Sample records for satellite coordinates ge-2

  1. Coordinates of features on the Galilean satellites (United States)

    Davies, M. E.; Katayama, F. Y.


    Control nets of the four Galilean satellites have been established photogrammetrically from pictures taken by the two Voyager spacecraft during their flybys of Jupiter in 1979. Coordinates of 504 points on Io, 112 points on Europa, 1547 points on Ganymede, and 439 points on Callisto are listed. Selected points are identified on U.S. Geological Survey maps of the satellites. Measurements of these points were made on 234 pictures of Io, 115 pictures of Europa, 282 pictures of Ganymede, and 200 pictures of Callisto. The systems of longitude were defined by craters on Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. Preliminary solutions have been found for the directions of the axes of rotation of the Galilean satellites. New mean radii have been determined as 1815 + or - 5 km for Io, 1569 + or - 10 km for Europa, 2631 + or - 10 km for Ganymede, and 2400 + or - 10 km for Callisto.

  2. Collision Avoidance: Coordination of Predicted Conjunctions between NASA Satellites and Satellites of other Countries (United States)

    Kelly, A.; Watson, W.


    This paper describes one of the challenges facing the flight operations teams of the International Earth Observing constellation satellites at the 705 km orbit, including NASAs satellites. The NASA Earth Science Mission Operations (ESMO) Project has been dealing with predicted conjunctions (close approach) between operational/non-operational space objects and the satellites in the International Earth observing constellations for several years. Constellation satellites include: NASAs Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra, Aqua, and Aura, CloudSat, the joint NASA/CNES CALIPSO mission, Earth Observing 1 (EO-1), the Japan Aerospace and Exploration Agency (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission-Water 1 (GCOM-W1) mission, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Landsat 7 and Landsat 8, and until 2013, Argentinas SAC-C mission and the CNES PARASOL mission. The NASA Conjunction Analysis and Risk Assessment (CARA) team provides daily reports to the ESMO Project regarding any high interest close approach events (HIEs) involving the constellation satellites. The daily CARA reports provide risk assessment results that help the operations teams to determine if there is a need to perform a risk mitigation action. If the conjuncting space object is an operational satellite that is capable of maneuvering, the affected satellite team needs to coordinate their action plan with the owner operator of the conjuncting satellite. It is absolutely critical for the two teams to communicate as soon as possible. The goal is to minimize the collision risk; this can happen if both satellite operators do not coordinate their maneuver plans. The constellation teams have established guidelines for coordinating HIEs. This coordination process has worked successfully for several years for satellites that are operated by other organizations in the United States and by NASAs international partners, all with whom NASA has a cooperative agreement. However, the situation is different for HIEs with

  3. Coordination procedure for radio relay and communication satellite services (United States)

    Eckerman, J.


    A global rain rate statistic model is used to link microwave propagation statistics to measurable rain statistics in order to develop international telecommunication site criteria for radio relay and communication satellite services that minimize interference between receivers and transmitters. This rain coordination procedure utilizes a rain storm cell size, a statistical description of the rainfall rate within the cell valid for most of the earth's surface, approximations between Raleigh scatter and constancy of precipitation with altitude, and an analytic relation between radar reflectivity and rain rate.

  4. Ternary germanides RERhGe2 (RE = Y, Gd-Ho) - New representatives of the YIrGe2 type (United States)

    Voßwinkel, Daniel; Heletta, Lukas; Hoffmann, Rolf-Dieter; Pöttgen, Rainer


    The YIrGe2 type ternary germanides RERhGe2 (RE = Y, Gd-Ho) were synthesized from the elements by arc-melting and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction. The structure of DyRhGe2 was refined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer data: Immm, a = 426.49(9), b = 885.0(2), c = 1577.4(3) pm, wR2 = 0.0533, 637 F2 values, 30 variables (300 K data). The structure contains two crystallographically independent dysprosium atoms in pentagonal prismatic and hexagonal prismatic coordination. The three-dimensional [RhGe2] polyanion is stabilized through covalent Rh-Ge (243-261 pm) and Ge-Ge (245-251 pm) bonding. The close structural relationship with the slightly rhodium-poorer germanides RE5Rh4Ge10 (≡ RERh0.8Ge2) is discussed. Temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal Pauli paramagnetism for YRhGe2 and Curie-Weiss paramagnetism for RERhGe2 with RE = Gd, Tb, Dy and Ho. These germanides order antiferromagnetically at TN = 7.2(5), 10.6(5), 8.1(5), and 6.4(5) K, respectively.

  5. 47 CFR 25.278 - Additional coordination obligation for non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in... (United States)


    ... service for their feeder link operations shall coordinate their operations with licensees of geostationary...-geostationary satellite systems for feeder link operations shall coordinate their operations with the...

  6. Co-ordination of satellite and data programs: The committee on earth observation satellites' approach (United States)

    Embleton, B. J. J.; Kingwell, J.


    Every year, an average of eight new civilian remote sensing satellite missions are launched. Cumulatively, over 250 such missions, each with a cost equivalent in current value to between US 100 million to US 1000 million, have been sponsored by space agencies in perhaps two dozen countries. These missions produce data and information products which are vital for informed decision making all over the world, on matters relating to natural resource exploitation, health and safety, sustainable national development, infrastructure planning, and a host of other applications. By contributing to better scientific understanding of global changes in the atmosphere, land surface, oceans and ice caps, these silently orbiting sentinels in the sky make it possible for governments and industries to make wiser environmental policy decisions and support the economic development needs of humanity. The international Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) is the premier world body for co-ordinating and planning civilian satellite missions for Earth observation. Through its technical working groups and special task teams, it endeavours to: • maximise the international benefits from Earth observation satellites; and • harmonise practice in calibration, validation, data management and information systems for Earth observation. CEOS encompasses not only space agencies (data providers), but also the great international scientific and operational programs which rely on Earth science data from space. The user organisations affiliated with CEOS, together with the mission operators, attempt to reconcile user needs with the complex set of considerations — including national interests, cost, schedule — which affect the undertaking of space missions. Without such an internationally co-ordinated consensual approach, there is a much greater risk of waste through duplication, and of missed opportunity, or through the absence of measurements of some vital physical or biological

  7. Energy integral method for gravity field determination from satellite orbit coordinates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, P.N.A.M.; Sneeuw, N.; Gerlach, C.


    A fast iterative method for gravity field determination from low Earth satellite orbit coordinates has been developed and implemented successfully. The method is based on energy conservation and avoids problems related to orbit dynamics and initial state. In addition, the particular geometry of a re

  8. Report of the IAU working group on cartographic coordinates and rotational elements of the planets and satellites - 1982 (United States)

    Davies, M. E.; Abalakin, V. K.; Lieske, J. H.; Seidelmann, P. K.; Sinclair, A. T.; Sinzi, A. M.; Smith, B. A.; Tjuflin, Y. S.


    This paper contains the report of the IAU Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements of the Planets and Satellites as presented at the XVIII General Assembly held at Patras, Greece, 1982. Tables give the recommended values for the direction of the north poles of rotation and the prime meridians of the planets and satellites referred to both the B1950 and J2000 standard coordinate systems. Reference surfaces for mapping these bodies are described. An appendix discusses the principal changes to the tables since 1979.

  9. Electronic structure of Ge-2 and Ge-2 and thermodynamic properties of Ge-2 from all electron ab initio investigations and Knudsen effusion mass spectroscopic measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shim, Irene; Baba, M. Sai; Gingerich, K.A.


    excited states are presented. Thermal functions based on the theoretically determined molecular parameters were used to derive the thermodynamic properties of the Ge-2 molecule from new mass spectrometric equilibrium data. The literature value for the dissociation energy of Ge-2 has been re...

  10. Application of the generalized vertical coordinate ocean model for better representing satellite data (United States)

    Song, Y. T.


    It is found that two adaptive parametric functions can be introduced into the basic ocean equations for utilizing the optimal or hybrid features of commonly used z-level, terrain- following, isopycnal, and pressure coordinates in numerical ocean models. The two parametric functions are formulated by combining three techniques: the arbitrary vertical coordinate system of Kasahara (1 974), the Jacobian pressure gradient formulation of Song (1 998), and a newly developed metric factor that permits both compressible (non-Boussinesq) and incompressible (Boussinesq) approximations. Based on the new formulation, an adaptive modeling strategy is proposed and a staggered finite volume method is designed to ensure conservation of important physical properties and numerical accuracy. Implementation of the combined techniques to SCRUM (Song and Haidvogel1994) shows that the adaptive modeling strategy can be applied to any existing ocean model without incurring computational expense or altering the original numerical schemes. Such a generalized coordinate model is expected to benefit diverse ocean modelers for easily choosing optimal vertical structures and sharing modeling resources based on a common model platform. Several representing oceanographic problems with different scales and characteristics, such as coastal canyons, basin-scale circulation, and global ocean circulation, are used to demonstrate the model's capability for multiple applications. New results show that the model is capable of simultaneously resolving both Boussinesq and non-Boussinesq, and both small- and large-scale processes well. This talk will focus on its applications of multiple satellite sensing data in eddy-resolving simulations of Asian Marginal Sea and Kurosio. Attention will be given to how Topex/Poseidon SSH, TRMM SST; and GRACE ocean bottom pressure can be correctly represented in a non- Boussinesq model.

  11. Determination of SLR station coordinates on the basis of tracking 45 GNSS satellites: benefits for future ITRF realizations (United States)

    Sośnica, Krzysztof; Bury, Grzegorz; Zajdel, Radosław; Kaźmierski, Kamil; Drożdżewski, Mateusz


    The SLR station coordinates and SLR-derived Earth Rotation Parameters (ERPs) are typically derived on the basis of SLR tracking of four spherical geodetic satellites: two LAGEOS and two Etalons. Between 2014 and 2016, the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) initiated four intensive SLR tracking campaigns for Galileo and three campaigns devoted to tracking all GNSS spacecraft. As a result, the number of SLR observations and the number of tracked GNSS satellites have dramatically increased allowing for determining SLR station coordinates and ERPs solely on the basis of SLR tracking of GNSS satellites. This paper shows, for the first time, the solution in which the SLR station coordinates, geocenter motion, and ERPs are determined using the SLR observations to 26 GLONASS, 14 Galileo, 2 BeiDou IGSO, 2 BeiDou MEO, and 1 QZSS satellite. We compare the SLR station coordinate stability derived from GNSS-based results to the LAGEOS-only solution and from a combined 'SLR to GNSS+LAGEOS' solution. We address the issues related to the GNSS orbit determination using sparse SLR data and the issues related to handling range biases in the GNSS solutions. We found that the coordinate stability of those SLR stations which provide a large number of GNSS observations can remarkably be improved. The Length-of-day parameter can be derived from SLR-GNSS solutions with a much better accuracy than from the LAGEOS-only solutions. Finally, we show that the SLR tracking of GNSS satellites improves the consistency between SLR and GNSS solutions, and thus, can be beneficial for the future ITRF realizations.

  12. Final state predictions for J2 gravity perturbed motion of the Earth’s artificial satellites using Bispherical coordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Sharaf


    Full Text Available In this paper, initial value problem for dynamical astronomy will be established using Bispherical coordinates. A computational algorithm is developed for the final state predictions for J2 gravity perturbed motion of the Earth’s artificial satellites. This algorithm is important in targeting, rendezvous maneuvers as well for scientific researches. The applications of the algorithm are illustrated by numerical examples of some test orbits of different eccentricities. The numerical results are extremely accurate and efficient.

  13. Opportunities for Coordinated Observations of CO2 with the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) and Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) (United States)

    Crisp, David


    The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) and the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) are the first two satellites designed to make global measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with the precision and sampling needed identify and monitor surface sources and sinks of this important greenhouse gas. Because the operational phases of the OCO and GOSAT missions overlap in time, there are numerous opportunities for comparing and combining the data from these two satellites to improve our understanding of the natural processes and human activities that control the atmospheric CO2 and it variability over time. Opportunities for cross-calibration, cross-validation, and coordinated observations that are currently under consideration are summarized here.

  14. Spatial analysis of ecosystem production from coordinated in-situ and satellite observations over semi-arid East Asia (United States)

    Jia, G.; Wang, H.; Zhang, A.


    Ecosystem production is a fundamental component of biogeochemical cycles and land-atmosphere interactions at various scales. Semi-arid ecosystems are key contributors to the global carbon cycle and may even dominate the inter-annual variability and decadal trends of the land carbon sink, as demonstrated by several recent studies. Over past years, major achievements have been made to estimate ecosystem productions with satellite data at global and regional scales. However, those estimates were often done with very sparse in-situ data, especially in semi-arid East Asia portion. To better estimate finer resolution primary and ecosystem productions at regional scales, localized field measurements and integration with state-of-art satellite data are necessary. In-situ measurements of green vegetation fractions and CO2 flux between land and atmosphere are critical for understanding regional land-atmosphere interactions and for validating satellite data. Here, we integrated multi-scale satellite data and eddy covariance flux measurements from a pilot experiment of coordinated observation with 24 participant field sites to estimate the gross primary production (GPP) and net ecosystem production (NEP) over semi-arid East Asia from site to regional scale at high temporal and spatial resolution. The coordination started with intensive instruments calibration and field survey based on common protocol. We calculated the footprint sizes and landscape heterogeneity over each site with fine resolution satellite data (Landsat and GF) and evaluated the contribution of vegetation patches to flux signals. The vegetation photosynthesis model was driven with MODIS derived albedo and EVI and coordinated flux measurements. Generally, the GPP in this region were higher in east and lower in west, with distinguished green spots over oasis and montane forests. The estimated annual GPP was 40% greater than MOD17 products. Further, we validated and corrected microwave (AMSR-E and AMSR2) derived

  15. Earth rotation, station coordinates and orbit determination from satellite laser ranging (United States)

    Murata, Masaaki

    The Project MERIT, a special program of international colaboration to Monitor Earth Rotation and Intercompare the Techniques of observation and analysis, has come to an end with great success. Its major objective was to evaluate the ultimate potential of space techniques such as VLBI and satellite laser ranging, in contrast with the other conventional techniques, in the determination of rotational dynamics of the earth. The National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL) has officially participated in the project as an associate analysis center for satellite laser technique for the period of the MERIT Main Campaign (September 1983-October 1984). In this paper, the NAL analysis center results are presented.

  16. Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) Experiment: Educational planning and coordination (United States)

    Vaughan, William W.; Alzmann, Melanie


    The efforts conducted to provide educational planning and development support for the Combined Release and Radiation Satellite (CRRES) Experiment are summarized. Activities regarding the scientific working group and workshop development are presented including the preparation of descriptive information on the CRRES Project.

  17. Itinerant magnetism in metallic CuFe2Ge2. (United States)

    Shanavas, K V; Singh, David J


    Theoretical calculations are performed to understand the electronic structure and magnetic properties of CuFe2Ge2. The band structure reveals large electron density N(EF) at the Fermi level suggesting a strong itinerant character of magnetism. The Fermi surface is dominated by two dimensional sheet like structures, with potentially strong nesting between them. The magnetic ground state appears to be ferromagnetic along a and antiferromagnetic in other directions. These results show that CuFe2Ge2 is an antiferromagnetic metal, with similarities to the Fe-based superconductors; such as magnetism with substantial itinerant character and coupling between magnetic order and electrons at the Fermi energy.

  18. Magnetic structure at low temperatures in FeGe2 (United States)

    Babu, P. D.; Mishra, P. K.; Dube, V.; Mishra, R.; Sastry, P. U.; Ravikumar, G.


    Magnetic phase of FeGe2 intermetallic is studied using low-temperature neutron diffraction and DC magnetization. Zero-magnetic-field neutron scattering data shows the presence of an antiferromagnetic phase in the low temperature range. We find the evidence of the presence of a ferromagnetic order overriding on the predominantly antiferromagnetic phase at low temperatures.

  19. Upstream drivers of poleward moving auroral forms by satellite-imager coordinated observations (United States)

    Wang, B.; Nishimura, T.; Lyons, L. R.; Angelopoulos, V.; Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.


    Poleward moving auroral forms (PMAFs) are observed near the dayside poleward auroral oval boundary. PMAFs are thought to be an ionospheric signature of dayside reconnection and flux transfer events. PMAFs tend to occur when the IMF is southward. Although a limited number of PMAFs has been found in association with IMF southward turning, events without appreciable changes in IMF have also been reported. While those PMAFs could be triggered spontaneously, many of the past studies used solar wind measurements far away from the bow shock nose and may have used inaccurate time shift or missed small-scale structures in the solar wind. To examine how often PMAFs are triggered by upstream structures using solar wind measurements close to the bow shock nose, we use the AGO all sky imager in Antarctic and THEMIS B and C satellites in 2008, 2009 and 2011. We identified 24 conjunction events, where at least one of the THEMIS satellites is in the solar wind and the AGO imager is located within 3 MLT from the THEMIS MLT. We found that, in 14 out of 24 conjunction events, PMAFs occur soon after IMF southward turning, indicating that IMF southward turning could be the major triggering of PMAFs. Interestingly, among these 14 cases, there are 7 cases with different IMF structures between THEMIS B/C and OMNI, which obtained IMF information from WIND and ACE. And the larger correlation coefficients between PMAFs and IMFs observed by THMEIS B/C than OMNI present the advantages of THEMIS B/C. Among the 10 cases without correlating with IMF structures, PMAFs in two events are shown to have good correlation with reflected ions in the foreshock. Based on all the conjunction events we identified, IMF southward turning is the major trigger of PMAFs and reflected ions have minor effects. The rest of the cases could be spontaneous PMAFs, although foreshock activities, even if exists, may be missed due to the IMF orientation.

  20. Itinerant magnetism in metallic CuFe2Ge2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K V Shanavas

    Full Text Available Theoretical calculations are performed to understand the electronic structure and magnetic properties of CuFe2Ge2. The band structure reveals large electron density N(EF at the Fermi level suggesting a strong itinerant character of magnetism. The Fermi surface is dominated by two dimensional sheet like structures, with potentially strong nesting between them. The magnetic ground state appears to be ferromagnetic along a and antiferromagnetic in other directions. These results show that CuFe2Ge2 is an antiferromagnetic metal, with similarities to the Fe-based superconductors; such as magnetism with substantial itinerant character and coupling between magnetic order and electrons at the Fermi energy.

  1. Investigation of triggering of poleward moving auroral forms using satellite-imager coordinated observations (United States)

    Wang, Boyi; Nishimura, Yukitoshi; Zou, Ying; Lyons, Larry R.; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Frey, Harald; Mende, Stephen


    Poleward moving auroral forms (PMAFs) are thought to be an ionospheric signature of dayside magnetic reconnection. While PMAFs are more likely to occur when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) is southward, how often PMAFs are triggered by changes in solar wind parameters is still an open question. To address this issue, we used one of the Automatic Geophysical Observatories all-sky imagers in Antarctica and the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) B and C satellites, which can give solar wind measurements much closer to the subsolar bow shock than by Wind or ACE, to examine if PMAFs occurred in association with IMF orientation changes. We identified 60 PMAFs in conjunction with THEMIS B and C during 2008, 2009, and 2011 and 70% of events show reduction of Bz before PMAF onset indicating that IMF southward turning plays an important role in triggering a majority of PMAFs. In contrast, the magnitude of the IMF Bz reduction in OMNI data was smaller and the reduction occurred in a slightly smaller percentage of events (40-60%). This suggests that solar wind structures that missed the L1 point or evolution of solar wind between the L1 point and THEMIS may be important for identifying IMF changes responsible for transient dayside reconnection. Additionally, 17 PMAFs that did not have substantial IMF southward turnings are correlated well with foreshock events, indicating that foreshock phenomena may also play a role in triggering PMAFs.

  2. Low Temperature Heat Capacity of Layered Superconductors SrNi2Ge2 and SrPd2Ge2 (United States)

    Hung, T. L.; Chen, I. A.; Huang, C. H.; Lin, C. Y.; Chen, C. W.; You, Y. B.; Jian, S. T.; Yang, M. C.; Hsu, Y. Y.; Ho, J. C.; Chen, Y. Y.; Ku, H. C.


    Low-temperature heat capacity C( T) of the weakly electron-correlated SrNi2Ge2 122-layer compound undergoes a superconducting transition with onset at 1.4 K and a bulk T c =0.75 K, where heat-capacity jump ratio ΔC( T c )/ γT c =0.88-1.05. A small average superconducting energy gap E g (ave)=2.21 kT c =0.14 meV is derived for this multi-gap superconductor. Similar results for isostructural SrPd2Ge2 include T c (onset)=3.5 K, bulk T c of 2.92 K, ΔC( T c )/ γT c =0.70 and E g (ave)=2.54 kT c =0.64 meV. The higher T c onset could be associated with stoichiometric 1:2:2 grains in the polycrystalline samples. In addition, deviations of E g / kT c from the BCS ratio of 3.5 suggest that, just like their iron-based counterpart, these 122-layer germanides may also exhibit an unconventional, fully-opened multi-gap s-wave superconductivity.

  3. Comparison of thermal stabilities between Zr9(Ge2Sb2Te5)91 and Ge2Sb2Te5 phase change films (United States)

    Li, Zengguang; Lu, Yegang; Ma, Yadong; Song, Sannian; Shen, Xiang; Wang, Guoxiang; Dai, Shixun; Song, Zhitang


    Phase change memory is regarded as one of the most promising candidates for the next-generation non-volatile memory. Zr9(Ge2Sb2Te5)91 film was investigated as storage material for phase-change memory application. The crystallization temperature (Tc) and 10 years data retention temperature of the Zr9(Ge2Sb2Te5)91 film are about 195 and 106.7°C, respectively, and both higher than that of Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST). The sheet resistance ratio between amorphous and crystalline states is up to four orders of magnitude. The crystalline resistance of Zr9(Ge2Sb2Te5)91 film is higher than GST for one order of magnitude, which contribute to reduce the power consumption for PCM device. Zr9(Ge2Sb2Te5)91 film exhibit larger optical band gap in comparison with GST. Zr9(Ge2Sb2Te5)91 is considered to be a promising material for phase change memory.

  4. The double-phase transition of ErFe 4Ge 2. An XRPD study (United States)

    Schobinger-Papamantellos, P.; Rodríguez-Carvajal, J.; Buschow, K. H. J.; Dooryhee, E.; Fitch, A. N.


    High-quality powder XRD data of the compound ErFe 4Ge 2 collected in the ESRF beam line BM16, are presented for the entire magnetically ordered regime ( TN=44 K). The data analysis reveals the occurrence of a double symmetry breaking at the magnetic transition. This experiment has allowed us to distinguish between structural and magnetic satellites, both present in the neutron patterns, and to demonstrate the interdependence of structural and magnetic transitions. The high-temperature (HT) phase disproportionates by a first-order transition into two distinct phases: P4 2/mnm ( T c, T N=44 K)→Cmmm (majority LT phase)+Pnnm (minority IT Phase) which coexist in proportions varying with temperature down to 4 K. The phase diagram comprises three temperature regions: (a) the HT range with T> TN for the tetragonal P4 2/mnm phase; (b) the IT (intermediate temperature) range, 20 KPnnm phase reaches its highest concentration (≈31%) around 30 K and (c) the LT (low temperature) range, 1.5-20 K, where the Cmmm phase is dominating (up to 95%). We suggests that this phenomenon is the result of competing magneto-elastic mechanisms involving the Er crystal field anisotropy, the Er-Er, Er-Fe and the Fe-Fe exchange interactions and their coupling with the lattice strains.

  5. Y0.76Ho0.24FeGe2O7: a new member of thortveitite-like layered compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne Rosales


    Full Text Available Y0.76Ho0.24FeGe2O7 (yttrium holmium iron digermanate was synthesized by solid-state reaction at 1573 K. This thortveitite-like compound presents a crystallographic group–subgroup isotranslational (klassengleiche relation with some other pyrogermanates, such as FeInGe2O7, In1.08Gd0.92Ge2O7 and InYGe2O7, which are configurationally isotypic with the Sc2Si2O7 thortveitite structure first reported by Zachariasen [(1930. Z. Kristallogr. 73, 1–6]. Holmium cations share with yttrium the 4f Wyckoff position at the center of a seven-coordinated pentagonal bipyramid, while Fe atoms also occupy one site with Wyckoff position 4f at the center of the octahedron. All these sites have the point symmetry C1. Two types of Ge2O7 diorthogroups with point symmetry C1h are present in the structure, each one of them defining a layer type which alternates with the other. These diorthogroups have their tetrahedral groups in an eclipsed conformation.

  6. Growth of uniform CaGe2 films by alternating layer molecular beam epitaxy (United States)

    Xu, Jinsong; Katoch, Jyoti; Ahmed, Adam S.; Pinchuk, Igor V.; Young, Justin R.; Johnston-Halperin, Ezekiel; Pelz, Jonathan; Kawakami, Roland K.


    Layered Zintl phase van der Waals (vdW) materials are of interest due to their strong spin-orbit coupling and potential for high mobility. Here, we report the successful growth of large area CaGe2 films, as a model of layered Zintl phase materials, on atomically flat Ge(111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using an alternating layer growth (ALG) protocol. Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) patterns of the Ge buffer layer and CaGe2 indicate high quality two dimensional surfaces, which is further confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), showing atomically flat and uniform CaGe2 films. The appearance of Laue oscillations in X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Kiessig fringes in the X-ray reflectivity (XRR), which are absent in co-deposited CaGe2, confirms the uniformity of the CaGe2 film and the smoothness of the interface. These results demonstrate a novel method of deposition of CaGe2 that could be also applied to other layered Zintl phase vdW materials. Also, the high quality of the CaGe2 film is promising for the exploration of novel properties of germanane.

  7. Formation, structure and properties of GeCn± and Ge2Cn± binary clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yali; LI Guoliang; TANG Zichao


    The binary cluster ions Ge2Cn+/Ge2Cn- and GeCn+ have been produced by laser ablation. The parity effect is present in the negative ions Ge2Cn-, though it is not very prominent. While the experiments tell that the parity effect is totally not shown in the positive ions Ge2Cn+. An extensive theoretical investigation on GeCn/GeCn+/GeCn-(n = 1-10) and Ge2Cn/Ge2Cn+/Ge2Cn-(n = 1-9) has been carried out by density functional theory at B3LPY level. The calculation shows that the low-lying states of GeCn/GeCn+/GeCn-(n = 1-10) and Ge2Cn/Ge2Cn+/Ge2Cn-(n = 1-9) are linear structure with germanium atoms locating at terminals respectively. The electronic distributions, ionization potential (IPad), electron affinity (EA) and increasing bonding energy reveal that the parity effect of neutral species is much stronger than that of ions, which is attributed to the valence π-electrons. It is explained that the differences between experiments and calculations are due to the kinetic factor in the formation of Ge2Cn±.

  8. Study of Ge2Sb2Te5 Film for Nonvolatile Memory Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baowei QIAO; Yunfeng LAI; Jie FENG; Yun LING; Yinyin LIN; Ting'ao TANG; Bingchu CAI; Bomy CHEN


    The amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 film with stoichiometric compositions was deposited by co-sputtering of separate Ge,Sb, and Te targets on SiO2/Si (100) wafer in ultrahigh vacuum magnetron sputtering apparatus. The crystallization behavior of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 film was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). With an increase of annealing temperature, the amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 film undergoes a two-step crystallization process that it first crystallizes in face-centered-cubic (fcc) crystal structure and finally fcc structure changes to hexagonal (hex) structure. Activation energy values of 3.636±0.137and 1.579±0.005 eV correspond to the crystallization and structural transformation processes, respectively. From annealing temperature dependence of the film resistivity, it is determined th at the first steep decrease of the resistivity corresponds to crystallization while the second one is primarily caused by structural transformation from "fcc"to "hex" and growth of the crystal grains. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the device with 40 nm-thick Ge2Sb2Te5 film show that the Ge2Sb2Te5 film with nanometer order thickness is still applicable for memory medium of nonvolatile phase change memory.

  9. Magnetic properties and magnetic phase diagrams of intermetallic compound GdMn2Ge2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Guang-Hua(郭光华); Zhang Hai-Bei(张海贝); R.Z.Levitin


    A modified Yafet-Kittle model is applied to investigate the magnetic properties and magnetic phase transition of the intermetallic compound GdMn2Ge2.Theoretical analysis and calculation show that there are five possible magnetic structures in GdMn2Ge2.Variations of external magnetic field and temperature give rise to the first-order or secondorder magnetic transitions from one phase to another.Based on this model,the magnetic curves of GdMn2Ge2 single crystals at different temperatures are calculated and a good agreement with experimental data has obtained.Based on the calculation,the H-T magnetic phase diagrams of GdMn2Ge2 are depicted.The Gd-Gd,Gd-Mn,intralayer Mn-Mn and interlayer Mn-Mn exchange coupling parameters are estimated.It is shown that,in order to describe the magnetic properties of GdMn2Ge2,the lattice constant and temperature dependence of interlayer Mn-Mn exchange interaction must be taken into account.

  10. Coordinated studies of the geospace environment using Cluster, satellite and ground-based data: an interim review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Amm


    Full Text Available A little more than four years after its launch, the first magnetospheric, multi-satellite mission Cluster has already tremendously contributed to our understanding about the coupled solar wind - magnetosphere - ionosphere system. This is mostly due to its ability, for the first time, to provide instantaneous spatial views of structures in the system, to separate temporal and spatial variations, and to derive velocities and directions of moving structures. Ground-based data have an important complementary impact on Cluster-related research, as they provide a larger-scale context to put the spacecraft data in, allow to virtually enlarge the spacecrafts' field of view, and make it possible to study in detail the coupling between the magnetosphere and the ionosphere in a spatially extended domain. With this paper we present an interim review of cooperative research done with Cluster and ground-based instruments, including the support of other space-based data. We first give a short overview of the instrumentation used, and present some specific data analysis and modeling techniques that have been devised for the combined analysis of Cluster and ground-based data. Then we review highlighted results of the research using Cluster and ground-based data, ordered into dayside and nightside processes. Such highlights include, for example, the identification of the spatio-temporal signatures of the different modes of reconnection on the dayside, and the detailed analysis of the electrodynamic magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling of bursty bulk flows in the tail plasma sheet on the nightside. The aim of this paper is to provide a "sourcebook" for the Cluster and ground-based community that summarises the work that has been done in this field of research, and to identify open questions and possible directions for future studies.

    Keywords. Ionosphere (Auroral ionosphere – Magnetospheric physics (Magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions; General or

  11. Contribution à la cristallochimie des isotypes de ThCr 2Si 2 et CaBe 2Ge 2. I. Les systèmes La T2- xT' xGe 2 ( T, T' = Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, Pt) et La 1- xCa xCa xIr 2Ge 2: Distribution des éléments de transition dans le type CaBe 2Ge 2 (United States)

    Venturini, G.; Malaman, B.; Roques, B.


    There are several singularities in the systems investigated. Although the three germanides La T2Ge 2( T = Ru, Rh, Pd) are isostructural with ThCr 2Si 2, a complete solid solution occurs only between LaRu 2Ge 2 and LaRh 2Ge 2; in the system LaRh 2Ge 2LaPd 2Ge 2, there is a range of CaBe 2Ge 2-type solid solutions. The lattice constants of the ThCr 2Si 2-type compounds vary curiously according to the valence electron concentration (VEC). The CaBe 2Ge 2-type germanides are confined in a narrow range of VEC. The new compound CaIr 2Ge 2 is then of the ThCr 2Si 2-type while LaIr 2Ge 2 is of the CaBe 2Ge 2-type. In the latter structural type, the square pyramids of Ge atoms are favorite sites for Ir or Pt atoms. These results are discussed.

  12. The giant magnetocaloric effect in Gd5Si2Ge2 with low purity gadolinium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tiebang; CHEN Yungui; FU Hao; TENG Baohua; TANG Yongbai; TU Mingjing


    The giant magnetocaloric effect Gd5Si2Ge2 alloy was prepared with 99wt% low purity commercial Gd. Powder XRD and magnetic measurements showed that the Gd5Si2Ge2 alloy annealed at 1200℃ for 1 h had a significant magnetic- crystallographic first order phase transition at about 270 K. The maximal magnetic entropy change is 17.55 J·kg-1·K-1 under a magnetic field change of 0―5 T. The distinct increase of magnetic entropy change belongs to the first-order phase transition from the orthorhombic Gd5Si4-type to the monoclinic Gd5Si2Ge2-type after high temperature heat-treatment.

  13. Magneto-Caloric Effect of Gd5Si2Ge2Compounds under Different Processing Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Hong; Yue Ming; Niu Peili; Zhang Jiuxing


    The magneto-caloric effect of Gd5 Si2Ge2 compounds produced by various techniques is investigated in terms of their magnetization behaviors in the magnetic field from 0 to 2.0 T.The studied materials include arc-melted, annealed and sintered alloys.The results demonstrate that the Gd5Si2Ge2 alloys obtained under different processing conditions possess distinct magneto-caloric effect due to their various microstructures.Proper annealing treatment can enhance the magneto-caloric effect of the alloy remarkably.While the sintered alloy bears relatively lower value of magnetic entropy change ( △ SM) than arc-melted one.The magnetic entropy change of the annealed Gd5 Si2Ge2 alloy arrives the arrives the maximum value of - △SM = 15.29 J· kg-1· K-1 for magnetic field change under 2.0 T in the present work.

  14. Interface effect and stress effect on Ge2Sb2Te5/Sb superlattice-like thin films (United States)

    Zheng, Long; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zhai, Liangjun; Hu, Yifeng; Zou, Hua; Liu, Bo; Pei, Mingxu; Song, Zhitang


    Ge2Sb2Te5 superlattice-like thin films show great potential for phase-change memory applications. Improvement of the thermal properties of Ge2Sb2Te5 is believed to be related to the Ge2Sb2Te5/Sb interface. The stress effect and interface effect on Ge2Sb2Te5 manifest in structural changes that are observed via X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy experiments. The structure changes from corner-sharing GeTe4-nGen (n = 0) in single-layered Ge2Sb2Te5 to GeTe4-nGen (n = 1, 2, 3) tetrahedra in the superlattice-like thin films that are observed. As a result, Ge2Sb2Te5 prefers the hexagonal structure rather than the face-centred cubic structure during heating.

  15. Raman spectra and XPS studies of phase changes in Ge2Sb2Te5 films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Bo; Song Zhi-Tang; Zhang Ting; Feng Song-Lin; Chen Bomy


    Ge2Sb2Te5 film was deposited by RF magnetron sputtering on Si (100) substrate. The structure of amorphous and crystalline Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films was investigated using XRD, Raman spectra and XPS. XRD measurements revealed the existence of two different crystalline phases, which has a FCC structure and a hexagonal structure, respectively.The broad peak in the Raman spectra of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 film is due to the amorphous -Te-Te- stretching. As the annealing temperature increases, the broad peak separates into two peaks, which indicates that the heteropolar bond in GeTe4 and the Sb-Sb bond are connected with four Te atoms, and other units such as (TeSb) Sb-Sb (Te2)and (Sb2) Sb-Sb (Te2), where some of the four Te atoms in the above formula are replaced by Sb atoms, remain in crystalline Ge2Sb2Te5 thin film. And from the results of Raman spectra and XPS, higher the annealing temperature,more Te atoms bond to Ge atoms and more Sb atoms substitute Te in (Te2) Sb-Sb (Te2).

  16. Phase Transition Phenomena in Ultra-Thin Ge2Sb2Te5 Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ting; LIU Bo; SONG Zhi-Tang; LIU Wei-Li; FENG Song-Lin; CHEN Bomy


    @@ We observe reversible phase transition phenomena in proto-type chalcogenide random access memory (C-RAM)devices adopting ultra-thin (12nm) Ge2Sb3 Te5 thin film. In this kind of proto-type device, the ultra-thin amorphous Ge2Sb2 Te5 thin film undergoes a crystallization process when a voltage is applied. The polycrystalline Ge2Sb3 Te5 remain unchanged when the voltage is below 0.6 V. A higher power is needed if the transition from polycrystalline to amorphous is expected. The re-amorphization process can be realized by applying a voltage higher than 0.7 V. The threshold voltage Vth and threshold electric field Eth of the transition from the polycrystalline state to the amorphous state in this proto-type device are ~0.7 V and ~ 5 × 105 V/cm, respectively. The programming voltage is significantly reduced compared to the values of C-RAM devices adopting a 200-nm-thick Ge2Sb2 Te5 inset.

  17. Phase Competitions behind the Giant Magnetic Entropy Variation: Gd5Si2Ge2 and Tb5Si2Ge2 Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Pires


    Full Text Available Magnetic materials with strong spin-lattice coupling are a powerful set of candidates for multifunctional applications because of their multiferroic, magnetocaloric (MCE, magnetostrictive and magnetoresistive effects. In these materials there is a strong competition between two states (where a state comprises an atomic and an associated magnetic structure that leads to the occurrence of phase transitions under subtle variations of external parameters, such as temperature, magnetic field and hydrostatic pressure. In this review a general method combining detailed magnetic measurements/analysis and first principles calculations with the purpose of estimating the phase transition temperature is presented with the help of two examples (Gd5Si2Ge2 and Tb5Si2Ge2. It is demonstrated that such method is an important tool for a deeper understanding of the (decoupled nature of each phase transition in the materials belonging to the R5(Si,Ge4 family and most possibly can be applied to other systems. The exotic Griffiths-like phase in the framework of the R5(SixGe1-x4 compounds is reviewed and its generalization as a requisite for strong phase competitions systems that present large magneto-responsive properties is proposed.

  18. Grayscale image recording on Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films through laser-induced structural evolution. (United States)

    Wei, Tao; Wei, Jingsong; Zhang, Kui; Zhao, Hongxia; Zhang, Long


    Chalcogenide Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films have been widely exploited as binary bit recording materials in optical and non-volatile electronic information storage, where the crystalline and amorphous states are marked as the information bits "0" and "1", respectively. In this work, we demonstrate the use of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films as multi-level grayscale image recording materials. High-resolution grayscale images are recorded on Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films through taking advantage of laser-induced structural evolution characteristic. Experimental results indicate that the change of laser energy results in the structural evolution of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films. The structural evolution induces the difference of electronic polarizability and reflectivity, and high-resolution grayscale images are recorded on Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films through direct laser writing method, accordingly.

  19. Grayscale image recording on Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films through laser-induced structural evolution (United States)

    Wei, Tao; Wei, Jingsong; Zhang, Kui; Zhao, Hongxia; Zhang, Long


    Chalcogenide Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films have been widely exploited as binary bit recording materials in optical and non-volatile electronic information storage, where the crystalline and amorphous states are marked as the information bits “0” and “1”, respectively. In this work, we demonstrate the use of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films as multi-level grayscale image recording materials. High-resolution grayscale images are recorded on Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films through taking advantage of laser-induced structural evolution characteristic. Experimental results indicate that the change of laser energy results in the structural evolution of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films. The structural evolution induces the difference of electronic polarizability and reflectivity, and high-resolution grayscale images are recorded on Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films through direct laser writing method, accordingly.

  20. Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Microstructure and Resistivity of Ge2Sb2Te5 Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bo; SONG Zhi-Tang; FENG Song-Lin; CHEN Bomy


    @@ The effect of annealing temperature on crystallization of amorphous Ge2Sb2 Te5 films with thickness of 40 nm is studied by TEM and AFM methods. The relationship between microstructure and resistivity of the Ge2Sb2 Te5film is investigated. From the TEM measurements, the grain size of crystallites increases gradually as the annealing temperature increases. When the annealing temperature is too high, voids are formed, which may originate from evaporation of the Ge2Sb2 Te5 film at the elevated temperatures, formation of sink, being nucleated by residual vacancies, and surface roughness. The resistivity of the Ge2Sb2 Te5 film decreases with the increasing annealing temperature and has slight changes when the temperature is higher than 400 ℃. Phase transitions and scattering of crystallite boundaries may be the major factors affecting the resistivity of the Ge2Sb2 Te5 film.

  1. Grayscale image recording on Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films through laser-induced structural evolution (United States)

    Wei, Tao; Wei, Jingsong; Zhang, Kui; Zhao, Hongxia; Zhang, Long


    Chalcogenide Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films have been widely exploited as binary bit recording materials in optical and non-volatile electronic information storage, where the crystalline and amorphous states are marked as the information bits “0” and “1”, respectively. In this work, we demonstrate the use of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films as multi-level grayscale image recording materials. High-resolution grayscale images are recorded on Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films through taking advantage of laser-induced structural evolution characteristic. Experimental results indicate that the change of laser energy results in the structural evolution of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films. The structural evolution induces the difference of electronic polarizability and reflectivity, and high-resolution grayscale images are recorded on Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films through direct laser writing method, accordingly. PMID:28195209

  2. Magnetocaloric effect of Gd5Si2Ge2 alloys in low magnetic field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hong Zeng; Chunjiang Kuang; Jiuxing Zhang; Ming Yue


    The magnetocaloric effect of Gd5Si2Ge2 alloys under heat treatment conditions are investigated in low magnetic fields. The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) is studied by measuring magnetic entropy change ( M) and adiabatic temperature change ( ad) in a magnetic field of 1.5 T using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and a home-made magnetocaloric effect measuring apparatus, respectively. The maximum M of the alloys increases by 200% from 4.38 to 13.32 J kg-1 K-1, the maximum ad increases by 105% from 1.9 to 3.9 K when compared to the as-cast due to the homogeneous composition distribution and microstructure, while the magnetic ordering temperature is slightly reduced. These results indicate that the annealed Gd5Si2Ge2 compounds are promising as high-performance magnetic refrigerants working room temperature in relatively low magnetic fields.

  3. Research data supporting "Unconventional superconductivity in the layered iron germanide YFe2Ge2"



    Data is grouped according to the figures in the publication which it supports. Fig. 1 shows resistivity vs. temperature at various applied magnetic fields in YFe2Ge2, and the .txt datasets give the data underlying this diagram. Fig. 2 shows how resistive superconducting transition temperatures depend on sample quality, as measured by the residual resistance ratio, and the .txt dataset gives the underlying table of data. Fig. 3 shows heat capacity and magnetisation data taken at low temperatur...

  4. New phases of D ge 2 current and diffeomorphism algebras in particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tze, Chia-Hsiung.


    We survey some global results and open issues of current algebras and their canonical field theoretical realization in D {ge} 2 dimensional spacetime. We assess the status of the representation theory of their generalized Kac-Moody and diffeomorphism algebras. Particular emphasis is put on higher dimensional analogs of fermi-bose correspondence, complex analyticity and the phase entanglements of anyonic solitons with exotic spin and statistics. 101 refs.

  5. Metamagnetic transition and magnetothermal properties of ErCo4Ge2 (United States)

    Liu, J.; Pecharsky, V. K.; Gschneidner, K. A.


    Polycrystalline ErCo4Ge2 was investigated by magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity measurements. The results show that ErCo4Ge2 undergoes a transition from the paramagnetic to the antiferromagnetic (AFM) state around 2.6 K. The second order character of this magnetic transition is confirmed from the lambda-like peak of the heat capacity data. Both χ' and χ″ of ErCo4Ge2 are strongly dependent on the ac magnetic field frequency and bias dc magnetic field. A field induced metamagnetic transition from AFM to ferromagnetic state is observed below TN. Under a magnetic field change of 50 kOe, the maximum value of the magnetic entropy change (magnetocaloric effect) -ΔSM is 14.2 J/kg K at 2.75 K and the adiabatic temperature change ΔTad is 5.7 K. In particular, a large -ΔSM value of 11.7 J/kg K is achieved for a low magnetic field change of 20 kOe.

  6. Atomically flat Ge buffer layers and alternating shutter growth of CaGe2 for large area germanane (United States)

    Xu, Jinsong; Katoch, Jyoti; Ahmed, Adam; Pinchuk, Igor; Williams, Robert; McComb, David; Kawakami, Roland

    Germanane (GeH), which is converted from CaGe2 by soaking in HCl acid, has recently attracted interest because of its novel properties, such as large band gap (1.56eV), spin orbit coupling and predictions of high mobility (18000 cm2/Vs). Previously CaGe2 was successfully grown on Ge(111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth. But there were cracks between µm-sized islands, which is not desirable for scientific study and application, and limits the material quality. By growing atomically flat Ge buffer layers and using alternating shutter MBE growth, we are able to grow crack-free, large area films of CaGe2 films. Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) patterns of Ge buffer layer and CaGe2 indicates high quality two dimensional surfaces, which is further confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), showing atomically flat and uniform Ge buffer layer and CaGe2. The appearance of Laue oscillation in X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Kiessig fringes in X-ray reflectivity (XRR) proves the uniformity of CaGe2 film and the smoothness of the interface. The high quality of CaGe2 film makes it promising to explore novel properties of GeH. Funded by NSF MRSEC DMR-1420451.

  7. Ge2Sb2Te5/SnSe2 nanocomposite multilayer thin films for phase change memory application (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoyi; Wen, Ting; Zhai, Jiwei; Lai, Tianshu; Wang, Changzhou; Song, Sannian; Song, Zhitang


    By nanocompositing Ge2Sb2Te5 and SnSe2, the electrical and thermal proprieties of Ge2Sb2Te5/SnSe2 multilayer films for phase change random access memory (PCRAM) are better than those of Ge2Sb2Te5 films. The crystallization temperature rises and can be controlled. The resistance gap can reach approximately five orders of magnitude to ensure high data reliability. The activity energy (Ea) is more than 2.60 eV and the temperature for 10 year data retention reach 110 °C. The analysis of both XRD patterns and TEM images confirmed the reversible phase change transition between amorphous and crystalline state in Ge2Sb2Te5/SnSe2 nanocomposite multilayer films. According to transient photoreflectance traces, the speed of crystallization process was about 33 ns. Among different Ge2Sb2Te5/SnSe2 multilayer films, the film constitute of [Ge2Sb2Te5 (4 nm)/SnSe2(10 nm)]7 showed better properties and was manufactured by CMOS technology to phase change memory (PCM) cells. This result revealed that the Ge2Sb2Te5/SnSe2 nanocomposite multilayer film is a promising phase change material.

  8. Magnetocaloric and barocaloric effects in a Gd5Si2Ge2 compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Jun-Ding


    The first-order phase transition in Gd5Si2Ge2 is sensitive to both magnetic field and pressure.It may indicate that the influences of the magnetic field and the pressure on the phase transition are virtually equivalent.Moreover,theoretical analyses reveal that the total entropy change is almost definite at a certain Curie temperature no matter whether the applied external field is a magnetic field or a pressure. The entropy change curve can be broadened dramatically under pressure,and the refrigerant capacity is improved from 284.7 J/kg to 447.0 J/kg.

  9. Molecular Field Calculation of Magnetization on NdRh2Ge2 Single Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Himori


    Full Text Available Calculation of magnetization of the ternary single crystal compound NdRh2Ge2 has been carried out by using the wave-like molecular field model to explain the complex magnetic behavior. The field-induced magnetic structures having the propagation vectors, 2=(0,0,39/40, 3=(0,0,35/40, 4=(0,0,31/40, and 5=(0,0,0/40 (= the field-induced ferromagnetic phase were proposed. Calculation on the basis of these structures and the antiferromagnetic phase with 1=(0,0,1 well reproduces the experimental magnetization processes and - magnetic phase diagram.

  10. Magnetic phase transitions in PrMn 2- xCr xGe 2 (United States)

    Dincer, I.; Elerman, Y.; Elmali, A.; Ehrenberg, H.; Fuess, H.; Duman, E.; Acet, M.


    The structural and magnetic properties of PrMn 2- xCr xGe 2 (0⩽ x⩽1.0) were studied by X-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements. The powder samples crystallize in the ThCr 2Si 2-type structure, and the lattice constants at room temperature show almost no variation as Cr substitutes Mn. The observed phase transitions are summarized in a proposed magnetic x- T phase diagram and compared with previous Moessbauer spectroscopy and neutron diffraction results for x=0.

  11. Magnetic properties of Pr1-xGdxMn2Ge2 (United States)

    Elerman, Y.; Dincer, I.; Elmali, A.; Ehrenberg, H.; Fuess, H.; Duman, E.; Acet, M.


