WorldWideScience

Sample records for satellite datasets thought

  1. Relevancy Ranking of Satellite Dataset Search Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, Christopher; Quinn, Patrick; Norton, James

    2017-01-01

    As the Variety of Earth science datasets increases, science researchers find it more challenging to discover and select the datasets that best fit their needs. The most common way of search providers to address this problem is to rank the datasets returned for a query by their likely relevance to the user. Large web page search engines typically use text matching supplemented with reverse link counts, semantic annotations and user intent modeling. However, this produces uneven results when applied to dataset metadata records simply externalized as a web page. Fortunately, data and search provides have decades of experience in serving data user communities, allowing them to form heuristics that leverage the structure in the metadata together with knowledge about the user community. Some of these heuristics include specific ways of matching the user input to the essential measurements in the dataset and determining overlaps of time range and spatial areas. Heuristics based on the novelty of the datasets can prioritize later, better versions of data over similar predecessors. And knowledge of how different user types and communities use data can be brought to bear in cases where characteristics of the user (discipline, expertise) or their intent (applications, research) can be divined. The Earth Observing System Data and Information System has begun implementing some of these heuristics in the relevancy algorithm of its Common Metadata Repository search engine.

  2. Continued development of a global precipitation dataset from satellite and ground-based gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzsch, Felix; Andersson, Axel; Schröder, Marc; Ziese, Markus; Becker, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The project framework MiKlip ("Mittelfristige Klimaprognosen") is focused on the development of an operational forecast system for decadal climate predictions. The objective of the "Daily Precipitation Analysis for the validation of Global medium-range Climate predictions Operationalized" (DAPAGLOCO) project, is the development and operationalization of a global precipitation dataset for forecast validation of the MPI-ESM experiments used in MiKlip. The dataset is a combination of rain gauge measurement data over land and satellite-based precipitation retrievals over ocean. Over land, gauge data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) at Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) are used. Over ocean, retrievals from the Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite Data (HOAPS) dataset are used as data source. The currently available dataset consists of 21 years of data (1988-2008) and is provided in different spatial resolutions of 1° and 2.5° on the global scale, and 0.5° for Europe. Rain rates over ocean are currently derived from satellite microwave imagers by using a neuronal network. For the future it is intended to switch this retrieval method to a 1D-Var method. The current state of the dataset is presented, an introduction to the future retrieval and its features is given and first results from evaluation and application are shown.

  3. Improved 3D density modelling of the Central Andes from combining terrestrial datasets with satellite based datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Theresa; Sobiesiak, Monika; Götze, Hans-Jürgen; Ebbing, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    As horizontal gravity gradients are proxies for large stresses, the uniquely high gravity gradients of the South American continental margin seem to be indicative for the frequently occurring large earthquakes at this plate boundary. It has been observed that these earthquakes can break repeatedly the same respective segment but can also combine to form M>9 earthquakes at the end of longer seismic cycles. A large seismic gap left behind by the 1877 M~9 earthquake existed in the northernmost part of Chile. This gap has partially been ruptured in the Mw 7.7 2007 Tocopilla earthquake and the Mw 8.2 2014 Pisagua earthquake. The nature of this seismological segmentation and the distribution of energy release in an earthquake is part of ongoing research. It can be assumed that both features are related to thickness variations of high density bodies located in the continental crust of the coastal area. These batholiths produce a clear maximum in the gravity signal. Those maxima also show a good spatial correlation with seismic asperity structures and seismological segment boundaries. Understanding of the tectonic situation can be improved through 3D forward density modelling of the gravity field. Problems arise in areas with less ground measurements. Especially in the high Andes severe gaps exist due to the inaccessibility of some regions. Also the transition zone between on and offshore date data displays significant problems, particularly since this is the area that is most interesting in terms of seismic hazard. We modelled the continental and oceanic crust and upper mantle using different gravity datasets. The first one includes terrestrial data measured at a station spacing of 5 km or less along all passable roads combined with satellite altimetry data offshore. The second data set is the newly released EIGEN-6C4 which combines the latest satellite data with ground measurements. The spherical harmonics maximum degree of EIGEN-6C4 is 2190 which corresponds to a

  4. Developing a new global network of river reaches from merged satellite-derived datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lion, C.; Allen, G. H.; Beighley, E.; Pavelsky, T.

    2015-12-01

    In 2020, the Surface Water and Ocean Topography satellite (SWOT), a joint mission of NASA/CNES/CSA/UK will be launched. One of its major products will be the measurements of continental water extent, including the width, height, and slope of rivers and the surface area and elevations of lakes. The mission will improve the monitoring of continental water and also our understanding of the interactions between different hydrologic reservoirs. For rivers, SWOT measurements of slope must be carried out over predefined river reaches. As such, an a priori dataset for rivers is needed in order to facilitate analysis of the raw SWOT data. The information required to produce this dataset includes measurements of river width, elevation, slope, planform, river network topology, and flow accumulation. To produce this product, we have linked two existing global datasets: the Global River Widths from Landsat (GRWL) database, which contains river centerline locations, widths, and a braiding index derived from Landsat imagery, and a modified version of the HydroSHEDS hydrologically corrected digital elevation product, which contains heights and flow accumulation measurements for streams at 3 arcsecond spatial resolution. Merging these two datasets requires considerable care. The difficulties, among others, lie in the difference of resolution: 30m versus 3 arseconds, and the age of the datasets: 2000 versus ~2010 (some rivers have moved, the braided sections are different). As such, we have developed custom software to merge the two datasets, taking into account the spatial proximity of river channels in the two datasets and ensuring that flow accumulation in the final dataset always increases downstream. Here, we present our preliminary results for a portion of South America and demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of the method.

  5. Evaluating satellite-derived long-term historical precipitation datasets for drought monitoring in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Francisco; Wardlow, Brian; Tadesse, Tsegaye; Lillo-Saavedra, Mario; Lagos, Octavio

    2017-04-01

    Precipitation is a key parameter for the study of climate change and variability and the detection and monitoring of natural disaster such as drought. Precipitation datasets that accurately capture the amount and spatial variability of rainfall is critical for drought monitoring and a wide range of other climate applications. This is challenging in many parts of the world, which often have a limited number of weather stations and/or historical data records. Satellite-derived precipitation products offer a viable alternative with several remotely sensed precipitation datasets now available with long historical data records (+30years), which include the Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station (CHIRPS) and Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR) datasets. This study presents a comparative analysis of three historical satellite-based precipitation datasets that include Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) 3B43 version 7 (1998-2015), PERSIANN-CDR (1983-2015) and CHIRPS 2.0 (1981-2015) over Chile to assess their performance across the country and for the case of the two long-term products the applicability for agricultural drought were evaluated when used in the calculation of commonly used drought indicator as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). In this analysis, 278 weather stations of in situ rainfall measurements across Chile were initially compared to the satellite data. The study area (Chile) was divided into five latitudinal zones: North, North-Central, Central, South-Central and South to determine if there were a regional difference among these satellite products, and nine statistics were used to evaluate their performance to estimate the amount and spatial distribution of historical rainfall across Chile. Hierarchical cluster analysis, k-means and singular value decomposition were used to analyze

  6. Evaluating satellite-derived long-term historical precipitation datasets for drought monitoring in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Francisco; Wardlow, Brian; Tadesse, Tsegaye

    2016-10-01

    Precipitation is a key parameter for the study of climate change and variability and the detection and monitoring of natural disaster such as drought. Precipitation datasets that accurately capture the amount and spatial variability of rainfall is critical for drought monitoring and a wide range of other climate applications. This is challenging in many parts of the world, which often have a limited number of weather stations and/or historical data records. Satellite-derived precipitation products offer a viable alternative with several remotely sensed precipitation datasets now available with long historical data records (+30 years), which include the Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station (CHIRPS) and Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR) datasets. This study presents a comparative analysis of three historical satellite-based precipitation datasets that include Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) 3B43 version 7 (1998-2015), PERSIANN-CDR (1983-2015) and CHIRPS 2.0 (1981-2015) over Chile to assess their performance across the country and evaluate their applicability for agricultural drought evaluation when used in the calculation of commonly used drought indicator as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). In this analysis, 278 weather stations of in-situ rainfall measurements across Chile were initially compared to the satellite-based precipitation estimates. The study area (Chile) was divided into five latitudinal zones: North, North-Central, Central, South-Central and South to determine if there were a regional difference among these satellite-based estimates. Nine statistics were used to evaluate the performance of satellite products to estimate the amount and spatial distribution of historical rainfall across Chile. Hierarchical cluster analysis, k-means and singular value decomposition were used to

  7. Harmonized dataset of ozone profiles from satellite limb and occultation measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Sofieva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a HARMonized dataset of OZone profiles (HARMOZ based on limb and occultation measurements from Envisat (GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY, Odin (OSIRIS, SMR and SCISAT (ACE-FTS satellite instruments. These measurements provide high-vertical-resolution ozone profiles covering the altitude range from the upper troposphere up to the mesosphere in years 2001–2012. HARMOZ has been created in the framework of European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative project. The harmonized dataset consists of original retrieved ozone profiles from each instrument, which are screened for invalid data by the instrument teams. While the original ozone profiles are presented in different units and on different vertical grids, the harmonized dataset is given on a common pressure grid in netcdf format. The pressure grid corresponds to vertical sampling of ~ 1 km below 20 km and 2–3 km above 20 km. The vertical range of the ozone profiles is specific for each instrument, thus all information contained in the original data is preserved. Provided altitude and temperature profiles allow the representation of ozone profiles in number density or mixing ratio on a pressure or altitude vertical grids. Geolocation, uncertainty estimates and vertical resolution are provided for each profile. For each instrument, optional parameters, which might be related to the data quality, are also included. For convenience of users, tables of biases between each pair of instruments for each month, as well as bias uncertainties, are provided. These tables characterize the data consistency and can be used in various bias and drift analyses, which are needed, for instance, for combining several datasets to obtain a long-term climate dataset. This user-friendly dataset can be interesting and useful for various analyses and applications, such as data merging, data validation, assimilation and scientific research. Dataset is available at: http

  8. Developing an improved soil moisture dataset by blending passive and active microwave satellite-based retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Liu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Combining information derived from satellite-based passive and active microwave sensors has the potential to offer improved retrievals of surface soil moisture variations at global scales. Here we propose a technique to take advantage of retrieval characteristics of passive (AMSR-E and active (ASCAT microwave satellite estimates over sparse-to-moderately vegetated areas to obtain an improved soil moisture product. To do this, absolute soil moisture values from AMSR-E and relative soil moisture derived from ASCAT are rescaled against a reference land surface model date set using a cumulative distribution function (CDF matching approach. While this technique imposes the bias of the reference to the rescaled satellite products, it adjusts both satellite products to the same range and almost preserves the correlation between satellite products and in situ measurements. Comparisons with in situ data demonstrated that over the regions where the correlation coefficient between rescaled AMSR-E and ASCAT is above 0.65 (hereafter referred to as transitional regions, merging the different satellite products together increases the number of observations while minimally changing the accuracy of soil moisture retrievals. These transitional regions also delineate the boundary between sparsely and moderately vegetated regions where rescaled AMSR-E and ASCAT are respectively used in the merged product. Thus the merged product carries the advantages of better spatial coverage overall and increased number of observations particularly for the transitional regions. The combination approach developed in this study has the potential to be applied to existing microwave satellites as well as to new microwave missions. Accordingly, a long-term global soil moisture dataset can be developed and extended, enhancing basic understanding of the role of soil moisture in the water, energy and carbon cycles.

  9. Developing an improved soil moisture dataset by blending passive and active microwave satellite-based retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Liu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Combining information derived from satellite-based passive and active microwave sensors has the potential to offer improved estimates of surface soil moisture at global scale. We develop and evaluate a methodology that takes advantage of the retrieval characteristics of passive (AMSR-E and active (ASCAT microwave satellite estimates to produce an improved soil moisture product. First, volumetric soil water content (m3 m−3 from AMSR-E and degree of saturation (% from ASCAT are rescaled against a reference land surface model data set using a cumulative distribution function matching approach. While this imposes any bias of the reference on the rescaled satellite products, it adjusts them to the same range and preserves the dynamics of original satellite-based products. Comparison with in situ measurements demonstrates that where the correlation coefficient between rescaled AMSR-E and ASCAT is greater than 0.65 ("transitional regions", merging the different satellite products increases the number of observations while minimally changing the accuracy of soil moisture retrievals. These transitional regions also delineate the boundary between sparsely and moderately vegetated regions where rescaled AMSR-E and ASCAT, respectively, are used for the merged product. Therefore the merged product carries the advantages of better spatial coverage overall and increased number of observations, particularly for the transitional regions. The combination method developed has the potential to be applied to existing microwave satellites as well as to new missions. Accordingly, a long-term global soil moisture dataset can be developed and extended, enhancing basic understanding of the role of soil moisture in the water, energy and carbon cycles.

  10. Online Visualization and Analysis of Merged Global Geostationary Satellite Infrared Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Ostrenga, D.; Leptoukh, G.; Mehta, A.

    2008-12-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information Services Center (GES DISC) is home of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data archive. The global merged IR product, also known as, the NCEP/CPC 4-km Global (60°N - 60°S) IR Dataset, is one of TRMM ancillary datasets. They are globally-merged (60°N-60°S) pixel-resolution (4 km) IR brightness temperature data (equivalent blackbody temperatures), merged from all available geostationary satellites (GOES-8/10, METEOSAT-7/5 & GMS). The availability of data from METEOSAT-5, which is located at 63E at the present time, yields a unique opportunity for total global (60°N-60°S) coverage. The GES DISC has collected over 8 years of the data beginning from February of 2000. This high temporal resolution dataset can not only provide additional background information to TRMM and other satellite missions, but also allow observing a wide range of meteorological phenomena from space, such as, mesoscale convection system, tropical cyclones, hurricanes, etc. The dataset can also be used to verify model simulations. Despite that the data can be downloaded via ftp, however, its large volume poses a challenge for many users. A single file occupies about 70 MB disk space and there is a total of ~73,000 files (~4.5 TB) for the past 8 years. Because there is a lack of data subsetting service, one has to download the entire file, which could be time consuming and require a lot of disk space. In order to facilitate data access, we have developed a web prototype, the Global Image ViewER (GIVER), to allow users to conduct online visualization and analysis of this dataset. With a web browser and few mouse clicks, users can have a full access to over 8 year and over 4.5 TB data and generate black and white IR imagery and animation without downloading any software and data. Basic functions include selection of area of interest, single imagery or animation, a time skip capability for different temporal resolution and image size. Users

  11. A new, long-term daily satellite-based rainfall dataset for operational monitoring in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidment, Ross I.; Grimes, David; Black, Emily; Tarnavsky, Elena; Young, Matthew; Greatrex, Helen; Allan, Richard P.; Stein, Thorwald; Nkonde, Edson; Senkunda, Samuel; Alcántara, Edgar Misael Uribe

    2017-05-01

    Rainfall information is essential for many applications in developing countries, and yet, continually updated information at fine temporal and spatial scales is lacking. In Africa, rainfall monitoring is particularly important given the close relationship between climate and livelihoods. To address this information gap, this paper describes two versions (v2.0 and v3.0) of the TAMSAT daily rainfall dataset based on high-resolution thermal-infrared observations, available from 1983 to the present. The datasets are based on the disaggregation of 10-day (v2.0) and 5-day (v3.0) total TAMSAT rainfall estimates to a daily time-step using daily cold cloud duration. This approach provides temporally consistent historic and near-real time daily rainfall information for all of Africa. The estimates have been evaluated using ground-based observations from five countries with contrasting rainfall climates (Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Uganda, and Zambia) and compared to other satellite-based rainfall estimates. The results indicate that both versions of the TAMSAT daily estimates reliably detects rainy days, but have less skill in capturing rainfall amount—results that are comparable to the other datasets.

  12. Towards a climatology of tropical cyclone morphometric structures using a newly standardized passive microwave satellite dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossuth, J.; Hart, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    storm's rainband and eyewall organization. Ultimately, this project develops a consistent climatology of TC structures using a new database of research-quality historical TC satellite microwave observations. Not only can such data sets more accurately study TC structural evolution, but they may facilitate automated TC intensity estimates and provide methods to enhance current operational and research products, such as at the NRL TC webpage (http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/TC.html). The process of developing the dataset and possible objective definitions of TC structures using passive microwave imagery will be described, with preliminary results suggesting new methods to identify TC structures that may interrogate and expand upon physical and dynamical theories. Structural metrics such as threshold analysis of the outlines of the TC shape as well as methods to diagnose the inner-core size, completion, and magnitude will be introduced.

  13. Preliminary survey on site-adaptation techniques for satellite-derived and reanalysis solar radiation datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polo, J.; Wilbert, S.; Ruiz-Arias, J. A.; Meyer, R.; Gueymard, C.; Súri, M.; Martín, L.; Mieslinger, T.; Blanc, P.; Grant, I.; Boland, J.; Ineichen, P.; Remund, J.; Escobar, R.; Troccoli, A.; Sengupta, M.; Nielsen, K. P.; Renne, D.; Geuder, N.; Cebecauer, T.

    2016-07-01

    At any site, the bankability of a projected solar power plant largely depends on the accuracy and general quality of the solar radiation data generated during the solar resource assessment phase. The term 'site adaptation' has recently started to be used in the framework of solar energy projects to refer to the improvement that can be achieved in satellite-derived solar irradiance and model data when short-term local ground measurements are used to correct systematic errors and bias in the original dataset. This contribution presents a preliminary survey of different possible techniques that can improve long-term satellite-derived and model-derived solar radiation data through the use of short-term on-site ground measurements. The possible approaches that are reported here may be applied in different ways, depending on the origin and characteristics of the uncertainties in the modeled data. This work, which is the first step of a forthcoming in-depth assessment of methodologies for site adaptation, has been done within the framework of the International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling Programme Task 46 'Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting.'

  14. Combined evaluation of optical and microwave satellite dataset for soil moisture deficit estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Prashant K.; Han, Dawei; Islam, Tanvir; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Gupta, Manika; Gupta, Dileep Kumar; Kumar, Pradeep

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture is a key variable responsible for water and energy exchanges from land surface to the atmosphere (Srivastava et al., 2014). On the other hand, Soil Moisture Deficit (or SMD) can help regulating the proper use of water at specified time to avoid any agricultural losses (Srivastava et al., 2013b) and could help in preventing natural disasters, e.g. flood and drought (Srivastava et al., 2013a). In this study, evaluation of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Land Surface Temperature (LST) and soil moisture from Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellites are attempted for prediction of Soil Moisture Deficit (SMD). Sophisticated algorithm like Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) is used for prediction of SMD using the MODIS and SMOS dataset. The benchmark SMD estimated from Probability Distributed Model (PDM) over the Brue catchment, Southwest of England, U.K. is used for all the validation. The performances are assessed in terms of Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency, Root Mean Square Error and the percentage of bias between ANFIS simulated SMD and the benchmark. The performance statistics revealed a good agreement between benchmark and the ANFIS estimated SMD using the MODIS dataset. The assessment of the products with respect to this peculiar evidence is an important step for successful development of hydro-meteorological model and forecasting system. The analysis of the satellite products (viz. SMOS soil moisture and MODIS LST) towards SMD prediction is a crucial step for successful hydrological modelling, agriculture and water resource management, and can provide important assistance in policy and decision making. Keywords: Land Surface Temperature, MODIS, SMOS, Soil Moisture Deficit, Fuzzy Logic System References: Srivastava, P.K., Han, D., Ramirez, M.A., Islam, T., 2013a. Appraisal of SMOS soil moisture at a catchment scale in a temperate maritime climate. Journal of Hydrology 498, 292-304. Srivastava, P.K., Han, D., Rico

  15. An Evaluation of Satellite-Based and Re-Analysis Radiation Budget Datasets Using CERES EBAF Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shashi; Stackhouse, Paul; Wong, Takmeng; Mikovitz, Colleen; Cox, Stephen; Zhang, Taiping

    2016-04-01

    Top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface radiative fluxes from CERES Energy Balanced and Filled (EBAF; Loeb et al., 2009; Kato et al. 2013) products are used to evaluate the performance of several widely used long-term radiation budget datasets. Two of those are derived from satellite observations and five more are from re-analysis products. Satellite-derived datasets are the NASA/GEWEX Surface and TOA Radiation Budget Dataset Release-3 and the ISCCP-FD Dataset. The re-analysis datasets are taken from NCEP-CFSR, ERA-Interim, Japanese Re-Analysis (JRA-55), MERRA and the newly released MERRA2 products. Close examination is made of the differences between MERRA and MERRA2 products for the purpose of identifying improvements achieved for MERRA2. Many of these datasets have undergone quality assessment under the GEWEX Radiative Flux Assessment (RFA) project. For the purposes of the present study, EBAF datasets are treated as reference and other datasets are compared with it. All-sky and clear-sky, SW and LW, TOA and surface fluxes are included in this study. A 7-year period (2001-2007) common to all datasets is chosen for comparisons of global and zonal averages, monthly and annual average timeseries, and their anomalies. These comparisons show significant differences between EBAF and the other datasets. Certain anomalies and trends observed in the satellite-derived datasets are attributable to corresponding features in satellite datasets used as input, especially ISCCP cloud properties. Comparisons of zonal averages showed significant differences especially over higher latitudes even when those differences are not obvious in the global averages. Special emphasis is placed on the analysis of the correspondence between spatial patterns of geographical distribution of the above fluxes on a 7-year average as well as on a month-by-month basis using the Taylor (2001) methodology. Results showed that for 7-year average fields correlation coefficients between spatial patterns

  16. Searching data for supporting archaeo-landscapes in Cyprus: an overview of aerial, satellite, and cartographic datasets of the island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapiou, Athos; Lysandrou, Vasiliki; Themistocleous, Kyriakos; Nisantzi, Argyro; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola; Krauss, Thomas; Cerra, Daniele; Gessner, Ursula; Schreier, Gunter; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos

    2016-08-01

    The landscape of Cyprus is characterized by transformations that occurred during the 20th century, with many of such changes being still active today. Landscapes' changes are due to a variety of reasons including war conflicts, environmental conditions and modern development that have often caused the alteration or even the total loss of important information that could have assisted the archaeologists to comprehend the archaeo-landscape. The present work aims to provide detailed information regarding the different existing datasets that can be used to support archaeologists in understanding the transformations that the landscape in Cyprus undergone, from a remote sensing perspective. Such datasets may help archaeologists to visualize a lost landscape and try to retrieve valuable information, while they support researchers for future investigations. As such they can further highlight in a predictive manner and consequently assess the impacts of landscape transformation -being of natural or anthropogenic cause- to cultural heritage. Three main datasets are presented here: aerial images, satellite datasets including spy satellite datasets acquired during the Cold War, and cadastral maps. The variety of data is provided in a chronological order (e.g. year of acquisitions), while other important parameters such as the cost and the accuracy are also determined. Individual examples of archaeological sites in Cyprus are also provided for each dataset in order to underline both their importance and performance. Also some pre- and post-processing remote sensing methodologies are briefly described in order to enhance the final results. The paper within the framework of ATHENA project, dedicated to remote sensing archaeology/CH, aims to fill a significant gap in the recent literature of remote sensing archaeology of the island and to assist current and future archaeologists in their quest for remote sensing information to support their research.

  17. From Earth to Heaven: Using `Newton's Cannon' Thought Experiment for Teaching Satellite Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velentzas, Athanasios; Halkia, Krystallia

    2013-10-01

    Thought Experiments are powerful tools in both scientific thinking and in the teaching of science. In this study, the historical Thought Experiment (TE) `Newton's Cannon' was used as a tool to teach concepts relating to the motion of satellites to students at upper secondary level. The research instruments were: (a) a teaching-interview designed and implemented according to the Teaching Experiment methodology and (b) an open-ended questionnaire administered to students 2 weeks after the teaching-interview. The sample consisted of forty students divided into eleven groups. The teaching and learning processes which occurred during the teaching-interview were recorded and analyzed. The findings of the present study show that the use of the TE helped students to mentally construct a physical system which has nothing to do with their everyday experience (i.e. they had to imagine themselves as observers in a context in which the whole Earth was visible) and to draw conclusions about phenomena within this system. Specifically, students managed (1) to conclude that if an object is appropriately launched, it may be placed in an orbit around the Earth and to support this conclusion by giving necessary arguments, and (2) to realize that the same laws of physics describe, on the one hand, the motion of the Moon around the Earth (and the motion of other celestial bodies as well) and, on the other hand, the motion of `terrestrial' objects (i.e. objects on the Earth, such as a tennis ball). The main difficulties students met were caused by their idea that there is no gravity in the vacuum (i.e. the area outside of the Earth's atmosphere) and also by their everyday experience, according to which it is impossible for a projectile to move continuously parallel to the ground.

  18. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View of Hawaii 201304 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of Hawaii map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of Hawaii. Vegetation is generally green, with forests in darker green...

  19. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View of Alaska 201304 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of Alaska map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of Alaska. Vegetation is generally green, with forests in darker green...

  20. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Satellite View of Hawaii, with Shaded Relief 200603 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of Hawaii, with Shaded Relief map layer is a 200- meter-resolution simulated-natural-color image of Hawaii. Vegetation is generally green, with...

  1. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Satellite View of Hawaii 200603 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of Hawaii map layer is a 200-meter-resolution simulated-natural-color image of Hawaii. Vegetation is generally green, with forests in darker green...

  2. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Satellite View of Alaska, with Shaded Relief 200605 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of Alaska, with Shaded Relief map layer is a 200- meter-resolution simulated-natural-color image of Alaska. Vegetation is generally green, with...

  3. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Satellite View of the Conterminous United States 200603 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 200- meter-resolution simulated-natural-color image of the United States. Vegetation is generally...

  4. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Satellite View of Alaska 200605 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of Alaska map layer is a 200-meter-resolution simulated-natural-color image of Alaska. Vegetation is generally green, with darker greens...

  5. Toward Improved Solar Irradiance Forecasts: Comparison of Downwelling Surface Shortwave Radiation in Arizona Derived from Satellite with the Gridded Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Ki; Holmgren, William F.; Stovern, Michael; Betterton, Eric A.

    2016-08-01

    The downwelling surface shortwave radiation derived from geostationary satellite imagery was compared with the available datasets for the Southwestern United States. The averaged root mean square errors for our instantaneous estimates ranged from 95.0 to 122.7 W m-2, which is lower than those derived from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) products were used to compare the hourly mean solar insolation. The three hourly mean downwelling surface shortwave radiation was evaluated by comparing the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) and the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) products. Our estimates show the better performance than MERRA, NARR and CERES datasets because of coarse resolution that limits determining the solar dimming due to small clouds.

  6. Hydrological modeling of the Peruvian–Ecuadorian Amazon Basin using GPM-IMERG satellite-based precipitation dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zubieta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, rainfall estimates provided by the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM have proven applicable in hydrological studies. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM mission, which provides the new generation of rainfall estimates, is now considered a global successor to TRMM. The usefulness of GPM data in hydrological applications, however, has not yet been evaluated over the Andean and Amazonian regions. This study uses GPM data provided by the Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals (IMERG (product/final run as input to a distributed hydrological model for the Amazon Basin of Peru and Ecuador for a 16-month period (from March 2014 to June 2015 when all datasets are available. TRMM products (TMPA V7 and TMPA RT datasets and a gridded precipitation dataset processed from observed rainfall are used for comparison. The results indicate that precipitation data derived from GPM-IMERG correspond more closely to TMPA V7 than TMPA RT datasets, but both GPM-IMERG and TMPA V7 precipitation data tend to overestimate, compared to observed rainfall (by 11.1 and 15.7 %, respectively. In general, GPM-IMERG, TMPA V7 and TMPA RT correlate with observed rainfall, with a similar number of rain events correctly detected ( ∼  20 %. Statistical analysis of modeled streamflows indicates that GPM-IMERG is as useful as TMPA V7 or TMPA RT datasets in southern regions (Ucayali Basin. GPM-IMERG, TMPA V7 and TMPA RT do not properly simulate streamflows in northern regions (Marañón and Napo basins, probably because of the lack of adequate rainfall estimates in northern Peru and the Ecuadorian Amazon.

  7. Hydrological modeling of the Peruvian-Ecuadorian Amazon Basin using GPM-IMERG satellite-based precipitation dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubieta, Ricardo; Getirana, Augusto; Carlo Espinoza, Jhan; Lavado-Casimiro, Waldo; Aragon, Luis

    2017-07-01

    In the last two decades, rainfall estimates provided by the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) have proven applicable in hydrological studies. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, which provides the new generation of rainfall estimates, is now considered a global successor to TRMM. The usefulness of GPM data in hydrological applications, however, has not yet been evaluated over the Andean and Amazonian regions. This study uses GPM data provided by the Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals (IMERG) (product/final run) as input to a distributed hydrological model for the Amazon Basin of Peru and Ecuador for a 16-month period (from March 2014 to June 2015) when all datasets are available. TRMM products (TMPA V7 and TMPA RT datasets) and a gridded precipitation dataset processed from observed rainfall are used for comparison. The results indicate that precipitation data derived from GPM-IMERG correspond more closely to TMPA V7 than TMPA RT datasets, but both GPM-IMERG and TMPA V7 precipitation data tend to overestimate, compared to observed rainfall (by 11.1 and 15.7 %, respectively). In general, GPM-IMERG, TMPA V7 and TMPA RT correlate with observed rainfall, with a similar number of rain events correctly detected ( ˜ 20 %). Statistical analysis of modeled streamflows indicates that GPM-IMERG is as useful as TMPA V7 or TMPA RT datasets in southern regions (Ucayali Basin). GPM-IMERG, TMPA V7 and TMPA RT do not properly simulate streamflows in northern regions (Marañón and Napo basins), probably because of the lack of adequate rainfall estimates in northern Peru and the Ecuadorian Amazon.

  8. Analysis of Southeast Asian pollution episode during June 2013 using satellite remote sensing datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Lasko, Kristofer; Giglio, Louis; Justice, Chris

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we assess the intense pollution episode of June 2013, in Riau province, Indonesia from land clearing. We relied on satellite retrievals of aerosols and Carbon monoxide (CO) due to lack of ground measurements. We used both the yearly and daily data for aerosol optical depth (AOD), fine mode fraction (FMF), aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) and UV aerosol index (UVAI) for characterizing variations. We found significant enhancement in aerosols and CO during the pollution episode. Compared to mean (2008-2012) June AOD of 0.40, FMF-0.39, AAOD-0.45, UVAI-1.77 and CO of 200 ppbv, June 2013 values reached 0.8, 0.573, 0.672, 1.77 and 978 ppbv respectively. Correlations of fire counts with AAOD and UVAI were stronger compared to AOD and FMF. Results from a trajectory model suggested transport of air masses from Indonesia towards Malaysia, Singapore and southern Thailand. Our results highlight satellite-based mapping and monitoring of pollution episodes in Southeast Asia.

  9. Assessing Leaf Area Index from High Resolution Satellite Datasets for Maize in Trans Nzoia County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomew Thiongo, Kuria; Menz, Gunter; Thonfeld, Frank

    2016-08-01

    The Normalized Differenced Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the two band Enhanced vegetation Index (EVI2) derived from RapidEye and Landsat 8 satellite images were evaluated against the empirically derived terrestrial Leaf Area Index (LAI) acquired during the maize growth season April to November, 2015 and covering the phenological growth stages prescribed in the BBCH code. The results indicate a high correlation of the vegetation indices plotted over the entire maize season with R2 values of 88% and 83% for NDVI and EVI2 respectively. The maximum values were found to occur during the maize vegetative phase in the months of July and August. The correlation between the vegetation indices and the LAI had R2 values of 50% and 49% for NDVI and EVI2 respectively. Alternative methods of estimating and calculating the LAI values may improve the achieved results.

  10. Using R for analysing spatio-temporal datasets: a satellite-based precipitation case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano-Bigiarini, Mauricio

    2017-04-01

    Increasing computer power and the availability of remote-sensing data measuring different environmental variables has led to unprecedented opportunities for Earth sciences in recent decades. However, dealing with hundred or thousands of files, usually in different vectorial and raster formats and measured with different temporal frequencies, impose high computation challenges to take full advantage of all the available data. R is a language and environment for statistical computing and graphics which includes several functions for data manipulation, calculation and graphical display, which are particularly well suited for Earth sciences. In this work I describe how R was used to exhaustively evaluate seven state-of-the-art satellite-based rainfall estimates (SRE) products (TMPA 3B42v7, CHIRPSv2, CMORPH, PERSIANN-CDR, PERSIAN-CCS-adj, MSWEPv1.1 and PGFv3) over the complex topography and diverse climatic gradients of Chile. First, built-in functions were used to automatically download the satellite-images in different raster formats and spatial resolutions and to clip them into the Chilean spatial extent if necessary. Second, the raster package was used to read, plot, and conduct an exploratory data analysis in selected files of each SRE product, in order to detect unexpected problems (rotated spatial domains, order or variables in NetCDF files, etc). Third, raster was used along with the hydroTSM package to aggregate SRE files into different temporal scales (daily, monthly, seasonal, annual). Finally, the hydroTSM and hydroGOF packages were used to carry out a point-to-pixel comparison between precipitation time series measured at 366 stations and the corresponding grid cell of each SRE. The modified Kling-Gupta index of model performance was used to identify possible sources of systematic errors in each SRE, while five categorical indices (PC, POD, FAR, ETS, fBIAS) were used to assess the ability of each SRE to correctly identify different precipitation intensities

  11. Global Electric Circuit Diurnal Variation Derived from Storm Overflight and Satellite Optical Lightning Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Bateman, M. J.; Bailey, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    We have combined analyses of over 1000 high altitude aircraft observations of electrified clouds with diurnal lightning statistics from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) to produce an estimate of the diurnal variation in the global electric circuit. Using basic assumptions about the mean storm currents as a function of flash rate and location, and the global electric circuit, our estimate of the current in the global electric circuit matches the Carnegie curve diurnal variation to within 4% for all but two short periods of time. The agreement with the Carnegie curve was obtained without any tuning or adjustment of the satellite or aircraft data. Mean contributions to the global electric circuit from land and ocean thunderstorms are 1.1 kA (land) and 0.7 kA (ocean). Contributions to the global electric circuit from ESCs are 0.22 kA for ocean storms and 0.04 kA for land storms. Using our analysis, the mean total conduction current for the global electric circuit is 2.0 kA.

  12. Several thoughts for using new satellite remote sensing and global modeling for aerosol and cloud climate studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Teruyuki; Hashimoto, Makiko; Takenaka, Hideaki; Goto, Daisuke; Oikawa, Eiji; Suzuki, Kentaroh; Uchida, Junya; Dai, Tie; Shi, Chong

    2017-04-01

    The rapid growth of satellite remote sensing technologies in the last two decades widened the utility of satellite data for understanding climate impacts of aerosols and clouds. The climate modeling community also has received the benefit of the earth observation and nowadays closed-collaboration of the two communities make us possible to challenge various applications for societal problems, such as for global warming and global-scale air pollution and others. I like to give several thoughts of new algorithm developments, model use of satellite data for climate impact studies and societal applications related with aerosols and clouds. Important issues are 1) Better aerosol detection and solar energy application using expanded observation ability of the third generation geostationary satellites, i.e. Himawari-8, GOES-R and future MTG, 2) Various observation functions by directional, polarimetric, and high resolution near-UV band by MISR, POLDER&PARASOL, GOSAT/CAI and future GOSAT2/CAI2, 3) Various applications of general purpose-imagers, MODIS, VIIRS and future GCOM-C/SGLI, and 4) Climate studies of aerosol and cloud stratification and convection with active and passive sensors, especially climate impact of BC aerosols using CLOUDSAT&CALIPSO and future Earth Explorer/EarthCARE.

  13. The use of Standard OGC Web Services in Integrating Distributed Model, Satellite and In-situ Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmell, A. L.; Blower, J.; Haines, K.; Price, M.; Millard, K.; Harpham, Q.

    2009-12-01

    Earth scientists use highly diverse sources of data, including in-situ measurements, remotely-sensed information and the results of numerical simulations. Thus there is often a large amount of data available to tackle a given problem. The challenge is how best to integrate these diverse data sources in a manner which will not only provide an effective solution to the problem at hand, but which will maximise both interoperability with other projects and reuseability for problems that still lie in the future. We present a web portal that visualizes and compares physical and biological marine data from numerical models, satellites, and in-situ observations. The model data are obtained via an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC)-compatible Web Map Service (WMS), and the observed data are obtained via an OGC Web Feature Service (WFS). The physical model WMS, the biological model WMS and the WFS are located at three different institutes, and the actual data themselves are hosted at over 20 institutes around Europe and accessed via OPeNDAP and THREDDS. The use of CF-compliant NetCDF files, and Climate Science Modelling Language (CSML) increases the ease of data integration in this project. This ability to display in-situ point observations alongside model and satellite data facilitates much valuable work on model validation. As models become increasingly complex, and sources of observed data become more numerous, it is important to be able to access and compare this growing amount of data efficiently, to ensure cross-checking and consistency between models and observations. The web portal is being applied in a large European operational oceanography project (ECOOP), where it is used to provide support to modellers and in-situ data providers alike. A number of problems with model and in-situ datasets have been detected and corrected thanks to the ability to intercompare data sources and look for inconsistencies which might otherwise go undetected. The portal also serves as a

  14. Evaluation of the ISBA-TRIP continental hydrologic system over the Niger basin using in situ and satellite derived datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedinotti, V.; Boone, A.; Decharme, B.; Crétaux, J. F.; Mognard, N.; Panthou, G.; Papa, F.; Tanimoun, B. A.

    2012-06-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s, West Africa has faced extreme climate variations with extended drought conditions. Of particular importance is the Niger basin, since it traverses a large part of the Sahel and is thus a critical source of water for an ever-increasing local population in this semi arid region. However, the understanding of the hydrological processes over this basin is currently limited by the lack of spatially distributed surface water and discharge measurements. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ability of the ISBA-TRIP continental hydrologic system to represent key processes related to the hydrological cycle of the Niger basin. ISBA-TRIP is currently used within a coupled global climate model, so that the scheme must represent the first order processes which are critical for representing the water cycle while retaining a limited number of parameters and a simple representation of the physics. To this end, the scheme uses first-order approximations to account explicitly for the surface river routing, the floodplain dynamics, and the water storage using a deep aquifer reservoir. In the current study, simulations are done at a 0.5 by 0.5° spatial resolution over the 2002-2007 period (in order to take advantage of the recent satellite record and data from the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses project, AMMA). Four configurations of the model are compared to evaluate the separate impacts of the flooding scheme and the aquifer on the water cycle. Moreover, the model is forced by two different rainfall datasets to consider the sensitivity of the model to rainfall input uncertainties. The model is evaluated using in situ discharge measurements as well as satellite derived flood extent, total continental water storage changes and river height changes. The basic analysis of in situ discharges confirms the impact of the inner delta area, known as a significant flooded area, on the discharge, characterized by a strong reduction of the

  15. Evaluation of the ISBA-TRIP continental hydrologic system over the Niger basin using in situ and satellite derived datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pedinotti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available During the 1970s and 1980s, West Africa has faced extreme climate variations with extended drought conditions. Of particular importance is the Niger basin, since it traverses a large part of the Sahel and is thus a critical source of water for an ever-increasing local population in this semi arid region. However, the understanding of the hydrological processes over this basin is currently limited by the lack of spatially distributed surface water and discharge measurements. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ability of the ISBA-TRIP continental hydrologic system to represent key processes related to the hydrological cycle of the Niger basin. ISBA-TRIP is currently used within a coupled global climate model, so that the scheme must represent the first order processes which are critical for representing the water cycle while retaining a limited number of parameters and a simple representation of the physics. To this end, the scheme uses first-order approximations to account explicitly for the surface river routing, the floodplain dynamics, and the water storage using a deep aquifer reservoir. In the current study, simulations are done at a 0.5 by 0.5° spatial resolution over the 2002–2007 period (in order to take advantage of the recent satellite record and data from the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses project, AMMA. Four configurations of the model are compared to evaluate the separate impacts of the flooding scheme and the aquifer on the water cycle. Moreover, the model is forced by two different rainfall datasets to consider the sensitivity of the model to rainfall input uncertainties. The model is evaluated using in situ discharge measurements as well as satellite derived flood extent, total continental water storage changes and river height changes. The basic analysis of in situ discharges confirms the impact of the inner delta area, known as a significant flooded area, on the discharge, characterized by a strong

  16. Comparative Assessment of Satellite-Retrieved Surface Net Radiation: An Examination on CERES and SRB Datasets in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Pan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Surface net radiation plays an important role in land–atmosphere interactions. The net radiation can be retrieved from satellite radiative products, yet its accuracy needs comprehensive assessment. This study evaluates monthly surface net radiation generated from the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES and the Surface Radiation Budget project (SRB products, respectively, with quality-controlled radiation data from 50 meteorological stations in China for the period from March 2000 to December 2007. Our results show that surface net radiation is generally overestimated for CERES (SRB, with a bias of 26.52 W/m2 (18.57 W/m2 and a root mean square error of 34.58 W/m2 (29.49 W/m2. Spatially, the satellite-retrieved monthly mean of surface net radiation has relatively small errors for both CERES and SRB at inland sites in south China. Substantial errors are found at northeastern sites for two datasets, in addition to coastal sites for CERES. Temporally, multi-year averaged monthly mean errors are large at sites in western China in spring and summer, and in northeastern China in spring and winter. The annual mean error fluctuates for SRB, but decreases for CERES between 2000 and 2007. For CERES, 56% of net radiation errors come from net shortwave (NSW radiation and 44% from net longwave (NLW radiation. The errors are attributable to environmental parameters including surface albedo, surface water vapor pressure, land surface temperature, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI of land surface proxy, and visibility for CERES. For SRB, 65% of the errors come from NSW and 35% from NLW radiation. The major influencing factors in a descending order are surface water vapor pressure, surface albedo, land surface temperature, NDVI, and visibility. Our findings offer an insight into error patterns in satellite-retrieved surface net radiation and should be valuable to improving retrieval accuracy of surface net radiation. Moreover, our

  17. Development and Assessment of the Sand Dust Prediction Model by Utilizing Microwave-Based Satellite Soil Moisture and Reanalysis Datasets in East Asian Desert Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunglok Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For several decades, satellite-based microwave sensors have provided valuable soil moisture monitoring in various surface conditions. We have first developed a modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD dataset by utilizing Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS, Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2, and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS soil moisture datasets in order to estimate dust outbreaks over desert areas of East Asia. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer- (MODIS- based AOD products were used as reference datasets to validate the modeled AOD (MA. The SMOS-based MA (SMOS-MA dataset showed good correspondence with observed AOD (R-value: 0.56 compared to AMSR2- and GLDAS-based MA datasets, and it overestimated AOD compared to observed AOD. The AMSR2-based MA dataset was found to underestimate AOD, and it showed a relatively low R-value (0.35 with respect to observed AOD. Furthermore, SMOS-MA products were able to simulate the short-term AOD trends, having a high R-value (0.65. The results of this study may allow us to acknowledge the utilization of microwave-based soil moisture datasets for investigation of near-real time dust outbreak predictions and short-term dust outbreak trend analysis.

  18. On the optimal method for evaluating cloud products from passive satellite imagery using CALIPSO-CALIOP data: example investigating the CM SAF CLARA-A1 dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-G. Karlsson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A method for detailed evaluation of a new satellite-derived global 28-yr cloud and radiation climatology (Climate Monitoring SAF Cloud, Albedo and Radiation dataset from AVHRR data, named CLARA-A1 from polar orbiting NOAA and Metop satellites is presented. The method combines 1 km and 5 km resolution cloud datasets from the CALIPSO-CALIOP cloud lidar for estimating cloud detection limitations and the accuracy of cloud top height estimations.

    Cloud detection is shown to work efficiently for clouds with optical thicknesses above 0.30 except for at twilight conditions when this value increases to 0.45. Some misclassifications generating erroneous clouds over land surfaces in semi-arid regions in the sub-tropical and tropical regions are revealed. In addition, a substantial fraction of all clouds remains undetected in the Polar regions during the polar winter season due to the lack of or an inverted temperature contrast between Earth surfaces and clouds.

    Subsequent cloud top height evaluation took into account the derived information about the cloud detection limits. It was shown that this has fundamental importance for the achieved results. An overall bias of −274 m was achieved compared to a bias of −2762 m if no measures were taken to compensate for cloud detection limitations. Despite this improvement it was concluded that high-level clouds still suffer from substantial height underestimations while the opposite is true for low-level (boundary layer clouds.

    The validation method and the specifically collected satellite dataset with optimal matching in time and space are suggested for a wider use in the future for evaluation of other cloud retrieval methods based on passive satellite imagery.

  19. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View of the Conterminous United States 201304 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of the United States. Vegetation is generally...

  20. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View with Shaded Relief of Alaska 201304 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View with Shaded Relief of Alaska map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of Alaska, with relief shading added to accentuate...

  1. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View with Shaded Relief of Hawaii 201304 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View with Shaded Relief of Hawaii map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of Hawaii, with relief shading added to accentuate...

  2. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Satellite View of the Conterminous United States, with Shaded Relief 200512 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of the Conterminous United States, with Shaded Relief map layer is a 200-meter-resolution simulated-natural-color image of the United States....

  3. Using modeling, satellite images and existing global datasets for rapid preliminary assessments of renewable energy resources: The case of Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Rasmussen, K.; Badger, Jake

    2010-01-01

    in the irrigated areas of the Niger inland delta that might be interesting from a renewable energy resource perspective. Finally, the paper discusses the role that renewable energy resources might play in the energy systems of Mali, given the spatio-temporal distribution of renewable energy resources. It is argued...... that at the current price of about 70 US$/barrel for fossil fuels, renewable energy resources are becoming economically as well as environmentally attractive options.......This paper presents a novel approach to the preliminary, low-cost, national-scale mapping of wind energy, solar energy and certain categories of bio-energy resources in developing countries, using Mali as an example. The methods applied make extensive use of satellite remote sensing...

  4. Recent trends of the tropical hydrological cycle inferred from Global Precipitation Climatology Project and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, Y. C.; Zhou, Y.; Xu, K.; Betts, A. K.

    2012-12-01

    Among the greenhouse gases induced climate change projections, tropical hydrological cycle changes can be expected to cause significant deficit or excess of precipitation in many regions, and that in turn would impact all life on earth. We have examined decadal trends of the tropical hydrological cycle in the GPCP precipitation and ISCCP cloud and radiation datasets to determine if such trends can provide an observation-based benchmark for model predictions of the ongoing climate change. The observations data show (1) intensifications of tropical precipitation in the rising regions of the Walker and Hadley circulations and weakening over the sinking regions - showcasing the "wet-getting-wetter, dry-getting-dryer" phenomena; (2) a discernible poleward shift of the subtropical dry zones (up to 2° decade-1 in June-July-August (JJA) in the Northern Hemisphere and 0.3-0.7° decade-1 in JJA and September-October-November (SON) in the Southern Hemisphere consistent with an overall broadening of the Hadley circulation; and (3) some poleward migration of cloud boundaries within Hadley cell and plausible narrowing of the high cloudiness in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) region in some seasons. These trends indicate a strengthening of the tropical hydrological cycle with intensification of dry and wet extremes.

  5. A database of global reference sites to support validation of satellite surface albedo datasets (SAVS 1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loew, Alexander; Bennartz, Ralf; Fell, Frank; Lattanzio, Alessio; Doutriaux-Boucher, Marie; Schulz, Jörg

    2016-09-01

    Validating the accuracy and long-term stability of terrestrial satellite data products necessitates a network of reference sites. This paper documents a global database of more than 2000 sites globally which have been characterized in terms of their spatial heterogeneity. The work was motivated by the need for potential validation sites for geostationary surface albedo data products, but the resulting database is useful also for other applications. The database (SAVS 1.0) is publicly available through the EUMETSAT website (http://savs.eumetsat.int/" target="_blank">http://savs.eumetsat.int/, http://dx.doi.org/10.15770/EUM_SEC_CLM_1001" target="_blank">doi:10.15770/EUM_SEC_CLM_1001). Sites can be filtered according to different criteria, providing a flexible way to identify potential validation sites for further studies and a traceable approach to characterize the heterogeneity of these reference sites. The present paper describes the detailed information on the generation of the SAVS 1.0 database and its characteristics.

  6. Using NASA Satellite Aerosol Optical Depth to Enhance PM2.5 Concentration Datasets for Use in Human Health and Epidemiology Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, A. K.; Weber, S.; Braggio, J.; Talbot, T.; Hall, E.

