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Sample records for satellite footprint toa

  1. CERES Single Scanner Satellite Footprint, TOA, Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) data in HDF (CER_SSF_TRMM-SIM-VIRS_Edition2-VIRSonly)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product contains one hour of instantaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SSF combines instantaneous CERES data with scene information from a higher-resolution imager such as Visible/Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on TRMM or Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua. Scene identification and cloud properties are defined at the higher imager resolution and these data are averaged over the larger CERES footprint. For each CERES footprint, the SSF contains the number of cloud layers and for each layer the cloud amount, height, temperature, pressure, optical depth, emissivity, ice and liquid water path, and water particle size. The SSF also contains the CERES filtered radiances for the total, shortwave (SW), and window (WN) channels and the unfiltered SW, longwave (LW), and WN radiances. The SW, LW, and WN radiances at spacecraft altitude are converted to Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes based on the imager defined scene. These TOA fluxes are used to estimate surface fluxes. Only footprints with adequate imager coverage are included on CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1the SSF which is much less than the full set of footprints on the CERES ES-8 product. The following CERES SSF data sets are currently available: CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A CER_SSF_TRMM-SIM-VIRS_Edition2_VIRSonly CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta1 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM3-MODIS_Beta2 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta2. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop

  2. CERES Single Satellite Footprint, TOA and Surface Fluxes, Clouds (SSF) data in HDF (CER_SSF_Aqua-FM3-MODIS_Edition2A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product contains one hour of instantaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SSF combines instantaneous CERES data with scene information from a higher-resolution imager such as Visible/Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on TRMM or Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua. Scene identification and cloud properties are defined at the higher imager resolution and these data are averaged over the larger CERES footprint. For each CERES footprint, the SSF contains the number of cloud layers and for each layer the cloud amount, height, temperature, pressure, optical depth, emissivity, ice and liquid water path, and water particle size. The SSF also contains the CERES filtered radiances for the total, shortwave (SW), and window (WN) channels and the unfiltered SW, longwave (LW), and WN radiances. The SW, LW, and WN radiances at spacecraft altitude are converted to Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes based on the imager defined scene. These TOA fluxes are used to estimate surface fluxes. Only footprints with adequate imager coverage are included on CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1the SSF which is much less than the full set of footprints on the CERES ES-8 product. The following CERES SSF data sets are currently available: CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A CER_SSF_TRMM-SIM-VIRS_Edition2_VIRSonly CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta1 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM3-MODIS_Beta2 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta2. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop

  3. CERES Single Scanner Satellite Footprint, TOA, Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) data in HDF (CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product contains one hour of instantaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SSF combines instantaneous CERES data with scene information from a higher-resolution imager such as Visible/Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on TRMM or Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua. Scene identification and cloud properties are defined at the higher imager resolution and these data are averaged over the larger CERES footprint. For each CERES footprint, the SSF contains the number of cloud layers and for each layer the cloud amount, height, temperature, pressure, optical depth, emissivity, ice and liquid water path, and water particle size. The SSF also contains the CERES filtered radiances for the total, shortwave (SW), and window (WN) channels and the unfiltered SW, longwave (LW), and WN radiances. The SW, LW, and WN radiances at spacecraft altitude are converted to Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes based on the imager defined scene. These TOA fluxes are used to estimate surface fluxes. Only footprints with adequate imager coverage are included on CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1the SSF which is much less than the full set of footprints on the CERES ES-8 product. The following CERES SSF data sets are currently available: CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A CER_SSF_TRMM-SIM-VIRS_Edition2_VIRSonly CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta1 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM3-MODIS_Beta2 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta2. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop

  4. CERES Single Scanner Satellite Footprint, TOA, Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) data in HDF (CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product contains one hour of instantaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SSF combines instantaneous CERES data with scene information from a higher-resolution imager such as Visible/Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on TRMM or Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua. Scene identification and cloud properties are defined at the higher imager resolution and these data are averaged over the larger CERES footprint. For each CERES footprint, the SSF contains the number of cloud layers and for each layer the cloud amount, height, temperature, pressure, optical depth, emissivity, ice and liquid water path, and water particle size. The SSF also contains the CERES filtered radiances for the total, shortwave (SW), and window (WN) channels and the unfiltered SW, longwave (LW), and WN radiances. The SW, LW, and WN radiances at spacecraft altitude are converted to Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes based on the imager defined scene. These TOA fluxes are used to estimate surface fluxes. Only footprints with adequate imager coverage are included on CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1the SSF which is much less than the full set of footprints on the CERES ES-8 product. The following CERES SSF data sets are currently available: CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A CER_SSF_TRMM-SIM-VIRS_Edition2_VIRSonly CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta1 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM3-MODIS_Beta2 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta2. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop

  5. CERES Single Scanner Satellite Footprint, TOA, Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) data in HDF (CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product contains one hour of instantaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SSF combines instantaneous CERES data with scene information from a higher-resolution imager such as Visible/Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on TRMM or Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua. Scene identification and cloud properties are defined at the higher imager resolution and these data are averaged over the larger CERES footprint. For each CERES footprint, the SSF contains the number of cloud layers and for each layer the cloud amount, height, temperature, pressure, optical depth, emissivity, ice and liquid water path, and water particle size. The SSF also contains the CERES filtered radiances for the total, shortwave (SW), and window (WN) channels and the unfiltered SW, longwave (LW), and WN radiances. The SW, LW, and WN radiances at spacecraft altitude are converted to Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes based on the imager defined scene. These TOA fluxes are used to estimate surface fluxes. Only footprints with adequate imager coverage are included on CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1the SSF which is much less than the full set of footprints on the CERES ES-8 product. The following CERES SSF data sets are currently available: CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A CER_SSF_TRMM-SIM-VIRS_Edition2_VIRSonly CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta1 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM3-MODIS_Beta2 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta2. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop

  6. CERES Single Scanner Satellite Footprint, TOA, Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) data in HDF (CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product contains one hour of instantaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SSF combines instantaneous CERES data with scene information from a higher-resolution imager such as Visible/Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on TRMM or Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua. Scene identification and cloud properties are defined at the higher imager resolution and these data are averaged over the larger CERES footprint. For each CERES footprint, the SSF contains the number of cloud layers and for each layer the cloud amount, height, temperature, pressure, optical depth, emissivity, ice and liquid water path, and water particle size. The SSF also contains the CERES filtered radiances for the total, shortwave (SW), and window (WN) channels and the unfiltered SW, longwave (LW), and WN radiances. The SW, LW, and WN radiances at spacecraft altitude are converted to Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes based on the imager defined scene. These TOA fluxes are used to estimate surface fluxes. Only footprints with adequate imager coverage are included on CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1the SSF which is much less than the full set of footprints on the CERES ES-8 product. The following CERES SSF data sets are currently available: CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A CER_SSF_TRMM-SIM-VIRS_Edition2_VIRSonly CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta1 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM3-MODIS_Beta2 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta2. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop

  7. CERES Single Scanner Satellite Footprint, TOA, Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) data in HDF (CER_SSF_Aqua-FM3-MODIS_Edition1B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product contains one hour of instantaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SSF combines instantaneous CERES data with scene information from a higher-resolution imager such as Visible/Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on TRMM or Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua. Scene identification and cloud properties are defined at the higher imager resolution and these data are averaged over the larger CERES footprint. For each CERES footprint, the SSF contains the number of cloud layers and for each layer the cloud amount, height, temperature, pressure, optical depth, emissivity, ice and liquid water path, and water particle size. The SSF also contains the CERES filtered radiances for the total, shortwave (SW), and window (WN) channels and the unfiltered SW, longwave (LW), and WN radiances. The SW, LW, and WN radiances at spacecraft altitude are converted to Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes based on the imager defined scene. These TOA fluxes are used to estimate surface fluxes. Only footprints with adequate imager coverage are included on CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1the SSF which is much less than the full set of footprints on the CERES ES-8 product. The following CERES SSF data sets are currently available: CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A CER_SSF_TRMM-SIM-VIRS_Edition2_VIRSonly CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta1 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM3-MODIS_Beta2 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta2. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop

  8. CERES Single Scanner Satellite Footprint, TOA, Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) data in HDF (CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A-TransOps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product contains one hour of instantaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SSF combines instantaneous CERES data with scene information from a higher-resolution imager such as Visible/Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on TRMM or Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua. Scene identification and cloud properties are defined at the higher imager resolution and these data are averaged over the larger CERES footprint. For each CERES footprint, the SSF contains the number of cloud layers and for each layer the cloud amount, height, temperature, pressure, optical depth, emissivity, ice and liquid water path, and water particle size. The SSF also contains the CERES filtered radiances for the total, shortwave (SW), and window (WN) channels and the unfiltered SW, longwave (LW), and WN radiances. The SW, LW, and WN radiances at spacecraft altitude are converted to Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes based on the imager defined scene. These TOA fluxes are used to estimate surface fluxes. Only footprints with adequate imager coverage are included on CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1the SSF which is much less than the full set of footprints on the CERES ES-8 product. The following CERES SSF data sets are currently available: CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A CER_SSF_TRMM-SIM-VIRS_Edition2_VIRSonly CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta1 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM3-MODIS_Beta2 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta2. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop

  9. CERES Single Scanner Satellite Footprint, TOA, Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) data in HDF (CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Edition1B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product contains one hour of instantaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SSF combines instantaneous CERES data with scene information from a higher-resolution imager such as Visible/Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on TRMM or Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua. Scene identification and cloud properties are defined at the higher imager resolution and these data are averaged over the larger CERES footprint. For each CERES footprint, the SSF contains the number of cloud layers and for each layer the cloud amount, height, temperature, pressure, optical depth, emissivity, ice and liquid water path, and water particle size. The SSF also contains the CERES filtered radiances for the total, shortwave (SW), and window (WN) channels and the unfiltered SW, longwave (LW), and WN radiances. The SW, LW, and WN radiances at spacecraft altitude are converted to Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes based on the imager defined scene. These TOA fluxes are used to estimate surface fluxes. Only footprints with adequate imager coverage are included on CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1the SSF which is much less than the full set of footprints on the CERES ES-8 product. The following CERES SSF data sets are currently available: CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A CER_SSF_TRMM-SIM-VIRS_Edition2_VIRSonly CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta1 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM3-MODIS_Beta2 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta2. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop

  10. CERES Single Satellite Footprint, TOA and Surface Fluxes, Clouds (SSF) data in HDF (CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Edition2A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product contains one hour of instantaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SSF combines instantaneous CERES data with scene information from a higher-resolution imager such as Visible/Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on TRMM or Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua. Scene identification and cloud properties are defined at the higher imager resolution and these data are averaged over the larger CERES footprint. For each CERES footprint, the SSF contains the number of cloud layers and for each layer the cloud amount, height, temperature, pressure, optical depth, emissivity, ice and liquid water path, and water particle size. The SSF also contains the CERES filtered radiances for the total, shortwave (SW), and window (WN) channels and the unfiltered SW, longwave (LW), and WN radiances. The SW, LW, and WN radiances at spacecraft altitude are converted to Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes based on the imager defined scene. These TOA fluxes are used to estimate surface fluxes. Only footprints with adequate imager coverage are included on CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1the SSF which is much less than the full set of footprints on the CERES ES-8 product. The following CERES SSF data sets are currently available: CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A CER_SSF_TRMM-SIM-VIRS_Edition2_VIRSonly CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta1 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM3-MODIS_Beta2 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta2. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop

  11. CERES Single Satellite Footprint, TOA and Surface Fluxes, Clouds (SSF) data in HDF (CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Ed2A-NoSW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product contains one hour of instantaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SSF combines instantaneous CERES data with scene information from a higher-resolution imager such as Visible/Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on TRMM or Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua. Scene identification and cloud properties are defined at the higher imager resolution and these data are averaged over the larger CERES footprint. For each CERES footprint, the SSF contains the number of cloud layers and for each layer the cloud amount, height, temperature, pressure, optical depth, emissivity, ice and liquid water path, and water particle size. The SSF also contains the CERES filtered radiances for the total, shortwave (SW), and window (WN) channels and the unfiltered SW, longwave (LW), and WN radiances. The SW, LW, and WN radiances at spacecraft altitude are converted to Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes based on the imager defined scene. These TOA fluxes are used to estimate surface fluxes. Only footprints with adequate imager coverage are included on CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1the SSF which is much less than the full set of footprints on the CERES ES-8 product. The following CERES SSF data sets are currently available: CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A CER_SSF_TRMM-SIM-VIRS_Edition2_VIRSonly CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta1 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM3-MODIS_Beta2 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta2. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop

  12. Assessment of NASA GISS CMIP5 and Post-CMIP5 Simulated Clouds and TOA Radiation Budgets Using Satellite Observations. Part 2; TOA Radiation Budget and CREs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfield, Ryan E.; Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Minnis, Patrick; Doelling, David; Loeb, Norman

    2014-01-01

    In Part I of this study, the NASA GISS Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) and post-CMIP5 (herein called C5 and P5, respectively) simulated cloud properties were assessed utilizing multiple satellite observations, with a particular focus on the southern midlatitudes (SMLs). This study applies the knowledge gained from Part I of this series to evaluate the modeled TOA radiation budgets and cloud radiative effects (CREs) globally using CERES EBAF (CE) satellite observations and the impact of regional cloud properties and water vapor on the TOA radiation budgets. Comparisons revealed that the P5- and C5-simulated global means of clear-sky and all-sky outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) match well with CE observations, while biases are observed regionally. Negative biases are found in both P5- and C5-simulated clear-sky OLR. P5-simulated all-sky albedo slightly increased over the SMLs due to the increase in low-level cloud fraction from the new planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme. Shortwave, longwave, and net CRE are quantitatively analyzed as well. Regions of strong large-scale atmospheric upwelling/downwelling motion are also defined to compare regional differences across multiple cloud and radiative variables. In general, the P5 and C5 simulations agree with the observations better over the downwelling regime than over the upwelling regime. Comparing the results herein with the cloud property comparisons presented in Part I, the modeled TOA radiation budgets and CREs agree well with the CE observations. These results, combined with results in Part I, have quantitatively estimated how much improvement is found in the P5-simulated cloud and radiative properties, particularly over the SMLs and tropics, due to the implementation of the new PBL and convection schemes.

  13. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Visualization Single Satellite Footprint (SSF) Plot Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, Julia A.

    1995-01-01

    The first Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument will be launched in 1997 to collect data on the Earth's radiation budget. The data retrieved from the satellite will be processed through twelve subsystems. The Single Satellite Footprint (SSF) plot generator software was written to assist scientists in the early stages of CERES data analysis, producing two-dimensional plots of the footprint radiation and cloud data generated by one of the subsystems. Until the satellite is launched, however, software developers need verification tools to check their code. This plot generator will aid programmers by geolocating algorithm result on a global map.

  14. Comparison of Satellite-Derived TOA Shortwave Clear-Sky Fluxes to Estimates from GCM Simulations Constrained by Satellite Observations of Land Surface Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantharaj, Valentine G.; Nair, Udaysankar S.; Lawrence, Peter; Chase, Thomas N.; Christopher, Sundar; Jones, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Clear-sky, upwelling shortwave flux at the top of the atmosphere (S(sub TOA raised arrow)), simulated using the atmospheric and land model components of the Community Climate System Model 3 (CCSM3), is compared to corresponding observational estimates from the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) sensor. Improvements resulting from the use of land surface albedo derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to constrain the simulations are also examined. Compared to CERES observations, CCSM3 overestimates global, annual averaged S(sub TOA raised arrow) over both land and oceans. However, regionally, CCSM3 overestimates S(sub TOA raised arrow) over some land and ocean areas while underestimating it over other sites. CCSM3 underestimates S(sub TOA raised arrow) over the Saharan and Arabian Deserts and substantial differences exist between CERES observations and CCSM3 over agricultural areas. Over selected sites, after using groundbased observations to remove systematic biases that exist in CCSM computation of S(sub TOA raised arrow), it is found that use of MODIS albedo improves the simulation of S(sub TOA raised arrow). Inability of coarse resolution CCSM3 simulation to resolve spatial heterogeneity of snowfall over high altitude sites such as the Tibetan Plateau causes overestimation of S(sub TOA raised arrow) in these areas. Discrepancies also exist in the simulation of S(sub TOA raised arrow) over ocean areas as CCSM3 does not account for the effect of wind speed on ocean surface albedo. This study shows that the radiative energy budget at the TOA is improved through the use of MODIS albedo in Global Climate Models.

  15. OMI NO2 column densities over North American urban cities: the effect of satellite footprint resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun Cheol; Lee, Pius; Judd, Laura; Pan, Li; Lefer, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide vertical column density (NO2 VCD) measurements via satellite are compared with a fine-scale regional chemistry transport model, using a new approach that considers varying satellite footprint sizes. Space-borne NO2 VCD measurement has been used as a proxy for surface nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission, especially for anthropogenic urban emission, so accurate comparison of satellite and modeled NO2 VCD is important in determining the future direction of NOx emissi...

  16. GeoTOA: Geocentric TOA tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Matthew; Ray, Paul

    2014-12-01

    GeoTOA computes the pulse times of arrival (TOAs) at an observatory (or spacecraft) from unbinned Fermi LAT data. Written in Python, the software requires NumPy, matplotlib, SciPy, FSSC Science Tools, and Tempo2 (ascl:1210.015).

  17. The alignment of SDSS satellites with the VPOS: effects of the survey footprint shape

    CERN Document Server

    Pawlowski, Marcel S

    2015-01-01

    It is sometimes argued that the uneven sky coverage of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) biases the distribution of satellite galaxies discovered by it to align with the polar plane defined by the 11 brighter, classical Milky Way (MW) satellites. This might prevent the SDSS satellites from adding significance to the MW's Vast Polar Structure (VPOS). We investigate whether this argument is valid by comparing the observed situation with model satellite distributions confined to the exact SDSS footprint area. We find that the SDSS satellites indeed add to the significance of the VPOS and that the survey footprint rather biases away from a close alignment between the plane fitted to the SDSS satellites and the plane fitted to the 11 classical satellites. Finding the observed satellite phase-space alignments of both the classical and SDSS satellites is a ~5{\\sigma} event with respect to an isotropic distribution. This constitutes a robust discovery of the VPOS and makes it more significant than the Great Plane o...

  18. OMI NO2 column densities over North American urban cities: the effect of satellite footprint resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen dioxide vertical column density (NO2 VCD measurements via satellite are compared with a fine-scale regional chemistry transport model, using a new approach that considers varying satellite footprint sizes. Space-borne NO2 VCD measurement has been used as a proxy for surface nitrogen oxide (NOx emission, especially for anthropogenic urban emission, so accurate comparison of satellite and modeled NO2 VCD is important in determining the future direction of NOx emission policy. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI NO2 VCD measurements, retrieved by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI, are compared with a 12 km Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ simulation from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. We found that OMI footprint pixel sizes are too coarse to resolve urban NO2 plumes, resulting in a possible underestimation in the urban core and overestimation outside. In order to quantify this effect of resolution geometry, we have made two estimates. First, we constructed pseudo-OMI data using fine-scale outputs of the model simulation. Assuming the fine-scale model output is a true measurement, we then collected real OMI footprint coverages and performed conservative spatial regridding to generate a set of fake OMI pixels out of fine-scale model outputs. When compared to the original data, the pseudo-OMI data clearly showed smoothed signals over urban locations, resulting in roughly 20–30 % underestimation over major cities. Second, we further conducted conservative downscaling of OMI NO2 VCD using spatial information from the fine-scale model to adjust the spatial distribution, and also applied Averaging Kernel (AK information to adjust the vertical structure. Four-way comparisons were conducted between OMI with and without downscaling and CMAQ with and without AK information. Results show that OMI and CMAQ NO2 VCDs show the best agreement when both

  19. OMI NO2 column densities over North American urban cities: the effect of satellite footprint resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Cheol; Lee, Pius; Judd, Laura; Pan, Li; Lefer, Barry

    2016-03-01

    Nitrogen dioxide vertical column density (NO2 VCD) measurements via satellite are compared with a fine-scale regional chemistry transport model, using a new approach that considers varying satellite footprint sizes. Space-borne NO2 VCD measurement has been used as a proxy for surface nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission, especially for anthropogenic urban emission, so accurate comparison of satellite and modeled NO2 VCD is important in determining the future direction of NOx emission policy. The NASA Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) NO2 VCD measurements, retrieved by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), are compared with a 12 km Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) simulation from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. We found that the OMI footprint-pixel sizes are too coarse to resolve urban NO2 plumes, resulting in a possible underestimation in the urban core and overestimation outside. In order to quantify this effect of resolution geometry, we have made two estimates. First, we constructed pseudo-OMI data using fine-scale outputs of the model simulation. Assuming the fine-scale model output is a true measurement, we then collected real OMI footprint coverages and performed conservative spatial regridding to generate a set of fake OMI pixels out of fine-scale model outputs. When compared to the original data, the pseudo-OMI data clearly showed smoothed signals over urban locations, resulting in roughly 20-30 % underestimation over major cities. Second, we further conducted conservative downscaling of OMI NO2 VCDs using spatial information from the fine-scale model to adjust the spatial distribution, and also applied averaging kernel (AK) information to adjust the vertical structure. Four-way comparisons were conducted between OMI with and without downscaling and CMAQ with and without AK information. Results show that OMI and CMAQ NO2 VCDs show the best agreement when both downscaling and AK methods are applied, with the correlation

  20. A comparison of global reanalyses to satellite observations: quantifying errors in Cloud Fraction and TOA cloud radiative forcings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinar, E. K.; Dong, X.; Xi, B.

    2014-12-01

    As the improvements of observing systems, model parameterizations, and advanced assimilation techniques, a few reanalyses data sets become available; however, it is necessary to understand their strengths and biases before exploiting them. In this study, we investigate five contemporary reanalyses (20CR, CFSR, Era-Interim, JRA-25, and MERRA). In detail, we first compared the cloud fraction, TOA radiation fluxes and cloud radiative forcings using CERES MODIS SYN1deg and EBAF products on the global scale. We then analyze the differences and similarities between these parameters in tropical and mid-latitudes under convective and subsidence regimes. It is important to note that CERES MODIS and EBAF results are used as reference to evaluate these simulated parameters, and these data cover the period from 03/2000 to 02/2012. The preliminary results show that most of the reanalyses under estimate cloud fraction on global average, and the SW, LW, and Net CRFs are biased by as much as 3.9 (CFSR), -8.7 (JRA-25), and -5.7 (JRA-25) Wm-2, respectively. Convective and subsidence regimes are identified as the strong ascending and descending branches of the large general circulation in the tropics and mid-latitudes. This metric helps to identify the physical characteristics in specific areas and the types of clouds that reside there. Clouds are typically over estimated in convective areas while in the subsidence region clouds are under estimated. Sensitivity studies show that these regimes exhibit different regressive behaviors when comparing cloud fraction to CRFs, especially in the LW CRF. The error analysis reveals information that can be useful for modelers so that they may develop better parameterizations for clouds and how they interact with incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation.

  1. OMI NO2 column densities over North American urban cities: the effect of satellite footprint resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, H. C.; Lee, P.; L. Judd; Pan, L.; B. Lefer

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide vertical column density (NO2 VCD) measurements via satellite are compared with a fine-scale regional chemistry transport model, using a new approach that considers varying satellite footprint sizes. Space-borne NO2 VCD measurement has been used as a proxy for surface nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission, especially for anthropogenic urban emission, so accurate comparison of satellite and modeled NO2 VCD is important in determining the future direction of NOx emissi...

  2. Covariance Between Arctic Sea Ice and Clouds Within Atmospheric State Regimes at the Satellite Footprint Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Patrick C.; Kato, Seiji; Xu, Kuan-Man; Cai, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the cloud response to sea ice change is necessary for modeling Arctic climate. Previous work has primarily addressed this problem from the interannual variability perspective. This paper provides a refined perspective of sea ice-cloud relationship in the Arctic using a satellite footprint-level quantification of the covariance between sea ice and Arctic low cloud properties from NASA A-Train active remote sensing data. The covariances between Arctic low cloud properties and sea ice concentration are quantified by first partitioning each footprint into four atmospheric regimes defined using thresholds of lower tropospheric stability and mid-tropospheric vertical velocity. Significant regional variability in the cloud properties is found within the atmospheric regimes indicating that the regimes do not completely account for the influence of meteorology. Regional anomalies are used to account for the remaining meteorological influence on clouds. After accounting for meteorological regime and regional influences, a statistically significant but weak covariance between cloud properties and sea ice is found in each season for at least one atmospheric regime. Smaller average cloud fraction and liquid water are found within footprints with more sea ice. The largest-magnitude cloud-sea ice covariance occurs between 500m and 1.2 km when the lower tropospheric stability is between 16 and 24 K. The covariance between low cloud properties and sea ice is found to be largest in fall and is accompanied by significant changes in boundary layer temperature structure where larger average near-surface static stability is found at larger sea ice concentrations.

  3. Seasonally-managed wetland footprint delineation using Landsat ETM+ satellite imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Nigel W. T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Epshtein, Olga [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment

    2014-01-09

    One major challenge in water resource management is the estimation of evapotranspiration losses from seasonally managed wetlands. Quantifying these losses is complicated by the dynamic nature of the wetlands' areal footprint during the periods of flood-up and drawdown. In this paper, we present a data-lean solution to this problem using an example application in the San Joaquin Basin, California. Through analysis of high-resolution Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) satellite imagery, we develop a metric to better capture the extent of total flooded wetland area. The procedure is validated using year-long, continuously-logged field datasets for two wetlands within the study area. The proposed classification which uses a Landsat ETM + Band 5 (mid-IR wavelength) to Band 2 (visible green wavelength) ratio improves estimates by 30–50% relative to previous wetland delineation studies. Finally, requiring modest ancillary data, the study results provide a practical and efficient option for wetland management in data-sparse regions or un-gauged watersheds.

  4. CERES Monthly Gridded Single Satellite TOA and Surfaces/Clouds (SFC) data in HDF (CER_SFC_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly Gridded TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SFC) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SFC is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave, longwave, and window fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) and surface from the CERES SSF product for a month are sorted by 1-degree spatial regions and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-hour bin is determined and recorded on the SFC along with other flux statistics and scene information. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The regional cloud properties are column averaged and are included on the SFC. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2003-10-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=100] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 hour; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily].

  5. CERES Monthly Gridded Single Satellite TOA and Surfaces/Clouds (SFC) data in HDF (CER_SFC_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly Gridded TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SFC) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SFC is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave, longwave, and window fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) and surface from the CERES SSF product for a month are sorted by 1-degree spatial regions and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-hour bin is determined and recorded on the SFC along with other flux statistics and scene information. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The regional cloud properties are column averaged and are included on the SFC. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2003-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=100] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 hour; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily].

  6. CERES Monthly Gridded Single Satellite TOA and Surfaces/Clouds (SFC) data in HDF (CER_SFC_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly Gridded TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SFC) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SFC is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave, longwave, and window fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) and surface from the CERES SSF product for a month are sorted by 1-degree spatial regions and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-hour bin is determined and recorded on the SFC along with other flux statistics and scene information. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The regional cloud properties are column averaged and are included on the SFC. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=100] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 hour; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily].

  7. CERES Monthly Gridded Single Satellite TOA and Surfaces/Clouds (SFC) data in HDF (CER_SFC_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly Gridded TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SFC) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SFC is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave, longwave, and window fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) and surface from the CERES SSF product for a month are sorted by 1-degree spatial regions and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-hour bin is determined and recorded on the SFC along with other flux statistics and scene information. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The regional cloud properties are column averaged and are included on the SFC. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2003-10-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=100] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 hour; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily].

  8. CERES Monthly Gridded Single Satellite TOA and Surfaces/Clouds(SFC) data in HDF (CER_SFC_Aqua-FM3-MODIS_Edition1B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly Gridded TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SFC) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SFC is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave, longwave, and window fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) and surface from the CERES SSF product for a month are sorted by 1-degree spatial regions and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-hour bin is determined and recorded on the SFC along with other flux statistics and scene information. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The regional cloud properties are column averaged and are included on the SFC. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-03-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=100] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 hour; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily].

  9. CERES Monthly Gridded Single Satellite TOA and Surfaces/Clouds (SFC) data in HDF (CER_SFC_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly Gridded TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SFC) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SFC is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave, longwave, and window fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) and surface from the CERES SSF product for a month are sorted by 1-degree spatial regions and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-hour bin is determined and recorded on the SFC along with other flux statistics and scene information. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The regional cloud properties are column averaged and are included on the SFC. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=100] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 hour; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily].

  10. CERES Monthly Gridded Single Satellite TOA and Surfaces/Clouds (SFC) data in HDF (CER_SFC_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly Gridded TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SFC) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SFC is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave, longwave, and window fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) and surface from the CERES SSF product for a month are sorted by 1-degree spatial regions and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-hour bin is determined and recorded on the SFC along with other flux statistics and scene information. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The regional cloud properties are column averaged and are included on the SFC. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2003-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=100] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 hour; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily].

  11. CERES Monthly Gridded Single Satellite TOA and Surfaces/Clouds (SFC) data in HDF (CER_SFC_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Edition2A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly Gridded TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SFC) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SFC is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave, longwave, and window fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) and surface from the CERES SSF product for a month are sorted by 1-degree spatial regions and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-hour bin is determined and recorded on the SFC along with other flux statistics and scene information. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The regional cloud properties are column averaged and are included on the SFC. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-03-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=100] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 hour; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily].

  12. CERES Monthly Gridded Single Satellite TOA and Surfaces/Clouds (SFC) data in HDF (CER_SFC_Aqua-FM3-MODIS_Edition2A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly Gridded TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SFC) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SFC is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave, longwave, and window fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) and surface from the CERES SSF product for a month are sorted by 1-degree spatial regions and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-hour bin is determined and recorded on the SFC along with other flux statistics and scene information. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The regional cloud properties are column averaged and are included on the SFC. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=100] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 hour; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily].

  13. CERES Monthly Gridded Single Satellite TOA and Surfaces/Clouds(SFC) data in HDF (CER_SFC_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Edition1B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly Gridded TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SFC) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SFC is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave, longwave, and window fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) and surface from the CERES SSF product for a month are sorted by 1-degree spatial regions and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-hour bin is determined and recorded on the SFC along with other flux statistics and scene information. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The regional cloud properties are column averaged and are included on the SFC. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-03-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=100] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 hour; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily].

  14. CERES Monthly Gridded Single Satellite TOA and Surfaces/Clouds (SFC) data in HDF (CER_SFC_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Beta4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly Gridded TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SFC) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SFC is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave, longwave, and window fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) and surface from the CERES SSF product for a month are sorted by 1-degree spatial regions and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-hour bin is determined and recorded on the SFC along with other flux statistics and scene information. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The regional cloud properties are column averaged and are included on the SFC. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2000-03-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=100] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 hour; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily].

  15. Assessment of NASA GISS CMIP5 and Post-CMIP5 Simulated Clouds and TOA Radiation Budgets Using Satellite Observations. Part I: Cloud Fraction and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfield, Ryan E.; Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Kennedy, Aaron; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Minnia, Patrick; Jiang, Jonathan H.

    2014-01-01

    Although many improvements have been made in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), clouds remain a significant source of uncertainty in general circulation models (GCMs) because their structural and optical properties are strongly dependent upon interactions between aerosol/cloud microphysics and dynamics that are unresolved in such models. Recent changes to the planetary boundary layer (PBL) turbulence and moist convection parameterizations in the NASA GISS Model E2 atmospheric GCM(post-CMIP5, hereafter P5) have improved cloud simulations significantly compared to its CMIP5 (hereafter C5) predecessor. A study has been performed to evaluate these changes between the P5 and C5 versions of the GCM, both of which used prescribed sea surface temperatures. P5 and C5 simulated cloud fraction (CF), liquid water path (LWP), ice water path (IWP), cloud water path (CWP), precipitable water vapor (PWV), and relative humidity (RH) have been compared to multiple satellite observations including the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System-Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (CERES-MODIS, hereafter CM), CloudSat- Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO; hereafter CC), Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E). Although some improvements are observed in the P5 simulation on a global scale, large improvements have been found over the southern midlatitudes (SMLs), where correlations increased and both bias and root-mean-square error (RMSE) significantly decreased, in relation to the previous C5 simulation, when compared to observations. Changes to the PBL scheme have resulted in improved total column CFs, particularly over the SMLs where marine boundary layer (MBL) CFs have increased by nearly 20% relative to the previous C5 simulation. Globally, the P5 simulated CWPs are 25 gm22 lower than the previous C5 results. The P5 version of the

  16. AgSat Imagery Collection Footprints

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The AgSat Imagery Collection Footprints map shows the imagery footprints which have been collected under the USDA satellite blanket purchase agreement. Click on a...

  17. Towards GERB Edition 2 TOA fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipe, Alessandro; Baudrez, Edward; Clerbaux, Nicolas; Moreels, Johan; Urbain, Manon; Velazquez Blazquez, Almudena

    2016-04-01

    The Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) dataset currently covers more than 10 years from 2004 and makes it an unique record for the climate and the numerical weather prediction scientific communities through assimilation in various models and climate studies. Indeed, the geostationary platform of this broadband radiometer flying together with the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) on board of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites allows to estimate TOA solar and thermal fluxes every 15 minutes at spatial resolutions upto 10 km (nadir). In this contribution, we will discuss the improvements that were developped for the Edition 1 post-processing. These includes terminator and sunglint modeling through scene identification extrapolation. Moreover, with the experience acquired by generating the Edition 1 dataset as well as through its critical assessment, an improved Edition 2 of the processing is been implemented. This second version aims to fulfill climate data record standards. Such goal will be achieved by improving the scene identification for the selection of solar angular dependency models (ADMs), the solar and thermal narrow-to-broadband conversion schemes, as well as including new thermal ADMs for radiance-to-flux conversion and GERB instrument ageing correction schemes.

  18. Pimeda toa kuningas Indiast / Eero Raun

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raun, Eero, 1971-

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemia lavakunstikooli XXIII lennu bakalaureusetööst, 18. jaan. Estonia kammersaalis esietendunud Rabindranath Tagore näidendist "Pimeda toa Kuningas", lavastaja Jaan Tooming, lavastaja assistent Anne Türnpu

  19. Statistical Issues for Uncontrolled Reentry Hazards - Empirical Tests of the Predicted Footprint for Uncontrolled Satellite Reentry Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matney, M.

    2012-01-01

    A number of statistical tools have been developed over the years for assessing the risk of reentering objects to human populations. These tools make use of the characteristics (e.g., mass, material, shape, size) of debris that are predicted by aerothermal models to survive reentry. The statistical tools use this information to compute the probability that one or more of the surviving debris might hit a person on the ground and cause one or more casualties. The statistical portion of the analysis relies on a number of assumptions about how the debris footprint and the human population are distributed in latitude and longitude, and how to use that information to arrive at realistic risk numbers. Because this information is used in making policy and engineering decisions, it is important that these assumptions be tested using empirical data. This study uses the latest database of known uncontrolled reentry locations measured by the United States Department of Defense. The predicted ground footprint distributions of these objects are based on the theory that their orbits behave basically like simple Kepler orbits. However, there are a number of factors in the final stages of reentry - including the effects of gravitational harmonics, the effects of the Earth's equatorial bulge on the atmosphere, and the rotation of the Earth and atmosphere - that could cause them to diverge from simple Kepler orbit behavior and possibly change the probability of reentering over a given location. In this paper, the measured latitude and longitude distributions of these objects are directly compared with the predicted distributions, providing a fundamental empirical test of the model assumptions.

  20. Koolilaps sai oma toa / Tertit Linturi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linturi, Tertit

    2003-01-01

    Endine kahe lapse magamistuba kujundati ümber koolimineva tütre omaette toaks, kus on koolilaud, kummut ja voodi, mille all on väljatõmmatavad sahtelkastid. Pika- ja kitsavõitu toa otsasein sai uue värvi. 4 ill

  1. A novel TOA estimation method with effective NLOS error reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi-heng; CUI Qi-mei; LI Yu-xiang; ZHANG Ping

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that non-line-of-sight (NLOS)error has been the major factor impeding the enhancement ofaccuracy for time of arrival (TOA) estimation and wirelesspositioning. This article proposes a novel method of TOAestimation effectively reducing the NLOS error by 60%,comparing with the traditional timing and synchronizationmethod. By constructing the orthogonal training sequences,this method converts the traditional TOA estimation to thedetection of the first arrival path (FAP) in the NLOS multipathenvironment, and then estimates the TOA by the round-triptransmission (RTT) technology. Both theoretical analysis andnumerical simulations prove that the method proposed in thisarticle achieves better performance than the traditional methods.

  2. MISR Level 2 TOA/Cloud Stereo parameters V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the Level 2 TOA/Cloud Stereo Product. It contains the Stereoscopically Derived Cloud Mask (SDCM), cloud winds, Reflecting Level Reference Altitude (RLRA),...

  3. MISR Level 2 TOA/Cloud Classifier parameters V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the Level 2 TOA/Cloud Classifiers Product. It contains the Angular Signature Cloud Mask (ASCM), Regional Cloud Classifiers, Cloud Shadow Mask, and...

  4. TOA estimation algorithm based on multi-search

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new time of arrival (TOA) estimation algorithm is proposed. The algorithm computes the optimal sub-correlation length based on the SNR theory. So the robust of TOA acquirement is guaranteed very well. Then, according to the actual transmission environment and network system, the multi-search method is given. From the simulation result,the algorithm shows a very high application value in the realization of wireless location system (WLS).

  5. TOA-BASED ROBUST LOCATION ALGORITHMS FOR WIRELESS CELLULAR NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Guolin; Guo Wei

    2005-01-01

    Caused by Non-Line-Of-Sight (NLOS) propagation effect, the non-symmetric contamination of measured Time Of Arrival (TOA) data leads to high inaccuracies of the conventional TOA based mobile location techniques. Robust position estimation method based on bootstrapping M-estimation and Huber estimator are proposed to mitigate the effects of NLOS propagation on the location error. Simulation results show the improvement over traditional Least-Square (LS)algorithm on location accuracy under different channel environments.

  6. Hybrid TOA/AOA Approximate Maximum Likelihood Mobile Localization

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Zhaounia; Mohamed Adnan Landolsi; Ridha Bouallegue

    2010-01-01

    This letter deals with a hybrid time-of-arrival/angle-of-arrival (TOA/AOA) approximate maximum likelihood (AML) wireless location algorithm. Thanks to the use of both TOA/AOA measurements, the proposed technique can rely on two base stations (BS) only and achieves better performance compared to the original approximate maximum likelihood (AML) method. The use of two BSs is an important advantage in wireless cellular communication systems because it avoids hearability problems and reduces netw...

  7. Footprints and footprint analysis for atmospheric dispersion problems

    CERN Document Server

    Brännström, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    Footprint analysis, also known as the study of Influence areas, is a first order method for solving inverse atmospheric dispersion problems. We revisit the concept of footprints giving a rigorous definition of the concept (denoted posterior footprints and posterior zero footprints) in terms of spatio-temporal domains. The notion of footprints is then augmented the to the forward dispersion problem by defining prior footprints and prior zero footprints. We then study how posterior footprints and posterior zero footprints can be combined to reveal more information about the source, and how prior footprints and prior footprints can be combined to yield more information about the measurements.

  8. A Spherical Earth Solution for TOA Lightning Location Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, W. J.; Solakiewicz, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    The problem of retrieving ligntning, ground-strike location on a spherical Earth surface using a network of 4 or more time-of-arrival (TOA) sensors is considered, It is shown that this problem has an analytic solution and therefore does not require the use of nonlinear estimation theory (e.g., minimization). The mathematical robustness of the analytic solution is tested using computer-generated lightning sources and simulated TOA measurement errors. A summary of a quasi-analytic extension of the spherical Earth solution to an oblate spheroid Earth geometry is also provided.

  9. Estimation of evapotranspiration from TOA radiances in the Poyang Lake Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Peng

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Routine and rapid estimation of ET (evapotranspiration at regional scale is of great significance for agricultural, hydrological and climatic studies. A simplified single-source energy balance parameterization scheme, known as the LST/NDVI (Land Surface Temperature/Vegetation Index triangle method, has been applied successfully to estimate regional clear sky ET in many studies. Based on the triangle method, we proposed a new method in this study to estimate daily ET directly using the TOA (Top of Atmosphere radiances without performing atmospheric correction and other complicated processes. Firstly, the EF (Evaporative Fraction, defined as the ratio of latent heat flux to surface available energy was estimated by interpolation in the LST/NDVI triangular-shaped scatter space, which was constructed using the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro radiometer TOA radiances over a heterogeneous area of the Poyang Lake Basin in China. Then the net radiation over the same study area was derived based entirely on MODIS TOA radiances as well. Finally, daily ET maps were estimated from these EF maps and net radiation maps by using a sinusoidal temporal interpolation model. The estimated EF, net radiation and ET have been validated against field observations collected for the period October 2007–July 2008. The results indicate comparable accuracy to results of other current widely used satellite-based methods. In addition, intercomparisons between the proposed method-based estimates and MODIS products-based estimates were also carried out over the validation site. The results suggest that the proposed method performed slightly better than the MODIS products-based triangle method. Overall, the proposed algorithm requires fewer assumptions and can avoid uncertainties associated with the satellite derived products, while its accuracy is slightly higher. It should facilitate direct use of satellite data for determining ET and relevant applications as

  10. Estimation of evapotranspiration from MODIS TOA radiances in the Poyang Lake basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Peng

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Routine and rapid estimation of ET (evapotranspiration at regional scale is of great significance for agricultural, hydrological and climatic studies. A simplified single-source energy balance parameterization scheme, known as the LST/NDVI (land surface temperature/normalized difference vegetation index triangle method, has been applied successfully to estimate regional clear sky ET in many studies. Based on the triangle method, we proposed a new method in this study to estimate daily ET directly using the TOA (top of atmosphere radiances without performing atmospheric correction and other complicated processes. Firstly, the EF (evaporative fraction, defined as the ratio of latent heat flux to surface available energy was estimated by interpolation in the LST/NDVI triangular-shaped scatter space, which was constructed using the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer TOA radiances over a heterogeneous area of the Poyang Lake basin in China. Then the net radiation over the same study area was derived based entirely on MODIS TOA radiances as well. Finally, daily ET maps were estimated from these EF maps and net radiation maps by using a sinusoidal temporal interpolation model. The estimated EF, net radiation and ET have been validated against field observations collected for the period October 2007–July 2008. The results indicate comparable accuracy to results of other current widely used satellite-based methods. In addition, intercomparisons between the proposed method-based estimates and MODIS products-based estimates were also carried out over the validation site. The results suggest that the proposed method could reach similar level of accuracy as the MODIS products-based triangle method. Overall, the proposed algorithm requires fewer assumptions and can avoid complex atmospheric corrections associated with the satellite derived products. It should facilitate direct use of satellite data for determining ET and relevant

  11. Spotting Cheetahs: Identifying Individuals by Their Footprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Zoe C.; Alibhai, Sky K.; Weise, Florian; Munro, Stuart; Van Vuuren, Marlice; Van Vuuren, Rudie

    2016-01-01

    The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is Africa's most endangered large felid and listed as Vulnerable with a declining population trend by the IUCN1. It ranges widely over sub-Saharan Africa and in parts of the Middle East. Cheetah conservationists face two major challenges, conflict with landowners over the killing of domestic livestock, and concern over range contraction. Understanding of the latter remains particularly poor2. Namibia is believed to support the largest number of cheetahs of any range country, around 30%, but estimates range from 2,9053 to 13,5204. The disparity is likely a result of the different techniques used in monitoring. Current techniques, including invasive tagging with VHF or satellite/GPS collars, can be costly and unreliable. The footprint identification technique5 is a new tool accessible to both field scientists and also citizens with smartphones, who could potentially augment data collection. The footprint identification technique analyzes digital images of footprints captured according to a standardized protocol. Images are optimized and measured in data visualization software. Measurements of distances, angles, and areas of the footprint images are analyzed using a robust cross-validated pairwise discriminant analysis based on a customized model. The final output is in the form of a Ward's cluster dendrogram. A user-friendly graphic user interface (GUI) allows the user immediate access and clear interpretation of classification results. The footprint identification technique algorithms are species specific because each species has a unique anatomy. The technique runs in a data visualization software, using its own scripting language (jsl) that can be customized for the footprint anatomy of any species. An initial classification algorithm is built from a training database of footprints from that species, collected from individuals of known identity. An algorithm derived from a cheetah of known identity is then able to classify free

  12. MVIRI/SEVIRI TOA Radiation Datasets within the Climate Monitoring SAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, Manon; Clerbaux, Nicolas; Ipe, Alessandro; Baudrez, Edward; Velazquez Blazquez, Almudena; Moreels, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Within CM SAF, Interim Climate Data Records (ICDR) of Top-Of-Atmosphere (TOA) radiation products from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instruments on the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites have been released in 2013. These datasets (referred to as CM-113 and CM-115, resp. for shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiation) are based on the instantaneous TOA fluxes from the GERB Edition-1 dataset. They cover the time period 2004-2011. Extending these datasets backward in the past is not possible as no GERB instruments were available on the Meteosat First Generation (MFG) satellites. As an alternative, it is proposed to rely on the Meteosat Visible and InfraRed Imager (MVIRI - from 1982 until 2004) and the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI - from 2004 onward) to generate a long Thematic Climate Data Record (TCDR) from Meteosat instruments. Combining MVIRI and SEVIRI allows an unprecedented temporal (30 minutes / 15 minutes) and spatial (2.5 km / 3 km) resolution compared to the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) products. This is a step forward as it helps to increase the knowledge of the diurnal cycle and the small-scale spatial variations of radiation. The MVIRI/SEVIRI datasets (referred to as CM-23311 and CM-23341, resp. for SW and LW radiation) will provide daily and monthly averaged TOA Reflected Solar (TRS) and Emitted Thermal (TET) radiation in "all-sky" conditions (no clear-sky conditions for this first version of the datasets), as well as monthly averaged of the hourly integrated values. The SEVIRI Solar Channels Calibration (SSCC) and the operational calibration have been used resp. for the SW and LW channels. For MFG, it is foreseen to replace the latter by the EUMETSAT/GSICS recalibration of MVIRI using HIRS. The CERES TRMM angular dependency models have been used to compute TRS fluxes while theoretical models have been used for TET fluxes. The CM-23311 and CM-23341 datasets will cover a 32 years

  13. Controls on ERS altimeter measurements over ice sheets: Footprint-scale topography, backscatter fluctuations, and the dependence of microwave penetration depth on satellite orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthern, R. J.; Wingham, D. J.; Ridout, A. L.

    2001-12-01

    We consider the reliability of radar altimeter measurements of ice sheet elevation and snowpack properties in the presence of surface undulations. We demonstrate that over ice sheets the common practice of averaging echoes by aligning the first return from the surface at the origin can result in a redistribution of power to later times in the average echo, mimicking the effects of microwave penetration into the snowpack. Algorithms that assume the topography affects the radar echo shape in the same way that waves affect altimeter echoes over the ocean will therefore lead to biased estimates of elevation. This assumption will also cause errors in the retrieval of echoshape parameters intended to quantify the penetration of the microwave pulse into the snowpack. Using numerical simulations, we estimate the errors in retrievals of extinction coefficient, surface backscatter, and volume backscatter for various undulating topographies. In the flatter portions of the Antarctic plateau, useful estimates of these parameters may be recovered by averaging altimeter echoes recorded by the European Remote Sensing satellite (ERS-1). By numerical deconvolution of the average echoes we resolve the depths in the snowpack at which temporal changes and satellite travel-direction effects occur, both of which have the potential to corrupt measurements of ice sheet elevation change. The temporal changes are isolated in the surface-backscatter cross section, while directional effects are confined to the extinction coefficient and are stable from year to year. This allows the removal of the directional effect from measurement of ice-sheet elevation change.

  14. Water footprints of nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    The water footprint concept has been developed in order to have an indicator of water use in relation to consumption of people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country. Closely

  15. Black carbon radiative forcing at TOA decreased during aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu; Cheng, Tianhai; Zheng, Lijuan; Chen, Hao

    2016-12-01

    During aging processing, black carbon (also called soot) particles may tend to be mixed with other aerosols, and highly influence their radiative forcing. In this study, freshly emitted soot particles were simulated as fractal aggregates composed of small spherical primary monomers. After aging in the atmosphere, soot monomers were coated by a thinly layer of sulfate as thinly coated soot particles. These soot particles were entirely embedded into large sulfate particle by further aging, and becoming heavily coated soot particles. In clear-sky conditions, black carbon radiative forcing with different aging states were investigated for the bottom and top of atmosphere (BOA and TOA). The simulations showed that black carbon radiative forcing increased at BOA and decreased at TOA after their aging processes. Thinly and heavily coated states increased up to ~12% and ~35% black carbon radiative forcing at BOA, and black carbon radiative forcing at TOA can reach to ~20% and ~100% smaller for thinly and heavily coated states than those of freshly emitted states, respectively. The effect of aging states of black carbon radiative forcing was varied with surface albedo, aerosol optical depth and solar zenith angles. These findings would be helpful for the assessments of climate change.

  16. 基于Bancroft算法的多点定位TOA-LS估计%The TOA-LS Estimation for Multilateration Based on Bancroft's Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林云松; 孙卓振; 彭良福

    2012-01-01

    The traditional location methods for passive localization are TDOA (Time Difference of Arrival) based due to the unknown TOE (Time Of Emission).Based on Bancroft's algorithm,which was developed for GPS single-point position,the TOA least squares (TOA-LS) estimation algorithm for passive multilateration is proposed. The TOA-LS equations are composed of three linear equations whose coefficients are dependent on the target position and TOE. Using Bancroft's algorithm with some initial values, the TOA-LS algorithm solves the linear equations for new solutions and updates their coefficients. Simulation experiments demonstrate that the TOA-LS algorithm is near optimal and attaining the theoretical lower bound for targets in different geometric positions.%由于目标信号的发射时间未知,无源定位技术大多利用TDOA(到达时间差)进行目标定位.本文将求解GPS单点定位的Bancroft算法应用于TOA(到达时间)多点定位方程的求解,提出了基于Bancroft算法的无源多点定位TOA-LS(最小二乘)估计算法.TOA-LS包含三个线性方程,其加权系数与目标位置和目标信号发射时间相关,采用Bancroft算法给出初始值并求解TOA-LS方程,完成加权系数的迭代更新.仿真结果表明对不同几何位置的目标,TOA-LS估计可获得接近理论方差下界的近似最优的性能.

  17. Water footprint of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrah, E. R.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; van der Zaag, P.

    2009-04-01

    Water is used in almost all human endeavour. Unlike oil, water does not have a substitute. There are many factors that affect the water consumption pattern of people. These include climatic condition, income level and agricultural practices among others. The water footprint concept has been developed in order to have an indicator of water use in relation to its consumption by people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2008). Due to the bulky nature of water, it is not in its raw state a tradable commodity though it could be traded through the exchange of goods and services from one point to the other. Closely linked to the water footprint concept is the virtual water concept. Virtual water can be defined as the volume of water required to produce a commodity or service (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2008 and Allan, 1999). The international trade of these commodities implies flows of virtual water over large distances. The water footprint of a nation can therefore be assessed by quantifying the use of domestic water resources, taking out the virtual water flow that leaves the country and adding the virtual water flow that enters the country to it. This research focuses on the assessment and analysis of the water footprints of Ghana considering only the consumptive component of the water footprint. In addition to livestock, 13 crops were considered, 4 of which were cash crops. Data was analysed for the year 2001 to 2005 The most recent framework for the analysis of water footprint is offered by Chapagain and Hoekstra. This was adopted for the study. The water footprint calculations show that the water footprint of Ghana is about 20011 Gm³/yr. Base on this the average water footprint of a Ghanaian is 823 m³/cap/yr. Not only agricultural crops but also other products require water for their manufacture, aluminium being a

  18. Novel techniques for the analysis of the TOA radiometric uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorroño, Javier; Banks, Andrew; Gascon, Ferran; Fox, Nigel P.; Underwood, Craig I.

    2016-10-01

    In the framework of the European Copernicus programme, the European Space Agency (ESA) has launched the Sentinel-2 (S2) Earth Observation (EO) mission which provides optical high spatial -resolution imagery over land and coastal areas. As part of this mission, a tool (named S2-RUT, from Sentinel-2 Radiometric Uncertainty Tool) estimates the radiometric uncertainties associated to each pixel using as input the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance factor images provided by ESA. The initial version of the tool has been implemented — code and user guide available1 — and integrated as part of the Sentinel Toolbox. The tool required the study of several radiometric uncertainty sources as well as the calculation and validation of the combined standard uncertainty in order to estimate the TOA reflectance factor uncertainty per pixel. Here we describe the recent research in order to accommodate novel uncertainty contributions to the TOA reflectance uncertainty estimates in future versions of the tool. The two contributions that we explore are the radiometric impact of the spectral knowledge and the uncertainty propagation of the resampling associated to the orthorectification process. The former is produced by the uncertainty associated to the spectral calibration as well as the spectral variations across the instrument focal plane and the instrument degradation. The latter results of the focal plane image propagation into the provided orthoimage. The uncertainty propagation depends on the radiance levels on the pixel neighbourhood and the pixel correlation in the temporal and spatial dimensions. Special effort has been made studying non-stable scenarios and the comparison with different interpolation methods.

  19. Joint estimation of TOA and DOA in IR-UWB system using a successive propagator method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fangqiu; Zhang, Xiaofei; Wang, Chenghua; Zhou, Shengkui

    2015-10-01

    Impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) ranging and positioning require accurate estimation of time-of-arrival (TOA) and direction-of-arrival (DOA). With receiver of two antennas, both of the TOA and DOA parameters can be estimated via two-dimensional (2D) propagator method (PM), in which the 2D spectral peak searching, however, renders much higher computational complexity. This paper proposes a successive PM algorithm for joint TOA and DOA estimation in IR-UWB system to avoid 2D spectral peak searching. The proposed algorithm firstly gets the initial TOA estimates in the two antennas from the propagation matrix, then utilises successively one-dimensional (1D) local searches to achieve the estimation of TOAs in the two antennas, and finally obtains the DOA estimates via the difference in the TOAs between the two antennas. The proposed algorithm, which only requires 1D local searches, can avoid the high computational cost in 2D-PM algorithm. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm can obtain automatically paired parameters and has better joint TOA and DOA estimation performance than conventional PM algorithm, estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques algorithm and matrix pencil algorithm. Meanwhile, it has very close parameter estimation to that of 2D-PM algorithm. We have also derived the mean square error of TOA and DOA estimation of the proposed algorithm and the Cramer-Rao bound of TOA and DOA estimation in this paper. The simulation results verify the usefulness of the proposed algorithm.

  20. Extraction of Aminobenzoic Acid with TOA and TBP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑾; 戴猷元

    2002-01-01

    A series of extraction equilibrium experiments for aminobenzoic acid were carried out. Tri-n-octylamine (TOA) and tributyl phosphate (TBP) were selected as complexing agents. 1-Octanol and kerosene were selected as diluents. The effects of extractant concentration and pH on the distribution ratio were discussed in detail. It was found that there are ion-pair association and hydrogen-bond complexing in the extraction. Expressions of the equilibrium distribution for different solvent systems are proposed. The precision of the models is satisfactoy.

