WorldWideScience

Sample records for satellite cell pool

  1. Strength training increases the size of the satellite cell pool in type I and II fibres of chronically painful trapezius muscle in females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail; Andersen, Lars L; Frandsen, Ulrik

    2011-01-01

    ) and general fitness training (GFT, n = 16) to augment the satellite cell (SC) and macrophage pools in the trapezius muscles of women diagnosed with trapezius myalgia. A group receiving general health information (REF, n = 8) served as a control. Muscle biopsies were collected from the trapezius muscles...

  2. The influence of capillarization on satellite cell pool expansion and activation following exercise-induced muscle damage in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederveen, Joshua P; Joanisse, Sophie; Snijders, Tim; Thomas, Aaron C Q; Kumbhare, Dinesh; Parise, Gianni

    2018-03-15

    Skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) play a crucial role in repair and remodelling of muscle in response to exercise. Satellite cells are in close spatial proximity to muscle capillaries and therefore may be influenced by them. In this study, we describe the activation and expansion of the satellite cell pool in response to eccentric contraction-induced muscle damage in individuals with significantly different levels of muscle capillarization. Individuals with greater capillarization and capacity for muscle perfusion demonstrated enhanced activation and/or expansion of the satellite cell pool allowing for an accelerated recovery of muscle function. These results provide insight into the critical relationship between muscle capillarization and satellite cells during skeletal muscle repair. Factors that determine the skeletal muscle satellite cell (SC) response remain incompletely understood. It is known, however, that SC activation status is closely related to the anatomical relationship between SCs and muscle capillaries. We investigated the impact of muscle fibre capillarization on the expansion and activation status of SCs following a muscle-damaging exercise protocol in healthy young men. Twenty-nine young men (21 ± 0.5 years) performed 300 unilateral eccentric contractions (180 deg s -1 ) of the knee extensors. Percutaneous muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis and blood samples from the antecubital vein were taken prior to (Pre) exercise and at 6, 24, 72 and 96 h of post-exercise recovery. A comparison was made between subjects who had a relative low mixed muscle capillary-to-fibre perimeter exchange index (CFPE; Low group) and high mixed muscle CFPE index (High group) at baseline. Type I and type II muscle fibre size, myonuclear content, capillarization, and SC response were determined via immunohistochemistry. Overall, there was a significant correlation (r = 0.39; P < 0.05) between the expansion of SC content (change in total Pax7

  3. Satellite Cell Self-Renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordani, Lorenzo; Parisi, Alice; Le Grand, Fabien

    2018-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle is endowed with regenerative potential through partially recapitulating the embryonic developmental program. Upon acute injury or in pathological conditions, quiescent muscle-resident stem cells, called satellite cells, become activated and give rise to myogenic progenitors that massively proliferate, differentiate, and fuse to form new myofibers and restore tissue functionality. In addition, a proportion of activated cells returns back to quiescence and replenish the pool of satellite cells in order to maintain the ability of skeletal muscle tissue to repair. Self-renewal is the process by which stem cells divide to make more stem cells to maintain the stem cell population throughout life. This process is controlled by cell-intrinsic transcription factors regulated by cell-extrinsic signals from the niche and the microenvironment. This chapter provides an overview about the general aspects of satellite cell biology and focuses on the cellular and molecular aspects of satellite cell self-renewal. To date, we are still far from understanding how a very small proportion of the satellite cell progeny maintain their stem cell identity when most of their siblings progress through the myogenic program to construct myofibers. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. BMP signaling regulates satellite cell-dependent postnatal muscle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stantzou, Amalia; Schirwis, Elija; Swist, Sandra; Alonso-Martin, Sonia; Polydorou, Ioanna; Zarrouki, Faouzi; Mouisel, Etienne; Beley, Cyriaque; Julien, Anaïs; Le Grand, Fabien; Garcia, Luis; Colnot, Céline; Birchmeier, Carmen; Braun, Thomas; Schuelke, Markus; Relaix, Frédéric; Amthor, Helge

    2017-08-01

    Postnatal growth of skeletal muscle largely depends on the expansion and differentiation of resident stem cells, the so-called satellite cells. Here, we demonstrate that postnatal satellite cells express components of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling machinery. Overexpression of noggin in postnatal mice (to antagonize BMP ligands), satellite cell-specific knockout of Alk3 (the gene encoding the BMP transmembrane receptor) or overexpression of inhibitory SMAD6 decreased satellite cell proliferation and accretion during myofiber growth, and ultimately retarded muscle growth. Moreover, reduced BMP signaling diminished the adult satellite cell pool. Abrogation of BMP signaling in satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts strongly diminished cell proliferation and upregulated the expression of cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p57 In conclusion, these results show that BMP signaling defines postnatal muscle development by regulating satellite cell-dependent myofiber growth and the generation of the adult muscle stem cell pool. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Muscle satellite cell heterogeneity and self-renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Norio; Asakura, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle possesses extraordinary regeneration capacities. After muscle injury or exercise, large numbers of newly formed muscle fibers are generated within a week as a result of expansion and differentiation of a self-renewing pool of muscle stem cells termed muscle satellite cells. Normally, satellite cells are mitotically quiescent and reside beneath the basal lamina of muscle fibers. Upon regeneration, satellite cells are activated, and give rise to daughter myogenic precursor cells. After several rounds of proliferation, these myogenic precursor cells contribute to the formation of new muscle fibers. During cell division, a minor population of myogenic precursor cells returns to quiescent satellite cells as a self-renewal process. Currently, accumulating evidence has revealed the essential roles of satellite cells in muscle regeneration and the regulatory mechanisms, while it still remains to be elucidated how satellite cell self-renewal is molecularly regulated and how satellite cells are important in aging and diseased muscle. The number of satellite cells is decreased due to the changing niche during ageing, resulting in attenuation of muscle regeneration capacity. Additionally, in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients, the loss of satellite cell regenerative capacity and decreased satellite cell number due to continuous needs for satellite cells lead to progressive muscle weakness with chronic degeneration. Thus, it is necessary to replenish muscle satellite cells continuously. This review outlines recent findings regarding satellite cell heterogeneity, asymmetric division and molecular mechanisms in satellite cell self-renewal which is crucial for maintenance of satellite cells as a muscle stem cell pool throughout life. In addition, we discuss roles in the stem cell niche for satellite cell maintenance, as well as related cell therapies for approaching treatment of DMD. PMID:25364710

  6. Muscle Satellite Cell Heterogeneity and Self-Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norio eMotohashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult skeletal muscle possesses extraordinary regeneration capacities. After muscle injury or exercise, large numbers of newly formed muscle fibers are generated within a week as a result of expansion and differentiation of a self-renewing pool of muscle stem cells termed muscle satellite cells. Normally, satellite cells are mitotically quiescent and reside beneath the basal lamina of muscle fibers. Upon regeneration, satellite cells are activated, and give rise to daughter myogenic precursor cells. After several rounds of proliferation, these myogenic precursor cells contribute to the formation of new muscle fibers. During cell division, a minor population of myogenic precursor cells returns to quiescent satellite cells as a self-renewal process. Currently, accumulating evidence has revealed the essential roles of satellite cells in muscle regeneration and the regulatory mechanisms, while it still remains to be elucidated how satellite cell self-renewal is molecularly regulated and how satellite cells are important in aging and diseased muscle. The number of satellite cells is decreased due to the changing niche during ageing, resulting in attenuation of muscle regeneration capacity. Additionally, in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD patients, the loss of satellite cell regenerative capacity and decreased satellite cell number due to continuous needs for satellite cells lead to progressive muscle weakness with chronic degeneration. Thus, it is necessary to replenish muscle satellite cells continuously. This review outlines recent findings regarding satellite cell heterogeneity, asymmetric division and molecular mechanisms in satellite cell self-renewal which is crucial for maintenance of satellite cells as a muscle stem cell pool throughout life. In addition, we discuss roles in the stem cell niche for satellite cell maintenance, as well as related cell therapies for approaching treatment of DMD.

  7. The Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The skeletal muscle satellite cell was first described and named based on its anatomic location between the myofiber plasma and basement membranes. In 1961, two independent studies by Alexander Mauro and Bernard Katz provided the first electron microscopic descriptions of satellite cells in frog and rat muscles. These cells were soon detected in other vertebrates and acquired candidacy as the source of myogenic cells needed for myofiber growth and repair throughout life. Cultures of isolated myofibers and, subsequently, transplantation of single myofibers demonstrated that satellite cells were myogenic progenitors. More recently, satellite cells were redefined as myogenic stem cells given their ability to self-renew in addition to producing differentiated progeny. Identification of distinctively expressed molecular markers, in particular Pax7, has facilitated detection of satellite cells using light microscopy. Notwithstanding the remarkable progress made since the discovery of satellite cells, researchers have looked for alternative cells with myogenic capacity that can potentially be used for whole body cell-based therapy of skeletal muscle. Yet, new studies show that inducible ablation of satellite cells in adult muscle impairs myofiber regeneration. Thus, on the 50th anniversary since its discovery, the satellite cell’s indispensable role in muscle repair has been reaffirmed. PMID:22147605

  8. Satellite AVHRR Temperature Measurements of Pools 4, 7, and 8 of the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weinkauf, Ronald

    1997-01-01

    ... heavy cloud cover and fog, metal results were obtained. Satellite mean temperatures were within about 1 Celsius degree of in situ temperature means for nine observation dates for the three pools...

  9. Leucocytes, cytokines and satellite cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Gøran; Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Raastad, Truls

    2012-01-01

    uncertain. The COX enzymes regulate satellite cell activity, as demonstrated in animal models; however the roles of the COX enzymes in human skeletal muscle need further investigation. We suggest using the term 'muscle damage' with care. Comparisons between studies and individuals must consider changes......-damaging exercise', primarily eccentric exercise. We review the evidence for the notion that the degree of muscle damage is related to the magnitude of the cytokine response. In the third and final section, we look at the satellite cell response to a single bout of eccentric exercise, as well as the role...... variation in individual responses to a given exercise should, however be expected. The link between cytokine and satellite cell responses and exercise-induced muscle damage is not so clear The systemic cytokine response may be linked more closely to the metabolic demands of exercise rather than muscle...

  10. Satellite cells in human skeletal muscle plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P; McKay, Bryon R; Joanisse, Sophie; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C; Parise, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells are considered to play a crucial role in muscle fiber maintenance, repair and remodeling. Our knowledge of the role of satellite cells in muscle fiber adaptation has traditionally relied on in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Over the past decade, a genuine effort has been made to translate these results to humans under physiological conditions. Findings from in vivo human studies suggest that satellite cells play a key role in skeletal muscle fiber repair/remodeling in response to exercise. Mounting evidence indicates that aging has a profound impact on the regulation of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. Yet, the precise role of satellite cells in the development of muscle fiber atrophy with age remains unresolved. This review seeks to integrate recent results from in vivo human studies on satellite cell function in muscle fiber repair/remodeling in the wider context of satellite cell biology whose literature is largely based on animal and cell models.

  11. Muscle Satellite Cells: Exploring the Basic Biology to Rule Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Camila F; Fernandes, Stephanie A; Ribeiro Junior, Antonio F; Keith Okamoto, Oswaldo; Vainzof, Mariz

    2016-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle is a postmitotic tissue with an enormous capacity to regenerate upon injury. This is accomplished by resident stem cells, named satellite cells, which were identified more than 50 years ago. Since their discovery, many researchers have been concentrating efforts to answer questions about their origin and role in muscle development, the way they contribute to muscle regeneration, and their potential to cell-based therapies. Satellite cells are maintained in a quiescent state and upon requirement are activated, proliferating, and fusing with other cells to form or repair myofibers. In addition, they are able to self-renew and replenish the stem pool. Every phase of satellite cell activity is highly regulated and orchestrated by many molecules and signaling pathways; the elucidation of players and mechanisms involved in satellite cell biology is of extreme importance, being the first step to expose the crucial points that could be modulated to extract the optimal response from these cells in therapeutic strategies. Here, we review the basic aspects about satellite cells biology and briefly discuss recent findings about therapeutic attempts, trying to raise questions about how basic biology could provide a solid scaffold to more successful use of these cells in clinics.

  12. Lin28a regulates germ cell pool size and fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Gen; de Soysa, T. Yvanka; Seligson, Marc T.; Yabuuchi, Akiko; Fujiwara, Yuko; Huang, Pei Yi; Hagan, John P.; Gregory, Richard I.; Moss, Eric G.; Daley, George Q.

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of LIN28A is associated with human germ cell tumors and promotes primordial germ cell (PGC) development from embryonic stem cells in vitro and in chimeric mice. Knockdown of Lin28a inhibits PGC development in vitro, but how constitutional Lin28a deficiency affects the mammalian reproductive system in vivo remains unknown. Here, we generated Lin28a knockout (KO) mice and found that Lin28a deficiency compromises the size of the germ cell pool in both males and females by affecting PGC proliferation during embryogenesis. Interestingly however, in Lin28a KO males the germ cell pool partially recovers during postnatal expansion, while fertility remains impaired in both males and females mated to wild type mice. Embryonic overexpression of let-7, a microRNA negatively regulated by Lin28a, reduces the germ cell pool, corroborating the role of the Lin28a/let-7 axis in regulating the germ lineage. PMID:23378032

  13. PRMT7 Preserves Satellite Cell Regenerative Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roméo Sébastien Blanc

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration of skeletal muscle requires the continued presence of quiescent muscle stem cells (satellite cells, which become activated in response to injury. Here, we report that whole-body protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT7−/− adult mice and mice conditionally lacking PRMT7 in satellite cells using Pax7-CreERT2 both display a significant reduction in satellite cell function, leading to defects in regenerative capacity upon muscle injury. We show that PRMT7 is preferentially expressed in activated satellite cells and, interestingly, PRMT7-deficient satellite cells undergo cell-cycle arrest and premature cellular senescence. These defects underlie poor satellite cell stem cell capacity to regenerate muscle and self-renew after injury. PRMT7-deficient satellite cells express elevated levels of the CDK inhibitor p21CIP1 and low levels of its repressor, DNMT3b. Restoration of DNMT3b in PRMT7-deficient cells rescues PRMT7-mediated senescence. Our findings define PRMT7 as a regulator of the DNMT3b/p21 axis required to maintain muscle stem cell regenerative capacity.

  14. Regulation of satellite cell function in sarcopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E Alway

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms contributing to sarcopenia include reduced satellite cell (myogenic stem cell function that is impacted by the environment (niche of these cells. Satellite cell function is affected by oxidative stress, which is elevated in aged muscles, and this along with changes in largely unknown systemic factors, likely contribute to the manner in which satellite cells respond to stressors such as exercise, disuse or rehabilitation in sarcopenic muscles. Nutritional intervention provides one therapeutic strategy to improve the satellite cell niche and systemic factors, with the goal of improving satellite cell function in aging muscles. Although many elderly persons consume various nutraceuticals with the hope of improving health, most of these compounds have not been thoroughly tested, and the impacts that they might have on sarcopenia, and satellite cell function are not clear. This review discusses data pertaining to the satellite cell responses and function in aging skeletal muscle, and the impact that three compounds: resveratrol, green tea catechins and β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate have on regulating satellite cell function and therefore contributing to reducing sarcopenia or improving muscle mass after disuse in aging. The data suggest that these nutraceutical compounds improve satellite cell function during rehabilitative loading in animal models of aging after disuse (i.e., muscle regeneration. While these compounds have not been rigorously tested in humans, the data from animal models of aging provide a strong basis for conducting additional focused work to determine if these or other nutraceuticals can offset the muscle losses, or improve regeneration in sarcopenic muscles of older humans via improving satellite cell function.

  15. Regulation of Satellite Cell Function in Sarcopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alway, Stephen E.; Myers, Matthew J.; Mohamed, Junaith S.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms contributing to sarcopenia include reduced satellite cell (myogenic stem cell) function that is impacted by the environment (niche) of these cells. Satellite cell function is affected by oxidative stress, which is elevated in aged muscles, and this along with changes in largely unknown systemic factors, likely contribute to the manner in which satellite cells respond to stressors such as exercise, disuse, or rehabilitation in sarcopenic muscles. Nutritional intervention provides one therapeutic strategy to improve the satellite cell niche and systemic factors, with the goal of improving satellite cell function in aging muscles. Although many elderly persons consume various nutraceuticals with the hope of improving health, most of these compounds have not been thoroughly tested, and the impacts that they might have on sarcopenia and satellite cell function are not clear. This review discusses data pertaining to the satellite cell responses and function in aging skeletal muscle, and the impact that three compounds: resveratrol, green tea catechins, and β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate have on regulating satellite cell function and therefore contributing to reducing sarcopenia or improving muscle mass after disuse in aging. The data suggest that these nutraceutical compounds improve satellite cell function during rehabilitative loading in animal models of aging after disuse (i.e., muscle regeneration). While these compounds have not been rigorously tested in humans, the data from animal models of aging provide a strong basis for conducting additional focused work to determine if these or other nutraceuticals can offset the muscle losses, or improve regeneration in sarcopenic muscles of older humans via improving satellite cell function. PMID:25295003

  16. TAK1 modulates satellite stem cell homeostasis and skeletal muscle repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Yuji; Hindi, Sajedah M.; Sato, Shuichi; Xiong, Guangyan; Akira, Shizuo; Kumar, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Satellite cells are resident adult stem cells that are required for regeneration of skeletal muscle. However, signalling mechanisms that regulate satellite cell function are less understood. Here we demonstrate that transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is important in satellite stem cell homeostasis and function. Inactivation of TAK1 in satellite cells inhibits muscle regeneration in adult mice. TAK1 is essential for satellite cell proliferation and its inactivation causes precocious differentiation. Moreover, TAK1-deficient satellite cells exhibit increased oxidative stress and undergo spontaneous cell death, primarily through necroptosis. TAK1 is required for the activation of NF-κB and JNK in satellite cells. Forced activation of NF-κB improves survival and proliferation of TAK1-deficient satellite cells. Furthermore, TAK1-mediated activation of JNK is essential to prevent oxidative stress and precocious differentiation of satellite cells. Collectively, our study suggests that TAK1 is required for maintaining the pool of satellite stem cells and for regenerative myogenesis. PMID:26648529

  17. Satellite cells in human skeletal muscle plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eSnijders

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle satellite cells are considered to play a crucial role in muscle fiber maintenance, repair and remodelling. Our knowledge of the role of satellite cells in muscle fiber adaptation has traditionally relied on in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Over the past decade, a genuine effort has been made to translate these results to humans under physiological conditions. Findings from in vivo human studies suggest that satellite cells play a key role in skeletal muscle fiber repair/remodelling in response to exercise. Mounting evidence indicates that aging has a profound impact on the regulation of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. Yet, the precise role of satellite cells in the development of muscle fiber atrophy with age remains unresolved. This review seeks to integrate recent results from in vivo human studies on satellite cell function in muscle fiber repair/remodelling in the wider context of satellite cell biology whose literature is largely based on animal and cell models.

  18. Recombinant protein production from stable mammalian cell lines and pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, David L; Balasubramanian, Sowmya

    2016-06-01

    We highlight recent developments for the production of recombinant proteins from suspension-adapted mammalian cell lines. We discuss the generation of stable cell lines using transposons and lentivirus vectors (non-targeted transgene integration) and site-specific recombinases (targeted transgene integration). Each of these methods results in the generation of cell lines with protein yields that are generally superior to those achievable through classical plasmid transfection that depends on the integration of the transfected DNA by non-homologous DNA end-joining. This is the main reason why these techniques can also be used for the generation of stable cell pools, heterogenous populations of recombinant cells generated by gene delivery and genetic selection without resorting to single cell cloning. This allows the time line from gene transfer to protein production to be reduced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Myostatin signals through Pax7 to regulate satellite cell self-renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, Craig; Hennebry, Alex; Thomas, Mark; Plummer, Erin; Ling, Nicholas; Sharma, Mridula; Kambadur, Ravi

    2008-01-01

    Myostatin, a Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β) super-family member, has previously been shown to negatively regulate satellite cell activation and self-renewal. However, to date the mechanism behind Myostatin function in satellite cell biology is not known. Here we show that Myostatin signals via a Pax7-dependent mechanism to regulate satellite cell self-renewal. While excess Myostatin inhibited Pax7 expression via ERK1/2 signaling, an increase in Pax7 expression was observed following both genetic inactivation and functional antagonism of Myostatin. As a result, we show that either blocking or inactivating Myostatin enhances the partitioning of the fusion-incompetent self-renewed satellite cell lineage (high Pax7 expression, low MyoD expression) from the pool of actively proliferating myogenic precursor cells. Consistent with this result, over-expression of Pax7 in C2C12 myogenic cells resulted in increased self-renewal through a mechanism which slowed both myogenic proliferation and differentiation. Taken together, these results suggest that increased expression of Pax7 promotes satellite cell self-renewal, and furthermore Myostatin may control the process of satellite cell self-renewal through regulation of Pax7. Thus we speculate that, in addition to the intrinsic factors (such as Pax7), extrinsic factors both positive and negative in nature, will play a major role in determining the stemness of skeletal muscle satellite cells

  20. Enhanced satellite cell proliferation with resistance training in elderly men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail; Esmarck, B; Kadi, F

    2007-01-01

    In addition to the well-documented loss of muscle mass and strength associated with aging, there is evidence for the attenuating effects of aging on the number of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of satellite cells in elderly men...... and women to 12 weeks of resistance training. Biopsies were collected from the m. vastus lateralis of 13 healthy elderly men and 16 healthy elderly women (mean age 76+/-SD 3 years) before and after the training period. Satellite cells were visualized by immunohistochemical staining of muscle cross.......15+/-0.06; mean+/-SD) and females (from 0.11+/-0.04 to 0.13+/-0.05). These results suggest that 12 weeks of resistance training is effective in enhancing the satellite cell pool in skeletal muscle in the elderly....

  1. Satellite Cells and the Muscle Stem Cell Niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hang; Price, Feodor

    2013-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle in mammals is a stable tissue under normal circumstances but has remarkable ability to repair after injury. Skeletal muscle regeneration is a highly orchestrated process involving the activation of various cellular and molecular responses. As skeletal muscle stem cells, satellite cells play an indispensible role in this process. The self-renewing proliferation of satellite cells not only maintains the stem cell population but also provides numerous myogenic cells, which proliferate, differentiate, fuse, and lead to new myofiber formation and reconstitution of a functional contractile apparatus. The complex behavior of satellite cells during skeletal muscle regeneration is tightly regulated through the dynamic interplay between intrinsic factors within satellite cells and extrinsic factors constituting the muscle stem cell niche/microenvironment. For the last half century, the advance of molecular biology, cell biology, and genetics has greatly improved our understanding of skeletal muscle biology. Here, we review some recent advances, with focuses on functions of satellite cells and their niche during the process of skeletal muscle regeneration. PMID:23303905

  2. Pervasive satellite cell contribution to uninjured adult muscle fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlikowski, Bradley; Pulliam, Crystal; Betta, Nicole Dalla; Kardon, Gabrielle; Olwin, Bradley B

    2015-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle adapts to functional needs, maintaining consistent numbers of myonuclei and stem cells. Although resident muscle stem cells or satellite cells are required for muscle growth and repair, in uninjured muscle, these cells appear quiescent and metabolically inactive. To investigate the satellite cell contribution to myofibers in adult uninjured skeletal muscle, we labeled satellite cells by inducing a recombination of LSL-tdTomato in Pax7(CreER) mice and scoring tdTomato+ myofibers as an indicator of satellite cell fusion. Satellite cell fusion into myofibers plateaus postnatally between 8 and 12 weeks of age, reaching a steady state in hindlimb muscles, but in extra ocular or diaphragm muscles, satellite cell fusion is maintained at postnatal levels irrespective of the age assayed. Upon recombination and following a 2-week chase in 6-month-old mice, tdTomato-labeled satellite cells fused into myofibers as 20, 50, and 80 % of hindlimb, extra ocular, and diaphragm myofibers, respectively, were tdTomato+. Satellite cells contribute to uninjured myofibers either following a cell division or directly without an intervening cell division. The frequency of satellite cell fusion into the skeletal muscle fibers is greater than previously estimated, suggesting an important functional role for satellite cell fusion into adult myofibers and a requirement for active maintenance of satellite cell numbers in uninjured skeletal muscle.

  3. High-Yield Purification, Preservation, and Serial Transplantation of Human Satellite Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Garcia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Investigation of human muscle regeneration requires robust methods to purify and transplant muscle stem and progenitor cells that collectively constitute the human satellite cell (HuSC pool. Existing approaches have yet to make HuSCs widely accessible for researchers, and as a result human muscle stem cell research has advanced slowly. Here, we describe a robust and predictable HuSC purification process that is effective for each human skeletal muscle tested and the development of storage protocols and transplantation models in dystrophin-deficient and wild-type recipients. Enzymatic digestion, magnetic column depletion, and 6-marker flow-cytometric purification enable separation of 104 highly enriched HuSCs per gram of muscle. Cryostorage of HuSCs preserves viability, phenotype, and transplantation potential. Development of enhanced and species-specific transplantation protocols enabled serial HuSC xenotransplantation and recovery. These protocols and models provide an accessible system for basic and translational investigation and clinical development of HuSCs. : Garcia and colleagues report methods for efficient purification of satellite cells from human skeletal muscle. They use their approaches to demonstrate stem cell functions of endogenous satellite cells and to make human satellite cells accessible for sharing among researchers. Keywords: human satellite cell purification, serial transplantation, satellite cell cryopreservation

  4. Myogenic potential of canine craniofacial satellite cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria Laura La Rovere

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The skeletal fibres have different embryological origin; the extraocular and jaw-closer muscles develop from prechordal mesoderm while the limb and trunk muscles from somites. These different origins characterise also the adult muscle stem cells, known as satellite cells (SCs and responsible for the fibre growth and regeneration. The physiological properties of presomitic SCs and their epigenetics are poorly studied despite their peculiar characteristics to preserve muscle integrity during chronic muscle degeneration. Here we isolated SCs from canine somitic (SDM: vastus lateralis, rectus abdominus, gluteus superficialis, biceps femoris, psoas and presomitic (PSDM: lateral rectus, temporalis and retractor bulbi muscles as myogenic progenitor cells from young and old animals. In addition, SDM and PSDM satellite cells were obtained also from Golden retrievers affected by muscular dystrophy (GRMD. We characterised the lifespan, the myogenic potential and functions and oxidative stress of both somitic and presomitic SCs with the aim to reveal differences with ageing and between healthy and dystrophic animals. The different proliferation rate was consistent with higher telomerase activity in PSDM-SCs compared to SDM-SCs, although restricted at early passages. SDM-SCs express early (Pax7, MyoD and late (MyHC, Myogenin myogenic markers differently from PSDM-SCs resulting in a more efficient and faster cell differentiation. Taken together our results showed that PSDM-SCs elicit a stronger stem cell phenotype compared to SDM ones. Finally, myomiR expression profile reveals a unique epigenetic signature in GRMD satellite cells and miR-206, highly expressed in dystrophic SCs, seems to play a critical role in muscle degeneration. Thus, miR-206 could represent a potential target for novel therapeutic approaches.

  5. Donor Satellite Cell Engraftment is Significantly Augmented When the Host Niche is Preserved and Endogenous Satellite Cells are Incapacitated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrin, Luisa; Neal, Alice; Zammit, Peter S; Muntoni, Francesco; Morgan, Jennifer E

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation is already in clinical practice for certain genetic diseases and is a promising therapy for dystrophic muscle. We used the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy to investigate the effect of the host satellite cell niche on the contribution of donor muscle stem cells (satellite cells) to muscle regeneration. We found that incapacitation of the host satellite cells and preservation of the muscle niche promote donor satellite cell contribution to muscle regeneration and functional reconstitution of the satellite cell compartment. But, if the host niche is not promptly refilled, or is filled by competent host satellite cells, it becomes nonfunctional and donor engraftment is negligible. Application of this regimen to aged host muscles also promotes efficient regeneration from aged donor satellite cells. In contrast, if the niche is destroyed, yet host satellite cells remain proliferation-competent, donor-derived engraftment is trivial. Thus preservation of the satellite cell niche, concomitant with functional impairment of the majority of satellite cells within dystrophic human muscles, may improve the efficiency of stem cell therapy. Stem Cells2012;30:1971–1984 PMID:22730231

  6. Peptide pool immunization and CD8+ T cell reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Susanne B; Harndahl, Mikkel N; Buus, Anette Stryhn

    2013-01-01

    Mice were immunized twice with a pool of five peptides selected among twenty 8-9-mer peptides for their ability to form stable complexes at 37°C with recombinant H-2K(b) (half-lives 10-15h). Vaccine-induced immunity of splenic CD8(+) T cells was studied in a 24h IFNγ Elispot assay. Surprisingly...... peptides induced normal peptide immunity i.e. the specific T cell reactivity in the Elispot culture was strictly dependent on exposure to the immunizing peptide ex vivo. However, immunization with two of the peptides, a VSV- and a Mycobacterium-derived peptide, resulted in IFNγ spot formation without...... peptide in the Elispot culture. Immunization with a mixture of the VSV-peptide and a "normal" peptide also resulted in IFNγ spot formation without addition of peptide to the assay culture. Peptide-tetramer staining of CD8(+) T cells from mice immunized with a mixture of VSV-peptide and "normal" peptide...

  7. Advanced Solar Cells for Satellite Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Dennis J.; Weinberg, Irving

    1994-01-01

    The multiple natures of today's space missions with regard to operational lifetime, orbital environment, cost and size of spacecraft, to name just a few, present such a broad range of performance requirements to be met by the solar array that no single design can suffice to meet them all. The result is a demand for development of specialized solar cell types that help to optimize overall satellite performance within a specified cost range for any given space mission. Historically, space solar array performance has been optimized for a given mission by tailoring the features of silicon solar cells to account for the orbital environment and average operating conditions expected during the mission. It has become necessary to turn to entirely new photovoltaic materials and device designs to meet the requirements of future missions, both in the near and far term. This paper will outline some of the mission drivers and resulting performance requirements that must be met by advanced solar cells, and provide an overview of some of the advanced cell technologies under development to meet them. The discussion will include high efficiency, radiation hard single junction cells; monolithic and mechanically stacked multiple bandgap cells; and thin film cells.

  8. Mobilisation of satellite cells following ischaemia and reperfusion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    inar is not disturbed, and migration to adjacent myofibres using tissue bridges ... or in group 2, the novel observation of the satellite cell breaking away ... satellite cells of group 1 were significantly longer than the group 2 cells .... Statistical analysis was by unpaired t-test with Welch's cor- ... or fully motile, interfibre myoblasts.

  9. Structure and function of stem cell pools in mammalian cell renewal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.; Nothdurft, W.

    1979-01-01

    Stem cells play a key-role in the maintenance of the equilibrium between cell loss and cell production in cell renewal systems as well as in the understanding of the radiation pathophysiology of mammalian organisms. The integrity of mammalian organisms with the need to maintain a constant ''millieu interior'' is depending on the normal functioning of cell renewal systems, especially those of epithelial surfaces and blood cell forming organs. All cell renewal systems of bodies have a very similar functional structure consisting of functional, proliferative - amplifying and stem cell compartments. They differ in transit and cell cycle times and in the number of amplification division - aside from the difference in their functional and biochemical make-up. The stem cell pools are providing the cells capable of differentiation without depleting their own kind. This can be achieved by symmetrical or assymmetrical stem cell division. In normal steady state, 50% of the stem cell division remain in the stem cell pool, while the other 50% leave it to differentiate, proliferate and mature, hemopoietic system is distributed throughout bodies. This is an important factor in the radiation biology of mammalian organisms since the loss of function in one area can be compensated for by more production in other areas, and locally depleted sites can be reseeded with the stem cells migrating in from blood. (Yamashita, S.)

  10. The role of satellite cells in muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaauw, Bert; Reggiani, Carlo

    2014-02-01

    The role of satellite cells in muscle hypertrophy has long been a debated issue. In the late 1980s it was shown that proteins remain close to the myonucleus responsible for its synthesis, giving rise to the idea of a nuclear domain. This, together with the observation that during various models of muscle hypertrophy there is an activation of the muscle stem cells, i.e. satellite cells, lead to the idea that satellite cell activation is required for muscle hypertrophy. Thus, satellite cells are not only responsible for muscle repair and regeneration, but also for hypertrophic growth. Further support for this line of thinking was obtained after studies showing that irradiation of skeletal muscle, and therefore elimination of all satellite cells, completely prevented overload-induced hypertrophy. Recently however, using different transgenic approaches, it has become clear that muscle hypertrophy can occur without a contribution of satellite cells, even though in most situations of muscle hypertrophy satellite cells are activated. In this review we will discuss the contribution of satellite cells, and other muscle-resident stem cells, to muscle hypertrophy both in mice as well as in humans.

  11. "Known Unknowns": Current Questions in Muscle Satellite Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelison, Ddw

    2018-01-01

    Our understanding of satellite cells, now known to be the obligate stem cells of skeletal muscle, has increased dramatically in recent years due to the introduction of new molecular, genetic, and technical resources. In addition to their role in acute repair of damaged muscle, satellite cells are of interest in the fields of aging, exercise, neuromuscular disease, and stem cell therapy, and all of these applications have driven a dramatic increase in our understanding of the activity and potential of satellite cells. However, many fundamental questions of satellite cell biology remain to be answered, including their emergence as a specific lineage, the degree and significance of heterogeneity within the satellite cell population, the roles of their interactions with other resident and infiltrating cell types during homeostasis and regeneration, and the relative roles of intrinsic vs extrinsic factors that may contribute to satellite cell dysfunction in the context of aging or disease. This review will address the current state of these open questions in satellite cell biology. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Satellite cell proliferation in adult skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Frank W. (Inventor); Thomason, Donald B. (Inventor); Morrison, Paul R. (Inventor); Stancel, George M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Novel methods of retroviral-mediated gene transfer for the in vivo corporation and stable expression of eukaryotic or prokaryotic foreign genes in tissues of living animals is described. More specifically, methods of incorporating foreign genes into mitotically active cells are disclosed. The constitutive and stable expression of E. coli .beta.-galactosidase gene under the promoter control of the Moloney murine leukemia virus long terminal repeat is employed as a particularly preferred embodiment, by way of example, establishes the model upon which the incorporation of a foreign gene into a mitotically-active living eukaryotic tissue is based. Use of the described methods in therapeutic treatments for genetic diseases, such as those muscular degenerative diseases, is also presented. In muscle tissue, the described processes result in genetically-altered satellite cells which proliferate daughter myoblasts which preferentially fuse to form a single undamaged muscle fiber replacing damaged muscle tissue in a treated animal. The retroviral vector, by way of example, includes a dystrophin gene construct for use in treating muscular dystrophy. The present invention also comprises an experimental model utilizable in the study of the physiological regulation of skeletal muscle gene expression in intact animals.

  13. A global downregulation of microRNAs occurs in human quiescent satellite cells during myogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Merel; Werker, Paul M N; van Luyn, Marja J A; Krenning, Guido; Harmsen, Martin C

    2012-01-01

    During myogenesis, human satellite cells differentiate and form multinucleated myotubes, while a fraction of the human satellite cells enter quiescence. These quiescent satellite cells are able to activate, proliferate and contribute to muscle regeneration. Post-transcriptional regulation of

  14. Cells Lacking mtDNA Display Increased dNTP Pools upon DNA Damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Tine; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte

    Imbalanced dNTP pools are highly mutagenic due to a deleterious effect on DNA polymerase fidelity. Mitochondrial DNA defects, including mutations and deletions, are commonly found in a wide variety of different cancer types. In order to further study the interconnection between dNTP pools...... and mitochondrial function we have examined the effect of DNA damage on dNTP pools in cells deficient of mtDNA. We show that DNA damage induced by UV irradiation, in a dose corresponding to LD50, induces an S phase delay in different human osteosarcoma cell lines. The UV pulse also has a destabilizing effect...... shows that normal mitochondrial function is prerequisite for retaining stable dNTP pools upon DNA damage. Therefore it is likely that mitochondrial deficiency defects may cause an increase in DNA mutations by disrupting dNTP pool balance....

  15. Use of Advanced Solar Cells for Commercial Communication Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1995-01-01

    The current generation of communications satellites are located primarily in geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Over the next decade, however, a new generation of communications satellites will be built and launched, designed to provide a world-wide interconnection of portable telephones. For this mission, the satellites must be positioned in lower polar and near-polar orbits. To provide complete coverage, large numbers of satellites will be required. Because the required number of satellites decreases as the orbital altitude is increased, fewer satellites would be required if the orbit chosen were raised from low to intermediate orbit. However, in intermediate orbits, satellites encounter significant radiation due to trapped electrons and protons. Radiation tolerant solar cells may be necessary to make such satellites feasible. We analyze the amount of radiation encountered in low and intermediate polar orbits at altitudes of interest to next-generation communication satellites, calculate the expected degradation for silicon, GaAs, and InP solar cells, and show that the lifetimes can be significantly increased by use of advanced solar cells.

  16. Effective fiber hypertrophy in satellite cell-depleted skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, John J.; Mula, Jyothi; Miyazaki, Mitsunori; Erfani, Rod; Garrison, Kelcye; Farooqui, Amreen B.; Srikuea, Ratchakrit; Lawson, Benjamin A.; Grimes, Barry; Keller, Charles; Van Zant, Gary; Campbell, Kenneth S.; Esser, Karyn A.; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E.; Peterson, Charlotte A.

    2011-01-01

    An important unresolved question in skeletal muscle plasticity is whether satellite cells are necessary for muscle fiber hypertrophy. To address this issue, a novel mouse strain (Pax7-DTA) was created which enabled the conditional ablation of >90% of satellite cells in mature skeletal muscle following tamoxifen administration. To test the hypothesis that satellite cells are necessary for skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the plantaris muscle of adult Pax7-DTA mice was subjected to mechanical overload by surgical removal of the synergist muscle. Following two weeks of overload, satellite cell-depleted muscle showed the same increases in muscle mass (approximately twofold) and fiber cross-sectional area with hypertrophy as observed in the vehicle-treated group. The typical increase in myonuclei with hypertrophy was absent in satellite cell-depleted fibers, resulting in expansion of the myonuclear domain. Consistent with lack of nuclear addition to enlarged fibers, long-term BrdU labeling showed a significant reduction in the number of BrdU-positive myonuclei in satellite cell-depleted muscle compared with vehicle-treated muscle. Single fiber functional analyses showed no difference in specific force, Ca2+ sensitivity, rate of cross-bridge cycling and cooperativity between hypertrophied fibers from vehicle and tamoxifen-treated groups. Although a small component of the hypertrophic response, both fiber hyperplasia and regeneration were significantly blunted following satellite cell depletion, indicating a distinct requirement for satellite cells during these processes. These results provide convincing evidence that skeletal muscle fibers are capable of mounting a robust hypertrophic response to mechanical overload that is not dependent on satellite cells. PMID:21828094

  17. Protein Availability and Satellite Cell Dynamics in Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Baubak; Hawley, John A; Camera, Donny M

    2018-06-01

    Human skeletal muscle satellite cells are activated in response to both resistance and endurance exercise. It was initially proposed that satellite cell proliferation and differentiation were only required to support resistance exercise-induced hypertrophy. However, satellite cells may also play a role in muscle fibre remodelling after endurance-based exercise and extracellular matrix regulation. Given the importance of dietary protein, particularly branched chain amino acids, in supporting myofibrillar and mitochondrial adaptations to both resistance and endurance-based training, a greater understanding of how protein intake impacts satellite cell activity would provide further insight into the mechanisms governing skeletal muscle remodelling with exercise. While many studies have investigated the capacity for protein ingestion to increase post-exercise rates of muscle protein synthesis, few investigations have examined the role for protein ingestion to modulate satellite cell activity. Here we review the molecular mechanisms controlling the activation of satellite cells in response to mechanical stress and protein intake in both in vitro and in vivo models. We provide a mechanistic framework that describes how protein ingestion may enhance satellite activity and promote exercise adaptations in human skeletal muscle.

  18. Satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.A.; Matthews, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    The present work is based on a conference: Natural Satellites, Colloquium 77 of the IAU, held at Cornell University from July 5 to 9, 1983. Attention is given to the background and origins of satellites, protosatellite swarms, the tectonics of icy satellites, the physical characteristics of satellite surfaces, and the interactions of planetary magnetospheres with icy satellite surfaces. Other topics include the surface composition of natural satellites, the cratering of planetary satellites, the moon, Io, and Europa. Consideration is also given to Ganymede and Callisto, the satellites of Saturn, small satellites, satellites of Uranus and Neptune, and the Pluto-Charon system

  19. Isolation, Culture, Functional Assays, and Immunofluorescence of Myofiber-Associated Satellite Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Thomas O; Gadek, Katherine E; Cadwallader, Adam B; Elston, Tiffany L; Olwin, Bradley B

    2016-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle stem cells, termed satellite cells, regenerate and repair the functional contractile cells in adult skeletal muscle called myofibers. Satellite cells reside in a niche between the basal lamina and sarcolemma of myofibers. Isolating single myofibers and their associated satellite cells provides a culture system that partially mimics the in vivo environment. We describe methods for isolating and culturing intact individual myofibers and their associated satellite cells from the mouse extensor digitorum longus muscle. Following dissection and isolation of individual myofibers we provide protocols for myofiber transplantation, satellite cell transfection, immune detection of satellite cell antigens, and assays to examine satellite cell self-renewal and proliferation.

  20. Evaluation of hepatic hemangioma by Tc-99 m red blood cell hepatic blood pool scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Myung Hee

    2005-01-01

    Hemangioma is the most common benign tumor of the liver, with a prevalence estimated as high as 7%. Tc-99m red blood cell (RBC) hepatic blood pool scan with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is extremely useful for the confirmation or exclusion of hepatic hemangiomas. The classic finding of absent or decreased perfusion and increased blood pooling ('perfusion/blood pool mismatch') is the key diagnostic element in the diagnosis of hemangiomas. The combination of early arterial flow and delayed blood pooling ('perfusion/blood pool match') is shown uncommonly. In giant hemangioma, filling with radioactivity appears first in the periphery, with progressive central fill-in on sequential RBC blood pool scan. However, the reverse filling pattern, which begins first in the center with progressive peripheral filling, is also rarely seen. Studies with false-positive blood pooling have been reported infrequently in nonhemangiomas, including hemangiosarcoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatic adenoma, and metastatic carcinomas (adenocarcinma of the colon, small cell carcinoma of the lung, neruroendocrine carcinoma). False-negative results have been also reported rarely except for small hemagniomas that are below the limits of spatial resolution of gamma camera

  1. Engineered matrices for skeletal muscle satellite cell engraftment and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Woojin M; Jang, Young C; García, Andrés J

    2017-07-01

    Regeneration of traumatically injured skeletal muscles is severely limited. Moreover, the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle declines with aging, further exacerbating the problem. Recent evidence supports that delivery of muscle satellite cells to the injured muscles enhances muscle regeneration and reverses features of aging, including reduction in muscle mass and regenerative capacity. However, direct delivery of satellite cells presents a challenge at a translational level due to inflammation and donor cell death, motivating the need to develop engineered matrices for muscle satellite cell delivery. This review will highlight important aspects of satellite cell and their niche biology in the context of muscle regeneration, and examine recent progresses in the development of engineered cell delivery matrices designed for skeletal muscle regeneration. Understanding the interactions of muscle satellite cells and their niche in both native and engineered systems is crucial to developing muscle pathology-specific cell- and biomaterial-based therapies. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Does an NSAID a Day Keep Satellite Cells at Bay?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail L

    2013-01-01

    the activity of satellite cells, the muscle stem cell responsible for repair and maintenance of skeletal muscle. The signaling pathways that are potentially modified by NSAID exposure are also considered. Growth factors as well as inflammatory cells and connective tissue appear to be key factors......, although this clearly requires further study. The long-term implications for the muscle of the apparent inhibitory effect of NSAIDs on satellite cells in younger individuals are not clear and it is possible these may first become apparent with chronic use in athletes training at a high level...... or with advancing age. Reports of the potential for NSAIDs to alter prostaglandin and growth factor signalling provide a basis for further study of the mechanism of NSAID action on satellite cells....

  3. Differential satellite cell density of type I and II fibres with lifelong endurance running in old men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail; Karlsen, A; Couppé, C

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the influence of lifelong endurance running on the satellite cell pool of type I and type II fibres in healthy human skeletal muscle. METHODS: Muscle biopsies were collected from 15 healthy old trained men (O-Tr) who had been running 43 ± 16 (mean ± SD) kilometres a week for 28...... ± 9 years. Twelve age-matched untrained men (O-Un) and a group of young trained and young untrained men were recruited for comparison. Frozen sections were immunohistochemically stained for Pax7, type I myosin and laminin, from which fibre area, the number of satellite cells, and the relationship......-Un. A strong positive relationship between fibre size and satellite cell content was detected in trained individuals. In line with a history of myofibre repair, a greater number of fibres with centrally located myonuclei were detected in O-Tr. CONCLUSION: Lifelong endurance training (i) does not deplete...

  4. A Positive Control for Detection of Functional CD4 T Cells in PBMC: The CPI Pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Annemarie; Zhang, Ting; Li, Ruliang; Duechting, Andrea; Sundararaman, Srividya; Przybyla, Anna; Kuerten, Stefanie; Lehmann, Paul V

    2017-12-07

    Testing of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) for immune monitoring purposes requires verification of their functionality. This is of particular concern when the PBMC have been shipped or stored for prolonged periods of time. While the CEF (Cytomegalo-, Epstein-Barr and Flu-virus) peptide pool has become the gold standard for testing CD8 cell functionality, a positive control for CD4 cells is so far lacking. The latter ideally consists of proteins so as to control for the functionality of the antigen processing and presentation compartments, as well. Aiming to generate a positive control for CD4 cells, we first selected 12 protein antigens from infectious/environmental organisms that are ubiquitous: Varicella, Influenza, Parainfluenza, Mumps, Cytomegalovirus, Streptococcus , Mycoplasma , Lactobacillus , Neisseria , Candida , Rubella, and Measles. Of these antigens, three were found to elicited interferon (IFN)-γ-producing CD4 cells in the majority of human test subjects: inactivated cytomegalo-, parainfluenza-, and influenza virions (CPI). While individually none of these three antigens triggered a recall response in all donors, the pool of the three (the 'CPI pool'), did. One hundred percent of 245 human donors tested were found to be CPI positive, including Caucasians, Asians, and African-Americans. Therefore, the CPI pool appears to be suitable to serve as universal positive control for verifying the functionality of CD4 and of antigen presenting cells.

  5. Models relevant to radiation effects on stem cell pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajtha, L G

    1971-04-01

    The available evidence clearly indicates the existence of a pluripotential primitive stem cell population (CFU). In the normal animal a large proportion of this population will 'sit' in the G{sub 0} state. At any time a small proportion of these cells will differentiate into one or more 'precursor' populations. One such precursor population is the erythropoietin responsive cell (ERC) and it is important to realize that this population has a significant number of mitoses in it, i.e. it is capable of considerable, although not indefinite proliferation. This is indicated by the colony growth during which, from a single colony former, large numbers of differentiated cells can be formed, in excess of several millions, at a time when the CFU numbers in the colony are still very small. To understand then the effects of radiation on this complex series of populations the following will have to be borne in mind. The ultimate stem cells are, at least in the small rodent, the CFU. It is their quantity that is essential for regeneration. However, the normal rate of differentiation of CFU in the small rodent is very low. This is because this rate of differentiation gives rise to a possibly committed precursor cell population such as the ERC, or possibly the agar forming 'GRC', the precursor populations with considerable proliferative potential in them. Therefore, after relatively small doses of radiation, or even during a regime of continuous irradiation, the proliferative potential of these transit precursor populations will be able to cope with near normal haemopoiesis at a time when the number of colony formers is gradually depleted. It is also significant that the rate of seeding of the primitive colony former is not related to its numbers and, therefore, under conditions of partial irradiation, at least in the small rodent, greatly increased relative migration and to some extent increased absolute migration of the CFU is possible, with consequent enhancement of the

  6. Internalization and cellular pools of never growth factor in pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neet, K.E.; Kasaian, M.

    1987-01-01

    Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) binds to a cell surface receptor on responsive neuronal cells to initiate cell maintenance and/or differentiation regimes. The purpose of these studies was to define quantitatively the fate of NGF in PC12 cells with respect to various cellular compartments in a single series of biochemical experiments. Different binding methodologies were evaluated in suspension and on plates. 50 pM 125 I-NGF was bound to rat PC12 cells in suspension for 30 min at 37 0 , followed by various methods and combinations of methods to remove subsets of bound ligand. Distinction could be made between NGF bound to fast vs. slow cell surface receptors, NGF bound to slow receptors at the cell surface vs. cell interior, and detergent-soluble vs. cytoskeletally-attached NGF. These treatments defined the relative size of five pools, including the fast receptor (65%), two intracellular compartments (12% and 3%) susceptible to nonionic detergent, and a detergent-stable intracellular pool of ligand (16%). At 37 0 the cold chase stable and the acid stable pools were about the same size because of rapid internalization, but the slow receptor was measurable at 4 0 . Inhibitors were used to define the route of NGF through the cell from the plasma membrane to degradation. Chloroquine caused accumulation of NGF only in pools that were not associated with the cytoskeleton, implicating this compartment in supplying ligand to the lysosome. Results with cytochalasin B and colchicine and suggested both microfilament and microtubule pathways in NGF degradation. A model for the movement of NGF through the cell was developed based on these observations

  7. Storage characteristics of multiple-donor pooled red blood cells compared to single-donor red blood cell units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Aabhas; Chowdhury, Raquibul; Hillyer, Christopher D; Mitchell, W Beau; Shaz, Beth H

    2016-12-01

    Each unit of blood donated is processed and stored individually resulting in variability in the amount of red blood cells (RBCs) collected, RBC properties, and the 24-hour posttransfusion RBC survivability. As a result, each unit differs in its ability to deliver oxygen and potentially its effects on the recipient. The goal of this study was to investigate the storage of pooled RBCs from multiple donors in comparison to control standard RBC units. Two units of irradiated, leukoreduced RBCs of same ABO, D, E, C, and K antigen phenotype were collected from each of five donors using apheresis. One unit from each donor was pooled in a 2-L bag and remaining units were used as controls. After being pooled, RBCs were separated in five bags and stored at 4°C along with the controls. Quality indexes were measured on Days 2, 14, and 28 for all the units. Adenosine triphosphate assays for both pooled and controls showed a slight decrease from Day 2 to Day 28 (pooled/control from 5.22/5.24 to 4.35/4.33 µmol/g hemoglobin [Hb]). 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate was successfully rejuvenated for all RBC units on Day 28 (pooled 11.46 µmol/g Hb; control 11.86 µmol/g Hb). The results showed a nonsignificant difference between pooled and control units, with a general trend of lower standard deviation for pooled units when compared to controls. Pooled units have reduced unit-to-unit variability. Future exploration of their immunogenicity is required before using pooled units for transfusion. © 2016 AABB.

  8. Pooled protein immunization for identification of cell surface antigens in Streptococcus sanguinis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuchun Ge

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Available bacterial genomes provide opportunities for screening vaccines by reverse vaccinology. Efficient identification of surface antigens is required to reduce time and animal cost in this technology. We developed an approach to identify surface antigens rapidly in Streptococcus sanguinis, a common infective endocarditis causative species.We applied bioinformatics for antigen prediction and pooled antigens for immunization. Forty-seven surface-exposed proteins including 28 lipoproteins and 19 cell wall-anchored proteins were chosen based on computer algorithms and comparative genomic analyses. Eight proteins among these candidates and 2 other proteins were pooled together to immunize rabbits. The antiserum reacted strongly with each protein and with S. sanguinis whole cells. Affinity chromatography was used to purify the antibodies to 9 of the antigen pool components. Competitive ELISA and FACS results indicated that these 9 proteins were exposed on S. sanguinis cell surfaces. The purified antibodies had demonstrable opsonic activity.The results indicate that immunization with pooled proteins, in combination with affinity purification, and comprehensive immunological assays may facilitate cell surface antigen identification to combat infectious diseases.

  9. Pooled protein immunization for identification of cell surface antigens in Streptococcus sanguinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiuchun; Kitten, Todd; Munro, Cindy L; Conrad, Daniel H; Xu, Ping

    2010-07-26

    Available bacterial genomes provide opportunities for screening vaccines by reverse vaccinology. Efficient identification of surface antigens is required to reduce time and animal cost in this technology. We developed an approach to identify surface antigens rapidly in Streptococcus sanguinis, a common infective endocarditis causative species. We applied bioinformatics for antigen prediction and pooled antigens for immunization. Forty-seven surface-exposed proteins including 28 lipoproteins and 19 cell wall-anchored proteins were chosen based on computer algorithms and comparative genomic analyses. Eight proteins among these candidates and 2 other proteins were pooled together to immunize rabbits. The antiserum reacted strongly with each protein and with S. sanguinis whole cells. Affinity chromatography was used to purify the antibodies to 9 of the antigen pool components. Competitive ELISA and FACS results indicated that these 9 proteins were exposed on S. sanguinis cell surfaces. The purified antibodies had demonstrable opsonic activity. The results indicate that immunization with pooled proteins, in combination with affinity purification, and comprehensive immunological assays may facilitate cell surface antigen identification to combat infectious diseases.