    The structural and magnetic properties of Pr1-xGdxMn2Ge2 were studied by x-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements. The substitution of Gd for Pr leads to a linear decrease in the lattice constants and the magnetic interactions in the Mn sublattice cross over from a ferromagnetic character to an antiferromagnetic one. At low temperatures, the rare-earth sublattice also orders and reconfigures the ordering in the Mn sublattice. The spins in the Mn sublattice are arranged parallel to the Pr sublattice and antiparallel to the Gd sublattice. The results are collected in a phase diagram.

  12. Exploring the Bermuda triangle of homonuclear diatomic spectroscopy: The electronic spectrum and structure of Ge2 (United States)

    Hostutler, David A.; Li, Haiyang; Clouthier, Dennis J.; Wannous, Ghassan


    The optical spectrum of jet-cooled Ge2 has been observed for the first time. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and wavelength resolved emission spectra were recorded using the pulsed discharge technique with a tetramethylgermane precursor. Analysis of the spectra yielded the vibrational constants ωe″=287.9(47), ωexe″=0.81(55), ωeye″=0.0037(18), ωe'=189.0(15), ωexe'=6.41(30), and Te'=20 610.8(16) cm-1. High-resolution rotationally resolved spectra of several bands of 74Ge2 show two strong P and R branches and two very weak Q branches. We have assigned the band system as a Hund's case (c) Ω'=1-Ω″=1 transition from the ground 3Σg- state to a 3Σu- excited state. The bond lengths derived from the rotational constants are r0″=2.3680(1) Å and re'=2.5244(18) Å, an ˜0.16 Å increase on electronic excitation. Arguments are presented for assigning the transition to a σg2πu2→σg2πuπg electron promotion, although the observed increase in the bond length is much less than predicted by previous ab initio calculations. The absence of the 0u+-0g+ component in the spectra has been attributed to an excited state predissociation.

  13. Impact of defect occupation on conduction in amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 (United States)

    Kaes, Matthias; Salinga, Martin


    Storage concepts employing the resistance of phase-change memory (PRAM) have matured in recent years. Attempts to model the conduction in the amorphous state of phase-change materials dominating the resistance of PRAM devices commonly invoke a connection to the electronic density-of-states (DoS) of the active material in form of a “distance between trap states s”. Here, we point out that s depends on the occupation of defects and hence on temperature. To verify this, we numerically study how the occupation in the DoS of Ge2Sb2Te5 is affected by changes of temperature and illumination. Employing a charge-transport model based on the Poole-Frenkel effect, we correlate these changes to the field- and temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics of lateral devices of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5, measured in darkness and under illumination. In agreement with our calculations, we find a pronounced temperature-dependence of s. As the device-current depends exponentially on the value of s, accounting for its temperature-dependence has profound impact on device modeling.

  14. Theoretical and experimental investigations of the properties of Ge2Sb2Te5 and indium-doped Ge2Sb2Te5 phase change material (United States)

    Singh, Gurinder; Kaura, Aman; Mukul, Monika; Singh, Janpreet; Tripathi, S. K.


    We have carried out comprehensive computational and experimental study on the face-centered cubic Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) and indium (In)-doped GST phase change materials. Structural calculations, total density of states and crystal orbital Hamilton population have been calculated using first-principle calculation. 5 at.% doping of In weakens the Ge-Te, Sb-Te and Te-Te bond lengths. In element substitutes Sb to form In-Te-like structure in the GST system. In-Te has a weaker bond strength compared with the Sb-Te bond. However, both GST and doped alloy remain in rock salt structure. It is more favorable to replace Sb with In than with any other atomic position. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis has been carried out on thin film of In-doped GST phase change materials. XRD graph reveals that In-doped phase change materials have rock salt structure with the formation of In2Te3 crystallites in the material. Temperature dependence of impedance spectra has been calculated for thin films of GST and doped material. Thickness of the as-deposited films is calculated from Swanepoel method. Absorption coefficient (α) has been calculated for amorphous and crystalline thin films of the alloys. The optical gap (indirect band gap) energy of the amorphous and crystalline thin films has also been calculated by the equation α hν = β (hν - E_{{g }} )2 . Optical contrast (C) of pure and doped phase change materials have also been calculated. Sufficient optical contrast has been found for pure and doped phase change materials.

  15. 47 CFR 25.213 - Inter-Service coordination requirements for the 1.6/2.4 GHz mobile-satellite service. (United States)


    ... MHz band shall be attenuated so that the power flux density it produces in the 1610.6-1613.8 MHz band... Mobile-Satellite Service space station operator in the 2496-2500 MHz band intends to operate at powers... system in the affected geographical region....

  16. Accurate Determination of Impact Epoch and Coordinate of Chang' E - 1 Satellite on the Moon%嫦娥一号卫星撞月时刻与坐标精确分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马茂莉; 郑为民; 李金岭; 王广利


    The impact epoch and coordinates of the Chang ' e - 1 satellite on the moon are obtained through several techniques. The local correlation technique is used to determine the time when the carrier signals disappeared at VLBI stations, and the impact epoch on the moon. Real-time doppler data iS analyzed to examine the flight attitude evolution of the satellite during the landing arc section. Position reduction for the VLBI delay and the USB ranging data is uaed to determine the impact coordinates. The uncertainty of the impact epoch is ± 5μs, and the lunar tangential linear and three dimensional coordinate accuracy are ahout 0.274km and 0.319km ( 1σ) respectively.%针对CE-1卫星精确的撞月时刻与撞月点坐标,首先通过探测器载波信号的本地相关处理技术,精确分析了载波信号在VLBI各测站的消失时刻,进而推算了卫星的撞月时刻;通过实时单向多普勒频移测量的事后分析,核实了卫星撞月过程中的飞行姿态演化;最后结合VLBI互相关时延与测距资料,经定位归算确定撞月点坐标.分析表明,CE-1卫星撞月时刻的误差为±5μs,撞月点坐标月面切向和三维定位误差分别约为0.274km和0.319km(1σ).

  17. Photonic-crystal switch divider based on Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films. (United States)

    Ma, Beijiao; Zhang, Peiqing; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Tengyu; Zeng, Jianghui; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Guoxiang; Xu, Peipeng; Zhang, Wei; Dai, Shixun


    A three-port phase-change photonic-crystal switch divider based on Ge2Sb2Te5 chalcogenide thin film was proposed. The chalcogenide material used was determined to have a high refractive index and fast phase-change speed by using laser radiation. The structure with a T-junction cavity was used to achieve three switch functions: switching "ON" in only one output port, switching "OFF" in both output ports, and dividing signals into two output ports. The transmission properties of the designed device at 2.0 μm were studied by the finite difference time domain method, which showed that the switch divider can achieve very high switching efficiency by optimizing T-junction cavity parameters. The scaling laws of photonic crystals revealed that the operating wavelength of the designed structure can be easily extended to another wavelength in the midinfrared region.

  18. Fano resonant Ge2Sb2Te5 nanoparticles realize switchable lateral optical force (United States)

    Cao, Tun; Mao, Libang; Gao, Dongliang; Ding, Weiqiang; Qiu, Cheng-Wei


    Sophisticated optical micromanipulation of small biomolecules usually relies on complex light, e.g., structured light, highly non-paraxial light, or chiral light. One emerging technique is to employ chiral light to drive the chiral nanoparticle along the direction perpendicular to the propagation of the light, i.e., the lateral optical force. Here, we theoretically study the lateral optical force exerted by a entirely Gaussian beam. For the very first time we demonstrate that the Fano resonances (FRs) of the Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) phase-change nanoparticles encapsulated with Au shells could enable a conventional Gaussian laser to exert a lateral force on such a dielectric GST nanoparticle, attributed to the strongly asymmetric energy flow around the sphere in the dipole-quadrupole FRs. More interestingly, the direction of this lateral force could be reversible during the state transition (i.e., from amorphous to crystalline). By bonding small biomolecules to the outer surface of the phase-change nanoparticle, the particle behaves as a direction-selective vehicle to transport biomolecules along opposite directions, at pre-assessed states of the Ge2Sb2Te5 core correspondingly. Importantly, the origin of the reversal of the lateral optical force is further unveiled by the optical singularity of the Poynting vector. Our mechanism of tailoring the FRs of phase-change nanoparticles, not just limited to GST, may bring a new twist to optical micromanipulation and biomedical applications.Sophisticated optical micromanipulation of small biomolecules usually relies on complex light, e.g., structured light, highly non-paraxial light, or chiral light. One emerging technique is to employ chiral light to drive the chiral nanoparticle along the direction perpendicular to the propagation of the light, i.e., the lateral optical force. Here, we theoretically study the lateral optical force exerted by a entirely Gaussian beam. For the very first time we demonstrate that the Fano resonances

  19. Giant magnetocaloric effect in Gd5(Si2Ge2 alloy with low purity Gd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Santiago Alves


    Full Text Available Gd5(Ge1-xSi x, x < 4 based alloys are potential candidates for magnetic refrigeration in the range ~20 - ~290 K. However, one of the greatest obstacles for the use of that technology in large scale is the utilization of high pure Gd metal (99.99 wt. (% to produce the GdGeSi alloys, since the impurity elements decrease the intensity of the magnetocaloric effect (EMC¹. In this work, we prove that annealing of the Gd5Ge2Si2 can promote remarkable values for the EMC in comparison to those obtained for the alloy with high pure Gd. Also, the as cast alloy and the annealed alloy are not monophasic, but have at least two crystalline phases in their microstructure. Results for X-ray analysis, optical and electronic microscopy and magnetization measurements are reported.

  20. First principles study of crystal Si-doped Ge2Sb2Te5 (United States)

    Yan, Beibei; Yang, Fei; Chen, Tian; Wang, Minglei; Chang, Hong; Ke, Daoming; Dai, Yuehua


    Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) and Si-doped GST with hexagonal structure were investigated by means of First-principles calcucations. We performed many kinds of doping types and studied the electronic properties of Si-doped GST with various Si concentrations. The theoretical calculations show that the lowest formation energy appeared when Si atoms substitute the Sb atoms (SiSb). With the increasing of Si concentrations from 10% to 30%, the impurity states arise around the Fermi level and the band gap of the SiSb structure broadens. Meanwhile, the doping supercell has the most favorable structure when the doping concentration keeps in 20%. The Si-doped GST exhibits p-type metallic characteristics more distinctly owing to the Fermi level moves toward the valence band. The Te p, d-orbitals electrons have greater impact on electronic properties than that of Te s-orbitals.

  1. Pressure-induced changes in the magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of RMn2Ge2 (R=Sm,Gd) (United States)

    Kumar, Pramod; Suresh, K. G.; Nigam, A. K.; Magnus, A.; Coelho, A. A.; Gama, S.


    We have studied the variation of magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of polycrystalline compounds SmMn2Ge2 and GdMn2Ge2 as a function of applied hydrostatic pressure. The magnetic transition temperatures are found to change considerably with pressure. The temperature regime of existence of antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering is found to increase with pressure, in both the compounds. In SmMn2Ge2 , the sign of the magnetocaloric effect at the low-temperature ferromagnetic (FM)-AFM transition changes with pressure. The isothermal magnetic entropy change in this compound is found to increase by about 20 times as the pressure is increased from the ambient value to 6.8 kbar. Effect of pressure in GdMn2Ge2 is less compared to that in SmMn2Ge2 . The variations in the magnetic and magnetocaloric properties are attributed to the changes in the magnetic state of the Mn sublattice under pressure. The difference in R-Mn coupling in Sm and Gd compounds is also found to play a role in determining the magnetic and magnetocaloric properties, both at ambient as well as under applied pressures.

  2. Electrical Properties of Ag-Doped Ge2Sb2Te5 Films Used for Phase Change Random Access Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Ji-Lin; LIU Bo; SONG Zhi-Tang; FENG Song-Lin; CHEN Bomy


    @@ Ag-doped Ge2Sb2 Te5 films were deposited by rf magnetron sputtering on SiO2/Si substrates.The content of Ag ranging from 4.5 to 11.3 at.% is determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry.The crystallization temperature of Ag-doped Ge2Sb2 Te5 increases with the increasing Ag content and the stability of phase change film is improved greatly.Structures were measured by x-ray diffraction and the face-centered-cubic structure was more stable after Ag doping.Four-point probe was used to measure the sheet resistance of Agdoped Ge2Sb2 Te5 films annealed at different temperatures and it is indicated that Ag atoms increase the sheet resistance of Ge2Sb2 Te5 thin film when the annealing temperature is higher than about 360℃, which is beneficial for reducing the reset current.Current-voltage curves were tested and it is demonstrated that 4.5 at.% Ag doping into the Ge2Sb2Te5 film can reduce the threshold current from 1.46mA to 0.25mA and can only increase the threshold voltage slightly, which is very useful for low energy consumption.

  3. Meteorological satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Su-Yin


    “Meteorological Satellite Systems” is a primer on weather satellites and their Earth applications. This book reviews historic developments and recent technological advancements in GEO and polar orbiting meteorological satellites. It explores the evolution of these remote sensing technologies and their capabilities to monitor short- and long-term changes in weather patterns in response to climate change. Satellites developed by various countries, such as U.S. meteorological satellites, EUMETSAT, and Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Indian satellite platforms are reviewed. This book also discusses international efforts to coordinate meteorological remote sensing data collection and sharing. This title provides a ready and quick reference for information about meteorological satellites. It serves as a useful tool for a broad audience that includes students, academics, private consultants, engineers, scientists, and teachers.

  4. Optical properties of opaline photonic crystals covered by phase-change material Ge$_2$Sb$_2$Te$_5$

    CERN Document Server

    Dyakov, Sergey A; Voronov, Mikhail M; Yakovlev, Sergey A; Pevtsov, Alexander B; Akimov, Ilya A; Tikhodeev, Sergei G


    Reflection spectra from 3D opaline photonic crystals covered with phase-change material Ge$_2$Sb$_2$Te$_5$ are studied for different incident angles of light both experimentally and theoretically. We demonstrate that in presence of Ge$_2$Sb$_2$Te$_5$ chalcogenide capping layer, the reflection spectra have peaks associated with resonant Wood's anomalies. The experimental reflection spectra are in a good agreement with theoretical calculations performed by the Fourier modal method in the scattering matrix form. The electromagnetic near-field distributions of incident light at resonant frequencies are calculated.

  5. Antibodies against high frequency Gerbich 2 antigen (anti-Ge2: A real challenge in cross matching lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra P Singh


    Full Text Available Transfusion management of patients′ alloimmunized against high-prevalence erythrocyte antigens is often problematic in emergency situations. Gerbich (Ge is very common blood group system and Gerbich-2 (Ge-2 antigen present in high frequency and outside Papua New Guinea population, Ge-2 negative population almost nil. To manage such kind of problems with real emergencies, implementation of rare donor registry program, cryopreservation of red cells of rare donors and biological cross matching to assess significance of these antibodies is warranted.

  6. Methods of satellite oceanography (United States)

    Stewart, R. H.


    The theoretical basis for remote sensing measurements of climate and ocean dynamics is examined. Consideration is given to: the absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the atmosphere; scattering in the atmosphere; and satellite observations using visible light. Consideration is also given to: the theory of radio scatter from the sea; scatter of centimeter waves from the sea; and the theory of operation of synthetic aperture radars. Additional topics include: the coordinate systems of satellite orbits for oceanographic remote sensing applications; the operating features of the major U.S. satellite systems for viewing the ocean; and satellite altimetry.

  7. Periodic solutions of planetary systems with satellites and the averaging method in systems with fast and slow variables

    CERN Document Server

    Kudryavtseva, Elena A


    We study the partial case of the planar $N+1$ body problem, $N\\ge2$, of the type of planetary system with satellites. We assume that one of the bodies (the Sun) is much heavier than the other bodies ("planets" and "satellites"), moreover the planets are much heavier than the satellites, and the "years" are much longer than the "months". We prove that, under a nondegeneracy condition which in general holds, there exist at least $2^{N-2}$ smooth 2-parameter families of symmetric periodic solutions in a rotating coordinate system such that the distances between each planet and its satellites are much shorter than the distances between the Sun and the planets. We describe generating symmetric periodic solutions and prove that the nondegeneracy condition is necessary. We give sufficient conditions for some periodic solutions to be orbitally stable in linear approximation. Via the averaging method, the results are extended to a class of Hamiltonian systems with fast and slow variables close to the systems of semi-d...

  8. Li4Ge2B as a new derivative of the Mo2B5 and Li5Sn2 structure types. (United States)

    Pavlyuk, Volodymyr; Ciesielski, Wojciech; Rozdzynska-Kielbik, Beata; Dmytriv, Grygoriy; Ehrenberg, Helmut


    Binary and multicomponent intermetallic compounds based on lithium and p-elements of Groups III-V of the Periodic Table are useful as modern electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries. However, the interactions between the components in the Li-Ge-B ternary system have not been reported. The structure of tetralithium digermanium boride, Li4Ge2B, exhibits a new structure type, in the noncentrosymmetric space group R3m, in which all the Li, Ge and B atoms occupy sites with 3m symmetry. The title structure is closely related to the Mo2B5 and Li5Sn2 structure types, which crystallize in the centrosymmetric space group R-3m. All the atoms in the title structure are coordinated by rhombic dodecahedra (coordination number = 14), similar to the atoms in related structures. According to electronic structure calculations using the tight-binding-linear muffin-tin orbital-atomic spheres approximation (TB-LMTO-ASA) method, strong covalent Ge-Ge and Ge-B interactions were established.

  9. Coordinated ground-based, low altitude satellite and Cluster observations on global and local scales during a transient post-noon sector excursion of the magnetospheric cusp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opgenoorth, H.J.; Lockwood, M.; Alcayde, D.


    in Canada, Greenland and Scandinavia. After an initial eastward and later poleward expansion of the flow-channel between 13:20 and 13:40 UT, the four Cluster spacecraft, and the field line footprints covered by the eastward looking scan cycle of the Sondre Stromfjord incoherent scatter radar were engulfed...... formed to the west and north of the radar. From a detailed analysis of the coordinated Cluster and ground-based data, it was found that this extraordinary transient convection pattern, indeed, had moved the cusp precipitation from its former pre-noon position into the late post-noon sector, allowing...

  10. Coordinated Cluster, ground-based instrumentation and low-altitude satellite observations of transient poleward-moving events in the ionosphere and in the tail lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    Full Text Available During the interval between 8:00–9:30 on 14 January 2001, the four Cluster spacecraft were moving from the central magnetospheric lobe, through the dusk sector mantle, on their way towards intersecting the magnetopause near 15:00 MLT and 15:00 UT. Throughout this interval, the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR at Longyearbyen observed a series of poleward-moving transient events of enhanced F-region plasma concentration ("polar cap patches", with a repetition period of the order of 10 min. Allowing for the estimated solar wind propagation delay of 75 ( ± 5 min, the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF had a southward component during most of the interval. The magnetic footprint of the Cluster spacecraft, mapped to the ionosphere using the Tsyganenko T96 model (with input conditions prevailing during this event, was to the east of the ESR beams. Around 09:05 UT, the DMSP-F12 satellite flew over the ESR and showed a sawtooth cusp ion dispersion signature that also extended into the electrons on the equatorward edge of the cusp, revealing a pulsed magnetopause reconnection. The consequent enhanced ionospheric flow events were imaged by the SuperDARN HF backscatter radars. The average convection patterns (derived using the AMIE technique on data from the magnetometers, the EISCAT and SuperDARN radars, and the DMSP satellites show that the associated poleward-moving events also convected over the predicted footprint of the Cluster spacecraft. Cluster observed enhancements in the fluxes of both electrons and ions. These events were found to be essentially identical at all four spacecraft, indicating that they had a much larger spatial scale than the satellite separation of the order of 600 km. Some of the events show a correspondence between the lowest energy magnetosheath electrons detected by the PEACE instrument on Cluster (10–20 eV and the topside ionospheric enhancements seen by the ESR (at 400–700 km. We suggest that a potential barrier at the

  11. Controlling Lateral Fano Interference Optical Force with Au-Ge2Sb2Te5 Hybrid Nanostructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Tun; Bao, Jiaxin; Mao, Libang;


    We numerically demonstrate that a pronounced dipole-quadrupole (DQ) Fano resonance (FR) induced lateral force can be exerted on a dielectric particle 80 nm in radius (R-sphere = 80 nm) that is placed 5 nm above an asymmetric bow-tie nanoantenna array based on Au/Ge2Sb2Te5 dual layers. The DQ-FR-i...

  12. Prediction study of the elastic and thermodynamic properties of the newly discovered tetragonal SrPd 2Ge 2 phase (United States)

    Ghebouli, M. A.; Bouhemadou, A.; Ghebouli, B.; Fatmi, M.; Bin-Omran, S.


    Density functional theory pseudo-potential plane-wave calculations are performed in order to predict the structural, elastic and thermodynamic properties of the newly discovered tetragonal intermetallic SrPd 2Ge 2. The computed equilibrium lattice constants and the internal parameter are in good agreement with the experimental findings. The effect of high pressure, up to 40 GPa, on the lattice constants shows that the contraction along the c axis is higher than along the a axis. The single-crystal elastic constants and related properties are calculated using the static finite strain technique. We predicted the bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio for ideal polycrystalline SrPd 2Ge 2 aggregates, using the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximations. We estimated the Debye temperature and minimum thermal conductivity of SrPd 2Ge 2 from the average sound velocity. Through the quasi-harmonic Debye model, in which the phononic effects are considered, the temperature and pressure effects on the primitive cell volume, bulk modulus, thermal expansion coefficient, heat capacity and Debye temperature are investigated. This is the first quantitative theoretical prediction of the elastic and thermodynamic properties of the SrPd 2Ge 2 compound, and it still awaits experimental confirmation.

  13. Characteristics of Sn-Doped Ge2Sb2Te5 Films Used for Phase-Change Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Cheng; LIU Bo; SONG Zhi-Tang; FENG Song-Lin; CHEN Bomy


    @@ Sn-doped Ge2Sb2 Te5 thin films deposited on Si(100)/SiO2 substrates by rf magnetron sputtering are investigatedby a differential scanning calorimeter, x-ray diffraction and sheet resistance measurement. The crystallizationtemperatures of the 3.58 at. %, 6.92 at. % and 10.04 at. % Sn-doped Ge2Sb2 Te5 thin films have decreases of 5.3,6.1 and 0.9 ℃, respectively, which is beneficial to reduce the switching current for the amorphous-to-crystallinephase transition. Due to Sn-doping, the sheet resistance of crystalline Ge2Sb2 Te5 thin films increases about 2-10times, which may be useful to reduce the switching current for the amorphous-to-crystalline phase change. Inaddition, an obvious decreasing dispersibility for the sheet resistance of Sn-doped Ge2Sb2 Te5 thin films in thecrystalline state has been observed, which can play an important role in minimizing resistance difference for thephase-change memory cell element arrays.

  14. Controlling Lateral Fano Interference Optical Force with Au-Ge2Sb2Te5 Hybrid Nanostructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Tun; Bao, Jiaxin; Mao, Libang


    We numerically demonstrate that a pronounced dipole-quadrupole (DQ) Fano resonance (FR) induced lateral force can be exerted on a dielectric particle 80 nm in radius (R-sphere = 80 nm) that is placed 5 nm above an asymmetric bow-tie nanoantenna array based on Au/Ge2Sb2Te5 dual layers. The DQ-FR-i...

  15. Temperature-driven topological quantum phase transitions in a phase-change material Ge2Sb2Te5 (United States)

    Eremeev, S. V.; Rusinov, I. P.; Echenique, P. M.; Chulkov, E. V.


    The Ge2Sb2Te5 is a phase-change material widely used in optical memory devices and is a leading candidate for next generation non-volatile random access memory devices which are key elements of various electronics and portable systems. Despite the compound is under intense investigation its electronic structure is currently not fully understood. The present work sheds new light on the electronic structure of the Ge2Sb2Te5 crystalline phases. We demonstrate by predicting from first-principles calculations that stable crystal structures of Ge2Sb2Te5 possess different topological quantum phases: a topological insulator phase is realized in low-temperature structure and Weyl semimetal phase is a characteristic of the high-temperature structure. Since the structural phase transitions are caused by the temperature the switching between different topologically non-trivial phases can be driven by variation of the temperature. The obtained results reveal the rich physics of the Ge2Sb2Te5 compound and open previously unexplored possibility for spintronics applications of this material, substantially expanding its application potential.

  16. Electric field effect in multilayer Cr2Ge2Te6: a ferromagnetic 2D material (United States)

    Xing, Wenyu; Chen, Yangyang; Odenthal, Patrick M.; Zhang, Xiao; Yuan, Wei; Su, Tang; Song, Qi; Wang, Tianyu; Zhong, Jiangnan; Jia, Shuang; Xie, X. C.; Li, Yan; Han, Wei


    The emergence of two-dimensional (2D) materials has attracted a great deal of attention due to their fascinating physical properties and potential applications for future nano-electronic devices. Since the first isolation of graphene, a Dirac material, a large family of new functional 2D materials have been discovered and characterized, including insulating 2D boron nitride, semiconducting 2D transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus, and superconducting 2D bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide, molybdenum disulphide and niobium selenide, etc. Here, we report the identification of ferromagnetic thin flakes of Cr2Ge2Te6 (CGT) with thickness down to a few nanometers, which provides a very important piece to the van der Waals structures consisting of various 2D materials. We further demonstrate the giant modulation of the channel resistance of 2D CGT devices via electric field effect. Our results illustrate the gate voltage tunability of 2D CGT and the potential of CGT, a ferromagnetic 2D material, as a new functional quantum material for applications in future nanoelectronics and spintronics.

  17. Reactivity of diaminogermylenes with ruthenium carbonyl: Ru3Ge3 and RuGe2 derivatives. (United States)

    Cabeza, Javier A; García-Álvarez, Pablo; Polo, Diego


    The nature of the products of the reactions of [Ru(3)(CO)(12)] with diaminogermylenes depends upon the volume and the cyclic or acyclic structure of the latter. Thus, the triruthenium cluster [Ru(3){μ-Ge(NCH(2)CMe(3))(2)C(6)H(4)}(3)(CO)(9)], which has a planar Ru(3)Ge(3) core and an overall C(3h) symmetry, has been prepared in quantitative yield by treating [Ru(3)(CO)(12)] with an excess of the cyclic 1,3-bis(neo-pentyl)-2-germabenzimidazol-2-ylidene in toluene at 100 °C, but under analogous reaction conditions, the acyclic and bulkier Ge(HMDS)(2) (HMDS = N(SiMe(3))(2)) quantitatively leads to the mononuclear ruthenium(0) derivative [Ru{Ge(HMDS)(2)}(2)(CO)(3)]. Mixtures of products have been obtained from the reactions of [Ru(3)(CO)(12)] with the cyclic and very bulky 1,3-bis(tert-butyl)-2-germaimidazol-2-ylidene under various reaction conditions. The Ru(3)Ge(3) and RuGe(2) products reported in this paper are the first ruthenium complexes containing diaminogermylene ligands.

  18. Critical behavior of quasi-two-dimensional semiconducting ferromagnet Cr2Ge2Te6 (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Petrovic, C.


    The critical properties of the single-crystalline semiconducting ferromagnet Cr2Ge2Te6 were investigated by bulk dc magnetization around the paramagnetic to ferromagnetic phase transition. Critical exponents β =0.200 ±0.003 with a critical temperature Tc=62.65 ±0.07 K and γ =1.28 ±0.03 with Tc=62.75 ±0.06 K are obtained by the Kouvel-Fisher method whereas δ =7.96 ±0.01 is obtained by a critical isotherm analysis at Tc=62.7 K. These critical exponents obey the Widom scaling relation δ =1 +γ /β , indicating self-consistency of the obtained values. With these critical exponents the isotherm M (H ) curves below and above the critical temperatures collapse into two independent universal branches, obeying the single scaling equation m =f±(h ) , where m and h are renormalized magnetization and field, respectively. The determined exponents match well with those calculated from the results of the renormalization group approach for a two-dimensional Ising system coupled with a long-range interaction between spins decaying as J (r ) ≈r-(d +σ ) with σ =1.52 .

  19. High temperature electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films (United States)

    Adnane, L.; Dirisaglik, F.; Cywar, A.; Cil, K.; Zhu, Y.; Lam, C.; Anwar, A. F. M.; Gokirmak, A.; Silva, H.


    High-temperature characterization of the thermoelectric properties of chalcogenide Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) is critical for phase change memory devices, which utilize self-heating to quickly switch between amorphous and crystalline states and experience significant thermoelectric effects. In this work, the electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient are measured simultaneously as a function of temperature, from room temperature to 600 °C, on 50 nm and 200 nm GST thin films deposited on silicon dioxide. Multiple heating and cooling cycles with increasingly maximum temperature allow temperature-dependent characterization of the material at each crystalline state; this is in contrast to continuous measurements which return the combined effects of the temperature dependence and changes in the material. The results show p-type conduction (S > 0), linear S(T), and a positive Thomson coefficient (dS/dT) up to melting temperature. The results also reveal an interesting linearity between dS/dT and the conduction activation energy for mixed amorphous-fcc GST, which can be used to estimate one parameter from the other. A percolation model, together with effective medium theory, is adopted to correlate the conductivity of the material with average grain sizes obtained from XRD measurements. XRD diffraction measurements show plane-dependent thermal expansion for the cubic and hexagonal phases.

  20. Superconductivity and physical properties of CaPd2Ge2 single crystals. (United States)

    Anand, V K; Kim, H; Tanatar, M A; Prozorov, R; Johnston, D C


    We present the superconducting and normal state properties of CaPd(2)Ge(2) single crystals investigated by magnetic susceptibility χ, isothermal magnetization M, heat capacity Cp, in-plane electrical resistivity ρ and London penetration depth λ versus temperature T and magnetic field H measurements. Bulk superconductivity is inferred from the ρ(T) and Cp(T) data. The ρ(T) data exhibit metallic behavior and a superconducting transition with T(c onset) = 1.98 K and zero resistivity at T(c 0) = 1.67 K. The χ(T) reveals the onset of superconductivity at 2.0 K. For T > 2.0 K, the χ(T) and M(H) are weakly anisotropic paramagnetic with χ(ab) > χ(c). The Cp(T) data confirm the bulk superconductivity below T(c) = 1.69(3) K. The superconducting state electronic heat capacity is analyzed within the framework of a single-band α-model of BCS superconductivity and various normal and superconducting state parameters are estimated. Within the α-model, the Cp(T) data and the ab plane λ(T) data consistently indicate a moderately anisotropic s-wave gap with Δ(0)/k(B)T(c) ≈ 1.6, somewhat smaller than the BCS value of 1.764. The relationship of the heat capacity jump at Tc and the penetration depth measurement to the anisotropy in the s-wave gap is discussed.

  1. Beginnings of Satellite Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Solarić


    Full Text Available The first satellite navigation system called the Navy Navigation Satellite System (NNSS or TRANSIT was planned in the USA in 1958. It consisted of 5-6 artificial Earth satellites, was set in motion for the USA military in 1964, and in 1967 for civilian purposes. The frequency shift of received radio waves emitted from the satellite and caused by the Doppler effect was measured. The TRANSIT satellite speed of approaching or moving away was derived from that; the TRANSIT satellites emmited also their own coordinates. Then the ship's position was determined by an intersection of three hyperboloids, which were determined from differences of distances in three time intervals. Maintenance of this navigation system was stopped in 1996, but it is still being used in the USA Navy for exploring the ionosphere. Furthermore, results of Doppler measurements in international projects at the Hvar Observatory from 1982 and 1983. This was the first time in Croatia and the former country that the coordinates of the Hvar Observatory were determined in the unique world coordinate system WGS'72. The paper ends with a brief representation of the Tsiklon Doppler navigation system produced in the former Soviet Union, and there is a list of some of numerous produced and designed satellite navigation systems.Ključne riječi

  2. New quaternary thallium indium germanium selenide TlInGe2Se6: Crystal and electronic structure (United States)

    Khyzhun, O. Y.; Parasyuk, O. V.; Tsisar, O. V.; Piskach, L. V.; Myronchuk, G. L.; Levytskyy, V. O.; Babizhetskyy, V. S.


    Crystal structure of a novel quaternary thallium indium germanium selenide TlInGe2Se6 was investigated by means of powder X-ray diffraction method. It was determined that the compound crystallizes in the trigonal space group R3 with the unit cell parameters a = 10.1798(2) Å, c = 9.2872(3) Å. The relationship with similar structures was discussed. The as-synthesized TlInGe2Se6 ingot was tested with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES). In particular, the XPS valence-band and core-level spectra were recorded for initial and Ar+ ion-bombarded surfaces of the sample under consideration. The XPS data allow for statement that the TlInGe2Se6 surface is rigid with respect to Ar+ ion-bombardment. Particularly, Ar+ ion-bombardment (3.0 keV, 5 min duration, ion current density fixed at 14 μA/cm2) did not cause substantial modifications of stoichiometry in topmost surface layers. Furthermore, comparison on a common energy scale of the XES Se Kβ2 and Ge Kβ2 bands and the XPS valence-band spectrum reveals that the principal contributions of the Se 4p and Ge 4p states occur in the upper and central portions of the valence band of TlInGe2Se6, respectively, with also their substantial contributions in other portions of the band. The bandgap energy of TlInGe2Se6 at the level of αg=103 cm-1 is equal to 2.38 eV at room temperature.

  3. Some properties of emission coordinates

    CERN Document Server

    Pozo, J M


    4 emitters broadcasting an increasing electromagnetic signal generate a system of relativistic coordinates for the space-time, called emission coordinates. Their physical realization requires an apparatus similar to the one of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). Several relativistic corrections are utilized for the current precisions, but the GNSS are conceived as classical (Newtonian) systems, which has deep implications in the way of operating them. The study of emission coordinates is an essential step in order to develop a fully relativistic theory of positioning systems. This talk presents some properties of emission coordinates. In particular, we characterize how any observer sees a configuration of satellites giving a degenerated system and show that the trajectories of the satellites select a unique privileged observer at each point and, for any observer, a set of 3 orthogonal spatial axes.

  4. Ag掺杂对Ge2 Sb2 Te5结晶行为的影响%Crystallization behavior of phase change material Ge2 Sb2 Te5 doped with Ag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张滔; 郑坤; 张斌; 邵瑞文; 韩晓东; 张泽


    通过磁控溅射仪制备了Ge2 Sb2 Te5( GST)和Ag10�6( GST)89�4薄膜,利用X射线衍射( XRD)、电阻-温度( R-T)测试、透射电子显微学以及径向分布函数(RDF)等方法对比研究了GST和Ag10�6(GST)89�4的结晶过程和微观结构及其演化的差异。发现掺Ag的薄膜非晶态、晶态电阻均比GST更高,而且结晶过程只有非晶相到面心立方相( fcc)的转变,没有出现GST的非晶到fcc再到六方相( hcp)的过程,XRD分析进一步证实了这一结果。同时,透射电镜原位加热实验证实了在300℃时,Ag10�6( GST)89�4仍然保持着fcc结构,而GST中已经出现了hcp相。通过统计230℃下时效处理的晶态薄膜的晶粒尺寸,发现Ag10�6( GST)89�4的平均晶粒尺寸小于Ge2 Sb2 Te5薄膜的,这可能是造成其晶态电阻高于GST的主要原因。%Ag-doped Ge2 Sb2 Te5 films have been prepared, and the influence of Ag doping on the crystallization behavior, structure was investigated through X-ray diffraction techniques, electrical resistivity measurement and in situ TEM annealing techniques. The results show that the addition of Ag into GST films could result in an enhancement in electrical resistance compared with Ge2 Sb2 Te5 films. Ag doping can lead to one-step crystallization process from amorphous to single face-centered cubic ( fcc ) phase without any other crystalline phase. HRTEM images show that the grain size in Ag-doped Ge2 Sb2 Te5 films is smaller than that in conventional Ge2 Sb2 Te5 films.

  5. Double symmetry breaking and magnetic transitions in ErFe 4Ge 2 (United States)

    Schobinger-Papamantellos, P.; Rodríguez-Carvajal, J.; Buschow, K. H. J.


    We have revised the T-magnetic phase diagram of the compound ErFe 4Ge 2 based on a recent X-ray powder diffraction study and software development enabling a new approach to this complex situation. Special emphasis is given to the intermediate temperature (IT) range 20 K- TN, Tc below the double first-order magneto-elastic transition where the tetragonal high-temperature (HT) phase disproportionates into two distinct orthorhombic phases: P4 2/mnm (HT phase) TN, Tc=44 K→ Cmmm (majority low-temperature (LT) phase) q=(0, {1}/{2}, 0)+Pnnm (minority IT Phase) ( q2=(0, q y, 0), q y≈2/11). The phase diagram comprises three distinct regions: the HT range TN, Tc-293 K where the tetragonal phase P4 2/mnm is stable, the IT range 20 K- TN, where the Cmmm and Pnnm phases coexist in strongly variable proportions and the LT range, 1.5-20 K, where Cmmm prevails. The Pnnm phase reaches its highest concentration (≈33%) around 30 K. We report on the multi-axial amplitude modulated incommensurate magnetic structure of the Pnnm phase with a 2D-canted Fe moment arrangement q2=(0, q y, 0) and on the coexisting Cmmm 3D-canted magnetic phase with q=(0, {1}/{2}, 0). The spin reorientation transitions occurring in the Cmmm phase relate to the various structural changes both arising from competing magneto-elastic mechanisms, involving the Er crystal field anisotropy the Er-Er, Er-Fe and Fe-Fe exchange interactions and their coupling to the lattice strain. The Er-Er and Er-Fe interactions are dominating in the LT Cmmm phase while the Fe-Fe and Er-Fe interactions prevail in the Pnnm phase.

  6. Effect of Si-Implantation on the Structure and Resistance of Ge2Sb2Te5%硅离子注入对Ge2Sb2Te5结构和电阻的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 宋志棠; 封松林; Chen Bomy



  7. Improvement of Electrical Properties of the Ge2Sb2Te5 Film by Doping Si for Phase-Change Random Access Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Bao-Wei; FENG Jie; LAI Yun-Feng; LING Yun; LIN Yin-Yin; TANG Ting-Ao; CAI Bing-Chu; CHEN Bomy


    Si-doped Ge2Sb2Te5 films have been prepared by dc magnetron co-sputtering with Ge2Sb2Te5 and Si targets. The addition of Si in the Ge2Sb2Te5 film results in the increase of both crystallization temperature and phasetransition temperature from face-centred-cubic (fcc) phase to hexagonal (hex) phase. The resistivity of the Ge2Sb2Te5 film shows a significant increase with the Si doping. When doping 11.8 at.% of Si in the film, the resistivity after 460℃ annealing increases from 1 to 11mΩ·cm and dynamic resistance increase from 64 to 99Ω compared to the undoped Ge2Sb2Te5 film. This is very helpful to writing current reduction of phase-change random access memory.

  8. Magnetic and Magnetocaloric Properties of High-Energy Ball-Milled Nanocrystalline CeMn2Ge2 Compound (United States)

    Kaya, Melike; Dincer, Ilker; Akturk, Selcuk; Elerman, Yalcin


    CeMn2Ge2 nanopowders have been obtained by high-energy ball milling for 5 and 10 hours from bulk compound to investigate the effect of milling time on magnetic and magnetocaloric properties. CeMn2Ge2 nanopowders have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and magnetization measurements. The average grain size of the nanoparticles from XRD measurements is about 12.2 and 8 nm for 5-hour and 10-hour ball-milled samples, respectively. The investigations reveal that magnetic entropy change (∆ S m) can be altered by changing the particle size of the compound. Maximum ∆ S m is -2.45 and -1.30 J kg-1 K-1 for the 5- and 10-hour ball-milled nanopowders, respectively.

  9. The influence of hysteresis on the determination of the magnetocaloric effect in Gd5Si2Ge2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Moos, Lars; Bahl, Christian; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein


    We present a non-equilibrium Preisach-type hysteresis model based on the first order magnetocaloric material Gd5Si2Ge2. The model is developed from isofield magnetization measurements and first order reversal curves, both of which constitute a new and detailed approach to characterizing and model......We present a non-equilibrium Preisach-type hysteresis model based on the first order magnetocaloric material Gd5Si2Ge2. The model is developed from isofield magnetization measurements and first order reversal curves, both of which constitute a new and detailed approach to characterizing...... continuous magnetization cycles, which effectively limits the adiabatic temperature change by the amount of thermal hysteresis present. We suggest a straightforward method for realistic estimation of the magnetocaloric effect from indirect measurements....

  10. Coordinated ground-based, low altitude satellite and Cluster observations on global and local scales during a transient post-noon sector excursion of the magnetospheric cusp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Opgenoorth

    Full Text Available On 14 January 2001, the four Cluster spacecraft passed through the northern magnetospheric mantle in close conjunction to the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR and approached the post-noon dayside magnetopause over Green-land between 13:00 and 14:00 UT. During that interval, a sudden reorganisation of the high-latitude dayside convection pattern occurred after 13:20 UT, most likely caused by a direction change of the Solar wind magnetic field. The result was an eastward and poleward directed flow-channel, as monitored by the SuperDARN radar network and also by arrays of ground-based magnetometers in Canada, Greenland and Scandinavia. After an initial eastward and later poleward expansion of the flow-channel between 13:20 and 13:40 UT, the four Cluster spacecraft, and the field line footprints covered by the eastward looking scan cycle of the Söndre Strömfjord incoherent scatter radar were engulfed by cusp-like precipitation with transient magnetic and electric field signatures. In addition, the EISCAT Svalbard Radar detected strong transient effects of the convection reorganisation, a poleward moving precipitation, and a fast ion flow-channel in association with the auroral structures that suddenly formed to the west and north of the radar. From a detailed analysis of the coordinated Cluster and ground-based data, it was found that this extraordinary transient convection pattern, indeed, had moved the cusp precipitation from its former pre-noon position into the late post-noon sector, allowing for the first and quite unexpected encounter of the cusp by the Cluster spacecraft. Our findings illustrate the large amplitude of cusp dynamics even in response to moderate solar wind forcing. The global ground-based data proves to be an invaluable tool to monitor the dynamics and width of the affected magnetospheric regions.

    Key words. Magnetospheric cusp, ionosphere, reconnection, convection flow-channel, Cluster, ground-based observations

  11. Structure and Electrical Properties of Ge2Sb2Te5 Thin Film Used for Ovonic Unified Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张挺; 刘波; 夏吉林; 宋志棠; 封松林; 陈宝明


    Annealing temperature effects on the structure and electrical resistance of Ge2Sb2 Te5 thin film were studied. The crystallization and melting temperature of the thin film are about 175 ℃ and 610 ℃ respectively. The structure of the as-deposited and the annealed film at different annealing temperatures are identified by the x-ray diffraction method. The thin film changes from an amorphous state to the fcc structure at about 200 ℃, and then changes into the hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structure at about 400 ℃. Electrical resistance of as-deposited thin film reaches as high as 1.7 × 108 Ω/sq. Then it decreases to 1.6 × 104 Ω/sq and 165Ω/sq after the annealing process at 250℃ and 400℃ respectively. The current-voltage curve of the Ge2Sb2Te5 thin film is also investigated.Due to the large resistance difference between the amorphous, the fcc crystalline and the hcp crystalline states,Ge2Sb2 Te5 film may be used to realize multilevel storage for Ovonic unified memory.

  12. Simultaneous structural and magnetic transitions in YFe 4Ge 2 studied by neutron diffraction and magnetic measurements (United States)

    Schobinger-Papamantellos, P.; Rodríguez-Carvajal, J.; André, G.; Duong, N. P.; Buschow, K. H. J.; Tolédano, P.


    The magnetic behaviour of the tetragonal YFe 4Ge 2 compound has been studied by neutron diffraction and bulk magnetisation measurements. Magnetic ordering occurs below T N=43.5 K simultaneously with a structural transition from tetragonal P4 2/mnm→Pnnm to orthorhombic symmetry. Both transitions are of first order. The symmetry breaking is connected with primary displacive order parameters involving shifts of the Fe atoms. The Fe site splits into two sites in Pnnm, the shifts of the Fe atoms with respect to the tetragonal phase have opposite signs along the a (dilatation) and b (contraction) axes. This induces the symmetry breaking tensile strains. The planar canted antiferromagnetic arrangement with eight sublattices is the ground state associated with a magnetic energy involving isotropic exchange and anisotropic (relativistic) interactions. The magnetic structure is invariant under the magnetic space group P{2 1}/{n' } {2 1}/{n' } {2 1}/{m' } ( Sh58399) . The moments of the two orbits have the same value. At 1.5 K the Fe moment equals 0.63(4) μB/Fe atom. The YFe 4Ge 2 magnetostructural phenomena are compared to the more complex analogue of the ErFe 4Ge 2 compound. The structural and magnetic transitions are described phenomenologically within a Landau-Dzialoshinski approach which assumes a triggering mechanism, in which the spontaneous strain is triggered by the exchange contribution to the magnetic ordering.

  13. Competing magnetic ground states and their coupling to the crystal lattice in CuFe2Ge2 (United States)

    May, Andrew F.; Calder, Stuart; Parker, David S.; Sales, Brian C.; McGuire, Michael A.


    Identifying and characterizing systems with coupled and competing interactions is central to the development of physical models that can accurately describe and predict emergent behavior in condensed matter systems. This work demonstrates that the metallic compound CuFe2Ge2 has competing magnetic ground states, which are shown to be strongly coupled to the lattice and easily manipulated using temperature and applied magnetic fields. Temperature-dependent magnetization M measurements reveal a ferromagnetic-like onset at 228 (1) K and a broad maximum in M near 180 K. Powder neutron diffraction confirms antiferromagnetic ordering below TN ≈ 175 K, and an incommensurate spin density wave is observed below ≈125 K. Coupled with the small refined moments (0.5–1 μB/Fe), this provides a picture of itinerant magnetism in CuFe2Ge2. The neutron diffraction data also reveal a coexistence of two magnetic phases that further highlights the near-degeneracy of various magnetic states. These results demonstrate that the ground state in CuFe2Ge2 can be easily manipulated by external forces, making it of particular interest for doping, pressure, and further theoretical studies. PMID:27739477

  14. Synthesis, crystal structure and properties of [(dien)2Mn]Ge2S4 with mixed-valent Ge centers (United States)

    Yue, Cheng-Yang; Yuan, Zhuang-Dong; Zhang, Lu-Ge; Wang, Ya-Bai; Liu, Guo-Dong; Gong, Liao-Kuo; Lei, Xiao-Wu


    One new manganese thiogermanate, [(dien)2Mn]Ge2S4 (dien=diethylenetriamine), was prepared under mild solvothermal conditions and structurally and spectroscopically characterized. The title compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, chiral space group P212121 (no. 19) with a=9.113(4) Å, b=12.475(5) Å, c=17.077(7) Å, V=1941.5(15) Å3 and Z=4. Its structure features a three-dimensional (3D) network composed of a one-dimensional (1D) [Ge2S4]2- anionic chain and a [(dien)2Mn]2+ complex interconnected via various hydrogen bonds. The most interesting structural feature of the compound is the presence of two different oxidation states of germanium centers in the 1D [Ge2S4]2- chain, which is also supported by the result of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement. The optical property of the title compound has also been studied by UV-vis spectra.

  15. Satellite Communication. (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1985


    Presents a discussion of communication satellites: explains the principles of satellite communication, describes examples of how governments and industries are currently applying communication satellites, analyzes issues confronting satellite communication, links mathematics and science to the study of satellite communication, and applies…

  16. Advanced Extremely High Frequency Satellite (AEHF) (United States)


    High Frequency Satellite (AEHF) is a joint service satellite communications system that provides global , survivable, secure, protected, and jam...three satellites fully integrated into the Milstar constellation. October 2014: On October 16, 2014, the program received PEO certification for the...Combined Orbital Operation, Logistics Sustainment ( COOLS ) contract, it will be completed and coordinated in CY 2016. The AEHF system being sustained

  17. Role of mechanical stress in the resistance drift of Ge2Sb2Te5 films and phase change memories (United States)

    Rizzi, M.; Spessot, A.; Fantini, P.; Ielmini, D.