  1. Uue kunsti muuseum seadis sisse Kihnu toa / Katrin Nielsen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nielsen, Katrin

    2000-01-01

    Pärnu Uue kunsti muuseumi Kihnu toas näeb Jaan Oadi maale, käsitööd ja vanu esemeid. Suures saalis korraldatakse 29. nov. noortele ja õpilastele Kalevipoja päev, kus Tauno Kangro õpetab skulptuuri valmistama, Kalevipoja-ainelisi töid võivad alla 20-aastased autorid tuua võistlusele "Teekond maailma lõppu" 10. jaanuarini. 1. dets. avatakse muuseumi suures saalis Victor Vasarely 40 maali näitus. 13. dets. avab oma näituse Ilon Wikland

  2. Research on the WSN Node Localization Based on TOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-hui Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the tracking of moving target in the large-scale fixed scene, a new routing algorithm of LAODV in the principle of TOA localization is proposed. Then, the participation field of the fixed node based on the node location information is properly controlled, while the routing request area is reduced through combination of AODV and LAR during transmission of the location information. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm renders satisfactory performance in terms of average delay reduction from end to end, packet loss rate, and routing overhead. As a result, the delay and system overhead during localization could be minimized.

  3. Derivation of Improved Surface and TOA Broadband Fluxes Using CERES-derived Narrowband-to-Broadband Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaiyer, Mandana M.; Doelling, David R.; Chan, Pui K.; Nordeen, MIchele L.; Palikonda, Rabindra; Yi, Yuhong; Minnis, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Satellites can provide global coverage of a number of climatically important radiative parameters, including broadband (BB) shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and surface. These parameters can be estimated from narrowband (NB) Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) data, but their accuracy is highly dependent on the validity of the narrowband-to-broadband (NB-BB) conversion formulas that are used to convert the NB fluxes to broadband values. The formula coefficients have historically been derived by regressing matched polarorbiting satellite BB fluxes or radiances with their NB counterparts from GOES (e.g., Minnis et al., 1984). More recently, the coefficients have been based on matched Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) and GOES-6 data (Minnis and Smith, 1998). The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy Budget (CERES see Wielicki et al. 1998)) project has recently developed much improved Angular Distribution Models (ADM; Loeb et al., 2003) and has higher resolution data compared to ERBE. A limited set of coefficients was also derived from matched GOES-8 and CERES data taken on Topical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite (Chakrapani et al., 2003; Doelling et al., 2003). The NB-BB coefficients derived from CERES and the GOES suite should yield more accurate BB fluxes than from ERBE, but are limited spatially and seasonally. With CERES data taken from Terra and Aqua, it is now possible to derive more reliable NB-BB coefficients for any given area. Better TOA fluxes should translate to improved surface radiation fluxes derived using various algorithms. As part of an ongoing effort to provide accurate BB flux estimates for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, this paper documents the derivation of new NB-BB coefficients for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) domain and for the Darwin region of the Tropical Western Pacific (DTWP) domain.

  4. The Visualization of CERES Level 2 Footprint Data on Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C.; Mitrescu, C.; Doelling, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project provides over 11-years of climate quality observed TOA and computed surface fluxes with associated cloud retrievals. In order to facilitate a fast, efficient, user-friendly access of this unique dataset to the remote sensing, climate modeling, and surface flux science communities, a new computer architecture was implemented. The CERES Ordering Tool (http://ceres.larc.nasa.gov/order_data.php) has successfully provided user interfaces to browse hundreds of images instantly and/or to order subsetted CERES Level 3 and 4 data tailored to their specific research application. Expanding the ordering tool to incorporate CERES level-2 footprint data had several challenges. First, the volume data is 100 times greater than the level-3 and 4 datasets. This amount of data required the web servers to access the data from the archive itself, whereas the level-3 products could be tailored for quick access. Secondly, the browse interface needed significant restructuring to convert from gridded to point source data and allowing the visualization of images containing an order of a million pixels. This poster presents the level-2 system architecture, with emphasis on efficient data access and the user browse interface. The interface allows users to investigate multiple parameters at the footprint level with instant feed of lat/lon/value and with the assistance of the Google Earth to indicate the location of footprints.

  5. Purification and some properties of a keratinolytic enzyme from an alkaliphilic Nocardiopsis sp. TOA-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuiki, Shinji; Sakai, Masashi; Moriyama, Yasushi; Goto, Masatoshi; Furukawa, Kensuke

    2002-01-01

    A novel alkaliphilic Nocardiopsis sp., strain TOA-1, was isolated from a tile-joint of a bathroom. Strain TOA-1 produced a variety of alkaline hydrolytic enzymes. An alkaline protease, designated NAPase, was purified and characterized. NAPase had a very high keratinolytic activity and high stability under acidic conditions.

  6. Footprints of Buildings at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (footprints)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/INFO coverage consisting of 10 polygons representing the buildings' footprints at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah. The footprints were collected...

  7. Building Footprints - MO 2012 Stoddard Stucture Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Footprints are structure footprints generated as polygons from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure points, the...

  8. Building Footprints - MO 2012 Mississippi Stucture Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Footprints are structure footprints generated as polygons from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure points, the...

  9. Building Footprints - MO 2011 Lincoln Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Footprints are structure footprints generated as polygons from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure points, the...

  10. Building Footprints - MO 2012 Scott Stucture Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Footprints are structure footprints generated as polygons from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure points, the...

  11. Building Footprints - MO 2011 Warren Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Footprints are structure footprints generated as polygons from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure points, the...

  12. Building Footprints - MO 2012 Dunklin Stucture Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Footprints are structure footprints generated as polygons from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure points, the...

  13. Building Footprints - MO 2012 Pemiscot Stucture Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Footprints are structure footprints generated as polygons from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure points, the...

  14. Building Footprints - MO 2012 New Madrid Stucture Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Footprints are structure footprints generated as polygons from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure points, the...

  15. Building Footprints - MO 2011 Montgomery Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Footprints are structure footprints generated as polygons from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure points, the...

  16. Water footprints and 'pozas'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domínguez Guzmán, Carolina; Verzijl, Andres; Zwarteveen, Margreet

    2017-01-01

    In this article we present two logics of water efficiency: that of the Water Footprint and that of mango smallholder farmers on the desert coast of Peru (in Motupe). We do so in order to explore how both can learn from each other and to discuss what happens when the two logics meet. Rather than

  17. The whale footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benusiglio, Adrien; Clanet, Christophe

    2011-11-01

    In their wake whales leave patches of very calm water, with few waves, that can last for several minutes known as whale footprints. The same phenomenon of damping of waves appears near pears of bridges, in the turbulent wake of ships or in rivers re-emergences, thus it appears to be the result of the interaction of a turbulent flow with surface waves. To understand this phenomenon we study the interaction of a single vortex ring with surface waves. We investigate the influence of the size and circulation of the vortex ring. We measure the time of interaction and the size of the resulting patch of calm water. We then verify if our model can explain the whale footprint.

  18. WATER FOOTPRINT IN HUNGARY

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    More and more news report on water-related extreme environmental phenomena. Some of these are natural, which are often beyond the human race. But others are definitely due to anthropogenic effects. I think the water footprint index is able to highlight national and international water-use processes and gives us the opportunity of organizing a sustainable, consumer-, environmental- and governancefriendly management. 81% of the fresh water withdrawal is from surface water bodies in the EU. In E...

  19. Footprints of Women Reporters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In every important historical event from the Founding Ceremony of New China in 1949 to today's opening and reform, from domestic economic construction to regional wars in the word, Chinese women journalists have left their footprints. The eight pictures shown here are not able to display all of their charms, but at least our readers may see how they cover their reports with diligence and hard work.

  20. Carbon footprint of thermowood

    OpenAIRE

    Nordlund, Teemu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of this Bachelor’s Thesis was to evaluate the carbon footprint of thermally modified wood and its manufacturing process and transportation cycle for several different ThermoWood producer. Research included the whole production cycle from harvesting raw wood to ThermoWood transportation in destination area. Carbon dioxide emissions from these areas were determined and calculated for every ThermoWood producer at first hand. Calculations were based on the PAS 2050:2011, which is ...

  1. MISR Level 2 FIRSTLOOK TOA/Cloud Stereo parameters V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the Level 2 FIRSTLOOK TOA/Cloud Stereo Product. It contains the Stereoscopically Derived winds, heights and cloud mask along with associated data, produced...

  2. MISR Level 2 TOA/Cloud Height and Motion parameters V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the Level 2 TOA/Cloud Product containing the Stereo Heights, Stereoscopically Derived Cloud Mask (SDCM) and Cloud Motion Vectors with associated data....

  3. MISR Level 2 FIRSTLOOK TOA/Cloud Classifier parameters V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the Level 2 FIRSTLOOK TOA/Cloud Classifiers Product. It contains the Angular Signature Cloud Mask (ASCM), Cloud Classifiers, and Support Vector Machine...

  4. MISR Level 2 FIRSTLOOK TOA/Cloud Albedo parameters V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the Level 2 FIRSTLOOK TOA/Cloud Albedo Product. It contains local,restrictive, and expansive albedo, with associated data, produced using ancillary inputs...

  5. Footprints of alien technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P. C. W.

    2012-04-01

    If alien civilizations do, or did, exist, their technology will impact their environment. Some consideration has been given to the detection of large-scale astro-engineering, such as Dyson spheres. However, a very advanced technology might leave more subtle footprints requiring sophisticated scientific methods to uncover. We must not overlook the possibility that alien technology has impacted our immediate astronomical environment, even Earth itself, but probably a very long time ago. This raises the question of what traces, if anything, might remain today. I shall consider the possibilities of biological, geological and physical traces, and suggest ways that we might search for them.

  6. Water Footprint: Help or Hindrance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Chapagain

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In response to increasing concerns about pressures on global water resources, researchers have developed a range of water footprint concepts and tools. These have been deployed for a variety of purposes by businesses, governments and NGOs. A debate has now emerged about the value, and the shortcomings of using water footprint tools to support better water resources management. This paper tracks the evolution of the water footprint concept from its inception in the 1990s and reviews major applications of water footprint tools, including those by the private sector. The review suggests that water footprint assessments have been an effective means of raising awareness of global water challenges among audiences 'outside the water box' including decision makers in industry and government. Water footprint applications have also proved to be useful for the assessment of strategic corporate risks relating to water scarcity and pollution. There is evidence that these applications may help to motivate economically important stakeholders to contribute to joint efforts to mitigate shared water-related risks, although there have been few examples to date of such approaches leading to tangible improvements in water resources management at the local and river basin scales. Water footprint assessments have so far had limited influence on the development or implementation of improved public policy for water resources management and there is reason to believe that water footprint approaches may be a distraction in this context. Suggestions that international trade and economic development frameworks might be amended in light of global water footprint assessments have not yet been articulated coherently. Nevertheless, if used carefully, water footprint tools could contribute to better understanding of the connections between water use, economic development, business practice and social and environmental risks. In light of the review, a set of 'golden rules' is

  7. Hydropower's Biogenic Carbon Footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Global warming is accelerating and the world urgently needs a shift to clean and renewable energy. Hydropower is currently the largest renewable source of electricity, but its contribution to climate change mitigation is not yet fully understood. Hydroelectric reservoirs are a source of biogenic greenhouse gases and in individual cases can reach the same emission rates as thermal power plants. Little is known about the severity of their emissions at the global scale. Here we show that the carbon footprint of hydropower is far higher than previously assumed, with a global average of 173 kg CO2 and 2.95 kg CH4 emitted per MWh of electricity produced. This results in a combined average carbon footprint of 273 kg CO2e/MWh when using the global warming potential over a time horizon of 100 years (GWP100). Nonetheless, this is still below that of fossil energy sources without the use of carbon capture and sequestration technologies. We identified the dams most promising for capturing methane for use as alternative energy source. The spread among the ~1500 hydropower plants analysed in this study is large and highlights the importance of case-by-case examinations. PMID:27626943

  8. Optimizing Workflow Data Footprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurmeet Singh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the issue of optimizing disk usage and scheduling large-scale scientific workflows onto distributed resources where the workflows are data-intensive, requiring large amounts of data storage, and the resources have limited storage resources. Our approach is two-fold: we minimize the amount of space a workflow requires during execution by removing data files at runtime when they are no longer needed and we demonstrate that workflows may have to be restructured to reduce the overall data footprint of the workflow. We show the results of our data management and workflow restructuring solutions using a Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO application and an astronomy application, Montage, running on a large-scale production grid-the Open Science Grid. We show that although reducing the data footprint of Montage by 48% can be achieved with dynamic data cleanup techniques, LIGO Scientific Collaboration workflows require additional restructuring to achieve a 56% reduction in data space usage. We also examine the cost of the workflow restructuring in terms of the application's runtime.

  9. Nonparametric TOA estimators for low-resolution IR-UWB digital receiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanlong Zhang; Weidong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Nonparametric time-of-arrival (TOA) estimators for im-pulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) signals are proposed. Non-parametric detection is obviously useful in situations where de-tailed information about the statistics of the noise is unavailable or not accurate. Such TOA estimators are obtained based on condi-tional statistical tests with only a symmetry distribution assumption on the noise probability density function. The nonparametric es-timators are attractive choices for low-resolution IR-UWB digital receivers which can be implemented by fast comparators or high sampling rate low resolution analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), in place of high sampling rate high resolution ADCs which may not be available in practice. Simulation results demonstrate that nonparametric TOA estimators provide more effective and robust performance than typical energy detection (ED) based estimators.

  10. ZY3-02 Laser Altimeter Footprint Geolocation Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Xie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Successfully launched on 30 May 2016, ZY3-02 is the first Chinese surveying and mapping satellite equipped with a lightweight laser altimeter. Calibration is necessary before the laser altimeter becomes operational. Laser footprint location prediction is the first step in calibration that is based on ground infrared detectors, and it is difficult because the sample frequency of the ZY3-02 laser altimeter is 2 Hz, and the distance between two adjacent laser footprints is about 3.5 km. In this paper, we build an on-orbit rigorous geometric prediction model referenced to the rigorous geometric model of optical remote sensing satellites. The model includes three kinds of data that must be predicted: pointing angle, orbit parameters, and attitude angles. The proposed method is verified by a ZY3-02 laser altimeter on-orbit geometric calibration test. Five laser footprint prediction experiments are conducted based on the model, and the laser footprint prediction accuracy is better than 150 m on the ground. The effectiveness and accuracy of the on-orbit rigorous geometric prediction model are confirmed by the test results. The geolocation is predicted precisely by the proposed method, and this will give a reference to the geolocation prediction of future land laser detectors in other laser altimeter calibration test.

  11. Single Base Station Hybrid TOA/AOA Positioning Technology%单基站TOA/AOA混合定位技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳丽君

    2012-01-01

    In order to overcome the defects of traditional mobile location technology, through the AOA location and TOA positioning method combined with the AOA of a single base station/on TOA hybrid positioning scheme, TOA error program in NLOS conditions Wylie and CarlMan filter two to e- liminate and inhibit error program, and two errors to eliminate the program simulation, simulation re- suits show that the Kalman filter, the results can be better approximation of the true trajectory of mo- bile station.%为了克服传统的移动定位技术存在的缺陷,通过AOA定位以及TOA定位方式的结合,提出一种单基站AOA/TOA混合定位的方案,对方案中在NLOS条件下存在的TOA误差提出了Wylie和卡尔曼滤波2种消除和抑制误差方案,并对2种误差消除方案进行了仿真,仿真结果表明卡尔曼滤波后的结果能更好的逼近移动台的真实运动轨迹。

  12. City Carbon Footprint Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwu Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Progressive cities worldwide have demonstrated political leadership by initiating meaningful strategies and actions to tackle climate change. However, the lack of knowledge concerning embodied greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of cities has hampered effective mitigation. We analyse trans-boundary GHG emission transfers between five Australian cities and their trading partners, with embodied emission flows broken down into major economic sectors. We examine intercity carbon footprint (CF networks and disclose a hierarchy of responsibility for emissions between cities and regions. Allocations of emissions to households, businesses and government and the carbon efficiency of expenditure have been analysed to inform mitigation policies. Our findings indicate that final demand in the five largest cities in Australia accounts for more than half of the nation’s CF. City households are responsible for about two thirds of the cities’ CFs; the rest can be attributed to government and business consumption and investment. The city network flows highlight that over half of emissions embodied in imports (EEI to the five cities occur overseas. However, a hierarchy of GHG emissions reveals that overseas regions also outsource emissions to Australian cities such as Perth. We finally discuss the implications of our findings on carbon neutrality, low-carbon city concepts and strategies and allocation of subnational GHG responsibility.

  13. FLORIDA TOWER FOOTPRINT EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WATSON,T.B.; DIETZ, R.N.; WILKE, R.; HENDREY, G.; LEWIN, K.; NAGY, J.; LECLERC, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Florida Footprint experiments were a series of field programs in which perfluorocarbon tracers were released in different configurations centered on a flux tower to generate a data set that can be used to test transport and dispersion models. These models are used to determine the sources of the CO{sub 2} that cause the fluxes measured at eddy covariance towers. Experiments were conducted in a managed slash pine forest, 10 km northeast of Gainesville, Florida, in 2002, 2004, and 2006 and in atmospheric conditions that ranged from well mixed, to very stable, including the transition period between convective conditions at midday to stable conditions after sun set. There were a total of 15 experiments. The characteristics of the PFTs, details of sampling and analysis methods, quality control measures, and analytical statistics including confidence limits are presented. Details of the field programs including tracer release rates, tracer source configurations, and configuration of the samplers are discussed. The result of this experiment is a high quality, well documented tracer and meteorological data set that can be used to improve and validate canopy dispersion models.

  14. Three-dimensional extension of the Io UV footprint emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfond, B.; Grodent, D.; Gérard, J.-C.; Gustin, J.; Radioti, A.; Jacobsen, S.; Saur, J.

    2008-09-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction The Io UV footprint is an auroral feature observed close to the feet of the field lines passing through Io on both Jovian hemispheres [1]. These light emissions are caused by the electromagnetic interaction between the satellite Io and the Jovian magnetosphere. For both the north and south poles, the Io footprint appears as a bright spot followed by a faint trailing tail and occasionally followed or preceded by secondary spots. The footprint morphology and the spots multiplicity have been found to vary with the location of Io in the plasma torus [2]. Measurements of the Io footprint dimensions In the present work, we make use of the complete dataset acquired from1997 to 2007with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) FUV cameras onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to study the characteristics of the IFP. Among others, we analyse short exposures extracted from STIS Time- Tag sequences to measure the footprint width and length and to estimate the impact of motional blurring on standard image. The altitude of the IFP emission has been derived from images showing the IFP above the UV limb. We find that the IFP originates at altitudes as high as 1000 km (+/- 300km), giving new constraints on the energy of the precipitating electrons. Model of the Io footprint emissions Additionally, we present a 3D model of the Io footprint emissions in the 100 to 170 nm wavelength range, consisting of the H Lyman-alpha lines and Lyman and Werner H2 bands. Comparisons between simulated images and HST images enable us to resolve some ambiguities linked to the viewing geometry and to test hypotheses on the 3D emission distribution. Finally, this model allows to measure the footprint brightness on the HST images with a better estimation of the geometric effects (e.g. limb brightening). References [1] Saur J. et al. (2004), Jupiter. The Planet, Satellites and Magnetosphere, 537-560. [2] Bonfond, B. et al. (2008), GRL

  15. What can we learn from the auroral footprints of the Jovian moons? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfond, B.

    2010-12-01

    The signature of electromagnetic interaction between the moons Io, Europa and Ganymede and the Jovian magnetosphere can be observed on Jupiter’s polar ionosphere in the form of auroral footprints. The observation campaigns carried out during the past few years by the Hubble Space Telescope in the Far UV domain provided not only a high spatial and temporal resolution but also an unprecedented System III longitude coverage. Consequently, these recent observations of the morphology and the dynamics of the footprints proved to be very powerful tools to probe these interactions. For example, the locations of the satellite footprints have been used as a valuable constraint for building Jovian magnetic field models. Moreover, analysis of the multiplicity of the Io footprint spots as well as their relative motion lead to new conclusions on the electron acceleration processes. The altitude of the Io footprint has also been used to infer the typical energy of the impinging electrons. Finally, the study of the three-dimensional shape and of the brightness of the different sub-structures of the footprints provides important clues on the processes at play between Io and the Jovian ionosphere. On the theoretical side, considerable efforts have also been recently carried out in order to model the propagation of the Alfvén waves generated at Io and the subsequent acceleration of auroral electrons. Coupled with HST images, radio decametric measurements and in situ data from the Galileo spacecraft, these advances provide a brand new understanding of the satellite footprints.

  16. Modeling Distance and Bandwidth Dependency of TOA-Based UWB Ranging Error for Positioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellusci, G.; Janssen, G.J.M.; Yan, J.; Tiberius, C.C.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    A statistical model for the range error provided by TOA estimation using UWB signals is given, based on UWB channel measurements between 3.1 and 10.6 GHz. The range error has been modeled as a Gaussian random variable for LOS and as a combination of a Gaussian and an exponential random variable for

  17. Tunnel personnel positioning method based on TOA and modified location-fingerprint positioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Jiping; Li Chenxin

    2016-01-01

    To position personnel in mines, the study discussed in this paper built on the tunnel personnel positioning method on the basis of both TOA and location-finger print (LFP) positioning. Given non-line of sight (NLOS) time delay in signal transmission caused by facilities and equipment shielding in tunnels and TOA measurement errors in both LFP database data and real-time data, this paper puts forth a database data de-noising algorithm based on distance threshold limitation and modified mean filtering (MMF), as well as a real-time data suppression algorithm based on speed threshold limitation and MMF. On this basis, a nearest neighboring data matching algorithm based on historical location and the speed threshold limitation is used to estimate personnel location and realize accurate personnel positioning. The results from both simulation and the experiment suggest that:compared with the basic LFP position-ing method and the method that only suppresses real-time data error, the tunnel personnel positioning methods based on TOA and modified LFP positioning permits effectively eliminating error in TOA mea-surement, making the measured data close to the true positional data, and dropping the positioning error:the maximal positioning error in measurements from experiment drops by 9 and 3 m, respectively, and the positioning accuracy of 3 m is achievable in the condition used in the experiment.

  18. Degradation of PrP(Sc) by keratinolytic protease from Nocardiopsis sp. TOA-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuiki, Shinji; Hui, Zhao; Matsumoto, Daishi; Sakai, Masashi; Moriyama, Yasushi; Furukawa, Kensuke; Kanouchi, Hiroaki; Oka, Tatsuzo

    2006-05-01

    A keratinolytic alkaline proteae (NAPase) from Nocardiopsis sp. TOA-1 degraded a scrapie prion without any chemical or physical treatment. Optimal temperature and pH were 60 degrees C and above pH 10.0. The scrapie prion was completely degraded within 3 min under optimal conditions.

  19. Sedimentation Survey of Lago Toa Vaca, Puerto Rico, June-July 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2004-01-01

    The Lago Toa Vaca dam is located in the municipality of Villalba in southern Puerto Rico, and is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority. Construction was completed in 1972 as the first phase of a multi-purpose project that contemplated four possible diversions from other basins to mitigate the rapid storage capacity loss of Lago Guayabal, located immediately downstream of the Toa Vaca dam. The latter phases of the intra-basin diversions were cancelled, and currently, the reservoir receives runoff from only 56.8 square kilometers of its drainage area. Lago Toa Vaca reservoir when constructed was to be used for irrigation of croplands in the southern coastal plain. The reservoir had an original storage capacity of 68.94 million cubic meters. Sedimentation has reduced the storage capacity by only 7 percent between 1972 and 2002 to 64.08 million cubic meters. This represents a long-term sedimentation rate of about 162,000 cubic meters per year. Based on the 2002 sedimentation survey, Lago Toa Vaca has a sediment trapping efficiency of about 98 percent and a drainage area-normalized sedimentation rate of about 3,086 cubic meters per square kilometer per year between 1972 and 2002. At the current long-term sedimentation rate the reservoir would lose its storage capacity by the year 2400.

  20. Threshold Selection for Ultra-Wideband TOA Estimation based on Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-rong Cui

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of the good penetration into many common materials and inherent fine resolution, Ultra-Wideband (UWB signals are widely used in remote ranging and positioning applications. On the other hand, because of the high sampling rate, coherent Time of Arrival (TOA estimation algorithms are not practical for low cost, low complexity UWB systems. In order to improve the precision of TOA estimation, an Energy Detection (ED based non-coherent TOA estimation algorithm using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN is presented which is based on the skewness after energy detection. The expected values of skewness and kurtosis with respect to the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR are investigated. It is shown that the skewness is more suitable for TOA estimation. The best threshold values for different SNRs are investigated and the effects of integration period and channel modes are examined. Comparisons with other ED based algorithms show that in CM1 and CM2 channels, the proposed algorithm provides higher precision and robustness in both high and low SNR environments.

  1. Adsorption properties of technetium and rhenium for hybrid microcapsules enclosing Toa extractant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y.; Mimura, H.; Niibori, Y. [Tohoku University, Graduate School of Engineering, Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Aramaki-Aza-Aoba 6-6-01-2, Aoba-ku, Sendai-shi, Miyagi-ken, 980-8579 Japan (Japan); Koyama, S.; Ohnishi, T., E-mail: yanwu@cyric.tohoku.ac.j [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, O-arai Research and Development Center, Fuels and Materials Department, Alpha-Gamma Section, Narita-cho 4002, O-arai-machi, Ibaraki, 311-1393 Japan (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Special attention has been given to the separation and recovery of the VII-group elements Tc and Re, in relation to the partitioning of high-level liquid waste (HLLW) generated from the nuclear fuel reprocessing process. In this study, a tertiary amine (tri-n-octylamine Toa), which is effective for the extraction of oxo anions, was encapsulated in a calcium alginate gel polymer (CaALG), and the adsorption behaviours of TcO{sub 4} and ReO{sub 4}{sup -} in the presence of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid were examined by using calcium alginate microcapsules (M Cs) enclosing Toa extractant (Toa-CaALG M Cs). The order of the distribution coefficient K{sub d} for different oxo anions at 0.1 M HNO{sub 3} was ReO{sub 4}{sup -}> WO{sub 4}{sup 2-}> CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-} {approx} MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-}>> SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}. Toa-CaALG still exhibited high uptake ability for ReO{sub 4}{sup -} even after irradiation with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays (dose: 17.6 kGy). Uptake of TcO{sub 4}{sup -} in the presence of 1 M HNO{sub 3} was readily attained within 3 h. Relatively large K{sub d} values above 10{sup 2} cm{sup 3}/g were obtained for Toa-CaALG in the presence of 0.01 {approx} 1 M HNO{sub 3}. All of the TcO{sub 4}{sup -} was successfully adsorbed by Toa-CaALG from the simulated HLLW. The adsorbed TcO{sub 4}{sup -} was then effectively eluted with 5 M or 7 M HNO{sub 3} solution. Further, the selective uptake of ReO{sub 4}{sup -} (a chemical analogue of TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) was confirmed by using actual HLLW (Fbr, Joyo, JAEA), and uptake (%) above 99% was obtained. Toa-CaALG was thus effective for the selective separation and recovery of TcO{sub 4}{sup -} and ReO{sub 4}{sup -} from waste solutions containing highly concentrated HNO{sub 3} and NaNO{sub 3}. Microencapsulation techniques with alginate gel polymer can be applied to other ion exchangers and extractants, and the M Cs immobilizing these adsorbents are effective for the advanced separation of various radionuclides, rare metals and

  2. Statistical Analyses of Satellite Cloud Object Data From CERES. Part 4; Boundary-layer Cloud Objects During 1998 El Nino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kuan-Man; Wong, Takmeng; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Parker, Lindsay

    2006-01-01

    Three boundary-layer cloud object types, stratus, stratocumulus and cumulus, that occurred over the Pacific Ocean during January-August 1998, are identified from the CERES (Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System) single scanner footprint (SSF) data from the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) satellite. This study emphasizes the differences and similarities in the characteristics of each cloud-object type between the tropical and subtropical regions and among different size categories and among small geographic areas. Both the frequencies of occurrence and statistical distributions of cloud physical properties are analyzed. In terms of frequencies of occurrence, stratocumulus clouds dominate the entire boundary layer cloud population in all regions and among all size categories. Stratus clouds are more prevalent in the subtropics and near the coastal regions, while cumulus clouds are relatively prevalent over open ocean and the equatorial regions, particularly, within the small size categories. The largest size category of stratus cloud objects occurs more frequently in the subtropics than in the tropics and has much larger average size than its cumulus and stratocumulus counterparts. Each of the three cloud object types exhibits small differences in statistical distributions of cloud optical depth, liquid water path, TOA albedo and perhaps cloud-top height, but large differences in those of cloud-top temperature and OLR between the tropics and subtropics. Differences in the sea surface temperature (SST) distributions between the tropics and subtropics influence some of the cloud macrophysical properties, but cloud microphysical properties and albedo for each cloud object type are likely determined by (local) boundary-layer dynamics and structures. Systematic variations of cloud optical depth, TOA albedo, cloud-top height, OLR and SST with cloud object sizes are pronounced for the stratocumulus and stratus types, which are related to systematic

  3. Matrix Pencil joint TOA/AOA positioning algorithm for OFDM%基于Matrix Pencil的OFDM信号的TOA/AOA定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈奎; 黄为勇; 田传耕

    2013-01-01

    为提高估计精度,提出一种基于低复杂度的矩阵束方法(MPM)的OFDM信号超分辨率TOA/AOA二维定位方法.首先,对信道频率响应(CFR)采用MPM方法进行时延估计,得出首径(FAP)时延,即OFDM信号的TOA估计;然后,对天线接收信号的频域阵列信号使用同样的算法进行AOA/DOA估计;最后,联合TOA、AOA估计结果在二维平面内确定目标的位置.由于载波间的相关性和相干多径的影响,使AOA估计的RMSE偏差比TOA估计大,所以对TOA估计过程中的各径幅值,设置权值对非首径的幅值进行抑制,减少对后续首径AOA估计的影响.利用OFDM信号进行仿真,其结果表明,非首径幅值抑制方法能明显提高AOA估计精度和无偏性,使整体定位误差明显改善,满足单基站或接入点室内定位的需要.%For improving the prediction accuracy of the TOA and AOA parameter, this paper proposed a low complexity Matrix Pencil algorithm for OFDM signal' s super-resolution TOA/AOA two-dimensional positioning. First, the first-path delay, that was, it obtained the OFDM signal' s TOA estimation through using MPM method to channel frequency response parameters. Then, it also gained the AOA/DOA estimation by using the same MPM method to parameters received by antenna array in frequency domain. Finally,the location within 2-D plane could be acquired by joining the TOA estimate and AOA estimate. Because of the correlation between the carriers and the impact of coherent multipath, the AOA estimation RMSE was much bigger than TOA' s. So, it added the different weights to each path' s amplitude in order to strengthen the FAP amplitude and decrease the other paths' amplitude, to lower the impact on the follow AOA estimation process. Simulations presented here employ the OFDM signal to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithms. The results show that restrain to non-FAP amplitude can improve RMSE performance and unbiasedness of the AOA estimation, also, can

  4. Vestige: Maximum likelihood phylogenetic footprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Peter

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic footprinting is the identification of functional regions of DNA by their evolutionary conservation. This is achieved by comparing orthologous regions from multiple species and identifying the DNA regions that have diverged less than neutral DNA. Vestige is a phylogenetic footprinting package built on the PyEvolve toolkit that uses probabilistic molecular evolutionary modelling to represent aspects of sequence evolution, including the conventional divergence measure employed by other footprinting approaches. In addition to measuring the divergence, Vestige allows the expansion of the definition of a phylogenetic footprint to include variation in the distribution of any molecular evolutionary processes. This is achieved by displaying the distribution of model parameters that represent partitions of molecular evolutionary substitutions. Examination of the spatial incidence of these effects across regions of the genome can identify DNA segments that differ in the nature of the evolutionary process. Results Vestige was applied to a reference dataset of the SCL locus from four species and provided clear identification of the known conserved regions in this dataset. To demonstrate the flexibility to use diverse models of molecular evolution and dissect the nature of the evolutionary process Vestige was used to footprint the Ka/Ks ratio in primate BRCA1 with a codon model of evolution. Two regions of putative adaptive evolution were identified illustrating the ability of Vestige to represent the spatial distribution of distinct molecular evolutionary processes. Conclusion Vestige provides a flexible, open platform for phylogenetic footprinting. Underpinned by the PyEvolve toolkit, Vestige provides a framework for visualising the signatures of evolutionary processes across the genome of numerous organisms simultaneously. By exploiting the maximum-likelihood statistical framework, the complex interplay between mutational

  5. Mathematical Footprints Discovering Mathematics Everywhere

    CERN Document Server

    Pappas, Theoni

    1999-01-01

    MATHEMATICAL FOOTPRINTS takes a creative look at the role mathematics has played since prehistoric times, and will play in the future, and uncovers mathematics where you least expect to find it from its many uses in medicine, the sciences, and its appearance in art to its patterns in nature and its central role in the development of computers. Pappas presents mathematical ideas in a readable non-threatening manner. MATHEMATICAL FOOTPRINTS is another gem by the creator of THE MATHEMATICS CALENDAR and author of THE JOY OF MATHEMATICS. "Pappas's books have been gold mines of mathematical ent

  6. Human appropriation of natural capital: a comparison of ecological footprint and water footprint analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2009-01-01

    The water footprint concept introduced in 2002 is an analogue of the ecological footprint concept originating from the 1990s. Whereas the ecological footprint (EF) denotes the bioproductive area (hectares) needed to sustain a population, the water footprint (WF) represents the freshwater volume

  7. Human appropriation of natural capital: A comparison of ecological footprint and water footprint analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2008-01-01

    The water footprint concept introduced in 2002 is an analogue of the ecological footprint concept originating from the 1990s. Whereas the ecological footprint (EF) denotes the bioproductive area (hectares) needed to sustain a population, the water footprint (WF) represents the freshwater volume (cub

  8. Human appropriation of natural capital: Comparing ecological footprint and water footprint analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2007-01-01

    The water footprint concept introduced in 2002 is an analogue of the ecological footprint concept originating from the 1990s. Whereas the ecological footprint (EF) denotes the bioproductive area (hectares) needed to sustain a population, the water footprint (WF) represents the freshwater volume (cub

  9. What Is My Carbon Footprint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzo, Benjamin J.; McGivney-Burelle, Jean; Wagstrom, Rikki B.

    2016-01-01

    Human beings are having a profound impact on the environment. The opportunity to investigate this timely issue during one or two class periods gives algebra and precalculus students insight into a sustainability topic of great international concern--carbon footprints. Students use mathematical thinking in matters that are pertinent to their…

  10. Ecological Footprints in transnational media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Kjerulf

    2013-01-01

    planning in administrative bodies to broadcast media reporting how countries are ranked in the newest index of corruption, wealth, or happiness. The question this paper rises is how sustainable development indicators, and more specifically the Ecological Footprint is represented and at work in public media...

  11. A better carbon footprint label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Nielsen, Kristian S.

    2016-01-01

    , participants saw the original Carbon Trust label and in the other condition they saw the same label, but with traffic light colors added to communicate the product’s relative performance in terms of carbon footprint. All included attributes were found to have a significant impact on consumer choices...

  12. The water footprint of food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Förare, Jonas

    2008-01-01

    The international trade in agricultural commodities at the same time constitutes a trade with water in virtual form. Water in external areas has been used to produce the food and feed items that are imported. The water footprint of a good or a service is the total amount of water, external and

  13. The water footprint of bioenergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Meer, van der Theo H.

    2009-01-01

    All energy scenarios show a shift toward an increased percentage of renewable energy sources, including biomass. This study gives an overview of water footprints (WFs) of bioenergy from 12 crops that currently contribute the most to global agricultural production: barley, cassava, maize, potato, rap

  14. What Is My Carbon Footprint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzo, Benjamin J.; McGivney-Burelle, Jean; Wagstrom, Rikki B.

    2016-01-01

    Human beings are having a profound impact on the environment. The opportunity to investigate this timely issue during one or two class periods gives algebra and precalculus students insight into a sustainability topic of great international concern--carbon footprints. Students use mathematical thinking in matters that are pertinent to their…

  15. Hybrid TOA/AOA Schemes for Mobile Location In Cellular Communications Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Sheng Chen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless location is to determine the position of t he mobile station (MS in wireless communication networks. Due to the measurements with large errors , location schemes give poorer performance in non-line-of-sight (NLOS environments. This paper i llustrates methods to integrate all the available heterogeneous measurements to achieve more accurate location estimation. The proposed hybrid schemes combine time of arrival (TOA at seven BSs and angle of arrival (AOA information at the serving BS to give location estimation of the MS. T he schemes mitigate the NLOS effect simply by the weighted sum of the intersections between seven TOA circles and the AOA line without requiring priori knowledge of NLOS error statistics. Different NLOS models were used to evaluate the proposed methods. It is shown by the simulation results that the prop osed methods provide better location accuracy comparing with Taylor series algorithm (TSA and th e hybrid lines of position algorithm (HLOP.

  16. Estimation of TOA based MUSIC algorithm and cross correlation algorithm of appropriate interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei; Liu, Jun; Zhou, Yineng; Huang, Jiyan

    2017-03-01

    Localization of mobile station (MS) has now gained considerable attention due to its wide applications in military, environmental, health and commercial systems. Phrase angle and encode data of MSK system model are two critical parameters in time-of-arrival (TOA) localization technique; nevertheless, precise value of phrase angle and encode data are not easy to achieved in general. In order to meet the actual situation, we should consider the condition that phase angle and encode data is unknown. In this paper, a novel TOA localization method, which combine MUSIC algorithm and cross correlation algorithm in an appropriate interval, is proposed. Simulations show that the proposed method has better performance than music algorithm and cross correlation algorithm of the whole interval.

  17. TOA Estimation and Data Association for Through-Wall Tracking of Moving Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovňáková Jana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Through-wall tracking of moving targets is of great interest for rescue, surveillance, and security operations. For its realization, the handheld ultrawideband radars with small antenna array provide a practical solution. The radar signal processing, which is hidden behind the estimation of the final target tracks, represents a complex process with several processing phases. In this paper, all phases for through wall tracking are outlined whereas the attention is devoted to the estimation of the correct input data for the localization phase. This is done by applying a new approach that combines the time of arrival (TOA estimation and the data-association into a single step. The properties of the proposed algorithm are illustrated by processing of real radar signals. Here, the obtained results confirm that the proposed algorithm has provided good, stable, and robust TOA estimation including deghosting task solution.

  18. Adaptive AOA-aided TOA self-positioning for mobile wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chih-Yu; Chan, Fu-Kai

    2010-01-01

    Location-awareness is crucial and becoming increasingly important to many applications in wireless sensor networks. This paper presents a network-based positioning system and outlines recent work in which we have developed an efficient principled approach to localize a mobile sensor using time of arrival (TOA) and angle of arrival (AOA) information employing multiple seeds in the line-of-sight scenario. By receiving the periodic broadcasts from the seeds, the mobile target sensors can obtain adequate observations and localize themselves automatically. The proposed positioning scheme performs location estimation in three phases: (I) AOA-aided TOA measurement, (II) Geometrical positioning with particle filter, and (III) Adaptive fuzzy control. Based on the distance measurements and the initial position estimate, adaptive fuzzy control scheme is applied to solve the localization adjustment problem. The simulations show that the proposed approach provides adaptive flexibility and robust improvement in position estimation.

  19. Water Footprint Symposium: where next for water footprint and water assessment methodology?

    OpenAIRE

    Tillotson, MR; Liu, J.; Guan, D; Wu, P; X. Zhao; G. Zhang; Pfister, S.; Pahlow, M.

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the need for a comprehensive review of the tools and metrics for the quantification and assessment of water footprints, and allowing for the opportunity for open discussion on the challenges and future of water footprinting methodology, an international symposium on water footprint was organized. The Water Footprint Symposium was held in December 2013 at the University of Leeds, UK. In particular, four areas were highlighted for discussion: water footprint and agriculture, quantif...

  20. Carbon Footprint of Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Dyer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The carbon footprint of beef cattle is presented for Canada, The United States, The European Union, Australia and Brazil. The values ranged between 8 and 22 kg CO2e per kg of live weight (LW depending on the type of farming system, the location, the year, the type of management practices, the allocation, as well as the boundaries of the study. Substantial reductions have been observed for most of these countries in the last thirty years. For instance, in Canada the mean carbon footprint of beef cattle at the exit gate of the farm decreased from 18.2 kg CO2e per kg LW in 1981 to 9.5 kg CO2e per kg LW in 2006 mainly because of improved genetics, better diets, and more sustainable land management practices. Cattle production results in products other than meat, such as hides, offal and products for rendering plants; hence the environmental burden must be distributed between these useful products. In order to do this, the cattle carbon footprint needs to be reported in kg of CO2e per kg of product. For example, in Canada in 2006, on a mass basis, the carbon footprint of cattle by-products at the exit gate of the slaughterhouse was 12.9 kg CO2e per kg of product. Based on an economic allocation, the carbon footprints of meat (primal cuts, hide, offal and fat, bones and other products for rendering were 19.6, 12.3, 7 and 2 kg CO2e per kg of product, respectively.

  1. Complete Genomes of Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, Two Phylogenetically Distinct Probiotics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khatri, Indu; Sharma, Shailza; Ramya, T N C; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2016-01-01

    .... We report the complete genomes of two commercially available probiotics, Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, and compare them with the genomes of other Bacillus and Lactobacillus...

  2. Entropy-Based TOA Estimation and SVM-Based Ranging Error Mitigation in UWB Ranging Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhendong; Cui, Kai; Wu, Zhilu; Yin, Liang

    2015-05-21

    The major challenges for Ultra-wide Band (UWB) indoor ranging systems are the dense multipath and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) problems of the indoor environment. To precisely estimate the time of arrival (TOA) of the first path (FP) in such a poor environment, a novel approach of entropy-based TOA estimation and support vector machine (SVM) regression-based ranging error mitigation is proposed in this paper. The proposed method can estimate the TOA precisely by measuring the randomness of the received signals and mitigate the ranging error without the recognition of the channel conditions. The entropy is used to measure the randomness of the received signals and the FP can be determined by the decision of the sample which is followed by a great entropy decrease. The SVM regression is employed to perform the ranging-error mitigation by the modeling of the regressor between the characteristics of received signals and the ranging error. The presented numerical simulation results show that the proposed approach achieves significant performance improvements in the CM1 to CM4 channels of the IEEE 802.15.4a standard, as compared to conventional approaches.

  3. High Frequency Resolution TOA Analysis for ELF/VLFWave Generation Experiments at HAARP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddle, J. D.; Moore, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Modulated HF heating of the ionosphere in the presence of natural ionospheric current sources has been used as a method to generate electromagnetic ELF/VLF waves since the 1970's. In the ~1-5 kHz band, the amplitude and phase of the received ELF/VLF signal depends on the amplitude and phase of the conductivity modulation generated throughout the HF-heated ionospheric body, as well as on the signal propagation parameters (i.e., the attenuation and phase constants) between each of the current sources and the receiver. Recent signal processing advances have produced an accurate ELF/VLF time-of-arrival (TOA) analysis technique that differentiates line-of-sight and ionospherically-reflected signal components, determining the amplitude and phase of each component observed at the receiver. This TOA method requires a wide bandwidth (> 2.5 kHz) and therefore is relatively insensitive to the frequency-dependent nature of ELF/VLF wave propagation. In this paper, we present an improved ELF/VLF TOA method that is capable of providing high frequency resolution. The new analysis technique is applied to experimental observations of ELF/VLF signals generated by modulated heating at HAARP. We present measurements of the amplitude and phase of the received ELF/VLF signal as a function of frequency and compare the results with the predictions of an HF heating model.

  4. Application of Matrix Pencil Algorithm to Mobile Robot Localization Using Hybrid DOA/TOA Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Anh Trinh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Localization plays an important role in robotics for the tasks of monitoring, tracking and controlling a robot. Much effort has been made to address robot localization problems in recent years. However, despite many proposed solutions and thorough consideration, in terms of developing a low‐cost and fast processing method for multiple‐source signals, the robot localization problem is still a challenge. In this paper, we propose a solution for robot localization with regards to these concerns. In order to locate the position of a robot, both the coordinate and the orientation of a robot are necessary. We develop a localization method using the Matrix Pencil (MP algorithm for hybrid detection of direction of arrival (DOA and time of arrival (TOA. TOA of the signal is estimated for computing the distance between the mobile robot and a base station (BS. Based on the distance and the estimated DOA, we can estimate the mobile robot’s position. The characteristics of the algorithm are examined through analysing simulated experiments and the results demonstrate the advantages of our method over previous works in dealing with the above challenges. The method is constructed based on the low‐cost infrastructure of radio frequency devices; the DOA/TOA estimation is performed with just single value decomposition for fast processing. Finally, the MP algorithm combined with tracking using a Kalman filter allows our proposed method to locate the positions of multiple source signals.

  5. Comparison of TOA and RSS based techniques for RF localization inside human tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Umair I; Pahlavan, Kaveh; Makarov, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    Localization inside the human body using radio frequency (RF) transmission is gaining importance in a number of applications such as Capsule Endoscopy. The accuracy of RF localization depends on the technology adopted for this purpose. The two most common RF localization technologies use received signal strength (RSS) and time-of-arrival (TOA). This paper presents a comparison of the accuracy of TOA and RSS based localization inside human tissue. Analysis of the propagation of radio waves inside the human body is extremely challenging and computationally intensive. We use our proprietary finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique algorithm reported in [1] to simulate waveform transmissions inside the human body, which is almost 60 times faster than commercially available solvers used for similar purposes. The RSS and TOA of the waveforms are extracted for localization and the accuracies of the two methods are compared. The accuracy of each technique is compared with traditional CRLB commonly used for calculation of bounds for the performance of localization techniques.

  6. MISR Level 2 TOA/Cloud Albedo parameters (MIL2TCAL_V2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diner, David J. (Principal Investigator)

    The TOA/Cloud Albedo data contain albedo values, including finely-sampled or local (2.2 km) TOA albedos registered to the RLRA, and two coarsely-sampled (35.2 km resolution) TOA albedos projected to 30-km altitude. The local (2.2 km) albedos do not take the obscuration of cloud features into account, so they should only be treated as traditional albedos when the number of obscured pixels is low. The restrictive and expansive albedos are both available at 35.2 km resolution: the restrictive albedos are only calculated using the radiation upwelling from the pixel under consideration, whereas the expansive albedos use all the radiation emanating from the surrounding area. Therefore, the expansive albedo is closer to the traditional definition of top-of-atmosphere albedos. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=2000-02-24; Stop_Date=] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1.1 km; Longitude_Resolution=1.1 km; Temporal_Resolution=about 15 orbits/day].

  7. Estimation of Instantaneous TOA Albedo at 670 nm over Ice Clouds from POLDER Multidirectional Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W.; Loeb, N. G.; Kato, S.

    2003-01-01

    An algorithm that determines the 670-nm top-of-atmosphere (TOA) albedo of ice clouds over ocean using Polarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectance ( POLDER) multidirectional measurements is developed. A plane-parallel layer of ice cloud with various optical thicknesses and light scattering phase functions is assumed. For simplicity, we use a double Henyey-Greenstein phase function to approximate the volume-averaged phase function of the ice clouds. A multidirectional reflectance best-fit match between theoretical and POLDER reflectances is used to infer effective cloud optical thickness, phase function and TOA albedo. Sensitivity tests show that while the method does not provide accurate independent retrievals of effective cloud optical depth and phase function, TOA albedo retrievals are accurate to within similar to 3% for both a single layer of ice clouds or a multilayer system of ice clouds and water clouds. When the method is applied to POLDER measurements and retrieved albedos are compared with albedos based on empirical angular distribution models (ADMs), zonal albedo differences are generally smaller than similar to 3%. When albedos are compared with those on the POLDER-I ERB and Cloud product, the differences can reach similar to 15% at small solar zenith angles.

  8. Consumptive ecological footprint and productive ecological footprint:a modification on ecological footprint theory to evaluate regional sustainable development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XlONG Deguo; XIAN Xuefu

    2004-01-01

    Ecological footprint theory and its application achievements in global and regional sustainable development systems are studied by consulting the published literature, which finds that the application of ecological footprint theory to regional sustainability evaluation has leaded to a perplexity that the indicated result was inconsistent with the philosophy of sustainable development theory. Illuminated by the mechanical system of the movement of matters, it comes up that ecological footprint based on consumption of biologic production could not tell whether the ecological pressure acts on the specified region, and the original ecological footprint theory also undervalued the development impartiality of a region. A modification on this theory is made by introducing consumptive ecological footprint and productive ecological footprint, in which the latter is taken as the indicator of regional sustainability. The development impartiality can be demonstrated by comparison between the global ecological deficit per capita and regional consumptive ecological deficit per capita.

  9. Building footprint extraction from digital surface models using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydova, Ksenia; Cui, Shiyong; Reinartz, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Two-dimensional building footprints are a basis for many applications: from cartography to three-dimensional building models generation. Although, many methodologies have been proposed for building footprint extraction, this topic remains an open research area. Neural networks are able to model the complex relationships between the multivariate input vector and the target vector. Based on these abilities we propose a methodology using neural networks and Markov Random Fields (MRF) for automatic building footprint extraction from normalized Digital Surface Model (nDSM) and satellite images within urban areas. The proposed approach has mainly two steps. In the first step, the unary terms are learned for the MRF energy function by a four-layer neural network. The neural network is learned on a large set of patches consisting of both nDSM and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Then prediction is performed to calculate the unary terms that are used in the MRF. In the second step, the energy function is minimized using a maxflow algorithm, which leads to a binary building mask. The building extraction results are compared with available ground truth. The comparison illustrates the efficiency of the proposed algorithm which can extract approximately 80% of buildings from nDSM with high accuracy.

  10. Data and shape files for the sedimentation survey of Lago La Plata, Toa Alta, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Fragoso, Julieta

    2016-01-01

    This data release contains spatial data associated the sedimentation survey conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey cfor the Lago La Plata, Toa Alta, Puerto Rico, during March and April 2015 to provide up-to-date information about the relation of pool elevation and storage volume in the reservoir. The survey was conducted in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority. A total of 264 navigation lines were surveyed, using a depth sounding device coupled to a global positioning system. The results of the survey were used to prepare a bathymetric map showing the reservoir bottom referenced with respect to the spillway elevation.

  11. Carbon footprint: current methods of estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Divya; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Pandey, Jai Shanker

    2011-07-01

    Increasing greenhouse gaseous concentration in the atmosphere is perturbing the environment to cause grievous global warming and associated consequences. Following the rule that only measurable is manageable, mensuration of greenhouse gas intensiveness of different products, bodies, and processes is going on worldwide, expressed as their carbon footprints. The methodologies for carbon footprint calculations are still evolving and it is emerging as an important tool for greenhouse gas management. The concept of carbon footprinting has permeated and is being commercialized in all the areas of life and economy, but there is little coherence in definitions and calculations of carbon footprints among the studies. There are disagreements in the selection of gases, and the order of emissions to be covered in footprint calculations. Standards of greenhouse gas accounting are the common resources used in footprint calculations, although there is no mandatory provision of footprint verification. Carbon footprinting is intended to be a tool to guide the relevant emission cuts and verifications, its standardization at international level are therefore necessary. Present review describes the prevailing carbon footprinting methods and raises the related issues.

  12. Ecological footprint of Shandong,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Yu-jing; Luc Hens; ZHU Yong-guan; ZHAO Jing-zhu

    2004-01-01

    Ecological footprint has been given much attention and widely praised as an effective heuristic and pedagogic device for presenting current total human resource use in a way that communicates easily to almost everyone since 1996 when Wackernagel and Rees proposed it as a sustainable development indicator. Ecological footprint has been improving on its calculation and still can be a benchmark to measure sustainable development although there are still ongoing debates about specific methods for calculating the ecological footprint.This paper calculates the ecological footprint of Shandong Province, China with the methodology developed by Wackemagel and analyzes the current situation of sustainable development in Shandong.

  13. Land, carbon and water footprints in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yung-Jaan, E-mail: yungjaanlee@gmail.com

    2015-09-15

    The consumer responsibility approach uses footprints as indicators of the total direct and indirect effects of a product or consumption activity. This study used a time-series analysis of three environmental pressures to quantify the total environmental pressures caused by consumption in Taiwan: land footprint, carbon footprint, and water footprint. Land footprint is the pressure from appropriation of biologically productive land and water area. Carbon footprint is the pressure from greenhouse gas emissions. Water footprint is the pressure from freshwater consumption. Conventional carbon footprint is the total CO{sub 2} emitted by a certain activity or the CO{sub 2} accumulation during a product life cycle. This definition cannot be used to convert CO{sub 2} emissions into land units. This study responds to the needs of “CO{sub 2} land” in the footprint family by applying the carbon footprint concept used by GFN. The analytical results showed that consumption by the average Taiwan citizen in 2000 required appropriation of 5.39 gha (hectares of land with global-average biological productivity) and 3.63 gha in 2011 in terms of land footprint. The average Taiwan citizen had a carbon footprint of 3.95 gha in 2000 and 5.94 gha in 2011. These results indicate that separately analyzing the land and carbon footprints enables their trends to be compared and appropriate policies and strategies for different sectors to be proposed accordingly. The average Taiwan citizen had a blue water footprint of 801 m{sup 3} in 2000 and 784 m{sup 3} in 2011. By comparison, their respective global averages were 1.23 gha, 2.36 gha and 163 m{sup 3} blue water in 2011, respectively. Overall, Taiwan revealed higher environmental pressures compared to the rest of the world, demonstrating that Taiwan has become a high footprint state and has appropriated environmental resources from other countries. That is, through its imports of products with embodied pressures and its exports, Taiwan has

  14. Water Footprint Symposium: where next for water footprint and water assessment methodology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillotson, M.R.; Kiu, J.; Guan, D.; Wu, P.; Zhao, Xu; Zhang, G.P.; Pfister, S.; Pahlow, M.