  10. Satellite cell depletion prevents fiber hypertrophy in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egner, Ingrid M; Bruusgaard, Jo C; Gundersen, Kristian

    2016-08-15

    The largest mammalian cells are the muscle fibers, and they have multiple nuclei to support their large cytoplasmic volumes. During hypertrophic growth, new myonuclei are recruited from satellite stem cells into the fiber syncytia, but it was recently suggested that such recruitment is not obligatory: overload hypertrophy after synergist ablation of the plantaris muscle appeared normal in transgenic mice in which most of the satellite cells were abolished. When we essentially repeated these experiments analyzing the muscles by immunohistochemistry and in vivo and ex vivo imaging, we found that overload hypertrophy was prevented in the satellite cell-deficient mice, in both the plantaris and the extensor digitorum longus muscles. We attribute the previous findings to a reliance on muscle mass as a proxy for fiber hypertrophy, and to the inclusion of a significant number of regenerating fibers in the analysis. We discuss that there is currently no model in which functional, sustainable hypertrophy has been unequivocally demonstrated in the absence of satellite cells; an exception is re-growth, which can occur using previously recruited myonuclei without addition of new myonuclei. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Optimal Assignment of Cells in C-RAN Deployments with Multiple BBU Pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Henrik; Checko, Aleksandra; Al-obaidi, Rami

    2015-01-01

    Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN) is receiving increasing attention not only within the research community but also from operators and standardization bodies. However, even a good technology will be deployed only if it is economically viable. In our previous work, for larger scale deployment we...... recommend to divide the area into multiple BBU Pools. In this paper we show how to optimally assign cells to different BBU Pools in such a scenario. By using Integer Linear Programming (ILP) method we derive engineering guidelines for minimizing the CAPital EXpenditure (CAPEX) of C-RAN deployment....

  12. Tissue-specific stem cells: Lessons from the skeletal muscle satellite cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Andrew S.; Rando, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    In 1961, the satellite cell was first identified when electron microscopic examination of skeletal muscle demonstrated a cell wedged between the plasma membrane of the muscle fiber and the basement membrane. In recent years it has been conclusively demonstrated that the satellite cell is the primary cellular source for muscle regeneration and is equipped with the potential to self renew, thus functioning as a bone fide skeletal muscle stem cell (MuSC). As we move past the 50th anniversary of the satellite cell, we take this opportunity to discuss the current state of the art and dissect the unknowns in the MuSC field. PMID:22560074

  13. Mobilisation of satellite cells following ischaemia and reperfusion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To describe the morphological and morphometric features of activated skeletal muscle satellite cells in primates, using an ischaemic reperfusion model. Setting. The study was undertaken at the Biomedical Resource Centre and the Electron Microscopy Unit of the University of KwaZulu-Natal. Interventions.

  14. Depletion of NAD pool contributes to impairment of endothelial progenitor cell mobilization in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Yang, Xi; Zhang, Zheng; Song, Jie; Guan, Yun-Feng; Zou, Da-Jin; Miao, Chao-Yu

    2016-06-01

    The impaired mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from bone marrow (BM) critically contributes to the diabetes-associated vascular complications. Here, we investigated the relationship between the nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT)-controlled nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) metabolism and the impaired mobilization of BM-derived EPCs in diabetic condition. The NAMPT-NAD pool in BM and BM-derived EPCs in wild-type (WT) and diabetic db/db mice was determined. Nicotinamide, a natural substrate for NAD biosynthesis, was administrated for 2weeks in db/db mice to examine the influence of enhancing NAD pool on BM and blood EPCs number. The modulations of stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein in BM were measured using immunoblotting. The EPCs intracellular NAMPT level and NAD concentration, as well as the blood EPCs number, were compared between 9 healthy people and 16 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The T2DM patients were treated with nicotinamide for two weeks and then the blood EPCs number was determined. Moreover, the association between blood EPCs numbers and EPCs intracellular NAD(+)/NAMPT protein levels in 21 healthy individuals was determined. We found that NAD concentration and NAMPT expression in BM and BM-derived EPCs of db/db mice were significantly lower than those in WT mice BM. Enhancing NAD pool not only increased the EPCs intracellular NAD concentration and blood EPCs number, but also improved post-ischemic wound healing and blood reperfusion in db/db mice with hind-limb ischemia model. Enhancing NAD pool rescued the impaired modulations of stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein levels in db/db mice BM upon hind-limb ischemia. In addition, enhancing NAD pool significantly inhibited PARP and caspase-3 activates in db/db mice BM. The intracellular NAMPT-NAD pool was positively associated with blood

  15. Reduced satellite cell density and myogenesis in Wagyu compared with Angus cattle as a possible explanation of its high marbling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X; Yang, Q; Wang, B; Zhao, J; Zhu, M; Parish, S M; Du, M

    2018-05-01

    Mechanisms responsible for excellent marbling in Japanese black cattle, Wagyu, remain to be established. Because both muscle cells and intramuscular adipocytes are developed from mesenchymal progenitor cells during early muscle development, we hypothesized that intramuscular progenitor cells in Wagyu cattle have attenuated myogenic capacity in favor of adipogenesis, leading to high marbling but reduced muscle growth. Biceps femoris muscle biopsy samples were obtained from both Angus (n=3) and Wagyu (n=3) cattle at 12 months of age. Compared with Angus, the density of satellite cells was much lower in Wagyu muscle (by 45.8±10%, PAngus cattle. Because satellite cells are derived from fetal myogenic cells, the reduction in satellite cell density together with lower muscle fiber formation suggests that myogenesis was attenuated during early muscle development in Wagyu cattle. Given the shared pool of mesenchymal progenitor cells, the attenuated myogenesis likely shifts progenitor cells to adipogenesis during early development, which may contribute to high intramuscular adipocyte formation in Wagyu cattle.

  16. Work plan for testing silicone impression material and fixture on pool cell capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundeen, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this work plan is to provide a safe procedure to test a cesium capsule impression fixture at Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). The impression will be taken with silicone dental impression material pressed down upon the capsule using the impression fixture. This test will evaluate the performance of the fixture and impression material under high radiation and temperature conditions on a capsule in a WESF pool cell

  17. Inositol metabolism in WRK-1 cells. Relationship of hormone-sensitive to -insensitive pools of phosphoinositides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monaco, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated the existence of two separate pools of phosphoinositides in WRK-1 cells; one is labile and hormone-sensitive with respect to turnover, while the other is stable. Hormonal stimulation results in a rapid increase in 32 Pi incorporation into the sensitive pool, while in the absence of hormone, incorporation of 32 Pi into this pool is slow. Results are quite different when [ 3 H]inositol is the precursor utilized. Incorporation of [ 3 H]inositol into hormone-sensitive phosphoinositides is not stimulated in the presence of hormone, suggesting entry of this exogenous precursor into the cycle by a route other than the resynthetic phase of the cycle. Furthermore, failure of hormone to induce loss of [ 3 H]phosphoinositide in pulse-chase experiments in the absence of lithium suggests reutilization of the [ 3 H]inositol moiety generated by phosphodiesteratic cleavage of hormone-sensitive phosphoinositide. Time course studies indicate that the relative rates of incorporation of [ 3 H]inositol into sensitive and insensitive phosphoinositide remain constant from 2 to 24 h. Several factors are capable of increasing [ 3 H]inositol incorporation into hormone-insensitive phosphoinositide including vasopressin, calcium ionophores, and manganese. On the other hand, vasopressin treatment appears to decrease incorporation of [ 3 H]inositol into the hormone-sensitive pool, probably by shifting the equilibrium between phosphoinositides and inositol phosphates, since the decrease in radioactivity observed in the phosphoinositides is equaled by the increase observed in that in the inositol phosphates

  18. Transient HIF2A inhibition promotes satellite cell proliferation and muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liwei; Yin, Amelia; Nichenko, Anna S; Beedle, Aaron M; Call, Jarrod A; Yin, Hang

    2018-03-13

    The remarkable regeneration capability of skeletal muscle depends on coordinated proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells. The self-renewal of satellite cells is critical for long-term maintenance of muscle regeneration potential. Hypoxia profoundly affects the proliferation, differentiation, and self-renewal of cultured myoblasts. However, the physiological relevance of hypoxia and hypoxia signaling in satellite cells in vivo remains largely unknown. Here, we report that satellite cells are in an intrinsic hypoxic state in vivo and express hypoxia-inducible factor 2A (HIF2A). HIF2A promotes the stemness and long-term homeostatic maintenance of satellite cells by maintaining the quiescence, increasing the self-renewal and blocking the myogenic differentiation of satellite cells. HIF2A stabilization in satellite cells cultured under normoxia augmented their engraftment potential in regenerative muscle. Reversely, HIF2A ablation led to the depletion of satellite cells and the consequent regenerative failure in the long-term. In contrast, transient pharmacological inhibition of HIF2A accelerated muscle regeneration by increasing satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. Mechanistically, HIF2A induces the quiescence/self-renewal of satellite cells by binding the promoter of Spry1 gene and activating Spry1 expression. These findings suggest that HIF2A is a pivotal mediator of hypoxia signaling in satellite cells and may be therapeutically targeted to improve muscle regeneration.

  19. The muscle stem cell niche : regulation of satellite cells during regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonen, K.J.M.; Post, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Satellite cells are considered to be adult skeletal muscle stem cells. Their ability to regenerate large muscle defects is highly dependent on their specific niche. When these cells are cultured in vitro, the loss of this niche leads to a loss of proliferative capacity and defective regeneration

  20. The Satellite Cell in Male and Female, Developing and Adult Mouse Muscle: Distinct Stem Cells for Growth and Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Alice; Boldrin, Luisa; Morgan, Jennifer Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Satellite cells are myogenic cells found between the basal lamina and the sarcolemma of the muscle fibre. Satellite cells are the source of new myofibres; as such, satellite cell transplantation holds promise as a treatment for muscular dystrophies. We have investigated age and sex differences between mouse satellite cells in vitro and assessed the importance of these factors as mediators of donor cell engraftment in an in vivo model of satellite cell transplantation. We found that satellite cell numbers are increased in growing compared to adult and in male compared to female adult mice. We saw no difference in the expression of the myogenic regulatory factors between male and female mice, but distinct profiles were observed according to developmental stage. We show that, in contrast to adult mice, the majority of satellite cells from two week old mice are proliferating to facilitate myofibre growth; however a small proportion of these cells are quiescent and not contributing to this growth programme. Despite observed changes in satellite cell populations, there is no difference in engraftment efficiency either between satellite cells derived from adult or pre-weaned donor mice, male or female donor cells, or between male and female host muscle environments. We suggest there exist two distinct satellite cell populations: one for muscle growth and maintenance and one for muscle regeneration. PMID:22662253

  1. Enrichment of extremophilic exoelectrogens in microbial electrolysis cells using Red Sea brine pools as inocula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehab, Noura A; Ortiz-Medina, Juan F; Katuri, Krishna P; Hari, Ananda Rao; Amy, Gary; Logan, Bruce E; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2017-09-01

    Applying microbial electrochemical technologies for the treatment of highly saline or thermophilic solutions is challenging due to the lack of proper inocula to enrich for efficient exoelectrogens. Brine pools from three different locations (Valdivia, Atlantis II and Kebrit) in the Red Sea were investigated as potential inocula sources for enriching exoelectrogens in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) under thermophilic (70°C) and hypersaline (25% salinity) conditions. Of these, only the Valdivia brine pool produced high and consistent current 6.8±2.1A/m 2 -anode in MECs operated at a set anode potential of +0.2V vs. Ag/AgCl (+0.405V vs. standard hydrogen electrode). These results show that exoelectrogens are present in these extreme environments and can be used to startup MEC under thermophilic and hypersaline conditions. Bacteroides was enriched on the anode of the Valdivia MEC, but it was not detected in the open circuit voltage reactor seeded with the Valdivia brine pool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Enrichment of extremophilic exoelectrogens in microbial electrolysis cells using Red Sea brine pools as inocula

    KAUST Repository

    Chehab, Noura A.

    2017-05-03

    Applying microbial electrochemical technologies for the treatment of highly saline or thermophilic solutions is challenging due to the lack of proper inocula to enrich for efficient exoelectrogens. Brine pools from three different locations (Valdivia, Atlantis II and Kebrit) in the Red Sea were investigated as potential inocula sources for enriching exoelectrogens in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) under thermophilic (70°C) and hypersaline (25% salinity) conditions. Of these, only the Valdivia brine pool produced high and consistent current 6.8 ± 2.1 A/m2-anode in MECs operated at a set anode potential of +0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl (+0.405 V vs. standard hydrogen electrode). These results show that exoelectrogens are present in these extreme environments and can be used to startup MEC under thermophilic and hypersaline conditions. Bacteroides was enriched on the anode of the Valdivia MEC, but it was not detected in the open circuit voltage reactor seeded with the Valdivia brine pool.

  3. Roles of Notch1 Signaling in Regulating Satellite Cell Fates Choices and Postnatal Skeletal Myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Tizhong; Xu, Ziye; Wu, Weiche; Liu, Jiaqi; Wang, Yizhen

    2017-11-01

    Adult skeletal muscle stem cells, also called satellite cells, are indispensable for the growth, maintenance, and regeneration of the postnatal skeletal muscle. Satellite cells, predominantly quiescent in mature resting muscles, are activated after skeletal muscle injury or degeneration. Notch1 signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that plays crucial roles in satellite cells homeostasis and postnatal skeletal myogenesis and regeneration. Activation of Notch1 signaling promotes the muscle satellite cells quiescence and proliferation, but inhibits differentiation of muscle satellite cells. Notably, the new roles of Notch1 signaling during late-stage of skeletal myogenesis including in post-differentiation myocytes and post-fusion myotubes have been recently reported. Here, we mainly review and discuss the regulatory roles of Notch1 in regulating satellite cell fates choices and skeletal myogenesis. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 2964-2967, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Loss of niche-satellite cell interactions in syndecan-3 null mice alters muscle progenitor cell homeostasis improving muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisconti, Addolorata; Banks, Glen B; Babaeijandaghi, Farshad; Betta, Nicole Dalla; Rossi, Fabio M V; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S; Olwin, Bradley B

    2016-01-01

    The skeletal muscle stem cell niche provides an environment that maintains quiescent satellite cells, required for skeletal muscle homeostasis and regeneration. Syndecan-3, a transmembrane proteoglycan expressed in satellite cells, supports communication with the niche, providing cell interactions and signals to maintain quiescent satellite cells. Syndecan-3 ablation unexpectedly improves regeneration in repeatedly injured muscle and in dystrophic mice, accompanied by the persistence of sublaminar and interstitial, proliferating myoblasts. Additionally, muscle aging is improved in syndecan-3 null mice. Since syndecan-3 null myofiber-associated satellite cells downregulate Pax7 and migrate away from the niche more readily than wild type cells, syxndecan-3 appears to regulate satellite cell homeostasis and satellite cell homing to the niche. Manipulating syndecan-3 provides a promising target for development of therapies to enhance muscle regeneration in muscular dystrophies and in aged muscle.

  5. Cell kinetics of irradiated experimental tumors: cell transition from the non-proliferating to the proliferating pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potmesil, M.; Goldfeder, A.

    1980-01-01

    In murine mammary carcinomas, parenchymal tumor cells with dense nucleoli traverse the cell cycle and divide, thus constituting the proliferating pool. Cells with trabeculate or ring-shaped nucleoli either proceed slowly through G 1 phase or are arrested in it. The role of these non-proliferating, G 1 phase-confined cells in tumor regeneration was studied in vivo after a subcurative dose of X-irradiation in two transplantable tumor lines. Tumor-bearing mice were continuously injected with methyl[ 3 H]thymidine before and after irradiation. Finally, the labeling was discontinued, mice injected with vincristine sulfate and cells arrested in metaphase were accumulated over 10-hrs. Two clearly delineated groups of vincristine-arrested mitoses emerged in autoradiograms prepared from tumor tissue at the time of starting tumor regrowth: one group with the silver-grain counts corresponding to the background level, the other with heavily labeled mitoses. As the only source of unlabeled mitoses was unlabeled G 1 phase-confined cells persisting in the tumor, this indicated cell transition from the non-proliferating to the proliferating pool, which took place in the initial phase of the tumor regrowth. Unlabeled progenitors have apparently remained in G 1 phase for at least 5-12 days after irradiation. (author)

  6. Hepatic Leukemia Factor Maintains Quiescence of Hematopoietic Stem Cells and Protects the Stem Cell Pool during Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komorowska, Karolina; Doyle, Alexander; Wahlestedt, Martin; Subramaniam, Agatheeswaran; Debnath, Shubhranshu; Chen, Jun; Soneji, Shamit; Van Handel, Ben; Mikkola, Hanna K A; Miharada, Kenichi; Bryder, David; Larsson, Jonas; Magnusson, Mattias

    2017-12-19

    The transcription factor hepatic leukemia factor (HLF) is strongly expressed in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and is thought to influence both HSC self-renewal and leukemogenesis. However, the physiological role of HLF in hematopoiesis and HSC function is unclear. Here, we report that mice lacking Hlf are viable with essentially normal hematopoietic parameters, including an intact HSC pool during steady-state hematopoiesis. In contrast, when challenged through transplantation, Hlf-deficient HSCs showed an impaired ability to reconstitute hematopoiesis and became gradually exhausted upon serial transplantation. Transcriptional profiling of Hlf-deficient HSCs revealed changes associated with enhanced cellular activation, and cell-cycle analysis demonstrated a significant reduction of quiescent HSCs. Accordingly, toxic insults targeting dividing cells completely eradicated the HSC pool in Hlf-deficient mice. In summary, our findings point to HLF as a critical regulator of HSC quiescence and as an essential factor for maintaining the HSC pool during regeneration. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells Are Committed to Myogenesis and Do Not Spontaneously Adopt Nonmyogenic Fates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Jessica D.; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Yamamoto, Shoko; Goldhamer, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The developmental potential of skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) remains controversial. The authors investigated satellite cell developmental potential in single fiber and clonal cultures derived from MyoDiCre/+;R26REYFP/+ muscle, in which essentially all satellite cells are permanently labeled. Approximately 60% of the clones derived from cells that co-purified with muscle fibers spontaneously underwent adipogenic differentiation. These adipocytes stained with Oil-Red-O and expressed the terminal differentiation markers, adipsin and fatty acid binding protein 4, but did not express EYFP and were therefore not of satellite cell origin. Satellite cells mutant for either MyoD or Myf-5 also maintained myogenic programming in culture and did not adopt an adipogenic fate. Incorporation of additional wash steps prior to muscle fiber plating virtually eliminated the non-myogenic cells but did not reduce the number of adherent Pax7+ satellite cells. More than half of the adipocytes observed in cultures from Tie2-Cre mice were recombined, further demonstrating a non-satellite cell origin. Under adipogenesis-inducing conditions, satellite cells accumulated cytoplasmic lipid but maintained myogenic protein expression and did not fully execute the adipogenic differentiation program, distinguishing them from adipocytes observed in muscle fiber cultures. The authors conclude that skeletal muscle satellite cells are committed to myogenesis and do not spontaneously adopt an adipogenic fate. PMID:21339173

  8. 3-Bromopyruvate induces rapid human prostate cancer cell death by affecting cell energy metabolism, GSH pool and the glyoxalase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Daniela; Vacca, Rosa A; de Bari, Lidia

    2015-12-01

    3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) is an anti-tumour drug effective on hepatocellular carcinoma and other tumour cell types, which affects both glycolytic and mitochondrial targets, depleting cellular ATP pool. Here we tested 3-BP on human prostate cancer cells showing, differently from other tumour types, efficient ATP production and functional mitochondrial metabolism. We found that 3-BP rapidly induced cultured androgen-insensitive (PC-3) and androgen-responsive (LNCaP) prostate cancer cell death at low concentrations (IC(50) values of 50 and 70 μM, respectively) with a multimodal mechanism of action. In particular, 3-BP-treated PC-3 cells showed a selective, strong reduction of glyceraldeide 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, due to the direct interaction of the drug with the enzyme. Moreover, 3-BP strongly impaired both glutamate/malate- and succinate-dependent mitochondrial respiration, membrane potential generation and ATP synthesis, concomitant with the inhibition of respiratory chain complex I, II and ATP synthase activities. The drastic reduction of cellular ATP levels and depletion of GSH pool, associated with significant increase in cell oxidative stress, were found after 3-BP treatment of PC-3 cells. Interestingly, the activity of both glyoxalase I and II, devoted to the elimination of the cytotoxic methylglyoxal, was strongly inhibited by 3-BP. Both N-acetylcysteine and aminoguanidine, GSH precursor and methylglyoxal scavenger, respectively, prevented 3-BP-induced PC-3 cell death, showing that impaired cell antioxidant and detoxifying capacities are crucial events leading to cell death. The provided information on the multi-target cytotoxic action of 3-BP, finally leading to PC-3 cell necrosis, might be useful for future development of 3-BP as a therapeutic option for prostate cancer treatment.

  9. Response of Turkey Muscle Satellite Cells to Thermal Challenge. II. Transcriptome Effects in Differentiating Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent M. Reed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure of poultry to extreme temperatures during the critical period of post-hatch growth can seriously affect muscle development and thus compromise subsequent meat quality. This study was designed to characterize transcriptional changes induced in turkey muscle satellite cells by thermal challenge during differentiation. Our goal is to better define how thermal stress alters breast muscle ultrastructure and subsequent development.Results: Skeletal muscle satellite cells previously isolated from the Pectoralis major muscle of 7-wk-old male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo from two breeding lines: the F-line (16 wk body weight-selected and RBC2 (randombred control line were used in this study. Cultured cells were induced to differentiate at 38°C (control or thermal challenge temperatures of 33 or 43°C. After 48 h of differentiation, cells were harvested and total RNA was isolated for RNAseq analysis. Analysis of 39.9 Gb of sequence found 89% mapped to the turkey genome (UMD5.0, annotation 101 with average expression of 18,917 genes per library. In the cultured satellite cells, slow/cardiac muscle isoforms are generally present in greater abundance than fast skeletal isoforms. Statistically significant differences in gene expression were observed among treatments and between turkey lines, with a greater number of genes affected in the F-line cells following cold treatment whereas more differentially expressed (DE genes were observed in the RBC2 cells following heat treatment. Many of the most significant pathways involved signaling, consistent with ongoing cellular differentiation. Regulation of Ca2+ homeostasis appears to be significantly affected by temperature treatment, particularly cold treatment.Conclusions: Satellite cell differentiation is directly influenced by temperature at the level of gene transcription with greater effects attributed to selection for fast growth. At lower temperature, muscle-associated genes in the

  10. Impaired energy metabolism of senescent muscle satellite cells is associated with oxidative modifications of glycolytic enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baraibar, Martín A; Hyzewicz, Janek; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of oxidized proteins is a hallmark of cellular and organismal aging. Adult muscle stem cell (or satellite cell) replication and differentiation is compromised with age contributing to sarcopenia. However, the molecular events related to satellite cell dysfunction during aging are not...

  11. The behaviour of satellite cells in response to exercise: what have we learned from human studies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadi, Fawzi; Olsen, Steen Schytte

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the complex role played by satellite cells in the adaptive response to exercise in human skeletal muscle has just begun. The development of reliable markers for the identification of satellite cell status (quiescence/activation/proliferation) is an important step towards the underst......Understanding the complex role played by satellite cells in the adaptive response to exercise in human skeletal muscle has just begun. The development of reliable markers for the identification of satellite cell status (quiescence/activation/proliferation) is an important step towards...

  12. Recapitulation of Extracellular LAMININ Environment Maintains Stemness of Satellite Cells In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kana; Sakurai, Hidetoshi; Suzuki, Nobuharu; Mabuchi, Yo; Sekiya, Ichiro; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Akazawa, Chihiro

    2018-02-13

    Satellite cells function as precursor cells in mature skeletal muscle homeostasis and regeneration. In healthy tissue, these cells are maintained in a state of quiescence by a microenvironment formed by myofibers and basement membrane in which LAMININs (LMs) form a major component. In the present study, we evaluated the satellite cell microenvironment in vivo and found that these cells are encapsulated by LMα2-5. We sought to recapitulate this satellite cell niche in vitro by culturing satellite cells in the presence of recombinant LM-E8 fragments. We show that treatment with LM-E8 promotes proliferation of satellite cells in an undifferentiated state, through reduced phosphorylation of JNK and p38. On transplantation into injured muscle tissue, satellite cells cultured with LM-E8 promoted the regeneration of skeletal muscle. These findings represent an efficient method of culturing satellite cells for use in transplantation through the recapitulation of the satellite cell niche using recombinant LM-E8 fragments. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Lsd1 regulates skeletal muscle regeneration and directs the fate of satellite cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosic, Milica; Allen, Anita; Willmann, Dominica; Lepper, Christoph; Kim, Johnny; Duteil, Delphine; Schüle, Roland

    2018-01-25

    Satellite cells are muscle stem cells required for muscle regeneration upon damage. Of note, satellite cells are bipotent and have the capacity to differentiate not only into skeletal myocytes, but also into brown adipocytes. Epigenetic mechanisms regulating fate decision and differentiation of satellite cells during muscle regeneration are not yet fully understood. Here, we show that elevated levels of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (Kdm1a, also known as Lsd1) have a beneficial effect on muscle regeneration and recovery after injury, since Lsd1 directly regulates key myogenic transcription factor genes. Importantly, selective Lsd1 ablation or inhibition in Pax7-positive satellite cells, not only delays muscle regeneration, but changes cell fate towards brown adipocytes. Lsd1 prevents brown adipocyte differentiation of satellite cells by repressing expression of the novel pro-adipogenic transcription factor Glis1. Together, downregulation of Glis1 and upregulation of the muscle-specific transcription program ensure physiological muscle regeneration.

  14. Altered Satellite Cell Responsiveness and Denervation Implicated in Progression of Rotator-Cuff Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna Gigliotti

    Full Text Available Rotator-cuff injury (RCI is common and painful; even after surgery, joint stability and function may not recover. Relative contributions to atrophy from disuse, fibrosis, denervation, and satellite-cell responsiveness to activating stimuli are not known.Potential contributions of denervation and disrupted satellite cell responses to growth signals were examined in supraspinatus (SS and control (ipsilateral deltoid muscles biopsied from participants with RCI (N = 27. Biopsies were prepared for explant culture (to study satellite cell activity, immunostained to localize Pax7, BrdU, and Semaphorin 3A in satellite cells, sectioning to study blood vessel density, and western blotting to measure the fetal (γ subunit of acetylcholine receptor (γ-AchR. Principal component analysis (PCA for 35 parameters extracted components identified variables that contributed most to variability in the dataset. γ-AchR was higher in SS than control, indicating denervation. Satellite cells in SS had a low baseline level of activity (Pax7+ cells labelled in S-phase versus control; only satellite cells in SS showed increased proliferative activity after nitric oxide-donor treatment. Interestingly, satellite cell localization of Semaphorin 3A, a neuro-chemorepellent, was greater in SS (consistent with fiber denervation than control muscle at baseline. PCAs extracted components including fiber atrophy, satellite cell activity, fibrosis, atrogin-1, smoking status, vascular density, γAchR, and the time between symptoms and surgery. Use of deltoid as a control for SS was supported by PCA findings since "muscle" was not extracted as a variable in the first two principal components. SS muscle in RCI is therefore atrophic, denervated, and fibrotic, and has satellite cells that respond to activating stimuli.Since SS satellite cells can be activated in culture, a NO-donor drug combined with stretching could promote muscle growth and improve functional outcome after RCI. PCAs

  15. Altered Satellite Cell Responsiveness and Denervation Implicated in Progression of Rotator-Cuff Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Deanna; Leiter, Jeff R S; MacDonald, Peter B; Peeler, Jason; Anderson, Judy E

    Rotator-cuff injury (RCI) is common and painful; even after surgery, joint stability and function may not recover. Relative contributions to atrophy from disuse, fibrosis, denervation, and satellite-cell responsiveness to activating stimuli are not known. Potential contributions of denervation and disrupted satellite cell responses to growth signals were examined in supraspinatus (SS) and control (ipsilateral deltoid) muscles biopsied from participants with RCI (N = 27). Biopsies were prepared for explant culture (to study satellite cell activity), immunostained to localize Pax7, BrdU, and Semaphorin 3A in satellite cells, sectioning to study blood vessel density, and western blotting to measure the fetal (γ) subunit of acetylcholine receptor (γ-AchR). Principal component analysis (PCA) for 35 parameters extracted components identified variables that contributed most to variability in the dataset. γ-AchR was higher in SS than control, indicating denervation. Satellite cells in SS had a low baseline level of activity (Pax7+ cells labelled in S-phase) versus control; only satellite cells in SS showed increased proliferative activity after nitric oxide-donor treatment. Interestingly, satellite cell localization of Semaphorin 3A, a neuro-chemorepellent, was greater in SS (consistent with fiber denervation) than control muscle at baseline. PCAs extracted components including fiber atrophy, satellite cell activity, fibrosis, atrogin-1, smoking status, vascular density, γAchR, and the time between symptoms and surgery. Use of deltoid as a control for SS was supported by PCA findings since "muscle" was not extracted as a variable in the first two principal components. SS muscle in RCI is therefore atrophic, denervated, and fibrotic, and has satellite cells that respond to activating stimuli. Since SS satellite cells can be activated in culture, a NO-donor drug combined with stretching could promote muscle growth and improve functional outcome after RCI. PCAs suggest

  16. Response of turkey muscle satellite cells to thermal challenge. I. transcriptome effects in proliferating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Kent M; Mendoza, Kristelle M; Abrahante, Juan E; Barnes, Natalie E; Velleman, Sandra G; Strasburg, Gale M

    2017-05-06

    Climate change poses a multi-dimensional threat to food and agricultural systems as a result of increased risk to animal growth, development, health, and food product quality. This study was designed to characterize transcriptional changes induced in turkey muscle satellite cells cultured under cold or hot thermal challenge to better define molecular mechanisms by which thermal stress alters breast muscle ultrastructure. Satellite cells isolated from the pectoralis major muscle of 7-weeks-old male turkeys from two breeding lines (16 weeks body weight-selected and it's randombred control) were proliferated in culture at 33 °C, 38 °C or 43 °C for 72 h. Total RNA was isolated and 12 libraries subjected to RNAseq analysis. Statistically significant differences in gene expression were observed among treatments and between turkey lines with a greater number of genes altered by cold treatment than by hot and fewer differences observed between lines than between temperatures. Pathway analysis found that cold treatment resulted in an overrepresentation of genes involved in cell signaling/signal transduction and cell communication/cell signaling as compared to control (38 °C). Heat-treated muscle satellite cells showed greater tendency towards expression of genes related to muscle system development and differentiation. This study demonstrates significant transcriptome effects on turkey skeletal muscle satellite cells exposed to thermal challenge. Additional effects on gene expression could be attributed to genetic selection for 16 weeks body weight (muscle mass). New targets are identified for further research on the differential control of satellite cell proliferation in poultry.

  17. Inducible satellite cell depletion attenuates skeletal muscle regrowth following a scald-burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Celeste C; McKenna, Colleen F; Cambias, Lauren A; Brightwell, Camille R; Prasai, Anesh; Wang, Ye; El Ayadi, Amina; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E; Fry, Christopher S

    2017-11-01

    Severe burns result in significant skeletal muscle cachexia that impedes recovery. Activity of satellite cells, skeletal muscle stem cells, is altered following a burn injury and likely hinders regrowth of muscle. Severe burn injury induces satellite cell proliferation and fusion into myofibres with greater activity in muscles proximal to the injury site. Conditional depletion of satellite cells attenuates recovery of myofibre area and volume following a scald burn injury in mice. Skeletal muscle regrowth following a burn injury requires satellite cell activity, underscoring the therapeutic potential of satellite cells in the prevention of prolonged frailty in burn survivors. Severe burns result in profound skeletal muscle atrophy; persistent muscle atrophy and weakness are major complications that hamper recovery from burn injury. Many factors contribute to the erosion of muscle mass following burn trauma, and we have previously shown concurrent activation and apoptosis of muscle satellite cells following a burn injury in paediatric patients. To determine the necessity of satellite cells during muscle recovery following a burn injury, we utilized a genetically modified mouse model (Pax7 CreER -DTA) that allows for the conditional depletion of satellite cells in skeletal muscle. Additionally, mice were provided 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine to determine satellite cell proliferation, activation and fusion. Juvenile satellite cell-wild-type (SC-WT) and satellite cell-depleted (SC-Dep) mice (8 weeks of age) were randomized to sham or burn injury consisting of a dorsal scald burn injury covering 30% of total body surface area. Both hindlimb and dorsal muscles were studied at 7, 14 and 21 days post-burn. SC-Dep mice had >93% depletion of satellite cells compared to SC-WT (P satellite cell proliferation and fusion. Depletion of satellite cells impaired post-burn recovery of both muscle fibre cross-sectional area and volume (P satellite cells in the aetiology of lean

  18. Isolation, culture and biological characteristics of multipotent porcine skeletal muscle satellite cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinjuan; Liu, Hao; Wang, Kunfu; Li, Lu; Yuan, Hongyi; Liu, Xueting; Liu, Yingjie; Guan, Weijun

    2017-12-01

    Skeletal muscle has a huge regenerative potential for postnatal muscle growth and repair, which mainly depends on a kind of muscle progenitor cell population, called satellite cell. Nowadays, the majority of satellite cells were obtained from human, mouse, rat and other animals but rarely from pig. In this article, the porcine skeletal muscle satellite cells were isolated and cultured in vitro. The expression of surface markers of satellite cells was detected by immunofluorescence and RT-PCR assays. The differentiation capacity was assessed by inducing satellite cells into adipocytes, myoblasts and osteoblasts. The results showed that satellite cells isolated from porcine tibialis anterior were subcultured up to 12 passages and were positive for Pax7, Myod, c-Met, desmin, PCNA and NANOG but were negative for Myogenin. Satellite cells were also induced to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts and myoblasts, respectively. These findings indicated that porcine satellite cells possess similar biological characteristics of stem cells, which may provide theoretical basis and experimental evidence for potential therapeutic application in the treatment of dystrophic muscle and other muscle injuries.

  19. Myofiber-specific TEAD1 overexpression drives satellite cell hyperplasia and counters pathological effects of dystrophin deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Sheryl; Kim, Ju-Ryoung; Low, SiewHui; Tsika, Richard W; Lepper, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    When unperturbed, somatic stem cells are poised to affect immediate tissue restoration upon trauma. Yet, little is known regarding the mechanistic basis controlling initial and homeostatic ‘scaling’ of stem cell pool sizes relative to their target tissues for effective regeneration. Here, we show that TEAD1-expressing skeletal muscle of transgenic mice features a dramatic hyperplasia of muscle stem cells (i.e. satellite cells, SCs) but surprisingly without affecting muscle tissue size. Super-numeral SCs attain a ‘normal’ quiescent state, accelerate regeneration, and maintain regenerative capacity over several injury-induced regeneration bouts. In dystrophic muscle, the TEAD1 transgene also ameliorated the pathology. We further demonstrate that hyperplastic SCs accumulate non-cell-autonomously via signal(s) from the TEAD1-expressing myofiber, suggesting that myofiber-specific TEAD1 overexpression activates a physiological signaling pathway(s) that determines initial and homeostatic SC pool size. We propose that TEAD1 and its downstream effectors are medically relevant targets for enhancing muscle regeneration and ameliorating muscle pathology. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15461.001 PMID:27725085

  20. Differential requirement for satellite cells during overload-induced muscle hypertrophy in growing versus mature mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murach, Kevin A; White, Sarah H; Wen, Yuan; Ho, Angel; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E; McCarthy, John J; Peterson, Charlotte A

    2017-07-10

    Pax7+ satellite cells are required for skeletal muscle fiber growth during post-natal development in mice. Satellite cell-mediated myonuclear accretion also appears to persist into early adulthood. Given the important role of satellite cells during muscle development, we hypothesized that the necessity of satellite cells for adaptation to an imposed hypertrophic stimulus depends on maturational age. Pax7 CreER -R26R DTA mice were treated for 5 days with vehicle (satellite cell-replete, SC+) or tamoxifen (satellite cell-depleted, SC-) at 2 months (young) and 4 months (mature) of age. Following a 2-week washout, mice were subjected to sham surgery or 10 day synergist ablation overload of the plantaris (n = 6-9 per group). The surgical approach minimized regeneration, de novo fiber formation, and fiber splitting while promoting muscle fiber growth. Satellite cell density (Pax7+ cells/fiber), embryonic myosin heavy chain expression (eMyHC), and muscle fiber cross sectional area (CSA) were evaluated via immunohistochemistry. Myonuclei (myonuclei/100 mm) were counted on isolated single muscle fibers. Tamoxifen treatment depleted satellite cells by ≥90% and prevented myonuclear accretion with overload in young and mature mice (p overload. Average muscle fiber CSA increased ~20% in young SC+ (p = 0.07), mature SC+ (p overload (p overload-induced hypertrophy is dependent on maturational age, and global responses to overload differ in young versus mature mice.

  1. HDAC4 regulates satellite cell proliferation and differentiation by targeting P21 and Sharp1 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroncelli, Nicoletta; Bianchi, Marzia; Bertin, Marco; Consalvi, Silvia; Saccone, Valentina; De Bardi, Marco; Puri, Pier Lorenzo; Palacios, Daniela; Adamo, Sergio; Moresi, Viviana

    2018-02-22

    Skeletal muscle exhibits a high regenerative capacity, mainly due to the ability of satellite cells to replicate and differentiate in response to appropriate stimuli. Epigenetic control is effective at different stages of this process. It has been shown that the chromatin-remodeling factor HDAC4 is able to regulate satellite cell proliferation and commitment. However, its molecular targets are still uncovered. To explain the signaling pathways regulated by HDAC4 in satellite cells, we generated tamoxifen-inducible mice with conditional inactivation of HDAC4 in Pax7 + cells (HDAC4 KO mice). We found that the proliferation and differentiation of HDAC4 KO satellite cells were compromised, although similar amounts of satellite cells were found in mice. Moreover, we found that the inhibition of HDAC4 in satellite cells was sufficient to block the differentiation process. By RNA-sequencing analysis we identified P21 and Sharp1 as HDAC4 target genes. Reducing the expression of these target genes in HDAC4 KO satellite cells, we also defined the molecular pathways regulated by HDAC4 in the epigenetic control of satellite cell expansion and fusion.

  2. A myogenic precursor cell that could contribute to regeneration in zebrafish and its similarity to the satellite cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Ashley L; Gurevich, David B; Currie, Peter D

    2013-09-01

    The cellular basis for mammalian muscle regeneration has been an area of intense investigation over recent decades. The consensus is that a specialized self-renewing stem cell, termed the satellite cell, plays a major role during the process of regeneration in amniotes. How broadly this mechanism is deployed within the vertebrate phylogeny remains an open question. A lack of information on the role of cells analogous to the satellite cell in other vertebrate systems is even more unexpected given the fact that satellite cells were first designated in frogs. An intriguing aspect of this debate is that a number of amphibia and many fish species exhibit epimorphic regenerative processes in specific tissues, whereby regeneration occurs by the dedifferentiation of the damaged tissue, without deploying specialized stem cell populations analogous to satellite cells. Hence, it is feasible that a cellular process completely distinct from that deployed during mammalian muscle regeneration could operate in species capable of epimorphic regeneration. In this minireview, we examine the evidence for the broad phylogenetic distribution of satellite cells. We conclude that, in the vertebrates examined so far, epimorphosis does not appear to be deployed during muscle regeneration, and that analogous cells expressing similar marker genes to satellite cells appear to be deployed during the regenerative process. However, the functional definition of these cells as self-renewing muscle stem cells remains a final hurdle to the definition of the satellite cell as a generic vertebrate cell type. © 2013 FEBS.

  3. Ontogeny of the granulocyte/macrophage progenitor cell (GM-CFC) pools in the beagle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothdurft, W; Braasch, E; Calvo, W; Prümmer, O; Carbonell, F; Grilli, G; Fliedner, T M

    1984-04-01

    The pattern of development of the granulocyte/macrophage progenitor cell (GM-CFC) pools in the course of canine ontogeny was studied by means of the agar culture technique. Colony formation was stimulated by colony stimulating activity (CSA) in serum from lethally irradiated dogs in combination with erythrocyte-depleted peripheral blood leukocytes from normal adult dogs. The colonies thus obtained in cultures from the different organs were in general large (estimated maximum 50 000 cells) and consisted predominantly of mononucleated macrophages, suggesting that, in these studies, a progenitor cell with high proliferative potential (HPP-CFC) has been monitored. In the yolk sac, a transitory GM-CFC pool became established between day 23 and day 48 of gestation, reaching maximum numbers of approximately 41 X 10(3) per organ on days 36/37. At the same time the GM-CFC concentration in blood collected from the heart also reached a maximum of about 31 X 10(3)/ml, indicating its carrier function for the migration of GM-CFC. In the liver a quasi-exponential increase in the GM-CFC numbers took place between days 36/37 and days 57 to 59 when a total of about 15.2 X 10(6) was found but thereafter and up to day 4 post partum the GM-CFC numbers decreased by almost two orders of magnitude. A continuous increase in the GM-CFC numbers was found in the spleen between day 42 of gestation and day 4 post partum when a maximum of 5.1 X 10(6) to 8.7 X 10(6) was reached. In contrast to the GM-CFC numbers in the liver, the splenic GM-CFC dropped only by 50% of peak values when the dogs reached adulthood. The bone marrow always had the highest incidence of GM-CFC, the concentration per 10(6) cells being 18.7 X 10(3)/10(6) cells on days 45/46, the earliest time point at which cultures could be set up. The absolute GM-CFC numbers in the two femora increased continuously between days 45/46 and day 4 post partum in parallel with the growth of the bones. In the thymus a relatively small

  4. Echinacoside induces apoptotic cancer cell death by inhibiting the nucleotide pool sanitizing enzyme MTH1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong L

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Liwei Dong,1 Hongge Wang,1 Jiajing Niu,1 Mingwei Zou,2 Nuoting Wu,1 Debin Yu,1 Ye Wang,1 Zhihua Zou11Key Laboratory for Molecular Enzymology and Engineering of the Ministry of Education, National Engineering Laboratory for AIDS Vaccine, School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Psychology, College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Inhibition of the nucleotide pool sanitizing enzyme MTH1 causes extensive oxidative DNA damages and apoptosis in cancer cells and hence may be used as an anticancer strategy. As natural products have been a rich source of medicinal chemicals, in the present study, we used the MTH1-catalyzed enzymatic reaction as a high-throughput in vitro screening assay to search for natural compounds capable of inhibiting MTH1. Echinacoside, a compound derived from the medicinal plants Cistanche and Echinacea, effectively inhibited the catalytic activity of MTH1 in an in vitro assay. Treatment of various human cancer cell lines with Echinacoside resulted in a significant increase in the cellular level of oxidized guanine (8-oxoguanine, while cellular reactive oxygen species level remained unchanged, indicating that Echinacoside also inhibited the activity of cellular MTH1. Consequently, Echinacoside treatment induced an immediate and dramatic increase in DNA damage markers and upregulation of the G1/S-CDK inhibitor p21, which were followed by marked apoptotic cell death and cell cycle arrest in cancer but not in noncancer cells. Taken together, these studies identified a natural compound as an MTH1 inhibitor and suggest that natural products can be an important source of anticancer agents. Keywords: Echinacoside, MTH1, 8-oxoG, DNA damage, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest

  5. Sox2 promotes survival of satellite glial cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Taro; Wakabayashi, Taketoshi; Mori, Tetsuji; Hirahara, Yukie; Yamada, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    Sox2 is a transcriptional factor expressed in neural stem cells. It is known that Sox2 regulates cell differentiation, proliferation and survival of the neural stem cells. Our previous study showed that Sox2 is expressed in all satellite glial cells of the adult rat dorsal root ganglion. In this study, to examine the role of Sox2 in satellite glial cells, we establish a satellite glial cell-enriched culture system. Our culture method succeeded in harvesting satellite glial cells with the somata of neurons in the dorsal root ganglion. Using this culture system, Sox2 was downregulated by siRNA against Sox2. The knockdown of Sox2 downregulated ErbB2 and ErbB3 mRNA at 2 and 4 days after siRNA treatment. MAPK phosphorylation, downstream of ErbB, was also inhibited by Sox2 knockdown. Because ErbB2 and ErbB3 are receptors that support the survival of glial cells in the peripheral nervous system, apoptotic cells were also counted. TUNEL-positive cells increased at 5 days after siRNA treatment. These results suggest that Sox2 promotes satellite glial cell survival through the MAPK pathway via ErbB receptors. - Highlights: • We established satellite glial cell culture system. • Function of Sox2 in satellite glial cell was examined using siRNA. • Sox2 knockdown downregulated expression level of ErbB2 and ErbB3 mRNA. • Sox2 knockdown increased apoptotic satellite glial cell. • Sox2 promotes satellite glial cell survival through ErbB signaling

  6. Sox2 promotes survival of satellite glial cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Taro, E-mail: koiket@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Wakabayashi, Taketoshi; Mori, Tetsuji; Hirahara, Yukie; Yamada, Hisao

    2015-08-14

    Sox2 is a transcriptional factor expressed in neural stem cells. It is known that Sox2 regulates cell differentiation, proliferation and survival of the neural stem cells. Our previous study showed that Sox2 is expressed in all satellite glial cells of the adult rat dorsal root ganglion. In this study, to examine the role of Sox2 in satellite glial cells, we establish a satellite glial cell-enriched culture system. Our culture method succeeded in harvesting satellite glial cells with the somata of neurons in the dorsal root ganglion. Using this culture system, Sox2 was downregulated by siRNA against Sox2. The knockdown of Sox2 downregulated ErbB2 and ErbB3 mRNA at 2 and 4 days after siRNA treatment. MAPK phosphorylation, downstream of ErbB, was also inhibited by Sox2 knockdown. Because ErbB2 and ErbB3 are receptors that support the survival of glial cells in the peripheral nervous system, apoptotic cells were also counted. TUNEL-positive cells increased at 5 days after siRNA treatment. These results suggest that Sox2 promotes satellite glial cell survival through the MAPK pathway via ErbB receptors. - Highlights: • We established satellite glial cell culture system. • Function of Sox2 in satellite glial cell was examined using siRNA. • Sox2 knockdown downregulated expression level of ErbB2 and ErbB3 mRNA. • Sox2 knockdown increased apoptotic satellite glial cell. • Sox2 promotes satellite glial cell survival through ErbB signaling.

  7. Assessment of satellite cell number and activity status in human skeletal muscle biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail; Kjaer, Michael; Charifi, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    The primary aim of our study was to validate the assessment of myonuclear and satellite cell number in biopsies from human skeletal muscle. We found that 25 type I and 25 type II fibers are sufficient to estimate the mean number of myonuclei per fiber. In contrast, the assessment of satellite cells...

  8. A pooled analysis of sequential therapies with sorafenib and sunitinib in metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Frank; Chastonay, Rahel; Liewen, Heike; Haile, Sarah R; Cathomas, Richard; Rothermundt, Christian; Siciliano, Raffaele D; Stoll, Susanna; Knuth, Alexander; Buchler, Tomas; Porta, Camillo; Renner, Christoph; Samaras, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the optimal sequence for the receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (rTKIs) sorafenib and sunitinib in metastatic renal cell cancer. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients who had received sequential therapy with both rTKIs and integrated these results into a pooled analysis of available data from other publications. Differences in median progression-free survival (PFS) for first- (PFS1) and second-line treatment (PFS2), and for the combined PFS (PFS1 plus PFS2) were examined using weighted linear regression. In the pooled analysis encompassing 853 patients, the median combined PFS for first-line sunitinib and 2nd-line sorafenib (SuSo) was 12.1 months compared with 15.4 months for the reverse sequence (SoSu; 95% CI for difference 1.45-5.12, p = 0.0013). Regarding first-line treatment, no significant difference in PFS1 was noted regardless of which drug was initially used (0.62 months average increase on sorafenib, 95% CI for difference -1.01 to 2.26, p = 0.43). In second-line treatment, sunitinib showed a significantly longer PFS2 than sorafenib (average increase 2.66 months, 95% CI 1.02-4.3, p = 0.003). The SoSu sequence translates into a longer combined PFS compared to the SuSo sequence. Predominantly the superiority of sunitinib regarding PFS2 contributed to the longer combined PFS in sequential use. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Muscle Satellite Cell Protein Teneurin-4 Regulates Differentiation During Muscle Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kana; Suzuki, Nobuharu; Mabuchi, Yo; Ito, Naoki; Kikura, Naomi; Fukada, So-Ichiro; Okano, Hideyuki; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Akazawa, Chihiro

    2015-10-01

    Satellite cells are maintained in an undifferentiated quiescent state, but during muscle regeneration they acquire an activated stage, and initiate to proliferate and differentiate as myoblasts. The transmembrane protein teneurin-4 (Ten-4) is specifically expressed in the quiescent satellite cells; however, its cellular and molecular functions remain unknown. We therefore aimed to elucidate the function of Ten-4 in muscle satellite cells. In the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of Ten-4-deficient mice, the number and the size of myofibers, as well as the population of satellite cells, were reduced with/without induction of muscle regeneration. Furthermore, we found an accelerated activation of satellite cells in the regenerated Ten-4-deficient TA muscle. The cell culture analysis using primary satellite cells showed that Ten-4 suppressed the progression of myogenic differentiation. Together, our findings revealed that Ten-4 functions as a crucial player in maintaining the quiescence of muscle satellite cells. © 2015 The Authors STEM CELLS published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  10. Muscle Satellite Cell Protein Teneurin‐4 Regulates Differentiation During Muscle Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kana; Suzuki, Nobuharu; Mabuchi, Yo; Ito, Naoki; Kikura, Naomi; Fukada, So‐ichiro; Okano, Hideyuki; Takeda, Shin'ichi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Satellite cells are maintained in an undifferentiated quiescent state, but during muscle regeneration they acquire an activated stage, and initiate to proliferate and differentiate as myoblasts. The transmembrane protein teneurin‐4 (Ten‐4) is specifically expressed in the quiescent satellite cells; however, its cellular and molecular functions remain unknown. We therefore aimed to elucidate the function of Ten‐4 in muscle satellite cells. In the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of Ten‐4‐deficient mice, the number and the size of myofibers, as well as the population of satellite cells, were reduced with/without induction of muscle regeneration. Furthermore, we found an accelerated activation of satellite cells in the regenerated Ten‐4‐deficient TA muscle. The cell culture analysis using primary satellite cells showed that Ten‐4 suppressed the progression of myogenic differentiation. Together, our findings revealed that Ten‐4 functions as a crucial player in maintaining the quiescence of muscle satellite cells. Stem Cells 2015;33:3017–3027 PMID:26013034

  11. Clonal characterization of rat muscle satellite cells: proliferation, metabolism and differentiation define an intrinsic heterogeneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo A Rossi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite cells (SCs represent a distinct lineage of myogenic progenitors responsible for the postnatal growth, repair and maintenance of skeletal muscle. Distinguished on the basis of their unique position in mature skeletal muscle, SCs were considered unipotent stem cells with the ability of generating a unique specialized phenotype. Subsequently, it was demonstrated in mice that opposite differentiation towards osteogenic and adipogenic pathways was also possible. Even though the pool of SCs is accepted as the major, and possibly the only, source of myonuclei in postnatal muscle, it is likely that SCs are not all multipotent stem cells and evidences for diversities within the myogenic compartment have been described both in vitro and in vivo. Here, by isolating single fibers from rat flexor digitorum brevis (FDB muscle we were able to identify and clonally characterize two main subpopulations of SCs: the low proliferative clones (LPC present in major proportion (approximately 75% and the high proliferative clones (HPC, present instead in minor amount (approximately 25%. LPC spontaneously generate myotubes whilst HPC differentiate into adipocytes even though they may skip the adipogenic program if co-cultured with LPC. LPC and HPC differ also for mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m, ATP balance and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS generation underlying diversities in metabolism that precede differentiation. Notably, SCs heterogeneity is retained in vivo. SCs may therefore be comprised of two distinct, though not irreversibly committed, populations of cells distinguishable for prominent differences in basal biological features such as proliferation, metabolism and differentiation. By these means, novel insights on SCs heterogeneity are provided and evidences for biological readouts potentially relevant for diagnostic purposes described.