    In a phase change memory (PCM), the device resistance increases slowly with time after the formation of the amorphous phase, thus affecting the stability of stored data. This work investigates the resistance drift in thin films of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 and in PCMs, demonstrating a common kinetic of drift in stressed/unstressed films and in the nanometer-size active volume of a PCM with different stress levels developed via stressor layers. It is concluded that stress is not the root cause of PCM drift, which is instead attributed to intrinsic structural relaxation due to the disordered, metastable nature of the amorphous chalcogenide phase.

  18. Understanding the role played by Fe on the tuning of magnetocaloric effect in Tb5Si2Ge2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Andre [University of Porto, Portugal; Moreira Dos Santos, Antonio F [ORNL; Magen Dominguez, Cesar [ORNL; Sousa, Joao Bessa [University of Porto, Portugal; Algarabel, Pedro A. [University of Zaragoza, Spain; Ren, Yang [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Ritter, Clemens [Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL); Morellon, Luis [University of Zaragoza, Spain; Ibarra, M. Ricardo [University of Zaragoza, Spain; Araujo, Joao Pedro [University of Porto, Portugal


    In this work, it is shown that when replacing Ge by Fe in Tb5Si2Ge2 the structural transition still occurs and enhances the Magnetocaloric effect (up to 66%) with maximum of MCE at a critical Fe amount where the magnetic and structural transitions become fully coupled. It is observed that Fe concentration is able to mimic the e?ect of external pressure as it induces a complex microstructure, that tunes long range strain ?elds. This knowledge is crucial for the development of strategies towards materials with improved performance for e?cient magnetic refrigeration applications.

  19. Monoclinic 122-Type BaIr2Ge2 with a Channel Framework: A Structural Connection between Clathrate and Layered Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Gui


    Full Text Available A new 122-type phase, monoclinic BaIr2Ge2 is successfully synthesized by arc melting; X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy are used to purify the phase and determine its crystal structure. BaIr2Ge2 adopts a clathrate-like channel framework structure of the monoclinic BaRh2Si2-type, with space group P21/c. Structural comparisons of clathrate, ThCr2Si2, CaBe2Ge2, and BaRh2Si2 structure types indicate that BaIr2Ge2 can be considered as an intermediate between clathrate and layered compounds. Magnetic measurements show it to be diamagnetic and non-superconducting down to 1.8 K. Different from many layered or clathrate compounds, monoclinic BaIr2Ge2 displays a metallic resistivity. Electronic structure calculations performed for BaIr2Ge2 support its observed structural stability and physical properties.

  20. 物理截断与电子局域函数结合法研究Ge2Sb2Te5非晶态原子成键

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鑫洋; 陈念科; 王雪鹏; 张斌; 陈志红; 李贤斌; 刘显强


    The method of combining cutoff distance with electron localization function (ELF) can improve the accuracy of the analysis for the amorphous structure, and has been applied to analyse the amorphous structure of the phase change material Ge2Sb2Te5, determining the reasonable value of cutoff distance is 3.20 and the value of ELF Threshold is 0.63. On this basis, the Ge and Sb atomic coordination number and bond angle distribution of structural information are discussed. The results show that Ge atoms are in 3, 4 coordination, which the local structure correspond to the defect octahedral forms and tetrahedron forms; the Sb atoms are also in 3, 4 coordinaion, and the corresponding local structures are mainly the defect octahedral forms.%采用物理截断与电子局域函数相结合的方法,可以提高非晶态结构分析的准确性,并已在GeTe二元非晶结构分析中得到应用。本文将该方法应用于三元系Ge2Sb2Te5合金非晶结构的分析中,确定了分析Ge2Sb2Te5非晶结构合理的物理截断长度为3.20,电子局域函数阈值为0.63。在此基础上对Ge和Sb原子的配位数和键角分布等结构信息进行分析。结果显示:Ge原子以3、4配位为主,对应的局域结构分别为缺陷八面体和四面体;Sb原子同样以3、4配位为主,对应的局域结构主要为缺陷八面体。

  1. Low-temperature properties of Ce(Ru 1- xM x) 2Ge 2, M  Fe, Au (United States)

    Fontes, M. B.; Elmassalami, M.; Aliaga-Guerra, D.; Giordanengo, B.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Guimaraes, A. P.; Gavilano, J. L.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E. M.


    We have performed measurements of electrical resistivity, AC susceptibility, magnetization, Mössbauer effect and NMR on the series of intermetallic compounds Ce(Ru 1- xM x) 2Ge 2, M  Fe, Au for 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.1. The parent compound CeRu 2Ge 2 orders ferromagnetically below 7.5 K, with f-electrons showing only a small mass-enhancement at low temperatures. However, its crystal structure and Fermi surface are closely related to the heavy-electron superconductor CeRu 2Si 2. Analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the structure to be of thCr 2Si 2-type, with no foreign phases detected. The results of our Mössbauer studies indicate that Fe goes into the Ru sites with no magnetic moment. NMR signals were observed in the Fe-doped samples with quadrupolar interaction that can be related to 73Ge nucleus ( I = 9/2).

  2. Electronic structure and magnetism in the layered triangular lattice compound CeAuAl4Ge2 (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Aryal, N.; Huang, K.; Chen, K.-W.; Lai, Y.; Graf, D.; Besara, T.; Siegrist, T.; Manousakis, E.; Baumbach, R. E.


    Results are reported for the f -electron intermetallic CeAuAl4Ge2 , where the atomic arrangement of the cerium ions creates the conditions for possible geometric frustration. The magnetic susceptibility follows a Curie-Weiss temperature dependence at elevated temperatures, revealing that the cerium ions are trivalent. At lower temperatures the crystal electric field splits the Hund's rule multiplet, resulting in a weak low-temperature magnetic exchange interaction and ordering near TM≈1.4 K . This occurs within a metallic Kondo lattice, where electrical resistivity and heat capacity measurements show that the Kondo-driven electronic correlations are negligible. Quantum oscillations are detected in ac-magnetic susceptibility measurements and uncover small charge carrier effective masses. Electronic structure calculations reveal that inclusion of an on-f -site Coulomb repulsion (Hubbard) U results in antiferromagnetic order and causes the f -electron bands to move away from the Fermi level, resulting in electronic behavior that is dominated by the s ,p , and d bands, which are all characterized by light electron masses. Thus, CeAuAl4Ge2 may provide a starting point for investigating geometric magnetic frustration in a cerium lattice without strong Kondo hybridization, where calculations provide useful guidance.

  3. Poisson Coordinates. (United States)

    Li, Xian-Ying; Hu, Shi-Min


    Harmonic functions are the critical points of a Dirichlet energy functional, the linear projections of conformal maps. They play an important role in computer graphics, particularly for gradient-domain image processing and shape-preserving geometric computation. We propose Poisson coordinates, a novel transfinite interpolation scheme based on the Poisson integral formula, as a rapid way to estimate a harmonic function on a certain domain with desired boundary values. Poisson coordinates are an extension of the Mean Value coordinates (MVCs) which inherit their linear precision, smoothness, and kernel positivity. We give explicit formulas for Poisson coordinates in both continuous and 2D discrete forms. Superior to MVCs, Poisson coordinates are proved to be pseudoharmonic (i.e., they reproduce harmonic functions on n-dimensional balls). Our experimental results show that Poisson coordinates have lower Dirichlet energies than MVCs on a number of typical 2D domains (particularly convex domains). As well as presenting a formula, our approach provides useful insights for further studies on coordinates-based interpolation and fast estimation of harmonic functions.

  4. 47 CFR 78.36 - Frequency coordination. (United States)


    ... in 47 CFR 101.105(a), (b), and (c) and the following frequency usage coordination procedures will... fixed satellite service, applicants must also comply with the requirements of 47 CFR 101.21(f). In... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequency coordination. 78.36 Section...

  5. The moduli spaces of $3d$ ${\\cal N} \\ge 2$ Chern-Simons gauge theories and their Hilbert series

    CERN Document Server

    Cremonesi, Stefano; Zaffaroni, Alberto


    We present a formula for the Hilbert series that counts gauge invariant chiral operators in a large class of 3d ${\\cal N} \\ge 2$ Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theories. The formula counts 't Hooft monopole operators dressed by gauge invariants of a residual gauge theory of massless fields in the monopole background. We provide a general formula for the case of abelian theories, where nonperturbative corrections are absent, and consider a few examples of nonabelian theories where nonperturbative corrections are well understood. We also analyze in detail nonabelian ABJ(M) theories as well as worldvolume theories of M2-branes probing Calabi-Yau fourfold and hyperK\\"ahler twofold singularities with ${\\cal N} = 2$ and ${\\cal N} = 3$ supersymmetry.

  6. Thermomechanical Analysis on the Phase Stability of Nitrogen-Doped Amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 Films (United States)

    Park, Il-Mok; Cho, Ju-Young; Yang, Tae-Youl; Park, Eun Soo; Joo, Young-Chang


    The phase stability of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) films affects the performance and reliability of phase change memory (PRAM) devices. The viscosity and the glass forming ability of nitrogen (N)-doped amorphous GST films were investigated in terms of thermomechanical behavior using wafer curvature measurements. The viscosity which increased by two orders of magnitude was observed in the N-doped amorphous GST film by measuring the stress relaxation accompanied by bimolecular structural relaxation. The glass forming ability (ΔTx), difference between the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the crystallization temperature (Tc), of GST increased as the nitrogen contents increased. These increases in the viscosity and ΔTx indicate the retardation of atomic diffusion in amorphous GST and the stabilization of the amorphous phase.

  7. High pressure studies on the ferromagnetic dense Kondo systems CeRh3B2 and UCu2Ge2 (United States)

    Cornelius, A. L.; Schilling, J. S.; Endstra, T.; Mydosh, J. A.


    The dependence of the Curie temperature of the anomalous ferromagnets UCu2Ge2 and CeRh3B2 on hydrostatic pressure to 11 GPa is determined using a diamond-anvil cell loaded with dense helium as pressure medium. A sensitive primary/secondary coil system allows the detection of the ferromagnetic transition in the ac susceptibility for tiny samples with less than 1 μ mass. The Curie temperatures of the above two compounds, Tc≊110 K and 118 K, both increase initially under pressure but pass through maxima at 8 GPa and 2 GPa, respectively, before falling rapidly at higher pressures. We take this as evidence that both compounds behave as dense Kondo system, where Tc depends on the exchange coupling J according to a magnetic phase diagram originally proposed by Doniach.

  8. Dislocation-templated amorphization of Ge2Sb2Te5 nanowires under electric pulses: A theoretical model (United States)

    Ji, Xiang-Ying; Feng, Xi-Qiao


    Owing to their unique phase change property, GeSbTe alloys hold promise for applications as a candidate material for nonvolatile electronic data storage. In this paper, we theoretically investigate the dislocation mechanisms underlying the phase change phenomenon of GeSbTe alloys under electric pulses. On the basis of the recent experiments by Nam et al. (Science 336, 1561-1566 (2012)), a theoretical model is presented to rationalize the dislocation-templated amorphization process under the action of electric pulses. The physical mechanisms of the nucleation, movement, and multiplication of dislocations in the electric field are analyzed. Using the model, the evolutions of temperature and dislocation density in a Ge2Sb2Te5 nanowire under electric pulses are computed and the critical voltage of amorphization is predicted.

  9. Magneto-structural correlations in Pr 0.15Gd 0.85Mn 2Ge 2 (United States)

    Dincer, I.; Elerman, Y.; Elmali, A.; Ehrenberg, H.; Fuess, H.; Baehtz, C.


    Magneto-structural correlations in Pr 0.15Gd 0.85Mn 2Ge 2 have been studied by synchrotron diffraction in the temperature range between 11 and 300 K. This compound crystallizes in the ThCr 2Si 2-type structure (space group I4/mmm). The unit cell parameters a and c were determined by Rietveld refinements as a function of temperature. Anomalies in the temperature dependence of the unit cell parameters a and c, the c/a ratio and the unit cell volume V at about 240 and 140 K, which is close to the magnetic phase transition temperatures, indicate a pronounced magneto-structural correlation. Spontaneous volume change and linear magnetostrictions are derived as a function of temperature.

  10. Bipolar resistive switching behavior of an amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films with a Te layer (United States)

    Yoo, Sijung; Eom, Taeyong; Gwon, Taehong; Hwang, Cheol Seong


    The mechanism of bipolar resistive switching (BRS) of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) thin films sandwiched between inert electrodes (Ti and Pt) was examined. Typical bipolar resistive switching behavior with a high resistance ratio (~103) and reliable switching characteristics was achieved. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of a conductive Te-filament bridging between the top and bottom electrodes through an amorphous GST matrix. The conduction mechanism analysis showed that the low-resistance state was semiconducting and dominated by band transport, whereas Poole-Frenkel conduction governed the carrier transport in the high-resistance state. Thus, the BRS behavior can be attributed to the formation and rupture of the semiconducting conductive Te bridge through the migration of the Te ions in the amorphous GST matrix under a high electric field. The Te ions are provided by the thin (~5 nm) Te-rich layer formed at the bottom electrode interface.

  11. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of Tellurium and Antimony Bonding in Crystal Sb2Te3, GeTe, and Ge2Sb2Te5 (United States)

    Bobela, David C.; Taylor, P. Craig


    As a starting point in understanding the magnetic resonance data for amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5, the prototypical phase change material, we have used 121Sb and 125Te nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to study crystalline Sb2Te3, GeTe, and Ge2Sb2Te5. The frequency space data are affected by a quadrupole (121Sb only) and chemical shift (121Sb and 125Te) interaction, which reflect the bonding asymmetries occurring around each nuclei. The 125Te data indicate there are two distinct Te sites in Sb2Te3 and one Te site in the GeTe, in agreement with the known crystal structures. The Ge2Sb2Te5125Te data are less well-resolved, which is probably a consequence of the random arrangement of Sb/Ge atoms around the Te sites. Despite the lack of resolution, these data do correspond to the spectral positions and breadths observed in Sb2Te3 and GeTe, which suggests that Ge2Sb2Te5 contains similar Te bonding structures. The 121Sb data in Sb2Te3 show that the Sb sites have an approximately axially symmetric bonding environment. The Sb data in Ge2Sb2Te5 reveal that the average bonding structure of Sb is very different from the Sb sites occurring in Sb2Te3.

  12. Observation of short range ferromagnetic interactions and magnetocaloric effect in cobalt substituted Gd5Si2Ge2. (United States)

    Uthaman, Bhagya; Manju, P; Thomas, Senoy; Jaiswal Nagar, Deepshikha; Suresh, K G; Varma, Manoj Raama


    We report on the observation of double transition - a first order and a second order transition in Gd5Si2-xCoxGe2 with x = 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 with the appearance of short-range ferromagnetic correlations. The first order phase transition is due to a combined magnetostructural transition from monoclinic paramagnetic phase to orthorhombic ferromagnetic phase on cooling while the second order transition arises from an orthorhombic paramagnetic to ferromagnetic phase on cooling. Structural studies show that the substituted compounds crystallize in a combination of Gd5Si2Ge2 and Gd5Si4 phases. Low-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements confirm the complete transformation from monoclinic to orthorhombic phase. DC magnetization measurements reveal an anomalous low field magnetic behaviour indicating a Griffiths-like phase. This unusual behaviour is attributed to the local disorder within the crystallographic structure indicating the presence of short-range magnetic correlations and ferromagnetic clustering, which is stabilized and enhanced by competing intra-layer and inter-layer magnetic interactions. The magnetostructural transition results in entropy changes (-ΔSM) of 9 J kg(-1) K(-1) at 260 K for x = 0.1, 8.5 J kg(-1) K(-1) at 245 K for x = 0.2 and 4.2 J kg(-1) K(-1) at 210 K for x = 0.4 for a field change of 50 kOe. Co substitution induces compelling crystallographic and magnetoresponsive effects in the Gd-Si-Ge system, which could be useful for potential and smart applications such as solid-state magnetic refrigeration and sensitive magnetic switching from paramagnetic to ferromagnetic state. Universal curve analysis has been carried out on the substituted samples to study the order of the magnetic transition.

  13. Influence of the Erbium Substitution for Gd in Gd5Si1.8Ge2.2Alloys on the Magnetocaloric Effect in Low-Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xiang; Li Kefeng; Ma Chunhua; Zhuang Yinghong


    The phases and magnetocaloric effect in the alloys (Gd1-xErx)5Si1.8Ge2.2 with x=0,0.1,0.2 and 0.3 were investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis and magnetization measurement. The samples were single phase with the monoclinic Gd5Si2Ge2-type structure. With the increase of Er content, the Curie temperature (Tc) decreased obviously from 253K of the alloy with x=0 to 114K with x=0.3. The maximum magnetic entropy changed in the samples of (Gd1-xErx)5Si1.8Ge2.2 with x=0.0,0.1,0.2 and 0.3 were 6.88,8.32,9.59 and 10.24 J·kg-1·K-1 respectively in the applied field change of 0~2.0T.

  14. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses. (United States)

    Palukaitis, Peter


    Satellite RNAs and satellite viruses are extraviral components that can affect either the pathogenicity, the accumulation, or both of their associated viruses while themselves being dependent on the associated viruses as helper viruses for their infection. Most of these satellite RNAs are noncoding RNAs, and in many cases, have been shown to alter the interaction of their helper viruses with their hosts. In only a few cases have the functions of these satellite RNAs in such interactions been studied in detail. In particular, work on the satellite RNAs of Cucumber mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus have provided novel insights into RNAs functioning as noncoding RNAs. These effects are described and potential roles for satellite RNAs in the processes involved in symptom intensification or attenuation are discussed. In most cases, models describing these roles involve some aspect of RNA silencing or its suppression, either directly or indirectly involving the particular satellite RNA.

  15. 47 CFR 25.251 - Special requirements for coordination. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special requirements for coordination. 25.251... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.251 Special requirements for coordination. (a) The administrative aspects of the coordination process are set forth in § 101.103 of this chapter in the case...


    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    Overview From a technical perspective, CMS has been in “beam operation” state since 6th November. The detector is fully closed with all components operational and the magnetic field is normally at the nominal 3.8T. The UXC cavern is normally closed with the radiation veto set. Access to UXC is now only possible during downtimes of LHC. Such accesses must be carefully planned, documented and carried out in agreement with CMS Technical Coordination, Experimental Area Management, LHC programme coordination and the CCC. Material flow in and out of UXC is now strictly controlled. Access to USC remains possible at any time, although, for safety reasons, it is necessary to register with the shift crew in the control room before going down.It is obligatory for all material leaving UXC to pass through the underground buffer zone for RP scanning, database entry and appropriate labeling for traceability. Technical coordination (notably Stephane Bally and Christoph Schaefer), the shift crew and run ...

  17. Centriolar satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollenaere, Maxim A X; Mailand, Niels; Bekker-Jensen, Simon


    Centriolar satellites are small, microscopically visible granules that cluster around centrosomes. These structures, which contain numerous proteins directly involved in centrosome maintenance, ciliogenesis, and neurogenesis, have traditionally been viewed as vehicles for protein trafficking...... highlight newly discovered regulatory mechanisms targeting centriolar satellites and their functional status, and we discuss how defects in centriolar satellite components are intimately linked to a wide spectrum of human diseases....

  18. Satellite theory (United States)

    Kozai, Y.


    The dynamical characteristics of the natural satellite of Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are analyzed on the basis of the solar tidal perturbation factor and the oblateness factor of the primary planet for each satellite. For the inner satellites, for which the value of the solar tidal factor is much smaller than the planetary oblateness factor, it is shown that the eccentricity and inclination of satellite orbits are generally very small and almost constant; several pairs of inner satellites are also found to exhibit commensurable mean motions, or secular accelerations in mean longitude. In the case of the outer satellites, for which solar perturbations are dominant, secular perturbations and long-period perturbations may be derived by the solution of equations of motion reduced to one degree of freedom. The existence of a few satellites, termed intermediary satellites, for which the solar tidal perturbation is on the order of the planetary oblateness factor, is also observed, and the pole of the orbital plane of the satellite is noted to execute a complex motion around the pole of the planet or the orbital plane of the planet.

  19. Influence of 1523 K annealing on phase and magnetic properties in (Gd1−Er)5Si2Ge2 compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiang Chen; Yungui Chen; Yangbo Tang


    The (Gd1−Er)5Si2Ge2 ( = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2) compounds were prepared from the high purity Gd metal (3 N) by arc melting, and then annealed at 1523 K (3 h). The phase, microstructure, Curie temperatures, magnetic hysteresis loss, and magnetocaloric effects were investigated. All samples retain the monoclinic Gd5Si2Ge2 type structure. The temperature of magnetic transition decreases linearly from 281 K to 177 K with the increase of Er content from = 0–0.2. Because the (Gd1−Er)5Si2Ge2 compounds keep the typical first-order structural/magnetic transition, they display large magnetic entropy near their magnetic transition temperatures. The maximum magnetic entropy change of (Gd1−Er)Si2Ge2 compounds in the low magnetic field of 0∼2.0 T are 15.5, 16.1, 15.3 and 15.2 J/kg K for = 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2, respectively.

  20. Influence of Tb substitution on low-field magnetocaloric effect in Gd5Si1.72Ge2.28 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Jian-qiu; ZHUANG Ying-hong; WANG Ri-chu; YANG Zhen; XU Bin


    The lattice parameters, magnetic phase transition, Curie temperature and magnetocaloric properties for (Gd1-xTbx)5Si1.72-Ge2.28 alloys with x = 0, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 were investigated by X-ray powder diffractometry and magnetization measurements. The results show that suitable partial substitution of Tb in Gd5Si1.72Ge2.28 compound remains the first-order magnetic-crystallographic transition and enhances the magnetic entropy change, although Tb substitution decreases the Curie temperature (Tc) of the compounds. The magnetic entropy change of (Gd1-xTbx)5Si1.72Ge2.28 alloys retains a large value in the low magnetic field of 1.0 T.The maximum magnetic entropy change for (Gd0.80Tb0.20)5Si1.72Ge2.28 alloy in the magnetic field from 0 to 1.0 T reaches 8.7 J/(kg·K),which is nearly 4 times as large as that of (Gd0.3Dy0.7)5Si4 compound (|△Smax| = 2.24 J/(kg·K), TC = 198 K).

  1. Experimental investigation of the electronic structure of Gd5Ge2Si2 by photoemission and x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bondino, F.; Brinkman, A.; Zangrando, M.; Carbone, F.; Marel, van der D.; Schlagel, D.L.; Lograsso, T.A.; Gschneider Jr., K.A.; Pecharsky, V.K.; Parmigiani, F.


    The electronic structure of the magnetic refrigerant Gd5Ge2Si2 has been experimentally investigated by photoemission and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The resonant photoemission and x-ray absorption measurements performed across the Gd N4,5 and Gd M4,5 edges identify the position of Gd 4f multiplet

  2. Anisotropic magnetic properties and crystal electric field studies on CePd2Ge2 single crystal. (United States)

    Maurya, Arvind; Kulkarni, R; Dhar, S K; Thamizhavel, A


    The anisotropic magnetic properties of the antiferromagnetic compound CePd2Ge2, crystallizing in the tetragonal crystal structure have been investigated in detail on a single crystal grown by the Czochralski method. From the electrical transport, magnetization and heat capacity data, the Néel temperature is confirmed to be 5.1 K. Anisotropic behaviour of the magnetization and resistivity is observed along the two principal crystallographic directions-namely, [100] and [001]. The isothermal magnetization measured in the magnetically ordered state at 2 K exhibits a spin reorientation at 13.5 T for the field applied along the [100] direction, whereas the magnetization is linear along the [001] direction attaining a value of 0.94 μ(B)/Ce at 14 T. The reduced value of the magnetization is attributed to the crystalline electric field (CEF) effects. A sharp jump in the specific heat at the magnetic ordering temperature is observed. After subtracting the phononic contribution, the jump in the heat capacity amounts to 12.5 J K(-1)mol(-1) which is the expected value for a spin ½ system. From the CEF analysis of the magnetization data the excited crystal field split energy levels were estimated to be at 120 K and 230 K respectively, which quantitatively explains the observed Schottky anomaly in the heat capacity. A magnetic phase diagram has been constructed based on the field dependence of magnetic susceptibility and the heat capacity data.

  3. Crystallization of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films by nano- and femtosecond single laser pulse irradiation (United States)

    Sun, Xinxing; Ehrhardt, Martin; Lotnyk, Andriy; Lorenz, Pierre; Thelander, Erik; Gerlach, Jürgen W.; Smausz, Tomi; Decker, Ulrich; Rauschenbach, Bernd


    The amorphous to crystalline phase transformation of Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) films by UV nanosecond (ns) and femtosecond (fs) single laser pulse irradiation at the same wavelength is compared. Detailed structural information about the phase transformation is collected by x-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The threshold fluences to induce crystallization are determined for both pulse lengths. A large difference between ns and fs pulse irradiation was found regarding the grain size distribution and morphology of the crystallized films. For fs single pulse irradiated GST thin films, columnar grains with a diameter of 20 to 60 nm were obtained as evidenced by cross-sectional TEM analysis. The local atomic arrangement was investigated by high-resolution Cs-corrected scanning TEM. Neither tetrahedral nor off-octahedral positions of Ge-atoms could be observed in the largely defect-free grains. A high optical reflectivity contrast (~25%) between amorphous and completely crystallized GST films was achieved by fs laser irradiation induced at fluences between 13 and 16 mJ/cm2 and by ns laser irradiation induced at fluences between 67 and 130 mJ/cm2. Finally, the fluence dependent increase of the reflectivity is discussed in terms of each photon involved into the crystallization process for ns and fs pulses, respectively. PMID:27292819

  4. Magnetic phase transition and the corresponding magnetostriction of intermetallic compounds RMn2Ge2 (R=Sm, Gd)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Guang-Hua(郭光华); Wu Ye(吴烨); Zhang Hai-Bei(张海贝); D A Filippov; R Z Levitin; V V Snegirev


    The temperature dependence of lattice constants a and c of intermetallic compounds RMn2Ge2 (R=Sm, Gd) is measured in the temperature range 10-800K by using the x-ray diffraction method. The magnetoelastic anomalies of lattice constants are found at the different kinds of spontaneous magnetic transitions. The transversal and longitudinal magnetostrictions of polycrystalline samples are measured in the pulse magnetic field up to 25T. In the external magnetic field there occurs a first-order field-induced antiferromagnetism-ferromagnetism transition in the Mn sublattice, which gives rise to a large magnetostriction. The magnitude of magnetostrictions is as large as 10-3. The transversal and longitudinal magnetostrictions have the same sign and are almost equal. This indicates that the magnetostriction is isotropic and mainly caused by the interlayer Mn-Mn exchange interaction. The experimental results are explained in the framework of a two-sublattice ferrimagnet with the negative exchange interaction in one of the sublattices by taking into account the lattice constant dependence of interlayer Mn-Mn exchange interaction.

  5. Iron trichloride as oxidizer in acid slurry for chemical mechanical polishing of Ge2Sb2Te5 (United States)

    Yan, Wei-Xia; Wang, Liang-Yong; Zhang, Ze-Fang; Liu, Wei-Li; Song, Zhi-Tang


    The effect of iron trichloride (FeCl3) on chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) film is investigated in this paper. The polishing rate of GST increases from 38 nm/min to 144 nm/min when the FeCl3 concentration changes from 0.01 wt% to 0.15 wt%, which is much faster than 20 nm/min for the 1 wt% H2O2-based slurry. This polishing rate trends are inversely correlated with the contact angle data of FeCl3-based slurry on the GST film surface. Thus, it is hypothesized that the hydrophilicity of the GST film surface is associated with the polishing rate during CMP. Atomic force microscope (AFM) and optical microscope (OM) are used to characterize the surface quality after CMP. The chemical mechanism is studied by potentiodynamic measurements such as Ecorr and Icorr to analyze chemical reaction between FeCl3 and GST surface. Finally, it is verified that slurry with FeCl3 has no influence on the electrical property of the post-CMP GST film by the resistivity-temperature (RT) tests.

  6. Element-resolved atomic structure imaging of rocksalt Ge2Sb2Te5 phase-change material (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Zhenju; Chen, Yongjin; Li, Jixue; Zhang, Shengbai; Zhang, Ze; Wuttig, Matthias; Mazzarello, Riccardo; Ma, Evan; Han, Xiaodong


    Disorder-induced electron localization and metal-insulator transitions (MITs) have been a very active research field starting from the seminal paper by Anderson half a century ago. However, pure Anderson insulators are very difficult to identify due to ubiquitous electron-correlation effects. Recently, an MIT has been observed in electrical transport measurements on the crystalline state of phase-change GeSbTe compounds, which appears to be exclusively disorder driven. Subsequent density functional theory simulations have identified vacancy disorder to localize electrons at the Fermi level. Here, we report a direct atomic scale chemical identification experiment on the rocksalt structure obtained upon crystallization of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5. Our results confirm the two-sublattice structure resolving the distribution of chemical species and demonstrate the existence of atomic disorder on the Ge/Sb/vacancy sublattice. Moreover, we identify a gradual vacancy ordering process upon further annealing. These findings not only provide a structural underpinning of the observed Anderson localization but also have implications for the development of novel multi-level data storage within the crystalline phases.

  7. Role of interfaces on the stability and electrical properties of Ge2Sb2Te5 crystalline structures. (United States)

    Mio, A M; Privitera, S M S; Bragaglia, V; Arciprete, F; Cecchi, S; Litrico, G; Persch, C; Calarco, R; Rimini, E


    GeSbTe-based materials exhibit multiple crystalline phases, from disordered rocksalt, to rocksalt with ordered vacancy layers, and to the stable trigonal phase. In this paper we investigate the role of the interfaces on the structural and electrical properties of Ge2Sb2Te5. We find that the site of nucleation of the metastable rocksalt phase is crucial in determining the evolution towards vacancy ordering and the stable phase. By properly choosing the substrate and the capping layers, nucleation sites engineering can be obtained, thus promoting or preventing the vacancy ordering in the rocksalt structure or the conversion into the trigonal phase. The vacancy ordering occurs at lower annealing temperatures (170 °C) for films deposited in the amorphous phase on silicon (111), compared to the case of SiO2 substrate (200 °C), or in presence of a capping layer (330 °C). The mechanisms governing the nucleation have been explained in terms of interfacial energies. Resistance variations of about one order of magnitude have been measured upon transition from the disordered to the ordered rocksalt structure and then to the trigonal phase. The possibility to control the formation of the crystalline phases characterized by marked resistivity contrast is of fundamental relevance for the development of multilevel phase change data storage.

  8. The correlation of electrical conductivity with the microstructure of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films alloyed with Sn (United States)

    Yin, Qixun; Chen, Leng


    In this research, the effects of Sn alloying on structure transformation and electrical characteristics of Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) thin films were studied. It was discovered that the SnTe phase formed in GST thin films when Sn content exceeded 26 at%, and the addition of Sn atoms expanded the lattice parameter, as a result of atomic radii difference between Ge and Sn atoms. Furthermore, temperature dependent sheet resistance measurements on the GST:Sn thin films were performed for the electrical characteristics to be studied. Sn substitution fraction of 16 at% was discovered to maximize the crystallization temperature of GST thin films. Compared to the GST thin films, crystallization temperature difference and lower amorphous resistance of the GST:Sn thin films were mainly due to lower bonding energy of Sn–Te. Moreover, the amorphous conductivity activation energies (E σ) corresponding to different grain sizes were calculated with the Arrhenius equation. The E σ value of GST:Sn thin films decreased significantly as the Sn content increased due to grain size effects, which appears to improve the temperature stability of conductivity of phase change memory.

  9. Gigabit Satellite Network for NASA's Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) (United States)

    Hoder, Douglas; Bergamo, Marcos


    The advanced communication technology satellite (ACTS) gigabit satellite network provides long-haul point-to-point and point-to-multipoint full-duplex SONET services over NASA's ACTS. at rates up to 622 Mbit/s (SONET OC-12), with signal quality comparable to that obtained with terrestrial fiber networks. Data multiplexing over the satellite is accomplished using time-division multiple access (TDMA) techniques coordinated with the switching and beam hopping facilities provided by ACTS. Transmissions through the satellite are protected with Reed-Solomon encoding. providing virtually error-free transmission under most weather conditions. Unique to the system are a TDMA frame structure and satellite synchronization mechanism that allow: (a) very efficient utilization of the satellite capacity: (b) over-the-satellite dosed-loop synchronization of the network in configurations with up to 64 ground stations: and (c) ground station initial acquisition without collisions with existing signalling or data traffic. The user interfaces are compatible with SONET standards, performing the function of conventional SONET multiplexers and. as such. can be: readily integrated with standard SONET fiber-based terrestrial networks. Management of the network is based upon the simple network management protocol (SNMP). and includes an over-the-satellite signalling network and backup terrestrial internet (IP-based) connectivity. A description of the ground stations is also included.


    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball


    Operational Experience At the end of the first full-year running period of LHC, CMS is established as a reliable, robust and mature experiment. In particular common systems and infrastructure faults accounted for <0.6 % CMS downtime during LHC pp physics. Technical operation throughout the entire year was rather smooth, the main faults requiring UXC access being sub-detector power systems and rack-cooling turbines. All such problems were corrected during scheduled technical stops, in the shadow of tunnel access needed by the LHC, or in negotiated accesses or access extensions. Nevertheless, the number of necessary accesses to the UXC averaged more than one per week and the technical stops were inevitably packed with work packages, typically 30 being executed within a few days, placing a high load on the coordination and area management teams. It is an appropriate moment for CMS Technical Coordination to thank all those in many CERN departments and in the Collaboration, who were involved in CMS techni...

  11. Chemical mechanical planarization of Ge2Sb2Te5 using IC1010 and Politex reg pads in acidic slurry (United States)

    He, Ao-Dong; Liu, Bo; Song, Zhi-Tang; Wang, Liang-Yong; Liu, Wei-Li; Feng, Gao-Ming; Feng, Song-Lin


    In the paper, chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) of Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) is investigated using IC1010 and Politex reg pads in acidic slurry. For the CMP with blank wafer, it is found that the removal rate (RR) of GST increases with the increase of pressure for both pads, but the RR of GST polished using IC1010 is far more than that of Politex reg. To check the surface defects, GST film is observed with an optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). For the CMP with Politex reg, many spots are observed on the surface of the blank wafer with OM, but no obvious spots are observed with SEM. With regard to the patterned wafer, a few stains are observed on the GST cell, but many residues are found on other area with OM. However, from SEM results, a few residues are observed on the GST cell, more dielectric loss is revealed about the trench structure. For the CMP with IC1010, the surface of the polished blank wafer suffers serious scratches found with both OM and SEM, which may result from a low hardness of GST, compared with those of IC1010 and abrasives. With regard to the patterned wafer, it can achieve a clean surface and almost no scratches are observed with OM, which may result from the high-hardness SiO2 film on the surface, not from the soft GST film across the whole wafer. From the SEM results, a clean interface and no residues are observed on the GST surface, and less dielectric loss is revealed. Compared with Politex reg, the patterned wafer can achieve a good performance after CMP using IC1010.

  12. Coordination Capacity

    CERN Document Server

    Cuff, Paul; Cover, Thomas


    We develop elements of a theory of cooperation and coordination in networks. Rather than considering a communication network as a means of distributing information, or of reconstructing random processes at remote nodes, we ask what dependence can be established among the nodes given the communication constraints. Specifically, in a network with communication rates between the nodes, we ask what is the set of all achievable joint distributions p(x1, ..., xm) of actions at the nodes on the network. Several networks are solved, including arbitrarily large cascade networks. Distributed cooperation can be the solution to many problems such as distributed games, distributed control, and establishing mutual information bounds on the influence of one part of a physical system on another.

  13. Satellite Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N


    The field of satellite communications represents the world's largest space industry. Those who are interested in space need to understand the fundamentals of satellite communications, its technology, operation, business, economic, and regulatory aspects. This book explains all this along with key insights into the field's future growth trends and current strategic challenges. Fundamentals of Satellite Communications is a concise book that gives all of the key facts and figures as well as a strategic view of where this dynamic industry is going. Author Joseph N. Pelton, PhD, former Dean of the International Space University and former Director of Strategic Policy at Intelstat, presents a r

  14. Improved gravity field and station-coordinate estimates from laser tracking data (United States)

    Gaposchkin, E. M.


    Knowledge of the long-wavelength features of the geopotential and the geocentric coordinates of satellite-tracking stations is significantly improved by the use of precision satellite tracking with lasers. Tracking data on nine satellites are combined with terrestrial gravimetry to obtain a spherical-harmonics representation of the geopotential complete through degree and order 24. Laser tracking data are used to determine the coordinates of tracking stations. This coordinate system is referred to an inertial reference frame by use of camera observations and observations of deep-space probes. Resulting geodetic parameters provide better satellite ephemerides and a reference for analyzing satellite-to-sea-surface altimetry.

  15. Satellite Geomagnetism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Stolle, Claudia


    Observations of Earth’s magnetic field from space began more than 50 years ago. A continuous monitoring of the field using low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites, however, started only in 1999, and three satellites have taken highprecision measurements of the geomagnetic field during the past decade...... ability to characterize and understand the many sources that contribute to Earth’s magnetic field. In this review, we summarize investigations of Earth’s interior and environment that have been possible through the analysis of high-precision magnetic field observations taken by LEO satellites........ The unprecedented time-space coverage of their data opened revolutionary new possibilities for monitoring, understanding, and exploring Earth’s magnetic field. In the near future, the three-satellite constellation Swarm will ensure continuity of such measurement and provide enhanced possibilities to improve our...

  16. Satellite (Natural) (United States)

    Murdin, P.


    In its most general sense, any celestial object in orbit around a similar larger object. Thus, for example, the Magellanic Clouds are satellite galaxies of our own Milky Way galaxy. Without qualification, the term is used to mean a body in orbit around a planet; an alternative term is moon. The term natural satellite distinguishes these bodies from artificial satellites—spacecraft placed in orbi...

  17. Research and Development of Chemical Mechanical Planarization for Ge2Sb2Te5%Ge2Sb2Te5的化学机械抛光研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何敖东; 刘波; 宋志棠; 冯高明; 朱南飞; 任佳栋; 吴关平; 封松林


    相变存储器由于具有非易失性、高速度、低功耗等优点被认为最有可能成为下一代存储器的主流产品,Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST)作为一种传统相变材料已经被广泛应用在相变存储器中,而GST的化学机械抛光作为相变存储器生产的关键工艺目前已被采用.本工作综述了有关GST的化学机械抛光技术研究进展,讨论了GST化学机械抛光过程的影响因素,如下压力、转速、抛光垫、磨料、氧化剂、表面活性剂等,并对目前GST的化学机械抛光机理进行了归纳,进一步展望了GST的化学机械抛光技术的发展前景.%Phase change memory (PCM) is considered a major candidate for next-generation memory due to its nonvolatile,fast program access times,low consumable power.So far chalcogenide Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST),as a traditional phase material,has been widely adopted and investigated for PCM application.Recently,chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) of GST as a key technique for confined structure has been applied in the fabrication of PCM.In this paper,research and development of CMP for GST is reviewed firstly and the impact factors of down force,rotation velocity,polishing pads,and the slurry on the GST CMP are discussed.For the mechanical parameter,the removal rate (RR) of GST increases with the increasing of pressure and rotation velocity firstly,and then reaches saturation or slightly decreases.The gentle mechanical parameter is a better choice for GST CMP due to its lower hardness.With regard to polishing pads,GST polished using Politex reg can attain a better surface quality,and almost no residue and scratches can be found,compared with IC1010.The oxidizer of slurry,such as H2O2,(NH4)2S2O8,KMnO4 and FeCl3 have a great influence on the GST performance,the oxidization capacity of each element in GST alloy is different.Among these elements,Ge is preferentially oxidized,but Te is hard oxidized due to their different electronegativity.RR strongly depends on the p

  18. Mobile satellite service in the United States (United States)

    Agnew, Carson E.; Bhagat, Jai; Hopper, Edwin A.; Kiesling, John D.; Exner, Michael L.; Melillo, Lawrence; Noreen, Gary K.; Parrott, Billy J.


    Mobile satellite service (MSS) has been under development in the United States for more than two decades. The service will soon be provided on a commercial basis by a consortium of eight U.S. companies called the American Mobile Satellite Consortium (AMSC). AMSC will build a three-satellite MSS system that will offer superior performance, reliability and cost effectiveness for organizations requiring mobile communications across the U.S. The development and operation of MSS in North America is being coordinated with Telesat Canada and Mexico. AMSC expects NASA to provide launch services in exchange for capacity on the first AMSC satellite for MSAT-X activities and for government demonstrations.


    CERN Multimedia

    C. Delaere


    Since the LHC ceased operations in February, a lot has been going on at Point 5, and Run Coordination continues to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities. In the last months, the Pixel detector was extracted and is now stored in the pixel lab in SX5; the beam pipe has been removed and ME1/1 removal has started. We regained access to the vactank and some work on the RBX of HB has started. Since mid-June, electricity and cooling are back in S1 and S2, allowing us to turn equipment back on, at least during the day. 24/7 shifts are not foreseen in the next weeks, and safety tours are mandatory to keep equipment on overnight, but re-commissioning activities are slowly being resumed. Given the (slight) delays accumulated in LS1, it was decided to merge the two global runs initially foreseen into a single exercise during the week of 4 November 2013. The aim of the global run is to check that we can run (parts of) CMS after several months switched off, with the new VME PCs installed, th...


    CERN Multimedia

    Christophe Delaere


    The focus of Run Coordination during LS1 is to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities, to smooth interactions between subsystems and to ensure that all are ready in time to resume operations in 2015 with a fully calibrated and understood detector. After electricity and cooling were restored to all equipment, at about the time of the last CMS week, recommissioning activities were resumed for all subsystems. On 7 October, DCS shifts began 24/7 to allow subsystems to remain on to facilitate operations. That culminated with the Global Run in November (GriN), which   took place as scheduled during the week of 4 November. The GriN has been the first centrally managed operation since the beginning of LS1, and involved all subdetectors but the Pixel Tracker presently in a lab upstairs. All nights were therefore dedicated to long stable runs with as many subdetectors as possible. Among the many achievements in that week, three items may be highlighted. First, the Strip...

  1. Direct measurements of laser light aberration from the ARTEMIS geostationary satellite through thin clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzkov, Volodymyr; Sodnik, Zoran


    A precise ground based telescope system was developed for laser communication experiments with the geostationary satellite ARTEMIS of ESA. Precise tracking of the satellite was realized by using time resolved coordinates of the satellite. During the experiments, the time propagation of laser signal from the satellite and the point-ahead angle for the laser beam were calculated. Some laser experiments though thin clouds were performed. A splitting of some images of the laser beam from the satellite along declination and right ascension coordinates of telescope could be observed through thin clouds. The splitting along the declination coordinate may be interpreted as refraction in the atmosphere. The splitting along the right ascension coordinate is equivalent to the calculated point-ahead angle for the satellite. We find out that a small part of laser beam was observed ahead of the velocity vector in the point where the satellite would be after the laser light from the satellite reaches the telescope. These re...

  2. Scientific Satellites (United States)


    followed Hale’s into orbit. In 1879, Jules Verne wrote about launching small satellites with a gun possessing a muzzle velocity of 10 000 m/sec (ref. 3...was activated in 1950.11 It was located only a few tens of miles from the spot where Jules Verne had his Baltimore Gun Club fire a manned projectile to...principle, satellites can be launched by a single impulse applied at the Earth’s surface-say, with a large cannon, & la Jules Verne (sec. 8-3). In

  3. Motor coordination: a local hub for coordination. (United States)

    Calabrese, Ronald L


    A local interneuron of a crayfish central pattern generator serves as a hub that integrates ascending and descending coordinating information and passes it on to a local oscillatory microcircuit to coordinate a series of segmental appendages known as swimmerets.

  4. Stereoscopic observations from meteorological satellites (United States)

    Hasler, A. F.; Mack, R.; Negri, A.

    The capability of making stereoscopic observations of clouds from meteorological satellites is a new basic analysis tool with a broad spectrum of applications. Stereoscopic observations from satellites were first made using the early vidicon tube weather satellites (e.g., Ondrejka and Conover [1]). However, the only high quality meteorological stereoscopy from low orbit has been done from Apollo and Skylab, (e.g., Shenk et al. [2] and Black [3], [4]). Stereoscopy from geosynchronous satellites was proposed by Shenk [5] and Bristor and Pichel [6] in 1974 which allowed Minzner et al. [7] to demonstrate the first quantitative cloud height analysis. In 1978 Bryson [8] and desJardins [9] independently developed digital processing techniques to remap stereo images which made possible precision height measurement and spectacular display of stereograms (Hasler et al. [10], and Hasler [11]). In 1980 the Japanese Geosynchronous Satellite (GMS) and the U.S. GOES-West satellite were synchronized to obtain stereo over the central Pacific as described by Fujita and Dodge [12] and in this paper. Recently the authors have remapped images from a Low Earth Orbiter (LEO) to the coordinate system of a Geosynchronous Earth Orbiter (GEO) and obtained stereoscopic cloud height measurements which promise to have quality comparable to previous all GEO stereo. It has also been determined that the north-south imaging scan rate of some GEOs can be slowed or reversed. Therefore the feasibility of obtaining stereoscopic observations world wide from combinations of operational GEO and LEO satellites has been demonstrated. Stereoscopy from satellites has many advantages over infrared techniques for the observation of cloud structure because it depends only on basic geometric relationships. Digital remapping of GEO and LEO satellite images is imperative for precision stereo height measurement and high quality displays because of the curvature of the earth and the large angular separation of the

  5. Limitations of Radar Coordinates


    Bini, Donato; Lusanna, Luca; Mashhoon, Bahram


    The construction of a radar coordinate system about the world line of an observer is discussed. Radar coordinates for a hyperbolic observer as well as a uniformly rotating observer are described in detail. The utility of the notion of radar distance and the admissibility of radar coordinates are investigated. Our results provide a critical assessment of the physical significance of radar coordinates.

  6. Relativistic Positioning Systems: The Emission Coordinates

    CERN Document Server

    Coll, B; Coll, Bartolom\\'{e}; Pozo, Jos\\'{e} Mar\\'{I}a


    This paper introduces some general properties of the gravitational metric and the natural basis of vectors and covectors in 4-dimensional emission coordinates. Emission coordinates are a class of space-time coordinates defined and generated by 4 emitters (satellites) broadcasting their proper time by means of electromagnetic signals. They are a constitutive ingredient of the simplest conceivable relativistic positioning systems. Their study is aimed to develop a theory of these positioning systems, based on the framework and concepts of general relativity, as opposed to introducing `relativistic effects' in a classical framework. In particular, we characterize the causal character of the coordinate vectors, covectors and 2-planes, which are of an unusual type. We obtain the inequality conditions for the contravariant metric to be Lorentzian, and the non-trivial and unexpected identities satisfied by the angles formed by each pair of natural vectors. We also prove that the metric can be naturally split in such...

  7. Effects of manganese doping on magnetocaloric effect in Ge-rich Gd5Ge2.05Si1.95 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.Yüzüak; I.Dincer; Y.Elerman


    The structure,magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of the Ge-rich Gd5Ge2.05-xSi1.95-xMn2x (x=0.01 and 0.03) alloys were investigated by scanning electron microscopy,X-ray powder diffraction,differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and magnetization measurements.The results of energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and X-ray diffraction analyses showed that the composition and crystal structure of the alloys were desired.DSC measurements were performed to determine the transformation temperatures for each alloy.Both alloys exhibited the first order phase transition around room temperature.The alloys showed an anti-ferromagnetic transition around 60 K.The isothermal magnetic entropy changes of the alloys were determined from the isothermal magnetization measurements by using the Maxwell relation.The maximum values of isothermal magnetic entropy change of the Gd5Ge2.05-xSi1.95-xMn2x alloy with x=0.01 was found to be -12.1 and -19.8 J/(kg·K) using Maxwell equation around 268 K in applied fields of 2 and 5 T,respectively.