    2012-12-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a criterion air pollutant, and its adverse impacts on human health are well established. Traditionally, studies that analyze the health effects of human exposure to PM2.5 use concentration measurements from ground-based monitors and predicted PM2.5 concentrations from air quality models, such as the U.S. EPA's Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. There are shortcomings associated with these datasets, however. Monitors are not distributed uniformly across the U.S., which causes spatially inhomogeneous measurements of pollutant concentrations. There are often temporal variations as well, since not all monitors make daily measurements. Air quality model output, while spatially and temporally uniform, represents predictions of PM2.5 concentrations, not actual measurements. This study is exploring the potential of combining Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data from the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites with PM2.5 monitor data and CMAQ predictions to create PM2.5 datasets that more accurately reflect the spatial and temporal variations in ambient PM2.5 concentrations on the metropolitan scale, with the overall goal of enhancing capabilities for environmental public health decision-making. AOD data provide regional information about particulate concentrations that can fill in the spatial and temporal gaps in the national PM2.5 monitor network. Furthermore, AOD is a measurement, so it reflects actual concentrations of particulates in the atmosphere, in contrast to PM2.5 predictions from air quality models. Results will be presented from the Battelle/U.S. EPA statistical Hierarchical Bayesian Model (HBM), which was used to combine three PM2.5 concentration datasets: monitor measurements, AOD data, and CMAQ model predictions. The study is focusing on the Baltimore, MD and New York City, NY metropolitan regions for the period 2004-2006. For each region, combined monitor/AOD/CMAQ PM2.5 datasets generated by the HBM

  7. Distributions and radiative forcings of various cloud types based on active and passive satellite datasets – Part 1: Geographical distributions and overlap of cloud types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on four year' 2B-CLDCLASS-Lidar (Radar-Lidar cloud classification product from CloudSat, we analyze the geographical distributions of different cloud types and their co-occurrence frequency across different seasons, moreover, utilize the vertical distributions of cloud type to further evaluate the cloud overlap assumptions. The statistical results show that more high clouds, altocumulus, stratocumulus or stratus and cumulus are identified in the Radar-Lidar cloud classification product compared to previous results from Radar-only cloud classification (2B-CLDCLASS product from CloudSat. In particularly, high clouds and cumulus cloud fractions increased by factors 2.5 and 4–7, respectively. The new results are in more reasonable agreement with other datasets (typically the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP and surface observer reports. Among the cloud types, altostratus and altocumulus are more popular over the arid/semi-arid land areas of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, respectively. These features weren't observed by using the ISCCP D1 dataset. For co-occurrence of cloud types, high cloud, altostratus, altocumulus and cumulus are much more likely to co-exist with other cloud types. However, stratus/stratocumulus, nimbostratus and convective clouds are much more likely to exhibit individual features. After considering the co-occurrence of cloud types, the cloud fraction based on the random overlap assumption is underestimated over the vast ocean except in the west-central Pacific Ocean warm pool. Obvious overestimations are mainly occurring over land areas in the tropics and subtropics. The investigation therefore indicates that incorporate co-occurrence information of cloud types based on Radar-Lidar cloud classification into the overlap assumption schemes used in the current GCMs possible be able to provide an better predictions for vertically projected total cloud fraction.

  8. Observed and simulated hydroclimatology using distributed hydrologic model from in-situ and multi-satellite remote sensing datasets in Lake Victoria region in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Khan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Floods and droughts are common, recurring natural hazards in East African nations. Studies of hydro-climatology at daily, seasonal, and annual time scale is an important in understanding and ultimately minimizing the impacts of such hazards. Using daily in-situ data over the last two decades combined with the recently available multiple-years satellite remote sensing data, we analyzed and simulated, with a distributed hydrologic model, the hydro-climatology in Nzoia, one of the major contributing sub-basins of Lake Victoria in the East African highlands. The basin, with a semi arid climate, has no sustained base flow contribution to Lake Victoria. The short spell of high discharge showed that rain is the prime cause of floods in the basin. There is only a marginal increase in annual mean discharge over the last 21 years. The 2-, 5- and 10-year peak discharges, for the entire study period showed that more years since the mid 1990's have had high peak discharges despite having relatively less annual rain. The study also presents the hydrologic model calibration and validation results over the Nzoia Basin. The spatiotemporal variability of the water cycle components were quantified using a physically-based, distributed hydrologic model, with in-situ and multi-satellite remote sensing datasets. Moreover, the hydrologic capability of remote sensing data such as TRMM-3B42V6 was tested in terms of reconstruction of the water cycle components. The spatial distribution and time series of modeling results for precipitation (P, evapotranspiration (ET, and change in storage (dS/dt showed considerable agreement with the monthly model runoff estimates and gauge observations. Runoff values responded to precipitation events that occurred across the catchment during the wet season from March to early June. The hydrologic model captured the spatial variability of the soil moisture storage. The spatially distributed model inputs, states, and

  9. Long-term variability of UV irradiance over Northern Eurasia according to satellite measurements, ERA-INTERIM dataset and INM-RSHU chemical climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubarova, Nataly; Pastukhova, Anna; Zhdanova, Ekaterina; Khlestova, Julia; Poliukhov, Alexei; Smyshlyaev, Sergei; Galin, Vener

    2017-04-01

    We present the results of long-term erythemal UV irradiance (ERY) changes over the territory of Northern Eurasia according to the ERA-INTERIM reanalysis dataset, INM-RSHU chemical climate model (CCM), and TOMS and OMI satellite data with the correction on absorbing aerosol based on the new Macv2 climatology updated from Kinne et al. (2013) over the 1979-2015 period. We show the existence of the pronounced positive ERY trend due to ozone in spring and summer over Europe and over the central areas of Siberia (up 3% over the decade). The changes in cloud cover provide even more significant ERY increase (up to 6-8% per decade). However, over Arctic region there is a pronounced negative ERY trend probably due to the effects of melting ice on global circulation processes. The combination of ozone and cloud effects provides the enhanced increase of the overall ERY trend: up to 6-9% in spring and summer over Eastern Europe, some regions of Siberia and the Far East. In addition, based on the method described in (Chubarova, Zhdanova, 2013) we estimated changes in UV resources over Northern Eurasia since 1979. We show that for the first skin type there is a significant geographical shift of UV categories: the increase in the UV optimum area in winter, where the vitamin D generation is possible without risk of getting sunburn, and its reducing in other months due to decrease in ozone and clouds. We also analyze the long-term UV changes simulated according to different scenarios using the INM-RSHU CCM. There is a general agreement between CCM and observational datasets, however, ERY trends due to cloudiness do not correspond sometimes in space and are smaller. We show that the positive ERY trend due to ozone is determined by the anthropogenic emissions of halogens. The variations in natural factors (solar activity and ocean surface temperature, stratospheric aerosol) only provide the increase in ERY dispersion. References: Kinne, S., O'Donnel D., Stier P., et al., J. Adv. Model

  10. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View with Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States 201304 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View with Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of the United States, with...

  11. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View with Shaded Relief of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands 201304 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View with Shaded Relief of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of Puerto Rico and...

  12. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands 201304 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin...

  13. Forest fire danger index based on modifying Nesterov Index, fuel, and anthropogenic activities using MODIS TERRA, AQUA and TRMM satellite datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Babu, K. V.; Roy, Arijit; Ramachandra Prasad, P.

    2016-05-01

    Forest fire has been regarded as one of the major causes of degradation of Himalayan forests in Uttarakhand. Forest fires occur annually in more than 50% of forests in Uttarakhand state, mostly due to anthropogenic activities and spreads due to moisture conditions and type of forest fuels. Empirical drought indices such as Keetch-Byram drought index, the Nesterov index, Modified Nesterov index, the Zhdanko index which belongs to the cumulative type and the Angstrom Index which belongs to the daily type have been used throughout the world to assess the potential fire danger. In this study, the forest fire danger index has been developed from slightly modified Nesterov index, fuel and anthropogenic activities. Datasets such as MODIS TERRA Land Surface Temperature and emissivity (MOD11A1), MODIS AQUA Atmospheric profile product (MYD07) have been used to determine the dew point temperature and land surface temperature. Precipitation coefficient has been computed from Tropical Rainfall measuring Mission (TRMM) product (3B42RT). Nesterov index has been slightly modified according to the Indian context and computed using land surface temperature, dew point temperature and precipitation coefficient. Fuel type danger index has been derived from forest type map of ISRO based on historical fire location information and disturbance danger index has been derived from disturbance map of ISRO. Finally, forest fire danger index has been developed from the above mentioned indices and MODIS Thermal anomaly product (MOD14) has been used for validating the forest fire danger index.

  14. Climate Prediction Center IR 4km Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CPC IR 4km dataset was created from all available individual geostationary satellite data which have been merged to form nearly seamless global (60N-60S) IR...

  15. Crisis Thought

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Edwin Kent

    2016-01-01

    Crisis thought is an idea that gives a name to and accounts for some of the problematics of the sign crisis in political, social, cultural, and economic discourse. Specifically, crisis thought is a discursive formation, a concept used loosely here to refer to an assemblage of signs such as anxiety or fear that evoke or invoke similar, but inaccurate connotations as crisis in political and everyday usage. The general question this study grapples with is why political, social, cultural, and eco...

  16. Thought Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadrikov V.D.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The thought evolution is studied by historical reconstruction method that is based on the propositions of the theory of culturalhistorical determination of the psyche development, and the data of the morphological analysis and child development, and the conception of the psyche neuroontogenesis. The grounds for advisability of protothinking are presented. The protothinking is understood as the use of objective thought in cases of awareness absence. It is shown that protothinking is a form of transition from animal thinking to human speech. The particular attention is paid to the process of the word producing and thought generation in that process. The conditions of word producing as cooccurring acoustic pattern served for though expression are discussed. It is emphasized that a word is produced by a particular person. The historical development of the language and the specificity of this development are pointed out

  17. How Does Mediterranean Basin's Atmosphere Become Weak Moisture Source During Negative Phase of NAO: Use of AIRS, AMSR, TOVS, & TRMM Satellite Datasets Over Last Two NAO Cycles to Examine Governing Controls on E-P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric A.; Mehta, Amita V.

    2008-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is a noted 'concentration" basin in that it almost continuously exhibits positive evaporation minus precipitation (E - P ) properties -- throughout the four seasons and from one year to the next. Nonetheless, according to the ECMWF Era-40 48-year (1958-2005) climate reanalysis dataset, for various phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) when the pressure gradient between Portugal and Iceland becomes either very relaxed (large negative NAO-Index) or in transition (small positive or negative NAO-Index), the atmospheric moisture source properties of the basin become weak, at times even reversed for several months (i.e., negative E - P). This behavior poses numerous questions concerning how and why these events occur. Moreover, it begs the question of what it would take for the basin to reach its tipping point in which P would exceed E throughout the rainy season (some six months) on an annually persistent basis -- and the sea would possibly transform to a recurring "dilution" basin. This talk investigates these questions by: (1) establishing over a period from 1979 to present, based on detailed analyses of satellite retrieval products from a combination of NASA-AQUA, NOAA-LEO, NASA/JAXA Scatterometer, and NASA-TRMM platforms, plus additional specialized satellite data products and ancillary meteorological datasets, the actual observation-based behavior of E - P, (2) diagnosing the salient physical and meteorological mechanisms that lead to the weaker E - P events during the analysis period, partly based on analyzing surface and upper air data at discrete stations in the western and eastern Mediterranean -- while at the same time evaluating the quality of the ERA-40 data over this same time period, (3) conducting GCM and high-resolution regional modeling experiments to determine if perturbed but realistic meteorological background conditions could maintain Mediterranean as a "dilution" basin through the October to March rainy season on

  18. Photographic dataset: random peppercorns

    CERN Document Server

    Helenius, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    This is a photographic dataset collected for testing image processing algorithms. The idea is to have sets of different but statistically similar images. In this work the images show randomly distributed peppercorns. The dataset is made available at www.fips.fi/photographic_dataset.php .

  19. Dataset Lifecycle Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Edward; Tauer, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The presentation focused on describing a new dataset lifecycle policy that the NASA Physical Oceanography DAAC (PO.DAAC) has implemented for its new and current datasets to foster improved stewardship and consistency across its archive. The overarching goal is to implement this dataset lifecycle policy for all new GHRSST GDS2 datasets and bridge the mission statements from the GHRSST Project Office and PO.DAAC to provide the best quality SST data in a cost-effective, efficient manner, preserving its integrity so that it will be available and usable to a wide audience.

  20. Dataset Lifecycle Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Edward; Tauer, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The presentation focused on describing a new dataset lifecycle policy that the NASA Physical Oceanography DAAC (PO.DAAC) has implemented for its new and current datasets to foster improved stewardship and consistency across its archive. The overarching goal is to implement this dataset lifecycle policy for all new GHRSST GDS2 datasets and bridge the mission statements from the GHRSST Project Office and PO.DAAC to provide the best quality SST data in a cost-effective, efficient manner, preserving its integrity so that it will be available and usable to a wide audience.

  1. Fixing Dataset Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Three current search engines are queried for ozone data at the GES DISC. The results range from sub-optimal to counter-intuitive. We propose a method to fix dataset search by implementing a robust relevancy ranking scheme. The relevancy ranking scheme is based on several heuristics culled from more than 20 years of helping users select datasets.

  2. Market Squid Ecology Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains ecological information collected on the major adult spawning and juvenile habitats of market squid off California and the US Pacific Northwest....

  3. Tables and figure datasets

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Soil and air concentrations of asbestos in Sumas study. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Wroble, J., T. Frederick, A. Frame, and D....

  4. 2016 TRI Preliminary Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    The TRI preliminary dataset includes the most current TRI data available and reflects toxic chemical releases and pollution prevention activities that occurred at TRI facilities during the 2016 calendar year.

  5. National Hydrography Dataset (NHD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) is a feature-based database that interconnects and uniquely identifies the stream segments or reaches that comprise the...

  6. USEWOD 2016 Research Dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Luczak-Roesch, Markus; Aljaloud, Saud; Berendt, Bettina; Hollink, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The USEWOD 2016 research dataset is a collection of usage data from Web of Data sources, which have been collected in 2015. It covers sources such as DBpedia, the Linked Data Fragments interface to DBpedia as well as Wikidata page views.\\ud \\ud This dataset can be requested via http://library.soton.ac.uk/datarequest - please also email a scanned copy of the signed Usage Agreement (to ).

  7. The GTZAN dataset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2013-01-01

    The GTZAN dataset appears in at least 100 published works, and is the most-used public dataset for evaluation in machine listening research for music genre recognition (MGR). Our recent work, however, shows GTZAN has several faults (repetitions, mislabelings, and distortions), which challenge...... the interpretability of any result derived using it. In this article, we disprove the claims that all MGR systems are affected in the same ways by these faults, and that the performances of MGR systems in GTZAN are still meaningfully comparable since they all face the same faults. We identify and analyze the contents...

  8. Dataset - Adviesregel PPL 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evert, van F.K.; Schans, van der D.A.; Geel, van W.C.A.; Slabbekoorn, J.J.; Booij, R.; Jukema, J.N.; Meurs, E.J.J.; Uenk, D.

    2011-01-01

    This dataset contains experimental data from a number of field experiments with potato in The Netherlands (Van Evert et al., 2011). The data are presented as an SQL dump of a PostgreSQL database (version 8.4.4). An outline of the entity-relationship diagram of the database is given in an accompanyin

  9. SAMHSA Federated Datasets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Department of Health and Human Services — This link provides a temporary method of accessing SAMHSA datasets that are found on the interactive portion of the Data.gov catalog. This is a temporary solution...

  10. Thought 2 Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent F.

    Thought2Talk is a crash course on argument, reasoning and logical method honoring the Swedish poet and Bishop of Lund, Esaias Tegnér, who once said: The words and thoughts of men are born together: To speak obscurely is to think obscurely. In 100 humorous yet erudite pages, Thought2Talk takes...

  11. Wiki-talk Datasets

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jun; Kunegis, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    User interaction networks of Wikipedia of 28 different languages. Nodes (orininal wikipedia user IDs) represent users of the Wikipedia, and an edge from user A to user B denotes that user A wrote a message on the talk page of user B at a certain timestamp. More info: http://yfiua.github.io/academic/2016/02/14/wiki-talk-datasets.html

  12. The satellite-based remote sensing of particulate matter (PM) in support to urban air quality: PM variability and hot spots within the Cordoba city (Argentina) as revealed by the high-resolution MAIAC-algorithm retrievals applied to a ten-years dataset (2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Ceca, Lara Sofia; Carreras, Hebe A.; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Barnaba, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is one of the major harmful pollutants to public health and the environment [1]. In developed countries, specific air-quality legislation establishes limit values for PM metrics (e.g., PM10, PM2.5) to protect the citizens health (e.g., European Commission Directive 2008/50, US Clean Air Act). Extensive PM measuring networks therefore exist in these countries to comply with the legislation. In less developed countries air quality monitoring networks are still lacking and satellite-based datasets could represent a valid alternative to fill observational gaps. The main PM (or aerosol) parameter retrieved from satellite is the 'aerosol optical depth' (AOD), an optical parameter quantifying the aerosol load in the whole atmospheric column. Datasets from the MODIS sensors on board of the NASA spacecrafts TERRA and AQUA are among the longest records of AOD from space. However, although extremely useful in regional and global studies, the standard 10 km-resolution MODIS AOD product is not suitable to be employed at the urban scale. Recently, a new algorithm called Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) was developed for MODIS, providing AOD at 1 km resolution [2]. In this work, the MAIAC AOD retrievals over the decade 2003-2013 were employed to investigate the spatiotemporal variation of atmospheric aerosols over the Argentinean city of Cordoba and its surroundings, an area where a very scarce dataset of in situ PM data is available. The MAIAC retrievals over the city were firstly validated using a 'ground truth' AOD dataset from the Cordoba sunphotometer operating within the global AERONET network [3]. This validation showed the good performances of the MAIAC algorithm in the area. The satellite MAIAC AOD dataset was therefore employed to investigate the 10-years trend as well as seasonal and monthly patterns of particulate matter in the Cordoba city. The first showed a marked increase of AOD over time, particularly evident in

  13. The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Combined Precipitation Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Arkin, Philip; Chang, Alfred; Ferraro, Ralph; Gruber, Arnold; Janowiak, John; McNab, Alan; Rudolf, Bruno; Schneider, Udo

    1997-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) has released the GPCP Version 1 Combined Precipitation Data Set, a global, monthly precipitation dataset covering the period July 1987 through December 1995. The primary product in the dataset is a merged analysis incorporating precipitation estimates from low-orbit-satellite microwave data, geosynchronous-orbit -satellite infrared data, and rain gauge observations. The dataset also contains the individual input fields, a combination of the microwave and infrared satellite estimates, and error estimates for each field. The data are provided on 2.5 deg x 2.5 deg latitude-longitude global grids. Preliminary analyses show general agreement with prior studies of global precipitation and extends prior studies of El Nino-Southern Oscillation precipitation patterns. At the regional scale there are systematic differences with standard climatologies.

  14. Microarray Analysis Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    This file contains a link for Gene Expression Omnibus and the GSE designations for the publicly available gene expression data used in the study and reflected in Figures 6 and 7 for the Das et al., 2016 paper.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Das, K., C. Wood, M. Lin, A.A. Starkov, C. Lau, K.B. Wallace, C. Corton, and B. Abbott. Perfluoroalky acids-induced liver steatosis: Effects on genes controlling lipid homeostasis. TOXICOLOGY. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, 378: 32-52, (2017).

  15. Detecting annual and seasonal variations of CO{sub 2}, CO and N{sub 2}O from a multi-year collocated satellite-radiosonde data-set using the new Rapid Radiance Reconstruction (3R-N) model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chedin, A.; Serrar, S.; Hollingsworth, A.; Armante, R.; Scott, N.A

    2003-03-15

    The NOAA polar meteorological satellites have embarked the TIROS-N operational vertical sounder (TOVS) since 1979. Using radiosondes and NOAA-10 TOVS measurements which are collocated within a narrow space and time window, we have studied the differences between the TOVS measurements and simulated measurements from a new fast, Rapid Radiance Reconstruction Network (3R-N), non-linear radiative transfer model with up to date spectroscopy. Simulations use radiosonde temperature and humidity measurements as the prime input. The radiative transfer model also uses fixed greenhouse gas absorber amounts (CO{sub 2},CO,N{sub 2}O) and reasonable estimates of O{sub 3} and of surface temperature. The 3R-N model is first presented and validated. Then, a study of the differences between the simulated and measured radiances shows annual trends and seasonal variations consistent with independent measurements of variations in CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases atmospheric concentrations. The improved accuracy of 3R-N and a better handling of its deviations with respect to observations allow most of difficulties met in a previous study (J. Climate 15 (2002) 95) to be resolved.

  16. Global retrieval of ATSR cloud parameters and evaluation (GRAPE: dataset assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Sayer

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Along-Track Scanning Radiometers (ATSRs provide a long time-series of measurements suitable for the retrieval of cloud properties. This work evaluates the freely-available Global Retrieval of ATSR Cloud Parameters and Evaluation (GRAPE dataset (version 3 created from the ATSR-2 (1995–2003 and Advanced ATSR (AATSR; 2002 onwards records. Users are recommended to consider only retrievals flagged as high-quality, where there is a good consistency between the measurements and the retrieved state (corresponding to about 60% of converged retrievals over sea, and more than 80% over land. Cloud properties are found to be generally free of any significant spurious trends relating to satellite zenith angle. Estimates of the random error on retrieved cloud properties are suggested to be generally appropriate for optically-thick clouds, and up to a factor of two too small for optically-thin cases. The correspondence between ATSR-2 and AATSR cloud properties is high, but a relative calibration difference between the sensors of order 5–10% at 660 nm and 870 nm limits the potential of the current version of the dataset for trend analysis. As ATSR-2 is thought to have the better absolute calibration, the discussion focusses on this portion of the record. Cloud-top heights from GRAPE compare well to ground-based data at four sites, particularly for shallow clouds. Clouds forming in boundary-layer inversions are typically around 1 km too high in GRAPE due to poorly-resolved inversions in the modelled temperature profiles used. Global cloud fields are compared to satellite products derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP measurements, and a climatology of liquid water content derived from satellite microwave radiometers. In all cases the main reasons for differences are linked to differing sensitivity to, and treatment of, multi-layer cloud systems. The correlation

  17. Global retrieval of ATSR cloud parameters and evaluation (GRAPE: dataset assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Sayer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Along-Track Scanning Radiometers (ATSRs provide a long time-series of measurements suitable for the retrieval of cloud properties. This work evaluates the freely-available Global Retrieval of ATSR Cloud Parameters and Evaluation (GRAPE dataset (version 3 created from the ATSR-2 (1995–2003 and Advanced ATSR (AATSR; 2002 onwards records. Users are recommended to consider only retrievals flagged as high-quality, where there is a good consistency between the measurements and the retrieved state (corresponding to about 60% of converged retrievals over sea, and more than 80% over land. Cloud properties are found to be generally free of any significant spurious trends relating to satellite zenith angle. Estimates of the random error on retrieved cloud properties are suggested to be generally appropriate for optically-thick clouds, and up to a factor of two too small for optically-thin cases. The correspondence between ATSR-2 and AATSR cloud properties is high, but a relative calibration difference between the sensors of order 5–10% at 660 nm and 870 nm limits the potential of the current version of the dataset for trend analysis. As ATSR-2 is thought to have the better absolute calibration, the discussion focusses on this portion of the record. Cloud-top heights from GRAPE compare well to ground-based data at four sites, particularly for shallow clouds. Clouds forming in boundary-layer inversions are typically around 1 km too high in GRAPE due to poorly-resolved inversions in the modelled temperature profiles used. Global cloud fields are compared to satellite products derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP measurements, and a climatology of liquid water content derived from satellite microwave radiometers. In all cases the main reasons for differences are linked to differing sensitivity to, and treatment of, multi-layer cloud systems. The correlation

  18. Pilgrims Face Recognition Dataset -- HUFRD

    OpenAIRE

    Aly, Salah A.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we define a new pilgrims face recognition dataset, called HUFRD dataset. The new developed dataset presents various pilgrims' images taken from outside the Holy Masjid El-Harram in Makkah during the 2011-2012 Hajj and Umrah seasons. Such dataset will be used to test our developed facial recognition and detection algorithms, as well as assess in the missing and found recognition system \\cite{crowdsensing}.

  19. The Association between Thoughts of Defecation and Thoughts of Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, Curtis S.

    2009-01-01

    Three studies were conducted examining the relationship between thoughts of defecation and thoughts of death. In Study 1 and Study 3 it was found that making thoughts of feces salient reduced the accessibility of death thoughts. In Study 2 it was found that making thoughts of death salient decreased the accessibility of feces thoughts. It is…

  20. Popper's Thought Experiment Reinvestigated

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Chris D

    2011-01-01

    Popper's original thought experiment probed some fundamental and subtle rules of quantum mechanics. Two recent experiments have tested Popper's hypothesis, but they seem to give contrasting results and one suggests a violation of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The equations governing these two experiments and Popper's thought experiment will be derived from basic principles. The experimental constants will be inputted and it will show that the two experiments agree with each other. It will be shown that no uncertainty relations are violated and that Popper's thought experiment was fundamentally flawed.

  1. Estimating Biomass Burned Areas from Multispectral Dataset Detected by Multiple-Satellite%基于多源卫星多光谱遥感数据的过火面积估算研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余超; 陈良富; 李莘莘; 陶金花; 苏林

    2015-01-01

    largest source of error in the emission invento-ry.Satellite-based fire observations can offer a reliable source of fire occurrence data on regional and global scales,a variety of sensors have been used to detect and map fires in two general approaches:burn scar mapping and active fire detection.However, both of the two approaches have limitations.In this article,we explore the relationship between hotspot data and burned area for the Southeastern United States,where a significant amount of biomass burnings from both prescribed and wild fire took place. MODIS (Moderate resolution imaging spectrometer)data,which has high temporal-resolution,can be used to monitor ground biomass burning in time and provided hot spot data in this study.However,pixel size of MODIS hot spot can’t stand for the real ground burned area.Through analysis of the variation of vegetation band reflectance between pre-and post-burn,we extracted the burned area from Landsat-5 TM (Thematic Mapper)images by using the differential normalized burn ratio (dNBR)which is based on TM band4 (0.84 μm)and TM band 7 (2.22 μm)data.We combined MODIS fire hot spot data and Landsat-5 TM burned scars data to build the burned area estimation model,results showed that the linear correlation coefficient is 0.63 and the relationships vary as a function of vegetation cover.Based on the National Land Cover Database (NLCD),we built burned area estimation model over different vegetation cover,and got effective burned area per fire pixel,values for forest,grassland, shrub,cropland and wetland are 0.69,1.27,0.86,0.72 and 0.94 km2 respectively.We validated the burned area estimates by using the ground survey data from National Interagency Fire Center (NIFC),our results are more close to the ground survey da-ta than burned area from Global Fire Emissions Database(GFED)and MODIS burned area product (MCD45 ),which omitted many small prescribed fires.We concluded that our model can provide more accurate burned area parameters for

  2. Popper's Thought Experiment Reinvestigated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Chris; Dowling, Jonathan

    2012-02-01

    Karl Popper posed an interesting thought experiment in 1934. With it, he meant to question the completeness of quantum mechanics. He claimed that the notion of quantum entanglement leads to absurd scenarios that cannot be true in real life and that an implementation of his thought experiment would not give the results that QM predicts. Unfortunately for Popper, it has taken until recently to perform experiments that test his claims. The results of the experiments do not refute QM as Popper predicted, but neither do they confirm what Popper claimed QM predicted. Kim and Shih implemented Popper's thought experiment in the lab. The results of the experiment are not clear and have instigated many interpretations of the results. The results show some correlation between entangled photons, but not in the way that Popper thought, nor in the way a simple application of QM might predict. A ghost-imaging experiment by Strekalov, et al. sheds light on the physics behind Popper's thought experiment, but does not try to directly test it. I will build the physics of Popper's thought experiment from the ground up and show how the results of both of these experiments agree with each other and the theory of QM, but disprove Popper.

  3. NP-PAH Interaction Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset presents concentrations of organic pollutants, such as polyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds, in water samples. Water samples of known volume and concentration...

  4. Satellite Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a discussion of communication satellites: explains the principles of satellite communication, describes examples of how governments and industries are currently applying communication satellites, analyzes issues confronting satellite communication, links mathematics and science to the study of satellite communication, and applies…

  5. Religious thought and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Ernest Thomas

    2012-09-01

    While earlier approaches to religious thought and practice searched for 'magic bullet' approaches to explain religious thought and behavior, seeing it as an example of irrationality, illusion, integrative force, symbolism, or false explanations of origins, cognitive scientific approaches have suggested that we see it rather as an aggregate of the products of various cognitive mechanisms. Studies in the cognitive science of religion, informed by experimental work, have converged on a standard model of explaining religious thought and behavior by focussing on the role of minimally counter-intuitive concepts, agent and animacy detection, ritual representations, notions of contagion and contamination avoidance, theory of mind, coalitions, and moral intuitions. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012 doi: 10.1002/wcs.1189 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  6. Strategic Thoughts in Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Inês Di Francesco Kich

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze a new way of thinking about the organizational strategies through a theoretical discussion of the term "strategic thoughts", and its development in organizations. To achieve this, a bibliographical research was conducted in order to go more deeply on the theme and reach a conceptual background, which can support further analysis. Among the results of this research, it is emphasized that the pragmatic characteristics of strategic planningappears to not have more space in the current organizational world, this tool needs to be interconnected to the strategic thought process to bring more effective results. In this regard, the challenged is present in how the organizations could develop a strategic planning that encourages strategic thoughts instead of undermine it, as well as, the development of tools that promote the ability to think strategically in all employees, regardless of the hierarchical levels.

  7. FLUXNET2015 Dataset: Batteries included

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorello, G.; Papale, D.; Agarwal, D.; Trotta, C.; Chu, H.; Canfora, E.; Torn, M. S.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2016-12-01

    The synthesis datasets have become one of the signature products of the FLUXNET global network. They are composed from contributions of individual site teams to regional networks, being then compiled into uniform data products - now used in a wide variety of research efforts: from plant-scale microbiology to global-scale climate change. The FLUXNET Marconi Dataset in 2000 was the first in the series, followed by the FLUXNET LaThuile Dataset in 2007, with significant additions of data products and coverage, solidifying the adoption of the datasets as a research tool. The FLUXNET2015 Dataset counts with another round of substantial improvements, including extended quality control processes and checks, use of downscaled reanalysis data for filling long gaps in micrometeorological variables, multiple methods for USTAR threshold estimation and flux partitioning, and uncertainty estimates - all of which accompanied by auxiliary flags. This "batteries included" approach provides a lot of information for someone who wants to explore the data (and the processing methods) in detail. This inevitably leads to a large number of data variables. Although dealing with all these variables might seem overwhelming at first, especially to someone looking at eddy covariance data for the first time, there is method to our madness. In this work we describe the data products and variables that are part of the FLUXNET2015 Dataset, and the rationale behind the organization of the dataset, covering the simplified version (labeled SUBSET), the complete version (labeled FULLSET), and the auxiliary products in the dataset.

  8. Language, Thought, and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henle, Paul, Ed.

    This book presents a collection of essays intended for an integrated study of language by anthropologists, literary critics, philosophers, psychologists, sociologists, and linguists. There is first a discussion of theories concerning the interrelationship of language, thought, and culture. This is followed by a discussion of the development of…

  9. Christianity and Political Thought

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    This article engages with the thought of Augusto Del Noce (1910-1989), the most important Italian Catholic philosopher and political thinker of the twentieth century. The focus is on how Del Noce came to elaborate a Catholic ‘modernity,’ bridging a positive encounter between Catholicism, democracy...

  10. Educational Thoughts on "Three

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    With simple, light touches but deep philosophical thought, this article analyses the problems in China’s education, and at the same time, it probes into the problems of effectiveness of educational theories and methods from the considerations of THREE as the basic starting point.

  11. Language and Thought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云龙

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction If one asks about the relation between thought and language, people expect the issue to concern such matters as whether we think in language, whether creatures without language can "think", and the way language shapes our concepts. In my opinion, there is a much deeper question, which concerns the nature of linguistic communication.

  12. CHARMe Commentary metadata for Climate Science: collecting, linking and sharing user feedback on climate datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blower, Jon; Lawrence, Bryan; Kershaw, Philip; Nagni, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    The research process can be thought of as an iterative activity, initiated based on prior domain knowledge, as well on a number of external inputs, and producing a range of outputs including datasets, studies and peer reviewed publications. These outputs may describe the problem under study, the methodology used, the results obtained, etc. In any new publication, the author may cite or comment other papers or datasets in order to support their research hypothesis. However, as their work progresses, the researcher may draw from many other latent channels of information. These could include for example, a private conversation following a lecture or during a social dinner; an opinion expressed concerning some significant event such as an earthquake or for example a satellite failure. In addition, other sources of information of grey literature are important public such as informal papers such as the arxiv deposit, reports and studies. The climate science community is not an exception to this pattern; the CHARMe project, funded under the European FP7 framework, is developing an online system for collecting and sharing user feedback on climate datasets. This is to help users judge how suitable such climate data are for an intended application. The user feedback could be comments about assessments, citations, or provenance of the dataset, or other information such as descriptions of uncertainty or data quality. We define this as a distinct category of metadata called Commentary or C-metadata. We link C-metadata with target climate datasets using a Linked Data approach via the Open Annotation data model. In the context of Linked Data, C-metadata plays the role of a resource which, depending on its nature, may be accessed as simple text or as more structured content. The project is implementing a range of software tools to create, search or visualize C-metadata including a JavaScript plugin enabling this functionality to be integrated in situ with data provider portals

  13. Dataset of NRDA emission data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Emissions data from open air oil burns. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Gullett, B., J. Aurell, A. Holder, B. Mitchell, D. Greenwell, M....

  14. Turkey Run Landfill Emissions Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — landfill emissions measurements for the Turkey run landfill in Georgia. This dataset is associated with the following publication: De la Cruz, F., R. Green, G....

  15. Genomic Datasets for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variety of datasets from genome-wide association studies of cancer and other genotype-phenotype studies, including sequencing and molecular diagnostic assays, are available to approved investigators through the Extramural National Cancer Institute Data Access Committee.

  16. Chemical product and function dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Merged product weight fraction and chemical function data. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Isaacs , K., M. Goldsmith, P. Egeghy , K....

  17. Atlantic Offshore Seabird Dataset Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Several bureaus within the Department of Interior compiled available information from seabird observation datasets from the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf into a...

  18. Thought Positions in Sculpture

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Thought Positions in Sculpture presents ten contemporary artists who have encountered the archive through the stories of their own art practice. The physical exhibition at Huddersfield Art Gallery refers to existing works of art from Leeds Museums and Galleries Sculpture Collection, archival material from the Henry Moore Institute, digitised archival material from the Tate Gallery, audio material from the British Library and other archival sites, some of which are inventions by the artist the...

  19. Quantifying uncertainty in observational rainfall datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennard, Chris; Dosio, Alessandro; Nikulin, Grigory; Pinto, Izidine; Seid, Hussen

    2015-04-01

    The CO-ordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) has to date seen the publication of at least ten journal papers that examine the African domain during 2012 and 2013. Five of these papers consider Africa generally (Nikulin et al. 2012, Kim et al. 2013, Hernandes-Dias et al. 2013, Laprise et al. 2013, Panitz et al. 2013) and five have regional foci: Tramblay et al. (2013) on Northern Africa, Mariotti et al. (2014) and Gbobaniyi el al. (2013) on West Africa, Endris et al. (2013) on East Africa and Kalagnoumou et al. (2013) on southern Africa. There also are a further three papers that the authors know about under review. These papers all use an observed rainfall and/or temperature data to evaluate/validate the regional model output and often proceed to assess projected changes in these variables due to climate change in the context of these observations. The most popular reference rainfall data used are the CRU, GPCP, GPCC, TRMM and UDEL datasets. However, as Kalagnoumou et al. (2013) point out there are many other rainfall datasets available for consideration, for example, CMORPH, FEWS, TAMSAT & RIANNAA, TAMORA and the WATCH & WATCH-DEI data. They, with others (Nikulin et al. 2012, Sylla et al. 2012) show that the observed datasets can have a very wide spread at a particular space-time coordinate. As more ground, space and reanalysis-based rainfall products become available, all which use different methods to produce precipitation data, the selection of reference data is becoming an important factor in model evaluation. A number of factors can contribute to a uncertainty in terms of the reliability and validity of the datasets such as radiance conversion algorithims, the quantity and quality of available station data, interpolation techniques and blending methods used to combine satellite and guage based products. However, to date no comprehensive study has been performed to evaluate the uncertainty in these observational datasets. We assess 18 gridded

  20. Thoughts on Interaction Design

    CERN Document Server

    Kolko, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Interaction Designers-whether practicing as Usability Engineers, Visual Interface Designers, or Information Architects-attempt to understand and shape human behavior in order to design products that are at once usable, useful, and desirable. Although the value of design is now recognized as essential to product development, the field is often misunderstood by managers and other team members, who don't understand a designer's role in a team. This can cause inefficient and ineffective products. Thoughts on Interaction Design gives individuals engaged in this profession the dialogue to justify t

  1. Detecting bimodality in astronomical datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashman, Keith A.; Bird, Christina M.; Zepf, Stephen E.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss statistical techniques for detecting and quantifying bimodality in astronomical datasets. We concentrate on the KMM algorithm, which estimates the statistical significance of bimodality in such datasets and objectively partitions data into subpopulations. By simulating bimodal distributions with a range of properties we investigate the sensitivity of KMM to datasets with varying characteristics. Our results facilitate the planning of optimal observing strategies for systems where bimodality is suspected. Mixture-modeling algorithms similar to the KMM algorithm have been used in previous studies to partition the stellar population of the Milky Way into subsystems. We illustrate the broad applicability of KMM by analyzing published data on globular cluster metallicity distributions, velocity distributions of galaxies in clusters, and burst durations of gamma-ray sources. FORTRAN code for the KMM algorithm and directions for its use are available from the authors upon request.

  2. A Technique: Generating Alternative Thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the basic techniques of cognitive therapy is examination of automatic thoughts and reducing the belief in them. By employing this, we can overcome the cognitive bias apparent in mental disorders. Despite this view, according to another cognitive perspective in a given situation, there are distinct cognitive representations competing for retrieval from memory just like positive and negative schemas. In this sense generating or strengthening alternative explanations or balanced thoughts that explain the situation better than negative automatic thoughts is one of the important process goals of cognitive therapy.Objective: Aim of this review is to describe methods used to generate alternative/balanced thoughts that are used in examining automatic thoughts and also a part of automatic thought records. Alternative/balanced thoughts are the summary and end point of automatic thought work. In this text different ways including listing alternative thoughts, using examining the evidence for generating balanced thoughts, decatastrophizing in anxiety and a meta-cognitive method named two explanations are discussed. Different ways to use this technique as a homework assignment is also reviewed. Remarkable aspects of generating alternative explanations and realistic/balanced thoughts are also reviewed and exemplified using therapy transcripts. Conclusion: Generating alternative explanations and balanced thoughts are the end point and important part of therapy work on automatic thoughts. When applied properly and rehearsed as homework between sessions, these methods may lead to improvement in many mental disorders

  3. The Harvard organic photovoltaic dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Steven A.; Pyzer-Knapp, Edward O.; Simm, Gregor N.; Lutzow, Trevor; Li, Kewei; Seress, Laszlo R.; Hachmann, Johannes; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2016-09-01

    The Harvard Organic Photovoltaic Dataset (HOPV15) presented in this work is a collation of experimental photovoltaic data from the literature, and corresponding quantum-chemical calculations performed over a range of conformers, each with quantum chemical results using a variety of density functionals and basis sets. It is anticipated that this dataset will be of use in both relating electronic structure calculations to experimental observations through the generation of calibration schemes, as well as for the creation of new semi-empirical methods and the benchmarking of current and future model chemistries for organic electronic applications.

  4. The Harvard organic photovoltaic dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Steven A.; Pyzer-Knapp, Edward O.; Simm, Gregor N.; Lutzow, Trevor; Li, Kewei; Seress, Laszlo R.; Hachmann, Johannes; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2016-01-01

    The Harvard Organic Photovoltaic Dataset (HOPV15) presented in this work is a collation of experimental photovoltaic data from the literature, and corresponding quantum-chemical calculations performed over a range of conformers, each with quantum chemical results using a variety of density functionals and basis sets. It is anticipated that this dataset will be of use in both relating electronic structure calculations to experimental observations through the generation of calibration schemes, as well as for the creation of new semi-empirical methods and the benchmarking of current and future model chemistries for organic electronic applications. PMID:27676312

  5. Statewide Datasets for Idaho StreamStats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset consists of a workspace (folder) containing four gridded datasets and a personal geodatabase. The gridded datasets are a grid of mean annual...

  6. Statewide datasets for Hawaii StreamStats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset consists of a workspace (folder) containing 41 gridded datasets and a personal geodatabase. The gridded datasets consist of 28 precipitation-frequency...

  7. Using Multiple Big Datasets and Machine Learning to Produce a New Global Particulate Dataset: A Technology Challenge Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lary, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    A BigData case study is described where multiple datasets from several satellites, high-resolution global meteorological data, social media and in-situ observations are combined using machine learning on a distributed cluster using an automated workflow. The global particulate dataset is relevant to global public health studies and would not be possible to produce without the use of the multiple big datasets, in-situ data and machine learning.To greatly reduce the development time and enhance the functionality a high level language capable of parallel processing has been used (Matlab). A key consideration for the system is high speed access due to the large data volume, persistence of the large data volumes and a precise process time scheduling capability.

  8. Making sense of thought leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.D. van Halderen (Mignon); K. Kettler-Paddock (Kym)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractMany corporations feel that they should be developing a thought leadership strategy. However, when asked what thought leadership actually means or entails, most managers immediately falter in providing an explanation. So, what is thought leadership, why is it important, and how can

  9. CERC Dataset (Full Hadza Data)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The dataset includes demographic, behavioral, and religiosity data from eight different populations from around the world. The samples were drawn from: (1) Coastal and (2) Inland Tanna, Vanuatu; (3) Hadzaland, Tanzania; (4) Lovu, Fiji; (5) Pointe aux Piment, Mauritius; (6) Pesqueiro, Brazil; (7...

  10. Querying Large Biological Network Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulsoy, Gunhan

    2013-01-01

    New experimental methods has resulted in increasing amount of genetic interaction data to be generated every day. Biological networks are used to store genetic interaction data gathered. Increasing amount of data available requires fast large scale analysis methods. Therefore, we address the problem of querying large biological network datasets.…

  11. A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, J. L.; Griggs, J. A.; Hurkmans, R. T. W. L.; Dowdeswell, J. A.; Gogineni, S. P.; Howat, I.; Mouginot, J.; Paden, J.; Palmer, S.; Rignot, E.; Steinhage, D.

    2013-03-01

    We present a new bed elevation dataset for Greenland derived from a combination of multiple airborne ice thickness surveys undertaken between the 1970s and 2012. Around 420 000 line kilometres of airborne data were used, with roughly 70% of this having been collected since the year 2000, when the last comprehensive compilation was undertaken. The airborne data were combined with satellite-derived elevations for non-glaciated terrain to produce a consistent bed digital elevation model (DEM) over the entire island including across the glaciated-ice free boundary. The DEM was extended to the continental margin with the aid of bathymetric data, primarily from a compilation for the Arctic. Ice thickness was determined where an ice shelf exists from a combination of surface elevation and radar soundings. The across-track spacing between flight lines warranted interpolation at 1 km postings for significant sectors of the ice sheet. Grids of ice surface elevation, error estimates for the DEM, ice thickness and data sampling density were also produced alongside a mask of land/ocean/grounded ice/floating ice. Errors in bed elevation range from a minimum of ±10 m to about ±300 m, as a function of distance from an observation and local topographic variability. A comparison with the compilation published in 2001 highlights the improvement in resolution afforded by the new datasets, particularly along the ice sheet margin, where ice velocity is highest and changes in ice dynamics most marked. We estimate that the volume of ice included in our land-ice mask would raise mean sea level by 7.36 m, excluding any solid earth effects that would take place during ice sheet decay.

  12. A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Bamber

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a new bed elevation dataset for Greenland derived from a combination of multiple airborne ice thickness surveys undertaken between the 1970s and 2012. Around 420 000 line kilometres of airborne data were used, with roughly 70% of this having been collected since the year 2000, when the last comprehensive compilation was undertaken. The airborne data were combined with satellite-derived elevations for non-glaciated terrain to produce a consistent bed digital elevation model (DEM over the entire island including across the glaciated–ice free boundary. The DEM was extended to the continental margin with the aid of bathymetric data, primarily from a compilation for the Arctic. Ice thickness was determined where an ice shelf exists from a combination of surface elevation and radar soundings. The across-track spacing between flight lines warranted interpolation at 1 km postings for significant sectors of the ice sheet. Grids of ice surface elevation, error estimates for the DEM, ice thickness and data sampling density were also produced alongside a mask of land/ocean/grounded ice/floating ice. Errors in bed elevation range from a minimum of ±10 m to about ±300 m, as a function of distance from an observation and local topographic variability. A comparison with the compilation published in 2001 highlights the improvement in resolution afforded by the new datasets, particularly along the ice sheet margin, where ice velocity is highest and changes in ice dynamics most marked. We estimate that the volume of ice included in our land-ice mask would raise mean sea level by 7.36 m, excluding any solid earth effects that would take place during ice sheet decay.

  13. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palukaitis, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Satellite RNAs and satellite viruses are extraviral components that can affect either the pathogenicity, the accumulation, or both of their associated viruses while themselves being dependent on the associated viruses as helper viruses for their infection. Most of these satellite RNAs are noncoding RNAs, and in many cases, have been shown to alter the interaction of their helper viruses with their hosts. In only a few cases have the functions of these satellite RNAs in such interactions been studied in detail. In particular, work on the satellite RNAs of Cucumber mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus have provided novel insights into RNAs functioning as noncoding RNAs. These effects are described and potential roles for satellite RNAs in the processes involved in symptom intensification or attenuation are discussed. In most cases, models describing these roles involve some aspect of RNA silencing or its suppression, either directly or indirectly involving the particular satellite RNA.

  14. Matchmaking, datasets and physics analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Donno, Flavia; Eulisse, Giulio; Mazzucato, Mirco; Steenberg, Conrad; CERN. Geneva. IT Department; 10.1109/ICPPW.2005.48

    2005-01-01

    Grid enabled physics analysis requires a workload management system (WMS) that takes care of finding suitable computing resources to execute data intensive jobs. A typical example is the WMS available in the LCG2 (also referred to as EGEE-0) software system, used by several scientific experiments. Like many other current grid systems, LCG2 provides a file level granularity for accessing and analysing data. However, application scientists such as high energy physicists often require a higher abstraction level for accessing data, i.e. they prefer to use datasets rather than files in their physics analysis. We have improved the current WMS (in particular the Matchmaker) to allow physicists to express their analysis job requirements in terms of datasets. This required modifications to the WMS and its interface to potential data catalogues. As a result, we propose a simple data location interface that is based on a Web service approach and allows for interoperability of the WMS with new dataset and file catalogues...

  15. Viking Seismometer PDS Archive Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, R. D.

    2016-12-01

    The Viking Lander 2 seismometer operated successfully for over 500 Sols on the Martian surface, recording at least one likely candidate Marsquake. The Viking mission, in an era when data handling hardware (both on board and on the ground) was limited in capability, predated modern planetary data archiving, and ad-hoc repositories of the data, and the very low-level record at NSSDC, were neither convenient to process nor well-known. In an effort supported by the NASA Mars Data Analysis Program, we have converted the bulk of the Viking dataset (namely the 49,000 and 270,000 records made in High- and Event- modes at 20 and 1 Hz respectively) into a simple ASCII table format. Additionally, since wind-generated lander motion is a major component of the signal, contemporaneous meteorological data are included in summary records to facilitate correlation. These datasets are being archived at the PDS Geosciences Node. In addition to brief instrument and dataset descriptions, the archive includes code snippets in the freely-available language 'R' to demonstrate plotting and analysis. Further, we present examples of lander-generated noise, associated with the sampler arm, instrument dumps and other mechanical operations.

