integrated algorithm is proposed based on the GF-1 satellite image data, taking the loess area in the northern part of Jinlinghe basin as an example. Firstly, the best bands with 4-3-2 composition is chosen using optimum index factor (OIF). Secondly, line edge is highlighted by Gaussian high-pass filter and tensor voting. Finally, the Hough Transform is used to detect the geologic lineaments. Thematic maps of geological structure in this area are mapped through the extraction of lineaments. The experimental results show that, influenced by the northern margin of Qinling Mountains and the declined Weihe Basin, the lineaments are mostly distributed over the terrain lines, and mainly in the NW, NE, NNE, and ENE directions. It provided a reliable basis for analysing tectonic stress trend because of the agreement with the existing regional geological survey. The algorithm is more practical and has higher robustness, less disturbed by human factors.

  16. Deforestation change detection in North Korea between 1999 and 2008 using multi temporal satellite image

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    After the mid-1990s, North Korea has gone through a hard time of shortage of food and fuel due to the large scale flood and landslide. This became a vicious circle, which has kept accelerating the deforestation in North Korea. This study aims to analyze the change of deforestation in North Korea using two different seasonal satellite images of Landsat 5-TM and SPOT-5 between 1999 and 2008. The Land cover was classified into 6 categories: forest, cropland, grassland, bare land, built area and water body. And the deforested and degraded forest area was extracted considering forest land boundary and classified into 3 categories: the cultivated, the unstocked forest land and the bare mountain. For the all classification process, unsupervised classification method was used since North Korea is inaccessible area. The results of the study showed that the stocked forest area has decreased 1,379,000 ha compared with those in 1999, whereas the deforested and degraded forest area has increased 1,207,000 ha in 2008. The increase of 880,000 ha in the unstocked forest land was the biggest expansion among 3 categories of the deforested and degraded forest area during 9 yrs. It is resulted from an increase of firewood usage, which is presumably owing to the severe shortage of fuel and food. I look forward for the outcome of this study to being used as baseline data for inter-Korean forest cooperation. Especially, it is expected to serve as important input data for the potential REDD project site selection with results of the 3rd forest monitoring(2018) of North Korea.

  17. A Workflow for Automated Satellite Image Processing: from Raw VHSR Data to Object-Based Spectral Information for Smallholder Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Stratoulias

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Earth Observation has become a progressively important source of information for land use and land cover services over the past decades. At the same time, an increasing number of reconnaissance satellites have been set in orbit with ever increasing spatial, temporal, spectral, and radiometric resolutions. The available bulk of data, fostered by open access policies adopted by several agencies, is setting a new landscape in remote sensing in which timeliness and efficiency are important aspects of data processing. This study presents a fully automated workflow able to process a large collection of very high spatial resolution satellite images to produce actionable information in the application framework of smallholder farming. The workflow applies sequential image processing, extracts meaningful statistical information from agricultural parcels, and stores them in a crop spectrotemporal signature library. An important objective is to follow crop development through the season by analyzing multi-temporal and multi-sensor images. The workflow is based on free and open-source software, namely R, Python, Linux shell scripts, the Geospatial Data Abstraction Library, custom FORTRAN, C++, and the GNU Make utilities. We tested and applied this workflow on a multi-sensor image archive of over 270 VHSR WorldView-2, -3, QuickBird, GeoEye, and RapidEye images acquired over five different study areas where smallholder agriculture prevails.

  18. Comparison and evaluation of fusion methods used for GF-2 satellite image in coastal mangrove area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Chengxing; Ju, Hongbo; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Huaiqing; Sun, Hua

    2018-04-01

    GF-2 satellite is the highest spatial resolution Remote Sensing Satellite of the development history of China's satellite. In this study, three traditional fusion methods including Brovey, Gram-Schmidt and Color Normalized (CN were used to compare with the other new fusion method NNDiffuse, which used the qualitative assessment and quantitative fusion quality index, including information entropy, variance, mean gradient, deviation index, spectral correlation coefficient. Analysis results show that NNDiffuse method presented the optimum in qualitative and quantitative analysis. It had more effective for the follow up of remote sensing information extraction and forest, wetland resources monitoring applications.

  19. Soft x-ray imager (SXI) onboard the NeXT satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Takagi, Shin-Ichiro; Matsumoto, Hironori; Inui, Tatsuya; Ozawa, Midori; Koyama, Katsuji; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Miyata, Emi; Ozawa, Hideki; Touhiguchi, Masakuni; Matsuura, Daisuke; Dotani, Tadayasu; Ozaki, Masanobu; Murakami, Hiroshi; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Kitamoto, Shunji; Awaki, Hisamitsu

    2006-06-01

    We give overview and the current status of the development of the Soft X-ray Imager (SXI) onboard the NeXT satellite. SXI is an X-ray CCD camera placed at the focal plane detector of the Soft X-ray Telescopes for Imaging (SXT-I) onboard NeXT. The pixel size and the format of the CCD is 24 x 24μm (IA) and 2048 x 2048 x 2 (IA+FS). Currently, we have been developing two types of CCD as candidates for SXI, in parallel. The one is front illumination type CCD with moderate thickness of the depletion layer (70 ~ 100μm) as a baseline plan. The other one is the goal plan, in which we develop back illumination type CCD with a thick depletion layer (200 ~ 300μm). For the baseline plan, we successfully developed the proto model 'CCD-NeXT1' with the pixel size of 12μm x 12μm and the CCD size of 24mm x 48mm. The depletion layer of the CCD has reached 75 ~ 85μm. The goal plan is realized by introduction of a new type of CCD 'P-channel CCD', which collects holes in stead of electrons in the common 'N-channel CCD'. By processing a test model of P-channel CCD we have confirmed high quantum efficiency above 10 keV with an equivalent depletion layer of 300μm. A back illumination type of P-channel CCD with a depletion layer of 200μm with aluminum coating for optical blocking has been also successfully developed. We have been also developing a thermo-electric cooler (TEC) with the function of the mechanically support of the CCD wafer without standoff insulators, for the purpose of the reduction of thermal input to the CCD through the standoff insulators. We have been considering the sensor housing and the onboard electronics for the CCD clocking, readout and digital processing of the frame date.

  20. Design of a nano-satellite demonstrator of an infrared imaging space interferometer: the HyperCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohlen, Kjetil; Vives, Sébastien; Rakotonimbahy, Eddy; Sarkar, Tanmoy; Tasnim Ava, Tanzila; Baccichet, Nicola; Savini, Giorgio; Swinyard, Bruce

    2014-07-01

    The construction of a kilometer-baseline far infrared imaging interferometer is one of the big instrumental challenges for astronomical instrumentation in the coming decades. Recent proposals such as FIRI, SPIRIT, and PFI illustrate both science cases, from exo-planetary science to study of interstellar media and cosmology, and ideas for construction of such instruments, both in space and on the ground. An interesting option for an imaging multi-aperture interferometer with km baseline is the space-based hyper telescope (HT) where a giant, sparsely populated primary mirror is constituted of several free-flying satellites each carrying a mirror segment. All the segments point the same object and direct their part of the pupil towards a common focus where another satellite, containing recombiner optics and a detector unit, is located. In Labeyrie's [1] original HT concept, perfect phasing of all the segments was assumed, allowing snap-shot imaging within a reduced field of view and coronagraphic extinction of the star. However, for a general purpose observatory, image reconstruction using closure phase a posteriori image reconstruction is possible as long as the pupil is fully non-redundant. Such reconstruction allows for much reduced alignment tolerances, since optical path length control is only required to within several tens of wavelengths, rather than within a fraction of a wavelength. In this paper we present preliminary studies for such an instrument and plans for building a miniature version to be flown on a nano satellite. A design for recombiner optics is proposed, including a scheme for exit pupil re-organization, is proposed, indicating the focal plane satellite in the case of a km-baseline interferometer could be contained within a 1m3 unit. Different options for realization of a miniature version are presented, including instruments for solar observations in the visible and the thermal infrared and giant planet observations in the visible, and an

  1. GHRSST Level 2P Global Skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the NASA Terra satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a scientific instrument (radiometer) launched by NASA in 1999 on board the Terra satellite platform (a...

  2. GHRSST Level 2P Global Skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the NASA Aqua satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a scientific instrument (radiometer) launched by NASA in 2002 on board the Aqua satellite platform (a...

  3. GHRSST Level 2P Global Sea Surface Temperature from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi NPP satellite (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Visible and Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a multi-disciplinary instrument that is being flown on the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) series of...

  4. Laurel Clark Earth Camp: A Program for Teachers and Students to Explore Their World and Study Global Change Through Field-Experience and Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, S.; Orchard, A.; Colodner, D.; Schwartz, K.; Crown, D. A.; King, B.; Baldridge, A.

    2012-03-01

    The Laurel Clark Earth Camp program provides middle and high school students and teachers opportunities to explore local environmental issues and global change through field-experiences, inquiry exercises, and exploring satellite images.

  5. Analysis and Assessment of Land Use Change in Alexandria, Egypt Using Satellite Images, GIS, and Modelling Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou Azaz, L.K.

    2008-01-01

    Alexandria is the second largest urban governorate in Egypt and has seen significant urban growth in its modern and contemporary history. This study investigates the urban growth phenomenon in Alexandria, Egypt, using the integration of remote sensing and GIS. The urban physical expansion and change were detected using Landsat satellite images. The satellite images of years 1984 and 1993 were first geo referenced, achieving a very small RMSE that provided high accuracy data for satellite image analysis. Then, the images were classified using a tailored classification scheme with accuracy of 93.82% and 95.27% for 1984 and 1993 images respectively. This high accuracy enabled detecting land use/land cover changes with high confidence using a post-classification comparison method. One of the most important findings here is the loss of cultivated land in favour of urban expansion. If the current loss rates continued, 75% of green lands would be lost by year 2191. These hazardous rates call for an urban growth management policy that can preserve such valuable resources to achieve sustainable urban development. Modelling techniques can help in defining the scenarios of urban growth. In this study, the SLEUTH urban growth model was applied to predict future urban expansion in Alexandria until the year 2055. The application of this model in Alexandria of Egypt with its different environmental characteristics is the first application outside USA and Europe. The results revealed that future urban growth would continue along the edges of the current urban extent. This means that the cultivated lands in the east and the southeast of the city will be decreased. To deal with such crisis, there is a serious need for a comprehensive urban growth management programme that can be based on the best practices in similar situations

  6. Convertible shielding to ceramic breeding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Kazuyuki; Kurasawa, Toshimasa; Sato, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Togami, Ikuhide; Hashimoto, Toshiyuki; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Kuroda, Toshimasa.

    1995-05-01

    Four concepts have been studied for the ITER convertible blanket: 1)Layered concept 2)BIT(Breeder-Inside-Tube)concept 3)BOT(Breeder-Out of-Tube)concept 4)BOT/mixed concept. All concepts use ceramic breeder and beryllium neutron multiplier, both in the shape of small spherical pebbles, 316SS structure, and H 2 O coolant (inlet/outlet temperatures : 100/150degC, pressure : 2 MPa). During the BPP, only beryllium pebbles (the primary pebble in case of BOT/mixed concept) are filled in the blanket for shielding purpose. Then, before the EPP operation, breeder pebbles will be additionally inserted into the blanket. Among possible conversion methods, wet method by liquid flow seems expecting for high and homogeneous pebble packing. Preliminary 1-D neutronics calculation shows that the BOT/mixed concept has the highest breeding and shielding performance. However, final selection should be done by R and D's and more detail investigation on blanket characteristics and fabricability. Required R and D's are also listed. With these efforts, the convertible blanket can be developed. However, the following should be noted. Though many of above R and D's are also necessary even for non-convertible blanket, R and D's on convertibility will be one of the most difficult parts and need significant efforts. Besides the installation of convertible blanket with required structures and lines for conversion will make the ITER basic machine more complicated. (author)

  7. ARIES-IV Nested Shell Blanket Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Redler, K.; Reis, E.E.; Will, R.; Cheng, E.; Hasan, C.M.; Sharafat, S.

    1993-11-01

    The ARIES-IV Nested Shell Blanket (NSB) Design is an alternate blanket concept of the ARIES-IV low activation helium-cooled reactor design. The reference design has the coolant routed in the poloidal direction and the inlet and outlet plena are located at the top and bottom of the torus. The NSB design has the high velocity coolant routed in the toroidal direction and the plena are located behind the blanket. This is of significance since the selected structural material is SiC-composite. The NSB is designed to have key high performance components with characteristic dimensions of no larger than 2 m. These components can be brazed to form the blanket module. For the diverter design, we eliminated the use of W as the divertor coating material by relying on the successful development of the gaseous divertor concept. The neutronics and thermal-hydraulic performance of both blanket concepts are similar. The selected blanket and divertor configurations can also meet all the projected structural, neutronics and thermal-hydraulics design limits and requirements. With the selected blanket and divertor materials, the design has a level of safety assurance rate of I (LSA-1), which indicates an inherently safe design

  8. On blanket concepts of the Helias reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wobig, H.; Harmeyer, E.; Herrnegger, F.; Kisslinger, J.

    1999-07-01

    The paper discusses various options for a blanket of the Helias reactor HSR22. The Helias reactor is an upgrade version of the Wendelstein 7-X device. The dimensions of the Helias reactor are: major radius 22 m, average plasma radius 1.8 m, magnetic field on axis 4.75 T, maximum field 10 T, number of field periods 5, fusion power 3000 MW. The minimum distance between plasma and coils is 1.5 m, leaving sufficient space for a blanket and shield. Three options of a breeding blanket are discussed taking into account the specific properties of the Helias configuration. Due to the large area of the first wall (2600 m 2 ) the average neutron power load on the first wall is below 1 MWm .2 , which has a strong impact on the blanket performance with respect to lifetime and cooling requirements. A comparison with a tokamak reactor shows that the lifetime of first wall components and blanket components in the Helias reactor is expected to be at least two times longer. The blanket concepts being discussed in the following are: the solid breeder concept (HCPB), the dual-coolant Pb-17Li blanket concept and the water-cooled Pb-17Li concept (WCLL). (orig.)

  9. Tritium transport analysis for CFETR WCSB blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Pinghui, E-mail: phzhao@mail.ustc.edu.cn; Yang, Wanli; Li, Yuanjie; Ge, Zhihao; Nie, Xingchen; Gao, Zhongping

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • A simplified tritium transport model for CFETR WCSB blanket was developed. • Tritium transport process in CFETR WCSB blanket was analyzed. • Sensitivity analyses of tritium transport parameters were carried out. - Abstract: Water Cooled Solid Breeder (WCSB) blanket was put forward as one of the breeding blanket candidate schemes for Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR). In this study, a simplified tritium transport model was developed. Based on the conceptual engineering design, neutronics and thermal-hydraulic analyses of CFETR WCSB blanket, tritium transport process was analyzed. The results show that high tritium concentration and inventory exist in primary water loop and total tritium losses exceed CFETR limits under current conditions. Conducted were sensitivity analyses of influential parameters, including tritium source, temperature, flow-rate capacity and surface condition. Tritium performance of WCSB blanket can be significantly improved under a smaller tritium impinging rate, a larger flow-rate capacity or a better surface condition. This work provides valuable reference for the enhancement of tritium transport behavior in CFETR WCSB blanket.

  10. ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WONG, CPC; MALANG, S; NISHIO, S; RAFFRAY, R; SAGARA, S

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS. First wall and blanket (FW/blanket) design is a crucial element in the performance and acceptance of a fusion power plant. High temperature structural and breeding materials are needed for high thermal performance. A suitable combination of structural design with the selected materials is necessary for D-T fuel sufficiency. Whenever possible, low afterheat, low chemical reactivity and low activation materials are desired to achieve passive safety and minimize the amount of high-level waste. Of course the selected fusion FW/blanket design will have to match the operational scenarios of high performance plasma. The key characteristics of eight advanced high performance FW/blanket concepts are presented in this paper. Design configurations, performance characteristics, unique advantages and issues are summarized. All reviewed designs can satisfy most of the necessary design goals. For further development, in concert with the advancement in plasma control and scrape off layer physics, additional emphasis will be needed in the areas of first wall coating material selection, design of plasma stabilization coils, consideration of reactor startup and transient events. To validate the projected performance of the advanced FW/blanket concepts the critical element is the need for 14 MeV neutron irradiation facilities for the generation of necessary engineering design data and the prediction of FW/blanket components lifetime and availability

  11. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island World View 2 Satellite Mosaic - NOAA TIFF Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GeoTiff is a mosaic of World View 2 panchromatic satellite imagery of Northeast Puerto Rico that contains the shallow water area (0-35m deep) surrounding...

  12. Estimating Advective Near-surface Currents from Ocean Color Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    on the SuomiNational Polar-Orbiting Partner- ship (S- NPP ) satellite. The GOCI is the world’s first geostationary orbit satellite sensor over the...radiance Lwn at several wave - lengths. These spectral Lwn channels are used to derive several in- water bio-optical properties (Lee, Carder, & Arnone...the same surface flow, it is the inter-product similarities, instead of the differences, that are more likely to stand for the surface advection. If

  13. Eumetcast receiving station integration withinthe satellite image database interface (SAIDIN) system.

    OpenAIRE

    Chic, Òscar

    2010-01-01

    Within the tasks devoted to operational oceanography, Coastal Ocean Observatory at Institut de Ciències del Mar (CSIC) has acquired an European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) Broadcast System for Environmental Data (EUMETCast reception system) to replace a satellite direct broadcast system that receives data via High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT). EUMETCast system can receive data based on standard Digital Video Broadcastin...

  14. ITER breeding blanket module design and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Toshimasa; Enoeda, Mikio; Kikuchi, Shigeto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-11-01

    The ITER breeding blanket employs a ceramic breeder and Be neutron multiplier both in small spherical pebble form. Radial-poloidal cooling panels are arranged in the blanket box to remove the nuclear heating in these materials and to reinforce the blanket structure. At the first wall, Be armor is bonded onto the stainless steel (SS) structure to provide a low Z plasma-compatible surface and to protect the first wall/blanket structure from the direct contact with the plasma during off-normal events. Thermo-mechanical analyses and investigation of fabrication procedure have been performed for this breeding blanket. To evaluate thermo-mechanical behavior of the pebble beds including the dependency of the effective thermal conductivity on stress, analysis methods have been preliminary established by the use of special calculation option of ABAQUS code, which are briefly summarized in this report. The structural response of the breeding blanket module under internal pressure of 4 MPa (in case of in-blanket LOCA) resulted in rather high stress in the blanket side (toroidal end) wall, thus addition of a stiffening rib or increase of the wall thickness will be needed. Two-dimensional elasto-plastic analyses have been performed for the Be/SS bonded interface at the first wall taking a fabrication process based on HIP bonding and thermal cycle due to pulsed plasma operation into account. The stress-strain hysteresis during these process and operation was clarified, and a procedure to assess and/or confirm the bonding integrity was also proposed. Fabrication sequence of the breeding blanket module was preliminarily developed based on the procedure to fabricate part by part and to assemble them one by one. (author)

  15. Beryllium R and D for blanket application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalle Donne, M.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik; Longhurst, G.R. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls (United States); Kawamura, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1998-10-01

    The paper describes the main problems and the R and D for the beryllium to be used as neutron multiplier in blankets. As the four ITER partners propose to use beryllium in the form of pebbles for their DEMO relevant blankets (only the Russians consider the porous beryllium option as an alternative) and the ITER breeding blanket will use beryllium pebbles as well, the paper is mainly based on beryllium pebbles. Also the work on the chemical reactivity of fully dense and porous beryllium in contact with water steam is described, due to the safety importance of this point. (orig.) 29 refs.

  16. Beryllium R and D for blanket application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Kawamura, H.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the main problems and the R and D for the beryllium to be used as neutron multiplier in blankets. As the four ITER partners propose to use beryllium in the form of pebbles for their DEMO relevant blankets (only the Russians consider the porous beryllium option as an alternative) and the ITER breeding blanket will use beryllium pebbles as well, the paper is mainly based on beryllium pebbles. Also the work on the chemical reactivity of fully dense and porous beryllium in contact with water steam is described, due to the safety importance of this point. (orig.)

  17. Beryllium R&D for blanket application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donne, M. Dalle; Longhurst, G. R.; Kawamura, H.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F.

    1998-10-01

    The paper describes the main problems and the R&D for the beryllium to be used as neutron multiplier in blankets. As the four ITER partners propose to use beryllium in the form of pebbles for their DEMO relevant blankets (only the Russians consider the porous beryllium option as an alternative) and the ITER breeding blanket will use beryllium pebbles as well, the paper is mainly based on beryllium pebbles. Also the work on the chemical reactivity of fully dense and porous beryllium in contact with water steam is described, due to the safety importance of this point.

  18. Mechanical and thermal design of hybrid blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, K.R.

    1978-01-01

    The thermal and mechanical aspects of hybrid reactor blanket design considerations are discussed. This paper is intended as a companion to that of J. D. Lee of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory on the nuclear aspects of hybrid reactor blanket design. The major design characteristics of hybrid reactor blankets are discussed with emphasis on the areas of difference between hybrid reactors and standard fusion or fission reactors. Specific examples are used to illustrate the design tradeoffs and choices that must be made in hybrid reactor design. These examples are drawn from the work on the Mirror Hybrid Reactor

  19. Benchmark calculations for fusion blanket development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawan, M.E.; Cheng, E.T.

    1985-01-01

    Benchmark problems representing the leading fusion blanket concepts are presented. Benchmark calculations for self-cooled Li/sub 17/Pb/sub 83/ and helium-cooled blankets were performed. Multigroup data libraries generated from ENDF/B-IV and V files using the NJOY and AMPX processing codes with different weighting functions were used. The sensitivity of the TBR to group structure and weighting spectrum increases and Li enrichment decrease with up to 20% discrepancies for thin natural Li/sub 17/Pb/sub 83/ blankets

  20. Benchmark calculations for fusion blanket development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawan, M.L.; Cheng, E.T.