  8. Contribution of energy-gap in the ferromagnetic spin-wave spectrum on magnetocaloric parameters of CeRu(2)Ge(2). (United States)

    Samanta, Tapas; Das, I; Banerjee, S


    A study of the magnetocaloric effect has been performed on a polycrystalline CeRu(2)Ge(2) compound, which exhibits an antiferromagnetic ordering below T(N) = 8.3 K and enters into a ferromagnetic ground state at T(C) = 7.4 K. The origins of the magnetocaloric parameters (the isothermal entropy change: -ΔS and the adiabatic temperature change: ΔT(ad)) of the CeRu(2)Ge(2) compound below T(C) have been analyzed. A sharp decrease in -ΔS has been observed below T(C). However, the ΔT(ad) does not fall as sharply as -ΔS with decreasing temperature in the corresponding temperature region. This behavior results in an additional value of ΔT(ad) at low temperature, which originates from the exponential decrease of the magnetic contribution of specific heat associated with an increase of energy-gap in the ferromagnetic spin-wave spectrum with the application of magnetic field.

  9. The low temperature epitaxy of Ge on Si (1 0 0) substrate using two different precursors of GeH4 and Ge2H6 (United States)

    Kil, Yeon-Ho; Yuk, Sim-Hoon; Kim, Joung Hee; Kim, Taek Sung; Kim, Yong Tae; Choi, Chel-Jong; Shim, Kyu-Hwan


    We have investigated the initial stage of low temperature epitaxy (LTE) of Ge on 8″-dia. Si (1 0 0) substrate using a rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD) with two different precursors of GeH4 and Ge2H6. The quality of LTE Ge films such as surface morphology, defects and crystallinity were analyzed using SEM, AFM and TEM. Experimental results confirmed that the LTE Ge using Ge2H6 precursor was much more beneficial than the LTE using GeH4 in terms of growth rate (×10), stress relaxation (85% at surface), and crystal quality (low TDDs). The discrepancy looks originated from the weak Gesbnd Ge bonds requiring their dissociation energy small compared to the Gesbnd H bonds in GeH4 precursors, and the abundant supply of GeH3 molecules should stimulate chemical reactions at free surface sites. Our LTE technology would be promising for very thin Ge virtual substrate as well as be beneficial for nano-micro electronic devices in need of low temperature processes below 300-500 °C.

  10. Traffic planning for the Anik-E satellites (United States)

    Gray, Douglas A.

    Traffic planning is required to insure effective use of the dual band Anik E series of communications satellites. A trilateral orbital agreement reached with the United States and Mexico allows Canada four dual band satellite positions. This paper outlines the traffic planning process, describes satellite coordination, and provides highlights of the implementation of the Trilateral Orbital Plan. Constraints affecting traffic assignments include satellite health, the need for satellite diversity, and existing earth network facilities. Anik E will provide voice, television, and data communications over 24 C-band channels.

  11. Clustering of High Redshift ($z\\ge 2.9$) Quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Y; Oguri, M; Hennawi, J F; Fan, X; Richards, G T; Hall, P B; Gunn, J E; Schneider, D P; Szalay, A S; Thakar, A R; Vanden Berk, D E; Anderson, S F; Bahcall, N A; Connolly, A J; Knapp, G R; Shen, Yue; Strauss, Michael A.; Oguri, Masamune; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Fan, Xiaohui; Richards, Gordon T.; Hall, Patrick B.; Gunn, James E.; Schneider, Donald P.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Thakar, Anirudda R.; Berk, Daniel E. Vanden; Anderson, Scott F.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Connolly, Andrew J.; Knapp, Gillian R.


    (Abridged) We study the two-point correlation function of a uniformly selected sample of 4,426 luminous optical quasars with redshift $2.9 \\le z\\le 5.4$ selected over 4041 deg$^2$ from the Fifth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. For a real-space correlation function of the form $\\xi(r)=(r/r_0)^{-\\gamma}$, the fitted parameters in comoving coordinates are $r_0 = 15.2 \\pm 2.7 h^{-1}$ Mpc and $\\gamma = 2.0 \\pm 0.3$, over a scale range $4\\le r_p\\le 150 h^{-1}$ Mpc. Thus high-redshift quasars are appreciably more strongly clustered than their $z \\approx 1.5$ counterparts, which have a comoving clustering length $r_0 \\approx 6.5 h^{-1}$ Mpc. Dividing our sample into two redshift bins: $2.9\\le z\\le 3.5$ and $z\\ge 3.5$, and assuming a power-law index $\\gamma=2.0$, we find a correlation length of $r_0 = 16.9 \\pm 1.7 h^{-1}$ Mpc for the former, and $r_0 = 24.3 \\pm 2.4 h^{-1}$ Mpc for the latter. Following Martini & Weinberg, we relate the clustering strength and quasar number density to the quasar lifet...

  12. Optimal Release Control of Companion Satellite System Using Electromagnetic Forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zengwen Xu,Peng Shi; Yushan Zhao∗


    Electromagnetic forces generated by the inter⁃action of component satellites can be used to release companion satellites. Optimal release trajectories for companion satellite system using inter⁃electromagnetic forces were investigated. Firstly, nonlinear relative motion dynamic equations of a two⁃craft electromagnetic companion satellite system were derived in spatial polar coordinates. Then principles of electromagnetic satellite formation flying were introduced. Secondly, the characteristics of the electromagnetic companion satellites release were analyzed and optimal release trajectories of companion satellites using electromagnetic forces were obtained using Gauss pseudospectral method. Three performance criteria were chosen as minimum time, minimum acceleration of the separation distance and minimum control acceleration. Finally, three release examples including expansion along separation distance, rotation in orbital plane and stable formation reconfiguration were given to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. Results indicated that the release trajectories can converge to optimal solutions effectively and the concept of release companion satellites using electromagnetic forces is practicable.

  13. Neutron diffraction study of the magnetic structures of PrMn2-xCoxGe2 (x = 0.4, 0.5 and 0.8) with a new refinement procedure (United States)

    Dincer, I.; Elmali, A.; Elerman, Y.; Ehrenberg, H.; Fuess, H.; Isnard, O.


    The magnetic structures of PrMn2-xCoxGe2 (x = 0.4, 0.5 and 0.8) with ThCr2Si2-type structure have been investigated by means of neutron diffraction measurements between 2 and 312 K. We introduced a new refinement procedure to determine the magnetic moments of Pr and Mn sublattices below the rare-earth ordering temperature TCPr because of the overlapping of the magnetic reflections of the Pr and Mn sublattices. Rietveld refinements demonstrated that above the Curie temperature an intralayer antiferromagnetic ordering within (001) Mn layers is observed in PrMn1.6Co0.4Ge2 and PrMn1.5Co0.5Ge2, while the intralayer antiferromagnetic ordering within (001) Mn layers is found over the whole temperature range for PrMn1.2Co0.8Ge2. Below the Curie temperature the PrMn1.6Co0.4Ge2 and PrMn1.5Co0.5Ge2 compounds have a canted ferromagnetic structure with the canting angles 62° and 65° at 2 K, respectively. Below 75 and 70 K, a ferromagnetic ordering of the Pr sublattice is observed along the c-axis for these compounds. Below 70 K, a ferromagnetic ordering of Pr sublattices is found (not detected by magnetic measurements) along the c-axis in PrMn1.2Co0.8Ge2.

  14. Internet-Protocol-Based Satellite Bus Architecture Designed (United States)

    Slywczak, Richard A.


    NASA is designing future complex satellite missions ranging from single satellites and constellations to space networks and sensor webs. These missions require more interoperability, autonomy, and coordination than previous missions; in addition, a desire exists to have scientists retrieve data directly from the satellite rather than a central distribution source. To meet these goals, NASA has been studying the possibility of extending the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite for spacebased applications.

  15. Determination of Chinese mobile SLR sites' coordinates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Chugang; CAI Wusan; ZHU Yuanlan; YANG Fumin


    The geocentric coordinates of three mobile sites including Fangshan inBeijing, Urumqi in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and Lhasa in Tibet are determined in the ITRF2000 frame by means of both the global SLR data and the mobile (SLR) data obtained by a mobile satellite laser ranging (SLR) apparatus from Aug. 2000 to Dec. 2001. The results showed that the geometrical performance ofChinese SLR network has been significantly improved.

  16. Movement and Coordination (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Movement and Coordination Page Content Article Body At this age, your ... level will strengthen his body and develop his coordination. In the months ahead, your child’s running will ...

  17. Developmental coordination disorder (United States)

    ... page: // Developmental coordination disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Developmental coordination disorder is a childhood disorder. It leads to ...

  18. Nitrogen and Silicon Co-Doping of Ge2Sb2Te5 Thin Films for Improving Phase Change Memory Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Yan-Fei; CAI Bing-Chu; CHEN Bomy; ZHOU Peng; LIN Yin-Yin; TANG Ting-Ao; CHEN Liang-Yao; LI Jing; QIAO Bao-Wei; LAI Yun-Feng; FENG Jie


    Electrical properties and phase structures of (Si+N)-codoped Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) for phase change memory are investigated to improve the memory performance. Compared to the films with N or Si dopants only in previous reports, the (Si+N)-doped GST has a remarkable improvement of crystalline resistivity of about 104mΩcm. The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum reveals the Si-N bonds formation in the film. X-ray diffraction patterns show that the grain size is reduced due to the crystallization inhibition of the amorphous GST by SiNx,which results in higher crystalline resistivity. This is very useful to reduce writing current for phase change memory applications.

  19. Structural, electronic and kinetic properties of the phase-change material Ge2Sb2Te5 in the liquid state (United States)

    Schumacher, Mathias; Weber, Hans; Jóvári, Pál; Tsuchiya, Yoshimi; Youngs, Tristan G. A.; Kaban, Ivan; Mazzarello, Riccardo


    Phase-change materials exhibit fast and reversible transitions between an amorphous and a crystalline state at high temperature. The two states display resistivity contrast, which is exploited in phase-change memory devices. The technologically most important family of phase-change materials consists of Ge-Sb-Te alloys. In this work, we investigate the structural, electronic and kinetic properties of liquid Ge2Sb2Te5 as a function of temperature by a combined experimental and computational approach. Understanding the properties of this phase is important to clarify the amorphization and crystallization processes. We show that the structural properties of the models obtained from ab initio and reverse Monte Carlo simulations are in good agreement with neutron and X-ray diffraction experiments. We extract the kinetic coefficients from the molecular dynamics trajectories and determine the activation energy for viscosity. The obtained value is shown to be fully compatible with our viscosity measurements.

  20. Magnetic structure of Gd5Si2Ge2 and Gd5Si2Ge1.9M0.1 (M = Ga, Cu). (United States)

    Palacios, E; Rodríguez-Velamazán, J A; Wang, G F; Burriel, R; Cuello, G; Rodríguez-Carvajal, J


    Powder x-ray diffraction patterns of the doped compounds Gd(5)Si(2)Ge(1.9)M(0.1) (M = Ga, Cu) show the same crystal structure, orthorhombic Gd(5)Si(4)-type, in the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases. This is different from Gd(5)Si(2)Ge(2), whose paramagnetic phase is monoclinic. The magnetic structure at low temperature, solved from diffraction experiments with hot neutrons, is the same in all the three compounds, collinear ferromagnetic with moments along the crystal b-axis, or F(y)F(By) according to Bertaut's notation. These results, combined with those of heat capacity and magnetocaloric effect, indicate, similarly to Gd(5)Si(4), a second-order, purely magnetic, transition in the doped compounds explaining the absence of hysteresis.

  1. Crystal growth and optical properties of Ce:(La,Gd)2Ge2O7 grown by the floating zone method (United States)

    Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Shishido, Toetsu; Sugawara, Takamasa; Yubuta, Kunio; Jan, Pejchal; Suzuki, Akira; Yokota, Yuui; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Kamada, Kei; Yoshikawa, Akira


    Some pyrosilicate scintillators such as Ce:Gd2Si2O7 and Ce:Lu2Si2O7 have a good light output, and especially Ce:(Gd,La)2Si2O7 has an excellent light output of over 36,000 ph/MeV. In order to search novel scintilators, we have developed a pyrogermanate-based scintillation material (Ce0.01,Gd0.90,La0.09)2Ge2O7 using the floating zone method. Although the light output was decreased due to quenching, 5d-4f transition of Ce3+ was observed around 480 nm in photo- and radio-luminescence spectra. This emission wavelength was longer than that of (Ce0.01,Gd0.90,La0.09)2Si2O7 with an emission wavelength of 390 nm.

  2. Magnetic and crystal structure correlations in PrMn 1.5Co 0.5Ge 2: a synchrotron diffraction study (United States)

    Ehrenberg, H.; Dincer, I.; Elmali, A.; Elerman, Y.; Fuess, H.


    Structure details of PrMn 2- xCo xGe 2, x=0.5, with the tetragonal ThCr 2Si 2-type structure have been studied by high-resolution synchrotron powder diffraction. Unit cell parameters a and c, unit cell volume V, c/ a, (∂ a/∂ x) T and (∂ c/∂ x) T were determined from Rietveld refinements in the temperature range 10-300 K. The average composition =0.49(4) is determined based on a detailed diffraction profile analysis. Our measurements indicate three anomalies in the c/ a ratio, (∂ a/∂ x) T and (∂c/∂ x) T at a temperature of about 150 K, which is very close to the transition temperature from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic intralayer ordering.

  3. Satellite Application for Disaster Management Information Systems (United States)

    Okpanachi, George

    Abstract Satellites are becoming increasingly vital to modern day disaster management activities. Earth observation (EO) satellites provide images at various wavelengths that assist rapid-mapping in all phases of the disaster management cycle: mitigation of potential risks in a given area, preparedness for eventual disasters, immediate response to a disaster event, and the recovery/reconstruction efforts follo wing it. Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) assist all the phases by providing precise location and navigation data, helping manage land and infrastructures, and aiding rescue crews coordinate their search efforts. Effective disaster management is a complex problem, because it involves many parameters, which are usually not easy to measure and even identify: Analysis of current situation, planning, optimum resource management, coordination, controlling and monitoring current activities and making quick and correct decisions are only some of these parameters, whose complete list is very long. Disaster management information systems (DMIS) assist disaster management to analyse the situation better, make decisions and suggest further actions following the emergency plans. This requires not only fast and thorough processing and optimization abilities, but also real-time data provided to the DMIS. The need of DMIS for disaster’s real-time data can be satisfied by small satellites data utilization. Small satellites can provide up-to-data, plus a better media to transfer data. This paper suggests a rationale and a framework for utilization of small Satellite data by DMIS. DMIS should be used ‘’before’’, ‘’during’’ and ‘’after’’ the disasters. Data provided by the Small Satellites are almost crucial in any period of the disasters, because early warning can save lives, and satellite data may help to identify disasters before they occur. The paper also presents’ ‘when’’,

  4. Geostationary Satellite (GOES) Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from radiometer instruments on SMS (ATS) and GOES satellites in geostationary orbit. These satellites produced...

  5. Coordination and Cooperation


    Janssen, Maarten


    textabstractThis comment makes four related points. First, explaining coordination is different from explaining cooperation. Second, solving the coordination problem is more important for the theory of games than solving the cooperation problem. Third, a version of the Principle of Coordination can be rationalized on individualistic grounds. Finally, psychological game theory should consider how players perceive their gaming situation. ---------------------------------------------------------...

  6. Processing Coordination Ambiguity (United States)

    Engelhardt, Paul E.; Ferreira, Fernanda


    We examined temporarily ambiguous coordination structures such as "put the butter in the bowl and the pan on the towel." Minimal Attachment predicts that the ambiguous noun phrase "the pan" will be interpreted as a noun-phrase coordination structure because it is syntactically simpler than clausal coordination. Constraint-based theories assume…

  7. Processing Coordination Ambiguity (United States)

    Engelhardt, Paul E.; Ferreira, Fernanda


    We examined temporarily ambiguous coordination structures such as "put the butter in the bowl and the pan on the towel." Minimal Attachment predicts that the ambiguous noun phrase "the pan" will be interpreted as a noun-phrase coordination structure because it is syntactically simpler than clausal coordination. Constraint-based…

  8. Coordination and Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten)


    textabstractThis comment makes four related points. First, explaining coordination is different from explaining cooperation. Second, solving the coordination problem is more important for the theory of games than solving the cooperation problem. Third, a version of the Principle of Coordination can

  9. Coordination and Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten)


    textabstractThis comment makes four related points. First, explaining coordination is different from explaining cooperation. Second, solving the coordination problem is more important for the theory of games than solving the cooperation problem. Third, a version of the Principle of Coordination can

  10. Neptune's small satellites (United States)

    Thomas, P.


    The small satellites of Neptune and other planets discovered during the Voyager 2 mission are discussed in terms of their composition and relationship to the planetary systems. The satellite Proteus is described in terms of its orbit, five other satellites are described, and they are compared to ther small satellites and systems. Neptune's satellites are hypothesized to be related to the ring system, and the satellite Galatea is related to the confinement of the rings.

  11. Electronic Structures of Square Planar Coordinated Transition Metal Ions in Compounds with Gillespite Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Electronic structures of square planar coordinated transition metal ions in BaCuSi4O10 and CaCrSi4O10 are investigated using the ligand-field theory(LFT),angular overlap model(AOM) and iterative extended Hueckel molecular orbital theory(IET).The electronic energy levels of the natural mineral dioptase are also investigated,in which the Cu2+ ions occupy the sites of pseudo D4h symmetry,Both LFT and AOM predict that the crystal-field levels of transition metal ions in these compounds follow such an order that E(2B1g)

  12. Thinking on Standardization of Satellite Meteorology and Space Weather Monitoring Early Waming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Anlai; Zhang Jiashen; Le Guiming


    Introduction After 40 years of development,China's satellite meteorological service has made remarkable achievements.Fengyun satellites have realized the transformation from trial operation to full operational service and achieved a coordinated space-based earth cbservation system with polar and geostationary meteorological satellites.

  13. Ge2Sb2Te5材料与非挥发相转变存储器单元器件特性%The performance of Ge2Sb2Te5 material and nonvolatile phase-change-memory device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌云; 林殷茵; 赖连章; 乔保卫; 赖云锋; 冯洁; 汤庭鳌; 蔡炳初; Bomy. Chen



  14. 基于Sn掺杂Ge2Sb2Te5的相变存储器器件单元存储性能%Storage characteristics of phase change memory cells based on Sn- doped Ge2Sb2Te5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐成; 刘波; 冯高明; 吴良才; 宋志棠; 封松林; Bomy Chen



  15. Critical inclinations in satellite theory (United States)

    Deprit, A.


    The main problem of satellite theory is described in polar coordinates by a Hamiltonian function. It is proposed to find a solution of the Hamiltonian function with the following properties: (1) the reference orbit is Keplerian; (2) no restriction is imposed on the eccentricity; in particular, it is exempt of singularities - real or apparent - for small eccentricities; and (3) no restriction is imposed on the inclination; in particular, it is exempt of singularities - real or apparent - for small inclinations; also it is valid even in the neighborhood of inclinations at which the perigee is stationary.

  16. Global Ocean Surveillance With Electronic Intelligence Based Satellite System (United States)

    Venkatramanan, Haritha


    The objective of this proposal is to design our own ELINT based satellite system to detect and locate the target by using satellite Trilateration Principle. The target position can be found by measuring the radio signals arrived at three satellites using Time Difference of Arrival(TDOA) technique. To locate a target it is necessary to determine the satellite position. The satellite motion and its position is obtained by using Simplified General Perturbation Model(SGP4) in MATLAB. This SGP4 accepts satellite Two Line Element(TLE) data and returns the position in the form of state vectors. These state vectors are then converted into observable parameters and then propagated in space. This calculations can be done for satellite constellation and non - visibility periods can be calculated. Satellite Trilateration consists of three satellites flying in formation with each other. The satellite constellation design consists of three satellites with an inclination of 61.3° maintained at equal distances between each other. The design is performed using MATLAB and simulated to obtain the necessary results. The target's position can be obtained using the three satellites ECEF Coordinate system and its position and velocity can be calculated in terms of Latitude and Longitude. The target's motion is simulated to obtain the Speed and Direction of Travel.

  17. Enhanced time overcurrent coordination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enriquez, Arturo Conde; Martinez, Ernesto Vazquez [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Apdo. Postal 114-F, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 66450 San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)


    In this paper, we recommend a new coordination system for time overcurrent relays. The purpose of the coordination process is to find a time element function that allows it to operate using a constant back-up time delay, for any fault current. In this article, we describe the implementation and coordination results of time overcurrent relays, fuses and reclosers. Experiments were carried out in a laboratory test situation using signals of a power electrical system physics simulator. (author)

  18. Satellite data compression

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Bormin


    Satellite Data Compression covers recent progress in compression techniques for multispectral, hyperspectral and ultra spectral data. A survey of recent advances in the fields of satellite communications, remote sensing and geographical information systems is included. Satellite Data Compression, contributed by leaders in this field, is the first book available on satellite data compression. It covers onboard compression methodology and hardware developments in several space agencies. Case studies are presented on recent advances in satellite data compression techniques via various prediction-

  19. Trends in communications satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Curtin, Denis J


    Trends in Communications Satellites offers a comprehensive look at trends and advances in satellite communications, including experimental ones such as NASA satellites and those jointly developed by France and Germany. The economic aspects of communications satellites are also examined. This book consists of 16 chapters and begins with a discussion on the fundamentals of electrical communications and their application to space communications, including spacecraft, earth stations, and orbit and wavelength utilization. The next section demonstrates how successful commercial satellite communicati

  20. International Coordination of and Contributions to Environmental Satellite Programs. (United States)


    station in Santiago Dominican Instituto Nacional de Recursos Hidraulicos -a Republic (MOA 11/84-10/89) Relay of hydrolological and meteorological data...City for use in improving weather forecasting services Panama Instituto de Recursos Hidraulicos y Electrificacion (MOA 6/83-5/88) Relay of hydrological...24 Country User, MOA Dates, and Program Ecuador Centro de Levantamientos Integrados de Recursos Naturales por Sensores Remotos (CLIRSEN) (MOA 10/83-9

  1. A relativistic and autonomous navigation satellite system

    CERN Document Server

    Delva, Pacôme; Kostić, Uros; Carloni, Sante


    A relativistic positioning system has been proposed by Bartolom\\'e Coll in 2002. Since then, several group developed this topic with different approaches. I will present a work done in collaboration with Ljubljana University and the ESA Advanced Concepts Team. We developed a concept, Autonomous Basis of Coordinates, in order to take advantage of the full autonomy of a satellite constellation for navigation and positioning, by means of satellite inter-links. I will present the advantages of this new paradigm and a number of potential application for reference systems, geophysics and relativistic gravitation.

  2. Chemical mechanical planarization of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 using KClO4 as oxidizer in acidic slurry (United States)

    He, Aodong; Song, Zhitang; Bo, Liu; Zhong, Min; Weili, Liu; Wang, Liangyong; Yan, Weixia; Lei, Yu; Wu, Guangping

    Amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 (a-GST) chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) using KClO4 as the oxidizer in an acidicslurry is investigated in the present work. It is shown that the removal rate (RR ) of the a-GST firstly increases and thentends to saturate when the KClO4 concentration is greater than 0.8 wt%, but the static etch rate (SER) linearly increasesfrom low to high KClO4 concentration. To understand the oxidation-reaction capability of Ge, Sb and Te, depth profilesof composition of elements and etch morphology of a-GST immersed in the slurry for some time are measured,respectively. It is found that selective corrosion occurs among Ge, Sb and Te, and an accumulation of Te and loss of Gein a-GST surface region are obvious observed, especially at high KClO4 concentrations. Temperature dependent sheetresistance measurements of all the samples pre- and post-CMP reveal a similar trend, which implies a-GST CMP is ableto keep its characteristic well.

  3. Mechanism of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 removal during chemical mechanical planarization in acidic H2O2 slurry (United States)

    He, Ao-Dong; Song, Zhi-Tang; Liu, Bo; Zhong, Min; Wang, Liang-Yong; Lü, Ye-Gang; Feng, Song-Lin


    In this paper, chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 (a-GST) in acidic H2O2 slurry is investigated. It was found that the removal rate of a-GST is strongly dependent on H2O2 concentration and gradually increases with the increase in H2O2 concentration, but the static etch rate first increases and then slowly decreases with the increase in H2O2 concentration. To understand the chemical reaction behavior of H2O2 on the a-GST surface, the potentiodynamic polarization curve, surface morphology and cross-section of a-GST immersed in acidic slurry are measured and the results reveal that a-GST exhibits a from active to passive behavior for from low to high concentration of H2O2. Finally, a possible removal mechanism of a-GST in different concentrations of H2O2 in the acidic slurry is described.

  4. Atomic Migration Induced Crystal Structure Transformation and Core-Centered Phase Transition in Single Crystal Ge2Sb2Te5 Nanowires. (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Jeong-Hyeon; Jeon, Deok-Jin; Han, Jaehyun; Yeo, Jong-Souk


    A phase change nanowire holds a promise for nonvolatile memory applications, but its transition mechanism has remained unclear due to the analytical difficulties at atomic resolution. Here we obtain a deeper understanding on the phase transition of a single crystalline Ge2Sb2Te5 nanowire (GST NW) using atomic scale imaging, diffraction, and chemical analysis. Our cross-sectional analysis has shown that the as-grown hexagonal close-packed structure of the single crystal GST NW transforms to a metastable face-centered cubic structure due to the atomic migration to the pre-existing vacancy layers in the hcp structure going through iterative electrical switching. We call this crystal structure transformation "metastabilization", which is also confirmed by the increase of set-resistance during the switching operation. For the set to reset transition between crystalline and amorphous phases, high-resolution imaging indicates that the longitudinal center of the nanowire mainly undergoes phase transition. According to the atomic scale analysis of the GST NW after repeated electrical switching, partial crystallites are distributed around the core-centered amorphous region of the nanowire where atomic migration is mainly induced, thus potentially leading to low power electrical switching. These results provide a novel understanding of phase change nanowires, and can be applied to enhance the design of nanowire phase change memory devices for improved electrical performance.

  5. Magnetoelastic phase transitions in the LuFe4Ge2 and YFe4Si2 compounds: A neutron diffraction study (United States)

    Schobinger-Papamantellos, P.; Buschow, K. H. J.; Rodríguez-Carvajal, J.


    The magnetic structure of the tetragonal antiferromagnetic LuFe4Ge2 and YFe4Si2 compounds has been studied by high resolution neutron and X-ray diffraction above and below the magneto-elastic transition at TN, Tc=32 K and 76 K, respectively. Below TN,Tc the tetragonal high temperature (HT) phase transforms into the low temperature (LT) orthorhombic magnetic phase: P42/mnm (HT) → Pnnm (q=0) (LT) with a 2D canted moment arrangement of the Fe moments within the (001) plane with the magnetic space group P{21}/{n'}{21}/{n'}{21}/{m'}(Sh58399). The Fe magnetic moment value is highly reduced in both compounds due to the presence of geometrical and exchange frustration relating to the underlying crystal structure comprising columns of Fe tetrahedra expanding along the c direction with antiferromagnetic interactions. The magnetic refinements were perturbed by the presence of partly unidentified impurity phases mainly in YFe4Si2.

  6. Optical Switching Using Transition from Dipolar to Charge Transfer Plasmon Modes in Ge2Sb2Te5 Bridged Metallodielectric Dimers (United States)

    Ahmadivand, Arash; Gerislioglu, Burak; Sinha, Raju; Karabiyik, Mustafa; Pala, Nezih


    Capacitive coupling and direct shuttling of charges in nanoscale plasmonic components across a dielectric spacer and through a conductive junction lead to excitation of significantly different dipolar and charge transfer plasmon (CTP) resonances, respectively. Here, we demonstrate the excitation of dipolar and CTP resonant modes in metallic nanodimers bridged by phase-change material (PCM) sections, material and electrical characteristics of which can be controlled by external stimuli. Ultrafast switching (in the range of a few nanoseconds) between amorphous and crystalline phases of the PCM section (here Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST)) allows for designing a tunable plasmonic switch for optical communication applications with significant modulation depth (up to 88%). Judiciously selecting the geometrical parameters and taking advantage of the electrical properties of the amorphous phase of the GST section we adjusted the extinction peak of the dipolar mode at the telecommunication band (λ~1.55 μm), which is considered as the OFF state. Changing the GST phase to crystalline via optical heating allows for direct transfer of charges through the junction between nanodisks and formation of a distinct CTP peak at longer wavelengths (λ~1.85 μm) far from the telecommunication wavelength, which constitutes the ON state. PMID:28205643

  7. Characterizing traits of coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poss, R.


    How can one recognize coordination languages and technologies? As this report shows, the common approach that contrasts coordination with computation is intellectually unsound: depending on the selected understanding of the word "computation", it either captures too many or too few programming

  8. Coordination models and languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadopoulos, G.A.; Arbab, F.


    A new class of models, formalisms and mechanisms has recently evolved for describing concurrent and distributed computations based on the concept of ``coordination''. The purpose of a coordination model and associated language is to provide a means of integrating a number of possibly heterogeneous c

  9. Team coordination dynamics. (United States)

    Gorman, Jamie C; Amazeen, Polemnia G; Cooke, Nancy J


    Team coordination consists of both the dynamics of team member interaction and the environmental dynamics to which a team is subjected. Focusing on dynamics, an approach is developed that contrasts with traditional aggregate-static concepts of team coordination as characterized by the shared mental model approach. A team coordination order parameter was developed to capture momentary fluctuations in coordination. Team coordination was observed in three-person uninhabited air vehicle teams across two experimental sessions. The dynamics of the order parameter were observed under changes of a team familiarity control parameter. Team members returned for the second session to either the same (Intact) or different (Mixed) team. 'Roadblock' perturbations, or novel changes in the task environment, were introduced in order to probe the stability of team coordination. Nonlinear dynamic methods revealed differences that a traditional approach did not: Intact and Mixed team coordination dynamics looked very different; Mixed teams were more stable than Intact teams and explored the space of solutions without the need for correction. Stability was positively correlated with the number of roadblock perturbations that were overcome successfully. The novel and non-intuitive contribution of a dynamical analysis was that Mixed teams, who did not have a long history working together, were more adaptive. Team coordination dynamics carries new implications for traditional problems such as training adaptive teams.

  10. Coordinate measuring machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceability...

  11. Social Postural Coordination (United States)

    Varlet, Manuel; Marin, Ludovic; Lagarde, Julien; Bardy, Benoit G.


    The goal of the current study was to investigate whether a visual coupling between two people can produce spontaneous interpersonal postural coordination and change their intrapersonal postural coordination involved in the control of stance. We examined the front-to-back head displacements of participants and the angular motion of their hip and…

  12. Social Postural Coordination (United States)

    Varlet, Manuel; Marin, Ludovic; Lagarde, Julien; Bardy, Benoit G.


    The goal of the current study was to investigate whether a visual coupling between two people can produce spontaneous interpersonal postural coordination and change their intrapersonal postural coordination involved in the control of stance. We examined the front-to-back head displacements of participants and the angular motion of their hip and…

  13. Design and simulation of satellite attitude control system based on Simulink and VR (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Gan, Qingbo; Kang, Jingshu


    In order to research satellite attitude control system design and visual simulation, the simulation framework of satellite dynamics and attitude control using Simulink were established. The design of satellite earth-oriented control system based on quaternion feedback was completed. The 3D scene based on VR was created and models in the scene were driven by simulation data of Simulink. By coordinate transformation. successful observing the scene in inertial coordinate system, orbit coordinate system and body coordinate system. The result shows that application of simulation method of Simulink combined with VR in the design of satellite attitude control system field, has the advantages of high confidence level, hard real-time property, multi-perspective and multi-coordinate system observing the scene, and improves the comprehensibility and accuracy of the design.

  14. Xichang Satellite Launch Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Xichang Satellite Launch Center(XSLC) is mainly for geosynchronous orbit launches. The main purpose of XSLC is to launch spacecraft, such as broadcasting,communications and meteorological satellites, into geo-stationary orbit.Most of the commercial satellite launches of Long March vehicles have been from Xichang Satellite Launch Center. With 20 years' development,XSLC can launch 5 kinds of launch vehicles and send satellites into geostationary orbit and polar orbit. In the future, moon exploration satellites will also be launched from XSLC.

  15. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio


    The first edition of this ground breaking reference work was the most comprehensive reference source available about the key aspects of the satellite applications field. This updated second edition covers the technology, the markets, applications and regulations related to satellite telecommunications, broadcasting and networking—including civilian and military systems; precise satellite navigation and timing networks (i.e. GPS and others); remote sensing and meteorological satellite systems. Created under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, this brand new edition is now expanded to cover new innovative small satellite constellations, new commercial launching systems, innovation in military application satellites and their acquisition, updated appendices, a useful glossary and more.

  16. Global Hawk Pacific (GloPac) COA and Mission Coordination (United States)

    Dillon, Mark; Hall, Philip


    This slide presentation reviews the science objectives of the Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS) in the Pacific region, shows examp le flight tracks, the satellite under-flight requirement, the flight planning, and the agencies coordination of the airspace required for the Certificate of Authorization (COA).

  17. Galileo satellite antenna modeling (United States)

    Steigenberger, Peter; Dach, Rolf; Prange, Lars; Montenbruck, Oliver


    The space segment of the European satellite navigation system Galileo currently consists of six satellites. Four of them belong to the first generation of In-Orbit Validation (IOV) satellites whereas the other two are Full Operational Capability (FOC) satellites. High-precision geodetic applications require detailed knowledge about the actual phase center of the satellite and receiver antenna. The deviation of this actual phase center from a well-defined reference point is described by phase center offsets (PCOs) and phase center variations (PCVs). Unfortunately, no public information is available about the Galileo satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs, neither for the IOV, nor the FOC satellites. Therefore, conventional values for the IOV satellite antenna PCOs have been adopted for the Multi-GNSS experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service (IGS). The effect of the PCVs is currently neglected and no PCOs for the FOC satellites are available yet. To overcome this deficiency in GNSS observation modeling, satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs are estimated for the Galileo IOV satellites based on global GNSS tracking data of the MGEX network and additional stations of the legacy IGS network. Two completely independent solutions are computed with the Bernese and Napeos software packages. The PCO and PCV values of the individual satellites are analyzed and the availability of two different solutions allows for an accuracy assessment. The FOC satellites are built by a different manufacturer and are also equipped with another type of antenna panel compared to the IOV satellites. Signal transmission of the first FOC satellite has started in December 2014 and activation of the second satellite is expected for early 2015. Based on the available observations PCO estimates and, optionally PCVs of the FOC satellites will be presented as well. Finally, the impact of the new antenna model on the precision and accuracy of the Galileo orbit determination is analyzed.

  18. Influence of heat treatment on magnetocaloric effect of the Mn5Ge2.8Sb0.2 alloy powder prepared by ball miller%热处理对Mn5Ge2.8Sb0.2合金粉末磁热效应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪波; 金培育; 任慧平; 刘金荣; 徐来自; 王正德


    用高频真空悬浮炉冶炼Mn5Ge2.8Sb0.2合金,经20 h高能球磨制粉,制得粉末样品经600 ℃保温2 h热处理.对比该合金粉样品热处理前后的X射线衍射(XRD)图及其磁热效应T-ΔTad曲线(合金块状样品的XRD图及其磁热效应T-ΔTad曲线作为参照).试验结果表明,适当的热处理可以使该合金粉畸变的晶格得到恢复,同时改善其磁热效应ΔTad.

  19. Uranyl ion coordination (United States)

    Evans, H.T.


    A review of the known crystal structures containing the uranyl ion shows that plane-pentagon coordination is equally as prevalent as plane-square or plane-hexagon. It is suggested that puckered-hexagon configurations of OH - or H2O about the uranyl group will tend to revert to plane-pentagon coordination. The concept of pentagonal coordination is invoked for possible explanations of the complex crystallography of the natural uranyl hydroxides and the unusual behavior of polynuclear ions in hydrolyzed uranyl solutions.

  20. Satellite-Delivered Learning. (United States)

    Arnall, Gail C.


    Discusses the application of satellite information delivery to training. Describes a new trend, horizontal programming. Also discusses vertical programming and in-house production of training materials. Lists vendors of satellite-based training. (CH)

  1. GPS Satellite Simulation Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The GPS satellite simulation facility consists of a GPS satellite simulator controlled by either a Silicon Graphics Origin 2000 or PC depending upon unit under test...

  2. China's Recoverable Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Boehang


    @@ By the end of 2006, China had launched 24 recoverable satellites (FSW) in total. Among them, 23 were launched successfully, of which all but one were successfully recovered. Recoverable satellites launched by China are listed in Table 1.

  3. Satellite Tags- Hawaii EEZ (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Satellite tagging was implemented in 2013. Satellite tagging is conducted using a Dan Inject air rifle and deployment arrows designed by Wildlife Computers. Two...

  4. Satellite communication engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kolawole, Michael Olorunfunmi


    An undeniably rich and thorough guide to satellite communication engineering, Satellite Communication Engineering, Second Edition presents the fundamentals of information communications systems in a simple and succinct way. This book considers both the engineering aspects of satellite systems as well as the practical issues in the broad field of information transmission. Implementing concepts developed on an intuitive, physical basis and utilizing a combination of applications and performance curves, this book starts off with a progressive foundation in satellite technology, and then moves on

  5. Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    There are three major space launch bases in China, the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center,the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center and the Xichang Satellite Launch Center. All the three launch centers are located in sparsely populated areas where the terrain is even and the field of vision is broad. Security, transport conditions and the influence of the axial rotation

  6. Geodetic Secor Satellite (United States)


    simple, and had low-power lem. 17 14. Satellite Orientation . The satellite was designed to maintain a constant relationship between the antenna...the same satellite orientation . Further considerations were Th oscillations, however, when higher orbital ranges (500-2500 nautical miles) -, 3 a

  7. TC-2 Satellite Delivered

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    On April 18, 2005, TC-2, the second satellite of Double Star Program (DSP), which was jointly developed by CNSA and ESA, was approved to be delivered to the user after the on-board test and trial operation. The satellite is working well and the performance can meet the user's need. The satellite has collected large amount of valuable scientific data

  8. Magnetic Coordinate Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Laundal, K M


    Geospace phenomena such as the aurora, plasma motion, ionospheric currents and associated magnetic field disturbances are highly organized by Earth's main magnetic field. This is due to the fact that the charged particles that comprise space plasma can move almost freely along magnetic field lines, but not across them. For this reason it is sensible to present such phenomena relative to Earth's magnetic field. A large variety of magnetic coordinate systems exist, designed for different purposes and regions, ranging from the magnetopause to the ionosphere. In this paper we review the most common magnetic coordinate systems and describe how they are defined, where they are used, and how to convert between them. The definitions are presented based on the spherical harmonic expansion coefficients of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) and, in some of the coordinate systems, the position of the Sun which we show how to calculate from the time and date. The most detailed coordinate systems take the...

  9. Supercritical Airfoil Coordinates (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rectangular Supercritical Wing (Ricketts) - design and measured locations are provided in an Excel file RSW_airfoil_coordinates_ricketts.xls . One sheet is with Non...

  10. Understanding social motor coordination. (United States)

    Schmidt, R C; Fitzpatrick, Paula; Caron, Robert; Mergeche, Joanna


    Recently there has been much interest in social coordination of motor movements, or as it is referred to by some researchers, joint action. This paper reviews the cognitive perspective's common coding/mirror neuron theory of joint action, describes some of its limitations and then presents the behavioral dynamics perspective as an alternative way of understanding social motor coordination. In particular, behavioral dynamics' ability to explain the temporal coordination of interacting individuals is detailed. Two experiments are then described that demonstrate how dynamical processes of synchronization are apparent in the coordination underlying everyday joint actions such as martial art exercises, hand-clapping games, and conversations. The import of this evidence is that emergent dynamic patterns such as synchronization are the behavioral order that any neural substrate supporting joint action (e.g., mirror systems) would have to sustain.

  11. Environmental Compliance Issue Coordination (United States)

    An order to establish the Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for coordination of significant environmental compliance issues to ensure timely development and consistent application of Departmental environmental policy and guidance

  12. [Coordination and donation]. (United States)

    Elizalde, J; Lorente, M


    The progressive incorporation of organ transplants as a therapeutic resource resulted in organisational adaptation and overall transplant management, leading to the emergence of the figure of the transplant coordinator in the mid-1980s. In Spain, the National Organisation of Transplants (Organización Nacional de Transplantes - ONT) was created, establishing a system - called the "Spanish model" - based on a network of coordinators at three levels: national, the autonomous community and the hospital. This organisational structure is a point of reference at the world level. The prevalence of the Intensive Medicine specialisation amongst hospital transplant coordinators is remarkable. The majority of organs proceed from brain-dead patients with beating hearts and this requires the infrastructure offered by intensive care units. The functions of the coordinator can be summarised in guaranteeing a synchrony of all the elements and teams that come together in an organisational chain that has come to be called the "process of donation". Schematically, the crucial points that the hospital coordinator develops are the following: - Detection of the potential donor. - Maintenance of the donor. - Diagnosis of brain death. - Family consent. - Preparation of the hospital logistics. - Helping the relatives. - Direct involvement in the Program of Guarantee of Quality. - Person of reference in any activity related to the transplant. It would be desirable to achieve the creation of transplant coordination teams, with univocal messages, professionalism and a permanent input of the so-called "human factor", which is so necessary and also so close to the transplant world.

  13. Continuous parallel coordinates. (United States)

    Heinrich, Julian; Weiskopf, Daniel


    Typical scientific data is represented on a grid with appropriate interpolation or approximation schemes,defined on a continuous domain. The visualization of such data in parallel coordinates may reveal patterns latently contained in the data and thus can improve the understanding of multidimensional relations. In this paper, we adopt the concept of continuous scatterplots for the visualization of spatially continuous input data to derive a density model for parallel coordinates. Based on the point-line duality between scatterplots and parallel coordinates, we propose a mathematical model that maps density from a continuous scatterplot to parallel coordinates and present different algorithms for both numerical and analytical computation of the resulting density field. In addition, we show how the 2-D model can be used to successively construct continuous parallel coordinates with an arbitrary number of dimensions. Since continuous parallel coordinates interpolate data values within grid cells, a scalable and dense visualization is achieved, which will be demonstrated for typical multi-variate scientific data.

  14. Magnetic Coordinate Systems (United States)

    Laundal, K. M.; Richmond, A. D.


    Geospace phenomena such as the aurora, plasma motion, ionospheric currents and associated magnetic field disturbances are highly organized by Earth's main magnetic field. This is due to the fact that the charged particles that comprise space plasma can move almost freely along magnetic field lines, but not across them. For this reason it is sensible to present such phenomena relative to Earth's magnetic field. A large variety of magnetic coordinate systems exist, designed for different purposes and regions, ranging from the magnetopause to the ionosphere. In this paper we review the most common magnetic coordinate systems and describe how they are defined, where they are used, and how to convert between them. The definitions are presented based on the spherical harmonic expansion coefficients of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) and, in some of the coordinate systems, the position of the Sun which we show how to calculate from the time and date. The most detailed coordinate systems take the full IGRF into account and define magnetic latitude and longitude such that they are constant along field lines. These coordinate systems, which are useful at ionospheric altitudes, are non-orthogonal. We show how to handle vectors and vector calculus in such coordinates, and discuss how systematic errors may appear if this is not done correctly.

  15. Orbit Propagation and Determination of Low Earth Orbit Satellites


    Ho-Nien Shou


    This paper represents orbit propagation and determination of low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites. Satellite global positioning system (GPS) configured receiver provides position and velocity measures by navigating filter to get the coordinates of the orbit propagation (OP). The main contradictions in real-time orbit which is determined by the problem are orbit positioning accuracy and the amount of calculating two indicators. This paper is dedicated to solving the problem of tradeoffs. To plan t...

  16. Theory of geostationary satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Zee, Chong-Hung


    Geostationary or equatorial synchronous satellites are a daily reminder of our space efforts during the past two decades. The nightly television satellite weather picture, the intercontinental telecommunications of television transmissions and telephone conversations, and the establishrnent of educational programs in remote regions on Earth are constant reminders of the presence of these satellites. As used here, the term 'geo­ stationary' must be taken loosely because, in the long run, the satellites will not remain 'stationary' with respect to an Earth-fixed reference frame. This results from the fact that these satellites, as is true for all satellites, are incessantly subject to perturbations other than the central-body attraction of the Earth. Among the more predominant pertur­ bations are: the ellipticity of the Earth's equator, the Sun and Moon, and solar radiation pressure. Higher harmonics of the Earth's potential and tidal effects also influence satellite motion, but they are of second­ order whe...

  17. Global satellite triangulation and trilateration results (United States)

    Mueller, I. I.


    Summary of the results of the Ohio State University geometric adjustment for the coordinates at 158 satellite tracking stations. In the solution the origin of the coordinate system is defined through the 'inner' adjustment procedure, whereas the orientation is through the Conventional International Origin and the Greenwich Mean Astronomical Meridian, both as defined by the Bureau International de l'Heure. The scale is implemented through Secor observations and weighted height constraints. Chord distances derived from C-band radar observations and from electronic distance measurements are also included, but they seem to have very little effect. The scale selected corresponds to a best fitting ellipsoid of a = 6,378,142 m and 1/f = 298.25. The average standard deviation of a single coordinate is 3.9 m.

  18. Accuracy comparison of Pléiades satellite ortho-images using GPS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ivan Henrico

    a new and improved dimension to the pointing accuracies of current and future .... It is stated in the TerraSAR-X GCP-3 Coordinate Specification and Accuracy .... parameters for camera timing, alignment, focal plane and satellites altitude.

  19. Single pass Doppler positioning for Search and Rescue satellite missions (United States)

    Schmid, P. E.; Vonbun, F. O.; Lynn, J. J.


    This paper describes the implementation of beacon location experiments involving the NASA Nimbus-6 and the Amateur Satellite Corporation (AMSAT) Oscar-6 and Oscar-7 spacecraft. The purpose of these experiments is to demonstrate the feasibility of determining the geographical location of a low power VHF 'distress beacon' via satellite. Doppler data collected during satellite passes is reduced in a mini-computer by means of a simple algorithm resulting in the simultaneous recovery of the unknown receiver coordinates and the unknown Doppler bias frequency. Results indicate point positioning to within a few kilometers - which is within the required accuracies for the positioning of downed aircraft for Search/Rescue missions.

  20. Coordinating Interactions: The Event Coordination Notation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart

    on a much more technical level. The Event Coordination Notation (ECNO) allows modelling the behaviour of an application on a high level of abstraction that is closer to the application’s domain than to the software realizing it. Still, these models contain all necessary details for actually executing...... implementation of ECNO, which consists of a modelling environment based on Eclipse and the Eclipse Modeling Framework (EMF) and an execution engine, which fully supports all the concepts and features of ECNO discussed in this technical report. All the examples are based on EMF, but the ECNO Engine can be used......The purpose of a domain model is to concisely capture the concepts of an application’s domain, and their relation among each other. Even though the main purpose of domain models is not on implementing the application, major parts of an application can be generated from the application’s domain...

  1. Relativistic Stereometric Coordinates from Relativistic Localizing Systems and the Projective Geometry of the Spacetime Manifold

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Jacques


    Relativistic stereometric coordinates supplied by relativistic auto-locating positioning systems made up of four satellites supplemented by a fifth one are defined in addition to the well-known emission and reception coordinates. Such a constellation of five satellites defines a so-called relativistic localizing system. The determination of such systems is motivated by the need to not only locate (within a grid) users utilizing receivers but, more generally, to localize any spacetime event. The angles measured on the celestial spheres of the five satellites enter into the definition. Therefore, there are, up to scalings, intrinsic physical coordinates related to the underlying conformal structure of spacetime. Moreover, they indicate that spacetime must be endowed everywhere with a local projective geometry characteristic of a so-called generalized Cartan space locally modeled on four-dimensional, real projective space. The particular process of localization providing the relativistic stereometric coordinates...