  16. PHYSICS PERFORMANCE AND DATASET (PPD)

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Silvestris

    2013-01-01

    The first part of the Long Shutdown period has been dedicated to the preparation of the samples for the analysis targeting the summer conferences. In particular, the 8 TeV data acquired in 2012, including most of the “parked datasets”, have been reconstructed profiting from improved alignment and calibration conditions for all the sub-detectors. A careful planning of the resources was essential in order to deliver the datasets well in time to the analysts, and to schedule the update of all the conditions and calibrations needed at the analysis level. The newly reprocessed data have undergone detailed scrutiny by the Dataset Certification team allowing to recover some of the data for analysis usage and further improving the certification efficiency, which is now at 91% of the recorded luminosity. With the aim of delivering a consistent dataset for 2011 and 2012, both in terms of conditions and release (53X), the PPD team is now working to set up a data re-reconstruction and a new MC pro...

  17. Centriolar satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollenaere, Maxim A X; Mailand, Niels; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Centriolar satellites are small, microscopically visible granules that cluster around centrosomes. These structures, which contain numerous proteins directly involved in centrosome maintenance, ciliogenesis, and neurogenesis, have traditionally been viewed as vehicles for protein trafficking...... highlight newly discovered regulatory mechanisms targeting centriolar satellites and their functional status, and we discuss how defects in centriolar satellite components are intimately linked to a wide spectrum of human diseases....

  18. Satellite theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozai, Y.

    1981-04-01

    The dynamical characteristics of the natural satellite of Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are analyzed on the basis of the solar tidal perturbation factor and the oblateness factor of the primary planet for each satellite. For the inner satellites, for which the value of the solar tidal factor is much smaller than the planetary oblateness factor, it is shown that the eccentricity and inclination of satellite orbits are generally very small and almost constant; several pairs of inner satellites are also found to exhibit commensurable mean motions, or secular accelerations in mean longitude. In the case of the outer satellites, for which solar perturbations are dominant, secular perturbations and long-period perturbations may be derived by the solution of equations of motion reduced to one degree of freedom. The existence of a few satellites, termed intermediary satellites, for which the solar tidal perturbation is on the order of the planetary oblateness factor, is also observed, and the pole of the orbital plane of the satellite is noted to execute a complex motion around the pole of the planet or the orbital plane of the planet.

  19. Reconstructing thawing quintessence with multiple datasets

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, Nelson A; Sahlén, Martin; Parkinson, David

    2015-01-01

    In this work we model the quintessence potential in a Taylor series expansion, up to second order, around the present-day value of the scalar field. The field is evolved in a thawing regime assuming zero initial velocity. We use the latest data from the Planck satellite, baryonic acoustic oscillations observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and Supernovae luminosity distance information from Union$2.1$ to constrain our models parameters, and also include perturbation growth data from WiggleZ. We show explicitly that the growth data does not perform as well as the other datasets in constraining the dark energy parameters we introduce. We also show that the constraints we obtain for our model parameters, when compared to previous works of nearly a decade ago, have not improved significantly. This is indicative of how little dark energy constraints, overall, have improved in the last decade, even when we add new growth of structure data to previous existent types of data.

  20. Land Use and Land Cover, WI Agricultural Statistics Service (WASS) WI Cropland Data Layer. Agriculture and non-ag land cover categories based on survey data (ground truth), satellite imagery classification, FSA common land unit, and 2001 National Land Cover dataset., Published in 2008, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Land Use and Land Cover dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2008. It is...

  1. Increasing spatial resolution of CHIRPS rainfall datasets for Cyprus with Artificial Neural Networks (ANN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymvios, Filippos; Michaelides, Silas; Retalis, Adrianos; Katsanos, Dimitrios; Lelieveld, Jos

    2016-04-01

    The use of high resolution rainfall datasets is an alternative way of studying climatological patterns in regions where conventional rain measurements are sparse or not available. Starting in 1981 to near-present, CHIRPS (Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station data) dataset incorporates a 5x5km2 resolution satellite imagery with in-situ station data to create gridded rainfall time series for trend analysis, severe events and seasonal drought monitoring. The aim of this work is to further increase the resolution of this rainfall dataset for Cyprus to 1x1km2 by correlating the CHIRPS dataset with altitute information, NDVI vegetation index from satellite images at 1x1km2and precipitation measurements from the official raingauge network of the Cyprus Department of Meteorology, utilizing Artificial Neural Network models.

  2. Internationally coordinated glacier monitoring: strategy and datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzle, Martin; Armstrong, Richard; Fetterer, Florence; Gärtner-Roer, Isabelle; Haeberli, Wilfried; Kääb, Andreas; Kargel, Jeff; Nussbaumer, Samuel; Paul, Frank; Raup, Bruce; Zemp, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Internationally coordinated monitoring of long-term glacier changes provide key indicator data about global climate change and began in the year 1894 as an internationally coordinated effort to establish standardized observations. Today, world-wide monitoring of glaciers and ice caps is embedded within the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) in support of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) as an important Essential Climate Variable (ECV). The Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G) was established in 1999 with the task of coordinating measurements and to ensure the continuous development and adaptation of the international strategies to the long-term needs of users in science and policy. The basic monitoring principles must be relevant, feasible, comprehensive and understandable to a wider scientific community as well as to policy makers and the general public. Data access has to be free and unrestricted, the quality of the standardized and calibrated data must be high and a combination of detailed process studies at selected field sites with global coverage by satellite remote sensing is envisaged. Recently a GTN-G Steering Committee was established to guide and advise the operational bodies responsible for the international glacier monitoring, which are the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS), the US National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), and the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) initiative. Several online databases containing a wealth of diverse data types having different levels of detail and global coverage provide fast access to continuously updated information on glacier fluctuation and inventory data. For world-wide inventories, data are now available through (a) the World Glacier Inventory containing tabular information of about 130,000 glaciers covering an area of around 240,000 km2, (b) the GLIMS-database containing digital outlines of around 118,000 glaciers with different time stamps and

  3. Bon Mots for Bad Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Jason J.

    2012-01-01

    This article questions how the philosophy of Gilles Deleuze has been received and connected to the field of curriculum theory. In an effort to reconnect Deleuze-thought to its political force, this essay commences a series of arguments pertaining to the ways in which the revolutionary thought of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari have been…

  4. In Defence of Thought Stopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Gary Maria

    2009-01-01

    Thought stopping (TS) has a long and established history as an effective mental control technique among the cognitive behavioural therapies (CBT). Recent claims have arisen, particularly from acceptance and mindfulness-based authors, that thought suppression--and therefore TS--is counterproductive. These claims take the syllogistic form: TS is a…

  5. First thoughts on MD priorities for 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F; Assmann, R

    2012-01-01

    In 2012, 22 days of beam time will be allocated for LHC MDs. In this paper, after recalling the 2011 LHC MD experience, the MD rrequests for 2012 are reviewed. Three primary MD themes for 2012 can be identified: 1)pushing performance in 2012, 2)preparing for 2014/15, and 3)towards maximum luminosity. Example topics include emittance growth in collision or enhanced satellites for theme 1), 25 ns operation for 2), and ATS optics for 3). Structures lists of MD requests and topics for each theme as well as some initial thoughts on the MD priorities are presented. For certain topics, "start-of-fill MDs" are proposed in order to most efficiently use of the available beam time.

  6. 2008 TIGER/Line Nationwide Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset contains a nationwide build of the 2008 TIGER/Line datasets from the US Census Bureau downloaded in April 2009. The TIGER/Line Shapefiles are an extract...

  7. VT Hydrography Dataset - High Resolution NHD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Vermont Hydrography Dataset (VHD) is compliant with the local resolution (also known as High Resolution) National Hydrography Dataset (NHD)...

  8. Thoughts on Reflection (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2010-06-01

    Evidence in Practice section uses a standardized format enabling practitioners to share their experience of integrating research evidence into their practice. The final section of these brief articles asks the writers to reflect on their experience. Although it is not research, the individual reflection allies with what Schön (1983 called “reflection on action” and such reflections over time form a practical, tacit knowledge that we use to inform our work. Within this section of the journal, we hope readers will become more aware of how different types of evidence can be integrated into real‐world decision making. Not everything requires a full blown research study, and this section allows readers to see what other practitioners are doing, and in turn it should enable them to reflect upon what they are doing in their own practice. Being aware of situations where things may or may not have worked, and reflecting on the reasons why, brings together our sense of critical thought and practical experience that go a long way in filling the “librarian observed” and “professional judgements” parts of the EBLIP definition (Booth and Brice 2004. Acquiring professional knowledge does not end when we complete a graduate program, or have a certain number of years experience under our belts. It needs to be continually and consciously cultivated via reflection on our practice, our research, and simply what works and why. Research knowledge only takes us so far. People often ask me, “What do I do when there is no evidence? Or when the research evidence is weak?” Does this stop us from moving ahead? No. A decision still needs to be made. Evidence based practice is not only about acting when there is good evidence. Enhancing our professional judgments via a career built on analytical reflection, will provide knowledge that goes a long way towards making difficult decisions a little bit easier; even (or perhaps, especially in the cases when there is already a large body of

  9. VIIRS satellite and ground pm2.5 monitoring data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — contains all satellite, pm2.5, and meteorological data used in statistical modeling effort to improve prediction of pm2.5. This dataset is associated with the...

  10. Satellite Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N

    2012-01-01

    The field of satellite communications represents the world's largest space industry. Those who are interested in space need to understand the fundamentals of satellite communications, its technology, operation, business, economic, and regulatory aspects. This book explains all this along with key insights into the field's future growth trends and current strategic challenges. Fundamentals of Satellite Communications is a concise book that gives all of the key facts and figures as well as a strategic view of where this dynamic industry is going. Author Joseph N. Pelton, PhD, former Dean of the International Space University and former Director of Strategic Policy at Intelstat, presents a r

  11. Satellite Geomagnetism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Stolle, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Observations of Earth’s magnetic field from space began more than 50 years ago. A continuous monitoring of the field using low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites, however, started only in 1999, and three satellites have taken highprecision measurements of the geomagnetic field during the past decade...... ability to characterize and understand the many sources that contribute to Earth’s magnetic field. In this review, we summarize investigations of Earth’s interior and environment that have been possible through the analysis of high-precision magnetic field observations taken by LEO satellites........ The unprecedented time-space coverage of their data opened revolutionary new possibilities for monitoring, understanding, and exploring Earth’s magnetic field. In the near future, the three-satellite constellation Swarm will ensure continuity of such measurement and provide enhanced possibilities to improve our...

  12. Satellite (Natural)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    In its most general sense, any celestial object in orbit around a similar larger object. Thus, for example, the Magellanic Clouds are satellite galaxies of our own Milky Way galaxy. Without qualification, the term is used to mean a body in orbit around a planet; an alternative term is moon. The term natural satellite distinguishes these bodies from artificial satellites—spacecraft placed in orbi...

  13. A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Griggs

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a new bed elevation dataset for Greenland derived from a combination of multiple airborne ice thickness surveys undertaken between the 1970s and 2011. Around 344 000 line kilometres of airborne data were used, with the majority of this having been collected since the year 2000, when the last comprehensive compilation was undertaken. The airborne data were combined with satellite-derived elevations for non glaciated terrain to produce a consistent bed digital elevation model (DEM over the entire island including across the glaciated/ice free boundary. The DEM was extended to the continental margin with the aid of bathymetric data, primarily from a compilation for the Arctic. Ice shelf thickness was determined where a floating tongue exists, in particular in the north. The across-track spacing between flight lines warranted interpolation at 1 km postings near the ice sheet margin and 2.5 km in the interior. Grids of ice surface elevation, error estimates for the DEM, ice thickness and data sampling density were also produced alongside a mask of land/ocean/grounded ice/floating ice. Errors in bed elevation range from a minimum of ±6 m to about ±200 m, as a function of distance from an observation and local topographic variability. A comparison with the compilation published in 2001 highlights the improvement in resolution afforded by the new data sets, particularly along the ice sheet margin, where ice velocity is highest and changes most marked. We use the new bed and surface DEMs to calculate the hydraulic potential for subglacial flow and present the large scale pattern of water routing. We estimate that the volume of ice included in our land/ice mask would raise eustatic sea level by 7.36 m, excluding any solid earth effects that would take place during ice sheet decay.

  14. Simulation of GNSS Availability in Urban Environments Using a Panoramic Image Dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakpod Tongleamnak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS positioning in urban environments is hindered by poor satellite availability because there are many man-made and natural objects in urban environments that obstruct satellite signals. To evaluate the availability of GNSS in cities, this paper presents a software simulation of GNSS availability in urban areas using a panoramic image dataset from Google Street View. Photogrammetric image processing techniques are applied to reconstruct fisheye sky view images and detect signal obstacles. Two comparisons of the results from the simulation and real world observation in Bangkok and Tokyo are also presented and discussed for accuracy assessment.

  15. Personal identity and eastern thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correia Carlos João

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show that the problem of personal identity is a fundamental question of the classical Indian thought. Usually we tend to think that personal identity is a Western philosophical subject, and so we tend to forget the significance of the Self (Atman in Hinduism and even in Buddhism. The author shows how the Indian thought approached the question of personal identity and which was the singular solution outlined in the work consensually attributed to Gotama, the Buddha.

  16. PHYSICS PERFORMANCE AND DATASET (PPD)

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Silvestris

    2012-01-01

      Introduction The first part of the year presented an important test for the new Physics Performance and Dataset (PPD) group (cf. its mandate: http://cern.ch/go/8f77). The activity was focused on the validation of the new releases meant for the Monte Carlo (MC) production and the data-processing in 2012 (CMSSW 50X and 52X), and on the preparation of the 2012 operations. In view of the Chamonix meeting, the PPD and physics groups worked to understand the impact of the higher pile-up scenario on some of the flagship Higgs analyses to better quantify the impact of the high luminosity on the CMS physics potential. A task force is working on the optimisation of the reconstruction algorithms and on the code to cope with the performance requirements imposed by the higher event occupancy as foreseen for 2012. Concerning the preparation for the analysis of the new data, a new MC production has been prepared. The new samples, simulated at 8 TeV, are already being produced and the digitisation and recons...

  17. PHYSICS PERFORMANCE AND DATASET (PPD)

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Silvestris

    2013-01-01

    The PPD activities, in the first part of 2013, have been focused mostly on the final physics validation and preparation for the data reprocessing of the full 8 TeV datasets with the latest calibrations. These samples will be the basis for the preliminary results for summer 2013 but most importantly for the final publications on the 8 TeV Run 1 data. The reprocessing involves also the reconstruction of a significant fraction of “parked data” that will allow CMS to perform a whole new set of precision analyses and searches. In this way the CMSSW release 53X is becoming the legacy release for the 8 TeV Run 1 data. The regular operation activities have included taking care of the prolonged proton-proton data taking and the run with proton-lead collisions that ended in February. The DQM and Data Certification team has deployed a continuous effort to promptly certify the quality of the data. The luminosity-weighted certification efficiency (requiring all sub-detectors to be certified as usab...

  18. Pattern Analysis On Banking Dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amritpal Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Everyday refinement and development of technology has led to an increase in the competition between the Tech companies and their going out of way to crack the system andbreak down. Thus providing Data mining a strategically and security-wise important area for many business organizations including banking sector. It allows the analyzes of important information in the data warehouse and assists the banks to look for obscure patterns in a group and discover unknown relationship in the data.Banking systems needs to process ample amount of data on daily basis related to customer information their credit card details limit and collateral details transaction details risk profiles Anti Money Laundering related information trade finance data. Thousands of decisionsbased on the related data are taken in a bank daily. This paper analyzes the banking dataset in the weka environment for the detection of interesting patterns based on its applications ofcustomer acquisition customer retention management and marketing and management of risk fraudulence detections.

  19. Expanding understanding of optical variability in Lake Superior with a 4-year dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouw, Colleen B.; Ciochetto, Audrey B.; Grunert, Brice; Yu, Angela

    2017-07-01

    Lake Superior is one of the largest freshwater lakes on our planet, but few optical observations have been made to allow for the development and validation of visible spectral satellite remote sensing products. The dataset described here focuses on coincidently observing inherent and apparent optical properties along with biogeochemical parameters. Specifically, we observe remote sensing reflectance, absorption, scattering, backscattering, attenuation, chlorophyll concentration, and suspended particulate matter over the ice-free months of 2013-2016. The dataset substantially increases the optical knowledge of the lake. In addition to visible spectral satellite algorithm development, the dataset is valuable for characterizing the variable light field, particle, phytoplankton, and colored dissolved organic matter distributions, and helpful in food web and carbon cycle investigations. The compiled data can be freely accessed at https://seabass.gsfc.nasa.gov/archive/URI/Mouw/LakeSuperior/.

  20. A global dataset of crowdsourced land cover and land use reference data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Steffen; See, Linda; Perger, Christoph; McCallum, Ian; Schill, Christian; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Duerauer, Martina; Karner, Mathias; Dresel, Christopher; Laso-Bayas, Juan-Carlos; Lesiv, Myroslava; Moorthy, Inian; Salk, Carl F; Danylo, Olha; Sturn, Tobias; Albrecht, Franziska; You, Liangzhi; Kraxner, Florian; Obersteiner, Michael

    2017-06-13

    Global land cover is an essential climate variable and a key biophysical driver for earth system models. While remote sensing technology, particularly satellites, have played a key role in providing land cover datasets, large discrepancies have been noted among the available products. Global land use is typically more difficult to map and in many cases cannot be remotely sensed. In-situ or ground-based data and high resolution imagery are thus an important requirement for producing accurate land cover and land use datasets and this is precisely what is lacking. Here we describe the global land cover and land use reference data derived from the Geo-Wiki crowdsourcing platform via four campaigns. These global datasets provide information on human impact, land cover disagreement, wilderness and land cover and land use. Hence, they are relevant for the scientific community that requires reference data for global satellite-derived products, as well as those interested in monitoring global terrestrial ecosystems in general.

  1. Lagrangian modelling of OPALE dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Jaime E.; Thomas, Jennie; Bekki, Slimane; Kukui, Alexandre; Ancellet, Gerad; Preunkert, Susanne; Legrand, Michel; Frey, Markus; Savarino, Joel; Jourdain, Bruno; Kerbrat, Michel; France, James; King, Martin; Toumi, Ralf

    2013-04-01

    The OPALE measurement campaign aimed to characterize the atmospheric chemistry of the East Antarctic Plateau making a range of measurements at two sites, a coastal one, Dumont d'Urville (DDU) (From December 2010 until March 2011, 66o S, 123oE, coastal site) and on top of the Antarctic plateau Dome C (From December 2011 until January 2012 at Dome C, 75oS, 123o E, 3233 m a.s.l.). There are relatively few observations of chemistry occurring inland and coastal sites Antarctic sites. During the campaign air masses originating from the marine boundary layer, the free troposphere, the Antarctic continent, and of mixed origins were observed. We present analyses of chemical measurements (including O3, NO2, OH, RO2, hydrocarbons) using the CiTTyCAT photochemical trajectory model. The model simulates the chemistry of air masses over multiple (~5) days back trajectories provided by a stochastic trajectory model (FLEXPART). In some cases, the initial chemical conditions are taken from a chemistry-transport model (MOZART). The effect of clouds on the photolysis rates is also accounted for using MODIS satellite data. The model results are compared with measurements performed during both OPALE campaign years. Differences between the reactive nitrogen and hydroxyl radical chemistry at DDU and Dome C and the strong influence of reactive exchanges of trace gases between the snow and the atmosphere at Dome C are highlighted. The implications for the oxidizing capacity of the Antarctic boundary layer are also discussed.

  2. Substantive thoughts about substantive thoughts: a reply to Galin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, R

    2000-12-01

    In his commentary, David Galin raises several important issues that deserve to be addressed. In this response, I do three things. First, I briefly discuss the relation between the present work and the metaphoric theories of thought developed by cognitive lin- guists such as Lakoff and Johnson (1998). Second, I address some of the confusions that seem to have arisen about my use of the terms "substantive thought" and "nucleus." Third, I briefly discuss some of the directions that Galin suggests for further research. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  3. Scientific Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    followed Hale’s into orbit. In 1879, Jules Verne wrote about launching small satellites with a gun possessing a muzzle velocity of 10 000 m/sec (ref. 3...was activated in 1950.11 It was located only a few tens of miles from the spot where Jules Verne had his Baltimore Gun Club fire a manned projectile to...principle, satellites can be launched by a single impulse applied at the Earth’s surface-say, with a large cannon, & la Jules Verne (sec. 8-3). In

  4. River network routing on the NHDPlus dataset

    OpenAIRE

    David, Cédric; Maidment, David,; Niu, Guo-Yue; Yang, Zong-Liang; Habets, Florence; Eijkhout, Victor

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The mapped rivers and streams of the contiguous United States are available in a geographic information system (GIS) dataset called National Hydrography Dataset Plus (NHDPlus). This hydrographic dataset has about 3 million river and water body reaches along with information on how they are connected into net- works. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Information System (NWIS) provides stream- flow observations at about 20 thousand gauges located on theNHDP...

  5. River network routing on the NHDPlus dataset

    OpenAIRE

    David, Cédric; Maidment, David,; Niu, Guo-Yue; Yang, Zong-Liang; Habets, Florence; Eijkhout, Victor

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The mapped rivers and streams of the contiguous United States are available in a geographic information system (GIS) dataset called National Hydrography Dataset Plus (NHDPlus). This hydrographic dataset has about 3 million river and water body reaches along with information on how they are connected into net- works. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Information System (NWIS) provides stream- flow observations at about 20 thousand gauges located on theNHDP...

  6. The System of Kemalist Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar ÖZÜÇETİN

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Kemalist Thought is an answer to find a real way/solution when the Turkish State faced to danger and also it is a belief system, an action program and a method to find a way to the daily matters.Kemalist Thought which open to science and reality meets the basic needs af a community is also a power source to take an inspiration for a nation. The Turkish reform ans its principals are complete each other. These principals form of a life of a state or a community ans its future identity.The aim of Kemalist thought is to reach and upgrade the Turkish republic to the modern level of the ciivilized countries. This is the “only one way” and this way is “Eastern Civilization”. The basic factor is “ Scientific and technologist thought”.Kemalist Principals are the Compass to show the right path to the Turkish nation.

  7. Language, Thought and Memory in Linguistic Performance, A Thought View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lado, Robert

    The contrasting views of Saussure and Bloomfield ("mentalist" versus "mechanist"), the hypotheses of Whorf showing the influence of language on certain habits of thought, and Chomsky's notion of generative transformational grammar in the context of language use are reviewed. The author notes the limits of these systems and suggests that in dealing…

  8. Comparing historical and modern methods of Sea Surface Temperature measurement - Part 1: Review of methods, field comparisons and dataset adjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, J. B. R.

    2012-09-01

    Sea Surface Temperature (SST) measurements have been obtained from a variety of different platforms, instruments and depths over the post-industrial period. Today most measurements come from ships, moored and drifting buoys and satellites. Shipboard methods include temperature measurement of seawater sampled by bucket and in engine cooling water intakes. Engine intake temperatures are generally thought to average a few tenths of a °C warmer than simultaneous bucket temperatures. Here I review SST measurement methods, studies comparing shipboard methods by field experiment and adjustments applied to SST datasets to account for variable methods. In opposition to contemporary thinking, I find average bucket-intake temperature differences reported from field studies inconclusive. Non-zero average differences often have associated standard deviations that are several times larger than the averages themselves. Further, average differences have been found to vary widely between ships and between cruises on the same ship. The cause of non-zero average differences is typically unclear given the general absence of additional temperature observations to those from buckets and engine intakes. Shipboard measurements appear of variable quality, highly dependent upon the accuracy and precision of the thermometer used and the care of the observer where manually read. Methods are generally poorly documented, with written instructions not necessarily reflecting actual practices of merchant mariners. Measurements cannot be expected to be of high quality where obtained by untrained sailors using thermometers of low accuracy and precision.

  9. Veterans Affairs Suicide Prevention Synthetic Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA's Veteran Health Administration, in support of the Open Data Initiative, is providing the Veterans Affairs Suicide Prevention Synthetic Dataset (VASPSD). The...

  10. A global distributed basin morphometric dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xinyi; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Mei, Yiwen; Hong, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Basin morphometry is vital information for relating storms to hydrologic hazards, such as landslides and floods. In this paper we present the first comprehensive global dataset of distributed basin morphometry at 30 arc seconds resolution. The dataset includes nine prime morphometric variables; in addition we present formulas for generating twenty-one additional morphometric variables based on combination of the prime variables. The dataset can aid different applications including studies of land-atmosphere interaction, and modelling of floods and droughts for sustainable water management. The validity of the dataset has been consolidated by successfully repeating the Hack's law.

  11. Nanoparticle-organic pollutant interaction dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset presents concentrations of organic pollutants, such as polyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds, in water samples. Water samples of known volume and concentration...

  12. Veterans Affairs Suicide Prevention Synthetic Dataset Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA's Veteran Health Administration, in support of the Open Data Initiative, is providing the Veterans Affairs Suicide Prevention Synthetic Dataset (VASPSD). The...

  13. Flexibility in Language and Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Mahesh

    2011-01-01

    Many words can be used flexibly: a book can be physically heavy, but also have provocative content, a "chicken" might live in a coop, but could also be tasty to eat. What do the uses of "polysemous" words such as these reveal about the structure of language and thought? Paper 1 examined 4-year-old children's representations of polysemous words…

  14. Evolutions of thought in economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L.S. SHACKLE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly summarises the history of economic thought from Quesnay to 1920s-30s focusing on the pre-analytical vision and essential questions answered by economists at different times. It specifically draws the main ideas and themes that connect the classical tradition, based on the distribution of the surplus, with the Keynesian and Sraffian tradition.

  15. Language may indeed influence thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatev, Jordan; Blomberg, Johan

    2015-01-01

    We discuss four interconnected issues that we believe have hindered investigations into how language may affect thinking. These have had a tendency to reappear in the debate concerning linguistic relativity over the past decades, despite numerous empirical findings. The first is the claim that it is impossible to disentangle language from thought, making the question concerning "influence" pointless. The second is the argument that it is impossible to disentangle language from culture in general, and from social interaction in particular, so it is impossible to attribute any differences in the thought patterns of the members of different cultures to language per se. The third issue is the objection that methodological and empirical problems defeat all but the most trivial version of the thesis of linguistic influence: that language gives new factual information. The fourth is the assumption that since language can potentially influence thought from "not at all" to "completely," the possible forms of linguistic influence can be placed on a cline, and competing theories can be seen as debating the actual position on this cline. We analyze these claims and show that the first three do not constitute in-principle objections against the validity of the project of investigating linguistic influence on thought, and that the last one is not the best way to frame the empirical challenges at hand. While we do not argue for any specific theory or mechanism for linguistic influence on thought, our discussion and the reviewed literature show that such influence is clearly possible, and hence in need of further investigations.

  16. Capture of Irregular Satellites at Jupiter

    CERN Document Server

    Nesvorny, D; Deienno, R

    2014-01-01

    The irregular satellites of outer planets are thought to have been captured from heliocentric orbits. The exact nature of the capture process, however, remains uncertain. We examine the possibility that irregular satellites were captured from the planetesimal disk during the early Solar System instability when encounters between the outer planets occurred (Nesvorny, Vokrouhlicky & Morbidelli 2007, AJ 133; hereafter NVM07). NVM07 already showed that the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus and Neptune were plausibly captured during planetary encounters. Here we find that the current instability models present favorable conditions for capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter as well, mainly because Jupiter undergoes a phase of close encounters with an ice giant. We show that the orbital distribution of bodies captured during planetary encounters provides a good match to the observed distribution of irregular satellites at Jupiter. The capture efficiency for each particle in the original transplanetary d...

  17. Aristotle's Aesthetic Thoughts in Tragedy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿利红

    2010-01-01

    @@ Aristotle is the greatest thinker and profound scholar in ancient Greece,who inherits the philosophy achievements of ancient Greece since Thales,especially the fruits of Plato'S thought.His inheritance takes criticism as the basis and innovation as the objective.Poetics has long been known as the foundation-laying work in the history of western literary theory among the most works of Aristotle.In Poetics,tragedy is focused by Aristotle.He attaches more importance to tragedy,analyzes its artistic features and elements to show its aesthetic significance and value.This is not simply to discuss the artistic technique but to discuss his aesthetic thoughts in tragedy.

  18. Psychiatric Thoughts in Ancient India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Abhyankar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry.

  19. The Thought of Learning Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAOTIAN

    2005-01-01

    For Young artist Wang Tiantian,creating significant work means everything,The canvases on which she strives to reproduce her thoughts and feeling,testify to the depth of her imagination.Her studio is filled with oil paints,skotchpads,silks and buttorfilos,all of which she uses to creats her artworks .She compares art to cooking ,believing that it doesn't matter what seasonings are used as long as the food tastes good.

  20. Geocoding and stereo display of tropical forest multisensor datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, R.; Jordan, T. R.; Luvall, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    Concern about the future of tropical forests has led to a demand for geocoded multisensor databases that can be used to assess forest structure, deforestation, thermal response, evapotranspiration, and other parameters linked to climate change. In response to studies being conducted at the Braulino Carrillo National Park, Costa Rica, digital satellite and aircraft images recorded by Landsat TM, SPOT HRV, Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner, and Calibrated Airborne Multispectral Scanner sensors were placed in register using the Landsat TM image as the reference map. Despite problems caused by relief, multitemporal datasets, and geometric distortions in the aircraft images, registration was accomplished to within + or - 20 m (+ or - 1 data pixel). A digital elevation model constructed from a multisensor Landsat TM/SPOT stereopair proved useful for generating perspective views of the rugged, forested terrain.

  1. BASE MAP DATASET, LOGAN COUNTY, OKLAHOMA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  2. BASE MAP DATASET, KENDALL COUNTY, TEXAS, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme, orthographic...

  3. BASE MAP DATASET, LOS ANGELES COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  4. SIAM 2007 Text Mining Competition dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Subject Area: Text Mining Description: This is the dataset used for the SIAM 2007 Text Mining competition. This competition focused on developing text mining...

  5. BASE MAP DATASET, ROGERS COUNTY, OKLAHOMA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  6. Simulation of Smart Home Activity Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Synnott

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A globally ageing population is resulting in an increased prevalence of chronic conditions which affect older adults. Such conditions require long-term care and management to maximize quality of life, placing an increasing strain on healthcare resources. Intelligent environments such as smart homes facilitate long-term monitoring of activities in the home through the use of sensor technology. Access to sensor datasets is necessary for the development of novel activity monitoring and recognition approaches. Access to such datasets is limited due to issues such as sensor cost, availability and deployment time. The use of simulated environments and sensors may address these issues and facilitate the generation of comprehensive datasets. This paper provides a review of existing approaches for the generation of simulated smart home activity datasets, including model-based approaches and interactive approaches which implement virtual sensors, environments and avatars. The paper also provides recommendation for future work in intelligent environment simulation.

  7. BASE MAP DATASET, HARRISON COUNTY, TEXAS, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  8. BASE MAP DATASET, HONOLULU COUNTY, HAWAII, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  9. BASE MAP DATASET, SEQUOYAH COUNTY, OKLAHOMA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme, orthographic...

  10. BASE MAP DATASET, MAYES COUNTY, OKLAHOMA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications: cadastral, geodetic control,...

  11. BASE MAP DATASET, CADDO COUNTY, OKLAHOMA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  12. Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) Search Widget

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Use the Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) to find and access EPA's environmental resources. Many options are available for easily reusing EDG content in other...

  13. BASE MAP DATASET, CHEROKEE COUNTY, OKLAHOMA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme, orthographic...

  14. Hajj and Umrah Event Recognition Datasets

    CERN Document Server

    Zawbaa, Hossam

    2012-01-01

    In this note, new Hajj and Umrah Event Recognition datasets (HUER) are presented. The demonstrated datasets are based on videos and images taken during 2011-2012 Hajj and Umrah seasons. HUER is the first collection of datasets covering the six types of Hajj and Umrah ritual events (rotating in Tawaf around Kabaa, performing Sa'y between Safa and Marwa, standing on the mount of Arafat, staying overnight in Muzdalifah, staying two or three days in Mina, and throwing Jamarat). The HUER datasets also contain video and image databases for nine types of human actions during Hajj and Umrah (walking, drinking from Zamzam water, sleeping, smiling, eating, praying, sitting, shaving hairs and ablutions, reading the holy Quran and making duaa). The spatial resolutions are 1280 x 720 pixels for images and 640 x 480 pixels for videos and have lengths of 20 seconds in average with 30 frame per second rates.

  15. VT Hydrography Dataset - cartographic extract lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) VHDCARTO is a simplified version of the local resolution Vermont Hydrography Dataset (VHD) that has been enriched with stream perenniality, e.g.,...

  16. VT Hydrography Dataset - cartographic extract polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) VHDCARTO is a simplified version of the local resolution Vermont Hydrography Dataset (VHD) that has been enriched with stream perenniality, e.g.,...

  17. Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) REST Interface

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Use the Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) to find and access EPA's environmental resources. Many options are available for easily reusing EDG content in other...

  18. BASE MAP DATASET, GARVIN COUNTY, OKLAHOMA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  19. BASE MAP DATASET, OUACHITA COUNTY, ARKANSAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  20. BASE MAP DATASET, SANTA CRIZ COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  1. Simulation of Smart Home Activity Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synnott, Jonathan; Nugent, Chris; Jeffers, Paul

    2015-06-16

    A globally ageing population is resulting in an increased prevalence of chronic conditions which affect older adults. Such conditions require long-term care and management to maximize quality of life, placing an increasing strain on healthcare resources. Intelligent environments such as smart homes facilitate long-term monitoring of activities in the home through the use of sensor technology. Access to sensor datasets is necessary for the development of novel activity monitoring and recognition approaches. Access to such datasets is limited due to issues such as sensor cost, availability and deployment time. The use of simulated environments and sensors may address these issues and facilitate the generation of comprehensive datasets. This paper provides a review of existing approaches for the generation of simulated smart home activity datasets, including model-based approaches and interactive approaches which implement virtual sensors, environments and avatars. The paper also provides recommendation for future work in intelligent environment simulation.

  2. BASE MAP DATASET, BRYAN COUNTY, OKLAHOMA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme, orthographic...

  3. BASE MAP DATASET, DELAWARE COUNTY, OKLAHOMA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  4. BASE MAP DATASET, STEPHENS COUNTY, OKLAHOMA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  5. BASE MAP DATASET, WOODWARD COUNTY, OKLAHOMA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  6. BASE MAP DATASET, HOWARD COUNTY, ARKANSAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  7. Analysis of Specular Reflections Off Geostationary Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, A.

    2016-09-01

    Many photometric studies of artificial satellites have attempted to define procedures that minimise the size of datasets required to infer information about satellites. However, it is unclear whether deliberately limiting the size of datasets significantly reduces the potential for information to be derived from them. In 2013 an experiment was conducted using a 14 inch Celestron CG-14 telescope to gain multiple night-long, high temporal resolution datasets of six geostationary satellites [1]. This experiment produced evidence of complex variations in the spectral energy distribution (SED) of reflections off satellite surface materials, particularly during specular reflections. Importantly, specific features relating to the SED variations could only be detected with high temporal resolution data. An update is provided regarding the nature of SED and colour variations during specular reflections, including how some of the variables involved contribute to these variations. Results show that care must be taken when comparing observed spectra to a spectral library for the purpose of material identification; a spectral library that uses wavelength as the only variable will be unable to capture changes that occur to a material's reflected spectra with changing illumination and observation geometry. Conversely, colour variations with changing illumination and observation geometry might provide an alternative means of determining material types.

  8. Using Benford's law to investigate Natural Hazard dataset homogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joannes-Boyau, Renaud; Bodin, Thomas; Scheffers, Anja; Sambridge, Malcolm; May, Simon Matthias

    2015-07-09

    Working with a large temporal dataset spanning several decades often represents a challenging task, especially when the record is heterogeneous and incomplete. The use of statistical laws could potentially overcome these problems. Here we apply Benford's Law (also called the "First-Digit Law") to the traveled distances of tropical cyclones since 1842. The record of tropical cyclones has been extensively impacted by improvements in detection capabilities over the past decades. We have found that, while the first-digit distribution for the entire record follows Benford's Law prediction, specific changes such as satellite detection have had serious impacts on the dataset. The least-square misfit measure is used as a proxy to observe temporal variations, allowing us to assess data quality and homogeneity over the entire record, and at the same time over specific periods. Such information is crucial when running climatic models and Benford's Law could potentially be used to overcome and correct for data heterogeneity and/or to select the most appropriate part of the record for detailed studies.

  9. Can atmospheric reanalysis datasets be used to reproduce flood characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreadis, K.; Schumann, G.; Stampoulis, D.

    2014-12-01

    Floods are one of the costliest natural disasters and the ability to understand their characteristics and their interactions with population, land cover and climate changes is of paramount importance. In order to accurately reproduce flood characteristics such as water inundation and heights both in the river channels and floodplains, hydrodynamic models are required. Most of these models operate at very high resolutions and are computationally very expensive, making their application over large areas very difficult. However, a need exists for such models to be applied at regional to global scales so that the effects of climate change with regards to flood risk can be examined. We use the LISFLOOD-FP hydrodynamic model to simulate a 40-year history of flood characteristics at the continental scale, particularly over Australia. LISFLOOD-FP is a 2-D hydrodynamic model that solves the approximate Saint-Venant equations at large scales (on the order of 1 km) using a sub-grid representation of the river channel. This implementation is part of an effort towards a global 1-km flood modeling framework that will allow the reconstruction of a long-term flood climatology. The components of this framework include a hydrologic model (the widely-used Variable Infiltration Capacity model) and a meteorological dataset that forces it. In order to extend the simulated flood climatology to 50-100 years in a consistent manner, reanalysis datasets have to be used. The objective of this study is the evaluation of multiple atmospheric reanalysis datasets (ERA, NCEP, MERRA, JRA) as inputs to the VIC/LISFLOOD-FP model. Comparisons of the simulated flood characteristics are made with both satellite observations of inundation and a benchmark simulation of LISFLOOD-FP being forced by observed flows. Finally, the implications of the availability of a global flood modeling framework for producing flood hazard maps and disseminating disaster information are discussed.

  10. Descartes’s mathematical thought

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, Chikara

    2003-01-01

    Covering both the history of mathematics and of philosophy, Descartes's Mathematical Thought reconstructs the intellectual career of Descartes most comprehensively and originally in a global perspective including the history of early modern China and Japan. Especially, it shows what the concept of "mathesis universalis" meant before and during the period of Descartes and how it influenced the young Descartes. In fact, it was the most fundamental mathematical discipline during the seventeenth century, and for Descartes a key notion which may have led to his novel mathematics of algebraic analysis.

  11. Project governance: "Schools of thought"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Christiaan Bekker

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The terminology, definition and context of project governance have become a focal subject for research and discussions in project management literature. This article reviews literature on the subject of project governance and categorise the arguments into three schools of thought namely the single-firm school, multi-firm school and large capital school. The single-firm school is concerned with governance principles related to internal organisational projects and practice these principles at a technical level. The multi-firm school address the governance principles concerned with two of more organisations participating on a contractual basis on the same project and focus their governance efforts at the technical and strategic level. The large capital school consider projects as temporary organisations, forming their own entity and establishing governance principles at an institutional level. From these schools of thought it can be concluded that the definition of project governance is dependent on the type of project and hierarchical positioning in the organisation. It is also evident that further research is required to incorporate other governance variables and mechanisms such as transaction theory, social networks and agency theory. The development of project governance frameworks should also consider the complexity of projects spanning across international companies, across country borders and incorporating different value systems, legal systems, corporate governance guidelines, religions and business practices.

  12. Place and Role of Metaphors and Analogies in the Complex Thought and Conceptual Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Primorac

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is on the role of complex thought in the development of thought and scientific knowledge. According to Vigotsky, the complex thought is the first phase in the ontogenesis and phylogenesis of human thought. It is in this sense pre-conceptual. Also, according to Vigotsky, the complex thought has its internal genesis which begins with associative complexes and ends in pseudo-concepts. Complex also an explanatory role in scientific thought. Complex thought ppears on all levels and stages of the development of scientific knowledge. Metaphors may appear in the complex thought as a dominant mode of thought or in the conceptual structure as the auxiliary in the explanation. Analogies present a certain structuration of the complex thought, which contributes to the creation of conceptual structure. The place of analogy is thus between a complex thought and conceptual thought.

  13. Precipitation comparison for the CFSR, MERRA, TRMM3B42 and Combined Scheme datasets in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacutt, Luis A.; Herdies, Dirceu L.; de Gonçalves, Luis Gustavo G.; Vila, Daniel A.; Andrade, Marcos

    2015-09-01

    An overwhelming number of applications depend on reliable precipitation estimations. However, over complex terrain in regions such as the Andes or the southwestern Amazon, the spatial coverage of rain gauges is scarce. Two reanalysis datasets, a satellite algorithm and a scheme that combines surface observations with satellite estimations were selected for studying rainfall in the following areas of Bolivia: the central Andes, Altiplano, southwestern Amazonia, and Chaco. These Bolivian regions can be divided into three main basins: the Altiplano, La Plata, and Amazon. The selected reanalyses were the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, which has a horizontal resolution (~ 50 km) conducive for studying rainfall in relatively small precipitation systems, and the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis and Reforecast, which features an improved horizontal resolution (~ 38 km). The third dataset was the seventh version of the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission 3B42 algorithm, which is conducive for studying rainfall at an ~ 25 km horizontal resolution. The fourth dataset utilizes a new technique known as the Combined Scheme, which successfully removes satellite bias. All four of these datasets were aggregated to a coarser resolution. Additionally, the daily totals were calculated to match the cumulative daily values of the ground observations. This research aimed to describe and compare precipitations in the two reanalysis datasets, the satellite-algorithm dataset, and the Combined Scheme with ground observations. Two seasons were selected for studying the precipitation estimates: the rainy season (December-February) and the dry season (June-August). The average, bias, standard deviation, correlation coefficient, and root mean square error were calculated. Moreover, a contingency table was generated to calculate the accuracy, bias frequency, probability of detection, false alarm ratio, and equitable threat score. All four datasets correctly

  14. Methodological pitfalls of the Unconscious Thought paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waroquier, Laurent; Marchiori, David; Klein, Olivier; Cleeremans, Axel

    2009-01-01

    According to Unconscious Thought Theory (UTT: Dijksterhuis & Nordgren, 2006), complex decisions are best made after a period of distraction assumed to elicit "unconscious thought". Over three studies, respectively offering a conceptual, an identical and a methodologically improved replication of Dij

  15. Comparison of Shallow Survey 2012 Multibeam Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of the Shallow Survey common dataset is a comparison of the different technologies utilized for data acquisition in the shallow survey marine environment. The common dataset consists of a series of surveys conducted over a common area of seabed using a variety of systems. It provides equipment manufacturers the opportunity to showcase their latest systems while giving hydrographic researchers and scientists a chance to test their latest algorithms on the dataset so that rigorous comparisons can be made. Five companies collected data for the Common Dataset in the Wellington Harbor area in New Zealand between May 2010 and May 2011; including Kongsberg, Reson, R2Sonic, GeoAcoustics, and Applied Acoustics. The Wellington harbor and surrounding coastal area was selected since it has a number of well-defined features, including the HMNZS South Seas and HMNZS Wellington wrecks, an armored seawall constructed of Tetrapods and Akmons, aquifers, wharves and marinas. The seabed inside the harbor basin is largely fine-grained sediment, with gravel and reefs around the coast. The area outside the harbor on the southern coast is an active environment, with moving sand and exposed reefs. A marine reserve is also in this area. For consistency between datasets, the coastal research vessel R/V Ikatere and crew were used for all surveys conducted for the common dataset. Using Triton's Perspective processing software multibeam datasets collected for the Shallow Survey were processed for detail analysis. Datasets from each sonar manufacturer were processed using the CUBE algorithm developed by the Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping/Joint Hydrographic Center (CCOM/JHC). Each dataset was gridded at 0.5 and 1.0 meter resolutions for cross comparison and compliance with International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) requirements. Detailed comparisons were made of equipment specifications (transmit frequency, number of beams, beam width), data density, total uncertainty, and

  16. Two ultraviolet radiation datasets that cover China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Hu, Bo; Wang, Yuesi; Liu, Guangren; Tang, Liqin; Ji, Dongsheng; Bai, Yongfei; Bao, Weikai; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yunming; Ding, Weixin; Han, Xiaozeng; He, Fei; Huang, Hui; Huang, Zhenying; Li, Xinrong; Li, Yan; Liu, Wenzhao; Lin, Luxiang; Ouyang, Zhu; Qin, Boqiang; Shen, Weijun; Shen, Yanjun; Su, Hongxin; Song, Changchun; Sun, Bo; Sun, Song; Wang, Anzhi; Wang, Genxu; Wang, Huimin; Wang, Silong; Wang, Youshao; Wei, Wenxue; Xie, Ping; Xie, Zongqiang; Yan, Xiaoyuan; Zeng, Fanjiang; Zhang, Fawei; Zhang, Yangjian; Zhang, Yiping; Zhao, Chengyi; Zhao, Wenzhi; Zhao, Xueyong; Zhou, Guoyi; Zhu, Bo

    2017-07-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has significant effects on ecosystems, environments, and human health, as well as atmospheric processes and climate change. Two ultraviolet radiation datasets are described in this paper. One contains hourly observations of UV radiation measured at 40 Chinese Ecosystem Research Network stations from 2005 to 2015. CUV3 broadband radiometers were used to observe the UV radiation, with an accuracy of 5%, which meets the World Meteorology Organization's measurement standards. The extremum method was used to control the quality of the measured datasets. The other dataset contains daily cumulative UV radiation estimates that were calculated using an all-sky estimation model combined with a hybrid model. The reconstructed daily UV radiation data span from 1961 to 2014. The mean absolute bias error and root-mean-square error are smaller than 30% at most stations, and most of the mean bias error values are negative, which indicates underestimation of the UV radiation intensity. These datasets can improve our basic knowledge of the spatial and temporal variations in UV radiation. Additionally, these datasets can be used in studies of potential ozone formation and atmospheric oxidation, as well as simulations of ecological processes.

  17. Thought Patterns and English Teaching of Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Weining

    2015-01-01

    Because of the difference of geography , history, culture and humane studies of different countries , Chinese people and English -speaking people have dif-ferent thought patterns .In fact, the effect of differences between English and Chinese thought patterns on teaching English as a foreign language has drawn our in -creasing attention .This paper discusses the differences between Chinese thought pattern and English thought pattern , and provides some suggestion for English teach-ing of writing .

  18. Long Term Cloud Property Datasets From MODIS and AVHRR Using the CERES Cloud Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Patrick; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Doelling, David R.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Yost, Christopher R.; Trepte, Qing Z.; Bedka, Sarah T.; Palikonda, Rabindra; Scarino, Benjamin R.; Chen, Yan; Hong, Gang; Bhatt, Rajendra

    2015-01-01

    Cloud properties play a critical role in climate change. Monitoring cloud properties over long time periods is needed to detect changes and to validate and constrain models. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project has developed several cloud datasets from Aqua and Terra MODIS data to better interpret broadband radiation measurements and improve understanding of the role of clouds in the radiation budget. The algorithms applied to MODIS data have been adapted to utilize various combinations of channels on the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the long-term time series of NOAA and MetOp satellites to provide a new cloud climate data record. These datasets can be useful for a variety of studies. This paper presents results of the MODIS and AVHRR analyses covering the period from 1980-2014. Validation and comparisons with other datasets are also given.

  19. Self-Compassion and Automatic Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts. Participants were 299 university students. In this study, the Self-compassion Scale and the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire were used. The relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts were examined using correlation analysis…

  20. Psychopathology and thought suppression: a quantitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Joshua C; Harden, K Paige; Teachman, Bethany A

    2012-04-01

    Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analogue samples were expected to show greater recurrence of intrusive thoughts during thought suppression attempts than non-clinical samples. However, results showed no overall differences in the recurrence of thoughts due to thought suppression between groups with and without psychopathology. There was, nevertheless, variation in the recurrence of thoughts across different forms of psychopathology, including relatively less recurrence during thought suppression for samples with symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, compared to non-clinical samples. However, these differences were typically small and provided only mixed support for existing theories. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusive thoughts are discussed, including proposed mechanisms underlying thought suppression.

  1. Psychopathology and Thought Suppression: A Quantitative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Joshua C.; Harden, K. Paige; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analogue samples were expected to show greater recurrence of intrusive thoughts during thought suppression attempts than non-clinical samples. However, results showed no overall differences in the recurrence of thoughts due to thought suppression between groups with and without psychopathology. There was, nevertheless, variation in the recurrence of thoughts across different forms of psychopathology, including relatively less recurrence during thought suppression for samples with symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, compared to non-clinical samples. However, these differences were typically small and provided only mixed support for existing theories. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusive thoughts are discussed, including proposed mechanisms underlying thought suppression. PMID:22388007

  2. Geostationary Satellite (GOES) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from radiometer instruments on SMS (ATS) and GOES satellites in geostationary orbit. These satellites produced...