    1986-01-01

    Benchmark problems representing the leading fusion blanket concepts are presented. Benchmark calculations for self-cooled Li 17 Pb 83 and helium-cooled blankets were performed. Multigroup data libraries generated from ENDF/B-IV and V files using the NJOY and AMPX processing codes with different weighting functions were used. The sensitivity of the tritium breeding ratio to group structure and weighting spectrum increases as the thickness and Li enrichment decrease with up to 20% discrepancies for thin natural Li 17 Pb 83 blankets. (author)

  1. Environmental considerations for alternative fusion reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Young, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    Comparisons of alternative fusion reactor blanket/coolant systems suggest that environmental considerations will enter strongly into selection of design and materials. Liquid blankets and coolants tend to maximize transport of radioactive corrosion products. Liquid lithium interacts strongly with tritium, minimizing permeation and escape of gaseous tritium in accidents. However, liquid lithium coolants tend to create large tritium inventories and have a large fire potential compared to flibe and solid blankets. Helium coolants minimize radiation transport, but do not have ability to bind the tritium in case of accidental releases. (auth)

  2. Exploration of mineral resource deposits based on analysis of aerial and satellite image data employing artificial intelligence methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, Gennady

    2013-04-01

    We propose a solution to the problem of exploration of various mineral resource deposits, determination of their forms / classification of types (oil, gas, minerals, gold, etc.) with the help of satellite photography of the region of interest. Images received from satellite are processed and analyzed to reveal the presence of specific signs of deposits of various minerals. Course of data processing and making forecast can be divided into some stages: Pre-processing of images. Normalization of color and luminosity characteristics, determination of the necessary contrast level and integration of a great number of separate photos into a single map of the region are performed. Construction of semantic map image. Recognition of bitmapped image and allocation of objects and primitives known to system are realized. Intelligent analysis. At this stage acquired information is analyzed with the help of a knowledge base, which contain so-called "attention landscapes" of experts. Used methods of recognition and identification of images: a) combined method of image recognition, b)semantic analysis of posterized images, c) reconstruction of three-dimensional objects from bitmapped images, d)cognitive technology of processing and interpretation of images. This stage is fundamentally new and it distinguishes suggested technology from all others. Automatic registration of allocation of experts` attention - registration of so-called "attention landscape" of experts - is the base of the technology. Landscapes of attention are, essentially, highly effective filters that cut off unnecessary information and emphasize exactly the factors used by an expert for making a decision. The technology based on denoted principles involves the next stages, which are implemented in corresponding program agents. Training mode -> Creation of base of ophthalmologic images (OI) -> Processing and making generalized OI (GOI) -> Mode of recognition and interpretation of unknown images. Training mode

  3. 47 CFR 25.222 - Blanket Licensing provisions for Earth Stations on Vessels (ESVs) receiving in the 10.95-11.2 GHz...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket Licensing provisions for Earth Stations...) frequency band, operating with Geostationary Orbit (GSO) Satellites in the Fixed-Satellite Service. 25.222 Section 25.222 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES...

  4. A new tool for supervised classification of satellite images available on web servers: Google Maps as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Flores, Agustín.; Paz-Gallardo, Abel; Plaza, Antonio; Li, Jun

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes a new web platform dedicated to the classification of satellite images called Hypergim. The current implementation of this platform enables users to perform classification of satellite images from any part of the world thanks to the worldwide maps provided by Google Maps. To perform this classification, Hypergim uses unsupervised algorithms like Isodata and K-means. Here, we present an extension of the original platform in which we adapt Hypergim in order to use supervised algorithms to improve the classification results. This involves a significant modification of the user interface, providing the user with a way to obtain samples of classes present in the images to use in the training phase of the classification process. Another main goal of this development is to improve the runtime of the image classification process. To achieve this goal, we use a parallel implementation of the Random Forest classification algorithm. This implementation is a modification of the well-known CURFIL software package. The use of this type of algorithms to perform image classification is widespread today thanks to its precision and ease of training. The actual implementation of Random Forest was developed using CUDA platform, which enables us to exploit the potential of several models of NVIDIA graphics processing units using them to execute general purpose computing tasks as image classification algorithms. As well as CUDA, we use other parallel libraries as Intel Boost, taking advantage of the multithreading capabilities of modern CPUs. To ensure the best possible results, the platform is deployed in a cluster of commodity graphics processing units (GPUs), so that multiple users can use the tool in a concurrent way. The experimental results indicate that this new algorithm widely outperform the previous unsupervised algorithms implemented in Hypergim, both in runtime as well as precision of the actual classification of the images.

  5. Image Fusion Applied to Satellite Imagery for the Improved Mapping and Monitoring of Coral Reefs: a Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholoum, M.; Bruce, D.; Hazeam, S. Al

    2012-07-01

    A coral reef ecosystem, one of the most complex marine environmental systems on the planet, is defined as biologically diverse and immense. It plays an important role in maintaining a vast biological diversity for future generations and functions as an essential spawning, nursery, breeding and feeding ground for many kinds of marine species. In addition, coral reef ecosystems provide valuable benefits such as fisheries, ecological goods and services and recreational activities to many communities. However, this valuable resource is highly threatened by a number of environmental changes and anthropogenic impacts that can lead to reduced coral growth and production, mass coral mortality and loss of coral diversity. With the growth of these threats on coral reef ecosystems, there is a strong management need for mapping and monitoring of coral reef ecosystems. Remote sensing technology can be a valuable tool for mapping and monitoring of these ecosystems. However, the diversity and complexity of coral reef ecosystems, the resolution capabilities of satellite sensors and the low reflectivity of shallow water increases the difficulties to identify and classify its features. This paper reviews the methods used in mapping and monitoring coral reef ecosystems. In addition, this paper proposes improved methods for mapping and monitoring coral reef ecosystems based on image fusion techniques. This image fusion techniques will be applied to satellite images exhibiting high spatial and low to medium spectral resolution with images exhibiting low spatial and high spectral resolution. Furthermore, a new method will be developed to fuse hyperspectral imagery with multispectral imagery. The fused image will have a large number of spectral bands and it will have all pairs of corresponding spatial objects. This will potentially help to accurately classify the image data. Accuracy assessment use ground truth will be performed for the selected methods to determine the quality of the

  6. IMAGE FUSION APPLIED TO SATELLITE IMAGERY FOR THE IMPROVED MAPPING AND MONITORING OF CORAL REEFS: A PROPOSAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gholoum

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A coral reef ecosystem, one of the most complex marine environmental systems on the planet, is defined as biologically diverse and immense. It plays an important role in maintaining a vast biological diversity for future generations and functions as an essential spawning, nursery, breeding and feeding ground for many kinds of marine species. In addition, coral reef ecosystems provide valuable benefits such as fisheries, ecological goods and services and recreational activities to many communities. However, this valuable resource is highly threatened by a number of environmental changes and anthropogenic impacts that can lead to reduced coral growth and production, mass coral mortality and loss of coral diversity. With the growth of these threats on coral reef ecosystems, there is a strong management need for mapping and monitoring of coral reef ecosystems. Remote sensing technology can be a valuable tool for mapping and monitoring of these ecosystems. However, the diversity and complexity of coral reef ecosystems, the resolution capabilities of satellite sensors and the low reflectivity of shallow water increases the difficulties to identify and classify its features. This paper reviews the methods used in mapping and monitoring coral reef ecosystems. In addition, this paper proposes improved methods for mapping and monitoring coral reef ecosystems based on image fusion techniques. This image fusion techniques will be applied to satellite images exhibiting high spatial and low to medium spectral resolution with images exhibiting low spatial and high spectral resolution. Furthermore, a new method will be developed to fuse hyperspectral imagery with multispectral imagery. The fused image will have a large number of spectral bands and it will have all pairs of corresponding spatial objects. This will potentially help to accurately classify the image data. Accuracy assessment use ground truth will be performed for the selected methods to determine

  7. Use of high-resolution satellite images for detection of geological structures related to Central Andes geothermal field, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides-Rivas, C. L.; Soto-Pinto, C. A.; Arellano-Baeza, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Central valley and the border with Argentina in the center, and in the fault system Liquiñe-Ofqui in the South of the country. High resolution images from the LANDSAT 8 satellite have been used to delineate the geological structures related to the potential geothermal reservoirs located at the northern end of the Southern Volcanic Zone of Chile. It was done by applying the lineament extraction technique, using the ADALGEO software, developed by [Soto et al., 2013]. These structures have been compared with the distribution of main geological structures obtained in the field. It was found that the lineament density increases in the areas of the major heat flux indicating that the lineament analysis could be a power tool for the detection of faults and joint zones associated to the geothermal fields. A lineament is generally defined as a straight or slightly curved feature in the landscape visible satellite image as an aligned sequence of pixel intensity contrast compared to the background. The system features extracted from satellite images is not identical to the geological lineaments that are generally determined by ground surveys, however, generally reflects the structure of faults and fractures in the crust. A temporal sequence of eight Landsat multispectral images of Central Andes geothermal field, located in VI region de Chile, was used to study changes in the configuration of the lineaments during 2011. The presence of minerals with silicification, epidotization, and albitization, which are typical for geothrmal reservoirs, was also identified, using their spectral characteristics, and subsequently corroborated in the field. Both lineament analysis and spectral analysis gave similar location of the reservoir, which increases reliability of the results.

  8. The Lightning Mapping Imager (LMI) on the FY-4 satellite and a typical application experiment using the LMI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, F.; Hui, W.; Li, X.; Liu, R.; Zhang, Z.; Zheng, Y.; Kang, N.

    2017-12-01

    The Lightning Mapping Imager (LMI) on the FY-4A satellite, which was launched successfully in December 2016, is the first satellite-based lightning detector from space independently developed in China, and one of the world's first two stationary satellite LMIs. The optical imaging technique with a 400x600 CCD array plane and a frequency of 500 frames/s is adopted in the FY-4A LMI to perform real-time and continuous observation of total lightening in the Chinese mainland and adjacent areas. As of July 2017, the in-orbit test shows that the lightening observation date could be accurately obtained by the FY-4A LMI, and that the geo-location could be verified by the ground lightening observation network over China. Since the beginning of the 2017 flood season, every process of strong thunderstorms has been monitored by the FY-4A LMI throughout the various areas of China, and of these are used as a typical application case in this talk. On April 8 and 9, 2017, a strong convective precipitation process occurred in the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China. The observation data of the FY-4A LMI are used to monitor the occurrence, development, shift and extinction of the thunderstorm track. By means of analyzing the station's synchronous precipitation observation data, it is indicated that the moving track of the thunderstorm is not completely consistent with that of the precipitation center, and while the distribution areas of thunderstorm and precipitation are consistent to a certain extent, a significant difference also exists. This difference is mainly caused by the convective precipitation and stratus precipitation area during the precipitation process. Through comparative analysis, the preliminary satellite and foundation lightening observation data show a higher consistency. However, the time of lightening activity observed by satellite is one hour earlier than that of the ground observation, which is likely related to the total lightning observation by

  9. Review: BNL Tokamak graphite blanket design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.; Powell, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    The BNL minimum activity graphite blanket designs are reviewed, and three are discussed in the context of an experimental power reactor (EPR) and commercial power reactor. Basically, the three designs employ a 30 cm or thicker graphite screen. Bremsstrahlung energy is deposited on the graphite surface and re-radiated away as thermal radiation. Fast neutrons are slowed down in the graphite, depositing most of their energy, which is then radiated to a secondary blanket with coolant tubes, as in types A and B, or removed by intermittent direct gas cooling (type C). In types A and B, radiation damage to the coolant tubes in the secondary blanket is reduced by one or two orders of magnitude, while in type C, the blanket is only cooled when the reactor is shut down, so that coolant cannot quench the plasma. (Auth.)

  10. Blanket design for imploding liner systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    The blanket design comprises hot, molten, rotating liquid vortex systems suitable for rapidly compressing confined plasmas, in which stratified immiscible liquid layers having successively greater mass densities outwardly of the axis of rotation are provided

  11. APT target-blanket fabrication development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, D.L.

    1997-06-13

    Concepts for producing tritium in an accelerator were translated into hardware for engineering studies of tritium generation, heat transfer, and effects of proton-neutron flux on materials. Small-scale target- blanket assemblies were fabricated and material samples prepared for these performance tests. Blanket assemblies utilize composite aluminum-lead modules, the two primary materials of the blanket. Several approaches are being investigated to produce large-scale assemblies, developing fabrication and assembly methods for their commercial manufacture. Small-scale target-blanket assemblies, designed and fabricated at the Savannah River Site, were place in Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) for irradiation. They were subjected to neutron flux for nine months during 1996-97. Coincident with this test was the development of production methods for large- scale modules. Increasing module size presented challenges that required new methods to be developed for fabrication and assembly. After development, these methods were demonstrated by fabricating and assembling two production-scale modules.

  12. Stress analysis of the tokamak engineering test breeder blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhongqi

    1992-01-01

    The design features of the hybrid reactor blanket and main parameters are presented. The stress analysis is performed by using computer codes SAP5p and SAP6 with the three kinds of blanket module loadings, i.e, the pressure of coolant, the blanket weight and the thermal loading. Numerical calculation results indicate that the stresses of the blanket are smaller than the allowable ones of the material, the blanket design is therefore reasonable

  13. Classification of semiurban landscapes from very high-resolution satellite images using a regionalized multiscale segmentation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavzoglu, Taskin; Erdemir, Merve Yildiz; Tonbul, Hasan

    2017-07-01

    In object-based image analysis, obtaining representative image objects is an important prerequisite for a successful image classification. The major threat is the issue of scale selection due to the complex spatial structure of landscapes portrayed as an image. This study proposes a two-stage approach to conduct regionalized multiscale segmentation. In the first stage, an initial high-level segmentation is applied through a "broadscale," and a set of image objects characterizing natural borders of the landscape features are extracted. Contiguous objects are then merged to create regions by considering their normalized difference vegetation index resemblance. In the second stage, optimal scale values are estimated for the extracted regions, and multiresolution segmentation is applied with these settings. Two satellite images with different spatial and spectral resolutions were utilized to test the effectiveness of the proposed approach and its transferability to different geographical sites. Results were compared to those of image-based single-scale segmentation and it was found that the proposed approach outperformed the single-scale segmentations. Using the proposed methodology, significant improvement in terms of segmentation quality and classification accuracy (up to 5%) was achieved. In addition, the highest classification accuracies were produced using fine-scale values.

  14. The fusion blanket program at Chalk River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, I.J.

    1986-03-01

    Work on the Fusion Blanket Program commenced at Chalk River in 1984 June. Co-funded by Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, the Program utilizes Chalk River expertise in instrumented irradiation testing, ceramics, tritium technology, materials testing and compound chemistry. This paper gives highlights of studies to date on lithium-based ceramics, leading contenders for the fusion blanket

  15. Advanced high performance solid wall blanket concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Malang, S.; Nishio, S.; Raffray, R.; Sagara, A.

    2002-01-01

    First wall and blanket (FW/blanket) design is a crucial element in the performance and acceptance of a fusion power plant. High temperature structural and breeding materials are needed for high thermal performance. A suitable combination of structural design with the selected materials is necessary for D-T fuel sufficiency. Whenever possible, low afterheat, low chemical reactivity and low activation materials are desired to achieve passive safety and minimize the amount of high-level waste. Of course the selected fusion FW/blanket design will have to match the operational scenarios of high performance plasma. The key characteristics of eight advanced high performance FW/blanket concepts are presented in this paper. Design configurations, performance characteristics, unique advantages and issues are summarized. All reviewed designs can satisfy most of the necessary design goals. For further development, in concert with the advancement in plasma control and scrape off layer physics, additional emphasis will be needed in the areas of first wall coating material selection, design of plasma stabilization coils, consideration of reactor startup and transient events. To validate the projected performance of the advanced FW/blanket concepts the critical element is the need for 14 MeV neutron irradiation facilities for the generation of necessary engineering design data and the prediction of FW/blanket components lifetime and availability

  16. Workshop on cold-blanket research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-05-01

    The objective of the workshop was to identify and discuss cold-plasma blanket systems. In order to minimize the bombardment of the walls by hot neutrals the plasma should be impermeable. This requires a density edge-thickness product of nΔ > 10 15 cm -2 . An impermeable cold plasma-gas blanket surrounding a hot plasma core reduces the plasma wall/limiter interaction. Accumulation of impurities in this blanket can be expected. Fuelling from a blanket may be possible as shown by experimental results, though not fully explained by classical transport of neutrals. Refuelling of a reacting plasma had to be ensured by inward diffusion. Experimental studies of a cold impermeable plasma have been done on the tokamak-like Ringboog device. Simulation calculations for the next generation of large tokamaks using a particular transport model, indicate that the plasma edge profile can be controlled to reduce the production of sputtered impurities to an acceptable level. Impurity control requires a small fraction of the radial space to accomodate the cold-plasma layer. The problem of exhaust is, however, more complicated. If the cold-blanket scheme works as predicted in the model calculations, then α-particles generated by fusion will be transported to the cold outside layer. The Communities' experimental programme of research has been discussed in terms of the tokamaks which are available and planned. Two options present themselves for the continuation of cold-blanket research

  17. An Attempt to automate the lithological classification of rocks using geological, gamma-spectrometric and satellite image datasets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouad, M. K.; Mielik, M. L.; Gharieb, A. N.

    2004-01-01

    The present study aims essentially at proving that the application of the integrated airborne gamma spectrometric and satellite image data is capable of refining the mapped surface geology, and identification of anomalous zones of radioelement content that could provide favorable exploration targets for radioactive mineralizations.The application of the appropriate statistical technique to correlate between satellite image data and gamma-spectrometric data is of great significance in this respect. Experience shows that Landsat T M data in 7 spectral bands are successfully used in such studies rather than MSS. Multivariate statistical analysis techniques are applied to airborne spectrometric and different spectral Landsat T M data. Reduction of the data from n-dimensionality, both qualitatively as color composite image, and quantitatively, as principal component analysis, is performed using some statistical control parameters. This technique shows distinct efficiency in defining areas where different lit ho facies occur. An area located at the north of the Eastern Desert of Egypt, north of Hurgada town, was chosen to test the proposed technique of integrated interpretation of data of different physical nature. The reduced data are represented and interpreted both qualitatively and quantitatively. The advantages and limitations of applying such technique to the different airborne spectrometric, and Landsat T M data are identified. (authors)

  18. Shoreline change assessment using multi-temporal satellite images: a case study of Lake Sapanca, NW Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duru, Umit

    2017-08-01

    The research summarized here determines historical shoreline changes along Lake Sapanca by using Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Six multi-temporal satellite images of Landsat Multispectral Scanner (L1-5 MMS), Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (L7 ETM+), and Operational Land Imager Sensors (L8 OLI), covering the period between 17 June 1975 and 15 July 2016, were used to monitor shoreline positions and estimate change rates along the coastal zone. After pre-possessing routines, the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI), and supervised classification techniques were utilized to extract six different shorelines. Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS), a toolbox that enables transect-based computations of shoreline displacement, was used to compute historical shoreline change rates. The average rate of shoreline change for the entire cost was 2.7 m/year of progradation with an uncertainty of 0.2 m/year. While the great part of the lake shoreline remained stable, the study concluded that the easterly and westerly coasts and deltaic coasts are more vulnerable to shoreline displacements over the last four decades. The study also reveals that anthropogenic activities, more specifically over extraction of freshwater from the lake, cyclic variation in rainfall, and deposition of sediment transported by the surrounding creeks dominantly control spatiotemporal shoreline changes in the region. Monitoring shoreline changes using multi-temporal satellite images is a significant component for the coastal decision-making and management.

  19. Liquid lithium blanket processing studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, J.B.; Clinton, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    The sorption of tritium on yttrium from flowing molten lithium and the subsequent release of tritium from yttrium for regeneration of the metal sorbent were investigated to evaluate the feasibility of such a tritium-recovery process for a fusion reactor blanket of liquid lithium. In initial experiments with the forced convection loop, yttrium samples were contacted with lithium at 300 0 C. A mass transfer coefficient of 2.5 x 10 - cm/sec, which is more than an order of magnitude less than the value measured in earlier static experiments, was determined for the flowing lithium system. Rates of tritium release from yttrium samples were measured to evaluate possible thermal regeneration of the sorbent. Values for diffusion coefficients at 505, 800, and 900 0 C were estimated to be 1.1 x 10 -13 , 4.9 x 10 -12 , and 9.3 x 10 -10 cm 2 /sec, respectively. Tritium release from yttrium was investigated at higher temperatures and with hydrogen added to the argon sweep gas to provide a reducing atmosphere

  20. Validating gap-filling of Landsat ETM+ satellite images in the Golestan Province, Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammdy, M.; Moradi, H.R.; Zeinivand, H.; Temme, A.J.A.M.; Pourghasemi, H.R.; Alizadeh, H.

    2014-01-01

    The Landsat series of satellites provides a valuable data source for land surface mapping and monitoring. Unfortunately, the scan line corrector (SLC) of the Landsat7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor failed on May 13, 2003. This problem resulted in about 22 % of the pixels per scene not

  1. Exploitation of Amplitude and Phase of Satellite SAR Images for Landslide Mapping: The Case of Montescaglioso (South Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Raspini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pre- event and event landslide deformations have been detected and measured for the landslide that occurred on 3 December 2013 on the south-western slope of the Montescaglioso village (Basilicata Region, southern Italy. In this paper, ground displacements have been mapped through an integrated analysis based on a series of high resolution SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar images acquired by the Italian constellation of satellites COSMO-SkyMed. Analysis has been performed by exploiting both phase (through multi-image SAR interferometry and amplitude information (through speckle tracking techniques of the satellite images. SAR Interferometry, applied to images taken before the event, revealed a general pre-event movement, in the order of a few mm/yr, in the south-western slope of the Montescaglioso village. Highest pre-event velocities, ranging between 8 and 12 mm/yr, have been recorded in the sector of the slope where the first movement of the landslide took place. Speckle tracking, applied to images acquired before and after the event, allowed the retrieval of the 3D deformation field produced by the landslide. It also showed that ground displacements produced by the landslide have a dominant SSW component, with values exceeding 10 m for large sectors of the landslide area, with local peaks of 20 m in its central and deposit areas. Two minor landslides with a dominant SSE direction, which were detected in the upper parts of the slope, likely also occurred as secondary phenomena as consequence of the SSW movement of the main Montescaglioso landslide.

  2. GHRSST Level 2P West Atlantic Regional Skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) Imager on the GOES-12 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) operated by the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) support weather...

  3. GHRSST Level 2P Eastern Pacific Regional Skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) Imager on the GOES-11 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) operated by the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) support weather...