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the need for a comprehensive review of the tools and metrics for the quantification and assessment of water footprints, and allowing for the opportunity for open discussion on the challenges and future of water footprinting methodology, an international symposium on water footprint was o

  15. Water Footprint Symposium: where next for water footprint and water assessment methodology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillotson, M.R.; Kiu, J.; Guan, D.; Wu, P.; Zhao, Xu; Zhang, Guoping; Pfister, S.; Pahlow, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the need for a comprehensive review of the tools and metrics for the quantification and assessment of water footprints, and allowing for the opportunity for open discussion on the challenges and future of water footprinting methodology, an international symposium on water footprint was

  16. Optical sampling of the flux tower footprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Gamon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to address the reasons and methods for conducting optical remote sensing within the flux tower footprint. Fundamental principles and conclusions gleaned from over two decades of proximal remote sensing at flux tower sites are reviewed. An organizing framework is the light-use efficiency (LUE model, both because it is widely used, and because it provides a useful theoretical construct for integrating optical remote sensing with flux measurements. Multiple ways of driving this model, ranging from meteorological measurements to remote sensing, have emerged in recent years, making it a convenient conceptual framework for comparative experimental studies. New interpretations of established optical sampling methods, including the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI and Solar-Induced Fluorescence (SIF, are discussed within the context of the LUE model. Multi-scale analysis across temporal and spatial axes is a central theme, because such scaling can provide links between ecophysiological mechanisms detectable at the level of individual organisms and broad patterns emerging at larger scales, enabling evaluation of emergent properties and extrapolation to the flux footprint and beyond. Proper analysis of sampling scale requires an awareness of sampling context that is often essential to the proper interpretation of optical signals. Additionally, the concept of optical types, vegetation exhibiting contrasting optical behavior in time and space, is explored as a way to frame our understanding of the controls on surface–atmosphere fluxes. Complementary NDVI and PRI patterns across ecosystems are offered as an example of this hypothesis, with the LUE model and light-response curve providing an integrating framework. We conclude that experimental approaches allowing systematic exploration of plant optical behavior in the context of the flux tower network provides a unique way to improve our understanding of environmental

  17. Optical sampling of the flux tower footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamon, J. A.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to address the reasons and methods for conducting optical remote sensing within the flux tower footprint. Fundamental principles and conclusions gleaned from over two decades of proximal remote sensing at flux tower sites are reviewed. An organizing framework is the light-use efficiency (LUE) model, both because it is widely used, and because it provides a useful theoretical construct for integrating optical remote sensing with flux measurements. Multiple ways of driving this model, ranging from meteorological measurements to remote sensing, have emerged in recent years, making it a convenient conceptual framework for comparative experimental studies. New interpretations of established optical sampling methods, including the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) and Solar-Induced Fluorescence (SIF), are discussed within the context of the LUE model. Multi-scale analysis across temporal and spatial axes is a central theme, because such scaling can provide links between ecophysiological mechanisms detectable at the level of individual organisms and broad patterns emerging at larger scales, enabling evaluation of emergent properties and extrapolation to the flux footprint and beyond. Proper analysis of sampling scale requires an awareness of sampling context that is often essential to the proper interpretation of optical signals. Additionally, the concept of optical types, vegetation exhibiting contrasting optical behavior in time and space, is explored as a way to frame our understanding of the controls on surface-atmosphere fluxes. Complementary NDVI and PRI patterns across ecosystems are offered as an example of this hypothesis, with the LUE model and light-response curve providing an integrating framework. We conclude that experimental approaches allowing systematic exploration of plant optical behavior in the context of the flux tower network provides a unique way to improve our understanding of environmental constraints and

  18. Sensitivity of Amazonian TOA flux diurnal cycle composite monthly variability to choice of reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, J. Brant; Taylor, Patrick C.

    2016-05-01

    Amazonian deep convection experiences a strong diurnal cycle driven by the cycle in surface sensible heat flux, which contributes to a significant diurnal cycle in the top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative flux. Even when accounting for seasonal variability, the TOA flux diurnal cycle varies significantly on the monthly timescale. Previous work shows evidence supporting a connection between variability in the convective and radiative cycles, likely modulated by variability in monthly atmospheric state (e.g., convective instability). The hypothesized relationships are further investigated with regression analysis of the radiative diurnal cycle and atmospheric state using additional meteorological variables representing convective instability and upper tropospheric humidity. The results are recalculated with three different reanalyses to test the reliability of the results. The radiative diurnal cycle sensitivity to upper tropospheric humidity is about equal in magnitude to that of convective instability. In addition, the results are recalculated with the data subdivided into the wet and dry seasons. Overall, clear-sky radiative effects have a dominant role in radiative diurnal cycle variability during the dry season. Because of this, even in a convectively active region, the clear-sky radiative effects must be accounted for in order to fully explain the monthly variability in diurnal cycle. Finally, while there is general agreement between the different reanalysis-based results when examining the full data time domain (without regard to time of year), there are significant disagreements when the data are divided into wet and dry seasons. The questionable reliability of reanalysis data is a major limitation.

  19. Double counting in supply chain carbon footprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Caro (Felipe); M.A. Corbett (Mark); T. Tan (Terence); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractCarbon footprinting is a tool for firms to determine the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with their supply chain or with a unit of final product or service. Carbon footprinting typically aims to identify where best to invest in emission reduction efforts, and/or to determ

  20. The water footprint of modern consumer society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2013-01-01

    Water is not only used in the domestic context, but also in agriculture and industry in the production of commercial goods, from food to paper. The water footprint is an indicator of freshwater use that looks at both direct and indirect use of water by a consumer or producer. The water footprint of

  1. Water footprinting of dairy farming in Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murphy, E.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Holden, N.M.; Shalloo, L.; Curran, T.P.; Upton, J.

    2017-01-01

    In the context of global water scarcity, water footprints have become an important sustainability indicator for food production systems. To improve the water footprint of the dairy sector, insight into freshwater consumption of individual farms is required. The objective of this study was to

  2. Extraction of uranyl nitrate, sulphate and chloride with tri-n-octyl amine (TOA from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJORDJE M. PETKOVIC

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of uranyl nitrate, chloride and sulphate with tri-n-octyl amine (TOA in benzene as a function of the TOA concentration has been studied. The concentration based extraction equilibrium constants were calculated from the distribution data of the uranyl salts, fitting the parameters of a chemical model to the experimentally obtained extraction isotherms. The calculated equilibrium constants are 46.5, 89.4 and 4.2·104 for uranyl nitrate, chloride and sulphate, respectively. These values are in good agreement with the previously reported extraction equilibrium constants calculated by the inflection point method.

  3. 一种估计TOA的差分编码MUSIC算法%A New TOA Estimation Method for DS - CDMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁燕; 王晓蕾; 王宗欣

    2003-01-01

    估计来波的到达时间(TOA)是蜂窝移动通信系统中用户定位的关键技术之一.该文提出了用差分编码的MUSIC算法估计CDMA系统中各用户的TOA,此方法不需使用训练序列,并且很少受载波频移的影响,因此可提高各用户的TOA估计精度.

  4. GDP AND ENVIRONMENT RELATION: FOOTPRINT APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Aloísia da Cruz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Ecological Footprint represents the amount needed land and water to produce the resources and assimilate the waste generated by the population. In contrast the consumption of resources with the carrying capacity of nature and showing, in the long term, these impacts will be sustainable. This article by means of a discriminant analysis in selected countries, investigates the relationship between the variables chosen, the Ecological Footprint and per capita real GDP. And although there are countries with GDP per capita Ecological Footprint up and below average in general countries with per capita GDP increased tend to have a higher environmental impact, or ecological footprint than the average. Therefore, for the year 2005, this study supports a direct relationship between per capita real GDP and Ecological Footprint.

  5. Rayleigh radiance computations for satellite remote sensing: accounting for the effect of sensor spectral response function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Menghua

    2016-05-30

    To understand and assess the effect of the sensor spectral response function (SRF) on the accuracy of the top of the atmosphere (TOA) Rayleigh-scattering radiance computation, new TOA Rayleigh radiance lookup tables (LUTs) over global oceans and inland waters have been generated. The new Rayleigh LUTs include spectral coverage of 335-2555 nm, all possible solar-sensor geometries, and surface wind speeds of 0-30 m/s. Using the new Rayleigh LUTs, the sensor SRF effect on the accuracy of the TOA Rayleigh radiance computation has been evaluated for spectral bands of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite and the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS)-1, showing some important uncertainties for VIIRS-SNPP particularly for large solar- and/or sensor-zenith angles as well as for large Rayleigh optical thicknesses (i.e., short wavelengths) and bands with broad spectral bandwidths. To accurately account for the sensor SRF effect, a new correction algorithm has been developed for VIIRS spectral bands, which improves the TOA Rayleigh radiance accuracy to ~0.01% even for the large solar-zenith angles of 70°-80°, compared with the error of ~0.7% without applying the correction for the VIIRS-SNPP 410 nm band. The same methodology that accounts for the sensor SRF effect on the Rayleigh radiance computation can be used for other satellite sensors. In addition, with the new Rayleigh LUTs, the effect of surface atmospheric pressure variation on the TOA Rayleigh radiance computation can be calculated precisely, and no specific atmospheric pressure correction algorithm is needed. There are some other important applications and advantages to using the new Rayleigh LUTs for satellite remote sensing, including an efficient and accurate TOA Rayleigh radiance computation for hyperspectral satellite remote sensing, detector-based TOA Rayleigh radiance computation, Rayleigh radiance calculations for high altitude

  6. Toward a nitrogen footprint calculator for Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Mary Olivia; Leach, Allison M.; Leip, Adrian; Galloway, James N.; Bekunda, Mateete; Sullivan, Clare; Lesschen, Jan Peter

    2017-03-01

    We present the first nitrogen footprint model for a developing country: Tanzania. Nitrogen (N) is a crucial element for agriculture and human nutrition, but in excess it can cause serious environmental damage. The Sub-Saharan African nation of Tanzania faces a two-sided nitrogen problem: while there is not enough soil nitrogen to produce adequate food, excess nitrogen that escapes into the environment causes a cascade of ecological and human health problems. To identify, quantify, and contribute to solving these problems, this paper presents a nitrogen footprint tool for Tanzania. This nitrogen footprint tool is a concept originally designed for the United States of America (USA) and other developed countries. It uses personal resource consumption data to calculate a per-capita nitrogen footprint. The Tanzania N footprint tool is a version adapted to reflect the low-input, integrated agricultural system of Tanzania. This is reflected by calculating two sets of virtual N factors to describe N losses during food production: one for fertilized farms and one for unfertilized farms. Soil mining factors are also calculated for the first time to address the amount of N removed from the soil to produce food. The average per-capita nitrogen footprint of Tanzania is 10 kg N yr-1. 88% of this footprint is due to food consumption and production, while only 12% of the footprint is due to energy use. Although 91% of farms in Tanzania are unfertilized, the large contribution of fertilized farms to N losses causes unfertilized farms to make up just 83% of the food production N footprint. In a developing country like Tanzania, the main audiences for the N footprint tool are community leaders, planners, and developers who can impact decision-making and use the calculator to plan positive changes for nitrogen sustainability in the developing world.

  7. Water Footprint of crop productions: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovarelli, Daniela; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fiala, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Water Footprint is an indicator recently developed with the goal of quantifying the virtual content of water in products and/or services. It can also be used to identify the worldwide virtual water trade. Water Footprint is composed of three parts (green, blue and grey waters) that make the assessment complete in accordance with the Water Footprint Network and with the recent ISO14046. The importance of Water Footprint is linked to the need of taking consciousness about water content in products and services and of the achievable changes in productions, diets and market trades. In this study, a literature review has been completed on Water Footprint of agricultural productions. In particular, the focus was paid on crops for the production of food and bioenergy. From the review, the development of the Water Footprint concept emerged: in early studies the main goal was to assess products' water trade on a global scale, while in the subsequent years, the goal was the rigorous quantification of the three components for specific crops and in specific geographical areas. In the most recent assessments, similarities about the methodology and the employed tools emerged. For 96 scientific articles on Water Footprint indicator of agricultural productions, this literature review reports the main results and analyses weaknesses and strengths. Seventy-eight percent of studies aimed to quantify Water Footprint, while the remaining 22% analysed methodology, uncertainty, future trends and comparisons with other footprints. It emerged that most studies that quantified Water Footprint concerned cereals (33%), among which maize and wheat were the most investigated crops. In 46% of studies all the three components were assessed, while in 18% no indication about the subdivision was given; in the remaining 37%, only blue or green and blue components were quantified.

  8. The water footprint of humanity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2011-12-01

    This study quantifies and maps the water footprint (WF) of humanity at a high spatial resolution level. It reports on consumptive use of rainwater (green WF) and ground and surface water (blue WF) and volumes of water polluted (grey WF). Water footprints are estimated per nation from both a production and consumption perspective. International virtual water flows are estimated based on trade in agricultural and industrial commodities. The global WF in the period 1996-2005 was 9087 Gm3/yr (74% green, 11% blue, 15% grey). Agricultural production contributes 92%. About one fifth of the global WF relates to production for export. The total volume of international virtual water flows related to trade in agricultural and industrial products was 2320 Gm3/yr (68% green, 13% blue, 19% grey). The WF of the global average consumer was 1385 m3/yr. The average consumer in the US has a WF of 2842 m3/yr, while the average citizens in China and India have WFs of 1071 m3/yr and 1089 m3/yr, respectively. Consumption of cereal products gives the largest contribution to the WF of the average consumer (27%), followed by meat (22%) and milk products (7%). The volume and pattern of consumption and the WF per ton of product of the products consumed are the main factors determining the WF of a consumer. The study illustrates the global dimension of water consumption and pollution by showing that several countries heavily rely on foreign water resources and that many countries have significant impacts on water consumption and pollution elsewhere.

  9. The Water Footprint of Food Aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Jackson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Food aid is a critical component of the global food system, particularly when emergency situations arise. For the first time, we evaluate the water footprint of food aid. To do this, we draw on food aid data from theWorld Food Programme and virtual water content estimates from WaterStat. We find that the total water footprint of food aid was 10 km3 in 2005, which represents approximately 0.5% of the water footprint of food trade and 2.0% of the water footprint of land grabbing (i.e., water appropriation associated with large agricultural land deals. The United States is by far the largest food aid donor and contributes 82% of the water footprint of food aid. The countries that receive the most water embodied in aid are Ethiopia, Sudan, North Korea, Bangladesh and Afghanistan. Notably, we find that there is significant overlap between countries that receive food aid and those that have their land grabbed. Multivariate regression results indicate that donor water footprints are driven by political and environmental variables, whereas recipient water footprints are driven by land grabbing and food indicators.

  10. The Water Footprint of Food Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, N. D.; Konar, M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Food aid is a critical component of the global food system, particularly when emergency situations arise. For the first time, we evaluate the water footprint of food aid. To do this, we draw on food aid data from theWorld Food Programme and virtual water content estimates from WaterStat. We find that the total water footprint of food aid was 10 km3 in 2005, which represents approximately 0.5% of the water footprint of food trade and 2.0% of the water footprint of land grabbing (i.e., water appropriation associated with large agricultural land deals). The United States is by far the largest food aid donor and contributes 82% of the water footprint of food aid. The countries that receive the most water embodied in aid are Ethiopia, Sudan, North Korea, Bangladesh and Afghanistan. Notably, we find that there is significant overlap between countries that receive food aid and those that have their land grabbed. Multivariate regression results indicate that donor water footprints are driven by political and environmental variables, whereas recipient water footprints are driven by land grabbing and food indicators.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Greg; Brown, Rich; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2009-04-15

    The term ?household carbon footprint? refers to the total annual carbon emissions associated with household consumption of energy, goods, and services. In this project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a carbon footprint modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to household carbon footprints in California and the United States. The approach breaks down the carbon footprint by 35 different household fuel end uses and 32 different supply chain fuel end uses. This level of end use detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the carbon footprint of California households. The modeling framework was applied to estimate the annual home energy and supply chain carbon footprints of a prototypical California household. A preliminary assessment of parameter uncertainty associated with key model input data was also conducted. To illustrate the policy-relevance of this modeling framework, a case study was conducted that analyzed the achievable carbon footprint reductions associated with the adoption of energy efficient household and supply chain technologies.

  12. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2000-03-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  13. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=1998-08-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  14. A statistical approach for site error correction in lightning location networks with DF/TOA technique and its application results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Chen, Mingli; Du, Yaping; Qiu, Zongxu

    2017-02-01

    Lightning location network (LLN) with DF/TOA (direction-finder/time-of-arrival) combined technique has been widely used in the world. However, the accuracy of the lightning data from such LLNs has still been restricted by "site error", especially for those detected only by two DF/TOA sensors. In this paper we practice a statistical approach for evaluation and correction of "site error" for DF/TOA type LLN based on its lightning data. By comparing lightning locations recorded by at least 4 sensors between DF and TOA techniques, the spatial characteristics of "site error" for each sensor in the network can be obtained. The obtained "site error" then can be used to improve the accuracy of lightning locations especially those recorded by only 2 sensors. With this approach, the "site error" patterns for 23 sensors in Yunnan LLN are obtained. The features of these site error patterns are in good consistency with those in literature. Significant differences in lightning locations before and after "site error" corrections indicate that the proposed approach works effectively.

  15. 78 FR 20887 - Approval of Subzone Status; Pepsi Cola Puerto Rico Distributing, LLC, Toa Baja, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval of Subzone Status; Pepsi Cola Puerto Rico Distributing, LLC, Toa Baja..., requesting subzone status subject to the existing activation limit of FTZ 7, on ] behalf of Pepsi Cola...

  16. MISR Level 2 TOA/Cloud Classifier parameters (MIL2TCCL_V2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diner, David J. (Principal Investigator)

    The TOA/Cloud Classifiers contain the Angular Signature Cloud Mask (ASCM), a scene classifier calculated using support vector machine technology (SVM) both of which are on a 1.1 km grid, and cloud fractions at 17.6 km resolution that are available in different height bins (low, middle, high) and are also calculated on an angle-by-angle basis. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=2000-02-24; Stop_Date=] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=17.6 km; Longitude_Resolution=17.6 km; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=10 km - < 50 km or approximately .09 degree - < .5 degree; Temporal_Resolution=about 15 orbits/day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly, Daily - < Weekly].

  17. Morphological, physiological and molecular genetic characterization ofArabidopsis himalaica, with reference toA. thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukaya, H; Yokoyama, J; Ikeda, H; Kuroiwa, H; Kuroiwa, T; Iwatsuki, K

    1997-03-01

    Arabidopsis himalaica (Edgeworth) O.E. Schulz, a poorly characterized species typical of HimalayanArabidopsis, was analyzed in terms of its morphology, physiology, chromosome number and molecular genetics, in comparison withA. thaliana which is the standard species in the genusArabidopsis. From view point of developmental genetics, several features which are specific toA. himalaica seem not to be derived by single-gene mutations inA. thaliana. Phylogenetic analyses based onrbcL sequences suggested that genusArabidopsis is not monophyletic. The detailed characterization ofA. himalaica should provide clues to understand the trait of evolution of particular features of Himalayan species ofArabidopsis and their genetic basis.

  18. TOA Lightning Location Retrieval on Spherical and Oblate Spheroidal Earth Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, W. J.; Solakiewicz, R. J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A simple linear algebraic solution is introduced for retrieving the location and time-of-occurrence of lightning ground strikes on a spherical Earth from a network of four or more time-of-arrival (TOA) sensors. Since the solution accounts for Earth curvature, it represents an extension to earlier planar model results described by Koshak et al. A test of the retrieval method is provided using computer-simulated data sets. The method is easy to comprehend and completely avoids reference to the mathematics of spherical hyperbolas such as discussed by Lewis. A quasi-analytic extension to the spherical Earth solution is provided for an oblate spheroidal Earth geometry, and the importance/relevance of oblate effects are discussed. Future application of these methods in support of the North American National Lightning Detection Network (NALDN) described by Cummins et al. is desirable, but additional theoretical investigations are required to incorporate magnetic bearing information into the present solution process.

  19. MISR Level 2 TOA/Cloud Classifier parameters (MIL2TCCL_V3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diner, David J. (Principal Investigator)

    The TOA/Cloud Classifiers contain the Angular Signature Cloud Mask (ASCM), a scene classifier calculated using support vector machine technology (SVM) both of which are on a 1.1 km grid, and cloud fractions at 17.6 km resolution that are available in different height bins (low, middle, high) and are also calculated on an angle-by-angle basis. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=2000-02-24; Stop_Date=] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1.1 km; Longitude_Resolution=1.1 km; Temporal_Resolution=about 15 orbits/day].

  20. Preparation and characterization of a sulindac sensor based on PVC/TOA-SUL membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenik, Joanna

    2014-04-01

    A potentiometric sulindac sensitive sensor based on tetraoctylammonium (Z)-5-fluoro-2-methyl-1-[[p-(methylsulfinyl)phenyl]methylene]-1H-indene-3-acetate (TOA-SUL) was described. The electrode responded with sensitivity of 57.5±1.6mV decade(-1) over the linear range 5×10(-5)-1×10(-2)mol L(-1) at pH6.0-9.0. It had the limit of detection 1.4×10(-5)mol L(-1), a fast response time of 13s and showed clear discrimination of sulindac ions from several inorganic and organic compounds and also amino acids. This electrode did not contain any inner solutions, so it was easy and comfortable to use. The proposed sensor was used to determine sulindac in clear solution and in urine sample solution.

  1. Quantifying the regional water footprint of biofuel production by incorporating hydrologic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M.; Chiu, Y.; Demissie, Y.

    2012-10-01

    A spatially explicit life cycle water analysis framework is proposed, in which a standardized water footprint methodology is coupled with hydrologic modeling to assess blue water, green water (rainfall), and agricultural grey water discharge in the production of biofuel feedstock at county-level resolution. Grey water is simulated via SWAT, a watershed model. Evapotranspiration (ET) estimates generated with the Penman-Monteith equation and crop parameters were verified by using remote sensing results, a satellite-imagery-derived data set, and other field measurements. Crop irrigation survey data are used to corroborate the estimate of irrigation ET. An application of the concept is presented in a case study for corn-stover-based ethanol grown in Iowa (United States) within the Upper Mississippi River basin. Results show vast spatial variations in the water footprint of stover ethanol from county to county. Producing 1 L of ethanol from corn stover growing in the Iowa counties studied requires from 4.6 to 13.1 L of blue water (with an average of 5.4 L), a majority (86%) of which is consumed in the biorefinery. The county-level green water (rainfall) footprint ranges from 760 to 1000 L L-1. The grey water footprint varies considerably, ranging from 44 to 1579 L, a 35-fold difference, with a county average of 518 L. This framework can be a useful tool for watershed- or county-level biofuel sustainability metric analysis to address the heterogeneity of the water footprint for biofuels.

  2. 能量包络的简单TOA估计研究%Simple energy envelope TOA estimation algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓建; 王智博; 郑霖

    2012-01-01

    目前IR-UWB(脉冲超宽带)测距算法中基于匹配滤波的TOA(到达时刻)估计算法存在有复杂度高和运算量大的缺点,提出了一种基于能量包络的简单TOA估计算法.该算法是一种单纯的基于相关输出最大值点检测的TOA估计算法:相关器输入接收到的多径信号和锯齿波,检测相关输出最大值点作为TOA估计.该算法比基于匹配滤波输出峰值点检测算法的运算量减小,且算法简单;无需在本地产生复杂的模板信号.通过理论分析,证明了该算法的科学性,通过仿真验证了算法的有效性,对该算法与已有的多种TOA估计算法进行了比较,分析了该算法的误差性能.%In IR-UWB(Impulse-Radio Ultra Wideband) ranging system, the current TOA estimation algorithms based on matched filter have their own shortcomings, like high complexity, large amount of computation and so on. This paper presents a TOA estimation algorithm based on energy envelope TOA estimation. This algorithm mainly detects the maximum point of the correlation output. The inputs of correlation are received multi-path signal and saw-tooth wave. The amount of algorithm computation is greatly reduced, and simulation results show its effectiveness. This paper compares this algorithm with TOA estimation algorithms, and the analysis of the algorithm error performance is presented.

  3. CERES Monthly TOA and SRB Averages (SRBAVG) data in HDF-EOS Grid (CER_SRBAVG_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly TOA/Surface Averages (SRBAVG) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SRBAVG is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. The monthly average regional flux is estimated using diurnal models and the 1-degree regional fluxes at the hour of observation from the CERES SFC product. A second set of monthly average fluxes are estimated using concurrent diurnal information from geostationary satellites. These fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes and are spatially averaged from 1-degree regions to 1-degree zonal averages and a global average. For each region, the SRBAVG also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average. The cloud properties from SFC are column averaged and are included on the SRBAVG. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-02-01; Stop_Date=2004-05-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 month; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Monthly - < Annual].

  4. CERES Monthly TOA and SRB Averages (SRBAVG) data in HDF-EOS Grid (CER_SRBAVG_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly TOA/Surface Averages (SRBAVG) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SRBAVG is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. The monthly average regional flux is estimated using diurnal models and the 1-degree regional fluxes at the hour of observation from the CERES SFC product. A second set of monthly average fluxes are estimated using concurrent diurnal information from geostationary satellites. These fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes and are spatially averaged from 1-degree regions to 1-degree zonal averages and a global average. For each region, the SRBAVG also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average. The cloud properties from SFC are column averaged and are included on the SRBAVG. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-02-01; Stop_Date=2003-02-28] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 month; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Monthly - < Annual].

  5. CERES Monthly TOA and SRB Averages (SRBAVG) data in HDF-EOS Grid (CER_SRBAVG_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly TOA/Surface Averages (SRBAVG) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SRBAVG is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. The monthly average regional flux is estimated using diurnal models and the 1-degree regional fluxes at the hour of observation from the CERES SFC product. A second set of monthly average fluxes are estimated using concurrent diurnal information from geostationary satellites. These fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes and are spatially averaged from 1-degree regions to 1-degree zonal averages and a global average. For each region, the SRBAVG also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average. The cloud properties from SFC are column averaged and are included on the SRBAVG. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-02-01; Stop_Date=2000-03-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 month; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Monthly - < Annual].

  6. CERES Monthly TOA and SRB Averages (SRBAVG) data in HDF-EOS Grid (CER_SRBAVG_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly TOA/Surface Averages (SRBAVG) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SRBAVG is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. The monthly average regional flux is estimated using diurnal models and the 1-degree regional fluxes at the hour of observation from the CERES SFC product. A second set of monthly average fluxes are estimated using concurrent diurnal information from geostationary satellites. These fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes and are spatially averaged from 1-degree regions to 1-degree zonal averages and a global average. For each region, the SRBAVG also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average. The cloud properties from SFC are column averaged and are included on the SRBAVG. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-02-01; Stop_Date=2004-05-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 month; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Monthly - < Annual].

  7. Water footprint and carbon footprint of the energy consumption in sunflower agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Mohammad; Khoramivafa, Mahmud; Damghani, Abdolmajid Mahdavi

    2017-07-07

    The aims of this study were to assess the energy requirements, carbon footprint, and water footprint of sunflower production in Kermanshah province, western Iran. Data were collected from 70 sunflower production agroecosystems which were selected based on random sampling method in summer 2012. Results indicated that total input and output energy in sunflower production were 26,973.87 and 64,833.92 MJha(-1), respectively. The highest share of total input energy in sunflower agroecosystems was recorded for electricity power, N fertilizer, and diesel fuel with 35, 19, and 17%, respectively. Also, energy use efficiency, water footprint, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, and carbon footprint were calculated as 2.40, 3.41 m(3) kg(-1), 2042.091 kg CO2eqha(-1), and 0.875 kg CO2eqkg(-1), respectively. 0.18 of sunflower water footprint was related to green water footprint and the remaining 82% was related to blue water footprint. Also, the highest share of carbon footprint was related to electricity power (nearby 80%). Due to the results of this study, reducing use of fossil fuel and non-renewable energy resource and application of sufficient irrigation systems by efficient use of water resource are essential in order to achieve low carbon footprint, environmental challenges, and also sustainability of agricultural production systems.

  8. Enhancing building footprints with squaring operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Lokhat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Whatever the data source, or the capture process, the creation of a building footprint in a geographical dataset is error prone. Building footprints are designed with square angles, but once in a geographical dataset, the angles may not be exactly square. The almost-square angles blur the legibility of the footprints when displayed on maps, but might also be propagated in further applications based on the footprints, e.g., 3D city model construction. This paper proposes two new methods to square such buildings: a simple one, and a more complex one based on nonlinear least squares. The latter squares right and flat angles by iteratively moving vertices, while preserving the initial shape and position of the buildings. The methods are tested on real datasets and assessed against existing methods, proving the usefulness of the contribution. Direct applications of the squaring transformation, such as OpenStreetMap enhancement, or map generalization are presented.

  9. Spatially and temporally explicit water footprint accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Mekonnen, Mesfin

    2011-01-01

    The earth’s freshwater resources are subject to increasing pressure in the form of consumptive water use and pollution (Postel, 2000; WWAP, 2003, 2006, 2009). Quantitative assessment of the green, blue and grey water footprint of global production and consumption can be regarded as a key in understanding the pressure put on the global freshwater resources. The overall objective of this thesis is, therefore, to analyse the spatial and temporal pattern of the water footprint of humans from both...

  10. Ligustrazine-Oleanolic Acid Glycine Derivative, G-TOA, Selectively Inhibited the Proliferation and Induced Apoptosis of Activated HSC-T6 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Siling; Chu, Fuhao; Wang, Mina; Li, Bi; Mao, Pei; Zhang, Huazheng; Wang, Penglong; Guo, Wenbo; Xu, Liang; Ren, Liwei; Lei, Haimin; Zhang, Yuzhong

    2016-11-23

    Hepatic fibrosis is a naturally occurring wound-healing reaction, with an imbalance of extracellular matrix (ECM) during tissue repair response, which can further deteriorate to hepatocellular carcinoma without timely treatment. Inhibiting activated hepatic stellate cell (HSC) proliferation and inducing apoptosis are the main methods for the treatment of liver fibrosis. In our previous study, we found that the TOA-glycine derivative (G-TOA) had exhibited more significant inhibitory activity against HepG2 cells and better hydrophilicity than TOA, ligustrazine (TMP), and oleanolic acid (OA). However, inhibiting activated HSC proliferation and inducing apoptosis by G-TOA had not been reported. In this paper, the selective cytotoxicity of G-TOA was evaluated on HSC-T6 cells and L02 cells, and apoptosis mechanisms were explored. It was found that G-TOA could selectively inhibit the proliferation of activated HSC-T6 cells, induce morphological changes, early apoptosis, and mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization, increase intracellular free calcium levels, downregulate the expression of NF-κB/p65 and COX-2 protein, and decrease the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, thereby inducing HSC-T6 cell apoptosis. Thence, G-TOA might be a potential antifibrosis agent for the therapy of hepatic fibrosis, provided that it exerts anti-fibrosis effects on activated HSC-T6 cells.

  11. Communicating health through health footprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Oliver; Hajat, Cother; Cooper, Cary; Averbuj, Gustavo; Anderson, Peter

    2011-08-01

    The depth and scale of challenges posed by noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease are now well known and clearly documented. Reducing the 4 key risk factors has been shown to reduce premature mortality and morbidity by 70% globally. The authors consider how affirmative action can be driven to reduce these risk factors through Health Footprints, targeted interventions within specific domains of consumption, on the basis of an assessment of the negative health effect of specific choices, with the goal of driving healthy choices and improving health. In this article, the authors propose a methodology that ties together insight from public health, behavioral economics, marketing, and health communication. They offer 3 specific examples for affirmative action: a Pigovian tax on unhealthy foods, group-level interventions on the basis of sharing key health data, and personalized prevention tailored to specific individuals. In addition, they discuss the approach to implementation, including the role of an apex coordinating organization in setting standards for data and ethics, and evaluation of the effect of interventions to drive continuous improvement.

  12. Carbon footprint of electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloma, Marcin

    2013-07-01

    Paper assesses the greenhouse gas emissions related to the electronic sectors including information and communication technology and media sectors. While media often presents the carbon emission problem of other industries like petroleum industry, the airlines and automobile sectors, plastics and steel manufacturers, the electronics industry must include the increasing carbon footprints caused from their applications like media and entertainment, computers and cooling devices, complex telecommunications networks, cloud computing and powerful mobile phones. In that sense greenhouse gas emission of electronics should be studied in a life cycle perspective, including regular operational electricity use. Paper presents which product groups or processes are major contributors in emission. From available data and extrapolation of existing information we know that the information and communication technology sector produced 1.3% and media sector 1.7% of global gas emissions within production cycle, using the data from 2007.In the same time global electricity use of that sectors was 3.9% and 3.2% respectively. The results indicate that for both sectors operation leads to more gas emissions than manufacture, although impacts from the manufacture is significant, especially in the supply chain. Media electronics led to more emissions than PCs (manufacture and operation). Examining the role of electronics in climate change, including disposal of its waste, will enable the industry to take internal actions, leading to lowering the impact on the climate change within the sector itself.

  13. Atmospheric mercury footprints of nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sai; Wang, Yafei; Cinnirella, Sergio; Pirrone, Nicola

    2015-03-17

    The Minamata Convention was established to protect humans and the natural environment from the adverse effects of mercury emissions. A cogent assessment of mercury emissions is required to help implement the Minamata Convention. Here, we use an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output model to calculate atmospheric mercury footprints of nations based on upstream production (meaning direct emissions from the production activities of a nation), downstream production (meaning both direct and indirect emissions caused by the production activities of a nation), and consumption (meaning both direct and indirect emissions caused by final consumption of goods and services in a nation). Results show that nations function differently within global supply chains. Developed nations usually have larger consumption-based emissions than up- and downstream production-based emissions. India, South Korea, and Taiwan have larger downstream production-based emissions than their upstream production- and consumption-based emissions. Developed nations (e.g., United States, Japan, and Germany) are in part responsible for mercury emissions of developing nations (e.g., China, India, and Indonesia). Our findings indicate that global mercury abatement should focus on multiple stages of global supply chains. We propose three initiatives for global mercury abatement, comprising the establishment of mercury control technologies of upstream producers, productivity improvement of downstream producers, and behavior optimization of final consumers.

  14. Top-of-the-atmosphere shortwave flux estimation from satellite observations: an empirical neural network approach applied with data from the A-train constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pawan; Joiner, Joanna; Vasilkov, Alexander; Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2016-07-01

    Estimates of top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) radiative flux are essential for the understanding of Earth's energy budget and climate system. Clouds, aerosols, water vapor, and ozone (O3) are among the most important atmospheric agents impacting the Earth's shortwave (SW) radiation budget. There are several sensors in orbit that provide independent information related to these parameters. Having coincident information from these sensors is important for understanding their potential contributions. The A-train constellation of satellites provides a unique opportunity to analyze data from several of these sensors. In this paper, retrievals of cloud/aerosol parameters and total column ozone (TCO) from the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) have been collocated with the Aqua Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) estimates of total reflected TOA outgoing SW flux (SWF). We use these data to develop a variety of neural networks that estimate TOA SWF globally over ocean and land using only OMI data and other ancillary information as inputs and CERES TOA SWF as the output for training purposes. OMI-estimated TOA SWF from the trained neural networks reproduces independent CERES data with high fidelity. The global mean daily TOA SWF calculated from OMI is consistently within ±1 % of CERES throughout the year 2007. Application of our neural network method to other sensors that provide similar retrieved parameters, both past and future, can produce similar estimates TOA SWF. For example, the well-calibrated Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) series could provide estimates of TOA SWF dating back to late 1978.

  15. Unequal household carbon footprints in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedenhofer, Dominik; Guan, Dabo; Liu, Zhu; Meng, Jing; Zhang, Ning; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Households' carbon footprints are unequally distributed among the rich and poor due to differences in the scale and patterns of consumption. We present distributional focused carbon footprints for Chinese households and use a carbon-footprint-Gini coefficient to quantify inequalities. We find that in 2012 the urban very rich, comprising 5% of population, induced 19% of the total carbon footprint from household consumption in China, with 6.4 tCO2/cap. The average Chinese household footprint remains comparatively low (1.7 tCO2/cap), while those of the rural population and urban poor, comprising 58% of population, are 0.5-1.6 tCO2/cap. Between 2007 and 2012 the total footprint from households increased by 19%, with 75% of the increase due to growing consumption of the urban middle class and the rich. This suggests that a transformation of Chinese lifestyles away from the current trajectory of carbon-intensive consumption patterns requires policy interventions to improve living standards and encourage sustainable consumption.

  16. Resource footprints and their ecosystem consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verones, Francesca; Moran, Daniel; Stadler, Konstantin; Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Wood, Richard

    2017-01-01

    A meaningful environmental impact analysis should go beyond the accounting of pressures from resource use and actually assess how resource demand affects ecosystems. The various currently available footprints of nations report the environmental pressures e.g. water use or pollutant emissions, driven by consumption. However, there have been limited attempts to assess the environmental consequences of these pressures. Ultimately, consequences, not pressures, should guide environmental policymaking. The newly released LC-Impact method demonstrates progress on the path to providing this missing link. Here we present “ecosystem impact footprints” in terms of the consequences for biodiversity and assess the differences in impact footprint results from MRIO-based pressure footprints. The new perspective reveals major changes in the relative contribution of nations to global footprints. Wealthy countries have high pressure footprints in lower-income countries but their impact footprints often have their origin in higher-income countries. This shift in perspective provides a different insight on where to focus policy responses to preserve biodiversity.

  17. Modeling The Anthropogenic CO2 Footprint in Europe Using a High Resolution Atmospheric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Gruber, Nicolas; Brunner, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    , on shorter time-scales, atmospheric transport leads to strong plume-like patterns, causing a high degree of variability on the mesoscale and up to synoptic scales. This variability is enhanced through the temporal variability of the emissions. The time-variations in the emissions also cause an annual mean reduction in the near surface atmospheric CO2 concentration of several ppm relative to a simulation with time-invariant emissions, owing to a diurnal "rectification" effect with atmospheric transport and mixing. Finally, we also conducted a few ensitivity analyses to check how well regional reductions of fossil fuel emissions can be detected by various atmospheric CO2 observing systems, including satellites. Our results suggest that the fine-scale spatiotemporal pattern of the fossil fuel footprint offer specific opportunities for detection beyond the changes in annual mean atmospheric CO2.

  18. The water footprint of bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerbens-Leenes, W.; Hoekstra, A.Y. [Department of Water Engineering, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE, Enschede (Netherlands); Van der Meer, T.H. [Management and Laboratory of Thermal Engineering, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2009-06-23

    All energy scenarios show a shift toward an increased percentage of renewable energy sources, including biomass. This study gives an overview of water footprints (WFs) of bioenergy from 12 crops that currently contribute the most to global agricultural production: barley, cassava, maize, potato, rapeseed, rice, rye, sorghum, soybean, sugar beet, sugar cane, and wheat. In addition, this study includes jatropha, a suitable energy crop. Since climate and production circumstances differ among regions, calculations have been performed by country. The WF of bioelectricity is smaller than that of biofuels because it is more efficient to use total biomass (e.g., for electricity or heat) than a fraction of the crop (its sugar, starch, or oil content) for biofuel. The WF of bioethanol appears to be smaller than that of biodiesel. For electricity, sugar beet, maize, and sugar cane are the most favorable crops (50m{sup 3}/gigajoule (GJ)). Rapeseed and jatropha, typical energy crops, are disadvantageous (400m{sup 3}/GJ). For ethanol, sugar beet, and potato (60 and 100m{sup 3}/GJ) are the most advantageous, followed by sugar cane (110 m{sup 3}/GJ); sorghum (400 m{sup 3}/GJ) is the most unfavorable. For biodiesel, soybean and rapeseed show to be the most favorable WF (400 m{sup 3}/GJ); jatropha has an adverse WF (600m{sup 3}/GJ). When expressed per L, the WF ranges from 1,400 to 20,000 L of water per L of biofuel. If a shift toward a greater contribution of bioenergy to energy supply takes place, the results of this study can be used to select the crops and countries that produce bioenergy in the most water-efficient way.

  19. National water footprint accounts: the green, blue and grey water footprint of production and consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2011-01-01

    This study quantifies and maps the water footprints of nations from both a production and consumption perspective and estimates international virtual water flows and national and global water savings as a result of trade. The entire estimate includes a breakdown of water footprints, virtual water

  20. National water footprint accounts: the green, blue and grey water footprint of production and consumption

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. Mekonnen; A. Y. Hoekstra

    2011-01-01

    This study quantifies and maps the water footprints of nations from both a production and consumption perspective and estimates international virtual water flows and national and global water savings as a result of trade. The entire estimate includes a breakdown of water footprints, virtual water flows and water savings into their green, blue and grey components.

  1. National water footprint accounts: the green, blue and grey water footprint of production and consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2011-01-01

    This study quantifies and maps the water footprints of nations from both a production and consumption perspective and estimates international virtual water flows and national and global water savings as a result of trade. The entire estimate includes a breakdown of water footprints, virtual water fl

  2. NLOS环境下基于自适应遗传算法的TOA/AOA定位算法%A TOA/AOA location algorithm based on adaptive genetic algorithm in NLOS environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝军

    2009-01-01

    在视距传播(LOS)环境下,波达时间/电波到达角(TOA/AOA)定位算法比TOA算法的定位精度有了进一步的提高,但是在非视距传播(NLOS)环境下,这些定位算法的精度会受到较大影响.为了减小NLOS传播的影响,提出了一种NLOS环境下的TOA/AOA定位算法.利用自适应遗传算法对TOA/AOA混合定位算法中的非线性优化问题进行求解,从而提高系统的定位精度.仿真结果表明,提出的算法在NLOS环境下有较高的定位精度,性能优于Chan算法和LS算法.

  3. Evaluation on Radiometric Capability of Chinese Optical Satellite Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Aixia; Zhong, Bo; Wu, Shanlong; Liu, Qinhuo

    2017-01-01

    The radiometric capability of on-orbit sensors should be updated on time due to changes induced by space environmental factors and instrument aging. Some sensors, such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), have onboard calibrators, which enable real-time calibration. However, most Chinese remote sensing satellite sensors lack onboard calibrators. Their radiometric calibrations have been updated once a year based on a vicarious calibration procedure, which has affected the applications of the data. Therefore, a full evaluation of the sensors’ radiometric capabilities is essential before quantitative applications can be made. In this study, a comprehensive procedure for evaluating the radiometric capability of several Chinese optical satellite sensors is proposed. In this procedure, long-term radiometric stability and radiometric accuracy are the two major indicators for radiometric evaluation. The radiometric temporal stability is analyzed by the tendency of long-term top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance variation; the radiometric accuracy is determined by comparison with the TOA reflectance from MODIS after spectrally matching. Three Chinese sensors including the Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera onboard Huan Jing 1 satellite (HJ-1), as well as the Visible and Infrared Radiometer (VIRR) and Medium-Resolution Spectral Imager (MERSI) onboard the Feng Yun 3 satellite (FY-3) are evaluated in reflective bands based on this procedure. The results are reasonable, and thus can provide reliable reference for the sensors’ application, and as such will promote the development of Chinese satellite data. PMID:28117745

  4. Nitrogen footprints: past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, James N.; Winiwarter, Wilfried; Leip, Adrian; Leach, Allison M.; Bleeker, Albert; Willem Erisman, Jan

    2014-11-01

    The human alteration of the nitrogen cycle has evolved from minimal in the mid-19th century to extensive in the present time. The consequences to human and environmental health are significant. While much attention has been given to the extent and impacts of the alteration, little attention has been given to those entities (i.e., consumers, institutions) that use the resources that result in extensive reactive nitrogen (Nr) creation. One strategy for assessment is the use of nitrogen footprint tools. A nitrogen footprint is generally defined as the total amount of Nr released to the environment as a result of an entity’s consumption patterns. This paper reviews a number of nitrogen footprint tools (N-Calculator, N-Institution, N-Label, N-Neutrality, N-Indicator) that are designed to provide that attention. It reviews N-footprint tools for consumers as a function of the country that they live in (N-Calculator, N-Indicator) and the products they buy (N-Label), for the institutions that people work in and are educated in (N-Institution), and for events and decision-making regarding offsets (N-Neutrality). N footprint tools provide a framework for people to make decisions about their resource use and show them how offsets can be coupled with behavior change to decrease consumer/institution contributions to N-related problems.

  5. A TOA-AOA-Based NLOS Error Mitigation Method for Location Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianshuang Qiu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a geometric method to locate a mobile station (MS in a mobile cellular network when both the range and angle measurements are corrupted by non-line-of-sight (NLOS errors. The MS location is restricted to an enclosed region by geometric constraints from the temporal-spatial characteristics of the radio propagation channel. A closed-form equation of the MS position, time of arrival (TOA, angle of arrival (AOA, and angle spread is provided. The solution space of the equation is very large because the angle spreads are random variables in nature. A constrained objective function is constructed to further limit the MS position. A Lagrange multiplier-based solution and a numerical solution are proposed to resolve the MS position. The estimation quality of the estimator in term of “biased” or “unbiased” is discussed. The scale factors, which may be used to evaluate NLOS propagation level, can be estimated by the proposed method. AOA seen at base stations may be corrected to some degree. The performance comparisons among the proposed method and other hybrid location methods are investigated on different NLOS error models and with two scenarios of cell layout. It is found that the proposed method can deal with NLOS error effectively, and it is attractive for location estimation in cellular networks.

  6. A TOA-AOA-Based NLOS Error Mitigation Method for Location Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hong; Park, Yongwan; Qiu, Tianshuang

    2007-12-01

    This paper proposes a geometric method to locate a mobile station (MS) in a mobile cellular network when both the range and angle measurements are corrupted by non-line-of-sight (NLOS) errors. The MS location is restricted to an enclosed region by geometric constraints from the temporal-spatial characteristics of the radio propagation channel. A closed-form equation of the MS position, time of arrival (TOA), angle of arrival (AOA), and angle spread is provided. The solution space of the equation is very large because the angle spreads are random variables in nature. A constrained objective function is constructed to further limit the MS position. A Lagrange multiplier-based solution and a numerical solution are proposed to resolve the MS position. The estimation quality of the estimator in term of "biased" or "unbiased" is discussed. The scale factors, which may be used to evaluate NLOS propagation level, can be estimated by the proposed method. AOA seen at base stations may be corrected to some degree. The performance comparisons among the proposed method and other hybrid location methods are investigated on different NLOS error models and with two scenarios of cell layout. It is found that the proposed method can deal with NLOS error effectively, and it is attractive for location estimation in cellular networks.

  7. Novel joint TOA/RSSI-based WCE location tracking method without prior knowledge of biological human body tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takahiro; Anzai, Daisuke; Jianqing Wang

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel joint time of arrival (TOA)/received signal strength indicator (RSSI)-based wireless capsule endoscope (WCE) location tracking method without prior knowledge of biological human tissues. Generally, TOA-based localization can achieve much higher localization accuracy than other radio frequency-based localization techniques, whereas wireless signals transmitted from a WCE pass through various kinds of human body tissues, as a result, the propagation velocity inside a human body should be different from one in free space. Because the variation of propagation velocity is mainly affected by the relative permittivity of human body tissues, instead of pre-measurement for the relative permittivity in advance, we simultaneously estimate not only the WCE location but also the relative permittivity information. For this purpose, this paper first derives the relative permittivity estimation model with measured RSSI information. Then, we pay attention to a particle filter algorithm with the TOA-based localization and the RSSI-based relative permittivity estimation. Our computer simulation results demonstrates that the proposed tracking methods with the particle filter can accomplish an excellent localization accuracy of around 2 mm without prior information of the relative permittivity of the human body tissues.

  8. 一种高精度的TOA估计方法%A TOA ESTIMATION METHOD WITH HIGH RESOLUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈建锋; 王宗欣

    2003-01-01

    提出了一种CDMA系统的高精度的信号到达时延(TOA)的估计方法.在不提高采样频率的情况下,使用积分-清除电路对接收信号进行采样,将离散信号用离散傅里叶变换(DFT)转换到频率域中,然后根据CDMA信号模型和多径信道模型以及已知的扩频码的离散频谱,估计出信号相对于一个码片周期的整数部分TOA;再在离散频率域中用最小二乘法估计出信号到达的小数部分TOA.该方法即使在采样频率不高的情况下,也有很高的精度,而且运算量小,因此是一种有效的高精度TOA估计方法.

  9. Footprint Geometry and Sessile Drop Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Ti; Daniel, Susan; Steen, Paul H.

    2016-11-01

    How does a sessile drop resonate if its footprint is square (square drop)? In this talk, we discuss the two distinct families of observed modes in our experiments. One family (spherical modes) is identified with the natural modes of capillary spherical caps, and the other (grid modes) with Faraday waves on a square bath (square Faraday waves). A square drop exhibits grid or spherical modes depending on its volume, and the two families of modes arise depending on how wavenumber selection of footprint geometry and capillarity compete. For square drops, a dominant effect of footprint constraint leads to grid modes which are constrained response; otherwise the drops exhibit spherical modes, the characteristic of sessile drops on flat plates. Chun-Ti Chang takes his new position at National Taiwan University on Aug. 15th, 2016. Until then, Chun-Ti Chang is affiliated with Technical University Dortmund, Germany.

  10. Carbon Footprint Analysis for Baby Strollers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ang; Luo Yifan

    2012-01-01

    The increasing awareness of climate change has led or- ganizations to demand a standard procedure to measure and com- municate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions linked to their products or services. The publicly available specification PAS 2050 has been developed in response to broad community and industry desire for a consistent method-carbon footprint for assessing the life cycle GHG emissions of goods and services. Specifically, this paper illustrates the implementation of carbon footprint for a baby stroller in accordance with PAS 2050. A fial value of 321 kg per one stroller including package was calculated. Moreover, the study led to identify raw materials production of the stroller as the main source of GHS emissions where efforts need to focus for emission reduction opportunities. This case study is hoped to be a starting point for organizations to benefit from the increasing application of carbon footprint assessment.

  11. Carbon Footprint and Order Quantity in Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Zhiyong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Even without economic factors and government regulations, the pressure and motivation of corporation to reduce emission are still increasing. This is because the key factors for corporation to reduce emissions have become corporate social responsibility and identification of low-carbon value by consumer and society from economic trade-off and government regulations. So, the purpose of this paper is to provide quantity methods for the logistics organizations with wish of voluntary reduction and social responsibility.Design/methodology/approach: Being difference from the traditional research that takes economic value as object, this paper takes carbon footprint as object directly, order quantity as decision variable. By referring to the traditional economic order quantity model, the paper creates logistics carbon footprint model which takes transport and inventory into account. Then it solves the model by calculating the values of order quantity, carbon footprint and revenue using the method of optimization.Findings and Originality/value: By solving and comparing the two models of economic order quantity model and carbon footprint model, it gets some results, such as carbon optimization order quantity, the effects order quantity deviating from economic order quantity or carbon order quantity having on economic or carbon footprint values, which can give some meaningful insight for corporation to search out reduction opportunities by operations adjustment.Originality/value: The study takes carbon footprint as object directly and creates the corresponding quantity model. By comparing with the traditional economic order quantity model, the paper provides quantity methods and obtains some meaningful insights for the logistics organizations with wish of voluntary reduction and social responsibility to reduce emissions by operations adjustment.

  12. Dinosaur Footprint Fossils Discovered in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Recently,a Chinese-German science fieldwork investigation team,composed of staff from the SinoGerman Paleontology and Geography Joint Lab and the Xinjiang Geological Work Station,announced that they discovered a batch of dinosaur footprint fossils in the dessert 20 kilometers to the east of Shanshan County in the Turpan Basin,Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.These fossils spread around an area of 100 square meters and scientists believed that these footprints were left behind by carnivore dinosaurs.This major discovery has been published in Global Geology,an English journal published by the NorthEast Asia Geology Center.

  13. Footprint issues in scintillometry over heterogeneous landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Timmermans

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Scintillometry is widely recognized as a potential tool for obtaining spatially aggregated sensible heat fluxes. Although many investigations have been made over contrasting component surfaces, few aggregation schemes consider footprint contributions. In this paper an approach is presented to infer average sensible heat flux over a very heterogeneous landscape by using a large aperture scintillometer. The methodology is demonstrated on simulated data and tested on a time series of measurements obtained during the SPARC2004 experiment in Barrax, Spain. Results show that the two-dimensional footprint approach yields more accurate results of aggregated sensible heat flux than traditional methods.

  14. MISR Level 2 TOA/Cloud Stereo parameters (MIL2TCST_V1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diner, David J. (Principal Investigator)

    The MISR Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA)/Cloud Stereo geophysical parameters include stereoscopically-derived cloud motion vectors (winds), cloud-top heights, and an accompanying cloud mask. The Stereo product geophysical parameters include a stereoscopically-derived cloud mask and cloud height on a 1.1 km grid. It also includes cloud motion vectors on a 70.4 km grid. The three types of stereo heights are: the BestWind heights are only calculated for those regions where the associated wind vectors passed the quality tests. Therefore, they have sparse coverage but since the wind correction is included, these contain our 'best guess' as to what the true heights are. The WithoutWind heights are calculated assuming a constant wind vector of zero. They have almost complete coverage and therefore form a nice 'pretty picture' of the relative cloud heights over small areas. The RawWind heights are a diagnostic product as they are calculated using all available wind vectors (even the bad ones). It is therefore recommended that one only use the Best and Without wind products. It is important to remember that the stereo matchers pick up the layer of maximum contrast, which is not necessarily the same as the highest cloud so all the stereo heights are keyed to this level of maximum contrast. Therefore, higher and thinner cirrus layers may not be detected by any of the height fields. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=2000-02-24; Stop_Date=] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1.1 km; Longitude_Resolution=1.1 km; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=1 km - < 10 km or approximately .01 degree - < .09 degree; Temporal_Resolution=about 15 orbits/day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  15. MISR Level 2 TOA/Cloud Stereo parameters (MIL2TCST_V2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diner, David J. (Principal Investigator)

    The MISR Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA)/Cloud Stereo geophysical parameters include stereoscopically-derived cloud motion vectors (winds), cloud-top heights, and an accompanying cloud mask. The Stereo product geophysical parameters include a stereoscopically-derived cloud mask and cloud height on a 1.1 km grid. It also includes cloud motion vectors on a 70.4 km grid. The three types of stereo heights are: the BestWind heights are only calculated for those regions where the associated wind vectors passed the quality tests. Therefore, they have sparse coverage but since the wind correction is included, these contain our 'best guess' as to what the true heights are. The WithoutWind heights are calculated assuming a constant wind vector of zero. They have almost complete coverage and therefore form a nice 'pretty picture' of the relative cloud heights over small areas. The RawWind heights are a diagnostic product as they are calculated using all available wind vectors (even the bad ones). It is therefore recommended that one only use the Best and Without wind products. It is important to remember that the stereo matchers pick up the layer of maximum contrast, which is not necessarily the same as the highest cloud so all the stereo heights are keyed to this level of maximum contrast. Therefore, higher and thinner cirrus layers may not be detected by any of the height fields. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=2000-02-24; Stop_Date=] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1.1 km; Longitude_Resolution=1.1 km; Temporal_Resolution=about 15 orbits/day].

  16. The carbon footprint of exported Brazilian yellow melon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brito de Figueirêdo, M.C.; Kroeze, C.; Potting, J.; Silva Barros, da V.; Sousa de Aragão, A.; Sonsol Gondim, R.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The carbon footprint of food has become important for producers worldwide as consumers and retail companies increasingly base their purchase decisions on carbon footprint labels. In this context, our objectives is to assess the carbon footprint (CF) of Brazilian yellow melon exported from the Low Ja

  17. Carbon footprint as environmental performance indicator for the manufacturing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Olsen, Stig Irving; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2010-01-01

    With the current focus on our climate change impacts, the embodied CO2 emission or "Carbon footprint" is often used as an environmental performance indicator for our products or production activities. The ability of carbon footprint to represent other types of impact like human toxicity, and hence......, and the appropriateness of carbon footprint as an overall indicator of the environmental performance is discussed....

  18. Chemicals Footprint, October 2012 (MECS 2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-17

    Manufacturing energy and carbon footprints map energy consumption and losses, as well as greenhouse gas emissions from fuel consumption, for fifteen individual U.S. manufacturing sectors (representing 94% of all manufacturing energy use) and for the entire manufacturing sector. By providing energy consumption and emissions figures broken down by end use, the footprints allow for comparisons of energy use and emissions sources both within and across sectors. The footprints portray a large amount of information for each sector, including: * Comparison of the energy generated offsite and transferred to facilities versus that generated onsite * Nature and amount of energy consumed by end use within facilities * Magnitude of the energy lost both outside and inside facility boundaries * Magnitude of the greenhouse gas emissions released as a result of manufacturing energy use. Energy losses indicate opportunities to improve efficiency by implementing energy management best practices, upgrading energy systems, and developing new technologies. Footprints are available below for each sector. Data is presented in two levels of detail. The first page provides a high- level snapshot of the offsite and onsite energy flow, and the second page shows the detail for onsite generation and end use of energy. The principle energy use data source is the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), for consumption in the year 2006, when the survey was last completed.