  3. Thought Experiments on Gravitational Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Lynden-Bell, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Large contributions to the near closure of the Universe and to the acceleration of its expansion are due to the gravitation of components of the stress-energy tensor other than its mass density. To familiarise astronomers with the gravitation of these components we conduct thought experiments on gravity, analogous to the real experiments that our forebears conducted on electricity. By analogy to the forces due to electric currents we investigate the gravitational forces due to the flows of momentum, angular momentum, and energy along a cylinder. Under tension the gravity of the cylinder decreases but the 'closure' of the 3-space around it increases. When the cylinder carries a torque the flow of angular momentum along it leads to a novel helical interpretation of Levi-Civita's external metric and a novel relativistic effect. Energy currents give gravomagnetic effects in which parallel currents repel and antiparallel currents attract, though such effects must be added to those of static gravity. The gravity of...

  4. Quality Visualization of Microarray Datasets Using Circos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Koch

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Quality control and normalization is considered the most important step in the analysis of microarray data. At present there are various methods available for quality assessments of microarray datasets. However there seems to be no standard visualization routine, which also depicts individual microarray quality. Here we present a convenient method for visualizing the results of standard quality control tests using Circos plots. In these plots various quality measurements are drawn in a circular fashion, thus allowing for visualization of the quality and all outliers of each distinct array within a microarray dataset. The proposed method is intended for use with the Affymetrix Human Genome platform (i.e., GPL 96, GPL570 and GPL571. Circos quality measurement plots are a convenient way for the initial quality estimate of Affymetrix datasets that are stored in publicly available databases.

  5. Pbm: A new dataset for blog mining

    CERN Document Server

    Aziz, Mehwish

    2012-01-01

    Text mining is becoming vital as Web 2.0 offers collaborative content creation and sharing. Now Researchers have growing interest in text mining methods for discovering knowledge. Text mining researchers come from variety of areas like: Natural Language Processing, Computational Linguistic, Machine Learning, and Statistics. A typical text mining application involves preprocessing of text, stemming and lemmatization, tagging and annotation, deriving knowledge patterns, evaluating and interpreting the results. There are numerous approaches for performing text mining tasks, like: clustering, categorization, sentimental analysis, and summarization. There is a growing need to standardize the evaluation of these tasks. One major component of establishing standardization is to provide standard datasets for these tasks. Although there are various standard datasets available for traditional text mining tasks, but there are very few and expensive datasets for blog-mining task. Blogs, a new genre in web 2.0 is a digital...

  6. Genomics dataset of unidentified disclosed isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagwan N. Rekadwad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of DNA sequences is necessary for higher hierarchical classification of the organisms. It gives clues about the characteristics of organisms and their taxonomic position. This dataset is chosen to find complexities in the unidentified DNA in the disclosed patents. A total of 17 unidentified DNA sequences were thoroughly analyzed. The quick response codes were generated. AT/GC content of the DNA sequences analysis was carried out. The QR is helpful for quick identification of isolates. AT/GC content is helpful for studying their stability at different temperatures. Additionally, a dataset on cleavage code and enzyme code studied under the restriction digestion study, which helpful for performing studies using short DNA sequences was reported. The dataset disclosed here is the new revelatory data for exploration of unique DNA sequences for evaluation, identification, comparison and analysis.

  7. Genomics dataset of unidentified disclosed isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekadwad, Bhagwan N

    2016-09-01

    Analysis of DNA sequences is necessary for higher hierarchical classification of the organisms. It gives clues about the characteristics of organisms and their taxonomic position. This dataset is chosen to find complexities in the unidentified DNA in the disclosed patents. A total of 17 unidentified DNA sequences were thoroughly analyzed. The quick response codes were generated. AT/GC content of the DNA sequences analysis was carried out. The QR is helpful for quick identification of isolates. AT/GC content is helpful for studying their stability at different temperatures. Additionally, a dataset on cleavage code and enzyme code studied under the restriction digestion study, which helpful for performing studies using short DNA sequences was reported. The dataset disclosed here is the new revelatory data for exploration of unique DNA sequences for evaluation, identification, comparison and analysis.

  8. Spatial Evolution of Openstreetmap Dataset in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, M.; Seker, D. Z.; Cakir, Z.

    2016-10-01

    Large amount of research work has already been done regarding many aspects of OpenStreetMap (OSM) dataset in recent years for developed countries and major world cities. On the other hand, limited work is present in scientific literature for developing or underdeveloped ones, because of poor data coverage. In presented study it has been demonstrated how Turkey-OSM dataset has spatially evolved in an 8 year time span (2007-2015) throughout the country. It is observed that there is an east-west spatial biasedness in OSM features density across the country. Population density and literacy level are found to be the two main governing factors controlling this spatial trend. Future research paradigms may involve considering contributors involvement and commenting about dataset health.

  9. Neptune's small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P.

    1992-04-01

    The small satellites of Neptune and other planets discovered during the Voyager 2 mission are discussed in terms of their composition and relationship to the planetary systems. The satellite Proteus is described in terms of its orbit, five other satellites are described, and they are compared to ther small satellites and systems. Neptune's satellites are hypothesized to be related to the ring system, and the satellite Galatea is related to the confinement of the rings.

  10. Visualising Large Datasets in TOPCAT v4

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Mark

    2014-01-01

    TOPCAT is a widely used desktop application for manipulation of astronomical catalogues and other tables, which has long provided fast interactive visualisation features including 1, 2 and 3-d plots, multiple datasets, linked views, color coding, transparency and more. In Version 4 a new plotting library has been written from scratch to deliver new and enhanced visualisation capabilities. This paper describes some of the considerations in the design and implementation, particularly in regard to providing comprehensible interactive visualisation for multi-million point datasets.

  11. ArcHydro global datasets for Hawaii StreamStats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset consists of a personal geodatabase containing several vector datasets. These datasets may be used with the ArcHydro Tools, developed by ESRI in...

  12. Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Daily Grid, Satellite F10 V2c

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c (GSSTF 2c) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by...

  13. Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Daily Grid, Satellite F15 V2c

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c (GSSTF 2c) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by...

  14. Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Daily Grid, Satellite F13 V2c

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c (GSSTF 2c) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by...

  15. Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Daily Grid, Satellite F11 V2c

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c (GSSTF 2c) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by...

  16. Development and field testing of satellite-linked fluorometers for marine mammals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset includes telemetry data related to the development and testing of an animal-borne satellite-linked fluorometer tag, used on northern fur seals and...

  17. Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Daily Grid, Satellite F08 V2c

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c (GSSTF 2c) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by...

  18. Thesaurus Dataset of Educational Technology in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linjing; Liu, Qingtang; Zhao, Gang; Huang, Huan; Huang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The thesaurus dataset of educational technology is a knowledge description of educational technology in Chinese. The aims of this thesaurus were to collect the subject terms in the domain of educational technology, facilitate the standardization of terminology and promote the communication between Chinese researchers and scholars from various…

  19. The Geometry of Finite Equilibrium Datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasko, Yves; Tvede, Mich

    We investigate the geometry of finite datasets defined by equilibrium prices, income distributions, and total resources. We show that the equilibrium condition imposes no restrictions if total resources are collinear, a property that is robust to small perturbations. We also show that the set...

  20. A Neural Network Classifier of Volume Datasets

    CERN Document Server

    Zukić, Dženan; Kolb, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Many state-of-the art visualization techniques must be tailored to the specific type of dataset, its modality (CT, MRI, etc.), the recorded object or anatomical region (head, spine, abdomen, etc.) and other parameters related to the data acquisition process. While parts of the information (imaging modality and acquisition sequence) may be obtained from the meta-data stored with the volume scan, there is important information which is not stored explicitly (anatomical region, tracing compound). Also, meta-data might be incomplete, inappropriate or simply missing. This paper presents a novel and simple method of determining the type of dataset from previously defined categories. 2D histograms based on intensity and gradient magnitude of datasets are used as input to a neural network, which classifies it into one of several categories it was trained with. The proposed method is an important building block for visualization systems to be used autonomously by non-experts. The method has been tested on 80 datasets,...

  1. Language, thought, and real nouns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barner, David; Inagaki, Shunji; Li, Peggy

    2009-06-01

    We test the claim that acquiring a mass-count language, like English, causes speakers to think differently about entities in the world, relative to speakers of classifier languages like Japanese. We use three tasks to assess this claim: object-substance rating, quantity judgment, and word extension. Using the first two tasks, we present evidence that learning mass-count syntax has little effect on the interpretation of familiar nouns between Japanese and English, and that speakers of these languages do not divide up referents differently along an individuation continuum, as claimed in some previous reports [Gentner, D., & Boroditsky, L. (2001). Individuation, relativity, and early word learning. In M. Bowerman, & S. Levinson (Eds.), Language acquisition and conceptual development (pp. 215-256). Cambridge University Press]. Instead, we argue that previous cross-linguistic differences [Imai, M., & Gentner, D. (1997). A cross-linguistic study of early word meaning: Universal ontology and linguistic influence. Cognition, 62, 169-200] are attributable to "lexical statistics" [Gleitman, L., & Papafragou, A. (2005). Language and thought. In K. Holyoak, & R. Morrison (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of thinking and reasoning (pp. 633-661). Cambridge University Press]. Speakers of English are more likely to think that a novel ambiguous expression like "the blicket" refers to a kind of object (relative to speakers of Japanese) because speakers of English are likely to assume that "blicket" is a count noun rather than a mass noun, based on the relative frequency of each kind of word in English. This is confirmed by testing Mandarin-English bilinguals with a word extension task. We find that bilinguals tested in English with mass-count ambiguous syntax extend novel words like English monolinguals (and assume that a word like "blicket" refers to a kind of object). In contrast, bilinguals tested in Mandarin are significantly more likely to extend novel words by material. Thus, online

  2. Interpolation of diffusion weighted imaging datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrby, Tim B; Lundell, Henrik; Burke, Mark W; Reislev, Nina L; Paulson, Olaf B; Ptito, Maurice; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2014-12-01

    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is used to study white-matter fibre organisation, orientation and structural connectivity by means of fibre reconstruction algorithms and tractography. For clinical settings, limited scan time compromises the possibilities to achieve high image resolution for finer anatomical details and signal-to-noise-ratio for reliable fibre reconstruction. We assessed the potential benefits of interpolating DWI datasets to a higher image resolution before fibre reconstruction using a diffusion tensor model. Simulations of straight and curved crossing tracts smaller than or equal to the voxel size showed that conventional higher-order interpolation methods improved the geometrical representation of white-matter tracts with reduced partial-volume-effect (PVE), except at tract boundaries. Simulations and interpolation of ex-vivo monkey brain DWI datasets revealed that conventional interpolation methods fail to disentangle fine anatomical details if PVE is too pronounced in the original data. As for validation we used ex-vivo DWI datasets acquired at various image resolutions as well as Nissl-stained sections. Increasing the image resolution by a factor of eight yielded finer geometrical resolution and more anatomical details in complex regions such as tract boundaries and cortical layers, which are normally only visualized at higher image resolutions. Similar results were found with typical clinical human DWI dataset. However, a possible bias in quantitative values imposed by the interpolation method used should be considered. The results indicate that conventional interpolation methods can be successfully applied to DWI datasets for mining anatomical details that are normally seen only at higher resolutions, which will aid in tractography and microstructural mapping of tissue compartments.

  3. Second-to-Last Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2016-06-01

    You can’t really prepare an abstract of a concluding-remarks talk, but having spent 19 years, 8 months as a full time student (Sept. 1948, Toluca Lake Grammar School kindergarten to April 1968 Caltech Ph.D.), most of the ensuing 48 years as a teacher, and about 51 years as some sort of astronomer, I find myself woefully ignorant of astronomy education and therefore well prepared to bring a fresh and vacant mind to the ideas presented by our colleagues here. Several thoughts, however, intrude. First, as Cecilia Payne Gaposchkin said, “a woman should do astronomy only if nothing else will satisfy her, for nothing else is what she will get.” Make that “person” and “science” and it still carries much truth. Second, it is better to be a professional astronomer and an amateur alto than the converse. And third, it is better to be a professional dentist and an amateur astronomer than the converse. This, I think, leaves room for all of us to work in areas that we find attractive and that we turn out to be reasonably good at. The latter is at least as important as the former. There is a great deal of pleasure to be found as a second-rate singer or artist, but not, I hope, as a lousy astronomer or teacher.

  4. Comparing historical and modern methods of Sea Surface Temperature measurement – Part 1: Review of methods, field comparisons and dataset adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. R. Matthews

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea Surface Temperature (SST measurements have been obtained from a variety of different platforms, instruments and depths over the post-industrial period. Today most measurements come from ships, moored and drifting buoys and satellites. Shipboard methods include temperature measurement of seawater sampled by bucket and in engine cooling water intakes. Engine intake temperatures are generally thought to average a few tenths of a °C warmer than simultaneous bucket temperatures. Here I review SST measurement methods, studies comparing shipboard methods by field experiment and adjustments applied to SST datasets to account for variable methods. In opposition to contemporary thinking, I find average bucket-intake temperature differences reported from field studies inconclusive. Non-zero average differences often have associated standard deviations that are several times larger than the averages themselves. Further, average differences have been found to vary widely between ships and between cruises on the same ship. The cause of non-zero average differences is typically unclear given the general absence of additional temperature observations to those from buckets and engine intakes. Shipboard measurements appear of variable quality, highly dependent upon the accuracy and precision of the thermometer used and the care of the observer where manually read. Methods are generally poorly documented, with written instructions not necessarily reflecting actual practices of merchant mariners. Measurements cannot be expected to be of high quality where obtained by untrained sailors using thermometers of low accuracy and precision.

  5. Improved bathymetric datasets for the shallow water regions in the Indian Ocean

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Sindhu; I Suresh; A S Unnikrishnan; N V Bhatkar; S Neetu; G S Michael

    2007-06-01

    Ocean modellers use bathymetric datasets like ETOPO5 and ETOPO2 to represent the ocean bottom topography. The former dataset is based on digitization of depth contours greater than 200m, and the latter is based on satellite altimetry. Hence, they are not always reliable in shallow regions. An improved shelf bathymetry for the Indian Ocean region (20°E to 112°E and 38°S to 32°N) is derived by digitizing the depth contours and sounding depths less than 200m from the hydrographic charts published by the National Hydrographic Office, India. The digitized data are then gridded and used to modify the existing ETOPO5 and ETOPO2 datasets for depths less than 200 m. In combining the digitized data with the original ETOPO dataset, we apply an appropriate blending technique near the 200m contour to ensure smooth merging of the datasets. Using the modified ETOPO5, we demonstrate that the original ETOPO5 is indeed inaccurate in depths of less than 200m and has features that are not actually present on the ocean bottom. Though the present version of ETOPO2 (ETOPO2v2) is a better bathymetry compared to its earlier versions, there are still differences between the ETOPO2v2 and the modified ETOPO2. We assess the improvements of these bathymetric grids with the performance of existing models of tidal circulation and tsunami propagation.

  6. Integration of satellite fire products into MPI Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlystova, Iryna G.; Kloster, Silvia

    2013-04-01

    Fires are the ubiquitous phenomenon affecting all natural biomes. Since the beginning of the satellite Era, fires are being continuously observed from satellites. The most interesting satellite parameter retrieved from satellite measurements is the burned area. Combined with information on biomass available for burning the burned area can be translated into climate relevant carbon emissions from fires into the atmosphere. In this study we integrate observed burned area into a global vegetation model to derive global fire emissions. Global continuous burned area dataset is provided by the Global Fire Emissions Dataset (GFED). GFED products were obtained from MODIS (and pre-MODIS) satellites and are available for the time period of 14 years (1997-2011). This dataset is widely used, well documented and supported by periodical updates containing new features. We integrate the global burned area product into the land model JSBACH, a part of the Earth-System model developed at the Max Plank Institute for Meteorology. The land model JSBACH simulates land biomass in terms of carbon content. Fire is an important disturbance process in the Earth's carbon cycle and affects mainly the carbon stored in vegetation. In the standard JSBACH version fire is represented by process based algorithms. Using the satellite data as an alternative we are targeting better comparability of modeled carbon emissions with independent satellite measurements of atmospheric composition. The structure of burned vegetation inside of a biome can be described as the balance between woody and herbaceous vegetation. GFED provides in addition to the burned area satellite derived information of the tree cover distribution within the burned area. Using this dataset, we can attribute the burned area to the respective simulated herbaceous or woody biomass within the vegetation model. By testing several extreme cases we evaluate the quantitative impact of vegetation balance between woody and herbaceous

  7. Towards a Combined Surface Temperature Dataset for the Arctic from the Along-Track Scanning Radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Emma; Veal, Karen; Corlett, Gary; Ghent, Darren; Remedios, John

    2017-04-01

    Surface Temperature (ST) changes in the Polar Regions are predicted to be more rapid than either global averages or responses in lower latitudes. Observations increasingly confirm these findings, their urgency, and their significance in the Arctic. It is, therefore, particularly important to monitor Arctic climate change. Satellites are particularly relevant to observations of Polar Regions as they are well-served by low-Earth orbiting satellites. Whilst clouds often cause problems for satellite observations of the surface, in situ observations of STs are much sparser. The ATSRs are accurate infra-red satellite radiometers, designed explicitly for climate standard observations and particularly suited to ST observations. ATSR radiance observations have been used to retrieve sea and land ST for a series of three instruments over a period greater than twenty years. This series has been extended with the launch of SLSTR on Sentinel 3, which has the same key design features. We have combined land, ocean and sea-ice ST retrievals from ATSR-2 and AATSR to produce a new ST dataset for the Arctic; the ATSR Arctic combined Surface Temperature (AAST) dataset. The method of cloud-clearing, use of auxiliary data for ice classification and the ST retrievals used for each surface-type will be described. We will establish the accuracy of sea-ice and land-ice retrievals with results from validation against in situ data and comparison with other datasets. Time series of ST anomalies for each surface type will be presented. The time series for open ocean in the Arctic Polar Region shows a significant warming trend during the AATSR mission. Time series for land, land-ice and sea-ice show high variability as expected but also interesting patterns. Overall, our purpose is to present the state-of-the-art for ATSR observations of surface temperature change in the Arctic and hence indicate the confidence we can have in temperature change across all three domains, and in combination.

  8. Oil palm mapping for Malaysia using PALSAR-2 dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, P.; Qi, C. Y.; Yu, L.; Cracknell, A.

    2016-12-01

    Oil palm is one of the most productive vegetable oil crops in the world. The main oil palm producing areas are distributed in humid tropical areas such as Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, western and central Africa, northern South America, and central America. Increasing market demands, high yields and low production costs of palm oil are the primary factors driving large-scale commercial cultivation of oil palm, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia. Global demand for palm oil has grown exponentially during the last 50 years, and the expansion of oil palm plantations is linked directly to the deforestation of natural forests. Satellite remote sensing plays an important role in monitoring expansion of oil palm. However, optical remote sensing images are difficult to acquire in the Tropics because of the frequent occurrence of thick cloud cover. This problem has led to the use of data obtained by synthetic aperture radar (SAR), which is a sensor capable of all-day/all-weather observation for studies in the Tropics. In this study, the ALOS-2 (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) PALSAR-2 (Phased Array type L-band SAR) datasets for year 2015 were used as an input to a support vector machine (SVM) based machine learning algorithm. Oil palm/non-oil palm samples were collected using a hexagonal equal-area sampling design. High-resolution images in Google Earth and PALSAR-2 imagery were used in human photo-interpretation to separate oil palm from others (i.e. cropland, forest, grassland, shrubland, water, hard surface and bareland). The characteristics of oil palms from various aspects, including PALSAR-2 backscattering coefficients (HH, HV), terrain and climate by using this sample set were further explored to post-process the SVM output. The average accuracy of oil palm type is better than 80% in the final oil palm map for Malaysia.

  9. Satellite data compression

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Bormin

    2011-01-01

    Satellite Data Compression covers recent progress in compression techniques for multispectral, hyperspectral and ultra spectral data. A survey of recent advances in the fields of satellite communications, remote sensing and geographical information systems is included. Satellite Data Compression, contributed by leaders in this field, is the first book available on satellite data compression. It covers onboard compression methodology and hardware developments in several space agencies. Case studies are presented on recent advances in satellite data compression techniques via various prediction-

  10. Trends in communications satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Curtin, Denis J

    1979-01-01

    Trends in Communications Satellites offers a comprehensive look at trends and advances in satellite communications, including experimental ones such as NASA satellites and those jointly developed by France and Germany. The economic aspects of communications satellites are also examined. This book consists of 16 chapters and begins with a discussion on the fundamentals of electrical communications and their application to space communications, including spacecraft, earth stations, and orbit and wavelength utilization. The next section demonstrates how successful commercial satellite communicati

  11. Method of generating features optimal to a dataset and classifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruillard, Paul J.; Gosink, Luke J.; Jarman, Kenneth D.

    2016-10-18

    A method of generating features optimal to a particular dataset and classifier is disclosed. A dataset of messages is inputted and a classifier is selected. An algebra of features is encoded. Computable features that are capable of describing the dataset from the algebra of features are selected. Irredundant features that are optimal for the classifier and the dataset are selected.

  12. Evaluating global trends (1988-2010) in harmonized multi-satellite surface soil moisture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorigo, W.A.; Jeu, de R.A.M.; Chung, D.; Parinussa, R.M.; Liu, Y.; Wagner, W.; Fernandez-Prieto, D.

    2012-01-01

    [1] Global trends in a new multi-satellite surface soil moisture dataset were analyzed for the period 1988–2010. 27% of the area covered by the dataset showed significant trends (p = 0.05). Of these, 73% were negative and 27% positive. Subtle drying trends were found in the Southern US, central Sout

  13. Sharing Video Datasets in Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo; Abildgaard, Sille Julie Jøhnk

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines how design researchers, design practitioners and design education can benefit from sharing a dataset. We present the Design Thinking Research Symposium 11 (DTRS11) as an exemplary project that implied sharing video data of design processes and design activity in natural settings...... with a large group of fellow academics from the international community of Design Thinking Research, for the purpose of facilitating research collaboration and communication within the field of Design and Design Thinking. This approach emphasizes the social and collaborative aspects of design research, where...... a multitude of appropriate perspectives and methods may be utilized in analyzing and discussing the singular dataset. The shared data is, from this perspective, understood as a design object in itself, which facilitates new ways of working, collaborating, studying, learning and educating within the expanding...

  14. RTK: efficient rarefaction analysis of large datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saary, Paul; Forslund, Kristoffer; Bork, Peer; Hildebrand, Falk

    2017-08-15

    The rapidly expanding microbiomics field is generating increasingly larger datasets, characterizing the microbiota in diverse environments. Although classical numerical ecology methods provide a robust statistical framework for their analysis, software currently available is inadequate for large datasets and some computationally intensive tasks, like rarefaction and associated analysis. Here we present a software package for rarefaction analysis of large count matrices, as well as estimation and visualization of diversity, richness and evenness. Our software is designed for ease of use, operating at least 7x faster than existing solutions, despite requiring 10x less memory. C ++ and R source code (GPL v.2) as well as binaries are available from https://github.com/hildebra/Rarefaction and from CRAN (https://cran.r-project.org/). bork@embl.de or falk.hildebrand@embl.de. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  15. Interpolation of diffusion weighted imaging datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrby, Tim B; Lundell, Henrik; Burke, Mark W

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is used to study white-matter fibre organisation, orientation and structural connectivity by means of fibre reconstruction algorithms and tractography. For clinical settings, limited scan time compromises the possibilities to achieve high image resolution for finer...... anatomical details and signal-to-noise-ratio for reliable fibre reconstruction. We assessed the potential benefits of interpolating DWI datasets to a higher image resolution before fibre reconstruction using a diffusion tensor model. Simulations of straight and curved crossing tracts smaller than or equal...... to the voxel size showed that conventional higher-order interpolation methods improved the geometrical representation of white-matter tracts with reduced partial-volume-effect (PVE), except at tract boundaries. Simulations and interpolation of ex-vivo monkey brain DWI datasets revealed that conventional...

  16. Automatic processing of multimodal tomography datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Aaron D; Price, Stephen W T; Wadeson, Nicola; Basham, Mark; Beale, Andrew M; Ashton, Alun W; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Quinn, Paul D

    2017-01-01

    With the development of fourth-generation high-brightness synchrotrons on the horizon, the already large volume of data that will be collected on imaging and mapping beamlines is set to increase by orders of magnitude. As such, an easy and accessible way of dealing with such large datasets as quickly as possible is required in order to be able to address the core scientific problems during the experimental data collection. Savu is an accessible and flexible big data processing framework that is able to deal with both the variety and the volume of data of multimodal and multidimensional scientific datasets output such as those from chemical tomography experiments on the I18 microfocus scanning beamline at Diamond Light Source.

  17. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad P. Tafti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples.

  18. Scalable Machine Learning for Massive Astronomical Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Nicholas M.; Gray, A.

    2014-04-01

    We present the ability to perform data mining and machine learning operations on a catalog of half a billion astronomical objects. This is the result of the combination of robust, highly accurate machine learning algorithms with linear scalability that renders the applications of these algorithms to massive astronomical data tractable. We demonstrate the core algorithms kernel density estimation, K-means clustering, linear regression, nearest neighbors, random forest and gradient-boosted decision tree, singular value decomposition, support vector machine, and two-point correlation function. Each of these is relevant for astronomical applications such as finding novel astrophysical objects, characterizing artifacts in data, object classification (including for rare objects), object distances, finding the important features describing objects, density estimation of distributions, probabilistic quantities, and exploring the unknown structure of new data. The software, Skytree Server, runs on any UNIX-based machine, a virtual machine, or cloud-based and distributed systems including Hadoop. We have integrated it on the cloud computing system of the Canadian Astronomical Data Centre, the Canadian Advanced Network for Astronomical Research (CANFAR), creating the world's first cloud computing data mining system for astronomy. We demonstrate results showing the scaling of each of our major algorithms on large astronomical datasets, including the full 470,992,970 objects of the 2 Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) Point Source Catalog. We demonstrate the ability to find outliers in the full 2MASS dataset utilizing multiple methods, e.g., nearest neighbors. This is likely of particular interest to the radio astronomy community given, for example, that survey projects contain groups dedicated to this topic. 2MASS is used as a proof-of-concept dataset due to its convenience and availability. These results are of interest to any astronomical project with large and/or complex

  19. Scalable persistent identifier systems for dynamic datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golodoniuc, P.; Cox, S. J. D.; Klump, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    Reliable and persistent identification of objects, whether tangible or not, is essential in information management. Many Internet-based systems have been developed to identify digital data objects, e.g., PURL, LSID, Handle, ARK. These were largely designed for identification of static digital objects. The amount of data made available online has grown exponentially over the last two decades and fine-grained identification of dynamically generated data objects within large datasets using conventional systems (e.g., PURL) has become impractical. We have compared capabilities of various technological solutions to enable resolvability of data objects in dynamic datasets, and developed a dataset-centric approach to resolution of identifiers. This is particularly important in Semantic Linked Data environments where dynamic frequently changing data is delivered live via web services, so registration of individual data objects to obtain identifiers is impractical. We use identifier patterns and pattern hierarchies for identification of data objects, which allows relationships between identifiers to be expressed, and also provides means for resolving a single identifier into multiple forms (i.e. views or representations of an object). The latter can be implemented through (a) HTTP content negotiation, or (b) use of URI querystring parameters. The pattern and hierarchy approach has been implemented in the Linked Data API supporting the United Nations Spatial Data Infrastructure (UNSDI) initiative and later in the implementation of geoscientific data delivery for the Capricorn Distal Footprints project using International Geo Sample Numbers (IGSN). This enables flexible resolution of multi-view persistent identifiers and provides a scalable solution for large heterogeneous datasets.

  20. Increasing spatial resolution of CHIRPS rainfall datasets for Cyprus with artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymvios, Filippos; Michaelides, Silas; Retalis, Adrianos; Katsanos, Dimitrios; Lelieveld, Jos

    2016-08-01

    The use of high resolution rainfall datasets is an alternative way of studying climatological regions where conventional rain measurements are sparse or not available. Starting in 1981 to near-present, the CHIRPS (Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station data) dataset incorporates a 5km×5km resolution satellite imagery with in-situ station data to create gridded rainfall time series for trend analysis, severe events and seasonal drought monitoring. The aim of this work is to further increase the resolution of the rainfall dataset for Cyprus to 1km×1km, by correlating the CHIRPS dataset with elevation information, the NDVI index (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) from satellite images at 1km×1km and precipitation measurements from the official raingauge network of the Cyprus' Department of Meteorology, utilizing Artificial Neural Networks. The Artificial Neural Networks' architecture that was implemented is the Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) trained with the back propagation method, which is widely used in environmental studies. Seven different network architectures were tested, all with two hidden layers. The number of neurons ranged from 3 to10 in the first hidden layer and from 5 to 25 in the second hidden layer. The dataset was separated into a randomly selected training set, a validation set and a testing set; the latter is independently used for the final assessment of the models' performance. Using the Artificial Neural Network approach, a new map of the spatial analysis of rainfall is constructed which exhibits a considerable increase in its spatial resolution. A statistical assessment of the new spatial analysis was made using the rainfall ground measurements from the raingauge network. The assessment indicates that the methodology is promising for several applications.

  1. Data Assimilation and Model Evaluation Experiment Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chung-Chieng A.; Qian, Wen; Glenn, Scott M.

    1994-05-01

    The Institute for Naval Oceanography, in cooperation with Naval Research Laboratories and universities, executed the Data Assimilation and Model Evaluation Experiment (DAMÉE) for the Gulf Stream region during fiscal years 1991-1993. Enormous effort has gone into the preparation of several high-quality and consistent datasets for model initialization and verification. This paper describes the preparation process, the temporal and spatial scopes, the contents, the structure, etc., of these datasets.The goal of DAMEE and the need of data for the four phases of experiment are briefly stated. The preparation of DAMEE datasets consisted of a series of processes: 1)collection of observational data; 2) analysis and interpretation; 3) interpolation using the Optimum Thermal Interpolation System package; 4) quality control and re-analysis; and 5) data archiving and software documentation.The data products from these processes included a time series of 3D fields of temperature and salinity, 2D fields of surface dynamic height and mixed-layer depth, analysis of the Gulf Stream and rings system, and bathythermograph profiles. To date, these are the most detailed and high-quality data for mesoscale ocean modeling, data assimilation, and forecasting research. Feedback from ocean modeling groups who tested this data was incorporated into its refinement.Suggestions for DAMEE data usages include 1) ocean modeling and data assimilation studies, 2) diagnosis and theorectical studies, and 3) comparisons with locally detailed observations.

  2. Capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David; Deienno, Rogerio [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    The irregular satellites of outer planets are thought to have been captured from heliocentric orbits. The exact nature of the capture process, however, remains uncertain. We examine the possibility that irregular satellites were captured from the planetesimal disk during the early solar system instability when encounters between the outer planets occurred. Nesvorný et al. already showed that the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune were plausibly captured during planetary encounters. Here we find that the current instability models present favorable conditions for capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter as well, mainly because Jupiter undergoes a phase of close encounters with an ice giant. We show that the orbital distribution of bodies captured during planetary encounters provides a good match to the observed distribution of irregular satellites at Jupiter. The capture efficiency for each particle in the original transplanetary disk is found to be (1.3-3.6) × 10{sup –8}. This is roughly enough to explain the observed population of jovian irregular moons. We also confirm Nesvorný et al.'s results for the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.

  3. Dynamically stable implosions in a large simulation dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, J. Luc; Field, John; Humbird, Kelli; Brandon, Scott; Langer, Steve; Nora, Ryan; Spears, Brian

    2016-10-01

    Asymmetric implosion drive can severely impact the performance of inertial confinement fusion capsules. In particular the time-varying radiation environment produced in near-vacuum hohlraum experiments at the National Ignition Facility is thought to limit the conversion efficiency of shell kinetic energy into hotspot internal energy. To investigate the role of dynamic asymmetries in implosion behavior we have created a large database of 2D capsule implosions of varying drive amplitude, drive asymmetry and capsule gas fill that spans 13 dimensions and consists of over 60,000 individual simulations. A novel in-transit analysis scheme allowed for the real-time processing of petabytes of raw data into hundreds of terabytes of physical metrics and synthetic images, and supervised learning algorithms identified regions of parameter space that robustly produce high yield. We will discuss the first results from this dataset and explore the dynamics of implosions that produce significant yield under asymmetric drives. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC. LLNL-ABS-697262.

  4. Assessment of Northern Hemisphere Snow Water Equivalent Datasets in ESA SnowPEx project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luojus, Kari; Pulliainen, Jouni; Cohen, Juval; Ikonen, Jaakko; Derksen, Chris; Mudryk, Lawrence; Nagler, Thomas; Bojkov, Bojan

    2016-04-01

    Reliable information on snow cover across the Northern Hemisphere and Arctic and sub-Arctic regions is needed for climate monitoring, for understanding the Arctic climate system, and for the evaluation of the role of snow cover and its feedback in climate models. In addition to being of significant interest for climatological investigations, reliable information on snow cover is of high value for the purpose of hydrological forecasting and numerical weather prediction. Terrestrial snow covers up to 50 million km² of the Northern Hemisphere in winter and is characterized by high spatial and temporal variability. Therefore satellite observations provide the best means for timely and complete observations of the global snow cover. There are a number of independent SWE products available that describe the snow conditions on multi-decadal and global scales. Some products are derived using satellite-based information while others rely on meteorological observations and modelling. What is common to practically all the existing hemispheric SWE products, is that their retrieval performance on hemispherical and multi-decadal scales are not accurately known. The purpose of the ESA funded SnowPEx project is to obtain a quantitative understanding of the uncertainty in satellite- as well as model-based SWE products through an internationally coordinated and consistent evaluation exercise. The currently available Northern Hemisphere wide satellite-based SWE datasets which were assessed include 1) the GlobSnow SWE, 2) the NASA Standard SWE, 3) NASA prototype and 4) NSIDC-SSM/I SWE products. The model-based datasets include: 5) the Global Land Data Assimilation System Version 2 (GLDAS-2) product 6) the European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasts Interim Land Reanalysis (ERA-I-Land) which uses a simple snow scheme 7) the Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) which uses an intermediate complexity snow scheme; and 8) SWE from the Crocus snow scheme, a

  5. Provenance of Earth Science Datasets - How Deep Should One Go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H.; Manipon, G. J. M.; Aulenbach, S.; Duggan, B.; Goldstein, J.; Hua, H.; Tan, D.; Tilmes, C.; Wilson, B. D.; Wolfe, R.; Zednik, S.

    2015-12-01

    For credibility of scientific research, transparency and reproducibility are essential. This fundamental tenet has been emphasized for centuries, and has been receiving increased attention in recent years. The Office of Management and Budget (2002) addressed reproducibility and other aspects of quality and utility of information from federal agencies. Specific guidelines from NASA (2002) are derived from the above. According to these guidelines, "NASA requires a higher standard of quality for information that is considered influential. Influential scientific, financial, or statistical information is defined as NASA information that, when disseminated, will have or does have clear and substantial impact on important public policies or important private sector decisions." For information to be compliant, "the information must be transparent and reproducible to the greatest possible extent." We present how the principles of transparency and reproducibility have been applied to NASA data supporting the Third National Climate Assessment (NCA3). The depth of trace needed of provenance of data used to derive conclusions in NCA3 depends on how the data were used (e.g., qualitatively or quantitatively). Given that the information is diligently maintained in the agency archives, it is possible to trace from a figure in the publication through the datasets, specific files, algorithm versions, instruments used for data collection, and satellites, as well as the individuals and organizations involved in each step. Such trace back permits transparency and reproducibility.

  6. Statistically and Computationally Efficient Estimating Equations for Large Spatial Datasets

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2014-11-07

    For Gaussian process models, likelihood based methods are often difficult to use with large irregularly spaced spatial datasets, because exact calculations of the likelihood for n observations require O(n3) operations and O(n2) memory. Various approximation methods have been developed to address the computational difficulties. In this paper, we propose new unbiased estimating equations based on score equation approximations that are both computationally and statistically efficient. We replace the inverse covariance matrix that appears in the score equations by a sparse matrix to approximate the quadratic forms, then set the resulting quadratic forms equal to their expected values to obtain unbiased estimating equations. The sparse matrix is constructed by a sparse inverse Cholesky approach to approximate the inverse covariance matrix. The statistical efficiency of the resulting unbiased estimating equations are evaluated both in theory and by numerical studies. Our methods are applied to nearly 90,000 satellite-based measurements of water vapor levels over a region in the Southeast Pacific Ocean.

  7. THOUGHT IN THE ASPECT OF TRANSDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Chernikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenomenon of thought and its’ interpretations at the different cultural and historical stages are in focus of the paper. The research is aimed at reasoning of new interpretation of thought revealed as a result of cognitive science and convergent technologies transdisciplinary research.Transdisciplinary research of thought in cognitive science is achieved with the unity of method, which is the systemic-evolutionary approach.The research is based on thought analysis in philosophy, cognitive psychology, cognitive linguistics, artificial intelligence science, thus mainly on transdisciplinary research of thought in cognitive science.The paper represents the approach of cognitive science and NBIC (Nano-, Bio-, Information and Cognitive technologies implementing transdisciplinary research of thought and intelligence.It is shown that the transdisciplinary approach is based on new ontology, called holistic, and on nonclassical epistemology. Answering the raised question of the outcome of thought transdisciplinary research comparing to specifically scientific and philosophic, it is reasoned that cognitive science studies thought at the higher level of complexity, considering simultaneously several order parameters characterizing this complex nonlinear phenomenon.

  8. Truth matters: Normativity in thought and knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel DE PINEDO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A proposal to account for the objectivity of thought and language in terms of identity between facts, meanings and contents is offered. Furthermore, their normativity is related to their world involving character. Both proposals are jointly quietist: they avoid philosophical theorizing that explains thought in terms of world or viceversa.

  9. Dystopian Reality, Utopian Thought and Educational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastephanou, Marianna

    2008-01-01

    The significance of utopian thought for education can be made evident through reconceptualizing utopia and approaching it alongside the notion of dystopia. Awareness of dystopian elements of reality radicalizes the kind of critique that assists utopian thought and makes engagement with it more pressing. Awareness of the lurking danger of future…

  10. Types and myths in Brazilian thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Ianni

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available "Ideal types" elaborated by different authors and that have become emblematic, notorious or even definitive, sometimes representing myths are quite frequent in Brazilian thought. That is the case of the bandeirantes (colonial crusaders, the gaúcho, Jeca Tatu, Macunaíma, cordial man and others. It is worth contemplating this aspect of Brazilian culture and thought.

  11. Oriental Philosophy and Thoreau's Thoughts in Walden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玢诗

    2015-01-01

    It is necessary to have a general knowledge of the sources of Thoreau's thoughts before attempting to analyze his mode of life at Walden and his sharing of Chinese concept of nature in Walden. It is generally believed that Thoreau is indebted to Oriental philosophy which is the source of inspiration for his thoughts that he expressed in Walden and other works.

  12. Xichang Satellite Launch Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuJie

    2004-01-01

    Xichang Satellite Launch Center(XSLC) is mainly for geosynchronous orbit launches. The main purpose of XSLC is to launch spacecraft, such as broadcasting,communications and meteorological satellites, into geo-stationary orbit.Most of the commercial satellite launches of Long March vehicles have been from Xichang Satellite Launch Center. With 20 years' development,XSLC can launch 5 kinds of launch vehicles and send satellites into geostationary orbit and polar orbit. In the future, moon exploration satellites will also be launched from XSLC.

  13. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The first edition of this ground breaking reference work was the most comprehensive reference source available about the key aspects of the satellite applications field. This updated second edition covers the technology, the markets, applications and regulations related to satellite telecommunications, broadcasting and networking—including civilian and military systems; precise satellite navigation and timing networks (i.e. GPS and others); remote sensing and meteorological satellite systems. Created under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, this brand new edition is now expanded to cover new innovative small satellite constellations, new commercial launching systems, innovation in military application satellites and their acquisition, updated appendices, a useful glossary and more.

  14. Comparing methods of analysing datasets with small clusters: case studies using four paediatric datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Louise; Peacock, Janet L; Yu, Keming; Brocklehurst, Peter; Calvert, Sandra A; Greenough, Anne; Marlow, Neil

    2009-07-01

    Studies of prematurely born infants contain a relatively large percentage of multiple births, so the resulting data have a hierarchical structure with small clusters of size 1, 2 or 3. Ignoring the clustering may lead to incorrect inferences. The aim of this study was to compare statistical methods which can be used to analyse such data: generalised estimating equations, multilevel models, multiple linear regression and logistic regression. Four datasets which differed in total size and in percentage of multiple births (n = 254, multiple 18%; n = 176, multiple 9%; n = 10 098, multiple 3%; n = 1585, multiple 8%) were analysed. With the continuous outcome, two-level models produced similar results in the larger dataset, while generalised least squares multilevel modelling (ML GLS 'xtreg' in Stata) and maximum likelihood multilevel modelling (ML MLE 'xtmixed' in Stata) produced divergent estimates using the smaller dataset. For the dichotomous outcome, most methods, except generalised least squares multilevel modelling (ML GH 'xtlogit' in Stata) gave similar odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals within datasets. For the continuous outcome, our results suggest using multilevel modelling. We conclude that generalised least squares multilevel modelling (ML GLS 'xtreg' in Stata) and maximum likelihood multilevel modelling (ML MLE 'xtmixed' in Stata) should be used with caution when the dataset is small. Where the outcome is dichotomous and there is a relatively large percentage of non-independent data, it is recommended that these are accounted for in analyses using logistic regression with adjusted standard errors or multilevel modelling. If, however, the dataset has a small percentage of clusters greater than size 1 (e.g. a population dataset of children where there are few multiples) there appears to be less need to adjust for clustering.

  15. Development of a SPARK Training Dataset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayre, Amanda M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Olson, Jarrod R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    In its first five years, the National Nuclear Security Administration’s (NNSA) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) sponsored more than 400 undergraduate, graduate, and post-doctoral students in internships and research positions (Wyse 2012). In the past seven years, the NGSI program has, and continues to produce a large body of scientific, technical, and policy work in targeted core safeguards capabilities and human capital development activities. Not only does the NGSI program carry out activities across multiple disciplines, but also across all U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/NNSA locations in the United States. However, products are not readily shared among disciplines and across locations, nor are they archived in a comprehensive library. Rather, knowledge of NGSI-produced literature is localized to the researchers, clients, and internal laboratory/facility publication systems such as the Electronic Records and Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). There is also no incorporated way of analyzing existing NGSI literature to determine whether the larger NGSI program is achieving its core safeguards capabilities and activities. A complete library of NGSI literature could prove beneficial to a cohesive, sustainable, and more economical NGSI program. The Safeguards Platform for Automated Retrieval of Knowledge (SPARK) has been developed to be a knowledge storage, retrieval, and analysis capability to capture safeguards knowledge to exist beyond the lifespan of NGSI. During the development process, it was necessary to build a SPARK training dataset (a corpus of documents) for initial entry into the system and for demonstration purposes. We manipulated these data to gain new information about the breadth of NGSI publications, and they evaluated the science-policy interface at PNNL as a practical demonstration of SPARK’s intended analysis capability. The analysis demonstration sought to answer the

  16. Galileo satellite antenna modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigenberger, Peter; Dach, Rolf; Prange, Lars; Montenbruck, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The space segment of the European satellite navigation system Galileo currently consists of six satellites. Four of them belong to the first generation of In-Orbit Validation (IOV) satellites whereas the other two are Full Operational Capability (FOC) satellites. High-precision geodetic applications require detailed knowledge about the actual phase center of the satellite and receiver antenna. The deviation of this actual phase center from a well-defined reference point is described by phase center offsets (PCOs) and phase center variations (PCVs). Unfortunately, no public information is available about the Galileo satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs, neither for the IOV, nor the FOC satellites. Therefore, conventional values for the IOV satellite antenna PCOs have been adopted for the Multi-GNSS experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service (IGS). The effect of the PCVs is currently neglected and no PCOs for the FOC satellites are available yet. To overcome this deficiency in GNSS observation modeling, satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs are estimated for the Galileo IOV satellites based on global GNSS tracking data of the MGEX network and additional stations of the legacy IGS network. Two completely independent solutions are computed with the Bernese and Napeos software packages. The PCO and PCV values of the individual satellites are analyzed and the availability of two different solutions allows for an accuracy assessment. The FOC satellites are built by a different manufacturer and are also equipped with another type of antenna panel compared to the IOV satellites. Signal transmission of the first FOC satellite has started in December 2014 and activation of the second satellite is expected for early 2015. Based on the available observations PCO estimates and, optionally PCVs of the FOC satellites will be presented as well. Finally, the impact of the new antenna model on the precision and accuracy of the Galileo orbit determination is analyzed.

  17. Developing a Data-Set for Stereopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.W Hunter

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Current research on binocular stereopsis in humans and non-human primates has been limited by a lack of available data-sets. Current data-sets fall into two categories; stereo-image sets with vergence but no ranging information (Hibbard, 2008, Vision Research, 48(12, 1427-1439 or combinations of depth information with binocular images and video taken from cameras in fixed fronto-parallel configurations exhibiting neither vergence or focus effects (Hirschmuller & Scharstein, 2007, IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. The techniques for generating depth information are also imperfect. Depth information is normally inaccurate or simply missing near edges and on partially occluded surfaces. For many areas of vision research these are the most interesting parts of the image (Goutcher, Hunter, Hibbard, 2013, i-Perception, 4(7, 484; Scarfe & Hibbard, 2013, Vision Research. Using state-of-the-art open-source ray-tracing software (PBRT as a back-end, our intention is to release a set of tools that will allow researchers in this field to generate artificial binocular stereoscopic data-sets. Although not as realistic as photographs, computer generated images have significant advantages in terms of control over the final output and ground-truth information about scene depth is easily calculated at all points in the scene, even partially occluded areas. While individual researchers have been developing similar stimuli by hand for many decades, we hope that our software will greatly reduce the time and difficulty of creating naturalistic binocular stimuli. Our intension in making this presentation is to elicit feedback from the vision community about what sort of features would be desirable in such software.

  18. Wild Type and PPAR KO Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data set 1 consists of the experimental data for the Wild Type and PPAR KO animal study and includes data used to prepare Figures 1-4 and Table 1 of the Das et al, 2016 paper.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Das, K., C. Wood, M. Lin, A.A. Starkov, C. Lau, K.B. Wallace, C. Corton, and B. Abbott. Perfluoroalky acids-induced liver steatosis: Effects on genes controlling lipid homeostasis. TOXICOLOGY. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, 378: 32-52, (2017).