  4. Image Mosaicking Approach for a Double-Camera System in the GaoFen2 Optical Remote Sensing Satellite Based on the Big Virtual Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yufeng; Jin, Shuying; Wang, Mi; Zhu, Ying; Dong, Zhipeng

    2017-06-20

    The linear array push broom imaging mode is widely used for high resolution optical satellites (HROS). Using double-cameras attached by a high-rigidity support along with push broom imaging is one method to enlarge the field of view while ensuring high resolution. High accuracy image mosaicking is the key factor of the geometrical quality of complete stitched satellite imagery. This paper proposes a high accuracy image mosaicking approach based on the big virtual camera (BVC) in the double-camera system on the GaoFen2 optical remote sensing satellite (GF2). A big virtual camera can be built according to the rigorous imaging model of a single camera; then, each single image strip obtained by each TDI-CCD detector can be re-projected to the virtual detector of the big virtual camera coordinate system using forward-projection and backward-projection to obtain the corresponding single virtual image. After an on-orbit calibration and relative orientation, the complete final virtual image can be obtained by stitching the single virtual images together based on their coordinate information on the big virtual detector image plane. The paper subtly uses the concept of the big virtual camera to obtain a stitched image and the corresponding high accuracy rational function model (RFM) for concurrent post processing. Experiments verified that the proposed method can achieve seamless mosaicking while maintaining the geometric accuracy.

  5. An Object-Based Image Analysis Approach for Detecting Penguin Guano in very High Spatial Resolution Satellite Images

    OpenAIRE

    Chandi Witharana; Heather J. Lynch

    2016-01-01

    The logistical challenges of Antarctic field work and the increasing availability of very high resolution commercial imagery have driven an interest in more efficient search and classification of remotely sensed imagery. This exploratory study employed geographic object-based analysis (GEOBIA) methods to classify guano stains, indicative of chinstrap and Adélie penguin breeding areas, from very high spatial resolution (VHSR) satellite imagery and closely examined the transferability of knowle...

  6. IDP camp evolvement analysis in Darfur using VHSR optical satellite image time series and scientific visualization on virtual globes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiede, Dirk; Lang, Stefan

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we focus on the application of transferable, object-based image analysis algorithms for dwelling extraction in a camp for internally displaced people (IDP) in Darfur, Sudan along with innovative means for scientific visualisation of the results. Three very high spatial resolution satellite images (QuickBird: 2002, 2004, 2008) were used for: (1) extracting different types of dwellings and (2) calculating and visualizing added-value products such as dwelling density and camp structure. The results were visualized on virtual globes (Google Earth and ArcGIS Explorer) revealing the analysis results (analytical 3D views,) transformed into the third dimension (z-value). Data formats depend on virtual globe software including KML/KMZ (keyhole mark-up language) and ESRI 3D shapefiles streamed as ArcGIS Server-based globe service. In addition, means for improving overall performance of automated dwelling structures using grid computing techniques are discussed using examples from a similar study.

  7. A new web-based system for unsupervised classification of satellite images from the Google Maps engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrán, Ángel; Bernabé, Sergio; García-Rodríguez, Pablo; Plaza, Antonio

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we develop a new web-based system for unsupervised classification of satellite images available from the Google Maps engine. The system has been developed using the Google Maps API and incorporates functionalities such as unsupervised classification of image portions selected by the user (at the desired zoom level). For this purpose, we use a processing chain made up of the well-known ISODATA and k-means algorithms, followed by spatial post-processing based on majority voting. The system is currently hosted on a high performance server which performs the execution of classification algorithms and returns the obtained classification results in a very efficient way. The previous functionalities are necessary to use efficient techniques for the classification of images and the incorporation of content-based image retrieval (CBIR). Several experimental validation types of the classification results with the proposed system are performed by comparing the classification accuracy of the proposed chain by means of techniques available in the well-known Environment for Visualizing Images (ENVI) software package. The server has access to a cluster of commodity graphics processing units (GPUs), hence in future work we plan to perform the processing in parallel by taking advantage of the cluster.

  8. Tile-Level Annotation of Satellite Images Using Multi-Level Max-Margin Discriminative Random Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Sun

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a multi-level max-margin discriminative analysis (M3DA framework, which takes both coarse and fine semantics into consideration, for the annotation of high-resolution satellite images. In order to generate more discriminative topic-level features, the M3DA uses the maximum entropy discrimination latent Dirichlet Allocation (MedLDA model. Moreover, for improving the spatial coherence of visual words neglected by M3DA, conditional random field (CRF is employed to optimize the soft label field composed of multiple label posteriors. The framework of M3DA enables one to combine word-level features (generated by support vector machines and topic-level features (generated by MedLDA via the bag-of-words representation. The experimental results on high-resolution satellite images have demonstrated that, using the proposed method can not only obtain suitable semantic interpretation, but also improve the annotation performance by taking into account the multi-level semantics and the contextual information.

  9. Automated invariant alignment to improve canonical variates in image fusion of satellite and weather radar data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2013-01-01

    Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) maximizes correlation between two sets of multivariate data. We applied CCA to multivariate satellite data and univariate radar data in order to produce a subspace descriptive of heavily precipitating clouds. A misalignment, inherent to the nature of the two...... data sets, was observed, corrupting the subspace. A method for aligning the two data sets is proposed, in order to overcome this issue and render a useful subspace projection. The observed corruption of the subspace gives rise to the hypothesis that the optimal correspondence, between a heavily...... precipitating cloud in the radar data and the associated cloud top registered in the satellite data, is found by a scale, rotation and translation invariant transformation together with a temporal displacement. The method starts by determining a conformal transformation of the radar data at the time of maximum...

  10. An integrated scheme to improve pan-sharpening visual quality of satellite images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Helmy

    2015-03-01

    In experiments with IKONOS, Quick Bird and GeoEye satellite data, we demonstrated that our scheme has good spectral quality and efficiency. Spectral and spatial quality metrics in terms of SAM, RASE, RMSE, CC, ERGAS and QNR are used in our experiments. We compared our scheme with the state-of-the-art pan-sharpening techniques and found that our new scheme improved quantitative and qualitative results.

  11. Global Solar radiation in Spain from Satellite Images; Radiacion Solar Global en la Espana Peninsular a partir de images de satelite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Santigosa, L.; Mora Lopez, L.; Sidrach de Cardona Ortin, M.; Navarro Fernandez, A. A.; Varela conde, M.; Cruz Echeandia, M. de la

    2003-07-01

    In the context of the present work a series of algorithms of calculation of the solar radiation from satellite images has been developed. These models, have been applied to three years of images of the Meteosat satellite and the results of the treatment have been extrapolated to long term. For the development of the models of solar radiation registered in ground stations have been used, corresponding all of them to localities of peninsular Spain and the Balearic ones. The maximum periods of data available have been used, supposing in most of the cases periods of between 6 and 9 years. From the results has a year type of images of global solar radiation on horizontal surface. The original resolution of the image of 7x7 km in the study latitudes, has been revaluate to 5x5 km. This supposes to have a value of the typical radiation for every day of the year, each 5x5 km in the study territory. This information, supposes an important advance as far as the knowledge of the space distribution of the radiation solar,impossible to reach about alternative methods. Doubtlessly, the precision of the provided values is not comparable with pyranometric measures in a concrete localise, but it provides a very valid indicator in places in which, it not had previous information. In addition to the radiation maps, tables of the global solar radiation have been prepared on different inclinations, from the global radiation on horizontal surface calculated for every day of the year and in each pixel of the image. (Author) 24 refs.

  12. Test Blanket Working Group's recent activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    The ITER Test Blanket Working Group (TBWG) has continued its activities during the period of extension of the EDA with a revised charter on the co-ordination of the development work performed by the Parties and by the JCT leading to a co-ordinated test programme on ITER for a DEMO-relevant tritium breeding blanket. This follows earlier work carried out until July 1998, which formed part of the ITER Final Design Report (FDR), completed in 1998. Whilst the machine parameters for ITER-FEAT have been significantly revised compared to the FDR, testing of breeding blanket modules remains a main objective of the test programme and the development of a reactor-relevant breeding blanket to ensure tritium fuel self-sufficiency is recognized a key issue for fusion. Design work and R and D on breeding blanket concepts, including co-operation with the other Contacting Parties of the ITER-EDA for testing these concepts in ITER, are included in the work plans of the Parties

  13. A Web-based Google-Earth Coincident Imaging Tool for Satellite Calibration and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killough, B. D.; Chander, G.; Gowda, S.

    2009-12-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is coordinating international efforts to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) to meet the needs of its nine “Societal Benefit Areas”, of which the most demanding, in terms of accuracy, is climate. To accomplish this vision, satellite on-orbit and ground-based data calibration and validation (Cal/Val) of Earth observation measurements are critical to our scientific understanding of the Earth system. Existing tools supporting space mission Cal/Val are often developed for specific campaigns or events with little desire for broad application. This paper describes a web-based Google-Earth based tool for the calculation of coincident satellite observations with the intention to support a diverse international group of satellite missions to improve data continuity, interoperability and data fusion. The Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS), which includes 28 space agencies and 20 other national and international organizations, are currently operating and planning over 240 Earth observation satellites in the next 15 years. The technology described here will better enable the use of multiple sensors to promote increased coordination toward a GEOSS. The CEOS Systems Engineering Office (SEO) and the Working Group on Calibration and Validation (WGCV) support the development of the CEOS Visualization Environment (COVE) tool to enhance international coordination of data exchange, mission planning and Cal/Val events. The objective is to develop a simple and intuitive application tool that leverages the capabilities of Google-Earth web to display satellite sensor coverage areas and for the identification of coincident scene locations along with dynamic menus for flexibility and content display. Key features and capabilities include user-defined evaluation periods (start and end dates) and regions of interest (rectangular areas) and multi-user collaboration. Users can select two or more CEOS missions from a

  14. Patch-based image segmentation of satellite imagery using minimum spanning tree construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skurikhin, Alexei N [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for hierarchical image segmentation and feature extraction. This method builds upon the combination of the detection of image spectral discontinuities using Canny edge detection and the image Laplacian, followed by the construction of a hierarchy of segmented images of successively reduced levels of details. These images are represented as sets of polygonized pixel patches (polygons) attributed with spectral and structural characteristics. This hierarchy forms the basis for object-oriented image analysis. To build fine level-of-detail representation of the original image, seed partitions (polygons) are built upon a triangular mesh composed of irregular sized triangles, whose spatial arrangement is adapted to the image content. This is achieved by building the triangular mesh on the top of the detected spectral discontinuities that form a network of constraints for the Delaunay triangulation. A polygonized image is represented as a spatial network in the form of a graph with vertices which correspond to the polygonal partitions and graph edges reflecting pairwise partitions relations. Image graph partitioning is based on the iterative graph oontraction using Boruvka's Minimum Spanning Tree algorithm. An important characteristic of the approach is that the agglomeration of partitions is constrained by the detected spectral discontinuities; thus the shapes of agglomerated partitions are more likely to correspond to the outlines of real-world objects.

  15. First Wall, Blanket, Shield Engineering Technology Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The First Wall/Blanket/Shield Engineering Technology Program sponsored by the Office of Fusion Energy of DOE has the overall objective of providing engineering data that will define performance parameters for nuclear systems in advanced fusion reactors. The program comprises testing and the development of computational tools in four areas: (1) thermomechanical and thermal-hydraulic performance of first-wall component facsimiles with emphasis on surface heat loads; (2) thermomechanical and thermal-hydraulic performance of blanket and shield component facsimiles with emphasis on bulk heating; (3) electromagnetic effects in first wall, blanket, and shield component facsimiles with emphasis on transient field penetration and eddy-current effects; (4) assembly, maintenance and repair with emphasis on remote-handling techniques. This paper will focus on elements 2 and 4 above and, in keeping with the conference participation from both fusion and fission programs, will emphasize potential interfaces between fusion technology and experience in the fission industry

  16. European DEMO BOT solid breeder blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.

    1994-11-01

    The BOT (Breeder Outside Tube) Solid Breeder Blanket for a fusion DEMO reactor is presented. This is one of the four blanket concepts under development in the frame of the European fusion technology program with the aim to select in 1995 the two most promising ones for further development. In the paper the reference blanket design and external loops are described as well as the results of the theoretical and experimental work in the fields of neutronics, thermohydraulics, mechanical stresses, tritium control and extraction, development and irradiation of the ceramic breeder material, beryllium development, ferromagnetic forces caused by disruptions, safety and reliability. An outlook is given on the remaining open questions and on the required R and D program. (orig.) [de

  17. Fusion breeder sphere - PAC blanket design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, J.D.; Palmer, B.J.F.

    1987-11-01

    There is a considerable world-wide effort directed toward the production of materials for fusion reactors. Many ceramic fabrication groups are working on making lithium ceramics in a variety of forms, to be incorporated into the tritium breeding blanket which will surround the fusion reactor. Current blanket designs include ceramic in either monolithic or packed sphere bed (sphere-pac) forms. The major thrust at AECL is the production of lithium aluminate spheres to be incorporated in a sphere-pac bed. Contemporary studies on breeder blanket design offer little insight into the requirements on the sizes of the spheres. This study examined the parameters which determine the properties of pressure drop and coolant requirements. It was determined that an optimised sphere-pac bed would be composed of two diameters of spheres: 75 weight % at 3 mm and 25 weight % at 0.3 mm

  18. The requirements for processing tritium recovered from liquid lithium blankets: The blanket interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Greenwood, L.R.; Grimm, T.L.; Sze, D.K.; Bartlit, J.R.; Anderson, J.L.; Yoshida, H.; Naruse.

    1988-03-01

    We have initiated a study to define a blanket processing mockup for Tritium Systems Test Assembly. Initial evaluation of the requirements of the blanket processing system have been started. The first step of the work is to define the condition of the gaseous tritium stream from the blanket tritium recovery system. This report summarizes this part of the work for one particular blanket concept, i.e., a self-cooled lithium blanket. The total gas throughput, the hydrogen to tritium ratio, the corrosive chemicals, and the radionuclides are defined. The key discoveries are: the throughput of the blanket gas stream (including the helium carrier gas) is about two orders of magnitude higher than the plasma exhaust stream;the protium to tritium ratio is about 1, the deuterium to tritium ratio is about 0.003;the corrosion chemicals are dominated by halides;the radionuclides are dominated by C-14, P-32, and S-35;their is high level of nitrogen contamination in the blanket stream. 77 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs

  19. Detection of Convective Initiation Using Meteorological Imager Onboard Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite Based on Machine Learning Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyangsun Han

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As convective clouds in Northeast Asia are accompanied by various hazards related with heavy rainfall and thunderstorms, it is very important to detect convective initiation (CI in the region in order to mitigate damage by such hazards. In this study, a novel approach for CI detection using images from Meteorological Imager (MI, a payload of the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS, was developed by improving the criteria of the interest fields of Rapidly Developing Cumulus Areas (RDCA derivation algorithm, an official CI detection algorithm for Multi-functional Transport SATellite-2 (MTSAT-2, based on three machine learning approaches—decision trees (DT, random forest (RF, and support vector machines (SVM. CI was defined as clouds within a 16 × 16 km window with the first detection of lightning occurrence at the center. A total of nine interest fields derived from visible, water vapor, and two thermal infrared images of MI obtained 15–75 min before the lightning occurrence were used as input variables for CI detection. RF produced slightly higher performance (probability of detection (POD of 75.5% and false alarm rate (FAR of 46.2% than DT (POD of 70.7% and FAR of 46.6% for detection of CI caused by migrating frontal cyclones and unstable atmosphere. SVM resulted in relatively poor performance with very high FAR ~83.3%. The averaged lead times of CI detection based on the DT and RF models were 36.8 and 37.7 min, respectively. This implies that CI over Northeast Asia can be forecasted ~30–45 min in advance using COMS MI data.

  20. An Improved dem Construction Method for Mudflats Based on BJ-1 Small Satellite Images: a Case Study on Bohai Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Du, Y.; Su, F.; Huang, W.; Zhang, L.

    2018-04-01

    The topographic measurement of muddy tidal flat is restricted by the difficulty of access to the complex, wide-range and dynamic tidal conditions. Then the waterline detection method (WDM) has the potential to investigate the morph-dynamics quantitatively by utilizing large archives of satellite images. The study explores the potential for using WDM with BJ-1 small satellite images to construct a digital elevation model (DEM) of a wide and grading mudflat. Three major conclusions of the study are as follows: (1) A new intelligent correlating model of waterline detection considering different tidal stages and local geographic conditions was explored. With this correlative algorithm waterline detection model, a series of waterlines were extracted from multi-temporal remotely sensing images collected over the period of a year. The model proved to detect waterlines more efficiently and exactly. (2) The spatial structure of elevation superimposing on the points of waterlines was firstly constructed and a more accurate hydrodynamic ocean tide grid model was used. By the newly constructed abnormal hydrology evaluation model, a more reasonable and reliable set of waterline points was acquired to construct a smoother TIN and GRID DEM. (3) DEM maps of Bohai Bay, with a spatial resolution of about 30 m and height accuracy of about 0.35 m considering LiDAR and 0.19 m considering RTK surveying were constructed over an area of about 266 km2. Results show that remote sensing research in extremely turbid estuaries and tidal areas is possible and is an effective tool for monitoring the tidal flats.

  1. LMFBR blanket physics project progress report No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, M.J.; Lanning, D.D.; Kaplan, I.; Supple, A.T.

    1973-01-01

    During the period covered by the report, July 1, 1972, through June 30, 1973, work was devoted to completion of experimental measurements and data analysis on Blanket Mockup No. 3, a graphite-reflected blanket, and to initiation of experimental work on Blanket Mockup No. 4, a steel-reflected assembly designed to mock up a demonstration plant blanket. Work was also carried out on the analysis of a number of advanced blanket concepts, including the use of high-albedo reflectors, the use of thorium in place of uranium in the blanket region, and the ''parfait'' or completely internal blanket concept. Finally, methods development work was initiated to develop the capability for making gamma heating measurements in the blanket mockups. (U.S.)

  2. Epoxy blanket protects milled part during explosive forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Epoxy blanket protects chemically milled or machined sections of large, complex structural parts during explosive forming. The blanket uniformly covers all exposed surfaces and fills any voids to support and protect the entire part.

  3. Some new ideas for Tandem Mirror blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neef, W.S. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The Tandem Mirror Reactor, with its cylindrical central cell, has led to numerous blanket designs taking advantage of the simple geometry. Also many new applications for fusion neutrons are now being considered. To the pure fusion electricity producers and hybrids producing fissile fuel, we are adding studies of synthetic fuel producers and fission-suppressed hybrids. The three blanket concepts presented are new ideas and should be considered illustrative of the breadth of Livermore's application studies. They are not meant to imply fully analyzed designs

  4. Fusion blanket high-temperature heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Deep penetration of 14 MeV neutrons makes two-temperature region blankets feasible. A relatively low-temperature (approx. 300 0 C) metallic structure is the vacuum/coolant pressure boundary, while the interior of the blanket, which is a simple packed bed of nonstructural material, operates at very high temperatures (>1000 0 C). The water-cooled shell structure is thermally insulated from the steam-cooled interior. High-temperature steam can dramatically increase the efficiency of electric power generation, as well as produce hydrogen and oxygen-based synthetic fuels at high-efficiency

  5. Tritium behaviour in ceramic breeder blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Tritium release from the candidate ceramic materials, Li 2 O, LiA10 2 , Li 2 SiO 3 , Li 4 SiO 4 and Li 2 ZrO 3 , is being investigated in many blanket programs. Factors that affect tritium release from the ceramic into the helium sweep gas stream include operating temperature, ceramic microstructure, tritium transport and solubility in the solid. A review is presented of the material properties studied and of the irradiation programs and the results are summarized. The ceramic breeder blanket concept is briefly reviewed

  6. Dimension Reduction of Multi-Spectral Satellite Image Time Series to Improve Deforestation Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Lu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, sequential tests for detecting structural changes in time series have been adapted for deforestation monitoring using satellite data. The input time series of such sequential tests is typically a vegetation index (e.g., NDVI, which uses two or three bands and ignores all other bands. Being limited to a vegetation index will not benefit from the richer spectral information provided by newly launched satellites and will bring two bottle-necks for deforestation monitoring. Firstly, it is hard to select a suitable vegetation index a priori. Secondly, a single vegetation index is typically affected by seasonal signals, noise and other natural dynamics, which decrease its power for deforestation detection. A novel multispectral time series change monitoring method that combines dimension reduction methods with a sequential hypothesis test is proposed to address these limitations. For each location, the proposed method automatically chooses a “suitable” index for deforestation monitoring. To demonstrate our approach, we implemented it in two study areas: a dry tropical forest in Bolivia (time series length: 444 with strong seasonality and a moist tropical forest in Brazil (time series length: 225 with almost no seasonality. Our method significantly improves accuracy in the presence of strong seasonality, in particular the temporal lag between disturbance and its detection.

  7. Fusion-reactor blanket and coolant material compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppson, D.W.; Keough, R.F.

    1981-01-01

    Fusion reactor blanket and coolant compatibility tests are being conducted to aid in the selection and design of safe blanket and coolant systems for future fusion reactors. Results of scoping compatibility tests to date are reported for blanket material and water interactions at near operating temperatures. These tests indicate the quantitative hydrogen release, the maximum temperature and pressures produced and the rates of interactions for selected blanket materials

  8. Processing and waste disposal needs for fusion breeder blankets system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, P.A.; Vogler, S.

    1988-01-01

    We evaluated the waste disposal and recycling requirements for two types of fusion breeder blanket (solid and liquid). The goal was to determine if breeder blanket waste can be disposed of in shallow land burial, the least restrictive method under U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. Described in this paper are the radionuclides expected in fusion blanket materials, plans for reprocessing and disposal of blanket components, and estimates for the operating costs involved in waste disposal. (orig.)

  9. Tritium inventory and permeation in liquid breeder blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, F.

    1990-01-01

    This report reviews studies of the transport of hydrogen isotopes in the DEMO relevant water-cooled Pb-17Li blanket to be tested in NET and in a self-cooled blanket which uses Pb-17Li or Flibe as a liquid breeder material and V or Fe as a first wall material. The time dependences of tritium inventory and permeation in these blankets and of deuterium and tritium recycling in the self-cooled blanket are presented and discussed

  10. The Brazilian wide field imaging camera (WFI) for the China/Brazil earth resources satellite: CBERS 3 and 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaduto, L. C. N.; Carvalho, E. G.; Modugno, R. G.; Cartolano, R.; Evangelista, S. H.; Segoria, D.; Santos, A. G.; Stefani, M. A.; Castro Neto, J. C.