  19. Spatially and temporally explicit water footprint accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin Mergia

    2011-01-01

    The earth’s freshwater resources are subject to increasing pressure in the form of consumptive water use and pollution (Postel, 2000; WWAP, 2003, 2006, 2009). Quantitative assessment of the green, blue and grey water footprint of global production and consumption can be regarded as a key in understa

  20. The water footprint of tourism in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cazcarro, I.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Sánchez Chóliz, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study complements the water footprint (WF) estimations for Spain, incorporating insights of the process analysis and input–output (IO) analysis. We evaluate the virtual (both blue and green consumed) water trade of agricultural and industrial products, but also of services, especially through

  1. Spatially and temporally explicit water footprint accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin

    2011-01-01

    The earth’s freshwater resources are subject to increasing pressure in the form of consumptive water use and pollution (Postel, 2000; WWAP, 2003, 2006, 2009). Quantitative assessment of the green, blue and grey water footprint of global production and consumption can be regarded as a key in

  2. On Touristic Ecological Footprint of Macau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Meng; Yang Yu

    2012-01-01

    Despite its tiny territory, Macau boasts a large volume of tourist activities, which serves as the pillar of its economy. En- vironment and natural resources are the cornerstone of tourism, but are also subject to the negative impact of tourism. Based on the theory and methodology of ecological footprint analysis, this paper calculated the touristic ecological footprint and deficit of Macau in 2009, in an effort to bring to light the current status of excessive consumption of resources by tourism. As the findings show, the non-h'ansferable touristic ecological footprint and touristic ecologi- cal deficit of Macau in 2009 are respectively 18 300.891 gha and 12 737.584 gha, and the former is 3.29 times as large as the tour- istic ecological carrying capacity. Touristic ecological footprint of Macau is highly efficient in economic sense but currently tourism is developing in an unsustainable manner, so appropriate initiatives are in need to strike a balance between tourism development and resource conservation and to promote the sustainability of tourism industry of Macau.

  3. Water footprints and sustainable water allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Chapagain, Ashok; Zhang, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    Water Footprint Assessment (WFA) is a quickly growing research field. This Special Issue contains a selection of papers advancing the field or showing innovative applications. The first seven papers are geographic WFA studies, from an urban to a continental scale; the next five papers have a global

  4. The water footprint of tourism in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cazcarro, I.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Sánchez Chóliz, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study complements the water footprint (WF) estimations for Spain, incorporating insights of the process analysis and input–output (IO) analysis. We evaluate the virtual (both blue and green consumed) water trade of agricultural and industrial products, but also of services, especially through t

  5. Measuring the Global Footprint of an MBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Ilan; McAllaster, Craig M.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the concept that is termed the "global footprint" as a measure of a university's internationalization efforts along multiple dimensions. A university's globalization is multidimensional and includes students, faculty, and curricula. In this article, the authors demonstrate their conceptualization of the global…

  6. Toward a nitrogen footprint calculator for Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutton, Mary Olivia; Leach, A.M.; Leip, Adrian; Galloway, J.N.; Bekunda, M.; Sullivan, C.; Lesschen, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    We present the first nitrogen footprint model for a developing country: Tanzania. Nitrogen (N) is a crucial element for agriculture and human nutrition, but in excess it can cause serious environmental damage. The Sub-Saharan African nation of Tanzania faces a two-sided nitrogen problem: while there

  7. Water neutral: reducing and ofsetting water footprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2008-01-01

    During the past few years the concept of the ‘water footprint’ has started to receive recognition within governments, non-governmental organizations, businesses and media as a useful indicator of water use. The increased interest in the water-footprint concept has prompted the question about what

  8. The water footprint of tourism in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cazcarro, I.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Sánchez Chóliz, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study complements the water footprint (WF) estimations for Spain, incorporating insights of the process analysis and input–output (IO) analysis. We evaluate the virtual (both blue and green consumed) water trade of agricultural and industrial products, but also of services, especially through t

  9. The water footprint of food aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, Nicole; Konar, Megan; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2015-01-01

    Food aid is a critical component of the global food system, particularly when emergency situations arise. For the first time, we evaluate the water footprint of food aid. To do this, we draw on food aid data from theWorld Food Programme and virtual water content estimates from WaterStat. We find

  10. The auroral footprint of Enceladus on Saturn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Wayne R; Rymer, Abigail M; Mitchell, Donald G; Hill, Thomas W; Young, David T; Saur, Joachim; Jones, Geraint H; Jacobsen, Sven; Cowley, Stan W H; Mauk, Barry H; Coates, Andrew J; Gustin, Jacques; Grodent, Denis; Gérard, Jean-Claude; Lamy, Laurent; Nichols, Jonathan D; Krimigis, Stamatios M; Esposito, Larry W; Dougherty, Michele K; Jouchoux, Alain J; Stewart, A Ian F; McClintock, William E; Holsclaw, Gregory M; Ajello, Joseph M; Colwell, Joshua E; Hendrix, Amanda R; Crary, Frank J; Clarke, John T; Zhou, Xiaoyan

    2011-04-21

    Although there are substantial differences between the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, it has been suggested that cryovolcanic activity at Enceladus could lead to electrodynamic coupling between Enceladus and Saturn like that which links Jupiter with Io, Europa and Ganymede. Powerful field-aligned electron beams associated with the Io-Jupiter coupling, for example, create an auroral footprint in Jupiter's ionosphere. Auroral ultraviolet emission associated with Enceladus-Saturn coupling is anticipated to be just a few tenths of a kilorayleigh (ref. 12), about an order of magnitude dimmer than Io's footprint and below the observable threshold, consistent with its non-detection. Here we report the detection of magnetic-field-aligned ion and electron beams (offset several moon radii downstream from Enceladus) with sufficient power to stimulate detectable aurora, and the subsequent discovery of Enceladus-associated aurora in a few per cent of the scans of the moon's footprint. The footprint varies in emission magnitude more than can plausibly be explained by changes in magnetospheric parameters--and as such is probably indicative of variable plume activity.

  11. Footprint Representation of Planetary Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, S. H. G.; Gasselt, S. V.; Michael, G.; Neukum, G.

    The geometric outline of remote sensing image data, the so called footprint, can be represented as a number of coordinate tuples. These polygons are associated with according attribute information such as orbit name, ground- and image resolution, solar longitude and illumination conditions to generate a powerful base for classification of planetary experiment data. Speed, handling and extended capabilites are the reasons for using geodatabases to store and access these data types. Techniques for such a spatial database of footprint data are demonstrated using the Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) PostgreSQL, spatially enabled by the PostGIS extension. Exemplary, footprints of the HRSC and OMEGA instruments, both onboard ESA's Mars Express Orbiter, are generated and connected to attribute information. The aim is to provide high-resolution footprints of the OMEGA instrument to the science community for the first time and make them available for web-based mapping applications like the "Planetary Interactive GIS-on-the-Web Analyzable Database" (PIG- WAD), produced by the USGS. Map overlays with HRSC or other instruments like MOC and THEMIS (footprint maps are already available for these instruments and can be integrated into the database) allow on-the-fly intersection and comparison as well as extended statistics of the data. Footprint polygons are generated one by one using standard software provided by the instrument teams. Attribute data is calculated and stored together with the geometric information. In the case of HRSC, the coordinates of the footprints are already available in the VICAR label of each image file. Using the VICAR RTL and PostgreSQL's libpq C library they are loaded into the database using the Well-Known Text (WKT) notation by the Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc. (OGC). For the OMEGA instrument, image data is read using IDL routines developed and distributed by the OMEGA team. Image outlines are exported together with relevant attribute

  12. Satellite Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a discussion of communication satellites: explains the principles of satellite communication, describes examples of how governments and industries are currently applying communication satellites, analyzes issues confronting satellite communication, links mathematics and science to the study of satellite communication, and applies…

  13. Validation of conventional Lagrangian stochastic footprint models against LES driven footprint estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Markkanen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study we compare the performance of conventional Lagrangian stochastic (LS footprint models that use parameterised flow field characteristics with results of a Lagrangian trajectory model embedded in a large eddy simulation (LES framework. The two conventional models follow the particles backward and forward in time while the trajectories in LES only evolve forward in time. We assess their performance in unstably and neutrally stratified boundary layers at observation levels covering the whole depth of the atmospheric boundary layer. We present a concept for footprint model comparison that can be applied for 2-D footprints and demonstrate that comparison of only cross wind integrated footprints is not sufficient for purposes facilitating two dimensional footprint information. Because the flow field description among the three models is most realistic in LES we use those results as the reference in the comparison. We found that the agreement of the two conventional models against the LES is generally better for intermediate measurement heights and for the convective case, whereas the two conventional flux footprint models agree best under near neutral conditions.

  14. Heat Flux Apportionment to Heterogeneous Surfaces Using Flux Footprint Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Heat flux data collected from the Baiyangdian Heterogeneous Field Experiment were analyzed using the footprint method. High resolution (25 m) Landsat-5 satellite imaging was used to determine the land cover as one of four surface types: farmland, lake, wetland, or village. Data from two observation sites in September 2005 were used. One site (Wangjiazhai) was characterized by highly heterogeneous surfaces in the central area of the Baiyangdian: lake/wetland. The other site (Xiongxian) was on land with more uniform surface cover. An improved Eulerian analytical flux footprint model was used to determine "source areas" of the heat fluxes measured at towers located at each site from surrounding landscapes of mixed surface types.In relative terms results show that wetland and lake areas generally contributed most to the observed heat flux at Wangjiazhai, while farmland contributed most at Xiongxian. Given the areal distribution of surface type contributions, calculations were made to obtain the magnitudes of the heat flux from lake, wetland and farmland to the total observed flux and apportioned contributions of each surface type to the sensible and latent heat fluxes. Results show that on average the sensible heat flux from wetland and farmland were comparable over the diurnal cycle, while the latent heat flux from farmland was somewhat larger by about 30-50 W m-2 during daytime. The latent and sensible fluxes from the lake source in daytime were about 50 W m-2 and 100 W m-2 less, respectively, than from wetland and farmland. The results are judged reasonable and serve to demonstrate the potential for flux apportionment over heterogeneous surfaces.

  15. Age, Sex and Stature Estimation from Footprint Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paurbhi Singh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was carried out to evaluate the utility and reliability of footprint dimensions in age, sex and stature determination in the North Indian population. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out using a sample of 400 people (146 female and 254 male aged 10-65 years in Uttar Pradesh, North Western state of India. Footprints of both feet were taken bilaterally, and thus a total of 800 prints were obtained. A cluster of 7 measurements were taken carefully with the help of a scientific scale ruler. Five measurements were length dimensions from the most anterior part of the toe (T1–T5 to the mid rear heel point and two were breadth dimensions from both left and right footprints: breadth at ball (BBAL, breadth at heel (BHEL and 2 indexes: heel-ball Index (HBI and footprint index (FPI. All data were analyzed statistically using Student’s t-test, regression coefficient and Pearson’s correlation for the estimation of sex on the basis of footprint dimensions. Results: The T1 in left footprints was greater than right footprints in males, while T1 and BBAL were both found to be greater in left footprints than right footprints in females. All the seven foot dimensions were higher in males than females. Conclusion: There were statistically significant differences observed in all footprint dimensions between the male and female footprints except LFPI, LHBI, and RHBI.

  16. Sedimentation survey of Lago La Plata, Toa Alta, Puerto Rico, March–April 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Fragoso, Julieta

    2016-10-31

    IntroductionLago La Plata is operated by the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) and is part of the San Juan Metropolitan Water District. The reservoir serves a population of about 425,000 people. During 2013 the reservoir provided 0.307 million cubic meters (Mm3 ) of water per day (about 81 million gallons per day), which is equivalent to 31 percent of the total water demand for the metropolitan area (Wanda L. Molina, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2015). The dam was constructed in 1974 and is located about 5 kilometers (km) south of the town of Toa Alta and 5 km north of the town of Naranjito (fig. 1). The drainage area upstream from the Lago La Plata dam is about 469 square kilometers (km2 ). The storage capacity at construction in 1974 was 26.84 Mm3 with a spillway elevation of 47.12 meters (m) above mean sea level (msl). Storage capacity was increased to 40.21 Mm3 in 1989 after the installation of bascule gates to provide a normal dam pool elevation at 52 m above msl (Puerto Rico Electric and Power Authority, 1979). The maximum height of the dam is about 40 m above the river bottom near the dam, and the intake structure consists of six 1.82-m-diameter ports facing upstream, with 6-m vertical spacing that begins at an elevation of 19 m above msl. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the PRASA, conducted a bathymetric survey of the Lago La Plata reservoir during March and April 2015. The hydrographic survey was designed to provide an update of the reservoir storage capacity and sedimentation rate. Areas with substantial sediment accumulation are also discussed in this report. The results of the survey were used to prepare a bathymetric map showing the reservoir bottom (fig. 2) referenced with respect to the spillway elevation. This report also includes a summary of a previous bathymetric survey conducted in 2006 (Soler-López, 2008).

  17. Taiwan’s Ecological Footprint (1994–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Jaan Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the 2011 edition of the National Footprint Accounts (NFA published by the Global Footprint Network (GFN, humankind consumed the resources and services of 1.5 planets in 2008; the corresponding number in 1961 was 0.7 planets. North Americans have an ecological footprint of 8.7 global hectares per person whereas Africans have a footprint of only 1.4 global hectares per person. The global mean biological capacity is only 1.8 global hectares per person so human beings are overshooting ecological resources. The ecological footprint measures the resources that are consumed by humans from the biosphere, and serves as an index of the sustainability of development. The NFA includes the ecological footprints of over 200 countries and regions, but not Taiwan. Hence, Taiwan must establish and update its own ecological footprint databases. Ecological footprint is one indicator of the sustainability of development, and can be compared across nations. This study extends previous studies by analyzing Taiwan’s ecological footprint from 2008–2011. With reference to the ecological footprint accounts of the Global Footprint Network and the Taiwan’s ecological footprint analysis for 1997–2007, this study presents Taiwan’s ecological footprint from 2008–2011. Most of the data that are used herein are taken from the Food and Agriculture Organization, the International Energy Agency, Taiwan’s Council of Agriculture and Taiwan’s National Development Council. The results thus obtained reveal that Taiwan’s ecological footprint from 2008–2011 exceeded that from 1997–2007. To respond to this trend toward un-sustainable development and to help Taiwan move toward sustainability, carbon reduction and energy saving policies should be implemented to effectively manage Taiwan’s ecological resources.

  18. Product carbon footprint developments and gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg Jensen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    to the existing literature of green supply chain management. Findings - The multiple initiatives for standardization each improve the understanding of standardized methods of conducting PCF. At the same time, however, important differences exist between the standards in terms of the modelling framework to be used......Purpose - Over the last decade, multiple initiatives have been undertaken to learn how to capture the carbon footprint of a supply chain at a product level. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the process of standardization to secure consistency of product carbon footprinting (PCF......) and to outline how the current developments in PCF support the need for a standardized method to measure and report environmental performance in supply chains. Design/methodology/approach - This paper is based on a literature review and a review of international standards for PCF which brings knowledge of PCF...

  19. Human Decisions: Nitrogen Footprints and Environmental Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, A. M.; Bleeker, A.; Galloway, J. N.; Erisman, J.

    2012-12-01

    Human consumption choices are responsible for growing losses of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to the environment. Once in the environment, Nr can cause a cascade of negative impacts such as smog, acid rain, coastal eutrophication, climate change, and biodiversity loss. Although all humans must consume nitrogen as protein, the food production process releases substantial Nr to the environment. This dilemma presents a challenge: how do we feed a growing population while reducing Nr? Although top-down strategies to reduce Nr losses (e.g., emissions controls) are necessary, the bottom-up strategies focusing on personal consumption patterns will be imperative to solve the nitrogen challenge. Understanding the effects of different personal choices on Nr losses and the environment is an important first step for this strategy. This paper will utilize information and results from the N-Calculator, a per capita nitrogen footprint model (www.N-Print.org), to analyze the impact of different food consumption patterns on a personal food nitrogen footprint and the environment. Scenarios will analyze the impact of the following dietary patterns on the average United States (28 kg Nr/cap/yr) food nitrogen footprint: 1) Consuming only the recommended protein as defined by the WHO and the USDA; 2) Reducing food waste by 50%; 3) Consuming a vegetarian diet; 4) Consuming a vegan diet; 5) Consuming a demitarian diet (replacing half of animal protein consumption with vegetable protein); 6) Substituting chicken (a more efficient animal protein) with beef (a less efficient animal protein); 7) Consuming sustainably-produced food; and 8) Using advanced wastewater treatment. Preliminary results suggest that widespread advanced wastewater treatment with nutrient removal technology and halving food waste would each reduce the US personal food nitrogen footprint by 13%. In addition, reducing protein consumption to the recommended levels would reduce the footprint by about 42%. Combining these measures

  20. AcquisitionFootprintAttenuationDrivenbySeismicAttributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuellar-Urbano Mayra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Acquisition footprint, one of the major problems that PEMEX faces in seismic imaging, is noise highly correlated to the geometric array of sources and receivers used for onshore and offshore seismic acquisitions. It prevails in spite of measures taken during acquisition and data processing. This pattern, throughout the image, is easily confused with geological features and misguides seismic attribute computation. In this work, we use seismic data from PEMEX Exploración y Producción to show the conditioning process for removing random and coherent noise using linear filters. Geometric attributes used in a workflow were computed for obtaining an acquisition footprint noise model and adaptively subtract it from the seismic data.

  1. Carbon Footprint - Application in Graphic Art Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Bolanča Mirković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for more sustainable products and processes has triggered the develop-ment of a large number of environmental assessment tools. These tools measure environmental performance and identify improvement potentials from the envi-ronmental point of view. The life cycle assessment (lca methods take into ac-count all effects on the environment, direct and indirect resource inputs and/or emissions during the whole life cycle of products. The carbon footprint is a sub-set of data covered by life cycle assessment.The aim of this paper is to describe the potential environmental impacts (green-house gases, carbon footprint of printed paper and new media.

  2. Muonic footprint of simulated extensive air showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erfani, Mona; Risse, Markus; Yushkov, Alexey [University of Siegen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The number of muons at ground is one of the major parameters in extensive air showers to discriminate hadronic showers from photon ones. There are already numerous studies focusing on this matter and on using the muon content in combination with other parameters. In our study, we use CORSIKA showers for photon and proton primaries at E=10{sup 18} eV without thinning of shower muons to analyze the structure of the muonic footprint at different core distances.

  3. Mapping the carbon footprint of EU regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Diana; Vita, Gibran; Steen-Olsen, Kjartan; Stadler, Konstantin; Melo, Patricia C.; Wood, Richard; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2017-05-01

    While the EU Commission has encouraged Member States to combine national and international climate change mitigation measures with subnational environmental policies, there has been little harmonized effort towards the quantification of embodied greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from household consumption across European regions. This study develops an inventory of carbon footprints associated with household consumption for 177 regions in 27 EU countries, thus, making a key contribution for the incorporation of consumption-based accounting into local decision-making. Footprint calculations are based on consumer expenditure surveys and environmental and trade detail from the EXIOBASE 2.3 multiregional input-output database describing the world economy in 2007 at the detail of 43 countries, 5 rest-of-the-world regions and 200 product sectors. Our analysis highlights the spatial heterogeneity of embodied GHG emissions within multiregional countries with subnational ranges varying widely between 0.6 and 6.5 tCO2e/cap. The significant differences in regional contribution in terms of total and per capita emissions suggest notable differences with regards to climate change responsibility. The study further provides a breakdown of regional emissions by consumption categories (e.g. housing, mobility, food). In addition, our region-level study evaluates driving forces of carbon footprints through a set of socio-economic, geographic and technical factors. Income is singled out as the most important driver for a region’s carbon footprint, although its explanatory power varies significantly across consumption domains. Additional factors that stand out as important on the regional level include household size, urban-rural typology, level of education, expenditure patterns, temperature, resource availability and carbon intensity of the electricity mix. The lack of cross-national region-level studies has so far prevented analysts from drawing broader policy conclusions that hold

  4. High throughput-per-footprint inertial focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftlik, Ata Tuna; Ettori, Maxime; Gijs, Martin A M

    2013-08-26

    Matching the scale of microfluidic flow systems with that of microelectronic chips for realizing monolithically integrated systems still needs to be accomplished. However, this is appealing only if such re-scaling does not compromise the fluidic throughput. This is related to the fact that the cost of microelectronic circuits primarily depends on the layout footprint, while the performance of many microfluidic systems, like flow cytometers, is measured by the throughput. The simple operation of inertial particle focusing makes it a promising technique for use in such integrated flow cytometer applications, however, microfluidic footprints demonstrated so far preclude monolithic integration. Here, the scaling limits of throughput-per-footprint (TPFP) in using inertial focusing are explored by studying the interplay between theory, the effect of channel Reynolds numbers up to 1500 on focusing, the entry length for the laminar flow to develop, and pressure resistance of the microchannels. Inertial particle focusing is demonstrated with a TPFP up to 0.3 L/(min cm²) in high aspect-ratio rectangular microfluidic channels that are readily fabricated with a post-CMOS integratable process, suggesting at least a 100-fold improvement compared to previously demonstrated techniques. Not only can this be an enabling technology for realizing cost-effective monolithically integrated flow cytometry devices, but the methodology represented here can also open perspectives for miniaturization of many biomedical microfluidic applications requiring monolithic integration with microelectronics without compromising the throughput.

  5. Atmospheric footprint of the recent warming slowdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Zhou, Tianjun

    2017-01-01

    Growing body of literature has developed to detect the role of ocean heat uptake and transport in the recent warming slowdown between 1998–2013 however, the atmospheric footprint of the slowdown in dynamical and physical processes remains unclear. Here, we divided recent decades into the recent hiatus period and the preceding warming period (1983–1998) to investigate the atmospheric footprint. We use a process-resolving analysis method to quantify the contributions of different processes to the total temperature changes. We show that the increasing rate of global mean tropospheric temperature was also reduced during the hiatus period. The decomposed trends due to physical processes, including surface albedo, water vapour, cloud, surface turbulent fluxes and atmospheric dynamics, reversed the patterns between the two periods. The changes in atmospheric heat transport are coupled with changes in the surface latent heat flux across the lower troposphere (below approximately 800 hPa) and with cloud-related processes in the upper troposphere (above approximately 600 hPa) and were underpinned by strengthening/weakening Hadley Circulation and Walker Circulation during the warming/hiatus period. This dynamical coupling experienced a phase transition between the two periods, reminding us of the importance of understanding the atmospheric footprint, which constitutes an essential part of internal climate variability.

  6. Water Footprints and Sustainable Water Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen Y. Hoekstra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water Footprint Assessment (WFA is a quickly growing research field. This Special Issue contains a selection of papers advancing the field or showing innovative applications. The first seven papers are geographic WFA studies, from an urban to a continental scale; the next five papers have a global scope; the final five papers focus on water sustainability from the business point of view. The collection of papers shows that the historical picture of a town relying on its hinterland for its supply of water and food is no longer true: the water footprint of urban consumers is global. It has become clear that wise water governance is no longer the exclusive domain of government, even though water is and will remain a public resource with government in a primary role. With most water being used for producing our food and other consumer goods, and with product supply chains becoming increasingly complex and global, there is a growing awareness that consumers, companies and investors also have a key role. The interest in sustainable water use grows quickly, in both civil society and business communities, but the poor state of transparency of companies regarding their direct and indirect water use implies that there is still a long way to go before we can expect that companies effectively contribute to making water footprints more sustainable at a relevant scale.

  7. 无线传感器网络中的TOA测距方法研究%Research of TOA Ranging Method in Wireless Sensor Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世森; 汤朝明; 吴畏

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduced several ranging methods commonly used in wireless sensor network, did error analysis of TOA ranging method specifically, and proposed a scheme of using SDS-TWR method to reduce ranging error of TOA. The experimental result showed that SDS-TWR method can effectively reduce ranging error caused by frequency drift of crystal oscillator and improve ranging accuracy of TOA.%介绍了目前常用的无线传感器网络测距方法,对TOA测距方法进行了详细的误差分析,并提出采用SDS- TWR方法来降低TOA方法测距误差的方案.实验结果表明,SDS- TWR方法能有效降低晶体振荡器频率漂移所带来的测距误差,提高TOA测距方法的测距精度.

  8. Human footprint variation while performing load bearing tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara M Wall-Scheffler

    Full Text Available Human footprint fossils have provided essential evidence about the evolution of human bipedalism as well as the social dynamics of the footprint makers, including estimates of speed, sex and group composition. Generally such estimates are made by comparing footprint evidence with modern controls; however, previous studies have not accounted for the variation in footprint dimensions coming from load bearing activities. It is likely that a portion of the hominins who created these fossil footprints were carrying a significant load, such as offspring or foraging loads, which caused variation in the footprint which could extend to variation in any estimations concerning the footprint's maker. To identify significant variation in footprints due to load-bearing tasks, we had participants (N = 30, 15 males and 15 females walk at a series of speeds carrying a 20kg pack on their back, side and front. Paint was applied to the bare feet of each participant to create footprints that were compared in terms of foot length, foot width and foot area. Female foot length and width increased during multiple loaded conditions. An appreciation of footprint variability associated with carrying loads adds an additional layer to our understanding of the behavior and morphology of extinct hominin populations.

  9. A hybrid TOA-fingerprinting based localization of mobile nodes using UWB signaling for Non-line-of-sight conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Md Humayun; Kohno, Ryuji

    2012-01-01

    Recently, Impulse Radio Ultra Wideband (IR-UWB) signaling has become popular for providing precise location accuracy for mobile and wireless sensor node localization in the indoor environment due to its large bandwidth and high time resolution while providing ultra-high transmission capacity. However, the Non-line-of-sight (NLOS) error mitigation has considerable importance in localization of wireless nodes. In order to mitigate NLOS errors in indoor localization this paper proposes and investigates a novel approach which creates a hybrid combination of channel impulse response (CIR)-based fingerprinting (FP) positioning and an iterative Time of Arrival (TOA) real time positioning method using Ultra Wideband (UWB) signaling. Besides, to reduce the calculation complexities in FP method, this paper also introduces a unique idea for the arrangement of reference nodes (or tags) to create a fingerprinting database. The simulation results confirm that the proposed hybrid method yields better positioning accuracies and is much more robust in NLOS error mitigation than TOA only and FP only and a conventional iterative positioning method.

  10. 一种OFDM无线网络TOA估计新算法%Novel TOA estimation algorithm for OFDM wireless networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪浩; 任光亮; 常义林

    2009-01-01

    为了在OFDM无线网络定位服务(LBS)中实现精确的到达时闻(TOA)测量,提出了一种OFDM系统TOA估计新算法.将TOA估计分为整数采样周期TOA估计和小数采样周期TOA估计.接收机利用训练符号的时频特性以迭代搜索的方法获得小数采样周期TOA估计,并利用估计结果修正小数采样周期时延带来的相关谱扩展,利用引导沿检测算法由修正后的相关谱估计整数采样周期TOA.仿真结果表明,该算法在信噪比高于0 dB时TOA估计精度高于相关检测算法,10 dB信噪比下其TOA估计精度比相关检测算法提高一倍以上.同时,可以用降低两个数量级以上的复杂度提供与现有超分辨率算法相当的TOA估计精度.

  11. 基于包络提取的TOA估计算法%A TOA estimation algorithm based on envelope extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘倩; 夏斌; 彭荣群; 陈乃澍

    2012-01-01

    针对超宽带无线传感器网络中噪声影响定位精度的问题,提出了一种基于包络提取的到达时间(timeofar—rival,TOA)估计算法。该算法首先利用小波变换的多分辨率分析有效地去除信号中的噪声成分,之后对去噪的信号进行希尔伯特变换提取其包络,最后选取第一个包络的最大值作为TOA的估计值。仿真结果表明,该算法抑制了噪声对TOA估计的影响,提高了估计精度。%The noise could affect the location precision in ultra wideband wireless sensor network. In order to solve this problem, a time of arrival (TOA) estimation algorithm based on envdope extraction was proposed. The noise compo- nent of signal could be effectively removed by the multi-resolution analysis of wavelet transform. Then the envelope of denoising signal was extracted by Hilbert transform. Finally, the maximum value of the first envelope was used as the TOA estimation value. The simulation results showed that the algorithm could suppress the noise and improve estimation precision.

  12. Determination of traces of 237Np in environmental samples by ICP-MS after separation using TOA extraction chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Y Q; Li, J Y; Luo, S G; Wu, T; Liu, J L

    2001-09-01

    A simple, rapid, cost-efficient, and robust method for separation of 237Np with an extraction chromatographic column (TOA: tri-n-octylamine on Teflon powder) is outlined in detail and further improved for direct ICP-MS analysis. The column efficiently retained 237Np in 2 mol L(-1) HNO3 medium and all of the 237Np was easily eluted with 0.02 mol L(-1) oxalic acid in 0.16 mol L(-1) HNO3 at 95 degrees C. The separated solutions were free from most matrix elements and were aspirated into the ICP-MS directly. The decontamination factor for 238U is more than 10(4). The instrumental detection limit for 237Np was 0.46 pg mL(-1), which corresponds to 1.2 x 10(-5) Bq mL(-1). The method is more rapid than traditional radiometric techniques. It is also considered to be more suitable for environmental monitoring than existing methods based on TOA.

  13. The Spatial Footprint of Natural Gas-Fired Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordaan, S. M.; Heath, G.; Macknick, J.; Mohammadi, E.; Ben-Horin, D.; Urrea, V.; Marceau, D.

    2015-12-01

    Consistent comparisons of the amount of land required for different electricity generation technologies are challenging because land use associated with fossil fuel acquisition and delivery has not been well characterized or empirically grounded. This research focuses on improving estimates of the life cycle land use of natural gas-fired electricity (m2/MWh generated) through the novel combination of inventories of natural gas-related infrastructure, satellite imagery analysis and gas production estimates. We focus on seven counties that represent 98% of the total gas production in the Barnett Shale (Texas), evaluating over 500 sites across five life cycle stages (gas production, gathering, processing, transmission, and power generation as well as produced water disposal). We find that a large fraction of total life cycle land use is related to gathering (midstream) infrastructure, particularly pipelines; access roads related to all stages also contribute a large life cycle share. Results were sensitive to several inputs, including well lifetime, pipeline right of way, number of wells per site, variability of heat rate for electricity generation, and facility lifetime. Through this work, we have demonstrated a novel, highly-resolved and empirical method for estimating life cycle land use from natural gas infrastructure in an important production region. When replicated for other gas production regions and other fuels, the results can enable more empirically-grounded and robust comparisons of the land footprint of alternative energy choices.

  14. Anticipated prospects and civilian applications of Indian satellite navigation services in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. Senanayake

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, positive impacts of 3 Indian Navigational Satellite programmes (GAGAN, IRNSS and INSAT-MSS reporting system for the civilian applications over Sri Lanka are discussed. Other neighbouring countries covered under the footprint of Indian navigational satellite programmes can also employ these services for the location based applications productively.

  15. ADDRESSING WATER FOOTPRINT CONCEPT: A DEMONSTRABLE STRATEGY FOR PAPERMAKING INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Shen; Xueren Qian

    2012-01-01

    Since the introduction of the water footprint concept in 2002, in the context of humankind’s ever-increasing awareness of the valuable global freshwater resources, it has received more and more attention. The application of this relatively new concept has been expected to provide ecological and environmental benefits. For the water-intensive papermaking industry, it seems that water footprint needs to be addressed. The water footprint of cellulosic paper can be divided into three components, ...

  16. The environmental cost of subsistence: Optimizing diets to minimize footprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gephart, Jessica A; Davis, Kyle F; Emery, Kyle A; Leach, Allison M; Galloway, James N; Pace, Michael L

    2016-05-15

    The question of how to minimize monetary cost while meeting basic nutrient requirements (a subsistence diet) was posed by George Stigler in 1945. The problem, known as Stigler's diet problem, was famously solved using the simplex algorithm. Today, we are not only concerned with the monetary cost of food, but also the environmental cost. Efforts to quantify environmental impacts led to the development of footprint (FP) indicators. The environmental footprints of food production span multiple dimensions, including greenhouse gas emissions (carbon footprint), nitrogen release (nitrogen footprint), water use (blue and green water footprint) and land use (land footprint), and a diet minimizing one of these impacts could result in higher impacts in another dimension. In this study based on nutritional and population data for the United States, we identify diets that minimize each of these four footprints subject to nutrient constraints. We then calculate tradeoffs by taking the composition of each footprint's minimum diet and calculating the other three footprints. We find that diets for the minimized footprints tend to be similar for the four footprints, suggesting there are generally synergies, rather than tradeoffs, among low footprint diets. Plant-based food and seafood (fish and other aquatic foods) commonly appear in minimized diets and tend to most efficiently supply macronutrients and micronutrients, respectively. Livestock products rarely appear in minimized diets, suggesting these foods tend to be less efficient from an environmental perspective, even when nutrient content is considered. The results' emphasis on seafood is complicated by the environmental impacts of aquaculture versus capture fisheries, increasing in aquaculture, and shifting compositions of aquaculture feeds. While this analysis does not make specific diet recommendations, our approach demonstrates potential environmental synergies of plant- and seafood-based diets. As a result, this study

  17. Interpreting locomotor biomechanics from the morphology of human footprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, Kevin G; Wunderlich, Roshna E; Dingwall, Heather L; Richmond, Brian G

    2016-01-01

    Fossil hominin footprints offer unique direct windows to the locomotor behaviors of our ancestors. These data could allow a clearer understanding of the evolution of human locomotion by circumventing issues associated with indirect interpretations of habitual locomotor patterns from fossil skeletal material. However, before we can use fossil hominin footprints to understand better the evolution of human locomotion, we must first develop an understanding of how locomotor biomechanics are preserved in, and can be inferred from, footprint morphologies. In this experimental study, 41 habitually barefoot modern humans created footprints under controlled conditions in which variables related to locomotor biomechanics could be quantified. Measurements of regional topography (depth) were taken from 3D models of those footprints, and principal components analysis was used to identify orthogonal axes that described the largest proportions of topographic variance within the human experimental sample. Linear mixed effects models were used to quantify the influences of biomechanical variables on the first five principal axes of footprint topographic variation, thus providing new information on the biomechanical variables most evidently expressed in the morphology of human footprints. The footprint's overall depth was considered as a confounding variable, since biomechanics may be linked to the extent to which a substrate deforms. Three of five axes showed statistically significant relationships with variables related to both locomotor biomechanics and substrate displacement; one axis was influenced only by biomechanics and another only by the overall depth of the footprint. Principal axes of footprint morphological variation were significantly related to gait type (walking or running), kinematics of the hip and ankle joints and the distribution of pressure beneath the foot. These results provide the first quantitative framework for developing hypotheses regarding the

  18. Mainstreaming life cycle thinking through a consistent approach to footprints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridoutt, Brad; Pfister, Stephan; Manzardo, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    the auspices of the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative project on environmental Life Cycle Impact Assessment has been working to develop generic guidance for developers of footprint metrics. The initial work involved forming a consensual position on the difference between footprints and existing LCA impact......-alone and not part of a framework intended for comprehensive environmental performance assessment. Accordingly, footprints are universally defined as metrics used to report life cycle assessment results addressing an Area of Concern....

  19. Applications of flood depth from rapid post-event footprint generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Naomi; Millinship, Ian

    2015-04-01

    Immediately following large flood events, an indication of the area flooded (i.e. the flood footprint) can be extremely useful for evaluating potential impacts on exposed property and infrastructure. Specifically, such information can help insurance companies estimate overall potential losses, deploy claims adjusters and ultimately assists the timely payment of due compensation to the public. Developing these datasets from remotely sensed products seems like an obvious choice. However, there are a number of important drawbacks which limit their utility in the context of flood risk studies. For example, external agencies have no control over the region that is surveyed, the time at which it is surveyed (which is important as the maximum extent would ideally be captured), and how freely accessible the outputs are. Moreover, the spatial resolution of these datasets can be low, and considerable uncertainties in the flood extents exist where dry surfaces give similar return signals to water. Most importantly of all, flood depths are required to estimate potential damages, but generally cannot be estimated from satellite imagery alone. In response to these problems, we have developed an alternative methodology for developing high-resolution footprints of maximum flood extent which do contain depth information. For a particular event, once reports of heavy rainfall are received, we begin monitoring real-time flow data and extracting peak values across affected areas. Next, using statistical extreme value analyses of historic flow records at the same measured locations, the return periods of the maximum event flow at each gauged location are estimated. These return periods are then interpolated along each river and matched to JBA's high-resolution hazard maps, which already exist for a series of design return periods. The extent and depth of flooding associated with the event flow is extracted from the hazard maps to create a flood footprint. Georeferenced ground, aerial

  20. Regional Water Footprint Assessment: A Case Study of Leshan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an assessment of urban water footprint in the period of 2001 to 2012 by taking Leshan City, China as a typical case study. The water footprint is calculated by the sum of the water footprints of various sectors, i.e., crop production, animal products, industrial processes, domestic waster, eco-environment, and virtual water trade. Results show that the water footprints of the various sectors rose by degrees varying from 19% to 55%, which gave rise to an increase of the total water footprint of 43.13% from 2001 to 2012. Crop production and animal products are identified as the major water intensive sectors, accounting for about 68.97% of the total water footprint. The water footprint in the Northeastern area of Leshan City is greater than that of the Southwestern area in the period 1992–2012, resulted in an expansion of water footprint in the Sha Wan and Wu Tongqiao Districts due to the development of urbanization. The application of water footprint assessment is expected to provide insight into the improvement of urban water efficiency, and thus aid in better water resources management.

  1. Regional Water Footprint Assessment: A Case Study of Leshan City

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Zhao; Hualing He; Ning Zhang

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of urban water footprint in the period of 2001 to 2012 by taking Leshan City, China as a typical case study. The water footprint is calculated by the sum of the water footprints of various sectors, i.e., crop production, animal products, industrial processes, domestic waster, eco-environment, and virtual water trade. Results show that the water footprints of the various sectors rose by degrees varying from 19% to 55%, which gave rise to an increase of the tot...

  2. Water Footprint and Virtual Water Trade of Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    da Silva, Vicente; de Oliveira, Sonaly; Hoekstra, Arjen; Dantas Neto, José; Campos, João; Braga, Célia; de Araújo, Lincoln; Aleixo, Danilo; de Brito, José; de Souza, Márcio; de Holanda, Romildo

    2016-01-01

    .... This study aims to determine the water footprint of Brazil's national food consumption, the virtual water flows associated with international trade in the main agricultural commodities, as well...

  3. [Comparison of sustainable development status in Heilongjiang Province based on traditional ecological footprint method and emergy ecological footprint method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-feng; Wang, Hong-yan; Xiao, Du-ning; Wang, Da-qing

    2008-11-01

    By using traditional ecological footprint method and its modification, emergy ecological footprint method, the sustainable development status of Heilongjiang Province in 2005 was analyzed. The results showed that the ecological deficits of Heilongjiang Province in 2005 based on emergy and conventional ecological footprint methods were 1.919 and 0.6256 hm2 x cap(-1), respectively. The ecological footprint value based on the two methods both exceeded its carrying capacity, which indicated that the social and economic development of the study area was not sustainable. Emergy ecological footprint method was used to discuss the relationships between human's material demand and ecosystem resources supply, and more stable parameters such as emergy transformity and emergy density were introduced into emergy ecological footprint method, which overcame some of the shortcomings of conventional ecological method.

  4. Tire Footprint Affects Hydroplaning On Wet Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent investigations of tire hydroplaning at highway speeds reveal, in addition to inflation pressure, tire-footprint aspect ratio (FAR), defined as width divided by length of tire surface in contact with pavement, significantly influences speed at which dynamic hydroplaning begins. Tire speeds and forces developed during tests of up to 65 mi/h (105 km/h) were monitored on flooded test surface to identify development of hydroplaning. Study focused on automotive tires because FAR's of automotive tires vary more than those of aircraft tires.

  5. Environmental footprints in the meat chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đekić, I.; Tomašević, I.

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this paper was to present environmental performance of the meat chain and highlight main environmental footprints. The meat sector is recognized as one of the leading polluting sectors in the food industry. The meat chain was analyzed from a five-link perspective introducing the following actors: farm(er)s, slaughterhouses, meat processors, customers and consumers. Meat production needs natural resources (water and energy) resulting in waste and waste water discharge. As an outcome it has a high influence on climate change in respect to global warming, acidification and eutrophication potentials and ozone depletion substances.

  6. The Ecological Footprint of Industrialized countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Frassoldati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To compare the carbon footprint of different nations and the per capita for each country allows us to visualize a problem often underestimated by our systems of production and consumption, which is based on inequality. There is a need to work on this problem because in sharing the liability and the global consequences, the effects that cannot continue, reveals a series of possibilities. It would require 3-6 planets equal to Earth in order to sustain a lifestyle like that of an inhabitant of North America in order to supporst all inhabitants on Earth.

  7. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-01-01] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  8. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-10-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  9. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-01-01] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  10. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=1999-07-17] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  11. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2005-11-01] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  12. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2005-03-29] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  13. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2005-11-01] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  14. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-10-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  15. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2005-03-29] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  16. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2005-03-29] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  17. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2005-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  18. Reviews and Syntheses: optical sampling of the flux tower footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamon, J. A.

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this review is to address the reasons and methods for conducting optical remote sensing within the flux tower footprint. Fundamental principles and conclusions gleaned from over 2 decades of proximal remote sensing at flux tower sites are reviewed. The organizing framework used here is the light-use efficiency (LUE) model, both because it is widely used, and because it provides a useful theoretical construct for integrating optical remote sensing with flux measurements. Multiple ways of driving this model, ranging from meteorological measurements to remote sensing, have emerged in recent years, making it a convenient conceptual framework for comparative experimental studies. New interpretations of established optical sampling methods, including the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), are discussed within the context of the LUE model. Multi-scale analysis across temporal and spatial axes is a central theme because such scaling can provide links between ecophysiological mechanisms detectable at the level of individual organisms and broad patterns emerging at larger scales, enabling evaluation of emergent properties and extrapolation to the flux footprint and beyond. Proper analysis of the sampling scale requires an awareness of sampling context that is often essential to the proper interpretation of optical signals. Additionally, the concept of optical types, vegetation exhibiting contrasting optical behavior in time and space, is explored as a way to frame our understanding of the controls on surface-atmosphere fluxes. Complementary normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and PRI patterns across ecosystems are offered as an example of this hypothesis, with the LUE model and light-response curve providing an integrating framework. I conclude that experimental approaches allowing systematic exploration of plant optical behavior in the context of the flux tower network provides a unique way to

  19. Influencia del Estado de Oxidación del Ión Cobalto en la Estabilidad de Electrodos Modificados con Monocapas SAM-TOA-ANTA-Con+-HRP-NHis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro R. Matheus*

    Full Text Available Influence of state oxidation of cobalt ion in the stability electrodes modified with monolayers SAM-TOA-ANTA-Con+-HRP-NHis. Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM was used to investigate the adsorption of the HRP-NHis enzyme (horseradish peroxidase, which was modified by the addition of a tail of six histidine on its extreme N-terminal. The QCM operating at flow of 0.025 mL min-1 on a crystal whose gold electrode was modified with monolayers of SAM-TOA-ANTA-Co2+ and SAM-TOA-ANTA -Co3+. The oxidize form was obtained from the electrochemical oxidation of a monolayer of SAM-TOA-ANTA-Co2+. The results suggest that the HRP-NHis is attached to both monolayers in a similar way; on the contrary, the desortion of the attached protein is dramatically different. Thus, whereas the ligand-Co2+ bonds are reversible, which allows that the anchored protein is easily replaced by imidazol molecules. The 3+ oxidation state of the metal does not allow the interchange of protein by the imidazol molecules.

  20. Complete Genomes of Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, Two Phylogenetically Distinct Probiotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Khatri

    Full Text Available Several spore-forming strains of Bacillus are marketed as probiotics due to their ability to survive harsh gastrointestinal conditions and confer health benefits to the host. We report the complete genomes of two commercially available probiotics, Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, and compare them with the genomes of other Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The taxonomic position of both organisms was established with a maximum-likelihood tree based on twenty six housekeeping proteins. Analysis of all probiotic strains of Bacillus and Lactobacillus reveal that the essential sporulation proteins are conserved in all Bacillus probiotic strains while they are absent in Lactobacillus spp. We identified various antibiotic resistance, stress-related, and adhesion-related domains in these organisms, which likely provide support in exerting probiotic action by enabling adhesion to host epithelial cells and survival during antibiotic treatment and harsh conditions.

  1. Complete Genomes of Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, Two Phylogenetically Distinct Probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Indu; Sharma, Shailza; Ramya, T N C; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2016-01-01

    Several spore-forming strains of Bacillus are marketed as probiotics due to their ability to survive harsh gastrointestinal conditions and confer health benefits to the host. We report the complete genomes of two commercially available probiotics, Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, and compare them with the genomes of other Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The taxonomic position of both organisms was established with a maximum-likelihood tree based on twenty six housekeeping proteins. Analysis of all probiotic strains of Bacillus and Lactobacillus reveal that the essential sporulation proteins are conserved in all Bacillus probiotic strains while they are absent in Lactobacillus spp. We identified various antibiotic resistance, stress-related, and adhesion-related domains in these organisms, which likely provide support in exerting probiotic action by enabling adhesion to host epithelial cells and survival during antibiotic treatment and harsh conditions.

  2. TOA Estimation Based Higher-Order Cumulant%基于高阶累积量的TOA估计方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖; 王树勋; 梁应敞

    2001-01-01

    提出了基于高阶累积量的多径信号到达时间TOA的估计方法.首先接收信号经过匹配滤波器,再将输出结果进行频域变换,这样将信号传播的时间延时的估计问题转换为谐波频率的估计问题.在反卷积之后的噪声是高斯过程的情况下,利用四阶累积量方法,可有效地抑制噪声,估计各多径信号的TOA.文章最后的仿真结果说明了本文提出方法的有效性.

  3. A Regional CO2 Observing System Simulation Experiment Using ASCENDS Observations and WRF-STILT Footprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, James S.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Collatz, G. J.; Mountain, Marikate; Henderson, John; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Aschbrenner, Ryan; Zaccheo, T. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatiotemporal variations in emissions and uptake of CO2 is hampered by sparse measurements. The recent advent of satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations is increasing the density of measurements, and the future mission ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days and Seasons) will provide even greater coverage and precision. Lagrangian atmospheric transport models run backward in time can quantify surface influences ("footprints") of diverse measurement platforms and are particularly well suited for inverse estimation of regional surface CO2 fluxes at high resolution based on satellite observations. We utilize the STILT Lagrangian particle dispersion model, driven by WRF meteorological fields at 40-km resolution, in a Bayesian synthesis inversion approach to quantify the ability of ASCENDS column CO2 observations to constrain fluxes at high resolution. This study focuses on land-based biospheric fluxes, whose uncertainties are especially large, in a domain encompassing North America. We present results based on realistic input fields for 2007. Pseudo-observation random errors are estimated from backscatter and optical depth measured by the CALIPSO satellite. We estimate a priori flux uncertainties based on output from the CASA-GFED (v.3) biosphere model and make simple assumptions about spatial and temporal error correlations. WRF-STILT footprints are convolved with candidate vertical weighting functions for ASCENDS. We find that at a horizontal flux resolution of 1 degree x 1 degree, ASCENDS observations are potentially able to reduce average weekly flux uncertainties by 0-8% in July, and 0-0.5% in January (assuming an error of 0.5 ppm at the Railroad Valley reference site). Aggregated to coarser resolutions, e.g. 5 degrees x 5 degrees, the uncertainty reductions are larger and more similar to those estimated in previous satellite data observing system simulation experiments.

  4. The pectoralis major footprint: An anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Antonio de Figueired

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the insertion of the pectoralis major tendon to the humerus, through knowledge of its dimensions in the coronal and sagittal planes. Methods: Twenty shoulders from 10 cadavers were dissected and the pectoralis major tendon insertion on the humerus was identified and isolated. The dimensions of its "footprint" (proximal to distal and medial to lateral borders and the distance from the top edge of the pectoralis major tendon to apex of the humeral head structures were measured. Results: The average proximal to distal border length was 80.8 mm (range: 70 -90 and the medial-to-lateral border length was 6.1 mm (5 -7. The average distance (and range from the apex of the pectoralis major tendon to the humeral head was 59.3 mm. Conclusions: We demonstrate that the insertion of the pectoralis major tendon is laminar, and the pectoralis major tendon has an average footprint height and width of 80.8 mm and 6.1 mm, respectively.

  5. Ecological footprints of the future. Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, W

    1996-01-01

    The ecological footprint of any specified population is defined as the total area of productive land and water required on a continuous basis to produce all the resources consumed, and to assimilate all the wastes produced by that population, wherever on Earth that land is located. Sample data show that as a result of enormous increases in per capita energy and material consumption, and growing dependencies on trade, the ecological locations of cities no longer coincide with their locations on the map. This finding indicates that no city or urban region can be sustainable on its own. However, it is noted that a prerequisite for sustainable cities is sustainability of the global hinterland. In closing such sustainability gap, the cities present both unique problems and opportunities, suggesting a much-improved accounting for the hidden ecological costs of urbanization and a redefinition of economic efficiency. Meanwhile, many of the environmental demands and impacts that can be traced to cities have nothing to do with the structure, form, or other inherent properties of cities. Rather, they are a reflection of societal and individual values and behavior. Hence, a major shift in values and consumption habits will be essential if human footprints are not to destroy the Earth's carrying capacity.

  6. European Water Footprint Scenarios for 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ertug Ercin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study develops water footprint scenarios for Europe for 2050, at the country level, based on projections regarding population and economic growth, production and trade patterns, consumption patterns (diets and bioenergy use and technological development. The objective is to estimate possible future changes in the green, blue and grey water footprint (WF of production and consumption, to analyze the main drivers of projected changes and to assess Europe’s future dependence on water resources elsewhere in the world. We develop four scenarios, considering globalization versus regional self-sufficiency, and development driven by economic objectives versus development driven by social and environmental objectives. The study shows that the most critical driver of change affecting Europe’s future WF is the consumption pattern. The WFs of both production and consumption in Western Europe increase under scenarios with high meat consumption and decrease with low-meat scenarios. Besides, additional water demands from increasing biofuel needs will put further pressure on European water resources. The European countries with a large ratio of external to total WF of consumption in 2000 decrease their dependencies on foreign water resources in 2050.

  7. Marine Ecological Footprint of Italian Mediterranean Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica de Leo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of marine and coastal ecosystems to sustain seafood production and consumption is seldom accounted for and is not included in the signals that guide economic development. In this article, we review estimates of marine and coastal areas aimed at sustaining catches for seafood consumption. The aim of this paper is the assessment of the interactions between the environment, intended as a set of ecological subsystems in natural equilibrium, including the marine ecosystem, and the process of fisheries systems. In particular we analyze fisheries in Italy, which is the third biggest economy and the greatest consumer of seafood in the Eurozone, conducting an in-depth analysis of the Marine Ecological Footprint (MEF that evaluates the marine ecosystem area exploited by human populations to supply seafood and other marine products and services. The positioning of Italian fisheries shows a level of sustainability next to the threshold value. The analysis in the present study highlights the importance of absolute indicators in providing rough estimates about human dependence on ecological systems and recognizes the importance of those indicators, such as the Marine Footprint (expressed in % of Primary Production Required/Primary Production, in ensuring a high level of precision and accuracy in quantifying human activity impact on the environment.

  8. 生物油中络合萃取乙酸的研究%Extracting Acetic Acid from Bio-Oil Using TOA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕东灿; 刘运权; 王夺

    2013-01-01

    Complexation extraction with trioctylamine (TOA) as solvent for the recovery of acetic acid from bio-oil was studied.The effects of TOA concentration,iso-octyl alcohol concentration,volume ratio of extractant/distillate and temperature on extraction efficiency were examined.Experimental results indicated that the extraction efficiency was the highest with 40% TOA + 40% iso-octyl alcohol + 20% kerosene and 3∶1 volume ratio of extractant/distillate at the temperature of 0 ℃.And an extraction efficiency of 74.6% for acetic acid was achieved in a single-equilibrium-stage extraction under this optimal condition.%采用三正辛胺(TOA)作为络合剂,异辛醇和煤油分别作为助溶剂和稀释剂,对生物油中的乙酸进行了络合萃取研究.考察了TOA体积分数、异辛醇浓度、萃取剂与生物油轻馏分体积比以及温度对乙酸萃取率的影响,结果表明:温度为0℃,萃取体系为40% TOA+ 40%异辛醇+20%煤油(各组分浓度均为体积分数,下同),萃取剂与生物油轻馏分体积比为3∶1时,乙酸的一次萃取率较高,可达74.6%.

  9. Research on DOA-TOA positioning techniques for TD-SCDMA system%TD-SCDMA系统DOA-TOA定位技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维猛; 焦荣华; 李晓辉

    2014-01-01

    TD-SCDMA系统主要采用上行同步和智能天线技术,使用单个服务基站实现对UE的DOA-TOA定位,克服了传统定位方法的缺点。主要对TD-SCDMA系统DOA-TOA定位关键技术进行分析和研究。分析TD-SCDMA系统DOA-TOA定位基本原理和实现流程,重点研究物理层信息帧结构、智能天线技术和上行同步等DOA-TOA定位关键技术,最后研究了DOA-TOA定位方法,并对不同环境下其定位误差性能进行了仿真分析。%TD-SCDMA system with the techniques of uplink synchronization and smart antenna can realize the DOA-TOA positioning of the UE by a single serving base station,and overcome the shortcomings of the traditional positioning methods. The DOA-TOA positioning techniques of TD-SCDMA system are analyzed and researched in this paper. The basic positioning princi-ple and procedure of DOA-TOA positioning of TD-SCDMA system. An intensive study of the key technologies of DOA-TOA loca-tion in TD-SCDMA system is made,such as data frame structure of physical layer,uplink synchronization,smart antenna and so on. The DOA-TOA positioning method is researched. Simulation analysis of the positioning error was performed in different en-vironments.

  10. Teaching Quantitative Reasoning for Nonscience Majors through Carbon Footprint Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boose, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative reasoning is a key intellectual skill, applicable across disciplines and best taught in the context of authentic, relevant problems. Here, I describe and assess a laboratory exercise that has students calculate their "carbon footprint" and evaluate the impacts of various behavior choices on that footprint. Students gather…

  11. Minor Physical Anomalies, Footprints, and Behavior: Was the Buddha Right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Thomas W.; Munoz, Milagros M.