  12. Reduced satellite cell numbers and myogenic capacity in aging can be alleviated by endurance exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi Shefer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Muscle regeneration depends on satellite cells, myogenic stem cells that reside on the myofiber surface. Reduced numbers and/or decreased myogenic aptitude of these cells may impede proper maintenance and contribute to the age-associated decline in muscle mass and repair capacity. Endurance exercise was shown to improve muscle performance; however, the direct impact on satellite cells in aging was not yet thoroughly determined. Here, we focused on characterizing the effect of moderate-intensity endurance exercise on satellite cell, as possible means to attenuate adverse effects of aging. Young and old rats of both genders underwent 13 weeks of treadmill-running or remained sedentary.Gastrocnemius muscles were assessed for the effect of age, gender and exercise on satellite-cell numbers and myogenic capacity. Satellite cells were identified in freshly isolated myofibers based on Pax7 immunostaining (i.e., ex-vivo. The capacity of individual myofiber-associated cells to produce myogenic progeny was determined in clonal assays (in-vitro. We show an age-associated decrease in satellite-cell numbers and in the percent of myogenic clones in old sedentary rats. Upon exercise, there was an increase in myofibers that contain higher numbers of satellite cells in both young and old rats, and an increase in the percent of myogenic clones derived from old rats. Changes at the satellite cell level in old rats were accompanied with positive effects on the lean-to-fat Gast muscle composition and on spontaneous locomotion levels. The significance of these data is that they suggest that the endurance exercise-mediated boost in both satellite numbers and myogenic properties may improve myofiber maintenance in aging.

  13. Muscle satellite cells are activated after exercise to exhaustion in Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, M; Aida, H; Hiraga, A; Miyata, H

    2013-07-01

    Although satellite cells are well known as muscle stem cells capable of adding myonuclei during muscle repair and hypertrophy, the response of satellite cells in horse muscles to a run to exhaustion is still unknown. To investigate the time course of satellite cell activation in Thoroughbred horse muscle after running to exhaustion. We hypothesised that this type of intense exercise would induce satellite cell activation in skeletal muscle similar to a resistance exercise. Nine de-trained Thoroughbred horses (6 geldings and 3 mares) aged 3-6 years were studied. Biopsy samples were taken from the gluteus medius muscle of the horses before and 1 min, 3 h, 1 day, 3 days, 1 week and 2 weeks after a treadmill run to exhaustion. The numbers of satellite cells for each fibre type were determined by using immunofluorescence staining. Total RNA was extracted from these samples, and the expressions of interleukin (IL)-6, paired box transcriptional factor (Pax) 7, myogenic differentiation 1 (MyoD), myogenin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) mRNA were analysed using real-time reverse transcription-PCR. The numbers of satellite cells were significantly increased in type I and IIa fibres at 1 week and in type IIa/x fibre at 2 weeks post exercise. The expression of IL-6 mRNA increased significantly by 3 h post exercise. The expression of PCNA mRNA also increased by 1 day after running, indicating that running can initiate satellite cell proliferation. The expression of Pax7, MyoD, myogenin, IGF-I and HGF mRNA peaked at 1 week post exercise. Satellite cell activation and proliferation could be enhanced after a run to exhaustion without detectable injury as assessed by the histochemical analysis. Understanding the response of satellite cell activation to running exercise provides fundamental information about the skeletal muscle adaptation in Thoroughbred horses. © 2012 EVJ Ltd.

  14. Regulation of the muscle fiber microenvironment by activated satellite cells during hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Christopher S.; Lee, Jonah D.; Jackson, Janna R.; Kirby, Tyler J.; Stasko, Shawn A.; Liu, Honglu; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E.; McCarthy, John J.; Peterson, Charlotte A.

    2014-01-01

    Our aim in the current study was to determine the necessity of satellite cells for long-term muscle growth and maintenance. We utilized a transgenic Pax7-DTA mouse model, allowing for the conditional depletion of > 90% of satellite cells with tamoxifen treatment. Synergist ablation surgery, where removal of synergist muscles places functional overload on the plantaris, was used to stimulate robust hypertrophy. Following 8 wk of overload, satellite cell-depleted muscle demonstrated an accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) and fibroblast expansion that resulted in reduced specific force of the plantaris. Although the early growth response was normal, an attenuation of hypertrophy measured by both muscle wet weight and fiber cross-sectional area occurred in satellite cell-depleted muscle. Isolated primary myogenic progenitor cells (MPCs) negatively regulated fibroblast ECM mRNA expression in vitro, suggesting a novel role for activated satellite cells/MPCs in muscle adaptation. These results provide evidence that satellite cells regulate the muscle environment during growth.—Fry, C. S., Lee, J. D., Jackson, J. R., Kirby, T. J., Stasko, S. A., Liu, H., Dupont-Versteegden, E. E., McCarthy, J. J., Peterson, C. A. Regulation of the muscle fiber microenvironment by activated satellite cells during hypertrophy. PMID:24376025

  15. Cash pooling

    OpenAIRE

    Lozovaya, Karina

    2009-01-01

    This work makes a mention of cash management. At next chapter describes two most known theoretical models of cash management -- Baumol Model and Miller-Orr Model. Principal part of work is about cash pooling, types of cash pooling, cash pooling at Czech Republic and influence of cash pooling over accounting and taxes.

  16. Effects of voluntary wheel running on satellite cells in the rat plantaris muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosaka, Mitsutoshi; Naito, Hisashi; Ogura, Yuji; Kojima, Atsushi; Goto, Katsumasa; Katamoto, Shizuo

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of voluntary wheel running on satellite cells in the rat plantaris muscle. Seventeen 5-week-old male Wistar rats were assigned to a control (n = 5) or training (n = 12) group. Each rat in the training group ran voluntarily in a running-wheel cage for 8 weeks. After the training period, the animals were anesthetized, and the plantaris muscles were removed, weighed, and analyzed immunohistochemically and biochemically. Although there were no significant differences in muscle weight or fiber area between the groups, the numbers of satellite cells and myonuclei per muscle fiber, percentage of satellite cells, and citrate synthase activity were significantly higher in the training group compared with the control group (p run in the training group (r = 0.61, p running can induce an increase in the number of satellite cells without changing the mean fiber area in the rat plantaris muscle; this increase in satellite cell content is a function of distance run. Key pointsThere is no study about the effect of voluntary running on satellite cells in the rat plantaris muscle.Voluntary running training causes an increase of citrate synthase activity in the rat plantaris muscle but does not affect muscle weight and mean fiber area in the rat plantaris muscle.Voluntary running can induce an increase in the number of satellite cells without hypertrophy of the rat plantaris muscle.

  17. MASTR directs MyoD-dependent satellite cell differentiation during skeletal muscle regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Mokalled, Mayssa H.; Johnson, Aaron N.; Creemers, Esther E.; Olson, Eric N.

    2012-01-01

    Muscle repair is regulated by satellite cells, adult skeletal muscle stem cells that control muscle regeneration by proliferating and fusing with injured myofibers. MyoD is required for muscle regeneration; however, the mechanisms regulating MyoD expression in satellite cells are unclear. In this study, Olson and colleagues have demonstrated that deletion of MASTR and MRTF-A, two members of the Myocardin family of transcription factors, leads to skeletal muscle regeneration defects and down-r...

  18. Nanoparticle encapsulation in red blood cells enables blood-pool magnetic particle imaging hours after injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmer, J; Gleich, B; Borgert, J; Antonelli, A; Sfara, C; Magnani, M; Tiemann, B; Weizenecker, J

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new medical imaging approach that is based on the nonlinear magnetization response of super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) injected into the blood stream. To date, real-time MPI of the bolus passage of an approved MRI SPIO contrast agent injected into the tail vein of living mice has been demonstrated. However, nanoparticles are rapidly removed from the blood stream by the mononuclear phagocyte system. Therefore, imaging applications for long-term monitoring require the repeated administration of bolus injections, which complicates quantitative comparisons due to the temporal variations in concentration. Encapsulation of SPIOs into red blood cells (RBCs) has been suggested to increase the blood circulation time of nanoparticles. This work presents first evidence that SPIO-loaded RBCs can be imaged in the blood pool of mice several hours after injection using MPI. This finding is supported by magnetic particle spectroscopy performed to quantify the iron concentration in blood samples extracted from the mice 3 and 24 h after injection of SPIO-loaded RBCs. Based on these results, new MPI applications can be envisioned, such as permanent 3D real-time visualization of the vessel tree during interventional procedures, bleeding monitoring after stroke, or long-term monitoring and treatment control of cardiovascular diseases. (paper)

  19. Role of the mitochondrial amino acid pool in the differential sensitivity of erythroid and myeloid cells to chloramphenicol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Khalil, S.; Abou-Khalil, W.H.; Whitney, P.L.; Yunis, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Previous studies in the authors laboratory have suggested that mitochondrial amino acid (AA) pool is involved in the differential sensitivity of erythroid and myeloid cells to chloramphenicol (CAP). The present study examines the role of AA pool by analysis of its composition and testing the effects of its major components. The endogenous AA composition of isolated mitochondria protein was determined using a JEOL 5AH AA analyzer. L-( 14 C) leucine incorporation into mitochondrial protein was used to measure the rate of protein synthesis. Analysis of the endogenous pool in erythroleukemia (EM) and chloroleukemia (CM) mitochrondria showed similar total amount of AAs. However, some AAs were present in significantly higher or lower quantity within EM and CM (i.e. EM had about 2-fold higher glycine content). When compensating for each low AA addition of that particular acid to the reaction medium, only glycine and serine had significant effect. Thus, the addition of increasing concentrations of glycine or serine enhanced the sensitivity to CAP from 14% to 49-51% in CM but not in EM. Other AAs gave little or no effect. Since glycine is one of the first reactants in heme biosynthesis within mitochondria and is interconvertible with serine, it would appear that erythroid cells sensitivity to CAP is determined by the mitochondrial glycine-serine pool and may be somehow related of the pathway to heme biosynthesis in these cells

  20. Enrichment of extremophilic exoelectrogens in microbial electrolysis cells using Red Sea brine pools as inocula

    KAUST Repository

    Chehab, Noura A.; Ortiz-Madina, Juan F.; Katuri, Krishna; Rao, Hari Ananda; Amy, Gary L.; Logan, Bruce E.; Saikaly, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    environments and can be used to startup MEC under thermophilic and hypersaline conditions. Bacteroides was enriched on the anode of the Valdivia MEC, but it was not detected in the open circuit voltage reactor seeded with the Valdivia brine pool.

  1. Rapid protein production from stable CHO cell pools using plasmid vector and the cumate gene-switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, Adeline; Perret, Sylvie; Malenfant, Félix; Mullick, Alaka; Massie, Bernard; Durocher, Yves

    2017-08-10

    To rapidly produce large amounts of recombinant proteins, the generation of stable Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell pools represents a useful alternative to large-scale transient gene expression (TGE). We have developed a cell line (CHO BRI/rcTA ) allowing the inducible expression of recombinant proteins, based on the cumate gene switch. After the identification of optimal plasmid DNA topology (supercoiled vs linearized plasmid) for PEIpro™ mediated transfection and of optimal conditions for methionine sulfoximine (MSX) selection, we were able to generate CHO BRI/rcTA pools producing high levels of recombinant proteins. Volumetric productivities of up to 900mg/L were reproducibly achieved for a Fc fusion protein and up to 350mg/L for an antibody after 14days post-induction in non-optimized fed-batch cultures. In addition, we show that CHO pool volumetric productivities are not affected by a freeze-thaw cycle or following maintenance in culture for over one month in the presence of MSX. Finally, we demonstrate that volumetric protein production with the CR5 cumate-inducible promoter is three- to four-fold higher than with the human CMV or hybrid EF1α-HTLV constitutive promoters. These results suggest that the cumate-inducible CHO BRI/rcTA stable pool platform is a powerful and robust system for the rapid production of gram amounts of recombinant proteins. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A novel intracellular pool of LFA-1 is critical for asymmetric CD8+ T cell activation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capece, Tara; Walling, Brandon L; Lim, Kihong; Kim, Kyun-Do; Bae, Seyeon; Chung, Hung-Li; Topham, David J; Kim, Minsoo

    2017-11-06

    The integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1; CD11a/CD18) is a key T cell adhesion receptor that mediates stable interactions with antigen-presenting cell (APC), as well as chemokine-mediated migration. Using our newly generated CD11a-mYFP knock-in mice, we discovered that naive CD8 + T cells reserve a significant intracellular pool of LFA-1 in the uropod during migration. Intracellular LFA-1 quickly translocated to the cell surface with antigenic stimulus. Importantly, the redistribution of intracellular LFA-1 at the contact with APC was maintained during cell division and led to an unequal inheritance of LFA-1 in divided T cells. The daughter CD8 + T cells with disparate LFA-1 expression showed different patterns of migration on ICAM-1, APC interactions, and tissue retention, as well as altered effector functions. In addition, we identified Rab27 as an important regulator of the intracellular LFA-1 translocation. Collectively, our data demonstrate that an intracellular pool of LFA-1 in naive CD8 + T cells plays a key role in T cell activation and differentiation. © 2017 Capece et al.

  3. TRAF6 regulates satellite stem cell self-renewal and function during regenerative myogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindi, Sajedah M.; Kumar, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Satellite cells are a stem cell population within adult muscle and are responsible for myofiber regeneration upon injury. Satellite cell dysfunction has been shown to underlie the loss of skeletal muscle mass in many acquired and genetic muscle disorders. The transcription factor paired box-protein-7 (PAX7) is indispensable for supplementing the reservoir of satellite cells and driving regeneration in normal and diseased muscle. TNF receptor–associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is an adaptor protein and an E3 ubiquitin ligase that mediates the activation of multiple cell signaling pathways in a context-dependent manner. Here, we demonstrated that TRAF6-mediated signaling is critical for homeostasis of satellite cells and their function during regenerative myogenesis. Selective deletion of Traf6 in satellite cells of adult mice led to profound muscle regeneration defects and dramatically reduced levels of PAX7 and late myogenesis markers. TRAF6 was required for the activation of MAPKs ERK1/2 and JNK1/2, which in turn activated the transcription factor c-JUN, which binds the Pax7 promoter and augments Pax7 expression. Moreover, TRAF6/c-JUN signaling repressed the levels of the microRNAs miR-1 and miR-206, which promote differentiation, to maintain PAX7 levels in satellite cells. We also determined that satellite cell–specific deletion of Traf6 exaggerates the dystrophic phenotype in the mdx (a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy) mouse by blunting the regeneration of injured myofibers. Collectively, our study reveals an essential role for TRAF6 in satellite stem cell function. PMID:26619121

  4. The quasi-parallel lives of satellite cells and atrophying muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano eBiressi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle atrophy or wasting accompanies various chronic illnesses and the aging process, thereby reducing muscle function. One of the most important components contributing to effective muscle repair in postnatal organisms, the satellite cells, have recently become the focus of several studies examining factors participating in the atrophic process. We critically examine here the experimental evidence linking satellite cell function with muscle loss in connection with various diseases as well as aging, and in the subsequent recovery process. Several recent reports have investigated the changes in satellite cells in terms of their differentiation and proliferative capacity in response to various atrophic stimuli. In this regard, we review the molecular changes within satellite cells that contribute to their dysfunctional status in atrophy, with the intention of shedding light on novel potential pharmacological targets to counteract the loss of muscle mass.

  5. Pre-mRNA Processing Is Partially Impaired in Satellite Cell Nuclei from Aged Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Malatesta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite cells are responsible for the capacity of mature mammalian skeletal muscles to repair and maintain mass. During aging, skeletal muscle mass as well as the muscle strength and endurance progressively decrease, leading to a condition termed sarcopenia. The causes of sarcopenia are manifold and remain to be completely elucidated. One of them could be the remarkable decline in the efficiency of muscle regeneration; this has been associated with decreasing amounts of satellite cells, but also to alterations in their activation, proliferation, and/or differentiation. In this study, we investigated the satellite cell nuclei of biceps and quadriceps muscles from adult and old rats; morphometry and immunocytochemistry at light and electron microscopy have been combined to assess the organization of the nuclear RNP structural constituents involved in different steps of mRNA formation. We demonstrated that in satellite cells the RNA pathways undergo alterations during aging, possibly hampering their responsiveness to muscle damage.

  6. Reduced satellite cell population may lead to contractures in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lucas R; Chambers, Henry G; Lieber, Richard L

    2013-03-01

    Satellite cells are the stem cells residing in muscle responsible for skeletal muscle growth and repair. Skeletal muscle in cerebral palsy (CP) has impaired longitudinal growth that results in muscle contractures. We hypothesized that the satellite cell population would be reduced in contractured muscle. We compared the satellite cell populations in hamstring muscles from participants with CP contracture (n=8; six males, two females; age range 6-15y; Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] levels II-V; 4 with hemiplegia, 4 with diplegia) and from typically developing participants (n=8; six males, two females, age range 15-18y). Muscle biopsies were extracted from the gracilis and semitendinosus muscles and mononuclear cells were isolated. Cell surface markers were stained with fluorescently conjugated antibodies to label satellite cells (neural cell adhesion molecule) and inflammatory and endothelial cells (CD34 and CD4 respectively). Cells were analyzed using flow cytometry to determine cell populations. After gating for intact cells a mean of 12.8% (SD 2.8%) were determined to be satellite cells in typically developing children, but only 5.3% (SD 2.3%; p0.05) suggesting the isolation procedure was valid. A reduced satellite cell population may account for the decreased longitudinal growth of muscles in CP that develop into fixed contractures or the decreased ability to strengthen muscle in CP. This suggests a unique musculoskeletal disease mechanism and provides a potential therapeutic target for debilitating muscle contractures. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2012 Mac Keith Press.

  7. Exciting Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Bradford L.

    1975-01-01

    Advocates the creation of swimming pool oscillations as part of a general investigation of mechanical oscillations. Presents the equations, procedure for deriving the slosh modes, and methods of period estimation for exciting swimming pool oscillations. (GS)

  8. Retained Myogenic Potency of Human Satellite Cells from Torn Rotator Cuff Muscles Despite Fatty Infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, Masashi; Hagiwara, Yoshihiro; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Kanzaki, Makoto; Hatakeyama, Hiroyasu; Tanaka, Yukinori; Minowa, Takashi; Takemura, Taro; Ando, Akira; Sekiguchi, Takuya; Yabe, Yutaka; Itoi, Eiji

    2018-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears (RCTs) are a common shoulder problem in the elderly that can lead to both muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration due to less physical load. Satellite cells, quiescent cells under the basal lamina of skeletal muscle fibers, play a major role in muscle regeneration. However, the myogenic potency of human satellite cells in muscles with fatty infiltration is unclear due to the difficulty in isolating from small samples, and the mechanism of the progression of fatty infiltration has not been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to analyze the population of myogenic and adipogenic cells in disused supraspinatus (SSP) and intact subscapularis (SSC) muscles of the RCTs from the same patients using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The microstructure of the muscle with fatty infiltration was observed as a whole mount condition under multi-photon microscopy. Myogenic differentiation potential and gene expression were evaluated in satellite cells. The results showed that the SSP muscle with greater fatty infiltration surrounded by collagen fibers compared with the SSC muscle under multi-photon microscopy. A positive correlation was observed between the ratio of muscle volume to fat volume and the ratio of myogenic precursor to adipogenic precursor. Although no difference was observed in the myogenic potential between the two groups in cell culture, satellite cells in the disused SSP muscle showed higher intrinsic myogenic gene expression than those in the intact SSC muscle. Our results indicate that satellite cells from the disused SSP retain sufficient potential of muscle growth despite the fatty infiltration.

  9. EFFECTS OF VOLUNTARY WHEEL RUNNING ON SATELLITE CELLS IN THE RAT PLANTARIS MUSCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Kojima

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of voluntary wheel running on satellite cells in the rat plantaris muscle. Seventeen 5-week-old male Wistar rats were assigned to a control (n = 5 or training (n = 12 group. Each rat in the training group ran voluntarily in a running-wheel cage for 8 weeks. After the training period, the animals were anesthetized, and the plantaris muscles were removed, weighed, and analyzed immunohistochemically and biochemically. Although there were no significant differences in muscle weight or fiber area between the groups, the numbers of satellite cells and myonuclei per muscle fiber, percentage of satellite cells, and citrate synthase activity were significantly higher in the training group compared with the control group (p < 0.05. The percentage of satellite cells was also positively correlated with distance run in the training group (r = 0.61, p < 0.05. Voluntary running can induce an increase in the number of satellite cells without changing the mean fiber area in the rat plantaris muscle; this increase in satellite cell content is a function of distance run

  10. Myostatin Suppression of Akirin1 Mediates Glucocorticoid-Induced Satellite Cell Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yanjun; Pan, Jenny S.; Zhang, Liping

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids production is increased in many pathological conditions that are associated with muscle loss, but their role in causing muscle wasting is not fully understood. We have demonstrated a new mechanism of glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy: Dexamethasone (Dex) suppresses satellite cell function contributing to the development of muscle atrophy. Specifically, we found that Dex decreases satellite cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism involved Dex-induced upregulation of myostatin and suppression of Akirin1, a promyogenic gene. When myostatin was inhibited in Dex-treated mice, Akirin1 expression increased as did satellite cell activity, muscle regeneration and muscle growth. In addition, silencing myostatin in myoblasts or satellite cells prevented Dex from suppressing Akirin1 expression and cellular proliferation and differentiation. Finally, overexpression of Akirin1 in myoblasts increased their expression of MyoD and myogenin and improved cellular proliferation and differentiation, theses improvements were no longer suppressed by Dex. We conclude that glucocorticoids stimulate myostatin which inhibits Akirin1 expression and the reparative functions of satellite cells. These responses attribute to muscle atrophy. Thus, inhibition of myostatin or increasing Akirin1 expression could lead to therapeutic strategies for improving satellite cell activation and enhancing muscle growth in diseases associated with increased glucocorticoid production. PMID:23516508

  11. Myostatin suppression of Akirin1 mediates glucocorticoid-induced satellite cell dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Dong

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids production is increased in many pathological conditions that are associated with muscle loss, but their role in causing muscle wasting is not fully understood. We have demonstrated a new mechanism of glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy: Dexamethasone (Dex suppresses satellite cell function contributing to the development of muscle atrophy. Specifically, we found that Dex decreases satellite cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism involved Dex-induced upregulation of myostatin and suppression of Akirin1, a promyogenic gene. When myostatin was inhibited in Dex-treated mice, Akirin1 expression increased as did satellite cell activity, muscle regeneration and muscle growth. In addition, silencing myostatin in myoblasts or satellite cells prevented Dex from suppressing Akirin1 expression and cellular proliferation and differentiation. Finally, overexpression of Akirin1 in myoblasts increased their expression of MyoD and myogenin and improved cellular proliferation and differentiation, theses improvements were no longer suppressed by Dex. We conclude that glucocorticoids stimulate myostatin which inhibits Akirin1 expression and the reparative functions of satellite cells. These responses attribute to muscle atrophy. Thus, inhibition of myostatin or increasing Akirin1 expression could lead to therapeutic strategies for improving satellite cell activation and enhancing muscle growth in diseases associated with increased glucocorticoid production.

  12. mTOR is necessary for proper satellite cell activity and skeletal muscle regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pengpeng [Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding of Agricultural Ministry & Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Liang, Xinrong; Shan, Tizhong [Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Jiang, Qinyang [Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); College of Animal Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Deng, Changyan [Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding of Agricultural Ministry & Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zheng, Rong, E-mail: zhengrong@mail.hzau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding of Agricultural Ministry & Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Kuang, Shihuan, E-mail: skuang@purdue.edu [Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-07-17

    The serine/threonine kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of protein synthesis, cell proliferation and energy metabolism. As constitutive deletion of Mtor gene results in embryonic lethality, the function of mTOR in muscle stem cells (satellite cells) and skeletal muscle regeneration remains to be determined. In this study, we established a satellite cell specific Mtor conditional knockout (cKO) mouse model by crossing Pax7{sup CreER} and Mtor{sup flox/flox} mice. Skeletal muscle regeneration after injury was severely compromised in the absence of Mtor, indicated by increased number of necrotic myofibers infiltrated by Evans blue dye, and reduced number and size of regenerated myofibers in the Mtor cKO mice compared to wild type (WT) littermates. To dissect the cellular mechanism, we analyzed satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts grown on single myofibers or adhered to culture plates. The Mtor cKO myoblasts exhibited defective proliferation and differentiation kinetics when compared to myoblasts derived from WT littermates. At the mRNA and protein levels, the Mtor cKO myoblasts expressed lower levels of key myogenic determinant genes Pax7, Myf5, Myod, Myog than did the WT myoblasts. These results suggest that mTOR is essential for satellite cell function and skeletal muscle regeneration through controlling the expression of myogenic genes. - Highlights: • Pax7{sup CreER} was used to delete Mtor gene in satellite cells. • Satellite cell specific deletion of Mtor impairs muscle regeneration. • mTOR is necessary for satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. • Deletion of Mtor leads to reduced expression of key myogenic genes.

  13. mTOR is necessary for proper satellite cell activity and skeletal muscle regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Pengpeng; Liang, Xinrong; Shan, Tizhong; Jiang, Qinyang; Deng, Changyan; Zheng, Rong; Kuang, Shihuan

    2015-01-01

    The serine/threonine kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of protein synthesis, cell proliferation and energy metabolism. As constitutive deletion of Mtor gene results in embryonic lethality, the function of mTOR in muscle stem cells (satellite cells) and skeletal muscle regeneration remains to be determined. In this study, we established a satellite cell specific Mtor conditional knockout (cKO) mouse model by crossing Pax7 CreER and Mtor flox/flox mice. Skeletal muscle regeneration after injury was severely compromised in the absence of Mtor, indicated by increased number of necrotic myofibers infiltrated by Evans blue dye, and reduced number and size of regenerated myofibers in the Mtor cKO mice compared to wild type (WT) littermates. To dissect the cellular mechanism, we analyzed satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts grown on single myofibers or adhered to culture plates. The Mtor cKO myoblasts exhibited defective proliferation and differentiation kinetics when compared to myoblasts derived from WT littermates. At the mRNA and protein levels, the Mtor cKO myoblasts expressed lower levels of key myogenic determinant genes Pax7, Myf5, Myod, Myog than did the WT myoblasts. These results suggest that mTOR is essential for satellite cell function and skeletal muscle regeneration through controlling the expression of myogenic genes. - Highlights: • Pax7 CreER was used to delete Mtor gene in satellite cells. • Satellite cell specific deletion of Mtor impairs muscle regeneration. • mTOR is necessary for satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. • Deletion of Mtor leads to reduced expression of key myogenic genes

  14. HEXIM1 controls satellite cell expansion after injury to regulate skeletal muscle regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Peng; Chen, Kang; Huang, Bihui; Liu, Min; Cui, Miao; Rozenberg, Inna; Chaqour, Brahim; Pan, Xiaoyue; Barton, Elisabeth R.; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Siddiqui, M.A.Q.

    2012-01-01

    The native capacity of adult skeletal muscles to regenerate is vital to the recovery from physical injuries and dystrophic diseases. Currently, the development of therapeutic interventions has been hindered by the complex regulatory network underlying the process of muscle regeneration. Using a mouse model of skeletal muscle regeneration after injury, we identified hexamethylene bisacetamide inducible 1 (HEXIM1, also referred to as CLP-1), the inhibitory component of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) complex, as a pivotal regulator of skeletal muscle regeneration. Hexim1-haplodeficient muscles exhibited greater mass and preserved function compared with those of WT muscles after injury, as a result of enhanced expansion of satellite cells. Transplanted Hexim1-haplodeficient satellite cells expanded and improved muscle regeneration more effectively than WT satellite cells. Conversely, HEXIM1 overexpression restrained satellite cell proliferation and impeded muscle regeneration. Mechanistically, dissociation of HEXIM1 from P-TEFb and subsequent activation of P-TEFb are required for satellite cell proliferation and the prevention of early myogenic differentiation. These findings suggest a crucial role for the HEXIM1/P-TEFb pathway in the regulation of satellite cell–mediated muscle regeneration and identify HEXIM1 as a potential therapeutic target for degenerative muscular diseases. PMID:23023707

  15. Proton irradiation effects of amorphous silicon solar cell for solar power satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Yousuke; Oshima, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Sasaki, Susumu; Kuroda, Hideo; Ushirokawa, Akio

    1997-03-01

    Flexible amorphous silicon(fa-Si) solar cell module, a thin film type, is regarded as a realistic power generator for solar power satellite. The radiation resistance of fa-Si cells was investigated by the irradiations of 3,4 and 10 MeV protons. The hydrogen gas treatment of the irradiated fa-Si cells was also studied. The fa-Si cell shows high radiation resistance for proton irradiations, compared with a crystalline silicon solar cell. (author)

  16. Large sodium pool fires in a closed or in a naturally vented cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzekiecki, R.; Malet, J.C.; Sophy, Y.; Joly, C.; Claverie, J.

    1986-01-01

    Within the framework of R and D studies related to LMFBR sodium handling safety, a facility named ESMERALDA 1 was provided. This permits full scale demonstration of the control of sodium fires. ESMERALDA is a French-Italian project including EDF, CEA, NERSA, NOVATOME, partners. Large pool fires studies are a part of it. (author)

  17. How much of Virus-Specific CD8 T Cell Reactivity is Detected with a Peptide Pool when Compared to Individual Peptides?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramu A. Subbramanian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Immune monitoring of T cell responses increasingly relies on the use of peptide pools. Peptides, when restricted by the same HLA allele, and presented from within the same peptide pool, can compete for HLA binding sites. What impact such competition has on functional T cell stimulation, however, is not clear. Using a model peptide pool that is comprised of 32 well-defined viral epitopes from Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and Influenza viruses (CEF peptide pool, we assessed peptide competition in PBMC from 42 human subjects. The magnitude of the peptide pool-elicited CD8 T cell responses was a mean 79% and a median 77% of the sum of the CD8 T cell responses elicited by the individual peptides. Therefore, while the effect of peptide competition was evident, it was of a relatively minor magnitude. By studying the dose-response curves for individual CEF peptides, we show that several of these peptides are present in the CEF-pool at concentrations that are orders of magnitude in excess of what is needed for the activation threshold of the CD8 T cells. The presence of such T cells with very high functional avidity for the viral antigens can explain why the effect of peptide competition is relatively minor within the CEF-pool.

  18. Sphingosine-1-phosphate mediates epidermal growth factor-induced muscle satellite cell activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Yosuke, E-mail: cynagata@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Ohashi, Kazuya; Wada, Eiji; Yuasa, Yuki; Shiozuka, Masataka; Nonomura, Yoshiaki; Matsuda, Ryoichi

    2014-08-01

    Skeletal muscle can regenerate repeatedly due to the presence of resident stem cells, called satellite cells. Because satellite cells are usually quiescent, they must be activated before participating in muscle regeneration in response to stimuli such as injury, overloading, and stretch. Although satellite cell activation is a crucial step in muscle regeneration, little is known of the molecular mechanisms controlling this process. Recent work showed that the bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) plays crucial roles in the activation, proliferation, and differentiation of muscle satellite cells. We investigated the role of growth factors in S1P-mediated satellite cell activation. We found that epidermal growth factor (EGF) in combination with insulin induced proliferation of quiescent undifferentiated mouse myoblast C2C12 cells, which are also known as reserve cells, in serum-free conditions. Sphingosine kinase activity increased when reserve cells were stimulated with EGF. Treatment of reserve cells with the D-erythro-N,N-dimethylsphingosine, Sphingosine Kinase Inhibitor, or siRNA duplexes specific for sphingosine kinase 1, suppressed EGF-induced C2C12 activation. We also present the evidence showing the S1P receptor S1P2 is involved in EGF-induced reserve cell activation. Moreover, we demonstrated a combination of insulin and EGF promoted activation of satellite cells on single myofibers in a manner dependent on SPHK and S1P2. Taken together, our observations show that EGF-induced satellite cell activation is mediated by S1P and its receptor. - Highlights: • EGF in combination with insulin induces proliferation of quiescent C2C12 cells. • Sphingosine kinase activity increases when reserve cells are stimulated with EGF. • EGF-induced activation of reserve cells is dependent on sphingosine kinase and ERK. • The S1P receptor S1P2 is involved in EGF-induced reserve cell activation. • EGF-induced reserve cell activation is mediated by S1P and its

  19. Sphingosine-1-phosphate mediates epidermal growth factor-induced muscle satellite cell activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Yosuke; Ohashi, Kazuya; Wada, Eiji; Yuasa, Yuki; Shiozuka, Masataka; Nonomura, Yoshiaki; Matsuda, Ryoichi

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle can regenerate repeatedly due to the presence of resident stem cells, called satellite cells. Because satellite cells are usually quiescent, they must be activated before participating in muscle regeneration in response to stimuli such as injury, overloading, and stretch. Although satellite cell activation is a crucial step in muscle regeneration, little is known of the molecular mechanisms controlling this process. Recent work showed that the bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) plays crucial roles in the activation, proliferation, and differentiation of muscle satellite cells. We investigated the role of growth factors in S1P-mediated satellite cell activation. We found that epidermal growth factor (EGF) in combination with insulin induced proliferation of quiescent undifferentiated mouse myoblast C2C12 cells, which are also known as reserve cells, in serum-free conditions. Sphingosine kinase activity increased when reserve cells were stimulated with EGF. Treatment of reserve cells with the D-erythro-N,N-dimethylsphingosine, Sphingosine Kinase Inhibitor, or siRNA duplexes specific for sphingosine kinase 1, suppressed EGF-induced C2C12 activation. We also present the evidence showing the S1P receptor S1P2 is involved in EGF-induced reserve cell activation. Moreover, we demonstrated a combination of insulin and EGF promoted activation of satellite cells on single myofibers in a manner dependent on SPHK and S1P2. Taken together, our observations show that EGF-induced satellite cell activation is mediated by S1P and its receptor. - Highlights: • EGF in combination with insulin induces proliferation of quiescent C2C12 cells. • Sphingosine kinase activity increases when reserve cells are stimulated with EGF. • EGF-induced activation of reserve cells is dependent on sphingosine kinase and ERK. • The S1P receptor S1P2 is involved in EGF-induced reserve cell activation. • EGF-induced reserve cell activation is mediated by S1P and its

  20. ARP2/3 localization in Arabidopsis leaf pavement cells: a diversity of intracellular pools and cytoskeletal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunhua; Mallery, Eileen L; Szymanski, Daniel B

    2013-01-01

    In plant cells the actin cytoskeleton adopts many configurations, but is best understood as an unstable, interconnected track that rearranges to define the patterns of long distance transport of organelles during growth. Actin filaments do not form spontaneously; instead filament nucleators, such as the evolutionarily conserved actin-related protein (ARP) 2/3 complex, can efficiently generate new actin filament networks when in a fully activated state. A growing number of genetic experiments have shown that ARP2/3 is necessary for morphogenesis in processes that range from tip growth during root nodule formation to the diffuse polarized growth of leaf trichomes and pavement cells. Although progress has been rapid in the identification of proteins that function in series to positively regulate ARP2/3, less has been learned about the actual function of ARP2/3 in cells. In this paper, we analyze the localization of ARP2/3 in Arabidopsis leaf pavement cells. We detect a pool of ARP2/3 in the nucleus, and also find that ARP2/3 is efficiently and specifically clustered on multiple organelle surfaces and associates with both the actin filament and microtubule cytoskeletons. Our mutant analyses and ARP2/3 and actin double labeling experiments indicate that the clustering of ARP2/3 on organelle surfaces and an association with actin bundles does not necessarily reflect an active pool of ARP2/3, and instead most of the complex appears to exist as a latent organelle-associated pool.

  1. Characterisation of equine satellite cell transcriptomic profile response to β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szcześniak, Katarzyna A; Ciecierska, Anna; Ostaszewski, Piotr; Sadkowski, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a popular ergogenic aid used by human athletes and as a supplement to sport horses, because of its ability to aid muscle recovery, improve performance and body composition. Recent findings suggest that HMB may stimulate satellite cells and affect expressions of genes regulating skeletal muscle cell growth. Despite the scientific data showing benefits of HMB supplementation in horses, no previous study has explained the mechanism of action of HMB in this species. The aim of this study was to reveal the molecular background of HMB action on equine skeletal muscle by investigating the transcriptomic profile changes induced by HMB in equine satellite cells in vitro. Upon isolation from the semitendinosus muscle, equine satellite cells were cultured until the 2nd day of differentiation. Differentiating cells were incubated with HMB for 24 h. Total cellular RNA was isolated, amplified, labelled and hybridised to microarray slides. Microarray data validation was performed with real-time quantitative PCR. HMB induced differential expressions of 361 genes. Functional analysis revealed that the main biological processes influenced by HMB in equine satellite cells were related to muscle organ development, protein metabolism, energy homoeostasis and lipid metabolism. In conclusion, this study demonstrated for the first time that HMB has the potential to influence equine satellite cells by controlling global gene expression. Genes and biological processes targeted by HMB in equine satellite cells may support HMB utility in improving growth and regeneration of equine skeletal muscle; however, the overall role of HMB in horses remains equivocal and requires further proteomic, biochemical and pharmacokinetic studies.

  2. Satellite cell frequency in cross-age transplanted rat extensor digitorum longus muscles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudež, M.; Carlson, B. M.; Sajko, Š.; Kubínová, Lucie; Wernig, A.; Eržen, I.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2004), s. 155-159 ISSN 1120-9992 Grant - others:European programme(XE) QLKG-1999-02034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : aging * confocal microscopy * satellite cell s Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  3. Frequency of M-cadherin-stained satellite cells declines in human muscles during aging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sajko, Š.; Kubínová, Lucie; Cvetko, E.; Kreft, M.; Wernig, A.; Eržen, I.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 2 (2004), s. 179-185 ISSN 0022-1554 Grant - others:European programme(XE) QLKG-1999-02034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : satellite cells * skeletal muscle * stereology Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 2.513, year: 2004

  4. Development of Space Qualified Microlens Arrays for Solar Cells Used on Satellite Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Faruk Keser

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The power system, one of the main systems of satellite, provides energy required for the satellite. Solar cells are also the most used energy source in the power system. The third generation multi-junction solar cells are known as the ones with highest performance. One of the methods to increase the performance of the solar cells is anti-reflective surface coatings with the Micro Lens Array-MLA. It's expected that satellite technologies has high power efficiency and low mass. The space environment has many effects like atomic oxygen, radiation and thermal cycles. Researches for increasing the solar cells performance shows that MLA coated solar cell has increased light absorption performance and less cell heating with very low additional mass. However, it is established that few studies on MLA coatings of solar cells are not applicable on space platforms. In this study, the process of development of MLA which is convenient to space power systems is investigated in a methodological way. In this context, a method which is developed based on MLA coatings of multi-junction solar cells for satellite power systems is presented.

  5. MASTR directs MyoD-dependent satellite cell differentiation during skeletal muscle regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokalled, Mayssa H.; Johnson, Aaron N.; Creemers, Esther E.; Olson, Eric N.

    2012-01-01

    In response to skeletal muscle injury, satellite cells, which function as a myogenic stem cell population, become activated, expand through proliferation, and ultimately fuse with each other and with damaged myofibers to promote muscle regeneration. Here, we show that members of the Myocardin family

  6. Akt1 deficiency diminishes skeletal muscle hypertrophy by reducing satellite cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Nobuki; Miyazaki, Mitsunori

    2018-02-14

    Skeletal muscle mass is determined by the net dynamic balance between protein synthesis and degradation. Although the Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent pathway plays an important role in promoting protein synthesis and subsequent skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the precise molecular regulation of mTOR activity by the upstream protein kinase Akt is largely unknown. In addition, the activation of satellite cells has been indicated as a key regulator of muscle mass. However, the requirement of satellite cells for load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy is still under intense debate. In this study, female germline Akt1 knockout (KO) mice were used to examine whether Akt1 deficiency attenuates load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy through suppressing mTOR-dependent signaling and satellite cell proliferation. Akt1 KO mice showed a blunted hypertrophic response of skeletal muscle, with a diminished rate of satellite cell proliferation following mechanical overload. In contrast, Akt1 deficiency did not affect the load-induced activation of mTOR signaling and the subsequent enhanced rate of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. These observations suggest that the load-induced activation of mTOR signaling occurs independently of Akt1 regulation and that Akt1 plays a critical role in regulating satellite cell proliferation during load-induced muscle hypertrophy.

  7. Deoxyribonucleotide pool analysis: functional association of thymidylate synthase with the other enzymes of DNA biosynthesis in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, G.P.V.; Christiansen, E.

    1986-01-01

    Allosteric interaction between thymidylate synthase (TS) and the other enzymes of DNA biosynthesis was suggested from the authors observation that inhibitors of ribonucleotide reductase, topoisomerase of DNA polymerase-α inhibit TS in intact S phase CHEF/18 cells, but not in their soluble extracts. In addition the authors observed that 4'-(9-acridinylamino)-methanesulfon-m-anisidide (m-AMSA), a poison of topoisomerase II, had similar effects on TS activity in mammalian cells. They have examined if the inhibitory effects of these antimetabolites on TS is due to the accumulation of thymidine nucleotide(s) in intact cells, rather than to an allosteric interaction in the replitase complex. A novel method of nucleotide pool analysis revealed that in the presence of these antimetabolites the incorporation of radioactivity from 3 H-deoxyuridine (dUrd) into thymidine nucleotide pools inside the cell did not increase as compared to the control. Furthermore, TS activity as measured in-vitro was not inhibited by supraphysiological concentrations (50μM) of thymidine mono- or tri-phosphates. None of these antimetabolites dramatically influenced the uptake of dUrd and its subsequent phosphorylation to deoxyuridine monophosphate. Therefore, they suggest that the inhibitory effect of these antimetabolites is due to the functional association of their target enzymes with TS

  8. Stochastic cellular automata model of cell migration, proliferation and differentiation: validation with in vitro cultures of muscle satellite cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garijo, N; Manzano, R; Osta, R; Perez, M A

    2012-12-07

    Cell migration and proliferation has been modelled in the literature as a process similar to diffusion. However, using diffusion models to simulate the proliferation and migration of cells tends to create a homogeneous distribution in the cell density that does not correlate to empirical observations. In fact, the mechanism of cell dispersal is not diffusion. Cells disperse by crawling or proliferation, or are transported in a moving fluid. The use of cellular automata, particle models or cell-based models can overcome this limitation. This paper presents a stochastic cellular automata model to simulate the proliferation, migration and differentiation of cells. These processes are considered as completely stochastic as well as discrete. The model developed was applied to predict the behaviour of in vitro cell cultures performed with adult muscle satellite cells. Moreover, non homogeneous distribution of cells has been observed inside the culture well and, using the above mentioned stochastic cellular automata model, we have been able to predict this heterogeneous cell distribution and compute accurate quantitative results. Differentiation was also incorporated into the computational simulation. The results predicted the myotube formation that typically occurs with adult muscle satellite cells. In conclusion, we have shown how a stochastic cellular automata model can be implemented and is capable of reproducing the in vitro behaviour of adult muscle satellite cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 18F-FDG-labeled red blood cell PET for blood-pool imaging: preclinical evaluation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsusaka, Yohji; Nakahara, Tadaki; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Iwabuchi, Yu; Nishime, Chiyoko; Kajimura, Mayumi; Jinzaki, Masahiro

    2017-12-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) labeled with single-photon emitters have been clinically used for blood-pool imaging. Although some PET tracers have been introduced for blood-pool imaging, they have not yet been widely used. The present study investigated the feasibility of labeling RBCs with 18 F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) for blood-pool imaging with PET. RBCs isolated from venous blood of rats were washed with glucose-free phosphate-buffered saline and labeled with 18 F-FDG. To optimize labeling efficiency, the effects of glucose deprivation time and incubation (labeling) time with 18 F-FDG were investigated. Post-labeling stability was assessed by calculating the release fraction of radioactivity and identifying the chemical forms of 18 F in the released and intracellular components of 18 F-FDG-labeled RBCs incubated in plasma. Just after intravenous injection of the optimized autologous 18 F-FDG-labeled RBCs, dynamic PET scans were performed to evaluate in vivo imaging in normal rats and intraabdominal bleeding models (temporary and persistent bleeding). The optimal durations of glucose deprivation and incubation (labeling) with 18 F-FDG were 60 and 30 min, respectively. As low as 10% of 18 F was released as the form of 18 F-FDG from 18 F-FDG-labeled RBCs after a 60-min incubation. Dynamic PET images of normal rats showed strong persistence in the cardiovascular system for at least 120 min. In the intraabdominal bleeding models, 18 F-FDG-labeled RBC PET visualized the extravascular blood clearly and revealed the dynamic changes of the extravascular radioactivity in the temporary and persistent bleeding. RBCs can be effectively labeled with 18 F-FDG and used for blood-pool imaging with PET in rats.

  10. Depletion of Pax7+ satellite cells does not affect diaphragm adaptations to running in young or aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murach, Kevin A; Confides, Amy L; Ho, Angel; Jackson, Janna R; Ghazala, Lina S; Peterson, Charlotte A; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E

    2017-10-01

    Satellite cell depletion does not affect diaphragm adaptations to voluntary wheel running in young or aged mice. Satellite cell depletion early in life (4 months of age) has minimal effect on diaphragm phenotype by old age (24 months). Prolonged satellite cell depletion in the diaphragm does not result in excessive extracellular matrix accumulation, in contrast to what has been reported in hind limb muscles. Up-regulation of Pax3 mRNA+ cells after satellite cell depletion in young and aged mice suggests that Pax3+ cells may compensate for a loss of Pax7+ satellite cells in the diaphragm. Future investigations should focus on the role of Pax3+ cells in the diaphragm during adaptation to exercise and ageing. Satellite cell contribution to unstressed diaphragm is higher compared to hind limb muscles, which is probably attributable to constant activation of this muscle to drive ventilation. Whether satellite cell depletion negatively impacts diaphragm quantitative and qualitative characteristics under stressed conditions in young and aged mice is unknown. We therefore challenged the diaphragm with prolonged running activity in the presence and absence of Pax7+ satellite cells in young and aged mice using an inducible Pax7 CreER -R26R DTA model. Mice were vehicle (Veh, satellite cell-replete) or tamoxifen (Tam, satellite cell-depleted) treated at 4 months of age and were then allowed to run voluntarily at 6 months (young) and 22 months (aged). Age-matched, cage-dwelling, Veh- and Tam-treated mice without wheel access served as activity controls. Diaphragm muscles were analysed from young (8 months) and aged (24 months) mice. Satellite cell depletion did not alter diaphragm mean fibre cross-sectional area, fibre type distribution or extracellular matrix content in young or aged mice, regardless of running activity. Resting in vivo diaphragm function was also unaffected by satellite cell depletion. Myonuclear density was maintained in young satellite cell

  11. Some Lipid Droplets Are More Equal Than Others: Different Metabolic Lipid Droplet Pools in Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Martijn R; Vaandrager, Arie B; Helms, J Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are professional lipid-storing cells and are unique in their property to store most of the retinol (vitamin A) as retinyl esters in large-sized lipid droplets. Hepatic stellate cell activation is a critical step in the development of chronic liver disease, as activated HSCs cause fibrosis. During activation, HSCs lose their lipid droplets containing triacylglycerols, cholesteryl esters, and retinyl esters. Lipidomic analysis revealed that the dynamics of disappearance of these different classes of neutral lipids are, however, very different from each other. Although retinyl esters steadily decrease during HSC activation, triacylglycerols have multiple pools one of which becomes transiently enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids before disappearing. These observations are consistent with the existence of preexisting "original" lipid droplets with relatively slow turnover and rapidly recycling lipid droplets that transiently appear during activation of HSCs. Elucidation of the molecular machinery involved in the regulation of these distinct lipid droplet pools may open new avenues for the treatment of liver fibrosis.

  12. Circularly Polarized Transparent Microstrip Patch Reflectarray Integrated with Solar Cell for Satellite Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Zainud-Deen, S. H.; El-Shalaby, N. A.; Gaber, S. M.; Malhat, H. A.

    2016-01-01

    Circularly polarized (CP) transparent microstrip reflectarray antenna is integrated with solar cell for small satellite applications at 10 GHz. The reflectarray unit cell consists of a perfect electric conductor (PEC) square patch printed on an optically transparent substrate with the PEC ground plane. A comparison between using transparent conducting polymers and using the PEC in unit-cell construction has been introduced. The waveguide simulator is used to calculate the required compensatio...

  13. On the warm pool dynamics in the southeastern Arabian Sea during April – May 2005 based on the satellite remote sensing and ARGO float data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, V.S.N.; Krishna, S.M.; Nagaraju, A.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; RameshBabu, V.; Sengupta, D; Sindu, P.R.; Ravichandran, M.; Rajesh, G.

    profiles from an ARGO float (ID No. 2900345) in a 3°x1° box closer to ARMEX-II buoy (8.3°N, 72.68°E) in the SEAS during January – September 2005 revealed evolution of warm pool (SST>28°C) in spring 2005. The Argo data derived D20 (depth of 20°C isotherm...

  14. MASTR directs MyoD-dependent satellite cell differentiation during skeletal muscle regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokalled, Mayssa H.; Johnson, Aaron N.; Creemers, Esther E.; Olson, Eric N.

    2012-01-01

    In response to skeletal muscle injury, satellite cells, which function as a myogenic stem cell population, become activated, expand through proliferation, and ultimately fuse with each other and with damaged myofibers to promote muscle regeneration. Here, we show that members of the Myocardin family of transcriptional coactivators, MASTR and MRTF-A, are up-regulated in satellite cells in response to skeletal muscle injury and muscular dystrophy. Global and satellite cell-specific deletion of MASTR in mice impairs skeletal muscle regeneration. This impairment is substantially greater when MRTF-A is also deleted and is due to aberrant differentiation and excessive proliferation of satellite cells. These abnormalities mimic those associated with genetic deletion of MyoD, a master regulator of myogenesis, which is down-regulated in the absence of MASTR and MRTF-A. Consistent with an essential role of MASTR in transcriptional regulation of MyoD expression, MASTR activates a muscle-specific postnatal MyoD enhancer through associations with MEF2 and members of the Myocardin family. Our results provide new insights into the genetic circuitry of muscle regeneration and identify MASTR as a central regulator of this process. PMID:22279050

  15. Diurnal variability in carbon and nitrogen pools within Chesapeake Bay and northern Gulf of Mexico: implications for future ocean color satellite sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, A.; Novak, M. G.; Tzortziou, M.; Salisbury, J.