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the optical system developed for the Wide Field imaging Camera - WFI that will be integrated to the CBERS 3 and 4 satellites (China Brazil Earth resources Satellite). This camera will be used for remote sensing of the Earth and it is aimed to work at an altitude of 778 km. The optical system is designed for four spectral bands covering the range of wavelengths from blue to near infrared and its field of view is +/-28.63°, which covers 866 km, with a ground resolution of 64 m at nadir. WFI has been developed through a consortium formed by Opto Electrônica S. A. and Equatorial Sistemas. In particular, we will present the optical analysis based on the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) obtained during the Engineering Model phase (EM) and the optical tests performed to evaluate the requirements. Measurements of the optical system MTF have been performed using an interferometer at the wavelength of 632.8nm and global MTF tests (including the CCD and signal processing electronic) have been performed by using a collimator with a slit target. The obtained results showed that the performance of the optical system meets the requirements of project.

  11. Object-Based Classification of Grasslands from High Resolution Satellite Image Time Series Using Gaussian Mean Map Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mailys Lopes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the classification of grasslands using high resolution satellite image time series. Grasslands considered in this work are semi-natural elements in fragmented landscapes, i.e., they are heterogeneous and small elements. The first contribution of this study is to account for grassland heterogeneity while working at the object level by modeling its pixels distributions by a Gaussian distribution. To measure the similarity between two grasslands, a new kernel is proposed as a second contribution: the α -Gaussian mean kernel. It allows one to weight the influence of the covariance matrix when comparing two Gaussian distributions. This kernel is introduced in support vector machines for the supervised classification of grasslands from southwest France. A dense intra-annual multispectral time series of the Formosat-2 satellite is used for the classification of grasslands’ management practices, while an inter-annual NDVI time series of Formosat-2 is used for old and young grasslands’ discrimination. Results are compared to other existing pixel- and object-based approaches in terms of classification accuracy and processing time. The proposed method is shown to be a good compromise between processing speed and classification accuracy. It can adapt to the classification constraints, and it encompasses several similarity measures known in the literature. It is appropriate for the classification of small and heterogeneous objects such as grasslands.

  12. Feasibility study for Japanese Air Quality Mission from Geostationary Satellite: Infrared Imaging Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagi, K.; Kasai, Y.; Philippe, B.; Suzuki, K.; Kita, K.; Hayashida, S.; Imasu, R.; Akimoto, H.

    2009-12-01

    A Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellite is potentially able to monitor the regional distribution of pollution with good spatial and temporal resolution. The Japan Society of Atmospheric Chemistry (JSAC) and the Japanese Space Exploration Agency (JAXA) initiated a concept study for air quality measurements from a GEO satellite targeting the Asian region [1]. This work presents the results of sensitivity studies for a Thermal Infrared (TIR) (650-2300cm-1) candidate instrument. We performed a simulation study and error analysis to optimize the instrumental operating frequencies and spectral resolution. The scientific requirements, in terms of minimum precision (or error) values, are 10% for tropospheric O3 and CO and total column of HN3 and nighttime HNO2 and 25% for O3 and CO with separating 2 or 3 column in troposphere. Two atmospheric scenarios, one is Asian background, second is polluted case, were assumed for this study. The forward calculations and the retrieval error analysis were performed with the AMATERASU model [2] developed within the NICT-THz remote sensing project. Retrieval error analysis employed the Optimal Estimation Method [3]. The geometry is off-nadir observation on Tokyo from the geostationary satellite at equator. Fine spectral resolution will allow to observe boundary layer O3 and CO. We estimate the observation precision in the spectral resolution from 0.1cm-1 to 1cm-1 for 0-2km, 2-6km, and 6-12km. A spectral resolution of 0.3 cm-1 gives good sensitivity for all target molecules (e.g. tropospheric O3 can be detected separated 2 column with error 30%). A resolution of 0.6 cm-1 is sufficient to detect tropospheric column amount of O3 and CO (in the Asian background scenario), which is within the required precision and with acceptable instrumental SNR values of 100 for O3 and 30 for CO. However, with this resolution, the boundary layer ozone will be difficult to detect in the background abundance. In addition, a spectral resolution of 0.6 cm

  13. Surveying shrimp aquaculture pond activity using multitemporal VHSR satellite images - case study from the Perancak estuary, Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmawati, Niken; Soulard, Benoît; Selmaoui-Folcher, Nazha; Proisy, Christophe; Mustafa, Akhmad; Le Gendre, Romain; Laugier, Thierry; Lemonnier, Hugues

    2018-06-01

    From the 1980's, Indonesian shrimp production has continuously increased through a large expansion of cultured areas and an intensification of the production. As consequences of diseases and environmental degradations linked to this development, there are currently 250,000ha of abandoned ponds in Indonesia. To implement effective procedure to undertake appropriate aquaculture ecosystem assessment and monitoring, an integrated indicator based on four criteria using very high spatial optical satellite images, has been developed to discriminate active from abandoned ponds. These criteria were: presence of water, aerator, feeding bridge and vegetation. This indicator has then been applied to the Perancak estuary, a production area in decline, to highlight the abandonment dynamic between 2001 and 2015. Two risk factors that could contribute to explain dynamics of abandonment were identified: climate conditions and pond locations within the estuary, suggesting that a spatial approach should be integrated in planning processes to operationalize pond rehabilitation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Web-based spatial analysis with the ILWIS open source GIS software and satellite images from GEONETCast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, R.; Maathuis, B.; Mannaerts, C.; Foerster, T.; Schaeffer, B.; Wytzisk, A.

    2009-12-01

    This paper involves easy accessible integrated web-based analysis of satellite images with a plug-in based open source software. The paper is targeted to both users and developers of geospatial software. Guided by a use case scenario, we describe the ILWIS software and its toolbox to access satellite images through the GEONETCast broadcasting system. The last two decades have shown a major shift from stand-alone software systems to networked ones, often client/server applications using distributed geo-(web-)services. This allows organisations to combine without much effort their own data with remotely available data and processing functionality. Key to this integrated spatial data analysis is a low-cost access to data from within a user-friendly and flexible software. Web-based open source software solutions are more often a powerful option for developing countries. The Integrated Land and Water Information System (ILWIS) is a PC-based GIS & Remote Sensing software, comprising a complete package of image processing, spatial analysis and digital mapping and was developed as commercial software from the early nineties onwards. Recent project efforts have migrated ILWIS into a modular, plug-in-based open source software, and provide web-service support for OGC-based web mapping and processing. The core objective of the ILWIS Open source project is to provide a maintainable framework for researchers and software developers to implement training components, scientific toolboxes and (web-) services. The latest plug-ins have been developed for multi-criteria decision making, water resources analysis and spatial statistics analysis. The development of this framework is done since 2007 in the context of 52°North, which is an open initiative that advances the development of cutting edge open source geospatial software, using the GPL license. GEONETCast, as part of the emerging Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), puts essential environmental data at the

  15. Use of high-resolution satellite images for detection of geological structures related to Calerias geothermal field, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Baeza, A. A.; Urzua, L.

    2011-12-01

    Chile has enormous potential to use the geothermal resources for electric energy generation. The main geothermal fields are located in the Central Andean Volcanic Chain in the North, between the Central valley and the border with Argentina in the center, and in the fault system Liquiñe-Ofqui in the South of the country. High resolution images from the LANDSAT and ASTER satellites have been used to delineate the geological structures related to the Calerias geothermal field located at the northern end of the Southern Volcanic Zone of Chile. It was done by applying the lineament extraction technique developed by authors. These structures have been compared with the distribution of main geological structures obtained in the field. It was found that the lineament density increases in the areas of the major heat flux indicating that the lineament analysis could be a power tool for the detection of faults and joint zones associated to the geothermal fields.

  16. Use of the high-resolution satellite images for detection of fractures related to the ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Mondaca, M.; Soto-Pinto, C. A.; Arellano-Baeza, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Aster and GeoEye satellite high-resolution images were used to detect the structures related to the fracturing of the upper crust in the North of Chile. In particular, lineament analysis has been applied to detect the presence of epithermal fluids of low sulfurization associated with the Paleozoic ore deposits. These results have been compared with the location of the minerals altered by the presence of geothermal fluids detected using the spectral libraries. Later, the presence of fractures has been corroborated during recognition of fractures in situ and the geochemical analysis of samples of minerals altered by the presence of fluids. It was shown that the results obtained are relevant for the gold vein detection.

  17. HIGH-RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGING OF THE 2004 TRANSIT OF VENUS AND ASYMMETRIES IN THE CYTHEREAN ATMOSPHERE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Schneider, Glenn; Widemann, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the only space-borne optical-imaging observations of the 2004 June 8 transit of Venus, the first such transit visible from Earth since AD 1882. The high-resolution, high-cadence satellite images we arranged from NASA's Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) reveal the onset of visibility of Venus's atmosphere and give further information about the black-drop effect, whose causes we previously demonstrated from TRACE observations of a transit of Mercury. The atmosphere is gradually revealed before second contact and after third contact, resulting from the changing depth of atmospheric layers refracting the photospheric surface into the observer's direction. We use Venus Express observations to relate the atmospheric arcs seen during the transit to the atmospheric structure of Venus. Finally, we relate the transit images to current and future exoplanet observations, providing a sort of ground truth showing an analog in our solar system to effects observable only with light curves in other solar systems with the Kepler and CoRoT missions and ground-based exoplanet-transit observations.

  18. Landuse change detection in a surface coal mine area using multi-temporal high resolution satellite images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirel, N.; Duzgun, S.; Kemal Emil, M. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Changes in the landcover and landuse of a mine area can be caused by surface mining activities, exploitation of ore and stripping and dumping overburden. In order to identify the long-term impacts of mining on the environment and land cover, these changes must be continuously monitored. A facility to regularly observe the progress of surface mining and reclamation is important for effective enforcement of mining and environmental regulations. Remote sensing provides a powerful tool to obtain rigorous data and reduce the need for time-consuming and expensive field measurements. The purpose of this study was to conduct post classification change detection for identifying, quantifying, and analyzing the spatial response of landscape due to surface lignite coal mining activities in Goynuk, Bolu, Turkey, from 2004 to 2008. The paper presented the research algorithm which involved acquiring multi temporal high resolution satellite data; preprocessing the data; performing image classification using maximum likelihood classification algorithm and performing accuracy assessment on the classification results; performing post classification change detection algorithm; and analyzing the results. Specifically, the paper discussed the study area, data and methodology, and image preprocessing using radiometric correction. Image classification and change detection were also discussed. It was concluded that the mine and dump area decreased by 192.5 ha from 2004 to 2008 and was caused by the diminishing reserves in the area and decline in the required production. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  19. TIRCIS: A Thermal Infrared, Compact Imaging Spectrometer for Small Satellite Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will demonstrate how hyperspectral thermal infrared (TIR; 8-14 microns) image data, with a spectral resolution of up to 8 wavenumbers, can be acquired...

  20. High-resolution satellite image segmentation using Hölder exponents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. High resolution image; texture analysis; segmentation; IKONOS; Hölder exponent; cluster. ... are that. • it can be used as a tool to measure the roughness ... uses reinforcement learning to learn the reward values of ..... The numerical.

  1. Low-Cost Small Satellite Atmospheric Rotating Solar Occultation Imager (ROI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Utilizing a unique, new occultation technique involving imaging, the ROI concept will meet or exceed the quality of SAGE measurements at a small fraction of the...

  2. Extraction of Built-Up Areas Using Convolutional Neural Networks and Transfer Learning from SENTINEL-2 Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramhe, V. S.; Ghosh, S. K.; Garg, P. K.

    2018-04-01

    With rapid globalization, the extent of built-up areas is continuously increasing. Extraction of features for classifying built-up areas that are more robust and abstract is a leading research topic from past many years. Although, various studies have been carried out where spatial information along with spectral features has been utilized to enhance the accuracy of classification. Still, these feature extraction techniques require a large number of user-specific parameters and generally application specific. On the other hand, recently introduced Deep Learning (DL) techniques requires less number of parameters to represent more abstract aspects of the data without any manual effort. Since, it is difficult to acquire high-resolution datasets for applications that require large scale monitoring of areas. Therefore, in this study Sentinel-2 image has been used for built-up areas extraction. In this work, pre-trained Convolutional Neural Networks (ConvNets) i.e. Inception v3 and VGGNet are employed for transfer learning. Since these networks are trained on generic images of ImageNet dataset which are having very different characteristics from satellite images. Therefore, weights of networks are fine-tuned using data derived from Sentinel-2 images. To compare the accuracies with existing shallow networks, two state of art classifiers i.e. Gaussian Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Back-Propagation Neural Network (BP-NN) are also implemented. Both SVM and BP-NN gives 84.31 % and 82.86 % overall accuracies respectively. Inception-v3 and VGGNet gives 89.43 % of overall accuracy using fine-tuned VGGNet and 92.10 % when using Inception-v3. The results indicate high accuracy of proposed fine-tuned ConvNets on a 4-channel Sentinel-2 dataset for built-up area extraction.

  3. EXTRACTION OF BUILT-UP AREAS USING CONVOLUTIONAL NEURAL NETWORKS AND TRANSFER LEARNING FROM SENTINEL-2 SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Bramhe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With rapid globalization, the extent of built-up areas is continuously increasing. Extraction of features for classifying built-up areas that are more robust and abstract is a leading research topic from past many years. Although, various studies have been carried out where spatial information along with spectral features has been utilized to enhance the accuracy of classification. Still, these feature extraction techniques require a large number of user-specific parameters and generally application specific. On the other hand, recently introduced Deep Learning (DL techniques requires less number of parameters to represent more abstract aspects of the data without any manual effort. Since, it is difficult to acquire high-resolution datasets for applications that require large scale monitoring of areas. Therefore, in this study Sentinel-2 image has been used for built-up areas extraction. In this work, pre-trained Convolutional Neural Networks (ConvNets i.e. Inception v3 and VGGNet are employed for transfer learning. Since these networks are trained on generic images of ImageNet dataset which are having very different characteristics from satellite images. Therefore, weights of networks are fine-tuned using data derived from Sentinel-2 images. To compare the accuracies with existing shallow networks, two state of art classifiers i.e. Gaussian Support Vector Machine (SVM and Back-Propagation Neural Network (BP-NN are also implemented. Both SVM and BP-NN gives 84.31 % and 82.86 % overall accuracies respectively. Inception-v3 and VGGNet gives 89.43 % of overall accuracy using fine-tuned VGGNet and 92.10 % when using Inception-v3. The results indicate high accuracy of proposed fine-tuned ConvNets on a 4-channel Sentinel-2 dataset for built-up area extraction.

  4. Development of a technique for long-term detection of precursors of strong earthquakes using high-resolution satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Pinto, C. A.; Arellano-Baeza, A. A.; Ouzounov, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    Among a variety of processes involved in seismic activity, the principal process is the accumulation and relaxation of stress in the crust, which takes place at the depth of tens of kilometers. While the Earth's surface bears at most the indirect sings of the accumulation and relaxation of the crust stress, it has long been understood that there is a strong correspondence between the structure of the underlying crust and the landscape. We assume the structure of the lineaments reflects an internal structure of the Earth's crust, and the variation of the lineament number and arrangement reflects the changes in the stress patterns related to the seismic activity. Contrary to the existing assumptions that lineament structure changes only at the geological timescale, we have found that the much faster seismic activity strongly affects the system of lineaments extracted from the high-resolution multispectral satellite images. Previous studies have shown that accumulation of the stress in the crust previous to a strong earthquake is directly related to the number increment and preferential orientation of lineament configuration present in the satellite images of epicenter zones. This effect increases with the earthquake magnitude and can be observed approximately since one month before. To study in details this effect we have developed a software based on a series of algorithms for automatic detection of lineaments. It was found that the Hough transform implemented after the application of discontinuity detection mechanisms like Canny edge detector or directional filters is the most robust technique for detection and characterization of changes in the lineament patterns related to strong earthquakes, which can be used as a robust long-term precursor of earthquakes indicating regions of strong stress accumulation.

  5. Power laws and inverse motion modelling: application to turbulence measurements from satellite images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo D. Mininni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of tackling the ill-posed inverse problem of motion estimation from image sequences, we propose to introduce prior knowledge on flow regularity given by turbulence statistical models. Prior regularity is formalised using turbulence power laws describing statistically self-similar structure of motion increments across scales. The motion estimation method minimises the error of an image observation model while constraining second-order structure function to behave as a power law within a prescribed range. Thanks to a Bayesian modelling framework, the motion estimation method is able to jointly infer the most likely power law directly from image data. The method is assessed on velocity fields of 2-D or quasi-2-D flows. Estimation accuracy is first evaluated on a synthetic image sequence of homogeneous and isotropic 2-D turbulence. Results obtained with the approach based on physics of fluids outperform state-of-the-art. Then, the method analyses atmospheric turbulence using a real meteorological image sequence. Selecting the most likely power law model enables the recovery of physical quantities, which are of major interest for turbulence atmospheric characterisation. In particular, from meteorological images we are able to estimate energy and enstrophy fluxes of turbulent cascades, which are in agreement with previous in situ measurements.

  6. Satellite imaging coral reef resilience at regional scale. A case-study from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Gwilym; Purkis, Sam; Riegl, Bernhard; Metsamaa, Liisa; Bruckner, Andrew; Renaud, Philip

    2012-06-01

    We propose a framework for spatially estimating a proxy for coral reef resilience using remote sensing. Data spanning large areas of coral reef habitat were obtained using the commercial QuickBird satellite, and freely available imagery (NASA, Google Earth). Principles of coral reef ecology, field observation, and remote observations, were combined to devise mapped indices. These capture important and accessible components of coral reef resilience. Indices are divided between factors known to stress corals, and factors incorporating properties of the reef landscape that resist stress or promote coral growth. The first-basis for a remote sensed resilience index (RSRI), an estimate of expected reef resilience, is proposed. Developed for the Red Sea, the framework of our analysis is flexible and with minimal adaptation, could be extended to other reef regions. We aim to stimulate discussion as to use of remote sensing to do more than simply deliver habitat maps of coral reefs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. INTOR first wall/blanket/shield activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.; Billone, M.C.; Cha, Y.S.; Finn, P.A.; Hassanein, A.M.; Liu, Y.Y.; Majumdar, S.; Picologlou, B.F.; Smith, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The main emphasis of the INTOR first wall/blanket/shield (FWBS) during this period has been upon the tritium breeding issues. The objective is to develop a FWBS concept which produces the tritium requirement for INTOR operation and uses a small fraction of the first wall surface area. The FWBS is constrained by the dimensions of the reference design and the protection criteria required for different reactor components. The blanket extrapolation to commercial power reactor conditions and the proper temperature for power extraction have been sacrificed to achieve the highest possible local tritium breeding ratio (TBR). In addition, several other factors that have been considered in the blanket survey study include safety, reliability, lifetime fluence, number of burn cycles, simplicity, cost, and development issues. The implications of different tritium supply scenarios were discussed from the cost and availability for INTOR conditions. A wide variety of blanket options was explored in a preliminary way to determine feasibility and to see if they can satisfy the INTOR conditions. This survey and related issues are summarized in this report. Also discussed are material design requirements, thermal hydraulic considerations, structure analyses, tritium permeation through the first wall into the coolant, and tritium inventory

  8. Optimization of beryllium for fusion blanket applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billone, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    The primary function of beryllium in a fusion reactor blanket is neutron multiplication to enhance tritium breeding. However, because heat, tritium and helium will be generated in and/or transported through beryllium and because the beryllium is in contact with other blanket materials, the thermal, mechanical, tritium/helium and compatibility properties of beryllium are important in blanket design. In particular, tritium retention during normal operation and release during overheating events are safety concerns. Accommodating beryllium thermal expansion and helium-induced swelling are important issues in ensuring adequate lifetime of the structural components adjacent to the beryllium. Likewise, chemical/metallurgical interactions between beryllium and structural components need to be considered in lifetime analysis. Under accident conditions the chemical interaction between beryllium and coolant and breeding materials may also become important. The performance of beryllium in fusion blanket applications depends on fabrication variables and operational parameters. First the properties database is reviewed to determine the state of knowledge of beryllium performance as a function of these variables. Several design calculations are then performed to indicate ranges of fabrication and operation variables that lead to optimum beryllium performance. Finally, areas for database expansion and improvement are highlighted based on the properties survey and the design sensitivity studies

  9. ITER driver blanket, European Community design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simbolotti, G.; Zampaglione, V.; Ferrari, M.; Gallina, M.; Mazzone, G.; Nardi, C.; Petrizzi, L.; Rado, V.; Violante, V.; Daenner, W.; Lorenzetto, P.; Gierszewski, P.; Grattarola, M.; Rosatelli, F.; Secolo, F.; Zacchia, F.; Caira, M.; Sorabella, L.

    1993-01-01

    Depending on the final decision on the operation time of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), the Driver Blanket might become a basic component of the machine with the main function of producing a significant fraction (close to 0.8) of the tritium required for the ITER operation, the remaining fraction being available from external supplies. The Driver Blanket is not required to provide reactor relevant performance in terms of tritium self-sufficiency. However, reactor relevant reliability and safety are mandatory requirements for this component in order not to significantly afftect the overall plant availability and to allow the ITER experimental program to be safely and successfully carried out. With the framework of the ITER Conceptual Design Activities (CDA, 1988-1990), a conceptual design of the ITER Driver Blanket has been carried out by ENEA Fusion Dept., in collaboration with ANSALDO S.p.A. and SRS S.r.l., and in close consultation with the NET Team and CFFTP (Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project). Such a design has been selected as EC (European Community) reference design for the ITER Driver Blanket. The status of the design at the end of CDA is reported in the present paper. (orig.)

  10. European blanket development for a demo reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giancarli, L.; Proust, E.; Anzidei, L.

    1994-01-01

    There are four breeding blanket concepts for a fusion DEMO reactor under development within the framework of the fusion technology programme of the European Union (EU). This paper describes the design of these concepts, the accompanying R + D programme and the status of the development. (authors). 8 figs., 1 tab

  11. Assessment of Machine Learning Algorithms for Automatic Benthic Cover Monitoring and Mapping Using Towed Underwater Video Camera and High-Resolution Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mohamed

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Benthic habitat monitoring is essential for many applications involving biodiversity, marine resource management, and the estimation of variations over temporal and spatial scales. Nevertheless, both automatic and semi-automatic analytical methods for deriving ecologically significant information from towed camera images are still limited. This study proposes a methodology that enables a high-resolution towed camera with a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS to adaptively monitor and map benthic habitats. First, the towed camera finishes a pre-programmed initial survey to collect benthic habitat videos, which can then be converted to geo-located benthic habitat images. Second, an expert labels a number of benthic habitat images to class habitats manually. Third, attributes for categorizing these images are extracted automatically using the Bag of Features (BOF algorithm. Fourth, benthic cover categories are detected automatically using Weighted Majority Voting (WMV ensembles for Support Vector Machines (SVM, K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN, and Bagging (BAG classifiers. Fifth, WMV-trained ensembles can be used for categorizing more benthic cover images automatically. Finally, correctly categorized geo-located images can provide ground truth samples for benthic cover mapping using high-resolution satellite imagery. The proposed methodology was tested over Shiraho, Ishigaki Island, Japan, a heterogeneous coastal area. The WMV ensemble exhibited 89% overall accuracy for categorizing corals, sediments, seagrass, and algae species. Furthermore, the same WMV ensemble produced a benthic cover map using a Quickbird satellite image with 92.7% overall accuracy.