  19. MVIRI/SEVIRI TOA Radiation Datasets within the Climate Monitoring SAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, Manon; Clerbaux, Nicolas; Ipe, Alessandro; Baudrez, Edward; Velazquez Blazquez, Almudena; Moreels, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Within CM SAF, Interim Climate Data Records (ICDR) of Top-Of-Atmosphere (TOA) radiation products from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instruments on the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites have been released in 2013. These datasets (referred to as CM-113 and CM-115, resp. for shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiation) are based on the instantaneous TOA fluxes from the GERB Edition-1 dataset. They cover the time period 2004-2011. Extending these datasets backward in the past is not possible as no GERB instruments were available on the Meteosat First Generation (MFG) satellites. As an alternative, it is proposed to rely on the Meteosat Visible and InfraRed Imager (MVIRI - from 1982 until 2004) and the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI - from 2004 onward) to generate a long Thematic Climate Data Record (TCDR) from Meteosat instruments. Combining MVIRI and SEVIRI allows an unprecedented temporal (30 minutes / 15 minutes) and spatial (2.5 km / 3 km) resolution compared to the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) products. This is a step forward as it helps to increase the knowledge of the diurnal cycle and the small-scale spatial variations of radiation. The MVIRI/SEVIRI datasets (referred to as CM-23311 and CM-23341, resp. for SW and LW radiation) will provide daily and monthly averaged TOA Reflected Solar (TRS) and Emitted Thermal (TET) radiation in "all-sky" conditions (no clear-sky conditions for this first version of the datasets), as well as monthly averaged of the hourly integrated values. The SEVIRI Solar Channels Calibration (SSCC) and the operational calibration have been used resp. for the SW and LW channels. For MFG, it is foreseen to replace the latter by the EUMETSAT/GSICS recalibration of MVIRI using HIRS. The CERES TRMM angular dependency models have been used to compute TRS fluxes while theoretical models have been used for TET fluxes. The CM-23311 and CM-23341 datasets will cover a 32 years

  20. GLEAM v3: updated land evaporation and root-zone soil moisture datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Brecht; Miralles, Diego; Lievens, Hans; van der Schalie, Robin; de Jeu, Richard; Fernández-Prieto, Diego; Verhoest, Niko

    2016-04-01

    Evaporation determines the availability of surface water resources and the requirements for irrigation. In addition, through its impacts on the water, carbon and energy budgets, evaporation influences the occurrence of rainfall and the dynamics of air temperature. Therefore, reliable estimates of this flux at regional to global scales are of major importance for water management and meteorological forecasting of extreme events. However, the global-scale magnitude and variability of the flux, and the sensitivity of the underlying physical process to changes in environmental factors, are still poorly understood due to the limited global coverage of in situ measurements. Remote sensing techniques can help to overcome the lack of ground data. However, evaporation is not directly observable from satellite systems. As a result, recent efforts have focussed on combining the observable drivers of evaporation within process-based models. The Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM, www.gleam.eu) estimates terrestrial evaporation based on daily satellite observations of meteorological drivers of terrestrial evaporation, vegetation characteristics and soil moisture. Since the publication of the first version of the model in 2011, GLEAM has been widely applied for the study of trends in the water cycle, interactions between land and atmosphere and hydrometeorological extreme events. A third version of the GLEAM global datasets will be available from the beginning of 2016 and will be distributed using www.gleam.eu as gateway. The updated datasets include separate estimates for the different components of the evaporative flux (i.e. transpiration, bare-soil evaporation, interception loss, open-water evaporation and snow sublimation), as well as variables like the evaporative stress, potential evaporation, root-zone soil moisture and surface soil moisture. A new dataset using SMOS-based input data of surface soil moisture and vegetation optical depth will also be

  1. Satellite-Delivered Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnall, Gail C.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the application of satellite information delivery to training. Describes a new trend, horizontal programming. Also discusses vertical programming and in-house production of training materials. Lists vendors of satellite-based training. (CH)

  2. GPS Satellite Simulation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The GPS satellite simulation facility consists of a GPS satellite simulator controlled by either a Silicon Graphics Origin 2000 or PC depending upon unit under test...

  3. China's Recoverable Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Boehang

    2008-01-01

    @@ By the end of 2006, China had launched 24 recoverable satellites (FSW) in total. Among them, 23 were launched successfully, of which all but one were successfully recovered. Recoverable satellites launched by China are listed in Table 1.

  4. Satellite Tags- Hawaii EEZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Satellite tagging was implemented in 2013. Satellite tagging is conducted using a Dan Inject air rifle and deployment arrows designed by Wildlife Computers. Two...

  5. Satellite data assimilation in global forecast system in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Swati

    2014-11-01

    Satellite data is very important for model initialization and verification. A large number of satellite observations are currently assimilated into the Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) systems at the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF). Apart from Global meteorological observations from GTS, near-real time satellite observations are received at NCMRWF from other operational centres like ISRO, NOAA/NESDIS, EUMETCAST, etc. Recently India has become member of Asia-Pacific Regional ATOVS Retransmission Service (APRARS) for faster access to high resolution global satellite data useful for high resolution regional models. Indian HRPT at Chennai covers the APRARS data gap region over South East Asia. A robust data monitoring system has been implemented at NCMRWF to assess the quantity and quality of the data as well as the satellite sensor strength, before getting assimilated in the models. Validation of new satellite observations, especially from Indian satellites are being carried out against insitu observations and similar space borne platforms. After establishing the quality of the data, Observation System Experiments (OSEs) are being conducted to study their impact in the assimilation and forecast systems. OSEs have been carried out with the Oceansat-2 scatterometer winds and radiance data from Megha-Tropiques SAPHIR sensor. Daily rainfall analysis dataset is being generated by merging satellite estimates and in-situ observations. ASCAT soil wetness measurements from METOP satellite is being assimilated into the global model. Land surface parameters (LuLc and albedo) retrieved from Indian satellites are being explored for its possible usage in the global and regional models. OLR from Indian satellites are used for validating model outputs. This paper reviews the efforts made at NCMRWF in (i) assimilating the data from Indian/International satellites and (ii) generating useful products from the satellite data.

  6. Satellite communication engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kolawole, Michael Olorunfunmi

    2013-01-01

    An undeniably rich and thorough guide to satellite communication engineering, Satellite Communication Engineering, Second Edition presents the fundamentals of information communications systems in a simple and succinct way. This book considers both the engineering aspects of satellite systems as well as the practical issues in the broad field of information transmission. Implementing concepts developed on an intuitive, physical basis and utilizing a combination of applications and performance curves, this book starts off with a progressive foundation in satellite technology, and then moves on

  7. Undirected thought: neural determinants and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoff, Kalina

    2012-01-05

    While goal-directed thinking has received the lion's share of neuroscientific attention, its counterpart--the undirected thought flow that comes to mind unbidden and without effort--has remained largely on the sidelines of scientific research. Such undirected thought, however, forms a large part of our mental experience. The last decade of neuroscientific investigations marked a resurgence of interest and work into the neural basis of undirected thought. This article reviews the current status of the field and examines the research on the three most frequently discussed categories of undirected thought: spontaneous thought, stimulus-independent thought, and mind wandering. The terminology and paradigms for investigating undirected thought are still being developed, while research is gradually moving beyond strictly task- and rest-based paradigms and towards incorporating introspective first-person reports in order to better understand this phenomenon. It is impossible to say at this point that undirected thinking is preferentially linked to any one particular brain system. Although its connection to the default network has been disproportionately emphasized in the literature, other brain networks such as the executive system and the temporal lobe memory network appear to be equally involved. In addition to reviewing the literature, this article also presents novel findings regarding the functional connectivity between large-scale brain networks during mind wandering. These findings reveal the presence of positive functional connectivity between regions of the default and executive networks and negative functional connectivity between the default network and primary sensory cortices. Thus, the default and executive networks can closely cooperate in supporting undirected thought processes, and seem to do so at times when the primary sensory cortices are not busy with the processing of perceptual information from the external environment. This article is part of a

  8. Evaluation of Global Observations-Based Evapotranspiration Datasets and IPCC AR4 Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, B.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Jimenez, C.; Corti, T.; Hirschi, M.; Balsamo, G.; Ciais, P.; Dirmeyer, P.; Fisher, J. B.; Guo, Z.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Quantification of global land evapotranspiration (ET) has long been associated with large uncertainties due to the lack of reference observations. Several recently developed products now provide the capacity to estimate ET at global scales. These products, partly based on observational data, include satellite ]based products, land surface model (LSM) simulations, atmospheric reanalysis output, estimates based on empirical upscaling of eddycovariance flux measurements, and atmospheric water balance datasets. The LandFlux-EVAL project aims to evaluate and compare these newly developed datasets. Additionally, an evaluation of IPCC AR4 global climate model (GCM) simulations is presented, providing an assessment of their capacity to reproduce flux behavior relative to the observations ]based products. Though differently constrained with observations, the analyzed reference datasets display similar large-scale ET patterns. ET from the IPCC AR4 simulations was significantly smaller than that from the other products for India (up to 1 mm/d) and parts of eastern South America, and larger in the western USA, Australia and China. The inter-product variance is lower across the IPCC AR4 simulations than across the reference datasets in several regions, which indicates that uncertainties may be underestimated in the IPCC AR4 models due to shared biases of these simulations.

  9. Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuJie

    2004-01-01

    There are three major space launch bases in China, the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center,the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center and the Xichang Satellite Launch Center. All the three launch centers are located in sparsely populated areas where the terrain is even and the field of vision is broad. Security, transport conditions and the influence of the axial rotation

  10. Geodetic Secor Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-01

    simple, and had low-power lem. 17 14. Satellite Orientation . The satellite was designed to maintain a constant relationship between the antenna...the same satellite orientation . Further considerations were Th oscillations, however, when higher orbital ranges (500-2500 nautical miles) -, 3 a

  11. TC-2 Satellite Delivered

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    On April 18, 2005, TC-2, the second satellite of Double Star Program (DSP), which was jointly developed by CNSA and ESA, was approved to be delivered to the user after the on-board test and trial operation. The satellite is working well and the performance can meet the user's need. The satellite has collected large amount of valuable scientific data

  12. Does unconscious thought outperform conscious thought on complex decisions? A further examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd J. Thorsteinson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments examined the benefits of unconscious thought on complex decisions (Dijksterhuis, 2004. Experiment 1 attempted to replicate and extend past research by examining the effect of providing reasons prior to rating the options. Results indicated no significant differences between the conditions. Experiment 2 attempted to replicate the findings of Dijksterhuis, Bos, Nordgren, and van Baaren (2006 and determine if a memory aid could overcome the limitations of conscious thought on complex tasks. Results revealed that a memory aid improved decisions compared to the conscious thought condition. Participants in the unconscious thought condition did not perform significantly better than did participants in the conscious thought condition.

  13. Involuntary antipsychotic medication and freedom of thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Stenlund

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I clarify the relationship between the use of involuntary antipsychotic medication and a delusionalperson’s freedom of thought in the light of three different views of freedom, namely, freedom as negative freedom,freedom as having an autonomous mind and freedom as capability. It is not clear how freedom of thought as a psychoticperson’s human right should be understood and protected in practice. Therefore, further discussion is needed. Thesedifferent ways of understanding a patient’s freedom of thought also encourages to consider individual situations, hearthe patient’s voice and work both multiprofessionally and across disciplines.

  14. Gifford Pinchot’s Thoughts on Conservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoxia; ZU

    2014-01-01

    Gifford Pinchot played a significant role in America’s first conversation movement. He put forward many conservation polices for American federal government. Pinchot’s thoughts on natural resources conservation have rich content. He realized the limitation of natural resources,so he advocated scientific management and governmental supervision on public land. He embedded conservation with moral significance and regarded conservation as an essential means of promoting social justice and international peace. The analysis on Pinchot’s thoughts on conversation can help people understand the development of American environmental thoughts in the 20thcentury and can also provide inspiration for natural resources protection in China.

  15. A High-Resolution Merged Wind Dataset for DYNAMO: Progress and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Timothy J.; Mecikalski, John; Li, Xuanli; Chronis, Themis; Castillo, Tyler; Hoover, Kacie; Brewer, Alan; Churnside, James; McCarty, Brandi; Hein, Paul; Rutledge, Steve; Dolan, Brenda; Matthews, Alyssa; Thompson, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    In order to support research on optimal data assimilation methods for the Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS), launching in 2016, work has been ongoing to produce a high-resolution merged wind dataset for the Dynamics of the Madden Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) field campaign, which took place during late 2011/early 2012. The winds are produced by assimilating DYNAMO observations into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) system. Data sources from the DYNAMO campaign include the upper-air sounding network, radial velocities from the radar network, vector winds from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) and Oceansat-2 Scatterometer (OSCAT) satellite instruments, the NOAA High Resolution Doppler Lidar (HRDL), and several others. In order the prep them for 3DVAR, significant additional quality control work is being done for the currently available TOGA and SMART-R radar datasets, including automatically dealiasing radial velocities and correcting for intermittent TOGA antenna azimuth angle errors. The assimilated winds are being made available as model output fields from WRF on two separate grids with different horizontal resolutions - a 3-km grid focusing on the main DYNAMO quadrilateral (i.e., Gan Island, the R/V Revelle, the R/V Mirai, and Diego Garcia), and a 1-km grid focusing on the Revelle. The wind dataset is focused on three separate approximately 2-week periods during the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) onsets that occurred in October, November, and December 2011. Work is ongoing to convert the 10-m surface winds from these model fields to simulated CYGNSS observations using the CYGNSS End-To-End Simulator (E2ES), and these simulated satellite observations are being compared to radar observations of DYNAMO precipitation systems to document the anticipated ability of CYGNSS to provide information on the relationships between surface winds and oceanic precipitation at the mesoscale level. This research will

  16. Validation of a 30+ year soil moisture record from multi-satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jeu, R.; Dorigo, W.; Wagner, W.; Chung, D.; Parinussa, R.; van der Werf, G.; Liu, Y.; Mittelbach, H.; Hirschi, M.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the ESA Climate Change Initiative soil moisture project a 30+ year consistent soil moisture dataset is currently in development by harmonizing retrievals from both passive and active microwave satellite observations. The harmonization of these datasets incorporates the advantage of both microwave techniques and spans the entire period from 1978 onwards. A statistical methodology based on scaling, ranking and blending was developed to address differences in sensor specifications to create one consistent dataset. A soil moisture dataset provided by a land surface model (GLDAS-1-Noah) was used to scale the different satellite-based products to the same range. The blending of the active and passive datasets was based on their respective performance, which is closely related to vegetation cover. While this approach imposes the absolute values of the land surface model dataset to the final product, it preserves the relative dynamics (e.g., seasonality, inter-annual variations) and trends of the original satellite derived retrievals. Different validation methods were performed to quantify the skill of the various soil moisture datasets at different temporal and spatial scales. In situ data from the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) were used to calculate the local correlation (both Pearson and Spearman) and Root Mean Square Difference between ground observations and the satellite retrievals for different climate regimes. In addition a triple collocation analysis was applied on the passive and active satellite products in order to analyze the error structures at a global scale for the different sensors. Furthermore, indirect proxies like tree ring width data were used to study the consistency of the inter-annual variability within the 30+ year dataset. The combination of these techniques revealed a strong dynamical behavior in data quality in both time and space. In the future this additional information on error dynamics could be used to further

  17. Depiction of global drought by reanalysis and real-time satellite precipitation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric; Zhan, Wang

    2017-04-01

    Reanalysis precipitation is routinely used as a surrogate of observations due to its high spatial and temporal resolution and global coverage, and thus widely used in hydrologic and agricultural applications. The resultant product is largely dependent on the accuracy of reanalysis precipitation datasets. With advances in satellite remote sensing technology, the latest generation of reanalysis systems starts to include real time satellite precipitation estimates as inputs to their assimilation system. In this presentation, reanalysis precipitations datasets and real-time satellite rainfall products are used for the depiction of global drought events by comparing them against an observational reference dataset, namely the Princeton Global Forcing (PGF) dataset, during the period of March 2000 to December 2012. The selected reanalyses are the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), ERA-Interim, and the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, version 1 (MERRA) and 2 (MERRA-2). Three real-time satellite precipitation estimates; namely the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) 3B42RT, the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) morphing algorithm (CMORPH) and the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN) are included in the study. Our results show that all datasets depict Sub-Saharan African drought events with limited skill, as opposed to mid latitude regions. Reanalyses and satellite real-time precipitation datasets have comparative skill in the low latitudes. Specific drought events are analyzed that demonstrate the drought depiction from the various datasets. In North America, Asia and Europe, drought events are better replicated and inter-dataset variability is significantly smaller. Overall, temporal characteristics of identified drought events are better estimated than their spatial extent.

  18. A merged aerosol dataset based on MODIS and MISR Aerosol Optical Depth products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manoj K.; Gautam, Ritesh; Venkatachalam, Parvatham

    2016-05-01

    Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) products available from MODIS and MISR observations are widely used for aerosol characterization, and global/environmental change studies. These products are based on different retrieval-algorithms, resolutions, sampling, and cloud-screening schemes, which have led to global/regional biases. Thus a merged product is desirable which bridges this gap by utilizing strengths from each of the sensors. In view of this, we have developed a "merged" AOD product based on MODIS and MISR AOD datasets, using Bayesian principles which takes error distributions from ground-based AOD measurements (from AERONET). Our methodology and resulting dataset are especially relevant in the scenario of combining multi-sensor retrievals for satellite-based climate data records; particularly for long-term studies involving AOD. Specifically for MISR AOD product, we also developed a methodology to produce a gap-filled dataset, using geostatistical methods (e.g. Kriging), taking advantage of available MODIS data. Merged and spatially-complete AOD datasets are inter-compared with other satellite products and with AERONET data at three stations- Kanpur, Jaipur and Gandhi College, in the Indo-Gangetic Plains. The RMSE of merged AOD (0.08-0.09) is lower than MISR (0.11-0.20) and MODIS (0.15-0.27). It is found that merged AOD has higher correlation with AERONET data (r within 0.92-0.95), compared to MISR (0.74-0.86) and MODIS (0.69-0.84) data. In terms of Expected Error, the accuracy of valid merged AOD is found to be superior as percent of merged AOD within error envelope are larger (71-92%), compared to MISR (43-61%) and MODIS (50-70%).

  19. A consistent aerosol optical depth (AOD) dataset over mainland China by integration of several AOD products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H.; Guang, J.; Xue, Y.; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Che, Y. H.; Guo, Jianping; He, X. W.; Wang, T. K.

    2015-08-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) and the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) provide validated aerosol optical depth (AOD) products over both land and ocean. However, the values of the AOD provided by each of these satellites may show spatial and temporal differences due to the instrument characteristics and aerosol retrieval algorithms used for each instrument. In this article we present a method to produce an AOD data set over Asia for the year 2007 based on fusion of the data provided by different instruments and/or algorithms. First, the bias of each satellite-derived AOD product was calculated by comparison with ground-based AOD data derived from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) and the China Aerosol Remote Sensing NETwork (CARSNET) for different values of the surface albedo and the AOD. Then, these multiple AOD products were combined using the maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) method using weights derived from the root mean square error (RMSE) associated with the accuracies of the original AOD products. The original and merged AOD dataset has been validated by comparison with AOD data from the CARSNET. Results show that the mean bias error (MBE) and mean absolute error (MAE) of the merged AOD dataset are not larger than that of any of the original AOD products. In addition, for the merged AOD dataset the fraction of pixels with no data is significantly smaller than that of any of the original products, thus increasing the spatial coverage. The fraction of retrievable area is about 50% for the merged AOD dataset and between 5% and 20% for the MISR, SeaWiFS, MODIS-DT and MODIS-DB algorithms.

  20. Telemetry dataset from satellite tags deployed on adult bearded seals in Kotzebue, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) are one of the most important subsistence resources for the indigenous people of coastal northern and western Alaska, as well as...

  1. Rays in the northern Gulf of Mexico: Aerial Survey and Satellite Telemetry 2008-2012 (NCEI Accession 0129495)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains distribution and abundance data for rays in the Gulf of Mexico collected through aerial surveys and satellite telemetry. Aerial survey data...

  2. ArcHydro global datasets for Idaho StreamStats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset consists of a personal geodatabase containing several vector datasets. This database contains the information needed to link the HUCs together so a...

  3. Strontium removal jar test dataset for all figures and tables.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The datasets where used to generate data to demonstrate strontium removal under various water quality and treatment conditions. This dataset is associated with the...

  4. The SeaFlux Turbulent Flux Dataset Version 1.0 Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayson, Carol Anne; Roberts, J. Brent; Bogdanoff, Alec S.

    2012-01-01

    Under the auspices of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Global Energy and Water cycle EXperiment (GEWEX) Data and Assessment Panel (GDAP), the SeaFlux Project was created to investigate producing a high-resolution satellite-based dataset of surface turbulent fluxes over the global oceans. The most current release of the SeaFlux product is Version 1.0; this represents the initial release of turbulent surface heat fluxes, associated near-surface variables including a diurnally varying sea surface temperature.

  5. Statistics of large detrital geochronology datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, J. E.; Sundell, K. E., II

    2014-12-01

    Implementation of quantitative metrics for inter-sample comparison of detrital geochronological data sets has lagged the increase in data set size, and ability to identify sub-populations and quantify their relative proportions. Visual comparison or application of some statistical approaches, particularly the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test, that initially appeared to provide a simple way of comparing detrital data sets, may be inadequate to quantify their similarity. We evaluate several proposed metrics by applying them to four large synthetic datasets drawn randomly from a parent dataset, as well as a recently published large empirical dataset consisting of four separate (n = ~1000 each) analyses of the same rock sample. Visual inspection of the cumulative probability density functions (CDF) and relative probability density functions (PDF) confirms an increasingly close correlation between data sets as the number of analyses increases. However, as data set size increases the KS test yields lower mean p-values implying greater confidence that the samples were not drawn from the same parent population and high standard deviations despite minor decreases in the mean difference between sample CDFs. We attribute this to the increasing sensitivity of the KS test when applied to larger data sets, which in turn limits its use for quantitative inter-sample comparison in detrital geochronology. Proposed alternative metrics, including Similarity, Likeness (complement to Mismatch), and the coefficient of determination (R2) of a cross-plot of PDF quantiles, point to an increasingly close correlation between data sets with increasing size, although they are the most sensitive at different ranges of data set sizes. The Similarity test is most sensitive to variation in data sets with n < 100 and is relatively insensitive to further convergence between larger data sets. The Likeness test reaches 90% of its asymptotic maximum at data set sizes of n = 200. The PDF cross-plot R2 value

  6. Quantum Thought Experiments Can Define Nature

    CERN Document Server

    McCartor, D

    2004-01-01

    One would not think that thought experiments could matter to nature, for they are a humble human device. Yet quantum mechanics very naturally frames thought experiments (as distinct from precisely defining what exists). They exemplify the informing powers of radiation. Though based on wave functions that have time symmetry, these tableaux inevitably tell of irreversible behavior by nature. The paper sketches how John von Neumann's measurement theory fits into this and retells N. David Mermin's baseball story.

  7. Controlled Vocabulary Standards for Anthropological Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Emmelhainz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to outline the use of controlled vocabulary standards for qualitative datasets in cultural anthropology, which are increasingly held in researcher-accessible government repositories and online digital libraries. As a humanistic science that can address almost any aspect of life with meaning to humans, cultural anthropology has proven difficult for librarians and archivists to effectively organize. Yet as anthropology moves onto the web, the challenge of organizing and curating information within the field only grows. In considering the subject classification of digital information in anthropology, I ask how we might best use controlled vocabularies for indexing digital anthropological data. After a brief discussion of likely concerns, I outline thesauri which may potentially be used for vocabulary control in metadata fields for language, location, culture, researcher, and subject. The article concludes with recommendations for those existing thesauri most suitable to provide a controlled vocabulary for describing digital objects in the anthropological world.

  8. Visualization of Cosmological Particle-Based Datasets

    CERN Document Server

    Navrátil, Paul Arthur; Bromm, Volker

    2007-01-01

    We describe our visualization process for a particle-based simulation of the formation of the first stars and their impact on cosmic history. The dataset consists of several hundred time-steps of point simulation data, with each time-step containing approximately two million point particles. For each time-step, we interpolate the point data onto a regular grid using a method taken from the radiance estimate of photon mapping. We import the resulting regular grid representation into ParaView, with which we extract isosurfaces across multiple variables. Our images provide insights into the evolution of the early universe, tracing the cosmic transition from an initially homogeneous state to one of increasing complexity. Specifically, our visualizations capture the build-up of regions of ionized gas around the first stars, their evolution, and their complex interactions with the surrounding matter. These observations will guide the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope, the key astronomy mission of the next decade.

  9. Predicting dataset popularity for the CMS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, V.; Li, T.; Giommi, L.; Bonacorsi, D.; Wildish, T.

    2016-10-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC accelerator at CERN relies on its computing infrastructure to stay at the frontier of High Energy Physics, searching for new phenomena and making discoveries. Even though computing plays a significant role in physics analysis we rarely use its data to predict the system behavior itself. A basic information about computing resources, user activities and site utilization can be really useful for improving the throughput of the system and its management. In this paper, we discuss a first CMS analysis of dataset popularity based on CMS meta-data which can be used as a model for dynamic data placement and provide the foundation of data-driven approach for the CMS computing infrastructure.

  10. Predicting dataset popularity for the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00005122; Li, Ting; Giommi, Luca; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Wildish, Tony

    2016-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC accelerator at CERN relies on its computing infrastructure to stay at the frontier of High Energy Physics, searching for new phenomena and making discoveries. Even though computing plays a significant role in physics analysis we rarely use its data to predict the system behavior itself. A basic information about computing resources, user activities and site utilization can be really useful for improving the throughput of the system and its management. In this paper, we discuss a first CMS analysis of dataset popularity based on CMS meta-data which can be used as a model for dynamic data placement and provide the foundation of data-driven approach for the CMS computing infrastructure.

  11. BDML Datasets - SSBD | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us SSBD BDML Datasets Data detail Data name BDML Datasets DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc01349-001 Desc...This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us BDML Datasets - SSBD | LSDB Archive ...

  12. SAGE Research Methods Datasets: A Data Analysis Educational Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardell, Emily

    2016-01-01

    SAGE Research Methods Datasets (SRMD) is an educational tool designed to offer users the opportunity to obtain hands-on experience with data analysis. Users can search for and browse authentic datasets by method, discipline, and data type. Each of the datasets are supplemented with educational material on the research method and clear guidelines for how to approach data analysis.

  13. Meteorological satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Su-Yin

    2014-01-01

    “Meteorological Satellite Systems” is a primer on weather satellites and their Earth applications. This book reviews historic developments and recent technological advancements in GEO and polar orbiting meteorological satellites. It explores the evolution of these remote sensing technologies and their capabilities to monitor short- and long-term changes in weather patterns in response to climate change. Satellites developed by various countries, such as U.S. meteorological satellites, EUMETSAT, and Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Indian satellite platforms are reviewed. This book also discusses international efforts to coordinate meteorological remote sensing data collection and sharing. This title provides a ready and quick reference for information about meteorological satellites. It serves as a useful tool for a broad audience that includes students, academics, private consultants, engineers, scientists, and teachers.

  14. Theory of geostationary satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Zee, Chong-Hung

    1989-01-01

    Geostationary or equatorial synchronous satellites are a daily reminder of our space efforts during the past two decades. The nightly television satellite weather picture, the intercontinental telecommunications of television transmissions and telephone conversations, and the establishrnent of educational programs in remote regions on Earth are constant reminders of the presence of these satellites. As used here, the term 'geo­ stationary' must be taken loosely because, in the long run, the satellites will not remain 'stationary' with respect to an Earth-fixed reference frame. This results from the fact that these satellites, as is true for all satellites, are incessantly subject to perturbations other than the central-body attraction of the Earth. Among the more predominant pertur­ bations are: the ellipticity of the Earth's equator, the Sun and Moon, and solar radiation pressure. Higher harmonics of the Earth's potential and tidal effects also influence satellite motion, but they are of second­ order whe...

  15. Analysis of GRACE Range-rate Residuals with Emphasis on Reprocessed Star-Camera Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, S.; Flury, J.; Naeimi, M.; Bandikova, T.; Guerr, T. M.; Klinger, B.

    2015-12-01

    Since March 2002 the two GRACE satellites orbit the Earth at rela-tively low altitude. Determination of the gravity field of the Earth including itstemporal variations from the satellites' orbits and the inter-satellite measure-ments is the goal of the mission. Yet, the time-variable gravity signal has notbeen fully exploited. This can be seen better in the computed post-fit range-rateresiduals. The errors reflected in the range-rate residuals are due to the differ-ent sources as systematic errors, mismodelling errors and tone errors. Here, weanalyse the effect of three different star-camera data sets on the post-fit range-rate residuals. On the one hand, we consider the available attitude data andon other hand we take the two different data sets which has been reprocessedat Institute of Geodesy, Hannover and Institute of Theoretical Geodesy andSatellite Geodesy, TU Graz Austria respectively. Then the differences in therange-rate residuals computed from different attitude dataset are analyzed inthis study. Details will be given and results will be discussed.

  16. Inter-comparison of drought indicators derived from multiple precipitation datasets in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Gustavo; Dutra, Emanuel; Barbosa, Paulo; Pappenberger, Florian; Wetterhall, Fredrik

    2013-04-01

    This study investigates the potential of implementing different drought indicators to improve drought monitoring capabilities at continental scale. Several global and continental datasets based on re-analysis, gridded observation, and remote sensing data were tested. At regional level the capabilities of each indicator and dataset on five regions on the African continent (Oum er-rbia, Blue Nile, Upper Niger, Limpopo and the Great Horn of Africa) were compared. The five precipitation datasets used were the ERA - Interim reanalysis (0.5°x0.5° resolution from 1979 to 2010), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite monthly rainfall product 3B43 (0.25°x0.25° resolution from 1998 to 2010), the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) gridded precipitation dataset V.5 (1°x1° resolution from 1901 to 2010), the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Global Monthly Merged Precipitation Analyses (2.5°x2.5° resolution from 1979 to 2010), and the Climate Prediction Center Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP, 2.5°x2.5° resolution from 1979 to 2010). The set of indicators proposed included Standardized Precipitation index (SPI), Standardized Precipitation-Evaporation Index (SPEI), Standardized Run-off index (SRI), Soil Moisture Anomalies (SMA). A comparison of the annual cycle and monthly precipitation time series shows a general agreement in the timing of the peaks including the Great Horn of Africa where there are two rainy seasons. The main differences are observed thus in the ability to represent the magnitude of the wet seasons and extremes. Moreover, for the areas that are under drought, all the datasets agree with the certain time of onset and recovery but there are sometimes disagreements on the area affected. The agreement between datasets depends on the threshold selected to define the drought conditions. The comparison between SPI estimations suggest that the main sources of uncertainties (due by lack of ground information

  17. Displaying Planetary and Geophysical Datasets on NOAAs Science On a Sphere (TM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, S. C.; MacDonald, A. E.; Himes, D.

    2005-12-01

    NOAAs Science On a Sphere(TM)(SOS)was developed to educate current and future generations about the changing Earth and its processes. This system presents NOAAs global science through a 3D representation of our planet as if the viewer were looking at the Earth from outer space. In our presentation, we will describe the preparation of various global datasets for display on Science On a Sphere(TM), a 1.7-m diameter spherical projection system developed and patented at the Forecast Systems Laboratory (FSL) in Boulder, Colorado. Four projectors cast rotating images onto a spherical projection screen to create the effect of Earth, planet, or satellite floating in space. A static dataset can be prepared for display using popular image formats such as JPEG, usually sized at 1024x2048 or 2048x4096 pixels. A set of static images in a directory will comprise a movie. Imagery and data for SOS are obtained from a variety of government organizations, sometimes post-processed by various individuals, including the authors. Some datasets are already available in the required cylindrical projection. Readily available planetary maps can often be improved in coverage and/or appearance by reprojecting and combining additional images and mosaics obtained by various spacecraft, such as Voyager, Galileo, and Cassini. A map of Mercury was produced by blending some Mariner 10 photo-mosaics with a USGS shaded-relief map. An improved high-resolution map of Venus was produced by combining several Magellan mosaics, supplied by The Planetary Society, along with other spacecraft data. We now have a full set of Jupiter's Galilean satellite imagery that we can display on Science On a Sphere(TM). Photo-mosaics of several Saturnian satellites were updated by reprojecting and overlaying recently taken Cassini flyby images. Maps of imagery from five Uranian satellites were added, as well as one for Neptune. More image processing was needed to add a high-resolution Voyager mosaic to a pre-existing map

  18. Non-erotic thoughts and sexual functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdon, Christine; Watson, Chris

    2011-10-01

    This study sought to replicate and extend investigations of current models of sexual dysfunction (Barlow, 2002; Janssen, Everaerd, Spiering, & Janssen, 2000) which implicate factors such as spectatoring, failure to use ameliorative strategies, and information processing biases in the development and persistence of sexual difficulties. A sample of 165 (n = 71 men) undergraduates completed measures of sexual dysfunction and relationship satisfaction, and reported on the content and frequency of non-erotic thoughts during sex with a partner (i.e., spectatoring), the emotional impact of non-erotic thoughts, and the strategies used to manage them. They also reported on their main sexual functioning difficulties and the strategies they used to manage those difficulties. Finally, participants were presented with a series of hypothetical sexual scenarios and were asked to report their immediate interpretation of events in the scenario. The content of non-erotic thoughts was similar to previous work (Purdon & Holdaway, 2006), although gender differences in thought content were less pronounced. As in previous research, greater frequency of, and anxiety evoked by, non-erotic thoughts was associated with poorer sexual functioning, but we found that this was over and above relationship satisfaction. Participants both high and low in sexual functioning reported using a variety of strategies to manage their non-erotic thoughts, thought suppression being the least effective, and also used a variety of strategies to manage sexual difficulties. Poorer sexual functioning was associated with more negative interpretations of ambiguous sexual scenarios, but this was mediated by relationship satisfaction. However, positive interpretations were predicted by sexual functioning. Results were discussed in terms of their theoretical and clinical implications.

  19. Thought insertion, cognitivism, and inner space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Tim

    2002-08-01

    Whatever its underlying causes, even the description of the phenomenon of thought insertion, of the content of the delusion, presents difficulty. It may seem that the best hope of a description comes from a broadly cognitivist approach to the mind which construes content-laden mental states as internal mental representations within what is literally an inner space: the space of the brain or nervous system. Such an approach objectifies thoughts in a way which might seem to hold out the prospect of describing the ''alienated'' relation to one's own thoughts that seems to be present in thought insertion.1 Firstly, I examine the general structure of cognitivist accounts of intentional or content-laden mental states. I raise the general difficulty of explaining how free-standing, and thus world-independent, inner states can still have bearing on the outer world. Secondly, I briefly examine Frith's model for explaining thought insertion and other passivity phenomena by postulating a failure of an internal monitoring mechanism of inner states. I question what account can be given of non-pathological cases and raise two specific objects. Cognitivist accounts of the mind face a general, and possibly insuperable, challenge: explaining the intentionality of mental states in non-intentional, nonquestion-begging terms. There have so far been no satisfactory solutions. Cognitivist accounts of passivity phenomena in terms of a failure of internal monitoring face two objections. Firstly, accounting for non-pathological cases generates an infinite regress. Secondly, no account can be given of the paradoxical nature of utterances of the form of Moore's paradox: ''it is raining but I do not believe it''. A cognitivist approach presents an alienated account of thought in normal, non-pathological cases and is no help in accounting for thought insertion.

  20. ASSESSING SMALL SAMPLE WAR-GAMING DATASETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. HURLEY

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental problems faced by military planners is the assessment of changes to force structure. An example is whether to replace an existing capability with an enhanced system. This can be done directly with a comparison of measures such as accuracy, lethality, survivability, etc. However this approach does not allow an assessment of the force multiplier effects of the proposed change. To gauge these effects, planners often turn to war-gaming. For many war-gaming experiments, it is expensive, both in terms of time and dollars, to generate a large number of sample observations. This puts a premium on the statistical methodology used to examine these small datasets. In this paper we compare the power of three tests to assess population differences: the Wald-Wolfowitz test, the Mann-Whitney U test, and re-sampling. We employ a series of Monte Carlo simulation experiments. Not unexpectedly, we find that the Mann-Whitney test performs better than the Wald-Wolfowitz test. Resampling is judged to perform slightly better than the Mann-Whitney test.

  1. Workflow to numerically reproduce laboratory ultrasonic datasets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Biryukov; N. Tisato; G. Grasselli

    2014-01-01

    The risks and uncertainties related to the storage of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) can be reduced thanks to focused studies and investigations. HLRWs are going to be placed in deep geological re-positories, enveloped in an engineered bentonite barrier, whose physical conditions are subjected to change throughout the lifespan of the infrastructure. Seismic tomography can be employed to monitor its physical state and integrity. The design of the seismic monitoring system can be optimized via con-ducting and analyzing numerical simulations of wave propagation in representative repository geometry. However, the quality of the numerical results relies on their initial calibration. The main aim of this paper is to provide a workflow to calibrate numerical tools employing laboratory ultrasonic datasets. The finite difference code SOFI2D was employed to model ultrasonic waves propagating through a laboratory sample. Specifically, the input velocity model was calibrated to achieve a best match between experi-mental and numerical ultrasonic traces. Likely due to the imperfections of the contact surfaces, the resultant velocities of P- and S-wave propagation tend to be noticeably lower than those a priori assigned. Then, the calibrated model was employed to estimate the attenuation in a montmorillonite sample. The obtained low quality factors (Q) suggest that pronounced inelastic behavior of the clay has to be taken into account in geophysical modeling and analysis. Consequently, this contribution should be considered as a first step towards the creation of a numerical tool to evaluate wave propagation in nuclear waste repositories.

  2. Classification of antimicrobial peptides with imbalanced datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Francy L.; Torres, Rodrigo; Ramos Pollán, Raúl

    2015-12-01

    In the last years, pattern recognition has been applied to several fields for solving multiple problems in science and technology as for example in protein prediction. This methodology can be useful for prediction of activity of biological molecules, e.g. for determination of antimicrobial activity of synthetic and natural peptides. In this work, we evaluate the performance of different physico-chemical properties of peptides (descriptors groups) in the presence of imbalanced data sets, when facing the task of detecting whether a peptide has antimicrobial activity. We evaluate undersampling and class weighting techniques to deal with the class imbalance with different classification methods and descriptor groups. Our classification model showed an estimated precision of 96% showing that descriptors used to codify the amino acid sequences contain enough information to correlate the peptides sequences with their antimicrobial activity by means of learning machines. Moreover, we show how certain descriptor groups (pseudoaminoacid composition type I) work better with imbalanced datasets while others (dipeptide composition) work better with balanced ones.

  3. .A method for examining temporal changes in cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom spatial extent using satellite remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHAB) are thought to be increasing globally over the past few decades, but relatively little quantitative information is available about the spatial extent of blooms. Satellite remote sensing provides a potential technology for identifying...

  4. A thought experiment reconciling neuroscience and psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falissard, Bruno

    2011-12-01

    Thought experiments have a long tradition in science. The thought experiment proposed in this article designs a brain that is compatible with a conceptual framework that integrates neuroscience and psychoanalysis. A connectionist model with emergent collective computational abilities is modified progressively and gradually to retrieve concepts such as the following: life instinct, the death instinct, the conscious, the preconscious, the unconscious, the free-association method, parapraxis, repetitive compulsion, repression, self, other, and "I". In this model, the process of memorisation is represented by a neural network with deep depressions, the bottoms of which correspond to learned configurations known as "attractors". This thought experiment could be helpful in suggesting new formulations of traditional psychoanalytic and neuroscientific constructs.

  5. An enhanced algorithm to estimate BDS satellite's differential code biases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chuang; Fan, Lei; Li, Min; Liu, Zhizhao; Gu, Shengfeng; Zhong, Shiming; Song, Weiwei

    2016-02-01

    This paper proposes an enhanced algorithm to estimate the differential code biases (DCB) on three frequencies of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) satellites. By forming ionospheric observables derived from uncombined precise point positioning and geometry-free linear combination of phase-smoothed range, satellite DCBs are determined together with ionospheric delay that is modeled at each individual station. Specifically, the DCB and ionospheric delay are estimated in a weighted least-squares estimator by considering the precision of ionospheric observables, and a misclosure constraint for different types of satellite DCBs is introduced. This algorithm was tested by GNSS data collected in November and December 2013 from 29 stations of Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) and BeiDou Experimental Tracking Stations. Results show that the proposed algorithm is able to precisely estimate BDS satellite DCBs, where the mean value of day-to-day scattering is about 0.19 ns and the RMS of the difference with respect to MGEX DCB products is about 0.24 ns. In order to make comparison, an existing algorithm based on IGG: Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, China (IGGDCB), is also used to process the same dataset. Results show that, the DCB difference between results from the enhanced algorithm and the DCB products from Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) and MGEX is reduced in average by 46 % for GPS satellites and 14 % for BDS satellites, when compared with DCB difference between the results of IGGDCB algorithm and the DCB products from CODE and MGEX. In addition, we find the day-to-day scattering of BDS IGSO satellites is obviously lower than that of GEO and MEO satellites, and a significant bias exists in daily DCB values of GEO satellites comparing with MGEX DCB product. This proposed algorithm also provides a new approach to estimate the satellite DCBs of multiple GNSS systems.

  6. Mobile satellite communications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Cochetti, Roger

    2014-01-01

    With a Preface by noted satellite scientist Dr. Ahmad Ghais, the Second Edition reflects the expanded user base for this technology by updating information on historic, current, and planned commercial and military satellite systems and by expanding sections that explain the technology for non-technical professionals.   The book begins with an introduction to satellite communications and goes on to provide an overview of the technologies involved in mobile satellite communications, providing basic introductions to RF Issues, power Issues, link issues and system issues. It describes

  7. Satellite communication antenna technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittra, R. (Editor); Imbriale, W. A. (Editor); Maanders, E. J. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    A general overview of current technology in the field of communication satellite antennas is presented. Among the topics discussed are: the design of multiple beam systems; frequency reuse; and polarization control of antenna measurements. Consideration is also given to: contour beam synthesis; dual shaped reflector synthesis; beam shaping; and offset reflector design. The applications of the above technologies to present and future generations of communications satellites is considered, with emphasis given to such systems as: the Intelsats; the Defense Satellite Communications System, (DSCS-III); Satellite Business System (SBS), and Comstar.

  8. Methods of satellite oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The theoretical basis for remote sensing measurements of climate and ocean dynamics is examined. Consideration is given to: the absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the atmosphere; scattering in the atmosphere; and satellite observations using visible light. Consideration is also given to: the theory of radio scatter from the sea; scatter of centimeter waves from the sea; and the theory of operation of synthetic aperture radars. Additional topics include: the coordinate systems of satellite orbits for oceanographic remote sensing applications; the operating features of the major U.S. satellite systems for viewing the ocean; and satellite altimetry.

  9. Elective affinities and economic thought: 1870-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Antônio de Paula

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to demonstrate that the concept of "elective affinities" can be applied to the relations between economic thought, literature, and philosophy. Emphasis is given to Institutionalist thought, the German historical school, and neoclassical thought.

  10. Context and Content: From Language to Thought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FRANCOIS RECANATI

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I present an overview of my research in the philosophy of language in mind over more than tmrty years, from my early work on speech act theory to my current work on mental files. The unifying theme is context-dependence, both in language and thought. I distinguish several varieties of context-dependence and, along the way, provide tentative accounts of various phenomena: performative utterances, indexicals, modulation (metonymy and loose talk, free enrichment), de se thought, the content of experiential states, and immunity to error through misidentification.

  11. THOMAS BERNHARD: DESTROYED THOUGHT AND REVIVED SUBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helano Jader Ribeiro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to set a discussion about the book of Austrian writer Thomas Bernhard, Extinction, with regard to the legacy of the Nazi destruction of thought. The closing speech that Thomas Bernhard could also be read as an extinction of thought on behalf of a silence typical of those who survived and / or worked in concentration camps. Much has been written about Auschwitz, but the need to continue with all kinds of questions ethical, political or legal is an obligation of humanity itself.

  12. Mapping the Brain’s Metaphor Circuitry:Is Abstract Thought Metaphorical Thought?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George eLakoff

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the basics of metaphorical thought and language from the perspective of Neurocognition, the integrated interdisciplinary study of how conceptual thought and language work in the brain. The paper outlines a theory of metaphor circuitry and discusses how everyday reason makes use of embodied metaphor circuitry.

  13. A reference GNSS tropospheric dataset over Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacione, Rosa; Di Tomaso, Simona

    2016-04-01

    The present availability of 18 years of GNSS data belonging to the European Permanent Network (EPN, http://www.epncb.oma.be/) is a valuable database for the development of a climate data record of GNSS tropospheric products over Europe. This dataset has high potential for monitoring trend and variability in atmospheric water vapour, improving the knowledge of climatic trends of atmospheric water vapour and being useful for global and regional NWP reanalyses as well as climate model simulations. In the framework of the EPN-Repro2, a second reprocessing campaign of the EPN, five Analysis Centres have homogenously reprocessed the EPN network for the 1996-2013. Three Analysis Centres are providing homogenously reprocessed solutions for the entire network, which are analyzed by the three different software packages: Bernese, GAMIT and GIPSY-OASIS. Smaller subnetworks based on Bernese 5.2 are also provided. A huge effort is made for providing solutions that are the basis for deriving new coordinates, velocities and troposphere parameters, Zenith Tropospheric Delays and Horizontal Gradients, for the entire EPN. These individual contributions are combined in order to provide the official EPN reprocessed products. A preliminary tropospheric combined solution for the period 1996-2013 has been carried out. It is based on all the available homogenously reprocessed solutions and it offers the possibility to assess each of them prior to the ongoing final combination. We will present the results of the EPN Repro2 tropospheric combined products and how the climate community will benefit from them. Aknowledgment.The EPN Repro2 working group is acknowledged for providing the EPN solutions used in this work. E-GEOS activity is carried out in the framework of ASI contract 2015-050-R.0.

  14. Using kittens to unlock photo-sharing website datasets for environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoin, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Mining photo-sharing websites is a promising approach to complement in situ and satellite observations of the environment, however a challenge is to deal with the large degree of noise inherent to online social datasets. Here I explored the value of the Flickr image hosting website database to monitor the snow cover in the Pyrenees. Using the Flickr application programming interface (API) I queried all the public images metadata tagged at least with one of the following words: "snow", "neige", "nieve", "neu" (snow in French, Spanish and Catalan languages). The search was limited to the geo-tagged pictures taken in the Pyrenees area. However, the number of public pictures available in the Flickr database for a given time interval depends on several factors, including the Flickr website popularity and the development of digital photography. Thus, I also searched for all Flickr images tagged with "chat", "gat" or "gato" (cat in French, Spanish and Catalan languages). The tag "cat" was not considered in order to exclude the results from North America where Flickr got popular earlier than in Europe. The number of "cat" images per month was used to fit a model of the number of images uploaded in Flickr with time. This model was used to remove this trend in the numbers of snow-tagged photographs. The resulting time series was compared to a time series of the snow cover area derived from the MODIS satellite over the same region. Both datasets are well correlated; in particular they exhibit the same seasonal evolution, although the inter-annual variabilities are less similar. I will also discuss which other factors may explain the main discrepancies in order to further decrease the noise in the Flickr dataset.

  15. Distributed solar photovoltaic array location and extent dataset for remote sensing object identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Kyle; Saboo, Raghav; L. Johnson, Timothy; Malof, Jordan M.; Devarajan, Arjun; Zhang, Wuming; M. Collins, Leslie; G. Newell, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Earth-observing remote sensing data, including aerial photography and satellite imagery, offer a snapshot of the world from which we can learn about the state of natural resources and the built environment. The components of energy systems that are visible from above can be automatically assessed with these remote sensing data when processed with machine learning methods. Here, we focus on the information gap in distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays, of which there is limited public data on solar PV deployments at small geographic scales. We created a dataset of solar PV arrays to initiate and develop the process of automatically identifying solar PV locations using remote sensing imagery. This dataset contains the geospatial coordinates and border vertices for over 19,000 solar panels across 601 high-resolution images from four cities in California. Dataset applications include training object detection and other machine learning algorithms that use remote sensing imagery, developing specific algorithms for predictive detection of distributed PV systems, estimating installed PV capacity, and analysis of the socioeconomic correlates of PV deployment.

  16. Distributed solar photovoltaic array location and extent dataset for remote sensing object identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Kyle; Saboo, Raghav; L Johnson, Timothy; Malof, Jordan M; Devarajan, Arjun; Zhang, Wuming; M Collins, Leslie; G Newell, Richard

    2016-12-06

    Earth-observing remote sensing data, including aerial photography and satellite imagery, offer a snapshot of the world from which we can learn about the state of natural resources and the built environment. The components of energy systems that are visible from above can be automatically assessed with these remote sensing data when processed with machine learning methods. Here, we focus on the information gap in distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays, of which there is limited public data on solar PV deployments at small geographic scales. We created a dataset of solar PV arrays to initiate and develop the process of automatically identifying solar PV locations using remote sensing imagery. This dataset contains the geospatial coordinates and border vertices for over 19,000 solar panels across 601 high-resolution images from four cities in California. Dataset applications include training object detection and other machine learning algorithms that use remote sensing imagery, developing specific algorithms for predictive detection of distributed PV systems, estimating installed PV capacity, and analysis of the socioeconomic correlates of PV deployment.

  17. Iron in galaxy groups and clusters: Confronting galaxy evolution models with a newly homogenised dataset

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, Robert M; Henriques, Bruno M B

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of the iron abundance in the hot gas surrounding galaxy groups and clusters. To do this, we first compile and homogenise a large dataset of 79 low-redshift (|z| = 0.03) systems (159 individual measurements) from the literature. Our analysis accounts for differences in aperture size, solar abundance, and cosmology, and scales all measurements using customised radial profiles for the temperature (T), gas density, and iron abundance (Z). We then compare this dataset to groups and clusters in the L-Galaxies galaxy evolution model. Our homogenised dataset reveals a tight T-Z relation for clusters, with a scatter in Z of only 0.10 dex and a slight negative gradient. After examining potential measurement biases, we conclude that at least some of this negative gradient has a physical origin. Our model suggests greater accretion of hydrogen in the hottest systems, via stripping of gas from infalling satellites, as a cause. At lower temperatures, L-Galaxies over-estimates Z in groups, indicating ...