  2. CEOS Visualization Environment (COVE) Tool for Intercalibration of Satellite Instruments (United States)

    Kessler, Paul D.; Killough, Brian D.; Gowda, Sanjay; Williams, Brian R.; Chander, Gyanesh; Qu, Min


    Increasingly, data from multiple instruments are used to gain a more complete understanding of land surface processes at a variety of scales. Intercalibration, comparison, and coordination of satellite instrument coverage areas is a critical effort of space agencies and of international and domestic organizations. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites Visualization Environment (COVE) is a suite of browser-based applications that leverage Google Earth to display past, present, and future satellite instrument coverage areas and coincident calibration opportunities. This forecasting and ground coverage analysis and visualization capability greatly benefits the remote sensing calibration community in preparation for multisatellite ground calibration campaigns or individual satellite calibration studies. COVE has been developed for use by a broad international community to improve the efficiency and efficacy of such calibration efforts. This paper provides a brief overview of the COVE tool, its validation, accuracies and limitations with emphasis on the applicability of this visualization tool for supporting ground field campaigns and intercalibration of satellite instruments.

  3. Ground mapping resolution accuracy of a scanning radiometer from a geostationary satellite. (United States)

    Stremler, F G; Khalil, M A; Parent, R J


    Measures of the spatial and spatial rate (frequency) mapping of scanned visual imagery from an earth reference system to a spin-scan geostationary satellite are examined. Mapping distortions and coordinate inversions to correct for these distortions are formulated in terms of geometric transformations between earth and satellite frames of reference. Probabilistic methods are used to develop relations for obtainable mapping resolution when coordinate inversions are employed.

  4. Quantifying linguistic coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    ). We employ nominal recurrence analysis (Orsucci et al 2005, Dale et al 2011) on the decision-making conversations between the participants. We report strong correlations between various indexes of recurrence and collective performance. We argue this method allows us to quantify the qualities......Language has been defined as a social coordination device (Clark 1996) enabling innovative modalities of joint action. However, the exact coordinative dynamics over time and their effects are still insufficiently investigated and quantified. Relying on the data produced in a collective decision...

  5. Introduction to Coordination Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrance, Geoffrey Alan


    Introduction to Coordination Chemistry examines and explains how metals and molecules that bind as ligands interact, and the consequences of this assembly process. This book describes the chemical and physical properties and behavior of the complex assemblies that form, and applications that may arise as a result of these properties. Coordination complexes are an important but often hidden part of our world?even part of us?and what they do is probed in this book. This book distills the essence of this topic for undergraduate students and for research scientists.

  6. Coordinate Standard Measurement Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanshaw, R.A.


    A Shelton Precision Interferometer Base, which is used for calibration of coordinate standards, was improved through hardware replacement, software geometry error correction, and reduction of vibration effects. Substantial increases in resolution and reliability, as well as reduction in sampling time, were achieved through hardware replacement; vibration effects were reduced substantially through modification of the machine component dampening and software routines; and the majority of the machine's geometry error was corrected through software geometry error correction. Because of these modifications, the uncertainty of coordinate standards calibrated on this device has been reduced dramatically.

  7. Coordination failure caused by sunspots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beugnot, Julie; Gürgüç, Zeynep; Øvlisen, Frederik Roose


    In a coordination game with Pareto-ranked equilibria, we study whether a sunspot can lead to either coordination on an inferior equilibrium (mis-coordination) or to out-of equilibrium behavior (dis-coordination). While much of the literature searches for mechanisms to attain coordination...... on the efficient equilibrium, we consider sunspots as a potential reason for coordination failure. We conduct an experiment with a three player 2x2x2 game in which coordination on the efficient equilibrium is easy and should normally occur. In the control session, we find almost perfect coordination on the payoff......-dominant equilibrium, but in the sunspot treatment, dis-coordination is frequent. Sunspots lead to significant inefficiency, and we conclude that sunspots can indeed cause coordination failure....

  8. Coordinating Work with Groupware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Jens Kaaber; Simonsen, Jesper


    One important goal of employing groupware is to make possible complex collaboration between geographically distributed groups. This requires a dual transformation of both technology and work practice. The challenge is to re­duce the complexity of the coordination work by successfully inte­grating...

  9. Rockin' Readers Coordinator Handbook. (United States)

    Alachua County Schools, Gainesville, FL.

    This coordinator's handbook describes the "Rockin' Readers" program, in which senior-citizen volunteers are matched with specifically targeted at-risk children (usually of kindergarten age or slightly older) in Alachua County, Florida, who tested below their peer group in language development and reading readiness skills. The handbook…

  10. Explicit Spin Coordinates

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, G; Hunter, Geoffrey; Schlifer, Ian


    The recently established existence of spherical harmonic functions, $Y_\\ell^{m}(\\theta,\\phi)$ for half-odd-integer values of $\\ell$ and $m$, allows for the introduction into quantum chemistry of explicit electron spin-coordinates; i.e. spherical polar angles $\\theta_s, \\phi_s$, that specify the orientation of the spin angular momentum vector in space. In this coordinate representation the spin angular momentum operators, $S^2, S_z$, are represented by the usual differential operators in spherical polar coordinates (commonly used for $L^2, L_z$), and their electron-spin eigenfunctions are $\\sqrt{\\sin\\theta_s} \\exp(\\pm\\phi_s/2)$. This eigenfunction representation has the pedagogical advantage over the abstract spin eigenfunctions, $\\alpha, \\beta,$ that ``integration over spin coordinates'' is a true integration (over the angles $\\theta_s, \\phi_s$). In addition they facilitate construction of many electron wavefunctions in which the electron spins are neither parallel nor antiparallel, but inclined at an interme...

  11. Equilibria with Coordination Failures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herings, P.J.J.; van der Laan, G.; Talman, A.J.J.


    This paper extends the recent literature on equilibria with coordination failures to arbitrary convex sets of admissible prices.We introduce a new equilibrium concept, called quantity constrained equilibrium (QCE), giving a uni.ed treatment to all cases considered in the literature so far.At a QCE

  12. Block coordination copolymers (United States)

    Koh, Kyoung Moo; Wong-Foy, Antek G; Matzger, Adam J; Benin, Annabelle I; Willis, Richard R


    The present invention provides compositions of crystalline coordination copolymers wherein multiple organic molecules are assembled to produce porous framework materials with layered or core-shell structures. These materials are synthesized by sequential growth techniques such as the seed growth technique. In addition, the invention provides a simple procedure for controlling functionality.

  13. Mobile satellite communications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Cochetti, Roger


    With a Preface by noted satellite scientist Dr. Ahmad Ghais, the Second Edition reflects the expanded user base for this technology by updating information on historic, current, and planned commercial and military satellite systems and by expanding sections that explain the technology for non-technical professionals.   The book begins with an introduction to satellite communications and goes on to provide an overview of the technologies involved in mobile satellite communications, providing basic introductions to RF Issues, power Issues, link issues and system issues. It describes

  14. Satellite communication antenna technology (United States)

    Mittra, R. (Editor); Imbriale, W. A. (Editor); Maanders, E. J. (Editor)


    A general overview of current technology in the field of communication satellite antennas is presented. Among the topics discussed are: the design of multiple beam systems; frequency reuse; and polarization control of antenna measurements. Consideration is also given to: contour beam synthesis; dual shaped reflector synthesis; beam shaping; and offset reflector design. The applications of the above technologies to present and future generations of communications satellites is considered, with emphasis given to such systems as: the Intelsats; the Defense Satellite Communications System, (DSCS-III); Satellite Business System (SBS), and Comstar.

  15. Satellites of spiral galaxies (United States)

    Zaritsky, Dennis; Smith, Rodney; Frenk, Carlos; White, Simon D. M.


    We present a survey of satellites around a homogeneous set of late-type spirals with luminosity similar to that of the Milky Way. On average, we find fewer than 1.5 satellites per primary, but we argue that we can treat the survey as an ensemble and so derive the properties of the halo of a 'typical' isolated spiral. The projected density profile of the ensemble falls off approximately as 1/r. Within 50 kpc the azimuthal distribution of satellites shows some evidence for the 'Holmberg effect', an excess near the minor axis of the primary; however, at larger projected distances, the distribution appears isotropic. There is a weak but significant correlation between the size of a satellite and its distance from its primary, as expected if satellites are tidally truncated. Neither Hubble type nor spectral characteristics correlate with apparent separation. The ensemble of satellites appears to be rotating at about 30 km/s in the same direction as the galactic disk. Satellites on prograde orbits tend to be brighter than those on retrograde orbits. The typical velocity difference between a satellite and its primary shows no clear dependence either on apparent separation, or on the rotation speed of the primary. Thus our survey demonstrates that isolated spiral galaxies have massive halos that extend to many optical radii.

  16. Communication satellite technology trends (United States)

    Cuccia, Louis


    A chronology of space-Earth interconnectivity is presented. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) system, Land Mobile Satellite, space-Earth antennas, impact of antenna size on coverage, intersatellite links are outlined. This presentation is represented by graphs and charts only.

  17. Global Coordinate System (United States)


    Time in hours at Oh UT is GAST (hours) = GMST + E (41) GAST in radians is GASTo (radians) = GAST (hours) L (42) The angle e required for transforming...inertial coordinates to ECEF is- 6(radians) GASTo + 6.3003880.99 (ti - th) (43) o ~ooUT Mod ( E 27) where St.i - tohLjT = (JD -2.4 106). (JDOE -2.4 x

  18. International Monetary Policy Coordination


    Carlberg, Michael


    This paper studies the international coordination of monetary policies in the world economy. It carefully discusses the process of policy competition and the structure of policy cooperation. As to policy competition, the focus is on monetary competition between Europe and America. Similarly, as to policy cooperation, the focus is on monetary cooperation between Europe and America. The spillover effects of monetary policy are negative. The policy targets are price stability and full employment.

  19. Global coordination: weighted voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Erik Lane


    Full Text Available In order to halt the depletion of global ecological capital, a number of different kinds of meetings between Governments of countries in the world has been scheduled. The need for global coordination of environmental policies has become ever more obvious, supported by more and more evidence of the running down of ecological capital. But there are no formal or binding arrangements in sight, as global environmental coordination suffers from high transaction costs (qualitative voting. The CO2 equivalent emissions, resulting in global warming, are driven by the unstoppable economic expansion in the global market economy, employing mainly fossil fuel generated energy, although at the same time lifting sharply the GDP per capita of several emerging countries. Only global environmental coordination on the successful model of the World Band and the IMF (quantitative voting can stem the rising emissions numbers and stop further environmental degradation. However, the system of weighted voting in the WB and the IMF must be reformed by reducing the excessive voting power disparities, for instance by reducing all member country votes by the cube root expression.

  20. Universal mechatronics coordinator (United States)

    Muir, Patrick F.


    Mechatronic systems incorporate multiple actuators and sensor which must be properly coordinated to achieve the desired system functionality. Many mechatronic systems are designed as one-of-a-kind custom projects without consideration for facilitating future system or alterations and extensions to the current syste. Thus, subsequent changes to the system are slow, different, and costly. It has become apparent that manufacturing processes, and thus the mechatronics which embody them, need to be agile in order to more quickly and easily respond to changing customer demands or market pressures. To achieve agility, both the hardware and software of the system need to be designed such that the creation of new system and the alteration and extension of current system is fast and easy. This paper describes the design of a Universal Mechatronics Coordinator (UMC) which facilitates agile setup and changeover of coordination software for mechatronic systems. The UMC is capable of sequencing continuous and discrete actions that are programmed as stimulus-response pairs, as state machines, or a combination of the two. It facilitates the modular, reusable programing of continuous actions such as servo control algorithms, data collection code, and safety checking routines; and discrete actions such as reporting achieved states, and turning on/off binary devices. The UMC has been applied to the control of a z- theta assembly robot for the Minifactory project and is applicable to a spectrum of widely differing mechatronic systems.

  1. Improving Project Manufacturing Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korpivaara Ville


    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to develop firms’ project manufacturing coordination. The development will be made by centralizing the manufacturing information flows in one system. To be able to centralize information, a deep user need assessment is required. After user needs have been identified, the existing system will be developed to match these needs. The theoretical background is achieved through exploring the literature of project manufacturing, development project success factors and different frameworks and tools for development project execution. The focus of this research is rather in customer need assessment than in system’s technical expertise. To ensure the deep understanding of customer needs this study is executed by action research method. As a result of this research the information system for project manufacturing coordination was developed to respond revealed needs of the stakeholders. The new system improves the quality of the manufacturing information, eliminates waste in manufacturing coordination processes and offers a better visibility to the project manufacturing. Hence it provides a solid base for the further development of project manufacturing.

  2. An ICT Primer: Information and Communication Technologies for Civil-Military Coordination in Disaster Relief and Stabilization and Reconstruction (United States)


    installation needs, such as information and coordination centers. Inmarsat Mini-M, BGAN , and RBGAN satellite terminals are used to establish remote...M4 (9.6 to 64 kbps), and BGAN /RBGAN (64 to 144 kbps) to broadband mobile and fixed installation VSAT satellite terminals that can operate in the

  3. Gravimetry, Relativity, and the Global Navigation Satellite Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tarantola, Albert; Pozo, Jose Maria; Coll, Bartolome


    Relativity is an integral part of positioning systems, and this is taken into account in today's practice by applying many "relativistic corrections" to computations performed using concepts borrowed from Galilean physics. A different, fully relativistic paradigm can be developed for operating a positioning system. This implies some fundamental changes. For instance, the basic coordinates are four times (with a symmetric meaning, not three space coordinate and one time coordinate) and the satellites must have cross-link capabilities. Gravitation must, of course, be taken into account, but not using the Newtonian theory: the gravitation field is, and only is, the space-time metric. This implies that the positioning problem and the gravimetry problem can not be separated. An optimization theory can be developed that, because it is fully relativistic, does not contain any "relativistic correction". We suggest that all positioning satellite systems should be operated in this way. The first benefit of doing so wou...

  4. Resonance in Satellite's Motion Under Air Drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Bhardwaj


    Full Text Available This article studies the attitude motion of a satellite in a circular orbit under the influence of central body of mass M and its moon of mass m, whose orbit is assumed to be circular and coplanar with the orbit of the satellite. The body is assumed to be tri-axial body with principal moments of inertia A < B < C at its centre of mass, C is the moment of inertia about the spin axis which is perpendicular to the orbital plane. These principal axes are taken as the co-ordinate axes x, y, z; the z axis being perpendicular to the orbital plane. We have studied the rotational motion of satellite in the circular orbit under the influence of aerodynamic torque. Using BKM method, it is observed that the amplitude of the oscillation remains constant upto the second order of approximation. The main and the parametric resonance have been shown to exist and have been studied by BKM method. The analysis regarding the stability of the stationary planar oscillation of a satellite near the resonance frequency shows that the discontinuity occurs in the amplitude of the oscillation at a frequency of the external periodic force which is less than the frequency of the natural oscillation.

  5. On Small Satellites for Oceanography: A Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Guerra, André G C; Villate, Jaime; Agelet, Fernando Aguado; Bertolami, Orfeu; Rajan, Kanna


    The recent explosive growth of small satellite operations driven primarily from an academic or pedagogical need, has demonstrated the viability of commercial-off-the-shelf technologies in space. They have also leveraged and shown the need for development of compatible sensors primarily aimed for Earth observation tasks including monitoring terrestrial domains, communications and engineering tests. However, one domain that these platforms have not yet made substantial inroads into, is in the ocean sciences. Remote sensing has long been within the repertoire of tools for oceanographers to study dynamic large scale physical phenomena, such as gyres and fronts, bio-geochemical process transport, primary productivity and process studies in the coastal ocean. We argue that the time has come for micro and nano satellites (with mass smaller than 100 kg and 2 to 3 year development times) designed, built, tested and flown by academic departments, for coordinated observations with robotic assets in situ. We do so primar...

  6. Symmetric two-coordinate photodiode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrovolskiy Yu. G.


    Full Text Available The two-coordinate photodiode is developed and explored on the longitudinal photoeffect, which allows to get the coordinate descriptions symmetric on the steepness and longitudinal resistance great exactness. It was shown, that the best type of the coordinate description is observed in the case of scanning by the optical probe on the central part of the photosensitive element. The ways of improvement of steepness and linear of its coordinate description were analyzed.

  7. Invariant Manifolds and Collective Coordinates

    CERN Document Server

    Papenbrock, T


    We introduce suitable coordinate systems for interacting many-body systems with invariant manifolds. These are Cartesian in coordinate and momentum space and chosen such that several components are identically zero for motion on the invariant manifold. In this sense these coordinates are collective. We make a connection to Zickendraht's collective coordinates and present certain configurations of few-body systems where rotations and vibrations decouple from single-particle motion. These configurations do not depend on details of the interaction.

  8. Coordination Processes in International Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter


    to coordinate relatively elaborate agreements due to the strength of its coordination as far as professional or technical and political activities (excepting the ILO budget) are concerned. In other more clear-cut or 'simple' policy areas such as the ILO budget, the EU coordination is weak: this contrast...

  9. Work Coordination Engine (United States)

    Zendejas, Silvino; Bui, Tung; Bui, Bach; Malhotra, Shantanu; Chen, Fannie; Kim, Rachel; Allen, Christopher; Luong, Ivy; Chang, George; Sadaqathulla, Syed


    The Work Coordination Engine (WCE) is a Java application integrated into the Service Management Database (SMDB), which coordinates the dispatching and monitoring of a work order system. WCE de-queues work orders from SMDB and orchestrates the dispatching of work to a registered set of software worker applications distributed over a set of local, or remote, heterogeneous computing systems. WCE monitors the execution of work orders once dispatched, and accepts the results of the work order by storing to the SMDB persistent store. The software leverages the use of a relational database, Java Messaging System (JMS), and Web Services using Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) technologies to implement an efficient work-order dispatching mechanism capable of coordinating the work of multiple computer servers on various platforms working concurrently on different, or similar, types of data or algorithmic processing. Existing (legacy) applications can be wrapped with a proxy object so that no changes to the application are needed to make them available for integration into the work order system as "workers." WCE automatically reschedules work orders that fail to be executed by one server to a different server if available. From initiation to completion, the system manages the execution state of work orders and workers via a well-defined set of events, states, and actions. It allows for configurable work-order execution timeouts by work-order type. This innovation eliminates a current processing bottleneck by providing a highly scalable, distributed work-order system used to quickly generate products needed by the Deep Space Network (DSN) to support space flight operations. WCE is driven by asynchronous messages delivered via JMS indicating the availability of new work or workers. It runs completely unattended in support of the lights-out operations concept in the DSN.

  10. Advice for Coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hankin, Chris; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis


    demanding than the closed joinpoints in more traditional aspect oriented languages like AspectJ. The usefulness of our approach is demonstrated by mechanisms for discretionary and mandatory access control policies, as usually expressed by reference monitors, as well as mechanisms for logging actions.......We show how to extend a coordination language with support for aspect oriented programming. The main challenge is how to properly deal with the trapping of actions before the actual data have been bound to the formal parameters. This necessitates dealing with open joinpoints – which is more...

  11. Markov stochasticity coordinates (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo


    Markov dynamics constitute one of the most fundamental models of random motion between the states of a system of interest. Markov dynamics have diverse applications in many fields of science and engineering, and are particularly applicable in the context of random motion in networks. In this paper we present a two-dimensional gauging method of the randomness of Markov dynamics. The method-termed Markov Stochasticity Coordinates-is established, discussed, and exemplified. Also, the method is tweaked to quantify the stochasticity of the first-passage-times of Markov dynamics, and the socioeconomic equality and mobility in human societies.

  12. Relativistic Time Transfer for Inter-Satellite Links (United States)

    Xie, Yi


    Inter-Satellite links (ISLs) will be an important technique for a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) in the future. Based on the principles of general relativity, the time transfer in an ISL is modeled and the algorithm for onboard computation is described. It is found, in general, satellites with circular orbits and identical semi-major axes can benefit inter-satellite time transfer by canceling out terms associated with the transformations between the proper times and the Geocentric Coordinate Time. For a GPS-like GNSS, the Shapiro delay is as large as 0.1 nano-second when the ISL passes at the limb of the Earth. However, in more realistic cases, this value will decrease to about 50 pico-second.

  13. Emission coordinates for the navigation in space

    CERN Document Server

    Tartaglia, A


    A general approach to the problem of positioning by means of pulsars or other pulsating sources located at infinity is described. The counting of the pulses for a set of different sources whose positions in the sky and periods are assumed to be known, is used to provide null emission, or light, coordinates for the receiver. The measurement of the proper time intervals between successive arrivals of the signals from the various sources is used to give the final localization of the receiver, within an accuracy controlled by the precision of the onboard clock. The deviation from the flat case is discussed, separately considering the different possible causes: local gravitational potential, finiteness of the distance of the source, proper motion of the source, period decay, proper acceleration due to non-gravitational forces. Calculations turn out to be simple and the result is highly positive. The method can also be applied to a constellation of satellites orbiting the Earth.

  14. Trends In Satellite Communication (United States)

    Poley, William A.; Stevens, Grady H.; Stevenson, Steven M.; Lekan, Jack; Arth, Clifford H.; Hollansworth, James E.; Miller, Edward F.


    Report assesses trends in satellite communication from present to year 2010. Examines restrictions imposed by limited spectrum resource and technology needs created by trends. Personal communications, orbiting switchboards, and videophones foreseen.

  15. Domestic Communication Satellites (United States)

    Horowitz, Andrew


    A discussion of the Federal Communications Commission's new policy on domestic satellites in light of our 1) military and economic history; 2) corporate interests; 3) citizen surveillance; and 4) media control. (HB)

  16. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio


    Top space experts from around the world have collaborated to produce this comprehensive, authoritative, and clearly illustrated reference guide to the fast growing, multi-billion dollar field of satellite applications and space communications. This handbook, done under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, addresses not only system technologies but also examines market dynamics, technical standards and regulatory constraints. The handbook is a completely multi-disciplinary reference book that covers, in an in-depth fashion, the fields of satellite telecommunications, Earth observation, remote sensing, satellite navigation, geographical information systems, and geosynchronous meteorological systems. It covers current practices and designs as well as advanced concepts and future systems. It provides a comparative analysis of the common technologies and design elements for satellite application bus structures, thermal controls, power systems, stabilization techniques, telemetry, com...

  17. Biological satellite Kosmos-936 (United States)

    Vedeshin, L. A.


    A description is given of physiological experiments performed on the biological satellite Kosmos-936. Other experiments to determine the electrostatic and dielectric responses to the effects of cosmic radiation are discussed.

  18. Small Satellite Transporter Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary objective is to determine whether this small satellite transporter is capable of transporting at least four 6U CubeSats is possible for a given set of...

  19. A general interactive system for compositing digital radar and satellite data (United States)

    Ghosh, K. K.; Chen, L. C.; Faghmous, M.; Heymsfield, G. M.


    Reynolds and Smith (1979) have considered the combined use of digital weather radar and satellite data in interactive systems for case study analysis and forecasting. Satellites view the top of clouds, whereas radar is capable of observing the detailed internal structure of clouds. The considered approach requires the use of a common coordinate system. In the present investigation, it was decided to use the satellite coordinate system as the base system in order to maintain the fullest resolution of the satellite data. The investigation is concerned with the development of a general interactive software system called RADPAK for remapping and analyzing conventional and Doppler radar data. RADPAK is implemented as a part of a minicomputer-based image processing system, called Atmospheric and Oceanographic Image Processing System. Attention is given to a general description of the RADPAK system, remapping methodology, and an example of satellite remapping.

  20. DFH-3 Satellite Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The DFH-3 satellite platform is designed and developed by China Academy of Space Technology (CAST). It is a medium capability communications satellite platform. The platform adopts threeaxis attitude stabilization control system, having solar array output power of 1.7kW by the end of its design lifetime of 8 years. Its mass is 2100kg with payload capacity of 220kg.

  1. The Archimedes satellite system (United States)

    Taylor, Stuart C.; Shurvinton, William D.


    Archimedes is a satellite system conceived by the European Space Agency (ESA) to effectively serve the European market for Mobile Radio Services (MRS). This paper describes the requirements and technical design of the Archimedes satellite system. The underlying assumptions and trade-offs behind the design are detailed and the design is compared and contrasted against alternative design solutions, both technically and economically. A path forward for the development of the system is indicated.

  2. ASTRID II satellit projekt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Primdahl, Fritz


    The report describes the instruments developed for the Swedish micro satellite "ASTRID II". Specifications of the two instruments realized under this contract, a Stellar Compass and a CSC magnetometer are given follwed by a description of the project status and plan.......The report describes the instruments developed for the Swedish micro satellite "ASTRID II". Specifications of the two instruments realized under this contract, a Stellar Compass and a CSC magnetometer are given follwed by a description of the project status and plan....

  3. Coordination Processes in International Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter


    The EU is not a member of the International Labour Organisation (ILO), but relatively elaborate EU coordination takes place anyway. This paper addresses two research questions: 1) How is it possible to evaluate the coordination of the EU in its specific observable configuration in the ILO?, and 2......) To what outcome does this coordination lead and why? Based on an analysis of EU coordination before and during the International Labour Conference in 2005, and on a comparison with coordination processes of the IMEC group, it is found that the Commission and the Presidency act as twin-agents vis...... by the principals. On the other hand, both before and during the Conference, the Member States accept the so-called discursive coordination of the Commission, which seems to be of great (but often neglected) importance. Owing to the organisational set-up in which coordination takes place, the EU is able...

  4. Monitoring of the orbital position of a geostationary satellite by the spatially separated reception of signals of digital satellite television (United States)

    Kaliuzny, M. P.; Bushuev, F. I.; Sibiriakova, Ye. S.; Shulga, O. V.; Shakun, L. S.; Bezrukovs, V.; Kulishenko, V. F.; Moskalenko, S. S.; Malynovsky, Ye. V.; Balagura, O. A.


    The results of the determination of the geostationary satellite "Eutelsat-13B" orbital position obtained during 2015-2016 years using European stations' network for reception of DVB-S signals from the satellite are presented. The network consists of five stations located in Ukraine and Latvia. The stations are equipped with a radio engineering complex developed by the RI "MAO". The measured parameter is a time difference of arrival (TDOA) of the DVB-S signals to the stations of the network. The errors of TDOA determination and satellite coordinates, obtained using a numerical model of satellite motion, are equal ±2.6 m and ±35 m respectively. Software implementation of the numerical model is taken from the free space dynamics library OREKIT.

  5. Satellite formation. II (United States)

    Harris, A. W.


    A satellite formation model is extended to include evolution of planetary ring material and elliptic orbital motion. In this model the formation of the moon begins at a later time in the growth of the earth, and a significant fraction of the lunar material is processed through a circumterrestrial debris cloud where volatiles might have been lost. Thus, the chemical differences between the earth and moon are more plausibly accounted for. Satellites of the outer planets probably formed in large numbers throughout the growth of those planets. Because of rapid inward evolution of the orbits of small satellites, the present satellite systems represent only satellites formed in the last few percent of the growths of their primaries. The rings of Saturn and Uranus are most plausibly explained as the debris of satellites disrupted within the Roche limit. Because such a ring would collapse onto the planet in the course of any significant further accretion by the planet, the rings must have formed very near or even after the conclusion of accretion.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China on Sept. 27, 2004 launched a scientific satellite atop a Long March 2D carrier rocket from Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in Gansu province. 10 minutes after the launch, the satellite entered a preset orbit and is running sound at the orbit. It is the 20th recoverable satellite for scientific and technological

  7. Na2ZnGe2S6: A New Infrared Nonlinear Optical Material with Good Balance between Large Second-Harmonic Generation Response and High Laser Damage Threshold. (United States)

    Li, Guangmao; Wu, Kui; Liu, Qiong; Yang, Zhihua; Pan, Shilie


    The development of frequency-conversion technology in the infrared region is in urgent need of new excellent infrared nonlinear optical (IR NLO) materials. How to achieve a good balance between laser damage threshold (LDT) and NLO coefficient (dij) for new IR NLO candidates is still a challenge. The combination of the highly electropositive alkali metal (Na) and Zn with d(10) electronic configuration into crystal structure affords one new IR NLO material, Na2ZnGe2S6. It exhibits excellent properties including a wide transparent region (0.38-22 μm), large band gap (3.25 eV), and especially a balance between a strong NLO coefficient (30-fold that of KDP) and a high LDT (6-fold that of AgGaS2), indicating a promising application in the IR region. Moreover, novel common-vertex-linked wavelike ∞[GeS3]n chains are interestingly discovered in Na2ZnGe2S6, which rarely exist in the reported thiogermanides containing alkali metals. In addition, calculated SHG density and dipole moment demonstrate that the large NLO response is mainly attributed to the cooperative effects of the [GeS4] and [ZnS4] units.

  8. Telemetry beacon for Polish payload on BRITE-PL-2 satellite (United States)

    Woźniak, Grzegorz; Stolarski, Marcin


    Small satellite missions are becoming more popular. To reduce costs of such projects COTS are used to build the spacecraft and amateur bands are utilized to communicate with it. Although using the hamradio frequencies is free of charge and requires only coordination procedures [1], it is good habit to include on satellite some service for radioamateur society in return. The BRITE-PL-2 Heweliusz [2] satellite - the second Polish satellite from BRITE constellation - will have an S-Band beacon transmitting Morse code signals.

  9. Geocenter coordinates estimated from GNSS data as viewed by perturbation theory (United States)

    Meindl, Michael; Beutler, Gerhard; Thaller, Daniela; Dach, Rolf; Jäggi, Adrian


    Time series of geocenter coordinates were determined with data of two global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs), namely the U.S. GPS (Global Positioning System) and the Russian GLONASS (Global'naya Nawigatsionnaya Sputnikowaya Sistema). The data was recorded in the years 2008-2011 by a global network of 92 permanently observing GPS/GLONASS receivers. Two types of daily solutions were generated independently for each GNSS, one including the estimation of geocenter coordinates and one without these parameters.A fair agreement for GPS and GLONASS was found in the geocenter x- and y-coordinate series. Our tests, however, clearly reveal artifacts in the z-component determined with the GLONASS data. Large periodic excursions in the GLONASS geocenter z-coordinates of about 40 cm peak-to-peak are related to the maximum elevation angles of the Sun above/below the orbital planes of the satellite system and thus have a period of about 4 months (third of a year). A detailed analysis revealed that the artifacts are almost uniquely governed by the differences of the estimates of direct solar radiation pressure (SRP) in the two solution series (with and without geocenter estimation). A simple formula is derived, describing the relation between the geocenter z-coordinate and the corresponding parameter of the SRP. The effect can be explained by first-order perturbation theory of celestial mechanics. The theory also predicts a heavy impact on the GNSS-derived geocenter if once-per-revolution SRP parameters are estimated in the direction of the satellite's solar panel axis. Specific experiments using GPS observations revealed that this is indeed the case.Although the main focus of this article is on GNSS, the theory developed is applicable to all satellite observing techniques. We applied the theory to satellite laser ranging (SLR) solutions using LAGEOS. It turns out that the correlation between geocenter and SRP parameters is not a critical issue for the SLR solutions. The

  10. Satellite Communications for ATM (United States)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.


    This presentation is an overview on Satellite Communication for the Aeronautical Telecommunication Management (ATM) research. Satellite Communications are being considered by the FAA and NASA as a possible alternative to the present and future ground systems supporting Air Traffic Communications. The international Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) have in place Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS) for the Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Services (AMSS) which is mainly derived from the pre-existing Inmarsat service that has been in service since the 1980s. The Working Group A of the Aeronautical Mobile Communication Panel of ICAO has also been investigating SARPS for what is called the Next Generation Satellite Service (NGSS) which conforms less to the Inmarsat based architecture and explores wider options in terms of satellite architectures. Several designs are being proposed by Firms such as Boeing, ESA, NASA that are geared toward full or secondary usage of satellite communications for ATM. Satellite communications for ATM can serve several purposes ranging from primary usage where ground services would play a minimal backup role, to an integrated solution where it will be used to cover services, or areas that are less likely to be supported by the proposed and existing ground infrastructure. Such Integrated roles can include usage of satellite communications for oceanic and remote land areas for example. It also can include relieving the capacity of the ground network by providing broadcast based services of Traffic Information Services messages (TIS-B), or Flight Information Services (FIS-B) which can take a significant portion of the ground system capacity. Additionally, satellite communication can play a backup role to support any needs for ground replacement, or additional needed capacity even after the new digital systems are in place. The additional bandwidth that can be provided via satellite communications can also open the door for many new

  11. Satellite-based terrestrial production efficiency modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obersteiner Michael


    Full Text Available Abstract Production efficiency models (PEMs are based on the theory of light use efficiency (LUE which states that a relatively constant relationship exists between photosynthetic carbon uptake and radiation receipt at the canopy level. Challenges remain however in the application of the PEM methodology to global net primary productivity (NPP monitoring. The objectives of this review are as follows: 1 to describe the general functioning of six PEMs (CASA; GLO-PEM; TURC; C-Fix; MOD17; and BEAMS identified in the literature; 2 to review each model to determine potential improvements to the general PEM methodology; 3 to review the related literature on satellite-based gross primary productivity (GPP and NPP modeling for additional possibilities for improvement; and 4 based on this review, propose items for coordinated research. This review noted a number of possibilities for improvement to the general PEM architecture - ranging from LUE to meteorological and satellite-based inputs. Current PEMs tend to treat the globe similarly in terms of physiological and meteorological factors, often ignoring unique regional aspects. Each of the existing PEMs has developed unique methods to estimate NPP and the combination of the most successful of these could lead to improvements. It may be beneficial to develop regional PEMs that can be combined under a global framework. The results of this review suggest the creation of a hybrid PEM could bring about a significant enhancement to the PEM methodology and thus terrestrial carbon flux modeling. Key items topping the PEM research agenda identified in this review include the following: LUE should not be assumed constant, but should vary by plant functional type (PFT or photosynthetic pathway; evidence is mounting that PEMs should consider incorporating diffuse radiation; continue to pursue relationships between satellite-derived variables and LUE, GPP and autotrophic respiration (Ra; there is an urgent need for

  12. Overview of intercalibration of satellite instruments (United States)

    Chander, G.; Hewison, T.J.; Fox, N.; Wu, X.; Xiong, X.; Blackwell, W.J.


    Inter-calibration of satellite instruments is critical for detection and quantification of changes in the Earth’s environment, weather forecasting, understanding climate processes, and monitoring climate and land cover change. These applications use data from many satellites; for the data to be inter-operable, the instruments must be cross-calibrated. To meet the stringent needs of such applications requires that instruments provide reliable, accurate, and consistent measurements over time. Robust techniques are required to ensure that observations from different instruments can be normalized to a common scale that the community agrees on. The long-term reliability of this process needs to be sustained in accordance with established reference standards and best practices. Furthermore, establishing physical meaning to the information through robust Système International d'unités (SI) traceable Calibration and Validation (Cal/Val) is essential to fully understand the parameters under observation. The processes of calibration, correction, stability monitoring, and quality assurance need to be underpinned and evidenced by comparison with “peer instruments” and, ideally, highly calibrated in-orbit reference instruments. Inter-calibration between instruments is a central pillar of the Cal/Val strategies of many national and international satellite remote sensing organizations. Inter-calibration techniques as outlined in this paper not only provide a practical means of identifying and correcting relative biases in radiometric calibration between instruments but also enable potential data gaps between measurement records in a critical time series to be bridged. Use of a robust set of internationally agreed upon and coordinated inter-calibration techniques will lead to significant improvement in the consistency between satellite instruments and facilitate accurate monitoring of the Earth’s climate at uncertainty levels needed to detect and attribute the mechanisms

  13. Experimental Satellite 2 Successfully Launched

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Small satellite Experimental Satellite 2 (SY-2) was launched by LM-2C launch vehicle from Xichang Satellite Launch Center on Nov. 18, 2004. Later the satellite entered the preset sun-synchronous orbit, which is 700 kilometers above the earth. The launch was the eighthmission this year by China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation(CASC), which aims to test the technology of the satellite, conduct survey and monitoring of the land and resources and geographical environment on a trial basis.

  14. China's Meteorological Satellite Application System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jiashen


    @@ China's meteorological satellite program consists of five systems,namely the satellite system,the launch vehicle system,the launch center system,TT&C and the ground application system.The satellite system consists of FengYun (FY) polar orbiting series and FY geostationary series,which are launched by LM launch vehicles from Taiyan Satellite Launch Center (TSLC) and Xichang Satellite Launch Center (XSLC) respectively.

  15. Coordination using Implicit Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Cuff, Paul


    We explore a basic noise-free signaling scenario where coordination and communication are naturally merged. A random signal X_1,...,X_n is processed to produce a control signal or action sequence A_1,...,A_n, which is observed and further processed (without access to X_1,...,X_n) to produce a third sequence B_1,...,B_n. The object of interest is the set of empirical joint distributions p(x,a,b) that can be achieved in this setting. We show that H(A) >= I(X;A,B) is the necessary and sufficient condition for achieving p(x,a,b) when no causality constraints are enforced on the encoders. We also give results for various causality constraints. This setting sheds light on the embedding of digital information in analog signals, a concept that is exploited in digital watermarking, steganography, cooperative communication, and strategic play in team games such as bridge.

  16. On Coordinating Collaborative Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Imine, Abdessamad


    A collaborative object represents a data type (such as a text document) designed to be shared by a group of dispersed users. The Operational Transformation (OT) is a coordination approach used for supporting optimistic replication for these objects. It allows the users to concurrently update the shared data and exchange their updates in any order since the convergence of all replicas, i.e. the fact that all users view the same data, is ensured in all cases. However, designing algorithms for achieving convergence with the OT approach is a critical and challenging issue. In this paper, we propose a formal compositional method for specifying complex collaborative objects. The most important feature of our method is that designing an OT algorithm for the composed collaborative object can be done by reusing the OT algorithms of component collaborative objects. By using our method, we can start from correct small collaborative objects which are relatively easy to handle and incrementally combine them to build more ...

  17. Coordinating Group report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    In December 1992, western governors and four federal agencies established a Federal Advisory Committee to Develop On-site Innovative Technologies for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (the DOIT Committee). The purpose of the Committee is to advise the federal government on ways to improve waste cleanup technology development and the cleanup of federal sites in the West. The Committee directed in January 1993 that information be collected from a wide range of potential stakeholders and that innovative technology candidate projects be identified, organized, set in motion, and evaluated to test new partnerships, regulatory approaches, and technologies which will lead to improve site cleanup. Five working groups were organized, one to develop broad project selection and evaluation criteria and four to focus on specific contaminant problems. A Coordinating Group comprised of working group spokesmen and federal and state representatives, was set up to plan and organize the routine functioning of these working groups. The working groups were charged with defining particular contaminant problems; identifying shortcomings in technology development, stakeholder involvement, regulatory review, and commercialization which impede the resolution of these problems; and identifying candidate sites or technologies which could serve as regional innovative demonstration projects to test new approaches to overcome the shortcomings. This report from the Coordinating Group to the DOIT Committee highlights the key findings and opportunities uncovered by these fact-finding working groups. It provides a basis from which recommendations from the DOIT Committee to the federal government can be made. It also includes observations from two public roundtables, one on commercialization and another on regulatory and institutional barriers impeding technology development and cleanup.

  18. An interactive system for compositing digital radar and satellite data (United States)

    Heymsfield, G. M.; Ghosh, K. K.; Chen, L. C.


    This paper describes an approach for compositing digital radar data and GOES satellite data for meteorological analysis. The processing is performed on a user-oriented image processing system, and is designed to be used in the research mode. It has a capability to construct PPIs and three-dimensional CAPPIs using conventional as well as Doppler data, and to composite other types of data. In the remapping of radar data to satellite coordinates, two steps are necessary. First, PPI or CAPPI images are remapped onto a latitude-longitude projection. Then, the radar data are projected into satellite coordinates. The exact spherical trigonometric equations, and the approximations derived for simplifying the computations are given. The use of these approximations appears justified for most meteorological applications. The largest errors in the remapping procedure result from the satellite viewing angle parallax, which varies according to the cloud top height. The horizontal positional error due to this is of the order of the error in the assumed cloud height in mid-latitudes. Examples of PPI and CAPPI data composited with satellite data are given for Hurricane Frederic on 13 September 1979 and for a squall line on 2 May 1979 in Oklahoma.

  19. A modified adaptive compensation scheme for nonlinear bandlimited satellite channels (United States)

    Feng, Gang; Li, Le-Min; Wu, Shi-Qi

    The authors propose a modified algorithm for an adaptive predistorter (APD) to compensate for the nonlinear distortion encountered in a satellite channel. They describe a recursive algorithm for an APD in rectangular coordinates and give the structure for implementation of the algorithm. A modified recursive algorithm which is called the sign algorithm and the structure for implementation are proposed. Computer simulation results show that the sign algorithm is effective for the compensation of nonlinear satellite channels. The modified algorithm is based on the rectangular representation of data symbols.

  20. Search and rescue satellite-aided tracking system (United States)

    Trudell, B.; Gutwein, J. M.; Vollmers, R.; Wammer, D.


    The objective of Sarsat is to demonstrate that satellites can greatly facilitate the monitoring, detection, and location of distress incidents alerted by Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELTs) and Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBs) carried on commercial, military, and general aviation aircraft and some marine vessels. The detection and location will be accomplished by relaying, via satellite, ELT/EPIRB distress information to ground stations, which will complete the data processing and forward alert and position location data to rescue coordination services. This paper presents a Sarsat system description and a summary of Coast Guard and USAF objectives for the initial demonstration and evaluation tests of Sarsat.

  1. Invariant manifolds and collective coordinates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papenbrock, T. [Centro Internacional de Ciencias, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Seligman, T.H. [Centro Internacional de Ciencias, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Centro de Ciencias Fisicas, University of Mexico (UNAM), Cuernavaca (Mexico)


    We introduce suitable coordinate systems for interacting many-body systems with invariant manifolds. These are Cartesian in coordinate and momentum space and chosen such that several components are identically zero for motion on the invariant manifold. In this sense these coordinates are collective. We make a connection to Zickendraht's collective coordinates and present certain configurations of few-body systems where rotations and vibrations decouple from single-particle motion. These configurations do not depend on details of the interaction. (author)

  2. Solar Power Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Flournoy, Don M


    Communication satellites are a $144 billion industry. Is there any space-based industry that could possibly beat that market? 'Solar Power Satellites' shows why and how the space satellite industry will soon begin expanding its market from relaying signals to Earth to generating energy in space and delivering it to the ground as electricity. In all industrialized nations, energy demand is growing exponentially. In the developing world, the need for energy is as basic as food and water. The Sun's energy is available everywhere, and it is non-polluting. As business plans demonstrate its technical feasibility, commercial potential, and environmental acceptability, every country on Earth will look to space for the power it needs.

  3. Geostationary satellites collocation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hengnian


    Geostationary Satellites Collocation aims to find solutions for deploying a safe and reliable collocation control. Focusing on the orbital perturbation analysis, the mathematical foundations for orbit and control of the geostationary satellite are summarized. The mathematical and physical principle of orbital maneuver and collocation strategies for multi geostationary satellites sharing with the same dead band is also stressed. Moreover, the book presents some applications using the above algorithms and mathematical models to help readers master the corrective method for planning station keeping maneuvers. Engineers and scientists in the fields of aerospace technology and space science can benefit from this book. Hengnian Li is the Deputy Director of State Key Laboratory of Astronautic Dynamics, China.

  4. ESA's satellite communications programme (United States)

    Bartholome, P.


    The developmental history, current status, and future plans of the ESA satellite-communications programs are discussed in a general survey and illustrated with network diagrams and maps. Consideration is given to the parallel development of national and European direct-broadcast systems and telecommunications networks, the position of the European space and electronics industries in the growing world market, the impact of technological improvements (both in satellite systems and in ground-based networks), and the technological and commercial advantages of integrated space-terrestrial networks. The needs for a European definition of the precise national and international roles of satellite communications, for maximum speed in implementing such decisions (before the technology becomes obsolete), and for increased cooperation and standardization to assure European equipment manufacturers a reasonable share of the market are stressed.

  5. AVS on satellite (United States)

    Zhao, Haiwu; Wang, Guozhong; Hou, Gang


    AVS is a new digital audio-video coding standard established by China. AVS will be used in digital TV broadcasting and next general optical disk. AVS adopted many digital audio-video coding techniques developed by Chinese company and universities in recent years, it has very low complexity compared to H.264, and AVS will charge very low royalty fee through one-step license including all AVS tools. So AVS is a good and competitive candidate for Chinese DTV and next generation optical disk. In addition, Chinese government has published a plan for satellite TV signal directly to home(DTH) and a telecommunication satellite named as SINO 2 will be launched in 2006. AVS will be also one of the best hopeful candidates of audio-video coding standard on satellite signal transmission.

  6. Satellite Control Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Bak, Thomas


    The Satellite Laboratory at the Department of Control Engineering of Aalborg University (SatLab) is a dynamic motion facility designed for analysis and test of micro spacecraft. A unique feature of the laboratory is that it provides a completely gravity-free environment. A test spacecraft...... is suspended on an air bearing, and rotates freely in 3 degrees of freedom. In order to avoid any influence of the gravitational force the centre of mass of the satellite is placed in the geometric centre of the air bearing by an automatic balancing system. The test spacecraft is equipped with a three......-axis magnetometer, three piezoelectric gyros, and four reaction wheels in a tetrahedron configuration. The operation of the spacecraft is fully autonomous. The data flow between the transducers and the onboard computer placed physically outside the satellite is provided by a radio link. The purpose...

  7. GPS satellite surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Leick, Alfred; Tatarnikov, Dmitry


    THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE, UP-TO-DATE GUIDE ON GPS TECHNOLOGY FOR SURVEYING Three previous editions have established GPS Satellite Surveying as the definitive industry reference. Now fully updated and expanded to reflect the newest developments in the field, this Fourth Edition features cutting-edge information on GNSS antennas, precise point positioning, real-time relative positioning, lattice reduction, and much more. Expert authors examine additional tools and applications, offering complete coverage of geodetic surveying using satellite technologies. The past decade has seen a major evolut

  8. Declassified intelligence satellite photographs (United States)



    Recently declassified photographs from spy satellites are an important addition to the record of the Earth?s land surface held by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). More than 800,000 high-resolution photos taken between 1959 through 1972 were made available by Executive Order of the President. The collection is held at the USGS EROS Data Center, near Sioux Falls, S. Dak., and are offered for public sale. For some purposes in earth science studies, these photos extend the record of changes in the land surface another decade back in time from the advent of the Landsat earth-observing satellite program.

  9. Oceanography from satellites (United States)

    Wilson, W. S.


    It is pointed out that oceanographers have benefited from the space program mainly through the increased efficiency it has brought to ship operations. For example, the Transit navigation system has enabled oceanographers to compile detailed maps of sea-floor properties and to more accurately locate moored subsurface instrumentation. General descriptions are given of instruments used in satellite observations (altimeter, color scanner, infrared radiometer, microwave radiometer, scatterometer, synthetic aperture radar). It is pointed out that because of the large volume of data that satellite instruments generate, the development of algorithms for converting the data into a form expressed in geophysical units has become especially important.

  10. Satellite oceanography - The instruments (United States)

    Stewart, R. H.


    It is pointed out that no instrument is sensitive to only one oceanographic variable; rather, each responds to a combination of atmospheric and oceanic phenomena. This complicates data interpretation and usually requires that a number of observations, each sensitive to somewhat different phenomena, be combined to provide unambiguous information. The distinction between active and passive instruments is described. A block diagram illustrating the steps necessary to convert data from satellite instruments into oceanographic information is included, as is a diagram illustrating the operation of a radio-frequency radiometer. Attention is also given to the satellites that carry the various oceanographic instruments.

  11. Results of the Ongoing Monitoring of the Position of a Geostationary Telecommunication Satellite by the Method of Spatially Separated Basis Receiving of Digital Satellite Television Signals (United States)

    Bushuev, F.; Kaliuzhnyi, M.; Sybiryakova, Y.; Shulga, O.; Moskalenko, S.; Balagura, O.; Kulishenko, V.