  12. Automated Orthorectification of VHR Satellite Images by SIFT-Based RPC Refinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Kartal

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Raw remotely sensed images contain geometric distortions and cannot be used directly for map-based applications, accurate locational information extraction or geospatial data integration. A geometric correction process must be conducted to minimize the errors related to distortions and achieve the desired location accuracy before further analysis. A considerable number of images might be needed when working over large areas or in temporal domains in which manual geometric correction requires more labor and time. To overcome these problems, new algorithms have been developed to make the geometric correction process autonomous. The Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT algorithm is an image matching algorithm used in remote sensing applications that has received attention in recent years. In this study, the effects of the incidence angle, surface topography and land cover (LC characteristics on SIFT-based automated orthorectification were investigated at three different study sites with different topographic conditions and LC characteristics using Pleiades very high resolution (VHR images acquired at different incidence angles. The results showed that the location accuracy of the orthorectified images increased with lower incidence angle images. More importantly, the topographic characteristics had no observable impacts on the location accuracy of SIFT-based automated orthorectification, and the results showed that Ground Control Points (GCPs are mainly concentrated in the “Forest” and “Semi Natural Area” LC classes. A multi-thread code was designed to reduce the automated processing time, and the results showed that the process performed 7 to 16 times faster using an automated approach. Analyses performed on various spectral modes of multispectral data showed that the arithmetic data derived from pan-sharpened multispectral images can be used in automated SIFT-based RPC orthorectification.

  13. A blanket design, apparatus, and fabrication techniques for the mass production of multilayer insulation blankets for the Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonczy, J.D.; Boroski, W.N.; Niemann, R.C.; Otavka, J.G.; Ruschman, M.K.; Schoo, C.J.

    1989-09-01

    The multilayer insulation (MLI) system for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) consists of full cryostat length assemblies of aluminized polyester film fabricated in the form of blankets and installed as blankets to the 4.5K cold mass and the 20K and 80K thermal radiation shields. Approximately 40,000 MLI blankets will be required in the 10,000 cryogenic devices comprising the SSC accelerator. Each blanket is nearly 17 meters long and 1.8 meters wide. This paper reports the blanket design, an apparatus, and the fabrication method used to mass produce pre-fabricated MLI blankets. Incorporated in the blanket design are techniques which automate quality control during installation of the MLI blankets in the SSC cryostat. The apparatus and blanket fabrication method insure consistency in the mass produced blankets by providing positive control of the dimensional parameters which contribute to the thermal performance of the MLI blanket. By virtue of the fabrication process, the MLI blankets have inherent features of dimensional stability three-dimensional uniformity, controlled layer density, layer-to-layer registration, interlayer cleanliness, and interlayer material to accommodate thermal contraction differences. 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  14. Characterization of the deforestation effect in a semi-arid region by the use of satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhanifia, Khatir; Haddouche, Driss; Smahi, Zakaria; Bensaid, Abdelkrim; Hamimed, Abderrahmane

    2004-02-01

    In Algeria, arid and semi-arid regions occupy over than 95% of whole territory. Forests in the semi arid zone constitutes a front face to the advance of the desert towards northern sides. Like in other regions of the world, deforestation phenomenon have a serious consequences on the fragile ecosystem. Severe continuous drought, fires, pasture, insects as well as the absence of a clear forest politics are so many factors that reduced forest areas in this country. However, the conservation of this patrimony must be a priority of any regional development project. This paper describes an evaluating study of the deforestation impact on forests in the region of Djelfa situated in the Saharian Atlas using multitemporal satellite remote sensing data. In order to establish a forest change map, a methodology based on the comparison between normalized difference vegetation indexes (NDVI) generated from satellite images was adopted. For this purpose, a pair of Landsat and (ETM+) images acquired over the region on April 11th, 1987 and march 24th, 2001 have been used. Until being processed, data used have been geometrically and atmospherically corrected. Then, an (NDVI) have been produced for each date. Resulting from compared (NDVI) image presents the forest change map in the study area. Radiometric values of resulting image have been regrouped into three classes according to change types as follow : Increased radiometry = more active vegetation Decreased radiometry = deterioration in vegetation activity Non changed areas = Non changed Investigations made on the terrain permitted to interpret many causes of detected evolutions. Regressive changes were considerable and demonstrates however, the degradation effect on the vegetation state. Some of regressed radiometry are related to forest fires that affected the region in 1994. Almost of regressive changes are due to a deterioration of vegetation caused by multiple factors. Drought, deceases, pasture and infection are considered

  15. Hierarchical graph-based segmentation for extracting road networks from high-resolution satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshehhi, Rasha; Marpu, Prashanth Reddy

    2017-04-01

    Extraction of road networks in urban areas from remotely sensed imagery plays an important role in many urban applications (e.g. road navigation, geometric correction of urban remote sensing images, updating geographic information systems, etc.). It is normally difficult to accurately differentiate road from its background due to the complex geometry of the buildings and the acquisition geometry of the sensor. In this paper, we present a new method for extracting roads from high-resolution imagery based on hierarchical graph-based image segmentation. The proposed method consists of: 1. Extracting features (e.g., using Gabor and morphological filtering) to enhance the contrast between road and non-road pixels, 2. Graph-based segmentation consisting of (i) Constructing a graph representation of the image based on initial segmentation and (ii) Hierarchical merging and splitting of image segments based on color and shape features, and 3. Post-processing to remove irregularities in the extracted road segments. Experiments are conducted on three challenging datasets of high-resolution images to demonstrate the proposed method and compare with other similar approaches. The results demonstrate the validity and superior performance of the proposed method for road extraction in urban areas.

  16. Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for each of the 24 mineral project areas (referred to herein as areas of interest), whose locality names, locations, and main mineral occurrences are shown on the index map of Afghanistan (fig. 1). ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420-500 nanometer, nm), green (520-600 nm), red (610-690 nm), and near-infrared (760-890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520-770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA

  17. An image based information system - Architecture for correlating satellite and topological data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, N. A.; Zobrist, A. L.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the development of an image based information system and its use to process a Landsat thematic map showing land use or land cover in conjunction with a census tract polygon file to produce a tabulation of land use acreages per census tract. The system permits the efficient cross-tabulation of two or more geo-coded data sets, thereby setting the stage for the practical implementation of models of diffusion processes or cellular transformation. Characteristics of geographic information systems are considered, and functional requirements, such as data management, geocoding, image data management, and data analysis are discussed. The system is described, and the potentialities of its use are examined.

  18. Using optical remote sensing model to estimate oil slick thickness based on satellite image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Y C; Tian, Q J; Lyu, C G; Fu, W X; Han, W C

    2014-01-01

    An optical remote sensing model has been established based on two-beam interference theory to estimate marine oil slick thickness. Extinction coefficient and normalized reflectance of oil are two important parts in this model. Extinction coefficient is an important inherent optical property and will not vary with the background reflectance changed. Normalized reflectance can be used to eliminate the background differences between in situ measured spectra and remotely sensing image. Therefore, marine oil slick thickness and area can be estimated and mapped based on optical remotely sensing image and extinction coefficient

  19. Multitemporal Satellite Images for Knowledge of the Assyrian Capital Cities and for Monitoring Landscape Transformations in the Upper Course of Tigris River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Scardozzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with the contribution that a rich documentation of multitemporal optical satellite images with high resolution provides for the knowledge of the five great Assyrian capital cities (Ashur, Kar-Tukulti-Ninurta, Kalhu, Dur-Sharrukin, and Nineveh, in northern Iraq. These images also allow monitoring changes of landscape in the higher course of the Tigris during the last half century and document damages in archaeological sites during the two Gulf Wars. The data set, available for each city, consists of panchromatic and multispectral images taken between 2001 and 2007 by modern commercial satellites (Ikonos-2, QuickBird-2, and WorldView-1 and of panchromatic photographs of U.S. spy satellites operating between 1965 and 1969 (Corona KH-4B and Gambit KH-7. These photos were taken before diffusion of mechanized agriculture and the expansion of urban areas, so they are very useful to document many archaeological features and the landscape that has been modified in the last decades, as shown by recent satellite images.

  20. A feed-forward Hopfield neural network algorithm (FHNNA) with a colour satellite image for water quality mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asal Kzar, Ahmed; Mat Jafri, M. Z.; Hwee San, Lim; Al-Zuky, Ali A.; Mutter, Kussay N.; Hassan Al-Saleh, Anwar

    2016-06-01

    There are many techniques that have been given for water quality problem, but the remote sensing techniques have proven their success, especially when the artificial neural networks are used as mathematical models with these techniques. Hopfield neural network is one type of artificial neural networks which is common, fast, simple, and efficient, but it when it deals with images that have more than two colours such as remote sensing images. This work has attempted to solve this problem via modifying the network that deals with colour remote sensing images for water quality mapping. A Feed-forward Hopfield Neural Network Algorithm (FHNNA) was modified and used with a satellite colour image from type of Thailand earth observation system (THEOS) for TSS mapping in the Penang strait, Malaysia, through the classification of TSS concentrations. The new algorithm is based essentially on three modifications: using HNN as feed-forward network, considering the weights of bitplanes, and non-self-architecture or zero diagonal of weight matrix, in addition, it depends on a validation data. The achieved map was colour-coded for visual interpretation. The efficiency of the new algorithm has found out by the higher correlation coefficient (R=0.979) and the lower root mean square error (RMSE=4.301) between the validation data that were divided into two groups. One used for the algorithm and the other used for validating the results. The comparison was with the minimum distance classifier. Therefore, TSS mapping of polluted water in Penang strait, Malaysia, can be performed using FHNNA with remote sensing technique (THEOS). It is a new and useful application of HNN, so it is a new model with remote sensing techniques for water quality mapping which is considered important environmental problem.

  1. Packed-fluidized-bed blanket concept for a thorium-fueled commercial tokamak hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, J.W.H.; Miller, J.W.; Karbowski, J.S.; Chapin, D.L.; Kelly, J.L.

    1980-09-01

    A preliminary design of a thorium blanket was carried out as a part of the Commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (CTHR) study. A fixed fuel blanket concept was developed as the reference CTHR blanket with uranium carbide fuel and helium coolant. A fixed fuel blanket was initially evaluated for the thorium blanket study. Subsequently, a new type of hybrid blanket, a packed-fluidized bed (PFB), was conceived. The PFB blanket concept has a number of unique features that may solve some of the problems encountered in the design of tokamak hybrid reactor blankets. This report documents the thorium blanket study and describes the feasibility assessment of the PFB blanket concept

  2. Using the ratio of optical channels in satellite image decoding in monitoring biodiversity of boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhkov, Yurj P.; Kondakova, Maria Y.

    2013-10-01

    The study contains the results of forest monitoring at three levels: the forests condition assessment at the time of recording or mapping for this indicator, the seasonal changes assessment in the forests condition, mainly during the vegetation period and the evaluation of long-term changes in the values of the studied parameters on the example of the forests recovery after a fire. The use of two indices - NDVI and Image Difference in the boreal forests monitoring is treated. NDVI assesses the state of plant biomass and its productivity. The rate of Image Difference characterizes the optical density and allows estimate the density of the forest stand. In addition, by identifying Image Difference on summer and autumn pictures it can makes a distinction of different wood species, to divide forest areas, which consist of deciduous and coniferous species and larch which shedded needles at the end of the vegetation period. Therefore, it is possible to differentiate the pine, cedar, spruce forests on the one side and birch, larch, alder on the other side. The optical density of the forest decreases after the needles- and the leaf sheddings. Using the index Image Difference in estimates of long-term changes of the forest stand shows the trend of changes of the forest density and the tree species composition. The results of the analysis of the recovery process of the forest after a fire in the period from 1995 to 2009 showed how shoots of birch, larch and pine recover wastelands.

  3. Comparison of data file and storage configurations for efficient temporal access of satellite image data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bachoo, A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available . Traditional storage formats store such a series of images as a sequence of individual files, with each file internally storing the pixels in their spatial order. Consequently, the construction of a time series profile of a single pixel requires reading from...

  4. TOTAL WOOD VOLUME ESTIMATION OF EUCALYPTUS SPECIES BY IMAGES OF LANDSAT SATELLITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Fernando Berra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987566Models relating spectral answers with biophysical parameters aim estimate variables, like wood volume, without the necessity of frequent field measurements. The objective was to develop models to estimate wood volume by Landsat 5 TM images, supported by regional forest inventory data. The image was geo-referenced and converted to spectral reflectance. After, the images-index NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and SR (Simple Ratio was generated. The reflectance values of the bands (TM1, TM2, TM3 e TM4 and of the indices (NDVI and SR was related with the wood volume. The biggest correlation with volume was with the NDVI and SR indices. The variables selection was made by Stepwise method, which returned three regression models as significant to explain the variation in volume. Finally, the best fitted model was selected (volume = -830,95 + 46,05 (SR + 107,47 (TM2, which was applied on the Landsat image where the pixels had started to represent the estimated volume in m³/ha on the Eucalyptus sp. production units. This model, significant at 95% confidence level, explains 68% of the wood volume variation.

  5. Ten Years of Land Cover Change on the California Coast Detected using Landsat Satellite Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    Landsat satellite imagery was analyzed to generate a detailed record of 10 years of vegetation disturbance and regrowth for Pacific coastal areas of Marin and San Francisco Counties. The Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) methodology, a transformation of Tasseled-Cap data space, was applied to detected changes in perennial coastal shrubland, woodland, and forest cover from 1999 to 2009. Results showed several principal points of interest, within which extensive contiguous areas of similar LEDAPS vegetation change (either disturbed or restored) were detected. Regrowth areas were delineated as burned forest areas in the Point Reyes National Seashore (PRNS) from the 1995 Vision Fire. LEDAPS-detected disturbance patterns on Inverness Ridge, PRNS in areas observed with dieback of tanoak and bay laurel trees was consistent with defoliation by sudden oak death (Phytophthora ramorum). LEDAPS regrowth pixels were detected over much of the predominantly grassland/herbaceous cover of the Olema Valley ranchland near PRNS. Extensive restoration of perennial vegetation cover on Crissy Field, Baker Beach and Lobos Creek dunes in San Francisco was identified. Based on these examples, the LEDAPS methodology will be capable of fulfilling much of the need for continual, low-cost monitoring of emerging changes to coastal ecosystems.

  6. Objective estimation of tropical cyclone innercore surface wind structure using infrared satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changjiang; Dai, Lijie; Ma, Leiming; Qian, Jinfang; Yang, Bo

    2017-10-01

    An objective technique is presented for estimating tropical cyclone (TC) innercore two-dimensional (2-D) surface wind field structure using infrared satellite imagery and machine learning. For a TC with eye, the eye contour is first segmented by a geodesic active contour model, based on which the eye circumference is obtained as the TC eye size. A mathematical model is then established between the eye size and the radius of maximum wind obtained from the past official TC report to derive the 2-D surface wind field within the TC eye. Meanwhile, the composite information about the latitude of TC center, surface maximum wind speed, TC age, and critical wind radii of 34- and 50-kt winds can be combined to build another mathematical model for deriving the innercore wind structure. After that, least squares support vector machine (LSSVM), radial basis function neural network (RBFNN), and linear regression are introduced, respectively, in the two mathematical models, which are then tested with sensitivity experiments on real TC cases. Verification shows that the innercore 2-D surface wind field structure estimated by LSSVM is better than that of RBFNN and linear regression.

  7. New eyes on the sun a guide to satellite images and amateur observation

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkinson, John

    2012-01-01

    Information collected by satellites recently sent by the USA, the European Space Agency, Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom, and Russia to monitor the Sun has changed our knowledge and understanding of the Sun, particularly its effect on Earth. This book presents these findings in a way that will be welcomed by amateur astronomers, students, educators and anyone interested in the Sun. Enhanced by many colour photographs, the book combines newly acquired scientific understanding with detailed descriptions of features visible on the Sun’s surface and in its atmosphere. In the past, observing the Sun has been left to academics with specialised instruments, since solar observation has been unsafe because of the risk of eye damage.  This book explains how amateur astronomers can safely observe the various solar phenomena using special hydrogen-alpha telescopes that are not too expensive. Amateurs can now make a positive contribution to science by monitoring the Sun as professionals do.  Amateurs can also acces...

  8. Temporal variations of natural soil salinity in an arid environment using satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, M.; Johnson, E.

    2010-11-01

    In many remote arid areas the scarce amount of conventional soil salinity data precludes detailed analyses of salinity variations for the purpose of predicting its impact on agricultural production. A tool that is an appropriate surrogate for on-ground testing in determining temporal variations of soil salinity is Landsat satellite data. In this study six Landsat scenes over El Cuervo, a closed basin adjacent to the middle Rio Conchos basin in northern Mexico, were used to show temporal variation of natural salts from 1986 to 2005. Natural salts were inferred from ground reference data and spectral responses. Transformations used were Tasseled Cap, Principal Components and several (band) ratios. Classification of each scene was performed from the development of Regions Of Interest derived from geochemical data collected by SGM, spectral responses derived from ENVI software, and a small amount of field data collected by the authors. The resultant land cover classes showed a relationship between climatic drought and areal coverage of natural salts. When little precipitation occurred three months prior to the capture of the Landsat scene, approximately 15%-20% of the area was classified as salt. This is compared to practically no classified salt in the wetter years of 1992 and 2005 Landsat scenes.

  9. Satellite Image Analysis along the Kuala Selangor to Sabak Bernam Rural Tourism Routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, I.; Zakariya, K.; Wahab, N. A.

    2018-02-01

    This research focuses on the analysis of land cover map using satellite imagery along the rural routes. The aim of this research is to study the landscape features that can be seen by the tourists around the rural routes. The objectives of the study are twofold: (i) to analyse the land cover types along the rural routes and (ii) to create a tourist map along the rural routes. The method adopted was to use Supervised Classification by creating multiple polygons to ensure that each information is sufficient to create appropriate spectral signatures. The finding shows that 80% of the landscape features along the Point of Interest (POI) are paddy field. According to the analysis using the indicators criteria for choosing the rural routes, this research shows that this area has the potential to be part of a tourism area because it has many historical and cultural elements that can be exposed to tourists. Future research will be a factor analysis on the significance of the criteria to rural tourism attraction.

  10. Blanket design study for a Commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (CTHR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapin, D.L.; Green, L.; Lee, A.Y.; Culbert, M.E.; Kelly, J.L.

    1979-09-01

    The results are presented of a study on two blanket design concepts for application in a Commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (CTHR). Both blankets operate on the U-Pu cycle and are designed to achieve tritium self-sufficiency while maximizing the fissile fuel production within thermal and mechanical design constraints. The two blanket concepts that were evaluated were: (1) a UC fueled, stainless steel clad and structure, helium cooled blanket; and (2) a UO 2 fueled, zircaloy clad, stainless steel structure, boiling water cooled blanket. Two different tritium breeding media, Li 2 O and LiH, were evaluated for use in both blanket concepts. The use of lead as a neutron multiplier or reflector and graphite as a reflector was also considered for both blankets

  11. Thermomechanical analysis of the DFLL test blanket module for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hongli; Wu Yican; Bai Yunqing

    2006-01-01

    The finite element code is used to simulate two kinds of blanket design structure, which are SLL (Quasi-Static Lithium Lead) and DLL (Dual-cooled Lithium Lead) blanket concepts for the Dual Functional Lithium Lead-Test Blanket Module (DFLL-TBM) submitted to the ITER test blanket working group. The temperature and stress distributions have been presented for the two kinds of blanket structure on the basis of the structural design, thermal-hydraulic design and neutronics analysis. Also the mechanical performance is presented for the high temperature component of blanket structure according to the ITER Structural Design Criteria (ISDC). The rationality and feasibility of the two kinds of blanket structure design of DFLL-TBM have been analyzed based on the above results which also acted as the theoretical base for further optimized analysis. (authors)

  12. Modeling spatially explicit fire impact on gross primary production in interior Alaska using satellite images coupled with eddy covariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengli; Liu, Heping; Dahal, Devendra; Jin, Suming; Welp, Lisa R.; Liu, Jinxun; Liu, Shuguang

    2013-01-01

    In interior Alaska, wildfires change gross primary production (GPP) after the initial disturbance. The impact of fires on GPP is spatially heterogeneous, which is difficult to evaluate by limited point-based comparisons or is insufficient to assess by satellite vegetation index. The direct prefire and postfire comparison is widely used, but the recovery identification may become biased due to interannual climate variability. The objective of this study is to propose a method to quantify the spatially explicit GPP change caused by fires and succession. We collected three Landsat images acquired on 13 July 2004, 5 August 2004, and 6 September 2004 to examine the GPP recovery of burned area from 1987 to 2004. A prefire Landsat image acquired in 1986 was used to reconstruct satellite images assuming that the fires of 1987–2004 had not occurred. We used a light-use efficiency model to estimate the GPP. This model was driven by maximum light-use efficiency (Emax) and fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR). We applied this model to two scenarios (i.e., an actual postfire scenario and an assuming-no-fire scenario), where the changes in Emax and FPAR were taken into account. The changes in Emax were represented by the change in land cover of evergreen needleleaf forest, deciduous broadleaf forest, and shrub/grass mixed, whose Emax was determined from three fire chronosequence flux towers as 1.1556, 1.3336, and 0.5098 gC/MJ PAR. The changes in FPAR were inferred from NDVI change between the actual postfire NDVI and the reconstructed NDVI. After GPP quantification for July, August, and September 2004, we calculated the difference between the two scenarios in absolute and percent GPP changes. Our results showed rapid recovery of GPP post-fire with a 24% recovery immediately after burning and 43% one year later. For the fire scars with an age range of 2–17 years, the recovery rate ranged from 54% to 95%. In addition to the averaging

  13. Vegetation mapping from high-resolution satellite images in the heterogeneous arid environments of Socotra Island (Yemen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatesta, Luca; Attorre, Fabio; Altobelli, Alfredo; Adeeb, Ahmed; De Sanctis, Michele; Taleb, Nadim M.; Scholte, Paul T.; Vitale, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    Socotra Island (Yemen), a global biodiversity hotspot, is characterized by high geomorphological and biological diversity. In this study, we present a high-resolution vegetation map of the island based on combining vegetation analysis and classification with remote sensing. Two different image classification approaches were tested to assess the most accurate one in mapping the vegetation mosaic of Socotra. Spectral signatures of the vegetation classes were obtained through a Gaussian mixture distribution model, and a sequential maximum a posteriori (SMAP) classification was applied to account for the heterogeneity and the complex spatial pattern of the arid vegetation. This approach was compared to the traditional maximum likelihood (ML) classification. Satellite data were represented by a RapidEye image with 5 m pixel resolution and five spectral bands. Classified vegetation relevés were used to obtain the training and evaluation sets for the main plant communities. Postclassification sorting was performed to adjust the classification through various rule-based operations. Twenty-eight classes were mapped, and SMAP, with an accuracy of 87%, proved to be more effective than ML (accuracy: 66%). The resulting map will represent an important instrument for the elaboration of conservation strategies and the sustainable use of natural resources in the island.