    2016-02-01

    Relative to their areal extent, estuaries and coastal ocean ecosystems contribute disproportionately more to global biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nitrogen and other elements compared to the open ocean. Applying ocean color satellite data to study biological and biogeochemical processes within coastal ecosystems is challenging due to the complex mixtures of aquatic constituents derived from terrestrial, anthropogenic, and marine sources, human-impacted atmospheric properties, presence of clouds during satellite overpass, fine-scale spatial gradients, and time-varying processes on diurnal scales that cannot be resolved with current sensors. On diurnal scales, biological, photochemical, and biogeochemical processes are regulated by the variation in solar radiation. Other physical factors, such as tides, river discharge, estuarine and coastal ocean circulation, wind-driven mixing, etc., impart further variability on biological and biogeochemical processes on diurnal to multi-day time scales. Efforts to determine the temporal frequency required from a NASA GEO-CAPE ocean color satellite sensor to discern diurnal variability C and N stocks, fluxes and productivity culminated in field campaigns in the Chesapeake Bay and northern Gulf of Mexico. Near-surface drogues were released and tracked in quasi-lagrangian space to monitor hourly changes in community production, C and N stocks, and optical properties. While only small diurnal changes were observed in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption in Chesapeake Bay, substantial variation in particulate organic carbon (POC) and nitrogen (PN), chlorophyll-a, and inorganic nitrogen (DIN) were measured. Similar or greater diurnal changes in POC, PN, chlorophyll-a and DIN were found in Gulf of Mexico nearshore and offshore sites. These results suggest that satellite observations at hourly frequency are desirable to capture diurnal variability in carbon and nitrogen stocks, fluxes

  16. Btg1 is Required to Maintain the Pool of Stem and Progenitor Cells of the Dentate Gyrus and Subventricular Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano; Micheli, Laura; Saraulli, Daniele; Ceccarelli, Manuela; Cannas, Sara; Scardigli, Raffaella; Leonardi, Luca; Cinà, Irene; Costanzi, Marco; Ciotti, Maria Teresa; Moreira, Pedro; Rouault, Jean-Pierre; Cestari, Vincenzo; Tirone, Felice

    2012-01-01

    Btg1 belongs to a family of cell cycle inhibitory genes. We observed that Btg1 is highly expressed in adult neurogenic niches, i.e., the dentate gyrus and subventricular zone (SVZ). Thus, we generated Btg1 knockout mice to analyze the role of Btg1 in the process of generation of adult new neurons. Ablation of Btg1 causes a transient increase of the proliferating dentate gyrus stem and progenitor cells at post-natal day 7; however, at 2 months of age the number of these proliferating cells, as well as of mature neurons, greatly decreases compared to wild-type controls. Remarkably, adult dentate gyrus stem and progenitor cells of Btg1-null mice exit the cell cycle after completing the S phase, express p53 and p21 at high levels and undergo apoptosis within 5 days. In the SVZ of adult (two-month-old) Btg1-null mice we observed an equivalent decrease, associated to apoptosis, of stem cells, neuroblasts, and neurons; furthermore, neurospheres derived from SVZ stem cells showed an age-dependent decrease of the self-renewal and expansion capacity. We conclude that ablation of Btg1 reduces the pool of dividing adult stem and progenitor cells in the dentate gyrus and SVZ by decreasing their proliferative capacity and inducing apoptosis, probably reflecting impairment of the control of the cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase. As a result, the ability of Btg1-null mice to discriminate among overlapping contextual memories was affected. Btg1 appears, therefore, to be required for maintaining adult stem and progenitor cells quiescence and self-renewal. PMID:22969701

  17. Macrophage-Lineage Cells Negatively Regulate the Hematopoietic Stem Cell Pool in Response to Interferon Gamma at Steady State and During Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Amanda; Zhang, Yubin; Thai, Vinh; Jones, Maura; Jordan, Michael B; MacNamara, Katherine C

    2015-07-01

    Bone marrow (BM) resident macrophages (Mϕs) regulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) mobilization; however, their impact on HSC function has not been investigated. We demonstrate that depletion of BM resident Mϕs increases HSC proliferation as well as the pool of quiescent HSCs. At the same time, during bacterial infection where BM resident Mϕs are selectively increased we observe a decrease in HSC numbers. Moreover, strategies that deplete or reduce Mϕs during infection prevent HSC loss and rescue HSC function. We previously found that the transient loss of HSCs during infection is interferon-gamma (IFNγ)-dependent. We now demonstrate that IFNγ signaling specifically in Mϕs is critical for both the diminished HSC pool and maintenance of BM resident Mϕs during infection. In addition to the IFNγ-dependent loss of BM HSC and progenitor cells (HSPCs) during infection, IFNγ reduced circulating HSPC numbers. Importantly, under infection conditions AMD3100 or G-CSF-induced stem cell mobilization was impaired. Taken together, our data show that IFNγ acts on Mϕs, which are a negative regulator of the HSC pool, to drive the loss in BM and peripheral HSCs during infection. Our findings demonstrate that modulating BM resident Mϕ numbers can impact HSC function in vivo, which may be therapeutically useful for hematologic conditions and refinement of HSC transplantation protocols. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  18. Membrane cholesterol removal changes mechanical properties of cells and induces secretion of a specific pool of lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hissa, Barbara; Pontes, Bruno; Roma, Paula Magda S; Alves, Ana Paula; Rocha, Carolina D; Valverde, Thalita M; Aguiar, Pedro Henrique N; Almeida, Fernando P; Guimarães, Allan J; Guatimosim, Cristina; Silva, Aristóbolo M; Fernandes, Maria C; Andrews, Norma W; Viana, Nathan B; Mesquita, Oscar N; Agero, Ubirajara; Andrade, Luciana O

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study we had shown that membrane cholesterol removal induced unregulated lysosomal exocytosis events leading to the depletion of lysosomes located at cell periphery. However, the mechanism by which cholesterol triggered these exocytic events had not been uncovered. In this study we investigated the importance of cholesterol in controlling mechanical properties of cells and its connection with lysosomal exocytosis. Tether extraction with optical tweezers and defocusing microscopy were used to assess cell dynamics in mouse fibroblasts. These assays showed that bending modulus and surface tension increased when cholesterol was extracted from fibroblasts plasma membrane upon incubation with MβCD, and that the membrane-cytoskeleton relaxation time increased at the beginning of MβCD treatment and decreased at the end. We also showed for the first time that the amplitude of membrane-cytoskeleton fluctuation decreased during cholesterol sequestration, showing that these cells become stiffer. These changes in membrane dynamics involved not only rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton, but also de novo actin polymerization and stress fiber formation through Rho activation. We found that these mechanical changes observed after cholesterol sequestration were involved in triggering lysosomal exocytosis. Exocytosis occurred even in the absence of the lysosomal calcium sensor synaptotagmin VII, and was associated with actin polymerization induced by MβCD. Notably, exocytosis triggered by cholesterol removal led to the secretion of a unique population of lysosomes, different from the pool mobilized by actin depolymerizing drugs such as Latrunculin-A. These data support the existence of at least two different pools of lysosomes with different exocytosis dynamics, one of which is directly mobilized for plasma membrane fusion after cholesterol removal.

  19. Muscle atrophy reversed by growth factor activation of satellite cells in a mouse muscle atrophy model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Hauerslev

    Full Text Available Muscular dystrophies comprise a large group of inherited disorders that lead to progressive muscle wasting. We wanted to investigate if targeting satellite cells can enhance muscle regeneration and thus increase muscle mass. We treated mice with hepatocyte growth factor and leukemia inhibitory factor under three conditions: normoxia, hypoxia and during myostatin deficiency. We found that hepatocyte growth factor treatment led to activation of the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K protein synthesis pathway, up-regulation of the myognic transcription factors MyoD and myogenin, and subsequently the negative growth control factor, myostatin and atrophy markers MAFbx and MuRF1. Hypoxia-induced atrophy was partially restored by hepatocyte growth factor combined with leukemia inhibitory factor treatment. Dividing satellite cells were three-fold increased in the treatment group compared to control. Finally, we demonstrated that myostatin regulates satellite cell activation and myogenesis in vivo following treatment, consistent with previous findings in vitro. Our results suggest, not only a novel in vivo pharmacological treatment directed specifically at activating the satellite cells, but also a myostatin dependent mechanism that may contribute to the progressive muscle wasting seen in severely affected patients with muscular dystrophy and significant on-going regeneration. This treatment could potentially be applied to many conditions that feature muscle wasting to increase muscle bulk and strength.

  20. Local NSAID infusion inhibits satellite cell proliferation in human skeletal muscle after eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, U R; Langberg, H; Helmark, I C

    2009-01-01

    Despite the widespread consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), the influence of these drugs on muscle satellite cells is not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a local NSAID infusion on satellite cells after unaccustomed eccentric...... exercise in vivo in human skeletal muscle. Eight young healthy males performed 200 maximal eccentric contractions with each leg. An NSAID was infused via a microdialysis catheter into the vastus lateralis muscle of one leg (NSAID leg) before, during, and for 4.5 h after exercise, with the other leg working...... cells (CD68(+) or CD16(+) cells) was not significantly increased in either of the legs 8 days after exercise and was unaffected by the NSAID. The main finding in the present study was that the NSAID infusion for 7.5 h during the exercise day suppressed the exercise-induced increase in the number...

  1. ICOS regulates the pool of group 2 innate lymphoid cells under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paclik, Daniela; Stehle, Christina; Lahmann, Annette; Hutloff, Andreas; Romagnani, Chiara

    2015-10-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are innate effectors playing an important role in the defense against helminthic infections and in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation. Cytokines have been identified as the major stimuli driving ILC2 activation and expansion. Conversely, it is unclear whether costimulatory molecules contribute to regulation of ILC2 functions. ILC2s display high expression of inducible T-cell costimulator (ICOS), which belongs to the CD28 superfamily, and which has been shown to control late effector T-cell functions, and is of utmost importance for the humoral immune response. However, the biological function of ICOS expression on ILC2s is unknown. Here, we show that ICOS signaling in mice regulates ILC2 homeostasis independently of T cells and B cells, by promoting proliferation and accumulation of mature ILC2s in lung and intestine. In a model of IL-33-induced airway inflammation, ICOS controls ILC2 activation and eosinophil infiltration in the lung. Our data identify a role of ICOS in innate immunity and indicate that not only cytokines, but also costimulatory pathways such as those involving ICOS, can contribute to regulate the ILC2 pool. Thus, ICOS costimulation blockade, which is currently under clinical evaluation for inhibiting the humoral immune response, could also target innate inflammatory circuits. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. IGF-1 colocalizes with muscle satellite cells following acute exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Amanda; Joanisse, Sophie; Moore, Daniel R; Bellamy, Leeann M; Mitchell, Cameron J; Phillips, Stuart M; Parise, Gianni

    2014-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) regulates stem cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro. The aim of this study was to quantify the change in satellite cell (SC) specific IGF-1 colocalization following exercise. We observed a significant increase (p IGF-1 colocalization from baseline to 72 h after a bout of resistance exercise. This strongly supports a role for IGF-1 in human SC function following exercise.

  3. Characterisation of equine satellite cell transcriptomic profile response to ?-hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate (HMB)

    OpenAIRE

    Szcze?niak, Katarzyna A.; Ciecierska, Anna; Ostaszewski, Piotr; Sadkowski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    ?-Hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a popular ergogenic aid used by human athletes and as a supplement to sport horses, because of its ability to aid muscle recovery, improve performance and body composition. Recent findings suggest that HMB may stimulate satellite cells and affect expressions of genes regulating skeletal muscle cell growth. Despite the scientific data showing benefits of HMB supplementation in horses, no previous study has explained the mechanism of action of HMB in this spe...

  4. Brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 promotes skeletal muscle regeneration through satellite cell expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Somik [Center for Diabetes Research, Department of Medicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Yin, Hongshan [Center for Diabetes Research, Department of Medicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Third Affiliated Hospital, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050051, Hebei (China); Nam, Deokhwa [Center for Diabetes Research, Department of Medicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Li, Yong [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Center for Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Ma, Ke, E-mail: kma@houstonmethodist.org [Center for Diabetes Research, Department of Medicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Circadian clock is an evolutionarily conserved timing mechanism governing diverse biological processes and the skeletal muscle possesses intrinsic functional clocks. Interestingly, although the essential clock transcription activator, Brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 (Bmal1), participates in maintenance of muscle mass, little is known regarding its role in muscle growth and repair. In this report, we investigate the in vivo function of Bmal1 in skeletal muscle regeneration using two muscle injury models. Bmal1 is highly up-regulated by cardiotoxin injury, and its genetic ablation significantly impairs regeneration with markedly suppressed new myofiber formation and attenuated myogenic induction. A similarly defective regenerative response is observed in Bmal1-null mice as compared to wild-type controls upon freeze injury. Lack of satellite cell expansion accounts for the regeneration defect, as Bmal1{sup −/−} mice display significantly lower satellite cell number with nearly abolished induction of the satellite cell marker, Pax7. Furthermore, satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts devoid of Bmal1 display reduced growth and proliferation ex vivo. Collectively, our results demonstrate, for the first time, that Bmal1 is an integral component of the pro-myogenic response that is required for muscle repair. This mechanism may underlie its role in preserving adult muscle mass and could be targeted therapeutically to prevent muscle-wasting diseases. - Highlights: • Bmal1 is highly inducible by muscle injury and myogenic stimuli. • Genetic ablation of Bmal1 significantly impairs muscle regeneration. • Bmal1 promotes satellite cell expansion during muscle regeneration. • Bmal1-deficient primary myoblasts display attenuated growth and proliferation.

  5. Brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 promotes skeletal muscle regeneration through satellite cell expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Somik; Yin, Hongshan; Nam, Deokhwa; Li, Yong; Ma, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Circadian clock is an evolutionarily conserved timing mechanism governing diverse biological processes and the skeletal muscle possesses intrinsic functional clocks. Interestingly, although the essential clock transcription activator, Brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 (Bmal1), participates in maintenance of muscle mass, little is known regarding its role in muscle growth and repair. In this report, we investigate the in vivo function of Bmal1 in skeletal muscle regeneration using two muscle injury models. Bmal1 is highly up-regulated by cardiotoxin injury, and its genetic ablation significantly impairs regeneration with markedly suppressed new myofiber formation and attenuated myogenic induction. A similarly defective regenerative response is observed in Bmal1-null mice as compared to wild-type controls upon freeze injury. Lack of satellite cell expansion accounts for the regeneration defect, as Bmal1 −/− mice display significantly lower satellite cell number with nearly abolished induction of the satellite cell marker, Pax7. Furthermore, satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts devoid of Bmal1 display reduced growth and proliferation ex vivo. Collectively, our results demonstrate, for the first time, that Bmal1 is an integral component of the pro-myogenic response that is required for muscle repair. This mechanism may underlie its role in preserving adult muscle mass and could be targeted therapeutically to prevent muscle-wasting diseases. - Highlights: • Bmal1 is highly inducible by muscle injury and myogenic stimuli. • Genetic ablation of Bmal1 significantly impairs muscle regeneration. • Bmal1 promotes satellite cell expansion during muscle regeneration. • Bmal1-deficient primary myoblasts display attenuated growth and proliferation

  6. Age-Associated Methylation Suppresses SPRY1, Leading to a Failure of Re-quiescence and Loss of the Reserve Stem Cell Pool in Elderly Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bigot

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms by which aging affects stem cell number and function are poorly understood. Murine data have implicated cellular senescence in the loss of muscle stem cells with aging. Here, using human cells and by carrying out experiments within a strictly pre-senescent division count, we demonstrate an impaired capacity for stem cell self-renewal in elderly muscle. We link aging to an increased methylation of the SPRY1 gene, a known regulator of muscle stem cell quiescence. Replenishment of the reserve cell pool was modulated experimentally by demethylation or siRNA knockdown of SPRY1. We propose that suppression of SPRY1 by age-associated methylation in humans inhibits the replenishment of the muscle stem cell pool, contributing to a decreased regenerative response in old age. We further show that aging does not affect muscle stem cell senescence in humans.

  7. HEp-2 Cell Classification Using Shape Index Histograms With Donut-Shaped Spatial Pooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Larsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    We present a new method for automatic classification of indirect immunoflourescence images of HEp-2 cells into different staining pattern classes. Our method is based on a new texture measure called shape index histograms that captures second-order image structure at multiple scales. Moreover, we...... datasets. Our results show that shape index histograms are superior to other popular texture descriptors for HEp-2 cell classification. Moreover, when comparing to other automated systems for HEp-2 cell classification we show that shape index histograms are very competitive; especially considering...

  8. Early- and later-phases satellite cell responses and myonuclear content with resistance training in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damas, Felipe; Libardi, Cleiton A; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Vechin, Felipe C; Lixandrão, Manoel E; Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P; Bacurau, Aline V; Brum, Patricia; Tricoli, Valmor; Roschel, Hamilton; Parise, Gianni; Phillips, Stuart M

    2018-01-01

    Satellite cells (SC) are associated with skeletal muscle remodelling after muscle damage and/or extensive hypertrophy resulting from resistance training (RT). We recently reported that early increases in muscle protein synthesis (MPS) during RT appear to be directed toward muscle damage repair, but MPS contributes to hypertrophy with progressive muscle damage attenuation. However, modulations in acute-chronic SC content with RT during the initial (1st-wk: high damage), early (3rd-wk: attenuated damage), and later (10th-wk: no damage) stages is not well characterized. Ten young men (27 ± 1 y, 23.6 ± 1.0 kg·m-2) underwent 10-wks of RT and muscle biopsies (vastus-lateralis) were taken before (Pre) and post (48h) the 1st (T1), 5th (T2) and final (T3) RT sessions to evaluate fibre type specific SC content, cross-sectional area (fCSA) and myonuclear number by immunohistochemistry. We observed RT-induced hypertrophy after 10-wks of RT (fCSA increased ~16% in type II, P phase of RT than muscle hypertrophy resulted from 10-wks RT in young men. Chronic elevated SC pool size with RT is important providing proper environment for future stresses or larger fCSA increases.

  9. Regulation of myogenesis and skeletal muscle regeneration: effects of oxygen levels on satellite cell activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillou, Thomas; Lanner, Johanna T

    2016-12-01

    Reduced oxygen (O 2 ) levels (hypoxia) are present during embryogenesis and exposure to altitude and in pathologic conditions. During embryogenesis, myogenic progenitor cells reside in a hypoxic microenvironment, which may regulate their activity. Satellite cells are myogenic progenitor cells localized in a local environment, suggesting that the O 2 level could affect their activity during muscle regeneration. In this review, we present the idea that O 2 levels regulate myogenesis and muscle regeneration, we elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying myogenesis and muscle regeneration in hypoxia and depict therapeutic strategies using changes in O 2 levels to promote muscle regeneration. Severe hypoxia (≤1% O 2 ) appears detrimental for myogenic differentiation in vitro, whereas a 3-6% O 2 level could promote myogenesis. Hypoxia impairs the regenerative capacity of injured muscles. Although it remains to be explored, hypoxia may contribute to the muscle damage observed in patients with pathologies associated with hypoxia (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and peripheral arterial disease). Hypoxia affects satellite cell activity and myogenesis through mechanisms dependent and independent of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. Finally, hyperbaric oxygen therapy and transplantation of hypoxia-conditioned myoblasts are beneficial procedures to enhance muscle regeneration in animals. These therapies may be clinically relevant to treatment of patients with severe muscle damage.-Chaillou, T. Lanner, J. T. Regulation of myogenesis and skeletal muscle regeneration: effects of oxygen levels on satellite cell activity. © FASEB.

  10. Clinical comparison of cardiac blood pool visualization with technetium-99m red blood cells labeled in vivo and with technetium-99m human serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrall, J.H.; Freitas, J.E.; Swanson, D.; Rogers, W.L.; Clare, J.M.; Brown, M.L.; Pitt, B.

    1978-01-01

    Technetium-99m red blood cells (Tc-RBC) labeled by an in vivo technique were compared with two preparations of Tc-99m human serum albumin (HSA) for cardiac blood-pool imaging. Relative distribution of the tracers was analyzed on end-diastolic frames of gated blood-pool studies and on whole-body (head to mid-thigh) anterior pinhole images. The Tc-RBC demonstrated greater relative percentage localization in the cardiac blood pool, higher target-to-background ratios in the left ventricle, and less liver concentration. For cardiac blood-pool imaging, Tc-RBC labeled by the in vivo approach appears to be superior to the two Tc-HSA preparations studied

  11. Postradiation recovery of the bone marrow of man and morphodynamics of the pool of undifferentiated cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suvorova, L.A.; Vyalova, N.A.; Barabanova, A.V.; Gruzdev, G.P.

    1981-01-01

    Peculiarities of postradiation recovery of bone marrow parenchyma and stroma in persons who have been exposed to uniform gamma irradiation and nonuniform gamma-neutron irradiation at doses of 2-5 and more than 5 Gy are described on the basis of quantitive characteristics of bone marrow trepanates which have been investigated in different periods of acute radiation sickness (from 2 to 43 days). A special attention is paid to the description of the behaviour of clones composed of nondifferentiated cells that appear in bone marrow of the 4th - 6th day of sickness and participate in its repair. The obtained results attest that clone-forming nondifferentiated cells are the basis for hemopoetic parenchyma recovery. The number of trunk hemopoetic cells in this or that area of bone marrow exposed to the irradiation at different doses can be determined with a high degree of probability by the number of clones.

  12. Culture of human mesenchymal stem cells using a candidate pharmaceutical grade xeno-free cell culture supplement derived from industrial human plasma pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, José M; Bauman, Ewa; Gajardo, Rodrigo; Jorquera, Juan I

    2015-03-13

    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is an animal product used as a medium supplement. The animal origin of FBS is a concern if cultured stem cells are to be utilized for human cell therapy. Therefore, a substitute for FBS is desirable. In this study, an industrial, xeno-free, pharmaceutical-grade supplement for cell culture (SCC) under development at Grifols was tested for growth of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), cell characterization, and differentiation capacity. SCC is a freeze-dried product obtained through cold-ethanol fractionation of industrial human plasma pools from healthy donors. Bone marrow-derived hMSC cell lines were obtained from two commercial suppliers. Cell growth was evaluated by culturing hMSCs with commercial media or media supplemented with SCC or FBS. Cell viability and cell yield were assessed with an automated cell counter. Cell surface markers were studied by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Cells were cultured then differentiated into adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and neurons, as assessed by specific staining and microscopy observation. SCC supported the growth of commercial hMSCs. Starting from the same number of seeded cells in two consecutive passages of culture with medium supplemented with SCC, hMSC yield and cell population doubling time were equivalent to the values obtained with the commercial medium and was consistent among lots. The viability of hMSCs was higher than 90%, while maintaining the characteristic phenotype of undifferentiated hMSCs (positive for CD29, CD44, CD90, CD105, CD146, CD166 and Stro-1; negative for CD14 and CD19). Cultured hMSCs maintained the potential for differentiation into adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and neurons. The tested human plasma-derived SCC sustains the adequate growth of hMSCs, while preserving their differentiation capacity. SCC can be a potential candidate for cell culture supplement in advanced cell therapies.

  13. Manufacture of endothelial colony-forming progenitor cells from steady-state peripheral blood leukapheresis using pooled human platelet lysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Georg; Fleck, Erika; Elser, Stefanie; Hermanutz-Klein, Ursula; Waidmann, Marc; Northoff, Hinnak; Seifried, Erhard; Schäfer, Richard

    2018-05-01

    Endothelial colony-forming progenitor cells (ECFCs) are promising candidates for cell therapies. However, ECFC translation to the clinic requires optimized isolation and manufacture technologies according to good manufacturing practice (GMP). ECFCs were manufactured from steady-state peripheral blood (PB) leukapheresis (11 donors), using GMP-compliant technologies including pooled human platelet (PLT) lysate, and compared to human umbilical cord endothelial cells, human aortic endothelial cells, and human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells. Specific variables assessed were growth kinetics, phenotype, trophic factors production, stimulation of tube formation, and Dil-AcLDL uptake. ECFCs could be isolated from PB leukapheresis units with mean processed volume of 5411 mL and mean white blood cell (WBC) concentration factor of 8.74. The mean frequency was 1.44 × 10 -8 ECFCs per WBC, corresponding to a mean of 177.8 ECFCs per apheresis unit. Expandable for up to 12 cumulative population doublings, calculated projection showed that approximately 730 × 10 3 ECFCs could be manufactured from 1 apheresis unit. ECFCs produced epidermal growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, PLT-derived growth factor-B, interleukin-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, featured high potential for capillary-like tubes formation, and showed no telomerase activity. They were characterized by CD29, CD31, CD44, CD105, CD117, CD133, CD144, CD146, and VEGF-R2 expression, with the most common subpopulation CD34+CD117-CD133-. Compared to controls, ECFCs featured greater Dil-AcLDL uptake and higher expression of CD29, CD31, CD34, CD44, CD144, and VEGF-R2. Here we show that isolation of ECFCs with proangiogenic profile from steady-state PB leukapheresis is feasible, marking a first step toward ECFC product manufacture according to GMP. © 2018 AABB.

  14. Regulation of turkey myogenic satellite cell migration by MicroRNAs miR-128 and miR-24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velleman, S G; Harding, R L

    2017-06-01

    Myogenic satellite cells are an adult stem cell responsible for all post-hatch muscle growth in poultry. As a stem cell population, satellite cells are highly heterogeneous, but the origin of this heterogeneity remains unclear. Heterogeneity is, in part, regulated by gene expression. One method of endogenous gene regulation that may contribute to heterogeneity is microRNAs (miRNAs). Two miRNAs previously shown to regulate poultry myogenic satellite cell proliferation and differentiation, miR-128 and miR-24, were studied to determine if they also affected satellite cell migration. Satellite cell migration is an essential step for both proliferation and differentiation. During proliferation, satellite cells will migrate and align to form new myofibers or donate their nuclei to existing myofibers leading to muscle fiber hypertrophy or regeneration. Transient transfection of miRNA specific mimics to each miRNA reduced migration of satellite cells following a cell culture scratch at 72 h of proliferation when the cultures were 90 to 100% confluent. However, only the migration in cells transfected with miR-24 mimics at 24 and 30 h following the scratch was significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) to around 70% of the distance migrated by controls. Alternately, transfection with inhibitors specific to miR-128 or miR-24 significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased migration between 147 and 252% compared to their controls between 24 and 48 h following the scratch. These data demonstrate that miR-128 and miR-24 play a role in myogenic satellite cell migration, which will impact muscle development and growth. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) enhances the proliferation of satellite cells in fast muscles of aged rats during recovery from disuse atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alway, Stephen E; Pereira, Suzette L; Edens, Neile K; Hao, Yanlei; Bennett, Brian T

    2013-09-01

    Loss of myonuclei by apoptosis is thought to contribute to sarcopenia. We have previously shown, that the leucine metabolite, β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) suppresses apoptotic signaling and the apoptotic index (the ratio of apoptotic positive to apoptotic negative myonuclei) during muscle disuse and during reloading periods after disuse in aged rats. However, it was not clear if the apoptotic signaling indexes were due only to preservation of myonuclei or if perhaps the total myogenic pool increased as a result of HMB-mediated satellite cell proliferation as this would have also reduced the apoptotic index. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that HMB would augment myogenic cells (satellite cells) proliferation during muscle recovery (growth) after a period of disuse in senescent animals. The hindlimb muscles of 34 month old Fisher 344 × Brown Norway rats were unloaded for 14 days by hindlimb suspension (HLS), and then reloaded for 14 days. The rats received either Ca-HMB (340 mg/kg body weight; n = 16), or the vehicle (n = 10) by gavage throughout the experimental period. HMB prevented the functional decline in maximal plantar flexion isometric force production during the reloading period, but not during HLS. HMB-treatment enhanced the proliferation of muscle stem cells as shown by a greater percentage of satellite cells that had proliferated (more BrdU positive, Pax-7 positive, and more Pax7/Ki67 positive nuclei) and as a result, more differentiated stem cells were present (more MyoD/myogenin positive myonuclei), relative to total myonuclei, in reloaded plantaris muscles as compared to reloaded muscles from vehicle-treated animals. Furthermore HMB increased the nuclear protein abundance of proliferation markers, inhibitor of differentiation-2 and cyclin A, as compared to vehicle treatment in reloaded muscles. Although HMB increased phosphorylated Akt during reloading, other mTOR related proteins were not altered by HMB treatment. These data show that

  16. Satellite cell response to erythropoietin treatment and endurance training in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoedt, Andrea; Christensen, Britt; Nellemann, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    KEY POINT: Erythropoietin (Epo) treatment may induce myogenic differentiation factor (MyoD) expression and prevent apoptosis in satellite cells (SCs) in murine and in vitro models. Endurance training stimulates SC proliferation in vivo in murine and human skeletal muscle. In the present study, we......-receptor interaction. Moreover, endurance training, but not Epo treatment, increases the SC content in type II myofibres, as well as the content of MyoD(+) SCs. Collectively, our results suggest that Epo treatment can regulate human SCs in vivo, supported by Epo receptor mRNA expression in human SCs. In effect, long......-term Epo treatment during disease conditions involving anaemia may impact SCs and warrants further investigation. Satellite cell (SC) proliferation is observed following erythropoitin treatment in vitro in murine myoblasts and endurance training in vivo in human skeletal muscle. The present study aimed...

  17. Postradiation recovery of human bone marrow, and morphological dynamics of undifferentiated cell pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suvorova, L.A.; Vyalova, N.A.; Barabanova, A.V.; Gruzdev, G.P.

    1981-09-01

    The results of clinical follow-up of a group of subjects who had been exposed to uncontrolled radiation in accident situations were published in the Soviet literature: 1 patient was exposed to relative uniform gamma radiation, 8 to nonuniform gamma-neutron radiation in doses of the order of 2-5 Gy or more. Summarized are the hematological data referable to the same clinical observations and details on histological structural distinctions of bone marrow, using quantitative characteristics to describe the behavior of different hemopoietic stem cells.

  18. Impaired metabolism of senescent muscle satellite cells is associated with oxidative modifications of glycolytic enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baraibar, Martin; Hyzewicz, Janek; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of damaged macromolecules, including irreversibly oxidized proteins, is a hallmark of cellular and organismal ageing. Failure of protein homesotasis is a major contributor to the age-related accumulation of damaged proteins. In skeletal muscle, tissue maintenance and regeneration...... phenotype. In addition, these findings highlight the molecular mechanisms implicated in satellite cells dysfunction during ageing, paving the road for future therapeutic interventions aimed at preventing oxidative modifications of proteins and/or stimulating their elimination....

  19. High hydrostatic pressure affects antigenic pool in tumor cells: Implication for dendritic cell-based cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanova, Linda; Hradilova, Nada; Moserova, Irena; Vosahlikova, Sarka; Sadilkova, Lenka; Hensler, Michal; Spisek, Radek; Adkins, Irena

    2017-07-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) can be used to generate dendritic cell (DC)-based active immunotherapy for prostate, lung and ovarian cancer. We showed here that HHP treatment of selected human cancer cell lines leads to a degradation of tumor antigens which depends on the magnitude of HHP applied and on the cancer cell line origin. Whereas prostate or ovarian cell lines displayed little protein antigen degradation with HHP treatment up to 300MPa after 2h, tumor antigens are hardly detected in lung cancer cell line after treatment with HHP 250MPa at the same time. On the other hand, quick reduction of tumor antigen-coding mRNA was observed at HHP 200MPa immediately after treatment in all cell lines tested. To optimize the DC-based active cellular therapy protocol for HHP-sensitive cell lines the immunogenicity of HHP-treated lung cancer cells at 150, 200 and 250MPa was compared. Lung cancer cells treated with HHP 150MPa display characteristics of immunogenic cell death, however cells are not efficiently phagocytosed by DC. Despite induction of the highest number of antigen-specific CD8 + T cells, 150 MPa-treated lung cancer cells survive in high numbers. This excludes their use in DC vaccine manufacturing. HHP of 200MPa treatment of lung cancer cells ensures the optimal ratio of efficient immunogenic killing and delivery of protein antigens in DC. These results represent an important pre-clinical data for generation of immunogenic killed lung cancer cells in ongoing NSCLC Phase I/II clinical trial using DC-based active cellular immunotherapy (DCVAC/LuCa). Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pool scrubbing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Jimenez, J.; Herranz, J.; Escudero, M.J.; Espigares, M.M.; Peyres, V.; Polo, J.; Kortz, Ch.; Koch, M.K.; Brockmeier, U.; Unger, H.; Dutton, L.M.C.; Smedley, Ch.; Trow, W.; Jones, A.V.; Bonanni, E.; Calvo, M.; Alonso, A.

    1996-12-01

    The Source Term Project in the Third Frame Work Programme of the European Union Was conducted under and important joined effort on pool scrubbing research. CIEMAT was the Task Manager of the project and several other organizations participated in it: JRC-Ispra, NNC Limited, RUB-NES and UPM. The project was divided into several tasks. A peer review of the models in the pool scrubbing codes SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 was made, considering the different aspects in the hydrodynamic phenomenology, particle retention and fission product vapor abortions. Several dominant risk accident sequences were analyzed with MAAP, SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 codes, and the predictions were compared. A churn-turbulent model was developed for the hydrodynamic behaviour of the pool. Finally, an experimental programme in the PECA facility of CIEMAT was conducted in order to study the decontamination factor under jet injection regime, and the experimental observations were compared with the SPARC and BUSCA codes. (Author)

  1. Outcomes in 370 patients with mantle cell lymphoma treated with ibrutinib: a pooled analysis from three open-label studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Simon; Dreyling, Martin; Goy, Andre; Hess, Georg; Auer, Rebecca; Kahl, Brad; Cavazos, Nora; Liu, Black; Yang, Shiyi; Clow, Fong; Goldberg, Jenna D; Beaupre, Darrin; Vermeulen, Jessica; Wildgust, Mark; Wang, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Ibrutinib is highly active in treating mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), an aggressive B-cell lymphoma. We pooled data from three ibrutinib studies to explore the impact of baseline patient characteristics on treatment response. Patients with relapsed/refractory MCL (n = 370) treated with ibrutinib had an objective response rate (ORR) of 66% (20% complete response; 46% partial response); median duration of response (DOR), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 18·6, 12·8 and 25·0 months, respectively. Univariate analyses showed patients with one versus >one prior line of therapy had longer OS. Multivariate analyses identified that one prior line of therapy affected PFS; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status, simplified MCL international prognostic index (sMIPI) score, bulky disease, and blastoid histology affected OS and PFS. Patients with blastoid versus non-blastoid histology had similar time to best response, but lower ORR, DOR, PFS and OS. OS and PFS were longer in patients with better sMIPI, patients with ECOG performance status 0-1, non-bulky disease and non-blastoid histology. Additionally, the proportion of patients with poor prognostic factors increased with increasing lines of therapy. Together, results suggest that patient outcomes following treatment failure with ibrutinib are related to the natural biological evolution of the disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Fibromodulin: a master regulator of myostatin controlling progression of satellite cells through a myogenic program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Ju; Jan, Arif Tasleem; Baig, Mohammad Hassan; Ashraf, Jalaluddin Mohammad; Nahm, Sang-Soep; Kim, Yong-Woon; Park, So-Young; Choi, Inho

    2016-08-01

    Differentiation of muscle satellite cells (MSCs) involves interaction of the proteins present in the extracellular matrix (ECM) with MSCs to regulate their activity, and therefore phenotype. Herein, we report fibromodulin (FMOD), a member of the proteoglycan family participating in the assembly of ECM, as a novel regulator of myostatin (MSTN) during myoblast differentiation. In addition to having a pronounced effect on the expression of myogenic marker genes [myogenin (MYOG) and myosin light chain 2 (MYL2)], FMOD was found to maintain the transcriptional activity of MSTN Moreover, coimmunoprecipitation and in silico studies performed to investigate the interaction of FMOD helped confirm that it antagonizes MSTN function by distorting its folding and preventing its binding to activin receptor type IIB. Furthermore, in vivo studies revealed that FMOD plays an active role in healing by increasing satellite cell recruitment to sites of injury. Together, these findings disclose a hitherto unrecognized regulatory role for FMOD in MSCs and highlight new mechanisms whereby FMOD circumvents the inhibitory effects of MSTN and triggers myoblast differentiation. These findings offer a basis for the design of novel MSTN inhibitors that promote muscle regeneration after injury or for the development of pharmaceutical agents for the treatment of different muscle atrophies.-Lee, E. J., Jan, A. T., Baig, M. H., Ashraf, J. M., Nahm, S.-S., Kim, Y.-W., Park, S.-Y., Choi, I. Fibromodulin: a master regulator of myostatin controlling progression of satellite cells through a myogenic program. © FASEB.

  3. Extrachromosomal circles of satellite repeats and 5S ribosomal DNA in human cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Sarit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extrachomosomal circular DNA (eccDNA is ubiquitous in eukaryotic organisms and was detected in every organism tested, including in humans. A two-dimensional gel electrophoresis facilitates the detection of eccDNA in preparations of genomic DNA. Using this technique we have previously demonstrated that most of eccDNA consists of exact multiples of chromosomal tandemly repeated DNA, including both coding genes and satellite DNA. Results Here we report the occurrence of eccDNA in every tested human cell line. It has heterogeneous mass ranging from less than 2 kb to over 20 kb. We describe eccDNA homologous to human alpha satellite and the SstI mega satellite. Moreover, we show, for the first time, circular multimers of the human 5S ribosomal DNA (rDNA, similar to previous findings in Drosophila and plants. We further demonstrate structures that correspond to intermediates of rolling circle replication, which emerge from the circular multimers of 5S rDNA and SstI satellite. Conclusions These findings, and previous reports, support the general notion that every chromosomal tandem repeat is prone to generate eccDNA in eukryoric organisms including humans. They suggest the possible involvement of eccDNA in the length variability observed in arrays of tandem repeats. The implications of eccDNA on genome biology may include mechanisms of centromere evolution, concerted evolution and homogenization of tandem repeats and genomic plasticity.

  4. Evidence of heterogeneity within bovine satellite cells isolated from young and adult animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Gonzalez, J M; Walker, D K; Hersom, M J; Ealy, A D; Johnson, S E

    2011-06-01

    Satellite cells are a heterogeneous population of myogenic precursors responsible for muscle growth and repair in mammals. The objectives of the experiment were to examine the growth rates and degree of heterogeneity within bovine satellite cells (BSC) isolated from young and adult animals. The BSC were harvested from the semimembranosus of young (4.3 ± 0.5 d) and adult (estimated 24 to 27 mo) cattle and cultured en masse. Young animal BSC re-enter the cell cycle sooner and reach maximal 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation earlier (P animals after 3, 4, and 5 d in culture. These results indicate that BSC from young animals activate, proliferate, and differentiate sooner than isolates from adult animals. Lineage heterogeneity within BSC was examined using antibodies specific for Pax7 and Myf5, lineage markers of satellite cells, and myoblasts. Immunocytochemistry revealed the majority of Pax7-expressing BSC also express Myf5; a minor population (~5%) fails to exhibit Myf5 immunoreactivity. The percentage of Pax7:Myf5 BSC from young animals decreases sooner (P cell clones were established and analyzed after 10 d. Colonies segregated into 2 groups based upon population doubling time. Immunostaining of the slow-growing colonies (population doubling time ≥ 3 d) revealed that a portion exhibited asymmetric distribution of the lineage markers Pax7 and Myf5, similar to self-renewable mouse muscle stem cells. In summary, these results offer insight into the heterogeneity of BSC and provide evidence for subtle differences between rodent and bovine myogenic precursors.

  5. The effects of low frequency electrical stimulation on satellite cell activity in rat skeletal muscle during hindlimb suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hong-Yu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability of skeletal muscle to grow and regenerate is dependent on resident stem cells called satellite cells. It has been shown that chronic hindlimb unloading downregulates the satellite cell activity. This study investigated the role of low-frequency electrical stimulation on satellite cell activity during a 28 d hindlimb suspension in rats. Results Mechanical unloading resulted in a 44% reduction in the myofiber cross-sectional area as well as a 29% and 34% reduction in the number of myonuclei and myonuclear domains, respectively, in the soleus muscles (P vs the weight-bearing control. The number of quiescent (M-cadherin+, proliferating (BrdU+ and myoD+, and differentiated (myogenin+ satellite cells was also reduced by 48-57% compared to the weight-bearing animals (P P Conclusion This study shows that electrical stimulation partially attenuated the decrease in muscle size and satellite cells during hindlimb unloading. The causal relationship between satellite cell activation and electrical stimulation remain to be established.

  6. Primary Hepatic Small Cell Carcinoma: Two Case Reports, Molecular Characterization and Pooled Analysis of Known Clinical Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Aditi; Msaouel, Pavlos; Montagna, Cristina; White, Sherry; Delio, Maria; Patel, Kunjan; Alexis, Karenza; Strakhan, Marianna; Elrafei, Tarek N; Reed, Louis Juden

    2016-01-01

    Primary hepatic small cell carcinoma (HSCC) is a rare malignancy that has previously been described in only few case reports. The clinicopathological course, natural history, molecular markers and ideal treatment strategy for this tumor have not been fully elucidated. Herein, we report on two cases of spontaneously arising, metastatic primary HSCC that were treated at our Institution. Both patients succumbed to their disease within two months of initial presentation. Both cases underwent postmortem examination and no evidence of a pulmonary or other non-hepatic small cell primary was found. Unlike pulmonary small cell tumors, these two hepatic primaries showed only locoregional spread and very few distant metastases. Formalin-fixed samples were obtained at autopsy and sequenced using single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays and whole-genome sequencing. Four mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene known to be associated with response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) were detected in one of the two HSCC samples. A systematic review and pooled analysis of all previously reported cases of primary HSCCs was conducted. The median overall survival was estimated at 4 months. Surgical resection was significantly associated with longer overall survival (hazard ratio =0.13, 95% confidence interval=0.03-0.69). Although several case reports of primary HSCC have been reported prior to this publication, to our knowledge this is the first time that molecular and systematic analysis has been conducted in order to more fully characterize this rare disease. Our results indicate that surgical resection, when feasible, may be a valid option in primary HSCC, and that some tumors may respond to TKIs against EGFR. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  7. Reduced Dnmt3a increases Gdf5 expression with suppressed satellite cell differentiation and impaired skeletal muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatazawa, Yukino; Ono, Yusuke; Hirose, Yuma; Kanai, Sayaka; Fujii, Nobuharu L; Machida, Shuichi; Nishino, Ichizo; Shimizu, Takahiko; Okano, Masaki; Kamei, Yasutomi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2018-03-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism regulating gene expression. In this study, we observed that DNA methyltransferase 3a (Dnmt3a) expression is decreased after muscle atrophy. We made skeletal muscle-specific Dnmt3a-knockout (Dnmt3a-KO) mice. The regeneration capacity after muscle injury was markedly decreased in Dnmt3a-KO mice. Diminished mRNA and protein expression of Dnmt3a were observed in skeletal muscles as well as in satellite cells, which are important for muscle regeneration, in Dnmt3a-KO mice. Dnmt3a-KO satellite cell showed smaller in size (length/area), suggesting suppressed myotube differentiation. Microarray analysis of satellite cells showed that expression of growth differentiation factor 5 (Gdf5) mRNA was markedly increased in Dnmt3a-KO mice. The DNA methylation level of the Gdf5 promoter was markedly decreased in Dnmt3a-KO satellite cells. In addition, DNA methylation inhibitor azacytidine treatment increased Gdf5 expression in wild-type satellite cells, suggesting Gdf5 expression is regulated by DNA methylation. Also, we observed increased inhibitor of differentiation (a target of Gdf5) mRNA expression in Dnmt3a-KO satellite cells. Thus, Dnmt3a appears to regulate satellite cell differentiation via DNA methylation. This mechanism may play a role in the decreased regeneration capacity during atrophy such as in aged sarcopenia.-Hatazawa, Y., Ono, Y., Hirose, Y., Kanai, S., Fujii, N. L., Machida, S., Nishino, I., Shimizu, T., Okano, M., Kamei, Y., Ogawa, Y. Reduced Dnmt3a increases Gdf5 expression with suppressed satellite cell differentiation and impaired skeletal muscle regeneration.

  8. miR-378 attenuates muscle regeneration by delaying satellite cell activation and differentiation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ping; Han, Wanhong; Li, Changyin; Li, Hu; Zhu, Dahai; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Xiaohong

    2016-09-01

    Skeletal muscle mass and homeostasis during postnatal muscle development and regeneration largely depend on adult muscle stem cells (satellite cells). We recently showed that global overexpression of miR-378 significantly reduced skeletal muscle mass in mice. In the current study, we used miR-378 transgenic (Tg) mice to assess the in vivo functional effects of miR-378 on skeletal muscle growth and regeneration. Cross-sectional analysis of skeletal muscle tissues showed that the number and size of myofibers were significantly lower in miR-378 Tg mice than in wild-type mice. Attenuated cardiotoxin-induced muscle regeneration in miR-378 Tg mice was found to be associated with delayed satellite cell activation and differentiation. Mechanistically, miR-378 was found to directly target Igf1r in muscle cells both in vitro and in vivo These miR-378 Tg mice may provide a model for investigating the physiological and pathological roles of skeletal muscle in muscle-associated diseases in humans, particularly in sarcopenia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Reduced satellite cell number in situ in muscular contractures from children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayanidhi, Sudarshan; Dykstra, Peter B; Lyubasyuk, Vera; McKay, Bryon R; Chambers, Henry G; Lieber, Richard L

    2015-07-01

    Satellite cells (SC) are quiescent adult muscle stem cells critical for postnatal development. Children with cerebral palsy have impaired muscular growth and develop contractures. While flow cytometry previously demonstrated a reduced SC population, extracellular matrix abnormalities may influence the cell isolation methods used, systematically isolating fewer cells from CP muscle and creating a biased result. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to use immunohistochemistry on serial muscle sections to quantify SC in situ. Serial cross-sections from human gracilis muscle biopsies (n = 11) were labeled with fluorescent antibodies for Pax7 (SC transcriptional marker), laminin (basal lamina), and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (nuclei). Fluorescence microscopy under high magnification was used to identify SC based on labeling and location. Mean SC/100 myofibers was reduced by ∼70% (p muscle growth and apparent decreased responsiveness of CP muscle to exercise. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The Satellite Cell Niche Regulates the Balance between Myoblast Differentiation and Self-Renewal via p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamini, Valentina; Ghadiali, Rachel S; Antczak, Philipp; Rothwell, Amy; Turnbull, Jeremy E; Pisconti, Addolorata

    2018-03-13

    Satellite cells are adult muscle stem cells residing in a specialized niche that regulates their homeostasis. How niche-generated signals integrate to regulate gene expression in satellite cell-derived myoblasts is poorly understood. We undertook an unbiased approach to study the effect of the satellite cell niche on satellite cell-derived myoblast transcriptional regulation and identified the tumor suppressor p53 as a key player in the regulation of myoblast quiescence. After activation and proliferation, a subpopulation of myoblasts cultured in the presence of the niche upregulates p53 and fails to differentiate. When satellite cell self-renewal is modeled ex vivo in a reserve cell assay, myoblasts treated with Nutlin-3, which increases p53 levels in the cell, fail to differentiate and instead become quiescent. Since both these Nutlin-3 effects are rescued by small interfering RNA-mediated p53 knockdown, we conclude that a tight control of p53 levels in myoblasts regulates the balance between differentiation and return to quiescence. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Inflammatory sensitization of nociceptors depends on activation of NMDA receptors in DRG satellite cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Luiz Fernando; Lotufo, Celina Monteiro; Araldi, Dionéia; Rodrigues, Marcos A; Macedo, Larissa P; Ferreira, Sérgio H; Parada, Carlos Amilcar

    2014-12-23

    The present study evaluated the role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) expressed in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in the inflammatory sensitization of peripheral nociceptor terminals to mechanical stimulation. Injection of NMDA into the fifth lumbar (L5)-DRG induced hyperalgesia in the rat hind paw with a profile similar to that of intraplantar injection of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which was significantly attenuated by injection of the NMDAR antagonist D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (D-AP-5) in the L5-DRG. Moreover, blockade of DRG AMPA receptors by the antagonist 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione had no effect in the PGE2-induced hyperalgesia in the paw, showing specific involvement of NMDARs in this modulatory effect and suggesting that activation of NMDAR in the DRG plays an important role in the peripheral inflammatory hyperalgesia. In following experiments we observed attenuation of PGE2-induced hyperalgesia in the paw by the knockdown of NMDAR subunits NR1, NR2B, NR2D, and NR3A with antisense-oligodeoxynucleotide treatment in the DRG. Also, in vitro experiments showed that the NMDA-induced sensitization of cultured DRG neurons depends on satellite cell activation and on those same NMDAR subunits, suggesting their importance for the PGE2-induced hyperalgesia. In addition, fluorescent calcium imaging experiments in cultures of DRG cells showed induction of calcium transients by glutamate or NMDA only in satellite cells, but not in neurons. Together, the present results suggest that the mechanical inflammatory nociceptor sensitization is dependent on glutamate release at the DRG and subsequent NMDAR activation in satellite glial cells, supporting the idea that the peripheral hyperalgesia is an event modulated by a glutamatergic system in the DRG.

  12. Satellite Cells CD44 Positive Drive Muscle Regeneration in Osteoarthritis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimeca, Manuel; Bonanno, Elena; Piccirilli, Eleonora; Baldi, Jacopo; Mauriello, Alessandro; Orlandi, Augusto; Tancredi, Virginia; Gasbarra, Elena; Tarantino, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Age-related bone diseases, such as osteoarthritis and osteoporosis, are strongly associated with sarcopenia and muscle fiber atrophy. In this study, we analyzed muscle biopsies in order to demonstrate that, in osteoarthritis patients, both osteophytes formation and regenerative properties of muscle stem cells are related to the same factors. In particular, thanks to immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and immunogold labeling we investigated the role of BMP-2 in muscle stem cells activity. In patients with osteoarthritis both immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy allowed us to note a higher number of CD44 positive satellite muscle cells forming syncytium. Moreover, the perinuclear and cytoplasmic expression of BMP-2 assessed by in situ molecular characterization of satellite cells syncytia suggest a very strict correlation between BMP-2 expression and muscle regeneration capability. Summing up, the higher BMP-2 expression in osteoarthritic patients could explain the increased bone mineral density as well as decreased muscle atrophy in osteoarthrosic patients. In conclusion, our results suggest that the control of physiological BMP-2 balance between bone and muscle tissues may be considered as a potential pharmacological target in bone-muscle related pathology. PMID:26101529

  13. Satellite Cells CD44 Positive Drive Muscle Regeneration in Osteoarthritis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Scimeca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related bone diseases, such as osteoarthritis and osteoporosis, are strongly associated with sarcopenia and muscle fiber atrophy. In this study, we analyzed muscle biopsies in order to demonstrate that, in osteoarthritis patients, both osteophytes formation and regenerative properties of muscle stem cells are related to the same factors. In particular, thanks to immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and immunogold labeling we investigated the role of BMP-2 in muscle stem cells activity. In patients with osteoarthritis both immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy allowed us to note a higher number of CD44 positive satellite muscle cells forming syncytium. Moreover, the perinuclear and cytoplasmic expression of BMP-2 assessed by in situ molecular characterization of satellite cells syncytia suggest a very strict correlation between BMP-2 expression and muscle regeneration capability. Summing up, the higher BMP-2 expression in osteoarthritic patients could explain the increased bone mineral density as well as decreased muscle atrophy in osteoarthrosic patients. In conclusion, our results suggest that the control of physiological BMP-2 balance between bone and muscle tissues may be considered as a potential pharmacological target in bone-muscle related pathology.

  14. Candidate solar cell materials for photovoltaic conversion in a solar power satellite /SPS/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, P. E.; Almgren, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    In recognition of the obstacles to solar-generated baseload power on earth, proposals have been made to locate solar power satellites in geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO), where solar energy would be available 24 hours a day during most of the time of the year. In an SPS, the electricity produced by solar energy conversion will be fed to microwave generators forming part of a planar phase-array transmitting antenna. The antenna is designed to precisely direct a microwave beam of very low intensity to one or more receiving antennas at desired locations on earth. At the receiving antenna, the microwave energy will be safely and efficiently reconverted to electricity and then be transmitted to consumers. An SPS system will include a number of satellites in GEO. Attention is given to the photovoltaic option for solar energy conversion in GEO, solar cell requirements, the availability of materials, the implication of large production volumes, requirements for high-volume manufacture of solar cell arrays, and the effects of concentration ratio on solar cell array area.

  15. Space satellite power system. [conversion of solar energy by photovoltaic solar cell arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, P. E.

    1974-01-01

    The concept of a satellite solar power station was studied. It is shown that it offers the potential to meet a significant portion of future energy needs, is pollution free, and is sparing of irreplaceable earth resources. Solar energy is converted by photovoltaic solar cell arrays to dc energy which in turn is converted into microwave energy in a large active phased array. The microwave energy is beamed to earth with little attenuation and is converted back to dc energy on the earth. Economic factors are considered.

  16. Prolactin receptor attenuation induces zinc pool redistribution through ZnT2 and decreases invasion in MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostanci, Zeynep; Alam, Samina; Soybel, David I.; Kelleher, Shannon L.

    2014-01-01

    Prolactin receptor (PRL-R) activation regulates cell differentiation, proliferation, cell survival and motility of breast cells. Prolactin (PRL) and PRL-R over-expression are strongly implicated in breast cancer, particularly contributing to tumor growth and invasion in the more aggressive estrogen-receptor negative (ER−) disease. PRL-R antagonists have been suggested as potential therapeutic agents; however, mechanisms through which PRL-R antagonists exert their actions are not well-understood. Zinc (Zn) is a regulatory factor for over 10% of the proteome, regulating critical cell processes such as proliferation, cell signaling, transcription, apoptosis and autophagy. PRL-R signaling regulates Zn metabolism in breast cells. Herein we determined effects of PRL-R attenuation on cellular Zn metabolism and cell function in a model of ER-, PRL-R over-expressing breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-453). PRL-R attenuation post-transcriptionally increased ZnT2 abundance and redistributed intracellular Zn pools into lysosomes and mitochondria. ZnT2-mediated lysosomal Zn sequestration was associated with reduced matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) activity and decreased invasion. ZnT2-mediated Zn accumulation in mitochondria was associated with increased mitochondrial oxidation. Our results suggest that PRL-R antagonism in PRL-R over-expressing breast cancer cells may reduce invasion through the redistribution of intracellular Zn pools critical for cellular function. - Highlights: • PRL-R attenuation increased ZnT2 expression. • PRL-R attenuation increased lysosomal and mitochondrial Zn accumulation. • PRL-R attenuation decreased MMP-2 and invasion. • PRL-R antagonists may modulate lysosomal and mitochondrial Zn pools

  17. Prolactin receptor attenuation induces zinc pool redistribution through ZnT2 and decreases invasion in MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostanci, Zeynep, E-mail: zbostanci@hmc.psu.edu [The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Nutritional Sciences, 209 Chandlee Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); The Pennsylvania State University Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Surgery, 500 University Dr., Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); Alam, Samina, E-mail: sra116@psu.edu [The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Nutritional Sciences, 209 Chandlee Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); The Pennsylvania State University Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Surgery, 500 University Dr., Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); Soybel, David I., E-mail: dsoybel@hmc.psu.edu [The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Nutritional Sciences, 209 Chandlee Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); The Pennsylvania State University Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Surgery, 500 University Dr., Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Department of Cell and Molecular Physiology, 500 University Dr., Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); Kelleher, Shannon L., E-mail: slk39@psu.edu [The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Nutritional Sciences, 209 Chandlee Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); The Pennsylvania State University Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Surgery, 500 University Dr., Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Department of Cell and Molecular Physiology, 500 University Dr., Hershey, PA 17033 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Prolactin receptor (PRL-R) activation regulates cell differentiation, proliferation, cell survival and motility of breast cells. Prolactin (PRL) and PRL-R over-expression are strongly implicated in breast cancer, particularly contributing to tumor growth and invasion in the more aggressive estrogen-receptor negative (ER−) disease. PRL-R antagonists have been suggested as potential therapeutic agents; however, mechanisms through which PRL-R antagonists exert their actions are not well-understood. Zinc (Zn) is a regulatory factor for over 10% of the proteome, regulating critical cell processes such as proliferation, cell signaling, transcription, apoptosis and autophagy. PRL-R signaling regulates Zn metabolism in breast cells. Herein we determined effects of PRL-R attenuation on cellular Zn metabolism and cell function in a model of ER-, PRL-R over-expressing breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-453). PRL-R attenuation post-transcriptionally increased ZnT2 abundance and redistributed intracellular Zn pools into lysosomes and mitochondria. ZnT2-mediated lysosomal Zn sequestration was associated with reduced matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) activity and decreased invasion. ZnT2-mediated Zn accumulation in mitochondria was associated with increased mitochondrial oxidation. Our results suggest that PRL-R antagonism in PRL-R over-expressing breast cancer cells may reduce invasion through the redistribution of intracellular Zn pools critical for cellular function. - Highlights: • PRL-R attenuation increased ZnT2 expression. • PRL-R attenuation increased lysosomal and mitochondrial Zn accumulation. • PRL-R attenuation decreased MMP-2 and invasion. • PRL-R antagonists may modulate lysosomal and mitochondrial Zn pools.