    The results of the ongoing monitoring of the position of geostationary telecommunication satellite Eutelsat-13B (13° East) are presented in the article. The results were obtained using a radio engineering complex (RC) of four stations receiving digital satellite television and a data processing centre. The stations are located in Kyiv, Mukachevo, Kharkiv and Mykolaiv. The equipment of each station allows synchronous recording (by the GPS) of fragments of DVB-S signal from the quadrature detector output of the satellite television receiver. Samples of the complex signal are archived and sent to the data processing center through the Internet. Here three linearly independent slant range differences (Δr) for three pairs of the stations are determined as a result of correlation processing of received signals. Every second measured values of Δr are used to calculate Cartesian coordinates (XYZ) of the satellite in the coordinate system WGS84 by multilateration method. The time series of Δr, X, Y and Z obtained during continuous observations from March to May 2015 are presented in the article. Single-measurement errors of Δr, X, Y and Z are equal to 2.6 m, 3540 m, 705 m and 455 m, respectively. The complex is compared with known analogues. Ways of reduction of measurement errors of satellite coordinates are considered. The radio engineering complex could be considered a prototype of a system of independent ongoing monitoring of the position of geostationary telecommunication satellites.

  12. Integrated Satellite-HAP Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cianca, Ernestina; De Sanctis, Mauro; De Luise, Aldo


    for an efficient hybrid terrestrial-satellite communication system. Two integrated HAP-satellite scenarios are presented, in which the HAP is used to overcome some of the shortcomings of satellite- based communications. Moreover, it is shown that the integration of HAPs with satellite systems can be used......Thus far, high-altitude platform (HAP)-based systems have been mainly conceived as an alternative to satellites for complementing the terrestrial network. This article aims to show that HAP should no longer be seen as a competitor technology by investors of satellites, but as a key element...

  13. Satellite orbit determination and gravity field recovery from satellite-to-satellite tracking (United States)

    Wakker, K. F.; Ambrosius, B. A. C.; Leenman, H.


    Studies on satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST) with POPSAT (a geodetic satellite concept) and a ERS-class (Earth observation) satellite, a Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (SST) gravity mission, and precise gravity field determination methods and mission requirements are reported. The first two studies primarily address the application of SST between the high altitude POPSAT and an ERS-class or GRM (Geopotential Research Mission) satellite to the orbit determination of the latter two satellites. Activities focussed on the determination of the tracking coverage of the lower altitude satellite by ground based tracking systems and by POPSAT, orbit determination error analysis and the determination of the surface forces acting on GRM. The third study surveys principles of SST, uncertainties of existing drag models, effects of direct luni-solar attraction and tides on orbit and the gravity gradient observable. Detailed ARISTOTELES (which replaced POPSAT) orbit determination error analyses were performed for various ground based tracking networks.

  14. Automatic astronomical coordinate determination using digital zenith cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Farzaneh


    Full Text Available Celestial positioning has been used for navigation purposes for many years. Stars as the extra-terrestrial benchmarks provide unique opportunity in absolute point positioning. However, astronomical field data acquisition and data processing of the collected data is very time-consuming. The advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS nearly made the celestial positioning system obsolete. The new satellite-based positioning system has been very popular since it is very efficient and convenient for many daily life applications. Nevertheless, the celestial positioning method is never replaced by satellite-based positioning in absolute point positioning sense. The invention of electro-optical devices at the beginning of the 21st century was really a rebirth in geodetic astronomy. Today, the digital cameras with relatively high geometric and radiometric accuracy has opened a new insight in satellite attitude determination and the study of the Earth's surface geometry and physics of its interior, i.e., computation of astronomical coordinates and the vertical deflection components. This method or the so-called astrogeodetic vision-based method help us to determine astronomical coordinates with an accuracy better than 0.1 arc second. The theoretical background, an innovative transformation approach and the preliminary numerical results are addressed in this paper.

  15. Coordination Control Of Complex Machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.M. Baeten; B. van Beek; J. Markovski; L.J.A.M. Somers


    Control and coordination are important aspects of the development of complex machines due to an ever-increasing demand for better functionality, quality, and performance. In WP6 of the C4C project, we developed a synthesis-centric systems engineering framework suitable for supervisory coordination o

  16. Coordinate-Free Rotation Operator. (United States)

    Leubner, C.


    Suggests the use of a coordinate-free rotation operator for the teaching of rotations in Euclidean three space because of its twofold didactic advantage. Illustrates the potentialities of the coordinate-free rotation operator approach by a number of examples. (Author/GA)

  17. Coordination of Conditional Poisson Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grafström Anton


    Full Text Available Sample coordination seeks to maximize or to minimize the overlap of two or more samples. The former is known as positive coordination, and the latter as negative coordination. Positive coordination is mainly used for estimation purposes and to reduce data collection costs. Negative coordination is mainly performed to diminish the response burden of the sampled units. Poisson sampling design with permanent random numbers provides an optimum coordination degree of two or more samples. The size of a Poisson sample is, however, random. Conditional Poisson (CP sampling is a modification of the classical Poisson sampling that produces a fixed-size πps sample. We introduce two methods to coordinate Conditional Poisson samples over time or simultaneously. The first one uses permanent random numbers and the list-sequential implementation of CP sampling. The second method uses a CP sample in the first selection and provides an approximate one in the second selection because the prescribed inclusion probabilities are not respected exactly. The methods are evaluated using the size of the expected sample overlap, and are compared with their competitors using Monte Carlo simulation. The new methods provide a good coordination degree of two samples, close to the performance of Poisson sampling with permanent random numbers.

  18. Man-made Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    If you watch the sky about an hour after the sun goes down, you may see some “moving stars”. But they're not real stars. They're manmade satellites (卫星). And the biggest of all is the International Space Station (ISS国际空间站).

  19. Observations of artificial satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The following publication gives the results of photographic
    observations of artificial satellites made at Asiago during the second
    and third year of this programme. The fixed camera technique and that
    with moving film (the latter still in its experimental stage have been used.

  20. Experimental Satellite Quantum Communications. (United States)

    Vallone, Giuseppe; Bacco, Davide; Dequal, Daniele; Gaiarin, Simone; Luceri, Vincenza; Bianco, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo


    Quantum communication (QC), namely, the faithful transmission of generic quantum states, is a key ingredient of quantum information science. Here we demonstrate QC with polarization encoding from space to ground by exploiting satellite corner cube retroreflectors as quantum transmitters in orbit and the Matera Laser Ranging Observatory of the Italian Space Agency in Matera, Italy, as a quantum receiver. The quantum bit error ratio (QBER) has been kept steadily low to a level suitable for several quantum information protocols, as the violation of Bell inequalities or quantum key distribution (QKD). Indeed, by taking data from different satellites, we demonstrate an average value of QBER=4.6% for a total link duration of 85 s. The mean photon number per pulse μ_{sat} leaving the satellites was estimated to be of the order of one. In addition, we propose a fully operational satellite QKD system by exploiting our communication scheme with orbiting retroreflectors equipped with a modulator, a very compact payload. Our scheme paves the way toward the implementation of a QC worldwide network leveraging existing receivers.

  1. Perception via satellite (United States)

    Robinove, Charles J.


    The earth resources observation satellite (EROS) program in the Department of the Interior is intended to gather and use data from satellites and aircraft on natural and man-made features of the earth's surface. Earth resources technology satellite will provide the EROS program with data for use in dealing with natural resource problems and understanding the interaction between man and the environment. Applications will include studies of tectonic features, hydrologic problems, location of fish schools, determination of the conditions of range land, mapping land use for urban planning, studies of erosion and change along coastlines and major streams, and inventories of land use and land forms. In addition, the ERTS data may be used for detecting forest and crop diseases and inventorying crops. The ERTS satellite will be in a polar, sun-synchronous orbit so that each point on the earth's surface will be sensed every 17 to 20 days, at the same time of day. Multispectral photography is being investigated for its usefulness in hydrology. Side-looking airborne radar has not yet been widely used in hydrologic studies, although it is an excellent tool for all-weather, day or night, coverage of large areas. Other techniques being investigated include passive microwave radiometry, ultraviolet and visible stimulated luminescence, and absorption spectroscopy.

  2. Satellite Photometric Error Determination (United States)


    of nearly specular reflections from most solar panels. Our primary purpose in presenting these two plots is to demonstrate the usefulness of...than a transformation for stars because the spectral energy distribution of satellites can change with phase angle and is subject to specular

  3. Creating Better Satellite Conferences. (United States)

    Horner, Tommy


    Presents four ways to improve broadcasts of company satellite conferences, including creative site selection (using facilities at educational institutions rather than hotel rooms); creative programming (using graphics and other interruptions to break up lectures or speeches); creative crew selection; and creative downlink site activities (to…

  4. Ocean surveillance satellites (United States)

    Laurent, D.

    Soviet and U.S. programs involving satellites for surveillance of ships and submarines are discussed, considering differences in approaches. The Soviet program began with the Cosmos 198 in 1967 and the latest, the Cosmos 1400 series, 15 m long and weighing 5 tons, carry radar for monitoring ships and a nuclear reactor for a power supply. Other Soviet spacecraft carrying passive microwave sensors and ion drives powered by solar panels have recently been detonated in orbit for unknown reasons. It has also been observed that the Soviet satellites are controlled in pairs, with sequential orbital changes for one following the other, and both satellites then overflying the same points. In contrast, U.S. surveillance satellites have been placed in higher orbits, thus placing greater demands on the capabilities of the on-board radar and camera systems. Project White Cloud and the Clipper Bow program are described, noting the continued operation of the White Cloud spacecraft, which are equipped to intercept radio signals from surface ships. Currently, the integrated tactical surveillance system program has completed its study and a decision is expected soon.

  5. OMV With Satellite (United States)


    This 1986 artist's concept shows the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) towing a satellite. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center plarners, the OMV would be a remotely-controlled free-flying space tug which would place, rendezvous, dock, and retrieve orbital payloads.

  6. Advances in satellite oceanography (United States)

    Brown, O. B.; Cheney, R. E.


    Technical advances and recent applications of active and passive satellite remote sensing techniques to the study of oceanic processes are summarized. The general themes include infrared and visible radiometry, active and passive microwave sensors, and buoy location systems. The surface parameters of sea surface temperature, windstream, sea state, altimetry, color, and ice are treated as applicable under each of the general methods.

  7. Cibola flight experiment satellite (United States)

    Davies, P.; Liddle, Doug; Paffett, John; Sweeting, Martin; Curiel, A.; Sun, Wei; Eves, Stuart


    In order to achieve an "economy of scale" with respect to payload capacity the major trend in telecommunications satellites is for larger and larger platforms. With these large platforms the level of integration between platform and payload is increasing leading to longer delivery schedules. The typical lifecycle for procurement of these large telecommunications satellites is now 3-6 years depending on the level of non-recurring engineering needed. Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) has designed a low-cost platform aimed at telecommunications and navigation applications. SSTL's Geostationary Minisatellite Platform (GMP) is a new entrant addressing the lower end of the market with payloads up to 250kg requiring less than 1.5 kW power. The British National Space Centre through the MOSAIC Small Satellite Initiative supported the development of GMP. The main design goals for GMP are low-cost for the complete mission including launch and operations and a platform allowing flexible payload accommodation. GMP is specifically designed to allow rapid development and deployment with schedules typically between 1 and 2 years from contract signature to flight readiness. GMP achieves these aims by a modular design where the level of integration between the platform and payload is low. The modular design decomposes the satellite into three major components - the propulsion bay, the avionics bay and the payload module. Both the propulsion and avionics bays are reusable, largely unchanged, and independent of the payload configuration. Such a design means that SSTL or a 3rd party manufacturer can manufacture the payload in parallel to the platform with integration taking place quite late in the schedule. In July 2003 SSTL signed a contract for ESA's first Galileo navigation satellite known as GSTBV2/A. The satellite is based on GMP and ESA plan to launch it into a MEO orbit late in 2005. The second flight of GMP is likely to be in 2006 carrying a geostationary payload

  8. Enterprise Coordination on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Petrie


    Full Text Available Enterprises are now connected internally and externally to other Enterprises via the Internet in ways that are increasingly difficult to manage, especially as these interconnections become more dynamic. Current methods of coordinating the effects of change as they propagate through these networks of connections are not likely to scale. What is needed is a new paradigm for how the Internet supports such coordination. Indeed, the Internet should and could provide fundamental coordination functions that are missing today. In this paper, we describe how such a “Coordinated Internet” would work (this paper is an expanded version of [1]. The key functionality of a Coordinated Internet would be that the Internet actively watches what people do (analogous to search completion on desktops today, correlates these activities, and actively notifies people when and how their current tasks affect and are affected by the activities of other people. This would be accomplished by standard coordination functions implemented as a common Internet layer that can be used as a utility by more specialized applications. Such a Coordinated Internet would revolutionize enterprise management, for all enterprises, large and small, corporate and personal. For example, static workflows would become obsolete for all but the the most routine processes. Some solutions provide existence proofs of such a coordination substrate, such as the Redux solution in concurrent engineering, which we describe herein. However, foundational research remains to be done in the new field of Coordination Engineering in order to reach the goal of a future Internet in which coordination functions are fundamental.

  9. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...

  10. DFH Satellite Co.,Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    DFH Satellite Co.,Ltd. is a hi-tech enterprise founded and sponsored by China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation(CASC) and one of CASC subsidiaries,China Academy of Space Technology (CAST). The company is mainly engaged in the research and development of small satellites and micro-satellites, Osystem designs and product development for satellite application projects as well as the international exchanges and cooperation.

  11. 47 CFR 25.272 - General inter-system coordination procedures. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General inter-system coordination procedures... the system control center, and those responsible for long term engineering and technical design issues... maintained at each satellite system control center. (d) An earth station licensee shall ensure that each of...

  12. Telelibrary: Library Services via Satellite. (United States)

    Liu, Rosa


    Investigates the provision of library services via satellite, explains briefly the operation and advantages of communication satellites, and discusses the various telecommunications equipment and services which, when coupled with satellite transmission, will enhance library activities. Demand trend projections for telecommunications services…

  13. Mobile satellite service for Canada (United States)

    Sward, David


    The Mobile Satellite (MSAT) system and a special program designed to provide interim mobile satellite services (IMSS) during the construction phase of MSAT are described. A mobile satellite system is a key element in extending voice and and data telecommunications to all Canadians.

  14. Keep Meaning in Conversational Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Clare Cuffari


    Full Text Available Coordination is a widely employed term across recent quantitative and qualitative approaches to intersubjectivity, particularly approaches that give embodiment and enaction central explanatory roles. With a focus on linguistic and bodily coordination in conversational contexts, I review the operational meaning of coordination in recent empirical research and related theorizing of embodied intersubjectivity. This discussion articulates what must be involved in treating linguistic meaning as dynamic processes of coordination. The coordination approach presents languaging as a set of dynamic self-organizing processes and actions on multiple timescales and across multiple modalities that come about and work in certain domains (those jointly constructed in social, interactive, high-order sense-making. These processes go beyond meaning at the level that is available to first-person experience. I take one crucial consequence of this to be the ubiquitously moral nature of languaging with others. Languaging coordinates experience, among other levels of behavior and event. Ethical effort is called for by the automatic autonomy-influencing forces of languaging as coordination.

  15. Chinese geodetic coordinate system 2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG YuanXi


    The basic strategies In establishing the Chinese geodetic coordinate system 2000 have been summarized,including the definition of the coordinate system,the structure of the terrestrial reference frame,the functional and stochastic models involved in the realization of the reference frame as well as the Improvements of the adjustment procedures.First,the fundamental frame of the coordinate system is composed of the permanent GPS tracking network in China which is integrated into the international GPS service stations by combined adjustment,in order to guarantee the consistence between the international terrestrial reference system and the Chinese geodetic coordinate system.Second,the extended frame of the coordinate system is composed of the unified 2000' national GPS network which is Integrated by 6 nationwide GPS networks with more than 2500 stations under the controlling of the fundamental frame.Third,the densified frame is composed of national astronomical geodetic network with nearly 50 thousand stations which was updated by the combined adjustment with the 2000' national GPS network,thus the datum of the national astronomical geodetic network has been unified and the precision greatly improved.By the optimal data fusion method the influences of the datum errors,systematic errors and the outliers in the separated geodetic networks are weakened in the unified Chinese geodetic coordinate frame.The significance in application of the new geodetic coordinate system and the existing problems In the reference frame are described and analyzed.

  16. Internationally coordinated multi-mission planning is now critical to sustain the space-based rainfall observations needed for managing floods globally (United States)

    Reed, Patrick M.; Chaney, Nathaniel W.; Herman, Jonathan D.; Ferringer, Matthew P.; Wood, Eric F.


    At present 4 of 10 dedicated rainfall observing satellite systems have exceeded their design life, some by more than a decade. Here, we show operational implications for flood management of a ‘collapse’ of space-based rainfall observing infrastructure as well as the high-value opportunities for a globally coordinated portfolio of satellite missions and data services. Results show that the current portfolio of rainfall missions fails to meet operational data needs for flood management, even when assuming a perfectly coordinated data product from all current rainfall-focused missions (i.e., the full portfolio). In the full portfolio, satellite-based rainfall data deficits vary across the globe and may preclude climate adaptation in locations vulnerable to increasing flood risks. Moreover, removing satellites that are currently beyond their design life (i.e., the reduced portfolio) dramatically increases data deficits globally and could cause entire high intensity flood events to be unobserved. Recovery from the reduced portfolio is possible with internationally coordinated replenishment of as few as 2 of the 4 satellite systems beyond their design life, yielding rainfall data coverages that outperform the current full portfolio (i.e., an optimized portfolio of eight satellites can outperform ten satellites). This work demonstrates the potential for internationally coordinated satellite replenishment and data services to substantially enhance the cost-effectiveness, sustainability and operational value of space-based rainfall observations in managing evolving flood risks.

  17. Détermination structurale de la forme de haute température du composé La 4[Ge 3O 10][GeO 4]: Analyse comparative des structures tricliniques des germanates de terres rares de formule globale Ln2Ge 2O 7 (United States)

    Vetter, Geneviève; Queyroux, Francine


    The rare-earth germanates Ln2Ge 2O 7 have been structurally determined as three triclinic structural forms ( Ln = LaGd) and one tetragonal ( Ln = GdLu). The structural determination of the high temperature form La 2Ge 2O 7, which is presented here, gives rise to a fourth triclinic structural type. The complete description of the Ln2Ge 2O 7 phases, stable a ordinary pressure, is thus achieved. Refinement was carried out by the heavy atom method on a model which could be elaborated after the comparative study of the three triclinic forms. Space group: P1, a = 7.080(2), b = 7.101(3), c = 6.928(2) Å, α = 87.74(2), β = 91.25(2), γ = 115.81(2)°, Z = 2, R = 0.065, Rw = 0.083 for 4018 reflections. A global structural analysis of all the four triclinic phases is proposed.

  18. Satellite Aerodynamics and Density Determination from Satellite Dynamic Response (United States)

    Karr, G. R.


    The aerodynamic drag and lift properties of a satellite are first expressed as a function of two parameters associated with gas-surface interaction at the satellite surface. The dynamic response of the satellite as it passes through the atmosphere is then expressed as a function of the two gas-surface interaction parameters, the atmospheric density, the satellite velocity, and the satellite orientation to the high speed flow. By proper correlation of the observed dynamic response with the changing angle of attack of the satellite, it is found that the two unknown gas-surface interaction parameters can be determined. Once the gas-surface interaction parameters are known, the aerodynamic properties of the satellite at all angles of attack are also determined.

  19. Toward a theory of coordinating: Creating coordinating mechanisms in practice


    Jarzabkowski, P; Le, J. K.; Feldman, M. S.


    This paper uses a practice perspective to study coordinating as dynamic activities that are continuously created and modified in order to enact organizational relationships and activities. It is based on the case of Servico, an organization undergoing a major restructuring of its value chain in response to a change in government regulation. In our case, the actors iterate between the abstract concept of a coordinating mechanism referred to as end-to-end management and its performance in pract...

  20. Development of a Reduction Algorithm of GEO Satellite Optical Observation Data for Optical Wide Field Patrol (OWL) (United States)

    Park, Sun-youp; Choi, Jin; Jo, Jung Hyun; Son, Ju Young; Park, Yung-Sik; Yim, Hong-Suh; Moon, Hong-Kyu; Bae, Young-Ho; Choi, Young-Jun; Park, Jang-Hyun


    An algorithm to automatically extract coordinate and time information from optical observation data of geostationary orbit satellites (GEO satellites) or geosynchronous orbit satellites (GOS satellites) is developed. The optical wide-field patrol system is capable of automatic observation using a pre-arranged schedule. Therefore, if this type of automatic analysis algorithm is available, daily unmanned monitoring of GEO satellites can be possible. For data acquisition for development, the COMS1 satellite was observed with 1-s exposure time and 1-m interval. The images were grouped and processed in terms of ¡°action¡±, and each action was composed of six or nine successive images. First, a reference image with the best quality in one action was selected. Next, the rest of the images in the action were geometrically transformed to fit in the horizontal coordinate system (expressed in azimuthal angle and elevation) of the reference image. Then, these images were median-combined to retain only the possible non-moving GEO candidates. By reverting the coordinate transformation of the positions of these GEO satellite candidates, the final coordinates could be calculated.

  1. Evaluating the Relational Coordination instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Lundstrøm, Sanne Lykke


    and surgical performance. This has prompted the attention of both practitioners and politicians some of who perceive relational coordination as a means to attain better performance. The relational coordination instrument has been validated as a measure of teamwork from the following perspectives: internal...... consistency, interrater agreement and reliability, structural validity, content validity. However as relational coordination is being used as a diagnostics tool it is important to examine further if the instrument can measure changes. Indeed we need to know how precise and sensitive the instrument is when...

  2. Thematic mapping from satellite imagery

    CERN Document Server

    Denègre, J


    Thematic Mapping from Satellite Imagery: A Guidebook discusses methods in producing maps using satellite images. The book is comprised of five chapters; each chapter covers one stage of the process. Chapter 1 tackles the satellite remote sensing imaging and its cartographic significance. Chapter 2 discusses the production processes for extracting information from satellite data. The next chapter covers the methods for combining satellite-derived information with that obtained from conventional sources. Chapter 4 deals with design and semiology for cartographic representation, and Chapter 5 pre

  3. Cooperative and cognitive satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzinotas, Symeon; De Gaudenzi, Riccardo


    Cooperative and Cognitive Satellite Systems provides a solid overview of the current research in the field of cooperative and cognitive satellite systems, helping users understand how to incorporate state-of-the-art communication techniques in innovative satellite network architectures to enable the next generation of satellite systems. The book is edited and written by top researchers and practitioners in the field, providing a comprehensive explanation of current research that allows users to discover future technologies and their applications, integrate satellite and terrestrial systems

  4. Satellite Control Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Bak, Thomas


    The Satellite Laboratory at the Department of Control Engineering of Aalborg University (SatLab) is a dynamic motion facility designed for analysis and test of micro spacecraft. A unique feature of the laboratory is that it provides a completely gravity-free environment. A test spacecraft...... is suspended on an air bearing, and rotates freely in 3 degrees of freedom. In order to avoid any influence of the gravitational force the centre of mass of the satellite is placed in the geometric centre of the air bearing by an automatic balancing system. The test spacecraft is equipped with a three...... of the laboratory is to conduct dynamic tests of the control and attitude determination algorithms during nominal operation and in abnormal conditions. Further it is intended to use SatLab for validation of various algorithms for fault detection, accommodation and supervisory control. Different mission objectives...

  5. Declassified Intelligence Satellite Photographs (United States)



    Declassified photographs from U.S. intelligence satellites provide an important worldwide addition to the public record of the Earth's land surface. This imagery was released to the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in accordance with Executive Order 12951 on February 23, 1995. The NARA has the original declassified film and a viewing copy. The USGS has another copy of the film to complement the Landsat archive. The declassified collection involves more than 990,000 photographs taken from 1959 through 1980 and was released on two separate occasions: February 1995 (Declass 1) and September 2002 (Declass 2). The USGS copy is maintained by the Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, near Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Both the NARA and EROS provide public access to this unique collection that extends the record of land-surface change back another decade from the advent of the Landsat program that began satellite operations in 1972.

  6. Satellites in Canadian broadcasting (United States)

    Siocos, C. A.

    The involvement of Canadian broadcasting and related enterprises in satellite telecommunications is surveyed. This includes point-to-point transmissions and direct ones to the general public. The mode of such utilizations is indicated in both these cases. For the forthcoming DBS systems the many types of service offerings and utilization concepts under discussion elasewhere are presented as well as the business prospects and regulatory climate offering them.

  7. Neptune: Minor Satellites (United States)

    Murdin, P.


    All but one of Neptune's minor satellites orbit within or just outside its ringsystem; the exception is the distant object Nereid. Some of them are betterdescribed as `mid-sized' rather than `minor', but are included under thisheading as little is known of them. The inner four, with approximatediameters, are Naiad (60 km), Thalassa (80 km), Despina (150 km) and Galatea(160 km). The first three lie...

  8. Satellite Surveillance: Domestic Issues (United States)


    earthquake and tsunami in the Indian Ocean and Hurricane Katrina in 2005, when the NGA provided graphics for “relief efforts that depicted the locations of...that show the damage resulting from an earthquake , fire, flood, hurricane, oil spill, or volcanic eruption.8 Bush Administration Policies...Satellite information has continued to have important civil applications in such disparate areas as the movement of glaciers in Yakutat Bay in Alaska

  9. Coordination Games on Dynamical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enea Pestelacci


    Full Text Available We propose a model in which agents of a population interacting according to a network of contacts play games of coordination with each other and can also dynamically break and redirect links to neighbors if they are unsatisfied. As a result, there is co-evolution of strategies in the population and of the graph that represents the network of contacts. We apply the model to the class of pure and general coordination games. For pure coordination games, the networks co-evolve towards the polarization of different strategies. In the case of general coordination games our results show that the possibility of refusing neighbors and choosing different partners increases the success rate of the Pareto-dominant equilibrium.

  10. Fedosov supermanifolds: II. Normal coordinates

    CERN Document Server

    Geyer, B; Geyer, Bodo; Lavrov, Peter


    The study of recently introduced Fedosov supermanifolds is continued. Using normal coordinates, properties of even and odd symplectic supermanifolds endowed with a symmetric connection respecting given sympletic structure are studied.

  11. Surface normals and barycentric coordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullineux Glen


    Full Text Available The normal to a triangular parametric surface is investigated where the parameters used are barycentric coordinates. Formulae for the normal are obtained for non-rational and rational surfaces.

  12. Ellipsoidal analysis of coordination polyhedra (United States)

    Cumby, James; Attfield, J. Paul


    The idea of the coordination polyhedron is essential to understanding chemical structure. Simple polyhedra in crystalline compounds are often deformed due to structural complexity or electronic instabilities so distortion analysis methods are useful. Here we demonstrate that analysis of the minimum bounding ellipsoid of a coordination polyhedron provides a general method for studying distortion, yielding parameters that are sensitive to various orders in metal oxide examples. Ellipsoidal analysis leads to discovery of a general switching of polyhedral distortions at symmetry-disallowed transitions in perovskites that may evidence underlying coordination bistability, and reveals a weak off-centre `d5 effect' for Fe3+ ions that could be exploited in multiferroics. Separating electronic distortions from intrinsic deformations within the low temperature superstructure of magnetite provides new insights into the charge and trimeron orders. Ellipsoidal analysis can be useful for exploring local structure in many materials such as coordination complexes and frameworks, organometallics and organic molecules.

  13. Communications satellites - The experimental years (United States)

    Edelson, B. I.


    Only eight years after the launc of Sputnik-1 by the Soviet Union, the first commercial satellite, 'Early Bird', entered service. In just twelve years commercial satellite service extended around the earth and became profitable. The reasons for the successful development of the communications satellite services in a comparatively short time are considered. These reasons are related to the presence of three ingredients, taking into account technology to create the system, communications requirements to form a market, and a management structure to implement the system. The formation of the concept of using earth orbiting satellites for telecommunications is discussed. It is pointed out that the years from 1958 to 1964 were the true 'experimental years' for satellite communications. The rapid development of technology during this crucial period is described, giving attention to passive satellites, active systems, and development satellites.

  14. Tethered satellite design (United States)

    Manarini, G.


    The capability of the satellite to perform a variety of space operations to be accomplished from the shuttle is reviewed considering use of the satellite with man-in-loop and closed loop modes and deployment (toward or away from Earth, up to 100 km), stationkeeping, retrieval and control of the satellite. Scientific payloads are to be used to perform experiments and scientific investigation for applications such as magnetometry, electrodynamics, atmospheric science, chemical release, communications, plasmaphysics, dynamic environment, and power and thrust generation. The TSS-S will be reused for at least 3 missions after reconfiguration and refurbishment by changing the peculiar mission items such as thermal control, fixed boom for experiments, aerodynamic tail for yaw attitude control, external skin, experiments, and any other feature. The TSS-S is to be composed of three modules in order to allow independent integration of a single module and to facilitate the refurbishment and reconfiguration between flights. The three modules are service, auxiliary propulsion, and payload modules.

  15. Heart Monitoring By Satellite (United States)


    The ambulance antenna shown is a specially designed system that allows satellite-relayed two-way communications between a moving emergency vehicle and a hospital emergency room. It is a key component of a demonstration program aimed at showing how emergency medical service can be provided to people in remote rural areas. Satellite communication permits immediate, hospital- guided treatment of heart attacks or other emergencies by ambulance personnel, saving vital time when the scene of the emergency is remote from the hospital. If widely adopted, the system could save tens of thousands of lives annually in the U.S. alone, medical experts say. The problem in conventional communication with rural areas is the fact that radio signals travel in line of sight. They may be blocked by tall buildings, hills and mountains, or even by the curvature of the Earth, so signal range is sharply limited. Microwave relay towers could solve the problem, but a complete network of repeater towers would be extremely expensive. The satellite provides an obstruction-free relay station in space.

  16. Tactical Satellite 3 (United States)

    Davis, T. M.; Straight, S. D.; Lockwook, R. B.


    Tactical Satellite 3 is an Air Force Research Laboratory Science and Technology (S&T) initiative that explores the capability and technological maturity of small, low-cost satellites. It features a low cost "plug and play" modular bus and low cost militarily significant payloads - a Raytheon developed Hyperspectral imager and secondary payload data exfiltration provided by the Office of Naval Research. In addition to providing for ongoing innovation and demonstration in this important technology area, these S&T efforts also help mitigate technology risk and establish a potential concept of operations for future acquisitions. The key objectives are rapid launch and on-orbit checkout, theater commanding, and near-real time theater data integration. It will also feature a rapid development of the space vehicle and integrated payload and spacecraft bus by using components and processes developed by the satellite modular bus initiative. Planned for a late summer 2008 launch, the TacSat-3 spacecraft will collect and process images and then downlink processed data using a Common Data Link. An in-theater tactical ground station will have the capability to uplink tasking to spacecraft and will receive full data image. An international program, the United Kingdom Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (DSTL) and Australian Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) plan to participate in TacSat-3 experiments.

  17. A satellite anemometer (United States)

    Hanson, W. B.; Heelis, R. A.


    This report describes the design, development, and testing of components of a satellite anemometer, an instrument for measuring neutral winds in the upper atmosphere from a satellite platform. The device, which uses four nearly identical pressure sensors, measures the angle of arrival of the bulk neutral flow in the satellite frame of reference. It could also be used in a feedback loop to control spacecraft attitude with respect to the ram velocity direction. We have now developed miniaturized ionization pressure gauges that will work well from the slip flow region near 115 km up to the base of the exosphere, which covers the entire altitude range currently being considered for Tether. Laboratory tests have demonstrated a very linear response to changes in ram angle out to +/- 20 deg. (transverse wind component of 2.7 km s(exp -1)) from the ram, and a monotonic response to out beyond 45 deg. Pitch (vertical wind) and yaw (horizontal wind) can be sampled simultaneously and meaningfully up to 10 Hz. Angular sensitivity of 30 arc seconds (approximately 1 ms(exp -1) is readily attainable, but absolute accuracy for winds will be approximately 1 deg (130 m/s) unless independent attitude knowledge is available. The critical elements of the design have all been tested in the laboratory.

  18. Binary Satellite Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Evslin, Jarah


    Suggestions have appeared in the literature that the following five pairs of Milky Way and Andromeda satellite galaxies are gravitationally bound: Draco and Ursa Minor, Leo IV and V, Andromeda I and III, NGC 147 and 185, and the Magellanic clouds. Under the assumption that a given pair is gravitationally bound, the Virial theorem provides an estimate of its total mass and so its instantaneous tidal radius. For all of these pairs except for the Magellanic clouds the resulting total mass is 2 to 4 orders of magnitude higher than that within the half light radius. Furthermore in the case of each pair except for Leo IV and Leo V, the estimated tidal radius is inferior to the separation between the two satellites. Therefore all or almost all of these systems are not gravitationally bound. We note several possible explanations for the proximities and similar radial velocities of the satellites in each pair, for example they may have condensed from the same infalling structure or they may be bound by a nongravitatio...

  19. Kaluza's theory in generalized coordinates

    CERN Document Server

    García-Perciante, A L; García-Colin, L S; Garcia-Perciante, Ana Laura; Sandoval-Villalbazo, Alfredo


    Maxwell's equations can be obtained in generalized coordinates by considering the electromagnetic field as an external agent. The work here presented shows how to obtain the electrodynamics for a charged particle in generalized coordinates eliminating the concept of external force. Based on Kaluza's formalism, the one here presented extends the 5x5 metric into a 6x6 space-time giving enough room to include magnetic monopoles in a very natural way.

  20. Coordination theory and collaboration technology

    CERN Document Server

    Olson, Gary M; Smith, John B


    The National Science Foundation funded the first Coordination Theory and Collaboration Technology initiative to look at systems that support collaborations in business and elsewhere. This book explores the global revolution in human interconnectedness. It will discuss the various collaborative workgroups and their use in technology. The initiative focuses on processes of coordination and cooperation among autonomous units in human systems, in computer and communication systems, and in hybrid organizations of both systems. This initiative is motivated by three scientific issues which have been

  1. CPN Models in General Coordinates

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, K J


    An analysis of CPN models is given in terms of general coordinates or arbitrary interpolating fields.Only closed expressions made from simple functions are involved.Special attention is given to CP2 and CP4. In the first of these the retrieval of stereographic coordinates reveals the hermitian form of the metric. A similar analysis for the latter case allows comparison with the Fubini-Study metric.

  2. Inflation, Growth and Policy Coordination


    Renato E. Reside Jr.; Parantap Basu


    The effect of monetary policy on output growth and inflation is examined in a monetary endogenous growth model with an explicit banking sector that intermediates capital. Monetary policy is coordinated with fiscal policy in the sense that all the seigniorage revenue gleaned through the inflation tax is spent to make efficient provision of public services. With the reserve requirement and money growth as instruments, policy coordination implies that one instrument may be solved endogenously wh...

  3. Managing interteam coordination within and between organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Thomas Arend


    To accomplish complex tasks and effectively respond to environmental contingencies, teams must coordinate task-related issues with other teams (i.e., interteam coordination). Regrettably, interteam coordination is often complicated by misunderstandings that can arise from differences in teams’

  4. Conforming to coordinate: children use majority information for peer coordination. (United States)

    Grueneisen, Sebastian; Wyman, Emily; Tomasello, Michael


    Humans are constantly required to coordinate their behaviour with others. As this often relies on everyone's convergence on the same strategy (e.g., driving on the left side of the road), a common solution is to conform to majority behaviour. In this study, we presented 5-year-old children with a coordination problem: To retrieve some rewards, they had to choose the same of four options as a peer partner--in reality a stooge--whose decision they were unable to see. Before making a choice, they watched a video showing how other children from their partner's peer group had behaved; a majority chose the same option and a minority chose a different one. In a control condition, children watched the same video but could then retrieve the reward irrespective of their partner's choice (i.e., no coordination was necessary). Children followed the majority more often when coordination was required. Moreover, conformers mostly justified their choices by referring to the majority from the video demonstration. This study is the first to show that young children are able to strategically coordinate decisions with peers by conforming to the majority.

  5. Metallogels from Coordination Complexes, Organometallic, and Coordination Polymers. (United States)

    Dastidar, Parthasarathi; Ganguly, Sumi; Sarkar, Koushik


    A supramolecular gel results from the immobilization of solvent molecules on a 3D network of gelator molecules stabilized by various supramolecular interactions that include hydrogen bonding, π-π stacking, van der Waals interactions, and halogen bonding. In a metallogel, a metal is a part of the gel network as a coordinated metal ion (in a discrete coordination complex), as a cross-linking metal node with a multitopic ligand (in coordination polymer), and as metal nanoparticles adhered to the gel network. Although the field is relatively new, research into metallogels has experienced a considerable upsurge owing to its fundamental importance in supramolecular chemistry and various potential applications. This focus review aims to provide an insight into the development of designing metallogelators. Because of the limited scope, discussions are confined to examples pertaining to metallogelators derived from discrete coordination complexes, organometallic gelators, and coordination polymers. This review is expected to enlighten readers on the current development of designing metallogelators of the abovementioned class of molecules. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Direct Measurements of Laser Communication Point-Ahead Angles from the ARTEMIS Geostationary Satellite Through Clouds (United States)

    Kuzkov, V.; Sodnik, Z.; Kuzkov, S.


    Laser experiments with ARTEMIS geostationary satellite have been performed in partly cloudy weather using the developed system for the telescope. It has been found that the part of the laser beam is observed simultaneously at the points in direction of the velocity vector where the satellite would arrive at when the laser light reaches the telescope. These results agree with the theory of relativity for light aberration in transition from fixed to moving coordinate system.Observation results open the way for research and development of systems to compensate atmospheric turbulence in laser communications between ground stations and satellites through the atmosphere.

  7. Direct Measurements of Laser Communication Point-Ahead Angles from the Artemis Geostationary Satellite Through Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzkov, V.P.


    Full Text Available Laser experiments with ARTEMIS geostationary satellite have been performed in partly cloudy weather using the developed system for the telescope. It has been found that the part of the laser beam is observed simultaneously at the points in direction of the velocity vector where the satellite would arrive at when the laser light reaches the telescope. These results agree with the theory of relativity for light aberration in transition from fixed to moving coordinate system. Observation results open the way for research and development of systems to compensate atmospheric turbulence in laser communications between ground stations and satellites through the atmosphere.

  8. A method of autonomous orbit determination for satellite using star sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; Jianbo; XU; Jin


    In this paper a method of autonomous orbit determination using star sensor is studied. By building relatively consummate dynamical models which simulate attitude motion of satellite and observation from satellite to background stars, the simulant computation of this method is executed, and it is shown that the method of autonomous orbit determination is feasible. Academic and calculation analyses have been done for the relation between the direction of star sensor with respect to satellite-body coordinate system and the accuracy of autonomous orbit determination.

  9. Satellite Upper Air Network (SUAN) (United States)

    Reale, Tony L.; Thorne, Peter


    During the past 20 years of NOAA operational polar satellites, it has become evident that a growing problem concerning their utilization in Climate and also Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) applications are the systematic errors and uncertainties inherent in the satellite measurements. Similar arguments can be made for global radiosonde observations. These uncertainties are often larger than the sensitive signals and processes, that satellite and radiosonde measurements are designed to reveal, particularly in the realm of climate. Possible strategies to quantify and compensate for these problems include the analysis of satellite overlap data and/or available collocations of satellite and ground truth (radiosonde) observations. However, overlap observations are typically not available except in extreme polar regions and current sampling strategies for compiling collocated radiosonde and satellite observations are insufficient, further compounding the inherent uncertainties in the ground-truth radiosonde data. A Satellite Upper Air Network is proposed to provide reference radiosonde launches coincident with operational polar satellite(s) overpass. The SUAN consist of 36 global radiosonde stations sub-sampled from the Global Upper Air Network (GUAN), and is designed to provide a robust, global sample of collocated radiosonde and satellite observations conducive to the monitoring and validation of satellite and radiosonde observations. The routine operation of such a network in conjunction with operational polar satellites would provide a long-term of performance for critical observations of particular importance for climate. The following report presents a candidate network of 36 upper-air sites that could comprise a SUAN. Their selection along with the mutual benefit across the satellite, radiosonde, climate, numerical weather prediction (NWP) and radiative transfer (RT) model areas are discussed.

  10. CEOS visualization environment (COVE) tool for intercalibration of satellite instruments (United States)

    Kessler, P.D.; Killough, B.D.; Gowda, S.; Williams, B.R.; Chander, G.; Qu, Min


    Increasingly, data from multiple instruments are used to gain a more complete understanding of land surface processes at a variety of scales. Intercalibration, comparison, and coordination of satellite instrument coverage areas is a critical effort of international and domestic space agencies and organizations. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites Visualization Environment (COVE) is a suite of browser-based applications that leverage Google Earth to display past, present, and future satellite instrument coverage areas and coincident calibration opportunities. This forecasting and ground coverage analysis and visualization capability greatly benefits the remote sensing calibration community in preparation for multisatellite ground calibration campaigns or individual satellite calibration studies. COVE has been developed for use by a broad international community to improve the efficiency and efficacy of such calibration planning efforts, whether those efforts require past, present, or future predictions. This paper provides a brief overview of the COVE tool, its validation, accuracies, and limitations with emphasis on the applicability of this visualization tool for supporting ground field campaigns and intercalibration of satellite instruments.

  11. Aeronautical satellite antenna steering using magnetic field sensors (United States)

    Sydor, John; Dufour, Martial


    Designers of aeronautical satellite terminals are often faced with the problem of steering a directive antenna from an airplane or helicopter. This problem is usually solved by using aircraft orientation information derived from inertial sensors on-board the aircraft in combination with satellite ephemeris information calculated from geographic coordinates. This procedure works well but relies heavily on avionics that are external to the terminal. For the majority of small aircraft and helicopters which will form the bulk of future aeronautical satcom users, such avionics either do not exist or are difficult for the satellite terminal to interface with. At the Communications Research Center (CRC), work has been undertaken to develop techniques that use the geomagnetic field and satellite antenna pointing vectors (both of which are stationary in a local geographical area) to track the position of a satellite relative to a moving platform such as an aircraft. The performance of this technique is examined and a mathematical steering transformation is developed within this paper. Details are given regarding the experimental program that will be undertaken to test the concepts proposed herein.

  12. Werner coordination chemistry and neurodegeneration. (United States)

    Telpoukhovskaia, Maria A; Orvig, Chris


    Neurodegenerative diseases are capturing the world's attention as being the next set of diseases we must tackle collectively. Not only are the patients experiencing gradual cognitive and physical decline in most cases, but these diseases are fatal with no prevention currently available. As these diseases are progressive, providing care and symptom treatment for the ageing population is becoming both a medical and a financial challenge. This review discusses how Werner coordination chemistry plays a role in three diseases - those of Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and prions. Metal ions are considered to be involved in these diseases in part via their propensity to cause toxic aggregation of proteins. First, the coordination of metal ions, with emphasis on copper(II), to metalloproteins that are hallmarks of these diseases - amyloid β, α-synuclein, and prion, respectively - will be discussed. We will present the current understanding of the metal coordination environments created by the amino acids of these proteins, as well as metal binding affinity. Second, a diverse set of examples of rationally designed metal chelators to outcompete this deleterious binding will be examined based on coordination mode and affinity toward bio-relevant metal ions. Overall, this review will give a general overview of protein and metal chelator coordination environments in neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. Radio broadcasting via satellite (United States)

    Helm, Neil R.; Pritchard, Wilbur L.


    Market areas offering potential for future narrowband broadcast satellites are examined, including international public diplomacy, government- and advertising-supported, and business-application usages. Technical issues such as frequency allocation, spacecraft types, transmission parameters, and radio receiver characteristics are outlined. Service and system requirements, advertising revenue, and business communications services are among the economic issues discussed. The institutional framework required to provide an operational radio broadcast service is studied, and new initiatives in direct broadcast audio radio systems, encompassing studies, tests, in-orbit demonstrations of, and proposals for national and international commercial broadcast services are considered.

  14. Understanding satellite navigation

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Rajat


    This book explains the basic principles of satellite navigation technology with the bare minimum of mathematics and without complex equations. It helps you to conceptualize the underlying theory from first principles, building up your knowledge gradually using practical demonstrations and worked examples. A full range of MATLAB simulations is used to visualize concepts and solve problems, allowing you to see what happens to signals and systems with different configurations. Implementation and applications are discussed, along with some special topics such as Kalman Filter and Ionosphere. W

  15. China Satellite Navigation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jingnan; Fan, Shiwei; Wang, Feixue


    These Proceedings present selected research papers from CSNC2016, held during 18th-20th May in Changsha, China. The theme of CSNC2016 is Smart Sensing, Smart Perception. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 12 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2016, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.

  16. China Satellite Navigation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jingnan; Yang, Yuanxi; Fan, Shiwei; Yu, Wenxian


    These proceedings present selected research papers from CSNC2017, held during 23th-25th May in Shanghai, China. The theme of CSNC2017 is Positioning, Connecting All. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 12 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2017, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.

  17. The Galilean Satellites (United States)


    This composite includes the four largest moons of Jupiter which are known as the Galilean satellites. The Galilean satellites were first seen by the Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei in 1610. Shown from left to right in order of increasing distance from Jupiter, Io is closest, followed by Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.The order of these satellites from the planet Jupiter helps to explain some of the visible differences among the moons. Io is subject to the strongest tidal stresses from the massive planet. These stresses generate internal heating which is released at the surface and makes Io the most volcanically active body in our solar system. Europa appears to be strongly differentiated with a rock/iron core, an ice layer at its surface, and the potential for local or global zones of water between these layers. Tectonic resurfacing brightens terrain on the less active and partially differentiated moon Ganymede. Callisto, furthest from Jupiter, appears heavily cratered at low resolutions and shows no evidence of internal activity.North is to the top of this composite picture in which these satellites have all been scaled to a common factor of 10 kilometers (6 miles) per picture element.The Solid State Imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft acquired the Io and Ganymede images in June 1996, the Europa images in September 1996, and the Callisto images in November 1997.Launched in October 1989, the spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission

  18. Future communications satellite applications (United States)

    Bagwell, James W.


    The point of view of the research is made through the use of viewgraphs. It is suggested that future communications satellite applications will be made through switched point to point narrowband communications. Some characteristics of which are as follows: small/low cost terminals; single hop communications; voice compatible; full mesh networking; ISDN compatible; and possible limited use of full motion video. Some target applications are as follows: voice/data networks between plants and offices in a corporation; data base networking for commercial and science users; and cellular radio internodal voice/data networking.

  19. HETE Satellite Power Subsystem



    The HETE (High-Energy Transient Experiment) satellite a joint project between MIT's Center for Space Research and AeroAstro. is a high-energy gamma-ray burst/X-Ray/UV observatory platform. HETE will be launched into a 550 km circular orbit with an inclination of 37.7°, and has a design lifetime of 18 months. This paper presents a description of the spacecraft's power subsystem, which collects, regulates, and distributes power to the experiment payload modules and to the various spacecraft sub...

  20. On small satellites for oceanography: A survey (United States)

    Guerra, André G. C.; Francisco, Frederico; Villate, Jaime; Aguado Agelet, Fernando; Bertolami, Orfeu; Rajan, Kanna


    The recent explosive growth of small satellite operations driven primarily from an academic or pedagogical need, has demonstrated the viability of commercial-off-the-shelf technologies in space. They have also leveraged and shown the need for development of compatible sensors primarily aimed for Earth observation tasks including monitoring terrestrial domains, communications and engineering tests. However, one domain that these platforms have not yet made substantial inroads into, is in the ocean sciences. Remote sensing has long been within the repertoire of tools for oceanographers to study dynamic large scale physical phenomena, such as gyres and fronts, bio-geochemical process transport, primary productivity and process studies in the coastal ocean. We argue that the time has come for micro and nano-satellites (with mass smaller than 100 kg and 2-3 year development times) designed, built, tested and flown by academic departments, for coordinated observations with robotic assets in situ. We do so primarily by surveying SmallSat missions oriented towards ocean observations in the recent past, and in doing so, we update the current knowledge about what is feasible in the rapidly evolving field of platforms and sensors for this domain. We conclude by proposing a set of candidate ocean observing missions with an emphasis on radar-based observations, with a focus on Synthetic Aperture Radar.