  14. Use of high-resolution satellite images for characterization of geothermal reservoirs in the Tarapaca Region, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Baeza, A. A.; Montenegro A., C.

    2010-12-01

    The use of renewable and clean sources of energy is becoming crucial for sustainable development of all countries, including Chile. Chilean Government plays special attention to the exploration and exploitation of geothermal energy, total electrical power capacity of which could reach 16.000 MW. In Chile the main geothermal fields are located in the Central Andean Volcanic Chain in the North, between the Central valley and the border with Argentina in the center, and in the fault system Liquiñe-Ofqui in the South of the country. High resolution images from the Lansat satellite have been used to characterize the geothermal field in the region of the Puchuldiza geysers, Colchane, Region of Tarapaca, North of Chile, located at the altitude of 4000 m. Structure of lineaments associated to the geothermal field have been extracted from the images using the lineament detection technique developed by authors. These structures have been compared with the distribution of main geological structures obtained in the field. It was found that the lineament analysis is a power tool for the detection of faults and joint zones associated to the geothermal fields.

  15. A Study on Retrieval Algorithm of Black Water Aggregation in Taihu Lake Based on HJ-1 Satellite Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Zou; Bing, Zhang; Junsheng, Li; Qian, Shen; Fangfang, Zhang; Ganlin, Wang

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of black water aggregation (BWA) occurs in inland water when massive algal bodies aggregate, die, and react with the toxic sludge in certain climate conditions to deprive the water of oxygen. This process results in the deterioration of water quality and damage to the ecosystem. Because charge coupled device (CCD) camera data from the Chinese HJ environmental satellite shows high potential in monitoring BWA, we acquired four HJ-CCD images of Taihu Lake captured during 2009 to 2011 to study this phenomenon. The first study site was selected near the Shore of Taihu Lake. We pre-processed the HJ-CCD images and analyzed the digital number (DN) gray values in the research area and in typical BWA areas. The results show that the DN values of visible bands in BWA areas are obviously lower than those in the research areas. Moreover, we developed an empirical retrieving algorithm of BWA based on the DN mean values and variances of research areas. Finally, we tested the accuracy of this empirical algorithm. The retrieving accuracies were89.9%, 58.1%, 73.4%, and 85.5%, respectively, which demonstrates the efficiency of empirical algorithm in retrieving the approximate distributions of BWA

  16. Satellite images of the September 2013 flood event in Lyons, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Christopher J.; Friesen, Beverly A.; Wilds, Stanley; Noble, Suzanne; Warner, Harumi; Wilson, Earl M.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Special Applications Science Center (SASC) produced an image base map showing high-resolution remotely sensed data over Lyons, Colorado—a city that was severely affected by the flood event that occurred throughout much of the Colorado Front Range in September of 2013. The 0.5-meter WorldView-2 data products were created from imagery collected by DigitalGlobe on September 13 and September 24, 2013, during and following the flood event. The images shown on this map were created to support flood response efforts, specifically for use in determining damage assessment and mitigation decisions. The raw, unprocessed imagery were orthorectified and pan-sharpened to enhance mapping accuracy and spatial resolution, and reproduced onto a cartographic base map. These maps are intended to provide a snapshot representation of post-flood ground conditions, which may be useful to decisionmakers and the general public. The SASC also provided data processing and analysis support for other Colorado flood-affected areas by creating cartographic products, geo-corrected electro-optical and radar image mosaics, and GIS water cover files for use by the Colorado National Guard, the National Park Service, the U.S. Forest Service, and the flood response community. All products for this International Charter event were uploaded to the USGS Hazards Data Distribution System (HDDS) website (http://hdds.usgs.gov/hdds2/) for distribution.

  17. Land use/cover classification in the Brazilian Amazon using satellite images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dengsheng; Batistella, Mateus; Li, Guiying; Moran, Emilio; Hetrick, Scott; Freitas, Corina da Costa; Dutra, Luciano Vieira; Sant'anna, Sidnei João Siqueira

    2012-09-01

    Land use/cover classification is one of the most important applications in remote sensing. However, mapping accurate land use/cover spatial distribution is a challenge, particularly in moist tropical regions, due to the complex biophysical environment and limitations of remote sensing data per se. This paper reviews experiments related to land use/cover classification in the Brazilian Amazon for a decade. Through comprehensive analysis of the classification results, it is concluded that spatial information inherent in remote sensing data plays an essential role in improving land use/cover classification. Incorporation of suitable textural images into multispectral bands and use of segmentation-based method are valuable ways to improve land use/cover classification, especially for high spatial resolution images. Data fusion of multi-resolution images within optical sensor data is vital for visual interpretation, but may not improve classification performance. In contrast, integration of optical and radar data did improve classification performance when the proper data fusion method was used. Of the classification algorithms available, the maximum likelihood classifier is still an important method for providing reasonably good accuracy, but nonparametric algorithms, such as classification tree analysis, has the potential to provide better results. However, they often require more time to achieve parametric optimization. Proper use of hierarchical-based methods is fundamental for developing accurate land use/cover classification, mainly from historical remotely sensed data.

  18. Satellite Image-based Estimates of Snow Water Equivalence in Restored Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, T.; Springer, A. E.; O'Donnell, F. C.; Donald, J.; McVay, J.; Masek Lopez, S.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Forest Service plans to conduct forest restoration treatments through the Four Forest Restoration Initiative (4FRI) on hundreds of thousands of acres of ponderosa pine forest in northern Arizona over the next 20 years with the goals of reducing wildfire hazard and improving forest health. The 4FRI's key objective is to thin and burn the forests to create within-stand openings that "promote snowpack accumulation and retention which benefit groundwater recharge and watershed processes at the fine (1 to 10 acres) scale". However, little is known about how these openings created by restoration treatments affect snow water equivalence (SWE) and soil moisture, which are key parts of the water balance that greatly influence water availability for healthy trees and for downstream water users in the Sonoran Desert. We have examined forest canopy cover by calculating a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a key indicator of green vegetation cover, using Landsat satellite data. We have then compared NDVI between treatments at our study sites in northern Arizona and have found statistically significant differences in tree canopy cover between treatments. The control units have significantly greater forest canopy cover than the treated units. The thinned units also have significantly greater tree canopy cover than the thin-and-burn units. Winter season Landsat images have also been analyzed to calculate Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI), a key indicator of snow water equivalence and snow accumulation at the treated and untreated forests. The NDSI values from these dates are examined to determine if snow accumulation and snow water equivalence vary between treatments at our study sites. NDSI is significantly greater at the treated units than the control units. In particular, the thinned forest units have significantly greater snow cover than the control units. Our results indicate that forest restoration treatments result in increased snow pack

  19. Development of new index for forest fire risk using satellite images in Indonesia through the direct spectral measurements of soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, A.; Akita, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Hasegawa, Y.; Ogino, Y.; Naruse, N.; Takahashi, Y.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, the smoke caused by the forest fires in Indonesia has become a serious problem. Most of the land in Indonesia is covered with peat moss, which occurs the expanding of fires due to the burning itself. Thus, the surface soil water, reflecting the amount of precipitation in the area, can become the indication of the risk of fires. This study aims to develop a new index reflecting the risk of forest fires in Indonesia using satellite remote sensing through the direct spectral measurements of peat moss soil.We have prepared the peat moss in 7 steps of soil water content measured at an accuracy of ±15 percent (Field pro, WD-3). We obtained spectra between 400nm and 1050nm (Source: halogen lamp, spectroscope: self-made space time, spectral analysis kit) from the peat moss.The obtained spectra show the difference from the previous spectral measurement for the soil in various water content. There are the features, especially, in the wavelength range of ultraviolet (400-450nm) and infrared (530-800nm) as shown in the figure; the more the soil water increases, the lower the reflectance becomes. We have developed a new index using the New deep blue band (433 453nm and NIR band 845 885nm of Landsat 8. The resulting satellite images calculated by our original index appears to reflect the risk of forest fires rather than well-known indices such as Normalized Difference Water Index and Normalized difference Soil Index.In conclusion, we have created a new index that highly reflects to the degree of soil water of a peat soil in Indonesia.

  20. Global, Persistent, Real-time Multi-sensor Automated Satellite Image Analysis and Crop Forecasting in Commercial Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumby, S. P.; Warren, M. S.; Keisler, R.; Chartrand, R.; Skillman, S.; Franco, E.; Kontgis, C.; Moody, D.; Kelton, T.; Mathis, M.

    2016-12-01

    Cloud computing, combined with recent advances in machine learning for computer vision, is enabling understanding of the world at a scale and at a level of space and time granularity never before feasible. Multi-decadal Earth remote sensing datasets at the petabyte scale (8×10^15 bits) are now available in commercial cloud, and new satellite constellations will generate daily global coverage at a few meters per pixel. Public and commercial satellite observations now provide a wide range of sensor modalities, from traditional visible/infrared to dual-polarity synthetic aperture radar (SAR). This provides the opportunity to build a continuously updated map of the world supporting the academic community and decision-makers in government, finanace and industry. We report on work demonstrating country-scale agricultural forecasting, and global-scale land cover/land, use mapping using a range of public and commercial satellite imagery. We describe processing over a petabyte of compressed raw data from 2.8 quadrillion pixels (2.8 petapixels) acquired by the US Landsat and MODIS programs over the past 40 years. Using commodity cloud computing resources, we convert the imagery to a calibrated, georeferenced, multiresolution tiled format suited for machine-learning analysis. We believe ours is the first application to process, in less than a day, on generally available resources, over a petabyte of scientific image data. We report on work combining this imagery with time-series SAR collected by ESA Sentinel 1. We report on work using this reprocessed dataset for experiments demonstrating country-scale food production monitoring, an indicator for famine early warning. We apply remote sensing science and machine learning algorithms to detect and classify agricultural crops and then estimate crop yields and detect threats to food security (e.g., flooding, drought). The software platform and analysis methodology also support monitoring water resources, forests and other general

  1. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Nuristan mineral district in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.; Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Nuristan mineral district, which has gem, lithium, and cesium deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2008,2009), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS

  2. A New Image Processing Procedure Integrating PCI-RPC and ArcGIS-Spline Tools to Improve the Orthorectification Accuracy of High-Resolution Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongying Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the low accuracy of the traditional remote sensing image processing software when orthorectifying satellite images that cover mountainous areas, and in order to make a full use of mutually compatible and complementary characteristics of the remote sensing image processing software PCI-RPC (Rational Polynomial Coefficients and ArcGIS-Spline, this study puts forward a new operational and effective image processing procedure to improve the accuracy of image orthorectification. The new procedure first processes raw image data into an orthorectified image using PCI with RPC model (PCI-RPC, and then the orthorectified image is further processed using ArcGIS with the Spline tool (ArcGIS-Spline. We used the high-resolution CBERS-02C satellite images (HR1 and HR2 scenes with a pixel size of 2 m acquired from Yangyuan County in Hebei Province of China to test the procedure. In this study, when separately using PCI-RPC and ArcGIS-Spline tools directly to process the HR1/HR2 raw images, the orthorectification accuracies (root mean square errors, RMSEs for HR1/HR2 images were 2.94 m/2.81 m and 4.65 m/4.41 m, respectively. However, when using our newly proposed procedure, the corresponding RMSEs could be reduced to 1.10 m/1.07 m. The experimental results demonstrated that the new image processing procedure which integrates PCI-RPC and ArcGIS-Spline tools could significantly improve image orthorectification accuracy. Therefore, in terms of practice, the new procedure has the potential to use existing software products to easily improve image orthorectification accuracy.

  3. Primena satelitskih snimaka za dopunu sadržaja topografskih karata / An application of satellite images for improving the content of topographic maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag D. Regodić

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Neažurnost sadržaja topografskih karata (TK, uslovljena ponajviše stvarnim ekonomskim teškoćama pri izradi novih i dopuni postojećih izdanja, kao i nedovoljnost i sve teže stanje pri izradi ostalih geotopografskih materijala (GTM, u velikoj meri otežavaju geotopografsko obezbeđenje (GTOb vojske u miru, kao i u svim periodima pripreme i vođenja ratnih dejstava. Rešenje ovog problema je u iznalaženju adekvatnog načina upotrebe proizvoda svih vrsta daljinskih snimanja, a naročito u obradi kvalitetnih satelitskih snimaka. Kao najbolji pokazatelj velikih mogućnosti daljinske detekcije, korišćenjem satelitskih snimaka, u kartografskoj praksi primenom kvalitetnih softverskih rešenja, u radu je predstavljena dopuna topografske karte nedostajućim topografskim sadržajem. / Lack of updated content of topographic maps (TMs, mainly due to economic issues regarding the publishing of existing or revised TMs, substantially affects geo-topographic supply (GTS of the Army both in peace and warfare time, as well as shortage of other geo-topographic materials (GTMs. The solution to this problem is in finding an appropriate method of using products of all types of remote sensing, high quality satellite images in particular. Having shown the best possibilities of remote sensing while using satellite images in mapping through the quality software solutions, the author presents an addition to topographic maps based on missing topographic data. Introduction Numerous natural and social phenomena are constantly observed, surveyed, registered and analyzed. Permanent or periodical satellite surveillance and recording for different purposes are growing in importance. The purposes can range from meteorological issues, through study of large water surfaces to military intelligence, etc. These recording can be used in making topographic, thematic and working maps as well as other geo-topographic material. Processing and analyzing of ikonos2 satellite images

  4. AROSICS: An Automated and Robust Open-Source Image Co-Registration Software for Multi-Sensor Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Scheffler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Geospatial co-registration is a mandatory prerequisite when dealing with remote sensing data. Inter- or intra-sensoral misregistration will negatively affect any subsequent image analysis, specifically when processing multi-sensoral or multi-temporal data. In recent decades, many algorithms have been developed to enable manual, semi- or fully automatic displacement correction. Especially in the context of big data processing and the development of automated processing chains that aim to be applicable to different remote sensing systems, there is a strong need for efficient, accurate and generally usable co-registration. Here, we present AROSICS (Automated and Robust Open-Source Image Co-Registration Software, a Python-based open-source software including an easy-to-use user interface for automatic detection and correction of sub-pixel misalignments between various remote sensing datasets. It is independent of spatial or spectral characteristics and robust against high degrees of cloud coverage and spectral and temporal land cover dynamics. The co-registration is based on phase correlation for sub-pixel shift estimation in the frequency domain utilizing the Fourier shift theorem in a moving-window manner. A dense grid of spatial shift vectors can be created and automatically filtered by combining various validation and quality estimation metrics. Additionally, the software supports the masking of, e.g., clouds and cloud shadows to exclude such areas from spatial shift detection. The software has been tested on more than 9000 satellite images acquired by different sensors. The results are evaluated exemplarily for two inter-sensoral and two intra-sensoral use cases and show registration results in the sub-pixel range with root mean square error fits around 0.3 pixels and better.

  5. Mutual information registration of multi-spectral and multi-resolution images of DigitalGlobe's WorldView-3 imaging satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miecznik, Grzegorz; Shafer, Jeff; Baugh, William M.; Bader, Brett; Karspeck, Milan; Pacifici, Fabio

    2017-05-01

    WorldView-3 (WV-3) is a DigitalGlobe commercial, high resolution, push-broom imaging satellite with three instruments: visible and near-infrared VNIR consisting of panchromatic (0.3m nadir GSD) plus multi-spectral (1.2m), short-wave infrared SWIR (3.7m), and multi-spectral CAVIS (30m). Nine VNIR bands, which are on one instrument, are nearly perfectly registered to each other, whereas eight SWIR bands, belonging to the second instrument, are misaligned with respect to VNIR and to each other. Geometric calibration and ortho-rectification results in a VNIR/SWIR alignment which is accurate to approximately 0.75 SWIR pixel at 3.7m GSD, whereas inter-SWIR, band to band registration is 0.3 SWIR pixel. Numerous high resolution, spectral applications, such as object classification and material identification, require more accurate registration, which can be achieved by utilizing image processing algorithms, for example Mutual Information (MI). Although MI-based co-registration algorithms are highly accurate, implementation details for automated processing can be challenging. One particular challenge is how to compute bin widths of intensity histograms, which are fundamental building blocks of MI. We solve this problem by making the bin widths proportional to instrument shot noise. Next, we show how to take advantage of multiple VNIR bands, and improve registration sensitivity to image alignment. To meet this goal, we employ Canonical Correlation Analysis, which maximizes VNIR/SWIR correlation through an optimal linear combination of VNIR bands. Finally we explore how to register images corresponding to different spatial resolutions. We show that MI computed at a low-resolution grid is more sensitive to alignment parameters than MI computed at a high-resolution grid. The proposed modifications allow us to improve VNIR/SWIR registration to better than ¼ of a SWIR pixel, as long as terrain elevation is properly accounted for, and clouds and water are masked out.

  6. Satellite Images and Gaussian Parameterization for an Extensive Analysis of Urban Heat Islands in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiyapon Keeratikasikorn

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, an extensive study of the surface urban heat island (SUHI in Thailand’s six major cities is reported, using 728 MODIS (MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer images for each city. The SUHI analysis was performed at three timescales—diurnal, seasonal, and multiyear. The diurnal variation is represented by the four MODIS passages (10:00, 14:00, 22:00, and 02:00 local time and the seasonal variation by summer and winter maps, with images covering a 14-year interval (2003–2016. Also, 126 Landsat scenes were processed to classify and map land cover changes for each city. To analyze and compare the SUHI patterns, a least-square Gaussian fitting method has been applied and the corresponding empirical metrics quantified. Such an approach represents, when applicable, an efficient quantitative tool to perform comparisons that a visual inspection of a great number of maps would not allow. Results point out that SUHI does not show significant seasonality differences, while SUHI in the daytime is a more evident phenomenon with respect to nighttime, mainly due to solar forcing and intense human activities and traffic. Across the 14 years, the biggest city, Bangkok, shows the highest SUHI maximum intensities during daytime, with values ranging between 4 °C and 6 °C; during nighttime, the intensities are rather similar for all the six cities, between 1 °C and 2 °C. However, these maximum intensities are not correlated with the urban growth over the years. For each city, the SUHI spatial extension represented by the Gaussian footprint is generally not affected by the urban area sprawl across the years, except for Bangkok and Chiang Mai, whose daytime SUHI footprints show a slight increase over the years. Orientation angle and central location of the fitted surface also provide information on the SUHI layout in relation to the land use of the urban texture.

  7. An evolutionary computing frame work toward object extraction from satellite images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Arun

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Image interpretation domains have witnessed the application of many intelligent methodologies over the past decade; however the effective use of evolutionary computing techniques for feature detection has been less explored. In this paper, we critically analyze the possibility of using cellular neural network for accurate feature detection. Contextual knowledge has been effectively represented by incorporating spectral and spatial aspects using adaptive kernel strategy. Developed methodology has been compared with traditional approaches in an object based context and investigations revealed that considerable success has been achieved with the procedure. Intelligent interpretation, automatic interpolation, and effective contextual representations are the features of the system.

  8. HIP technologies for fusion reactor blankets fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Marois, G.; Federzoni, L.; Bucci, P.; Revirand, P.

    2000-01-01

    The benefit of HIP techniques applied to the fabrication of fusion internal components for higher performances, reliability and cost savings are emphasized. To demonstrate the potential of the techniques, design of new blankets concepts and mock-ups fabrication are currently performed by CEA. A coiled tube concept that allows cooling arrangement flexibility, strong reduction of the machining and number of welds is proposed for ITER IAM. Medium size mock-ups according to the WCLL breeding blanket concept have been manufactured. The fabrication of a large size mock-up is under progress. These activities are supported by numerical calculations to predict the deformations of the parts during HIP'ing. Finally, several HIP techniques issues have been identified and are discussed

  9. Blankets for fusion reactors : materials and neutronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, S.H. de.

    1980-03-01

    The studies about Fusion Reactors have lead to several problems for which there is no general agreement about the best solution. Nevertheless, several points seem to be well defined, at least for the first generation of reactors. The fuel, for example, should be a mixture of deuterium and tritium. Therefore, the reactor should be able to generate the tritium to be burned and also to transform kinetic energy of the fusion neutrons into heat in a process similar to the fission reactors. The best materials for the composition of the blanket were first selected and then the neutronics for the proposed system was developed. The neutron flux in the blanket was calculated using the discrete ordinates transport code, ANISN. All the nuclides cross sections came from the DLC-28/CTR library, that processed the ENDF/B data, using the SUPERTOG Program. (Author) [pt

  10. Conceptual design of ITER shielding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Satoshi; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Kurasawa, Toshimasa

    1995-03-01

    The present report summarizes the design activities of the ITER first wall and shielding blanket conducted by the JA Home Team during this year (1994) in close contact with the JCT, and reported during the four Technical Meetings held at Garching ITER Co-center. These activities are based on the Task Agreement between the JCT and the JA Home Team. In the present report, a layered configuration composed of separate first walls, modular-type blanket modules and separate back plates has been proposed to realize reliable assembly and maintenance schemes as well as to realize reliable component designs under high surface heat loads, high neutron wall loading and electromagnetic loads during disruptions. Outline of the structural design, consideration on fabricability and maintainability, and the results of thermal, mechanical and electromagnetic analyses are described. (author)

  11. Flow balancing in liquid metal blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillack, M.S.; Morley, N.B.

    1995-01-01

    Non-uniform flow distribution between parallel channels is one of the most serious concerns for self-cooled liquid metal blankets with electrically insulated walls. We show that uncertainties in flow distribution can be dramatically reduced by relatively simple design modifications. Several design features which impose flow uniformity by electrically coupling parallel channels are surveyed. Basic mechanisms for ''flow balancing'' are described, and a particular self-regulating concept using discrete passive electrodes is proposed for the US ITER advanced blanket concept. Scoping calculations suggest that this simple technique can be very powerful in equalizing the flow, even with massive insulator failures in individual channels. More detailed analyses and experimental verification will be required to demonstrate this concept for ITER. (orig.)