    1982-01-01

    A relationship between an anomaly of the footprint suggested by ancient Abhidhamma meditations and Minor Physical Anomalies Scale was observed in children. The footprint anomalies correlated with the activity levels of children in the same way as the scores on the scale and consistently with prior research using the scale. (Author/RD)

  12. Intensification to reduce the carbon footprint of smallholder milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udo, Henk; Weiler, Viola; Modupeore, Ogun; Viets, Theo; Oosting, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Will the intensification of cattle-keeping lower the carbon footprint of milk production in resource-poor environments? The authors included the multiple functions of cattle in carbon footprint estimates of milk production in farming systems with different degrees of intensification in Kenya. The

  13. Assessment of Global Annual Atmospheric Energy Balance from Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bing; Stackhouse, Paul; Minnis, Patrick; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Hu, Yongxiang; Sun, Wenbo; Fan, Tai-Fang (Alice); Hinkelman, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Global atmospheric energy balance is one of the fundamental processes for the earth's climate system. This study uses currently available satellite data sets of radiative energy at the top of atmosphere (TOA) and surface and latent and sensible heat over oceans for the year 2000 to assess the global annual energy budget. Over land, surface radiation data are used to constrain assimilated results and to force the radiation, turbulent heat, and heat storage into balance due to a lack of observation-based turbulent heat flux estimations. Global annual means of the TOA net radiation obtained from both direct measurements and calculations are close to zero. The net radiative energy fluxes into the surface and the surface latent heat transported into the atmosphere are about 113 and 86 Watts per square meter, respectively. The estimated atmospheric and surface heat imbalances are about -8 9 Watts per square meter, values that are within the uncertainties of surface radiation and sea surface turbulent flux estimates and likely systematic biases in the analyzed observations. The potential significant additional absorption of solar radiation within the atmosphere suggested by previous studies does not appear to be required to balance the energy budget the spurious heat imbalances in the current data are much smaller (about half) than those obtained previously and debated at about a decade ago. Progress in surface radiation and oceanic turbulent heat flux estimations from satellite measurements significantly reduces the bias errors in the observed global energy budgets of the climate system.

  14. Ecological footprint and food consumption in Minna, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razack, N. T. A. A.; Ludin, A. N. M.

    2014-02-01

    Cities all over the world are growing and will continue to grow as development is tilted toward development at the expense of the rural area. As a result of this there is need for development of housing that constructed at the urban fringes. There are many tools to measure sustainability of a city and one of them is Ecological Footprint. This paper looked at the Ecological Footprint and food consumption Minna, Nigeria. The paper evaluates the effectiveness of Ecological Footprint in the context of urban development. The survey revealed that food contributed 38.77% of the Ecological Footprint of Minna. This is as a result of the lifestyle of the people. It was concluded that the Ecological Footprint of Minna (1.096gha) is lower than the national bio-capacity (1.24gha), which therefore make city sustainable. Therefore, the people of Minna have to develop a lifestyle that will be sustainable better than the present practice.

  15. The variation of Io's auroral footprint brightness with the location of Io in the plasma torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, Andrew W.; Clarke, John T.

    2008-09-01

    Ultraviolet and near-infrared observations of auroral emissions from the footprint of Io's magnetic Flux Tube (IFT) mapping to Jupiter's ionosphere have been interpreted via a combination of the unipolar inductor model [Goldreich, P., Lynden-Bell, D., 1969. Astrophys. J. 156, 59-78] and the multiply-reflected Alfvén wave model [ Belcher, J.W., 1987. Science 238, 170-176]. While both models successfully explain the general nature of the auroral footprint and corotational wake, and both predict the presence of multiple footprints, the details of the interaction near Io are complicated [ Saur, J., Neubauer, F.M., Connerney, J.E.P., Zarka, P., Kivelson, M.G., 2004. In: Bagenal, F., Dowling, T.E., McKinnon, W.B. (Eds.), Jupiter: The Planet, Satellites and Magnetosphere. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 537-560; Kivelson, M.G., Bagenal, F., Kurth, W.S., Neubauer, F.M., Paranicas, C., Saur, J., 2004. In: Bagenal, F., Dowling, T.E., McKinnon, W.B. (Eds.), Jupiter: The Planet, Satellites and Magnetosphere. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 513-536]. The auroral footprint brightness is believed to be a good remote indicator of the strength of the interaction near Io, indicating the energy and current strength linking Io with Jupiter's ionosphere. The brightness may also depend in part on local auroral acceleration processes near Jupiter. The relative importance of different physical processes in this interaction can be tested as Jupiter's rotation and Io's orbital motion shift Jupiter's magnetic centrifugal equator past Io, leading to longitudinal variations in the plasma density near Io and functionally different variations in the local field strength near Jupiter where the auroral emissions are produced. Initial HST WFPC2 observations found a high degree of variability in the footprint brightness with time, and some evidence for systematic variations with longitude [Clarke, J.T., Ben Jaffel, L., Gérard, J.-C., 1998. J. Geophys. Res. 103, 20217

  16. Malaysian water footprint accounts: Blue and green water footprint of rice cultivation and the impact of water consumption in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadillah, M. G. Nor; Marlia, M. H.

    2016-11-01

    Following water footprint approach, this study estimates the blue and green water consumption of rice cultivation in 11 states located in Peninsular Malaysia. The latter part evaluates the potential of water deprivation for freshwater resources in Malaysia. Climate data such as rainfall, temperature, humidity, sunshine and wind speed were used to calculate evapotranspiration rate and crop water use. The water footprint for cultivating rice was estimated for both main and off seasons range between 1600 m3/ton to 3300 m3/ton. The result of this study showed that the green water footprint is higher compared to the blue water footprint for both seasons. In conclusion, the potential water deprivation can be determined by integrating the water footprint and water stress index of different watersheds of Malaysia.

  17. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palukaitis, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Satellite RNAs and satellite viruses are extraviral components that can affect either the pathogenicity, the accumulation, or both of their associated viruses while themselves being dependent on the associated viruses as helper viruses for their infection. Most of these satellite RNAs are noncoding RNAs, and in many cases, have been shown to alter the interaction of their helper viruses with their hosts. In only a few cases have the functions of these satellite RNAs in such interactions been studied in detail. In particular, work on the satellite RNAs of Cucumber mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus have provided novel insights into RNAs functioning as noncoding RNAs. These effects are described and potential roles for satellite RNAs in the processes involved in symptom intensification or attenuation are discussed. In most cases, models describing these roles involve some aspect of RNA silencing or its suppression, either directly or indirectly involving the particular satellite RNA.

  18. Uk’e koley (no footprint) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winnestaffer, Jessica E.D. [Chickaloon Native Village

    2014-03-30

    Chickaloon Native Village is a federally-recognized Alaska Native Tribe that has long been devoted to being a good steward to the environment, understanding that it is our responsibility to take care of the land that has been loaned to us for the short time we are here. The goal of this project was to conduct a feasibility study to assess the energy uses, loads, and efficiencies for all of our current Tribally owned and operated buildings and rental housing units, to determine if it makes economic and environmental sense to install renewable energy systems on each building to lower our carbon footprints and to decrease our dependence on fossil fuels. The goal was met and we have developed a plan for installing renewable energy systems on several Tribal buildings where the benefits will be most notable.

  19. Neutrino footprint in Large Scale Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia

    2016-01-01

    Recent constrains on the sum of neutrino masses inferred by analyzing cosmological data, show that detecting a non-zero neutrino mass is within reach of forthcoming cosmological surveys, implying a direct determination of the absolute neutrino mass scale. The measurement relies on constraining the shape of the matter power spectrum below the neutrino free streaming scale: massive neutrinos erase power at these scales. Detection of a lack of small-scale power, however, could also be due to a host of other effects. It is therefore of paramount importance to validate neutrinos as the source of power suppression at small scales. We show that, independent on hierarchy, neutrinos always show a footprint on large, linear scales; the exact location and properties can be related to the measured power suppression (an astrophysical measurement) and atmospheric neutrinos mass splitting (a neutrino oscillation experiment measurement). This feature can not be easily mimicked by systematic uncertainties or modifications in ...

  20. Quantifying the Anthropogenic Footprint in Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chunlei; Dou, Youjun

    2016-04-01

    Urban heat island (UHI) is one of the most focuses in urban climate study. The parameterization of the anthropogenic heat (AH) is crucial important in UHI study, but universal method to parameterize the spatial pattern of the AH is lacking now. This paper uses the NOAA DMSP/OLS nighttime light data to parameterize the spatial pattern of the AH. Two experiments were designed and performed to quantify the influences of the AH to land surface temperature (LST) in eastern China and 24 big cities. The annual mean heating caused by AH is up to 1 K in eastern China. This paper uses the relative LST differences rather than the absolute LST differences between the control run and contrast run of common land model (CoLM) to find the drivers. The heating effect of the anthropogenic footprint has less influence on relatively warm and wet cities.

  1. The water footprint of land grabbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulli, Maria Cristina; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    increasing global demand for food, fibers, and biofuels has made investments in agriculture a priority for some governments and corporations eager to expand their agricultural production while securing good profits. Here we calculate the water appropriation associated with land deals at different negotiation and implementation stages. Using estimates of actual and potential evapotranspiration for the crops planted in the acquired land, we calculate the green and blue water appropriated by land investors under a variety of irrigation scenarios. We also determine the grey water footprint as the amount of water required to dilute to allowable standards the pollution resulting from fertilizer applications. We found that about 380 × 109 m3 yr-1 of rainwater is appropriated with the 43 million ha of reported contract area acquired by agri-investors (>240 × 109 m3 yr-1 in the 29 million ha of foreign acquisitions only). This water would be sufficient to feed ≈ 300-390 million people.

  2. Managing Carbon Footprints under the Trade Credit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate how the retailer adjusts optimal ordering policy in the presence of cap-and-trade system and trade credit, and the corresponding changes of the retailer’s total costs and carbon footprint. Trade credit is one of the most used short-term financing tools. Our study shows that carbon emissions trading will shorten the ordering cycle for products that emit more carbon dioxide during the storage stage, and therefore reduce the buying behavior stimulation effect of trade credit on these products. Under the cap-and-trade system, the retailer’s total cost may increase or decrease, depending on the combination of carbon cap allocated to the retailer and the carbon price. Moreover, trade credit and the corresponding cost of capital affect the retailer’s carbon emission reduction strategy by changing the retailers’ consolidated cost during the ordering and inventory holding stages.

  3. Corporate Carbon Footprint Arla Foods amba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Poulsen, Jan; Shonfield, Peter

    2009-01-01

    , their greenhouse gas emissions. Arla Foods is a market-leading producer of dairy products and climate change may have severe effects on its business at all levels, for example: • Availability of raw materials – farm productivity may be affected by changing, and less predictable, climatic conditions and through...... to affect consumers’ purchasing decisions Recognising the potentially important impact of climate change on its business, as well as its wider social responsibility to effectively manage its GHG emissions, Arla Foods has commissioned PE North West Europe to carry out a corporate carbon footprint analysis...... of its operations. This involves accounting for, and reporting on, the GHG emissions from all those activities for which the company is responsible. Arla Foods will use this information to better understand the GHG emission “hot spots” in its operations and supply chain, and identify where the greatest...

  4. The environmental cost of subsistence: Optimizing diets to minimize footprints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Davis, Kyle F. [University of Virginia, Department of Environmental Sciences, 291 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Emery, Kyle A. [University of Virginia, Department of Environmental Sciences, 291 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); University of California, Santa Barbara. Marine Science Institute, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Leach, Allison M. [University of New Hampshire, 107 Nesmith Hall, 131 Main Street, Durham, NH, 03824 (United States); Galloway, James N.; Pace, Michael L. [University of Virginia, Department of Environmental Sciences, 291 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    The question of how to minimize monetary cost while meeting basic nutrient requirements (a subsistence diet) was posed by George Stigler in 1945. The problem, known as Stigler's diet problem, was famously solved using the simplex algorithm. Today, we are not only concerned with the monetary cost of food, but also the environmental cost. Efforts to quantify environmental impacts led to the development of footprint (FP) indicators. The environmental footprints of food production span multiple dimensions, including greenhouse gas emissions (carbon footprint), nitrogen release (nitrogen footprint), water use (blue and green water footprint) and land use (land footprint), and a diet minimizing one of these impacts could result in higher impacts in another dimension. In this study based on nutritional and population data for the United States, we identify diets that minimize each of these four footprints subject to nutrient constraints. We then calculate tradeoffs by taking the composition of each footprint's minimum diet and calculating the other three footprints. We find that diets for the minimized footprints tend to be similar for the four footprints, suggesting there are generally synergies, rather than tradeoffs, among low footprint diets. Plant-based food and seafood (fish and other aquatic foods) commonly appear in minimized diets and tend to most efficiently supply macronutrients and micronutrients, respectively. Livestock products rarely appear in minimized diets, suggesting these foods tend to be less efficient from an environmental perspective, even when nutrient content is considered. The results' emphasis on seafood is complicated by the environmental impacts of aquaculture versus capture fisheries, increasing in aquaculture, and shifting compositions of aquaculture feeds. While this analysis does not make specific diet recommendations, our approach demonstrates potential environmental synergies of plant- and seafood-based diets. As a result

  5. Athabasca oil sands development : lessening the footprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, R. [Alberta Environment, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation provided an overview of the oil sands development footprint from the perspectives of industry, environmental associations and regulatory agencies. A map of regional oil sands developments was presented along with details of land disturbance to date. Industry strategies for lessening the impact of land disturbance include compact space-efficient mining operations; good planning; and effective, progressive reclamation. A closure and reclamation model was presented, along with key reclamation challenges such as overburden. Issues concerning tailings sands were examined. Details of Syncrude's closure vision were presented, including details of the Mildred Lake site. Details of the Fort McMurray Environmental Association were presented as well as various regional multi-stakeholder initiatives. A background of Syncrude and Suncor operations was presented as well as development projection forecasts. Impacts to the Boreal region were examined. Details of land reclamation by Syncrude were provided, as well as a chart of cumulative disturbances. It was noted that recent applications have indicated numerous reclamation uncertainties, including long-term performance of landforms and the feasibility of developing trafficable tailings landforms. It was suggested that the ecosystem dynamics of the Boreal are poorly understood. Exacerbating factors include the degraded state of soils; viability of end pit lakes; and climate change. It was suggested that operators are proposing to deal with landscape and technology uncertainty using adaptive management strategies. Government responses to the oil sand development footprint include the encouragement of more research into tailings technologies, end pit lake viability and reclamation; and the identification of regional landscape ecological thresholds by the Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA). It was concluded that uncertainty needs to be addressed via a variety of policy and management options

  6. Interannual variability of crop water footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuninetti, M.; Tamea, S.; Laio, F.; Ridolfi, L.

    2016-12-01

    The crop water footprint, CWF, is a useful tool to investigate the water-food nexus, since it measures the water requirement for crop production. Heterogeneous spatial patterns of climatic conditions and agricultural practices have inspired a flourishing literature on the geographic assessment of CWF, mostly referred to a fixed (time-averaged) period. However, given that both climatic conditions and crop yield may vary substantially over time, also the CWF temporal dynamics need to be addressed. As other studies have done, we base the CWF variability on yield, while keeping the crop evapotranspiration constant over time. As a new contribution, we prove the feasibility of this approach by comparing these CWF estimates with the results obtained with a full model considering variations of crop evapotranspiration: overall, the estimates compare well showing high coefficients of determination that read 0.98 for wheat, 0.97 for rice, 0.97 for maize, and 0.91 for soybean. From this comparison, we derive also the precision of the method, which is around ±10% that is higher than the precision of the model used to evaluate the crop evapotranspiration (i.e., ±30%). Over the period between 1961 and 2013, the CWF of the most cultivated grains has sharply decreased on a global basis (i.e., -68% for wheat, -62% for rice, -66% for maize, and -52% for soybean), mainly driven by enhanced yield values. The higher water use efficiency in crop production implies a reduced virtual displacement of embedded water per ton of traded crop and as a result, the temporal variability of virtual water trade is different if considering constant or time-varying CWF. The proposed yield-based approach to estimate the CWF variability implies low computational costs and requires limited input data, thus, it represents a promising tool for time-dependent water footprint assessments.

  7. Techniques for verifying human footprints: reappraisal of pre-Clovis footprints in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Sarita Amy; Bennett, Matthew R.; Gonzalez, Silvia; Huddart, David

    2010-09-01

    Verification of human footprints within the geological record provides critical evidence of presence as well as information on the biomechanics of the individuals who made those prints. Consequently, the correct identification of human footprints is important, but is something for which critical and objective criteria do not exist. The current paper attempts to address this issue by presenting a new statistically based approach to the verification of human footprints. The importance of this is illustrated by the recent controversy surrounding a series of marks identified as human prints in the Valsequillo Basin in Central Mexico dated originally to 40 000 years ago. The dating of these marks remains highly controversial with some teams placing their age at 1.3 million years old. Irrespective of this debate the crucial question that must be addressed is whether or not they represent evidence of human presence. Using an objective statistically based methodology developed here, these controversial marks are re-examined and found to be of questionable origin, as they are inconsistent with a suite of other, known human and hominin prints. Consequently, we argue that they should be removed as evidence in the ongoing controversy surrounding the colonization of the Americas.

  8. Centriolar satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollenaere, Maxim A X; Mailand, Niels; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Centriolar satellites are small, microscopically visible granules that cluster around centrosomes. These structures, which contain numerous proteins directly involved in centrosome maintenance, ciliogenesis, and neurogenesis, have traditionally been viewed as vehicles for protein trafficking...... highlight newly discovered regulatory mechanisms targeting centriolar satellites and their functional status, and we discuss how defects in centriolar satellite components are intimately linked to a wide spectrum of human diseases....

  9. Institutional Nitrogen Footprint: A Case Study at Oregon State ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many institutions of higher education are measuring and consciously managing their impact on the environment, using metrics of energy use, recycling, alternative transportation or local foods. While the carbon footprint is a more widely known metric of sustainability, the nitrogen footprint is also an important measure of human environmental impact that comes from food, energy, transportation and waste demands of a university. Oregon State University is a large, western land-grant university that has supported a Sustainability Office for more than 10 years, and joined the institutional Nitrogen Footprint Network in 2015. This poster presentation will demonstrate the Nitrogen Footprint Tool calculations for a large land-grant institution using existing data. Goals to reduce nitrogen will be explored in relation to existing efforts within the university that aim to reduce their carbon footprint, support alternative transportation, reduce waste and increase local foods. EPA's Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program has been working with the University of Virginia to grow the Nitrogen Footprint Tool (NFT) network from one institution to over 16 institutions since 2014. This poster will present the nitrogen footprint results from Oregon State University. The university has been actively involved in sustainability efforts for many years, and this presentation will share how much of the data that OSU collects for their existing sustainability metrics

  10. Product carbon footprints and their uncertainties in comparative decision contexts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik J G Henriksson

    Full Text Available In response to growing awareness of climate change, requests to establish product carbon footprints have been increasing. Product carbon footprints are life cycle assessments restricted to just one impact category, global warming. Product carbon footprint studies generate life cycle inventory results, listing the environmental emissions of greenhouse gases from a product's lifecycle, and characterize these by their global warming potentials, producing product carbon footprints that are commonly communicated as point values. In the present research we show that the uncertainties surrounding these point values necessitate more sophisticated ways of communicating product carbon footprints, using different sizes of catfish (Pangasius spp. farms in Vietnam as a case study. As most product carbon footprint studies only have a comparative meaning, we used dependent sampling to produce relative results in order to increase the power for identifying environmentally superior products. We therefore argue that product carbon footprints, supported by quantitative uncertainty estimates, should be used to test hypotheses, rather than to provide point value estimates or plain confidence intervals of products' environmental performance.

  11. Product carbon footprints and their uncertainties in comparative decision contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Patrik J G; Heijungs, Reinout; Dao, Hai M; Phan, Lam T; de Snoo, Geert R; Guinée, Jeroen B

    2015-01-01

    In response to growing awareness of climate change, requests to establish product carbon footprints have been increasing. Product carbon footprints are life cycle assessments restricted to just one impact category, global warming. Product carbon footprint studies generate life cycle inventory results, listing the environmental emissions of greenhouse gases from a product's lifecycle, and characterize these by their global warming potentials, producing product carbon footprints that are commonly communicated as point values. In the present research we show that the uncertainties surrounding these point values necessitate more sophisticated ways of communicating product carbon footprints, using different sizes of catfish (Pangasius spp.) farms in Vietnam as a case study. As most product carbon footprint studies only have a comparative meaning, we used dependent sampling to produce relative results in order to increase the power for identifying environmentally superior products. We therefore argue that product carbon footprints, supported by quantitative uncertainty estimates, should be used to test hypotheses, rather than to provide point value estimates or plain confidence intervals of products' environmental performance.

  12. Ecological footprint of university students: Does gender matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Medina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine if there is a gender difference in the resource consumption activities of students in Central Mindanao University, a Philippine state university, an ecological foot printing study was conducted in August 2014. Consumption data from 380 student respondents were gathered using a survey questionnaire. A web-based software created by the Global Footprint Network was used to convert the consumption data into its equivalent ecological footprint value. Sample size was reduced to 324 (male = 162; female = 162 through a 1:1 nearest neighbor matching without replacement method for propensity score matching. Subsequently, unpaired t-test was employed for comparing the difference in ecological footprint between the male and female student respondents. Results reveal that the students’ ecological footprint is slightly lower than the national average. Furthermore, most of their ecological footprint comes from their carbon footprint. Male respondents were found to have a significantly higher ecological footprint compared to female respondents. This implies gender difference in terms of resource consumption.

  13. Satellite theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozai, Y.

    1981-04-01

    The dynamical characteristics of the natural satellite of Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are analyzed on the basis of the solar tidal perturbation factor and the oblateness factor of the primary planet for each satellite. For the inner satellites, for which the value of the solar tidal factor is much smaller than the planetary oblateness factor, it is shown that the eccentricity and inclination of satellite orbits are generally very small and almost constant; several pairs of inner satellites are also found to exhibit commensurable mean motions, or secular accelerations in mean longitude. In the case of the outer satellites, for which solar perturbations are dominant, secular perturbations and long-period perturbations may be derived by the solution of equations of motion reduced to one degree of freedom. The existence of a few satellites, termed intermediary satellites, for which the solar tidal perturbation is on the order of the planetary oblateness factor, is also observed, and the pole of the orbital plane of the satellite is noted to execute a complex motion around the pole of the planet or the orbital plane of the planet.

  14. Direct and indirect urban water footprints of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chini, Christopher M.; Konar, Megan; Stillwell, Ashlynn S.

    2017-01-01

    The water footprint of the urban environment is not limited to direct water consumption (i.e., municipal supplies); embedded water in imported resources, or virtual water transfers, provides an additional component of the urban water footprint. Using empirical data, our analysis extends traditional urban water footprinting analysis to quantify both direct and indirect urban resources for the United States. We determine direct water volumes and their embedded energy through open records requests of water utilities. The indirect component of the urban water footprint includes water indirectly consumed through energy and food, relating to the food-energy-water nexus. We comprehensively quantify the indirect water footprint for 74 metropolitan statistical areas through the combination of various databases, including the Commodity Flow Survey of the U.S. Census Bureau, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Water Footprint Network, and the Energy Information Administration. We then analyze spatial heterogeneity in both direct and indirect water footprints, determining the average urban water footprint in the United States to be 1.64 million gallons of water per person per year [6200 m3/person/yr or 17,000 L/person/d], dominated by indirect water. Additionally, our study of the urban water cycle extends beyond considering only water resources to include embedded energy and equivalent carbon dioxide emissions. The inclusion of multiple sectors of the urban water cycle and their underlying processes provides important insights to the overall urban environment, the interdependencies of the food-energy-water nexus, and water resource sustainability. Our results provide opportunities for benchmarking the urban energy-water nexus, water footprints, and climate change potential.

  15. Ancient human footprints in Ciur-Izbuc Cave, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, David; Robu, Marius; Moldovan, Oana; Constantin, Silviu; Tomus, Bogdan; Neag, Ionel

    2014-09-01

    In 1965, Ciur-Izbuc Cave in the Carpathian Mountains of Romania was discovered to contain about 400 ancient human footprints. At that time, researchers interpreted the footprints to be those of a man, woman and child who entered the cave by an opening which is now blocked but which was usable in antiquity. The age of the prints (≈10-15 ka BP) was based partly on their association with cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) footprints and bones, and the belief that cave bears became extinct near the end of the last ice age. Since their discovery, the human and bear evidence and the cave itself have attracted spelunkers and other tourists, with the result that the ancient footprints are in danger of destruction by modern humans. In an effort to conserve the footprints and information about them and to reanalyze them with modern techiques, Ciur-Izbuc Cave was restudied in summer of 2012. Modern results are based on fewer than 25% of the originally described human footprints, the rest having been destroyed. It is impossible to confirm some of the original conclusions. The footprints do not cluster about three different sizes, and the number of individuals is estimated to be six or seven. Two cases of bears apparently overprinting humans help establish antiquity, and C-14 dates suggest a much greater age than originally thought. Unfortunately, insufficient footprints remain to measure movement variables such as stride length. However, detailed three-dimensional mapping of the footprints does allow a more precise description of human movements within the cave.

  16. Potentials and limitations of footprints for gauging environmental sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Owsianiak, Mikolaj

    2017-01-01

    To address the sustainability challenge, a large variety of footprints, aiming at capturing specific impacts of human activities on natural environment, have emerged. But, how do they fit into our addressing of environmental sustainability? Here, we build on a critical literature review to (1......) provide an overview of existing footprints; (2) define their roles; (3) position them within the broad spectrum of known environmental problems and control variables of the planetary boundaries; and (4) argue for the need of consistent thresholds to benchmark footprint scores against absolute...

  17. The external water footprint of the Netherlands: geographically explicit quantification and impact assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oel, P.R.; Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2009-01-01

    This study quantifies the external water footprint of the Netherlands by partner country and import product and assesses the impact of this footprint by contrasting the geographically-explicit water footprint with water scarcity in the different parts of the world. The total water footprint of the

  18. Performance Analysis of the Anchor-free Localization Algorithm with Low-Complexity Method for Node Distance Estimation Enhancement Using ToA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIPOV Vladimír

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Ultra Wide-Band (UWB communication technology is used in ToA and these systems are capable resolving individual multipath components in the received Channel Impulse Response and determining their time of their arrival very precisely. In this article the anchor-free localization algorithm using ToA node distance estimation technique is introduced. We propose a low-complexity method for mitigation of the Undetected Direct Path effect which causes considerable errors in the node distance estimation. The method is based on combination of the time delay differences of the reflected paths detected in the measured channel power delay profile, overall channel impulse response length and Mean Excess Delay calculated relative to the firstdetected path.

  19. Methane Footprint Measurements with IASI and GOSAT - Identification of Source Regions from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, E.; Muller, J. P.; Walton, D.; Potts, D.

    2015-12-01

    To date, satellite instruments such as SCIAMACHY and GOSAT-TANSO-FTS have largely focused on regional scale methane output (Kort, A. E., et al. 2014), in order to gain insight into significant methane source regions (such as the Four Corners). However, such an approach does not tackle the root of the issue; the individual sources of methane that account for the total global methane budget, e.g. oil wells and marshland. In this study we aim to use existing satellite sensors onboard Metop and GOSAT to locate point sources of methane from space. We use nine years of global methane measurements from Metop-IASI A/B in order to exploit the exceptionally high global coverage of the instruments (total coverage of the Earth twice a day), and its relatively small spatial footprint in order to accurately identify these methane source regions. Using these data we show which regions have persistent sources (such as the Four Corners), and which are fugitive (methane bubbles in the Arctic), changing from one month to the next. Following the identification of significant source regions using IASI, we increase the resolution by cross-referencing with the higher spatial resolution (but patchy) GOSAT data, in order to answer the question of whether individual gas sources can be identified from space. This study partially follows the method proposed by Kort, who used SCIAMACHY to identify general areas of high methane release in the USA, focusing on the oilrigs in the Four Corners region. This study takes Kort's work further and attempts to identify individual sources (both natural and anthropogenic) using the GOSAT/IASI combination, backed up with ground-based knowledge of sources, such as the FrackTracker database and known natural sources such as the "Door to Hell" in Turkmenistan. Finally we show validation by comparing the individual footprints against methane measurements from the TCCON (Wunch, D., et al. 2010), thus providing confidence in the use of individual satellites

  20. Atmospheric Corrections Using MODTRAN for TOA and Surface BRDF Characteristics from High Resolution Spectroradiometric/Angular Measurements from a Helicopter Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    High-resolution spectral radiance measurements were taken by a spectral radiometer on board a heli copter over the US Oklahoma Southern Great Plain near the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) site during August 1998. The radiometer has a spectral range from 350 nm to 2500 nm at 1 nm resolution. The measurements covered several grass and cropland scene types at multiple solar zenith angles. Detailed atmospheric corrections using the Moderate Resolution Transmittance (MODTRAN) radiation model and in-situ sounding and aerosol measurements have been applied to the helicopter measurements in order to re trieve the surface and top of atmosphere (TOA) Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) characteristics. The atmospheric corrections are most significant in the visible wavelengths and in the strong water vapor absorption wavelengths in the near infrared region. Adjusting the BRDF to TOA requires a larger correction in the visible channels since Rayleigh scattering contributes significantly to the TOA reflectance. The opposite corrections to the visible and near infrarred wavelengths can alter the radiance dif ference and ratio that many remote sensing techniques are based on, such as the normalized difference vege tation index (NDVI). The data show that surface BRDFs and spectral albedos are highly sensitive to the veg etation type and solar zenith angle while BRDF at TOA depends more on atmospheric conditions and the vi ewing geometry. Comparison with the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) derived clear sky Angular Distribution Model (ADM) for crop and grass scene type shows a standard deviation of 0.08 in broadband anisotropic function at 25° solar zenith angle and 0.15 at 50° solar zenith angle, respectively.

  1. Mitigating climate change by minimising the carbon footprint and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    guidelines to improve the resource efficiency of future BRT trunk-route stations. ... The analysis determines that lower scaled, spatially economical structures using .... carbon footprint associated with the use of building materials, due to certain ...

  2. Cooperative water network system to reduce carbon footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Park, Jong Moon

    2008-08-15

    Much effort has been made in reducing the carbon footprint to mitigate climate change. However, water network synthesis has been focused on reducing the consumption and cost of freshwater within each industrial plant. The objective of this study is to illustrate the necessity of the cooperation of industrial plants to reduce the total carbon footprint of their water supply systems. A mathematical optimization model to minimize global warming potentials is developed to synthesize (1) a cooperative water network system (WNS) integrated over two plants and (2) an individual WNS consisting of two WNSs separated for each plant. The cooperative WNS is compared to the individual WNS. The cooperation reduces their carbon footprint and is economically feasible and profitable. A strategy for implementing the cooperation is suggested for the fair distribution of costs and benefits. As a consequence, industrial plants should cooperate with their neighbor plants to further reduce the carbon footprint.

  3. Antagonism in the carbon footprint between beef and dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antagonism in the carbon footprint between beef and dairy production ... decomposition of manure is aerobic, which produces carbon dioxide (CO2), part ... Keywords: Cow-calf production, methane, pasture production, production levels, total ...

  4. PharmEcovigilance and the Environmental Footprint of Pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prescribing and usage of medications have ramifications extending far beyond conventional medical care. The healthcare industry has an environmental footprint because the active ingredients from pharmaceuticals enter the environment as pollutants by a variety of routes, prima...

  5. Spatially Explicit Analysis of Water Footprints in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Barrett

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Water Footprint, as an indicator of water consumption has become increasingly popular for analyzing environmental issues associated with the use of water resources in the global supply chain of consumer goods. This is particularly relevant for countries like the UK, which increasingly rely on products produced elsewhere in the world and thus impose pressures on foreign water resources. Existing studies calculating water footprints are mostly based on process analysis, and results are mainly available at the national level. The current paper assesses the domestic and foreign water requirements for UK final consumption by applying an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output model in combination with geo-demographic consumer segmentation data. This approach allows us to calculate water footprints (both direct and indirect for different products as well as different geographies within the UK. We distinguished between production and consumption footprints where the former is the total water consumed from the UK domestic water resources by the production activities in the UK and the latter is the total water consumed from both domestic and global water resources to satisfy the UK domestic final consumption. The results show that the production water footprint is 439 m3/cap/year, 85% of which is for the final consumption in the UK itself. The average consumption water footprint of the UK is more than three times bigger than the UK production water footprint in 2006. About half of the UK consumption water footprints were associated with imports from Non-OECD countries (many of which are water-scarce, while around 19% were from EU-OECD countries, and only 3% from Non-EU-OECD countries. We find that the water footprint differs considerably across sub-national geographies in the UK, and the differences are as big as 273 m3/cap/year for the internal water footprint and 802 m3/cap/year for the external water footprint. Our results suggest

  6. A dynamic analysis of water footprint of Jinghe River basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Water footprint in a region is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of goods and services consumed by the local people. Ecosystem services are a kind of important services, so ecological water use is one necessary component in water footprint. Water footprint is divided into green water footprint and blue water footprint but the former one is often ignored. In this paper water footprint includes blue water needed by agricultural irrigation, industrial and domestic water demand, and green water needed by crops, economic forests, livestock products, forestlands and grasslands. The study calculates the footprint of the Jinghe River basin in 1990,1995, 2000 and 2005 with quarto methods. Results of research show that water footprints reached 164.1 × 108m3, 175.69×108m3 and 178.45×108m3 respectively in 1990, 1995 and 2000 including that of ecological water use, but reached 77.68×108m3, 94.24×108m3, 92.92×108m3 and 111.36×108m3 respectively excluding that of ecological water use. Green water footprint is much more than blue water footprint: thereby, green water plays an important role in economic development and ecological construction. The dynamic change of water footprints stows that blue water use increases rapidly and that the ecological water use is occupied by economic and domestic water use. The change also shows that water use is transferred from primary industry to secondary industry. In primary industry, it is transferred from crops farming to forestry and animal agriculture. The factors impelling the change include development anticipation on economy, government policies, readjustment of the industrial structure, population growth, the raise of urbanization level, and structural change of consumption, low level of water-saving and poor ability of waste water treatment. With blue water use per unit, green water use per unit, blue water use structure and green water use structure, we analyzed the difference of the six ecological

  7. Dusty cloud radiative forcing derived from satellite data for middle latitude regions of East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jianping; WANG Yujie; WANG Tianhe; YI Yuhong

    2006-01-01

    The dusty cloud radiative forcing over the middle latitude regions of East Asia was estimated by using the 2-year (July 2002-June 2004) data of collocated clouds and the Earth's radiant energy system (CERES) scanner and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MOD1S) from Aqua Edition 1B SSF (single scanner footprint). The dusty cloud is defined as the cloud in dust storm environment or dust contaminated clouds. For clouds growing in the presence of dust, the instantaneous short-wave (SW) forcing at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) is about - 275.7 W/m2 for cloud over dust (COD) region. The clouds developing in no-dust cloud (CLD) regions yield the most negative short-wave (SW) forcing ( - 311.0 W/m2), which is about 12.8 % stronger than those in COD regions.For long-wave (LW) radiative forcing, the no-dust cloud (CLD) is around 102.8 W/m2, which is 20% less than the LW forcing from COD regions. The instantaneous TOA net radiative forcing for the CLD region is about - 208.2 W/m2, which is 42.1% larger than the values of COD regions. The existence of dust aerosols under clouds significantly reduces the cooling effect of clouds.

  8. Study on separation of platinum group metals from high level liquid waste using macroporous (MOTDGA-TOA)/SiO{sub 2}-P silica-based absorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Tatsuya [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-6, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura Naka-gun, Ibarak319-1195 (Japan); Kim, Seong-Yun; Xu, Yuanlai; Hitomi, Keitaro [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-3, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Ishii, Keizo [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-6, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Nagaishi, Ryuji; Kimura, Takaumi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura Naka-gun, Ibarak319-1195 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    The recovery of platinum group metals (PGMs) from high level liquid waste (HLLW) by macroporous silica-based adsorbent, (MOTDGA-TOA)/SiO{sub 2}-P has been developed by impregnating two extractants of N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-di-n-octyl-thio-diglycolamide (MOTDGA) and tri-n-octylamine (TOA) into a silica/polymer composite support (SiO{sub 2}-P). The adsorption of Ru(III), Rh(III) and Pd(II) have been investigated in simulated HLLW by batch method. The adsorbent has shown good uptake property for Pd(II). In addition, the combined use of MOTDGA and TOA improved the adsorption of Ru(III) and Rh(III) better than the individual use of them. The usability of adsorbent in radiation fields was further confirmed by irradiation experiments. The adsorbent remained to have the uptake capability for PGMs over the absorbed dose of 100 kGy, corresponding with one really adsorbed by the adsorbent, and showed good retention capability for Pd(II) even at the absorbed dose of 800 kGy. The chromatographic separation of metal ions was demonstrated with the adsorbent packed column, there is no influence of Re(VII) (instead of Tc) on the excellent separation behavior of Pd(II). (authors)

  9. [Speciation analysis of chromium(VI) and chromium(III) in water sample using flame atomic absorption spectrometry with TOA-benzene extraction separation system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawket, Abliz; Wang, Ji-De; Horshida

    2005-12-01

    A rapid and sensitive method for the sequential determination of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) in water samples based on flame atomic absorption spectrometry with TOA-benzene extraction separation system has been developed. In the H2SO4 medium. Cr(VI) in sample solution was extracted into the organic phase by using the TOA-Benzene and Cr(III) remained in the water phase. Cr(VI) in the organic phase and Cr(III) in the water phase were determined separately by AAS. This method is simple, fast and of microscale. The results obtained by this method agreed well with those obtained by conventional method. The recoveries are 95.0%-102% for Cr(VI) and 94.8-103% for Cr(III). The relative standard deviations were 2.9% for Cr(VI) and 2.6% for Cr(Ill). The system has enrichment effect for Cr(VI), and the detection limits are 6.6 microg x L(-1) for Cr(VI) and 0.20 mg x L(-1) for Cr(III). The maximum extracted amount of Cr(VI) by TOA was 4.6 mg x mL(-1).

  10. Assessment of global grey water footprint of major food crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Liu, Wenfeng; Antonelli, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural production is one of the major sources of water pollution in the world. This is closely related to the excess application of fertilizers. Leaching of N and P to water bodies has caused serious degradation of water quality in many places. With the persistent increase in the demand for agricultural products, agricultural intensification evident during the past decades will continue in the future. This will lead to further increase in fertilizer application and consequently water pollution. Grey water footprint is a measure of the intensity of water pollution caused by water use for human activities. It is defined as the volume of water that is required to assimilate a load of pollutants to a freshwater body, based on natural background concentrations and water quality standards. This study conducts a global assessment of grey water footprint for major cereal crops, wheat, maize and rice. A crop model, Python-based EPIC (PEPIT), is applied to quantify the leaching of N and P from the fertilizer application in the three crops on a global scale with 0.5 degree spatial resolution. The hotspots of leaching are identified. The results suggest that, based on the definition and method of grey water footprint proposed by the World Water Footprint Network, the grey water footprint in many parts of the world has exceeded their total water resources availability. This indicates the seriousness of water pollution caused by agricultural production. However, the situation may also call for the development of a realistic measurement of grey water footprint which is more pertinent to water resources management. This paper proposes some alternatives in measuring grey water footprint and also discusses incorporation of grey water footprint assessment into water policy formulation and river basins plan development.

  11. The blue water footprint of electricity from hydropower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Mekonnen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydropower accounts for about 16% of the world's electricity supply. It has been debated whether hydroelectric generation is merely an in-stream water user or whether it also consumes water. In this paper we provide scientific support for the argument that hydroelectric generation is in most cases a significant water consumer. The study assesses the blue water footprint of hydroelectricity – the water evaporated from manmade reservoirs to produce electric energy – for 35 selected sites. The aggregated blue water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 90 Gm3 yr−1, which is equivalent to 10% of the blue water footprint of global crop production in the year 2000. The total blue water footprint of hydroelectric generation in the world must be considerably larger if one considers the fact that this study covers only 8% of the global installed hydroelectric capacity. Hydroelectric generation is thus a significant water consumer. The average water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 68 m3 GJ−1. Great differences in water footprint among hydropower plants exist, due to differences in climate in the places where the plants are situated, but more importantly as a result of large differences in the area flooded per unit of installed hydroelectric capacity. We recommend that water footprint assessment is added as a component in evaluations of newly proposed hydropower plants as well as in the evaluation of existing hydroelectric dams, so that the consequences of the water footprint of hydroelectric generation on downstream environmental flows and other water users can be evaluated.

  12. Potential for Using Satellite Lidar for Seasonal Snow Depth Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, M. F.; Stoll, J.; Harding, D. J.; Fassnacht, S. R.; Carabajal, C. C.; Markus, T.

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluates the potential for estimating snow depth in complex mountainous terrain using high resolution satellite lidar. For over three decades, satellite remote sensing of snow depth and water equivalent has relied primarily on passive microwave sensors with an approximately 25 km footprint. While successfully employed in many global water balance analyses, their large footprints, necessary to capture the natural emission of the surface, are too coarse to define the spatial heterogeneity of mountain watershed-scale snow due to variable topography and vegetation. In this study, the capability of satellite lidar altimetry for estimating snow depth was evaluated primarily using surface elevations observed by the Geoscience Laser Altimeter Sensor (GLAS) flown on board the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite from 2003-2009, with a footprint size of ~70m. The evaluation includes the analysis of GLAS waveforms at near-repeat locations during snow-off and snow on conditions, using several snow depth estimation approaches, focusing on the Uinta Mountains of NE Utah. Also presented is the concept for the ICESat-2 Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS), currently set to launch in July 2016, and its potential capability for characterizing snow depth. The opportunity for partnering through NASA's Early Adopter Program using prototype aircraft observations also is presented.

  13. Drops with non-circular footprints

    CERN Document Server

    Ravazzoli, Pablo D; Diez, Javier A

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study the morphology of drops formed on partially wetting substrates, whose footprint is not circular. This type of drops is a consequence of the breakup processes occurring in thin films when anisotropic contact line motions take place. The anisotropy is basically due to hysteresis effects of the contact angle since some parts of the contact line are wetting, while others are dewetting. Here, we obtain a peculiar drop shape from the rupture of a long liquid filament sitting on a solid substrate, and analyze its shape and contact angles by means of goniometric and refractive techniques. We also find a non--trivial steady state solution for the drop shape within the long wave approximation (lubrication theory), and compare most of its features with experimental data. This solution is presented both in Cartesian and polar coordinates, whose constants must be determined by a certain group of measured parameters. Besides, we obtain the dynamics of the drop generation from numerical simulations of...

  14. The Water Footprint of Data Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bora Ristic

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The internet and associated Information and Communications Technologies (ICT are diffusing at an astounding pace. As data centers (DCs proliferate to accommodate this rising demand, their environmental impacts grow too. While the energy efficiency of DCs has been researched extensively, their water footprint (WF has so far received little to no attention. This article conducts a preliminary WF accounting for cooling and energy consumption in DCs. The WF of DCs is estimated to be between 1047 and 151,061 m3/TJ. Outbound DC data traffic generates a WF of 1–205 liters per gigabyte (roughly equal to the WF of 1 kg of tomatos at the higher end. It is found that, typically, energy consumption constitues by far the greatest share of DC WF, but the level of uncertainty associated with the WF of different energy sources used by DCs makes a comprehensive assessment of DCs’ water use efficiency very challenging. Much better understanding of DC WF is urgently needed if a meaningful evaluation of this rapidly spreading service technology is to be gleaned and response measures are to be put into effect.

  15. Mealworms for Food: A Water Footprint Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Paolo Miglietta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have explored the possibility of substituting traditional meat products with an alternative source of protein (insects in order to reduce human pressure on water. Insects, in fact, could represent a good alternative source of quality proteins and nutrients and they are already a very popular component of the diet of one third of the world’s population in approximately 80% of countries. In the study, we have taken into account only two species of edible insects (Tenebrio molitor and Zophobas morio mealworms, because they are already commercially produced even in Western countries, and for this reason it is possible to find specific data in literature about their diets. We have used the water footprint (WF as a reliable indicator to calculate the volume of water required for production and to compare different products. The final aim of the work is, in fact, to evaluate the WF of the production of edible insects with a focus on water consumption associated with protein content, in order to make a comparison with other animal protein sources. We have demonstrated that, from a freshwater resource perspective, it is more efficient to obtain protein through mealworms rather than other traditional farmed animals.

  16. Drops with non-circular footprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravazzoli, Pablo D.; González, Alejandro G.; Diez, Javier A.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we study the morphology of drops formed on partially wetting substrates, whose footprint is not circular. These drops are consequence of the breakup processes occurring in thin films when anisotropic contact line motions take place. The anisotropy is basically due to the hysteresis of the contact angle since there is a wetting process in some parts of the contact line, while a dewetting occurs in other parts. Here, we obtain a characteristic drop shape from the rupture of a long liquid filament sitting on a solid substrate. We analyze its shape and contact angles by means of goniometric and refractive techniques. We also find a non-trivial steady state solution for the drop shape within the long wave approximation (lubrication theory), and we compare most of its features with experimental data. This solution is presented both in Cartesian and polar coordinates, whose constants must be determined by a certain group of measured parameters. Besides, we obtain the dynamics of the drop generation from numerical simulations of the full Navier-Stokes equation, where we emulate the hysteretic effects with an appropriate spatial distribution of the static contact angle over the substrate.

  17. Environmental footprint of constructed wetlands treating wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkika, Dimitra; Gikas, Georgios D; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine environmentally friendlier construction materials for constructed wetland facilities treating wastewater. This is done by computing the environmental footprint of the facility based on the methodology of life cycle assessment (LCA). This methodology reveals the dominant aggravating processes during the construction of a constructed wetland (CW) and can help to create alternative environmentally friendlier solutions. This methodology was applied for the determination of the overall environmental profile of a hybrid CW facility. The LCA was applied first to the facility as originally designed, where reinforced concrete was used in some components. Then, alternative construction materials to reinforced concrete were used, such as earth covered with high density polyethylene (HDPE) or clay, and LCA was applied again. Earth structures were found to have reduced environmental impact compared to concrete ones, and clay was found environmentally friendlier compared to HDPE. Furthermore, estimation of the construction costs of the three scenarios indicate that the last scenario is also the least expensive.

  18. Neutrino footprint in large scale structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay, Carlos Peña; Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul

    2017-03-01

    Recent constrains on the sum of neutrino masses inferred by analyzing cosmological data, show that detecting a non-zero neutrino mass is within reach of forthcoming cosmological surveys. Such a measurement will imply a direct determination of the absolute neutrino mass scale. Physically, the measurement relies on constraining the shape of the matter power spectrum below the neutrino free streaming scale: massive neutrinos erase power at these scales. However, detection of a lack of small-scale power from cosmological data could also be due to a host of other effects. It is therefore of paramount importance to validate neutrinos as the source of power suppression at small scales. We show that, independent on hierarchy, neutrinos always show a footprint on large, linear scales; the exact location and properties are fully specified by the measured power suppression (an astrophysical measurement) and atmospheric neutrinos mass splitting (a neutrino oscillation experiment measurement). This feature cannot be easily mimicked by systematic uncertainties in the cosmological data analysis or modifications in the cosmological model. Therefore the measurement of such a feature, up to 1% relative change in the power spectrum for extreme differences in the mass eigenstates mass ratios, is a smoking gun for confirming the determination of the absolute neutrino mass scale from cosmological observations. It also demonstrates the synergy between astrophysics and particle physics experiments.

  19. Exploiting Data Similarity to Reduce Memory Footprints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, S; de Supinski, B R; Schulz, M; Franklin, D; Sherwood, T; Chong, F T

    2011-01-28

    Memory size has long limited large-scale applications on high-performance computing (HPC) systems. Since compute nodes frequently do not have swap space, physical memory often limits problem sizes. Increasing core counts per chip and power density constraints, which limit the number of DIMMs per node, have exacerbated this problem. Further, DRAM constitutes a significant portion of overall HPC system cost. Therefore, instead of adding more DRAM to the nodes, mechanisms to manage memory usage more efficiently - preferably transparently - could increase effective DRAM capacity and thus the benefit of multicore nodes for HPC systems. MPI application processes often exhibit significant data similarity. These data regions occupy multiple physical locations across the individual rank processes within a multicore node and thus offer a potential savings in memory capacity. These regions, primarily residing in heap, are dynamic, which makes them difficult to manage statically. Our novel memory allocation library, SBLLmalloc, automatically identifies identical memory blocks and merges them into a single copy. SBLLmalloc does not require application or OS changes since we implement it as a user-level library. Overall, we demonstrate that SBLLmalloc reduces the memory footprint of a range of MPI applications by 32.03% on average and up to 60.87%. Further, SBLLmalloc supports problem sizes for IRS over 21.36% larger than using standard memory management techniques, thus significantly increasing effective system size. Similarly, SBLLmalloc requires 43.75% fewer nodes than standard memory management techniques to solve an AMG problem.

  20. Low Carbon Footprint Routes for Bird Watching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ta Fang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bird watching is one of many recreational activities popular in ecotourism. Its popularity, therefore, prompts the need for studies on energy conservation. One such environmentally friendly approach toward minimizing bird watching’s ecological impact is ensuring a reduced carbon footprint by using an economic travel itinerary comprising a series of connected routes between tourist attractions that minimizes transit time. This study used a travel-route planning approach using geographic information systems to detect the shortest path, thereby solving the problems associated with time-consuming transport. Based on the results of road network analyses, optimal travel-route planning can be determined. These methods include simulated annealing (SA and genetic algorithms (GA. We applied two algorithms in our simulation research to detect which one is an appropriate algorithm for running carbon-routing algorithms at the regional scale. SA, which is superior to GA, is considered an excellent approach to search for the optimal path to reduce carbon dioxide and high gasoline fees, thereby controlling travel time by using the shortest travel routes.

  1. Conformal polishing approach: Tool footprint analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Dieste

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Polishing process is one of the most critical manufacturing processes during a metal part production because it determines the final quality of the product. Free-form surface polishing is a handmade process with lots of rejected parts, scrap generation and time and energy consumption. Two different research lines are being developed: prediction models of the final surface quality parameters and an analysis of the amount of material removed depending on the polishing parameters to predict the tool footprint during the polishing task. This research lays the foundations for a future automatic conformal polishing system. It is based on rotational and translational tool with dry abrasive in the front mounted at the end of a robot. A tool to part concept is used, useful for large or heavy workpieces. Results are applied on different curved parts typically used in tooling industry, aeronautics or automotive. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the amount of material removed in function of polishing parameters. Model has been fitted for different abrasives and raw materials. Results have shown deviations under 20% that implies a reliable and controllable process. Smaller amount of material can be removed in controlled areas of a three-dimensional workpiece.

  2. Dealing with uncertainty in water scarcity footprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Laura; Pfister, Stephan

    2016-05-01

    Water scarcity adversely affects ecosystems, human well-being and the economy. It can be described by water scarcity indices (WSIs) which we calculated globally for the decades 1981-1990 and 2001-2010. Based on a model ensemble, we calculated the WSI for both decades including uncertainties. While there is a slight tendency of increased water scarcity in 2001-2010, the likelihood of the increase is rather low (53%). Climate change played only a minor role, but increased water consumption is more decisive. In the last decade, a large share of the global population already lived under highly water scarce conditions with a global average monthly WSI of 0.51 (on a scale from 0 to 1). Considering that globally there are enough water resources to satisfy all our needs, this highlights the need for regional optimization of water consumption. In addition, crop choices within a food group can help reduce humanity’s water scarcity footprint without reducing its nutritional value.

  3. Understanding the LCA and ISO water footprint: A response to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water footprinting has emerged as an important approach to assess water use related effects from consumption of goods and services. Assessment methods are proposed by two different communities, the Water Footprint Network (WFN) and the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) community. The proposed methods are broadly similar and encompass both the computation of water use and its impacts, but differ in communication of a water footprint result. In this paper, we explain the role and goal of LCA and ISO-compatible water footprinting and resolve the six issues raised by Hoekstra (2016) in “A critique on the water-scarcity weighted water footprint in LCA”. By clarifying the concerns, we identify both the overlapping goals in the WFN and LCA water footprint assessments and discrepancies between them. The main differing perspective between the WFN and LCA-based approach seems to relate to the fact that LCA aims to account for environmental impacts, while the WFN aims to account for water productivity of global fresh water as a limited resource. We conclude that there is potential to use synergies in research for the two approaches and highlight the need for proper declaration of the methods applied. This paper advances efforts to understand ways to accurately capture use of water in life cycle analysis in other contexts. As the paper indicates, there is a discussion about whether quantities of water should be weighted by some local stress factor. This paper attempts to brid

  4. Satellite Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N

    2012-01-01

    The field of satellite communications represents the world's largest space industry. Those who are interested in space need to understand the fundamentals of satellite communications, its technology, operation, business, economic, and regulatory aspects. This book explains all this along with key insights into the field's future growth trends and current strategic challenges. Fundamentals of Satellite Communications is a concise book that gives all of the key facts and figures as well as a strategic view of where this dynamic industry is going. Author Joseph N. Pelton, PhD, former Dean of the International Space University and former Director of Strategic Policy at Intelstat, presents a r

  5. Satellite Geomagnetism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Stolle, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Observations of Earth’s magnetic field from space began more than 50 years ago. A continuous monitoring of the field using low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites, however, started only in 1999, and three satellites have taken highprecision measurements of the geomagnetic field during the past decade...... ability to characterize and understand the many sources that contribute to Earth’s magnetic field. In this review, we summarize investigations of Earth’s interior and environment that have been possible through the analysis of high-precision magnetic field observations taken by LEO satellites........ The unprecedented time-space coverage of their data opened revolutionary new possibilities for monitoring, understanding, and exploring Earth’s magnetic field. In the near future, the three-satellite constellation Swarm will ensure continuity of such measurement and provide enhanced possibilities to improve our...

  6. Regional water footprints of potential biofuel production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaomin; Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Liming; Huang, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Development of biofuels is considered as one of the important ways to replace conventional fossil energy and mitigate climate change. However, rapid increase of biofuel production could cause other environmental concerns in China such as water stress. This study is intended to evaluate the life-cycle water footprints (WF) of biofuels derived from several potential non-edible feedstocks including cassava, sweet sorghum, and Jatropha curcas in China. Different water footprint types including blue water, green water, and grey water are considered in this study. Based on the estimated WF, water deprivation impact and water stress degree on local water environment are further analyzed for different regions in China. On the basis of the feedstock resource availability, sweet sorghum, cassava, and Jatropha curcas seeds are considered as the likely feedstocks for biofuel production in China. The water footprint results show that the feedstock growth is the most water footprint intensive process, while the biofuel conversion and transportation contribute little to total water footprints. Water footprints vary significantly by region with climate and soil variations. The life-cycle water footprints of cassava ethanol, sweet sorghum ethanol, and Jatropha curcas seeds biodiesel were estimated to be 73.9-222.2, 115.9-210.4, and 64.7-182.3 L of water per MJ of biofuel, respectively. Grey water footprint dominates the life-cycle water footprint for each type of the biofuels. Development of biofuels without careful water resource management will exert significant impacts on local water resources. The water resource impacts vary significantly among regions. For example, based on blue and grey water consumption, Gansu province in China will suffer much higher water stress than other regions do due to limited available water resources and large amount of fertilizer use in that province. In term of blue water, Shandong province is shown with the most severe water stress issue

  7. Satellite (Natural)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    In its most general sense, any celestial object in orbit around a similar larger object. Thus, for example, the Magellanic Clouds are satellite galaxies of our own Milky Way galaxy. Without qualification, the term is used to mean a body in orbit around a planet; an alternative term is moon. The term natural satellite distinguishes these bodies from artificial satellites—spacecraft placed in orbi...