  1. The TAOS/STEP Satellite


    Edwards, David; Hosken, Robert


    The Technology for Autonomous Operational Survivability / Space Test Experiments Platform (TAOS/STEP) satellite was launched on a Taurus booster from Vandenberg Air Force Base into a nearly circular, 105 degree inclined orbit on March 13, 1994. The purpose of this satellite is twofold: 1) to test a new concept in multiple procurements of fast-track modular satellites and 2) to test a suite of Air Force Phillips Laboratory payloads in space. The TAOS payloads include the Microcosm Autonomous N...

  2. Living antennas on communication satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumholt, Michael


    Crises change the global pattern of communication. The communications problems occur because the satellites are optimized to cover specific geographic areas, and these areas cannot be altered once the satellites are in Earth orbit. An effective solution to the problem is to equip communication...... satellites with "living" antennas that can adjust their radiation coverage areas according to the new demands. The development of living antennas is, therefore, among the focus areas identified and supported by the European Space Agency, ESA....

  3. Trends in mobile satellite communication (United States)

    Johannsen, Klaus G.; Bowles, Mike W.; Milliken, Samuel; Cherrette, Alan R.; Busche, Gregory C.


    Ever since the U.S. Federal Communication Commission opened the discussion on spectrum usage for personal handheld communication, the community of satellite manufacturers has been searching for an economically viable and technically feasible satellite mobile communication system. Hughes Aircraft Company and others have joined in providing proposals for such systems, ranging from low to medium to geosynchronous orbits. These proposals make it clear that the trend in mobile satellite communication is toward more sophisticated satellites with a large number of spot beams and onboard processing, providing worldwide interconnectivity. Recent Hughes studies indicate that from a cost standpoint the geosynchronous satellite (GEOS) is most economical, followed by the medium earth orbit satellite (MEOS) and then by the low earth orbit satellite (LEOS). From a system performance standpoint, this evaluation may be in reverse order, depending on how the public will react to speech delay and collision. This paper discusses the trends and various mobile satellite constellations in satellite communication under investigation. It considers the effect of orbital altitude and modulation/multiple access on the link and spacecraft design.

  4. Magnetic Satellite Missions and Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Kotsiaros, Stavros


    Although the first satellite observations of the Earth’s magnetic field were already taken more than 50 years ago, continuous geomagnetic measurements from space are only available since 1999. The unprecedented time-space coverage of this recent data set opened revolutionary new possibilities...... for exploring the Earth’s magnetic field from space. In this chapter we discuss characteristics of satellites measuring the geomagnetic field and report on past, present and upcoming magnetic satellite missions. We conclude with some basics about space magnetic gradiometry as a possible path for future...... exploration of Earth’s magnetic field with satellites....

  5. Satellite Communications: The Indian Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ranjit Singh


    Full Text Available India has launched as many as 73 Indian satellites as of today since its first attempt in 1975. Besides serving traditional markets of telephony and broadcasting, satellites are on the frontiers of advanced applications as telemedicine, distance learning, environment monitoring, remote sensing, and so on. Satellite systems are optimized for services such as Internet access, virtual private networks and personal access. Costs have been coming down in recent years to the point where satellite broadband is becoming competitive. This article is an attempt to view this important topic from Indian perspective. India’s Project GAGAN, GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation is discussed.

  6. Business Use of Satellite Communications. (United States)

    Edelson, Burton I.; Cooper, Robert S.


    Reviews business communications development and discusses business applications of satellite communications, system technology, and prospects for future developments in digital transmission systems. (JN)

  7. Declassified Intelligence Satellite Photographs (United States)



    Declassified photographs from U.S. intelligence satellites provide an important worldwide addition to the public record of the Earth’s land surface. This imagery was released to the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in accordance with Executive Order 12951 on February 23, 1995. The NARA has the original declassified film and a viewing copy. The USGS has another copy of the film to complement the Landsat archive.The declassified collection involves more than 990,000 photographs taken from 1959 through 1980 and was released on two separate occasions: February 1995 (Declass 1) and September 2002 (Declass 2). The USGS copy is maintained by the Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, near Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Both the NARA and EROS provide public access to this unique collection that extends the record of land-surface change back another decade from the advent of the Landsat program that began satellite operations in 1972.

  8. The power relay satellite (United States)

    Glaser, Peter E.

    The availability and use of renewable energy sources compatible with reducing risks to the global environment are key to sustainable development. Large-scale, renewable energy resources at undeveloped or underutilized sites are potentially available on several continents. The Power Relay Satellite (PRS) concept has the potential to access these remote energy resources by coupling primary electricity generation from terrestrial transmission lines. A global PRS network can be envisioned to provide a high degree of flexibility for supplying energy demands worldwide with wireless power transmitted from sites on Earth to geosynchronous orbit and then reflected to receivers interfacing with terrestrial power transmision networks. Past developments in wireless power transmission (WPT) are reviewed and recent successful results are noted. The origins of the PRS concept, and a possible configuration are discussed, principles of WPT at microwave frequencies, functional requirements, and system design contraints are outlined, and space transportation concepts presented. PRS assessments including applicable technologies, economic projections, and societal issues are highlighted. It is concluded that the PRS provides a promising option to access renewable resources at great distances from major markets, and represents an important stage in the future development in the future of solar power satellites.

  9. COCO: Conversion of Celestial Coordinates (United States)

    Wallace, Patrick


    The COCO program converts star coordinates from one system to another. Both the improved IAU system, post-1976, and the old pre-1976 system are supported. COCO can perform accurate transformations between multiple coordinate systems. COCO's user-interface is spartan but efficient and the program offers control over report resolution. All input is free-format, and defaults are provided where this is meaningful. COCO uses SLALIB (ascl:1403.025) and is distributed as part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).

  10. A coordination language for databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ximeng; Wu, Xi; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto


    We present a coordination language for the modeling of distributed database applications. The language, baptized Klaim-DB, borrows the concepts of localities and nets of the coordination language Klaim but re-incarnates the tuple spaces of Klaim as databases. It provides high-level abstractions...... in the semantics. The use of the language is illustrated in a scenario where the sales from different branches of a chain of department stores are aggregated from their local databases. Raising the abstraction level and encapsulating integrity checks in the language primitives have benefited the modeling task...

  11. Inter-satellite links for satellite autonomous integrity monitoring (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Irma; García-Serrano, Cristina; Catalán Catalán, Carlos; García, Alvaro Mozo; Tavella, Patrizia; Galleani, Lorenzo; Amarillo, Francisco


    A new integrity monitoring mechanisms to be implemented on-board on a GNSS taking advantage of inter-satellite links has been introduced. This is based on accurate range and Doppler measurements not affected neither by atmospheric delays nor ground local degradation (multipath and interference). By a linear combination of the Inter-Satellite Links Observables, appropriate observables for both satellite orbits and clock monitoring are obtained and by the proposed algorithms it is possible to reduce the time-to-alarm and the probability of undetected satellite anomalies.Several test cases have been run to assess the performances of the new orbit and clock monitoring algorithms in front of a complete scenario (satellite-to-satellite and satellite-to-ground links) and in a satellite-only scenario. The results of this experimentation campaign demonstrate that the Orbit Monitoring Algorithm is able to detect orbital feared events when the position error at the worst user location is still under acceptable limits. For instance, an unplanned manoeuvre in the along-track direction is detected (with a probability of false alarm equals to 5 × 10-9) when the position error at the worst user location is 18 cm. The experimentation also reveals that the clock monitoring algorithm is able to detect phase jumps, frequency jumps and instability degradation on the clocks but the latency of detection as well as the detection performances strongly depends on the noise added by the clock measurement system.

  12. 7 CFR 22.201 - Coordination. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coordination. 22.201 Section 22.201 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and Responsibilities of Federal Government § 22.201 Coordination. The following identifies types and levels of coordination: (a) Washington...

  13. 15 CFR 923.56 - Plan coordination. (United States)


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plan coordination. 923.56 Section 923... COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Coordination, Public Involvement and National Interest § 923.56 Plan coordination. (a) The management program must be coordinated with local, areawide,...

  14. 40 CFR 109.6 - Coordination. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coordination. 109.6 Section 109.6..., LOCAL AND REGIONAL OIL REMOVAL CONTINGENCY PLANS § 109.6 Coordination. For the purposes of coordination... coordination of these contingency plans with the National Oil and Hazardous Materials Pollution...

  15. 29 CFR 42.8 - Coordination plan. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Coordination plan. 42.8 Section 42.8 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.8 Coordination plan. (a) Based upon, among other things, the... coordination plan concerning farm labor-related responsibilities of the Department, including migrant housing...

  16. 33 CFR 165.8 - Geographic coordinates. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographic coordinates. 165.8... Geographic coordinates. Geographic coordinates expressed in terms of latitude or longitude, or both, are not... 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic...

  17. The Convex Coordinates of the Symmedian Point (United States)

    Boyd, J. N.; Raychowdhury, P. N.


    In this note, we recall the convex (or barycentric) coordinates of the points of a closed triangular region. We relate the convex and trilinear coordinates of the interior points of the triangular region. We use the relationship between convex and trilinear coordinates to calculate the convex coordinates of the symmedian point of the triangular…

  18. 78 FR 73819 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee (United States)


    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of...-18, 2013 meeting of the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee due to the Government partial shutdown... INFORMATION CONTACT: Maya Solomon, Forest Resource Coordinating Committee Program Coordinator; by phone at...

  19. Determination of the position of the Station Borowiec No. 7811 by satellite laser observations. (United States)

    Dobaczewská, W.; Drozyner, A.; Rutkowska, M.; Schillak, S.; Zieliňski, J. B.

    Laser observations were performed in Borowiec in three years 1977 - 79 of the satellites Geos A and Geos C. These data were processed by means of the program ORBITA and station coordinates were calculated by dynamical methods. Another solution was found with the processing by the program GRIPE of SAO. These two dynamical solutions are compared with the translocation solution Wettzel-Borowiec.

  20. System for electronic transformation and geographic correlation of satellite television information. [cloud cover photography (United States)

    Dubenskiy, V. P.; Nemkovskiy, B. L.; Rodionov, B. N.


    An electronic transformation and correlation system has been developed for the Meteor space weather system which provides transformation and scaling of the original picture, accounts for satellite flight altitude and inclinations of the optical axes of the transmitting devices, and simultaneously superposes the geographical coordinate grid on the transformed picture.

  1. An autonomous navigation algorithm for high orbit satellite using star sensor and ultraviolet earth sensor. (United States)

    Baohua, Li; Wenjie, Lai; Yun, Chen; Zongming, Liu


    An autonomous navigation algorithm using the sensor that integrated the star sensor (FOV1) and ultraviolet earth sensor (FOV2) is presented. The star images are sampled by FOV1, and the ultraviolet earth images are sampled by the FOV2. The star identification algorithm and star tracking algorithm are executed at FOV1. Then, the optical axis direction of FOV1 at J2000.0 coordinate system is calculated. The ultraviolet image of earth is sampled by FOV2. The center vector of earth at FOV2 coordinate system is calculated with the coordinates of ultraviolet earth. The autonomous navigation data of satellite are calculated by integrated sensor with the optical axis direction of FOV1 and the center vector of earth from FOV2. The position accuracy of the autonomous navigation for satellite is improved from 1000 meters to 300 meters. And the velocity accuracy of the autonomous navigation for satellite is improved from 100 m/s to 20 m/s. At the same time, the period sine errors of the autonomous navigation for satellite are eliminated. The autonomous navigation for satellite with a sensor that integrated ultraviolet earth sensor and star sensor is well robust.

  2. Coordination Frictions and Job Heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; le Maire, Christian Daniel

    This paper develops and extends a dynamic, discrete time, job to worker matching model in which jobs are heterogeneous in equilibrium. The key assumptions of this economic environment are (i) matching is directed and (ii) coordination frictions lead to heterogeneous local labor markets. We de- rive...

  3. Terrestrial Coordinate Systems and Frames (United States)

    Boucher, C.; Murdin, P.


    A terrestrial reference system (TRS) is a spatial reference system corotating with the Earth in its DIURNAL MOTION in space. In such a system, the positions of points anchored on the Earth's solid surface have coordinates which have only small variations with time, as a result of geophysical effects (tectonic or tidal deformations; see TECTONICS, EARTH'S INTERIOR, TIDES). A terrestrial reference ...

  4. Archimedes' Principle in General Coordinates (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.


    Archimedes' principle is well known to state that a body submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. Herein, Archimedes' principle is derived from first principles by using conservation of the stress-energy-momentum tensor in general coordinates. The resulting expression for the force is…

  5. Coordinated Exploration for Grand Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørding Olsen, Anders; Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph


    on the acceptance and support of important stakeholders. In this study, we suggest that search consortia are more likely to receive funding when they include representatives of stakeholder concerns, so-called advocacy groups. We extend theory on coordinated exploration in joint search by integrating mechanisms from...

  6. Coordinating talk and practical action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshima, Sae; Streeck, Jürgen


    This paper investigates how talk and practical action are coordinated during one type of activity involving professional communication: the service-assessment sequence in hair salons. During this activity, a practical inspection of the haircut must be coupled with sequentially produced verbal act...

  7. Archimedes' Principle in General Coordinates (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.


    Archimedes' principle is well known to state that a body submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. Herein, Archimedes' principle is derived from first principles by using conservation of the stress-energy-momentum tensor in general coordinates. The resulting expression for the force is…

  8. Coordinating talk and practical action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshima, Sae; Streeck, Jürgen


    . Our analysis of four examples reveals that there is no fixed relationship between the organization of talk and practical action. Instead, people manipulate this relationship on a moment-by-moment basis, often coordinating the two into a single, integral package, or relying on one stream of action...

  9. Early insulin therapy Coordination Council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vladimirovna Shestakova


    Full Text Available Coordination Council has denoted the importance of adherence to Russian and international guidelines and prominent role of insulin therapy in management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Insulin therapy in T2DM preserves endogenous insulin secretion, prevents or decelerates development of microvascular complications and is known to be the most effective glucose-lowering treatment.

  10. Multicast Routing in Satellite Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭惠玲; 宋姝; 李磊; 刘志涛; 郭鹏程


    There are some problems in the dual-layer satellite MPLs metworks to be composed of LEO and MEO. In order to solve the problems, this paper presents a plan by means of unicast LSP to implement multicast in the dual-layer satellite MPLs networks. It has advantages of saving space and reducing extra charge.

  11. Magnetic Satellite Missions and Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Kotsiaros, Stavros


    for exploring the Earth’s magnetic field from space. In this chapter we discuss characteristics of satellites measuring the geomagnetic field and report on past, present and upcoming magnetic satellite missions. We conclude with some basics about space magnetic gradiometry as a possible path for future...

  12. The SPOT satellite (United States)

    Fouquet, J.-P.


    The background, objectives and data products of the French SPOT remote sensing satellite system are presented. The system, which was developed starting in 1978 with the subsequent participation of Sweden and Belgium, is based on a standard multimission platform with associated ground control station and a mission-specific payload, which includes two High-Resolution Visible range instruments allowing the acquisition of stereoscopic views from different orbits. Mission objectives include the definition of future remote sensing systems, the compilation of a cartographic and resources data base, the study of species discrimination and production forecasting based on frequent access and off-nadir viewing, the compilation of a stereoscopic data base, and platform and instrument qualification, for possible applications in cartography, geology and agriculture. Standard data products will be available at three levels of preprocessing: radiometric correction only, precision processing for vertical viewing, and cartographic quality processing.

  13. Satellite Control Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Bak, Thomas


    The Satellite Laboratory at the Department of Control Engineering of Aalborg University (SatLab) is a dynamic motion facility designed for analysis and test of micro spacecraft. A unique feature of the laboratory is that it provides a completely gravity-free environment. A test spacecraft...... of the laboratory is to conduct dynamic tests of the control and attitude determination algorithms during nominal operation and in abnormal conditions. Further it is intended to use SatLab for validation of various algorithms for fault detection, accommodation and supervisory control. Different mission objectives...... can be implemented in the laboratory, e.g. three-axis attitude control, slew manoeuvres, spins stabilization using magnetic actuation and/or reaction wheels. The spacecraft attitude can be determined applying magnetometer measurements...

  14. Astronomy from satellite clusters (United States)

    Stachnik, R.; Labeyrie, A.


    Attention is called to the accumulating evidence that giant space telescopes, comprising a number of separate mirrors on independent satellites, are a realistic prospect for providing research tools of extraordinary power. The ESA-sponsored group and its counterpart in the US have reached remarkably similar conclusions regarding the basic configuration of extremely large synthetic-aperture devices. Both share the basic view that a cluster of spacecraft is preferable to a single monolithic structure. The emphasis of the US group has been on a mission that sweeps across as many sources as possible in the minimum time; it is referred to as SAMSI (Spacecraft Array for Michelson Spatial Interferometry). The European group has placed more emphasis on obtaining two-dimensional images. Their system is referred to as TRIO because, at least initially, it involves three independent systems. Detailed descriptions are given of the two systems.

  15. Advanced satellite communication system (United States)

    Staples, Edward J.; Lie, Sen


    The objective of this research program was to develop an innovative advanced satellite receiver/demodulator utilizing surface acoustic wave (SAW) chirp transform processor and coherent BPSK demodulation. The algorithm of this SAW chirp Fourier transformer is of the Convolve - Multiply - Convolve (CMC) type, utilizing off-the-shelf reflective array compressor (RAC) chirp filters. This satellite receiver, if fully developed, was intended to be used as an on-board multichannel communications repeater. The Advanced Communications Receiver consists of four units: (1) CMC processor, (2) single sideband modulator, (3) demodulator, and (4) chirp waveform generator and individual channel processors. The input signal is composed of multiple user transmission frequencies operating independently from remotely located ground terminals. This signal is Fourier transformed by the CMC Processor into a unique time slot for each user frequency. The CMC processor is driven by a waveform generator through a single sideband (SSB) modulator. The output of the coherent demodulator is composed of positive and negative pulses, which are the envelopes of the chirp transform processor output. These pulses correspond to the data symbols. Following the demodulator, a logic circuit reconstructs the pulses into data, which are subsequently differentially decoded to form the transmitted data. The coherent demodulation and detection of BPSK signals derived from a CMC chirp transform processor were experimentally demonstrated and bit error rate (BER) testing was performed. To assess the feasibility of such advanced receiver, the results were compared with the theoretical analysis and plotted for an average BER as a function of signal-to-noise ratio. Another goal of this SBIR program was the development of a commercial product. The commercial product developed was an arbitrary waveform generator. The successful sales have begun with the delivery of the first arbitrary waveform generator.

  16. Direct Broadcast Satellite: Radio Program (United States)

    Hollansworth, James E.


    NASA is committed to providing technology development that leads to the introduction of new commercial applications for communications satellites. The Direct Broadcast Satellite-Radio (DBS-R) Program is a joint effort between The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and The United States Information Agency/Voice of America (USIA/VOA) directed at this objective. The purpose of this program is to define the service and develop the technology for a direct-to-listener satellite sound broadcasting system. The DBS-R Program, as structured by NASA and VOA, is now a three-phase program designed to help the U.S. commercial communications satellite and receiver industry bring about this new communications service. Major efforts are being directed towards frequency planning hardware and service development, service demonstration, and experimentation with new satellite and receiver technology.

  17. Sky alert! when satellites fail

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Les


    How much do we depend on space satellites? Defense, travel, agriculture, weather forecasting, mobile phones and broadband, commerce...the list seems endless. But what would our live be like if the unimaginable happened and, by accident or design, those space assets disappeared? Sky Alert! explores what our world would be like, looking in turn at areas where the loss could have catastrophic effects. The book - demonstrates our dependence on space technology and satellites; - outlines the effect on our economy, defense, and daily lives if satellites and orbiting spacecraft were destroyed; - illustrates the danger of dead satellites, spent rocket stages, and space debris colliding with a functioning satellites; - demonstrates the threat of dramatically increased radiation levels associated with geomagnetic storms; - introduces space as a potential area of conflict between nations.

  18. Induction studies with satellite data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils


    analysis of the geomagnetic field is performed, and the Q-response, which is the transfer function between the internal (induced) and the external (inducing) expansion coefficients is determined for a specific frequency. In the second approach, known as the geomagnetic depth sounding method, the C....... This paper reviews and discusses the possibilities for induction studies using high-precision magnetic measurements from low-altitude satellites. The different methods and various transfer functions are presented, with special emphasis on the differences in analysing data from ground stations and from...... satellites. The results of several induction studies with scalar satellite data (from the POGO satellites) and with vector data (from the Magsat mission) demonstrate the ability to probe the Earth's conductivity from space. However, compared to the results obtained with ground data the satellite results...

  19. The Communications Satellite as Educational Tool. (United States)

    Long, Peter


    Drawing on the experiences of several countries, the author describes satellite technology, discusses the feasibility of satellite use in traditional educational institutions, and analyzes the role of satellites in social development. (SK)

  20. Polar-Orbiting Satellite (POES) Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from camera systems or radiometer instruments on satellites in orbit around the poles. Satellite campaigns include...

  1. Mechanisms that underlie coordination in children with developmental coordination disorder. (United States)

    O'Brien, Jane Clifford; Williams, Harriet G; Bundy, Anita; Lyons, Jim; Mittal, Amita


    The authors examined potential mechanisms underlying motor coordination in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Because children with DCD experience difficulty processing visual, auditory, and vibrotactile information, the authors explored patterns of choice reaction time (RT) in young (6-7 years) and older (9-10 years) children with and without DCD by using a compatibility-incompatibility paradigm and different sensory modalities. Young children responded more slowly than older children to visual, auditory, and vibrotactile stimuli. Children with DCD took longer than typical children to process visual and vibrotactile stimuli under more complex stimulus-response mappings. Young children with DCD responded more slowly than typical children to visual and vibrotactile information under incompatible conditions. Children with DCD responded faster than unaffected children to auditory stimuli. The results suggest that there is a developmental nature in the processing of visual and auditory input and imply that the vibrotactile sensory modality may be key to the motor coordination difficulties of children with DCD.

  2. Proceedings Ninth International Workshop on the Foundations of Coordination Languages and Software Architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Mousavi, MohammadReza; 10.4204/EPTCS.30


    This volume contains the proceedings of FOCLASA 2010, the 9th International Workshop on the Foundations of Coordination Languages and Software Architectures. FOCLASA 2010 was held in Paris, France on July 30th, 2010 as a satellite event of the 21st International Conference on Concurrency Theory, CONCUR 2010. The papers presented in this proceedings tackle different issues that are currently central to our community, namely software adaptation, sensor networks, distributed control, non-functional aspects of coordination such as resources, timing and stochastics.

  3. Solving Einstein's Equations With Dual Coordinate Frames

    CERN Document Server

    Scheel, M A; Lindblom, L; Pfeiffer, H P; Rinne, O; Teukolsky, S A; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Lindblom, Lee; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Rinne, Oliver; Scheel, Mark A.; Teukolsky, Saul A.


    A method is introduced for solving Einstein's equations using two distinct coordinate systems. The coordinate basis vectors associated with one system are used to project out components of the metric and other fields, in analogy with the way fields are projected onto an orthonormal tetrad basis. These field components are then determined as functions of a second independent coordinate system. The transformation to the second coordinate system can be thought of as a mapping from the original ``inertial'' coordinate system to the computational domain. This dual-coordinate method is used to perform stable numerical evolutions of a black-hole spacetime using the generalized harmonic form of Einstein's equations in coordinates that rotate with respect to the inertial frame at infinity; such evolutions are found to be generically unstable using a single rotating coordinate frame. The dual-coordinate method is also used here to evolve binary black-hole spacetimes for several orbits. The great flexibility of this met...

  4. Theory of satellite geodesy applications of satellites to geodesy

    CERN Document Server

    Kaula, William M


    The main purpose of this classic text is to demonstrate how Newtonian gravitational theory and Euclidean geometry can be used and developed in the earth's environment. The second is to collect and explain some of the mathematical techniques developed for measuring the earth by satellite.Book chapters include discussions of the earth's gravitational field, with special emphasis on spherical harmonies and the potential of the ellipsoid; matrices and orbital geometry; elliptic motion, linear perturbations, resonance, and other aspects of satellite orbit dynamics; the geometry of satellite obser

  5. Managing Coordinator, Educational or Entrepreneurial Coordinator: Course Coordinator Profile Analysis at Private HEIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Augusta de Araújo Silva


    Full Text Available Higher Education dynamics is impacted by political, economic and financial interference. In parallel, the Ministry of Education and Culture (MEC is strict in its reviews to ensure Brazilian higher education is appreciated and promoted. The purpose of this study is to identify the profile of Course Coordinators and factors that might improve, at the surveyed HEIs, this professional´s relationship with students, teaching staff and Directors. Literature was searched and reviewed so as to collect subject matter pertaining issues. A quantitative research approach was employed and objectives were of exploratory descriptive nature since this technique ensures extended comprehension of the investigated phenomenon, whilst data was gathered via personal interviews. The object of investigation comprised all Course Coordinators of the Estácio/Natal Group in Brazil´s four units. The survey´s tool comprises: 13 closed questions to identify the Coordinator´s profile; 17 questions with a 5 point Likert score scale to identify the entrepreneurial profile; 42 also resorting to a 5 point Likert score scale to measure the dimensions of the Coordinator´s activities and 4 open, optional questions to measure difficulties and possibilities that impact the development of an entrepreneurial course management approach. The study employed both a statistical method (data analysis and descriptive statistics. Findings lead to the conclusion that information and knowledge gathered support researched HEIs in their overcoming of challenges, amongst which encouraging strategic course management and innovation, focused on implementing a new vision of the Course Coordinator, as professionals that master how to balance management and pedagogical skills, whilst innovating by resorting to entrepreneurial competencies.

  6. Use of Very Stable Clocks in Satellite Geodesy (United States)

    Hugentobler, Urs; Romanyuk, Tetyana


    Time and frequency play an essential role in satellite geodesy and navigation. Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) rely on precise measurements of signal travel times. The satellite and receiver clocks involved in measuring this time interval need to be synchronized at the picosecond level. The concept of GNSS allows for an epoch-wise synchronization of space and ground clocks, a feature which is consequently used in satellite geodesy by estimating epoch-wise clock corrections for all clocks in the system, either explicitly or implicitly by forming double differences. Ultra-stable clocks allow to estimate only few parameters for each clock, e.g., offset and drift. The much reduced number of parameters should stabilize GNSS solutions, e.g., tracking network station coordinates. On the other hand systematic errors, e.g., from troposphere or orbit modeling deficiencies or temperature induced hardware delay variations may systematically affect the solutions. The presentation shows trade-offs of modelling higly stable clocks and negative impact of error sources based on simulations.

  7. Sliding mode control of electromagnetic tethered satellite formation (United States)

    Hallaj, Mohammad Amin Alandi; Assadian, Nima


    This paper investigates the control of tethered satellite formation actuated by electromagnetic dipoles and reaction wheels using the robust sliding mode control technique. Generating electromagnetic forces and moments by electric current coils provides an attractive control actuation alternative for tethered satellite system due to the advantages of no propellant consumption and no obligatory rotational motion. Based on a dumbbell model of tethered satellite in which the flexibility and mass of the tether is neglected, the equations of motion in Cartesian coordinate are derived. In this model, the J2 perturbation is taken into account. The far-field and mid-field models of electromagnetic forces and moments of two satellites on each other and the effect of the Earth's magnetic field are presented. A robust sliding mode controller is designed for precise trajectory tracking purposes and to deal with the electromagnetic force and moment uncertainties and external disturbances due to the Earth's gravitational and magnetic fields inaccuracy. Numerical simulation results are presented to validate the effectiveness of the developed controller and its superiority over the linear controller.

  8. Touchless attitude correction for satellite with constant magnetic moment (United States)

    Ao, Hou-jun; Yang, Le-ping; Zhu, Yan-wei; Zhang, Yuan-wen; Huang, Huan


    Rescue of satellite with attitude fault is of great value. Satellite with improper injection attitude may lose contact with ground as the antenna points to the wrong direction, or encounter energy problems as solar arrays are not facing the sun. Improper uploaded command may set the attitude out of control, exemplified by Japanese Hitomi spacecraft. In engineering practice, traditional physical contact approaches have been applied, yet with a potential risk of collision and a lack of versatility since the mechanical systems are mission-specific. This paper puts forward a touchless attitude correction approach, in which three satellites are considered, one having constant dipole and two having magnetic coils to control attitude of the first. Particular correction configurations are designed and analyzed to maintain the target's orbit during the attitude correction process. A reference coordinate system is introduced to simplify the control process and avoid the singular value problem of Euler angles. Based on the spherical triangle basic relations, the accurate varying geomagnetic field is considered in the attitude dynamic mode. Sliding mode control method is utilized to design the correction law. Finally, numerical simulation is conducted to verify the theoretical derivation. It can be safely concluded that the no-contact attitude correction approach for the satellite with uniaxial constant magnetic moment is feasible and potentially applicable to on-orbit operations.

  9. Improving satellite vulnerability assessment to untrackable orbital debris (United States)

    Welty, Nathan; Schaefer, Frank; Rudolph, Martin; Destefanis, Roberto; Grassi, Lilith


    The projected growth in the untrackable orbital debris population will place an increased emphasis on satellite vulnerability assessments during both design and mission operations. This study presents an enhanced method for assessing satellite vulnerability to untrackable orbital debris that expands on traditional practices. By looking beyond structural penetration of the spacecraft, the method predicts the survivability of individual components and the associated degradation of system functionality resulting from untrackable debris impacts. A new risk assessment tool, the Particle Impact Risk and Vulnerability Assessment Tool (PIRAT), has been developed based on this method and is also presented here. It interfaces with both the NASA ORDEM2000 and ESA MASTER-2009 debris models and has been validated against the benchmark test cases from the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC). This study concludes with an example vulnerability assessment using PIRAT for a generic Earth observation satellite in a Sun-synchronous low-Earth orbit. The results illustrate the additional insight provided by this method that can be used to improve the robustness of future satellite designs and mitigate the overall mission risk posed by untrackable orbital debris.

  10. Supply Chain Reorganization and Coordination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Feng-bin


    Three generic forms of governance--hierarchy, hybrid and market are proposed in the newinstitutional economics, giving an abstract description of alternative coordination and control mechanisms forgeneral use. While this theory is known as far away from being operational and specified, a few researchersin the management and organization area are trying to extend Galbraith and/or Mintzberg's organizationaldesign theories into the application of logistical coordination for obtaining a smooth flow of products along thesupply chain within and without the focal organization. In this paper, we present an explorative case study onthe design of various organizational architectures of logistics activities and their relevant coordinationmechanisms, especially internal and external contracts as one new kind of hybrid mechanisms forcoordinating effective supply chains.

  11. [Transplant coordinator: organ donation process]. (United States)

    Gironés-Guillem, Purificación; Camaño-Puig, Ramón; Lillo-Crespo, Manuel


    Spain is a leader in organ donations although it seems that this number does not increase in the same proportion that the waiting list and it is necessary to decrease the refusal situations, which are ~16%. Analytic study. We review the reports prepared by the coordinators of transplants archived at the hospital La Fe during the period between May 1, 2004 and December 31, 2007, resulting in conceptualization and categorization. Sixty-nine topics were obtained from the point of view of the family and 11 from the point of view of the interviewer. After its conceptualization, codification and classification, we proceeded to create an appropriate text. Certain guidelines may be offered that allow us to standardize the action of transplant coordinators during the interview and to be more effective.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin HROMÁDKA


    Full Text Available Both low cost carriers ‘fresh wind’ and liberalisation of ground handling market makes airlines to be cost-wise in every single field. Thus, ground handling contract are cutting down in terms of their costs. Handling companies struggle with pressure being put from the market environment, they rush 25 minutes turnaround with couple of people. This can be potentially dangerous from the safety point of view. One of possible solutions seems to be introducing turnaround coordinator, person who would supervise the ramp handling procedures. This paper discusses the role of turnaround coordinator within the aircraft turnaround process. Duties and responsibilities of this person are described. However, not every airport is staffing this position. The survey shows that smaller airports pay much more attention to this issue than the big ones.

  13. Porphyrin coordination polymer nanospheres and nanorods (United States)

    Wang, Zhongchun; Shelnutt, John A.; Medforth, Craig J.


    A porphyrin coordination polymer nanostructure comprising a network of pyridyl porphyrin molecules and coordinating metal ions coordinatively bound through the pyridyl groups. In some embodiments, the porphyrins are metalloporphyrins. A variety of nanostructures are formed by the network polymer, including nanospheres, polygonal nanostructures, nanorods, and nanofibers, depending on a variety of factors including coordination metal ion, porphyrin type, metal of the metalloporphyrin, and degree of agitation during nanostructure formation. Reduction of coordinating metal ions may be used to form metal nanoparticles on the coordination polymer nanostructure.

  14. Porphyrin coordination polymer nanospheres and nanorods (United States)

    Wang, Zhongchun; Shelnutt, John A.; Medforth, Craig J.


    A porphyrin coordination polymer nanostructure comprising a network of pyridyl porphyrin molecules and coordinating metal ions coordinatively bound through the pyridyl groups. In some embodiments, the porphyrins are metalloporphyrins. A variety of nanostructures are formed by the network polymer, including nanospheres, polygonal nanostructures, nanorods, and nanofibers, depending on a variety of factors including coordination metal ion, porphyrin type, metal of the metalloporphyrin, and degree of agitation during nanostructure formation. Reduction of coordinating metal ions may be used to form metal nanoparticles on the coordination polymer nanostructure.

  15. Resolution enhancement in tilted coordinates (United States)

    Hariri Naghadeh, Diako; Keith Morley, Christopher


    Deconvolution is applied to remove source wavelet effects from seismograms. The results are resolution enhancement that enables detection of thin layers. Following enhancement of resolution, low frequency and high angle reflectors, particularly at great depth, appear as low amplitude and semi-invisible reflectors that are difficult to track and pick. A new approach to enhance resolution is introduced that estimates a derivative using continuous wavelet transform in tilted coordinates. The results are compared with sparse spike deconvolution, curvelet deconvolution and inverse quality filtering in wavelet domain. The positive consequence of the new method is to increase sampling of high dip features by changing the coordinate system from Cartesian to tilted. To compare those methods a complex data set was chosen that includes high angle faults and chaotic mass transport complex. Image enhancement using curvelet deconvolution shows a chaotic system as a non-chaotic one. The results show that sparse spike deconvolution and inverse quality filtering in wavelet domain are able to enhance resolution more than curvelet deconvolution especially at great depth but it is impossible to follow steep dip reflectors after resolution enhancement using these methods, especially when their apparent dips are more than 45°. By estimating derivatives in a continuous wavelet transform from tilted data sets similar resolution enhancement as the other deconvolution methods is achieved but additionally steep dipping reflectors are imaged much better than others. Subtracted results of the enhanced resolution data set using new method and the other introduced methods show that steeply dipping reflectors are highlighted as a particular ability of the new method. The results show that high frequency recovery in Cartesian co-ordinate is accompanied by inability to image steeply dipping reflectors especially at great depths. Conversely recovery of high frequency data and imaging of the data


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh MIRAFKHAMI


    Full Text Available ObjectiveIn this article, a motor skill disorder called developmental coordination disorder (DCD, that is usually first diagnosed during childhood, is explained and discussed. In the year 1987, DCD was formally recognized as a distinct disorder in children by the American Psychiatric Association  (APA. DCD is a generalized term for the children who have some degrees of impairment in the development of motor coordination and therefore have difficulties with physical skills which significantly interfere with their academic achievements and /or performing everyday activities. As they develop, other age-related tasks are also below average. Because these impairment & conditions are often associated with emotional distress, they can seriously interfere with the person's everyday life and social relationships. Reviews indicate that most of the training rocedures have only a limited effect on the development of general coordination, and that they have no effect at all on academic progress.This includes approaches based on assumed underlying deficiencies such as sensory integration deficits and kinesthetic functioning deficits, as well as the more traditional perceptual - motor training. One new approach is Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP, based on problem - solving strategies and guided discovery of the child and task specific strategies. The aim of this article was to inform, promote and disseminate more information about some difficulties in applying the diagnostic criteria for DCD. Also, a brief review of the researches on the intervention methods is presented.Keywords: Developmental coordination disorder, Motor skills disorder, Childhood disorder, Intervention methods

  17. Coordination strategies of crew management (United States)

    Conley, Sharon; Cano, Yvonne; Bryant, Don


    An exploratory study that describes and contrasts two three-person flight crews performing in a B-727 simulator is presented. This study specifically attempts to delineate crew communication patterns accounting for measured differences in performance across routine and nonroutine flight patterns. The communication patterns in the two crews evaluated indicated different modes of coordination, i.e., standardization in the less effective crew and planning/mutual adjustment in the more effective crew.

  18. Coordination strategies of crew management (United States)

    Conley, Sharon; Cano, Yvonne; Bryant, Don


    An exploratory study that describes and contrasts two three-person flight crews performing in a B-727 simulator is presented. This study specifically attempts to delineate crew communication patterns accounting for measured differences in performance across routine and nonroutine flight patterns. The communication patterns in the two crews evaluated indicated different modes of coordination, i.e., standardization in the less effective crew and planning/mutual adjustment in the more effective crew.

  19. Multi-mission Satellite Management (United States)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Teter, M. A.; Grant, K. D.; Dougherty, B.; Cochran, S.


    NOAA's next-generation environmental satellite, the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). JPSS satellites carry sensors which collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The first JPSS satellite was launched in 2011 and is currently NOAA's primary operational polar satellite. The JPSS ground system is the Common Ground System (CGS), and provides command, control, and communications (C3) and data processing (DP). A multi-mission system, CGS provides combinations of C3/DP for numerous NASA, NOAA, DoD, and international missions. In preparation for the next JPSS satellite, CGS improved its multi-mission capabilities to enhance mission operations for larger constellations of earth observing satellites with the added benefit of streamlining mission operations for other NOAA missions. CGS's multi-mission capabilities allows management all of assets as a single enterprise, more efficiently using ground resources and personnel and consolidating multiple ground systems into one. Sophisticated scheduling algorithms compare mission priorities and constraints across all ground stations, creating an enterprise schedule optimized to mission needs, which CGS executes to acquire the satellite link, uplink commands, downlink and route data to the operations and data processing facilities, and generate the final products for delivery to downstream users. This paper will illustrate the CGS's ability to manage multiple, enterprise-wide polar orbiting missions by demonstrating resource modeling and tasking, production of enterprise contact schedules for NOAA's Fairbanks ground station (using both standing and ad hoc requests), deconflicting resources due to ground outages, and updating resource allocations through dynamic priority definitions.

  20. Coordinate unsaturation with fluorinated ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rack, J.L.; Hurlburt, P.K.; Anderson, O.P.; Strauss, S.H. [Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, CO (United States)


    The preparation and characterization of Zn(OTeF{sub 5}){sub 2} has resulted in a model compound with which to explore the concept of coordinative unsaturation. The coordination of solvents of varying donicity and dielectric constant to the Zn(II) ions in Zn(OTeF{sub 5}){sub 2} was studied by vapor phase monometry, NMR and IR spectroscopy, conductimetry, and X-Ray crystallography. The structures of [Zn(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}NO{sub 2}){sub 2}(OTeF{sub 5})2]2 and Zn(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}NO{sub 2}){sub 3}(OTEF{sub 5}){sub 2} demonstrate the electronic flexibility of some weakly coordinating solvents in that nitrobenzene can function as either an {eta}{sup 1}O or {eta}{sup 2}O,O`-ligand. The dependence of the number of bound solvent molecules and the degree of OTeF{sub 5}{minus} dissociation on solvent donor number and dielectric constant will be presented.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh MIRAFKHAMI


    Full Text Available ObjectiveIn this article, a motor skill disorder called developmental coordination disorder (DCD, that is usually first diagnosed during childhood, is explained and discussed. In the year 1987, DCD was formally recognized as a distinct disorder in children by the American Psychiatric Association (APA. DCD is a generalized term for the children who have some degrees of impairment in the development of motor coordination and therefore have difficulties with physical skills which significantly interfere with their academic achievements and /or performing everyday activities. As they develop, other age-related tasks are also below average. Because these impairment & conditions are often associated with emotional distress, they can seriously interfere with the person's everyday life and social relationships. Reviews indicate that most of the training rocedures have only a limited effect on the development of general coordination, and that they have no effect at all on academic progress.This includes approaches based on assumed underlying deficiencies such as sensory integration deficits and kinesthetic functioning deficits, as well as the more traditional perceptual - motor training. One new approach is Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP, based on problem - solving strategies and guided discovery of the child and task specific strategies. The aim of this article was to inform, promote and disseminate more information about some difficulties in applying the diagnostic criteria for DCD. Also, a brief review of the researches on the intervention methods is presented.

  2. Calculation of the satellite "Sich-1M" orientation on onboard magnetometric measurements (United States)

    Suhorukov, A.; Kozak, L.


    The satellite "Sich-1M" was launched on 24 December 2004. It came out onto the elliptic orbit with the perigee height near 280 km except planned earlier higher near circle orbit. In addition, the satellite has gotten a non-planned rotation (about 2 rotations per turn). Later the gravitational beam had been pulled out from the satellite which partly stabilized it. A rotation of the satellite was superseded by its oscillation with a period near 2-4 swings per turn and amplitude 50 degrees. The oscillations have an unstable character. Rotations and oscillations of the satellite set inessential limitations on realization of scientific tasks of the project "Variant" because there is a possibility to determine the satellite orientation for a given time moment with the help of measurements of ferrosonde magnetometer FZM or onboard magnetometer. The device FZM measures three components of magnetic field Bx, By, Bz of the Earth in coordinate system of the satellite. To determine the satellite orientation we have used the fact that each of the component of the magnetic field at the present time moment is a function of geographical coordinates of the satellite (latitude, longitude, height over sea level), its orientation and components of a vector of Earth magnetic field in this point, calculated from magnetosphere model. Thus, having direct satellite measurements of Bx, By, Bz at given time moment in given point, orbital elements and position of the satellite on the orbit and using the standard model of Earth's magnetosphere one can calculate the satellite orientation as function of time. For the calculation we have used the magnetosphere model "The International Geomagnetic Reference Field" (IGRF) which empirically calculates the components of magnetic field of the Earth and is recommended for scientific investigations by International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA). Coefficients of IGRF model are based on accessible information sources including

  3. Satellite communications principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Calcutt, David


    Satellites are increasingly used for global communications, as well as for radio and television transmissions. With the growth of mobile communications, and of digital technology, the use of satellite systems is set to expand substantially and already all students of electronics or communications engineering must study the subject.This book steers a middle path between offering a basic understanding of the process of communication by satellite and the methodology used; and the extensive mathematical analysis normally adopted in similar texts. It presents the basic concepts, using as mu

  4. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) (United States)

    Gedney, Richard T.; Schertler, Ronald J.


    The NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) was conceived to help maintain U.S. leadership in the world's communications-satellite market. This experimental satellite is expected to be launched by NASA in 1992 and to furnish the technology necessary for establishing very small aperture terminal digital networks which provide on-demand full-mesh connectivity, and 1.544-MBPS services with only a single hop. Utilizing on-board switching and processing, each individual voice or data circuit can be separately routed to any location in the network. This paper provides an overview of the ACTS and discusses the value of the technology for future communications systems.

  5. The french educational satellite arsene (United States)

    Danvel, M.; Escudier, B.

    ARSENE (Ariane, Radio-amateur, Satellite pour l'ENseignement de l'Espace) is a telecommunications satellite for Amateur Space Service. Its main feature is that more than 100 students from French engineering schools and universities have been working since 1979 for definition phase and satellite development. The highest IAF awards has been obtained by "ARSENE students" in Tokyo (1980) and Rome (1981). The French space agency, CNES and French aerospace industries are supporting the program. The European Space Agency offered to place ARSENE in orbit on the first Ariane mark IV launch late 1985.

  6. ISDN - The case for satellites (United States)

    Pelton, Joseph N.; McDougal, Patrick J.


    The Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) holds much promise for both suppliers and users of telecommunications in the near future. This article examines the role of satellites in this new ISDN environment and emphasizes several advantages of satellites in the ongoing evolution to an all-digital world. In specific, the role of Intelsat, the global satellite system, is discussed with emphasis on Intelsat's digital services which today can offer all the characteristics and standards of ISDN in a flexible, cost-efficient manner.

  7. Leucocytes, cytokines and satellite cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Gøran; Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Raastad, Truls


    -damaging exercise', primarily eccentric exercise. We review the evidence for the notion that the degree of muscle damage is related to the magnitude of the cytokine response. In the third and final section, we look at the satellite cell response to a single bout of eccentric exercise, as well as the role...... damage. With the exception of IL-6, the sources of systemic cytokines following exercise remain unclear The satellite cell response to severe muscle damage is related to regeneration, whereas the biological significance of satellite cell proliferation after mild damage or non-damaging exercise remains...

  8. Planetary satellites - an update (United States)

    Beatty, J. K.


    General features of all known planetary satellites in the system are provided, and attention is focused on prominent features of several of the bodies. Titan has an atmosphere 1.5 times earth's at sea level, a well a a large body of liquid which may be ethane, CH4, and disolved N2. Uranus has at least five moons, whose masses have recently been recalculated and determined to be consistent with predictions of outer solar system composition. Io's violent volcanic activity is a demonstration of the conversion of total energy (from Jupiter) to heat, i.e., interior melting and consequent volcanoes. Plumes of SO2 have been seen and feature temperatures of up to 650 K. Enceladus has a craterless, cracked surface, indicating the presence of interior ice and occasional breakthroughs from tidal heating. Hyperion has a chaotic rotation, and Iapetus has one light and one dark side, possibly from periodic collisions with debris clouds blasted off the surface of the outer moon Phoebe.

  9. Hubble Space Telescope satellite (United States)

    Mitchell, R. E.


    The Hubble Space Telescope, named for the American astronomer Edwin Powell Hubble, will be the largest and most powerful astronomical instrument ever orbited. Placed above the obscuring effects of the earth's atmosphere in a 600-km orbit, this remotely-controlled, free-flying satellite observatory will expand the terrestrial-equivalent resolution of the universe by a factor of seven, or a volumetric factor of 350. This telescope has a 2.4-m primary mirror and can accommodate five scientific instruments (cameras, spectrographs and photometers). The optics are suitable for a spectral range from 1100 angstrom to 1 mm wavelength. With a projected service life of fifteen years, the spacecraft can be serviced on-orbit for replacement of degraded systems, to insert advanced scientific instruments, and to reboost the telescope from decayed altitudes. The anticipated image quality will be a result of extremely precise lambda/20 optics, stringent cleanliness, and very stable pointing: jitter will be held to less than 0.01 arcsecond for indefinite observation periods, consistent with instrument apertures as small as 0.1 arcsecond.

  10. The impact of curved satellite tracks on SAR focusing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Johan Jacob; Madsen, Søren Nørvang


    This paper addresses the geometric effect of processing single look complex synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data to a reference squint angle different from that given by the center of the real antenna beam. For data acquired on a straight flight line, the required transformation of radar coordinates...... from one Doppler reference to another is independent of the target elevation but for data acquired from a satellite orbit over a rotating Earth that is not true. Also the effect of ignoring Earth rotation is addressed....

  11. Coordinate systems and map projections

    CERN Document Server

    Maling, DH


    A revised and expanded new edition of the definitive English work on map projections. The revisions take into account the huge advances in geometrical geodesy which have occurred since the early years of satellite geodesy. The detailed configuration of the geoid resulting from the GEOS and SEASAT altimetry measurements are now taken into consideration. Additionally, the chapter on computation of map projections is updated bearing in mind the availability of pocket calculators and microcomputers. Analytical derivation of some map projections including examples of pseudocylindrical and polyconic

  12. Numerical modeling of a Global Navigation Satellite System in a general relativistic framework

    CERN Document Server

    Delva, P; Cadez, A


    In this article we model a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) in a Schwarzschild space-time, as a first approximation of the relativistic geometry around the Earth. The closed time-like and scattering light-like geodesics are obtained analytically, describing respectively trajectories of satellites and electromagnetic signals. We implement an algorithm to calculate Schwarzschild coordinates of a GNSS user who receives proper times sent by four satellites, knowing their orbital parameters; the inverse procedure is implemented to check for consistency. The constellation of satellites therefore realizes a geocentric inertial reference system with no \\emph{a priori} realization of a terrestrial reference frame. We show that the calculation is very fast and could be implemented in a real GNSS, as an alternative to usual post-Newtonian corrections. Effects of non-gravitational perturbations on positioning errors are assessed, and methods to reduce them are sketched. In particular, inter-links between satelli...