  18. Analyses of the differentiation potential of satellite cells from myoD-/-, mdx, and PMP22 C22 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huxley Clare

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sporadic and sometimes contradictory studies have indicated changes in satellite cell behaviour associated with the progressive nature of human Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. Satellite cell proliferation and number are reportedly altered in DMD and the mdx mouse model. We recently found that satellite cells in MSVski transgenic mice, a muscle hypertrophy model showing progressive muscle degeneration, display a severe ageing-related differentiation defect in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that similar changes contribute to the gradual loss of muscle function with age in mdx and PMP22 mice, a model of human motor and sensory neuropathy type 1A (HMSN1A. Methods Single extensor digitorum longus muscle fibres were cultured from mdx and PMP22 mice and age- and genetic background-matched controls. Mice at several ages were compared with regard to the differentiation of satellite cells, assayed as the proportion of desmin-expressing cells that accumulated sarcomeric myosin heavy chain. Results Satellite cells of 2 month, 6 month, and 12 month old mdx mice were capable of differentiating to a similar extent to age-matched wild type control animals in an in vitro proliferation/differentiation model. Strikingly, differentiation efficiency in individual 6 month and 12 month old mdx animals varies to a much higher extent than in age-matched controls, younger mdx animals, or PMP22 mice. In contrast, differentiation of myoblasts from all myoD null mice assayed was severely impaired in this assay system. The defect in satellite cell differentiation that occurs in some mdx animals arises from a delay in differentiation that is not overcome by IGF-1 treatment at any phase of cultivation. Conclusion Overall, a defect in satellite cell differentiation above that arising through normal ageing does not occur in mdx or PMP22 mouse models of human disease. Nonetheless, the impaired differentiation of satellite cells from some mdx animals

  19. Effect of incubation temperature on neuropeptide Y and neuropeptide Y receptors in turkey and chicken satellite cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel L; McCormick, Janet L; Velleman, Sandra G

    2018-05-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an appetite stimulating peptide released from the central nervous system and impacts the function of many different cell types. A recent transcriptome study showed that NPY expression was altered when turkey breast muscle satellite cells were incubated at low or high temperatures, suggesting NPY may mediate temperature effects on satellite cells. However, to date minimal information exists describing the expression and function of NPY in satellite cells. The objective of this study was to determine how temperature impacts NPY and NPY receptor gene expression in satellite cells isolated from turkeys and chickens with differing genetic lineages. Two broiler and two turkey breast muscle satellite cell lines were incubated at 35, 38 or 41 °C during proliferation and differentiation. In both turkey lines, NPY, and receptors NPY2R and NPY5R expression increased at elevated temperatures after 72 h of proliferation. During differentiation NPY and NPY5R expression increased in both turkey lines with higher temperatures, whereas NPY2R was minimally affected by temperature. In contrast, in both chicken cell lines there were few significant differences for NPY and NPY receptor expression across temperature during proliferation. During differentiation, the temperature effect was different in the two chicken cell lines. In the BPM8 chicken line, there were few differences in NPY and NPY receptors across temperature; whereas elevated temperatures increased NPY, NPY2R, and NPY5R expression in the 708 line. The differences between turkey and chicken lines suggest NPY has species specific satellite cell functions in response to heat stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimized High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell & High Pressure PEM Electrolyser for Regenerative Fuel Cell Systems in GEO Telecommunication Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnes Jarle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Next generation telecommunication satellites will demand increasingly more power. Power levels up to 50 kW are foreseen for the next decades. Battery technology that can sustain up to 50 kW for eclipse lengths of up to 72 minutes will represent a major impact on the total mass of the satellite, even with new Li-ion battery technologies. Regenerative fuel cell systems (RFCS were identified years ago as a possible alternative to rechargeable batteries. CMR Prototech has investigated this technology in a series of projects initiated by ESA focusing on both the essential fuel cell technology, demonstration of cycle performance of a RFCS, corresponding to 15 years in orbit, as well as the very important reactants storage systems. In the last two years the development has been focused towards optimising the key elements of the RFCS; the HTPEM fuel cell and the High Pressure PEM electrolyser. In these ESA activities the main target has been to optimise the design by reducing the mass and at the same time improve the performance, thus increasing the specific energy. This paper will present the latest development, including the main results, showing that significant steps have been taken to increase TRL on these key components.

  1. Pooling and correlated neural activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rosenbaum

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Correlations between spike trains can strongly modulate neuronal activity and affect the ability of neurons to encode information. Neurons integrate inputs from thousands of afferents. Similarly, a number of experimental techniques are designed to record pooled cell activity. We review and generalize a number of previous results that show how correlations between cells in a population can be amplified and distorted in signals that reflect their collective activity. The structure of the underlying neuronal response can significantly impact correlations between such pooled signals. Therefore care needs to be taken when interpreting pooled recordings, or modeling networks of cells that receive inputs from large presynaptic populations. We also show that the frequently observed runaway synchrony in feedforward chains is primarily due to the pooling of correlated inputs.

  2. Precommitment low-level Neurog3 expression defines a long-lived mitotic endocrine-biased progenitor pool that drives production of endocrine-committed cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechard, Matthew E.; Bankaitis, Eric D.; Hipkens, Susan B.; Ustione, Alessandro; Piston, David W.; Yang, Yu-Ping; Magnuson, Mark A.; Wright, Christopher V.E.

    2016-01-01

    The current model for endocrine cell specification in the pancreas invokes high-level production of the transcription factor Neurogenin 3 (Neurog3) in Sox9+ bipotent epithelial cells as the trigger for endocrine commitment, cell cycle exit, and rapid delamination toward proto-islet clusters. This model posits a transient Neurog3 expression state and short epithelial residence period. We show, however, that a Neurog3TA.LO cell population, defined as Neurog3 transcriptionally active and Sox9+ and often containing nonimmunodetectable Neurog3 protein, has a relatively high mitotic index and prolonged epithelial residency. We propose that this endocrine-biased mitotic progenitor state is functionally separated from a pro-ductal pool and endows them with long-term capacity to make endocrine fate-directed progeny. A novel BAC transgenic Neurog3 reporter detected two types of mitotic behavior in Sox9+ Neurog3TA.LO progenitors, associated with progenitor pool maintenance or derivation of endocrine-committed Neurog3HI cells, respectively. Moreover, limiting Neurog3 expression dramatically increased the proportional representation of Sox9+ Neurog3TA.LO progenitors, with a doubling of its mitotic index relative to normal Neurog3 expression, suggesting that low Neurog3 expression is a defining feature of this cycling endocrine-biased state. We propose that Sox9+ Neurog3TA.LO endocrine-biased progenitors feed production of Neurog3HI endocrine-committed cells during pancreas organogenesis. PMID:27585590

  3. The activity of satellite cells and myonuclei following 8 weeks of strength training in young men with suppressed testosterone levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvorning, T; Kadi, F; Schjerling, P

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate how suppression of endogenous testosterone during an 8-week strength training period influences the activity of satellite cells and myonuclei. METHODS: Twenty-two moderately trained young men participated in this randomized, placebo-controlled, and double-blinded intervention...... from the mid-portion of the vastus lateralis muscle. RESULTS: Testosterone resting level in goserelin was 10-20 times lower compared with placebo, and the training-induced increase in the level of testosterone was abolished in goserelin. Training increased satellite cells number in type II fibres by 20...... of testosterone. The data indicate that low testosterone levels could reduce the differentiation of satellite cells to myonuclei via the bone morphogenetic proteins signalling pathway, resulting in reduced increases in lean leg mass....

  4. Distinct pools of cdc25C are phosphorylated on specific TP sites and differentially localized in human mitotic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine Franckhauser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The dual specificity phosphatase cdc25C was the first human cdc25 family member found to be essential in the activation of cdk1/cyclin B1 that takes place at the entry into mitosis. Human cdc25C is phosphorylated on Proline-dependent SP and TP sites when it becomes active at mitosis and the prevalent model is that this phosphorylation/activation of cdc25C would be part of an amplification loop with cdk1/cyclin B1. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using highly specific antibodies directed against cdc25C phospho-epitopes, pT67 and pT130, we show here that these two phospho-forms of cdc25C represent distinct pools with differential localization during human mitosis. Phosphorylation on T67 occurs from prophase and the cdc25C-pT67 phospho-isoform closely localizes with condensed chromosomes throughout mitosis. The phospho-T130 form of cdc25C arises in late G2 and associates predominantly with centrosomes from prophase to anaphase B where it colocalizes with Plk1. As shown by immunoprecipitation of each isoform, these two phospho-forms are not simultaneously phosphorylated on the other mitotic TP sites or associated with one another. Phospho-T67 cdc25C co-precipitates with MPM2-reactive proteins while pT130-cdc25C is associated with Plk1. Interaction and colocalization of phosphoT130-cdc25C with Plk1 demonstrate in living cells, that the sequence around pT130 acts as a true Polo Box Domain (PBD binding site as previously identified from in vitro peptide screening studies. Overexpression of non-phosphorylatable alanine mutant forms for each isoform, but not wild type cdc25C, strongly impairs mitotic progression showing the functional requirement for each site-specific phosphorylation of cdc25C at mitosis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show for the first time that in human mitosis, distinct phospho-isoforms of cdc25C exist with different localizations and interacting partners, thus implying that the long-standing model of a cdc25C

  5. RelB+ Steady-State Migratory Dendritic Cells Control the Peripheral Pool of the Natural Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Döhler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Thymus-derived natural Foxp3+ CD4+ regulatory T cells (nTregs play a key role in maintaining immune tolerance and preventing autoimmune disease. Several studies indicate that dendritic cells (DCs are critically involved in the maintenance and proliferation of nTregs. However, the mechanisms how DCs manage to keep the peripheral pool at constant levels remain poorly understood. Here, we describe that the NF-κB/Rel family transcription factor RelB controls the frequencies of steady-state migratory DCs (ssmDCs in peripheral lymph nodes and their numbers control peripheral nTreg homeostasis. DC-specific RelB depletion was investigated in CD11c-Cre × RelBfl/fl mice (RelBDCko, which showed normal frequencies of resident DCs in lymph nodes and spleen while the subsets of CD103− Langerin− dermal DCs (dDCs and Langerhans cells but not CD103+ Langerin+ dDC of the ssmDCs in skin-draining lymph nodes were increased. Enhanced frequencies and proliferation rates were also observed for nTregs and a small population of CD4+ CD44high CD25low memory-like T cells (Tml. Interestingly, only the Tml but not DCs showed an increase in IL-2-producing capacity in lymph nodes of RelBDCko mice. Blocking of IL-2 in vivo reduced the frequency of nTregs but increased the Tml frequencies, followed by a recovery of nTregs. Taken together, by employing RelBDCko mice with increased frequencies of ssmDCs our data indicate a critical role for specific ssmDC subsets for the peripheral nTreg and IL-2+ Tml frequencies during homeostasis.

  6. Adapted physical exercise enhances activation and differentiation potential of satellite cells in the skeletal muscle of old mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisterna, Barbara; Giagnacovo, Marzia; Costanzo, Manuela; Fattoretti, Patrizia; Zancanaro, Carlo; Pellicciari, Carlo; Malatesta, Manuela

    2016-05-01

    During ageing, a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and a decrease in muscle strength and endurance take place, in the condition termed sarcopenia. The mechanisms of sarcopenia are complex and still unclear; however, it is known that muscle atrophy is associated with a decline in the number and/or efficiency of satellite cells, the main contributors to muscle regeneration. Physical exercise proved beneficial in sarcopenia; however, knowledge of the effect of adapted physical exercise on the myogenic properties of satellite cells in aged muscles is limited. In this study the amount and activation state of satellite cells as well as their proliferation and differentiation potential were assessed in situ by morphology, morphometry and immunocytochemistry at light and transmission electron microscopy on 28-month-old mice submitted to adapted aerobic physical exercise on a treadmill. Sedentary age-matched mice served as controls, and sedentary adult mice were used as a reference for an unperturbed control at an age when the capability of muscle regeneration is still high. The effect of physical exercise in aged muscles was further analysed by comparing the myogenic potential of satellite cells isolated from old running and old sedentary mice using an in vitro system that allows observation of the differentiation process under controlled experimental conditions. The results of this ex vivo and in vitro study demonstrated that adapted physical exercise increases the number and activation of satellite cells as well as their capability to differentiate into structurally and functionally correct myotubes (even though the age-related impairment in myotube formation is not fully reversed): this evidence further supports adapted physical exercise as a powerful, non-pharmacological approach to counteract sarcopenia and the age-related deterioration of satellite cell capabilities even at very advanced age. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  7. Mixed lactate and caffeine compound increases satellite cell activity and anabolic signals for muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Yoshimi; Tsukamoto, Hayato; Yokokawa, Takumi; Hirotsu, Keisuke; Shimazu, Mariko; Uchida, Kenji; Tomi, Hironori; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Iwanaka, Nobumasa; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    2015-03-15

    We examined whether a mixed lactate and caffeine compound (LC) could effectively elicit proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells or activate anabolic signals in skeletal muscles. We cultured C2C12 cells with either lactate or LC for 6 h. We found that lactate significantly increased myogenin and follistatin protein levels and phosphorylation of P70S6K while decreasing the levels of myostatin relative to the control. LC significantly increased protein levels of Pax7, MyoD, and Ki67 in addition to myogenin, relative to control. LC also significantly increased follistatin expression relative to control and stimulated phosphorylation of mTOR and P70S6K. In an in vivo study, male F344/DuCrlCrlj rats were assigned to control (Sed, n = 10), exercise (Ex, n = 12), and LC supplementation (LCEx, n = 13) groups. LC was orally administered daily. The LCEx and Ex groups were exercised on a treadmill, running for 30 min at low intensity every other day for 4 wk. The LCEx group experienced a significant increase in the mass of the gastrocnemius (GA) and tibialis anterior (TA) relative to both the Sed and Ex groups. Furthermore, the LCEx group showed a significant increase in the total DNA content of TA compared with the Sed group. The LCEx group experienced a significant increase in myogenin and follistatin expression of GA relative to the Ex group. These results suggest that administration of LC can effectively increase muscle mass concomitant with elevated numbers of myonuclei, even with low-intensity exercise training, via activated satellite cells and anabolic signals. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Hawaii ESI: POOLS (Anchialine Pool Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anchialine pools in Hawaii. Anchialine pools are small, relatively shallow coastal ponds that occur...

  9. Creatine supplementation augments the increase in satellite cell and myonuclei number in human skeletal muscle induced by strength training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Steen; Aagaard, Per; Kadi, Fawzi

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of creatine and protein supplementation on satellite cell frequency and number of myonuclei in human skeletal muscle during 16 weeks of heavy-resistance training. In a double-blinded design 32 healthy, male subjects (19-26 years) were assigned to stren......The present study investigated the influence of creatine and protein supplementation on satellite cell frequency and number of myonuclei in human skeletal muscle during 16 weeks of heavy-resistance training. In a double-blinded design 32 healthy, male subjects (19-26 years) were assigned...

  10. Fascin Is Critical for the Maintenance of Breast Cancer Stem Cell Pool Predominantly via the Activation of the Notch Self-Renewal Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnawi, Rayanah; Al-Khaldi, Samiyah; Majed Sleiman, Ghida; Sarkar, Abdullah; Al-Dhfyan, Abdullah; Al-Mohanna, Falah; Ghebeh, Hazem; Al-Alwan, Monther

    2016-12-01

    An emerging dogma shows that tumors are initiated and maintained by a subpopulation of cancer cells that hijack some stem cell features and thus referred to as "cancer stem cells" (CSCs). The exact mechanism that regulates the maintenance of CSC pool remains largely unknown. Fascin is an actin-bundling protein that we have previously demonstrated to be a major regulator of breast cancer chemoresistance and metastasis, two cardinal features of CSCs. Here, we manipulated fascin expression in breast cancer cell lines and used several in vitro and in vivo approaches to examine the relationship between fascin expression and breast CSCs. Fascin knockdown significantly reduced stem cell-like phenotype (CD44 hi /CD24 lo and ALDH + ) and reversal of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Interestingly, expression of the embryonic stem cell transcriptional factors (Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, and Klf4) was significantly reduced when fascin expression was down-regulated. Functionally, fascin-knockdown cells were less competent in forming colonies and tumorspheres, consistent with lower basal self-renewal activity and higher susceptibility to chemotherapy. Fascin effect on CSC chemoresistance and self-renewability was associated with Notch signaling. Activation of Notch induced the relevant downstream targets predominantly in the fascin-positive cells. Limiting-dilution xenotransplantation assay showed higher frequency of tumor-initiating cells in the fascin-positive group. Collectively, our data demonstrated fascin as a critical regulator of breast CSC pool at least partially via activation of the Notch self-renewal signaling pathway and modification of the expression embryonic transcriptional factors. Targeting fascin may halt CSCs and thus presents a novel therapeutic approach for effective treatment of breast cancer. Stem Cells 2016;34:2799-2813 Video Highlight: https://youtu.be/GxS4fJ_Ow-o. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  11. Red blood cells free α-haemoglobin pool: a biomarker to monitor the β-thalassemia intermedia variability. The ALPHAPOOL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, Corinne; Domingues-Hamdi, Elisa; Ledudal, Katia; Le Corvoisier, Philippe; Barau, Caroline; Ghaleh, Bijan; Rialland, Amandine; Pissard, Serge; Galactéros, Frédéric; Baudin-Creuza, Véronique

    2017-10-01

    The severity of β-thalassaemia (β-thal) intermedia is mainly correlated to the degree of imbalanced α/non α-globin chain synthesis. The phenotypic diversity of β-thal depends on this imbalance and reflects all possible combinations of α- and β-globin genotypes, levels of fetal haemoglobin (HbF) and co-inheritance of other modulating factors. This study aimed to demonstrate the validity of a new surrogate of α/non α-globin biosynthetic ratio by measuring the soluble α-Hb pool in lysed red blood cells. Our results confirm that the α-Hb pool measurement allows a good discrimination between β-thal intermedia patients, controls and α-thal patients (P intermedia patients and may be clinically useful for monitoring the evolution of the disequilibrium of globin synthesis in response to treatments. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Analytic studies on satellite detection of severe, two-cell tornadoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, G. F.; Dergarabedian, P.; Fendell, F. E.

    1979-01-01

    From funnel-cloud-length interpretation, the severe tornado is characterized by peak swirl speed relative to the axis of rotation of about 90 m/s. Thermohydrodynamic achievement of the pressure deficit from ambient necessary to sustain such swirls requires that a dry, compressionally heated, non-rotating downdraft of initially tropopause-level air lie within an annulus of rapidly swirling, originally low-level air ascending on a near-moist-adiabatic locus of thermodynamic states. The two-cell structure furnishes an observable parameter possibly accessible to a passively instrumented, geosynchronous meteorological satellite with mesoscale resolution, for early detection of a severe tornado. Accordingly, the low-level turnaround region, in which the surface inflow layer separates to become a free ascending layer and for which inviscid modeling suffices, is examined quantitatively. Preliminary results indicate that swirl overshoot, i.e., swirl speeds in the turnaround region in excess of the maximum achieved in the potential vortex, is modest.

  13. Muscle Atrophy Reversed by Growth Factor Activation of Satellite Cells in a Mouse Muscle Atrophy Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauerslev, Simon; Vissing, John; Krag, Thomas O

    2014-01-01

    mechanism that may contribute to the progressive muscle wasting seen in severely affected patients with muscular dystrophy and significant on-going regeneration. This treatment could potentially be applied to many conditions that feature muscle wasting to increase muscle bulk and strength.......Muscular dystrophies comprise a large group of inherited disorders that lead to progressive muscle wasting. We wanted to investigate if targeting satellite cells can enhance muscle regeneration and thus increase muscle mass. We treated mice with hepatocyte growth factor and leukemia inhibitory...... factor under three conditions: normoxia, hypoxia and during myostatin deficiency. We found that hepatocyte growth factor treatment led to activation of the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K protein synthesis pathway, up-regulation of the myognic transcription factors MyoD and myogenin, and subsequently the negative growth...

  14. Effect of TCEA3 on the differentiation of bovine skeletal muscle satellite cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yue; Tong, Hui-Li; Li, Shu-Feng; Yan, Yun-Qin

    2017-01-01

    Bovine muscle-derived satellite cells (MDSCs) are important for animal growth. In this study, the effect of transcription elongation factor A3 (TCEA3) on bovine MDSC differentiation was investigated. Western blotting, immunofluorescence assays, and cytoplasmic and nuclear protein isolation and purification techniques were used to determine the expression pattern and protein localization of TCEA3 in bovine MDSCs during in vitro differentiation. TCEA3 expression was upregulated using the CRISPR/Cas9 technique to study its effects on MDSC differentiation in vitro. TCEA3 expression gradually increased during the in vitro differentiation of bovine MDSCs and peaked on the 5th day of differentiation. TCEA3 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm of bovine MDSCs, and its expression was not detected in the nucleus. The level of TCEA3 was relatively higher in myotubes at a higher degree of differentiation than during early differentiation. After transfection with a TCEA3-activating plasmid vector (TCEA3 overexpression) for 24 h, the myotube fusion rate, number of myotubes, and expression levels of the muscle differentiation-related loci myogenin (MYOG) and myosin heavy chain 3 (MYH3) increased significantly during the in vitro differentiation of bovine MDSCs. After transfection with a TCEA3-inhibiting plasmid vector for 24 h, the myotube fusion rate, number of myotubes, and expression levels of MYOG and MYH3 decreased significantly. Our results indicated, for the first time, that TCEA3 promotes the differentiation of bovine MDSCs and have implications for meat production and animal rearing. - Highlights: • Muscle-derived satellite cell differentiation is promoted by TCEA3. • TCEA3 protein was localized in the cytoplasm, but not nuclei of bovine MDSCs. • TCEA3 levels increased as myotube differentiation increased. • TCEA3 affected myotube fusion, myotube counts, and MYOG and MYH3 levels.

  15. Mutations in the satellite cell gene MEGF10 cause a recessive congenital myopathy with minicores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyden, Steven E; Mahoney, Lane J; Kawahara, Genri; Myers, Jennifer A; Mitsuhashi, Satomi; Estrella, Elicia A; Duncan, Anna R; Dey, Friederike; DeChene, Elizabeth T; Blasko-Goehringer, Jessica M; Bönnemann, Carsten G; Darras, Basil T; Mendell, Jerry R; Lidov, Hart G W; Nishino, Ichizo; Beggs, Alan H; Kunkel, Louis M; Kang, Peter B

    2012-05-01

    We ascertained a nuclear family in which three of four siblings were affected with an unclassified autosomal recessive myopathy characterized by severe weakness, respiratory impairment, scoliosis, joint contractures, and an unusual combination of dystrophic and myopathic features on muscle biopsy. Whole genome sequence from one affected subject was filtered using linkage data and variant databases. A single gene, MEGF10, contained nonsynonymous mutations that co-segregated with the phenotype. Affected subjects were compound heterozygous for missense mutations c.976T > C (p.C326R) and c.2320T > C (p.C774R). Screening the MEGF10 open reading frame in 190 patients with genetically unexplained myopathies revealed a heterozygous mutation, c.211C > T (p.R71W), in one additional subject with a similar clinical and histological presentation as the discovery family. All three mutations were absent from at least 645 genotyped unaffected control subjects. MEGF10 contains 17 atypical epidermal growth factor-like domains, each of which contains eight cysteine residues that likely form disulfide bonds. Both the p.C326R and p.C774R mutations alter one of these residues, which are completely conserved in vertebrates. Previous work showed that murine Megf10 is required for preserving the undifferentiated, proliferative potential of satellite cells, myogenic precursors that regenerate skeletal muscle in response to injury or disease. Here, knockdown of megf10 in zebrafish by four different morpholinos resulted in abnormal phenotypes including unhatched eggs, curved tails, impaired motility, and disorganized muscle tissue, corroborating the pathogenicity of the human mutations. Our data establish the importance of MEGF10 in human skeletal muscle and suggest satellite cell dysfunction as a novel myopathic mechanism.

  16. Muscle Fiber Characteristics, Satellite Cells and Soccer Performance in Young Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas I. Metaxas, Athanasios Mandroukas, Efstratios Vamvakoudis, Kostas Kotoglou, Björn Ekblom, Konstantinos Mandroukas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to examine the muscle fiber type, composition and satellite cells in young male soccer players and to correlate them to cardiorespiratory indices and muscle strength. The participants formed three Groups: Group A (n = 13, 11.2 ± 0.4yrs, Group B (n=10, 13.1 ± 0.5yrs and Group C (n = 9, 15.2 ± 0.6yrs. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis. Peak torque values of the quadriceps and hamstrings were recorded and VO2max was measured on the treadmill. Group C had lower type I percentage distribution compared to A by 21.3% (p < 0.01, while the type IIA relative percentage was higher by 18.1% and 18.4% than in Groups A and B (p < 0.05. Groups B and C had higher cross-sectional area (CSA values in all fiber types than in Group A (0.05 < p < 0.001. The number of satellite cells did not differ between the groups. Groups B and C had higher peak torque at all angular velocities and absolute VO2max in terms of ml·min-1 than Group A (0.05 < p < 0.001. It is concluded that the increased percentage of type IIA muscle fibers noticed in Group C in comparison to the Groups A and B should be mainly attributed to the different workload exercise and training programs. The alteration of myosin heavy chain (MHC isoforms composition even in children is an important mechanism for skeletal muscle characteristics. Finally, CSA, isokinetic muscle strength and VO2max values seems to be expressed according to age.

  17. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Matthew E.; Pavlath, Grace K.

    2015-01-01

    The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies (MDs), such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some MDs. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease. PMID:26500547

  18. Association of pKi-67 with satellite DNA of the human genome in early G1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, J M; Kill, I R; Lichter, P

    1998-01-01

    pKi-67 is a nucleolar antigen that provides a specific marker for proliferating cells. It has been shown previously that pKi-67's distribution varies in a cell cycle-dependent manner: it coats all chromosomes during mitosis, accumulates in nuclear foci during G1 phase (type I distribution) and localizes within nucleoli in late G1 S and G2 phase (type II distribution). Although no function has as yet been ascribed to pKi-67, it has been found associated with centromeres in G1. In the present study the distribution pattern of pKi-67 during G1 in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) was analysed in more detail. Synchronization experiments show that in very early G1 cells pKi-67 coincides with virtually all satellite regions analysed, i.e. with centromeric (alpha-satellite), telomeric (minisatellite) and heterochromatic blocks (satellite III) on chromosomes 1 and Y (type Ia distribution). In contrast, later in the G1 phase, a smaller fraction of satellite DNA regions are found collocalized with pKi-67 foci (type Ib distribution). When all pKi-67 becomes localized within nucleoli, even fewer satellite regions remain associated with the pKi-67 staining. However, all centromeric and short arm regions of the acrocentric chromosomes, which are in very close proximity to or even contain the rRNA genes, are collocalized with anti-pKi-67 staining throughout the remaining interphase of the cell cycle. Thus, our data demonstrate that during post-mitotic reformation and nucleogenesis there is a progressive decline in the fraction of specific satellite regions of DNA that remain associated with pKi-67. This may be relevant to nucleolar reformation following mitosis.

  19. Connexin43 Hemichannels in Satellite Glial Cells, Can They Influence Sensory Neuron Activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio A. Retamal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this review article, we summarize the current insight on the role of Connexin- and Pannexin-based channels as modulators of sensory neurons. The somas of sensory neurons are located in sensory ganglia (i.e., trigeminal and nodose ganglia. It is well known that within sensory ganglia, sensory neurons do not form neither electrical nor chemical synapses. One of the reasons for this is that each soma is surrounded by glial cells, known as satellite glial cells (SGCs. Recent evidence shows that connexin43 (Cx43 hemichannels and probably pannexons located at SGCs have an important role in paracrine communication between glial cells and sensory neurons. This communication may be exerted via the release of bioactive molecules from SGCs and their subsequent action on receptors located at the soma of sensory neurons. The glio-neuronal communication seems to be relevant for the establishment of chronic pain, hyperalgesia and pathologies associated with tissue inflammation. Based on the current literature, it is possible to propose that Cx43 hemichannels expressed in SGCs could be a novel pharmacological target for treating chronic pain, which need to be directly evaluated in future studies.

  20. Death rates in HIV-positive antiretroviral-naive patients with CD4 count greater than 350 cells per microL in Europe and North America: a pooled cohort observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodwick, Rebecca K; Sabin, Caroline A; Porter, Kholoud

    2010-01-01

    Whether people living with HIV who have not received antiretroviral therapy (ART) and have high CD4 cell counts have higher mortality than the general population is unknown. We aimed to examine this by analysis of pooled data from industrialised countries.......Whether people living with HIV who have not received antiretroviral therapy (ART) and have high CD4 cell counts have higher mortality than the general population is unknown. We aimed to examine this by analysis of pooled data from industrialised countries....

  1. Amino acid synthesis in photosynthesizing spinach cells: effects of ammonia on pool sizes and rates of labeling from 14CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, P.O.; Cornwell, K.L.; Gee, S.L.; Bassham, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Isolated cells from leaves of Spinacia oleracea have been maintained in a state capable of high rates of photosynthetic CO 2 fixation for more than 60 hours. The incorporation of 14 CO 2 under saturating CO 2 conditions into carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and amino acids, and the effect of ammonia on this incorporation have been studied. Total incorporation, specific radioactivity, and pool size have been determined as a function of time for most of the protein amino acids and for γ-aminobutyric acid. The measurements of specific radio-activities and of the approaches to 14 C saturation of some amino acids indicate the presence and relative sizes of metabolically active and passive pools of these amino acids. Added ammonia decreased carbon fixation into carbohydrates and increased fixation into carboxylic acids and amino acids. The results indicate that added ammonia stimulates the reactions mediated by pyruvate kinase and phosphenoenolpyruvate carboxylase, as seen with other plant systems. The data on the effects of added ammonia on total labeling, pool sizes, and specific radioactivities of several amino acids provides a number of indications about the intracellular sites of principal synthesis from carbon skeletons of these amino acids and the selective nature of effects of increased intracellular ammonia concentration on-such synthesis

  2. Fiber type specific response of skeletal muscle satellite cells to high-intensity resistance training in dialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The aim was to investigate the effect of high-intensity resistance training on satellite cell (SC) and myonuclear number in the muscle of patients undergoing dialysis. Methods. Patients (n=21) underwent a 16-week control period, followed by 16 weeks of resistance training thrice...

  3. β-catenin at the centrosome: discrete pools of β-catenin communicate during mitosis and may co-ordinate centrosome functions and cell cycle progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbom, Bertrade C; Nelson, W James; Barth, Angela

    2013-09-01

    Beta-catenin is a multifunctional protein with critical roles in cell-cell adhesion, Wnt-signaling and the centrosome cycle. Whereas the roles of β-catenin in cell-cell adhesion and Wnt-signaling have been studied extensively, the mechanism(s) involving β-catenin in centrosome functions are poorly understood. β-Catenin localizes to centrosomes and promotes mitotic progression. NIMA-related protein kinase 2 (Nek2), which stimulates centrosome separation, binds to and phosphorylates β-catenin. β-Catenin interacting proteins involved in Wnt signaling such as adenomatous polyposis coli, Axin, and GSK3β, are also localized at centrosomes and play roles in promoting mitotic progression. Additionally, proteins associated with cell-cell adhesion sites, such as dynein, regulate mitotic spindle positioning. These roles of proteins at the cell cortex and Wnt signaling that involve β-catenin indicate a cross-talk between different sub-cellular sites in the cell at mitosis, and that different pools of β-catenin may co-ordinate centrosome functions and cell cycle progression. © 2013 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Mutation analysis with random DNA identifiers (MARDI) catalogs Pig-a mutations in heterogeneous pools of CD48-deficient T cells derived from DMBA-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revollo, Javier R; Crabtree, Nathaniel M; Pearce, Mason G; Pacheco-Martinez, M Monserrat; Dobrovolsky, Vasily N

    2016-03-01

    Identification of mutations induced by xenotoxins is a common task in the field of genetic toxicology. Mutations are often detected by clonally expanding potential mutant cells and genotyping each viable clone by Sanger sequencing. Such a "clone-by-clone" approach requires significant time and effort, and sometimes is even impossible to implement. Alternative techniques for efficient mutation identification would greatly benefit both basic and regulatory genetic toxicology research. Here, we report the development of Mutation Analysis with Random DNA Identifiers (MARDI), a novel high-fidelity Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) approach that circumvents clonal expansion and directly catalogs mutations in pools of mutant cells. MARDI uses oligonucleotides carrying Random DNA Identifiers (RDIs) to tag progenitor DNA molecules before PCR amplification, enabling clustering of descendant DNA molecules and eliminating NGS- and PCR-induced sequencing artifacts. When applied to the Pig-a cDNA analysis of heterogeneous pools of CD48-deficient T cells derived from DMBA-treated rats, MARDI detected nearly all Pig-a mutations that were previously identified by conventional clone-by-clone analysis and discovered many additional ones consistent with DMBA exposure: mostly A to T transversions, with the mutated A located on the non-transcribed DNA strand. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Individual cell lag time distributions of Cronobacter (Enterobacter sakazakii) and impact of pooling samples on its detection in powdered infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miled, Rabeb Bennour; Guillier, Laurent; Neves, Sandra; Augustin, Jean-Christophe; Colin, Pierre; Besse, Nathalie Gnanou

    2011-06-01

    Cells of six strains of Cronobacter were subjected to dry stress and stored for 2.5 months at ambient temperature. The individual cell lag time distributions of recovered cells were characterized at 25 °C and 37 °C in non-selective broth. The individual cell lag times were deduced from the times taken by cultures from individual cells to reach an optical density threshold. In parallel, growth curves for each strain at high contamination levels were determined in the same growth conditions. In general, the extreme value type II distribution with a shape parameter fixed to 5 (EVIIb) was the most effective at describing the 12 observed distributions of individual cell lag times. Recently, a model for characterizing individual cell lag time distribution from population growth parameters was developed for other food-borne pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes. We confirmed this model's applicability to Cronobacter by comparing the mean and the standard deviation of individual cell lag times to populational lag times observed with high initial concentration experiments. We also validated the model in realistic conditions by studying growth in powdered infant formula decimally diluted in Buffered Peptone Water, which represents the first enrichment step of the standard detection method for Cronobacter. Individual lag times and the pooling of samples significantly affect detection performances. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The differential proliferative ability of satellite cells in Lantang and Landrace pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-qi Wang

    Full Text Available Here, for the first time, we evaluate the hypothesis that the proliferative abilities of satellite cells (SCs isolated from Lantang (indigenous Chinese pigs and Landrace pigs, which differ in muscle characteristics, are different. SCs were isolated from the longissimus dorsi muscle of neonatal Lantang and Landrace pigs. Proliferative ability was estimated by the count and proliferative activity of viable cells using a hemocytometer and MTT assay at different time points after seeding, respectively. Cell cycle information was detected by flow cytometry. Results showed that there was a greater (P<0.05 number of SCs in Lantang pigs compared with Landrace pigs after 72 h of culture. The percentage of cell population in S phase and G(2/M phases in Lantang pigs were higher (P<0.05, while in G(0/G(1 phase was lower (P<0.05 in comparison with the Landrace pigs. The mRNA abundances of MyoD, Myf5, myogenin and Pax7 in SCs from Lantang pigs were higher (P<0.05, while those of myostatin, Smad3 and genes in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway (with the exception of 4EBP1 were lower (P<0.05 than the Landrace pigs. Protein levels of MyoD, myogenin, myostatin, S6K, phosphorylated mTOR and phosphorylated eIF4E were consistent with the corresponding mRNA abundance. Collectively, these findings suggested that SCs in the two breeds present different proliferative abilities, and the proliferative potential of SCs in Lantang pigs is higher than in Landrace pigs.

  7. Seismic analysis of large pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, R.G.; Tokarz, F.J.

    1976-11-17

    Large pools for storing spent, nuclear fuel elements are being proposed to augment present storage capacity. To preserve the ability to isolate portions of these pools, a modularization requirement appears desirable. The purpose of this project was to investigate the effects of modularization on earthquake resistance and to assess the adequacy of current design methods for seismic loads. After determining probable representative pool geometries, three rectangular pool configurations, all 240 x 16 ft and 40 ft deep, were examined. One was unmodularized; two were modularized into 80 x 40 ft cells in one case and 80 x 80 ft cells in the other. Both embedded and above-ground installations for a hard site and embedded installations for an intermediate hard site were studied. It was found that modularization was unfavorable in terms of reducing the total structural load attributable to dynamic effects, principally because one or more cells could be left unfilled. The walls of unfilled cells would be subjected to significantly higher loads than the walls of a filled, unmodularized pool. Generally, embedded installations were preferable to above-ground installations, and the hard site was superior to the intermediate hard site. It was determined that Housner's theory was adequate for calculating hydrodynamic effects on spent fuel storage pools. Current design methods for seismic loads were found to be satisfactory when results from these methods were compared with those from LUSH analyses. As a design method for dynamic soil pressure, we found the Mononobe-Okabe theory, coupled with correction factors as suggested by Seed, to be acceptable. The factors we recommend for spent fuel storage pools are tabulated.

  8. Seismic analysis of large pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, R.G.; Tokarz, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    Large pools for storing spent, nuclear fuel elements are being proposed to augment present storage capacity. To preserve the ability to isolate portions of these pools, a modularization requirement appears desirable. The purpose of this project was to investigate the effects of modularization on earthquake resistance and to assess the adequacy of current design methods for seismic loads. After determining probable representative pool geometries, three rectangular pool configurations, all 240 x 16 ft and 40 ft deep, were examined. One was unmodularized; two were modularized into 80 x 40 ft cells in one case and 80 x 80 ft cells in the other. Both embedded and above-ground installations for a hard site and embedded installations for an intermediate hard site were studied. It was found that modularization was unfavorable in terms of reducing the total structural load attributable to dynamic effects, principally because one or more cells could be left unfilled. The walls of unfilled cells would be subjected to significantly higher loads than the walls of a filled, unmodularized pool. Generally, embedded installations were preferable to above-ground installations, and the hard site was superior to the intermediate hard site. It was determined that Housner's theory was adequate for calculating hydrodynamic effects on spent fuel storage pools. Current design methods for seismic loads were found to be satisfactory when results from these methods were compared with those from LUSH analyses. As a design method for dynamic soil pressure, we found the Mononobe-Okabe theory, coupled with correction factors as suggested by Seed, to be acceptable. The factors we recommend for spent fuel storage pools are tabulated

  9. Long term effects of lipopolysaccharide on satellite glial cells in mouse dorsal root ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, E. [Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem 91240 (Israel); Procacci, P.; Conte, V.; Sartori, P. [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, University of Milan, via Mangiagalli 14, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Hanani, M., E-mail: hananim@cc.huji.ac.il [Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem 91240 (Israel)

    2017-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been used extensively to study neuroinflammation, but usually its effects were examined acutely (24 h<). We have shown previously that a single intraperitoneal LPS injection activated satellite glial cells (SGCs) in mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and altered several functional parameters in these cells for at least one week. Here we asked whether the LPS effects would persist for 1 month. We injected mice with a single LPS dose and tested pain behavior, assessed SGCs activation in DRG using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunostaining, and injected a fluorescent dye intracellularly to study intercellular coupling. Electron microscopy was used to quantitate changes in gap junctions. We found that at 30 days post-LPS the threshold to mechanical stimulation was lower than in controls. GFAP expression, as well as the magnitude of dye coupling among SGCs were greater than in controls. Electron microscopy analysis supported these results, showing a greater number of gap junctions and an abnormal growth of SGC processes. These changes were significant, but less prominent than at 7 days post-LPS. We conclude that a single LPS injection exerts long-term behavioral and cellular changes. The results are consistent with the idea that SGC activation contributes to hyperalgesia. - Highlights: • A single lipopolysaccharides injection activated glia in mouse dorsal root ganglia for 30 days. • This was accompanied by increased communications by gap junctions among glia and by hyperalgesia. • Glial activation and coupling may contribute to chronic pain.

  10. The success of assisted reproduction technologies in relation to composition of the total regulatory T cell (Treg) pool and different Treg subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlossberger, V; Schober, L; Rehnitz, J; Schaier, M; Zeier, M; Meuer, S; Schmitt, E; Toth, B; Strowitzki, T; Steinborn, A

    2013-11-01

    Are there differences in composition of the total regulatory T cell (Treg) pool and distinct Treg subsets (naïve CD45RA(+)-Tregs, HLA-DR(-)- and HLA-DR(+)-memory Tregs) between successfully and non-successfully IVF/ICSI-treated women? Non-successfully IVF/ICSI-treated women have a decreased percentage of naïve CD45RA(+)-Tregs and an increased percentage of HLA-DR(-)-memory Tregs within the total Treg pool. Immunosuppressive Tregs play a significant role in human reproduction and studies have shown that their number and function are reduced in reproductive failure and complications of pregnancy such as pre-eclampsia and preterm labor. However, no data exist concerning the importance of Tregs for a successful outcome following assisted reproduction technologies. Blood samples were obtained from 210 women undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment, where 14 patients were excluded due to biochemical pregnancy or missed abortion. Age control blood samples were collected from 20 neonates and 176 healthy female volunteers. The study was performed between October 2010 and March 2012. In this study, we determined prospectively the quantity and composition of the total CD4(+)CD127(low+/-)CD25(+)FoxP3(+)-Treg pool and three different Treg subsets (naïve CD45RA(+)-Tregs, HLA-DR(-)- and HLA-DR(+)-memory Tregs) in all women undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment. We examined whether there were differences between those who became pregnant (n = 36) and those who did not (n = 160). The blood samples were collected within 1 h before the embryo transfer and analyzed by six-color flow cytometry. In order to evaluate these results with regard to the normal age-related changes in composition of the total Treg pool, the same analysis was performed using samples of umbilical cord blood and from healthy female volunteers aged between 17 and 76 years. The composition of the total Treg pool was documented for successfully IVF/ICSI-treated women (n = 5) throughout their pregnancy and we assessed the

  11. EGFR-TKI therapy for patients with brain metastases from non-small-cell lung cancer: a pooled analysis of published data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Y

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Yun Fan,1,2 Xiaoling Xu,3 Conghua Xie4 1Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Chemotherapy, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 3Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 4Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China Introduction: Brain metastases are one of the leading causes of death from non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. The use of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs to treat brain metastases remains controversial. Thus, we performed a pooled analysis of published data to evaluate the efficacy of EGFR-TKIs in NSCLC patients with brain metastases, particularly for tumors with activating EGFR mutations. Methods: Several data sources were searched, including PubMed, Web of Science, and ASCO Annual Meetings databases. The end points were intracranial overall response rate (ORR, disease control rate (DCR, progression-free survival (PFS, overall survival (OS, and adverse events. The pooled ORR, DCR, PFS, and OS with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated employing fixed- or random-effect models, depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies. Results: Sixteen published studies were included in this analysis, with a total of 464 enrolled patients. The EGFR mutational status was unknown for 362 (unselected group, and 102 had activating EGFR mutations. The pooled intracranial ORR and DCR were 51.8% (95% CI: 45.8%–57.8% and 75.7% (95% CI: 70.3%–80.5%, respectively. A higher ORR was observed in the EGFR mutation group than in the unselected group (85.0% vs 45.1%; a similar trend was observed for the DCR (94.6% vs 71.3%. The pooled median PFS and OS were 7.4 months (95% CI, 4.9–9.9 and 11.9 months (95% CI, 7.7–16.2, respectively, with longer PFS (12.3 months vs 5.9 months and OS (16.2 months vs

  12. MicroRNA-133 Controls Brown Adipose Determination in Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells by Targeting Prdm16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Hang; Pasut, Alessandra; Soleimani, Vahab D

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an energy-dispensing thermogenic tissue that plays an important role in balancing energy metabolism. Lineage-tracing experiments indicate that brown adipocytes are derived from myogenic progenitors during embryonic development. However, adult skeletal muscle stem cells...... (satellite cells) have long been considered uniformly determined toward the myogenic lineage. Here, we report that adult satellite cells give rise to brown adipocytes and that microRNA-133 regulates the choice between myogenic and brown adipose determination by targeting the 3'UTR of Prdm16. Antagonism...... of microRNA-133 during muscle regeneration increases uncoupled respiration, glucose uptake, and thermogenesis in local treated muscle and augments whole-body energy expenditure, improves glucose tolerance, and impedes the development of diet-induced obesity. Finally, we demonstrate that miR-133 levels...

  13. Neurons and satellite glial cells in adult rat lumbar dorsal root ganglia express connexin 36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Armendariz, E Martha; Norcini, Monica; Hernández-Tellez, Beatriz; Castell-Rodríguez, Andrés; Coronel-Cruz, Cristina; Alquicira, Raquel Guerrero; Sideris, Alexandra; Recio-Pinto, Esperanza

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that following peripheral nerve injury there was a downregulation of the gap junction protein connexin 36 (Cx36) in the spinal cord; however, it is not known whether Cx36 protein is expressed in the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), nor if its levels are altered following peripheral nerve injuries. Here we address these aspects in the adult rat lumbar DRG. Cx36 mRNA was detected using qRT-PCR, and Cx36 protein was identified in DRG sections using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence (IF). Double staining revealed that Cx36 co-localizes with both anti-β-III tubulin, a neuronal marker, and anti-glutamine synthetase, a satellite glial cell (SGC) marker. In neurons, Cx36 staining was mostly uniform in somata and fibers of all sizes and its intensity increased at the cell membranes. This labeling pattern was in contrast with Cx36 IF dots mainly found at junctional membranes in islet beta cells used as a control tissue. Co-staining with anti-Cx43 and anti-Cx36 showed that whereas mostly uniform staining of Cx36 was found throughout neurons and SGCs, Cx43 IF puncta were localized to SGCs. Cx36 mRNA was expressed in normal lumbar DRG, and it was significantly down-regulated in L4 DRG of rats that underwent sciatic nerve injury resulting in persistent hypersensitivity. Collectively, these findings demonstrated that neurons and SGCs express Cx36 protein in normal DRG, and suggested that perturbation of Cx36 levels may contribute to chronic neuropathic pain resulting from a peripheral nerve injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Restoration of Impaired Metabolic Energy Balance (ATP Pool and Tube Formation Potential of Endothelial Cells under “high glucose”, Diabetic Conditions by the Bioinorganic Polymer Polyphosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Micro-vascularization is a fast, energy-dependent process that is compromised by elevated glucose concentrations such as in diabetes mellitus disease. Here, we studied the effect of the physiological bioinorganic polymer, polyphosphate (polyP, on the reduced ATP content and impaired function of endothelial cells cultivated under “high glucose” (35 mM diabetes mellitus conditions concentrations. This high-energy biopolymer has been shown to provide a source of metabolic energy, stored in its phosphoanhydride bonds. We show that exposure of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC cells to “high glucose” levels results in reduced cell viability, increased apoptotic cell death, and a decline in intracellular ATP level. As a consequence, the ability of HUVEC cells to form tube-like structures in the in vitro cell tube formation assay was almost completely abolished under “high glucose” conditions. Those cells were grown onto a physiological collagen scaffold (collagen/basement membrane extract. We demonstrate that these adverse effects of increased glucose levels can be reversed by administration of polyP to almost normal values. Using Na-polyP, complexed in a stoichiometric (molar ratio to Ca2+ ions and in the physiological concentration range between 30 and 300 µM, an almost complete restoration of the reduced ATP pool of cells exposed to “high glucose” was found, as well as a normalization of the number of apoptotic cells and energy-dependent tube formation. It is concluded that the adverse effects on endothelial cells caused by the metabolic energy imbalance at elevated glucose concentrations can be counterbalanced by polyP, potentially opening new strategies for treatment of the micro-vascular complications in diabetic patients.

  15. Age-specific functional epigenetic changes in p21 and p16 in injury-activated satellite cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ju; Han, Suhyoun; Cousin, Wendy; Conboy, Irina M.

    2014-01-01

    The regenerative capacity of muscle dramatically decreases with age because old muscle stem cells fail to proliferate in response to tissue damage. Here we uncover key age-specific differences underlying this proliferative decline: namely, the genetic loci of CDK inhibitors (CDKI) p21 and p16 are more epigenetically silenced in young muscle stem cells, as compared to old, both in quiescent cells and those responding to tissue injury. Interestingly, phosphorylated ERK (pERK) induced in these cells by ectopic FGF-2 is found in association with p21 and p16 promoters, and moreover, only in the old cells. Importantly, in the old satellite cells FGF-2/pERK silences p21 epigenetically and transcriptionally, which leads to reduced p21 protein levels and enhanced cell proliferation. In agreement with the epigenetic silencing of the loci, young muscle stem cells do not depend as much as old on ectopic FGF/pERK for their myogenic proliferation. In addition, other CDKIs, such asp15INK4B and p27KIP1, become elevated in satellite cells with age, confirming and explaining the profound regenerative defect of old muscle. This work enhances our understanding of tissue aging, promoting strategies for combating age-imposed tissue degeneration. PMID:25447026

  16. Activation of Satellite Glial Cells in Rat Trigeminal Ganglion after Upper Molar Extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunjigake, Kaori K.; Goto, Tetsuya; Nakao, Kayoko; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Kazunori

    2009-01-01

    The neurons in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) are surrounded by satellite glial cells (SGCs), which passively support the function of the neurons, but little is known about the interactions between SGCs and TG neurons after peripheral nerve injury. To examine the effect of nerve injury on SGCs, we investigated the activation of SGCs after neuronal damage due to the extraction of the upper molars in rats. Three, 7, and 10 days after extraction, animals were fixed and the TG was removed. Cryosections of the ganglia were immunostained with antibodies against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker of activated SGCs, and ATF3, a marker of damaged neurons. After tooth extraction, the number of ATF3-immunoreactive (IR) neurons enclosed by GFAP-IR SGCs had increased in a time-dependent manner in the maxillary nerve region of the TG. Although ATF3-IR neurons were not detected in the mandibular nerve region, the number of GFAP-IR SGCs increased in both the maxillary and mandibular nerve regions. Our results suggest that peripheral nerve injury affects the activation of TG neurons and the SGCs around the injured neurons. Moreover, our data suggest the existence of a neuronal interaction between maxillary and mandibular neurons via SGC activation

  17. Characterization of rat primary trigeminal satellite glial cells and associated extracellular vesicles under normal and inflammatory conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinterhøj, Hye Sook Han; Stensballe, Allan; Duroux, Meg

    2018-01-01

    Satellite glial cells (SGCs) in sensory ganglia contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic pain, potentially through mediating extracellular or paracrine signaling. Recently, extracellular vesicles (EVs) in the form of exosomes have been found to play an important role in cell-cell communication....... Results demonstrated that SGCs shed vesicles in the size range of exosomes (>150 nm) but with altered protein expression upon LPS-activation. Proteomic profiling of SGCs-shed EVs showed that a number of proteins were differentially regulated upon LPS stimulation such as junction plakoglobin and myosin 9...