  8. Identification of the key variables that can be estimated using remote sensing data and needed for Water Footprint (WF) assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaguera, Mireia; Toulios, Leonidas; Stancalie, Gheorghe; Nertan, Argentina; Spiliotopoulos, Marios; Struzik, Piotr; Calleja, Eman J.; Papadavid, Giorgos

    2014-08-01

    Accurate assessment of water use is an important issue in a globally changing climate and environment, where water is becoming a scarce but essential resource. The concept `Water Footprint' (WF) of a crop is defined as the volume of water consumed for its production, where green and blue WF stand for rain and irrigation water usage, respectively. This indicator provides valuable information for a global assessment of how water resources are used. Remote sensing (RS) provides physically-based, worldwide, and consistent spatial information over space and time, and has been used in hydrological applications in order to estimate relevant variables at different temporal and spatial scales. The paper focuses on exploring and exploiting the potential of using RS techniques and data for WF assessment in agriculture. Based on recent papers initiated in this research topic the investigation focuses on how variables needed in the calculation of water footprint are obtained (based on non RS and on RS approaches), on identifying the inputs required for estimating the WF of crops and whether it is feasible to integrate various RS approaches. The results of this study demonstrate the usefulness of satellite data for water footprint assessment, which were obtained by the Remote Sensing Working Group in the framework of the ESSEM COST Action ES1106, "Assessment of EUROpean AGRIculture WATer use and trade under climate change" (EURO-AGRIWAT).

  9. Coronal "wave": Magnetic Footprint Of A Cme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attrill, Gemma; Harra, L. K.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Demoulin, P.; Wuelser, J.

    2007-05-01

    We propose a new mechanism for the generation of "EUV coronal waves". This work is based on new analysis of data from SOHO/EIT, SOHO/MDI & STEREO/EUVI. Although first observed in 1997, the interpretation of coronal waves as flare-induced or CME-driven remains a debated topic. We investigate the properties of two "classical" SOHO/EIT coronal waves in detail. The source regions of the associated CMEs possess opposite helicities & the coronal waves display rotations in opposite senses. We observe deep dimmings near the flare site & also widespread diffuse dimming, accompanying the expansion of the EIT wave. We report a new property of these EIT waves, namely, that they display dual brightenings: persistent ones at the outermost edge of the core dimming regions & simultaneously diffuse brightenings constituting the leading edge of the coronal wave, surrounding the expanding diffuse dimmings. We show that such behaviour is consistent with a diffuse EIT wave being the magnetic footprint of a CME. We propose a new mechanism where driven magnetic reconnections between the skirt of the expanding CME & quiet-Sun magnetic loops generate the observed bright diffuse front. The dual brightenings & widespread diffuse dimming are identified as innate characteristics of this process. In addition we present some of the first analysis of a STEREO/EUVI limb coronal wave. We show how the evolution of the diffuse bright front & dimmings can be understood in terms of the model described above. We show that an apparently stationary part of the bright front can be understood in terms of magnetic interchange reconnections between the expanding CME & the "open" magnetic field of a low-latitude coronal hole. We use both the SOHO/EIT & STEREO/EUVI events to demonstrate that through successive reconnections, this new model provides a natural mechanism via which CMEs can become large-scale in the lower corona.

  10. Satellite information for wind energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.; Astrup, Poul; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2004-01-01

    wind data from several types of satellite observations. The RWT software allows an optimal calculation ofSAR wind resource statistics. A tab-file with SAR-based observed wind climate (OWC) data can be obtained for 10 m above sea level and used in WASP. RWT uses a footprint averaging technique to obtain...... an aid to map larger regions within shorter time. Field site observations of obstacles and hedges are still necessary. The raster-based map information from DEMand land cover maps can be converted for use in WASP. For offshore locations it is possible to estimate the wind resources based on ocean surface...

  11. Dinosaur Footprints of Early Cretaceous in Site 1, Yanguoxia, Yongjing Country, Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@After the report of dinosaur footprints in the Early Cretaceous in 2000 (Li et al., 2000), we followed to unearth, investigate and research the footprints with the support of National Natural Science Fundation and Stadholder Fund of Gansu Province. At present, there are ten track sites about 286 footprints within 2 km2 area in Yanguoxia, three of which are being unearthed. Among all the sites, the footprints are best preserved in Site 1, where 187 footprints are found and they are arranged into 17 trackways within about 600 m2 (Fig.1). In the site 2, 51 footprints in 17 trackways are found within the 80 m2. And 4 footprints in 2 trackways are preserved within 50 m2 of site 3. In other footprint sites, the number of footprints is different, ranging from 1 to 12.

  12. Water footprint as a tool for integrated water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaya, Maite; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2010-05-01

    In a context where water resources are unevenly distributed and, in some regions precipitation and drought conditions are increasing, enhanced water management is a major challenge to final consumers, businesses, water resource users, water managers and policymakers in general. By linking a large range of sectors and issues, virtual water trade and water footprint analyses provide an appropriate framework to find potential solutions and contribute to a better management of water resources. The water footprint is an indicator of freshwater use that looks not only at direct water use of a consumer or producer, but also at the indirect water use. The water footprint of a product is the volume of freshwater used to produce the product, measured over the full supply chain. It is a multi-dimensional indicator, showing water consumption volumes by source and polluted volumes by type of pollution; all components of a total water footprint are specified geographically and temporally. The water footprint breaks down into three components: the blue (volume of freshwater evaporated from surface or groundwater systems), green (water volume evaporated from rainwater stored in the soil as soil moisture) and grey water footprint (the volume of polluted water associated with the production of goods and services). Closely linked to the concept of water footprint is that of virtual water trade, which represents the amount of water embedded in traded products. Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. Virtual water trade between nations and even continents could thus be used as an instrument to improve global water use efficiency and to achieve water security in water-poor regions of the world. The virtual water trade

  13. Carbon footprint calculation model for the Mexican food equivalent system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Ruiz Cerrillo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the impact environment trough the anthropogenic action has been contributed to the fast production of greenhouse gases effect (GHG, a way to estimate the quantity of these substances is the carbon footprint (CF, nowadays it does not exist enough models for the calculation of food carbon footprint. Objective: the aim of this study was to design a calculation model for the measurement of the carbon footprint on the Mexican food equivalent system. Methods: it was about a retrospective study, a bibliographic review was made with original and review articles in different specialized researchers, there were included publications in English and Spanish, also published from 2000 to 2016. Results: a reference table was proposed for the food carbon footprint calculation on the Mexican food equivalent system trough the carbon intensity indicator, which is determined by the grams of emissions equivalents of carbon dioxide (CO2 in relation with the energetic contribution of each food equivalent. Conclusion: in a conclusion manner, estimating food carbon footprint is still a challenge, mean while the calculation models proposal is important to estimate the production of GHG trough a more sustainable food system.

  14. Twelve metropolitan carbon footprints: A preliminary comparative global assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Brown, Marilyn A., E-mail: Marilyn.Brown@pubpolicy.gatech.ed [School of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2010-09-15

    A dearth of available data on carbon emissions and comparative analysis between metropolitan areas make it difficult to confirm or refute best practices and policies. To help provide benchmarks and expand our understanding of urban centers and climate change, this article offers a preliminary comparison of the carbon footprints of 12 metropolitan areas. It does this by examining emissions related to vehicles, energy used in buildings, industry, agriculture, and waste. The carbon emissions from these sources-discussed here as the metro area's partial carbon footprint-provide a foundation for identifying the pricing, land use, help metropolitan areas throughout the world respond to climate change. The article begins by exploring a sample of the existing literature on urban morphology and climate change and explaining the methodology used to calculate each area's carbon footprint. The article then depicts the specific carbon footprints for Beijing, Jakarta, London, Los Angeles, Manila, Mexico City, New Delhi, New York, Sao Paulo, Seoul, Singapore, and Tokyo and compares these to respective national averages. It concludes by offering suggestions for how city planners and policymakers can reduce the carbon footprint of these and possibly other large urban areas.

  15. Twelve metropolitan carbon footprints. A preliminary comparative global assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Brown, Marilyn A. [School of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2010-09-15

    A dearth of available data on carbon emissions and comparative analysis between metropolitan areas make it difficult to confirm or refute best practices and policies. To help provide benchmarks and expand our understanding of urban centers and climate change, this article offers a preliminary comparison of the carbon footprints of 12 metropolitan areas. It does this by examining emissions related to vehicles, energy used in buildings, industry, agriculture, and waste. The carbon emissions from these sources - discussed here as the metro area's partial carbon footprint - provide a foundation for identifying the pricing, land use, help metropolitan areas throughout the world respond to climate change. The article begins by exploring a sample of the existing literature on urban morphology and climate change and explaining the methodology used to calculate each area's carbon footprint. The article then depicts the specific carbon footprints for Beijing, Jakarta, London, Los Angeles, Manila, Mexico City, New Delhi, New York, Sao Paulo, Seoul, Singapore, and Tokyo and compares these to respective national averages. It concludes by offering suggestions for how city planners and policymakers can reduce the carbon footprint of these and possibly other large urban areas. (author)

  16. Estimation of stature from static and dynamic footprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reel, Sarah; Rouse, Simon; Vernon, Wesley; Doherty, Patrick

    2012-06-10

    The ability to estimate accurately from known parameters is a fundamental aspect of science and is evident as an emerging approach in the area of footprints and stature estimation within the field of forensic identification. There are numerous foot dimensions that have been measured in the literature to predict stature with varying degrees of confidence but few studies have tried to link the strength of estimation to anatomical landmarks. Such an approach is utilised in this study which estimates stature from the right footprints of sixty one adult male and female UK participants. Static and dynamic footprints were taken from each volunteer using the 'inkless paper system'. The prints were digitised and twelve length, width and angle measurements were chosen for the analysis. The highest correlations with stature were shown to be the heel to fourth toe print for the static group of footprints (r=0.786, pLinear regression equations for this measurement presented the smallest standard error of estimate (SEE) and highest shared variance (R(2)) of all included variables (SEE 4.16, R(2) 0.74). Our study discusses a potential anatomical explanation as to why the lateral border of the foot and hence the impression it makes upon a hard surface, is a more stable indicator in the estimation of stature. The investigation recommends the use of Calc_A4 and Calc_A5 length measurements when estimating stature from footprint impressions.

  17. Assessment of ecological footprint of land use in Chongqing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Li, Baizhan

    2009-07-01

    The land use in China has an important impact on environment and the Chinese economic development. The sustainable development has been recognized as the key element to keep China's development with success in the future. This paper uses ecological footprint and biological capacity as indicators to measure regional sustainable degree of land use. The ecological footprint and the biological capacity of land use in Chongqing municipality with 28 million populations have been calculated from 1999 to 2007. The ecological footprint and the biological capacity of land use in Chongqing municipality had obvious changed from 1999 to 2007. The change degree of ecological footprint affected by land use is more prominent than the change degree of biological capacity. The fossil energy land possesses the most proportion, which exceeds 58% in average. The cropland is also an important effect to ecological footprint, which achieves to 35% in proportion. The results from the research can inform the Chongqing municipality government in more detail enhances the land protection in the balance of urban development with society, ecology, environment and resource.

  18. Ecological footprint of food consumption in China: 1982-2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Shuyan; Zhang Wei; Chen Qiao

    2007-01-01

    This paper calculates the land (including water area) requirement for food consumption in both balanced and actual diet in China by ecological footprint analysis. To determine whether logical and actual food demands are within natural regenerative ability, carrying capacity (excluding forestry production) is also calculated. Results show that actual diet patterns were ecologically friendly in the period of 1982-2004 in China, mainly because of the rural moderate diet patterns. But actual per capita footprint already overran its corresponding logic value of 0.976ha in urban areas in 2002.Productive areas for food production can satisfy the land requirement for actual diet patterns during the researching period in China, nevertheless cannot satisfy that for balanced diet pattern or solve the problem of unbalanced ecological footprint. The continual rising ecological footprint of food consumption in both rural and urban areas indicates that per capita footprint will keep on increasing in China and even may be more than the suggested logic value if no relevant countermeasures are made to regulate diet patterns. Strictly speaking, China is facing food shortage, both in quality and in quantity.

  19. Scientific Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    followed Hale’s into orbit. In 1879, Jules Verne wrote about launching small satellites with a gun possessing a muzzle velocity of 10 000 m/sec (ref. 3...was activated in 1950.11 It was located only a few tens of miles from the spot where Jules Verne had his Baltimore Gun Club fire a manned projectile to...principle, satellites can be launched by a single impulse applied at the Earth’s surface-say, with a large cannon, & la Jules Verne (sec. 8-3). In

  20. IR-UWB系统中基于root-MUSIC算法的TOA和DOA联合估计%Root-MUSIC-based joint TOA and DOA estimation in IR-UWB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王方秋; 张小飞; 汪飞

    2014-01-01

    针对二维多重信号分类算法可以估计出系统的到达时间(TOA, time-of-arrival)和波达方向(DOA, direction-of-arrival)参数,但需要复杂度非常高的二维谱峰搜索这一问题,提出了 IR-UWB 系统中基于求根MUSIC(root-MUSIC)的TOA和DOA联合估计算法,该算法对接收信号的频域形式建模,先估计出TOA,然后由TOA的差值计算出DOA,从而实现TOA和DOA的联合估计。该算法不需谱峰搜索,可直接给出估计参数的闭式解,还可实现参数配对。还推导了参数估计的误差方差。仿真结果表明,该算法的参数估计性能明显优于矩阵束算法、传播算子算法以及基于旋转不变技术估计信号参数算法,并且非常接近于2D-MUSIC算法,但该算法的复杂度却远远低于2D-MUSIC算法。%The parameters can be estimated via two-dimensional (2D) multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm, in which the two-dimensional spectral peak searching, however, requires much higher computational complexity. Aiming at this, an algorithm of root-MUSIC-based joint TOA and DOA estimation in IR-UWB system was proposed. After mod-eling the received signals in the frequency-domain, the algorithm estimated the TOA parameters first, and then the DOA parameters via the difference of the TOA was obtained, thereby the joint TOA and DOA estimation was gained. This al-gorithm does not need spectral peak searching and can obtain the closed-form solutions of the TOAs and DOAs. Moreo-ver, it can get the parameters paired. In addition, the error variances of the estimated parameters were derived. The simu-lation results show that the proposed algorithm has much better performance than matrix pencil algorithm, propagator method and estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT) algorithm, and has almost the same performance as 2D-MUSIC algorithm, while the complexity of the proposed algorithm has far lower than that of 2D

  1. Surveying the Environmental Footprint of Urban Food Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Benjamin Paul; Birkved, Morten; Fernandez, John

    2016-01-01

    , and electricity. Hitherto, urban food consumption has garnered scant attention both in UM accounting (typically lumped with “biomass”) and on the urban policy agenda, despite its relevance to local and global environmental pressures. With future growth expected in urban population and wealth, an accounting...... of the environmental footprint from urban food demand (“foodprint”) is necessary. This article reviews 43 UM assessments including 100 cities, and a total of 132 foodprints in terms of mass, carbon footprint, and ecological footprint and situates it relative to other significant environmental drivers (transport....... The foodprint is primarily linear in form, producing significant organic exhaust from the urban system that has a strong, positive correlation to wealth. Though much of the foodprint is embodied within imported foodstuffs, cities can still implement design and policy interventions, such as improved nutrient...

  2. Improvement of Ecological Footprint Method and Application in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Shuhai; Jin Fengjun; Liu Yi

    2005-01-01

    The measure of sustainable development has always been an important and difficulty subject,and the major evaluation model has three types:indicators based on system theory and methods,indicators relied on economic valuation of the environment, sustainability indicators including biophysical assessments. The ecological footprint analysis initiated by William E. Rees, one of the indicators including biophysical assessments, gets rid of the defects of the other models. Ecological footprint has gradually become popular on account of the measuring indexes based on scientific theory,innovative thought-way and its wide adaptability.This paper introduces the conception and computation method, making a progress and making up for the method of ecological footprint, and finally,makes an application analyses through Henan province regional sustainable development.

  3. Protein footprinting by pyrite shrink-wrap laminate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leser, Micheal; Pegan, Jonathan; El Makkaoui, Mohammed; Schlatterer, Joerg C; Khine, Michelle; Law, Matt; Brenowitz, Michael

    2015-04-07

    The structure of macromolecules and their complexes dictate their biological function. In "footprinting", the solvent accessibility of the residues that constitute proteins, DNA and RNA can be determined from their reactivity to an exogenous reagent such as the hydroxyl radical (·OH). While ·OH generation for protein footprinting is achieved by radiolysis, photolysis and electrochemistry, we present a simpler solution. A thin film of pyrite (cubic FeS2) nanocrystals deposited onto a shape memory polymer (commodity shrink-wrap film) generates sufficient ·OH via Fenton chemistry for oxidative footprinting analysis of proteins. We demonstrate that varying either time or H2O2 concentration yields the required ·OH dose-oxidation response relationship. A simple and scalable sample handling protocol is enabled by thermoforming the "pyrite shrink-wrap laminate" into a standard microtiter plate format. The low cost and malleability of the laminate facilitates its integration into high throughput screening and microfluidic devices.

  4. Baseline ecological footprint of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coplen, Amy K.; Mizner, Jack Harry,; Ubechel, Norion M.

    2009-01-01

    The Ecological Footprint Model is a mechanism for measuring the environmental effects of operations at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). This analysis quantifies environmental impact associated with energy use, transportation, waste, land use, and water consumption at SNL/NM for fiscal year 2005 (FY05). Since SNL/NMs total ecological footprint (96,434 gha) is greater than the waste absorption capacity of its landholdings (338 gha), it created an ecological deficit of 96,096 gha. This deficit is equal to 886,470lha, or about 3,423 square miles of Pinyon-Juniper woodlands and desert grassland. 89% of the ecological footprint can be attributed to energy use, indicating that in order to mitigate environmental impact, efforts should be focused on energy efficiency, energy reduction, and the incorporation of additional renewable energy alternatives at SNL/NM.

  5. A Location Method by Position Information Field Based on TOA%一种基于TOA测量的位置信息场定位算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张奎; 罗景青; 孟祥豪

    2014-01-01

    As the traditional location method based on TOA can’t adapt to complex radar signals,a new location method by position information field based on TOA is proposed in this paper. Firstly,the pulse pattern is self-extracted from the pulse train received by the master station,which is used by slave station to sort the emitter’s pulse data,and the TOA of the slave station’pulse data is transformed back to the master station. Then the master station constructs position information field function and obtains the emitter position estimate through grid searching method. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the algorithm.%针对传统的仅测脉冲到达时间(TOA)定位方法不能适应复杂体制雷达信号的问题,提出了一种新的基于TOA测量的位置信息场定位算法。首先由主站自提取辐射源的脉冲样本图,副站利用主站自提取的脉冲样本图匹配分选出该站接收的辐射源脉冲列,并将其对应的TOA数据传回主站,而后由主站基于各站的TOA测量构造目标位置信息场函数,通过网格搜索法实现对辐射源位置的估计。仿真结果验证了该方法的有效性。

  6. A carbon footprint simulation model for the cork oak sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demertzi, Martha; Paulo, Joana Amaral; Arroja, Luís; Dias, Ana Cláudia

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, a simulation model for the calculation of the carbon footprint of the cork oak sector (CCFM) is developed for the first time. A life cycle approach is adopted including the forest management, manufacturing, use and end-of-life stages. CCFM allows the user to insert the cork type used as raw material and its respective quantity and the distances in-between the various stages. The user can choose among different end-of-life destination options for the used cork products. The option of inserting different inputs, allows the use of the present simulation model for different cork oak systems, in different countries and with different conditions. CCFM allows the identification of the stages and products with the greatest carbon footprint and thus, a better management of the sector from an environmental perspective. The Portuguese cork oak sector is used as an application example of the model. The results obtained showed that the agglomeration industry is the hotspot for the carbon footprint of the cork sector mainly due to the production of the resins that are mixed with the cork granules for the production of agglomerated cork products. The consideration of the biogenic carbon emissions and sequestration of carbon at the forest in the carbon footprint, resulted to a great decrease of the sector's carbon footprint. Future actions for improvement are suggested in order to decrease the carbon footprint of the entire cork sector. It was found that by decreasing by 10% the emission factor of the agglomeration and transformation industries, substituting the transport trucks by more recent ones and by decreasing by 10% the cork products reaching the landfilling end-of-life destinations (while increasing the quantities reaching incineration and recycling), a decrease of the total CF (excluding the biogenic emissions and sequestration) of the entire cork industry by 10% can be achieved.

  7. Ichnotaxonomy of the Laetoli trackways: The earliest hominin footprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, D. J.; Lockley, Martin G.; Lucas, Spencer G.; Musiba, Charles

    2011-04-01

    At 3.6 Ma, the Laetoli Pliocene hominin trackways are the earliest direct evidence of hominin bipedalism. Three decades since their discovery, not only is the question of their attribution still discussed, but marked differences in interpretation concerning the footprints' qualitative features and the inferred nature of the early hominin foot morphology remain. Here, we establish a novel ichnotaxon, Praehominipes laetoliensis, for these tracks and clarify the distinctions of these footprints from those of later hominins, especially modern humans. We also contrast hominin, human, and ape footprints to establish morphological features of these footprints correlated with a midtarsal break versus a stiff longitudinal arch. Original photos, including stereo photographs, and casts of footprints from the 1978 Laetoli excavation, confirm midtarsal flexibility, and repeatedly indicate an associated midfoot pressure ridge. In contrast, the modern human footprint reflects the derived arched-foot architecture, combined with a stiff-legged striding gait. Fossilized footprints of unshod modern human pedestrians in Hawaii and Nicaragua unambiguously illustrate these contrasts. Some points of comparisons with ape footprints are complicated by a variable hallucal position and the distinct manner of ape facultative bipedalism. In contrast to the comparatively rigid platform of the modern human foot, midtarsal flexibility is present in the chimpanzee foot. In ape locomotion, flexion at the transverse tarsal joint, referred to as the "midtarsal break," uncouples the respective functions of the prehensile forefoot and the propulsive hindfoot during grasp-climbing. At some point after the transition to habitual bipedalism, these grasp-climb adaptations, presumed to be present in the last common ancestor of apes and humans, were initially compromised by the loss of divergence of the hallux. An analogous trajectory is evident along an array of increasingly terrestrial extant ape species

  8. Measuring your water footprint: What's next in water strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2008-01-01

    By now, carbon neutrality is such a catchphrase in the world of responsible business, it’s impossible to ignore the carbon footprint of a new product or service. But with the exception of a few companies like Coca-Cola, Nestlé and Suez, the concept of water neutrality, or measuring your water footprint, is still under the radar. It’s time to take note: In a landscape where the demand for water is fast outstripping supply, focusing on water neutrality is a key corporate strategy in managing wa...

  9. Metaheuristics for a Tectonic Development of Hospital Design Footprints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Malene Kirstine; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2014-01-01

    The present paper presents a model for footprint generation of hospital design based on functionalities. The model takes point of departure in layout generation for hospitals by use of a metaheuristic approach. The hospital functionalities with respective constraints lead a decomposition of the h......The present paper presents a model for footprint generation of hospital design based on functionalities. The model takes point of departure in layout generation for hospitals by use of a metaheuristic approach. The hospital functionalities with respective constraints lead a decomposition...

  10. Quantifying environmental performance using an environmental footprint calculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.B.; Loney, A.C.; Chan, V. [Conestoga-Rovers & Associates, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper provides a case study using relevant key performance indicators (KPIs) to evaluate the environmental performance of a business. Using recognized calculation and reporting frameworks, Conestoga-Rovers & Associates (CRA) designed the Environmental Footprint Calculator to quantify the environmental performance of a Canadian construction materials company. CRA designed the Environmental Footprint calculator for our client to track and report their environmental performance in accordance with their targets, based on requirements of relevant guidance documents. The objective was to design a tool that effectively manages, calculates, and reports environmental performance to various stakeholders in a user-friendly format. (author)

  11. A carbon footprint simulation model for the cork oak sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demertzi, Martha, E-mail: marthademertzi@ua.pt [Center for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Paulo, Joana Amaral, E-mail: joanaap@isa.ulisboa.pt [Center of Forest Studies (CEF), Superior Institute of Agronomy (ISA), Tapada da Ajuda, University of Lisbon, 1349-017 Lisbon (Portugal); Arroja, Luís, E-mail: arroja@ua.pt [Center for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Dias, Ana Cláudia, E-mail: acdias@ua.pt [Center for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, a simulation model for the calculation of the carbon footprint of the cork oak sector (CCFM) is developed for the first time. A life cycle approach is adopted including the forest management, manufacturing, use and end-of-life stages. CCFM allows the user to insert the cork type used as raw material and its respective quantity and the distances in-between the various stages. The user can choose among different end-of-life destination options for the used cork products. The option of inserting different inputs, allows the use of the present simulation model for different cork oak systems, in different countries and with different conditions. CCFM allows the identification of the stages and products with the greatest carbon footprint and thus, a better management of the sector from an environmental perspective. The Portuguese cork oak sector is used as an application example of the model. The results obtained showed that the agglomeration industry is the hotspot for the carbon footprint of the cork sector mainly due to the production of the resins that are mixed with the cork granules for the production of agglomerated cork products. The consideration of the biogenic carbon emissions and sequestration of carbon at the forest in the carbon footprint, resulted to a great decrease of the sector's carbon footprint. Future actions for improvement are suggested in order to decrease the carbon footprint of the entire cork sector. It was found that by decreasing by 10% the emission factor of the agglomeration and transformation industries, substituting the transport trucks by more recent ones and by decreasing by 10% the cork products reaching the landfilling end-of-life destinations (while increasing the quantities reaching incineration and recycling), a decrease of the total CF (excluding the biogenic emissions and sequestration) of the entire cork industry by 10% can be achieved. - Highlights: • A carbon footprint simulation model (CCFM) for

  12. Effects of Globalisation on Carbon Footprints of Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2009-01-01

    Outsourcing of production from the industrialised countries to the newly industrialised economies holds the potential to increase wealth in both places, but what are the environmental costs of the globalised manufacturing systems? This paper looks into the changes in carbon footprint...... of manufactured products when production is moved from United Kingdom or Denmark to China and uses environmental input-output analysis to calculate the carbon footprint in the bilateral trade between these countries. The results show that differences between the European and Chinese production systems can lead...

  13. Scale Dependence of Cirrus Horizontal Heterogeneity Effects on TOA Measurements. Part I; MODIS Brightness Temperatures in the Thermal Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchez, Thomas; Platnick, Steven; Meyer, Kerry; Cornet, Celine; Szczap, Frederic; Varnai, Tamas

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the impact of cirrus cloud heterogeneities on MODIS simulated thermal infrared (TIR) brightness temperatures (BTs) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) as a function of spatial resolution from 50 meters to 10 kilometers. A realistic 3-D (three-dimensional) cirrus field is generated by the 3DCLOUD model (average optical thickness of 1.4, cloudtop and base altitudes at 10 and 12 kilometers, respectively, consisting of aggregate column crystals of D (sub eff) equals 20 microns), and 3-D thermal infrared radiative transfer (RT) is simulated with the 3DMCPOL (3-D Monte Carlo Polarized) code. According to previous studies, differences between 3-D BT computed from a heterogenous pixel and 1-D (one-dimensional) RT computed from a homogeneous pixel are considered dependent at nadir on two effects: (i) the optical thickness horizontal heterogeneity leading to the plane-parallel homogeneous bias (PPHB); and the (ii) horizontal radiative transport (HRT) leading to the independent pixel approximation error (IPAE). A single but realistic cirrus case is simulated and, as expected, the PPHB mainly impacts the low-spatial resolution results (above approximately 250 meters), with averaged values of up to 5-7 K (thousand), while the IPAE mainly impacts the high-spatial resolution results (below approximately 250 meters) with average values of up to 1-2 K (thousand). A sensitivity study has been performed in order to extend these results to various cirrus optical thicknesses and heterogeneities by sampling the cirrus in several ranges of parameters. For four optical thickness classes and four optical heterogeneity classes, we have found that, for nadir observations, the spatial resolution at which the combination of PPHB and HRT effects is the smallest, falls between 100 and 250 meters. These spatial resolutions thus appear to be the best choice to retrieve cirrus optical properties with the smallest cloud heterogeneity-related total bias in the thermal

  14. Manufacturing footprint optimisation: a necessity for manufacturing network in changing business environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Farooq, Sami; Johansen, John

    2010-01-01

    footprint have been investigated independently in the existing literature. In this paper, for the purpose of relationship exploration between different elements, manufacturing footprints of three industrial companies are traced historically. Based on them, four reasons for the transformation...

  15. Assessing the Blue and Green Water Footprint of Lucerne for Milk Production in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Morne E. Scheepers; Henry Jordaan

    2016-01-01

    The Global Water Footprint Standard approach was used to calculate the volumetric blue and green water footprint indicator for lucerne production as important feed for dairy cows in a major lucerne production region in South Africa. The degree of sustainability of water use then was assessed by comparing water use to water availability for the region. The results show a volumetric water footprint indicator of 378 m3/tonne of lucerne. Of the total blue and green water footprint, 55% is green w...

  16. The external water footprint of the Netherlands: Quantification and impact assessment

    OpenAIRE

    van Oel, P.R.; Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2008-01-01

    This study quantifies the external water footprint of the Netherlands by partner country and import product and assesses the impact of this footprint by contrasting the geographically explicit water footprint with water scarcity in the different parts of the world. Hotspots are identified as the places where the external water footprint of Dutch consumers is significant on the one hand and where water scarcity is serious on the other hand. The study shows that Dutch consumption implies the us...

  17. The Added Value of Water Footprint Assessment for National Water Policy: A Case Study for Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A Water Footprint Assessment is carried out for Morocco, mapping the water footprint of different activities at river basin and monthly scale, distinguishing between surface- and groundwater. The paper aims to demonstrate the added value of detailed analysis of the human water footprint within a country and thorough assessment of the virtual water flows leaving and entering a country for formulating national water policy. Green, blue and grey water footprint estimates and virtual water flows ...

  18. Water footprints of nations: water use by people as a function of their consumption pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.Y.; Chapagain, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    The water footprint shows the extent of water use in relation to consumption of people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country. The internal water footprint is the volume of wat

  19. Water footprints of nations: water use by people as a function of their consumption pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Chapagain, Ashok

    2007-01-01

    The water footprint shows the extent of water use in relation to consumption of people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country. The internal water footprint is the volume of

  20. The Added Value of Water Footprint Assessment for National Water Policy: A Case Study for Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schyns, Joep F.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2014-01-01

    A Water Footprint Assessment is carried out for Morocco, mapping the water footprint of different activities at river basin and monthly scale, distinguishing between surface- and groundwater. The paper aims to demonstrate the added value of detailed analysis of the human water footprint within a cou

  1. Water footprints of nations: water use by people as a function of their consumption pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Chapagain, Ashok

    2007-01-01

    The water footprint shows the extent of water use in relation to consumption of people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country. The internal water footprint is the volume of wat

  2. The water footprint: a tool for governments, companies and investors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2011-01-01

    The water footprint of Europe – the total volume of water used for producing all commodities consumed by European citizens – has been significantly externalised to other parts of the world. Europe is for example a large importer of cotton, one of the most thirsty crops. Coffee is imported from Colom

  3. The water footprint of biofuel-based transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2011-01-01

    The EU target to replace 10 percent of transport fuels by renewables by 2020 requires additional water. This study calculates water footprints (WFs) of transport modes using first generation bio-ethanol, biodiesel or bio-electricity and of European transport if 10 percent of transport fuels is bio-e

  4. Measuring your water footprint: What's next in water strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2008-01-01

    By now, carbon neutrality is such a catchphrase in the world of responsible business, it’s impossible to ignore the carbon footprint of a new product or service. But with the exception of a few companies like Coca-Cola, Nestlé and Suez, the concept of water neutrality, or measuring your water footpr

  5. The WULCA consensus characterization model for water scarcity footprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boulay, Anne Marie; Bare, Jane; Benini, Lorenzo; Berger, Markus; Lathuillière, Michael J.; Manzardo, Alessandro; Margni, Manuele; Motoshita, Masaharu; Núñez, Montserrat; Pastor, Amandine Valerie; Ridoutt, Bradley; Oki, Taikan; Worbe, Sebastien; Pfister, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used to assess freshwater-related impacts according to a new water footprint framework formalized in the ISO 14046 standard. To date, no consensus-based approach exists for applying this standard and results are not always comparable when different

  6. An expansive human regulatory lexicon encoded in transcription factor footprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neph, Shane; Vierstra, Jeff; Stergachis, Andrew B; Reynolds, Alex P; Haugen, Eric; Vernot, Benjamin; Thurman, Robert E; John, Sam; Sandstrom, Richard; Johnson, Audra K; Maurano, Matthew T; Humbert, Richard; Rynes, Eric; Wang, Hao; Vong, Shinny; Lee, Kristen; Bates, Daniel; Diegel, Morgan; Roach, Vaughn; Dunn, Douglas; Neri, Jun; Schafer, Anthony; Hansen, R Scott; Kutyavin, Tanya; Giste, Erika; Weaver, Molly; Canfield, Theresa; Sabo, Peter; Zhang, Miaohua; Balasundaram, Gayathri; Byron, Rachel; MacCoss, Michael J; Akey, Joshua M; Bender, M A; Groudine, Mark; Kaul, Rajinder; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A

    2012-09-06

    Regulatory factor binding to genomic DNA protects the underlying sequence from cleavage by DNase I, leaving nucleotide-resolution footprints. Using genomic DNase I footprinting across 41 diverse cell and tissue types, we detected 45 million transcription factor occupancy events within regulatory regions, representing differential binding to 8.4 million distinct short sequence elements. Here we show that this small genomic sequence compartment, roughly twice the size of the exome, encodes an expansive repertoire of conserved recognition sequences for DNA-binding proteins that nearly doubles the size of the human cis-regulatory lexicon. We find that genetic variants affecting allelic chromatin states are concentrated in footprints, and that these elements are preferentially sheltered from DNA methylation. High-resolution DNase I cleavage patterns mirror nucleotide-level evolutionary conservation and track the crystallographic topography of protein-DNA interfaces, indicating that transcription factor structure has been evolutionarily imprinted on the human genome sequence. We identify a stereotyped 50-base-pair footprint that precisely defines the site of transcript origination within thousands of human promoters. Finally, we describe a large collection of novel regulatory factor recognition motifs that are highly conserved in both sequence and function, and exhibit cell-selective occupancy patterns that closely parallel major regulators of development, differentiation and pluripotency.

  7. Beyond Safe Operating Space: Finding Chemical Footprinting Feasible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posthuma, Leo; Bjørn, Anders; Zijp, Michiel C.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental overshoot occurs when human demands exceed the biosphere’s regenerative capacities. Earth Overshoot Day (EOD) marks the day that humanity’s footprint exhausts the Earth’s annual regenerative capacity. The EOD of 2013, on August 20th, was memorable for the f irst author as it fell on...

  8. Footprint Characteristics of Scalar Concentration in the Convective Boundary Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Footprint characteristics for passive scalar concentration in the convective boundary layer (CBL)are investigated. A backward Lagrangian stochastic (LS) dispersion model and a large eddy simulation (LES) model are used in the investigation. Typical characteristics of the CBL and their responses to the surface heterogeneity are resolved from the LES. Then the turbulence fields are used to drive the backward LS dispersion. To remedy the spoiled description of the turbulence near the surface, MoninObukhov similarity is applied to the lowest LES level and the surface for the modeling of the backward LS dispersion. Simulation results show that the footprint within approximately 1 km upwind predominates in the total contribution. But influence from farther distances also exists and is even slightly greater than that from closer locations. Surface heterogeneity may change the footprint pattern to a certain degree.A comparison to three analytical models provides a validation of the footprint simulations, which shows the possible influence of along-wind turbulence and the large eddies in the CBL, as well as the surface heterogeneity.

  9. Visualisation of interaction footprints for enagement in online communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian; Specht, Marcus; Koper, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Glahn, C., Specht, M., & Koper, R. (2009). Visualisation of interaction footprints for engagement in online communities [Special issue]. In M. Kalz, R. Koper & V. Hornung-Prähauser (Eds.), Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 12(3), 44-57.

  10. Sustainability of the water footprint of the Spanish pork industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miguel, de Ángel; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Garcia-Calvo, Eloy

    2015-01-01

    Around 92% of the humanity's footprint (WF) relates to the agricultural sector, and a considerable proportion of this is associated with animal farming. In Spain, the swine sector accounts for 11% of agricultural output in economic terms and makes substantial demands on freshwater resources. In this

  11. Parametric optimization of thermoelectric elements footprint for maximum power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezania, A.; Rosendahl, Lasse; Yin, Hao

    2014-01-01

    The development studies in thermoelectric generator (TEG) systems are mostly disconnected to parametric optimization of the module components. In this study, optimum footprint ratio of n- and p-type thermoelectric (TE) elements is explored to achieve maximum power generation, maximum cost-perform...

  12. The water footprint of the EU for different diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanham, D.; Mekonnen, M.M.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the EU28 (EU27 and Croatia) water footprint of consumption (WFcons) for different diets is analysed: the current diet (REF, period 1996–2005), a healthy diet (DGE), a vegetarian (VEG) and combined (COM) diet. By far the largest fraction of the total WFcons (4815 lcd) relates to the co

  13. Guilt by Association-Based Discovery of Botnet Footprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    using Guilt by Association-based Discovery of Botnet Footprints RTO-MP-IST-091 4 - 3 behavioral analysis that examine various indicators, (2) a...Security (CATCH), March 3 - 4, 2009, Washington, DC. [2] Caglayan, A., Toothaker, M., Drapeau, D., Burke, D., and Eaton, G., “ Behavioral Analysis of

  14. Definition and applications of a versatile chemical pollution footprint methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijp, Michiel C; Posthuma, Leo; van de Meent, Dik

    2014-09-16

    Because of the great variety in behavior and modes of action of chemicals, impact assessment of multiple substances is complex, as is the communication of its results. Given calls for cumulative impact assessments, we developed a methodology that is aimed at expressing the expected cumulative impacts of mixtures of chemicals on aquatic ecosystems for a region and subsequently allows to present these results as a chemical pollution footprint, in short: a chemical footprint. Setting and using a boundary for chemical pollution is part of the methodology. Two case studies were executed to test and illustrate the methodology. The first case illustrates that the production and use of organic substances in Europe, judged with the European water volume, stays within the currently set policy boundaries for chemical pollution. The second case shows that the use of pesticides in Northwestern Europe, judged with the regional water volume, has exceeded the set boundaries, while showing a declining trend over time. The impact of mixtures of substances in the environment could be expressed as a chemical footprint, and the relative contribution of substances to that footprint could be evaluated. These features are a novel type of information to support risk management, by helping prioritization of management among chemicals and environmental compartments.

  15. Water footprint benchmarks for crop production: A first global assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, M.M.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2014-01-01

    In the coming few decades, global freshwater demand will increase to meet the growing demand for food, fibre and biofuel crops. Raising water productivity in agriculture, that is reducing the water footprint (WF) per unit of production, will contribute to reducing the pressure on the limited global

  16. Limitations of Carbon Footprint as Indicator of Environmental Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Olsen, Stig I.; Hauschild, Michael Z.

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse gas accountings, commonly referred to with the popular term carbon footprints (CFP), are a widely used metric of climate change impacts and the main focus of many sustainability policies among companies and authorities. However, environmental sustainability concerns not just climate ch...

  17. Burning water: The water footprint of biofuel-based transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2010-01-01

    The trend towards substitution of conventional transport fuels by biofuels requires additional water. The EU aims to replace 10 percent of total transport fuels by biofuels by 2020. This study calculates the water footprint (WF) of different transport modes using bio-ethanol, biodiesel or

  18. Water footprint scenarios for 2050: A global analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ercin, Ertug; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2014-01-01

    This study develops water footprint scenarios for 2050 based on a number of drivers of change: population growth, economic growth, production/trade pattern, consumption pattern (dietary change, bioenergy use) and technological development. The objective the study is to understand the changes in the

  19. Water Footprint and Virtual Water Trade of Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva, Vicente de Paulo R.; de Oliveira, Sonaly D.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Neto, Jose Dantas; Campos, João Hugo B.C.; Braga, Celia C.; Araújo, Lincoln Eloi; Oliveira Aleixo, Danilo; de Brito, Jose Ivaldo B.; de Souza, Marcio Dionisio; de Holanda, Romildo M.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater scarcity has increased at an alarming rate worldwide; improved water management plays a vital role in increasing food production and security. This study aims to determine the water footprint of Brazil’s national food consumption, the virtual water flows associated with international

  20. Lebanese household carbon footprint: Measurements, analysis and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Rawad; Tall, Ibrahim; Nachabe, Nour; Chaaban, Farid

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to estimate the carbon footprint of a typical Lebanese household, and compare the results with international standards and trends. The estimation of this footprint will reflect the impact of the daily Lebanese household activities on the environment in terms of carbon dioxide emissions. The method used in estimating the carbon emissions is based on gathering the primary footprints from various household activities. Another proposed method that provides more accurate results is the estimation of emissions based on secondary footprint, which reflects the total emissions not only from the regular activities but also from a lifecycle perspective. Practical and feasible solutions were proposed to help reduce the amount of C02 emissions per household. This would lead to a better air quality, money savings, greenhouse gases emissions reduction and would ensure the sustainability and prosperity of future generations. A detailed survey was conducted in which the questions were focused mainly on energy, food, and transportation issues. The fourteen questions were addressed to one hundred families in different Lebanese regions coming from different social and economic backgrounds. This diversity would constitute a reflective sample of the actual Lebanese society, allowing us to extrapolate the gathered results on a national level.

  1. Iron and Steel Footprint, December 2010 (MECS 2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-06-01

    Manufacturing energy and carbon footprints map fuel energy consumption and losses, as well as greenhouse gas emissions from fuel consumption, for fifteen individual U.S. manufacturing sectors (representing 94% of all manufacturing energy use) and for the entire manufacturing industry sector. By providing energy consumption and emissions figures broken down by end use, the footprints allow for comparisons of energy use and emissions sources both within and across sectors. The footprints portray a large amount of information for each sector, including: * Comparison of the energy generated offsite and transferred to facilities versus that generated onsite * Nature and amount of energy consumed by end use within facilities * Magnitude of the energy lost both outside and inside facility boundaries * Magnitude of the greenhouse gas emissions released due to the combustion of fuel. Energy losses indicate opportunities to improve efficiency by implementing energy management best practices, upgrading energy systems, and developing new technologies. Footprints are available below for each sector. Data is presented in two levels of detail. The first page provides a high-level snapshot of the offsite and onsite energy flow, and the second page shows the detail for onsite generation and end use of energy. The energy data is primarily provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), and therefore reflects consumption in the year 2006, when the survey was last completed.

  2. Iron and Steel Footprint, October 2012 (MECS 2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-17

    Manufacturing energy and carbon footprints map energy consumption and losses, as well as greenhouse gas emissions from fuel consumption, for fifteen individual U.S. manufacturing sectors (representing 94% of all manufacturing energy use) and for the entire manufacturing sector. By providing energy consumption and emissions figures broken down by end use, the footprints allow for comparisons of energy use and emissions sources both within and across sectors. The footprints portray a large amount of information for each sector, including: * Comparison of the energy generated offsite and transferred to facilities versus that generated onsite * Nature and amount of energy consumed by end use within facilities * Magnitude of the energy lost both outside and inside facility boundaries * Magnitude of the greenhouse gas emissions released as a result of manufacturing energy use. Energy losses indicate opportunities to improve efficiency by implementing energy management best practices, upgrading energy systems, and developing new technologies. Footprints are available below for each sector. Data is presented in two levels of detail. The first page provides a high- level snapshot of the offsite and onsite energy flow, and the second page shows the detail for onsite generation and end use of energy. The principle energy use data source is the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), for consumption in the year 2006, when the survey was last completed.

  3. Cambrian origin of the CYP27C1-mediated vitamin A1-to-A2 switch, a key mechanism of vertebrate sensory plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshedian, Ala; Toomery, Matthew B.; Pollock, Gabriel E.; Frederiksen, Rikard; Enright, Jennifer; McCormick, Stephen; Cornwall, M. Carter; Fain, Gordon L.; Corbo, Joseph C.

    2017-01-01

    The spectral composition of ambient light varies across both space and time. Many species of jawed vertebrates adapt to this variation by tuning the sensitivity of their photoreceptors via the expression of CYP27C1, an enzyme that converts vitamin A1 into vitamin A2, thereby shifting the ratio of vitamin A1-based rhodopsin to red-shifted vitamin A2-based porphyropsin in the eye. Here, we show that the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a jawless vertebrate that diverged from jawed vertebrates during the Cambrian period (approx. 500 Ma), dynamically shifts its photoreceptor spectral sensitivity via vitamin A1-to-A2 chromophore exchange as it transitions between photically divergent aquatic habitats. We further show that this shift correlates with high-level expression of the lamprey orthologue of CYP27C1, specifically in the retinal pigment epithelium as in jawed vertebrates. Our results suggest that the CYP27C1-mediated vitamin A1-to-A2 switch is an evolutionarily ancient mechanism of sensory plasticity that appeared not long after the origin of vertebrates.

  4. Advanced entry guidance algorithm with landing footprint computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, James Aaron

    The design and performance evaluation of an entry guidance algorithm for future space transportation vehicles is presented. The algorithm performs two functions: on-board trajectory planning and trajectory tracking. The planned longitudinal path is followed by tracking drag acceleration, as is done by the Space Shuttle entry guidance. Unlike the Shuttle entry guidance, lateral path curvature is also planned and followed. A new trajectory planning function for the guidance algorithm is developed that is suitable for suborbital entry and that significantly enhances the overall performance of the algorithm for both orbital and suborbital entry. In comparison with the previous trajectory planner, the new planner produces trajectories that are easier to track, especially near the upper and lower drag boundaries and for suborbital entry. The new planner accomplishes this by matching the vehicle's initial flight path angle and bank angle, and by enforcing the full three-degree-of-freedom equations of motion with control derivative limits. Insights gained from trajectory optimization results contribute to the design of the new planner, giving it near-optimal downrange and crossrange capabilities. Planned trajectories and guidance simulation results are presented that demonstrate the improved performance. Based on the new planner, a method is developed for approximating the landing footprint for entry vehicles in near real-time, as would be needed for an on-board flight management system. The boundary of the footprint is constructed from the endpoints of extreme downrange and crossrange trajectories generated by the new trajectory planner. The footprint algorithm inherently possesses many of the qualities of the new planner, including quick execution, the ability to accurately approximate the vehicle's glide capabilities, and applicability to a wide range of entry conditions. Footprints can be generated for orbital and suborbital entry conditions using a pre

  5. Water balance of global aquifers revealed by groundwater footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Tom; Wada, Yoshihide; Bierkens, Marc F P; van Beek, Ludovicus P H

    2012-08-09

    Groundwater is a life-sustaining resource that supplies water to billions of people, plays a central part in irrigated agriculture and influences the health of many ecosystems. Most assessments of global water resources have focused on surface water, but unsustainable depletion of groundwater has recently been documented on both regional and global scales. It remains unclear how the rate of global groundwater depletion compares to the rate of natural renewal and the supply needed to support ecosystems. Here we define the groundwater footprint (the area required to sustain groundwater use and groundwater-dependent ecosystem services) and show that humans are overexploiting groundwater in many large aquifers that are critical to agriculture, especially in Asia and North America. We estimate that the size of the global groundwater footprint is currently about 3.5 times the actual area of aquifers and that about 1.7 billion people live in areas where groundwater resources and/or groundwater-dependent ecosystems are under threat. That said, 80 per cent of aquifers have a groundwater footprint that is less than their area, meaning that the net global value is driven by a few heavily overexploited aquifers. The groundwater footprint is the first tool suitable for consistently evaluating the use, renewal and ecosystem requirements of groundwater at an aquifer scale. It can be combined with the water footprint and virtual water calculations, and be used to assess the potential for increasing agricultural yields with renewable groundwaterref. The method could be modified to evaluate other resources with renewal rates that are slow and spatially heterogeneous, such as fisheries, forestry or soil.

  6. The human footprint in Mexico: physical geography and historical legacies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte González-Abraham

    Full Text Available Using publicly available data on land use and transportation corridors we calculated the human footprint index for the whole of Mexico to identify large-scale spatial patterns in the anthropogenic transformation of the land surface. We developed a map of the human footprint for the whole country and identified the ecological regions that have most transformed by human action. Additionally, we analyzed the extent to which (a physical geography, expressed spatially in the form of biomes and ecoregions, compared to (b historical geography, expressed as the spatial distribution of past human settlements, have driven the patterns of human modification of the land. Overall Mexico still has 56% of its land surface with low impact from human activities, but these areas are not evenly distributed. The lowest values are on the arid north and northwest, and the tropical southeast, while the highest values run along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and from there inland along an east-to-west corridor that follows the Mexican transversal volcanic ranges and the associated upland plateau. The distribution of low- and high footprint areas within ecoregions forms a complex mosaic: the generally well-conserved Mexican deserts have some highly transformed agro-industrial areas, while many well-conserved, low footprint areas still persist in the highly-transformed ecoregions of central Mexico. We conclude that the spatial spread of the human footprint in Mexico is both the result of the limitations imposed by physical geography to human development at the biome level, and, within different biomes, of a complex history of past civilizations and technologies, including the 20th Century demographic explosion but also the spatial pattern of ancient settlements that were occupied by the Spanish Colony.

  7. The human footprint in Mexico: physical geography and historical legacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Abraham, Charlotte; Ezcurra, Exequiel; Garcillán, Pedro P; Ortega-Rubio, Alfredo; Kolb, Melanie; Bezaury Creel, Juan E

    2015-01-01

    Using publicly available data on land use and transportation corridors we calculated the human footprint index for the whole of Mexico to identify large-scale spatial patterns in the anthropogenic transformation of the land surface. We developed a map of the human footprint for the whole country and identified the ecological regions that have most transformed by human action. Additionally, we analyzed the extent to which (a) physical geography, expressed spatially in the form of biomes and ecoregions, compared to (b) historical geography, expressed as the spatial distribution of past human settlements, have driven the patterns of human modification of the land. Overall Mexico still has 56% of its land surface with low impact from human activities, but these areas are not evenly distributed. The lowest values are on the arid north and northwest, and the tropical southeast, while the highest values run along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and from there inland along an east-to-west corridor that follows the Mexican transversal volcanic ranges and the associated upland plateau. The distribution of low- and high footprint areas within ecoregions forms a complex mosaic: the generally well-conserved Mexican deserts have some highly transformed agro-industrial areas, while many well-conserved, low footprint areas still persist in the highly-transformed ecoregions of central Mexico. We conclude that the spatial spread of the human footprint in Mexico is both the result of the limitations imposed by physical geography to human development at the biome level, and, within different biomes, of a complex history of past civilizations and technologies, including the 20th Century demographic explosion but also the spatial pattern of ancient settlements that were occupied by the Spanish Colony.

  8. Reducing Students' Carbon Footprints Using Personal Carbon Footprint Management System Based on Environmental Behavioural Theory and Persuasive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shyh-ming

    2016-01-01

    This study applied environmental behavioural theories to develop a personal carbon footprint management system and used persuasive technology to implement it. The system serves as an educational system to improve the determinants of students' low-carbon behaviours, to promote low-carbon concepts and to facilitate their carbon management. To assess…

  9. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2000-03-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal

  10. Image Dodging Algorithm for GF-1 Satellite WFV Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAN Jie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Image dodging method is one of the important processes that determines whether the mosaicking image can be used for remote sensing quantitative application. GF-1 satellite is the first satellite in CHEOS (Chinese high-resolution earth observation system. WFV multispectral sensor is one of the instruments onboard GF-1 satellite which consist of four cameras to mosaic imaging. According to the characteristics of WFV sensor, this paper proposes an image dodging algorithm based on cross/inter-radiometric calibration method. First, the traditional cross calibration method is applied to obtain the calibration coefficients of one WFV camera. Then statistical analysis and simulation methods are adopted to build the correlation models of DN and TOA (top of atmosphere radiances between adjacent cameras. The proposed method can not only accomplish the radiation performance transfer, but also can fulfill the image dodging. The experimental results show the cross/inter-radiometric calibration coefficients in this paper can effectively eliminate the radiation inconsistency problem of the adjacent camera image which realizes the image dodging. So our proposed dodging method can provide an important reference for other similar sensor in future.

  11. Study of Biometric Identification Method Based on Naked Footprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji Rafiu King

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The scale of deployment of biometric identity-verification systems has recently seen an enormous increase owing to the need for more secure and reliable way of identifying people. Footprint identification which can be defined as the measurement of footprint features for recognizing the identity of a user has surfaced recently. This study is based on a biometric personal identification method using static footprint features viz. friction ridge / texture and foot shape / silhouette. To begin with, naked footprints of users are captured; images then undergo pre processing followed by the extraction of two features; shape using Gradient Vector Flow (GVF) snake model and minutiae extraction respectively. Matching is then effected based on these two features followed by a fusion of these two results for either a reject or accept decision. Our shape matching feature is based on cosine similarity while the texture one is based on miniature score matching. The results from our research establish that the naked footprint is a credible biometric feature as two barefoot impressions of an individual match perfectly while that of two different persons shows a great deal of dissimilarity. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.29-35 How to cite this article: King

  12. An urban metabolism and ecological footprint assessment of Metro Vancouver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jennie; Kissinger, Meidad; Rees, William E

    2013-07-30

    As the world urbanizes, the role of cities in determining sustainability outcomes grows in importance. Cities are the dominant form of human habitat, and most of the world's resources are either directly or indirectly consumed in cities. Sustainable city analysis and management requires understanding the demands a city places on a wider geographical area and its ecological resource base. We present a detailed, integrated urban metabolism of residential consumption and ecological footprint analysis of the Vancouver metropolitan region for the year 2006. Our overall goal is to demonstrate the application of a bottom-up ecological footprint analysis using an urban metabolism framework at a metropolitan, regional scale. Our specific objectives are: a) to quantify energy and material consumption using locally generated data and b) to relate these data to global ecological carrying capacity. Although water is the largest material flow through Metro Vancouver (424,860,000 m(3)), it has the smallest ecological footprint (23,100 gha). Food (2,636,850 tonnes) contributes the largest component to the ecological footprint (4,514,400 gha) which includes crop and grazing land as well as carbon sinks required to sequester emissions from food production and distribution. Transportation fuels (3,339,000 m(3)) associated with motor vehicle operation and passenger air travel comprises the second largest material flow through the region and the largest source of carbon dioxide emissions (7,577,000 tonnes). Transportation also accounts for the second largest component of the EF (2,323,200 gha). Buildings account for the largest electricity flow (17,515,150 MWh) and constitute the third largest component of the EF (1,779,240 gha). Consumables (2,400,000 tonnes) comprise the fourth largest component of the EF (1,414,440 gha). Metro Vancouver's total Ecological Footprint in 2006 was 10,071,670 gha, an area approximately 36 times larger than the region itself. The EFA reveals that

  13. Metaheuristics for a Tectonic Development of Hospital Design Footprints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Malene Kirstine; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2014-01-01

    The present paper presents a model for footprint generation of hospital design based on functionalities. The model takes point of departure in layout generation for hospitals by use of a metaheuristic approach. The hospital functionalities with respective constraints lead a decomposition...... of the hospital for layout and footprint configuration. By decomposing the hospital into geometric units of individual given sizes, given functionalities, and requirements units for conceptual design are defined. The geometric units form the conceptual design of a hospital and the baseline for the structural...... design and the building envelope. By generating conceptual design from functionalities described as correlations and requirements a basis for tectonic design is created, where a functional integrated solution for architectural form and structural design arises of functional requirements as corresponding...