  18. Suicidal Thoughts Among Medical Residents with Burnout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Frank; Dillingh, Gea; Bakker, Arnold; Prins, Jelle

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Recent research showed that medical residents have a high risk for developing burnout. The present study investigates the prevalence of burnout and its relationship with suicidal thoughts among medical residents. Methods: All Dutch medical residents (n = 5126) received a self-report ques

  19. The Correlations between Language, Culture and Thought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹忠凯

    2015-01-01

    With the purpose of having a better understanding,this article discusses the correlations between language, culture and thought as well their interactions. They not only correlate but also are different social phenomena. They are dependent and mutu⁃ally influenced with Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis as its main points.

  20. Christian Economic Thought in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAbstract. This paper is not about Dutch Christian political economy. Instead, it focuses on some recent writings of Dutch Christian economists. The objective of the paper is to get an idea of how economic thought in the Netherlands – particularly about the market – is influenced by Chri

  1. Thoughts on the Literature Review and GT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoughts on the Literature Review and GT

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Thinking about epistemic questions always reminds me of Socrates’ cave allegory. In Plato’s most famous book,The Republic, Socrates talks to a young follower named Glaucon. I would like to include here a short excerpt of their conversation and discuss how this relates to my thoughts about preceding a classic GT study with a thorough literature review.

  2. Suicidal Thoughts Among Medical Residents with Burnout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Frank; Dillingh, Gea; Bakker, Arnold; Prins, Jelle

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Recent research showed that medical residents have a high risk for developing burnout. The present study investigates the prevalence of burnout and its relationship with suicidal thoughts among medical residents. Methods: All Dutch medical residents (n = 5126) received a self-report

  3. Disciplines in the Service of Educational Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Ian

    1999-01-01

    Suggests that the 20th century has been the century of the application of disciplines - philosophy, psychology, history, sociology, statistics, cognitive science, and computer science - to educational thought on an unprecedented scale. The same disciplines, in the service of the study of women by women, have led to a whole new complex of thought…

  4. Application of Huang-Hilbert Transforms to Geophysical Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Dean G.

    2003-01-01

    The Huang-Hilbert transform is a promising new method for analyzing nonstationary and nonlinear datasets. In this talk I will apply this technique to several important geophysical datasets. To understand the strengths and weaknesses of this method, multi- year, hourly datasets of the sea level heights and solar radiation will be analyzed. Then we will apply this transform to the analysis of gravity waves observed in a mesoscale observational net.

  5. Norwegian Hydrological Reference Dataset for Climate Change Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnussen, Inger Helene; Killingland, Magnus; Spilde, Dag

    2012-07-01

    Based on the Norwegian hydrological measurement network, NVE has selected a Hydrological Reference Dataset for studies of hydrological change. The dataset meets international standards with high data quality. It is suitable for monitoring and studying the effects of climate change on the hydrosphere and cryosphere in Norway. The dataset includes streamflow, groundwater, snow, glacier mass balance and length change, lake ice and water temperature in rivers and lakes.(Author)

  6. Handbook of satellite orbits from Kepler to GPS

    CERN Document Server

    Capderou, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Fifty years after Sputnik, artificial satellites have become indispensable monitors in many areas, such as economics, meteorology, telecommunications, navigation and remote sensing. The specific orbits are important for the proper functioning of the satellites. This book discusses the great variety of satellite orbits, both in shape (circular to highly elliptical) and properties (geostationary, Sun-synchronous, etc.). This volume starts with an introduction into geodesy. This is followed by a presentation of the fundamental equations of mechanics to explain and demonstrate the properties for all types of orbits. Numerous examples are included, obtained through IXION software developed by the author. The book also includes an exposition of the historical background that is necessary to help the reader understand the main stages of scientific thought from Kepler to GPS. This book is intended for researchers, teachers and students working in the field of satellite technology. Engineers, geographers and all those...

  7. Satellites of spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaritsky, Dennis; Smith, Rodney; Frenk, Carlos; White, Simon D. M.

    1993-01-01

    We present a survey of satellites around a homogeneous set of late-type spirals with luminosity similar to that of the Milky Way. On average, we find fewer than 1.5 satellites per primary, but we argue that we can treat the survey as an ensemble and so derive the properties of the halo of a 'typical' isolated spiral. The projected density profile of the ensemble falls off approximately as 1/r. Within 50 kpc the azimuthal distribution of satellites shows some evidence for the 'Holmberg effect', an excess near the minor axis of the primary; however, at larger projected distances, the distribution appears isotropic. There is a weak but significant correlation between the size of a satellite and its distance from its primary, as expected if satellites are tidally truncated. Neither Hubble type nor spectral characteristics correlate with apparent separation. The ensemble of satellites appears to be rotating at about 30 km/s in the same direction as the galactic disk. Satellites on prograde orbits tend to be brighter than those on retrograde orbits. The typical velocity difference between a satellite and its primary shows no clear dependence either on apparent separation, or on the rotation speed of the primary. Thus our survey demonstrates that isolated spiral galaxies have massive halos that extend to many optical radii.

  8. Communication satellite technology trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccia, Louis

    1986-01-01

    A chronology of space-Earth interconnectivity is presented. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) system, Land Mobile Satellite, space-Earth antennas, impact of antenna size on coverage, intersatellite links are outlined. This presentation is represented by graphs and charts only.

  9. Pgu-Face: A dataset of partially covered facial images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Salari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce a human face image dataset. Images were taken in close to real-world conditions using several cameras, often mobile phone׳s cameras. The dataset contains 224 subjects imaged under four different figures (a nearly clean-shaven countenance, a nearly clean-shaven countenance with sunglasses, an unshaven or stubble face countenance, an unshaven or stubble face countenance with sunglasses in up to two recording sessions. Existence of partially covered face images in this dataset could reveal the robustness and efficiency of several facial image processing algorithms. In this work we present the dataset and explain the recording method.

  10. Compression method based on training dataset of SVM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The method to compress the training dataset of Support Vector Machine (SVM) based on the character of the Support Vector Machine is proposed.First,the distance between the unit in two training datasets,and then the samples that keep away from hyper-plane are discarded in order to compress the training dataset.The time spent in training SVM with the training dataset compressed by the method is shortened obviously.The result of the experiment shows that the algorithm is effective.

  11. Providing Geographic Datasets as Linked Data in Sdi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietanen, E.; Lehto, L.; Latvala, P.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a prototype service to provide data from Web Feature Service (WFS) as linked data is implemented. At first, persistent and unique Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI) are created to all spatial objects in the dataset. The objects are available from those URIs in Resource Description Framework (RDF) data format. Next, a Web Ontology Language (OWL) ontology is created to describe the dataset information content using the Open Geospatial Consortium's (OGC) GeoSPARQL vocabulary. The existing data model is modified in order to take into account the linked data principles. The implemented service produces an HTTP response dynamically. The data for the response is first fetched from existing WFS. Then the Geographic Markup Language (GML) format output of the WFS is transformed on-the-fly to the RDF format. Content Negotiation is used to serve the data in different RDF serialization formats. This solution facilitates the use of a dataset in different applications without replicating the whole dataset. In addition, individual spatial objects in the dataset can be referred with URIs. Furthermore, the needed information content of the objects can be easily extracted from the RDF serializations available from those URIs. A solution for linking data objects to the dataset URI is also introduced by using the Vocabulary of Interlinked Datasets (VoID). The dataset is divided to the subsets and each subset is given its persistent and unique URI. This enables the whole dataset to be explored with a web browser and all individual objects to be indexed by search engines.

  12. Synthetic neuronal datasets for benchmarking directed functional connectivity metrics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodrigues, João; Andrade, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Background. Datasets consisting of synthetic neural data generated with quantifiable and controlled parameters are a valuable asset in the process of testing and validating directed functional connectivity metrics...

  13. BIA Indian Lands Dataset (Indian Lands of the United States)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Geographic Data Committee — The American Indian Reservations / Federally Recognized Tribal Entities dataset depicts feature location, selected demographics and other associated data for the 561...

  14. Public Availability to ECS Collected Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, J. F.; Warnken, R.; McLean, S. J.; Lim, E.; Varner, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal nations have spent considerable resources exploring the limits of their extended continental shelf (ECS) beyond 200 nm. Although these studies are funded to fulfill requirements of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, the investments are producing new data sets in frontier areas of Earth's oceans that will be used to understand, explore, and manage the seafloor and sub-seafloor for decades to come. Although many of these datasets are considered proprietary until a nation's potential ECS has become 'final and binding' an increasing amount of data are being released and utilized by the public. Data sets include multibeam, seismic reflection/refraction, bottom sampling, and geophysical data. The U.S. ECS Project, a multi-agency collaboration whose mission is to establish the full extent of the continental shelf of the United States consistent with international law, relies heavily on data and accurate, standard metadata. The United States has made it a priority to make available to the public all data collected with ECS-funding as quickly as possible. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) supports this objective by partnering with academia and other federal government mapping agencies to archive, inventory, and deliver marine mapping data in a coordinated, consistent manner. This includes ensuring quality, standard metadata and developing and maintaining data delivery capabilities built on modern digital data archives. Other countries, such as Ireland, have submitted their ECS data for public availability and many others have made pledges to participate in the future. The data services provided by NGDC support the U.S. ECS effort as well as many developing nation's ECS effort through the U.N. Environmental Program. Modern discovery, visualization, and delivery of scientific data and derived products that span national and international sources of data ensure the greatest re-use of data and

  15. California Satellite Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Citation: ####################### If using this dataset please cite the following in your work: @misc{VotDasNemSri2010 , author = "Petr Votava and Kamalika Das and...

  16. Towards a High-Resolution Global Inundation Delineation Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluet-Chouinard, E.; Lehner, B.

    2011-12-01

    Although their importance for biodiversity, flow regulation and ecosystem service provision is widely recognized, wetlands and temporarily inundated landscapes remain poorly mapped globally because of their inherent elusive nature. Inventorying of wetland resources has been identified in international agreements as an essential component of appropriate conservation efforts and management initiatives of these threatened ecosystems. However, despite recent advances in remote sensing surface water monitoring, current inventories of surface water variations remain incomplete at the regional-to-global scale due to methodological limitations restricting truly global application. Remote sensing wetland applications such as SAR L-band are particularly constrained by image availability and heterogeneity of acquisition dates, while coarse resolution passive microwave and multi-sensor methods cannot discriminate distinct surface water bodies. As a result, the most popular global wetland dataset remains to this day the Global Lake & Wetland Database (Lehner and Doll, 2004) a spatially inconsistent database assembled from various existing data sources. The approach taken in this project circumvents the limitations of current global wetland monitoring methods by combining globally available topographic and hydrographic data to downscale coarse resolution global inundation data (Prigent et al., 2007) and thus create a superior inundation delineation map product. The developed procedure downscales inundation data from the coarse resolution (~27km) of current passive microwave sensors to the finer spatial resolution (~500m) of the topographic and hydrographic layers of HydroSHEDS' data suite (Lehner et al., 2006), while retaining the high temporal resolution of the multi-sensor inundation dataset. From the downscaling process emerges new information on the specific location of inundation, but also on its frequency and duration. The downscaling algorithm employs a decision tree

  17. Development of a Global Historic Monthly Mean Precipitation Dataset

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨溯; 徐文慧; 许艳; 李庆祥

    2016-01-01

    Global historic precipitation dataset is the base for climate and water cycle research. There have been several global historic land surface precipitation datasets developed by international data centers such as the US National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), European Climate Assessment & Dataset project team, Met Office, etc., but so far there are no such datasets developed by any research institute in China. In addition, each dataset has its own focus of study region, and the existing global precipitation datasets only contain sparse observational stations over China, which may result in uncertainties in East Asian precipitation studies. In order to take into account comprehensive historic information, users might need to employ two or more datasets. However, the non-uniform data formats, data units, station IDs, and so on add extra difficulties for users to exploit these datasets. For this reason, a complete historic precipitation dataset that takes advantages of various datasets has been developed and produced in the National Meteorological Information Center of China. Precipitation observations from 12 sources are aggregated, and the data formats, data units, and station IDs are unified. Duplicated stations with the same ID are identified, with duplicated observations removed. Consistency test, correlation coefficient test, significance t-test at the 95% confidence level, and significance F-test at the 95% confidence level are conducted first to ensure the data reliability. Only those datasets that satisfy all the above four criteria are integrated to produce the China Meteorological Administration global precipitation (CGP) historic precipitation dataset version 1.0. It contains observations at 31 thousand stations with 1.87 × 107 data records, among which 4152 time series of precipitation are longer than 100 yr. This dataset plays a critical role in climate research due to its advantages in large data volume and high density of station network, compared to

  18. Development of a global historic monthly mean precipitation dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Su; Xu, Wenhui; Xu, Yan; Li, Qingxiang

    2016-04-01

    Global historic precipitation dataset is the base for climate and water cycle research. There have been several global historic land surface precipitation datasets developed by international data centers such as the US National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), European Climate Assessment & Dataset project team, Met Office, etc., but so far there are no such datasets developed by any research institute in China. In addition, each dataset has its own focus of study region, and the existing global precipitation datasets only contain sparse observational stations over China, which may result in uncertainties in East Asian precipitation studies. In order to take into account comprehensive historic information, users might need to employ two or more datasets. However, the non-uniform data formats, data units, station IDs, and so on add extra difficulties for users to exploit these datasets. For this reason, a complete historic precipitation dataset that takes advantages of various datasets has been developed and produced in the National Meteorological Information Center of China. Precipitation observations from 12 sources are aggregated, and the data formats, data units, and station IDs are unified. Duplicated stations with the same ID are identified, with duplicated observations removed. Consistency test, correlation coefficient test, significance t-test at the 95% confidence level, and significance F-test at the 95% confidence level are conducted first to ensure the data reliability. Only those datasets that satisfy all the above four criteria are integrated to produce the China Meteorological Administration global precipitation (CGP) historic precipitation dataset version 1.0. It contains observations at 31 thousand stations with 1.87 × 107 data records, among which 4152 time series of precipitation are longer than 100 yr. This dataset plays a critical role in climate research due to its advantages in large data volume and high density of station network, compared to

  19. Accuracy assessment of gridded precipitation datasets in the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate precipitation data are vital for hydro-climatic modelling and water resources assessments. Based on mass balance calculations and Turc-Budyko analysis, this study investigates the accuracy of twelve widely used precipitation gridded datasets for sub-basins in the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) in the Himalayas-Karakoram-Hindukush (HKH) region. These datasets are: 1) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP), 2) Climate Prediction Centre (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP), 3) NCEP / NCAR, 4) Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC), 5) Climatic Research Unit (CRU), 6) Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE), 7) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), 8) European Reanalysis (ERA) interim data, 9) PRINCETON, 10) European Reanalysis-40 (ERA-40), 11) Willmott and Matsuura, and 12) WATCH Forcing Data based on ERA interim (WFDEI). Precipitation accuracy and consistency was assessed by physical mass balance involving sum of annual measured flow, estimated actual evapotranspiration (average of 4 datasets), estimated glacier mass balance melt contribution (average of 4 datasets), and ground water recharge (average of 3 datasets), during 1999-2010. Mass balance assessment was complemented by Turc-Budyko non-dimensional analysis, where annual precipitation, measured flow and potential evapotranspiration (average of 5 datasets) data were used for the same period. Both analyses suggest that all tested precipitation datasets significantly underestimate precipitation in the Karakoram sub-basins. For the Hindukush and Himalayan sub-basins most datasets underestimate precipitation, except ERA-interim and ERA-40. The analysis indicates that for this large region with complicated terrain features and stark spatial precipitation gradients the reanalysis datasets have better consistency with flow measurements than datasets derived from records of only sparsely distributed climatic

  20. Globally Gridded Satellite observations for climate studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, K.R.; Ansari, S.; Bain, C.L.; Bourassa, M.A.; Dickinson, M.J.; Funk, C.; Helms, C.N.; Hennon, C.C.; Holmes, C.D.; Huffman, G.J.; Kossin, J.P.; Lee, H.-T.; Loew, A.; Magnusdottir, G.

    2011-01-01

    Geostationary satellites have provided routine, high temporal resolution Earth observations since the 1970s. Despite the long period of record, use of these data in climate studies has been limited for numerous reasons, among them that no central archive of geostationary data for all international satellites exists, full temporal and spatial resolution data are voluminous, and diverse calibration and navigation formats encumber the uniform processing needed for multisatellite climate studies. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) set the stage for overcoming these issues by archiving a subset of the full-resolution geostationary data at ~10-km resolution at 3-hourly intervals since 1983. Recent efforts at NOAA's National Climatic Data Center to provide convenient access to these data include remapping the data to a standard map projection, recalibrating the data to optimize temporal homogeneity, extending the record of observations back to 1980, and reformatting the data for broad public distribution. The Gridded Satellite (GridSat) dataset includes observations from the visible, infrared window, and infrared water vapor channels. Data are stored in Network Common Data Format (netCDF) using standards that permit a wide variety of tools and libraries to process the data quickly and easily. A novel data layering approach, together with appropriate satellite and file metadata, allows users to access GridSat data at varying levels of complexity based on their needs. The result is a climate data record already in use by the meteorological community. Examples include reanalysis of tropical cyclones, studies of global precipitation, and detection and tracking of the intertropical convergence zone.

  1. Beginnings of Satellite Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Solarić

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The first satellite navigation system called the Navy Navigation Satellite System (NNSS or TRANSIT was planned in the USA in 1958. It consisted of 5-6 artificial Earth satellites, was set in motion for the USA military in 1964, and in 1967 for civilian purposes. The frequency shift of received radio waves emitted from the satellite and caused by the Doppler effect was measured. The TRANSIT satellite speed of approaching or moving away was derived from that; the TRANSIT satellites emmited also their own coordinates. Then the ship's position was determined by an intersection of three hyperboloids, which were determined from differences of distances in three time intervals. Maintenance of this navigation system was stopped in 1996, but it is still being used in the USA Navy for exploring the ionosphere. Furthermore, results of Doppler measurements in international projects at the Hvar Observatory from 1982 and 1983. This was the first time in Croatia and the former country that the coordinates of the Hvar Observatory were determined in the unique world coordinate system WGS'72. The paper ends with a brief representation of the Tsiklon Doppler navigation system produced in the former Soviet Union, and there is a list of some of numerous produced and designed satellite navigation systems.Ključne riječi

  2. A Comparison of Chinese and English Thought Patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱敏

    2011-01-01

    Thought pattern,is a habit or the program of thinking.When people solve problems,they may prefer one to another owing to the different thought patterns they hold.It is necessary to know the main difference between Chinese and English thought patterns for English learners.1 Synthetic thought vs.analytic thought Chinese people carry out synthetic pattern of thought that each element in the universe is related and integrated.While westerners implement a pattern of thought that divides an integrate object into many parts.

  3. Global Drought Assessment using a Multi-Model Dataset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanen, van H.A.J.; Huijgevoort, van M.H.J.; Corzo Perez, G.; Wanders, N.; Hazenberg, P.; Loon, van A.F.; Estifanos, S.; Melsen, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale models are often applied to study past drought (forced with global reanalysis datasets) and to assess future drought (using downscaled, bias-corrected forcing from climate models). The EU project WATer and global CHange (WATCH) provides a 0.5o degree global dataset of meteorological

  4. Really big data: Processing and analysis of large datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern animal breeding datasets are large and getting larger, due in part to the recent availability of DNA data for many animals. Computational methods for efficiently storing and analyzing those data are under development. The amount of storage space required for such datasets is increasing rapidl...

  5. Primary Datasets for Case Studies of River-Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulder, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    Level 6 (final-year BSc) students undertook case studies on between-site and temporal variation in river-water quality. They used professionally-collected datasets supplied by the Environment Agency. The exercise gave students the experience of working with large, real-world datasets and led to their understanding how the quality of river water is…

  6. An Analysis of the GTZAN Music Genre Dataset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2012-01-01

    Most research in automatic music genre recognition has used the dataset assembled by Tzanetakis et al. in 2001. The composition and integrity of this dataset, however, has never been formally analyzed. For the first time, we provide an analysis of its composition, and create a machine...

  7. Primary Datasets for Case Studies of River-Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulder, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    Level 6 (final-year BSc) students undertook case studies on between-site and temporal variation in river-water quality. They used professionally-collected datasets supplied by the Environment Agency. The exercise gave students the experience of working with large, real-world datasets and led to their understanding how the quality of river water is…

  8. Global Drought Assessment using a Multi-Model Dataset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanen, van H.A.J.; Huijgevoort, van M.H.J.; Corzo Perez, G.; Wanders, N.; Hazenberg, P.; Loon, van A.F.; Estifanos, S.; Melsen, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale models are often applied to study past drought (forced with global reanalysis datasets) and to assess future drought (using downscaled, bias-corrected forcing from climate models). The EU project WATer and global CHange (WATCH) provides a 0.5o degree global dataset of meteorological forc

  9. Querying Patterns in High-Dimensional Heterogenous Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vishwakarma

    2012-01-01

    The recent technological advancements have led to the availability of a plethora of heterogenous datasets, e.g., images tagged with geo-location and descriptive keywords. An object in these datasets is described by a set of high-dimensional feature vectors. For example, a keyword-tagged image is represented by a color-histogram and a…

  10. Methodological pitfalls of the Unconscious Thought paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Marchiori

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available According to Unconscious Thought Theory (UTT: Dijksterhuis and Nordgren, 2006, complex decisions are best made after a period of distraction assumed to elicit ``unconscious thought''. Over three studies, respectively offering a conceptual, an identical and a methodologically improved replication of Dijksterhuis et al. (2006, we reassessed UTT's predictions and dissected the decision task used to demonstrate these predictions. We failed to find any evidence for the benefits of unconscious decision-making. By contrast, we found some evidence that conscious deliberation can lead to better decisions. Further, we identified methodological weaknesses in the UTT decision task: (a attributes weighting was neglected although attributes were seen as different in importance; (b the material was not properly counterbalanced; and (c there was some confusion in the experimental instructions. We propose methodological improvements that address these concerns.

  11. Thought-evoking approaches in engineering problems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    In creating the value-added product in not distant future, it is necessary and inevitable to establish a holistic and though-evoking approach to the engineering problem, which should be at least associated with the inter-disciplinary knowledge and thought processes across the whole engineering spheres. It is furthermore desirable to integrate it with trans-disciplinary aspects ranging from manufacturing culture, through liberal-arts engineering, and industrial sociology.   The thought-evoking approach can be exemplified and typified by representative engineering problems: unveiling essential features in ‘Tangential Force Ratio and Interface Pressure’, prototype development for ‘Bio-mimetic Needle’ and application of ‘Water-jet Machining to Artificial Hip Joint’, product innovation in ‘Heat Sink for Computer’, application of ‘Graph Theory’ to similarity evaluation of production systems, leverage among reciprocity attributes in ‘Industrial and Engineering Designs for Machine Enclosure’,...

  12. The psychology of psychology: A thought experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, Stephen J; Williams, Wendy M

    2015-01-01

    In the target article, Duarte et al. allege that the lack of political diversity reduces research efficacy. We pose a thought experiment that could provide an empirical test by examining whether institutional review board (IRB) members, granting agencies, and journal reviewers filter scientific products based on political values, invoking scientific criteria (rigor, etc.) as their justification. When these same products are cast in terms highlighting opposite values, do these people shift their decisions?

  13. Memory impairment in older adults’ diversionary thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima eAlves

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The diversion paradigm was created in the context of explaining the effect of the instruction to forget some recently encoded material in the list-method of the directed forgetting paradigm. The current study of healthy older adults employed the diversion paradigm with two main goals: to determine whether thinking about an autobiographical memory interferes with the recall of recently encoded information and to explore whether the degree of forgetting depends on the temporal distance created by the diversionary thought. Ninety non-institutionalized Portuguese older adults (47 females and 43 males, aged 65 to 69 years, with education levels of between 3 and 6 years participated in this study. The exclusion criteria were as follows: presence of depressive symptomatology (assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale-30 and global cognitive deterioration (assessed with the Mini–Mental State Examination. Concerning the diversion paradigm, one group was instructed to think about an autobiographical event (remembering one’s childhood home or the last party that one had attended after studying one word list (List 1 and before viewing the second word list (List 2. After a brief distraction task, the participant had to recall the words from both of the studied lists. In the control group, the procedure was the same, but the diversionary thought was substituted by a speed reading task. The obtained results showed the amnesic effect of diversionary thought but did not show a greater degree of forgetting when the autobiographical events in the diversionary thoughts were temporally more distant. Considering the practical implications of these results, this study alerts us to the importance of promoting strategies that enable older adults to better remember important information and effectively forget irrelevant information.

  14. Squish: Near-Optimal Compression for Archival of Relational Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yihan; Parameswaran, Aditya

    2017-01-01

    Relational datasets are being generated at an alarmingly rapid rate across organizations and industries. Compressing these datasets could significantly reduce storage and archival costs. Traditional compression algorithms, e.g., gzip, are suboptimal for compressing relational datasets since they ignore the table structure and relationships between attributes. We study compression algorithms that leverage the relational structure to compress datasets to a much greater extent. We develop Squish, a system that uses a combination of Bayesian Networks and Arithmetic Coding to capture multiple kinds of dependencies among attributes and achieve near-entropy compression rate. Squish also supports user-defined attributes: users can instantiate new data types by simply implementing five functions for a new class interface. We prove the asymptotic optimality of our compression algorithm and conduct experiments to show the effectiveness of our system: Squish achieves a reduction of over 50% in storage size relative to systems developed in prior work on a variety of real datasets.

  15. New model for datasets citation and extraction reproducibility in VAMDC

    CERN Document Server

    Zwölf, Carlo Maria; Dubernet, Marie-Lise

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a new paradigm for the identification of datasets extracted from the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre (VAMDC) e-science infrastructure. Such identification includes information on the origin and version of the datasets, references associated to individual data in the datasets, as well as timestamps linked to the extraction procedure. This paradigm is described through the modifications of the language used to exchange data within the VAMDC and through the services that will implement those modifications. This new paradigm should enforce traceability of datasets, favour reproducibility of datasets extraction, and facilitate the systematic citation of the authors having originally measured and/or calculated the extracted atomic and molecular data.

  16. New model for datasets citation and extraction reproducibility in VAMDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwölf, Carlo Maria; Moreau, Nicolas; Dubernet, Marie-Lise

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we present a new paradigm for the identification of datasets extracted from the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre (VAMDC) e-science infrastructure. Such identification includes information on the origin and version of the datasets, references associated to individual data in the datasets, as well as timestamps linked to the extraction procedure. This paradigm is described through the modifications of the language used to exchange data within the VAMDC and through the services that will implement those modifications. This new paradigm should enforce traceability of datasets, favor reproducibility of datasets extraction, and facilitate the systematic citation of the authors having originally measured and/or calculated the extracted atomic and molecular data.

  17. Language as an instrument of thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eran Asoulin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available I show that there are good arguments and evidence to boot that support the language as an instrument of thought hypothesis. The underlying mechanisms of language, comprising of expressions structured hierarchically and recursively, provide a perspective (in the form of a conceptual structure on the world, for it is only via language that certain perspectives are available to us and to our thought processes. These mechanisms provide us with a uniquely human way of thinking and talking about the world that is different to the sort of thinking we share with other animals. If the primary function of language were communication then one would expect that the underlying mechanisms of language will be structured in a way that favours successful communication. I show that not only is this not the case, but that the underlying mechanisms of language are in fact structured in a way to maximise computational efficiency, even if it means causing communicative problems. Moreover, I discuss evidence from comparative, neuropathological, developmental, and neuroscientific evidence that supports the claim that language is an instrument of thought.

  18. Relationship between Language,Culture and Thought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹红梅

    2015-01-01

    It has long been realized that language is of great importance to culture and that the impact of culture upon a given language is indispensible.One claim about the relationship between language and culture is that the structure of a particular language influences the habitual thought of its speakers.Today,the claim is referred to as the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis,which is composed of two versions.The strong version,also known as linguistic determinism,states that language patterns determine speaker’s thinking.The weak version,also known as linguistic relativity,implies that language do really influence thought but doesn’t determine it completely.This paper tries to give a brief introduction to the hypothesis,illustrate some experiments used to test the theory and state some arguments against the strong version of the hypothesis.Although the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis doesn’t offer the most reasonable explanation of the nature of the relationship between language,culture and thought,it is still influential in the development of linguistic science.

  19. The Importance of Thought Patterns in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao; Weining

    2014-01-01

    In English teaching,during the communication,students arrange languages to express their ides according to their own thought patterns and they could understand other people’s language simultaneously to form a kind of thought pattern similar to other people’s thought patterns. This paper compares English thought pattern with Chinese thought pattern,and provides some suggestion for English teaching of syntax and translation.

  20. Observations of iodine monoxide columns from satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schönhardt

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Iodine species in the troposphere are linked to ozone depletion and new particle formation. In this study, a full year of iodine monoxide (IO columns retrieved from measurements of the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument is presented, coupled with a discussion of their uncertainties and the detection limits. The largest amounts of IO are found near springtime in the Antarctic. A seasonal variation of iodine monoxide in Antarctica is revealed with high values in springtime, slightly less IO in the summer period and again larger amounts in autumn. In winter, no elevated IO levels are found in the areas accessible to satellite measurements. This seasonal cycle is in good agreement with recent ground-based measurements in Antarctica. In the Arctic region, no elevated IO levels were found in the period analysed. This implies that different conditions with respect to iodine release exist in the two Polar Regions. To investigate possible release mechanisms, comparisons of IO columns with those of tropospheric BrO, and ice coverage are described and discussed. Some parallels and interesting differences between IO and BrO temporal and spatial distributions are identified. Overall, the large spatial coverage of satellite retrieved IO data and the availability of a long-term dataset provide new insight about the abundances and distributions of iodine compounds in the troposphere.

  1. Trends In Satellite Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poley, William A.; Stevens, Grady H.; Stevenson, Steven M.; Lekan, Jack; Arth, Clifford H.; Hollansworth, James E.; Miller, Edward F.

    1988-01-01

    Report assesses trends in satellite communication from present to year 2010. Examines restrictions imposed by limited spectrum resource and technology needs created by trends. Personal communications, orbiting switchboards, and videophones foreseen.

  2. Domestic Communication Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Andrew

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of the Federal Communications Commission's new policy on domestic satellites in light of our 1) military and economic history; 2) corporate interests; 3) citizen surveillance; and 4) media control. (HB)

  3. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Top space experts from around the world have collaborated to produce this comprehensive, authoritative, and clearly illustrated reference guide to the fast growing, multi-billion dollar field of satellite applications and space communications. This handbook, done under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, addresses not only system technologies but also examines market dynamics, technical standards and regulatory constraints. The handbook is a completely multi-disciplinary reference book that covers, in an in-depth fashion, the fields of satellite telecommunications, Earth observation, remote sensing, satellite navigation, geographical information systems, and geosynchronous meteorological systems. It covers current practices and designs as well as advanced concepts and future systems. It provides a comparative analysis of the common technologies and design elements for satellite application bus structures, thermal controls, power systems, stabilization techniques, telemetry, com...

  4. Biological satellite Kosmos-936

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedeshin, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of physiological experiments performed on the biological satellite Kosmos-936. Other experiments to determine the electrostatic and dielectric responses to the effects of cosmic radiation are discussed.

  5. Small Satellite Transporter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary objective is to determine whether this small satellite transporter is capable of transporting at least four 6U CubeSats is possible for a given set of...

  6. Multipath sparse coding for scene classification in very high resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jiayuan; Tan, Hui Li; Lu, Shijian

    2015-10-01

    With the rapid development of various satellite sensors, automatic and advanced scene classification technique is urgently needed to process a huge amount of satellite image data. Recently, a few of research works start to implant the sparse coding for feature learning in aerial scene classification. However, these previous research works use the single-layer sparse coding in their system and their performances are highly related with multiple low-level features, such as scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) and saliency. Motivated by the importance of feature learning through multiple layers, we propose a new unsupervised feature learning approach for scene classification on very high resolution satellite imagery. The proposed unsupervised feature learning utilizes multipath sparse coding architecture in order to capture multiple aspects of discriminative structures within complex satellite scene images. In addition, the dense low-level features are extracted from the raw satellite data by using different image patches with varying size at different layers, and this approach is not limited to a particularly designed feature descriptors compared with the other related works. The proposed technique has been evaluated on two challenging high-resolution datasets, including the UC Merced dataset containing 21 different aerial scene categories with a 1 foot resolution and the Singapore dataset containing 5 land-use categories with a 0.5m spatial resolution. Experimental results show that it outperforms the state-of-the-art that uses the single-layer sparse coding. The major contributions of this proposed technique include (1) a new unsupervised feature learning approach to generate feature representation for very high-resolution satellite imagery, (2) the first multipath sparse coding that is used for scene classification in very high-resolution satellite imagery, (3) a simple low-level feature descriptor instead of many particularly designed low-level descriptor

  7. DFH-3 Satellite Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RenShufang

    2005-01-01

    The DFH-3 satellite platform is designed and developed by China Academy of Space Technology (CAST). It is a medium capability communications satellite platform. The platform adopts threeaxis attitude stabilization control system, having solar array output power of 1.7kW by the end of its design lifetime of 8 years. Its mass is 2100kg with payload capacity of 220kg.

  8. The Archimedes satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stuart C.; Shurvinton, William D.

    1992-03-01

    Archimedes is a satellite system conceived by the European Space Agency (ESA) to effectively serve the European market for Mobile Radio Services (MRS). This paper describes the requirements and technical design of the Archimedes satellite system. The underlying assumptions and trade-offs behind the design are detailed and the design is compared and contrasted against alternative design solutions, both technically and economically. A path forward for the development of the system is indicated.

  9. ASTRID II satellit projekt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Primdahl, Fritz

    1997-01-01

    The report describes the instruments developed for the Swedish micro satellite "ASTRID II". Specifications of the two instruments realized under this contract, a Stellar Compass and a CSC magnetometer are given follwed by a description of the project status and plan.......The report describes the instruments developed for the Swedish micro satellite "ASTRID II". Specifications of the two instruments realized under this contract, a Stellar Compass and a CSC magnetometer are given follwed by a description of the project status and plan....

  10. An intercalibrated dataset of total column water vapour and wet tropospheric correction based on MWR on board ERS-1, ERS-2, and Envisat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennartz, Ralf; Höschen, Heidrun; Picard, Bruno; Schröder, Marc; Stengel, Martin; Sus, Oliver; Bojkov, Bojan; Casadio, Stefano; Diedrich, Hannes; Eliasson, Salomon; Fell, Frank; Fischer, Jürgen; Hollmann, Rainer; Preusker, Rene; Willén, Ulrika

    2017-04-01

    The microwave radiometers (MWRs) on board the European Remote Sensing Satellites 1 and 2 (ERS-1 and ERS-2) and Envisat provide a continuous time series of brightness temperature observations between 1991 and 2012. Here we report on a new total column water vapour (TCWV) and wet tropospheric correction (WTC) dataset that builds on this time series. We use a one-dimensional variational approach to derive TCWV from MWR observations and ERA-Interim background information. A particular focus of this study lies on the intercalibration of the three different instruments, which is performed using constraints on liquid water path (LWP) and TCWV. Comparing our MWR-derived time series of TCWV against TCWV derived from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) we find that the MWR-derived TCWV time series is stable over time. However, observations potentially affected by precipitation show a degraded performance compared to precipitation-free observations in terms of the accuracy of retrieved TCWV. An analysis of WTC shows further that the retrieved WTC is superior to purely ERA-Interim-derived WTC for all satellites and for the entire time series. Even compared to the European Space Agency's (ESA) operational WTC retrievals, which incorporate in addition to MWR additional observational data, the here-described dataset shows improvements in particular for the mid-latitudes and for the two earlier satellites, ERS-1 and ERS-2. The dataset is publicly available under doi:10.5676/DWD_EMIR/V001 (Bennartz et al., 2016).

  11. Satellite formation. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A. W.

    1978-01-01

    A satellite formation model is extended to include evolution of planetary ring material and elliptic orbital motion. In this model the formation of the moon begins at a later time in the growth of the earth, and a significant fraction of the lunar material is processed through a circumterrestrial debris cloud where volatiles might have been lost. Thus, the chemical differences between the earth and moon are more plausibly accounted for. Satellites of the outer planets probably formed in large numbers throughout the growth of those planets. Because of rapid inward evolution of the orbits of small satellites, the present satellite systems represent only satellites formed in the last few percent of the growths of their primaries. The rings of Saturn and Uranus are most plausibly explained as the debris of satellites disrupted within the Roche limit. Because such a ring would collapse onto the planet in the course of any significant further accretion by the planet, the rings must have formed very near or even after the conclusion of accretion.

  12. CHINA LAUNCHES NEW SCIENTIFIC SATELLITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China on Sept. 27, 2004 launched a scientific satellite atop a Long March 2D carrier rocket from Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in Gansu province. 10 minutes after the launch, the satellite entered a preset orbit and is running sound at the orbit. It is the 20th recoverable satellite for scientific and technological

  13. Viability of Controlling Prosthetic Hand Utilizing Electroencephalograph (EEG) Dataset Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskon, Azizi; A/L Thanakodi, Suresh; Raihan Mazlan, Mohd; Mohd Haziq Azhar, Satria; Nooraya Mohd Tawil, Siti

    2016-11-01

    This project presents the development of an artificial hand controlled by Electroencephalograph (EEG) signal datasets for the prosthetic application. The EEG signal datasets were used as to improvise the way to control the prosthetic hand compared to the Electromyograph (EMG). The EMG has disadvantages to a person, who has not used the muscle for a long time and also to person with degenerative issues due to age factor. Thus, the EEG datasets found to be an alternative for EMG. The datasets used in this work were taken from Brain Computer Interface (BCI) Project. The datasets were already classified for open, close and combined movement operations. It served the purpose as an input to control the prosthetic hand by using an Interface system between Microsoft Visual Studio and Arduino. The obtained results reveal the prosthetic hand to be more efficient and faster in response to the EEG datasets with an additional LiPo (Lithium Polymer) battery attached to the prosthetic. Some limitations were also identified in terms of the hand movements, weight of the prosthetic, and the suggestions to improve were concluded in this paper. Overall, the objective of this paper were achieved when the prosthetic hand found to be feasible in operation utilizing the EEG datasets.

  14. Discovery and Reuse of Open Datasets: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This article analyzes twenty cited or downloaded datasets and the repositories that house them, in order to produce insights that can be used by academic libraries to encourage discovery and reuse of research data in institutional repositories. Methods: Using Thomson Reuters’ Data Citation Index and repository download statistics, we identified twenty cited/downloaded datasets. We documented the characteristics of the cited/downloaded datasets and their corresponding repositories in a self-designed rubric. The rubric includes six major categories: basic information; funding agency and journal information; linking and sharing; factors to encourage reuse; repository characteristics; and data description. Results: Our small-scale study suggests that cited/downloaded datasets generally comply with basic recommendations for facilitating reuse: data are documented well; formatted for use with a variety of software; and shared in established, open access repositories. Three significant factors also appear to contribute to dataset discovery: publishing in discipline-specific repositories; indexing in more than one location on the web; and using persistent identifiers. The cited/downloaded datasets in our analysis came from a few specific disciplines, and tended to be funded by agencies with data publication mandates. Conclusions: The results of this exploratory research provide insights that can inform academic librarians as they work to encourage discovery and reuse of institutional datasets. Our analysis also suggests areas in which academic librarians can target open data advocacy in their communities in order to begin to build open data success stories that will fuel future advocacy efforts.

  15. PROVIDING GEOGRAPHIC DATASETS AS LINKED DATA IN SDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hietanen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a prototype service to provide data from Web Feature Service (WFS as linked data is implemented. At first, persistent and unique Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI are created to all spatial objects in the dataset. The objects are available from those URIs in Resource Description Framework (RDF data format. Next, a Web Ontology Language (OWL ontology is created to describe the dataset information content using the Open Geospatial Consortium’s (OGC GeoSPARQL vocabulary. The existing data model is modified in order to take into account the linked data principles. The implemented service produces an HTTP response dynamically. The data for the response is first fetched from existing WFS. Then the Geographic Markup Language (GML format output of the WFS is transformed on-the-fly to the RDF format. Content Negotiation is used to serve the data in different RDF serialization formats. This solution facilitates the use of a dataset in different applications without replicating the whole dataset. In addition, individual spatial objects in the dataset can be referred with URIs. Furthermore, the needed information content of the objects can be easily extracted from the RDF serializations available from those URIs. A solution for linking data objects to the dataset URI is also introduced by using the Vocabulary of Interlinked Datasets (VoID. The dataset is divided to the subsets and each subset is given its persistent and unique URI. This enables the whole dataset to be explored with a web browser and all individual objects to be indexed by search engines.

  16. Satellite Communications for ATM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation is an overview on Satellite Communication for the Aeronautical Telecommunication Management (ATM) research. Satellite Communications are being considered by the FAA and NASA as a possible alternative to the present and future ground systems supporting Air Traffic Communications. The international Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) have in place Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS) for the Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Services (AMSS) which is mainly derived from the pre-existing Inmarsat service that has been in service since the 1980s. The Working Group A of the Aeronautical Mobile Communication Panel of ICAO has also been investigating SARPS for what is called the Next Generation Satellite Service (NGSS) which conforms less to the Inmarsat based architecture and explores wider options in terms of satellite architectures. Several designs are being proposed by Firms such as Boeing, ESA, NASA that are geared toward full or secondary usage of satellite communications for ATM. Satellite communications for ATM can serve several purposes ranging from primary usage where ground services would play a minimal backup role, to an integrated solution where it will be used to cover services, or areas that are less likely to be supported by the proposed and existing ground infrastructure. Such Integrated roles can include usage of satellite communications for oceanic and remote land areas for example. It also can include relieving the capacity of the ground network by providing broadcast based services of Traffic Information Services messages (TIS-B), or Flight Information Services (FIS-B) which can take a significant portion of the ground system capacity. Additionally, satellite communication can play a backup role to support any needs for ground replacement, or additional needed capacity even after the new digital systems are in place. The additional bandwidth that can be provided via satellite communications can also open the door for many new

  17. A UT positioning approach for dynamic satellite constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W.; Tafazolli, R.; Evans, B. G.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a new positioning scheme which is thought to be applicable for dynamic satellite constellations. We begin with the introduction of our filter model which is based on stochastic process and filtering theory. Then, simulation results of the technique are presented based on a LEO constellation and some of the IRIDIUM system parameters. Performance of this algorithm is investigated under various noise conditions. Finally, several applications of this UT (user terminal) positioning algorithm are discussed.

  18. Experimental Satellite 2 Successfully Launched

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuJie

    2004-01-01

    Small satellite Experimental Satellite 2 (SY-2) was launched by LM-2C launch vehicle from Xichang Satellite Launch Center on Nov. 18, 2004. Later the satellite entered the preset sun-synchronous orbit, which is 700 kilometers above the earth. The launch was the eighthmission this year by China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation(CASC), which aims to test the technology of the satellite, conduct survey and monitoring of the land and resources and geographical environment on a trial basis.

  19. China's Meteorological Satellite Application System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jiashen

    2008-01-01

    @@ China's meteorological satellite program consists of five systems,namely the satellite system,the launch vehicle system,the launch center system,TT&C and the ground application system.The satellite system consists of FengYun (FY) polar orbiting series and FY geostationary series,which are launched by LM launch vehicles from Taiyan Satellite Launch Center (TSLC) and Xichang Satellite Launch Center (XSLC) respectively.

  20. Daily disaggregation of simulated monthly flows using different rainfall datasets in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Hughes

    2015-09-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: There are substantial regional differences in the success of the monthly hydrological model, which inevitably affects the success of the daily disaggregation results. There are also regional differences in the success of using global rainfall data sets (Climatic Research Unit (CRU datasets for monthly, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration African Rainfall Climatology, version 2 (ARC2 satellite data for daily. The overall conclusion is that the disaggregation method presents a parsimonious approach to generating daily flow simulations from existing monthly simulations and that these daily flows are likely to be useful for some purposes (e.g. water quality modelling, but less so for others (e.g. peak flow analysis.

  1. Death and dignity in Catholic Christian thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2016-02-08

    This article traces the history of the concept of dignity in Western thought, arguing that it became a formal Catholic theological concept only in the late nineteenth century. Three uses of the word are distinguished: intrinsic, attributed, and inflorescent dignity, of which, it is argued, the intrinsic conception is foundational. The moral norms associated with respect for intrinsic dignity are discussed briefly. The scriptural and theological bases for adopting the concept of dignity as a Christian idea are elucidated. The article concludes by discussing the relevance of this concept of dignity to the spiritual and ethical care of the dying.

  2. GAO Jian's Theoretical Thoughts in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    区沛仪

    2016-01-01

    As an experienced translator and theorist, GAO Jian has translated numerous English works into Chinese and pub-lished a series of theoretical thoughts concerning the most fundamental problems in translation studies. He has formed a unique style in translation and proposed some theoretical concepts with great expertise. Gao represents the translators'spirit of the time. His theories are highly comprehensive and pragmatic. His discussion of translatability of style, relativity and the Language Characteristics Theory reflect the academic thinking among translators in China, which inspires many young translators and the-orists.

  3. Applications of a MODIS-adjusted NDVI3g dataset in Central Europe between 1982 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Anikó; Marjanović, Hrvoje; Bognár, Péter; Pásztor, Szilárd; Barcza, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is widely used to study vegetation greenness, production, phenology and the responses of ecosystems to climate fluctuations. The extended global NDVI3g dataset created by Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) has an exceptional 32 years temporal coverage for the period of 1982-2013. Due to the methodology that was used to create NDVI3g inherent noise and uncertainty is present in the dataset. We used Collection-6 MOD13 NDVI data for the overlapping period of 2000-2013 as a reference to evaluate the accuracy of NDVI3g at a regional scale and to perform statistical harmonization (adjustment) of the NDVI3g dataset for Central Europe. The applied MOD13A2 is one of the official products of vegetation indices created from measurements of the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on board satellite Terra with 1 km × 1 km horizontal, and 16-day temporal resolution. Mean seasonal NDVI profiles, start, end and length of the growing season, anomalies, magnitude and timing of peak NDVI were calculated from NDVI3g (original, noise filtered and harmonized) and MODIS NDVI and compared with each other between 2000-2013. Results indicate that the harmonization of NDVI3g with MODIS NDVI is promising since the newly created dataset has improved quality for diverse vegetation metrics. As further application of the MODIS-adjusted dataset, we performed temporal trend analysis and crop yield estimations of winter wheat for the whole 1982-2013 period, indicating the reasonable applicability of the harmonized dataset in Central Europe. The presented results can help researchers to assess the expected quality of the NDVI3g-based studies in Central Europe and to exploit the information content of the adjusted NDVI3g. Keywords: NDVI; NDVI3g; MODIS; phenology; trend analysis; crop yield estimation

  4. Application and impacts of the GlobeLand30 land cover dataset on the Beijing Climate Center Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X.; Nie, S.; Ju, W.; Yu, L.

    2016-04-01

    Land cover (LC) is a necessary and important input variable of the land surface and climate model, and has significant impacts on climate and climate changes. In this paper, the new higher-resolution global LC dataset, GlobeLand30, was employed in the Beijing Climate Center Climate System Model (BCC_CSM) to investigate LC impacts on the land surface and climate via simulation experiments. The strategy for connecting the new LC dataset and model was to merge the GlobeLand30 data with other satellite remote sensing datasets to enlarge the plant function types (PFT) fitted for the BCC_CSM. The area-weighted up-scaling approach was used to aggregate the 30m-resolution GlobeLand30 data onto the coarser model grids and derive PFT as well as percentage information. The LC datasets of GlobeLand30 and the original BCC_CSM had generally consistent spatial features but with significant differences. Numerical simulations with these two LC datasets were conducted and compared to present the effects of the new GlobeLand30 data on the climate. Results show that with the new LC data products, several model biases between simulations and observations in the BCC climate model with original LC datasets were effectively reduced, including the positive bias of precipitation in the mid-high latitude of the northern hemisphere and the negative bias in the Amazon, as well as the negative bias of air temperature in part of the southern hemisphere. Therefore, the GlobeLand30 data are suitable for use in the BCC_CSM component models and can improve the performance of climate simulations.