  18. Muscle satellite cells are functionally impaired in myasthenia gravis: consequences on muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Mohamed; Maurer, Marie; Robinet, Marieke; Le Grand, Fabien; Fadel, Elie; Le Panse, Rozen; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Berrih-Aknin, Sonia

    2017-12-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a neuromuscular disease caused in most cases by anti-acetyl-choline receptor (AChR) autoantibodies that impair neuromuscular signal transmission and affect skeletal muscle homeostasis. Myogenesis is carried out by muscle stem cells called satellite cells (SCs). However, myogenesis in MG had never been explored. The aim of this study was to characterise the functional properties of myasthenic SCs as well as their abilities in muscle regeneration. SCs were isolated from muscle biopsies of MG patients and age-matched controls. We first showed that the number of Pax7+ SCs was increased in muscle sections from MG and its experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) mouse model. Myoblasts isolated from MG muscles proliferate and differentiate more actively than myoblasts from control muscles. MyoD and MyoG were expressed at a higher level in MG myoblasts as well as in MG muscle biopsies compared to controls. We found that treatment of control myoblasts with MG sera or monoclonal anti-AChR antibodies increased the differentiation and MyoG mRNA expression compared to control sera. To investigate the functional ability of SCs from MG muscle to regenerate, we induced muscle regeneration using acute cardiotoxin injury in the EAMG mouse model. We observed a delay in maturation evidenced by a decrease in fibre size and MyoG mRNA expression as well as an increase in fibre number and embryonic myosin heavy-chain mRNA expression. These findings demonstrate for the first time the altered function of SCs from MG compared to control muscles. These alterations could be due to the anti-AChR antibodies via the modulation of myogenic markers resulting in muscle regeneration impairment. In conclusion, the autoimmune attack in MG appears to have unsuspected pathogenic effects on SCs and muscle regeneration, with potential consequences on myogenic signalling pathways, and subsequently on clinical outcome, especially in the case of muscle stress.

  19. Influence of exercise contraction mode and protein supplementation on human skeletal muscle satellite cell content and muscle fiber growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farup, Jean; Rahbek, Stine Klejs; Riis, Simon

    2014-01-01

    -specific association between emergence of satellite cells (SCs), muscle growth, and remodeling in response to 12 wk unilateral resistance training performed as eccentric (Ecc) or concentric (Conc) resistance training ± whey protein (Whey, 19.5 g protein + 19.5 g glucose) or placebo (Placebo, 39 g glucose......Skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs) are involved in remodeling and hypertrophy processes of skeletal muscle. However, little knowledge exists on extrinsic factors that influence the content of SCs in skeletal muscle. In a comparative human study, we investigated the muscle fiber type......) supplementation. Muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were analyzed for fiber type-specific SCs, myonuclei, and fiber cross-sectional area (CSA). Following training, SCs increased with Conc in both type I and type II fibers (P

  20. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  1. Swimming pool granuloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001357.htm Swimming pool granuloma To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A swimming pool granuloma is a long-term (chronic) skin ...

  2. Exposure to pesticides as risk factor for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and hairy cell leukemia: pooled analysis of two Swedish case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardell, Lennart; Eriksson, Mikael; Nordstrom, Marie

    2002-05-01

    Increased risk for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) following exposure to certain pesticides has previously been reported. To further elucidate the importance of phenoxyacetic acids and other pesticides in the etiology of NHL a pooled analysis was performed on two case-control studies, one on NHL and another on hairy cell leukemia (HCL), a rare subtype of NHL. The studies were population based with cases identified from cancer registry and controls from population registry. Data assessment was ascertained by questionnaires supplemented over the telephone by specially trained interviewers. The pooled analysis of NHL and HCL was based on 515 cases and 1141 controls. Increased risks in univariate analysis were found for subjects exposed to herbicides (OR 1.75, CI 95% 1.26-2.42), insecticides (OR 1.43, CI 95% 1.08-1.87), fungicides (OR 3.11, CI 95% 1.56-6.27) and impregnating agents (OR 1.48, CI 95% 1.11-1.96). Among herbicides, significant associations were found for glyphosate (OR 3.04, CI 95% 1.08-8.52) and 4-chloro-2-methyl phenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) (OR 2.62, CI 95% 1.40-4.88). For several categories of pesticides the highest risk was found for exposure during the latest decades before diagnosis. However, in multivariate analyses the only significantly increased risk was for a heterogeneous category of other herbicides than above.

  3. Differential expression of FGF receptors and of myogenic regulatory factors in primary cultures of satellite cells originating from fast (EDL) and slow (Soleus) twitch rat muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelly, I; Soulet, L; Bonnavaud, S; Cebrian, J; Gautron, J; Barritault, D

    2000-11-01

    In the rat, the fast and slow twitch muscles respectively Extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and Soleus present differential characteristics during regeneration. This suggests that their satellite cells responsible for muscle growth and repair represent distinct cellular populations. We have previously shown that satellite cells dissociated from Soleus and grown in vitro proliferate more readily than those isolated from EDL muscle. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are known as regulators of myoblast proliferation and several studies have revealed a relationship between the response of myoblasts to FGF and the expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRF) of the MyoD family by myoblasts. Therefore, we presently examined the possibility that the satellite cells isolated from EDL and Soleus muscles differ in the expression of FGF receptors (FGF-R) and of MRF expression. FGF-R1 and -R4 were strongly expressed in proliferating cultures whereas FGF-R2 and R3 were not detected in these cultures. In differentiating cultures, only -R1 was present in EDL satellite cells while FGF-R4 was also still expressed in Soleus cells. Interestingly, the unconventional receptor for FGF called cystein rich FGF receptor (CFR), of yet unknown function, was mainly detected in EDL satellite cell cultures. Soleus and EDL satellite cell cultures also differed in the expression MRFs. These results are consistent with the notion that satellite cells from fast and slow twitch muscles belong to different types of myogenic cells and suggest that satellite cells might play distinct roles in the formation and diversification of fast and slow fibres.

  4. The molecular responses of skeletal muscle satellite cells to continuous expression of IGF-1: implications for the rescue of induced muscular atrophy in aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, M. V.; Booth, F. W.; Spangenburg, E. E.

    2001-01-01

    Approximately 50% of humans older than 85 years have physical frailty due to weak skeletal muscles. This indicates a need for determining mechanisms to combat this problem. A critical cellular factor for postnatal muscle growth is a population of myogenic precursor cells called satellite cells. Given the complex process of sarcopenia, it has been postulated that, at some point in this process, a limited satellite cell proliferation potential could become rate-limiting to the regrowth of old muscles. It is conceivable that if satellite cell proliferative capacity can be maintained or enhanced with advanced age, sarcopenia could potentially be delayed or prevented. Therefore, the purposes of this paper are to describe whether IGF-I can prevent muscular atrophy induced by repeated cycles of hindlimb immobilization, increase the in vitro proliferation in satellite cells from these muscles and, if so, the molecular mechanisms by which IGF-I mediates this increased proliferation. Our results provide evidence that IGF-I can enhance aged muscle regrowth possibly through increased satellite cell proliferation. The results also suggest that IGF-I enhances satellite cell proliferation by decreasing the cell cycle inhibitor, p27Kip1, through the PI3'-K/Akt pathway. These data provide molecular evidence for IGF-I's rescue effect upon aging-associated skeletal muscle atrophy.

  5. Satellite cell senescence underlies myopathy in a mouse model of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashova, Elena; Kramerova, Irina; Spencer, Melissa J.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the E3 ubiquitin ligase tripartite motif-containing 32 (TRIM32) are responsible for the disease limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2H (LGMD2H). Previously, we generated Trim32 knockout mice (Trim32–/– mice) and showed that they display a myopathic phenotype accompanied by neurogenic features. Here, we used these mice to investigate the muscle-specific defects arising from the absence of TRIM32, which underlie the myopathic phenotype. Using 2 models of induced atrophy, we showed that TRIM32 is dispensable for muscle atrophy. Conversely, TRIM32 was necessary for muscle regrowth after atrophy. Furthermore, TRIM32-deficient primary myoblasts underwent premature senescence and impaired myogenesis due to accumulation of PIAS4, an E3 SUMO ligase and TRIM32 substrate that was previously shown to be associated with senescence. Premature senescence of myoblasts was also observed in vivo in an atrophy/regrowth model. Trim32–/– muscles had substantially fewer activated satellite cells, increased PIAS4 levels, and growth failure compared with wild-type muscles. Moreover, Trim32–/– muscles exhibited features of premature sarcopenia, such as selective type II fast fiber atrophy. These results imply that premature senescence of muscle satellite cells is an underlying pathogenic feature of LGMD2H and reveal what we believe to be a new mechanism of muscular dystrophy associated with reductions in available satellite cells and premature sarcopenia. PMID:22505452

  6. Btg1 is Required to Maintain the Pool of Stem and Progenitor Cells of the Dentate Gyrus and Subventricular Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano; Micheli, Laura; Saraulli, Daniele; Ceccarelli, Manuela; Cannas, Sara; Scardigli, Raffaella; Leonardi, Luca; Cinà, Irene; Costanzi, Marco; Ciotti, Maria Teresa; Moreira, Pedro; Rouault, Jean-Pierre; Cestari, Vincenzo; Tirone, Felice

    2012-01-01

    Btg1 belongs to a family of cell cycle inhibitory genes. We observed that Btg1 is highly expressed in adult neurogenic niches, i.e., the dentate gyrus and subventricular zone (SVZ). Thus, we generated Btg1 knockout mice to analyze the role of Btg1 in the process of generation of adult new neurons. Ablation of Btg1 causes a transient increase of the proliferating dentate gyrus stem and progenitor cells at post-natal day 7; however, at 2 months of age the number of these proliferating cells, as...

  7. BTG1 is required to maintain the pool of stem and progenitor cells of dentate gyrus and subventricular zone

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano eFarioli-Vecchioli; Laura eMicheli; Daniele eSaraulli; Manuela eCeccarelli; Sara eCannas; Raffaella eScardigli; Luca eLeonardi; Irene eCinà; Marco eCostanzi; Maria Teresa eCiotti; Pedro eMoreira; Jean-Pierre eRouault; Vincenzo eCestari; Felice eTirone

    2012-01-01

    Btg1 belongs to a family of cell cycle inhibitory genes. We observed that Btg1 is highly expressed in adult neurogenic niches, i.e., the dentate gyrus and subventricular zone (SVZ). Thus, we generated Btg1 knockout mice to analyze the role of Btg1 in the process of generation of adult new neurons.Ablation of Btg1 causes a transient increase of the proliferating dentate gyrus stem and progenitor cells at post-natal day 7; however, at two months of age the number of these proliferating cells, a...

  8. The small GTPase RhoA is required to maintain spinal cord neuroepithelium organization and the neural stem cell pool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzog, Dominik; Loetscher, Pirmin; van Hengel, Jolanda

    2011-01-01

    ablation. We show that, in the spinal cord neuroepithelium, RhoA is essential to localize N-cadherin and ß-catenin to AJs and maintain apical-basal polarity of neural progenitor cells. Ablation of RhoA caused the loss of AJs and severe abnormalities in the organization of cells within the neuroepithelium......Dia1), does not localize to apical AJs in which it likely stabilizes intracellular adhesion by promoting local actin polymerization and microtubule organization. Furthermore, expressing a dominant-negative form of mDia1 in neural stem/progenitor cells results in a similar phenotype compared...... with that of the RhoA conditional knock-out, namely the loss of AJs and apical polarity. Together, our data show that RhoA signaling is necessary for AJ regulation and for the maintenance of mammalian neuroepithelium organization preventing precocious cell-cycle exit and differentiation....

  9. Plasmablasts During Acute Dengue Infection Represent a Small Subset of a Broader Virus-specific Memory B Cell Pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramapraba Appanna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is endemic in tropical countries worldwide and the four dengue virus serotypes often co-circulate. Infection with one serotype results in high titers of cross-reactive antibodies produced by plasmablasts, protecting temporarily against all serotypes, but impairing protective immunity in subsequent infections. To understand the development of these plasmablasts, we analyzed virus-specific B cell properties in patients during acute disease and at convalescence. Plasmablasts were unrelated to classical memory cells expanding in the blood during early recovery. We propose that only a small subset of memory B cells is activated as plasmablasts during repeat infection and that plasmablast responses are not representative of the memory B cell repertoire after dengue infection.

  10. Gene expression deregulation in postnatal skeletal muscle of TK2 deficient mice reveals a lower pool of proliferating myogenic progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João A Paredes

    Full Text Available Loss of thymidine kinase 2 (TK2 causes a heterogeneous myopathic form of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA depletion syndrome (MDS in humans that predominantly affects skeletal muscle tissue. In mice, TK2 deficiency also affects several tissues in addition to skeletal muscle, including brain, heart, adipose tissue, kidneys and causes death about 3 weeks after birth. We analysed skeletal muscle and heart muscle tissues of Tk2 knockout mice at postnatal development phase and observed that TK2 deficient pups grew slower and their skeletal muscles appeared significantly underdeveloped, whereas heart was close to normal in size. Both tissues showed mtDNA depletion and mitochondria with altered ultrastructure, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Gene expression microarray analysis showed a strong down-regulation of genes involved in cell cycle and cell proliferation in both tissues, suggesting a lower pool of undifferentiated proliferating cells. Analysis of isolated primary myoblasts from Tk2 knockout mice showed slow proliferation, less ability to differentiate and signs of premature senescence, even in absence of mtDNA depletion. Our data demonstrate that TK2 deficiency disturbs myogenic progenitor cells function in postnatal skeletal muscle and we propose this as one of the causes of underdeveloped phenotype and myopathic characteristic of the TK2 deficient mice, in addition to the progressive mtDNA depletion, mitochondrial damage and respiratory chain deficiency in post-mitotic differentiated tissue.

  11. Gene expression deregulation in postnatal skeletal muscle of TK2 deficient mice reveals a lower pool of proliferating myogenic progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, João A; Zhou, Xiaoshan; Höglund, Stefan; Karlsson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Loss of thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) causes a heterogeneous myopathic form of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndrome (MDS) in humans that predominantly affects skeletal muscle tissue. In mice, TK2 deficiency also affects several tissues in addition to skeletal muscle, including brain, heart, adipose tissue, kidneys and causes death about 3 weeks after birth. We analysed skeletal muscle and heart muscle tissues of Tk2 knockout mice at postnatal development phase and observed that TK2 deficient pups grew slower and their skeletal muscles appeared significantly underdeveloped, whereas heart was close to normal in size. Both tissues showed mtDNA depletion and mitochondria with altered ultrastructure, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Gene expression microarray analysis showed a strong down-regulation of genes involved in cell cycle and cell proliferation in both tissues, suggesting a lower pool of undifferentiated proliferating cells. Analysis of isolated primary myoblasts from Tk2 knockout mice showed slow proliferation, less ability to differentiate and signs of premature senescence, even in absence of mtDNA depletion. Our data demonstrate that TK2 deficiency disturbs myogenic progenitor cells function in postnatal skeletal muscle and we propose this as one of the causes of underdeveloped phenotype and myopathic characteristic of the TK2 deficient mice, in addition to the progressive mtDNA depletion, mitochondrial damage and respiratory chain deficiency in post-mitotic differentiated tissue.

  12. PPARγ and MyoD are differentially regulated by myostatin in adipose-derived stem cells and muscle satellite cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Feng; Deng, Bing; Wen, Jianghui; Chen, Kun; Liu, Wu; Ye, Shengqiang; Huang, Haijun; Jiang, Siwen; Xiong, Yuanzhu

    2015-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a secreted protein belonging to the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family that is primarily expressed in skeletal muscle and also functions in adipocyte maturation. Studies have shown that MSTN can inhibit adipogenesis in muscle satellite cells (MSCs) but not in adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). However, the mechanism by which MSTN differently regulates adipogenesis in these two cell types remains unknown. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and myogenic differentiation factor (MyoD) are two key transcription factors in fat and muscle cell development that influence adipogenesis. To investigate whether MSTN differentially regulates PPARγ and MyoD, we analyzed PPARγ and MyoD expression by assessing mRNA, protein and methylation levels in ADSCs and MSCs after treatment with 100 ng/mL MSTN for 0, 24, and 48 h. PPARγ mRNA levels were downregulated after 24 h and upregulated after 48 h of treatment in ADSCs, whereas in MSCs, PPARγ levels were downregulated at both time points. MyoD expression was significantly increased in ADSCs and decreased in MSCs. PPARγ and MyoD protein levels were upregulated in ADSCs and downregulated in MSCs. The CpG methylation levels of the PPARγ and MyoD promoters were decreased in ADSCs and increased in MSCs. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the different regulatory adipogenic roles of MSTN in ADSCs and MSCs act by differentially regulating PPARγ and MyoD expression. - Highlights: • PPARγ and MyoD mRNA and protein levels are upregulated by myostatin in ADSCs. • PPARγ and MyoD mRNA and protein levels are downregulated by myostatin in MSCs. • PPARγ exhibited different methylation levels in myostatin-treated ADSCs and MSCs. • MyoD exhibited different methylation levels in myostatin-treated ADSCs and MSCs. • PPARγ and MyoD are differentially regulated by myostatin in ADSCs and MSCs

  13. PPARγ and MyoD are differentially regulated by myostatin in adipose-derived stem cells and muscle satellite cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Feng [Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding of the Agricultural Ministry and Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of the Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070 (China); Deng, Bing [Wuhan Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Wuhan Academy of Agricultural Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430208 (China); Wen, Jianghui [Wu Han University of Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen, Kun [Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding of the Agricultural Ministry and Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of the Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070 (China); Liu, Wu; Ye, Shengqiang; Huang, Haijun [Wuhan Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Wuhan Academy of Agricultural Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430208 (China); Jiang, Siwen, E-mail: jiangsiwen@mail.hzau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding of the Agricultural Ministry and Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of the Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070 (China); Xiong, Yuanzhu, E-mail: xiongyzhu@163.com [Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding of the Agricultural Ministry and Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of the Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070 (China)

    2015-03-06

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a secreted protein belonging to the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family that is primarily expressed in skeletal muscle and also functions in adipocyte maturation. Studies have shown that MSTN can inhibit adipogenesis in muscle satellite cells (MSCs) but not in adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). However, the mechanism by which MSTN differently regulates adipogenesis in these two cell types remains unknown. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and myogenic differentiation factor (MyoD) are two key transcription factors in fat and muscle cell development that influence adipogenesis. To investigate whether MSTN differentially regulates PPARγ and MyoD, we analyzed PPARγ and MyoD expression by assessing mRNA, protein and methylation levels in ADSCs and MSCs after treatment with 100 ng/mL MSTN for 0, 24, and 48 h. PPARγ mRNA levels were downregulated after 24 h and upregulated after 48 h of treatment in ADSCs, whereas in MSCs, PPARγ levels were downregulated at both time points. MyoD expression was significantly increased in ADSCs and decreased in MSCs. PPARγ and MyoD protein levels were upregulated in ADSCs and downregulated in MSCs. The CpG methylation levels of the PPARγ and MyoD promoters were decreased in ADSCs and increased in MSCs. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the different regulatory adipogenic roles of MSTN in ADSCs and MSCs act by differentially regulating PPARγ and MyoD expression. - Highlights: • PPARγ and MyoD mRNA and protein levels are upregulated by myostatin in ADSCs. • PPARγ and MyoD mRNA and protein levels are downregulated by myostatin in MSCs. • PPARγ exhibited different methylation levels in myostatin-treated ADSCs and MSCs. • MyoD exhibited different methylation levels in myostatin-treated ADSCs and MSCs. • PPARγ and MyoD are differentially regulated by myostatin in ADSCs and MSCs.

  14. TIME COURSE ALTERATIONS OF SATELLITE CELL EVENTS IN RESPONSE TO LIGHT MODERATE ENDURANCE TRAINING IN WHITE GASTROCNEMIUS MUSCLE OF THE RAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong-Yan Cai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated satellite cells and their related molecular events adapted to light moderate endurance training in the white gastrocnemius muscle of the rat. The white gastrocnemius muscle of male Sprague-Dawley rats that had been trained for 4 weeks and 8 weeks, with control rats being analysed alongside them, was selected for analysis (n=3 per group. The training protocol consisted of treadmill running at 20 m · min-1 for 30 min on a 0% grade, for 3 days · week-1. Immunohistochemical staining coupled with image analysis was used for quantification. To provide deeper insight into the cell layer, 40 sections per rat, corresponding to 120 values per group, were obtained as a mean value for statistical comparison. The results indicated that at week 4, training effects increased the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF content and c-met positive satellite cell numbers. At week 8, the training effect was attenuated for VEGF and c-met satellite cell numbers, but it increased in the muscle fibre area. Additionally, c-met positive satellite cell numbers correlated with VEGF content (r = 0.79, p<0.05. In conclusion, this study suggests that light moderate endurance training could stimulate satellite cell activation that might be related to VEGF signalling. Additionally, the satellite cells activated by moderate endurance training might contribute to slight growth in myocytes.

  15. Voluntary wheel running increases satellite cell abundance and improves recovery from disuse in gastrocnemius muscles from mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Matthew J; Hajira, Ameena; Mohamed, Junaith S; Alway, Stephen E

    2018-02-22

    Reloading of atrophied muscles after hindlimb suspension unloading (HSU) can induce injury and prolong recovery. Low-impact exercise, such as voluntary wheel running, has been identified as a non-damaging rehabilitation therapy in rodents, but its effects on muscle function, morphology, and satellite cell activity after HSU are unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that low impact wheel running would increase satellite cell proliferation and improve recovery of muscle structure and function after HSU in mice. Young adult male and female C57BL/6 mice (n=6/group) were randomly placed into 5 groups. These included HSU without recovery (HSU), normal ambulatory recovery for 14 days after HSU (HSU+NoWR), and voluntary wheel running recovery for 14 days after HSU (HSU+WR). Two control groups were used: non-suspended mice-cage controls (Control) and voluntary wheel running controls (ControlWR). Satellite cell activation, was evaluated by providing mice 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in their drinking water. As expected, HSU significantly reduced in vivo maximal force and decreased the in vivo fatigability and decreased type I and IIa myosin heavy chain (MHC) abundance in plantarflexor muscles. HSU+WR mice significantly improved plantarflexor fatigue resistance, increased type type I and IIa MHC abundance, increased fiber cross sectional area (CSA), and an increased the percentage of type I and IIA muscle fibers in the gastrocnemius muscle. HSU+WR mice also had a significantly greater percentage of BrdU-positive and Pax 7 positive nuclei inside muscle fibers and a greater MyoD to Pax 7 protein ratio when compared to HSU+NoWR mice. The mechanotransduction protein Yes-associated protein (YAP) was elevated with reloading after HSU, but HSU+WR had lower levels of the inactive phosphorylated YAP serine127 which may have contributed to increased satellite cell activation creased with reloading after HSU. These results indicate that voluntary wheel running increased YAP

  16. A new 99mTc-red blood cell labeling procedure for cardiac blood pool imaging: Clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelbaek, H.; Buelow, K.; Aldershvile, J.; Moegelyang, J.; Nielsen, S.L.; Copenhagen Univ.

    1989-01-01

    The first clinical results of a new 99m Tc-red blood cell labeling procedure avoiding cell centrifugation are presented. One ml heparinized blood samples were incubated with small amounts of a stannous kit. By titration studies, ideal quantities of sodium hypochlorite for oxidation of extracellular tin and of EDTA as stabilizer of the label were found. The Cl - concentration and pH of the labeled blood were acceptable, and EDTA increased labeling yield and stability determined in vitro by a few percent. The new procedure gave a slightly higher labeling yield than a current technique using centrifugation of cells. Labeling efficiency expressed as cell bound/total activity was 96.6%±1.3% in healthy subjects and 95.5%±2.2% in cardiac patients and remained high for 2 h after reinjection. The biological halflife of labeled cells following the new procedure was 11-12 h rendering it suitable for serial determinations of radionuclide cardiography. (orig.)

  17. Operation and maintenance techniques of pool and pool water purification system in IMEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soong, Woong Sup

    1999-03-01

    IMEF pool is used pass way between pool and hot cell in order to inlet and outlet of fuel pin in cask. All operation is performed conforming with naked eyes. Therefore floating matter is filtered so as to easy under water handling. Also radioactivity in pool water is controlled according to the nuclear law, radioactivity ration maintained less than 15mR/hr on pool side. Perfect operation and maintenance can be achieved well trained operator. Result obtained from the perfection can give more influence over restrain, spreading contamination of radioactivity materials. This report describes operation and maintenance technique of pool water purification system in IMEF. (Author). 7 refs., 13 figs.

  18. Operation and maintenance techniques of pool and pool water purification system in IMEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soong, Woong Sup

    1999-03-01

    IMEF pool is used pass way between pool and hot cell in order to inlet and outlet of fuel pin in cask. All operation is performed conforming with naked eyes. Therefore floating matter is filtered so as to easy under water handling. Also radioactivity in pool water is controlled according to the nuclear law, radioactivity ration maintained less than 15mR/hr on pool side. Perfect operation and maintenance can be achieved well trained operator. Result obtained from the perfection can give more influence over restrain, spreading contamination of radioactivity materials. This report describes operation and maintenance technique of pool water purification system in IMEF. (Author). 7 refs., 13 figs

  19. Solar satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poher, C.

    1982-01-01

    A reference system design, projected costs, and the functional concepts of a satellite solar power system (SSPS) for converting sunlight falling on solar panels of a satellite in GEO to a multi-GW beam which could be received by a rectenna on earth are outlined. Electricity transmission by microwaves has been demonstrated, and a reference design system for supplying 5 GW dc to earth was devised. The system will use either monocrystalline Si or concentrator GaAs solar cells for energy collection in GEO. Development is still needed to improve the lifespan of the cells. Currently, the cell performance degrades 50 percent in efficiency after 7-8 yr in space. Each SSPS satellite would weigh either 34,000 tons (Si) or 51,000 tons (GaAs), thereby requiring the fabrication of a heavy lift launch vehicle or a single-stage-to-orbit transport in order to minimize launch costs. Costs for the solar panels have been estimated at $500/kW using the GaAs technology, with transport costs for materials to GEO being $40/kg.

  20. Solar satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poher, C.

    A reference system design, projected costs, and the functional concepts of a satellite solar power system (SSPS) for converting sunlight falling on solar panels of a satellite in GEO to a multi-GW beam which could be received by a rectenna on earth are outlined. Electricity transmission by microwaves has been demonstrated, and a reference design system for supplying 5 GW dc to earth was devised. The system will use either monocrystalline Si or concentrator GaAs solar cells for energy collection in GEO. Development is still needed to improve the lifespan of the cells. Currently, the cell performance degrades 50 percent in efficiency after 7-8 yr in space. Each SSPS satellite would weigh either 34,000 tons (Si) or 51,000 tons (GaAs), thereby requiring the fabrication of a heavy lift launch vehicle or a single-stage-to-orbit transport in order to minimize launch costs. Costs for the solar panels have been estimated at $500/kW using the GaAs technology, with transport costs for materials to GEO being $40/kg.

  1. In ovo feeding of creatine pyruvate alters energy reserves, satellite cell mitotic activity and myogenic gene expression of breast muscle in embryos and neonatal broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, M M; Gao, T; Zhang, L; Li, J L; Lv, P A; Yu, L L; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of creatine pyruvate (CrPyr) on energy reserves, satellite cell mitotic activity (SCMA) and myogenic gene expression in breast muscle of embryos and neonatal broilers. A total of 960 eggs were randomly allocated into three treatments: 1) non-injected control group, 2) saline group injected with 0.6 mL of physiological saline (0.75%), and 3) CrPyr group injected with 0.6 mL of physiological saline (0.75%) containing 12 mg CrPyr/egg at 17.5 d of incubation. After hatching, a total of 120 male chicks were randomly assigned to each treatment group, with eight replicate sets per group. Selected chicks had body BW close to the average of their pooled group. Our results showed that the total and relative breast muscle weights of broilers subjected to CrPyr treatment were higher than those in the control and saline groups on 19 d of incubation (19 E), the day of hatch, 3 and 7 d post-hatch (P creatine concentrations on 19 E, the day of hatch and 3 d post-hatch, the same treatment increased phosphocreatine concentrations on 19 E. Broilers in the CrPyr group showed higher expression of myogenic differentiation 1 (MyoD) (P < 0.05), myogenin and paired box 7 (Pax7), as well as higher index of SCMA on 3 d post-hatch. However, myostatin mRNA expression in CrPyr-treated broilers was down-regulated on 3 d post-hatch (P < 0.05). These results indicated that IOF of CrPyr increased energy reserves of embryos and SCMA of broilers on 3 d post-hatch, which led to enhanced muscle growth in the late embryos and neonatal broilers. Additionally, IOF of CrPyr increased the activity of satellite cells possibly through up-regulating MyoD, myogenin, and Pax7 mRNA expression and down-regulating myostatin mRNA expression. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. FOXP3+ T Cells Recruited to Sites of Sterile Skeletal Muscle Injury Regulate the Fate of Satellite Cells and Guide Effective Tissue Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglioni, Alessandra; Basso, Veronica; Vezzoli, Michela; Monno, Antonella; Almada, Albert E.; Mondino, Anna; Wagers, Amy J.; Manfredi, Angelo A.; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Muscle injury induces a classical inflammatory response in which cells of the innate immune system rapidly invade the tissue. Macrophages are prominently involved in this response and required for proper healing, as they are known to be important for clearing cellular debris and supporting satellite cell differentiation. Here, we sought to assess the role of the adaptive immune system in muscle regeneration after acute damage. We show that T lymphocytes are transiently recruited into the muscle after damage and appear to exert a pro-myogenic effect on muscle repair. We observed a decrease in the cross-sectional area of regenerating myofibers after injury in Rag2-/- γ-chain-/- mice, as compared to WT controls, suggesting that T cell recruitment promotes muscle regeneration. Skeletal muscle infiltrating T lymphocytes were enriched in CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ cells. Direct exposure of muscle satellite cells to in vitro induced Treg cells effectively enhanced their expansion, and concurrently inhibited their myogenic differentiation. In vivo, the recruitment of Tregs to acutely injured muscle was limited to the time period of satellite expansion, with possibly important implications for situations in which inflammatory conditions persist, such as muscular dystrophies and inflammatory myopathies. We conclude that the adaptive immune system, in particular T regulatory cells, is critically involved in effective skeletal muscle regeneration. Thus, in addition to their well-established role as regulators of the immune/inflammatory response, T regulatory cells also regulate the activity of skeletal muscle precursor cells, and are instrumental for the proper regeneration of this tissue. PMID:26039259

  3. Early-age feed restriction affects viability and gene expression of satellite cells isolated from the gastrocnemius muscle of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yue

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle growth depends on the fusion of proliferate satellite cells to existing myofibers. We reported previously that 0–14 day intermittent feeding led to persistent retardation in myofiber hypertrophy. However, how satellite cells respond to such nutritional insult has not been adequately elucidated. Results One-day-old broiler chicks were allocated to control (Con, ad libitum feeding, intermittent feeding (IF, feed provided on alternate days and re-feeding (RF, 2 days ad libitum feeding after 12 days of intermittent feeding groups. Chickens were killed on Day 15 and satellite cells were isolated. When cultured, satellite cells from the IF group demonstrated significant retardation in proliferation and differentiation potential, while RF partly restored the proliferation rate and differentiation potential of the satellite cells. Significant up-regulation of insulin like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR (P0.05 and thyroid hormone receptor α (TRα (P0.05, and down-regulation of growth hormone receptor (GHR (P0.01 and IGF-I (P0.01 mRNA expression was observed in freshly isolated IF satellite cells when compared with Con cells. In RF cells, the mRNA expression of IGF-I was higher (P0.05 and of TRα was lower (P0.01 than in IF cells, suggesting that RF restored the mRNA expression of TRα and IGF-I, but not of GHR and IGF-IR. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio tended to increase in the IF group, which was reversed in the RF group (P0.05, indicating that RF reduced the pro-apoptotic influence of IF. Moreover, no significant effect of T3 was detected on cell survival in IF cells compared with Con (PP0.05 cells. Conclusions These data suggest that early-age feed restriction inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells, induces changes in mRNA expression of the GH/IGF-I and thyroid hormone receptors in satellite cells, as well as blunted sensitivity of satellite cells to T3, and that RF partially reverses these effects. Thus

  4. Solar swimming pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This report examines the feasibility of using solar collectors to heat the water in a previously unheated outdoor swimming pool. The solar system is used in conjunction with a pool blanket, to conserve heat when the pool is not in use. Energy losses through evaporation can be reduced by as much as 70% by a pool blanket. A total of 130 m{sup 2} of highly durable black synthetic collectors were installed on a support structure at a 30{degree} angle from the horizontal, oriented to the south. Circulation of pool water though the collectors, which is controlled by a differential thermostat, was done with the existing pool pump. Before installation the pool temperature averaged 16{degree}C; after installation it ranged from 20{degree} to 26{degree}C. It was hard to distinguish how much pool heating was due to the solar system and how much heat was retained by the pool blanket. However, the pool season was extended by five weeks and attendance tripled. 2 figs.

  5. Network Analysis for the Identification of Differentially Expressed Hub Genes Using Myogenin Knock-down Muscle Satellite Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeel Malik

    Full Text Available Muscle, a multinucleate syncytium formed by the fusion of mononuclear myoblasts, arises from quiescent progenitors (satellite cells via activation of muscle-specific transcription factors (MyoD, Myf5, myogenin: MYOG, and MRF4. Subsequent to a decline in Pax7, induction in the expression of MYOG is a hallmark of myoblasts that have entered the differentiation phase following cell cycle withdrawal. It is evident that MYOG function cannot be compensated by any other myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs. Despite a plethora of information available regarding MYOG, the mechanism by which MYOG regulates muscle cell differentiation has not yet been identified. Using an RNA-Seq approach, analysis of MYOG knock-down muscle satellite cells (MSCs have shown that genes associated with cell cycle and division, DNA replication, and phosphate metabolism are differentially expressed. By constructing an interaction network of differentially expressed genes (DEGs using GeneMANIA, cadherin-associated protein (CTNNA2 was identified as the main hub gene in the network with highest node degree. Four functional clusters (modules or communities were identified in the network and the functional enrichment analysis revealed that genes included in these clusters significantly contribute to skeletal muscle development. To confirm this finding, in vitro studies revealed increased expression of CTNNA2 in MSCs on day 12 compared to day 10. Expression of CTNNA2 was decreased in MYOG knock-down cells. However, knocking down CTNNA2, which leads to increased expression of extracellular matrix (ECM genes (type I collagen α1 and type I collagen α2 along with myostatin (MSTN, was not found significantly affecting the expression of MYOG in C2C12 cells. We therefore propose that MYOG exerts its regulatory effects by acting upstream of CTNNA2, which in turn regulates the differentiation of C2C12 cells via interaction with ECM genes. Taken together, these findings highlight a new

  6. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Radiofrequency Ablation With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Inoperable Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Systemic Review and Pooled Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, Nan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital and Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Shedden, Kerby [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Zheng, Xiangpeng [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Kong, Feng-Ming, E-mail: fskong@iupui.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University, Indianapolis (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: To performed a systematic review and pooled analysis to compare clinical outcomes of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of medically inoperable stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: A comprehensive literature search for published trials from 2001 to 2012 was undertaken. Pooled analyses were performed to obtain overall survival (OS) and local tumor control rates (LCRs) and adverse events. Regression analysis was conducted considering each study's proportions of stage IA and age. Results: Thirty-one studies on SBRT (2767 patients) and 13 studies on RFA (328 patients) were eligible. The LCR (95% confidence interval) at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years for RFA was 77% (70%-85%), 48% (37%-58%), 55% (47%-62%), and 42% (30%-54%) respectively, which was significantly lower than that for SBRT: 97% (96%-98%), 92% (91%-94%), 88% (86%-90%), and 86% (85%-88%) (P<.001). These differences remained significant after correcting for stage IA and age (P<.001 at 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years; P=.04 at 5 years). The effect of RFA was not different from that of SBRT on OS (P>.05). The most frequent complication of RFA was pneumothorax, occurring in 31% of patients, whereas that for SBRT (grade ≥3) was radiation pneumonitis, occurring in 2% of patients. Conclusions: Compared with RFA, SBRT seems to have a higher LCR but similar OS. More studies with larger sample sizes are warranted to validate such findings.

  7. Distributed Technologies in a Data Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, K.; Conover, H.; Graves, S.; He, Y.; Regner, K.; Smith, M.

    2004-12-01

    A Data Pool is an on-line repository providing interactive and programmatic access to data products through a variety of services. The University of Alabama in Huntsville has developed and deployed such a Data Pool in conjunction with the DISCOVER project, a collaboration with NASA and Remote Sensing Systems. DISCOVER provides long-term ocean and climate data from a variety of passive microwave satellite instruments, including such products as sea-surface temperature and wind, air temperature, atmospheric water vapor, cloud water and rain rate. The Data Pool provides multiple methods to access and visualize these products, including conventional HTTP and FTP access, as well as data services that provide for enhanced usability and interoperability, such as GridFTP, OPeNDAP, OpenGIS-compliant web mapping and coverage services, and custom subsetting and packaging services. This paper will focus on the distributed service technologies used in the Data Pool, which spans heterogeneous machines at multiple locations. For example, in order to provide seamless access to data at multiple sites, the Data Pool provides catalog services for all data products at the various data server locations. Under development is an automated metadata generation tool that crawls the online data repositories regularly to dynamically update the Data Pool catalog with information about newly generated data files. For efficient handling of data orders across distributed repositories, the Data Pool also implements distributed data processing services on the file servers where the data resides. Ontologies are planned to support automated service chaining for custom user requests. The UAH Data Pool is based on a configurable technology framework that integrates distributed data services with a web interface and a set of centralized database services for catalogs and order tracking. While this instantiation of the Data Pool was implemented to meet the needs of the DISCOVER project, the framework was

  8. Swimming-pool piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trioulaire, M.

    1959-01-01

    In France two swimming-pool piles, Melusine and Triton, have just been set in operation. The swimming-pool pile is the ideal research tool for neutron fluxes of the order of 10 13 . This type of pile can be of immediate interest to many research centres, but its cost must be reduced and a break with tradition should be observed in its design. It would be an advantage: - to bury the swimming-pool; - to reject the experimental channel; - to concentrate the cooling circuit in the swimming-pool; - to carry out all manipulations in the water; - to double the core. (author) [fr

  9. Associated Links Among Smoking, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, and Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Pooled Analysis in the International Lung Cancer Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruyi Huang

    2015-11-01

    Interpretation: This is the largest pooling study that provides improved understanding of smoking on SCLC, and further demonstrates a causal pathway through COPD that warrants further experimental study.

  10. Impaired macrophage and satellite cell infiltration occurs in a muscle-specific fashion following injury in diabetic skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P Krause

    Full Text Available Systemic elevations in PAI-1 suppress the fibrinolytic pathway leading to poor collagen remodelling and delayed regeneration of tibialis anterior (TA muscles in type-1 diabetic Akita mice. However, how impaired collagen remodelling was specifically attenuating regeneration in Akita mice remained unknown. Furthermore, given intrinsic differences between muscle groups, it was unclear if the reparative responses between muscle groups were different.Here we reveal that diabetic Akita muscles display differential regenerative responses with the TA and gastrocnemius muscles exhibiting reduced regenerating myofiber area compared to wild-type mice, while soleus muscles displayed no difference between animal groups following injury. Collagen levels in TA and gastrocnemius, but not soleus, were significantly increased post-injury versus controls. At 5 days post-injury, when degenerating/necrotic regions were present in both animal groups, Akita TA and gastrocnemius muscles displayed reduced macrophage and satellite cell infiltration and poor myofiber formation. By 10 days post-injury, necrotic regions were absent in wild-type TA but persisted in Akita TA. In contrast, Akita soleus exhibited no impairment in any of these measures compared to wild-type soleus. In an effort to define how impaired collagen turnover was attenuating regeneration in Akita TA, a PAI-1 inhibitor (PAI-039 was orally administered to Akita mice following cardiotoxin injury. PAI-039 administration promoted macrophage and satellite cell infiltration into necrotic areas of the TA and gastrocnemius. Importantly, soleus muscles exhibit the highest inducible expression of MMP-9 following injury, providing a mechanism for normative collagen degradation and injury recovery in this muscle despite systemically elevated PAI-1.Our findings suggest the mechanism underlying how impaired collagen remodelling in type-1 diabetes results in delayed regeneration is an impairment in macrophage

  11. Death rates in HIV-positive antiretroviral-naive patients with CD4 count greater than 350 cells per microL in Europe and North America: a pooled cohort observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodwick, Rebecca K; Sabin, Caroline A; Porter, Kholoud

    2010-01-01

    Whether people living with HIV who have not received antiretroviral therapy (ART) and have high CD4 cell counts have higher mortality than the general population is unknown. We aimed to examine this by analysis of pooled data from industrialised countries....

  12. Spent fuel storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Naoshi.

    1996-01-01

    Fences are disposed to a fuel exchange floor surrounding the upper surface of a fuel pool for preventing overflow of pool water. The fences comprise a plurality of flat boards arranged in parallel with each other in the longitudinal direction while being vertically inclined, and slits are disposed between the boards for looking down the pool. Further, the fences comprise wide boards and are constituted so as to be laid horizontally on the fuel exchange floor in a normal state and uprisen by means of the signals from an earthquake sensing device. Even if pool water is overflow from the fuel pool by the vibrations occurred upon earthquake and flown out to the floor of the fuel exchange floor, the overflow from the fuel exchange floor is prevented by the fences. An operator who monitors the fuel pool can observe the inside of the fuel pool through the slits formed to the fences during normal operation. The fences act as resistance against overflowing water upon occurrence of an earthquake thereby capable of reducing the overflowing amount of water due to the vibrations of pool water. The effect of preventing overflowing water can be enhanced. (N.H.)

  13. Collaborative Car Pooling System

    OpenAIRE

    João Ferreira; Paulo Trigo; Porfírio Filipe

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the architecture for a collaborative Car Pooling System based on a credits mechanism to motivate the cooperation among users. Users can spend the accumulated credits on parking facilities. For this, we propose a business model to support the collaboration between a car pooling system and parking facilities. The Portuguese Lisbon-s Metropolitan area is used as application scenario.

  14. ApoB-100 secretion by HepG2 cells is regulated by the rate of triglyceride biosynthesis but not by intracellular lipid pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoist, F; Grand-Perret, T

    1996-10-01

    Triglycerides (TGs), cholesteryl esters (CEs), cholesterol, and phosphatidylcholine have been independently proposed as playing regulatory roles in apoB-100 secretion; the results depended on the cellular model used. In this study, we reinvestigate the role of lipids in apoB-100 production in HepG2 cells and in particular, we clarify the respective roles of intracellular mass and the biosynthesis of lipids in the regulation of apoB-100 production. In a first set of experiments, the pool size of cholesterol, CEs, and TGs was modulated by a 3-day treatment with either lipid precursors or inhibitors of enzymes involved in lipid synthesis. We used simvastatin (a hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor), 58-035 (an acyl coenzyme A cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor), 5-tetradecyloxy-2-furancarboxylic acid (TOFA, an inhibitor of fatty acid synthesis), and oleic acid. The secretion rate of apoB-100 was not affected by the large modulation of lipid mass induced by these various pre-treatments. In a second set of experiments, the same lipid modulators were added during a 4-hour labeling period. Simvastatin and 58-035 inhibited cholesterol and CE synthesis without affecting apoB-100 secretion. By contrast, treatment of HepG2 cells with TOFA resulted in the inhibition of TG synthesis and apoB-100 secretion. This effect was highly specific for apoB-100 and was reversed by adding oleic acid, which stimulated both TG synthesis and apoB-100 secretion. Moreover, a combination of oleic acid and 58-035 inhibited CE biosynthesis and increased both TG synthesis and apoB-100 secretion. These results show that in HepG2 cells TG biosynthesis regulates apoB-100 secretion, whereas the rate of cholesterol or CE biosynthesis has no effect.

  15. Pooled human platelet lysate versus fetal bovine serum—investigating the proliferation rate, chromosome stability and angiogenic potential of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells intended for clinical use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trojahn Kølle, Stig-Frederik; Oliveri, Roberto S; Glovinski, Peter V

    2013-01-01

    Because of an increasing focus on the use of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in clinical trials, the culture conditions for these cells are being optimized. We compared the proliferation rates and chromosomal stability of ASCs that had been cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) ......) supplemented with either pooled human platelet lysate (pHPL) or clinical-grade fetal bovine serum (FBS) (DMEM(pHPL) versus DMEM(FBS))....

  16. 13 CFR 120.611 - Pools backing Pool Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pools backing Pool Certificates. 120.611 Section 120.611 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Secondary Market Certificates § 120.611 Pools backing Pool Certificates. (a) Pool characteristics. As set...

  17. Low-dose (10-Gy) total skin electron beam therapy for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: an open clinical study and pooled data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstrup, Maria R; Gniadecki, Robert; Iversen, Lars; Skov, Lone; Petersen, Peter Meidahl; Loft, Annika; Specht, Lena

    2015-05-01

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are dominated by mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS), and durable disease control is a therapeutic challenge. Standard total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is an effective skin-directed therapy, but the possibility of retreatments is limited to 2 to 3 courses in a lifetime due to skin toxicity. This study aimed to determine the clinical effect of low-dose TSEBT in patients with MF and SS. In an open clinical study, 21 patients with MF/SS stages IB to IV were treated with low-dose TSEBT over dose of 10 Gy in 10 fractions. Data from 10 of these patients were published previously but were included in the current pooled data analysis. Outcome measures were response rate, duration of response, and toxicity. The overall response rate was 95% with a complete cutaneous response or a very good partial response rate (dose (10-Gy) TSEBT offers a high overall response rate and is relatively safe. With this approach, reirradiation at times of relapse or progression is likely to be less toxic than standard dose TSEBT. It remains to be established whether adjuvant and combination treatments can prolong the beneficial effects of low-dose TSEBT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Solar photovoltaic research and development program of the Air Force Aero Propulsion Laboratory. [silicon solar cell applicable to satellite power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, J.

    1979-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas: laser weapon effects, solar silicon solar cell concepts, and high voltage hardened, high power system technology. Emphasis is placed on solar cells with increased energy conversion efficiency and radiation resistance characteristics for application to satellite power systems.

  19. Dual oxidase maturation factor 1 (DUOXA1) overexpression increases reactive oxygen species production and inhibits murine muscle satellite cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandiford, Shelley D E; Kennedy, Karen A M; Xie, Xiaojun; Pickering, J Geoffrey; Li, Shawn S C

    2014-01-11

    Dual oxidase maturation factor 1 (DUOXA1) has been associated with the maturation of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing enzyme, dual oxidase 1 (DUOX1) in the adult thyroid. However, ROS have also been implicated in the development of several tissues. We found that activated muscle satellite cells and primary myoblasts isolated from mice express robust levels of DUOXA1 and that its levels are altered as cells differentiate. To determine whether DUOXA1 levels affect muscle differentiation, we used an adenoviral construct (pCMV5-DUOXA1-GFP) to drive constitutive overexpression of this protein in primary myoblasts. High levels of DUOXA1 throughout myogenesis resulted in enhanced H2O2 production, fusion defects, reduced expression of early (myogenin) and late (myosin heavy chain) markers of differentiation, and elevated levels of apoptosis compared to control cells infected with an empty adenoviral vector (pCMV5-GFP). DUOXA1 knockdown (using a DUOXA1 shRNA construct) resulted in enhanced differentiation compared to cells subjected to a control shRNA, and subjecting DUOXA1 overexpressing cells to siRNAs targeting DUOX1 or apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) rescued the phenotype. This study represents the first to demonstrate the importance of DUOXA1 in skeletal muscle myoblasts and that DUOXA1 overexpression in muscle stem cells induces apoptosis and inhibits differentiation through DUOX1 and ASK1.

  20. PDA: Pooled DNA analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chin-Yu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping using abundant single nucleotide polymorphisms is a powerful tool for identifying disease susceptibility genes for complex traits and exploring possible genetic diversity. Genotyping large numbers of SNPs individually is performed routinely but is cost prohibitive for large-scale genetic studies. DNA pooling is a reliable and cost-saving alternative genotyping method. However, no software has been developed for complete pooled-DNA analyses, including data standardization, allele frequency estimation, and single/multipoint DNA pooling association tests. This motivated the development of the software, 'PDA' (Pooled DNA Analyzer, to analyze pooled DNA data. Results We develop the software, PDA, for the analysis of pooled-DNA data. PDA is originally implemented with the MATLAB® language, but it can also be executed on a Windows system without installing the MATLAB®. PDA provides estimates of the coefficient of preferential amplification and allele frequency. PDA considers an extended single-point association test, which can compare allele frequencies between two DNA pools constructed under different experimental conditions. Moreover, PDA also provides novel chromosome-wide multipoint association tests based on p-value combinations and a sliding-window concept. This new multipoint testing procedure overcomes a computational bottleneck of conventional haplotype-oriented multipoint methods in DNA pooling analyses and can handle data sets having a large pool size and/or large numbers of polymorphic markers. All of the PDA functions are illustrated in the four bona fide examples. Conclusion PDA is simple to operate and does not require that users have a strong statistical background. The software is available at http://www.ibms.sinica.edu.tw/%7Ecsjfann/first%20flow/pda.htm.

  1. Cellular responses to Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1: use of relatively conserved synthetic peptide pools to determine CD4 T cell responses in malaria-exposed individuals in Benin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanni Ambaliou

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1, a variant antigen of the malaria parasite, is potentially a target for the immune response. It would be important to determine whether there are CD4 T cells that recognise conserved regions. However, within the relatively conserved region, there is variation. It is not possible to test T cell responses from small field samples with all possible peptides. Methods We have aligned sequences that are relatively conserved between several PfEMP1 molecules, and chosen a representative sequence similar to most of the PfEMP1 variants. Using these peptides as pools representing CIDRα, CIDRβ and DBLβ-δ domains, DBLα domain, and EXON 2 domain of PfEMP1, we measured the CD4 T cell responses of malaria-exposed donors from Benin, West Africa by a FACS based assay. Results All the three peptide pools elicited a CD4 T cell response in a proportion of malaria-exposed and non-exposed donors. CD4 T cell proliferation occurs at a relatively higher magnitude to peptide pools from the DBLα and EXON 2 in the malaria-exposed donors living in Benin than in the UK malaria-unexposed donors. Conclusions These findings suggest that an immunological recall response to conserved peptides of a variant antigen can be measured. Further testing of individual peptides in a positive pool will allow us to determine those conserved sequences recognised by many individuals. These types of assays may provide information on conserved peptides of PfEMP1 which could be useful for stimulating T cells to provide help to P. falciparum specific B cells.

  2. Seminal Fluid Regulates Accumulation of FOXP3(+) Regulatory T Cells in the Preimplantation Mouse Uterus Through Expanding the FOXP3(+) Cell Pool and CCL19-Mediated Recruitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerin, Leigh R.; Moldenhauer, Lachlan M.; Prins, Jelmer R.; Bromfield, John J.; Hayball, John D.; Robertson, Sarah A.

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells facilitate maternal immune tolerance of the semiallogeneic conceptus in early pregnancy, but the origin and regulation of these cells at embryo implantation is unclear. During the preimplantation period, factors in the seminal fluid delivered at coitus cause expansion of a

  3. Msx1-modulated muscle satellite cells retain a primitive state and exhibit an enhanced capacity for osteogenic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Ke; Liu, Wen-ying; Zeng, Qiang; Hou, Fang; Xu, Jian-zhong; Yang, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Multipotent muscle satellite cells (MuSCs) have been identified as potential seed cells for bone tissue engineering. However, MuSCs exhibit a rapid loss of stemness after in vitro culturing, thereby compromising their therapeutic efficiency. Muscle segment homeobox gene 1 (msx1) has been found to induce the dedifferentiation of committed progenitor cells, as well as terminally differentiated myotubes. In this study, a Tet-off retroviral gene delivery system was used to modulate msx1 expression. After ten passages, MuSCs that did not express msx-1 (e.g., the non-msx1 group) were compared with MuSCs with induced msx-1 expression (e.g., the msx1 group). The latter group exhibited a more juvenile morphology, it contained a significantly lower percentage of senescent cells characterized by positive β-galactosidase staining, and it exhibited increased proliferation and a higher proliferation index. Immunocytochemical stainings further detected a more primitive gene expression profile for the msx1 group, while osteogenic differentiation assays and ectopic bone formation assays demonstrated an improved capacity for the msx1 group to undergo osteogenic differentiation. These results suggest that transient expression of msx1 in MuSCs can retain a primitive state, thereby enhancing their capacity for osteogenic differentiation and restoring the potential for MuSCs to serve as seed cells for bone tissue engineering.