  12. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the North Bamyan mineral district in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the North Bamyan mineral district, which has copper deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2006,2007, 2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such

  13. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Ahankashan mineral district in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Ahankashan mineral district, which has copper and gold deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2007,2008, 2009, 2010),but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this

  14. Estimation of land surface temperature based on satellite image data. Paper no. IGEC-1-117

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torii, S.; Yano, T.; Iino, N.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to predict a ground surface temperature (GST) of Kagoshima Prefecture in Kyushu Island, Japan, by using LANDSAT-5/TM and NOAA-11/AVHRR digital data. Image processing procedure is employed to aid in evaluating GST, in which the thermal images of AVHRR bands 4 and 5 are analysed. Emphasis is placed on the prediction accuracy of the existing atmospheric correlation equations taking the atmospheric attenuation effect into account, which are proposed by Tamba et. al., Bates and Diaz, and Sakkaida and Kawamura. It is disclosed that (I) the factor of the zenith angle need to be taken into account when the accurate GST is evaluated by using the atmospheric correction equations, (ii) that of Sakaida and Kawamura has better accuracy, (iii) LANDSAT-5/TM data contains a very high resolution level of the land, the estimated land surface temperature is higher than the measured value, and (iv) improved accuracy of the surface temperature is achieved if LANDSAT-5/TM data are used together with NOAA-11/AVHRR. (author)

  15. Satellite Angular Velocity Estimation Based on Star Images and Optical Flow Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarmine Fasano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An optical flow-based technique is proposed to estimate spacecraft angular velocity based on sequences of star-field images. It does not require star identification and can be thus used to also deliver angular rate information when attitude determination is not possible, as during platform de tumbling or slewing. Region-based optical flow calculation is carried out on successive star images preprocessed to remove background. Sensor calibration parameters, Poisson equation, and a least-squares method are then used to estimate the angular velocity vector components in the sensor rotating frame. A theoretical error budget is developed to estimate the expected angular rate accuracy as a function of camera parameters and star distribution in the field of view. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is tested by using star field scenes generated by a hardware-in-the-loop testing facility and acquired by a commercial-off-the shelf camera sensor. Simulated cases comprise rotations at different rates. Experimental results are presented which are consistent with theoretical estimates. In particular, very accurate angular velocity estimates are generated at lower slew rates, while in all cases the achievable accuracy in the estimation of the angular velocity component along boresight is about one order of magnitude worse than the other two components.

  16. Mapping Pyroclastic Flow Inundation Using Radar and Optical Satellite Images and Lahar Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Wook Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sinabung volcano, located above the Sumatra subduction of the Indo-Australian plate under the Eurasian plate, became active in 2010 after about 400 years of quiescence. We use ALOS/PALSAR interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR images to measure surface deformation from February 2007 to January 2011. We model the observed preeruption inflation and coeruption deflation using Mogi and prolate spheroid sources to infer volume changes of the magma chamber. We interpret that the inflation was due to magma accumulation in a shallow reservoir beneath Mount Sinabung and attribute the deflation due to magma withdrawal from the shallow reservoir during the eruption as well as thermoelastic compaction of erupted material. The pyroclastic flow extent during the eruption is then derived from the LAHARZ model based on the coeruption volume from InSAR modeling and compared to that derived from the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ image. The pyroclastic flow inundation extents between the two different methods agree at about 86%, suggesting the capability of mapping pyroclastic flow inundation by combing radar and optical imagery as well as flow modeling.

  17. Using multilayer perceptron and a satellite image for the estimation of soil salinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, A.; Ruiz, M.E.; Garcia, E.

    2008-01-01

    Applying the model of the Perceptron multilayer with momentum of an artificial neural network particularly and a multispectral image of high resolution spatial and radiometric, for the first time estimated the salinity of the soil cultivated with sugar cane. The study area is the UBPC 'Lazaro Romero' of the sugar company 'Hector Molina' of the locality San Nicolas de Bari, Havana province, located at 22° 44' North latitude and 81 ° 56' longitude West. The experiments were made in the framework of the El-479 project funded by the Inter universities Council of Flanders, Belgium. 36 samples geo referenced of soils were taken at 3 depths in each of the 4 sugar cane selected blocks, which determined the electrical conductivity of the saturation extract; half of that amount of data was used for the training of the network and the other half for control in a computer program of the artificial neural network created to that effect, together with the reflectance of vegetation indexes for the image, which were maps of electrical conductivity of each block and bands. They were compared with those obtained by simple linear regression between the normalized difference vegetation index and electrical conductivity, Ndv with the approach of the neuronal network, the correlation coefficient was 0.78 to 0.83, while the linear regression was between 0.65 to 0.75

  18. Retrieval of suspended sediment concentrations using Landsat-8 OLI satellite images in the Orinoco River (Venezuela)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepez, Santiago; Laraque, Alain; Martinez, Jean-Michel; De Sa, Jose; Carrera, Juan Manuel; Castellanos, Bartolo; Gallay, Marjorie; Lopez, Jose L.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, 81 Landsat-8 scenes acquired from 2013 to 2015 were used to estimate the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in the Orinoco River at its main hydrological station at Ciudad Bolivar, Venezuela. This gauging station monitors an upstream area corresponding to 89% of the total catchment area where the mean discharge is of 33,000 m3·s-1. SSC spatial and temporal variabilities were analyzed in relation to the hydrological cycle and to local geomorphological characteristics of the river mainstream. Three types of atmospheric correction models were evaluated to correct the Landsat-8 images: DOS, FLAASH, and L8SR. Surface reflectance was compared with monthly water sampling to calibrate a SSC retrieval model using a bootstrapping resampling. A regression model based on surface reflectance at the Near-Infrared wavelengths showed the best performance: R2 = 0.92 (N = 27) for the whole range of SSC (18 to 203 mg·l-1) measured at this station during the studied period. The method offers a simple new approach to estimate the SSC along the lower Orinoco River and demonstrates the feasibility and reliability of remote sensing images to map the spatiotemporal variability in sediment transport over large rivers.

  19. Imaging Land Subsidence Induced by Groundwater Extraction in Beijing (China Using Satellite Radar Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Beijing is one of the most water-stressed cities in the world. Due to over-exploitation of groundwater, the Beijing region has been suffering from land subsidence since 1935. In this study, the Small Baseline InSAR technique has been employed to process Envisat ASAR images acquired between 2003 and 2010 and TerraSAR-X stripmap images collected from 2010 to 2011 to investigate land subsidence in the Beijing region. The maximum subsidence is seen in the eastern part of Beijing with a rate greater than 100 mm/year. Comparisons between InSAR and GPS derived subsidence rates show an RMS difference of 2.94 mm/year with a mean of 2.41 ± 1.84 mm/year. In addition, a high correlation was observed between InSAR subsidence rate maps derived from two different datasets (i.e., Envisat and TerraSAR-X. These demonstrate once again that InSAR is a powerful tool for monitoring land subsidence. InSAR derived subsidence rate maps have allowed for a comprehensive spatio-temporal analysis to identify the main triggering factors of land subsidence. Some interesting relationships in terms of land subsidence were found with groundwater level, active faults, accumulated soft soil thickness and different aquifer types. Furthermore, a relationship with the distances to pumping wells was also recognized in this work.

  20. Integrating Satellite Image Identification and River Routing Simulation into the Groundwater Simulation of Chou-Shui Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Y.; Yang, S.; Chen, Y.; Chang, L.; Chiang, C.; Huang, C.; Chen, J.

    2012-12-01

    Many groundwater simulation models have been developed for Chou-Shui River alluvial fan which is one of the most important groundwater areas in Taiwan. However, the exchange quantity between Chou-Shui River, the major river in this area, and the groundwater system itself is seldom studied. In this study, the exchange is evaluated using a river package (RIV) in the groundwater simulation model, MODFLOW 2000. Several critical parameters and variables used in RIV such as wet area and river level for each cell below the Chou-Shui River are respectively determined by satellite image identification and HEC-RAS simulation. The monthly average of river levels obtained from four stations include Chang-Yun Bridge, Xi-Bin Bridge, Chi-Chiang Bridge and Si-Jou Bridge during 2008 and the river cross-section measured on December 2007 are used in the construction of HEC-RAS model. Four FORMOSAT multispectral satellite images respectively obtained on January 2008, April 2008, July 2008, and November 2008 are used to identify the wet area of Chou-Shui River during different seasons. Integrating the simulation level provided by HEC-RAS and the identification result are used as the assignment of RIV. First, based on the simulation results of HEC-RAS, the water level differences between flooding period and draught period are 1.4 (m) and 2.0 (m) for Xi-Bin Bridge station (downstream) and Chang-Yun Bridge station (upstream) respectively. Second, based on the identified results, the wet areas for four seasons are 24, 24, 40 and 12 (km2) respectively. The variation range of areas in 2008 is huge that the area for winter is just 30% of the area for summer. Third, based on the simulation of MODFLOW 2000 and RIV, the exchange between the river and the groundwater system is 414 million cubic meters which contains 526 for recharge to river and 112 for discharging from river during 2008. The total recharge includes river exchange and recharge from non-river area is 2023 million cubic meters. The

  1. Recent designs for advanced fusion reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sze, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    A series of reactor design studies based on the Tokamak configuration have been carried out under the direction of Professor Robert Conn of UCLA. They are called ARIES-I through IV. The key mission of these studies is to evaluate the attractiveness of fusion assuming different degrees of advancement in either physics or engineering development. This paper discusses the directions and conclusions of the blanket and related engineering systems for those design studies. ARIES-1 investigated the use of SiC composite as the structural material to increase the blanket temperature and reduce the blanket activation. Li 2 ZrO 3 was used as the breeding material due to its high temperature stability and good tritium recovery characteristics. The ARIES-IV is a modification of ARIES-1. The plasma was in the second stability regime. Li 2 O was used as the breeding material to remove Zr. A gaseous divertor was used to replace the conventional divertor so that high Z divertor target is not required. The physics of ARIES-II was the same as ARIES-IV. The engineering design of the ARIES-II was based on a self-cooled lithium blanket with a V-alloy as the structural material. Even though it was assumed that the plasma was in the second stability regime, the plasma beta was still rather low (3.4%). The ARIES-III is an advanced fuel (D- 3 He) tokamak reactor. The reactor design assumed major advancement on the physics, with a plasma beta of 23.9%. A conventional structural material is acceptable due to the low neutron wall loading. From the radiation damage point of view, the first wall can last the life of the reactor, which is expected to be a major advantage from the engineering design and waste disposal point of view

  2. Heating facility for blanket and performance test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuya, Kazuyuki; Kuroda, Toshimasa; Enoeda, Mikio; Sato, Satoshi; Hatano, Toshihisa; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Ohara, Yoshihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Hara, Shigemitsu

    1999-03-01

    A design and a fabrication of heating test facility for a mock-up of the blanket module to be installed in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) have been conducted to evaluate/demonstrate its heat removal performance and structural soundness under cyclic heat loads. To simulate surface heat flux to the blanket module, infrared heating method is adopted so as to heat large surface area uniformly. The infrared heater is used in vacuum environment (10{sup -4} Torr{approx}), and the lamps are cooled by air flowing through an annulus between the lamp and a cover tube made of quartz glass. Elastomer O rings (available to be used up to {approx}300degC) and used for vacuum seal at outer surface of the cover tube. To prevent excessive heating of the O ring, the end part of the cover tube is specially designed including the tube shape, flow path of air and gold coating on the surface of the cover tube to protect the O ring against thermal radiation from glowing tungsten filament. To examine the performance of the facility, steady state and cyclic operation of the infrared heater were conducted using a small-scaled shielding blanket mock-up as a test specimen. The important results are as follows: (1) Heat flux at the surface of the small-scaled mock-up measured by a calorimeter was {approx}0.2 MW/m{sup 2}. (2) A comparison of thermal analysis results and measured temperature responses showed that the small-scaled mock-up had good heat removal performance. (3) Steady state operation and cyclic operation with step response between the rated and zero powers of the infrared heater were successfully performed, and it was confirmed that this heating facility was well-prepared and available for the thermal cyclic test of a blanket module. (author)

  3. 'Taking X-ray phase contrast imaging into mainstream applications' and its satellite workshop 'Real and reciprocal space X-ray imaging'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivo, Alessandro; Robinson, Ian

    2014-03-06

    A double event, supported as part of the Royal Society scientific meetings, was organized in February 2013 in London and at Chicheley Hall in Buckinghamshire by Dr A. Olivo and Prof. I. Robinson. The theme that joined the two events was the use of X-ray phase in novel imaging approaches, as opposed to conventional methods based on X-ray attenuation. The event in London, led by Olivo, addressed the main roadblocks that X-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) is encountering in terms of commercial translation, for clinical and industrial applications. The main driver behind this is the development of new approaches that enable XPCI, traditionally a synchrotron method, to be performed with conventional laboratory sources, thus opening the way to its deployment in clinics and industrial settings. The satellite meeting at Chicheley Hall, led by Robinson, focused on the new scientific developments that have recently emerged at specialized facilities such as third-generation synchrotrons and free-electron lasers, which enable the direct measurement of the phase shift induced by a sample from intensity measurements, typically in the far field. The two events were therefore highly complementary, in terms of covering both the more applied/translational and the blue-sky aspects of the use of phase in X-ray research. 

  4. Conceptual design of Blanket Remote Handling System for CFETR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jianghua; Song, Yuntao; Pei, Kun; Zhao, Wenlong; Zhang, Yu; Cheng, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The concept for the blanket maintenance is carried out, including three sub-systems. • The basic maintenance procedure for blanket between VV and hot cell is carried out. • The primary kinematics study is used to verify the feasibility of BRHS. • Virtual reality is adopted as another approach to verify the concept design. - Abstract: The China Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor (CFETR), which is a new superconducting tokamak device being designed by China, has a mission to achieve a high duty time (0.3–0.5). To accomplish this great mission, the big modular blanket option has been adopted to achieve the high efficiency of the blanket maintenance. Considering this mission and the large and heavy blanket module, a novel conceptual blanket maintenance system for CFETR has been carried out by us over the past year. This paper presents the conceptual design of the Blanket Remote Handling System (BRHS), which mainly comprises the In-Vessel-Maintenance-System (IVMS), Lifting System and Blanket-Tool-Manipulator System (BTMS). The BRHS implements the extraction and replacement between in-vessel (the blanket module operation configuration location) and ex-vessel (inside of the vertical maintenance cask) by the collaboration of these three sub systems. What is more, this paper represents the blanket maintenance procedure between the docking station (between hot cell building and tokamak building) and inside the vacuum vessel, in tokamak building. Virtual reality technology is also used to verify and optimize our concept design.

  5. Conceptual design of Blanket Remote Handling System for CFETR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Jianghua, E-mail: weijh@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Song, Yuntao, E-mail: songyt@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Pei, Kun; Zhao, Wenlong; Zhang, Yu; Cheng, Yong [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • The concept for the blanket maintenance is carried out, including three sub-systems. • The basic maintenance procedure for blanket between VV and hot cell is carried out. • The primary kinematics study is used to verify the feasibility of BRHS. • Virtual reality is adopted as another approach to verify the concept design. - Abstract: The China Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor (CFETR), which is a new superconducting tokamak device being designed by China, has a mission to achieve a high duty time (0.3–0.5). To accomplish this great mission, the big modular blanket option has been adopted to achieve the high efficiency of the blanket maintenance. Considering this mission and the large and heavy blanket module, a novel conceptual blanket maintenance system for CFETR has been carried out by us over the past year. This paper presents the conceptual design of the Blanket Remote Handling System (BRHS), which mainly comprises the In-Vessel-Maintenance-System (IVMS), Lifting System and Blanket-Tool-Manipulator System (BTMS). The BRHS implements the extraction and replacement between in-vessel (the blanket module operation configuration location) and ex-vessel (inside of the vertical maintenance cask) by the collaboration of these three sub systems. What is more, this paper represents the blanket maintenance procedure between the docking station (between hot cell building and tokamak building) and inside the vacuum vessel, in tokamak building. Virtual reality technology is also used to verify and optimize our concept design.

  6. Economic evaluation of the Blanket Comparison and Selection Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waganer, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    The economic impact of employing the highly ranked blankets in the Blanket Comparison and Selection Study (BCSS) was evaluated in the context of both a tokamak and a tandem mirror power reactor (TMR). The economic evaluation criterion was determined to be the cost of electricity. The influencing factors that were considered are the direct cost of the blankets and related systems; the annual cost of blanket replacement; and the performance of the blanket, heat transfer, and energy conversion systems. The technical and cost bases for comparison were those of the STARFIRE and Mirror Advanced Reactor Study conceptual design power plants. The economic evaluation results indicated that the nitrate-salt-cooled blanket concept is an economically attractive concept for either reactor type. The water-cooled, solid breeder blanket is attractive for the tokamak and somewhat less attractive for the TMR. The helium-cooled, liquidlithium breeder blanket is the least economically desirable of higher ranked concepts. The remaining self-cooled liquid-metal and the helium-cooled blanket concepts represent moderately attractive concepts from an economic standpoint. These results are not in concert with those found in the other BCSS evaluation areas (engineering feasibility, safety, and research and development (R and D) requirements). The blankets faring well economically had generally lower cost components, lower pumping power requirements, and good power production capability. On the other hand, helium- and lithium-cooled systems were preferred from the standpoints of safety, engineering feasibility, and R and D requirements

  7. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the South Bamyan mineral district in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the South Bamyan mineral district, which has areas with a spectral reflectance anomaly that require field investigation. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2006,2007, 2008),but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that

  8. 47 CFR 25.138 - Blanket Licensing provisions of GSO FSS Earth Stations in the 18.3-18.8 GHz (space-to-Earth), 19...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...°, provided that the total angular range over which this occurs does not exceed 20° when measured along both... applicant shall provide for each earth station antenna type, a series of radiation patterns measured on a... operating protocol specified by the satellite operator. The holder of an FCC blanket license pursuant to...

  9. Tokamak blanket design study, final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    A cylindrical module concept was developed, analyzed, and incorporated in a tokamak blanket system that includes piping systems, vacuum boundary sealing, and support structures. The design is based on the use of state-of-the-art structural materials (20% cold-worked type 316 stainless steel), lithium as the breeding material, and pressurized helium as the coolant. The module design consists of nested concentric cylinders (with an outer diameter of 10 cm) and features direct wall cooling by helium flowing between the outer (first-wall) cylinder and the inner (lithium-containing) cylinder. Each cylinder can withstand full coolant pressure, thus enhancing reliability. Results show that stainless steel is a viable material for a first wall subjected to a neutron wall loading of 4 MW/m 2 and a particle heat flux of 1 MW/m 2 . Lifetime analysis shows that the first-wall design meets the goal of operating at 20-min cycles with 95% duty for 100,000 cycles. To reduce system complexity, a larger 20-cm-diam module also was analyzed for incorporation in the blanket assembly. Reliability assessment indicates that it may be possible to double the module in size from 10 to 20 cm in diameter. With a modest increase in coolant pumping power, a blanket assembly comprising 20-cm-diam modules can still achieve 100,000 operating cycles - equivalent to a 3.6-year design lifetime - with only one or two helium coolant leaks into the plasma

  10. Nuclear Analysis of an ITER Blanket Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiovaro, P.; Di Maio, P. A.; Parrinello, V.

    2013-08-01

    ITER blanket system is the reactor's plasma-facing component, it is mainly devoted to provide the thermal and nuclear shielding of the Vacuum Vessel and external ITER components, being intended also to act as plasma limiter. It consists of 440 individual modules which are located in the inboard, upper and outboard regions of the reactor. In this paper attention has been focused on to a single outboard blanket module located in the equatorial zone, whose nuclear response under irradiation has been investigated following a numerical approach based on the Monte Carlo method and adopting the MCNP5 code. The main features of this blanket module nuclear behaviour have been determined, paying particular attention to energy and spatial distribution of the neutron flux and deposited nuclear power together with the spatial distribution of its volumetric density. Moreover, the neutronic damage of the structural material has also been investigated through the evaluation of displacement per atom and helium and hydrogen production rates. Finally, an activation analysis has been performed with FISPACT inventory code using, as input, the evaluated neutron spectrum to assess the module specific activity and contact dose rate after irradiation under a specific operating scenario.

  11. Tokamak blanket design study, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    A cylindrical module concept was developed, analyzed, and incorporated in a tokamak blanket system that includes piping systems, vacuum boundary sealing, and support structures. The design is based on the use of state-of-the-art structural materials (20% cold-worked type 316 stainless steel), lithium as the breeding material, and pressurized helium as the coolant. The module design consists of nested concentric cylinders (with an outer diameter of 10 cm) and features direct wall cooling by helium flowing between the outer (first-wall) cylinder and the inner (lithium-containing) cylinder. Each cylinder can withstand full coolant pressure, thus enhancing reliability. Results show that stainless steel is a viable material for a first wall subjected to a neutron wall loading of 4 MW/m/sup 2/ and a particle heat flux of 1 MW/m/sup 2/. Lifetime analysis shows that the first-wall design meets the goal of operating at 20-min cycles with 95% duty for 100,000 cycles. To reduce system complexity, a larger 20-cm-diam module also was analyzed for incorporation in the blanket assembly. Reliability assessment indicates that it may be possible to double the module in size from 10 to 20 cm in diameter. With a modest increase in coolant pumping power, a blanket assembly comprising 20-cm-diam modules can still achieve 100,000 operating cycles - equivalent to a 3.6-year design lifetime - with only one or two helium coolant leaks into the plasma.

  12. Ten Years of Vegetation Change in Northern California Marshlands Detected using Landsat Satellite Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) methodology was applied to detected changes in perennial vegetation cover at marshland sites in Northern California reported to have undergone restoration between 1999 and 2009. Results showed extensive contiguous areas of restored marshland plant cover at 10 of the 14 sites selected. Gains in either woody shrub cover and/or from recovery of herbaceous cover that remains productive and evergreen on a year-round basis could be mapped out from the image results. However, LEDAPS may not be highly sensitive changes in wetlands that have been restored mainly with seasonal herbaceous cover (e.g., vernal pools), due to the ephemeral nature of the plant greenness signal. Based on this evaluation, the LEDAPS methodology would be capable of fulfilling a pressing need for consistent, continual, low-cost monitoring of changes in marshland ecosystems of the Pacific Flyway.