  5. Newly Released TRMM Version 7 Products, Other Precipitation Datasets and Data Services at NASA GES DISC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, D.; Teng, W. L.; Trivedi, Bhagirath; Kempler, S.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) is home of global precipitation product archives, in particular, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) products. TRMM is a joint U.S.-Japan satellite mission to monitor tropical and subtropical (40 S - 40 N) precipitation and to estimate its associated latent heating. The TRMM satellite provides the first detailed and comprehensive dataset on the four dimensional distribution of rainfall and latent heating over vastly undersampled tropical and subtropical oceans and continents. The TRMM satellite was launched on November 27, 1997. TRMM data products are archived at and distributed by GES DISC. The newly released TRMM Version 7 consists of several changes including new parameters, new products, meta data, data structures, etc. For example, hydrometeor profiles in 2A12 now have 28 layers (14 in V6). New parameters have been added to several popular Level-3 products, such as, 3B42, 3B43. Version 2.2 of the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) dataset has been added to the TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS; URL: http://disc2.nascom.nasa.gov/Giovanni/tovas/), allowing online analysis and visualization without downloading data and software. The GPCP dataset extends back to 1979. Version 3 of the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) monitoring product has been updated in TOVAS as well. The product provides global gauge-based monthly rainfall along with number of gauges per grid. The dataset begins in January 1986. To facilitate data and information access and support precipitation research and applications, we have developed a Precipitation Data and Information Services Center (PDISC; URL: http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/precipitation). In addition to TRMM, PDISC provides current and past observational precipitation data. Users can access precipitation data archives consisting of both remote sensing and in-situ observations. Users can use these data

  6. Measuring Negative and Positive Thoughts in Children: An Adaptation of the Children's Automatic Thoughts Scale (CATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogendoorn, Sanne M; Wolters, Lidewij H; Vervoort, Leentje; Prins, Pier J M; Boer, Frits; Kooij, Emelie; de Haan, Else

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the factor structure and psychometric properties of an extended version of the Children's Automatic Thoughts Scale (CATS), the CATS-Negative/Positive (CATS-N/P). The CATS was originally designed to assess negative self-statements in children and adolescents. However, positive thoughts also play a major role in childhood disorders such as anxiety and depression. Therefore, positive self-statements were added to the CATS. The CATS-N/P was administered to a community sample of 554 children aged 8-18 years. The results of a confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the positive self-statements formed a separate and psychometrically sound factor. Internal and short-term test-retest reliability was good. Boys reported more hostile and positive thoughts than girls; and younger children reported more negative thoughts concerning physical threat, social threat, and failure than older children. In conclusion, the results of the current study support the use of the CATS-N/P for the measurement of positive and negative thoughts in children. The application of the CATS-N/P can facilitate further research on cognitive factors in different childhood disorders.

  7. Background qualitative analysis of the European reference life cycle database (ELCD) energy datasets - part II: electricity datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraín, Daniel; Fazio, Simone; de la Rúa, Cristina; Recchioni, Marco; Lechón, Yolanda; Mathieux, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify areas of potential improvement of the European Reference Life Cycle Database (ELCD) electricity datasets. The revision is based on the data quality indicators described by the International Life Cycle Data system (ILCD) Handbook, applied on sectorial basis. These indicators evaluate the technological, geographical and time-related representativeness of the dataset and the appropriateness in terms of completeness, precision and methodology. Results show that ELCD electricity datasets have a very good quality in general terms, nevertheless some findings and recommendations in order to improve the quality of Life-Cycle Inventories have been derived. Moreover, these results ensure the quality of the electricity-related datasets to any LCA practitioner, and provide insights related to the limitations and assumptions underlying in the datasets modelling. Giving this information, the LCA practitioner will be able to decide whether the use of the ELCD electricity datasets is appropriate based on the goal and scope of the analysis to be conducted. The methodological approach would be also useful for dataset developers and reviewers, in order to improve the overall Data Quality Requirements of databases.

  8. Validation of a Meteosat Second Generation solar radiation dataset over the northeastern Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cristóbal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation plays a key role in the Earth's energy balance and is used as an essential input data in radiation-based evapotranspiration (ET models. Accurate gridded solar radiation data at high spatial and temporal resolution are needed to retrieve ET over large domains. In this work we present an evaluation at hourly, daily and monthly time steps and regional scale (Catalonia, NE Iberian Peninsula of a satellite-based solar radiation product developed by the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Application Facility (LSA SAF using data from the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI. Product performance and accuracy were evaluated for datasets segmented into two terrain classes (flat and hilly areas and two atmospheric conditions (clear and cloudy sky, as well as for the full dataset as a whole. Evaluation against measurements made with ground-based pyranometers yielded good results in flat areas with an averaged model RMSE of 65 W m−2 (19%, 34 W m−2 (9.7% and 21 W m−2 (5.6%, for hourly, daily and monthly-averaged solar radiation and including clear and cloudy sky conditions and snow or ice cover. Hilly areas yielded intermediate results with an averaged model RMSE (root mean square error of 89 W m−2 (27%, 48 W m−2 (14.5% and 32 W m−2 (9.3%, for hourly, daily and monthly time steps, suggesting the need of further improvements (e.g., terrain corrections required for retrieving localized variability in solar radiation in these areas. According to the literature, the LSA SAF solar radiation product appears to have sufficient accuracy to serve as a useful and operative input to evaporative flux retrieval models.

  9. Computational Methods for Large Spatio-temporal Datasets and Functional Data Ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Huang

    2017-07-16

    This thesis focuses on two topics, computational methods for large spatial datasets and functional data ranking. Both are tackling the challenges of big and high-dimensional data. The first topic is motivated by the prohibitive computational burden in fitting Gaussian process models to large and irregularly spaced spatial datasets. Various approximation methods have been introduced to reduce the computational cost, but many rely on unrealistic assumptions about the process and retaining statistical efficiency remains an issue. We propose a new scheme to approximate the maximum likelihood estimator and the kriging predictor when the exact computation is infeasible. The proposed method provides different types of hierarchical low-rank approximations that are both computationally and statistically efficient. We explore the improvement of the approximation theoretically and investigate the performance by simulations. For real applications, we analyze a soil moisture dataset with 2 million measurements with the hierarchical low-rank approximation and apply the proposed fast kriging to fill gaps for satellite images. The second topic is motivated by rank-based outlier detection methods for functional data. Compared to magnitude outliers, it is more challenging to detect shape outliers as they are often masked among samples. We develop a new notion of functional data depth by taking the integration of a univariate depth function. Having a form of the integrated depth, it shares many desirable features. Furthermore, the novel formation leads to a useful decomposition for detecting both shape and magnitude outliers. Our simulation studies show the proposed outlier detection procedure outperforms competitors in various outlier models. We also illustrate our methodology using real datasets of curves, images, and video frames. Finally, we introduce the functional data ranking technique to spatio-temporal statistics for visualizing and assessing covariance properties, such as

  10. Estuarine Shoreline and Barrier-Island Sandline Change Assessment Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Barrier Island and Estuarine Wetland Physical Change Assessment Dataset was created to calibrate and test probability models of barrier island sandline and...

  11. Original Vector Datasets for Hawaii StreamStats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These datasets each consist of a folder containing a personal geodatabase of the NHD, and shapefiles used in the HydroDEM process. These files are provided as a...

  12. AFSC/REFM: Seabird Necropsy dataset of North Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The seabird necropsy dataset contains information on seabird specimens that were collected under salvage and scientific collection permits primarily by...

  13. BASE MAP DATASET, RIO ARRIBA COUNTY, NEW MEXICO, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Basemap datasets comprise the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications: cadastral, geodetic control, governmental unit,...

  14. U.S. Climate Divisional Dataset (Version Superseded)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data has been superseded by a newer version of the dataset. Please refer to NOAA's Climate Divisional Database for more information. The U.S. Climate Divisional...

  15. BASE MAP DATASET,SOLANO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  16. NOAA Global Surface Temperature Dataset, Version 4.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Global Surface Temperature Dataset (NOAAGlobalTemp) is derived from two independent analyses: the Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST)...

  17. A Large-Scale 3D Object Recognition dataset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sølund, Thomas; Glent Buch, Anders; Krüger, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new large scale dataset targeting evaluation of local shape descriptors and 3d object recognition algorithms. The dataset consists of point clouds and triangulated meshes from 292 physical scenes taken from 11 different views; a total of approximately 3204 views. Each...... geometric groups; concave, convex, cylindrical and flat 3D object models. The object models have varying amount of local geometric features to challenge existing local shape feature descriptors in terms of descriptiveness and robustness. The dataset is validated in a benchmark which evaluates the matching...... performance of 7 different state-of-the-art local shape descriptors. Further, we validate the dataset in a 3D object recognition pipeline. Our benchmark shows as expected that local shape feature descriptors without any global point relation across the surface have a poor matching performance with flat...

  18. National Elevation Dataset (NED) of Rocky Mountain National Park

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — (USGS text) The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NED is a seamless mosaic of best-available elevation data. The...

  19. Native Prairie Adaptive Management (NPAM) Monitoring Tabular Datasets

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Four core tabular datasets are collected annually for the NPAM Project. The first is tbl_PlantGoups_Monitoring which includes the belt transect monitoring data for...

  20. Estuarine Shoreline and Barrier-Island Sandline Change Assessment Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Barrier Island and Estuarine Wetland Physical Change Assessment Dataset was created to calibrate and test probability models of barrier island sandline and...

  1. Wi-Fi Crowdsourced Fingerprinting Dataset for Indoor Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Simona Lohan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Benchmark open-source Wi-Fi fingerprinting datasets for indoor positioning studies are still hard to find in the current literature and existing public repositories. This is unlike other research fields, such as the image processing field, where benchmark test images such as the Lenna image or Face Recognition Technology (FERET databases exist, or the machine learning field, where huge datasets are available for example at the University of California Irvine (UCI Machine Learning Repository. It is the purpose of this paper to present a new openly available Wi-Fi fingerprint dataset, comprised of 4648 fingerprints collected with 21 devices in a university building in Tampere, Finland, and to present some benchmark indoor positioning results using these data. The datasets and the benchmarking software are distributed under the open-source MIT license and can be found on the EU Zenodo repository.

  2. The Flora Mycologica Iberica Project fungi occurrence dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Pando

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The dataset contains detailed distribution information on several fungal groups. The information has been revised, and in many times compiled, by expert mycologist(s working on the monographs for the Flora Mycologica Iberica Project (FMI. Records comprise both collection and observational data, obtained from a variety of sources including field work, herbaria, and the literature. The dataset contains 59,235 records, of which 21,393 are georeferenced. These correspond to 2,445 species, grouped in 18 classes. The geographical scope of the dataset is Iberian Peninsula (Continental Portugal and Spain, and Andorra and Balearic Islands. The complete dataset is available in Darwin Core Archive format via the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF.

  3. Food recognition: a new dataset, experiments and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, Gianluigi; Napoletano, Paolo; Schettini, Raimondo

    2016-12-07

    We propose a new dataset for the evaluation of food recognition algorithms that can be used in dietary monitoring applications. Each image depicts a real canteen tray with dishes and foods arranged in different ways. Each tray contains multiple instances of food classes. The dataset contains 1,027 canteen trays for a total of 3,616 food instances belonging to 73 food classes. The food on the tray images have been manually segmented using carefully drawn polygonal boundaries. We have benchmarked the dataset by designing an automatic tray analysis pipeline that takes a tray image as input, finds the regions of interest, and predicts for each region the corresponding food class. We have experimented three different classification strategies using also several visual descriptors. We achieve about 79% of food and tray recognition accuracy using Convolutional-Neural-Networksbased features. The dataset, as well as the benchmark framework, are available to the research community.

  4. Karna Particle Size Dataset for Tables and Figures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains 1) table of bulk Pb-XAS LCF results, 2) table of bulk As-XAS LCF results, 3) figure data of particle size distribution, and 4) figure data for...

  5. Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) CS-W Interface

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Use the Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) to find and access EPA's environmental resources. Many options are available for easily reusing EDG content in other...

  6. BASE MAP DATASET, LE FLORE COUNTY, OKLAHOMA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme, orthographic...

  7. Comparative visualization for parameter studies of dataset series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Muhammad Muddassir; Heinzl, Christoph; Eduard Gröller, M

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes comparison and visualization techniques to carry out parameter studies for the special application area of dimensional measurement using 3D X-ray computed tomography (3DCT). A dataset series is generated by scanning a specimen multiple times by varying parameters of an industrial 3DCT device. A high-resolution series is explored using our planar-reformatting-based visualization system. We present a novel multi-image view and an edge explorer for comparing and visualizing gray values and edges of several datasets simultaneously. Visualization results and quantitative data are displayed side by side. Our technique is scalable and generic. It can be effective in various application areas like parameter studies of imaging modalities and dataset artifact detection. For fast data retrieval and convenient usability, we use bricking of the datasets and efficient data structures. We evaluate the applicability of the proposed techniques in collaboration with our company partners.

  8. Interacting with Large 3D Datasets on a Mobile Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Chris; Bailey, Mike

    2016-01-01

    A detail-on-demand scheme can alleviate both memory and GPU pressure on mobile devices caused by volume rendering. This approach allows a user to explore an entire dataset at its native resolution while simultaneously constraining the texture size being rendered to a dimension that does not exceed the processing capabilities of a portable device. This scheme produces higher-quality, more focused images rendered at interactive frame rates, while preserving the native resolution of the dataset.

  9. Geoseq: a tool for dissecting deep-sequencing datasets

    OpenAIRE

    Homann Robert; George Ajish; Levovitz Chaya; Shah Hardik; Cancio Anthony; Gurtowski James; Sachidanandam Ravi

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Datasets generated on deep-sequencing platforms have been deposited in various public repositories such as the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), Sequence Read Archive (SRA) hosted by the NCBI, or the DNA Data Bank of Japan (ddbj). Despite being rich data sources, they have not been used much due to the difficulty in locating and analyzing datasets of interest. Results Geoseq http://geoseq.mssm.edu provides a new method of analyzing short reads from deep sequencing experiments...

  10. Nanomaterial datasets to advance tomography in scanning transmission electron microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Barnaby D.A.; Padgett, Elliot; Chen, Chien-Chun; Scott, M C; Xu, Rui; Theis, Wolfgang; Jiang, Yi; Yang, Yongsoo; Ophus, Colin; Zhang, Haitao; Ha, Don-Hyung; Wang, Deli; Yu, Yingchao; Abruña, Hector D.; Robinson, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    Electron tomography in materials science has flourished with the demand to characterize nanoscale materials in three dimensions (3D). Access to experimental data is vital for developing and validating reconstruction methods that improve resolution and reduce radiation dose requirements. This work presents five high-quality scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) tomography datasets in order to address the critical need for open access data in this field. The datasets represent the cu...

  11. Sampling Within k-Means Algorithm to Cluster Large Datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejarano, Jeremy [Brigham Young University; Bose, Koushiki [Brown University; Brannan, Tyler [North Carolina State University; Thomas, Anita [Illinois Institute of Technology; Adragni, Kofi [University of Maryland; Neerchal, Nagaraj [University of Maryland; Ostrouchov, George [ORNL

    2011-08-01

    Due to current data collection technology, our ability to gather data has surpassed our ability to analyze it. In particular, k-means, one of the simplest and fastest clustering algorithms, is ill-equipped to handle extremely large datasets on even the most powerful machines. Our new algorithm uses a sample from a dataset to decrease runtime by reducing the amount of data analyzed. We perform a simulation study to compare our sampling based k-means to the standard k-means algorithm by analyzing both the speed and accuracy of the two methods. Results show that our algorithm is significantly more efficient than the existing algorithm with comparable accuracy. Further work on this project might include a more comprehensive study both on more varied test datasets as well as on real weather datasets. This is especially important considering that this preliminary study was performed on rather tame datasets. Also, these datasets should analyze the performance of the algorithm on varied values of k. Lastly, this paper showed that the algorithm was accurate for relatively low sample sizes. We would like to analyze this further to see how accurate the algorithm is for even lower sample sizes. We could find the lowest sample sizes, by manipulating width and confidence level, for which the algorithm would be acceptably accurate. In order for our algorithm to be a success, it needs to meet two benchmarks: match the accuracy of the standard k-means algorithm and significantly reduce runtime. Both goals are accomplished for all six datasets analyzed. However, on datasets of three and four dimension, as the data becomes more difficult to cluster, both algorithms fail to obtain the correct classifications on some trials. Nevertheless, our algorithm consistently matches the performance of the standard algorithm while becoming remarkably more efficient with time. Therefore, we conclude that analysts can use our algorithm, expecting accurate results in considerably less time.

  12. A survey of results on mobile phone datasets analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Blondel, Vincent D; Krings, Gautier

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we review some advances made recently in the study of mobile phone datasets. This area of research has emerged a decade ago, with the increasing availability of large-scale anonymized datasets, and has grown into a stand-alone topic. We will survey the contributions made so far on the social networks that can be constructed with such data, the study of personal mobility, geographical partitioning, urban planning, and help towards development as well as security and privacy issues.

  13. General Purpose Multimedia Dataset - GarageBand 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Anders

    This document describes a general purpose multimedia data-set to be used in cross-media machine learning problems. In more detail we describe the genre taxonomy applied at http://www.garageband.com, from where the data-set was collected, and how the taxonomy have been fused into a more human...... understandable taxonomy. Finally, a description of various features extracted from both the audio and text are presented....

  14. Artificial intelligence (AI) systems for interpreting complex medical datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, R B

    2017-05-01

    Advances in machine intelligence have created powerful capabilities in algorithms that find hidden patterns in data, classify objects based on their measured characteristics, and associate similar patients/diseases/drugs based on common features. However, artificial intelligence (AI) applications in medical data have several technical challenges: complex and heterogeneous datasets, noisy medical datasets, and explaining their output to users. There are also social challenges related to intellectual property, data provenance, regulatory issues, economics, and liability. © 2017 ASCPT.

  15. [A study of Hashida Kunihiko's thought: the life history and thought of an "outcast thinker"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsui, Keiko

    2010-12-01

    Hashida Kunihiko, described and known as "an Outcast Thinker", was born in Tottori, in 1882. From his young age, he was taught oriental thought by his father Fujita Kenzo, a practitioner of Kampo medicine. While Hashida taught physiology as a faculty member at the Imperial University of Tokyo, he studied Dogen's Zen philosophy and developed his original philosophy of science to answer the question: "What is Life/Living?". After taking the oath of office as the 56th education minister of Japan from 1940 to 1943, he committed suicide in 1945, taking the responsibility for his policy-making of nationalistic education at time of the Second World War. Some previous studies on Hashida have focused on various aspects such as his work as a physiologist, a scientist, a scholar of Zen philosophy, and an educrat. He may be well known in each of these different disciplines, whereas how these different aspects are integrated in Hashida's thought as a whole has not been clarified yet. Taking the propositions in those previous studies on him into account to totally understand Hashida as a thinker, this note will focus on the potential perspective for his undiscovered aspect: "Hashida as Medical Philosopher". Hashida has perused and loved two classical texts on oriental thought and oriental medicine, which are "Chuan Xi Lu" and "Shang Han Lun", during his lifetime and learned many things about "Medicine". He has tried to implement his philosophy of medicine to set up and maturate "Japanese medicine". Hence, to dissert "Hashida as Medical Philosopher" may become a ground for argument to understand his thought as a whole from the genetic perspective on the process of thought formation of Hashida. Therefore this note can be characterized as a preliminary survey to develop the further studies on Hashida's thought.

  16. SatelliteDL - An IDL Toolkit for the Analysis of Satellite Earth Observations - GOES, MODIS, VIIRS and CERES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmore, D. W.; Galloy, M. D.; Kindig, D.

    2013-12-01

    SatelliteDL is an IDL toolkit for the analysis of satellite Earth observations from a diverse set of platforms and sensors. The design features an abstraction layer that allows for easy inclusion of new datasets in a modular way. The core function of the toolkit is the spatial and temporal alignment of satellite swath and geostationary data. IDL has a powerful suite of statistical and visualization tools that can be used in conjunction with SatelliteDL. Our overarching objective is to create utilities that automate the mundane aspects of satellite data analysis, are extensible and maintainable, and do not place limitations on the analysis itself. Toward this end we have constructed SatelliteDL to include (1) HTML and LaTeX API document generation, (2) a unit test framework, (3) automatic message and error logs, (4) HTML and LaTeX plot and table generation, and (5) several real world examples with bundled datasets available for download. For ease of use, datasets, variables and optional workflows may be specified in a flexible format configuration file. Configuration statements may specify, for example, a region and date range, and the creation of images, plots and statistical summary tables for a long list of variables. SatelliteDL enforces data provenance; all data should be traceable and reproducible. The output NetCDF file metadata holds a complete history of the original datasets and their transformations, and a method exists to reconstruct a configuration file from this information. Release 0.1.0 of SatelliteDL is anticipated for the 2013 Fall AGU conference. It will distribute with ingest methods for GOES, MODIS, VIIRS and CERES radiance data (L1) as well as select 2D atmosphere products (L2) such as aerosol and cloud (MODIS and VIIRS) and radiant flux (CERES). Future releases will provide ingest methods for ocean and land surface products, gridded and time averaged datasets (L3 Daily, Monthly and Yearly), and support for 3D products such as temperature and

  17. The Flight of Thought: Two Types of Thought in Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomy Mualem

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The essay claims that in Wittgenstein's Tractatus there are two types of thought: 'Gedanke' and 'subspecieaeternitatis'. Gedanke, being a logical picture, corresponds to a possible state of affairs, and to facts in the world. It pertains to the interior scope of the limit of language, and to what can be said. Subspecieaeternitatis is a mode of thought that observes its objects 'from outside', and thus perceives each object as a limited-whole or as a world. It pertains to the exterior scope of the limit of language, and thus relates to the sphere of transcendent values, denoting what can only be shown.

  18. Long-term Datasets of Aerosol and Surface Reflectance from ERS-2, ENVISAT and Sentinel-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, P. R.; Heckel, A.; Davies, W.; Bevan, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    We present results of a new global retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and size distribution from the ESA ATSR instrument series on ERS-2 and ENVISAT (1995-2012), developed under the ESA Aerosol Climate Change Initiative. Further testing of a new algorithm developed for Sentinel-3, with planned operation 2013-2030 is also discussed. The ATSR series instruments on ERS-2 and ENVISAT together provide one of the longest available, well-calibrated datasets of satellite radiance measurements. The dual-angle viewing capability gives two near-simultaneous images at differing slant paths though the atmosphere, allowing global retrieval of aerosol optical thickness without assumptions on surface spectral properties. We present the global ATSR time series and analysis of trends, and give comparison with AERONET and with MODIS and MISR global datasets. The algorithm has been developed for application to Sentinel-3 to make use of synergistic retrieval from two sensors, OLCI and SLSTR. The research explores the gain by using information from both instruments simultaneously to constrain atmospheric profile, characterise cloud, and provide improved atmospheric correction to surface reflectance. The algorithm has been implemented on the ESA BEAM system and tested on MERIS and AATSR data, and compared with existing algorithms. The retrieval also forms the basis of simultaneous estimation surface reflectance corrected for atmospheric scattering, which underpins retrieval of albedo and other surface properties in the ESA GLobAlbedo and SEN4LST projects.

  19. A global gas flaring black carbon emission rate dataset from 1994 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.

    2016-11-01

    Global flaring of associated petroleum gas is a potential emission source of particulate matters (PM) and could be notable in some specific regions that are in urgent need of mitigation. PM emitted from gas flaring is mainly in the form of black carbon (BC), which is a strong short-lived climate forcer. However, BC from gas flaring has been neglected in most global/regional emission inventories and is rarely considered in climate modeling. Here we present a global gas flaring BC emission rate dataset for the period 1994-2012 in a machine-readable format. We develop a region-dependent gas flaring BC emission factor database based on the chemical compositions of associated petroleum gas at various oil fields. Gas flaring BC emission rates are estimated using this emission factor database and flaring volumes retrieved from satellite imagery. Evaluation using a chemical transport model suggests that consideration of gas flaring emissions can improve model performance. This dataset will benefit and inform a broad range of research topics, e.g., carbon budget, air quality/climate modeling, and environmental/human exposure.

  20. The Birmingham Urban Climate Laboratory—A high density, urban meteorological dataset, from 2012–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Elliott L.; Young, Duick T.; Chapman, Lee; Muller, Catherine; Grimmond, C.S.B.; Cai, Xiao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of urban meteorological observations worldwide, hindering progress in understanding and mitigating urban meteorological hazards and extremes. High quality urban datasets are required to monitor the impacts of climatological events, whilst providing data for evaluation of numerical models. The Birmingham Urban Climate Laboratory was established as an exemplar network to meet this demand for urban canopy layer observations. It comprises of an array of 84 wireless air temperature sensors nested within a coarser array of 24 automatic weather stations, with observations available between June 2012 and December 2014. data routinely underwent quality control, follows the ISO 8601 naming format and benefits from extensive site metadata. The data have been used to investigate the structure of the urban heat island in Birmingham and its associated societal and infrastructural impacts. The network is now being repurposed into a testbed for the assessment of crowd-sourced and satellite data, but the original dataset is now available for further analysis, and an open invitation is extended for its academic use. PMID:27272103

  1. Horton Revisited: African Traditional Thought and Western Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Horton Revisited: African Traditional Thought and Western Science. ... he refers to as the 'continuity thesis' according to which there are theoretical similarities between African traditional thought and modern Western science. ... Article Metrics.

  2. Towards a Combined Surface Temperature Dataset for the Arctic from the Along-Track Scanning Radiometers (ATSRs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Emma; Veal, Karen; Corlett, Gary; Ghent, Darren; Remedios, John

    2016-04-01

    Surface Temperature (ST) changes in the Polar Regions are predicted to be more rapid than either global averages or responses in lower latitudes. Observations increasingly confirm these findings in the Arctic. It is, therefore, particularly important to monitor Arctic climate change. Satellites are particularly relevant to observations of Polar latitudes as they are well-served by low-Earth orbiting satellites. Whilst clouds often cause problems for satellite observations of the surface, in situ observations are much sparser. The ATSRs are accurate infra-red satellite radiometers, designed explicitly for climate standard observations and particularly suited to ST observations. ATSR radiance observations have been used to retrieve sea and land ST for a series of three instruments over a period greater than twenty years. This series will be extended with the launch of SLSTR on Sentinel 3, which has the same key design features necessary for providing climate quality ST datasets. We have combined land, ocean and sea-ice ST retrievals from ATSR-2 and AATSR to produce a new ST dataset for the Arctic; the ATSR Arctic combined Surface Temperature (AAST) dataset. The method of cloud-clearing, use of auxiliary data for ice classification and the ST retrievals used for each surface-type will be described. We will establish the accuracy of sea-ice and land-ice retrievals with recent results from validation against in situ data. We will also discuss the results from the calculation and propagation of uncertainties in the AAST dataset. Time series of ST anomalies for each surface type will be presented. The time series for open ocean in the Arctic Polar Region shows a significant warming trend during the AATSR mission. Time series for land, land-ice and sea-ice show high variability as expected but also interesting patterns. Overall, our purpose is to present the state-of-the-art for ATSR observations of ST change in the Arctic and hence indicate confidence we can have in

  3. Long-term global aerosol datasets from ERS-2, ENVISAT and Sentinel-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, P. R.; Bevan, S. L.; Heckel, A.; Davies, W.; Fischer, J.; Preusker, R.; Gomez Chova, L.; Brockmann, C.; Regner, P.

    2011-12-01

    We present results of global aerosol retrieval from the ESA ATSR instrument series on ERS-2 and ENVISAT (1995-2010), and initial testing of a new algorithm developed for Sentinel-3, with planned operation 2013-2030. The ATSR instruments on ERS-2 and ENVISAT together provide one of the longest available, well-calibrated datasets of satellite radiance measurements. The dual-angle viewing capability gives two near-simultaneous images at differing slant paths though the atmosphere, allowing global retrieval of aerosol optical thickness without assumptions on surface spectral properties. We present the global ATSR time series and analysis of trends, and give comparison with AERONET and with MODIS and MISR global datasets. The algorithm has been developed for application to Sentinel-3 to make use of synergistic retrieval from two sensors, OLCI and SLSTR. The research explores the gain by using information from both instruments simultaneously to constrain atmospheric profile, characterise cloud, and provide improved atmospheric correction to surface reflectance. The algorithm has been implemented on the ESA BEAM system and tested on MERIS and AATSR data, and compared with existing algorithms. Recent developments within the ESA Aerosol Climate Change Initiative (CCI) towards a common aerosol retrieval framework are reported. References Bevan, S.L., North, P.R.J., Grey, W.M.F., Los, S.O. and Plummer, S.E. (2009). Impact of atmospheric aerosol from biomass burning on Amazon dry-season drought. Journal of Geophysical Research, 114, D09204, doi:10.1029/2008JD011112. Bevan, S.L., et al. (2011). A global dataset of atmospheric aerosol optical depth and surface reflectance from AATSR, Remote Sensing of Environment, in press. North, P.R.J. et al. (2010) Sentinel-3 L2 Products and Algorithm Definition: OLCI/SLSTR Level 2 and 3 Synergy Products, S3-L203S2-SU-ATBD.

  4. Developing a Resource for Implementing ArcSWAT Using Global Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, M.; Caraballo Álvarez, I. O.; Mueller, C.; Palacios, S. L.; Schmidt, C.; Milesi, C.; Palmer-Moloney, L. J.

    2015-12-01

    This project developed a comprehensive user manual outlining methods for adapting and implementing global datasets for use within ArcSWAT for international and worldwide applications. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a hydrologic model that looks at a number of hydrologic variables including runoff and the chemical makeup of water at a given location on the Earth's surface using Digital Elevation Models (DEM), land cover, soil, and weather data. However, the application of ArcSWAT for projects outside of the United States is challenging as there is no standard framework for inputting global datasets into ArcSWAT. This project aims to remove this obstacle by outlining methods for adapting and implementing these global datasets via the user manual. The manual takes the user through the processes of data conditioning while providing solutions and suggestions for common errors. The efficacy of the manual was explored using examples from watersheds located in Puerto Rico, Mexico and Western Africa. Each run explored the various options for setting up a ArcSWAT project as well as a range of satellite data products and soil databases. Future work will incorporate in-situ data for validation and calibration of the model and outline additional resources to assist future users in efficiently implementing the model for worldwide applications. The capacity to manage and monitor freshwater availability is of critical importance in both developed and developing countries. As populations grow and climate changes, both the quality and quantity of freshwater are affected resulting in negative impacts on the health of the surrounding population. The use of hydrologic models such as ArcSWAT can help stakeholders and decision makers understand the future impacts of these changes enabling informed and substantiated decisions.

  5. Fluid Lensing based Machine Learning for Augmenting Earth Science Coral Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, A.; Instrella, R.; Chirayath, V.

    2016-12-01

    Recently, there has been increased interest in monitoring the effects of climate change upon the world's marine ecosystems, particularly coral reefs. These delicate ecosystems are especially threatened due to their sensitivity to ocean warming and acidification, leading to unprecedented levels of coral bleaching and die-off in recent years. However, current global aquatic remote sensing datasets are unable to quantify changes in marine ecosystems at spatial and temporal scales relevant to their growth. In this project, we employ various supervised and unsupervised machine learning algorithms to augment existing datasets from NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS), using high resolution airborne imagery. This method utilizes NASA's ongoing airborne campaigns as well as its spaceborne assets to collect remote sensing data over these afflicted regions, and employs Fluid Lensing algorithms to resolve optical distortions caused by the fluid surface, producing cm-scale resolution imagery of these diverse ecosystems from airborne platforms. Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and K-mean clustering methods were applied to satellite imagery at 0.5m resolution, producing segmented maps classifying coral based on percent cover and morphology. Compared to a previous study using multidimensional maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation to separate these features in high resolution airborne datasets, SVMs are able to achieve above 75% accuracy when augmented with existing MAP estimates, while unsupervised methods such as K-means achieve roughly 68% accuracy, verified by manually segmented reference data provided by a marine biologist. This effort thus has broad applications for coastal remote sensing, by helping marine biologists quantify behavioral trends spanning large areas and over longer timescales, and to assess the health of coral reefs worldwide.

  6. Intercomparison of an improved 20th Century reanalysis version 2c dataset spanning 1850 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compo, G. P.; Whitaker, J. S.; Sardeshmukh, P. D.; Giese, B. S.; Brohan, P.

    2014-12-01

    The historical reanalysis dataset generated by NOAA ESRL and the University of Colorado CIRES, the Twentieth Century Reanalysis version 2 (20CRv2), is a comprehensive global atmospheric circulation dataset spanning 1871-2012, assimilating only surface pressure and using monthly Hadley Centre SST and sea ice distributions (HadISST1.1) as boundary conditions. It has been made possible through collaboration with GCOS, WCRP, and the ACRE initiative. It is chiefly motivated by a need to provide an observational validation dataset, with quantified uncertainties, for assessments of climate model simulations of the 20th century, with emphasis on the statistics of daily weather. It uses, together with an NCEP global numerical weather prediction (NWP) land/atmosphere model to provide background "first guess" fields, an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) data assimilation method. This yields a global analysis every 6 hours as the most likely state of the atmosphere, and also yields the uncertainty of that analysis. Improvements in the new version ("2c") include an extension back to 1850 and the specification of new boundary conditions. These come from new fields of monthly COBE-SST2 sea ice concentrations and an ensemble of daily Simple Ocean Data Assimilation with Sparse Input (SODAsi.2c) sea surface temperatures. SODAsi.2c itself was forced with 20CR, allowing these boundary conditions to be more consistent with the atmospheric reanalysis. Millions of additional pressure observations contained in the new International Surface Pressure Databank version 3 are also included. These improvements result in 20CR version "2c" having comparable or better analyses, as suggested by improved 24 hour forecast skill, more realistic uncertainty in near-surface air temperature, and a reduction in spurious centennial trends in the tropical and polar regions. An intercomparison with ERA-Interim, MERRA, and JRA-55 reanalyses that assimilate all available upper-air and satellite observations will

  7. Identifying Populace Susceptible to Flooding Using ArcGIS and Remote Sensing Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Sim Joseph; Milano, Alan

    2016-07-01

    Remote sensing technologies are growing vastly as with its various applications. The Department of Science and Technology (DOST), Republic of the Philippines, has made projects exploiting LiDAR datasets from remote sensing technologies. The Phil-LiDAR 1 project of DOST is a flood hazard mapping project. Among the project's objectives is the identification of building features which can be associated to the flood-exposed population. The extraction of building features from the LiDAR dataset is arduous as it requires manual identification of building features on an elevation map. The mapping of building footprints is made meticulous in order to compensate the accuracy between building floor area and building height both of which are crucial in flood decision making. A building identification method was developed to generate a LiDAR derivative which will serve as a guide in mapping building footprints. The method utilizes several tools of a Geographic Information System (GIS) software called ArcGIS which can operate on physical attributes of buildings such as roofing curvature, slope and blueprint area in order to obtain the LiDAR derivative from LiDAR dataset. The method also uses an intermediary process called building removal process wherein buildings and other features lying below the defined minimum building height - 2 meters in the case of Phil-LiDAR 1 project - are removed. The building identification method was developed in the hope to hasten the identification of building features especially when orthophotographs and/or satellite imageries are not made available.

  8. Solar Power Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Flournoy, Don M

    2012-01-01

    Communication satellites are a $144 billion industry. Is there any space-based industry that could possibly beat that market? 'Solar Power Satellites' shows why and how the space satellite industry will soon begin expanding its market from relaying signals to Earth to generating energy in space and delivering it to the ground as electricity. In all industrialized nations, energy demand is growing exponentially. In the developing world, the need for energy is as basic as food and water. The Sun's energy is available everywhere, and it is non-polluting. As business plans demonstrate its technical feasibility, commercial potential, and environmental acceptability, every country on Earth will look to space for the power it needs.

  9. Geostationary satellites collocation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hengnian

    2014-01-01

    Geostationary Satellites Collocation aims to find solutions for deploying a safe and reliable collocation control. Focusing on the orbital perturbation analysis, the mathematical foundations for orbit and control of the geostationary satellite are summarized. The mathematical and physical principle of orbital maneuver and collocation strategies for multi geostationary satellites sharing with the same dead band is also stressed. Moreover, the book presents some applications using the above algorithms and mathematical models to help readers master the corrective method for planning station keeping maneuvers. Engineers and scientists in the fields of aerospace technology and space science can benefit from this book. Hengnian Li is the Deputy Director of State Key Laboratory of Astronautic Dynamics, China.

  10. ESA's satellite communications programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholome, P.

    1985-02-01

    The developmental history, current status, and future plans of the ESA satellite-communications programs are discussed in a general survey and illustrated with network diagrams and maps. Consideration is given to the parallel development of national and European direct-broadcast systems and telecommunications networks, the position of the European space and electronics industries in the growing world market, the impact of technological improvements (both in satellite systems and in ground-based networks), and the technological and commercial advantages of integrated space-terrestrial networks. The needs for a European definition of the precise national and international roles of satellite communications, for maximum speed in implementing such decisions (before the technology becomes obsolete), and for increased cooperation and standardization to assure European equipment manufacturers a reasonable share of the market are stressed.

  11. AVS on satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haiwu; Wang, Guozhong; Hou, Gang

    2005-07-01

    AVS is a new digital audio-video coding standard established by China. AVS will be used in digital TV broadcasting and next general optical disk. AVS adopted many digital audio-video coding techniques developed by Chinese company and universities in recent years, it has very low complexity compared to H.264, and AVS will charge very low royalty fee through one-step license including all AVS tools. So AVS is a good and competitive candidate for Chinese DTV and next generation optical disk. In addition, Chinese government has published a plan for satellite TV signal directly to home(DTH) and a telecommunication satellite named as SINO 2 will be launched in 2006. AVS will be also one of the best hopeful candidates of audio-video coding standard on satellite signal transmission.

  12. Satellite Control Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Bak, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The Satellite Laboratory at the Department of Control Engineering of Aalborg University (SatLab) is a dynamic motion facility designed for analysis and test of micro spacecraft. A unique feature of the laboratory is that it provides a completely gravity-free environment. A test spacecraft...... is suspended on an air bearing, and rotates freely in 3 degrees of freedom. In order to avoid any influence of the gravitational force the centre of mass of the satellite is placed in the geometric centre of the air bearing by an automatic balancing system. The test spacecraft is equipped with a three......-axis magnetometer, three piezoelectric gyros, and four reaction wheels in a tetrahedron configuration. The operation of the spacecraft is fully autonomous. The data flow between the transducers and the onboard computer placed physically outside the satellite is provided by a radio link. The purpose...

  13. Enhancing BATTLEMIND: Preventing PTSD by Coping with Intrusive Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    replace it right away. This thought replacing skill is especially good to use late at night if you are having trouble sleeping . But, you will need to...then this is a good skill for you to practice with at home so that you can learn to be decent toward yourself. When you spend your time and energy...about intrusive thoughts ◦ CONTROL: traditional CBT skills for coping ◦ RESET: Mindfulness-based skills for coping Thoughts on intrusive thoughts

  14. GPS satellite surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Leick, Alfred; Tatarnikov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE, UP-TO-DATE GUIDE ON GPS TECHNOLOGY FOR SURVEYING Three previous editions have established GPS Satellite Surveying as the definitive industry reference. Now fully updated and expanded to reflect the newest developments in the field, this Fourth Edition features cutting-edge information on GNSS antennas, precise point positioning, real-time relative positioning, lattice reduction, and much more. Expert authors examine additional tools and applications, offering complete coverage of geodetic surveying using satellite technologies. The past decade has seen a major evolut

  15. Declassified intelligence satellite photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1998-01-01

    Recently declassified photographs from spy satellites are an important addition to the record of the Earth?s land surface held by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). More than 800,000 high-resolution photos taken between 1959 through 1972 were made available by Executive Order of the President. The collection is held at the USGS EROS Data Center, near Sioux Falls, S. Dak., and are offered for public sale. For some purposes in earth science studies, these photos extend the record of changes in the land surface another decade back in time from the advent of the Landsat earth-observing satellite program.

  16. Oceanography from satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, W. S.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that oceanographers have benefited from the space program mainly through the increased efficiency it has brought to ship operations. For example, the Transit navigation system has enabled oceanographers to compile detailed maps of sea-floor properties and to more accurately locate moored subsurface instrumentation. General descriptions are given of instruments used in satellite observations (altimeter, color scanner, infrared radiometer, microwave radiometer, scatterometer, synthetic aperture radar). It is pointed out that because of the large volume of data that satellite instruments generate, the development of algorithms for converting the data into a form expressed in geophysical units has become especially important.

  17. Satellite oceanography - The instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that no instrument is sensitive to only one oceanographic variable; rather, each responds to a combination of atmospheric and oceanic phenomena. This complicates data interpretation and usually requires that a number of observations, each sensitive to somewhat different phenomena, be combined to provide unambiguous information. The distinction between active and passive instruments is described. A block diagram illustrating the steps necessary to convert data from satellite instruments into oceanographic information is included, as is a diagram illustrating the operation of a radio-frequency radiometer. Attention is also given to the satellites that carry the various oceanographic instruments.

  18. Integrated Satellite-HAP Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cianca, Ernestina; De Sanctis, Mauro; De Luise, Aldo

    2005-01-01

    for an efficient hybrid terrestrial-satellite communication system. Two integrated HAP-satellite scenarios are presented, in which the HAP is used to overcome some of the shortcomings of satellite- based communications. Moreover, it is shown that the integration of HAPs with satellite systems can be used......Thus far, high-altitude platform (HAP)-based systems have been mainly conceived as an alternative to satellites for complementing the terrestrial network. This article aims to show that HAP should no longer be seen as a competitor technology by investors of satellites, but as a key element...

  19. A Tentative Study on the Relationship between Thought and Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵寒

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between language and thought has long been a fundamental problem for language theorists. This paper makes a brief review of the major arguments concerning the relationship between language and thought and it is found that thought and language can be separated while possessing co-influence between each other.

  20. A Developmental Investigation of Relativistic and Dialectical Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Deirdre A.

    Post-formal operational thought is characterized by both relativism and dialecticism. To examine age differences across adulthood in relativistic and dialectical thought, and to determine whether formal operations are necessary but not sufficient for these forms of thought, 20 young (mean age, 19.6), 20 middle aged (mean age, 46.2), and 20 older…

  1. The Necessity of Fostering Students' Creative Thoughts in English Teoching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马燕芳

    2005-01-01

    Fostering students' creative thoughts is a reflection of quality-oriented education. It is just to meet the needs of social development. Creative thought in teaching highlights students' ability of independent thinking of how to find,analyze and solve the problem. This paper points out the necessity of fostering students' creative thoughts in English teaching and its method.

  2. GIEMS-D3: A new long-term, dynamical, high-spatial resolution inundation extent dataset at global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aires, Filipe; Miolane, Léo; Prigent, Catherine; Pham Duc, Binh; Papa, Fabrice; Fluet-Chouinard, Etienne; Lehner, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    The Global Inundation Extent from Multi-Satellites (GIEMS) provides multi-year monthly variations of the global surface water extent at 25kmx25km resolution. It is derived from multiple satellite observations. Its spatial resolution is usually compatible with climate model outputs and with global land surface model grids but is clearly not adequate for local applications that require the characterization of small individual water bodies. There is today a strong demand for high-resolution inundation extent datasets, for a large variety of applications such as water management, regional hydrological modeling, or for the analysis of mosquitos-related diseases. A new procedure is introduced to downscale the GIEMS low spatial resolution inundations to a 3 arc second (90 m) dataset. The methodology is based on topography and hydrography information from the HydroSHEDS database. A new floodability index is adopted and an innovative smoothing procedure is developed to ensure the smooth transition, in the high-resolution maps, between the low-resolution boxes from GIEMS. Topography information is relevant for natural hydrology environments controlled by elevation, but is more limited in human-modified basins. However, the proposed downscaling approach is compatible with forthcoming fusion with other more pertinent satellite information in these difficult regions. The resulting GIEMS-D3 database is the only high spatial resolution inundation database available globally at the monthly time scale over the 1993-2007 period. GIEMS-D3 is assessed by analyzing its spatial and temporal variability, and evaluated by comparisons to other independent satellite observations from visible (Google Earth and Landsat), infrared (MODIS) and active microwave (SAR).

  3. Intercomparison of desert dust optical depth from satellite measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Carboni

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work provides a comparison of satellite retrievals of Saharan desert dust aerosol optical depth (AOD during a strong dust event through March 2006. In this event, a large dust plume was transported over desert, vegetated, and ocean surfaces. The aim is to identify the differences between current datasets. The satellite instruments considered are AATSR, AIRS, MERIS, MISR, MODIS, OMI, POLDER, and SEVIRI. An interesting aspect is that the different algorithms make use of different instrument characteristics to obtain retrievals over bright surfaces. These include multi-angle approaches (MISR, AATSR, polarisation measurements (POLDER, single-view approaches using solar wavelengths (OMI, MODIS, and the thermal infrared spectral region (SEVIRI, AIRS. Differences between instruments, together with the comparison of different retrieval algorithms applied to measurements from the same instrument, provide a unique insight into the performance and characteristics of the various techniques employed. As well as the intercomparison between different satellite products, the AODs have also been compared to co-located AERONET data. Despite the fact that the agreement between satellite and AERONET AODs is reasonably good for all of the datasets, there are significant differences between them when compared to each other, especially over land. These differences are partially due to differences in the algorithms, such as assumptions about aerosol model and surface properties. However, in this comparison of spatially and temporally averaged data, it is important to note that differences in sampling, related to the actual footprint of each instrument on the heterogeneous aerosol field, cloud identification and the quality control flags of each dataset can be an important issue.

  4. Evaluation the Quality of Cloud Dataset from the Goddard Multi-Scale Modeling Framework for Supporting GPM Algorithm Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, J.; Tao, W.; Mohr, K. I.; Matsui, T.; Lang, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    With recent rapid advancement in computational technology, the multi-scale modeling framework (MMF) that replaces conventional cloud parameterizations with a cloud-resolving model (CRM) in each grid column of a GCM has been developed and improved at NASA Goddard. The Goddard MMF is based on the coupling of the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE), a CRM model, and the Goddard GEOS global model. In recent years, a few new and improved microphysical schemes are developed and implemented to the GCE based on observations from field campaigns. These schemes have been incorporated into the MMF. The MMF has global coverage and can provide detailed cloud properties such as cloud amount, hydrometeors types, and vertical profile of water contents at high spatial and temporal resolution of a cloud-resolving model. When coupled with the Goddard Satellite Data Simulation Unit (GSDSU), a system with multi-satellite, multi-sensor, and multi-spectrum satellite simulators, the MMF system can provide radiances and backscattering similar to what satellite directly observed. In this study, one-year (2007) MMF simulation has been performed with the new 4-ice (cloud ice, snow, graupel and hail) microphysical scheme. The GEOS global model is run at 2o x 2.5o resolution and the embedded two-dimensional GCEs each has 64 columns at 4 km horizontal resolution. The large-scale forcing from the GCM is nudged to EC-Interim analysis to reduce the influence of MMF model biases on the cloud-resolving model results. The simulation provides more than 300 millions of vertical profiles of cloud dataset in different season, geographic locations, and climate regimes. This cloud dataset is used to supplement observations over data sparse areas for supporting GPM algorithm development. The model simulated mean and variability of surface rainfall and snowfall, cloud and precipitation types, cloud properties, radiances and backscattering are evaluated against satellite observations. We will assess the strengths

  5. Italian super-eruption larger than thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-07-01

    Recent research suggested that the super-eruption of the Campi Flegrei caldera volcano in southern Italy about 40,000 years ago may have played a part in wiping out, or forcing the migration of, the Neanderthal and modern human populations in the eastern Mediterranean regions that were covered in ash. Now a new modeling study by Costa et al. suggests that this eruption may have been even larger than previously thought. This Campi Flegrei eruption produced a widespread ash layer known as Campanian Ignimbrite (CI). Using ash thickness measurements collected at 115 sites and a three-dimensional ash dispersal model, the researchers found that the CI super-eruption would have spread 250-300 cubic kilometers of ash across a 3.7-million-square kilometer region—2 to 3 times previous ash volume estimates.

  6. RETHINKING THE ANIMATE, RE-ANIMATING THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Ingold

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Animism is often described as the imputation of life to inert objects. Such imputation is more typical of people in western societies who dream of finding life on other planets than of indigenous peoples to whom the label of animism has classically been applied. These peoples are united not in their beliefs but in a way of being that is alive and open to a world in continuous birth. In this animic ontology, beings do not propel themselves across a ready-made world but rather issue forth through a world-in-formation, along the lines of their relationships. To its inhabitants this weather-world, embracing both sky and earth, is a source of astonishment but not surprise. Re-animating the ‘western’ tradition of thought means recovering the sense of astonishment banished from offi cial science.