  4. Msx1-modulated muscle satellite cells retain a primitive state and exhibit an enhanced capacity for osteogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ke; Liu, Wen-Ying; Zeng, Qiang; Hou, Fang; Xu, Jian-Zhong; Yang, Zhong

    2017-03-01

    Multipotent muscle satellite cells (MuSCs) have been identified as potential seed cells for bone tissue engineering. However, MuSCs exhibit a rapid loss of stemness after in vitro culturing, thereby compromising their therapeutic efficiency. Muscle segment homeobox gene 1 (msx1) has been found to induce the dedifferentiation of committed progenitor cells, as well as terminally differentiated myotubes. In this study, a Tet-off retroviral gene delivery system was used to modulate msx1 expression. After ten passages, MuSCs that did not express msx-1 (e.g., the non-msx1 group) were compared with MuSCs with induced msx-1 expression (e.g., the msx1 group). The latter group exhibited a more juvenile morphology, it contained a significantly lower percentage of senescent cells characterized by positive β-galactosidase staining, and it exhibited increased proliferation and a higher proliferation index. Immunocytochemical stainings further detected a more primitive gene expression profile for the msx1 group, while osteogenic differentiation assays and ectopic bone formation assays demonstrated an improved capacity for the msx1 group to undergo osteogenic differentiation. These results suggest that transient expression of msx1 in MuSCs can retain a primitive state, thereby enhancing their capacity for osteogenic differentiation and restoring the potential for MuSCs to serve as seed cells for bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Msx1-modulated muscle satellite cells retain a primitive state and exhibit an enhanced capacity for osteogenic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Ke, E-mail: dingke@med.uestc.edu.cn [Department of Pediatric Surgery, School of medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610072 (China); Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People' s Hospital, Chengdu 610072 (China); Department of Orthopaedics, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Liu, Wen-ying; Zeng, Qiang; Hou, Fang [Department of Pediatric Surgery, School of medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610072 (China); Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People' s Hospital, Chengdu 610072 (China); Xu, Jian-zhong, E-mail: xjzspine@163.com [Department of Orthopaedics, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Yang, Zhong, E-mail: zyang1999@163.com [Department of Clinical Hematology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2017-03-01

    Multipotent muscle satellite cells (MuSCs) have been identified as potential seed cells for bone tissue engineering. However, MuSCs exhibit a rapid loss of stemness after in vitro culturing, thereby compromising their therapeutic efficiency. Muscle segment homeobox gene 1 (msx1) has been found to induce the dedifferentiation of committed progenitor cells, as well as terminally differentiated myotubes. In this study, a Tet-off retroviral gene delivery system was used to modulate msx1 expression. After ten passages, MuSCs that did not express msx-1 (e.g., the non-msx1 group) were compared with MuSCs with induced msx-1 expression (e.g., the msx1 group). The latter group exhibited a more juvenile morphology, it contained a significantly lower percentage of senescent cells characterized by positive β-galactosidase staining, and it exhibited increased proliferation and a higher proliferation index. Immunocytochemical stainings further detected a more primitive gene expression profile for the msx1 group, while osteogenic differentiation assays and ectopic bone formation assays demonstrated an improved capacity for the msx1 group to undergo osteogenic differentiation. These results suggest that transient expression of msx1 in MuSCs can retain a primitive state, thereby enhancing their capacity for osteogenic differentiation and restoring the potential for MuSCs to serve as seed cells for bone tissue engineering.

  6. Swimming Pool Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Safety & Prevention Immunizations All Around At Home At Play ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Swimming Pool Safety Page Content ​What is the best way to ...

  7. Vitamin D Pooling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers brought together investigators from 10 cohorts to conduct a large prospective epidemiologic study of the association between vitamin D status and seven rarer cancers.

  8. Swimming pool special; Zwembadspecial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    This issue includes a few articles and messages on the use of heat pump systems in swimming pools. [Dutch] Dit nummer bevat onder meer een paar artikelen over het gebruik van warmtepompsystemen in zwembaden.

  9. Activation of satellite cells and the regeneration of human skeletal muscle are expedited by ingestion of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail L; Rasmussen, Lotte Klejs; Kadi, Fawzi

    2016-01-01

    muscles of one leg. Muscle biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis muscles before and after stimulation (2.5 h and 2, 7, and 30 d) and were assessed for satellite cells and regeneration by immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR, and we also measured telomere length. After injury, and compared...... activation of satellite cells and muscle remodeling during large-scale regeneration of injured human skeletal muscle.-Mackey, A. L., Rasmussen, L. K., Kadi, F., Schjerling, P., Helmark, I. C., Ponsot, E., Aagaard, P., Durigan, J. L. Q., Kjaer, M. Activation of satellite cells and the regeneration of human......With this study we investigated the role of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in human skeletal muscle regeneration. Young men ingested NSAID [1200 mg/d ibuprofen (IBU)] or placebo (PLA) daily for 2 wk before and 4 wk after an electrical stimulation-induced injury to the leg extensor...

  10. Central memory CD4 T cells are associated with incomplete restoration of the CD4 T cell pool after treatment-induced long-term undetectable HIV viraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallón, Norma; Sempere-Ortells, José M; Soriano, Vincent; Benito, José M

    2013-11-01

    It is unclear to what extent T cell reconstitution may be possible in HIV-1-infected individuals on continuous successful highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Herein, we analysed distinct phenotypic markers of immune recovery in patients with undetectable viraemia for 8 years, taking as reference untreated patients and healthy controls. Seventy-two subjects were examined: 28 HIV-1+ patients on successful long-term HAART, 24 HIV-1+ untreated viraemic patients and 20 age-matched healthy controls. Analysis of naive and memory CD4 and CD8 T cells was combined with measurements of activation status (expression of CD38) and with thymic function (expression of CD31). Statistical significance was determined by non-parametric tests. After long-term HAART, the majority of parameters were normalized compared with age-matched control values, including T cell activation and thymic function. However, absolute counts of naive and central memory CD4 T cells remained below normal levels. The only parameters significantly associated with CD4 counts at the end of follow-up were the pre-HAART CD4 count ( β ± SD = 0.54 ± 0.16, P = 0.003) and the level of CD4 central memory cells at the end of follow-up (β ± SD = 1.18 ± 0.23, P 350 cells/mm(3) reached a complete normalization of CD4 counts. Even after long-term successful HAART, complete CD4 restoration may be attainable only in patients starting therapy with moderately high CD4 counts, prompting early initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Incomplete CD4 restoration may be associated with a defective restoration of central memory CD4 T cells, a cell subset with a pivotal role in T cell homeostasis.

  11. Perineuronal satellite neuroglia in the telencephalon of New Caledonian crows and other Passeriformes: evidence of satellite glial cells in the central nervous system of healthy birds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe S. Medina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Glia have been implicated in a variety of functions in the central nervous system, including the control of the neuronal extracellular space, synaptic plasticity and transmission, development and adult neurogenesis. Perineuronal glia forming groups around neurons are associated with both normal and pathological nervous tissue. Recent studies have linked reduction in the number of perineuronal oligodendrocytes in the prefrontal cortex with human schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. Therefore, perineuronal glia may play a decisive role in homeostasis and normal activity of the human nervous system.Here we report on the discovery of novel cell clusters in the telencephala of five healthy Passeriforme, one Psittaciform and one Charadriiforme bird species, which we refer to as Perineuronal Glial Clusters (PGCs. The aim of this study is to describe the structure and distribution of the PGCs in a number of avian species.PGCs were identified with the use of standard histological procedures. Heterochromatin masses visible inside the nuclei of these satellite glia suggest that they may correspond to oligodendrocytes. PGCs were found in the brains of nine New Caledonian crows, two Japanese jungle crows, two Australian magpies, two Indian mynah, three zebra finches (all Passeriformes, one Southern lapwing (Charadriiformes and one monk parakeet (Psittaciformes. Microscopic survey of the brain tissue suggests that the largest PGCs are located in the hyperpallium densocellulare and mesopallium. No clusters were found in brain sections from one Gruiform (purple swamphen, one Strigiform (barn owl, one Trochiliform (green-backed firecrown, one Falconiform (chimango caracara, one Columbiform (pigeon and one Galliform (chick.Our observations suggest that PGCs in Aves are brain region- and taxon-specific and that the presence of perineuronal glia in healthy human brains and the similar PGCs in avian gray matter is the result of convergent evolution. The

  12. Proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) suppresses satellite cell self-renewal through inversely modulating Notch and NF-κB signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Yuji; Mishra, Vivek; Hindi, Sajedah M; Kuang, Shihuan; Kumar, Ashok

    2013-12-06

    Satellite cell self-renewal is an essential process to maintaining the robustness of skeletal muscle regenerative capacity. However, extrinsic factors that regulate self-renewal of satellite cells are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that TWEAK cytokine reduces the proportion of Pax7(+)/MyoD(-) cells (an index of self-renewal) on myofiber explants and represses multiple components of Notch signaling in satellite cell cultures. The number of Pax7(+) cells is significantly increased in skeletal muscle of TWEAK knock-out (KO) mice compared with wild-type in response to injury. Furthermore, Notch signaling is significantly elevated in cultured satellite cells and in regenerating myofibers of TWEAK-KO mice. Forced activation of Notch signaling through overexpression of the Notch1 intracellular domain (N1ICD) rescued the TWEAK-mediated inhibition of satellite cell self-renewal. TWEAK also activates the NF-κB transcription factor in satellite cells and inhibition of NF-κB significantly improved the number of Pax7(+) cells in TWEAK-treated cultures. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that a reciprocal interaction between NF-κB and Notch signaling governs the inhibitory effect of TWEAK on satellite cell self-renewal. Collectively, our study demonstrates that TWEAK suppresses satellite cell self-renewal through activating NF-κB and repressing Notch signaling.

  13. Neuron-Derived ADAM10 Production Stimulates Peripheral Nerve Injury-Induced Neuropathic Pain by Cleavage of E-Cadherin in Satellite Glial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Ouyang, Qing; Chen, Cheng-Wen; Chen, Qian-Bo; Li, Xiang-Nan; Xiang, Zheng-Hua; Yuan, Hong-Bin

    2017-09-01

    Increasing evidence suggests the potential involvement of metalloproteinase family proteins in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain, although the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Using the spinal nerve ligation model, we investigated whether ADAM10 proteins participate in pain regulation. By implementing invitro methods, we produced a purified culture of satellite glial cells to study the underlying mechanisms of ADAM10 in regulating neuropathic pain. Results showed that the ADAM10 protein was expressed in calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-containing neurons of the dorsal root ganglia, and expression was upregulated following spinal nerve ligation surgery invivo. Intrathecal administration of GI254023X, an ADAM10 selective inhibitor, to the rats one to three days after spinal nerve ligation surgery attenuated the spinal nerve ligation-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Intrathecal injection of ADAM10 recombinant protein simulated pain behavior in normal rats to a similar extent as those treated by spinal nerve ligation surgery. These results raised a question about the relative contribution of ADAM10 in pain regulation. Further results showed that ADAM10 might act by cleaving E-cadherin, which is mainly expressed in satellite glial cells. GI254023X reversed spinal nerve ligation-induced downregulation of E-cadherin and activation of cyclooxygenase 2 after spinal nerve ligation. β-catenin, which creates a complex with E-cadherin in the membranes of satellite glial cells, was also downregulated by spinal nerve ligation surgery in satellite glial cells. Finally, knockdown expression of β-catenin by lentiviral infection in purified satellite glial cells increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2. Our findings indicate that neuron-derived ADAM10 production stimulates peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain by cleaving E-cadherin in satellite glial cells. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine

  14. Low-Dose (10-Gy) Total Skin Electron Beam Therapy for Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma: An Open Clinical Study and Pooled Data Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamstrup, Maria R., E-mail: mkam0004@bbh.regionh.dk [Department of Dermatology, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Gniadecki, Robert [Department of Dermatology, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Iversen, Lars [Department of Dermatology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Skov, Lone [Department of Dermatology, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Petersen, Peter Meidahl [Department of Oncology and Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Loft, Annika [Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Specht, Lena [Department of Oncology and Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are dominated by mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS), and durable disease control is a therapeutic challenge. Standard total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is an effective skin-directed therapy, but the possibility of retreatments is limited to 2 to 3 courses in a lifetime due to skin toxicity. This study aimed to determine the clinical effect of low-dose TSEBT in patients with MF and SS. Methods and Materials: In an open clinical study, 21 patients with MF/SS stages IB to IV were treated with low-dose TSEBT over <2.5 weeks, receiving a total dose of 10 Gy in 10 fractions. Data from 10 of these patients were published previously but were included in the current pooled data analysis. Outcome measures were response rate, duration of response, and toxicity. Results: The overall response rate was 95% with a complete cutaneous response or a very good partial response rate (<1% skin involvement with patches or plaques) documented in 57% of the patients. Median duration of overall cutaneous response was 174 days (5.8 months; range: 60-675 days). TSEBT-related acute adverse events (grade 1 or 2) were observed in 60% of patients. Conclusions: Low-dose (10-Gy) TSEBT offers a high overall response rate and is relatively safe. With this approach, reirradiation at times of relapse or progression is likely to be less toxic than standard dose TSEBT. It remains to be established whether adjuvant and combination treatments can prolong the beneficial effects of low-dose TSEBT.

  15. A new immuno- dystrophin-deficient model, the NSG-mdx4Cv mouse, provides evidence for functional improvement following allogeneic satellite cell transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpke, Robert W.; Darabi, Radbod; Mader, Tara L.; Zhang, Yu; Toyama, Akira; Lonetree, Cara-lin; Nash, Nardina; Lowe, Dawn A.; Perlingeiro, Rita C.R.; Kyba, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Transplantation of a myogenic cell population into an immunodeficient recipient is an excellent way of assessing the in vivo muscle-generating capacity of that cell population. To facilitate both allogeneic and xenogeneic transplantations of muscle-forming cells in mice we have developed a novel immunodeficient muscular dystrophy model, the NSG-mdx4Cv mouse. The IL2Rg mutation, which is linked to the Dmd gene on the X chromosome, simultaneously depletes NK cells and suppresses thymic lymphomas, issues that limit the utility of the SCID/mdx model. The NSG-mdx4Cv mouse presents a muscular dystrophy of similar severity to the conventional mdx mouse. We show that this animal supports robust engraftment of both pig and dog muscle mononuclear cells. The question of whether satellite cells prospectively isolated by flow cytometry can confer a functional benefit upon transplantation has been controversial. Using allogeneic Pax7-ZsGreen donors and NSG-mdx4Cv recipients, we demonstrate definitively that as few as 900 FACS-isolated satellite cells can provide functional regeneration in vivo, in the form of an increased mean maximal force-generation capacity in cell-transplanted muscles, compared to a sham-injected control group. These studies highlight the potency of satellite cells to improve muscle function, and the utility of the NSG-mdx4Cv model for studies on muscle regeneration and Duchenne muscular dystrophy therapy. PMID:23606600

  16. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Fuel Cell Reformer with Alcohols Such as Methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  17. Skeletal Muscle-derived Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Muscular Dystrophy Therapy by Bone Marrow Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Asakura, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    For postnatal growth and regeneration of skeletal muscle, satellite cells, a self-renewing pool of muscle stem cells, give rise to daughter myogenic precursor cells that contribute to the formation of new muscle fibers. In addition to this key myogenic cell class, adult skeletal muscle also contains hematopoietic stem cell and progenitor cell populations which can be purified as a side population (SP) fraction or as a hematopoietic marker CD45-positive cell population. These muscle-derived he...

  18. Changes in satellite cells in human skeletal muscle after a single bout of high intensity exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crameri, Regina M; Langberg, Henning; Magnusson, Peter

    2004-01-01

    increase in mononuclear cells staining for the neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) and fetal antigen 1 (FA1) were observed within the exercised human vastus lateralis muscle on days 4 and 8 post exercise. In addition, a significant increase in the concentration of the FA1 protein was determined...

  19. Pool water cleaning facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Asano, Takashi

    1998-05-29

    Only one system comprising a suppression poor water cleaning system (SPCU) and a filtration desalting tower (F/D) is connected for a plurality of nuclear power plants. Pipelines/valves for connecting the one system of the SPCU pump, the F/D and the plurality of nuclear power plants are disposed, and the system is used in common with the plurality of nuclear power plants. Pipelines/valves for connecting a pipeline for passing SP water to the commonly used SPCU pump and a skimmer surge tank are disposed, and fuel pool water is cooled and cleaned by the commonly used SPCU pump and the commonly used F/D. The number of SPCU pumps and the F/D facilities can be reduced, and a fuel pool water cooling operation mode and a fuel pool water cleaning operation mode which were conducted by an FPC pump so far are conducted by the SPCU pump. (N.H.)

  20. The skeletal muscle satellite cell response to a single bout of resistance-type exercise is delayed with aging in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, T.; Verdijk, L.B.; Smeets, J.S.J.; McKay, B.R.; Senden, J.M.G.; Hartgens, F.; Parise, G.; Greenhaff, P.; van Loon, L.J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs) have been shown to be instrumental in the muscle adaptive response to exercise. The present study determines age-related differences in SC content and activation status following a single bout of exercise. Ten young (22 +/- 1 years) and 10 elderly (73 +/- 1

  1. Spermidine-Activated Satellite Cells Are Associated with Hypoacetylation in ACVR2B and Smad3 Binding to Myogenic Genes in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luchu; Gong, Huiying; Sun, Qinwei; Zhao, Ruqian; Jia, Yimin

    2018-01-17

    Spermidine is an acetyltransferase inhibitor and a specific inducer of autophagy. Recently, spermidine is identified as a potential therapeutic agent for age-related muscle atrophy and inherited myopathies. However, the effect of spermidine on nonpathological skeletal muscle remains unclear. In this study, long-term spermidine administration in mice lowered the mean cross-sectional area of the gastrocnemius muscle and reduced the expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms in the muscle, which was associated with ubiquitination. Moreover, spermidine supplementation induced autophagy in satellite cells and enhanced satellite cell proliferation. ChIP assay revealed that spermidine repressed H3K56ac in the promoter of ACVR2B and lowered the binding affinity of Smad3 to the promoters of Myf5 and MyoD. Altogether, our results indicate that long-term administration of spermidine can activate satellite cells, as well as enhance autophagy, eventually resulting in muscle atrophy. In addition, H3K56ac and Smad3 emerged as key determinants of satellite cell activation.

  2. Evaluation and Testing of the Naval Postgraduate School Satellite (NPSAT1) Solar Cell Measurement System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lo, Benson

    2004-01-01

    .... It will trace the cells' current-voltage (I-V) curves while in orbit. The SMS consists of a radiation-hardened microcontroller that uses a radiation-hardened FPGA to monitor a collection of sensors...

  3. Community effect triggers terminal differentiation of myogenic cells derived from muscle satellite cells by quenching Smad signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagisawa, Michiko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 35 Gengo, Morioka, Oobu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan); Aging Research, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8550 (Japan); Mukai, Atsushi; Shiomi, Kosuke [Department of Regenerative Medicine, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 35 Gengo, Morioka, Oobu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan); Song, Si-Yong [Institute of Neuroscience, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences at Kagawa, Tokushima Bunri University, 1314-1 Shido, Sanuki-shi, Kagawa 769-2193 (Japan); Hashimoto, Naohiro, E-mail: nao@ncgg.go.jp [Department of Regenerative Medicine, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 35 Gengo, Morioka, Oobu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    A high concentration of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) stimulates myogenic progenitor cells to undergo heterotopic osteogenic differentiation. However, the physiological role of the Smad signaling pathway during terminal muscle differentiation has not been resolved. We report here that Smad1/5/8 was phosphorylated and activated in undifferentiated growing mouse myogenic progenitor Ric10 cells without exposure to any exogenous BMPs. The amount of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 was severely reduced during precocious myogenic differentiation under the high cell density culture condition even in growth medium supplemented with a high concentration of serum. Inhibition of the Smad signaling pathway by dorsomorphin, an inhibitor of Smad activation, or noggin, a specific antagonist of BMP, induced precocious terminal differentiation of myogenic progenitor cells in a cell density-dependent fashion even in growth medium. In addition, Smad1/5/8 was transiently activated in proliferating myogenic progenitor cells during muscle regeneration in rats. The present results indicate that the Smad signaling pathway is involved in a critical switch between growth and differentiation of myogenic progenitor cells both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, precocious cell density-dependent myogenic differentiation suggests that a community effect triggers the terminal muscle differentiation of myogenic cells by quenching the Smad signaling.

  4. Community effect triggers terminal differentiation of myogenic cells derived from muscle satellite cells by quenching Smad signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Michiko; Mukai, Atsushi; Shiomi, Kosuke; Song, Si-Yong; Hashimoto, Naohiro

    2011-01-01

    A high concentration of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) stimulates myogenic progenitor cells to undergo heterotopic osteogenic differentiation. However, the physiological role of the Smad signaling pathway during terminal muscle differentiation has not been resolved. We report here that Smad1/5/8 was phosphorylated and activated in undifferentiated growing mouse myogenic progenitor Ric10 cells without exposure to any exogenous BMPs. The amount of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 was severely reduced during precocious myogenic differentiation under the high cell density culture condition even in growth medium supplemented with a high concentration of serum. Inhibition of the Smad signaling pathway by dorsomorphin, an inhibitor of Smad activation, or noggin, a specific antagonist of BMP, induced precocious terminal differentiation of myogenic progenitor cells in a cell density-dependent fashion even in growth medium. In addition, Smad1/5/8 was transiently activated in proliferating myogenic progenitor cells during muscle regeneration in rats. The present results indicate that the Smad signaling pathway is involved in a critical switch between growth and differentiation of myogenic progenitor cells both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, precocious cell density-dependent myogenic differentiation suggests that a community effect triggers the terminal muscle differentiation of myogenic cells by quenching the Smad signaling.

  5. Liquid sodium pool fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casselman, C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  6. Income pooling within families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Uldall-Poulsen, Hans

    This paper analyses the phenomenon of income-pooling by applying the Danish household expenditure survey, merged with authoritative register information. Responses to additional questions on income sharing among 1696 couples also allows us to analyses whether the intra-household distribution...

  7. Liquid sodium pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  8. DNA Methylation at a Bovine Alpha Satellite I Repeat CpG Site during Development following Fertilization and Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Couldrey, Christine; Wells, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Incomplete epigenetic reprogramming is postulated to contribute to the low developmental success following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Here, we describe the epigenetic reprogramming of DNA methylation at an alpha satellite I CpG site (αsatI-5) during development of cattle generated either by artificial insemination (AI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) and SCNT. Quantitative methylation analysis identified that SCNT donor cells were highly methylated at αsatI-5 and resulting SCNT bla...

  9. Sphingosine-1-phosphate enhances satellite cell activation in dystrophic muscles through a S1PR2/STAT3 signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C Loh

    Full Text Available Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P activates a widely expressed family of G protein-coupled receptors, serves as a muscle trophic factor and activates muscle stem cells called satellite cells (SCs through unknown mechanisms. Here we show that muscle injury induces dynamic changes in S1P signaling and metabolism in vivo. These changes include early and profound induction of the gene encoding the S1P biosynthetic enzyme SphK1, followed by induction of the catabolic enzyme sphingosine phosphate lyase (SPL 3 days later. These changes correlate with a transient increase in circulating S1P levels after muscle injury. We show a specific requirement for SphK1 to support efficient muscle regeneration and SC proliferation and differentiation. Mdx mice, which serve as a model for muscular dystrophy (MD, were found to be S1P-deficient and exhibited muscle SPL upregulation, suggesting that S1P catabolism is enhanced in dystrophic muscle. Pharmacological SPL inhibition increased muscle S1P levels, improved mdx muscle regeneration and enhanced SC proliferation via S1P receptor 2 (S1PR2-dependent inhibition of Rac1, thereby activating Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3, a central player in inflammatory signaling. STAT3 activation resulted in p21 and p27 downregulation in a S1PR2-dependent fashion in myoblasts. Our findings suggest that S1P promotes SC progression through the cell cycle by repression of cell cycle inhibitors via S1PR2/STAT3-dependent signaling and that SPL inhibition may provide a therapeutic strategy for MD.

  10. Temporal changes in glycogenolytic enzyme mRNAs during myogenesis of primary porcine satellite cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henckel, Poul; Theil, Peter Kappel; Sørensen, Inge Lise

    2007-01-01

    , phosphorylase kinase, phosphorylase and glycogen debranching enzyme, and no alterations of the transporter molecule GLUT4, clearly indicate that glycogenolytic enzymes of potential importance to meat quality development are regulated at the gene level during myogenesis, and are heavily involved in muscle cell...... and muscle fibre development. The genes, however, are not influenced by insulin, and the lack of response to insulin of expression of gene-encoding enzymes involved in the formation and degradation of glycogen may question the applicability of porcine cell culture systems, like the one applied, as a model...

  11. Saturn satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruskol, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of the Saturn satellites are discussed. The satellites close to Saturn - Janus, Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione and Rhea - rotate along the circular orbits. High reflectivity is attributed to them, and the density of the satellites is 1 g/cm 3 . Titan is one of the biggest Saturn satellites. Titan has atmosphere many times more powerful than that of Mars. The Titan atmosphere is a peculiar medium with a unique methane and hydrogen distribution in the whole Solar system. The external satellites - Hyperion, Japetus and Phoebe - are poorly investigated. Neither satellite substance density, nor their composition are known. The experimental data on the Saturn rings obtained on the ''Pioneer-11'' and ''Voyager-1'' satellites are presented [ru

  12. Efficient gene knockin in axolotl and its use to test the role of satellite cells in limb regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Ji-Feng; Schuez, Maritta; Knapp, Dunja; Taniguchi, Yuka; Drechsel, David N; Tanaka, Elly M

    2017-11-21

    Salamanders exhibit extensive regenerative capacities and serve as a unique model in regeneration research. However, due to the lack of targeted gene knockin approaches, it has been difficult to label and manipulate some of the cell populations that are crucial for understanding the mechanisms underlying regeneration. Here we have established highly efficient gene knockin approaches in the axolotl ( Ambystoma mexicanum ) based on the CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Using a homology-independent method, we successfully inserted both the Cherry reporter gene and a larger membrane-tagged Cherry-ER T2 -Cre-ER T2 (∼5-kb) cassette into axolotl Sox2 and Pax7 genomic loci. Depending on the size of the DNA fragments for integration, 5-15% of the F0 transgenic axolotl are positive for the transgene. Using these techniques, we have labeled and traced the PAX7-positive satellite cells as a major source contributing to myogenesis during axolotl limb regeneration. Our work brings a key genetic tool to molecular and cellular studies of axolotl regeneration.

  13. On some aspects of Indian Ocean warm pool

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saji, P.K.; Balchand, A.N.; RameshKumar, M.R.

    Annual and interannual variation of Indian Ocean Warm Pool (IOWP) was studied using satellite and in situ ocean temperature data IOWP surface area undergoes a strong annual cycle attaining a maximum of 24x106km2 during April...

  14. The Ror1 receptor tyrosine kinase plays a critical role in regulating satellite cell proliferation during regeneration of injured muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamizaki, Koki; Doi, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Makoto; Saji, Takeshi; Kanagawa, Motoi; Toda, Tatsushi; Fukada, So-Ichiro; Ho, Hsin-Yi Henry; Greenberg, Michael Eldon; Endo, Mitsuharu; Minami, Yasuhiro

    2017-09-22

    The Ror family receptor tyrosine kinases, Ror1 and Ror2, play important roles in regulating developmental morphogenesis and tissue- and organogenesis, but their roles in tissue regeneration in adult animals remain largely unknown. In this study, we examined the expression and function of Ror1 and Ror2 during skeletal muscle regeneration. Using an in vivo skeletal muscle injury model, we show that expression of Ror1 and Ror2 in skeletal muscles is induced transiently by the inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-1β, after injury and that inhibition of TNF-α and IL-1β by neutralizing antibodies suppresses expression of Ror1 and Ror2 in injured muscles. Importantly, expression of Ror1 , but not Ror2 , was induced primarily in Pax7-positive satellite cells (SCs) after muscle injury, and administration of neutralizing antibodies decreased the proportion of Pax7-positive proliferative SCs after muscle injury. We also found that stimulation of a mouse myogenic cell line, C2C12 cells, with TNF-α or IL-1β induced expression of Ror1 via NF-κB activation and that suppressed expression of Ror1 inhibited their proliferative responses in SCs. Intriguingly, SC-specific depletion of Ror1 decreased the number of Pax7-positive SCs after muscle injury. Collectively, these findings indicate for the first time that Ror1 has a critical role in regulating SC proliferation during skeletal muscle regeneration. We conclude that Ror1 might be a suitable target in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to manage muscular disorders. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Pool gateway seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starr, J.A.; Steinert, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    A device for sealing a gateway between interconnectable pools in a nuclear facility comprising a frame supporting a liquid impermeable sheet positioned in a u-shaped gateway between the pools. An inflatable tube carried in a channel in the periphery of the frame and adjoining the gateway provides a seal therebetween when inflated. A restraining arrangement on the bottom edge of the frame is releasably engagable with an adjacent portion of the gateway to restrict the movement of the frame in the u-shaped gateway upon inflation of the tube, thereby enhancing the seal. The impermeable sheet is formed of an elastomer and thus is conformable to a liquid permeable supportive wall upon application of liquid pressure to the side of the sheet opposite the wall

  16. Backfitting swimming pool reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roebert, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Calculations based on measurements in a critical assembly, and experiments to disclose fuel element surface temperatures in case of accidents like stopping of primary coolant flow during full power operation, have shown that the power of the swimming pool type research reactor FRG-2 (15 MW, operating since 1967) might be raised to 21 MW within the present rules of science and technology, without major alterations of the pool buildings and the cooling systems. A backfitting program is carried through to adjust the reactor control systems of FRG-2 and FRG-1 (5 MW, housed in the same reactor hall) to the present safety rules and recommendations, to ensure FRG-2 operation at 21 MW for the next decade. (author)

  17. Fuel assembly storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiranuma, Hiroshi.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To remove limitation of the number of storage of fuel assemblies to increase the number of storage thereof so as to relatively reduce the water depth required for shielding radioactive rays. Structure: Fuel assembly storage rack containers for receiving a plurality of spent fuel assembly racks are stacked in multi-layer fashion within a storage pool filled with water for shielding radioactive rays and removing heat. (Furukawa, Y.)

  18. CERN Electronics Pool presentations

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Electronics Pool has organised a series of presentations in collaboration with oscilloscope manufacturers. The last one will take place according to the schedule below.   Time will be available at the end of the presentation to discuss your personal needs. The Agilent presentation had to be postponed and will be organised later. -     Lecroy: Thursday, 24 November 2011, in 530-R-030, 14:00 to 16:30.

  19. Skeletal muscle wasting with disuse atrophy is multi-dimensional: the response and interaction of myonuclei, satellite cells and signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Elisabeth Brooks

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of skeletal muscle is essential for health and survival. There are marked losses of skeletal muscle mass as well as strength and physiological function under conditions of low mechanical load, such as space flight, as well as ground based models such as bed rest, immobilisation, disuse and various animal models. Disuse atrophy is caused by mechanical unloading of muscle and this leads to reduced muscle mass without fibre attrition. Skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells and myonuclei are integrally involved in skeletal muscle responses to environmental changes that induce atrophy. Myonuclear domain size is influenced differently in fast and slow twitch muscle, but also by different models of muscle wasting, a factor that is not yet understood. Although the myonuclear domain is 3-dimensional this is rarely considered. Apoptosis as a mechanism for myonuclear loss with atrophy is controversial, whereas cell death of satellite cells has not been considered. Molecular signals such as myostatin/SMAD pathway, MAFbx and MuRF1 E3 ligases of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway and IGF1-AKT-mTOR pathway are 3 distinctly different contributors to skeletal muscle protein adaptation to disuse. Molecular signalling pathways activated in muscle fibres by disuse are rarely considered within satellite cells themselves despite similar exposure to unloading or low mechanical load. These molecular pathways interact with each other during atrophy and also when various interventions are applied that could alleviate atrophy. Re-applying mechanical load is an obvious method to restore muscle mass, however how nutrient supplementation (e.g. amino acids may further enhance recovery (or reduce atrophy despite unloading or ageing is currently of great interest. Satellite cells are particularly responsive to myostatin and to growth factors. Recently, the hibernating squirrel has been identified as an innovative model to study resistance to atrophy.

  20. Effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on miRNA expression in differentiating equine satellite cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodkowska, Karolina A; Ciecierska, Anna; Majchrzak, Kinga; Ostaszewski, Piotr; Sadkowski, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    Skeletal muscle injury activates satellite cells to initiate processes of proliferation, differentiation, and hypertrophy in order to regenerate muscle fibers. The number of microRNAs and their target genes are engaged in satellite cell activation. β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is known to prevent exercise-induced muscle damage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of HMB on miRNA and relevant target gene expression in differentiating equine satellite cells exposed to H 2 O 2 . We hypothesized that HMB may regulate satellite cell activity, proliferation, and differentiation, hence attenuate the pathological processes induced during an in vitro model of H 2 O 2 -related injury by changing the expression of miRNAs. Equine satellite cells (ESC) were isolated from the samples of skeletal muscle collected from young horses. ESC were treated with HMB (24 h) and then exposed to H 2 O 2 (1 h). For the microRNA and gene expression assessment microarrays, technique was used. Identified miRNAs and genes were validated using real-time qPCR. Cell viability, oxidative stress, and cell damage were measured using colorimetric method and flow cytometry. Analysis of miRNA and gene profile in differentiating ESC pre-incubated with HMB and then exposed to H 2 O 2 revealed difference in the expression of 27 miRNAs and 4740 genes, of which 344 were potential target genes for identified miRNAs. Special attention was focused on differentially expressed miRNAs and their target genes involved in processes related to skeletal muscle injury. Western blot analysis showed protein protection in HMB-pre-treated group compared to control. The viability test confirmed that HMB enhanced cell survival after the hydrogen peroxide exposition. Our results suggest that ESC pre-incubated with HMB and exposed to H 2 O 2 could affect expression on miRNA levels responsible for skeletal muscle development, cell proliferation and differentiation, and activation of tissue repair after

  1. Centriolar satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollenaere, Maxim A X; Mailand, Niels; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Centriolar satellites are small, microscopically visible granules that cluster around centrosomes. These structures, which contain numerous proteins directly involved in centrosome maintenance, ciliogenesis, and neurogenesis, have traditionally been viewed as vehicles for protein trafficking...... highlight newly discovered regulatory mechanisms targeting centriolar satellites and their functional status, and we discuss how defects in centriolar satellite components are intimately linked to a wide spectrum of human diseases....

  2. Swimming Pools and Molluscum Contagiosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Travelers’ Health: Smallpox & Other Orthopoxvirus-Associated Infections Poxvirus Swimming Pools Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The ... often ask if molluscum virus can spread in swimming pools. There is also concern that it can ...

  3. All-trans retinoic acid increases the expression of oxidative myosin heavy chain through the PPARδ pathway in bovine muscle cells derived from satellite cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongkyoo; Wellmann, Kimberly B; Smith, Zachary K; Johnson, Bradley J

    2018-04-24

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been associated with various physiological phenomenon in mammalian adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that ATRA may affect skeletal muscle fiber type in bovine satellite cell culture through various transcriptional processes. Bovine primary satellite cell (BSC) culture experiments were conducted to determine dose effects of ATRA on expression of genes and protein levels related to skeletal muscle fiber type and metabolism. The semimembranosus from crossbred steers (n = 2 steers), aged approximately 24 months, were used to isolate BSC for 3 separate assays. Myogenic differentiation was induced using 3% horse serum upon cultured BSC with increasing doses (0, 1, 10, 100, 1000 nM) of ATRA. After 96 h of incubation, cells were harvested and used to measure the gene expression of protein kinase B (Akt), AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPK), glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), myogenin, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), myosin heavy chain (MHC) I, MHC IIA,MHC IIX, insulin like growth factor -1 (IGF-1), Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), PPARδ, and Smad transcription factor 3 (SMAD3) mRNA relative to ribosomal protein subunit 9 (RPS9). The mRNA expression of LPL was increased (P < 0.05) with 100 and 1000nM of ATRA. Expression of GLUT4 was altered (P < 0.05) by ATRA. The treatment of ATRA (1000nM) also increased (P < 0.05) mRNA gene expression of SMAD3. The gene expression of both PPARδ and PPARγ were increased (P < 0.05) with 1000nM of ATRA. Protein level of PPARδ was also affected (P < 0.05) by 1000nM of ATRA and resulted in a greater (P < 0.05) protein level of PPARδ compared to CON. All-trans retinoic acid (10nM) increased gene expression of MHC I (P < 0.05) compared to CON. Expression of MHC IIA was also influenced (P < 0.05) by ATRA. The mRNA expression of MHC IIX was decreased (P < 0.05) with 100 and 1000nM of ATRA.In muscle cells, ATRA may cause muscle fibers to transition towards the MHC

  4. Electrospun Fe3O4/TiO2 hybrid nanofibers and their in vitro biocompatibility: prospective matrix for satellite cell adhesion and cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amna, Touseef; Hassan, M Shamshi; Van Ba, Hoa; Khil, Myung-Seob; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Hwang, I H

    2013-03-01

    We report the fabrication of novel Fe3O4/TiO2 hybrid nanofibers with the improved cellular response for potential tissue engineering applications. In this study, Fe3O4/TiO2 hybrid nanofibers were prepared by facile sol-gel electrospinning using titanium isopropoxide and iron(III) nitrate nonahydrate as precursors. The obtained electrospun nanofibers were vacuum dried at 80 °C and then calcined at 500 °C. The physicochemical characterization of the synthesized composite nanofibers was carried out by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction pattern. To examine the in vitro cytotoxicity, satellite cells were treated with as-prepared Fe3O4/TiO2 and the viability of cells was analyzed by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay at regular time intervals. The morphological features of unexposed satellite cells and exposed to Fe3O4/TiO2 composite were examined with a phase contrast microscope whereas the quantification of cell viability was carried out via confocal laser scanning microscopy. The morphology of the cells attached to hybrid matrix was observed by Bio-SEM. Cytotoxicity experiments indicated that the satellite cells could attach to the Fe3O4/TiO2 composite nanofibers after being cultured. We observed that Fe3O4-TiO2 composite nanofibers could support cell adhesion and growth. Results from this study therefore suggest that Fe3O4/TiO2 composite scaffold with small diameters (approximately 200 nm) can mimic the natural extracellular matrix well and provide possibilities for diverse applications in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pool-type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, S.R.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to a pool nuclear reactor fitted with a perfected system to raise the buckets into a vertical position at the bottom of a channel. This reactor has an inclined channel to guide a bucket containing a fuel assembly to introduce it into the reactor jacket or extract it therefrom and a damper at the bottom of the channel to stop the drop of the bucket. An upright vertically movable rod has a horizontally articulated arm with a hook. This can pivot to touch a radial lug on the bucket and pivot the bucket around its base in a vertical position, when the rod moves up [fr

  6. Satellite Communications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Satellite Communications. Arthur C Clarke wrote a seminal paper in 1945 in wireless world. Use three satellites in geo-synchronous orbit to enable intercontinental communications. System could be realised in '50 to 100 years'

  7. Electrospun Fe3O4/TiO2 hybrid nanofibers and their in vitro biocompatibility: Prospective matrix for satellite cell adhesion and cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amna, Touseef; Hassan, M. Shamshi; Van Ba, Hoa; Khil, Myung-Seob; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Hwang, I.H.

    2013-01-01

    We report the fabrication of novel Fe 3 O 4 /TiO 2 hybrid nanofibers with the improved cellular response for potential tissue engineering applications. In this study, Fe 3 O 4 /TiO 2 hybrid nanofibers were prepared by facile sol–gel electrospinning using titanium isopropoxide and iron(III) nitrate nonahydrate as precursors. The obtained electrospun nanofibers were vacuum dried at 80 °C and then calcined at 500 °C. The physicochemical characterization of the synthesized composite nanofibers was carried out by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction pattern. To examine the in vitro cytotoxicity, satellite cells were treated with as-prepared Fe 3 O 4 /TiO 2 and the viability of cells was analyzed by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay at regular time intervals. The morphological features of unexposed satellite cells and exposed to Fe 3 O 4 /TiO 2 composite were examined with a phase contrast microscope whereas the quantification of cell viability was carried out via confocal laser scanning microscopy. The morphology of the cells attached to hybrid matrix was observed by Bio-SEM. Cytotoxicity experiments indicated that the satellite cells could attach to the Fe 3 O 4 /TiO 2 composite nanofibers after being cultured. We observed that Fe 3 O 4 –TiO 2 composite nanofibers could support cell adhesion and growth. Results from this study therefore suggest that Fe 3 O 4 /TiO 2 composite scaffold with small diameters (approximately 200 nm) can mimic the natural extracellular matrix well and provide possibilities for diverse applications in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Highlights: ► We report fabrication of novel Fe 3 O 4 /TiO 2 hybrid nanofibers by facile electrospinning. ► The utilized satellite cells were isolated from native Korean Hanwoo cattle. ► Fe 3 O 4 /TiO 2 composite with small diameters (∼ 200 nm) can mimic the natural ECM well. ► Fe 3 O 4 /TiO 2

  8. Satellite Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N

    2012-01-01

    The field of satellite communications represents the world's largest space industry. Those who are interested in space need to understand the fundamentals of satellite communications, its technology, operation, business, economic, and regulatory aspects. This book explains all this along with key insights into the field's future growth trends and current strategic challenges. Fundamentals of Satellite Communications is a concise book that gives all of the key facts and figures as well as a strategic view of where this dynamic industry is going. Author Joseph N. Pelton, PhD, former Dean of the International Space University and former Director of Strategic Policy at Intelstat, presents a r

  9. Swimming pool attendance and respiratory symptoms and allergies among Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.H.; Fuertes, E.; Krop, E.J.M.; Spithoven, J.; Tromp, P.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To describe associations among swimming, respiratory health, allergen sensitisation and Clara cell protein 16 (CC16) levels in Dutch schoolchildren. Trichloramine levels in swimming pool air were determined to assess potential exposure levels. METHODS Respiratory health and pool

  10. Defective mitochondrial respiration, altered dNTP pools and reduced AP endonuclease 1 activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Alzheimer's disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maynard, Scott; Hejl, Anne-Mette; Dinh, Tran Thuan Son

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Accurate biomarkers for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are badly needed. Recent reports suggest that dysfunctional mitochondria and DNA damage are associated with AD development. In this report, we measured various cellular parameters, related to mitochondrial bioenergetics...... as possible. We measured glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration fluxes using the Seahorse Bioscience flux analyzer, mitochondrial ROS production using flow cytometry, dNTP levels by way of a DNA polymerization assay, DNA strand breaks using the Fluorometric detection of Alkaline DNA Unwinding (FADU) assay...... on adjustments for gender and/or age. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals impaired mitochondrial respiration, altered dNTP pools and reduced DNA repair activity in PBMCs of AD patients, thus suggesting that these biochemical activities may be useful as biomarkers for AD....

  11. Satellite myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Roger L.; Hall, David

    2008-01-01

    Richard Corfield's article “Sputnik's legacy” (October 2007 pp23-27) states that the satellite on board the US Vanguard rocket, which exploded during launch on 6 December 1957 two months after Sputnik's successful take-off, was “a hastily put together contraption of wires and circuitry designed only to send a radio signal back to Earth”. In fact, the Vanguard satellite was developed over a period of several years and put together carefully using the best techniques and equipment available at the time - such as transistors from Bell Laboratories/Western Electric. The satellite contained not one but two transmitters, in which the crystal-controlled oscillators had been designed to measure both the temperature of the satellite shell and of the internal package.

  12. Satellite Geomagnetism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Stolle, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Observations of Earth’s magnetic field from space began more than 50 years ago. A continuous monitoring of the field using low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites, however, started only in 1999, and three satellites have taken highprecision measurements of the geomagnetic field during the past decade....... The unprecedented time-space coverage of their data opened revolutionary new possibilities for monitoring, understanding, and exploring Earth’s magnetic field. In the near future, the three-satellite constellation Swarm will ensure continuity of such measurement and provide enhanced possibilities to improve our...... ability to characterize and understand the many sources that contribute to Earth’s magnetic field. In this review, we summarize investigations of Earth’s interior and environment that have been possible through the analysis of high-precision magnetic field observations taken by LEO satellites....

  13. Boomerang Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselbrock, Andrew; Minton, David A.

    2017-10-01

    We recently reported that the orbital architecture of the Martian environment allows for material in orbit around the planet to ``cycle'' between orbiting the planet as a ring, or as coherent satellites. Here we generalize our previous analysis to examine several factors that determine whether satellites accreting at the edge of planetary rings will cycle. In order for the orbiting material to cycle, tidal evolution must decrease the semi-major axis of any accreting satellites. In some systems, the density of the ring/satellite material, the surface mass density of the ring, the tidal parameters of the system, and the rotation rate of the primary body contribute to a competition between resonant ring torques and tidal dissipation that prevent this from occurring, either permanently or temporarily. Analyzing these criteria, we examine various bodies in our solar system (such as Saturn, Uranus, and Eris) to identify systems where cycling may occur. We find that a ring-satellite cycle may give rise to the current Uranian ring-satellite system, and suggest that Miranda may have formed from an early, more massive Uranian ring.

  14. The simultaneous ex vivo detection of low-frequency antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses using overlapping peptide pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satwinder Kaur; Meyering, Maaike; Ramwadhdoebe, Tamara H; Stynenbosch, Linda F M; Redeker, Anke; Kuppen, Peter J K; Melief, Cornelis J M; Welters, Marij J P; van der Burg, Sjoerd H

    2012-11-01

    The ability to measure antigen-specific T cells at the single-cell level by intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) is a promising immunomonitoring tool and is extensively applied in the evaluation of immunotherapy of cancer. The protocols used to detect antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell responses generally work for the detection of antigen-specific T cells in samples that have undergone at least one round of in vitro pre-stimulation. Application of a common protocol but now using long peptides as antigens was not suitable to simultaneously detect antigen-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells directly ex vivo in cryopreserved samples. CD8 T-cell reactivity to monocytes pulsed with long peptides as antigens ranged between 5 and 25 % of that observed against monocytes pulsed with a direct HLA class I fitting minimal CTL peptide epitope. Therefore, we adapted our ICS protocol and show that the use of tenfold higher concentration of long peptides to load APC, the use of IFN-α and poly(I:C) to promote antigen processing and improve T-cell stimulation, does allow for the ex vivo detection of low-frequency antigen-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells in an HLA-independent setting. While most of the improvements were related to increasing the ability to measure CD8+ T-cell reactivity following stimulation with long peptides to at least 50 % of the response detected when using a minimal peptide epitope, the final analysis of blood samples from vaccinated patients successfully showed that the adapted ICS protocol also increases the ability to ex vivo detect low-frequency p53-specific CD4+ T-cell responses in cryopreserved PBMC samples.

  15. Neonatal Phosphate Nutrition Alters in Vivo and in Vitro Satellite Cell Activity in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad H. Stahl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite cell activity is necessary for postnatal skeletal muscle growth. Severe phosphate (PO4 deficiency can alter satellite cell activity, however the role of neonatal PO4 nutrition on satellite cell biology remains obscure. Twenty-one piglets (1 day of age, 1.8 ± 0.2 kg BW were pair-fed liquid diets that were either PO4 adequate (0.9% total P, supra-adequate (1.2% total P in PO4 requirement or deficient (0.7% total P in PO4 content for 12 days. Body weight was recorded daily and blood samples collected every 6 days. At day 12, pigs were orally dosed with BrdU and 12 h later, satellite cells were isolated. Satellite cells were also cultured in vitro for 7 days to determine if PO4 nutrition alters their ability to proceed through their myogenic lineage. Dietary PO4 deficiency resulted in reduced (P < 0.05 sera PO4 and parathyroid hormone (PTH concentrations, while supra-adequate dietary PO4 improved (P < 0.05 feed conversion efficiency as compared to the PO4 adequate group. In vivo satellite cell proliferation was reduced (P < 0.05 among the PO4 deficient pigs, and these cells had altered in vitro expression of markers of myogenic progression. Further work to better understand early nutritional programming of satellite cells and the potential benefits of emphasizing early PO4 nutrition for future lean growth potential is warranted.

  16. Drop Impact on to Moving Liquid Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Sánchez, Beatriz Natividad; Castrejón-Pita, José Rafael; Castrejón-Pita, Alfonso Arturo; Hutchings, Ian M.

    2014-11-01

    The deposition of droplets on to moving liquid substrates is an omnipresent situation both in nature and industry. A diverse spectrum of phenomena emerges from this simple process. In this work we present a parametric experimental study that discerns the dynamics of the impact in terms of the physical properties of the fluid and the relative velocity between the impacting drop and the moving liquid pool. The behaviour ranges from smooth coalescence (characterized by little mixing) to violent splashing (generation of multiple satellite droplets and interfacial vorticity). In addition, transitional regimes such as bouncing and surfing are also found. We classify the system dynamics and show a parametric diagram for the conditions of each regime. This work was supported by the EPSRC (Grant EP/H018913/1), the Royal Society, Becas Santander Universidades and the International Relationships Office of the University of Extremadura.

  17. Model of large pool fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fay, J.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)]. E-mail: jfay@mit.edu

    2006-08-21

    A two zone entrainment model of pool fires is proposed to depict the fluid flow and flame properties of the fire. Consisting of combustion and plume zones, it provides a consistent scheme for developing non-dimensional scaling parameters for correlating and extrapolating pool fire visible flame length, flame tilt, surface emissive power, and fuel evaporation rate. The model is extended to include grey gas thermal radiation from soot particles in the flame zone, accounting for emission and absorption in both optically thin and thick regions. A model of convective heat transfer from the combustion zone to the liquid fuel pool, and from a water substrate to cryogenic fuel pools spreading on water, provides evaporation rates for both adiabatic and non-adiabatic fires. The model is tested against field measurements of large scale pool fires, principally of LNG, and is generally in agreement with experimental values of all variables.

  18. Model of large pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fay, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    A two zone entrainment model of pool fires is proposed to depict the fluid flow and flame properties of the fire. Consisting of combustion and plume zones, it provides a consistent scheme for developing non-dimensional scaling parameters for correlating and extrapolating pool fire visible flame length, flame tilt, surface emissive power, and fuel evaporation rate. The model is extended to include grey gas thermal radiation from soot particles in the flame zone, accounting for emission and absorption in both optically thin and thick regions. A model of convective heat transfer from the combustion zone to the liquid fuel pool, and from a water substrate to cryogenic fuel pools spreading on water, provides evaporation rates for both adiabatic and non-adiabatic fires. The model is tested against field measurements of large scale pool fires, principally of LNG, and is generally in agreement with experimental values of all variables

  19. Design of hydrotherapy exercise pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlich, R F; Abidin, M R; Becker, D G; Pavlovich, L J; Dang, M T

    1988-01-01

    Several hydrotherapy pools have been designed specifically for a variety of aquatic exercise. Aqua-Ark positions the exerciser in the center of the pool for deep-water exercise. Aqua-Trex is a shallow underwater treadmill system for water walking or jogging. Swim-Ex generates an adjustable laminar flow that permits swimming without turning. Musculoskeletal conditioning can be accomplished in the above-ground Arjo shallow-water exercise pool. A hydrotherapy pool also can be custom designed for musculoskeletal conditioning in its shallow part and cardiovascular conditioning in a deeper portion of the pool. Regardless of the type of exercise, there is general agreement that the specific exercise conducted in water requires significantly more energy expenditure than when the same exercise is performed on land.

  20. Serotonin storage pools in basophil leukemia and mast cells: characterization of two types of serotonin binding protein and radioautographic analysis of the intracellular distribution of [3H]serotonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamir, H.; Theoharides, T.C.; Gershon, M.D.; Askenase, P.W.

    1982-01-01

    The binding of serotonin to protein(s) derived from rat basophil leukemia (RBL) cells and mast cells was studied. Two types of serotonin binding protein in RBL cells was found. These proteins differed from one another in molecular weight and eluted in separate peaks from sephadex G-200 columns. Peak I protein (KD = 1.9 x 10 -6 M) was a glycoprotein that bound to concanavalin A (Con A); Peak II protein (KD 1 = 4.5 x 10 - 8 M; KD 2 = 3.9 x 10 -6 M) did not bind to Con A. Moreover, binding of [ 3 H]serotonin to protein of Peak I was sensitive to inhibition by reserpine, while binding of [ 3 H]serotonin to protein of Peak II resisted inhibition by that drug. Other differences between the two types of binding protein were found, the most significant of which was the far more vigorous conditions of homogenization required to extract Peak I than Peak II protein. Electron microscope radioautographic analysis of the intracellular distribution of [ 3 H] serotonin taken up in vitro by RBL cells or in vivo by murine mast cells indicated that essentially all of the labeled amine was located in cytoplasmic granules.No evidence for a pool in the cytosol was found and all granules were capable of becoming labeled. The presence of two types of intracellular serotonin binding proteins in these cells may indicate that there are two intracellular storage compartments for the amine. Both may be intragranular, but Peak I protein may be associated with the granular membrane while Peak II protein may be more free within the granular core. Different storage proteins may help to explain the differential release of amines from mast cell granules

  1. Long-term insulin-like growth factor-I expression in skeletal muscles attenuates the enhanced in vitro proliferation ability of the resident satellite cells in transgenic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, M. V.; Fiorotto, M. L.; Schwartz, R. J.; Booth, F. W.