  13. A new generic method for the semi-automatic extraction of river and road networks in low and mid-resolution satellite images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grazzini, Jacopo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dillard, Scott [PNNL; Soille, Pierre [EC JRC

    2010-10-21

    This paper addresses the problem of semi-automatic extraction of road or hydrographic networks in satellite images. For that purpose, we propose an approach combining concepts arising from mathematical morphology and hydrology. The method exploits both geometrical and topological characteristics of rivers/roads and their tributaries in order to reconstruct the complete networks. It assumes that the images satisfy the following two general assumptions, which are the minimum conditions for a road/river network to be identifiable and are usually verified in low- to mid-resolution satellite images: (i) visual constraint: most pixels composing the network have similar spectral signature that is distinguishable from most of the surrounding areas; (ii) geometric constraint: a line is a region that is relatively long and narrow, compared with other objects in the image. While this approach fully exploits local (roads/rivers are modeled as elongated regions with a smooth spectral signature in the image and a maximum width) and global (they are structured like a tree) characteristics of the networks, further directional information about the image structures is incorporated. Namely, an appropriate anisotropic metric is designed by using both the characteristic features of the target network and the eigen-decomposition of the gradient structure tensor of the image. Following, the geodesic propagation from a given network seed with this metric is combined with hydrological operators for overland flow simulation to extract the paths which contain most line evidence and identify them with the target network.

  14. Geological and Structural Inferences from Satellite Images in Parts of Deccan basalt covered regions of Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harinarayana, Tirumalachetty; Borra, Veeraiah; Basava, Sharana; Suryabali, Singh

    In search of new areas for hydrocarbon exploration, integrated ground geophysical studies have been taken up in Central India with seismic, magnetotellurics, deep resistivity and gravity surveys. Since the region is covered with basalt and well known for its intensive tectonic activity, remote sensing method seems to have value addition to the subsurface information derived from geophysical, geological and tectonic studies. The Narmada and Tapti rift zone and Deccan basalt covered regions of Central India, stems from its complexity. A Resourcesat-1 (IRS- P6) LISS-III satellite images covering an area of approximately 250,000 sq. km corresponding to the region in and around Baroda(Vadodara), Indore, Nandurbar, Khandwa, Akot, Nasik, Aurangabad, Pune and Latur in Central India was digitally processed and interpreted to present a schematic map of the geology and elucidate the structural fabric of the region. From our study, the disposition of the intensive dyke system, various faults and other lineaments in the region are delineated. Ground truth studies have shown good correlation with lineaments/dykes indicated in remote sensing studies and have revealed distinct ENE-WSW trending lineaments, dykes which are more prominent near the Narmada and Tapti river course. Evolution of these features with Deccan volcanism is discussed with available geochronological data set. These findings are significant in relation to structural data and form a part of the geo-structural database for ground surveys.

  15. Mapping species of submerged aquatic vegetation with multi-seasonal satellite images and considering life history information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Juhua; Duan, Hongtao; Ma, Ronghua; Jin, Xiuliang; Li, Fei; Hu, Weiping; Shi, Kun; Huang, Wenjiang

    2017-05-01

    Spatial information of the dominant species of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) is essential for restoration projects in eutrophic lakes, especially eutrophic Taihu Lake, China. Mapping the distribution of SAV species is very challenging and difficult using only multispectral satellite remote sensing. In this study, we proposed an approach to map the distribution of seven dominant species of SAV in Taihu Lake. Our approach involved information on the life histories of the seven SAV species and eight distribution maps of SAV from February to October. The life history information of the dominant SAV species was summarized from the literature and field surveys. Eight distribution maps of the SAV were extracted from eight 30 m HJ-CCD images from February to October in 2013 based on the classification tree models, and the overall classification accuracies for the SAV were greater than 80%. Finally, the spatial distribution of the SAV species in Taihu in 2013 was mapped using multilayer erasing approach. Based on validation, the overall classification accuracy for the seven species was 68.4%, and kappa was 0.6306, which suggests that larger differences in life histories between species can produce higher identification accuracies. The classification results show that Potamogeton malaianus was the most widely distributed species in Taihu Lake, followed by Myriophyllum spicatum, Potamogeton maackianus, Potamogeton crispus, Elodea nuttallii, Ceratophyllum demersum and Vallisneria spiralis. The information is useful for planning shallow-water habitat restoration projects.

  16. Provisional maps of thermal areas in Yellowstone National Park, based on satellite thermal infrared imaging and field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Heasler, Henry; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.

    2014-01-01

    Maps that define the current distribution of geothermally heated ground are useful toward setting a baseline for thermal activity to better detect and understand future anomalous hydrothermal and (or) volcanic activity. Monitoring changes in the dynamic thermal areas also supports decisions regarding the development of Yellowstone National Park infrastructure, preservation and protection of park resources, and ensuring visitor safety. Because of the challenges associated with field-based monitoring of a large, complex geothermal system that is spread out over a large and remote area, satellite-based thermal infrared images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were used to map the location and spatial extent of active thermal areas, to generate thermal anomaly maps, and to quantify the radiative component of the total geothermal heat flux. ASTER thermal infrared data acquired during winter nights were used to minimize the contribution of solar heating of the surface. The ASTER thermal infrared mapping results were compared to maps of thermal areas based on field investigations and high-resolution aerial photos. Field validation of the ASTER thermal mapping is an ongoing task. The purpose of this report is to make available ASTER-based maps of Yellowstone’s thermal areas. We include an appendix containing the names and characteristics of Yellowstone’s thermal areas, georeferenced TIFF files containing ASTER thermal imagery, and several spatial data sets in Esri shapefile format.

  17. Comparison of sampling strategies for object-based classification of urban vegetation from Very High Resolution satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougier, Simon; Puissant, Anne; Stumpf, André; Lachiche, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    Vegetation monitoring is becoming a major issue in the urban environment due to the services they procure and necessitates an accurate and up to date mapping. Very High Resolution satellite images enable a detailed mapping of the urban tree and herbaceous vegetation. Several supervised classifications with statistical learning techniques have provided good results for the detection of urban vegetation but necessitate a large amount of training data. In this context, this study proposes to investigate the performances of different sampling strategies in order to reduce the number of examples needed. Two windows based active learning algorithms from state-of-art are compared to a classical stratified random sampling and a third combining active learning and stratified strategies is proposed. The efficiency of these strategies is evaluated on two medium size French cities, Strasbourg and Rennes, associated to different datasets. Results demonstrate that classical stratified random sampling can in some cases be just as effective as active learning methods and that it should be used more frequently to evaluate new active learning methods. Moreover, the active learning strategies proposed in this work enables to reduce the computational runtime by selecting multiple windows at each iteration without increasing the number of windows needed.

  18. Quality of Life Assessment Based on Spatial and Temporal Analysis of the Vegetation Area Derived from Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA IOANA VLAD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of life in urban areas is a function of many parameters among which, one highly important is the number and quality of green areas for people and wildlife to thrive. The quality of life is also a political concept often used to describe citizen satisfaction within different residential locations. Only in the last decades green areas have suffered a progressive decrease in quality, pointing out the ecological urban risk with a negative impact on the standard of living and population health status. This paper presents the evolution of green areas in the cities of South-Eastern Romania within the last 20 years and sets forth the current state of quality of life from the perspective of vegetation reference. By using state-of-the-art processing tools applied on high-resolution satellite images, we have derived knowledge about the spatial and temporal expansion of urbanized regions. Our semi-automatic technologies for analysis of remote sensing data such as Landsat 7 ETM+, correlated with statistical information inferred from urban charts, demonstrate a negative trend in the distribution of green areas within the analyzed cities, with long-term implications on multiple areas in our lives.

  19. Analysis of In-Situ Spectral Reflectance of Sago and Other Palms: Implications for Their Detection in Optical Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon Santillan, Jojene; Makinano-Santillan, Meriam

    2018-04-01

    We present a characterization, comparison and analysis of in-situ spectral reflectance of Sago and other palms (coconut, oil palm and nipa) to ascertain on which part of the electromagnetic spectrum these palms are distinguishable from each other. The analysis also aims to reveal information that will assist in selecting which band to use when mapping Sago palms using the images acquired by these sensors. The datasets used in the analysis consisted of averaged spectral reflectance curves of each palm species measured within the 345-1045 nm wavelength range using an Ocean Optics USB4000-VIS-NIR Miniature Fiber Optic Spectrometer. This in-situ reflectance data was also resampled to match the spectral response of the 4 bands of ALOS AVNIR-2, 3 bands of ASTER VNIR, 4 bands of Landsat 7 ETM+, 5 bands of Landsat 8, and 8 bands of Worldview-2 (WV2). Examination of the spectral reflectance curves showed that the near infra-red region, specifically at 770, 800 and 875 nm, provides the best wavelengths where Sago palms can be distinguished from other palms. The resampling of the in-situ reflectance spectra to match the spectral response of optical sensors made possible the analysis of the differences in reflectance values of Sago and other palms in different bands of the sensors. Overall, the knowledge learned from the analysis can be useful in the actual analysis of optical satellite images, specifically in determining which band to include or to exclude, or whether to use all bands of a sensor in discriminating and mapping Sago palms.

  20. LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURES ESTIMATED ON GROUNDOBSERVED DATA AND SATELLITE IMAGES, DURING THE VEGETATION PERIOD IN THE OLTENIA PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ONŢEL IRINA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the land surface temperatures by using climatological and remote sensing data during the vegetation period in the Oltenia Plain. The data used in this study refer both to climatological data (namely monthly and seasonal air and soil temperatures, and to remote sensing data delivered by MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST, with a spatial resolution of 1 km. The analyzed period spans from 2000 to 2013 and the vegetation period considered is April-September. As main results, there were observed four years with high temperatures, namely 2000 (20.4oC-air T, 24.6oC soil T, and 26oC LST, 2003 (20.2oC air T, 23.9oC soil T and 24.5oC LST, 2007 (20.5oC air T, 24.3oC soil T and 25oC LST and 2012 (21.3oC air T, 25.7oC soil T and 26.5oC LST. The correlations between air temperature, soil temperature and LST were statisticaly significant. The diference between air temperature and soil temperature values ranked within 3-4oC, while the difference between soil temperature and land surface temperature obtained from MODIS images was about 0.8oC. Spatially, the highest temperatures were recorded on the Leu-Rotunda Field, the Caracal Plain and the Nedeia Field, and pretty high variations of observed temperatures seemed to depend on vegetation cover. The MODIS images represent one of the most important types of satellite data available for free, which can be successfully used in determining the climatic parameters and can help to predict the changes in plant activity, due to weather phenomena.

  1. Combination of Satellite Images and Numerical Model for the State Followed the Coast of the Bay of Bejaia-Jijel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachari Nour El Islam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bay of Bejaia-Jijel extends over a length of 100 km with the presence of the ports, the beaches of rivers that discharge of the bay. This area characterized by strong economic activity, namely tourism and fisheries. However, severe erosion, high hydrodynamic activity and significant silting of ports affect this bay. Hence, the interest of this study, which tries to explain these phenomena, based on multisource data with multitasking models. First, we developed an algorithm that can convert satellite images in coastline vector. This technique applied to three images LANDSAT TM and OLI sensed in 1987, 2011; 2015. The multi-temporal monitoring coastlines show that the region suffered severe erosion. This erosion is 4.6 m / year for the period of 1987/2011 and 1.5 m / year for the period 2011/2015. To explain this phenomenon we interested to do a study of hydrodynamics using the SWAN software. We used a long time series of wind speed and direction to discern extreme cases in the region. For maximum wind, the significant wave height recorded very high values and a very active orbital current with a speed that exceeds 0.7 m / s. Numerical modelling has allowed us to explain the erosion but does not explain the speed difference coastline. To find the explanation of erosion speed difference between the two periods we consulted the administrative archive of the region. In the archive, the number of authorized hourglasses is, 12 in the 90s, but 36 quarries operate haphazardly. In this period the balance of suspended matter is completely unbalanced which promotes erosion. After 2008, these quarries were closed therefore the balance of the suspended material has improved and consequently coastal erosion has decreased.

  2. ANALYSIS OF IN-SITU SPECTRAL REFLECTANCE OF SAGO AND OTHER PALMS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THEIR DETECTION IN OPTICAL SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Santillan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a characterization, comparison and analysis of in-situ spectral reflectance of Sago and other palms (coconut, oil palm and nipa to ascertain on which part of the electromagnetic spectrum these palms are distinguishable from each other. The analysis also aims to reveal information that will assist in selecting which band to use when mapping Sago palms using the images acquired by these sensors. The datasets used in the analysis consisted of averaged spectral reflectance curves of each palm species measured within the 345–1045 nm wavelength range using an Ocean Optics USB4000-VIS-NIR Miniature Fiber Optic Spectrometer. This in-situ reflectance data was also resampled to match the spectral response of the 4 bands of ALOS AVNIR-2, 3 bands of ASTER VNIR, 4 bands of Landsat 7 ETM+, 5 bands of Landsat 8, and 8 bands of Worldview-2 (WV2. Examination of the spectral reflectance curves showed that the near infra-red region, specifically at 770, 800 and 875 nm, provides the best wavelengths where Sago palms can be distinguished from other palms. The resampling of the in-situ reflectance spectra to match the spectral response of optical sensors made possible the analysis of the differences in reflectance values of Sago and other palms in different bands of the sensors. Overall, the knowledge learned from the analysis can be useful in the actual analysis of optical satellite images, specifically in determining which band to include or to exclude, or whether to use all bands of a sensor in discriminating and mapping Sago palms.

  3. Imaging design of the wide field x-ray monitor onboard the HETE satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zand, J.J.M. In'T; Fenimore, E.E.; Kawai, N.; Yoshida, A.; Matsuoka, M.; Yamauchi, M.

    1994-01-01

    The High Energy Transient Experiment (HETE), to be launched in 1995, will study Gamma-Ray Bursts in an unprecendented wide wavelength range from Gamma- and X-ray to UV wavelengths. The X-ray range (2 to 25 keV) will be covered by 2 perpendicularly oriented 1-dimensional coded aperture cameras. These instruments cover a wide field of view of 2 sr and thus have a relatively large potential to locate GRBs to a fraction of a degree, which is an order of magnitude better than BATSE. The imaging design of these coded aperture cameras relates to the design of the coded apertures and the decoding algorithm. The aperture pattern is to a large extent determined by the high background in this wide field application and the low number of pattern elements (∼100) in each direction. The result is a random pattern with an open fraction of 33%. The onboard decoding algorithm is dedicated to the localization of a single point source

  4. Towards a contrail climatology from NOAA-satellite images over Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakan, S [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Betancor, M [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.; Gayler, V [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.; Grassl, H [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.; [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany)

    1993-11-01

    Contrail cloudiness over Europe and the eastern part of the North Atlantic Ocean was analyzed for the two periods Sept. 1979-Dec. 1981 and Sept. 1989-Aug. 1992 by visual inspection of quicklook photographic prints of NOAA/AVHRR infrared images. The averaged contrail cover exhibits maximum values along the transatlantic flight corridor around 50 N (of almost 2%) and over western Europe resulting in 0.5% contrail cloudiness on the average. A strong yearly cycle appears with a maximum (<2%) in spring and summer over the Atlantic and a smaller maximum (<1%) in winter over southwestern Europe. Comparing the two time periods of one decade separation there is a significant decrease in contrail cloudiness over western Europe and a significant increase over the North Atlantic observable between March and July. Contrail cloud cover during daytime is about twice as high as during nighttime. Contrails are preferably found in larger fields of 1000 km diameter which last usually for more than one day. Causes, possible errors and consequences are discussed. (orig.)

  5. New optical sensor systems for high-resolution satellite, airborne and terrestrial imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckardt, Andreas; Börner, Anko; Lehmann, Frank

    2007-10-01

    The department of Optical Information Systems (OS) at the Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) has more than 25 years experience with high-resolution imaging technology. The technology changes in the development of detectors, as well as the significant change of the manufacturing accuracy in combination with the engineering research define the next generation of spaceborne sensor systems focusing on Earth observation and remote sensing. The combination of large TDI lines, intelligent synchronization control, fast-readable sensors and new focal-plane concepts open the door to new remote-sensing instruments. This class of instruments is feasible for high-resolution sensor systems regarding geometry and radiometry and their data products like 3D virtual reality. Systemic approaches are essential for such designs of complex sensor systems for dedicated tasks. The system theory of the instrument inside a simulated environment is the beginning of the optimization process for the optical, mechanical and electrical designs. Single modules and the entire system have to be calibrated and verified. Suitable procedures must be defined on component, module and system level for the assembly test and verification process. This kind of development strategy allows the hardware-in-the-loop design. The paper gives an overview about the current activities at DLR in the field of innovative sensor systems for photogrammetric and remote sensing purposes.

  6. Towards a contrail climatology from NOAA-satellite images over Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakan, S.; Betancor, M.

    1993-01-01

    Contrail cloudiness over Europe and the eastern part of the North Atlantic Ocean was analyzed for the two periods Sept. 1979-Dec. 1981 and Sept. 1989-Aug. 1992 by visual inspection of quicklook photographic prints of NOAA/AVHRR infrared images. The averaged contrail cover exhibits maximum values along the transatlantic flight corridor around 50 N (of almost 2%) and over western Europe resulting in 0.5% contrail cloudiness on the average. A strong yearly cycle appears with a maximum (<2%) in spring and summer over the Atlantic and a smaller maximum (<1%) in winter over southwestern Europe. Comparing the two time periods of one decade separation there is a significant decrease in contrail cloudiness over western Europe and a significant increase over the North Atlantic observable between March and July. Contrail cloud cover during daytime is about twice as high as during nighttime. Contrails are preferably found in larger fields of 1000 km diameter which last usually for more than one day. Causes, possible errors and consequences are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Fuzzy rule-based model for optimum orientation of solar panels using satellite image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaher, A; Thiery, F; Grieu, S; Traoré, A; N’goran, Y

    2017-01-01

    In solar energy converting systems, a particular attention is paid to the orientation of solar collectors in order to optimize the overall system efficiency. In this context, the collectors can be fixed or oriented by a continuous solar tracking system. The proposed approach is based on METEOSAT images processing in order to detect the cloud coverage and its duration. These two parameters are treated by a fuzzy inference system deciding the optimal position of the solar panel. In fact, three weather cases can be considered: clear, partly covered or overcast sky. In the first case, the direct sunlight is more important than the diffuse radiation, thus the panel is always pointed towards the sun. In the overcast case, the solar beam is close to zero and the panel is placed horizontally to receive the diffuse radiation. Under partly covered conditions, the fuzzy inference system decides which of the previous positions is more efficient. The proposed approach is implemented using experimental prototype located in Perpignan (France). On a period of 17 months, the results are very satisfactory, with power gains of up to 23 % compared to the collectors oriented by a continuous solar tracking. (paper)

  8. Nuclear characteristics of D-D fusion reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Hideki; Ohta, Masao

    1978-01-01

    Fusion reactors operating on deuterium (D-D) cycle are considered to be of long range interest for their freedom from tritium breeding in the blanket. The present paper discusses the various possibilities of D-D fusion reactor blanket designs mainly from the standpoint of the nuclear characteristics. Neutronic and photonic calculations are based on presently available data to provide a basis of the optimal blanket design in D-D fusion reactors. It is found that it appears desirable to design a blanket with blanket/shield (BS) concept in D-D fusion reactors. The BS concept is designed to obtain reasonable shielding characteristics for superconducting magnet (SCM) by using shielding materials in the compact blanket. This concept will open the possibility of compact radiation shield design based on assured technology, and offer the advantage from the system economics point of view. (auth.)

  9. Neutronic optimization of solid breeder blankets for STARFIRE design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.; Abdou, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Extensive neutronic tradeoff studies were carried out to define and optimize the neutronic performance of the different solid breeder options for the STARFIRE blanket design. A set of criteria were employed to select the potential blanket materials. The basic criteria include the neutronic performance, tritium-release characteristics, material compatibility, and chemical stability. Three blanket options were analyzed. The first option is based on separate zones for each basic blanket function where the neutron multiplier is kept in a separate zone. The second option is a heterogeneous blanket type with two tritium breeder zones. In the first zone the tritium breeder is assembled in a neutron multiplier matrix behind the first wall while the second zone has a neutron moderator matrix instead of the neutron multiplier. The third blanket option is similar to the second concept except the tritium breeder and the neutron multiplier form a homogeneous mixture

  10. Processing and waste disposal representative for fusion breeder blanket systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, P.A.; Vogler, S.

    1987-01-01

    This study is an evaluation of the waste handling concepts applicable to fusion breeder systems. Its goal is to determine if breeder blanket waste can be disposed of in shallow land burial, the least restrictive method under US Nuclear Regulatory regulations. The radionuclides expected in the materials used in fusion reactor blankets are described, as are plans for reprocessing and disposal of the components of different breeder blankets. An estimate of the operating costs involved in waste disposal is made

  11. A review of fusion breeder blanket technology, part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.P.; Selander, W.N.; Townes, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study of fusion breeder blanket technology. It reviews the role of the breeder blanket, the current understanding of the scientific and engineering bases of liquid metal and solid breeder blankets and the programs now underway internationally to resolve the uncertainities in current knowledge. In view of existing national expertise and experience, a solid breeder R and D program for Canada is recommended

  12. Quaternion-Based Texture Analysis of Multiband Satellite Images: Application to the Estimation of Aboveground Biomass in the East Region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djiongo Kenfack, Cedrigue Boris; Monga, Olivier; Mpong, Serge Moto; Ndoundam, René

    2018-03-01

    Within the last decade, several approaches using quaternion numbers to handle and model multiband images in a holistic manner were introduced. The quaternion Fourier transform can be efficiently used to model texture in multidimensional data such as color images. For practical application, multispectral satellite data appear as a primary source for measuring past trends and monitoring changes in forest carbon stocks. In this work, we propose a texture-color descriptor based on the quaternion Fourier transform to extract relevant information from multiband satellite images. We propose a new multiband image texture model extraction, called FOTO++, in order to address biomass estimation issues. The first stage consists in removing noise from the multispectral data while preserving the edges of canopies. Afterward, c