  7. Media Influences on Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirkis, Jane E; Mok, Katherine; Robinson, Jo

    2016-01-01

    . The recent proliferation of pro-suicide websites has led to concerns that contagion effects may operate in newer media like the Internet, particularly with the advent of Web 2.0. There are numerous suicide prevention websites, which include educational, interactive, and social networking content. A body......This chapter explores the influence of the media on suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Until recently, the vast majority of studies in this area were concerned with traditional forms of media like newspapers and television and looked at the potential for irresponsible reporting of suicide to lead...... to copycat acts. Particular subgroups in the population, especially those with depression, may be especially vulnerable to engaging in imitative suicidal behaviors. The World Health Organization and the International Association for Suicide Prevention have also developed a set of international guidelines...

  8. Propagation of Microwaves Thought Atmospheric Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Kocifaj

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless microwave systems tend to have high availability figures, but at the expense of the ability to operate at higher data rates. A quality of free space communication depends on atmospheric conditions. It is shown that microwave attenuation reacts sensitively on changes of changes of hydrometeor size distribution. However, a signal transmission is also significantly affected by both, refractive index and shape of hydrometeors. Non-spherical particles attenuate radiation at frequencies higher than about 200 GHz more effectively than volume equivalent spheres. On the other hand, the non-spherical ice phase hydrometeors form weakly attenuating media at v < 150 GHz. The quality of microwave signal transmission thought icy cloud is therefore much better as when the communication path is realized through rainy atmosphere (the particle sizes are assumed to be the same in both cases.

  9. Can Medical Diagnosis Benefit from "Unconscious Thought"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Amanda; Kostopoulou, Olga; Delaney, Brendan C

    2016-05-01

    The unconscious thought theory argues that making complex decisions after a period of distraction can lead to better decision quality than deciding either immediately or after conscious deliberation. Two studies have tested this unconscious thought effect (UTE) in clinical diagnosis with conflicting results. The studies used different methodologies and had methodological weaknesses. We attempted to replicate the UTE in medical diagnosis by providing favorable conditions for the effect while maintaining ecological validity. Family physicians (N= 116) diagnosed 3 complex cases in 1 of 3 thinking modes: immediate, unconscious (UT), and conscious (CT). Cases were divided into short sentences, which were presented briefly and sequentially on computer. After each case presentation, the immediate response group gave a diagnosis, the UT group performed a 2-back distraction task for 3 min before giving a diagnosis, and the CT group could take as long as necessary before giving a diagnosis. We found no differences in diagnostic accuracy between groups (P= 0.95). The CT group took a median of 7 s to diagnose, which suggests that physicians were able to diagnose "online," as information was being presented. The lack of a difference between the immediate and UT groups suggests that the distraction had no additional effect on performance. To assess the decisiveness of the evidence of this null result, we computed a Bayes factor (BF01) for the 2 comparisons of interest. We found a BF01of 5.76 for the UT versus immediate comparison and of 3.61 for the UT versus CT comparison. Both BFs provide substantial evidence in favor of the null hypothesis: physicians' diagnoses made after distraction are no better than diagnoses made either immediately or after self-paced deliberation.

  10. Satellite orbit determination and gravity field recovery from satellite-to-satellite tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakker, K. F.; Ambrosius, B. A. C.; Leenman, H.

    1989-07-01

    Studies on satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST) with POPSAT (a geodetic satellite concept) and a ERS-class (Earth observation) satellite, a Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (SST) gravity mission, and precise gravity field determination methods and mission requirements are reported. The first two studies primarily address the application of SST between the high altitude POPSAT and an ERS-class or GRM (Geopotential Research Mission) satellite to the orbit determination of the latter two satellites. Activities focussed on the determination of the tracking coverage of the lower altitude satellite by ground based tracking systems and by POPSAT, orbit determination error analysis and the determination of the surface forces acting on GRM. The third study surveys principles of SST, uncertainties of existing drag models, effects of direct luni-solar attraction and tides on orbit and the gravity gradient observable. Detailed ARISTOTELES (which replaced POPSAT) orbit determination error analyses were performed for various ground based tracking networks.

  11. The effects of thoughts of survival and thoughts of death on recall in the adaptive memory paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Stanley B

    2014-01-01

    In a recent paper Hart and Burns (2012) presented evidence that conditions that prime thoughts of one's mortality benefit recall. Drawing on the conceptual relation between thoughts of death and thoughts of survival, Hart and Burns interpret their findings as suggestive of the possibility that death-related thoughts function in manner similar to survival-related thoughts in enhancing recall. In the present study I draw on evolutionary arguments to question whether a conceptual relation between thoughts of death and thoughts of survival translates into a functional relation. I then present data showing that while death-related thoughts can promote high levels of recall, (a) the level achieved does not match that produced by survival processing and (b) survival and death cognition likely rely on different mechanisms to achieve their effects.

  12. Improving AfriPop dataset with settlement extents extracted from RapidEye for the border region comprising South-Africa, Swaziland and Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Deleu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available For modelling the spatial distribution of malaria incidence, accurate and detailed information on population size and distribution are of significant importance. Different, global, spatial, standard datasets of population distribution have been developed and are widely used. However, most of them are not up-to-date and the low spatial resolution of the input census data has limitations for contemporary, national- scale analyses. The AfriPop project, launched in July 2009, was initiated with the aim of producing detailed, contemporary and easily updatable population distribution datasets for the whole of Africa. High-resolution satellite sensors can help to further improve this dataset through the generation of high-resolution settlement layers at greater spatial details. In the present study, the settlement extents included in the MALAREO land use classification were used to generate an enhanced and updated version of the AfriPop dataset for the study area covering southern Mozambique, eastern Swaziland and the malarious part of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. Results show that it is possible to easily produce a detailed and updated population distribution dataset applying the AfriPop modelling approach with the use of high-resolution settlement layers and population growth rates. The 2007 and 2011 population datasets are freely available as a product of the MALAREO project and can be downloaded from the project website.

  13. Band Iron Formations and Satellite Magnetic Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarova, K. A.; Wasilewski, P.

    2005-05-01

    Band Iron Formations (BIF) are mainly Precambrian (2.5-1.8 Ga) sedimentary deposits and are composed of alternating layers of iron rich material and silica (chert). Precambrian BIF mark growth in the level of free oxygen in the atmosphere and the ocean which happened about 2.2 Ga. Distribution of main BIF includes Hamersley Range, Australia; Transvaal-Griquatown, South Africa; Minas Gerais, Brazil; Labrador Trough, Canada, and Kursk-Krivoi Rog (Russia). Together these five very large BIF deposits constitute about 90 percent of Earth's total estimated BIF (5.76*10 14 ). On each continent these ancient rocks usually metamorphosed and crystallized include what are variously described as hematite-quartzites, banded iron formations, banded jaspers or calico-rocks. West African, Hudson Bay and Western Australian Satellite Magnetic Anomalies coincide with distribution BIF deposits. The Kursk Satellite Magnetic Anomaly (KMA) (about 22 nT at the altitude=400km, centered at 51o N, 37o E) also was identified by ground and aeromagnetic observations and is recognized as one of the largest magnetic anomaly on the Earth. Magnetic modeling shows that immense Precambrian iron ore deposits (iron bands) of Voronezh uplift are the main source of KMA. Magnetic properties of 10000 BIF samples outcropped in the KMA area have been measured and analyzed (Krutikhovskaya et al., 1964) Rockmag BIF dataset is presented at: http://core2.gsfc.nasa.gov/MPDB/datasets.html. Mean NRM value is about 42 A/M, Qn about 1.4. Demagnetization tests suggest that hard and stable NRM component is caused by hematite occurring in BIF in different forms and grain sizes. Hematite deposits discovered on Mars in western equatorial area with layered topography of Aram Chaos and Sinus Meridiani could be of hydrothermal origin and may be formed similar to hematite precipitated in BIF on Earth.

  14. Satellite SAR geocoding with refined RPC model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Balz, Timo; Liao, Mingsheng

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies have proved that the Rational Polynomial Camera (RPC) model is able to act as a reliable replacement of the rigorous Range-Doppler (RD) model for the geometric processing of satellite SAR datasets. But its capability in absolute geolocation of SAR images has not been evaluated quantitatively. Therefore, in this article the problems of error analysis and refinement of SAR RPC model are primarily investigated to improve the absolute accuracy of SAR geolocation. Range propagation delay and azimuth timing error are identified as two major error sources for SAR geolocation. An approach based on SAR image simulation and real-to-simulated image matching is developed to estimate and correct these two errors. Afterwards a refined RPC model can be built from the error-corrected RD model and then used in satellite SAR geocoding. Three experiments with different settings are designed and conducted to comprehensively evaluate the accuracies of SAR geolocation with both ordinary and refined RPC models. All the experimental results demonstrate that with RPC model refinement the absolute location accuracies of geocoded SAR images can be improved significantly, particularly in Easting direction. In another experiment the computation efficiencies of SAR geocoding with both RD and RPC models are compared quantitatively. The results show that by using the RPC model such efficiency can be remarkably improved by at least 16 times. In addition the problem of DEM data selection for SAR image simulation in RPC model refinement is studied by a comparative experiment. The results reveal that the best choice should be using the proper DEM datasets of spatial resolution comparable to that of the SAR images.

  15. Man-made Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝昌明

    2005-01-01

    If you watch the sky about an hour after the sun goes down, you may see some “moving stars”. But they're not real stars. They're manmade satellites (卫星). And the biggest of all is the International Space Station (ISS国际空间站).

  16. Observations of artificial satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MAMMANO

    1964-06-01

    Full Text Available The following publication gives the results of photographic
    observations of artificial satellites made at Asiago during the second
    and third year of this programme. The fixed camera technique and that
    with moving film (the latter still in its experimental stage have been used.

  17. Experimental Satellite Quantum Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallone, Giuseppe; Bacco, Davide; Dequal, Daniele; Gaiarin, Simone; Luceri, Vincenza; Bianco, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo

    2015-07-24

    Quantum communication (QC), namely, the faithful transmission of generic quantum states, is a key ingredient of quantum information science. Here we demonstrate QC with polarization encoding from space to ground by exploiting satellite corner cube retroreflectors as quantum transmitters in orbit and the Matera Laser Ranging Observatory of the Italian Space Agency in Matera, Italy, as a quantum receiver. The quantum bit error ratio (QBER) has been kept steadily low to a level suitable for several quantum information protocols, as the violation of Bell inequalities or quantum key distribution (QKD). Indeed, by taking data from different satellites, we demonstrate an average value of QBER=4.6% for a total link duration of 85 s. The mean photon number per pulse μ_{sat} leaving the satellites was estimated to be of the order of one. In addition, we propose a fully operational satellite QKD system by exploiting our communication scheme with orbiting retroreflectors equipped with a modulator, a very compact payload. Our scheme paves the way toward the implementation of a QC worldwide network leveraging existing receivers.

  18. Perception via satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinove, Charles J.

    1970-01-01

    The earth resources observation satellite (EROS) program in the Department of the Interior is intended to gather and use data from satellites and aircraft on natural and man-made features of the earth's surface. Earth resources technology satellite will provide the EROS program with data for use in dealing with natural resource problems and understanding the interaction between man and the environment. Applications will include studies of tectonic features, hydrologic problems, location of fish schools, determination of the conditions of range land, mapping land use for urban planning, studies of erosion and change along coastlines and major streams, and inventories of land use and land forms. In addition, the ERTS data may be used for detecting forest and crop diseases and inventorying crops. The ERTS satellite will be in a polar, sun-synchronous orbit so that each point on the earth's surface will be sensed every 17 to 20 days, at the same time of day. Multispectral photography is being investigated for its usefulness in hydrology. Side-looking airborne radar has not yet been widely used in hydrologic studies, although it is an excellent tool for all-weather, day or night, coverage of large areas. Other techniques being investigated include passive microwave radiometry, ultraviolet and visible stimulated luminescence, and absorption spectroscopy.

  19. Satellite Photometric Error Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-18

    of nearly specular reflections from most solar panels. Our primary purpose in presenting these two plots is to demonstrate the usefulness of...than a transformation for stars because the spectral energy distribution of satellites can change with phase angle and is subject to specular

  20. Creating Better Satellite Conferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Tommy

    1998-01-01

    Presents four ways to improve broadcasts of company satellite conferences, including creative site selection (using facilities at educational institutions rather than hotel rooms); creative programming (using graphics and other interruptions to break up lectures or speeches); creative crew selection; and creative downlink site activities (to…

  1. Ocean surveillance satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, D.

    Soviet and U.S. programs involving satellites for surveillance of ships and submarines are discussed, considering differences in approaches. The Soviet program began with the Cosmos 198 in 1967 and the latest, the Cosmos 1400 series, 15 m long and weighing 5 tons, carry radar for monitoring ships and a nuclear reactor for a power supply. Other Soviet spacecraft carrying passive microwave sensors and ion drives powered by solar panels have recently been detonated in orbit for unknown reasons. It has also been observed that the Soviet satellites are controlled in pairs, with sequential orbital changes for one following the other, and both satellites then overflying the same points. In contrast, U.S. surveillance satellites have been placed in higher orbits, thus placing greater demands on the capabilities of the on-board radar and camera systems. Project White Cloud and the Clipper Bow program are described, noting the continued operation of the White Cloud spacecraft, which are equipped to intercept radio signals from surface ships. Currently, the integrated tactical surveillance system program has completed its study and a decision is expected soon.

  2. OMV With Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    This 1986 artist's concept shows the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) towing a satellite. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center plarners, the OMV would be a remotely-controlled free-flying space tug which would place, rendezvous, dock, and retrieve orbital payloads.

  3. Advances in satellite oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, O. B.; Cheney, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Technical advances and recent applications of active and passive satellite remote sensing techniques to the study of oceanic processes are summarized. The general themes include infrared and visible radiometry, active and passive microwave sensors, and buoy location systems. The surface parameters of sea surface temperature, windstream, sea state, altimetry, color, and ice are treated as applicable under each of the general methods.

  4. Comparison of CORA and EN4 in-situ datasets validation methods, toward a better quality merged dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, Tanguy; Killick, Rachel; Gourrion, Jerome; Reverdin, Gilles

    2017-04-01

    CORA and EN4 are both global delayed time mode validated in-situ ocean temperature and salinity datasets distributed by the Met Office (http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/) and Copernicus (www.marine.copernicus.eu). A large part of the profiles distributed by CORA and EN4 in recent years are Argo profiles from the ARGO DAC, but profiles are also extracted from the World Ocean Database and TESAC profiles from GTSPP. In the case of CORA, data coming from the EUROGOOS Regional operationnal oserving system( ROOS) operated by European institutes no managed by National Data Centres and other datasets of profiles povided by scientific sources can also be found (Sea mammals profiles from MEOP, XBT datasets from cruises ...). (EN4 also takes data from the ASBO dataset to supplement observations in the Arctic). First advantage of this new merge product is to enhance the space and time coverage at global and european scales for the period covering 1950 till a year before the current year. This product is updated once a year and T&S gridded fields are alos generated for the period 1990-year n-1. The enhancement compared to the revious CORA product will be presented Despite the fact that the profiles distributed by both datasets are mostly the same, the quality control procedures developed by the Met Office and Copernicus teams differ, sometimes leading to different quality control flags for the same profile. Started in 2016 a new study started that aims to compare both validation procedures to move towards a Copernicus Marine Service dataset with the best features of CORA and EN4 validation.A reference data set composed of the full set of in-situ temperature and salinity measurements collected by Coriolis during 2015 is used. These measurements have been made thanks to wide range of instruments (XBTs, CTDs, Argo floats, Instrumented sea mammals,...), covering the global ocean. The reference dataset has been validated simultaneously by both teams.An exhaustive comparison of the

  5. Cibola flight experiment satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P.; Liddle, Doug; Paffett, John; Sweeting, Martin; Curiel, A.; Sun, Wei; Eves, Stuart

    2004-11-01

    In order to achieve an "economy of scale" with respect to payload capacity the major trend in telecommunications satellites is for larger and larger platforms. With these large platforms the level of integration between platform and payload is increasing leading to longer delivery schedules. The typical lifecycle for procurement of these large telecommunications satellites is now 3-6 years depending on the level of non-recurring engineering needed. Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) has designed a low-cost platform aimed at telecommunications and navigation applications. SSTL's Geostationary Minisatellite Platform (GMP) is a new entrant addressing the lower end of the market with payloads up to 250kg requiring less than 1.5 kW power. The British National Space Centre through the MOSAIC Small Satellite Initiative supported the development of GMP. The main design goals for GMP are low-cost for the complete mission including launch and operations and a platform allowing flexible payload accommodation. GMP is specifically designed to allow rapid development and deployment with schedules typically between 1 and 2 years from contract signature to flight readiness. GMP achieves these aims by a modular design where the level of integration between the platform and payload is low. The modular design decomposes the satellite into three major components - the propulsion bay, the avionics bay and the payload module. Both the propulsion and avionics bays are reusable, largely unchanged, and independent of the payload configuration. Such a design means that SSTL or a 3rd party manufacturer can manufacture the payload in parallel to the platform with integration taking place quite late in the schedule. In July 2003 SSTL signed a contract for ESA's first Galileo navigation satellite known as GSTBV2/A. The satellite is based on GMP and ESA plan to launch it into a MEO orbit late in 2005. The second flight of GMP is likely to be in 2006 carrying a geostationary payload

  6. Evaluation of multi-satellite rainfall products over India during monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Ashis K.; Prakash, Satya; Pai, D. S.; Srivastava, A. K.

    2016-05-01

    Simulation and prediction of Indian monsoon rainfall at scales from days-to-season is a challenging task for numerical modelling community worldwide. Gridded estimates of daily rainfall data are required for both land and oceanic regions for model validation, process studies and in turn for model development. Due to recent developments in satellite meteorology, it has become possible to produce realistic near real-time gridded rainfall datasets at operational basis by combining satellite estimates with rain gauge values and other available in-situ observations. Microwave and space based radar based estimates of rainfall has revolutionised the preparation of rainfall datasets especially for tropics. However, a variety of multi-satellite products are available over Indian monsoon region from a variety of sources. Popular products like TRMM TMPA3B42 (RT and V7), GsMaP, CPC/RFE, GPCP and GPM are available to end users in various space/time scales for applications and model validation. In this study, we show the representation and skill of monsoon rainfall from a variety of multi-satellite products over the Indian region. The bias and skill of multi-satellite rainfall are evaluated against gauge based observations. It was found that the TRMM based TMPA was one of the best dataset for Indian monsoon region. Attempt is made to compare the latest GPM based data with other products. The GPM based rainfall product is seen to be superior compared to TRMM.

  7. Cross-Dataset Analysis and Visualization Driven by Expressive Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandru Dumitru, Mircea; Catalin Merticariu, Vlad

    2015-04-01

    The deluge of data that is hitting us every day from satellite and airborne sensors is changing the workflow of environmental data analysts and modelers. Web geo-services play now a fundamental role, and are no longer needed to preliminary download and store the data, but rather they interact in real-time with GIS applications. Due to the very large amount of data that is curated and made available by web services, it is crucial to deploy smart solutions for optimizing network bandwidth, reducing duplication of data and moving the processing closer to the data. In this context we have created a visualization application for analysis and cross-comparison of aerosol optical thickness datasets. The application aims to help researchers identify and visualize discrepancies between datasets coming from various sources, having different spatial and time resolutions. It also acts as a proof of concept for integration of OGC Web Services under a user-friendly interface that provides beautiful visualizations of the explored data. The tool was built on top of the World Wind engine, a Java based virtual globe built by NASA and the open source community. For data retrieval and processing we exploited the OGC Web Coverage Service potential: the most exciting aspect being its processing extension, a.k.a. the OGC Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS) standard. A WCPS-compliant service allows a client to execute a processing query on any coverage offered by the server. By exploiting a full grammar, several different kinds of information can be retrieved from one or more datasets together: scalar condensers, cross-sectional profiles, comparison maps and plots, etc. This combination of technology made the application versatile and portable. As the processing is done on the server-side, we ensured that the minimal amount of data is transferred and that the processing is done on a fully-capable server, leaving the client hardware resources to be used for rendering the visualization

  8. The LANDFIRE Refresh strategy: updating the national dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kurtis J.; Connot, Joel A.; Peterson, Birgit E.; Martin, Charley

    2013-01-01

    The LANDFIRE Program provides comprehensive vegetation and fuel datasets for the entire United States. As with many large-scale ecological datasets, vegetation and landscape conditions must be updated periodically to account for disturbances, growth, and natural succession. The LANDFIRE Refresh effort was the first attempt to consistently update these products nationwide. It incorporated a combination of specific systematic improvements to the original LANDFIRE National data, remote sensing based disturbance detection methods, field collected disturbance information, vegetation growth and succession modeling, and vegetation transition processes. This resulted in the creation of two complete datasets for all 50 states: LANDFIRE Refresh 2001, which includes the systematic improvements, and LANDFIRE Refresh 2008, which includes the disturbance and succession updates to the vegetation and fuel data. The new datasets are comparable for studying landscape changes in vegetation type and structure over a decadal period, and provide the most recent characterization of fuel conditions across the country. The applicability of the new layers is discussed and the effects of using the new fuel datasets are demonstrated through a fire behavior modeling exercise using the 2011 Wallow Fire in eastern Arizona as an example.

  9. Securely measuring the overlap between private datasets with cryptosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamidass, S Joshua; Matlock, Matthew; Rozenblit, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Many scientific questions are best approached by sharing data--collected by different groups or across large collaborative networks--into a combined analysis. Unfortunately, some of the most interesting and powerful datasets--like health records, genetic data, and drug discovery data--cannot be freely shared because they contain sensitive information. In many situations, knowing if private datasets overlap determines if it is worthwhile to navigate the institutional, ethical, and legal barriers that govern access to sensitive, private data. We report the first method of publicly measuring the overlap between private datasets that is secure under a malicious model without relying on private protocols or message passing. This method uses a publicly shareable summary of a dataset's contents, its cryptoset, to estimate its overlap with other datasets. Cryptosets approach "information-theoretic" security, the strongest type of security possible in cryptography, which is not even crackable with infinite computing power. We empirically and theoretically assess both the accuracy of these estimates and the security of the approach, demonstrating that cryptosets are informative, with a stable accuracy, and secure.

  10. The KUSC Classical Music Dataset for Audio Key Finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hua Chuan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a benchmark dataset based on the KUSC classical music collection and provide baseline key-finding comparison results. Audio key finding is a basic music information retrieval task; it forms an essential component of systems for music segmentation, similarity assessment, and mood detection. Due to copyright restrictions and a labor-intensive annotation process, audio key finding algorithms have only been evaluated using small proprietary datasets to date. To create a common base for systematic comparisons, we have constructed a dataset comprising of more than 3,000 excerpts of classical music. The excerpts are made publicly accessible via commonly used acoustic features such as pitch-based spectrograms and chromagrams. We introduce a hybrid annotation scheme that combines the use of title keys with expert validation and correction of only the challenging cases. The expert musicians also provide ratings of key recognition difficulty. Other meta-data include instrumentation. As demonstration of use of the dataset, and to provide initial benchmark comparisons for evaluating new algorithms, we conduct a series of experiments reporting key determination accuracy of four state-of-the-art algorithms. We further show the importance of considering factors such as estimated tuning frequency, key strength or confidence value, and key recognition difficulty in key finding. In the future, we plan to expand the dataset to include meta-data for other music information retrieval tasks.

  11. Determining the Real Data Completeness of a Relational Dataset

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Nan Liu; Jian-Zhong Li; Zhao-Nian Zou

    2016-01-01

    Low quality of data is a serious problem in the new era of big data, which can severely reduce the usability of data, mislead or bias the querying, analyzing and mining, and leads to huge loss. Incomplete data is common in low quality data, and it is necessary to determine the data completeness of a dataset to provide hints for follow-up operations on it. Little existing work focuses on the completeness of a dataset, and such work views all missing values as unknown values. In this paper, we study how to determine real data completeness of a relational dataset. By taking advantage of given functional dependencies, we aim to determine some missing attribute values by other tuples and capture the really missing attribute cells. We propose a data completeness model, formalize the problem of determining the real data completeness of a relational dataset, and give a lower bound of the time complexity of this problem. Two optimal algorithms to determine the data completeness of a dataset for different cases are proposed. We empirically show the effectiveness and the scalability of our algorithms on both real-world data and synthetic data.

  12. Spatial Accuracy Assessment and Integration of Global Land Cover Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandin-Erdene Tsendbazar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Along with the creation of new maps, current efforts for improving global land cover (GLC maps focus on integrating maps by accounting for their relative merits, e.g., agreement amongst maps or map accuracy. Such integration efforts may benefit from the use of multiple GLC reference datasets. Using available reference datasets, this study assesses spatial accuracy of recent GLC maps and compares methods for creating an improved land cover (LC map. Spatial correspondence with reference dataset was modeled for Globcover-2009, Land Cover-CCI-2010, MODIS-2010 and Globeland30 maps for Africa. Using different scenarios concerning the used input data, five integration methods for an improved LC map were tested and cross-validated. Comparison of the spatial correspondences showed that the preferences for GLC maps varied spatially. Integration methods using both the GLC maps and reference data at their locations resulted in 4.5%–13% higher correspondence with the reference LC than any of the input GLC maps. An integrated LC map and LC class probability maps were computed using regression kriging, which produced the highest correspondence (76%. Our results demonstrate the added value of using reference datasets and geostatistics for improving GLC maps. This approach is useful as more GLC reference datasets are becoming publicly available and their reuse is being encouraged.

  13. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...

  14. Unnoticed intrusions: dissociations of meta-consciousness in thought suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Benjamin; Smallwood, Jonathan; Fishman, Daniel J F; Mrazek, Michael D; Schooler, Jonathan W

    2013-09-01

    The current research investigates the interaction between thought suppression and individuals' explicit awareness of their thoughts. Participants in three experiments attempted to suppress thoughts of a prior romantic relationship and their success at doing so was measured using a combination of self-catching and experience-sampling. In addition to thoughts that individuals spontaneously noticed, individuals were frequently caught engaging in thoughts of their previous partner at experience-sampling probes. Furthermore, probe-caught thoughts were: (i) associated with stronger decoupling of attention from the environment, (ii) more likely to occur under cognitive load, (iii) more frequent for individuals with a desire to reconcile, and (iv) associated with individual differences in the tendency to suppress thoughts. Together, these data suggest that individuals can lack meta-awareness that they have begun to think about a topic they are attempting to suppress, providing novel insight into the cognitive processes that are involved in attempting to control undesired mental states.

  15. Harnessing Satellite Imageries in Feature Extraction Using Google Earth Pro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Sim Joseph; Milano, Alan

    2016-07-01

    Climate change has been a long-time concern worldwide. Impending flooding, for one, is among its unwanted consequences. The Phil-LiDAR 1 project of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST), Republic of the Philippines, has developed an early warning system in regards to flood hazards. The project utilizes the use of remote sensing technologies in determining the lives in probable dire danger by mapping and attributing building features using LiDAR dataset and satellite imageries. A free mapping software named Google Earth Pro (GEP) is used to load these satellite imageries as base maps. Geotagging of building features has been done so far with the use of handheld Global Positioning System (GPS). Alternatively, mapping and attribution of building features using GEP saves a substantial amount of resources such as manpower, time and budget. Accuracy-wise, geotagging by GEP is dependent on either the satellite imageries or orthophotograph images of half-meter resolution obtained during LiDAR acquisition and not on the GPS of three-meter accuracy. The attributed building features are overlain to the flood hazard map of Phil-LiDAR 1 in order to determine the exposed population. The building features as obtained from satellite imageries may not only be used in flood exposure assessment but may also be used in assessing other hazards and a number of other uses. Several other features may also be extracted from the satellite imageries.

  16. DFH Satellite Co.,Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunQing

    2004-01-01

    DFH Satellite Co.,Ltd. is a hi-tech enterprise founded and sponsored by China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation(CASC) and one of CASC subsidiaries,China Academy of Space Technology (CAST). The company is mainly engaged in the research and development of small satellites and micro-satellites, Osystem designs and product development for satellite application projects as well as the international exchanges and cooperation.

  17. Deep Learning-Based Large-Scale Automatic Satellite Crosswalk Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berriel, Rodrigo F.; Lopes, Andre Teixeira; de Souza, Alberto F.; Oliveira-Santos, Thiago

    2017-09-01

    High-resolution satellite imagery have been increasingly used on remote sensing classification problems. One of the main factors is the availability of this kind of data. Even though, very little effort has been placed on the zebra crossing classification problem. In this letter, crowdsourcing systems are exploited in order to enable the automatic acquisition and annotation of a large-scale satellite imagery database for crosswalks related tasks. Then, this dataset is used to train deep-learning-based models in order to accurately classify satellite images that contains or not zebra crossings. A novel dataset with more than 240,000 images from 3 continents, 9 countries and more than 20 cities was used in the experiments. Experimental results showed that freely available crowdsourcing data can be used to accurately (97.11%) train robust models to perform crosswalk classification on a global scale.

  18. Telelibrary: Library Services via Satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rosa

    1979-01-01

    Investigates the provision of library services via satellite, explains briefly the operation and advantages of communication satellites, and discusses the various telecommunications equipment and services which, when coupled with satellite transmission, will enhance library activities. Demand trend projections for telecommunications services…

  19. Mobile satellite service for Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sward, David

    1988-05-01

    The Mobile Satellite (MSAT) system and a special program designed to provide interim mobile satellite services (IMSS) during the construction phase of MSAT are described. A mobile satellite system is a key element in extending voice and and data telecommunications to all Canadians.

  20. Modeling the latent dimensions of multivariate signaling datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Karin J.; Janes, Kevin A.

    2012-08-01

    Cellular signal transduction is coordinated by modifications of many proteins within cells. Protein modifications are not independent, because some are connected through shared signaling cascades and others jointly converge upon common cellular functions. This coupling creates a hidden structure within a signaling network that can point to higher level organizing principles of interest to systems biology. One can identify important covariations within large-scale datasets by using mathematical models that extract latent dimensions—the key structural elements of a measurement set. In this paper, we introduce two principal component-based methods for identifying and interpreting latent dimensions. Principal component analysis provides a starting point for unbiased inspection of the major sources of variation within a dataset. Partial least-squares regression reorients these dimensions toward a specific hypothesis of interest. Both approaches have been used widely in studies of cell signaling, and they should be standard analytical tools once highly multivariate datasets become straightforward to accumulate.

  1. Nanomaterial datasets to advance tomography in scanning transmission electron microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, Barnaby D A; Chen, Chien-Chun; Scott, M C; Xu, Rui; Theis, Wolfgang; Jiang, Yi; Yang, Yongsoo; Ophus, Colin; Zhang, Haitao; Ha, Don-Hyung; Wang, Deli; Yu, Yingchao; Abruna, Hector D; Robinson, Richard D; Ercius, Peter; Kourkoutis, Lena F; Miao, Jianwei; Muller, David A; Hovden, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Electron tomography in materials science has flourished with the demand to characterize nanoscale materials in three dimensions (3D). Access to experimental data is vital for developing and validating reconstruction methods that improve resolution and reduce radiation dose requirements. This work presents five high-quality scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) tomography datasets in order to address the critical need for open access data in this field. The datasets represent the current limits of experimental technique, are of high quality, and contain materials with structural complexity. Included are tomographic series of a hyperbranched Co2P nanocrystal, platinum nanoparticles on a carbon nanofibre imaged over the complete 180{\\deg} tilt range, a platinum nanoparticle and a tungsten needle both imaged at atomic resolution by equal slope tomography, and a through-focal tilt series of PtCu nanoparticles. A volumetric reconstruction from every dataset is provided for comparison and development of p...

  2. Dataset of transcriptional landscape of B cell early activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Garruss

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Signaling via B cell receptors (BCR and Toll-like receptors (TLRs result in activation of B cells with distinct physiological outcomes, but transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that drive activation and distinguish these pathways remain unknown. At early time points after BCR and TLR ligand exposure, 0.5 and 2 h, RNA-seq was performed allowing observations on rapid transcriptional changes. At 2 h, ChIP-seq was performed to allow observations on important regulatory mechanisms potentially driving transcriptional change. The dataset includes RNA-seq, ChIP-seq of control (Input, RNA Pol II, H3K4me3, H3K27me3, and a separate RNA-seq for miRNA expression, which can be found at Gene Expression Omnibus Dataset GSE61608. Here, we provide details on the experimental and analysis methods used to obtain and analyze this dataset and to examine the transcriptional landscape of B cell early activation.

  3. Robust Machine Learning Applied to Terascale Astronomical Datasets

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Nicholas M; Myers, Adam D

    2008-01-01

    We present recent results from the LCDM (Laboratory for Cosmological Data Mining; http://lcdm.astro.uiuc.edu) collaboration between UIUC Astronomy and NCSA to deploy supercomputing cluster resources and machine learning algorithms for the mining of terascale astronomical datasets. This is a novel application in the field of astronomy, because we are using such resources for data mining, and not just performing simulations. Via a modified implementation of the NCSA cyberenvironment Data-to-Knowledge, we are able to provide improved classifications for over 100 million stars and galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, improved distance measures, and a full exploitation of the simple but powerful k-nearest neighbor algorithm. A driving principle of this work is that our methods should be extensible from current terascale datasets to upcoming petascale datasets and beyond. We discuss issues encountered to-date, and further issues for the transition to petascale. In particular, disk I/O will become a major limit...

  4. Review Studies for the ATLAS Open Data Dataset

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    This document presents approval plots from selected analyses using the ATLAS Open Data dataset. This dataset containing "1\\ \\text{fb}^{-1}" of "8 \\text{TeV}" data collected by ATLAS along with a selection of Monte Carlo simulated events, is intended to be released to the public for educational use only alongside tools to enable students to get started quickly and easily. The corrections applied to the Monte Carlo have been simplified for the purposes of the intended use and reduce processing time, and the approval plots should indicate clearly reasons for disagreement between Monte Carlo and data. As the dataset is for educational purposes only, although some low statistic analyses can be done and educational objectives achieved it will be clear that the user can not use it beyond the use case due to the low statistics.

  5. Identifying Differentially Abundant Metabolic Pathways in Metagenomic Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Pop, Mihai

    Enabled by rapid advances in sequencing technology, metagenomic studies aim to characterize entire communities of microbes bypassing the need for culturing individual bacterial members. One major goal of such studies is to identify specific functional adaptations of microbial communities to their habitats. Here we describe a powerful analytical method (MetaPath) that can identify differentially abundant pathways in metagenomic data-sets, relying on a combination of metagenomic sequence data and prior metabolic pathway knowledge. We show that MetaPath outperforms other common approaches when evaluated on simulated datasets. We also demonstrate the power of our methods in analyzing two, publicly available, metagenomic datasets: a comparison of the gut microbiome of obese and lean twins; and a comparison of the gut microbiome of infant and adult subjects. We demonstrate that the subpathways identified by our method provide valuable insights into the biological activities of the microbiome.

  6. ESTATE: Strategy for Exploring Labeled Spatial Datasets Using Association Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepinski, Tomasz F.; Salazar, Josue; Ding, Wei; White, Denis

    We propose an association analysis-based strategy for exploration of multi-attribute spatial datasets possessing naturally arising classification. Proposed strategy, ESTATE (Exploring Spatial daTa Association patTErns), inverts such classification by interpreting different classes found in the dataset in terms of sets of discriminative patterns of its attributes. It consists of several core steps including discriminative data mining, similarity between transactional patterns, and visualization. An algorithm for calculating similarity measure between patterns is the major original contribution that facilitates summarization of discovered information and makes the entire framework practical for real life applications. Detailed description of the ESTATE framework is followed by its application to the domain of ecology using a dataset that fuses the information on geographical distribution of biodiversity of bird species across the contiguous United States with distributions of 32 environmental variables across the same area.

  7. A cross-country Exchange Market Pressure (EMP) dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mohit; Patnaik, Ila; Felman, Joshua; Shah, Ajay

    2017-06-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article titled - "An exchange market pressure measure for cross country analysis" (Patnaik et al. [1]). In this article, we present the dataset for Exchange Market Pressure values (EMP) for 139 countries along with their conversion factors, ρ (rho). Exchange Market Pressure, expressed in percentage change in exchange rate, measures the change in exchange rate that would have taken place had the central bank not intervened. The conversion factor ρ can interpreted as the change in exchange rate associated with $1 billion of intervention. Estimates of conversion factor ρ allow us to calculate a monthly time series of EMP for 139 countries. Additionally, the dataset contains the 68% confidence interval (high and low values) for the point estimates of ρ's. Using the standard errors of estimates of ρ's, we obtain one sigma intervals around mean estimates of EMP values. These values are also reported in the dataset.

  8. Modelling and analysis of turbulent datasets using ARMA processes

    CERN Document Server

    Faranda, Davide; Dubrulle, Bérèngere; Daviaud, François; Saint-Michel, Brice; Herbert, Éric; Cortet, Pierre-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a novel way to extract information from turbulent datasets by applying an ARMA statistical analysis. Such analysis goes well beyond the analysis of the mean flow and of the fluctuations and links the behavior of the recorded time series to a discrete version of a stochastic differential equation which is able to describe the correlation structure in the dataset. We introduce a new intermittency parameter $\\Upsilon$ that measures the difference between the resulting analysis and the Obukhov model of turbulence, the simplest stochastic model reproducing both Richardson law and the Kolmogorov spectrum. We test the method on datasets measured in a von K\\'arm\\'an swirling flow experiment. We found that the ARMA analysis is well correlated with spatial structures of the flow, and can discriminate between two different flows with comparable mean velocities, obtained by changing the forcing. Moreover, we show that the intermittency parameter is highest in regions where shear layer vortices are present, t...

  9. Satellite Aerodynamics and Density Determination from Satellite Dynamic Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, G. R.

    1972-01-01

    The aerodynamic drag and lift properties of a satellite are first expressed as a function of two parameters associated with gas-surface interaction at the satellite surface. The dynamic response of the satellite as it passes through the atmosphere is then expressed as a function of the two gas-surface interaction parameters, the atmospheric density, the satellite velocity, and the satellite orientation to the high speed flow. By proper correlation of the observed dynamic response with the changing angle of attack of the satellite, it is found that the two unknown gas-surface interaction parameters can be determined. Once the gas-surface interaction parameters are known, the aerodynamic properties of the satellite at all angles of attack are also determined.

  10. Extension of research data repository system to support direct compute access to biomedical datasets: enhancing Dataverse to support large datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Bill; Meyer, Peter A; Crosas, Mercè; Sliz, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Access to experimental X-ray diffraction image data is important for validation and reproduction of macromolecular models and indispensable for the development of structural biology processing methods. In response to the evolving needs of the structural biology community, we recently established a diffraction data publication system, the Structural Biology Data Grid (SBDG, data.sbgrid.org), to preserve primary experimental datasets supporting scientific publications. All datasets published through the SBDG are freely available to the research community under a public domain dedication license, with metadata compliant with the DataCite Schema (schema.datacite.org). A proof-of-concept study demonstrated community interest and utility. Publication of large datasets is a challenge shared by several fields, and the SBDG has begun collaborating with the Institute for Quantitative Social Science at Harvard University to extend the Dataverse (dataverse.org) open-source data repository system to structural biology datasets. Several extensions are necessary to support the size and metadata requirements for structural biology datasets. In this paper, we describe one such extension-functionality supporting preservation of file system structure within Dataverse-which is essential for both in-place computation and supporting non-HTTP data transfers.

  11. Development of a 10 year (2001–2010 0.1° dataset of land-surface energy balance for mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of high resolution estimates of the components of surface energy balance for China, we developed an algorithm based on the surface energy balance system (SEBS to generate a dataset of land-surface energy and water fluxes on a monthly time scale from 2001 to 2010 at a 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution by using multi-satellite and meteorological forcing data. A remote-sensing-based method was developed to estimate canopy height, which was used to calculate roughness length and flux dynamics. The land-surface flux dataset was validated against "ground-truth" observations from 11 flux tower stations in China. The estimated fluxes correlate well with the stations' measurements for different vegetation types and climatic conditions (average bias = 15.3 W m−2, RMSE = 26.4 W m−2. The quality of the data product was also assessed against the GLDAS dataset. The results show that our method is efficient for producing a high-resolution dataset of surface energy flux for the Chinese landmass from satellite data. The validation results demonstrate that more accurate downward long-wave radiation datasets are needed to be able to accurately estimate turbulent fluxes and evapotranspiration when using the surface energy balance model. Trend analysis of land-surface radiation and energy exchange fluxes revealed that the Tibetan Plateau has undergone relatively stronger climatic change than other parts of China during the last 10 years. The capability of the dataset to provide spatial and temporal information on water-cycle and land–atmosphere interactions for the Chinese landmass is examined. The product is free to download for studies of the water cycle and environmental change in China.

  12. Structural diversity of biologically interesting datasets: a scaffold analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanna Varun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent public availability of the human metabolome and natural product datasets has revitalized "metabolite-likeness" and "natural product-likeness" as a drug design concept to design lead libraries targeting specific pathways. Many reports have analyzed the physicochemical property space of biologically important datasets, with only a few comprehensively characterizing the scaffold diversity in public datasets of biological interest. With large collections of high quality public data currently available, we carried out a comparative analysis of current day leads with other biologically relevant datasets. Results In this study, we note a two-fold enrichment of metabolite scaffolds in drug dataset (42% as compared to currently used lead libraries (23%. We also note that only a small percentage (5% of natural product scaffolds space is shared by the lead dataset. We have identified specific scaffolds that are present in metabolites and natural products, with close counterparts in the drugs, but are missing in the lead dataset. To determine the distribution of compounds in physicochemical property space we analyzed the molecular polar surface area, the molecular solubility, the number of rings and the number of rotatable bonds in addition to four well-known Lipinski properties. Here, we note that, with only few exceptions, most of the drugs follow Lipinski's rule. The average values of the molecular polar surface area and the molecular solubility in metabolites is the highest while the number of rings is the lowest. In addition, we note that natural products contain the maximum number of rings and the rotatable bonds than any other dataset under consideration. Conclusions Currently used lead libraries make little use of the metabolites and natural products scaffold space. We believe that metabolites and natural products are recognized by at least one protein in the biosphere therefore, sampling the fragment and scaffold

  13. A synthetic Longitudinal Study dataset for England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, Adam; Norman, Paul; Shelton, Nicola; Stuchbury, Rachel

    2016-12-01

    This article describes the new synthetic England and Wales Longitudinal Study 'spine' dataset designed for teaching and experimentation purposes. In the United Kingdom, there exist three Census-based longitudinal micro-datasets, known collectively as the Longitudinal Studies. The England and Wales Longitudinal Study (LS) is a 1% sample of the population of England and Wales (around 500,000 individuals), linking individual person records from the 1971 to 2011 Censuses. The synthetic data presented contains a similar number of individuals to the original data and accurate longitudinal transitions between 2001 and 2011 for key demographic variables, but unlike the original data, is open access.

  14. Towards interoperable and reproducible QSAR analyses: Exchange of datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spjuth Ola

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background QSAR is a widely used method to relate chemical structures to responses or properties based on experimental observations. Much effort has been made to evaluate and validate the statistical modeling in QSAR, but these analyses treat the dataset as fixed. An overlooked but highly important issue is the validation of the setup of the dataset, which comprises addition of chemical structures as well as selection of descriptors and software implementations prior to calculations. This process is hampered by the lack of standards and exchange formats in the field, making it virtually impossible to reproduce and validate analyses and drastically constrain collaborations and re-use of data. Results We present a step towards standardizing QSAR analyses by defining interoperable and reproducible QSAR datasets, consisting of an open XML format (QSAR-ML which builds on an open and extensible descriptor ontology. The ontology provides an extensible way of uniquely defining descriptors for use in QSAR experiments, and the exchange format supports multiple versioned implementations of these descriptors. Hence, a dataset described by QSAR-ML makes its setup completely reproducible. We also provide a reference implementation as a set of plugins for Bioclipse which simplifies setup of QSAR datasets, and allows for exporting in QSAR-ML as well as old-fashioned CSV formats. The implementation facilitates addition of new descriptor implementations from locally installed software and remote Web services; the latter is demonstrated with REST and XMPP Web services. Conclusions Standardized QSAR datasets open up new ways to store, query, and exchange data for subsequent analyses. QSAR-ML supports completely reproducible creation of datasets, solving the problems of defining which software components were used and their versions, and the descriptor ontology eliminates confusions regarding descriptors by defining them crisply. This makes is easy to join

  15. An ensemble approach for feature selection of Cyber Attack Dataset

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Shailendra

    2009-01-01

    Feature selection is an indispensable preprocessing step when mining huge datasets that can significantly improve the overall system performance. Therefore in this paper we focus on a hybrid approach of feature selection. This method falls into two phases. The filter phase select the features with highest information gain and guides the initialization of search process for wrapper phase whose output the final feature subset. The final feature subsets are passed through the Knearest neighbor classifier for classification of attacks. The effectiveness of this algorithm is demonstrated on DARPA KDDCUP99 cyber attack dataset.

  16. ArcHydro 8-digit HUC datasets for Hawaii StreamStats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These datasets each consist of a workspace (folder) containing a collection of gridded datasets plus a personal geodatabase containing several vector datasets. These...

  17. ArcHydro 8-digit HUC datasets for Idaho StreamStats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These datasets consist of a workspace (folder) containing a collection of gridded datasets plus a personal geodatabase containing several vector datasets. These...

  18. Design and Thoughts at the Margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhlis Türkmen

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The latest spatial renovations in Mimar Sinan University bring forth some thoughts and reminiscences about the social and architectural history of the institution. The Cemile and Zekiye Sultan Palaces today constituting the main buildings of the University were built in 1860. The former building which was used in its original form until the fire in 1948 was given to the Academy of Fine Arts in 1926. Professors Sedad Hakkı Eldem and Mehmet Ali Handan prepared new renovation projects modernizing the original architectural concept for the Cemile Sultan Palace after the fire and for the Zekiye Sultan Palace after it was given to the Academy in 1970. Although they were plain and colorless compared to their original states, the buildings now had spacious, luminous interiors, which allowed light and air to show in. The buildings preserved their original spatial configurations until the voids and courtyards were built over in order to provide space for new studios and offices. The current problem of space that the University needs may be resolved by the allocation of new buildings and by limiting the number of students accepted each year.

  19. Two heretical thoughts on fusion and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheimer, Wallace

    2016-10-01

    This presents and explores 2 heretical thoughts regarding controlled fusion and climate. First, the only way that fusion can contribute to midcentury power is by switching its goal from pure fusion, to fusion breeding. Fusion breeding makes many fewer demands on the fusion device than does pure fusion. Fusion breeding could lead to a sustainable, carbon free, environmentally and economically viable, midcentury infrastructure, with little or no proliferation risk, which could provide terawatts of power for the world. The second involves climate. We are all inundated by media warnings, not only of warming from CO2 in the atmosphere, but all sorts of other environmental disasters. For instance there will be more intense storms, rising sea levels, wild fires, retreating glaciers, droughts, loss of agricultural productivity... These assertions are very easy to check out. Such a search shows that we are nowhere near any sort of environmental crisis. The timing could be serendipitous; the time necessary to develop fusion breeding could well match up to the time when it is needed so as to avoid harm to the earth's climate and/or depletion of finite energy resources.

  20. Some thoughts on psychoanalysis and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpilka, Jaime

    2002-10-01

    The author attempts to establish a framework for understanding the contribution of psychoanalysis to ethics through examining the work of certain philosophers, especially Kant. After reviewing the development of Freudian thought and going beyond the 'psychoanalysis and/or psychiatry?' question, he asserts that the space of the psychoanalytical cure revolves around an ethical problem. Thus, the limits of analysis should be determined by the subject's capacity for developing a structure of belief in the unconscious, with the concomitant capacity to go beyond equivocation in respect of an ethical conflict that underlies all cases where psychical suffering is manifested. Indeed, only human beings are called upon to deal with an ethical paradox-equally a logical one-which could be stated thus: there is Good in Evil and Evil in Good. This ethical paradox is the consequence of human subjection to the constituent laws of the Oedipus complex, which distances the human being, in his/her dealings with Evil and with Good, from any naturalist stance. In respect of the cure, then, we must take into account that Evil does not proceed from any particular drive-based characteristic, but is rather the expression of specific subjection to an unconscious Other, towards which it directs its affects. Finally, the author proposes a principle that emerges from the preceding discussion: let us not impute to or place in the Other our own subjective splitting or pain at existing.