  14. Management options to reduce the carbon footprint of livestock products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, John Erik; Kristensen, Troels

    2011-01-01

    conclude that the most important mitigation options include - better feed conversion at the system level, - use of feeds that increase soil carbon sequestration versus carbon emission, - ensure that the manure produced substitutes for synthetic fertilizer, and - use manure for bio-energy production......Livestock products carry a large carbon footprint compared with other foods, and thus there is a need to focus on how to reduce it. The major contributing factors are emissions related to feed use and manure handling as well as the nature of the land required to produce the feed in question. We can....... Basically, it is important to make sure that all beneficial interactions in the livestock system are optimized instead of focusing only on animal productivity. There is an urgent need to arrive at a sound framework for considering the interaction between land use and carbon footprints of foods....

  15. Improving odour assessment in LCA — the odour footprint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Gregory M.; Murphy, Kathleen R.; Adamsen, Anders Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    in the life cycle assessment (LCA) community. This article aims to redress this. Results and discussion: We produced a list of 33 linear characterisation factors based on hydrogen sulphide equivalents, analogous to the linear carbon dioxide equivalency factors in use in carbon footprinting......, or the dichlorobenzene equivalency factors developed for assessment of toxic impacts in LCA. Like the latter, this odour footprint method does not take local populations and exposure pathway analysis into account—its intent is not to assess regulatory compliance or detailed design. The case study showed that despite...... assessment in LCA. Unlike it, the method presented here considers the persistence of odourants. Over time, we hope to increase the number of characterised odourants, enabling analysts to perform simple site-generic LCA on systems with odourant emissions. Methods: Firstly, a framework for the assessment...

  16. Collecting a citizen's digital footprint for health data mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencoglu, Oguzhan; Simila, Heidi; Honko, Harri; Isomursu, Minna

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a case study for collecting digital footprint data for the purpose of health data mining. The case study involved 20 subjects residing in Finland who were instructed to collect data from registries which they evaluated to be useful for understanding their health or health behaviour, current or past. 11 subjects were active, sending 100 data requests to 49 distinct organizations in total. Our results indicate that there are still practical challenges in collecting actionable digital footprint data. Our subjects received a total of 75 replies (reply rate of 75.0%) and 61 datasets (reception rate of 61%). Out of the received data, 44 datasets (72.1%) were delivered in paper format, 4 (6.6%) in portable document format and 13 (21.3%) in structured digital form. The time duration between the sending of the information requests and reception of a reply was 26.4 days on the average.

  17. Management options to reduce the carbon footprint of livestock products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, John Erik; Kristensen, Troels

    2011-01-01

    conclude that the most important mitigation options include - better feed conversion at the system level, - use of feeds that increase soil carbon sequestration versus carbon emission, - ensure that the manure produced substitutes for synthetic fertilizer, and - use manure for bio-energy production......Livestock products carry a large carbon footprint compared with other foods, and thus there is a need to focus on how to reduce it. The major contributing factors are emissions related to feed use and manure handling as well as the nature of the land required to produce the feed in question. We can....... Basically, it is important to make sure that all beneficial interactions in the livestock system are optimized instead of focusing only on animal productivity. There is an urgent need to arrive at a sound framework for considering the interaction between land use and carbon footprints of foods....

  18. Feasibility Analysis on the Utilization of the Iridium Satellite Communications Network for Resident Space Objects in Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    equatorial speed. Ideally, the GEO satellite remains directly overhead in the absence of perturbing forces. Of course , perturbing forces exist and cause a...respectively. Assuming a mean Earth radius of 6371 km, the Earth- central angles and can be found from trigonometry using the footprint

  19. The WULCA consensus characterization model for water scarcity footprints

    OpenAIRE

    Boulay, Anne Marie; BARE Jane; Benini, Lorenzo; Berger, Markus; Lathuillière, Michael J.; Manzardo, Alessandro; Margni, Manuele; MOTOSHITA Masaharu; NÚÑEZ Montserrat; Pastor, Amandine Valerie; Ridoutt, Bradley; Oki, Taikan; Worbe, Sebastien; Pfister, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used to assess freshwater-related impacts according to a new water footprint framework formalized in the ISO 14046 standard. To date, no consensus-based approach exists for applying this standard and results are not always comparable when different scarcity or stress indicators are used for characterization of impacts. This paper presents the outcome of a 2-year consensus building process by the Water Use in Life Cycle Assessment (WULCA), a workin...

  20. Carbon footprints of heating oil and LPG heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Eric P., E-mail: ejohnson@ecosite.co.uk

    2012-07-15

    For European homes without access to the natural gas grid, the main fuels-of-choice for heating are heating oil and LPG. How do the carbon footprints of these compare? Existing literature does not clearly answer this, so the current study was undertaken to fill this gap. Footprints were estimated in seven countries that are representative of the EU and constitute two-thirds of the EU-27 population: Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Poland and the UK. Novelties of the assessment were: systems were defined using the EcoBoiler model; well-to-tank data were updated according to most-recent research; and combustion emission factors were used that were derived from a survey conducted for this study. The key finding is that new residential heating systems fuelled by LPG are 20% lower carbon and 15% lower overall-environmental-impact than those fuelled by heating oil. An unexpected finding was that an LPG system's environmental impact is about the same as that of a bio heating oil system fuelled by 100% rapeseed methyl ester, Europe's predominant biofuel. Moreover, a 20/80 blend (by energy content) with conventional heating oil, a bio-heating-oil system generates a footprint about 15% higher than an LPG system's. The final finding is that fuel switching can pay off in carbon terms. If a new LPG heating system replaces an ageing oil-fired one for the final five years of its service life, the carbon footprint of the system's final five years is reduced by more than 50%.

  1. Biodiversity Loss and the Ecological Footprint of Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Lazarus

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Human pressure on ecosystems is among the major drivers of biodiversity loss. As biodiversity plays a key role in supporting the human enterprise, its decline puts the well-being of human societies at risk. Halting biodiversity loss is therefore a key policy priority, as reflected in the 2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets under strategic goal A. The Ecological Footprint has become a widely used metric for natural capital and ecosystem accounting, and is frequently cited in the sustainability debate, where it is often used for tracking human-induced pressures on ecosystems and biodiversity. Given its potential role as an indirect metric for biodiversity-related policies, this paper breaks down the Ecological Footprint into its components and analyzes resource and ecosystem service flows at an international level. We discuss its usefulness in tracking the underlying drivers of habitat impacts and biodiversity loss. We find that: China is a major net importer of all biomass biocapacity components; the largest net exporters of forest biocapacity are not low-income countries; a very high proportion of the Ecological Footprint of fishing grounds is traded internationally; Singapore and at least three Middle East countries are almost wholly reliant on net imports for the cropland biocapacity they consume.

  2. Sustainability of the city and its ecological footprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrić Jasna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There are some agreed sustainability indicators, even some agreed target values regarding a sustainable city, but they still have to be underpinned by empirical evidence. The common starting point of definitions is generally the destructive impact of the city on its regional and global environment which can be observed in form of the depletion of natural resources and the pollution of soil, water and air. A sustainable city is therefore generally regarded to be the one that is compact and preserves land, has mixed use to increase access and reduce need to travel, is socially and economically balanced, uses clean and renewable energy and recycles all its waste. However, the sustainable city cannot exist as a self-sufficient unit, in ignorance of relationship with its hinterland. The ecological footprint which is the amount of land required to produce resources to sustain our quality of life is a yardstick for measuring the ecological bottom line of sustainability. With a sustainable city target to relieve pressure on the countryside, there is an increasing awareness of the importance of calculating city’s ecological footprint and see how it relates to the target global average. Although problem of reducing ecological footprints primarily concerns the wealthiest countries, it has to be fully acknowledged in the less economically developed part of the world, while recognising that cities themselves provide many potential solutions.

  3. Carbon Footprint Analysis of Municipalities – Evidence from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Angelakoglou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The economical crisis that hit Greece after 2009, significantly affected its energy consumption profile due to the increased price of domestic heating oil and gasoline. The specific study aims at the quantification of the carbon dioxide emissions in municipal level due to energy and fuel consumption. Three different municipalities in North Greece (Kavala, Alexandroupolis and Drama were assessed with the application of three different carbon footprint estimation approaches in each one of them, including two life cycle assessment methods. Results ranged from 511,799 to 571,000, 435,250 to 489,000 and 355,207 to 398,000 tons CO2 and tons CO2-eq. for Kavala, Alexandroupolis and Drama respectively. The analysis per energy type indicated the electrical energy consumption as the key factor affecting the results due to the relatively high CO2 emission coefficient of the electricity produced in Greece. The analysis per sector indicated that a percentage of nearly 75% of the total carbon footprint is assigned to the building sector whereas the private and commercial transport is accountable for the rest. Municipal activities (buildings, facilities, lighting and fleet contributed to a small percentage to the total carbon footprint (approx. 3-8%.

  4. Embedded Volttron specification - benchmarking small footprint compute device for Volttron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, Jibonananda [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Woodworth, Ken [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nutaro, James J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kuruganti, Teja [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-08-17

    An embedded system is a small footprint computing unit that typically serves a specific purpose closely associated with measurements and control of hardware devices. These units are designed for reasonable durability and operations in a wide range of operating conditions. Some embedded systems support real-time operations and can demonstrate high levels of reliability. Many have failsafe mechanisms built to handle graceful shutdown of the device in exception conditions. The available memory, processing power, and network connectivity of these devices are limited due to the nature of their specific-purpose design and intended application. Industry practice is to carefully design the software for the available hardware capability to suit desired deployment needs. Volttron is an open source agent development and deployment platform designed to enable researchers to interact with devices and appliances without having to write drivers themselves. Hosting Volttron on small footprint embeddable devices enables its demonstration for embedded use. This report details the steps required and the experience in setting up and running Volttron applications on three small footprint devices: the Intel Next Unit of Computing (NUC), the Raspberry Pi 2, and the BeagleBone Black. In addition, the report also details preliminary investigation of the execution performance of Volttron on these devices.

  5. Water Footprint and Virtual Water Trade of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente de Paulo R. da Silva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater scarcity has increased at an alarming rate worldwide; improved water management plays a vital role in increasing food production and security. This study aims to determine the water footprint of Brazil’s national food consumption, the virtual water flows associated with international trade in the main agricultural commodities, as well as water scarcity, water self-sufficiency and water dependency per Brazilian region. While previous country studies on water footprints and virtual water trade focused on virtual water importers or water-scarce countries, this is the first study to concentrate on a water-abundant virtual water-exporting country. Besides, it is the first study establishing international virtual water trade balances per state, which is relevant given the fact that water scarcity varies across states within the country, so the origin of virtual water exports matters. The results show that the average water footprint of Brazilian food consumption is 1619 m3/person/year. Beef contributes most (21% to this total. We find a net virtual water export of 54.8 billion m3/year, mainly to Europe, which imports 41% of the gross amount of the virtual water exported from Brazil. The northeast, the region with the highest water scarcity, has a net import of virtual water. The southeast, next in terms of water scarcity, shows large virtual water exports, mainly related to the export of sugar. The north, which has the most water, does not show a high virtual water export rate.

  6. Estimating Green Water Footprints in a Temperate Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Hess

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The “green” water footprint (GWF of a product is often considered less important than the “blue” water footprint (BWF as “green” water generally has a low, or even negligible, opportunity cost. However, when considering food, fibre and tree products, is not only a useful indicator of the total appropriation of a natural resource, but from a methodological perspective, blue water footprints are frequently estimated as the residual after green water is subtracted from total crop water use. In most published studies, green water use (ETgreen has been estimated from the FAO CROPWAT model using the USDA method for effective rainfall. In this study, four methods for the estimation of the ETgreen of pasture were compared. Two were based on effective rainfall estimated from monthly rainfall and potential evapotranspiration, and two were based on a simulated water balance using long-term daily, or average monthly, weather data from 11 stations in England. The results show that the effective rainfall methods significantly underestimate the annual ETgreen in all cases, as they do not adequately account for the depletion of stored soil water during the summer. A simplified model, based on annual rainfall and reference evapotranspiration (ETo has been tested and used to map the average annual ETgreen of pasture in England.

  7. Supply chain carbon footprinting and responsibility allocation under emission regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Xiao; Chen, Jian

    2017-03-01

    Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions has become an enormous challenge for any single enterprise and its supply chain because of the increasing concern on global warming. This paper investigates carbon footprinting and responsibility allocation for supply chains involved in joint production. Our study is conducted from the perspective of a social planner who aims to achieve social value optimization. The carbon footprinting model is based on operational activities rather than on firms because joint production blurs the organizational boundaries of footprints. A general model is proposed for responsibility allocation among firms who seek to maximize individual profits. This study looks into ways for the decentralized supply chain to achieve centralized optimality of social value under two emission regulations. Given a balanced allocation for the entire supply chain, we examine the necessity of over-allocation to certain firms under specific situations and find opportunities for the firms to avoid over-allocation. The comparison of the two regulations reveals that setting an emission standard per unit of product will motivate firms to follow the standard and improve their emission efficiencies. Hence, a more efficient and promising policy is needed in contrast to existing regulations on total production.

  8. The water footprint of California's energy system, 1990-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Julian; Cooley, Heather

    2015-03-17

    California's energy and water systems are interconnected and have evolved in recent decades in response to changing conditions and policy goals. For this analysis, we use a water footprint methodology to examine water requirements of energy products consumed in California between 1990 and 2012. We combine energy production, trade, and consumption data with estimates of the blue and green water footprints of energy products. We find that while California's total annual energy consumption increased by just 2.6% during the analysis period, the amount of water required to produce that energy grew by 260%. Nearly all of the increase in California's energy-related water footprint was associated with water use in locations outside of California, where energy products that the state consumes were, and continue to be, produced. We discuss these trends and the implications for California's future energy system as it relates to climate change and expected water management challenges inside and outside the state. Our analysis shows that while California's energy policies have supported climate mitigation efforts, they have increased vulnerability to climate impacts, especially greater hydrologic uncertainty. More integrated analysis and planning are needed to ensure that climate adaptation and mitigation strategies do not work at cross purposes.

  9. Water footprint scenarios for 2050: a global analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercin, A Ertug; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2014-03-01

    This study develops water footprint scenarios for 2050 based on a number of drivers of change: population growth, economic growth, production/trade pattern, consumption pattern (dietary change, bioenergy use) and technological development. The objective the study is to understand the changes in the water footprint (WF) of production and consumption for possible futures by region and to elaborate the main drivers of this change. In addition, we assess virtual water flows between the regions of the world to show dependencies of regions on water resources in other regions under different possible futures. We constructed four scenarios, along two axes, representing two key dimensions of uncertainty: globalization versus regional selfsufficiency, and economy-driven development versus development driven by social and environmental objectives. The study shows how different drivers will change the level of water consumption and pollution globally in 2050. The presented scenarios can form a basis for a further assessment of how humanity can mitigate future freshwater scarcity. We showed with this study that reducing humanity's water footprint to sustainable levels is possible even with increasing populations, provided that consumption patterns change. This study can help to guide corrective policies at both national and international levels, and to set priorities for the years ahead in order to achieve sustainable and equitable use of the world's fresh water resources. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The first Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian dinosaur footprints from Transylvania (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei Vremir

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available An Uppermost Cretaceous (Maastrichtian site exposing dinosaur footprints is reported from the Sebes̡ area (Transylvanian Depression. This is the first dinoturbated layer discovered in our country, containing also numerous bones belonging to various dinosaurs. The track-site is located near Lancrăm village and provides only two quite well preserved footprints (one track. The medium sized (FL = 23,3 cm; FW = 17,8 cm; pace = 103 cm; ST = 200 cm plantigrad-tridactyle footprints belong to Ornithopedoidei, according to their morphology. An assignment to the Iguanodontichnus CASAMIQUELA & FASOLA, 1968 group seems to be appropriate (tentatively, associated to the “Rhabdodon” iguanodontian dinosaur. The importance of this discovery lies in the stratigraphical significance, confirming the Uppermost Cretaceous age of these dinosaur-bearing continental deposits exposed between Sebes̡ and Alba-Iulia (as well as the autochthon/ paraautochon status of some vertebrate assemblages identified there, which previously were considered Oligocene or even Miocene. Additional data regarding size, speed and locomotion of the Transylvanian Iguanodontian ”Rhabdodon” dinosaurs are added.

  11. Kurtosis-Based Threshold Selection for UWB TOA Estimation%一种基于峰度分析的UWB TOA估计门限选择法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪宇; 王玫

    2007-01-01

    超宽带(UWB)定位技术中对信号到达时间(TOA)的估计有几种方法,其中门限选择的方法是对接收信号样本的峰度进行分析,是一种复杂度较低的有效方法.运用仿真得到峰度系数和最佳门限之间的关系,并用TOA估计误差比较了几种不同的门限选择方法.由仿真得出的结论充分证明此方法的有效性,为设计提供了有用的工程参考.

  12. A TOA-based Location Algorithm for Mitigating the Effect of NLOS%一种减小NLOS影响的TOA定位算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡焰智; 马大玮; 范小麟; 孟宪浩

    2007-01-01

    在基于蜂窝网的无线定位系统中,NLOS(非视距传播)总是对TOA(波达时间)测量距离造成较大的正偏差,严重影响了定位精度.卡尔曼滤波用来处理基于TOA的距离测量数据,平滑了总体误差,但效果依然不够理想.本文通过修正滤波值和多次滤波,能有效减小TOA误差,改善定位效果.仿真结果表明,该算法能取得很好的定位精度.

  13. Surgical management of stress urinary incontinence: Burch colposuspension, modified Pereyra and Stamey bladder neck suspension, and collagen injection--Toa Payoh Hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, K P; Lim, P H; Chng, H C

    1995-12-01

    A retrospective analysis was performed on 34 female patients who underwent corrective surgery for stress urinary incontinence over a 4-year period at the Toa Payoh Hospital. These patients were offered surgery only after an adequate trial of medical therapy, pelvic floor exercises and weight reduction. Bladder neck suspension operations were performed via the Burch, Stamey and modified Pereyra techniques. Towards the later part of this study, endoscopic injection of Collagen was performed as a salvage procedure in 2 patients. The Burch colposuspension gave uniformly good results, with all patients being completely dry. Seventy percent and sixty percent complete continence were achieved via the modified Pereyra and Stamey techniques respectively. Three patients required additional surgical procedures. Using these techniques, the overall results showed that 27 patients (79.4%) had complete urinary continence following surgery, while the remaining 7 patients (20.6%) experienced significant improvement of symptoms.

  14. Study of the footprints of short-term variation in XCO2 observed by TCCON sites using NIES and FLEXPART atmospheric transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belikov, Dmitry A.; Maksyutov, Shamil; Ganshin, Alexander; Zhuravlev, Ruslan; Deutscher, Nicholas M.; Wunch, Debra; Feist, Dietrich G.; Morino, Isamu; Parker, Robert J.; Strong, Kimberly; Yoshida, Yukio; Bril, Andrey; Oshchepkov, Sergey; Boesch, Hartmut; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Griffith, David; Hewson, Will; Kivi, Rigel; Mendonca, Joseph; Notholt, Justus; Schneider, Matthias; Sussmann, Ralf; Velazco, Voltaire A.; Aoki, Shuji

    2017-01-01

    The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) is a network of ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs) that record near-infrared (NIR) spectra of the sun. From these spectra, accurate and precise observations of CO2 column-averaged dry-air mole fractions (denoted XCO2) are retrieved. TCCON FTS observations have previously been used to validate satellite estimations of XCO2; however, our knowledge of the short-term spatial and temporal variations in XCO2 surrounding the TCCON sites is limited. In this work, we use the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) Eulerian three-dimensional transport model and the FLEXPART (FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model) Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM) to determine the footprints of short-term variations in XCO2 observed by operational, past, future and possible TCCON sites. We propose a footprint-based method for the collocation of satellite and TCCON XCO2 observations and estimate the performance of the method using the NIES model and five GOSAT (Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite) XCO2 product data sets. Comparison of the proposed approach with a standard geographic method shows a higher number of collocation points and an average bias reduction up to 0.15 ppm for a subset of 16 stations for the period from January 2010 to January 2014. Case studies of the Darwin and Reunion Island sites reveal that when the footprint area is rather curved, non-uniform and significantly different from a geographical rectangular area, the differences between these approaches are more noticeable. This emphasises that the collocation is sensitive to local meteorological conditions and flux distributions.

  15. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for crop water footprint accounting at a basin level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, L.; Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2013-12-01

    Water footprint has been recognized as a comprehensive indicator in water management to evaluate the human pressure on water resources from either production or consumption perspectives. The agricultural sector in particular crop production takes the largest share of the global water footprint. Water footprint of producing unit mass of a crop (m3/ ton) is normally expressed by single volumetric numbers referring to an average value for certain areas and periods. However, the divergence in crop water footprint accounts from different studies, primarily due to the input data quality, may confuse water users and managers. The study investigates the output sensitivity and uncertainty of the green (rainfall) and blue (irrigation water) crop water footprint to key input variables (reference evapotranspiration (ETo), precipitation (PR), crop coefficient (Kc) and crop calendar (D)) at a basin level. A grid-based daily water balance model was applied to compute water footprints of four major crops - maize, rice, soybean and wheat - in the Yellow River basin for 1996-2005 at a 5 by 5 arc minute resolution. Sensitivities of the yearly crop water footprints to individual input variability were assessed by the one-at-a-time (';sensitivity curve') method. Uncertainty in crop water footprint to input uncertainties were quantified through Monte Carlo simulations for selected years 1996 (wet), 2000 (dry) and 2005 (average). Results show that the crop water footprint is most sensitive to ETo and Kc, followed by D and PR. Blue water footprints were more sensitive than green water footprints to input variability. Interestingly, the smaller the annual blue water footprint, the higher its sensitivity to PR, ETo and Kc variability. The uncertainties in total crop water footprints to combined uncertainties in four key input variables was less than × 30% for total water footprints at 95% confidence level. The sensitivity and uncertainty level of crop water footprints also differs with

  16. Understanding the LCA and ISO water footprint: A response to Hoekstra (2016) “A critique on the water-scarcity weighted water footprint in LCA”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water footprinting has emerged as an important approach to assess water use related effects from consumption of goods and services. Assessment methods are proposed by two different communities, the Water Footprint Network (WFN) and the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) community. The p...

  17. Understanding the LCA and ISO water footprint: A response to Hoekstra (2016) “A critique on the water-scarcity weighted water footprint in LCA”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water footprinting has emerged as an important approach to assess water use related effects from consumption of goods and services. Assessment methods are proposed by two different communities, the Water Footprint Network (WFN) and the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) community. The p...

  18. Integrating ecological, carbon and water footprint into a "footprint family" of indicators: Definition and role in tracking human pressure on the planet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galli, A.; Wiedmann, T.O.; Ercin, Ertug; Knoblauch, D.; Ewing, B.R.; Giljum, S.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, attempts have been made to develop an integrated Footprint approach for the assessment of the environmental impacts of production and consumption. In this paper, we provide for the first time a definition of the “Footprint Family” as a suite of indicators to track human pressure on

  19. [Ecological footprint calculation and development capacity analysis of China in 1999].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhongmin; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Guodong; Chen, Dongjing

    2003-02-01

    The ecological footprint method put forward and improved by William Rees and Mathis Wackernagel presents a methodologically simple but integrated framework for national natural capital accounting, which is capable of measuring the impact of Human's consumption on ecosystem. Based on the ecological footprint theory and calculation method, a flow network analysis method was introduced to illuminate the structure of complex ecological economic system, and the relationship among ecological footprint, diversity and development capacity was analyzed. In this paper, the ecological footprints of China and its provinces was calculated and compared with the national and local ecological carrying capacity. The results showed that the ecological footprints of China and most of its provinces were beyond the available ecological capacity, and China and its most provinces run 'national or regional ecological deficit'. In case of China, the national ecological deficit was 0.645 hm2 per cap in 1999. Secondly, we introduced a flow network analysis method, taking various ecological productive area as note, and adopted Ulanowicz's development capacity formula to analyze the relationship among ecological footprint diversity, development capacity and output. The results demonstrated that Ulanowicz's development capacity was a good predictor of economic system output. At the same time, two distinct ways to change development capacity were produced. Increasing ecological footprint or increasing ecological footprint's diversity would both increase development capacity. Due to the fact that the ecological footprints had already been beyond bio-capacities, the only way to increase development capacity was to increase ecological footprint's diversity. The positive relationship between ecological footprint diversity and resources utilization efficiency demonstrated that there was no conflict between increasing ecological footprint's diversity and reducing footprints while not comprising our

  20. Geostationary Satellite (GOES) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from radiometer instruments on SMS (ATS) and GOES satellites in geostationary orbit. These satellites produced...

  1. Tracking urban carbon footprints from production and consumption perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jianyi; Hu, Yuanchao; Cui, Shenghui; Kang, Jiefeng; Ramaswami, Anu

    2015-05-01

    Cities are hotspots of socio-economic activities and greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of this study was to extend the research range of the urban carbon footprint (CF) to cover emissions embodied in products traded among regions and intra-city sectors. Using Xiamen City as a study case, the total urban-related emissions were evaluated, and the carbon flows among regions and intra-city sectors were tracked. Then five urban CF accountings were evaluated, including purely geographic accounting (PGA), community-wide infrastructure footprint (CIF), and consumption-based footprint (CBF) methods, as well as the newly defined production-based footprint (PBF) and purely production footprint (PPF). Research results show that the total urban-related emissions of Xiamen City in 2010 were 55.2 Mt CO2e/y, of which total carbon flow among regions or intra-city sectors accounted for 53.7 Mt CO2e/y. Within the total carbon flow, import and export respectively accounted for 59 and 65%, highlighting the importance of emissions embodied in trade. By regional trade balance, North America and Europe were the largest net carbon exported-to regions, and Mainland China and Taiwan the largest net carbon imported-from regions. Among intra-sector carbon flows, manufacturing was the largest emission-consuming sector of the total urban carbon flow, accounting for 77.4, and 98% of carbon export was through industrial products trade. By the PBF, PPF, CIF, PGA and CBF methods, the urban CFs were respectively 53.7 Mt CO2e/y, 44.8 Mt CO2e/y, 28.4 Mt CO2e/y, 23.7 Mt CO2e/y, and 19.0 Mt CO2e/y, so all of the other four CFs were higher than the CBF. All of these results indicate that urban carbon mitigation must consider the supply chain management of imported goods, the production efficiency within the city, the consumption patterns of urban consumers, and the responsibility of the ultimate consumers outside the city.

  2. Accurate estimation of TOA and calibration of synchronization error for multilateration%多点定位TOA精确估计及同步误差校正算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪; 金尔文; 刘昌忠; 吴宏刚

    2013-01-01

    提出了S模式信号的数学模型,讨论了脉冲上升沿测量到达时间(time of arrival,TOA)的精度、统计方法估计TOA的最优值和最优估计的实现方法.然后,提出了一种先解码后测量TOA的改进方法,从脉冲积累的角度导出了改进方法的理论精度,与单脉冲测量的精度相比较有明显提高.针对硬件实现的问题,分析了采样对TOA测量的影响和解决方法.最后,讨论了多点定位的同步问题,将TOA的精确估计值应用于多点定位系统多部接收机之间的同步误差校正.%A mathematical model of mode S signals is built. Accuracy of time of arrival (TOA) measurements by pulse rise edge and best statistical estimation methods are discussed. The way to realize the best estimation is also introduced. Then a novel method is proposed to measure the TOA of mode S signals, in which the measurement is performed after the decoding of mode S signals. The accuracy of the proposed method is improved significantly compared with the single pulse measurement, which can be derived from pulse integration. The influence of sampling on TOA measurement is analyzed and the corresponding solving method is introduced. Finally, synchronization in a multilateration system is discussed and the accurate TOA of signals is used for calibration of synchronization errors among receivers.

  3. Neptune's small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P.

    1992-04-01

    The small satellites of Neptune and other planets discovered during the Voyager 2 mission are discussed in terms of their composition and relationship to the planetary systems. The satellite Proteus is described in terms of its orbit, five other satellites are described, and they are compared to ther small satellites and systems. Neptune's satellites are hypothesized to be related to the ring system, and the satellite Galatea is related to the confinement of the rings.

  4. Carbon footprint of dairy goat milk production in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kimberly; Symes, Wymond; Garnham, Malcolm

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cradle-to-farm gate carbon footprint of indoor and outdoor dairy goat farming systems in New Zealand, identifying hotspots and discussing variability and methodology. Our study was based on the International Organization for Standardization standards for life cycle assessment, although only results for greenhouse gas emissions are presented. Two functional units were included: tonnes of CO2-equivalents (CO2e) per hectare (ha) and kilograms of CO2e per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). The study covered 5 farms, 2 farming systems, and 3yr. Two methods for the calculation of enteric methane emissions were assessed. The Lassey method, as used in the New Zealand greenhouse gas inventory, provided a more robust estimate of emissions from enteric fermentation and was used in the final calculations. The alternative dry matter intake method was shown to overestimate emissions due to use of anecdotal assumptions around actual consumption of feed. Economic allocation was applied to milk and co-products. Scenario analysis was performed on the allocation method, nitrogen content of manure, manure management, and supplementary feed choice. The average carbon footprint for the indoor farms (n=3) was 11.05 t of CO2e/ha and 0.81kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. For the outdoor farms (n=2), the average was 5.38 t of CO2e/ha and 1.03kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The average for all 5 farms was 8.78 t of CO2e/ha and 0.90kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The results showed relatively high variability due to differences in management practices between farms. The 5 farms covered 10% of the total dairy goat farms but may not be representative of an average farm. Methane from enteric fermentation was a major emission source. The use of supplementary feed was highly variable but an important contributor to the carbon footprint. Nitrous oxide can contribute up to 18% of emissions. Indoor goat farming systems produced milk with a significantly higher carbon

  5. Variability and trends of surface solar radiation in Europe based on CM SAF satellite data records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentmann, Jörg; Pfeifroth, Uwe; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Urbain, Manon; Clerbaux, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    The EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF) generates satellite-based high-quality climate data records, with a focus on the global energy and water cycle. Here, the latest releases of the CM SAF's data records of surface solar radiation, Surface Solar Radiation Data Set - Heliosat (SARAH), and CM SAF cLouds, Albedo and Radiation dataset from AVHRR data (CLARA), are analyzed and validated with reference to ground-based measurements, e.g., provided by the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN), the World Radiation Data Center (WRDC) and the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA). Focus is given to the trends and the variability of the surface irradiance in Europe as derived from the surface and the satellite-based data records. Both data sources show an overall increase (i.e., brightening) after the 1980s, and indicate substantial decadal variability with periods of reduced increase (or even a decrease) and periods with a comparable high increase. Also the increase shows a pronounced spatial pattern, which is also found to be consistent between the two data sources. The good correspondence between the satellite-based data records and the surface measurements highlight the potential of the satellite data to represent the variability and changes in the surface irradiance and document the dominant role of clouds over aerosol to explain its variations. Reasons for remaining differences between the satellite- and the surface-based data records (e.g., in Southern Europe) will be discussed. To test the consistency of the CM SAF solar radiation data records we also assess the decadal variability of the solar reflected radiation at the top-of-the atmosphere (TOA) from the CM SAF climate data record based on the MVIRI / SEVIRI measurements from 1983 to 2015. This data record complements the SARAH data record in its temporal and spatial coverage; fewer and different assumptions are used in the retrieval to generate the TOA reflected solar

  6. Spatio-temporal footprints of urbanisation in Surat, the Diamond City of India (1990-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Richa; Ghosh, Aniruddha; Joshi, Pawan Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Urbanisation is a ubiquitous phenomenon with greater prominence in developing nations. Urban expansion involves land conversions from vegetated moisture-rich to impervious moisture-deficient land surfaces. The urban land transformations alter biophysical parameters in a mode that promotes development of heat islands and degrades environmental health. This study elaborates relationships among various environmental variables using remote sensing dataset to study spatio-temporal footprint of urbanisation in Surat city. Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite data were used in conjugation with geo-spatial techniques to study urbanisation and correlation among various satellite-derived biophysical parameters, [Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, Normalised Difference Built-up Index, Normalised Difference Water Index, Normalised Difference Bareness Index, Modified NDWI and land surface temperature (LST)]. Land use land cover was prepared using hierarchical decision tree classification with an accuracy of 90.4 % (kappa = 0.88) for 1990 and 85 % (kappa = 0.81) for 2009. It was found that the city has expanded over 42.75 km(2) within a decade, and these changes resulted in elevated surface temperatures. For example, transformation from vegetation to built-up has resulted in 5.5 ± 2.6 °C increase in land surface temperature, vegetation to fallow 6.7 ± 3 °C, fallow to built-up is 3.5 ± 2.9 °C and built-up to dense built-up is 5.3 ± 2.8 °C. Directional profiling for LST was done to study spatial patterns of LST in and around Surat city. Emergence of two new LST peaks for 2009 was observed in N-S and NE-SW profiles.

  7. Nitrogen footprints: Regional realities and options to reduce nitrogen loss to the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Hideaki; Galloway, James N; Leach, Allison M; Cattaneo, Lia R; Cattell Noll, Laura; Erisman, Jan Willem; Gu, Baojing; Liang, Xia; Hayashi, Kentaro; Ma, Lin; Dalgaard, Tommy; Graversgaard, Morten; Chen, Deli; Nansai, Keisuke; Shindo, Junko; Matsubae, Kazuyo; Oita, Azusa; Su, Ming-Chien; Mishima, Shin-Ichiro; Bleeker, Albert

    2017-03-01

    Nitrogen (N) management presents a sustainability dilemma: N is strongly linked to energy and food production, but excess reactive N causes environmental pollution. The N footprint is an indicator that quantifies reactive N losses to the environment from consumption and production of food and the use of energy. The average per capita N footprint (calculated using the N-Calculator methodology) of ten countries varies from 15 to 47 kg N capita(-1) year(-1). The major cause of the difference is the protein consumption rates and food production N losses. The food sector dominates all countries' N footprints. Global connections via trade significantly affect the N footprint in countries that rely on imported foods and feeds. The authors present N footprint reduction strategies (e.g., improve N use efficiency, increase N recycling, reduce food waste, shift dietary choices) and identify knowledge gaps (e.g., the N footprint from nonfood goods and soil N process).

  8. SLAM-Aided Stem Mapping for Forest Inventory with Small-Footprint Mobile LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Tang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurately retrieving tree stem location distributions is a basic requirement for biomass estimation of forest inventory. Combining Inertial Measurement Units (IMU with Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS is a commonly used positioning strategy in most Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS systems for accurate forest mapping. Coupled with a tactical or consumer grade IMU, GNSS offers a satisfactory solution in open forest environments, for which positioning accuracy better than one decimeter can be achieved. However, for such MLS systems, positioning in a mature and dense forest is still a challenging task because of the loss of GNSS signals attenuated by thick canopy. Most often laser scanning sensors in MLS systems are used for mapping and modelling rather than positioning. In this paper, we investigate a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM-aided positioning solution with point clouds collected by a small-footprint LiDAR. Based on the field test data, we evaluate the potential of SLAM positioning and mapping in forest inventories. The results show that the positioning accuracy in the selected test field is improved by 38% compared to that of a traditional tactical grade IMU + GNSS positioning system in a mature forest environment and, as a result, we are able to produce a unambiguous tree distribution map.

  9. Ecotourism versus Mass Tourism. A Comparison of Environmental Impacts Based on Ecological Footprint Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jérôme Ballet; Mehdi Marzouki; Géraldine Froger

    2012-01-01

    Academic and policy interest in ecological footprint analysis has grown rapidly in recent years. To date, however, the application of ecological footprint analysis to tourism has been limited. This article aims to discuss the potential of ecological footprint analysis to assess sustainability in tourism. It is about a comparison of the global environmental impacts of different forms of tourism in southern countries where tourism is a major source of foreign exchange earnings. It illustrates h...

  10. Comparing Carbon and Water Footprints for Beef Cattle Production in Southern Australia

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Stand-alone environmental indicators based on life cycle assessment (LCA), such as the carbon footprint and water footprint, are becoming increasingly popular as a means of directing sustainable production and consumption. However, individually, these metrics violate the principle of LCA known as comprehensiveness and do not necessarily provide an indication of overall environmental impact. In this study, the carbon footprints for six diverse beef cattle production systems in southern Austral...

  11. Dinosaur footprints in the Upper Turonian-Coniacian limestone in the Krnica Bay (NE Istria, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Mauko

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Three isolated footprints and one trackway that can be attributed to bipedal dinosaur, from a limestone bed in vicinity of Požara promontory, Krnica Bay, are described. According to the stratigraphic position the footprints are late Turonian to Coniacian in age.This is the first record of dinosaur remains in the Turonian-Coniacian and the youngest footprint site on the Adriatic-Dinaric Carbonate Platform described thus far.

  12. Ecotourism versus Mass Tourism. A Comparison of Environmental Impacts Based on Ecological Footprint Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jérôme Ballet; Mehdi Marzouki; Géraldine Froger

    2012-01-01

    Academic and policy interest in ecological footprint analysis has grown rapidly in recent years. To date, however, the application of ecological footprint analysis to tourism has been limited. This article aims to discuss the potential of ecological footprint analysis to assess sustainability in tourism. It is about a comparison of the global environmental impacts of different forms of tourism in southern countries where tourism is a major source of foreign exchange earnings. It illustrates h...

  13. Host Chemical Footprints Induce Host Sex Discrimination Ability in Egg Parasitoids: e79054

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peri, Ezio; Frati, Francesca; Salerno, Gianandrea; Conti, Eric; Colazza, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Trissolcus egg parasitoids, when perceiving the chemical footprints left on a substrate by pentatomid host bugs, adopt a motivated searching behaviour characterized by longer searching time on patches...

  14. Income-carbon footprint relationships for urban and rural households of Iskandar Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, M. R.; Moeinzadeh, S. N.; Tifwa, H. Y.

    2014-02-01

    Iskandar Malaysia has a vision to achieve sustainable development and a low carbon society status by decreasing the amount of CO2 emission as much as 60% by 2025. As the case is in other parts of the world, households are suspected to be a major source of carbon emission in Iskandar Malaysia. At the global level, 72% of greenhouse gas emission is a consequence of household activities, which is influenced by lifestyle. Income is the most important indicator of lifestyle and consequently may influence the amount of households' carbon footprint. The main objective of this paper is to illustrate the carbon-income relationships in Iskandar Malaysia's urban and rural areas. Data were gathered through a questionnaire survey of 420 households. The households were classified into six categories based on their residential area status. Both direct and indirect carbon footprints of respondents were calculated using a carbon footprint model. Direct carbon footprint includes domestic energy use, personal travel, flight and public transportation while indirect carbon footprint is the total secondary carbon emission measurement such as housing operations, transportation operations, food, clothes, education, cultural and recreational services. Analysis of the results shows a wide range of carbon footprint values and a significance correlation between income and carbon footprint. The carbon footprints vary in urban and rural areas, and also across different urban areas. These identified carbon footprint values can help the authority target its carbon reduction programs.

  15. Estimation of foot pressure from human footprint depths using 3D scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Dwi Basuki; Haryadi, Gunawan Dwi; Priambodo, Agus

    2016-03-01

    The analysis of normal and pathological variation in human foot morphology is central to several biomedical disciplines, including orthopedics, orthotic design, sports sciences, and physical anthropology, and it is also important for efficient footwear design. A classic and frequently used approach to study foot morphology is analysis of the footprint shape and footprint depth. Footprints are relatively easy to produce and to measure, and they can be preserved naturally in different soils. In this study, we need to correlate footprint depth with corresponding foot pressure of individual using 3D scanner. Several approaches are used for modeling and estimating footprint depths and foot pressures. The deepest footprint point is calculated from z max coordinate-z min coordinate and the average of foot pressure is calculated from GRF divided to foot area contact and identical with the average of footprint depth. Evaluation of footprint depth was found from importing 3D scanner file (dxf) in AutoCAD, the z-coordinates than sorted from the highest to the lowest value using Microsoft Excel to make footprinting depth in difference color. This research is only qualitatif study because doesn't use foot pressure device as comparator, and resulting the maximum pressure on calceneus is 3.02 N/cm2, lateral arch is 3.66 N/cm2, and metatarsal and hallux is 3.68 N/cm2.

  16. A low-cost FMCW radar for footprint detection from a mobile platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutte, David; Taylor, Paul; Hunt, Allan

    2015-05-01

    Footprint and human trail detection in rugged all-weather environments is an important and challenging problem for perimeter security, passive surveillance and reconnaissance. To address this challenge a low-cost, wideband, frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar operating at 33.4GHz - 35.5GHz is being developed through a Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate Phase I SBIR and has been experimentally demonstrated to be capable of detecting footprints and footprint trails on unimproved roads in an experimental setting. It uses a low-cost digital signal processor (DSP) that makes important operating parameters reconfigurable and allows for frequency sweep linearization, a key technique developed to increase footprint signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This paper discusses the design, DSP implementation and experimental results of a low-cost FMCW radar for mobile footprint detection. A technique for wideband sweep linearization is detailed along with system performance metrics and experimental results showing receive-SNR from footprint trails in sand and on unimproved dirt roads. Results from a second stepped frequency CW (SFCW) Ka-band system are also shown, verifying the ability of both systems to detect footprints and footprint trails in an experimental setting. The results show that there is sufficient receive-SNR to detect even shallow footprints (~1cm) using a radar based detection system in Ka-band. Field experimental results focus on system proof of concept from a static position with mobile results also presented highlighting necessary improvements to both systems.

  17. Chromatin opening of DNA satellites by targeted sequence-specific drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, S; Durussel, T; Laemmli, U K

    2000-11-01

    There are few tools available for dissecting and elucidating the functions of DNA satellites and other nongenic DNA. To address this, we have explored the experimental potential of DNA sequence-specific drugs containing pyrrole and imidazole amino acids (polyamides). Compounds were synthesized that target different Drosophila melanogaster satellites. Dimeric oligopyrroles were shown to target the AT-rich satellites I, III, and SARs (scaffold associated regions). One polyamide (P31) specifically binds the GAGAA satellite V. Specificity of targeting was established by footprinting, epifluorescence of nuclei, and polytene chromosomes stained with fluorescent derivatives. These polyamides were shown to mediate satellite-specific chromatin opening of the chromatin fiber. Remarkably, certain polyamides induced defined gain or loss-of-function phenotypes when fed to Drosophila melanogaster.

  18. Urban Footprint of Mumbai - The Commercial Capital of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. RAMACHANDRA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban footprint refers to the proportion of paved surface (built up, roads, etc. with the reduction of other land use types in a region. Rapid increase in the urban areas is the major driver in landscape dynamics with the significant erosion in the quality and quantity of the natural ecosystems. The urban expansion process hence needs to be monitored, quantified and understood for effective planning and the sustainable management of natural resources. Cities and towns have been experiencing considerable growth in urban area, population size, social aspects, negative environmental and geographical influence, and complexity. Mumbai, the commercial capital of India, has experienced a spurt in infrastructural and industrial activities with globalization and opening up of Indian markets. Unplanned urbanization has resulted in dispersed growth inperi-urban pockets due to socio-economic aspects with the burgeoning population of the city. Consequent to this, there has been an uneven growth pattern apart from the increase in slums in and around the city. This has necessitated the understanding of the urbanization pattern and process focusing especially on the expanding geographical area, its geometry and the spatial pattern of its development. This communication discusses the urban footprint dynamics of Mumbai using multi-temporal remote sensing data with spatial metrics. Land use analysis indicated a decrease of vegetation by 20% with an increase in urban extent by 155% during the last three decades. Landscape metrics aided in assessing the spatial structure and composition of the urban footprints through the zonal analysis by dividing the region into four zones with concentric circles of 1 km incrementing radius from the city centre. The study reveals a significant variation in the composition of the urban patch dynamics with increasing complexity and aggregation of urban area at the centre and sprawl at the outskirts. Shannon’s entropy further

  19. The carbon footprint of behavioural support services for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anna Jo Bodurtha; Tennison, Imogen; Roberts, Ian; Cairns, John; Free, Caroline

    2013-09-01

    To estimate the carbon footprint of behavioural support services for smoking cessation: text message support, telephone counselling, group counselling and individual counselling. Carbon footprint analysis. Publicly available data on National Health Service Stop Smoking Services and per unit carbon emissions; published effectiveness data from the txt2stop trial and systematic reviews of smoking cessation services. Carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) per 1000 smokers, per lifetime quitter, and per quality-adjusted life year gained, and cost-effectiveness, including social cost of carbon, of smoking cessation services. Emissions per 1000 participants were 8143 kg CO2e for text message support, 8619 kg CO2e for telephone counselling, 16 114 kg CO2e for group counselling and 16 372 kg CO2e for individual counselling. Emissions per intervention lifetime quitter were 636 (95% CI 455 to 958) kg CO2e for text message support, 1051 (95% CI 560 to 2873) kg CO2e for telephone counselling, 1143 (95% CI 695 to 2270) kg CO2e for group counselling and 2823 (95% CI 1688 to 6549) kg CO2e for individual counselling. Text message, telephone and group counselling remained cost-effective when cost-effectiveness analysis was revised to include the environmental and economic cost of damage from carbon emissions. All smoking cessation services had low emissions compared to the health gains produced. Text message support had the lowest emissions of the services evaluated. Smoking cessation services have small carbon footprints and were cost-effective after accounting for the societal costs of greenhouse gas emissions.

  20. Blue and grey water footprint of textile industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Laili; Ding, Xuemei; Wu, Xiongying

    2013-01-01

    Water footprint (WF) is a newly developed idea that indicates impacts of freshwater appropriation and wastewater discharge. The textile industry is one of the oldest, longest and most complicated industrial chains in the world's manufacturing industries. However, the textile industry is also water intensive. In this paper, we applied a bottom-up approach to estimate the direct blue water footprint (WFdir,blue) and direct grey water footprint (WFdir,grey) of China's textile industry at sector level based on WF methodology. The results showed that WFdir,blue of China's textile industry had an increasing trend from 2001 to 2010. The annual WFdir,blue surpassed 0.92 Gm(3)/yr (giga cubic meter a year) since 2004 and rose to peak value of 1.09 Gm(3)/yr in 2007. The original and residuary WFdir,grey (both were calculated based on the concentration of chemical oxygen demand (CODCr)) of China's textile industry had a similar variation trend with that of WFdir,blue. Among the three sub-sectors of China's textile industry, the manufacture of textiles sector's annual WFdir,blue and WFdir,grey were much larger than those of the manufacture of textile wearing apparel, footware and caps sector and the manufacture of chemical fibers sector. The intensities of WFdir,blue and WF(res)dir,grey of China's textile industry were year by year decreasing through the efforts of issuing restriction policies on freshwater use and wastewater generation and discharge, and popularization of water saving and wastewater treatment technologies.

  1. Estimating Biofuel Feedstock Water Footprints Using System Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inman, Daniel; Warner, Ethan; Stright, Dana; Macknick, Jordan; Peck, Corey

    2016-07-01

    Increased biofuel production has prompted concerns about the environmental tradeoffs of biofuels compared to petroleum-based fuels. Biofuel production in general, and feedstock production in particular, is under increased scrutiny. Water footprinting (measuring direct and indirect water use) has been proposed as one measure to evaluate water use in the context of concerns about depleting rural water supplies through activities such as irrigation for large-scale agriculture. Water footprinting literature has often been limited in one or more key aspects: complete assessment across multiple water stocks (e.g., vadose zone, surface, and ground water stocks), geographical resolution of data, consistent representation of many feedstocks, and flexibility to perform scenario analysis. We developed a model called BioSpatial H2O using a system dynamics modeling and database framework. BioSpatial H2O could be used to consistently evaluate the complete water footprints of multiple biomass feedstocks at high geospatial resolutions. BioSpatial H2O has the flexibility to perform simultaneous scenario analysis of current and potential future crops under alternative yield and climate conditions. In this proof-of-concept paper, we modeled corn grain (Zea mays L.) and soybeans (Glycine max) under current conditions as illustrative results. BioSpatial H2O links to a unique database that houses annual spatially explicit climate, soil, and plant physiological data. Parameters from the database are used as inputs to our system dynamics model for estimating annual crop water requirements using daily time steps. Based on our review of the literature, estimated green water footprints are comparable to other modeled results, suggesting that BioSpatial H2O is computationally sound for future scenario analysis. Our modeling framework builds on previous water use analyses to provide a platform for scenario-based assessment. BioSpatial H2O's system dynamics is a flexible and user

  2. Using extant taxa to inform studies of fossil footprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkingham, Peter; Gatesy, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Attempting to use the fossilized footprints of extinct animals to study their palaeobiology and palaeoecology is notoriously difficult. The inconvenient extinction of the trackmaker makes direct correlation between footprints and foot far from straightforward. However, footprints are the only direct evidence of vertebrate motion recorded in the fossil record, and are potentially a source of data on palaeobiology that cannot be obtained from osteological remains alone. Our interests lie in recovering information about the movements of dinosaurs from their tracks. In particular, the Hitchcock collection of early Jurassic tracks held at the Beneski Museum of Natural History, Amherst, provide a rare look into the 3D form of tracks at and below the surface the animal walked on. Breaking naturally along laminations into 'track books', the specimens present sediment deformation at multiple levels, and in doing so record more of the foot's motion than a single surface might. In order to utilize this rich information source to study the now extinct trackmakers, the process of track formation must be understood at a fundamental level; the interaction of the moving foot and compliant substrate. We used bi-planar X-ray techniques (X-ray Reconstruction of Moving Morphology) to record the limb and foot motions of a Guineafowl traversing both granular and cohesive substrates. This data was supplemented with photogrammetric records of the resultant track surfaces, as well as the motion of metal beads within the sediment, to provide a full experimental dataset of foot and footprint formation. The physical experimental data was used to generate computer simulations of the process using high performance computing and the Discrete Element Method. The resultant simulations showed excellent congruence with reality, and enabled visualization within the sediment volume, and throughout the track-forming process. This physical and virtual experimental set-up has provided major insight into

  3. Carbon footprints and legitimation strategies: Symbolism or action?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrasky, S. [Univ. of Tasmania (Australia)

    2009-07-01

    The term 'carbon footprint' is now firmly entrenched in the common vernacular where it tends to function ideographically, representing a range of concerns about environmental impacts and degradation. Political and consumer concern about the related issues of carbon emissions, climate change and global warming has been heightened by a number of factors. It is often claimed that, along with the US, Australia has one of the heaviest carbon footprints. However, according to KPMG's (2008) survey results only 32 per cent of the Australian companies included in its survey report specifically on their carbon footprints. Nonetheless, KPMG (2007) reports that around 85 per cent of the 500 largest listed Australian companies do report on the related issues of climate change and greenhouse gas emissions. Motivations for making such disclosures can vary widely but legitimacy theory has been used extensively to explain environmental disclosure decisions in the context of maintaining an implicit social contract between the company and its stakeholders. While, prima facie, increased levels of voluntary disclosures may be a constructive outcome there is the associated risk that, in pursuit of legitimation, such disclosure can actually 'thicken' the corporate veil. This can occur because organizational action to maintain the social contact can be both symbolic and behavioral. That is, the disclosure response might be calculated to create a positive impression of the firm's activities with no associated change in operations (symbolism) or it might convey a message about how operational changes have been effected that are more consistent with societal expectations. This study examines the disclosure strategies of large Australian companies in light of the heightened societal awareness and concern about issues related to carbon footprints. This first aim is to determine whether, consistent with a general need for legitimation, companies are addressing

  4. The green, blue and grey water footprint of crops and derived crop products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2011-05-01

    This study quantifies the green, blue and grey water footprint of global crop production in a spatially-explicit way for the period 1996-2005. The assessment improves upon earlier research by taking a high-resolution approach, estimating the water footprint of 126 crops at a 5 by 5 arc minute grid. We have used a grid-based dynamic water balance model to calculate crop water use over time, with a time step of one day. The model takes into account the daily soil water balance and climatic conditions for each grid cell. In addition, the water pollution associated with the use of nitrogen fertilizer in crop production is estimated for each grid cell. The crop evapotranspiration of additional 20 minor crops is calculated with the CROPWAT model. In addition, we have calculated the water footprint of more than two hundred derived crop products, including various flours, beverages, fibres and biofuels. We have used the water footprint assessment framework as in the guideline of the Water Footprint Network. Considering the water footprints of primary crops, we see that the global average water footprint per ton of crop increases from sugar crops (roughly 200 m3 ton-1), vegetables (300 m3 ton-1), roots and tubers (400 m3 ton-1), fruits (1000 m3 ton-1), cereals (1600 m3 ton-1), oil crops (2400 m3 ton-1) to pulses (4000 m3 ton-1). The water footprint varies, however, across different crops per crop category and per production region as well. Besides, if one considers the water footprint per kcal, the picture changes as well. When considered per ton of product, commodities with relatively large water footprints are: coffee, tea, cocoa, tobacco, spices, nuts, rubber and fibres. The analysis of water footprints of different biofuels shows that bio-ethanol has a lower water footprint (in m3 GJ-1) than biodiesel, which supports earlier analyses. The crop used matters significantly as well: the global average water footprint of bio-ethanol based on sugar beet amounts to 51 m3 GJ-1

  5. Satellite data compression

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Bormin

    2011-01-01

    Satellite Data Compression covers recent progress in compression techniques for multispectral, hyperspectral and ultra spectral data. A survey of recent advances in the fields of satellite communications, remote sensing and geographical information systems is included. Satellite Data Compression, contributed by leaders in this field, is the first book available on satellite data compression. It covers onboard compression methodology and hardware developments in several space agencies. Case studies are presented on recent advances in satellite data compression techniques via various prediction-

  6. Trends in communications satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Curtin, Denis J

    1979-01-01

    Trends in Communications Satellites offers a comprehensive look at trends and advances in satellite communications, including experimental ones such as NASA satellites and those jointly developed by France and Germany. The economic aspects of communications satellites are also examined. This book consists of 16 chapters and begins with a discussion on the fundamentals of electrical communications and their application to space communications, including spacecraft, earth stations, and orbit and wavelength utilization. The next section demonstrates how successful commercial satellite communicati

  7. Preservation and analysis of footprint evidence within the archaeological record: examples from Valsequillo and Cuatrocienegas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, M.; Huddart, D.; Gonzalez, S.