  13. The Application of the Technology of 3D Satellite Cloud Imaging in Virtual Reality Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-fang Xie


    Full Text Available Using satellite cloud images to simulate clouds is one of the new visual simulation technologies in Virtual Reality (VR. Taking the original data of satellite cloud images as the source, this paper depicts specifically the technology of 3D satellite cloud imaging through the transforming of coordinates and projection, creating a DEM (Digital Elevation Model of cloud imaging and 3D simulation. A Mercator projection was introduced to create a cloud image DEM, while solutions for geodetic problems were introduced to calculate distances, and the outer-trajectory science of rockets was introduced to obtain the elevation of clouds. For demonstration, we report on a computer program to simulate the 3D satellite cloud images.

  14. Report of the IAU Working Group on cartographic coordinates and rotational elements: 2009 (United States)

    Archinal, B.A.; A'Hearn, M.F.; Bowell, E.; Conrad, A.; Consolmagno, G.J.; Courtin, R.; Fukushima, T.; Hestroffer, D.; Hilton, J.L.; Krasinsky, G.A.; Neumann, G.; Oberst, J.; Seidelmann, P.K.; Stooke, P.; Tholen, D.J.; Thomas, P.C.; Williams, I.P.


    Every three years the IAU Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements revises tables giving the directions of the poles of rotation and the prime meridians of the planets, satellites, minor planets, and comets. This report takes into account the IAU Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (WGPSN) and the IAU Committee on Small Body Nomenclature (CSBN) definition of dwarf planets, introduces improved values for the pole and rotation rate of Mercury, returns the rotation rate of Jupiter to a previous value, introduces improved values for the rotation of five satellites of Saturn, and adds the equatorial radius of the Sun for comparison. It also adds or updates size and shape information for the Earth, Mars’ satellites Deimos and Phobos, the four Galilean satellites of Jupiter, and 22 satellites of Saturn. Pole, rotation, and size information has been added for the asteroids (21) Lutetia, (511) Davida, and (2867) Šteins. Pole and rotation information has been added for (2) Pallas and (21) Lutetia. Pole and rotation and mean radius information has been added for (1) Ceres. Pole information has been updated for (4) Vesta. The high precision realization for the pole and rotation rate of the Moon is updated. Alternative orientation models for Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn are noted. The Working Group also reaffirms that once an observable feature at a defined longitude is chosen, a longitude definition origin should not change except under unusual circumstances. It is also noted that alternative coordinate systems may exist for various (e.g. dynamical) purposes, but specific cartographic coordinate system information continues to be recommended for each body. The Working Group elaborates on its purpose, and also announces its plans to occasionally provide limited updates to its recommendations via its website, in order to address community needs for some updates more often than every 3 years. Brief recommendations are also made to the general

  15. Internationally coordinated glacier monitoring: strategy and datasets (United States)

    Hoelzle, Martin; Armstrong, Richard; Fetterer, Florence; Gärtner-Roer, Isabelle; Haeberli, Wilfried; Kääb, Andreas; Kargel, Jeff; Nussbaumer, Samuel; Paul, Frank; Raup, Bruce; Zemp, Michael


    Internationally coordinated monitoring of long-term glacier changes provide key indicator data about global climate change and began in the year 1894 as an internationally coordinated effort to establish standardized observations. Today, world-wide monitoring of glaciers and ice caps is embedded within the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) in support of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) as an important Essential Climate Variable (ECV). The Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G) was established in 1999 with the task of coordinating measurements and to ensure the continuous development and adaptation of the international strategies to the long-term needs of users in science and policy. The basic monitoring principles must be relevant, feasible, comprehensive and understandable to a wider scientific community as well as to policy makers and the general public. Data access has to be free and unrestricted, the quality of the standardized and calibrated data must be high and a combination of detailed process studies at selected field sites with global coverage by satellite remote sensing is envisaged. Recently a GTN-G Steering Committee was established to guide and advise the operational bodies responsible for the international glacier monitoring, which are the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS), the US National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), and the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) initiative. Several online databases containing a wealth of diverse data types having different levels of detail and global coverage provide fast access to continuously updated information on glacier fluctuation and inventory data. For world-wide inventories, data are now available through (a) the World Glacier Inventory containing tabular information of about 130,000 glaciers covering an area of around 240,000 km2, (b) the GLIMS-database containing digital outlines of around 118,000 glaciers with different time stamps and

  16. Coordination of Passive Systems under Quantized Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Jayawardhana, Bayu


    In this paper we investigate a passivity approach to collective coordination and synchronization problems in the presence of quantized measurements and show that coordination tasks can be achieved in a practical sense for a large class of passive systems.

  17. Energy shaping for coordinating internally actuated vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper considers the stable coordination problem of two vehicles equipping with internal moving mass actuators.The coordinating and stabilizing control are derived by energy shaping. The proposed method is physically motivated and avoids cancelation or domination of nonlinearities.

  18. Commercial satellite broadcasting for Europe (United States)

    Forrest, J. R.


    A review is presented of the current television broadcasting situation in European countries, which involves a varied mix of terrestrial VHF or UHF systems and cable networks. A small market has emerged in Europe for receivers using the low-power telecommunications satellite transmission between the program providers and cable network companies. This is expected to change with the launch of medium-power pan-European telecommunication satellites (e.g. ASTRA, EUTELSAT II), which are now directly addressing the market of home reception. DBS (direct broadcast satellite) in the UK, using the D-MAC transmission standard, will offer three additional television channels, data broadcasting services, and a planned evolution to compatible forms of wide-screen, high-definition television. Comments are given on receiver and conditional access system standardization. Some views are expressed on satellite broadcasting as part of an overall broadcasting framework for the future.

  19. Biogeography based Satellite Image Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Panchal, V K; Kaur, Navdeep; Kundra, Harish


    Biogeography is the study of the geographical distribution of biological organisms. The mindset of the engineer is that we can learn from nature. Biogeography Based Optimization is a burgeoning nature inspired technique to find the optimal solution of the problem. Satellite image classification is an important task because it is the only way we can know about the land cover map of inaccessible areas. Though satellite images have been classified in past by using various techniques, the researchers are always finding alternative strategies for satellite image classification so that they may be prepared to select the most appropriate technique for the feature extraction task in hand. This paper is focused on classification of the satellite image of a particular land cover using the theory of Biogeography based Optimization. The original BBO algorithm does not have the inbuilt property of clustering which is required during image classification. Hence modifications have been proposed to the original algorithm and...

  20. Virtual Satellite Integration Environment Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An integrated environment for rapid design studies of small satellite missions will be developed. This environment will be designed to streamline processes at the...

  1. Virtual Satellite Integration Environment Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advatech Pacific proposes to develop a Virtual Satellite Integration Environment (VSIE) for the NASA Ames Mission Design Center. The VSIE introduces into NASA...

  2. Satellite Teleconferencing in the Caribbean. (United States)

    Sankar, Hollis C.


    Discusses the need for, and the development, use, and future trends of, the University of the West Indies Distance Teaching Experiment, which utilizes telephone and communications satellite technology teleconferencing to extend educational opportunities to the peoples of the Caribbean. (MBR)

  3. Geography with the environmental satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Gastellu Etchegorry


    Full Text Available Coarse spatial resolution, high temporal frequency data from the earth polar orbiting (NOAA. HACMM, Nimbus, etc. satellites and from the geostationary (GOES. Meteosat, and GMS satellites are presented to demonstrate their utility for monitoring terrestrial and atmospheric processes. The main characteristics of these ,satellites and of the instruments on board are reviewed. In order to be useful for environmental assessments. the remotely sensed data must be processed (atmospheric and geometric corrections, etc.. The NOAA Center provides a wide range of already processed data. such as meteorological. oceanic, hydrologic and vegetation products; o rough description of these preprocessed data is given in this article. Finally, some examples of applicotions in Southeast Asia and especially in Indonesia, are described, i.e.: agroecosystem, drought and oceanic monitoring. The paper concludes that coarse resolution, high temporal frequency ,satellite data are very valuable for environmental studies. the emphasis being laid on the improve. ment of the crop and drought assessment programmes.

  4. Satellite co-locations as a link between SLR, GPS and Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellites (United States)

    Melachroinos, S. A.; Lemoine, F. G.; Chinn, D. S.; Nicolas, J. B.; Zelensky, N. P.; Wimert, J.; Radway, Y.


    The procedure applied for the determination of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) requires the combination of all four major techniques of Space Geodesy. This combination is only possibly realized by the introduction of the local-ties between co-located techniques. A local-tie is the lever arm vector between the marker points on the sites where two or more space geodesy instruments operate. The local ties are used as additional observations with proper variances. They are usually derived from local surveys using either classical geodesy or the global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). The Global Positioning System (GPS) plays a major role in the ITRF combination by linking together all the other three techniques SLR, DORIS and VLBI (Altamimi and Collilieux 2009). However, discrepancies between local ties and space geodesy estimates are well known although the reasons for these discrepancies are often not clear. These discrepancies could be either due to errors in local ties and in coordinate estimates or in both. In this study, we use the tracking to G05-35 and G06-36 and one LEO by SLR sites and their combined orbits, earth rotation parameters (ERPs) and station positions in order to establish space-based co-location ties on the stations. The LEO satellite used in this experiment is Jason-2, which carries both GPS and SLR. Therefore from the data-processing point of view the LEO satellite is used as a fast moving station (Thaller et al. 2011). Jason-2 is also equipped with DORIS, but it will be included into another combined analysis. Subsequently, we compare the consistency of our space-based co-locations to the ones from ITRF08 and SLRF08 - IGb08 solutions.

  5. Dressed coordinates: The path-integral approach (United States)

    Casana, R.; Flores-Hidalgo, G.; Pimentel, B. M.


    The recently introduced dressed coordinates are studied in the path-integral approach. These coordinates are defined in the context of a harmonic oscillator linearly coupled to massless scalar field and it is shown that in this model the dressed coordinates appear as a coordinate transformation preserving the path-integral functional measure. The analysis also generalizes the sum rules established in a previous work.

  6. Noncommuting Coordinates in the Landau Problem


    Magro, Gabrielle


    Basic ideas about noncommuting coordinates are summarized, and then coordinate noncommutativity, as it arises in the Landau problem, is investigated. I review a quantum solution to the Landau problem, and evaluate the coordinate commutator in a truncated state space of Landau levels. Restriction to the lowest Landau level reproduces the well known commutator of planar coordinates. Inclusion of a finite number of Landau levels yields a matrix generalization.

  7. women Contrlbute to Satellite Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    IN the early morning of August 14, 1992, at the Xichang satellite launching center, China Central Television Station was about to do a live, worldwide broadcast on the launching of an Australian communications satellite made by the United States. With the order of the commander, "Ignition," people could watch the white rocket rise, pierce the blue sky and race toward the space with a long flaming tail trailing behind it.

  8. Existence of undiscovered Uranian satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boice, D.C.


    Structure in the Uranian ring system as observed in recent occultations may contain indirect evidence for the existence of undiscovered satellites. Using the Alfven and Arrhenius (1975, 1976) scenario for the formation of planetary systems, the orbital radii of up to nine hypothetical satellites interior to Miranda are computed. These calculations should provide interesting comparisons when the results from the Voyager 2 encounter with Uranus are made public. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Radio interferometry and satellite tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Kawase, Seiichiro


    Worldwide growth of space communications has caused a rapid increase in the number of satellites operating in geostationary orbits, causing overcrowded orbits. This practical resource is designed to help professionals overcome this problem. This timely book provides a solid understanding of the use of radio interferometers for tracking and monitoring satellites in overcrowded environments. Practitioners learn the fundamentals of radio interferometer hardware, including antennas, receiving equipment, signal processing and phase detection, and measurement accuracies. This in-depth volume describ

  10. 7 CFR 23.3 - Coordination. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coordination. 23.3 Section 23.3 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture STATE AND REGIONAL ANNUAL PLANS OF WORK State Program § 23.3 Coordination... designate an official who will be responsible for the overall coordination of the authorized programs...

  11. 47 CFR 74.638 - Frequency coordination. (United States)


    ... frequency coordinated under this paragraph, the interference protection criteria in 47 CFR 101.105(a), (b), and (c) and the frequency usage coordination procedures in 47 CFR 101.103(d) will apply. (c) For each... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequency coordination. 74.638 Section...

  12. 47 CFR 87.305 - Frequency coordination. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequency coordination. 87.305 Section 87.305... Flight Test Stations § 87.305 Frequency coordination. (a)(1) Each application for a new station license... prior coordinations and assignments on the proposed frequency(ies). The committee must also...

  13. 47 CFR 27.57 - International coordination. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false International coordination. 27.57 Section 27.57... COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.57 International coordination. (a) WCS operations in the border areas shall be subject to coordination with those countries and provide protection to non-U.S...

  14. 42 CFR 38.1 - Purpose; coordination. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose; coordination. 38.1 Section 38.1 Public... DISASTER ASSISTANCE FOR CRISIS COUNSELING AND TRAINING § 38.1 Purpose; coordination. (a) Purpose. This part... providing those professional counseling services. (b) Coordination. The Secretary, acting through the...

  15. 45 CFR 98.82 - Coordination. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coordination. 98.82 Section 98.82 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Indian Tribes § 98.82 Coordination. Tribal applicants shall coordinate as required by §§ 98.12 and 98.14 and: (a) To...

  16. Construction and minimality of coordinated linear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempker, P.L.; Ran, A.C.M.; Schuppen, J.H. van


    Coordinated linear systems are a particular class of hierarchical systems with a top-to-bottom information structure, consisting of a coordinator system and two or more subsystems. This paper deals with the construction and minimality of coordinated linear systems. Construction procedures are given

  17. 45 CFR 1310.23 - Coordinated transportation. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coordinated transportation. 1310.23 Section 1310... START PROGRAM HEAD START TRANSPORTATION Special Requirements § 1310.23 Coordinated transportation. (a) Each agency providing transportation services must make reasonable efforts to coordinate...

  18. 36 CFR 13.1104 - Coordinates. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coordinates. 13.1104 Section 13.1104 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Administrative Provisions § 13.1104 Coordinates. All coordinates referenced in this subpart use horizontal...

  19. 33 CFR 166.103 - Geographic coordinates. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographic coordinates. 166.103...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY SHIPPING SAFETY FAIRWAYS General § 166.103 Geographic coordinates. Geographic coordinates expressed in terms of latitude or longitude, or both, are not intended for plotting on maps...

  20. 33 CFR 167.3 - Geographic coordinates. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographic coordinates. 167.3...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY OFFSHORE TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES General § 167.3 Geographic coordinates. Geographic coordinates are defined using North American 1927 Datum (NAD 27) unless indicated otherwise....

  1. Managing interteam coordination within and between organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Thomas Arend


    To accomplish complex tasks and effectively respond to environmental contingencies, teams must coordinate task-related issues with other teams (i.e., interteam coordination). Regrettably, interteam coordination is often complicated by misunderstandings that can arise from differences in teams’ langu

  2. 78 FR 34035 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee (United States)


    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Forest Resource Coordinating Committee will meet via teleconference every month on... conference call will be posted to the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee Web site,

  3. 78 FR 57128 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee (United States)


    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Forest Resource Coordinating Committee Meeting will meet in Rosslyn, Virginia. The... inspect comments received on the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee Web site at

  4. 78 FR 44519 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee (United States)


    ... Office of the Secretary Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; Re-establishment of the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee and call for nominations. SUMMARY: The Department of Agriculture re-established the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee (Committee...

  5. Is fiscal policy coordination in EMU desirable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M.W.J. Beetsma; X. Debrun; F.J.G.M. Klaassen


    'It is widely argued that Europe's unified monetary policy calls for international coordination of fiscal policy. This paper surveys the issues involved with the coordination of fiscal policies as a demand management tool. We discuss ex-ante and ex-post coordination. The former operates through bind

  6. 49 CFR 214.325 - Train coordination. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Train coordination. 214.325 Section 214.325..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.325 Train coordination. Working limits established by a roadway worker through the use of train coordination shall comply with the...

  7. Coordination in serial-parallel image processing (United States)

    Wójcik, Waldemar; Dubovoi, Vladymyr M.; Duda, Marina E.; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Yesmakhanova, Laura; Kozbakova, Ainur


    Serial-parallel systems used to convert the image. The control of their work results with the need to solve coordination problem. The paper summarizes the model of coordination of resource allocation in relation to the task of synchronizing parallel processes; the genetic algorithm of coordination developed, its adequacy verified in relation to the process of parallel image processing.

  8. 77 FR 778 - Council Coordination Committee Meeting (United States)


    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA918 Council Coordination Committee Meeting...), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: NMFS will host a meeting of the Council Coordination... Reauthorization Act (MSRA) of 2006 established the Council Coordination Committee by amending Section 302 (16...

  9. Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System (United States)

    Borges, A.; Cerezo, F.; Fernandez, M.; Lomba, J.; Lopez, M.; Moreno, J.; Neira, A.; Quintana, C.; Torres, J.; Trigo, R.; Urena, J.; Vega, E.; Vez, E.


    The Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITyC) and the Ministry of Defense (MoD) signed an agreement in 2007 for the development of a "Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System" based, in first instance, on two satellites: a high resolution optical satellite, called SEOSAT/Ingenio, and a radar satellite based on SAR technology, called SEOSAR/Paz. SEOSAT/Ingenio is managed by MITyC through the Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI), with technical and contractual support from the European Space Agency (ESA). HISDESA T together with the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA, National Institute for Aerospace Technology) will be responsible for the in-orbit operation and the commercial operation of both satellites, and for the technical management of SEOSAR/Paz on behalf of the MoD. In both cases EADS CASA Espacio (ECE) is the prime contractor leading the industrial consortia. The ground segment development will be assigned to a Spanish consortium. This system is the most important contribution of Spain to the European Programme Global Monitoring for Environment and Security, GMES. This paper presents the Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System focusing on SEOSA T/Ingenio Programme and with special emphasis in the potential contribution to the ESA Third Party Missions Programme and to the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security initiative (GMES) Data Access.

  10. Satellite medical centers project (United States)

    Aggarwal, Arvind


    World class health care for common man at low affordable cost: anywhere, anytime The project envisages to set up a national network of satellite Medical centers. Each SMC would be manned by doctors, nurses and technicians, six doctors, six nurses, six technicians would be required to provide 24 hour cover, each SMC would operate 24 hours x 7 days. It would be equipped with the Digital telemedicine devices for capturing clinical patient information and investigations in the form of voice, images and data and create an audiovisual text file - a virtual Digital patient. Through the broad band connectivity the virtual patient can be sent to the central hub, manned by specialists, specialists from several specialists sitting together can view the virtual patient and provide a specialized opinion, they can see the virtual patient, see the examination on line through video conference or even PCs, talk to the patient and the doctor at the SMC and controlle capturing of information during examination and investigations of the patient at the SMC - thus creating a virtual Digital consultant at the SMC. Central hub shall be connected to the doctors and consultants in remote locations or tertiary care hospitals any where in the world, thus creating a virtual hub the hierarchical system shall provide upgradation of knowledge to thedoctors in central hub and smc and thus continued medical education and benefit the patient thru the world class treatment in the smc located at his door step. SMC shall be set up by franchisee who shall get safe business opportunity with high returns, patients shall get Low cost user friendly worldclass health care anywhere anytime, Doctors can get better meaningful selfemplyment with better earnings, flexibility of working time and place. SMC shall provide a wide variety of services from primary care to world class Global consultation for difficult patients.

  11. Satellite Attitude from a Raven Class Telescope (United States)


    Cache MATLAB was used as an interface to the jSim libraries, including orbit propagation, Earth Track determination, and satellite orientation methods...collection opportunities of the satellite. The combined software tool calculates the satellite orientation required to image the asset location... satellite orientation estimations, with only the photometric signatures with strong features being correctly estimated. The strong features that


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China placed 2 scientific experiment satellites into preset orbits atop a LM-4B launch vehicle on Sept. 9, 2004. A LM-4B blasted off at 7:14 am from Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center in Shanxi Province. Sources from the Xi'an Satellite Monitor and Control Center said that one satellite,

  13. China Launches First Ever Nano-satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    China successfully launched two scientific satellites, including a nano-satellite for the first time, heralding a breakthrough in space technology. A LM-2C rocket carrying Nano-Satellite I (NS-1), which weighs just 25kg and an Experiment Satellite I, weighing 204kg blasted off at 11:59 p.m. on April 18,

  14. Neutron diffraction study of the La1-xPrxMn2Si2 ( x=0.4, 0.7 and 1) compounds and the general description of the magnetic behavior of Mn in RMn2Ge2 and RMn2Si2 (United States)

    Dincer, I.; Elerman, Y.; Elmali, A.; Ehrenberg, H.; André, G.


    The magnetic structures of the La1-xPrxMn2Si2 ( x=0.4, 0.7 and 1) have been investigated by powder neutron diffraction between 2 and 308 K. According to magnetic measurements, the x=0.4 sample shows a typical SmMn2Ge2-like magnetic behavior. Neutron diffraction indicates a canted antiferromagnetic structure below 130 K and a canted ferromagnetic structure above 240 K. Between 130 and 240 K, the canted ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic structures coexist. Since the magnetic moments of Mn atoms, the unit cell parameters and the scale parameters of the canted antiferromagnetism and canted ferromagnetism are highly correlated between 130 and 240 K, a special refinement procedure was introduced. The critical Mn-Mn value was determined as 2.87 A˚, and the spontaneous volume change and linear magnetostriction are derived. Neutron diffraction revealed a canted antiferromagnetic structure for La0.3Pr0.7Mn2Si2. A canted antiferromagnetic structure was also detected for PrMn2Si2 by neutron diffraction in contrast to previous reports of a collinear arrangement. The present results are compiled together with previous ones on RMn2Ge2 and RMn2Si2 (R: Y, La and rare-earth) compounds in two magnetic phase diagrams. These two graphics summarize the general magnetic behavior of Mn in the RMn2Ge2 and RMn2Si2 compounds.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Miyazaki


    Full Text Available We developed an algorithm to determine a combination of satellite images according to observation extent and image quality. The algorithm was for testing necessity for completing coverage of the search extent. The tests excluded unnecessary images with low quality and preserve necessary images with good quality. The search conditions of the satellite images could be extended, indicating the catalogue could be constructed with specified periods required for time series analysis. We applied the method to a database of metadata of ASTER satellite images archived in GEO Grid of National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST, Japan. As indexes of populated places with geographical coordinates, we used a database of 3372 populated place of more than 0.1 million populations retrieved from GRUMP Settlement Points, a global gazetteer of cities, which has geographical names of populated places associated with geographical coordinates and population data. From the coordinates of populated places, 3372 extents were generated with radiuses of 30 km, a half of swath of ASTER satellite images. By merging extents overlapping each other, they were assembled into 2214 extents. As a result, we acquired combinations of good quality for 1244 extents, those of low quality for 96 extents, incomplete combinations for 611 extents. Further improvements would be expected by introducing pixel-based cloud assessment and pixel value correction over seasonal variations.

  16. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz


    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  17. Application coordination in pervasive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Majuntke, Verena Elisabeth


    Pervasive applications are designed to support users in their daily life. For this purpose, applications interact with their environment, i.e. their context. They are able to adapt themselves to context changes or to explicitly change the context via actuators. If multiple applications are executed in the same context, interferences are likely to occur. To manage interferences, a coordination framework is presented in this thesis. Interferences are detected using a context model and information about applications' interaction with the context. The resolution of interference is achieved through

  18. Fast Development Of China's Small Satellite Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Hongjin


    @@ China Spacesat Co., Ltd of China Academy of Space Technology (CAST) recently said, along with the successful launch of HJ-1A/B for the environment and disaster monitoring and forecasting small satellite constellation and after years of efforts, small satellite development technology has achieved fruitful results, and the development status has been greatly improved.China's small satellite technology has realized a great-leap-forward in development from a single satellite model to series model, from the satellite program to space industry. China has explored a development road for China's small satellite industrialization, and a modern small satellite development base has resulted.

  19. Geometrical product specifications. Datums and coordinate systems (United States)

    Glukhov, V. I.; Ivleva, I. A.; Zlatkina, O. Y.


    The work is devoted to the relevant topic such as the technical products quality improvement due to the geometrical specifications accuracy. The research purpose is to ensure the quality indicators on the basis of the systematic approach to the values normalization and geometrical specifications accuracy in the workpiece coordinate systems in the process of design. To achieve the goal two tasks are completed such as the datum features classification according to the number of linear and angular freedom degrees constraints, called the datums informativeness, and the rectangular coordinate systems identification, materialized by workpiece datums sets. The datum features informativeness characterizes the datums functional purpose to limit product workpiece linear and angular degrees of freedom. The datum features informativeness numerically coincides with the kinematic pairs classes and couplings in mechanics. The datum features informativeness identifies the coordinate system without the location redundancy. Each coordinate plane of a rectangular coordinate system has different informativeness 3 + 2 + 1. Each coordinate axis also has different informativeness 4+2+Θ (zero). It is possible to establish the associated workpiece position with three linear and three angular coordinates relative to two axes with the informativeness 4 and 2. is higher, the more informativeness of the coordinate axis or a coordinate plane is, the higher is the linear and angular coordinates accuracy, the coordinate being plotted along the coordinate axis or plane. The systematic approach to the geometrical products specifications positioning in coordinate systems is the scientific basis for a natural transition to the functional dimensions of features position - coordinating dimensions and the size of the features form - feature dimensions of two measures: linear and angular ones. The products technical quality improving is possible due to the coordinate systems introduction materialized by

  20. Maximizing photovoltaic power generation of a space-dart configured satellite (United States)

    Lee, Dae Young; Cutler, James W.; Mancewicz, Joe; Ridley, Aaron J.


    Many small satellites are power constrained due to their minimal solar panel area and the eclipse environment of low-Earth orbit. As with larger satellites, these small satellites, including CubeSats, use deployable power arrays to increase power production. This presents a design opportunity to develop various objective functions related to energy management and methods for optimizing these functions over a satellite design. A novel power generation model was created, and a simulation system was developed to evaluate various objective functions describing energy management for complex satellite designs. The model uses a spacecraft-body-fixed spherical coordinate system to analyze the complex geometry of a satellite's self-induced shadowing with computation provided by the Open Graphics Library. As an example design problem, a CubeSat configured as a space-dart with four deployable panels is optimized. Due to the fast computation speed of the solution, an exhaustive search over the design space is used to find the solar panel deployment angles which maximize total power generation. Simulation results are presented for a variety of orbit scenarios. The method is extendable to a variety of complex satellite geometries and power generation systems.

  1. Evaluating the Effect of Global Positioning System (GPS) Satellite Clock Error via GPS Simulation (United States)

    Sathyamoorthy, Dinesh; Shafii, Shalini; Amin, Zainal Fitry M.; Jusoh, Asmariah; Zainun Ali, Siti


    This study is aimed at evaluating the effect of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite clock error using GPS simulation. Two conditions of tests are used; Case 1: All the GPS satellites have clock errors within the normal range of 0 to 7 ns, corresponding to pseudorange error range of 0 to 2.1 m; Case 2: One GPS satellite suffers from critical failure, resulting in clock error in the pseudorange of up to 1 km. It is found that increase of GPS satellite clock error causes increase of average positional error due to increase of pseudorange error in the GPS satellite signals, which results in increasing error in the coordinates computed by the GPS receiver. Varying average positional error patterns are observed for the each of the readings. This is due to the GPS satellite constellation being dynamic, causing varying GPS satellite geometry over location and time, resulting in GPS accuracy being location / time dependent. For Case 1, in general, the highest average positional error values are observed for readings with the highest PDOP values, while the lowest average positional error values are observed for readings with the lowest PDOP values. For Case 2, no correlation is observed between the average positional error values and PDOP, indicating that the error generated is random.

  2. Shadow imaging of geosynchronous satellites (United States)

    Douglas, Dennis Michael

    Geosynchronous (GEO) satellites are essential for modern communication networks. If communication to a GEO satellite is lost and a malfunction occurs upon orbit insertion such as a solar panel not deploying there is no direct way to observe it from Earth. Due to the GEO orbit distance of ~36,000 km from Earth's surface, the Rayleigh criteria dictates that a 14 m telescope is required to conventionally image a satellite with spatial resolution down to 1 m using visible light. Furthermore, a telescope larger than 30 m is required under ideal conditions to obtain spatial resolution down to 0.4 m. This dissertation evaluates a method for obtaining high spatial resolution images of GEO satellites from an Earth based system by measuring the irradiance distribution on the ground resulting from the occultation of the satellite passing in front of a star. The representative size of a GEO satellite combined with the orbital distance results in the ground shadow being consistent with a Fresnel diffraction pattern when observed at visible wavelengths. A measurement of the ground shadow irradiance is used as an amplitude constraint in a Gerchberg-Saxton phase retrieval algorithm that produces a reconstruction of the satellite's 2D transmission function which is analogous to a reverse contrast image of the satellite. The advantage of shadow imaging is that a terrestrial based redundant set of linearly distributed inexpensive small telescopes, each coupled to high speed detectors, is a more effective resolved imaging system for GEO satellites than a very large telescope under ideal conditions. Modeling and simulation efforts indicate sub-meter spatial resolution can be readily achieved using collection apertures of less than 1 meter in diameter. A mathematical basis is established for the treatment of the physical phenomena involved in the shadow imaging process. This includes the source star brightness and angular extent, and the diffraction of starlight from the satellite

  3. Harmonic Vibrational Analysis in Delocalized Internal Coordinates. (United States)

    Jensen, Frank; Palmer, David S


    It is shown that a principal component analysis of a large set of internal coordinates can be used to define a nonredundant set of delocalized internal coordinates suitable for the calculation of harmonic vibrational normal modes. The selection of internal coordinates and the principal component analysis provide large degrees of freedom in extracting a nonredundant set of coordinates, and thus influence how the vibrational normal modes are described. It is shown that long-range coordinates may be especially suitable for describing low-frequency global deformation modes in proteins.

  4. Unpacking Coordination Benefits in Supply Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrick, Irene J.; Maitland, Carleen; Pogrebnyakov, Nicolai


    This paper examines how coordination among firms in supply networks generates benefits in the short and long terms for firms. It focuses on information technology (IT) and process improvement coordination. Analysis was performed on quantitative and qualitative data from a sample of SMEs in plastics...... manufacturing in Pennsylvania. Results indicate that coordination on both IT and process improvement leads to short- and long-term benefits. These relationships were mediated by the adoption of innovations (when coordinating on IT) and access to new capabilities (in process improvement coordination......). These results extend the understanding of how participation in supply networks benefits individual firms....

  5. Ytterbium Coordination Polymer with Four Different Coordination Numbers: The First Structural Characterization of Lanthanide Phthalate Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN,Yong-Hong(万永红); JIN,Lin-Pei(金林培); WANG,Ke-Zhi(王科志)


    The novel ytterbium coordination polymer is a two-dimensional framework in which the central metal ions have four different coordination numhers and form four kinds of coordination polyhedra. The four kinds of coordination polyhedra connect into infinite chains by sharing oxygen atoms


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China on Sept.25 recovered its 19th recoverable sci-tech experimental satellite 27 days after the satellite orbited in space. The satellite, which was launched on Aug.29 from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in Gansu Province, northwest China, touched the ground at 7:55 a.m.on Sept.25. The satellite, atop a Long March 2C carrier rocket, is mainly for

  7. Lopsided Collections of Satellite Galaxies (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    You might think that small satellite galaxies would be distributed evenly around their larger galactic hosts but local evidence suggests otherwise. Are satellite distributions lopsided throughout the universe?Satellites in the Local GroupThe distribution of the satellite galaxies orbiting Andromeda, our neighboring galaxy, is puzzling: 21 out of 27 ( 80%) of its satellites are on the side of Andromeda closest to us. In a similar fashion, 4 of the 11 brightest Milky Way satellites are stacked on the side closest to Andromeda.It seems to be the case, then, that satellites around our pair of galaxies preferentially occupy the space between the two galaxies. But is this behavior specific to the Local Group? Or is it commonplace throughout the universe? In a recent study, a team of scientists led by Noam Libeskind (Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam, Germany) set out to answer this question.Properties of the galaxies included in the authors sample. Left: redshifts for galaxy pairs. Right: Number of satellite galaxies around hosts. [Adapted from Libeskind et al. 2016]Asymmetry at LargeLibeskind and collaborators tested whether this behavior is common by searching through Sloan Digital Sky Survey observations for galaxy pairs that are similar to the Milky Way/Andromeda pair. The resulting sample consists of 12,210 pairs of galaxies, which have 46,043 potential satellites among them. The team then performed statistical tests on these observations to quantify the anisotropic distribution of the satellites around the host galaxies.Libeskind and collaborators find that roughly 8% more galaxies are seen within a 15 angle facing the other galaxy of a pair than would be expected in a uniform distribution. The odds that this asymmetric behavior is randomly produced, they show, are lower than 1 in 10 million indicating that the lopsidedness of satellites around galaxies in pairs is a real effect and occurs beyond just the Local Group.Caution for ModelingProbability that

  8. D Coordinate Transformation Using Artificial Neural Networks (United States)

    Konakoglu, B.; Cakır, L.; Gökalp, E.


    Two coordinate systems used in Turkey, namely the ED50 (European Datum 1950) and ITRF96 (International Terrestrial Reference Frame 1996) coordinate systems. In most cases, it is necessary to conduct transformation from one coordinate system to another. The artificial neural network (ANN) is a new method for coordinate transformation. One of the biggest advantages of the ANN is that it can determine the relationship between two coordinate systems without a mathematical model. The aim of this study was to investigate the performances of three different ANN models (Feed Forward Back Propagation (FFBP), Cascade Forward Back Propagation (CFBP) and Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN)) with regard to 2D coordinate transformation. To do this, three data sets were used for the same study area, the city of Trabzon. The coordinates of data sets were measured in the ED50 and ITRF96 coordinate systems by using RTK-GPS technique. Performance of each transformation method was investigated by using the coordinate differences between the known and estimated coordinates. The results showed that the ANN algorithms can be used for 2D coordinate transformation in cases where optimum model parameters are selected.

  9. Jupiter small satellite montage (United States)


    A montage of images of the small inner moons of Jupiter from the camera onboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft shows the best views obtained of these moons during Galileo's 11th orbit around the giant planet in November 1997. At that point, Galileo was completing its first two years in Jupiter orbit--known as the Galileo 'prime mission'--and was about to embark on a successful two-year extension, called the Galileo Europa Mission. The top two images show the moon Thebe. Thebe rotates by approximately 50 degrees between the time these two images were taken, so that the same prominent impact crater is seen in both views; this crater, which has been given the provisional name Zethus, is near the point on Thebe that faces permanently away from Jupiter. The next two images show the moon Amalthea; they were taken with the Sun directly behind the observer, an alignment that emphasizes patterns of intrinsically bright or dark surface material. The third image from the top is a view of Amalthea's leading side, the side of the moon that 'leads' as Amalthea moves in its orbit around Jupiter. This image looks 'noisy' because it was obtained serendipitously during an observation of the Jovian satellite Io (Amalthea and Io shared the same camera frame but the image was exposed for bright Io rather than for the much darker Amalthea). The fourth image from the top emphasizes prominent 'spots' of relatively bright material that are located near the point on Amalthea that faces permanently away from Jupiter. The bottom image is a view of the tiny moon Metis. In all the images, north is approximately up, and the moons are shown in their correct relative sizes. The images are, from top to bottom: Thebe taken on November 7, 1997 at a range of 504,000 kilometers (about 313,000 miles); Thebe on November 7, 1997 at a range of 548,000 kilometers (about 340,000 miles); Amalthea on November 6, 1997 at a range of about 650,000 kilometers (about 404,000 miles); Amalthea on November 7, 1997 at a

  10. Collaborative Supply Chain Planning and Coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chee Yew

    between the toy manufacturer and three European retailers. These three case studies provide evidences that the toy manufacturer and the retailers followed some particular patterns of planning coordination processes; they also practised some patterns of coordination behaviour during the coordination...... processes, particularly the behaviour of risk-taking/avoidance, conflict resolutions, and self-interest. All these lead to conclusion of five propositions or principles of supply chain coordination, and the theory of coordination process and behaviour. Combining the propositions of responsiveness......This thesis contains main results from an industrial PhD research in the areas of supply chain strategy, planning, and coordination. It applies the concepts of responsiveness and coordination to reduce mismatch of supply and demand, especially for a volatile and seasonal supply chain. It involves...

  11. Weather Satellite Enterprise Information Chain (United States)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Grant, K. D.; Miller, S. W.; Cochran, S.


    NOAA & NASA are acquiring the next-generation civilian operational weather satellite: Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). Contributing the afternoon orbit & ground system (GS) to replace current NOAA POES Satellites, its sensors will collect meteorological, oceanographic & climatological data. The JPSS Common Ground System (CGS), consisting of C3 and IDP segments, is developed by Raytheon. It now flies the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, transferring data between ground facilities, processing them into environmental products for NOAA weather centers, and expanding to support JPSS-1 in 2017. As a multi-mission system, CGS provides combinations of C3, data processing, and product delivery for numerous NASA, NOAA, DoD and international missions.The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of missions: Command and control and mission management for the S-NPP mission today, expanding this support to the JPSS-1 satellite mission in 2017 Data acquisition for S-NPP, the JAXA's Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), POES, and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and Coriolis/WindSat for the DoD Data routing over a global fiber network for S-NPP, JPSS-1, GCOM-W1, POES, DMSP, Coriolis/WindSat, NASA EOS missions, MetOp for EUMETSAT and the National Science Foundation Environmental data processing and distribution for S-NPP, GCOM-W1 and JPSS-1 The CGS plays a key role in facilitating the movement and value-added enhancement of data all the way from satellite-based sensor data to delivery to the consumers who generate forecasts and produce watches and warnings. This presentation will discuss the information flow from sensors, through data routing and processing, and finally to product delivery. It will highlight how advances in architecture developed through lessons learned from S-NPP and implemented for JPSS-1 will increase data availability and reduce latency for end user applications.

  12. Relativistic positioning: errors due to uncertainties in the satellite world lines

    CERN Document Server

    Puchades, Neus


    Global navigation satellite systems use appropriate satellite constellations to get the coordinates of an user -close to Earth- in an almost inertial reference system. We have simulated both GPS and GALILEO constellations. Uncertainties in the satellite world lines lead to dominant positioning errors. In this paper, a detailed analysis of these errors is developed inside a great region surrounding Earth. This analysis is performed in the framework of the so-called relativistic positioning systems. Our study is based on the Jacobian, J, of the transformation giving the emission coordinates in terms of the inertial ones. Around points of vanishing J, positioning errors are too large. We show that, for any 4-tuple of satellites, the points with J=0 are located at distances, D, from the Earth centre greater than about 2R/3, where R is the radius of the satellite orbits which are assumed to be circumferences. Our results strongly suggest that, for D-distances greater than 2R/3 and smaller than 100000 km, a rather ...

  13. Comprehensive Comparisons of Satellite Data, Signals, and Measurements between the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System and the Global Positioning System. (United States)

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Tao, An-Lin


    The Chinese BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) aims to provide global positioning service by 2020. The combined use of BDS and Global Positioning System (GPS) is proposed to provide navigation service with more stringent requirements. Actual satellite data, signals and measurements were collected for more than one month to analyze the positioning service qualities from both BDS and GPS. In addition to the conversions of coordinate and timing system, five data quality analysis (DQA) methods, three signal quality analysis (SQA) methods, and four measurement quality analysis (MQA) methods are proposed in this paper to improve the integrated positioning performance of BDS and GPS. As shown in the experiment results, issues related to BDS and GPS are resolved by the above proposed quality analysis methods. Thus, the anomalies in satellite data, signals and measurements can be detected by following the suggested resolutions to enhance the positioning performance of the combined use of BDS and GPS in the Asia Pacific region.

  14. Stream Gauges and Satellite Measurements (United States)

    Alsdorf, D. E.


    Satellite measurements should not be viewed as a replacement for stream gauges. However, occasionally it is suggested that because satellite-based measurements can provide river discharge, a motivation for satellite approaches is an increasing lack of stream gauges. This is an argument for more stream gauges, but not necessarily for satellite measurements. Rather, in-situ and spaceborne methods of estimating discharge are complementary. Stream gauges provide frequent measurements at one point in the river reach whereas satellites have the potential to measure throughout all reaches but at orbital repeat intervals of days to weeks. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography satellite mission (SWOT) is an opportunity to further develop these complements. The motivation for SWOT, and indeed for any satellite based method of estimating discharge, should not be as a replacement for stream gauges. Scientific and application uses should motivate the measurements. For example, understanding floods with their dynamic water surfaces are best sampled from remote platforms that provide water surface elevations throughout the floodwave. As another example, today’s water and energy balance models are giving outputs at increasing spatial resolution and are making use of water surface elevations throughout the modeled basin. These models require a similar resolution in the calibrating and validating observations. We should also be aware of practical limitations. In addition to providing spatially distributed hydrodynamic measurements on rivers, SWOT will be able to measure storage changes in the estimated 30 million lakes in the world that are larger than a hectare. Knowing the storage changes in these lakes is especially important in certain regions such as the Arctic but gauging even a small fraction of these is impractical. Another motivator for satellite methods is that even in the presence of stream gauges, discharge data is not always well shared throughout all countries

  15. Chartering Launchers for Small Satellites (United States)

    Hernandez, Daniel

    The question of how to launch small satellites has been solved over the years by the larger launchers offering small satellites the possibility of piggy-backing. Specific fixtures have been developed and commercialized: Arianespace developed the ASAP interface, the USAF studied ESPA, NASA has promoted Shuttle launch possibilities, Russian authorities and companies have been able to find solutions with many different launchers... It is fair to say that most launcher suppliers have worked hard and finally often been able to find solutions to launch most small satellites into orbit. It is also true, however, that most of these small satellites were technology demonstration missions capable of accepting a wide range of orbit and launch characteristics: orbit altitude and inclination, launch date, etc. In some cases the small satellite missions required a well-defined type of orbit and have therefore been obliged to hire a small launcher on which they were the prime passenger. In our paper we would like to propose an additional solution to all these possibilities: launchers could plan well in advance (for example about 3 years), trips to precisely defined orbits to allow potential passengers to organize themselves and be ready on the D-Day. On the scheduled date the chartered launcher goes to the stated orbit while on another date, another chartered launcher goes to another orbit. The idea is to organize departures for space like trains or airplanes leaving on known schedules for known destinations.

  16. Low Earth orbit communications satellite (United States)

    Moroney, D.; Lashbrook, D.; Mckibben, B.; Gardener, N.; Rivers, T.; Nottingham, G.; Golden, B.; Barfield, B.; Bruening, J.; Wood, D.


    A current thrust in satellite communication systems considers a low-Earth orbiting constellations of satellites for continuous global coverage. Conceptual design studies have been done at the time of this design project by LORAL Aerospace Corporation under the program name GLOBALSTAR and by Motorola under their IRIDIUM program. This design project concentrates on the spacecraft design of the GLOBALSTAR low-Earth orbiting communication system. Overview information on the program was gained through the Federal Communications Commission licensing request. The GLOBALSTAR system consists of 48 operational satellites positioned in a Walker Delta pattern providing global coverage and redundancy. The operational orbit is 1389 km (750 nmi) altitude with eight planes of six satellites each. The orbital planes are spaced 45 deg., and the spacecraft are separated by 60 deg. within the plane. A Delta 2 launch vehicle is used to carry six spacecraft for orbit establishment. Once in orbit, the spacecraft will utilize code-division multiple access (spread spectrum modulation) for digital relay, voice, and radio determination satellite services (RDSS) yielding position determination with accuracy up to 200 meters.

  17. Satellite Tracking Astrometric Network (STAN) (United States)

    Vecchiato, Alberto; Gai, Mario


    The possibility of precise orbit tracking and determination of different types of satellites has been explored for at least some 25 years (Arimoto et al., 1990). Proposals in this sense made use mainly of astrometric observations, but multiple tracking techniques combining transfer and laser ranging was also suggested (Guo et al., 2009; Montojo et al., 2011), with different requirements and performances ranging from $\\sim100$~m to tenths of meters.In this work we explore the possible improvements and a novel implementation of a technique relying on large angle, high precision astrometry from ground for the determination of satellite orbits. The concept is based on combined observation of geostationary satellites and other near-Earth space objects from two or more telescopes, applying the triangulation principle over widely separated regions of the sky. An accuracy of a few $10^{-2}$~m can be attained with 1-meter-class telescopes and a field of vied of some arcminutes.We discuss the feasibility of the technique, some of the implementation aspects, and the limitations imposed by atmospheric turbulence. The potential benefits for satellite orbit control and navigation systems are presented, depending on the number and position of the contributing telescopes.We also discuss the possibility that, by reversing the roles of stars and satellites, the same kind of observations can be used for verification and maintenance of astrometric catalogs.

  18. Research Supporting Satellite Communications Technology (United States)

    Horan Stephen; Lyman, Raphael


    This report describes the second year of research effort under the grant Research Supporting Satellite Communications Technology. The research program consists of two major projects: Fault Tolerant Link Establishment and the design of an Auto-Configurable Receiver. The Fault Tolerant Link Establishment protocol is being developed to assist the designers of satellite clusters to manage the inter-satellite communications. During this second year, the basic protocol design was validated with an extensive testing program. After this testing was completed, a channel error model was added to the protocol to permit the effects of channel errors to be measured. This error generation was used to test the effects of channel errors on Heartbeat and Token message passing. The C-language source code for the protocol modules was delivered to Goddard Space Flight Center for integration with the GSFC testbed. The need for a receiver autoconfiguration capability arises when a satellite-to-ground transmission is interrupted due to an unexpected event, the satellite transponder may reset to an unknown state and begin transmitting in a new mode. During Year 2, we completed testing of these algorithms when noise-induced bit errors were introduced. We also developed and tested an algorithm for estimating the data rate, assuming an NRZ-formatted signal corrupted with additive white Gaussian noise, and we took initial steps in integrating both algorithms into the SDR test bed at GSFC.

  19. Determination of crustal motions using satellite laser ranging (United States)


    Satellite laser ranging has matured over the last decade into one of the essential space geodesy techniques. It has demonstrated centimeter site positioning and millimeter per year velocity determinations in a frame tied dynamically to the mass center of the solid Earth hydrosphere atmosphere system. Such a coordinate system is a requirement for studying long term eustatic sea level rise and other global change phenomena. Earth orientation parameters determined with the coordinate system have been produced in near real time operationally since 1983, at a relatively modest cost. The SLR ranging to Lageos has also provided a rich spectrum of results based upon the analysis of Lageos orbital dynamics. These include significant improvements in the knowledge of the mean and variable components of the Earth's gravity field and the Earth's gravitational parameter. The ability to measure the time variations of the Earth's gravity field has opened as exciting area of study in relating global processes, including meteorologically derived mass transport through changes in the satellite dynamics. New confirmation of general relativity was obtained using the Lageos SLR data.

  20. Satellite triangulation in Europe from WEST and ISAGEX data. [computer programs (United States)

    Leick, A.; Arur, M.


    Observational data that was acquired during the West European Satellite Triangulation (WEST) program and the International Satellite Geodesy Experiment (ISAGEX) campaign was obtained for the purpose of performing a geometric solution to improve the present values of coordinates of the European stations in the OSU WN14 solutions, adding some new stations and assessing the quality of the WN14 solution with the help of the additional data available. The status of the data as received, the preprocessing required and the preliminary tests carried out for the initial screening of the data are described. The adjustment computations carried out and the results of the adjustments are discussed.