    2008-05-01

    Human footprints provide a direct record of human occupation and can be used to make a range of biometric inferences about the individuals which left them. In this paper we describe the application of three-dimensional optical laser scanning in the preservation and analysis both human and animal footprints. Optical laser scanning provides a digital elevation model of a print or surface with a vertical accuracy typically less than + 0.01 mm. Not only does this provide a procedure for recording fragile footprint evidence but allows digital measurements to be made. It is also possible to use the techniques developed for rapid proto-typing to recreate the print as solid models for visualisation. The role of optical laser scanning in the preservation of footprint evidence is explored with specific reference to the controversial footprints of the Valsequillo Basin in Central Mexico which may provide some of the earliest evidence of human colonization of the Americas. More importantly, digital footprint scans provide a basis for the numerical analysis of footprints allowing the tools of geometric morphometrics to be applied. These tools have been widely developed in the fields of biology and physical anthropology and used to explore the anatomical significance of shape. One key question that can be addressed using this approach is to develop a statistical approach to the objective recognition of a human footprint thereby helping to verify their interpretation and archaeological significance. Using footprint data from sites across the World a statistical model for the recognition of human footprints is presented and used to evaluate the controversial footprint site of Valsequillo, (Puebla State) preserved in volcanic ash and those in the Cuatrocienegas Basin, (Coahuila State) preserved in travertine.

  8. An Accurate FOA and TOA Estimation Algorithm for Galileo Search and Rescue Signal%伽利略搜救信号FOA和TOA精确估计算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王堃; 吴嗣亮; 韩月涛

    2011-01-01

    According to the high precision demand of Frequency of Arrival(FOA) and Time of Arrival(TOA) estimation in Galileo search and rescue(SAR) system and considering the fact that the message bit width is unknown in real received beacons,a new FOA and TOA estimation algorithm which combines the multi-dimensional joint maximum likelihood estimation algorithm and barycenter calculation algorithm is proposed.The principle of the algorithm is derived after the signal model is introduced,and the concrete realization of the estimation algorithm is given.Monte Carlo simulation results and measurement results show that when CNR equals the threshold of 34.8 dBHz,FOA and TOA estimation rmse(root-mean-square error) of this algorithm are respectively within 0.03 Hz and 9.5 μs,which are better than the system requirements of 0.05 Hz and 11 μs.This algorithm has been applied to the Galileo Medium-altitude Earth Orbit Local User Terminal(MEOLUT station).%针对伽利略搜救系统中到达频率(FOA)和到达时间(TOA)高精度估计的需求,考虑到实际接收的信标信号中信息位宽未知的情况,提出了多维联合极大似然估计算法和体积重心算法相结合的FOA和TOA估计算法。在介绍信号模型的基础上推导了算法原理,给出了估计算法的具体实现过程。Monte Carlo仿真和实测结果表明,在34.8 dBHz的处理门限下,该算法得到的FOA和TOA估计的均方根误差分别小于0.03 Hz和9.5μs,优于0.05 Hz和11μs的系统指标要求。该算法目前已应用于伽利略中轨卫星地面用户终端(MEOLUT地面站)。

  9. Determining the metabolic footprints of hydrocarbon degradation using multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Renee J; Jeffries, Thomas C; Adetutu, Eric M; Fairweather, Peter G; Mitchell, James G

    2013-01-01

    The functional dynamics of microbial communities are largely responsible for the clean-up of hydrocarbons in the environment. However, knowledge of the distinguishing functional genes, known as the metabolic footprint, present in hydrocarbon-impacted sites is still scarcely understood. Here, we conducted several multivariate analyses to characterise the metabolic footprints present in a variety of hydrocarbon-impacted and non-impacted sediments. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (NMDS) and canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) showed a clear distinction between the two groups. A high relative abundance of genes associated with cofactors, virulence, phages and fatty acids were present in the non-impacted sediments, accounting for 45.7% of the overall dissimilarity. In the hydrocarbon-impacted sites, a high relative abundance of genes associated with iron acquisition and metabolism, dormancy and sporulation, motility, metabolism of aromatic compounds and cell signalling were observed, accounting for 22.3% of the overall dissimilarity. These results suggest a major shift in functionality has occurred with pathways essential to the degradation of hydrocarbons becoming overrepresented at the expense of other, less essential metabolisms.

  10. Determining the metabolic footprints of hydrocarbon degradation using multivariate analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee J Smith

    Full Text Available The functional dynamics of microbial communities are largely responsible for the clean-up of hydrocarbons in the environment. However, knowledge of the distinguishing functional genes, known as the metabolic footprint, present in hydrocarbon-impacted sites is still scarcely understood. Here, we conducted several multivariate analyses to characterise the metabolic footprints present in a variety of hydrocarbon-impacted and non-impacted sediments. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (NMDS and canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP showed a clear distinction between the two groups. A high relative abundance of genes associated with cofactors, virulence, phages and fatty acids were present in the non-impacted sediments, accounting for 45.7% of the overall dissimilarity. In the hydrocarbon-impacted sites, a high relative abundance of genes associated with iron acquisition and metabolism, dormancy and sporulation, motility, metabolism of aromatic compounds and cell signalling were observed, accounting for 22.3% of the overall dissimilarity. These results suggest a major shift in functionality has occurred with pathways essential to the degradation of hydrocarbons becoming overrepresented at the expense of other, less essential metabolisms.

  11. Water footprint of U.S. transportation fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scown, Corinne D; Horvath, Arpad; McKone, Thomas E

    2011-04-01

    In the modern global economy, water and energy are fundamentally connected. Water already plays a major role in electricity generation and, with biofuels and electricity poised to gain a significant share of the transportation fuel market, water will become significantly more important for transportation energy as well. This research provides insight into the potential changes in water use resulting from increased biofuel or electricity production for transportation energy, as well as the greenhouse gas and freshwater implications. It is shown that when characterizing the water impact of transportation energy, incorporating indirect water use and defensible allocation techniques have a major impact on the final results, with anywhere between an 82% increase and a 250% decrease in the water footprint if evaporative losses from hydroelectric power are excluded. The greenhouse gas impact results indicate that placing cellulosic biorefineries in areas where water must be supplied using alternative means, such as desalination, wastewater recycling, or importation can increase the fuel's total greenhouse gas footprint by up to 47%. The results also show that the production of ethanol and petroleum fuels burden already overpumped aquifers, whereas electricity production is far less dependent on groundwater.

  12. Limitations of carbon footprint as indicator of environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Alexis; Olsen, Stig I; Hauschild, Michael Z

    2012-04-03

    Greenhouse gas accountings, commonly referred to with the popular term carbon footprints (CFP), are a widely used metric of climate change impacts and the main focus of many sustainability policies among companies and authorities. However, environmental sustainability concerns not just climate change but also other environmental problems, like chemical pollution or depletion of natural resources, and the focus on CFP brings the risk of problem shifting when reductions in CFP are obtained at the expense of increase in other environmental impacts. But how real is this risk? Here, we model and analyze the life cycle impacts from about 4000 different products, technologies, and services taken from several sectors, including energy generation, transportation, material production, infrastructure, and waste management. By investigating the correlations between the CFP and 13 other impact scores, we show that some environmental impacts, notably those related to emissions of toxic substances, often do not covary with climate change impacts. In such situations, carbon footprint is a poor representative of the environmental burden of products, and environmental management focused exclusively on CFP runs the risk of inadvertently shifting the problem to other environmental impacts when products are optimized to become more "green". These findings call for the use of more broadly encompassing tools to assess and manage environmental sustainability.

  13. RECONSTRUCTION OF BUILDING FOOTPRINTS USING SPACEBORNE TOMOSAR POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shahzad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach that automatically (but parametrically reconstructs 2-D/3-D building footprints using 3-D synthetic aperture radar (SAR tomography (TomoSAR point clouds. These point clouds are generated by processing SAR image stacks via SAR tomographic inversion. The proposed approach reconstructs the building outline by exploiting both the roof and façade points. Initial building footprints are derived by applying the alpha shapes method on pre-segmented point clusters of individual buildings. A recursive angular deviation based refinement is then carried out to obtain refined/smoothed 2-D polygonal boundaries. A robust fusion framework then fuses the information pertaining to building façades to the smoothed polygons. Afterwards, a rectilinear building identification procedure is adopted and constraints are added to yield geometrically correct and visually aesthetic building shapes. The proposed approach is illustrated and validated using TomoSAR point clouds generated from a stack of TerraSAR-X high-resolution spotlight images from ascending orbit covering approximately 1.5 km2 area in the city of Berlin, Germany.

  14. Carbon nanotube transistors scaled to a 40-nanometer footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing; Tersoff, Jerry; Farmer, Damon B.; Zhu, Yu; Han, Shu-Jen

    2017-06-01

    The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors challenges the device research community to reduce the transistor footprint containing all components to 40 nanometers within the next decade. We report on a p-channel transistor scaled to such an extremely small dimension. Built on one semiconducting carbon nanotube, it occupies less than half the space of leading silicon technologies, while delivering a significantly higher pitch-normalized current density—above 0.9 milliampere per micrometer at a low supply voltage of 0.5 volts with a subthreshold swing of 85 millivolts per decade. Furthermore, we show transistors with the same small footprint built on actual high-density arrays of such nanotubes that deliver higher current than that of the best-competing silicon devices under the same overdrive, without any normalization. We achieve this using low-resistance end-bonded contacts, a high-purity semiconducting carbon nanotube source, and self-assembly to pack nanotubes into full surface-coverage aligned arrays.

  15. Ecological Footprint Model Using the Support Vector Machine Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haibo; Chang, Wenjuan; Cui, Guangbai

    2012-01-01

    The per capita ecological footprint (EF) is one of the most widely recognized measures of environmental sustainability. It aims to quantify the Earth's biological resources required to support human activity. In this paper, we summarize relevant previous literature, and present five factors that influence per capita EF. These factors are: National gross domestic product (GDP), urbanization (independent of economic development), distribution of income (measured by the Gini coefficient), export dependence (measured by the percentage of exports to total GDP), and service intensity (measured by the percentage of service to total GDP). A new ecological footprint model based on a support vector machine (SVM), which is a machine-learning method based on the structural risk minimization principle from statistical learning theory was conducted to calculate the per capita EF of 24 nations using data from 123 nations. The calculation accuracy was measured by average absolute error and average relative error. They were 0.004883 and 0.351078% respectively. Our results demonstrate that the EF model based on SVM has good calculation performance. PMID:22291949

  16. Water footprints of cities - indicators for sustainable consumption and production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, H.; Döll, P.; Fader, M.; Gerten, D.; Hauser, S.; Siebert, S.

    2014-01-01

    Water footprints have been proposed as sustainability indicators, relating the consumption of goods like food to the amount of water necessary for their production and the impacts of that water use in the source regions. We further developed the existing water footprint methodology, by globally resolving virtual water flows from production to consumption regions for major food crops at 5 arcmin spatial resolution. We distinguished domestic and international flows, and assessed local impacts of export production. Applying this method to three exemplary cities, Berlin, Delhi and Lagos, we find major differences in amounts, composition, and origin of green and blue virtual water imports, due to differences in diets, trade integration and crop water productivities in the source regions. While almost all of Delhi's and Lagos' virtual water imports are of domestic origin, Berlin on average imports from more than 4000 km distance, in particular soy (livestock feed), coffee and cocoa. While 42% of Delhi's virtual water imports are blue water based, the fractions for Berlin and Lagos are 2 and 0.5%, respectively, roughly equal to the water volumes abstracted in these two cities for domestic water use. Some of the external source regions of Berlin's virtual water imports appear to be critically water scarce and/or food insecure. However, for deriving recommendations on sustainable consumption and trade, further analysis of context-specific costs and benefits associated with export production will be required.

  17. Water footprints of cities - indicators for sustainable consumption and production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, H.; Döll, P.; Fader, M.; Gerten, D.; Hauser, S.; Siebert, S.

    2013-02-01

    Water footprints have been proposed as sustainability indicators, relating the consumption of goods like food to the amount of water necessary for their production and the impacts of that water use in the source regions. We have further developed the existing water footprint methodology by globally resolving virtual water flows and import and source regions at 5 arc minutes spatial resolution, and by assessing local impacts of export production. Applying this method to three exemplary cities, Berlin, Delhi and Lagos, we find major differences in amounts, composition, and origin of green and blue virtual water imports, due to differences in diets, trade integration and crop water productivities in the source regions. While almost all of Delhi's and Lagos' virtual water imports are of domestic origin, Berlin on average imports from more than 4000 km distance, in particular soy (livestock feed), coffee and cocoa. While 42% of Delhi's virtual water imports are blue water based, the fractions for Berlin and Lagos are 2% and 0.5%, respectively, roughly equal to local drinking water abstractions of these cities. Some of the external source regions of Berlin's virtual water imports appear to be critically water scarce and/or food insecure. However for deriving recommendations on sustainable consumption and trade, further analysis of context-specific costs and benefits associated with export production will be required.

  18. Building Footprints, Building footprint point, line, and polygons from stereo 2005 Orthophotography, Published in 2005, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Iredell County GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Building Footprints dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2005. It is described as...

  19. Building Footprints, Building Footprints for City and Village Areas Only, Published in 1996, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Jefferson County Land Information Office.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Building Footprints dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 1996. It is described as...

  20. The blue, green and grey water footprint of rice from a production and consumption perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2011-01-01

    The paper makes a global assessment of the green, blue and grey water footprint of rice, using a higher spatial resolution and local data on actual irrigation. The national water footprint of rice production and consumption is estimated using international trade and domestic production data. The

  1. Quantifying the human impact on water resources: a critical review of the water footprint concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenoweth, J.; Hadjikakou, M.; Zoumides, C.

    2014-06-01

    The water footprint is a consumption-based indicator of water use, referring to the total volume of freshwater used directly and indirectly by a nation or a company, or in the provision of a product or service. Despite widespread enthusiasm for the development and use of water footprints, some concerns have been raised about the concept and its usefulness. A variety of methodologies have been developed for water footprinting which differ with respect to how they deal with different forms of water use. The result is water footprint estimates which vary dramatically, often creating confusion. Despite these methodological qualms, the concept has had notable success in raising awareness about water use in agricultural and industrial supply chains, by providing a previously unavailable and (seemingly) simple numerical indicator of water use. Nevertheless, and even though a range of uses have already been suggested for water footprinting, its policy value remains unclear. Unlike the carbon footprint which provides a universal measure of human impact on the atmosphere's limited absorptive capacity, the water footprint in its conventional form solely quantifies a single production input without any accounting of the impacts of use, which vary spatially and temporally. Following an extensive review of the literature related to water footprints, this paper critically examines the present uses of the concept, focusing on its current strengths, shortcomings and promising research avenues to advance it.

  2. The blue, green and grey water footprint of rice from production and consumption perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, A.K.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2011-01-01

    The paper makes a global assessment of the green, blue and grey water footprint of rice, using a higher spatial resolution and local data on actual irrigation. The national water footprint of rice production and consumption is estimated using international trade and domestic production data. The glo

  3. A modest proposal: global rationalization of ecological footprint to eliminate ecological debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Anderson

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In the context of ecological overshoot, extreme poverty, and profligate consumption, we propose using ecological footprint analysis (EFA to regulate and rationalize material consumption worldwide. EFA quantifies human-consumption flows relative to renewable natural capital stocks given specified levels of technology. Worldwide, 1.8 global hectares (gha of bioproductive land exist per person, yet the human population is currently consuming 2.2 gha per person. Given global overshoot and the radically uneven distribution of consumption, we propose a global regime of cap-and-trade of ecological footprint. Under the terms of our modest proposal, all nations would be allocated population-based ecological footprints of an “earthshare” of 1.8 gha per person. Nations with large per capita footprints would be obligated to make reductions through some combination of reduced consumption, resource-productivity gains, population decreases, ecological restoration, and purchase of footprint credits. In contrast, countries with small per capita footprints could sell footprint credits to finance modernization along ecological lines. Mathematical simulation of our proposal indicates global convergence of nations’ ecological footprints in 136 years. In our view, the obscenity of contemporary ecological degradation and human suffering is perhaps rivaled by the audacity of our proposal to commodify biocapacity worldwide. We leave it to the reader to compare our response to institutional failure and the problem of distributive justice to the remedy Swift offered in 1729.

  4. Barriers to Mitigate Carbon Footprint in a Selected Academic Institution in Bacoor City, Cavite, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adanza, Jonathan R.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon footprint is an environmental menace that needs to be addressed at once. Various mitigating measures were proposed and yet manifestations of its proliferation are very much observable. This study seeks to determine primarily the barriers of non-adherence to identified measures to mitigate carbon footprint in the environment. Using the mixed…

  5. Water footprint, extended water footprint and virtual water trade of the Cantabria region, Spain. A critical appraisal of results, uncertainties and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Alcaide, Silvia; Martinez-Santos, Pedro; Willaarts, Barbara; Hernández-Moreno, Enrique; Llamas, M. Ramon

    2015-04-01

    Water footprint assessments have gradually gained recognition as valuable tools for water management, to the point that they have been officially incorporated to water planning in countries such as Spain. Adequate combinations of the virtual water and water footprint concepts present the potential to link a broad range of sectors and issues, thus providing appropriate frameworks to support optimal water allocation and to inform production and trade decisions from the water perspective. We present the results of a regional study carried out in Cantabria, a 5300 km2 autonomous region located in northern Spain. Our approach deals with the municipal, shire and regional scales, combining different methods to assess each of the main components of Cantabria's water footprint (agriculture, livestock, forestry, industry, mining, tourism, domestic use and reservoirs), as well as exploring the significance of different approaches, assumptions and databases in the overall outcomes. The classic water footprint method is coupled with extended water footprint analyses in order to provide an estimate of the social and economic value of each sector. Finally, virtual water imports and exports are computed between Cantabria and the rest of Spain and between Cantabria and the world. The outcome of our work (a) highlights the paramount importance of green water (mostly embedded in pastures) in the region's water footprint and virtual water exports; (b) establishes the role of the region as a net virtual water exporter; (c) shows the productivity of water (euro/m3 and jobs/m3) to be highest in tourism and lowest in agriculture and livestock; and (d) demonstrates that statistical databases are seldom compiled with water footprint studies in mind, which is likely to introduce uncertainties in the results. Although our work shows that there is still plenty of room for improvement in regional-scale water footprint assessments, we contend that the available information is sufficient to

  6. The simple two-dimensional parameterisation for Flux Footprint Predictions FFP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kljun, N.; Calanca, P.; Rotach, M. W.; Schmid, H. P.

    2015-08-01

    Flux footprint models are often used for interpretation of flux tower measurements, to estimate position and size of surface source areas, and the relative contribution of passive scalar sources to measured fluxes. Accurate knowledge of footprints is of crucial importance for any upscaling exercises from single site flux measurements to ecosystem or regional scale. Hence, footprint models are ultimately also of considerable importance for improved greenhouse gas budgeting. With increasing numbers of flux towers within large monitoring networks such as FLUXNET, ICOS, NEON, or AMERIFLUX, and with increasing temporal range of observations from such towers (order of decades) and availability of airborne flux measurements, there has been an increasing demand for reliable footprint estimation. Even though several sophisticated footprint models have been developed in recent years, most are still not suitable for application to long time series, due to their high computational demands. Existing fast footprint models, on the other hand, are based on Surface Layer theory and hence are of restricted validity for real case applications. To remedy such shortcomings, we present the two-dimensional Flux Footprint Parameterisation, FFP, based on a novel scaling approach for the crosswind distribution of the flux footprint and on an improved version of the footprint parameterisation of Kljun et al. (2004b). Compared to the latter, FFP now provides not only the extent, but also the width and shape of footprint estimates, and explicit consideration of the effects of the surface roughness length. The footprint parameterisation has been developed and evaluated using simulations of the backward Lagrangian stochastic particle dispersion model LPDM-B (Kljun et al., 2002). Like LPDM-B, the parameterisation is valid for a broad range of boundary layer conditions and measurement heights over the entire planetary boundary layer. Thus it can provide footprint estimates for a wide range of real

  7. A simple two-dimensional parameterisation for Flux Footprint Prediction (FFP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kljun, N.; Calanca, P.; Rotach, M. W.; Schmid, H. P.

    2015-11-01

    Flux footprint models are often used for interpretation of flux tower measurements, to estimate position and size of surface source areas, and the relative contribution of passive scalar sources to measured fluxes. Accurate knowledge of footprints is of crucial importance for any upscaling exercises from single site flux measurements to local or regional scale. Hence, footprint models are ultimately also of considerable importance for improved greenhouse gas budgeting. With increasing numbers of flux towers within large monitoring networks such as FluxNet, ICOS (Integrated Carbon Observation System), NEON (National Ecological Observatory Network), or AmeriFlux, and with increasing temporal range of observations from such towers (of the order of decades) and availability of airborne flux measurements, there has been an increasing demand for reliable footprint estimation. Even though several sophisticated footprint models have been developed in recent years, most are still not suitable for application to long time series, due to their high computational demands. Existing fast footprint models, on the other hand, are based on surface layer theory and hence are of restricted validity for real-case applications. To remedy such shortcomings, we present the two-dimensional parameterisation for Flux Footprint Prediction (FFP), based on a novel scaling approach for the crosswind distribution of the flux footprint and on an improved version of the footprint parameterisation of Kljun et al. (2004b). Compared to the latter, FFP now provides not only the extent but also the width and shape of footprint estimates, and explicit consideration of the effects of the surface roughness length. The footprint parameterisation has been developed and evaluated using simulations of the backward Lagrangian stochastic particle dispersion model LPDM-B (Kljun et al., 2002). Like LPDM-B, the parameterisation is valid for a broad range of boundary layer conditions and measurement heights over

  8. 一种NLOS环境下TOA与惯导信息的融合定位方法%An integrated location method of TOA/inertial navigation in NLOS environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅军; 朱涛; 李峰

    2015-01-01

    针对基于TOA(time‐of‐arrival)的无线定位系统中信号容易受到非视距传播的影响等问题,提出了一种非视距条件下TOA测量与惯导信息的融合定位方法。该方法利用 TOA定位结果对惯导系统进行误差抑制,同时利用惯导系统的定位结果对TOA测量进行滤波处理,进而有效地减小了非视距传播对定位结果的影响。仿真实验结果表明:该方法能提高定位精度,是NLOS环境下一种有效的定位方法。%In order to solve the problem that the signal of wireless location system based on TOA (time‐of‐arrival) is easily influenced by NLOS (non‐line‐of‐sight) ,a TOA/inertial navigation infor‐mation fusion location method is proposed .The method utilizes the TOA positioning result to restrain the position errors of the inertial navigation system and meanw hile uses the positioning result of iner‐tial navigation system to filter the TOA measurements so as to effectively decrease the influence of the NLOS on the positioning result .Simulations and experiments show that the method can improve the location accuracy and so it is an effective location method in the NLOS environment .

  9. Ecological Carrying Capacity of Tibet China--Variety of Ecological Footprints from 1978 to 2002

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-bao; GAO Ji-xi; Lori Anna Conzo; GAO Ming-gang; HE Ping

    2005-01-01

    Ecological footprint's theory and method are used to calculate and analysis the ecological carrying capacity in Tibet. The results indicate: Tibet ecological footprint (2.1 hm2) keeps higher than countrywide average level (1.5 hm2), and lower than global average level (2.4 hm2); the result show that Tibet pasture ecological footprint is the most different with other area, and woodland is the second; Tibet ecological footprint grows from 1.25 hm2 in 1978 to 2.09 hm2 in 2002, which states that life level is improving continuously; GDP (per RMB 104 Yuan) ecological footprint reduces from 61.9 hm2 in 1978 to 4.54 hm2 in 2002, which states resources utilized ratio is increasing continuously.

  10. Integration of water footprint accounting and costs for optimal pulp supply mix in paper industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Alessandro; Ren, Jingzheng; Piantella, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    studies have focused on these aspects, but there have been no previous reports on the integrated application of raw material water footprint accounting and costs in the definition of the optimal supply mix of chemical pulps from different countries. The current models that have been applied specifically...... that minimizes the water footprint accounting results and costs of chemical pulp, thereby facilitating the assessment of the water footprint by accounting for different chemical pulps purchased from various suppliers, with a focus on the efficiency of the production process. Water footprint accounting......Chemical pulp is one of the most important raw materials used in the paper industry. This material is known to make a significant contribution to the water footprint and cost of final paper products; therefore, chemical pulp is crucial in determining the competitiveness of final products'. Several...

  11. Beam Footprint Detection and Tracking for Non-cooperative Bistatic SAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Yan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In non-cooperative bistatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR, the position of transmitter’s beam footprint should be detected and tracked in real-time to perform beam synchronization. Theoretical analysis shows that signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of the reflected echoes from the observational scene is too low to apply the conventional detection and tracking method. According to the cross correlation and Doppler frequency information of the backscattering echo, a beam footprint detection and tracking method is proposed in this paper. This method can realize accumulation of signal energy, therefore enormously improve the performance of beam footprint detection and tracking. Meanwhile, vehicle-based bistatic SAR experiment and airborne bistatic SAR experiment are performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed beam footprint detection and tracking method. Experimental results show that the proposed method performs well for real-time transmitter beam footprint detection and tracking.

  12. Metabolic footprinting in microbiology: methods and applications in functional genomics and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapelli, Valeria; Olsson, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Jens

    2008-09-01

    Metabolomics embraces several strategies that aim to quantify cell metabolites in order to increase our understanding of how metabolite levels and interactions influence phenotypes. Metabolic footprinting represents a niche within metabolomics, because it focuses on the analysis of extracellular metabolites. Although metabolic footprinting represents only a fraction of the entire metabolome, it provides important information for functional genomics and strain characterization, and it can also provide scientists with a key understanding of cell communication mechanisms, metabolic engineering and industrial biotechnological processes. Due to the tight and convoluted relationship between intracellular metabolism and metabolic footprinting, metabolic footprinting can provide precious information about the intracellular metabolic status. Hereby, we state that integrative information from metabolic footprinting can assist in further interpretation of metabolic networks.

  13. Xichang Satellite Launch Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuJie

    2004-01-01

    Xichang Satellite Launch Center(XSLC) is mainly for geosynchronous orbit launches. The main purpose of XSLC is to launch spacecraft, such as broadcasting,communications and meteorological satellites, into geo-stationary orbit.Most of the commercial satellite launches of Long March vehicles have been from Xichang Satellite Launch Center. With 20 years' development,XSLC can launch 5 kinds of launch vehicles and send satellites into geostationary orbit and polar orbit. In the future, moon exploration satellites will also be launched from XSLC.

  14. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The first edition of this ground breaking reference work was the most comprehensive reference source available about the key aspects of the satellite applications field. This updated second edition covers the technology, the markets, applications and regulations related to satellite telecommunications, broadcasting and networking—including civilian and military systems; precise satellite navigation and timing networks (i.e. GPS and others); remote sensing and meteorological satellite systems. Created under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, this brand new edition is now expanded to cover new innovative small satellite constellations, new commercial launching systems, innovation in military application satellites and their acquisition, updated appendices, a useful glossary and more.

  15. Estimation of Water Footprint Compartments in National Wheat Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ababaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Water use and pollution have raised to a critical level in many compartments of the world. If humankind is to meet the challenges over the coming fifty years, the agricultural share of water use has to be substantially reduced. In this study, a modern yet simple approach has been proposed through the introduction concept ‘Water Footprint’ (WF. This concept can be used to study the connection between each product and the water allocation to produce that product. This research estimates the green, blue and gray WF of wheat in Iran. Also a new WF compartment (white is used that is related about irrigation water loss. Materials and Methods: The national green (Effective precipitation, blue (Net irrigation requirement, gray (For diluting chemical fertilizers and white (Irrigation water losses water footprints (WF of wheat production were estimated for fifteen major wheat producing provinces of Iran. Evapotranspiration, irrigation requirement, gross irrigation requirement and effective rainfall were got using the AGWAT model. Yields of irrigated and rain-fed lands of each province were got from Iran Agricultural-Jihad Ministry. Another compartment of the wheat production WF is related about the volume of water required to assimilate the fertilizers leached in runoff (gray WF. Moreover, a new concept of white water footprint was proposed here and represents irrigation water losses, which was neglected in the original calculation framework. Finally, the national WF compartments of wheat production were estimated by taking the average of each compartment over all the provinces weighted by the share of each province in total wheat production of the selected provinces. Results and Discussion: In 2006-2012, more than 67% of the national wheat production was irrigated and 32.3% were rain-fed, on average, while 37.9% of the total wheat-cultivated lands were irrigated and 62.1% was rain-fed from more than 6,568 -ha. The total national WF of

  16. An Evaluation of Satellite-Based and Re-Analysis Radiation Budget Datasets Using CERES EBAF Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shashi; Stackhouse, Paul; Wong, Takmeng; Mikovitz, Colleen; Cox, Stephen; Zhang, Taiping

    2016-04-01

    Top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface radiative fluxes from CERES Energy Balanced and Filled (EBAF; Loeb et al., 2009; Kato et al. 2013) products are used to evaluate the performance of several widely used long-term radiation budget datasets. Two of those are derived from satellite observations and five more are from re-analysis products. Satellite-derived datasets are the NASA/GEWEX Surface and TOA Radiation Budget Dataset Release-3 and the ISCCP-FD Dataset. The re-analysis datasets are taken from NCEP-CFSR, ERA-Interim, Japanese Re-Analysis (JRA-55), MERRA and the newly released MERRA2 products. Close examination is made of the differences between MERRA and MERRA2 products for the purpose of identifying improvements achieved for MERRA2. Many of these datasets have undergone quality assessment under the GEWEX Radiative Flux Assessment (RFA) project. For the purposes of the present study, EBAF datasets are treated as reference and other datasets are compared with it. All-sky and clear-sky, SW and LW, TOA and surface fluxes are included in this study. A 7-year period (2001-2007) common to all datasets is chosen for comparisons of global and zonal averages, monthly and annual average timeseries, and their anomalies. These comparisons show significant differences between EBAF and the other datasets. Certain anomalies and trends observed in the satellite-derived datasets are attributable to corresponding features in satellite datasets used as input, especially ISCCP cloud properties. Comparisons of zonal averages showed significant differences especially over higher latitudes even when those differences are not obvious in the global averages. Special emphasis is placed on the analysis of the correspondence between spatial patterns of geographical distribution of the above fluxes on a 7-year average as well as on a month-by-month basis using the Taylor (2001) methodology. Results showed that for 7-year average fields correlation coefficients between spatial patterns

  17. Soil Respiration in Eddy Covariance Footprints using Forced Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, N.; Gabriel, C. E.; Creelman, C.

    2016-12-01

    Eddy covariance (EC) has been widely used across the globe for more than 20 years, offering researchers invaluable measurements of parameters including Net Ecosystem Exchange and ecosystem respiration. However, research suggests that EC assumptions and technical obstacles can cause biased gas exchange estimates. Measurements of soil respiration (RS) at the ground level may help alleviate these biases; for example, by allowing researchers to reconcile nocturnal EC flux data with RS or by providing a means to inform gap-filling models. RS measurements have been used sparingly alongside EC towers because of the large cost required to scale chamber systems to the EC footprint and data integration and processing burdens. Here we present the Forced Diffusion (FD) method for the measurement of RS at EC sites. The FD method allows for inexpensive and autonomous measurements, providing a scalable approach to matching the EC footprint compared to other RS systems. A pilot study at the Howland Forest AmeriFlux site was carried out from July 15, 2016 to Dec., 2016 using EC, custom-made automated chambers, and FD chambers in tandem. These results emphasize how RS measurements, like those from the eosFD, can identify decoupling of above and below canopy air masses and assist in informing and parameterizing gap-filling techniques. Uncertainty in nocturnal EC fluxes has been extensively characterized at Howland Forest with EC measurements spanning more than 20 years. Similarly, long term automated measurements of RS are also made at Howland, and have already been used to inform EC gap-filling models, making Howland the ideal site for such a study. This study has been designed to reproduce previous findings from Howland using the FD approach, aiming to demonstrate that the measurements taken using the eosFD correlate well with the existing chamber systems and can be used with equal efficacy to inform gap filling models or for other other eddy covariance QA/QC procedures, including

  18. A simplified ecological footprint at a regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopton, Matthew E; White, Denis

    2012-11-30

    We calculated an Ecological Footprint Analysis (EFA) at a regional scale. EFA captures the human impact on the environmental system by identifying the amount of biologically productive land necessary to support a person's level of consumption and waste generation. EFA is a commonly used metric of sustainability because it is easy to conceptualize and the calculation is relatively straightforward. Utilizing free, readily available data, we calculated an EFA for a region in southern Colorado. Gathering existing data at a regional scale is difficult because data are often collected at national or state levels. The lack of data is further confounded by the fact that data are often collected at intervals greater than one year. Variables that were missing data for certain years were estimated using linear interpolation. Data not available by county were scaled to the region from state or national level data. Thirty-five variables from 1980 to 2005 (26 years) were collected and used to calculate a time-dependent EFA and the resulting trend was visually examined. The available biocapacity in the region did not decrease during the period, but per capita biocapacity decreased due to population growth. Per capita biocapacity was at a period high of nearly 41 ha per person (ha/ca) in 1980 and steadily decreased to a low around 31 ha/ca in 2005. Ecological footprint remained constant over the 26-year period, varying from a low of 5.1 ha/ca in 1997 to a high of 5.5 ha/ca in 1985. A steady ecological footprint combined with a decreasing per capita biocapacity, implies the ecological reserve is decreasing and, thus, the region is moving away from sustainability. Although per capita consumption did not increase substantially during the 26 years, more people are drawing on a fixed quantity of resources. Our methodology is a simplified approach to EFA and does not follow standards that are currently being established. Adhering to the suggested standards would require obtaining data

  19. Carbon footprint and ammonia emissions of California beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Rotz, C A; Oltjen, J W; Mitloehner, F M

    2012-12-01

    Beef production is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH(3)) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emissions from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH(3) emissions from representative beef production systems in California. The IFSM is a process-level farm model that simulates crop growth, feed production and use, animal growth, and the return of manure nutrients back to the land to predict the environmental impacts and economics of production systems. Ammonia emissions are determined by summing the emissions from animal housing facilities, manure storage, field applied manure, and direct deposits of manure on pasture and rangeland. All important sources and sinks of methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide are predicted from primary and secondary emission sources. Primary sources include enteric fermentation, manure, cropland used in feed production, and fuel combustion. Secondary emissions occur during the production of resources used on the farm, which include fuel, electricity, machinery, fertilizer, and purchased animals. The carbon footprint is the net exchange of all GHG in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO(2)e) units per kg of HCW produced. Simulated beef production systems included cow-calf, stocker, and feedlot phases for the traditional British beef breeds and calf ranch and feedlot phases for Holstein steers. An evaluation of differing production management strategies resulted in ammonia emissions ranging from 98 ± 13 to 141 ± 27 g/kg HCW and carbon footprints of 10.7 ± 1.4 to 22.6 ± 2.0 kg CO(2)e/kg HCW. Within the British beef production cycle, the cow-calf phase was responsible for 69 to 72% of total GHG emissions with 17 to 27% from feedlot sources. Holstein steers that entered the beef production system as a by-product of dairy production had the lowest carbon footprint because the emissions

  20. Galileo satellite antenna modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigenberger, Peter; Dach, Rolf; Prange, Lars; Montenbruck, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The space segment of the European satellite navigation system Galileo currently consists of six satellites. Four of them belong to the first generation of In-Orbit Validation (IOV) satellites whereas the other two are Full Operational Capability (FOC) satellites. High-precision geodetic applications require detailed knowledge about the actual phase center of the satellite and receiver antenna. The deviation of this actual phase center from a well-defined reference point is described by phase center offsets (PCOs) and phase center variations (PCVs). Unfortunately, no public information is available about the Galileo satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs, neither for the IOV, nor the FOC satellites. Therefore, conventional values for the IOV satellite antenna PCOs have been adopted for the Multi-GNSS experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service (IGS). The effect of the PCVs is currently neglected and no PCOs for the FOC satellites are available yet. To overcome this deficiency in GNSS observation modeling, satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs are estimated for the Galileo IOV satellites based on global GNSS tracking data of the MGEX network and additional stations of the legacy IGS network. Two completely independent solutions are computed with the Bernese and Napeos software packages. The PCO and PCV values of the individual satellites are analyzed and the availability of two different solutions allows for an accuracy assessment. The FOC satellites are built by a different manufacturer and are also equipped with another type of antenna panel compared to the IOV satellites. Signal transmission of the first FOC satellite has started in December 2014 and activation of the second satellite is expected for early 2015. Based on the available observations PCO estimates and, optionally PCVs of the FOC satellites will be presented as well. Finally, the impact of the new antenna model on the precision and accuracy of the Galileo orbit determination is analyzed.

  1. 生态足迹、碳足迹相关经验对水足迹评价的启示%Enlightenment from Ecological Footprint and Carbon Footprint Assessment Experience for Water Footprint Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙静; 白雪; 朱春雁; 胡梦婷

    2014-01-01

    本文总结了生态足迹和碳足迹的理论模式和操作经验,归纳了生态足迹、碳足迹所涉及的重点理论内容和目前存在的问题,借鉴其经验,结合水资源的属性和特点,对水足迹评价理论进行相关思考,在水足迹评价的方法学、内容和步骤、需重点研究内容等几个方面分析提出思路和想法。%The paper summarizes the theory model and practical experience of ecological footprintand carbon footprint, as well as the content and problems. Borrowing experience of ecological footprint and carbon footprint assessment and combing the features and characteristics of water resources, this paper considers the evaluation theory of water footprint assessment, and puts forward thought and consideration of the methodology, content and steps of water footprint assessment.

  2. Satellite-Delivered Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnall, Gail C.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the application of satellite information delivery to training. Describes a new trend, horizontal programming. Also discusses vertical programming and in-house production of training materials. Lists vendors of satellite-based training. (CH)

  3. GPS Satellite Simulation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The GPS satellite simulation facility consists of a GPS satellite simulator controlled by either a Silicon Graphics Origin 2000 or PC depending upon unit under test...

  4. China's Recoverable Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Boehang

    2008-01-01

    @@ By the end of 2006, China had launched 24 recoverable satellites (FSW) in total. Among them, 23 were launched successfully, of which all but one were successfully recovered. Recoverable satellites launched by China are listed in Table 1.

  5. Satellite Tags- Hawaii EEZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Satellite tagging was implemented in 2013. Satellite tagging is conducted using a Dan Inject air rifle and deployment arrows designed by Wildlife Computers. Two...

  6. A satellite based telemetry link for a UAV application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloise, Anthony

    1995-01-01

    The requirements for a satellite based communication facility to service the needs of the Geographical Information System (GIS) data collection community are addressed in this paper. GIS data is supplied in the form of video imagery at sub-television rates in one or more spectral bands / polarizations laced with a position correlated data stream. The limitations and vicissitudes of using a terrestrial based telecommunications link to collect GIS data are illustrated from actual mission scenarios. The expectations from a satellite based communications link by the geophysical data collection community concerning satellite architecture, operating bands, bandwidth, footprint agility, up link and down link hardware configurations on the UAV, the Mobile Control Vehicle and at the Central Command and Data Collection Facility comprise the principle issues discussed in the first section of this paper. The final section of the paper discusses satellite based communication links would have an increased volume and scope of services the GIS data collection community could make available to the GIS user community, and the price the data collection community could afford to pay for access to the communication satellite described in the paper.

  7. Footprints of funnel vortices in a turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurka, Roi; Liberzon, Alex; Hetsroni, Gad

    2003-11-01

    The topology of large scale funnel structures in a turbulent boundary layer in a flume is investigated experimentally. The large scale structure is reconstructed from the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) eigenmodes, calculated from the two-dimensional projections of the fluctuated vorticity field realizations. The instantaneous two-dimensional velocity field realizations are obtained using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. The dominant funnel structure appears to have a longitudinal streamwise orientation, an inclination angle of 8 degrees, streamwise length of 1000 wall units, and a distance between the neighboring structures of about 100 wall units in the spanwise direction. The spatial characteristics of the funnel structure, measured in the streamwise - wall normal plane of the flume, has been found to be independent of the Reynolds number. The identification technique is based on all the data set and provide a statistical descrition of the structure footprint.

  8. The footprint of urban heat island effect in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Decheng; Zhao, Shuqing; Zhang, Liangxia; Sun, Ge; Liu, Yongqiang

    2015-06-10

    Urban heat island (UHI) is one major anthropogenic modification to the Earth system that transcends its physical boundary. Using MODIS data from 2003 to 2012, we showed that the UHI effect decayed exponentially toward rural areas for majority of the 32 Chinese cities. We found an obvious urban/rural temperature "cliff", and estimated that the footprint of UHI effect (FP, including urban area) was 2.3 and 3.9 times of urban size for the day and night, respectively, with large spatiotemporal heterogeneities. We further revealed that ignoring the FP may underestimate the UHI intensity in most cases and even alter the direction of UHI estimates for few cities. Our results provide new insights to the characteristics of UHI effect and emphasize the necessity of considering city- and time-specific FP when assessing the urbanization effects on local climate.

  9. Multiple footprint stereo algorithms for 3D display content generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughorbel, Faysal

    2007-02-01

    This research focuses on the conversion of stereoscopic video material into an image + depth format which is suitable for rendering on the multiview auto-stereoscopic displays of Philips. The recent interest shown in the movie industry for 3D significantly increased the availability of stereo material. In this context the conversion from stereo to the input formats of 3D displays becomes an important task. In this paper we present a stereo algorithm that uses multiple footprints generating several depth candidates for each image pixel. We characterize the various matching windows and we devise a robust strategy for extracting high quality estimates from the resulting depth candidates. The proposed algorithm is based on a surface filtering method that employs simultaneously the available depth estimates in a small local neighborhood while ensuring correct depth discontinuities by the inclusion of image constraints. The resulting highquality image-aligned depth maps proved an excellent match with our 3D displays.

  10. Accelerating separable footprint (SF) forward and back projection on GPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaobin; McGaffin, Madison G.; Long, Yong; Fessler, Jeffrey A.; Wen, Minhua; Lin, James

    2017-03-01

    Statistical image reconstruction (SIR) methods for X-ray CT can improve image quality and reduce radiation dosages over conventional reconstruction methods, such as filtered back projection (FBP). However, SIR methods require much longer computation time. The separable footprint (SF) forward and back projection technique simplifies the calculation of intersecting volumes of image voxels and finite-size beams in a way that is both accurate and efficient for parallel implementation. We propose a new method to accelerate the SF forward and back projection on GPU with NVIDIA's CUDA environment. For the forward projection, we parallelize over all detector cells. For the back projection, we parallelize over all 3D image voxels. The simulation results show that the proposed method is faster than the acceleration method of the SF projectors proposed by Wu and Fessler.13 We further accelerate the proposed method using multiple GPUs. The results show that the computation time is reduced approximately proportional to the number of GPUs.

  11. Carbon footprint of the Danish electricity transmission and distribution systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    &D) will likely grow. Several studies are available on renewable energy technologies, but only a few on transmission of electricity, and none on its distribution. This study provides life cycle inventory data for electricity distribution networks, and a life cycle GHG accounting of the Danish T&D networks....... The purpose was to evaluate the potential importance of environmental impacts associated with T&D in current and future electricity systems. Including the emissions from electricity T&D is needed to provide a full carbon footprint of electricity systems, and is essential to properly assess the environmental...... consequences of potential changes in an electricity system. So far, the basis for such assessments has not been available. The functional unit of this study was the delivery of one kWh of electricity in Denmark. The 2010 Danish electricity T&D networks were modeled, including power lines, transformers...

  12. Evaluation of GISS SCM Simulated Cloud and Radiative Properties Using Both Surface and Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, A. D.; Dong, X.; Xi, B.; Del Genio, A.; Wolf, A.; Minnis, P.; Khaiyer, M.; Doelling, D.; Nordeen, M.; Keyes, D.

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate the GISS SCM simulated cloud fractions, three years of surface and GOES satellite data have been collected at DOE ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site during 1999-2001. The GOES derived total and high cloud fractions from both 0.5° and 2.5° grid boxes are in excellent agreement with surface observations, suggesting that the ARM point observations can represent large areal observations. Compared to the ARM radar-lidar observed cloud fractions, the SCM simulated most mid-level clouds, overestimated low clouds, and underestimated total and high clouds with additional missed during the summer season. Further studies have revealed that the model simulated cloud fractions are strongly dependent on the large-scale synoptic pattern and its associated variables such as vertical motion and relative humidity. Because a significant amount of clouds over ARM SGP occur during synoptically quiescent conditions, the model has issues producing enough high cloud cover. This work suggests that alterations need to be made to the stratiform cloud scheme to better represent the sub-grid scale cloud variability in this case. The model simulated radiation budget is also evaluated with two years of collocated ARM surface radiation and CERES and GOES TOA radiation over the SGP site during March 2000-Dec. 2001. For this comparison, the model simulated surface and TOA radiation budgets agree well with surface and satellite observations (˜10 W m-2). Model simulated cloud optical depth, however, is about an order of magnitude higher than CERES/GOES retrievals, which may explain why the radiation budget is reasonable and yet total cloud fraction has a negative bias compared to observations. Further study is warranted to better understand how this impacts cloud radiative forcing.

  13. Satellite communication engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kolawole, Michael Olorunfunmi

    2013-01-01

    An undeniably rich and thorough guide to satellite communication engineering, Satellite Communication Engineering, Second Edition presents the fundamentals of information communications systems in a simple and succinct way. This book considers both the engineering aspects of satellite systems as well as the practical issues in the broad field of information transmission. Implementing concepts developed on an intuitive, physical basis and utilizing a combination of applications and performance curves, this book starts off with a progressive foundation in satellite technology, and then moves on

  14. Deep-sea benthic footprint of the deepwater horizon blowout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Montagna

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon (DWH accident in the northern Gulf of Mexico occurred on April 20, 2010 at a water depth of 1525 meters, and a deep-sea plume was detected within one month. Oil contacted and persisted in parts of the bottom of the deep-sea in the Gulf of Mexico. As part of the response to the accident, monitoring cruises were deployed in fall 2010 to measure potential impacts on the two main soft-bottom benthic invertebrate groups: macrofauna and meiofauna. Sediment was collected using a multicorer so that samples for chemical, physical and biological analyses could be taken simultaneously and analyzed using multivariate methods. The footprint of the oil spill was identified by creating a new variable with principal components analysis where the first factor was indicative of the oil spill impacts and this new variable mapped in a geographic information system to identify the area of the oil spill footprint. The most severe relative reduction of faunal abundance and diversity extended to 3 km from the wellhead in all directions covering an area about 24 km(2. Moderate impacts were observed up to 17 km towards the southwest and 8.5 km towards the northeast of the wellhead, covering an area 148 km(2. Benthic effects were correlated to total petroleum hydrocarbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and barium concentrations, and distance to the wellhead; but not distance to hydrocarbon seeps. Thus, benthic effects are more likely due to the oil spill, and not natural hydrocarbon seepage. Recovery rates in the deep sea are likely to be slow, on the order of decades or longer.

  15. Energy and carbon footprints of sewage treatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pratima; Kansal, Arun; Carliell-Marquet, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents energy and carbon footprints of sewage treatment plants (STPs) operating at different scales and using different technology options based on primary data from 50 STPs operating in India and the UK. The study used a combination of fundamental mass-balance approach for energy consumption and the methodology defined by IPCC for the carbon emissions. Small-scale institutional STPs consume twelve times the energy consumed by large-scale municipal STPs, the corresponding energy intensities being 4.87 kWh/m(3) and 0.40 kWh/m(3) respectively. Embodied energy from construction material and chemicals accounted for 46% and 33% of the total energy intensity of the municipal and institutional STPs respectively. The average carbon footprint of large-scale STPs is 0.78 kgCO2eq/m(3) and for small-scale STPs it is 3.04 kgCO2eq/m(3). However, fugitive emissions from large-scale STPs constituted 74% of the total carbon emissions whereas the figure was only 0.05% for small-scale STPs. Average electrical energy intensity in STPs in India is much lower (0.14 kWh/m(3)) than that in the UK (0.46 kWh/m(3)). This is due to the reason that STPs in India do not have resource recovery processes and use solar heat for sludge drying. The paper offers information and insights for designing low carbon strategies for urban waste infrastructure.

  16. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2012-04-01

    An increasing demand for food together with a growing demand for energy crops result in an increasing demand for and competition over water. Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are not only essential food crops, but also important feedstock for bio-ethanol. Crop growth requires water, a scarce resource. This study aims to assess the green, blue and grey water footprint (WF) of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize in the main producing countries. The WFs of sweeteners and bio-ethanol are mainly determined by the crop type that is used as a source and by agricultural practise and agro-climatic conditions; process water footprints are relatively small. The weighted global average WF of sugar cane is 209 m(3)/tonne; for sugar beet this is 133 m(3)/tonne and for maize 1222 m(3)/tonne. Large regional differences in WFs indicate that WFs of crops for sweeteners and bio-ethanol can be improved. It is more favourable to use maize as a feedstock for sweeteners or bio-ethanol than sugar beet or sugar cane. The WF of sugar cane contributes to water stress in the Indus and Ganges basins. In the Ukraine, the large grey WF of sugar beet contributes to water pollution. In some western European countries, blue WFs of sugar beet and maize need a large amount of available blue water for agriculture. The allocation of the limited global water resources to bio-energy on a large scale will be at the cost of water allocation to food and nature.

  17. Deep-Sea Benthic Footprint of the Deepwater Horizon Blowout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Paul A.; Baguley, Jeffrey G.; Cooksey, Cynthia; Hartwell, Ian; Hyde, Larry J.; Hyland, Jeffrey L.; Kalke, Richard D.; Kracker, Laura M.; Reuscher, Michael; Rhodes, Adelaide C. E.

    2013-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident in the northern Gulf of Mexico occurred on April 20, 2010 at a water depth of 1525 meters, and a deep-sea plume was detected within one month. Oil contacted and persisted in parts of the bottom of the deep-sea in the Gulf of Mexico. As part of the response to the accident, monitoring cruises were deployed in fall 2010 to measure potential impacts on the two main soft-bottom benthic invertebrate groups: macrofauna and meiofauna. Sediment was collected using a multicorer so that samples for chemical, physical and biological analyses could be taken simultaneously and analyzed using multivariate methods. The footprint of the oil spill was identified by creating a new variable with principal components analysis where the first factor was indicative of the oil spill impacts and this new variable mapped in a geographic information system to identify the area of the oil spill footprint. The most severe relative reduction of faunal abundance and diversity extended to 3 km from the wellhead in all directions covering an area about 24 km2. Moderate impacts were observed up to 17 km towards the southwest and 8.5 km towards the northeast of the wellhead, covering an area 148 km2. Benthic effects were correlated to total petroleum hydrocarbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and barium concentrations, and distance to the wellhead; but not distance to hydrocarbon seeps. Thus, benthic effects are more likely due to the oil spill, and not natural hydrocarbon seepage. Recovery rates in the deep sea are likely to be slow, on the order of decades or longer. PMID:23950956

  18. Measuring forest structure along productivity gradients in the Canadian boreal with small-footprint Lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Douglas K; Coops, Nicholas C; Wulder, Michael A

    2013-08-01

    The structure and productivity of boreal forests are key components of the global carbon cycle and impact the resources and habitats available for species. With this research, we characterized the relationship between measurements of forest structure and satellite-derived estimates of gross primary production (GPP) over the Canadian boreal. We acquired stand level indicators of canopy cover, canopy height, and structural complexity from nearly 25,000 km of small-footprint discrete return Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) data and compared these attributes to GPP estimates derived from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). While limited in our capacity to control for stand age, we removed recently disturbed and managed forests using information on fire history, roads, and anthropogenic change. We found that MODIS GPP was strongly linked to Lidar-derived canopy cover (r = 0.74, p Lidar-derived canopy height and structural complexity as these attributes are largely a function of stand age. A relationship was apparent between MODIS GPP and the maximum sampled heights derived from Lidar as growth rates and resource availability likely limit tree height in the prolonged absence of disturbance. The most structurally complex stands, as measured by the coefficient of variation of Lidar return heights, occurred where MODIS GPP was highest as productive boreal stands are expected to contain a wider range of tree heights and transition to uneven-aged structures faster than less productive stands. While MODIS GPP related near-linearly to Lidar-derived canopy cover, the weaker relationships to Lidar-derived canopy height and structural complexity highlight the importance of stand age in determining the structure of boreal forests. We conclude that an improved quantification of how both productivity and disturbance shape stand structure is needed to better understand the current state of boreal forests in Canada and how these forests are changing in

  19. Summertime upper tropospheric nitrous oxide over the Mediterranean as a footprint of Asian emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangah, Yannick; Ricaud, Philippe; Attié, Jean-Luc; Saitoh, Naoko; Hauglustaine, Didier A.; Wang, Rong; El Amraoui, Laaziz; Zbinden, Régina; Delon, Claire

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the transport of nitrous oxide (N2O) from the Asian surface to the eastern Mediterranean Basin (MB). We used measurements from the spectrometer Thermal and Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier transform spectrometer on board the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) over the period of 2010-2013. We also used the outputs from the chemical transport model LMDz-OR-INCA over the same period. By comparing GOSAT upper tropospheric retrievals to aircraft measurements from the High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research Pole-to-Pole Observations, we calculated a GOSAT High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research standard deviation (SD error) of 2.0 ppbv for a single pixel and a mean bias of approximately -1.3 ppbv (approximately -0.4%). This SD error is reduced to 0.1 ppbv when we average the pixels regionally and monthly over the MB. The use of nitrogen fertilizer coupled with high soil humidity during the summer Asian monsoon produces high N2O emissions, which are transported from Asian surfaces to the eastern MB. This summertime enrichment over the eastern MB produces a maximum in the difference between the eastern and the western MB upper tropospheric N2O (east-west difference) in July in both the measurements and the model. N2O over the eastern MB can therefore be considered as a footprint of Asian summertime emissions. However, the peak-to-peak amplitude of the east-west difference observed by GOSAT ( 1.4 ± 0.3 ppbv) is larger than that calculated by LMDz-OR-INCA ( 0.8 ppbv). This is due to an underestimation of N2O emissions in the model and to a relatively coarse spatial resolution of the model that tends to underestimate the N2O accumulation into the Asian monsoon anticyclone.

  20. Developing spatially explicit footprints of plausible land-use scenarios in the Santa Cruz Watershed, Arizona and Sonora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Feller, Mark; Villarreal, Miguel L.

    2012-01-01

    The SLEUTH urban growth model is applied to a binational dryland watershed to envision and evaluate plausible future scenarios of land use change into the year 2050. Our objective was to create a suite of geospatial footprints portraying potential land use change that can be used to aid binational decision-makers in assessing the impacts relative to sustainability of natural resources and potential socio-ecological consequences of proposed land-use management. Three alternatives are designed to simulate different conditions: (i) a Current Trends Scenario of unmanaged exponential growth, (ii) a Conservation Scenario with managed growth to protect the environment, and (iii) a Megalopolis Scenario in which growth is accentuated around a defined international trade corridor. The model was calibrated with historical data extracted from a time series of satellite images. Model materials, methodology, and results are presented. Our Current Trends Scenario predicts the footprint of urban growth to approximately triple from 2009 to 2050, which is corroborated by local population estimates. The Conservation Scenario results in protecting 46% more of the Evergreen class (more than 150,000 acres) than the Current Trends Scenario and approximately 95,000 acres of Barren Land, Crops, Deciduous Forest (Mesquite Bosque), Grassland/Herbaceous, Urban/Recreational Grasses, and Wetlands classes combined. The Megalopolis Scenario results also depict the preservation of some of these land-use classes compared to the Current Trends Scenario, most notably in the environmentally important headwaters region. Connectivity and areal extent of land cover types that provide wildlife habitat were preserved under the alternative scenarios when compared to Current Trends.