    2001-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) overexpression for 1-month in mouse skeletal muscle increases satellite cell proliferation potential. However, it is unknown whether this beneficial enhancement by IGF-I expression would persist over a longer-term duration in aged mice. This is an important issue to address if a prolonged course of IGF-I is to be used clinically in muscle-wasting conditions where satellite cells may become limiting. Using the IGF-I transgenic (IGF-I Tg) mouse that selectively expresses the IGF-I transgene in striated muscles, we found that 18-months of continuous IGF-I overexpression led to a loss in the enhanced in vitro proliferative capacity of satellite cells from Tg skeletal muscles. Also 18-month-old IGF-I Tg satellite cells lost the enhanced BrdU incorporation, greater pRb and Akt phosphorylations, and decreased p27(Kip1) levels initially observed in cells from 1-month-old IGF-I Tg mice. The levels of those biochemical markers reverted to similar values seen in the 18-months WT littermates. These findings, therefore, suggest that there is no further beneficial effect on enhancing satellite cell proliferation ability with persistent long-term expression of IGF-I in skeletal muscles of these transgenic mice.

  2. Satellite Radio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Satellites have been a highly effective platform for multi- form broadcasts. This has led to a ... diversity offormats, languages, genre, and a universal reach that cannot be met by .... programs can be delivered to whom it is intended. In the case of.

  3. Cytochemical and x-ray microanalysis studies of intracellular calcium pools in scale-bearing cells of the coccolithophorid emiliana huxleyi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wal, P. van der; Bruijn, W.C. de; Westbroek, P.

    1985-01-01

    Emiliania huxleyi is a coccolithophorid with a life cycle including a stage characterized by the occurrence of a scale-bearing cell type. The scales are composed of organic material and are produced in the cisternae of the Golgi apparatus. The present report deals with the ultrastructural calcium localization in scale-bearing cells using cation-precipitating agents. Cations were precipitated either with potassium carbonate, or potassium phosphate, and then with potassium pyroantimonate. The distribution of electron-opaque deposits was the same when visualized by all four techniques. The most extensive deposits occurred in the Golgi apparatus, the 'peripheral space' (a cellular compartment totally encompassing the protoplast), the multivesicular bodies, and the cell vacuole. X-ray microanalysis revealed that calcium was a constituent of the electron-opaque deposits. The uptake and transport of calcium, as universal functions of the Golgi apparatus, are discussed. (Author)

  4. Satellite Sounder Observations of Contrasting Tropospheric Moisture Transport Regimes: Saharan Air Layers, Hadley Cells, and Atmospheric Rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalli, Nicholas R.; Barnet, Christopher D.; Reale, Tony; Liu, Quanhua; Morris, Vernon R.; Spackman, J. Ryan; Joseph, Everette; Tan, Changyi; Sun, Bomin; Tilley, Frank; Leung, L. Ruby; Wolfe, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    This paper examines the performance of satellite sounder atmospheric vertical moisture proles (AVMP) under tropospheric conditions encompassing moisture contrasts driven by convection and advection transport mechanisms, specifically Atlantic Ocean Saharan air layers (SALs) and Pacific Ocean moisture conveyer belts (MCBs) commonly referred to as atmospheric rivers (ARs), both of these being mesoscale to synoptic meteorological phenomena within the vicinity of subtropical Hadley subsidence zones. Operational AVMP environmental data records retrieved from the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) NOAA-Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System (NUCAPS) are collocated with dedicated radiosonde observations (RAOBs) obtained from ocean-based intensive field campaigns; these RAOBs provide uniquely independent correlative truth data not assimilated into numerical weather prediction models for satellite sounder validation over open ocean. Using these marine-based data, we empirically assess the performance of the operational NUCAPS AVMP product for detecting and resolving these tropospheric moisture features over otherwise RAOB-sparse regions.

  5. Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy versus lobectomy for operable stage I non-small-cell lung cancer : a pooled analysis of two randomised trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Joe Y.; Senan, Suresh; Paul, Marinus A.; Mehran, Reza J.; Louie, Alexander V.; Balter, Peter; Groen, Harry; McRae, Stephen E.; Widder, Joachim; Feng, Lei; van den Borne, Ben E. E. M.; Munsell, Mark F.; Hurkmans, Coen; Berry, Donald A.; van Werkhoven, Erik; Kresl, John J.; Dingemans, Anne-Marie; Dawood, Omar; Haasbeek, Cornelis J. A.; Carpenter, Larry S.; De Jaeger, Katrien; Komaki, Ritsuko; Slotman, Ben J.; Smit, Egbert F.; Roth, Jack A.

    Background The standard of care for operable, stage I, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is lobectomy with mediastinal lymph node dissection or sampling. Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for inoperable stage I NSCLC has shown promising results, but two independent, randomised, phase 3

  6. The pool of preactivated Lck in the initiation of T-cell signaling: a critical re-evaluation of the Lck standby model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ballek, Ondřej; Valečka, Jan; Manning, Jasper; Filipp, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 4 (2015), s. 384-395 ISSN 0818-9641 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/09/2084 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Lck, T- cell * proximal TCR * signaling Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.473, year: 2015

  7. The pool of preactivated Lck in the initiation of T-cell signaling: a critical re-evaluation of the Lck standby model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ballek, Ondřej; Valečka, Jan; Manning, Jasper; Filipp, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 93, spring (2014), s. 384-395 ISSN 0818-9641 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/09/2084 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Lck standby model * Lck kinase * TCR triggering * kinetic-segregation model * CD45-deficient T- cell Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.147, year: 2014

  8. The pool of preactivated Lck in the initiation of T-cell signaling: a critical re-evaluation of the Lck standby model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ballek, Ondřej; Valečka, Jan; Manning, Jasper; Filipp, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 93, spring (2014), s. 384-395 ISSN 0818-9641 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/09/2084 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Lck standby model * Lck kinase * TCR triggering * kinetic-segregation model * CD45-deficient T-cell Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.147, year: 2014

  9. Decreased neural precursor cell pool in NADPH oxidase 2-deficiency: From mouse brain to neural differentiation of patient derived iPSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynab Nayernia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There is emerging evidence for the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the regulation of stem cells and cellular differentiation. Absence of the ROS-generating NADPH oxidase NOX2 in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD patients, predominantly manifests as immune deficiency, but has also been associated with decreased cognition. Here, we investigate the role of NOX enzymes in neuronal homeostasis in adult mouse brain and in neural cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC. High levels of NOX2 were found in mouse adult neurogenic regions. In NOX2-deficient mice, neurogenic regions showed diminished redox modifications, as well as decrease in neuroprecursor numbers and in expression of genes involved in neural differentiation including NES, BDNF and OTX2. iPSC from healthy subjects and patients with CGD were used to study the role of NOX2 in human in vitro neuronal development. Expression of NOX2 was low in undifferentiated iPSC, upregulated upon neural induction, and disappeared during neuronal differentiation. In human neurospheres, NOX2 protein and ROS generation were polarized within the inner cell layer of rosette structures. NOX2 deficiency in CGD-iPSCs resulted in an abnormal neural induction in vitro, as revealed by a reduced expression of neuroprogenitor markers (NES, BDNF, OTX2, NRSF/REST, and a decreased generation of mature neurons. Vector-mediated NOX2 expression in NOX2-deficient iPSCs rescued neurogenesis. Taken together, our study provides novel evidence for a regulatory role of NOX2 during early stages of neurogenesis in mouse and human.

  10. ENERGY STAR Certified Pool Pumps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Pool Pumps that are effective as of February 15,...

  11. Pooled human platelet lysate versus fetal bovine serum-investigating the proliferation rate, chromosome stability and angiogenic potential of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells intended for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojahn Kølle, Stig-Frederik; Oliveri, Roberto S; Glovinski, Peter V; Kirchhoff, Maria; Mathiasen, Anders Bruun; Elberg, Jens Jørgen; Andersen, Peter Stemann; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof Tadeusz; Fischer-Nielsen, Anne

    2013-09-01

    Because of an increasing focus on the use of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in clinical trials, the culture conditions for these cells are being optimized. We compared the proliferation rates and chromosomal stability of ASCs that had been cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) supplemented with either pooled human platelet lysate (pHPL) or clinical-grade fetal bovine serum (FBS) (DMEM(pHPL) versus DMEM(FBS)). ASCs from four healthy donors were cultured in either DMEM(pHPL) or DMEM(FBS), and the population doubling time (PDT) was calculated. ASCs from two of the donors were expanded in DMEM(pHPL) or DMEM(FBS) and cultured for the final week before harvesting with or without the addition of vascular endothelial growth factor. We assessed the chromosomal stability (through the use of array comparative genomic hybridization), the expression of ASC and endothelial surface markers and the differentiation and angiogenic potential of these cells. The ASCs that were cultured in pHPL exhibited a significantly shorter PDT of 29.6 h (95% confidence interval, 22.3-41.9 h) compared with those cultured in FBS, for which the PDT was 123.9 h (95% confidence interval, 95.6-176.2 h). Comparative genomic hybridization analyses revealed no chromosomal aberrations. Cell differentiation, capillary structure formation and cell-surface marker expression were generally unaffected by the type of medium supplement that was used or by the addition of vascular endothelial growth factor. We observed that the use of pHPL as a growth supplement for ASCs facilitated a significantly higher proliferation rate compared with FBS without compromising genomic stability or differentiation capacity. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Grundfoss: Chlorination of Swimming Pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Hogan, John; Andreassen, Viggo

    1998-01-01

    Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools.......Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools....

  13. Sustainability of common pool resources

    OpenAIRE

    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kotani, Koji; Kamijo, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as "capitalism," affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepales...

  14. Scientific Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    noise signal level exceeds 10 times the normal background. EXPERIMENTS FOR SATELLITE ASTRONOMY 615 ANTENNA MONOPOLE -., PREAMPLFE = BANDPASS-FILTER...OUTPUT TO AND DETECTOR TELEMETRYCHANNELS (18) CALIBRATION NOISE MATRIX CLOCK NOISE SOURCE ’ON’ SOURCE COMMAND F ROM PROGRAMERP ANTENNA MONOPOLE FIGURE 13...Animal Tempera- ture Sensing for Studying the Effect of Prolonged Orbital Flight on the Circadian Rhythms of Pocket Mice . Unmanned Spacecraft Meeting

  15. Circulating tumour cells and pathological complete response: independent prognostic factors in inflammatory breast cancer in a pooled analysis of two multicentre phase II trials (BEVERLY-1 and -2) of neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with bevacizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierga, J-Y; Bidard, F-C; Autret, A; Petit, T; Andre, F; Dalenc, F; Levy, C; Ferrero, J-M; Romieu, G; Bonneterre, J; Lerebours, F; Bachelot, T; Kerbrat, P; Campone, M; Eymard, J-C; Mouret-Reynier, M-A; Gligorov, J; Hardy-Bessard, A-C; Lortholary, A; Soulie, P; Boher, J-M; Proudhon, C; Charafe-Jaufret, E; Lemonnier, J; Bertucci, F; Viens, P

    2017-01-01

    We present a pooled analysis of predictive and prognostic values of circulating tumour cells (CTC) and circulating endothelial cells (CEC) in two prospective trials of patients with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with neoadjuvant and adjuvant bevacizumab. Nonmetastatic T4d patients were enrolled in two phase II multicentre trials, evaluating bevacizumab in combination with sequential neoadjuvant chemotherapy of four cycles of FEC followed by four cycles of docetaxel in HER2-negative tumour (BEVERLY-1) or docetaxel and trastuzumab in HER2-positive tumour (BEVERLY-2). CTC and CEC were detected in 7.5 and 4 ml of blood, respectively, with the CellSearch System. From October 2008 to September 2010, 152 patients were included and 137 were evaluable for CTC and CEC. At baseline, 55 patients had detectable CTC (39%). After four cycles of chemotherapy, a dramatic drop in CTC to a rate of 9% was observed (P < 0.01). Pathological complete response (pCR) rate was 40%. No correlation was found between CTC or CEC levels and pCR rate. Median follow-up was 43 months. CTC detection (≥1 CTC/7.5 ml) at baseline was associated with shorter 3-year disease-free survival (39% versus 70% for patients without CTC, P < 0.01, HR 2.80) and shorter 3-year overall survival (OS) (P < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, independent prognostic parameters for shorter survival were absence of hormonal receptors, no pCR and CTC detection at baseline. CEC level at baseline or variations during treatment had no prognostic value. In this pooled analysis of two prospective trials in nonmetastatic IBC, detection rate of CTC was 39% with a strong and independent prognostic value for survival. Combination of pCR after neoadjuvant treatment with no CTC detection at baseline isolated a subgroup of IBC with excellent OS (94% 3-year OS), suggesting that CTC count could be part of IBC stratification in prospective trials. © The Author 2016

  16. A Pool of Distant Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Anyone who has wondered what it might be like to dive into a pool of millions of distant galaxies of different shapes and colours, will enjoy the latest image released by ESO. Obtained in part with the Very Large Telescope, the image is the deepest ground-based U-band image of the Universe ever obtained. It contains more than 27 million pixels and is the result of 55 hours of observations with the VIMOS instrument. A Sea of Galaxies ESO PR Photo 39/08 A Pool of Distant Galaxies This uniquely beautiful patchwork image, with its myriad of brightly coloured galaxies, shows the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), arguably the most observed and best studied region in the entire sky. The CDF-S is one of the two regions selected as part of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS), an effort of the worldwide astronomical community that unites the deepest observations from ground- and space-based facilities at all wavelengths from X-ray to radio. Its primary purpose is to provide astronomers with the most sensitive census of the distant Universe to assist in their study of the formation and evolution of galaxies. The new image released by ESO combines data obtained with the VIMOS instrument in the U- and R-bands, as well as data obtained in the B-band with the Wide-Field Imager (WFI) attached to the 2.2 m MPG/ESO telescope at La Silla, in the framework of the GABODS survey. The newly released U-band image - the result of 40 hours of staring at the same region of the sky and just made ready by the GOODS team - is the deepest image ever taken from the ground in this wavelength domain. At these depths, the sky is almost completely covered by galaxies, each one, like our own galaxy, the Milky Way, home of hundreds of billions of stars. Galaxies were detected that are a billion times fainter than the unaided eye can see and over a range of colours not directly observable by the eye. This deep image has been essential to the discovery of a large number of new galaxies

  17. , , , , , and Gene Expression in Single- and Co-cultured Bovine Satellite Cells and Intramuscular Preadipocytes Treated with Palmitic, Stearic, Oleic, and Linoleic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Choi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that bovine subcutaneous preadipocytes promote adipogenic gene expression in muscle satellite cells in a co-culture system. Herein we hypothesize that saturated fatty acids would promote adipogenic/lipogenic gene expression, whereas mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids would have the opposite effect. Bovine semimembranosus satellite cells (BSC and intramuscular preadipocytes (IPA were isolated from crossbred steers and cultured with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS/Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM and 1% antibiotics during the 3-d proliferation period. After proliferation, cells were treated for 3 d with 3% horse serum/DMEM (BSC or 5% FBS/DMEM (IPA with antibiotics. Media also contained 10 μg/mL insulin and 10 μg/mL pioglitazone. Subsequently, differentiating BSC and IPA were cultured in their respective media with 40 μM palmitic, stearic, oleic, or linoleic acid for 4 d. Finally, BSC and IPA were single- or co-cultured for an additional 2 h. All fatty acid treatments increased (p = 0.001 carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 beta (CPT1β gene expression, but the increase in CPT1β gene expression was especially pronounced in IPA incubated with palmitic and stearic acid (6- to 17- fold increases. Oleic and linoleic acid decreased (p = 0.001 stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD gene expression over 80% in both BSC and IPA. Conversely, palmitic and stearic acid increased SCD gene expression three fold in co-cultured in IPA, and stearic acid increased AMPKα gene expression in single- and co-cultured BSC and IPA. Consistent with our hypothesis, saturated fatty acids, especially stearic acid, promoted adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression, whereas unsaturated fatty acids decreased expression of those genes associated with fatty acid metabolism.

  18. [Obesity as pathology of adipocytes: number of cells, volume of arterial bloodstream,local pools of circulation in vivo, natriuretic peptides and arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V N; Dmitriev, V A

    2015-03-01

    The non-specific systemic biological reaction of arterial pressure from the level of organism. vasomotor center and proximal section of arterial bloodstream is appealed to compensate disorders of metabolism and microcirculation in distal section of arteries. This phenomenon occurs in several cases. The primarily local disorders of metabolism at autocrine level, physiological (aphysiological) death of cells, "littering" of intercellular medium become the cause of disorder of microcirculation in paracrin cenosises and deteriorate realization of biological functions of homeostasis, trophology, endoecology and adaptation. The local compensation of affected perfusion in paracrin cenosises at the expense of function of peripheral peristaltic pumps, redistribution of local bloodflow in biological reaction of endothelium-depended vaso-dilation has no possibility to eliminate disorders in realization of biological functions. The systemic increase of arterial pressure under absence of specific symptoms of symptomatic arterial hypertension is a test to detect disorder of biological functions of homeostasis, trophology, biological function of endoecology and adaptation. Allforms of arterial hypertension develop by common algorithm independently from causes of disorders of blood flow, microcirculation in distal section of arteries. The non-specific systemic compensation ofdisorders of metabolism from level of organism, in proximal section of arterial bloodstream always is the same one and results in aphysiological alterations in organs-targets. To comprehend etiological characteristics of common pathogenesis of arterial hypertension is possible in case of application of such technically complicated and still unclear in differential diagnostic of deranged functions modes of metabolomics.

  19. Exploring Radiotherapy Targeting Strategy and Dose: A Pooled Analysis of Cooperative Group Trials of Combined Modality Therapy for Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Steven E; Fan, Wen; Stinchcombe, Thomas E; Vokes, Everett E; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Bradley, Jeffrey D; Kelly, Karen; Pang, Herbert H; Wang, Xiaofei

    2018-04-21

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy(CRT) is standard therapy for locally-advanced non-small-cell lung cancer(LA-NSCLC)patients. This study was performed to examine thoracic radiotherapy(TRT) parameters and their impact on patient survival. We collected Individual patient data(IPD) from 3600LA-NSCLC patients participating in 16 cooperative group trials of concurrent CRT. The primary TRT parameters examined included field design strategy(elective nodal irradiation(ENI) compared to involved field TRT(IF-TRT)), total dose, and biologically effective dose(BED). Hazard ratios(HRs) for overall survival were calculated with univariable and multivariable Cox models. TRT doses ranged from 60 to 74 Gy with most treatments administered once-daily. ENI was associated with poorer survival than IF-TRT(univariable HR,1.37;95%CI,1.24-1.51,pENI patients were 24 and 16 months, respectively. Patients were divided into 3 dose groups: low total dose(60 Gy), medium total dose(>60Gy-66Gy) and high total dose(>66Gy-74 Gy). With reference to the low dose group, the multivariable HR's were 1.08 for the medium dose group(95%CI=0.93-1.25) and 1.12 for the high dose group(CI=0.97-1.30).The univariate p=0.054 and multivariable p=0.17. BED was grouped as follows: low(55.5 Gy 10 ). With reference to the low BED group, the HR was 1.00(95%CI=0.85-1.18) for the medium BED group and 1.10(95%CI=0.93-1.31) for the high BED group. The univariable p=0.076 and multivariable p=0.16. For LA-NSCLC patients treated with concurrent CRT, IF-TRT was associated with significantly better survival than ENI-TRT. TRT total and BED dose levels were not significantly associated with patient survival. Future progress will require research focusing on better systemic therapy and TRT. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Cardiac Toxicity After Radiotherapy for Stage III Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Pooled Analysis of Dose-Escalation Trials Delivering 70 to 90 Gy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eblan, Michael J.; Deal, Allison M.; Lipner, Matthew; Zagar, Timothy M.; Wang, Yue; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Lee, Carrie B.; Jensen, Brian C.; Rosenman, Julian G.; Socinski, Mark A.; Stinchcombe, Thomas E.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The significance of radiotherapy (RT) –associated cardiac injury for stage III non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unclear, but higher heart doses were associated with worse overall survival in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0617 study. We assessed the impact of heart dose in patients treated at our institution on several prospective dose-escalation trials. Patients and Methods From 1996 to 2009, 127 patients with stage III NSCLC (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, 0 to 1) received dose-escalated RT to 70 to 90 Gy (median, 74 Gy) in six trials. RT plans and cardiac doses were reviewed. Records were reviewed for the primary end point: symptomatic cardiac events (symptomatic pericardial effusion, acute coronary syndrome, pericarditis, significant arrhythmia, and heart failure). Cardiac risk was assessed by noting baseline coronary artery disease and calculating the WHO/International Society of Hypertension score. Competing risks analysis was used. Results In all, 112 patients were analyzed. Median follow-up for surviving patients was 8.8 years. Twenty-six patients (23%) had one or more events at a median of 26 months to first event (effusion [n = 7], myocardial infarction [n = 5], unstable angina [n = 3], pericarditis [n = 2], arrhythmia [n = 12], and heart failure [n = 1]). Heart doses (eg, heart mean dose; hazard ratio, 1.03/Gy; P = .002,), coronary artery disease (P < .001), and WHO/International Society of Hypertension score (P = .04) were associated with events on univariable analysis. Heart doses remained significant on multivariable analysis that accounted for baseline risk. Two-year competing risk–adjusted event rates for patients with heart mean dose < 10 Gy, 10 to 20 Gy, or ≥ 20 Gy were 4%, 7%, and 21%, respectively. Heart doses were not associated with overall survival. Conclusion Cardiac events were relatively common after high-dose thoracic RT and were independently associated with both heart dose and

  1. Satellite cells derived from obese humans with type 2 diabetes and differentiated into myocytes in vitro exhibit abnormal response to IL-6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Nielsen, Søren; Broholm, Christa

    2012-01-01

    isolated satellite cells from skeletal muscle of people that were healthy (He), obese (Ob) or were obese and had type 2 diabetes (DM), and differentiated them in vitro into myocytes. Down-regulation of IL-6Rα was conserved in Ob myocytes. In addition, acute IL-6 administration for 30, 60 and 120 minutes......Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with chronically elevated systemic levels of IL-6, a pro-inflammatory cytokine with a role in skeletal muscle metabolism that signals through the IL-6 receptor (IL-6Rα). We hypothesized that skeletal muscle in obesity-associated type 2 diabetes develops...... a resistance to IL-6. By utilizing western blot analysis, we demonstrate that IL-6Rα protein was down regulated in skeletal muscle biopsies from obese persons with and without type 2 diabetes. To further investigate the status of IL-6 signaling in skeletal muscle in obesity-associated type 2 diabetes, we...

  2. 21 CFR 1250.89 - Swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swimming pools. 1250.89 Section 1250.89 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.89 Swimming pools. (a) Fill and draw swimming pools shall not be installed or used. (b) Swimming pools of the recirculation type shall be...

  3. Patent pools: Intellectual property rights and competition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.F.

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major

  4. Investigation to radioactive contamination of pool water in IMEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ung Sup; Jung, Yang Hong; Lee, J. H.; Lee, H. K.

    2003-06-01

    The pool (3x6x10) in irradiated materials examination facility is usually used for the purpose of taking the specimen out of cask loaded into the pool, and carrying in/out the specimen to/ from the hot cell. Always, it must be cared for the water into the pool to be fine condition because all operation are worked with the naked eye during taking an irradiated materials out of the cask and plunging them in the bucket-elevator. In the aspects of the radioactive remained substances in the water must be controlled so that the amount of substances to be lower than the standard amount prescribed by RCA Korea Activity in a part of radioactive contamination control. In consequence, an expertness of status and a practical use of skill make possible the prevention of radioactive material's diffusion or the radioactive contamination of pool water and safety work

  5. Conditional Loss of Pten in Myogenic Progenitors Leads to Postnatal Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy but Age-Dependent Exhaustion of Satellite Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Feng; Bi, Pengpeng; Wang, Chao; Li, Jie; Liu, Xiaoqi; Kuang, Shihuan

    2016-11-22

    Skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells [SCs]) are normally maintained in a quiescent (G 0 ) state. Muscle injury not only activates SCs locally, but also alerts SCs in distant uninjured muscles via circulating factors. The resulting G Alert SCs are adapted to regenerative cues and regenerate injured muscles more efficiently, but whether they provide any long-term benefits to SCs is unknown. Here, we report that embryonic myogenic progenitors lacking the phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) exhibit enhanced proliferation and differentiation, resulting in muscle hypertrophy but fewer SCs in adult muscles. Interestingly, Pten null SCs are predominantly in the G Alert state, even in the absence of an injury. The G Alert SCs are deficient in self-renewal and subjected to accelerated depletion during regeneration and aging and fail to repair muscle injury in old mice. Our findings demonstrate a key requirement of Pten in G 0 entry of SCs and provide functional evidence that prolonged G Alert leads to stem cell depletion and regenerative failure. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficient pooling designs for library screening

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, William J.; Knill, Emanuel; Balding, David J.; Bruce, D. C.; Doggett, N. A.; Sawhill, W. W.; Stallings, R. L.; Whittaker, Craig C.; Torney, David C.

    1994-01-01

    We describe efficient methods for screening clone libraries, based on pooling schemes which we call ``random $k$-sets designs''. In these designs, the pools in which any clone occurs are equally likely to be any possible selection of $k$ from the $v$ pools. The values of $k$ and $v$ can be chosen to optimize desirable properties. Random $k$-sets designs have substantial advantages over alternative pooling schemes: they are efficient, flexible, easy to specify, require fewer pools, and have er...

  7. EP BICYCLE POOL - VIGNETTES 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    EP-SMI Help Desk

    2002-01-01

    The vignettes (insurance certificates) for 2002 become obligatory from 1 June. If you have a bicycle from the EP Pool, please bring it to the EP-SMI Help Desk (Building 124) on any working day up to 31 May between 8h.30 - 12h.00 or 13h.30 - 17h.30. EP-SMI Help Desk

  8. Sculpting the Barnyard Gene Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Gina; Wolfe, Kim; Dupree, Alan; Young, Sheila; Caver, Jessica; Quintanilla, Ruby; Thornton, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Project-based learning (PBL) takes student engagement to a higher level through reflective collaboration, inquiry, critical thinking, problem solving, and personal relevance. This article explains how six high school teachers developed an interconnected, interdisciplinary STEM-focused PBL called "Sculpting the Barnyard Gene Pool." The…

  9. Identification of miR-2400 gene as a novel regulator in skeletal muscle satellite cells proliferation by targeting MYOG gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei Wei [The Laboratory of Cell and Development, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030 (China); College of Life Sciences and Agriculture & Forestry, Qiqihar University, Qiqihar, Heilongjiang 161006 (China); Tong, Hui Li; Sun, Xiao Feng; Hu, Qian; Yang, Yu; Li, Shu Feng [The Laboratory of Cell and Development, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030 (China); Yan, Yun Qin, E-mail: yanyunqin@sohu.com [The Laboratory of Cell and Development, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030 (China); Li, Guang Peng [The Key Laboratory of Mammal Reproductive Biology and Biotechnology Ministry of Education, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China)

    2015-08-07

    MicroRNAs play critical roles in skeletal muscle development as well as in regulation of muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. Previous study in our laboratory showed that the expression level of miR-2400, a novel and unique miRNA from bovine, had significantly changed in skeletal muscle-derived satellite cells (MDSCs) during differentiation, however, the function and expression pattern for miR-2400 in MDSCs has not been fully understood. In this report, we firstly identified that the expression levels of miR-2400 were down-regulated during MDSCs differentiation by stem-loop RT-PCR. Over-expression and inhibition studies demonstrated that miR-2400 promoted MDSCs proliferation by EdU (5-ethynyl-2′ deoxyuridine) incorporation assay and immunofluorescence staining of Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Luciferase reporter assays showed that miR-2400 directly targeted the 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of myogenin (MYOG) mRNA. These data suggested that miR-2400 could promote MDSCs proliferation through targeting MYOG. Furthermore, we found that miR-2400, which was located within the eighth intron of the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome candidate 1-like 1 (WHSC1L1) gene, was down-regulated in MDSCs in a direct correlation with the WHSC1L1 transcript by Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats interference (CRISPRi). In addition, these observations not only provided supporting evidence for the codependent expression of intronic miRNAs and their host genes in vitro, but also gave insight into the role of miR-2400 in MDSCs proliferation. - Highlights: • miR-2400 is a novel and unique miRNA from bovine. • miR-2400 could promote skeletal muscle satellite cells proliferation. • miR-2400 directly targeted the 3′ untranslated regions of MYOG mRNA. • miR-2400 could be coexpressed together with its host gene WHSC1L1.

  10. Geostationary Satellite (GOES) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from radiometer instruments on SMS (ATS) and GOES satellites in geostationary orbit. These satellites produced...

  11. Seismic loads in modularized and unmodularized large pools located on hard or intermediate hard sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, R G [California Univ., Livermore (USA). Lawrence Livermore Lab.

    1977-12-01

    To augment the present capacity of pools for storing spent nuclear fuel elements, pools larger than those in current use are being planned. These pools may or may not be modularized into cells. Because of the large size of the pools, seismic loads are of significant interest. In particular, the effects of modularization and site hardness are of concern. The study presented in this paper reveals that modularization is generally unfavourable, because it creates the option of leaving one or more cells empty which in turn results in higher structural loads. The wall which separates a filled cell from an empty cell, or the wall which bears against earth on one side and faces an empty cell on the other, becomes very highly stressed. For the particular pool geometries examined, a hard site is generally preferred over an intermediate hard site in terms of structural loads.

  12. Space Solar Power: Satellite Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Frank E.

    1999-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP) applies broadly to the use of solar power for space related applications. The thrust of the NASA SSP initiative is to develop concepts and demonstrate technology for applying space solar power to NASA missions. Providing power from satellites in space via wireless transmission to a receiving station either on earth, another celestial body or a second satellite is one goal of the SSP initiative. The sandwich design is a satellite design in which the microwave transmitting array is the front face of a thin disk and the back of the disk is populated with solar cells, with the microwave electronics in between. The transmitter remains aimed at the earth in geostationary orbit while a system of mirrors directs sunlight to the photovoltaic cells, regardless of the satellite's orientation to the sun. The primary advantage of the sandwich design is it eliminates the need for a massive and complex electric power management and distribution system for the satellite. However, it requires a complex system for focusing sunlight onto the photovoltaic cells. In addition, positioning the photovoltaic array directly behind the transmitting array power conversion electronics will create a thermal management challenge. This project focused on developing designs and finding emerging technology to meet the challenges of solar tracking, a concentrating mirror system including materials and coatings, improved photovoltaic materials and thermal management.

  13. Small volume transfusion of irradiated red blood cells using satellite bags in very low birth weight infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagiwa, Kazuhiro; Honda, Yoshinobu; Sakuma, Kimiko; Igarashi, Etsuo; Watanabe, Masahiko; Ujiie, Niro; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Ohto, Hitoshi

    1993-01-01

    We have treated anemia of prematurity with concentrated red cells divided into 3 packs by using the Sterile Connection Device (SCD, USA). This study was performed to reveal the influence for very low birth weight infants of transfusion of red cells stored after irradiation. The following facts were observed in infants after transfusion: (1) no change in sodium and potassium level and leucocyte count, (2) increased amount of total bilirubin but no change in unbound bilirubin level, (3) decrease in platelet count less than 50,000/mm 3 . According to these results we conclude that the transfusion of concentrated red blood cells stored within 2 weeks after irradiation was safe even for very low birth weight infants. (author)

  14. Glucagon like peptide-1-induced glucose metabolism in differentiated human muscle satellite cells is attenuated by hyperglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Charlotte J; Henriksen, Tora I; Pedersen, Bente K

    2012-01-01

    Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) stimulates insulin secretion from the pancreas but also has extra-pancreatic effects. GLP-1 may stimulate glucose uptake in cultured muscle cells but the mechanism is not clearly defined. Furthermore, while the pancreatic effects of GLP-1 are glucose-dependent, the......Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) stimulates insulin secretion from the pancreas but also has extra-pancreatic effects. GLP-1 may stimulate glucose uptake in cultured muscle cells but the mechanism is not clearly defined. Furthermore, while the pancreatic effects of GLP-1 are glucose...

  15. "Ripples" in an Aluminum Pool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, James; Wang, Si-Yin; Nesterenko, Vitali F.

    2018-05-01

    Our motivation for this article is for students to realize that opportunities for discovery are all around them. Discoveries that can still puzzle present day researchers. Here we explore an observation by a middle school student concerning the production of what appears to be water-like "ripples" produced in aluminum foil when placed between two colliding spheres. We both applaud and explore the student's reasoning that the ripples were formed in a melted aluminum pool.

  16. Sustainability of common pool resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kotani, Koji; Kamijo, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as "capitalism," affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepalese areas: (i) rural (non-capitalistic) and (ii) urban (capitalistic) areas. We find that a proportion of prosocial individuals in urban areas is lower than that in rural areas, and urban residents deplete resources more quickly than rural residents. The composition of proself and prosocial individuals in a group and the degree of capitalism are crucial in that an increase in prosocial members in a group and the rural dummy positively affect resource sustainability by 65% and 63%, respectively. Overall, this paper shows that when societies move toward more capitalistic environments, the sustainability of common pool resources tends to decrease with the changes in individual preferences, social norms, customs and views to others through human interactions. This result implies that individuals may be losing their coordination abilities for social dilemmas of resource sustainability in capitalistic societies.

  17. Flashing oscillation in pool water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamasa, Tomoji; Kondo, Koichi; Hazuku, Tatsuya

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of high-pressure saturated water discharging into the pool water. The purpose of the experiment is to clarify the phenomena that occur in blow-down of high-pressure saturated water from the pressure vessel into the water-filled containment in the case of a wall-crack accident or a LOCA in an advanced reactor. The results revealed that a flashing oscillation (FO) occurs when high-pressure saturated water discharges into the pool water, under specified experimental settings. The range of the flashing oscillates between a point very close to and some distance from the vent hole. The pressures in the vent tube and pool water vary according to the flashing oscillation. The pressure oscillation and frequency of flashing position might be caused by the balancing action between the supply of saturated water, flashing at the control volume and its condensation on the steam-water interface. A linear analysis was conducted using a spherical flashing bubble model. The period of the flashing oscillation in the experiments can be explained by theoretical analysis

  18. Pressure supression pool thermal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.H.

    1984-10-01

    A model is developed and verified to describe the thermal mixing that occurs in the pressure suppression pool (PSP) of a commercial BWR. The model is designed specifically for a Mark-I containment and is intended for use in severe accident sequence analyses. The model developed in this work produces space and time dependent temperature results throughout the PSP and is useful for evaluating the bulk PSP thermal mixing, the condensation effectiveness of the PSP, and the long-term containment integrity. The model is designed to accommodate single or multiple discharging T-quenchers, a PSP circumferential circulation induced by the residual heat removal system discharge, and the thermal stratification of the pool that occurs immediately after the relief valves close. The PSP thermal mixing is verified by comparing the model-predicted temperatures to experimental temperatures that were measured in an operating BWR suppression pool. The model is then used to investigate several PSP thermal mixing problems that include the time to saturate at full relief valve flow, the temperature response to a typical stuck open relief valve scenario, and the effect of operator rotation of the relief valve discharge point

  19. Pressure suppression pool thermal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    A model is developed and verified to describe the thermal mixing that occurs in the pressure suppression pool (PSP) of a commercial BWR. The model is designed specifically for a Mark-I containment and is intended for use in severe accident sequence analyses. The model produces space and time dependent temperature results throughout the PSP and is useful for evaluating the bulk PSP thermal mixing, the condensation effectiveness of the PSP, and the long-term containment integrity. The model is designed to accommodate single or multiple discharging T-quenchers, a PSP circumferential circulation induced by the residual heat removal system discharge, and the thermal stratification of the pool that occurs immediately after the relief valves close. The PSP thermal mixing model is verified by comparing the model predicted temperatures to experimental temperatures that were measured in an operating BWR suppression pool. The model is then used to investigate several PSP thermal mixing problems that include the time to saturate at full relief valve flow, the temperature response to a typical stuck open relief valve scenario, and the effect of operator rotation of the relief valve discharge point

  20. The Clinical Presentation, Survival Outcomes, and Management of Patients With Renal Cell Carcinoma and Cardiac Metastasis Without Inferior Vena Cava Involvement: Results From a Pooled Clinical Trial Database and Systematic Review of Reported Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viteri Malone, Mariuxi A; Ares, Gustavo Ruiz; De Velasco, Guillermo; Brandão, Raphael; Lin, Xun; Norton, Craig; Simantov, Ronit; Moslehi, Javid; Krajewski, Katherine M; Choueiri, Toni K; McKay, Rana R

    2018-04-01

    Cardiac metastases from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are uncommon and there are limited data regarding the presentation and outcomes of this population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics and outcomes of patients with RCC with cardiac metastasis without inferior vena cava (IVC) involvement. We conducted a pooled retrospective analysis of metastatic RCC patients treated in 4 clinical trials. Additionally, we conducted a systematic review of cases reported in the literature from 1973 to 2015. Patients with cardiac metastases from RCC without IVC involvement were included. Patient and disease characteristics were described. Additionally, treatments, response to therapy, and survival outcomes were summarized. Of 1765 metastatic RCC patients in the clinical trials database, 10 had cardiac metastases without IVC involvement. All patients received treatment with targeted therapy. There was 1 observed partial response (10%) and 6 patients showed stable disease (60%). The median progression-free survival was 6.9 months. The systematic review of reported clinical cases included 39 patients. In these patients, the most common cardiac site of involvement was the right ventricle (51%; n = 20). Patients were treated with medical (28%; n = 11) and/or surgical treatment (49%; n = 19) depending on whether disease was isolated (n = 13) or multifocal (n = 26). To our knowledge, this is the first series to report on the presentation and outcomes of patients with cardiac metastasis without IVC involvement in RCC. We highlight that although the frequency of patients with cardiac metastases without IVC involvement is low, these patients have a unique clinical presentation and warrant special multidisciplinary management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Solar array experiments on the Sphinx satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, N. J.

    1973-01-01

    The Space Plasma, High Voltage Interaction Experiment (SPHINX) is the name given to an auxiliary payload satellite scheduled to be launched in January 1974. The principal experiments carried on this satellite are specifically designed to obtain the engineering data on the interaction of high voltage systems with the space plasma. The classes of experiments are solar array segments, insulators, insulators with pin holes and conductors. The satellite is also carrying experiments to obtain flight data on three new solar array configurations; the edge illuminated-multijunction cells, the Teflon encased cells and the violet cells.

  2. Iodine Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Dankanich, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Iodine Satellite (iSat) spacecraft will be the first CubeSat to demonstrate high change in velocity from a primary propulsion system by using Hall thruster technology and iodine as a propellant. The mission will demonstrate CubeSat maneuverability, including plane change, altitude change and change in its closest approach to Earth to ensure atmospheric reentry in less than 90 days. The mission is planned for launch in fall 2017. Hall thruster technology is a type of electric propulsion. Electric propulsion uses electricity, typically from solar panels, to accelerate the propellant. Electric propulsion can accelerate propellant to 10 times higher velocities than traditional chemical propulsion systems, which significantly increases fuel efficiency. To enable the success of the propulsion subsystem, iSat will also demonstrate power management and thermal control capabilities well beyond the current state-of-the-art for spacecraft of its size. This technology is a viable primary propulsion system that can be used on small satellites ranging from about 22 pounds (10 kilograms) to more than 1,000 pounds (450 kilograms). iSat's fuel efficiency is ten times greater and its propulsion per volume is 100 times greater than current cold-gas systems and three times better than the same system operating on xenon. iSat's iodine propulsion system consists of a 200 watt (W) Hall thruster, a cathode, a tank to store solid iodine, a power processing unit (PPU) and the feed system to supply the iodine. This propulsion system is based on a 200 W Hall thruster developed by Busek Co. Inc., which was previously flown using xenon as the propellant. Several improvements have been made to the original system to include a compact PPU, targeting greater than 80 percent reduction in mass and volume of conventional PPU designs. The cathode technology is planned to enable heaterless cathode conditioning, significantly increasing total system efficiency. The feed system has been designed to

  3. Satellite glial cell P2Y12 receptor in the trigeminal ganglion is involved in lingual neuropathic pain mechanisms in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katagiri Ayano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported that the P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12R is involved in satellite glial cells (SGCs activation, indicating that P2Y12R expressed in SGCs may play functional roles in orofacial neuropathic pain mechanisms. However, the involvement of P2Y12R in orofacial neuropathic pain mechanisms is still unknown. We therefore studied the reflex to noxious mechanical or heat stimulation of the tongue, P2Y12R and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP immunohistochemistries in the trigeminal ganglion (TG in a rat model of unilateral lingual nerve crush (LNC to evaluate role of P2Y12R in SGC in lingual neuropathic pain. Results The head-withdrawal reflex thresholds to mechanical and heat stimulation of the lateral tongue were significantly decreased in LNC-rats compared to sham-rats. These nocifensive effects were apparent on day 1 after LNC and lasted for 17 days. On days 3, 9, 15 and 21 after LNC, the mean relative number of TG neurons encircled with GFAP-immunoreactive (IR cells significantly increased in the ophthalmic, maxillary and mandibular branch regions of TG. On day 3 after LNC, P2Y12R expression occurred in GFAP-IR cells but not neuronal nuclei (NeuN-IR cells (i.e. neurons in TG. After 3 days of successive administration of the P2Y12R antagonist MRS2395 into TG in LNC-rats, the mean relative number of TG neurons encircled with GFAP-IR cells was significantly decreased coincident with a significant reversal of the lowered head-withdrawal reflex thresholds to mechanical and heat stimulation of the tongue compared to vehicle-injected rats. Furthermore, after 3 days of successive administration of the P2YR agonist 2-MeSADP into the TG in naïve rats, the mean relative number of TG neurons encircled with GFAP-IR cells was significantly increased and head-withdrawal reflex thresholds to mechanical and heat stimulation of the tongue were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner compared to vehicle-injected rats

  4. CDC Study Finds Fecal Contamination in Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Communication (404) 639-3286 CDC study finds fecal contamination in pools A study of public pools done ... The E. coli is a marker for fecal contamination. Finding a high percentage of E. coli-positive ...

  5. Acute morphine activates satellite glial cells and up-regulates IL-1β in dorsal root ganglia in mice via matrix metalloprotease-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Temugin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activation of spinal cord glial cells such as microglia and astrocytes has been shown to regulate chronic opioid-induced antinociceptive tolerance and hyperalgesia, due to spinal up-regulation of the proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β. Matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9 has been implicated in IL-1β activation in neuropathic pain. However, it is unclear whether acute opioid treatment can activate glial cells in the peripheral nervous system. We examined acute morphine-induced activation of satellite glial cells (SGCs and up-regulation of IL-1β in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs, and further investigated the involvement of MMP-9 in these opioid-induced peripheral changes. Results Subcutaneous morphine injection (10 mg/kg induced robust peripheral glial responses, as evidenced by increased GFAP expression in DRGs but not in spinal cords. The acute morphine-induced GFAP expression is transient, peaking at 2 h and declining after 3 h. Acute morphine treatment also increased IL-1β immunoreactivity in SGCs and IL-1β activation in DRGs. MMP-9 and GFAP are expressed in DRG neurons and SGCs, respectively. Confocal analysis revealed a close proximity of MMP-9 and GFAP immunostaining. Importantly, morphine-induced DRG up-regulation of GFAP expression and IL-1β activation was abolished after Mmp9 deletion or naloxone pre-treatment. Finally, intrathecal injections of IL-1β-selective siRNA not only reduced DRG IL-1β expression but also prolonged acute morphine-induced analgesia. Conclusions Acute morphine induces opioid receptors- and MMP-9-dependent up-regulation of GFAP expression and IL-1β activation in SGCs of DRGs. MMP-9 could mask and shorten morphine analgesia via peripheral neuron-glial interactions. Targeting peripheral glial activation might prolong acute opioid analgesia.

  6. 1968 Listing of Swimming Pool Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI. Testing Lab.

    An up-to-date listing of swimming pool equipment including--(1) companies authorized to display the National Sanitation Foundation seal of approval, (2) equipment listed as meeting NSF swimming pool equipment standards relating to diatomite type filters, (3) equipment listed as meeting NSF swimming pool equipment standard relating to sand type…

  7. Asteroid Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merline, W. J.

    2001-11-01

    Discovery and study of small satellites of asteroids or double asteroids can yield valuable information about the intrinsic properties of asteroids themselves and about their history and evolution. Determination of the orbits of these moons can provide precise masses of the primaries, and hence reliable estimates of the fundamental property of bulk density. This reveals much about the composition and structure of the primary and will allow us to make comparisons between, for example, asteroid taxonomic type and our inventory of meteorites. The nature and prevalence of these systems will also give clues as to the collisional environment in which they formed, and have further implications for the role of collisions in shaping our solar system. A decade ago, binary asteroids were more of a theoretical curiosity. In 1993, the Galileo spacecraft allowed the first undeniable detection of an asteroid moon, with the discovery of Dactyl, a small moon of Ida. Since that time, and particularly in the last year, the number of known binaries has risen dramatically. Previously odd-shaped and lobate near-Earth asteroids, observed by radar, have given way to signatures indicating, almost certainly, that at least four NEAs are binary systems. The tell-tale lightcurves of several other NEAs reveal a high likelihood of being double. Indications are that among the NEAs, there may be a binary frequency of several tens of percent. Among the main-belt asteroids, we now know of 6 confirmed binary systems, although their overall frequency is likely to be low, perhaps a few percent. The detections have largely come about because of significant advances in adaptive optics systems on large telescopes, which can now reduce the blurring of the Earth's atmosphere to compete with the spatial resolution of space-based imaging (which itself, via HST, is now contributing valuable observations). Most of these binary systems have similarities, but there are important exceptions. Searches among other

  8. Trends in communications satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Curtin, Denis J

    1979-01-01

    Trends in Communications Satellites offers a comprehensive look at trends and advances in satellite communications, including experimental ones such as NASA satellites and those jointly developed by France and Germany. The economic aspects of communications satellites are also examined. This book consists of 16 chapters and begins with a discussion on the fundamentals of electrical communications and their application to space communications, including spacecraft, earth stations, and orbit and wavelength utilization. The next section demonstrates how successful commercial satellite communicati

  9. Clinical blood pool MR Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiner, Tim [Maastrich University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology; Goyen, Martin [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Rohrer, Mathias [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany). European Business Unit Diagnostic Imaging; Schoenberg, Stefan O. (eds.) [University Hospital Mannheim Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

    2008-07-01

    Clinical Blood Pool MR Imaging - This excellent treatise on Vasovist {sup registered} created by a team of exceptional faculty who are pioneers in MR Angiography covers the basic techniques, safety, efficacy, image processing and pharmaco-economic details to successfully implement a new level of MRA image quality with this new contrast agent. Martin Prince, Cornell University, New York The editors and authors have made groundbreaking contributions towards establishing MR angiography in various investigative settings, rendering it more precise and applying it for diverse indications. The work presented here is founded upon the extensive experience of the editors, as well as the broad range of experience from other scientific working groups. Maximilian Reiser, Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich Vasovist {sup registered} (Gadofosveset), worldwide the first blood pool agent, has only recently become available for clinical use, but has already gained wide acceptance as a tool to improve magnetic resonance angiography. This book presents the first in-depth introduction to the basic physicochemical aspects of the agent, the application of Vasovist {sup registered} in clinical MRA, as well as potential clinical applications beyond MRA and patient management-related aspects. The first part of the book explains basic and technical properties of the agent and the differences of Vasovist {sup registered} compared to currently available extracellular agents. The second part contains detailed chapters on safety and efficacy. In the third part the focus is on MR angiographic applications, and in the fourth part of the book potential clinical fields beyond MRA are explored. All clinical chapters feature ready-to-use clinical protocols and a series of take home messages that concisely summarize the current role of blood pool imaging for each specific indication. (orig.)

  10. Effects of changes in intracellular iron pool on AlkB-dependent and AlkB-independent mechanisms protecting E.coli cells against mutagenic action of alkylating agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, Anna; Maciejewska, Agnieszka M.; Poznański, Jarosław; Pilżys, Tomasz; Marcinkowski, Michał; Dylewska, Małgorzata; Piwowarski, Jan [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Jakubczak, Wioletta; Pawlak, Katarzyna [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Grzesiuk, Elżbieta, E-mail: elag@ibb.waw.pl [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The intracellular free iron in E.coli hemH appear to be double that in wt strain. • Increased Fe(II) and AlkB concentrations result in decreased MMS-induced mutations. • Dealkylation of dNTPs takes place in the presence of Fe(II) and not requires AlkB. - Abstract: An Escherichia coli hemH mutant accumulates protoporphyrin IX, causing photosensitivity of cells to visible light. Here, we have shown that intracellular free iron in hemH mutants is double that observed in hemH{sup +} strain. The aim of this study was to recognize the influence of this increased free iron concentration on AlkB-directed repair of alkylated DNA by analyzing survival and argE3 → Arg{sup +} reversion induction after λ > 320 nm light irradiation and MMS-treatment in E. coli AB1157 hemH and alkB mutants. E.coli AlkB dioxygenase constitutes a direct single-protein repair system using non-hem Fe(II) and cofactors 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) and oxygen (O{sub 2}) to initiate oxidative dealkylation of DNA/RNA bases. We have established that the frequency of MMS-induced Arg{sup +} revertants in AB1157 alkB{sup +}hemH{sup –}/pMW1 strain was 40 and 26% reduced comparing to the alkB{sup +}hemH{sup –} and alkB{sup +}hemH{sup +}/pMW1, respectively. It is noteworthy that the effect was observed only when bacteria were irradiated with λ > 320 nm light prior MMS-treatment. This finding indicates efficient repair of alkylated DNA in photosensibilized cells in the presence of higher free iron pool and AlkB concentrations. Interestingly, a 31% decrease in the level of Arg{sup +} reversion was observed in irradiated and MMS-treated hemH{sup –}alkB{sup –} cells comparing to the hemH{sup +}alkB{sup –} strain. Also, the level of Arg{sup +} revertants in the irradiated and MMS treated hemH{sup –} alkB{sup –} mutant was significantly lower (by 34%) in comparison to the same strain but MMS-treated only. These indicate AlkB-independent repair involving Fe ions and reactive oxygen

  11. Artificial intelligence systems for rainy areas detection and convective cells' delineation for the south shore of Mediterranean Sea during day and nighttime using MSG satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbi, Mohsene Abdelfettah; Haddad, Boualem

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of cloud classification by means of support vector machines using high resolution images from northern Algeria. The images were taken from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) on board of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. An automatic system was developed to operate during both day and nighttime by following two steps of data processing. The first aims to detect rainy areas in cloud systems, whereas the second delineates convective cells from stratiform ones. A set of 12 spectral parameters was selected to extract information about cloud properties, which are different from day to night. The training and validation steps of this study were performed by in-situ rainfall measurement data, collected during the rainy season of years 2011 and 2012 via automatic rain gauge stations distributed in northern Algeria. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) and support vector machine (SVM) were explored, by combining spectral parameters derived from MSG images. Better performances were obtained by the SVM classifier, in terms of Critical Success Index and Probability of Detection for rainy areas detection (CSI = 0.81, POD = 91%), and also for convective/stratiform delineation (CSI = 0.55, POD = 74%).

  12. Method of measuring a liquid pool volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, G.V.; Carlson, N.M.; Donaldson, A.D.

    1991-03-19

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools is disclosed, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid. 3 figures.

  13. Large-scale pool fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinhaus Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of research into the burning behavior of large pool fires and fuel spill fires is presented. The features which distinguish such fires from smaller pool fires are mainly associated with the fire dynamics at low source Froude numbers and the radiative interaction with the fire source. In hydrocarbon fires, higher soot levels at increased diameters result in radiation blockage effects around the perimeter of large fire plumes; this yields lower emissive powers and a drastic reduction in the radiative loss fraction; whilst there are simplifying factors with these phenomena, arising from the fact that soot yield can saturate, there are other complications deriving from the intermittency of the behavior, with luminous regions of efficient combustion appearing randomly in the outer surface of the fire according the turbulent fluctuations in the fire plume. Knowledge of the fluid flow instabilities, which lead to the formation of large eddies, is also key to understanding the behavior of large-scale fires. Here modeling tools can be effectively exploited in order to investigate the fluid flow phenomena, including RANS- and LES-based computational fluid dynamics codes. The latter are well-suited to representation of the turbulent motions, but a number of challenges remain with their practical application. Massively-parallel computational resources are likely to be necessary in order to be able to adequately address the complex coupled phenomena to the level of detail that is necessary.

  14. Technology for analysis of sodium pool fire characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, K C; Jeong, J Y; Kim, T J; Choi, J H; Choi, Y D; Hwang, S T

    2000-09-01

    Basic and detail design for medium sodium fire test facility was carried out and medium sodium fire test facility was constructed. Design data is as follows. - Test cell material : Concrete with high strength - Test cell dimension ; 48m{sup 3} (3x4x4m) - Design temp. ; 700 deg C - Operation temp. ; 530 deg C - Design pressure ; 1 bar (max.) - Dimension(Inside) : 3 x 4 x 4(m) - Test cell thickness ; 45cm - Liner plate with (Thickness : 3mm) In this study, sodium fire characteristics was analyzed and data for validation of computer code was produced. Oxygen and sodium filled in pool pan didn't burns instantly, but pool fire occurred through pre-ignition. Distribution of temperature in test cell was divided by two parts, and temperature at upper position appeared to be higher than temperature at lower position. The temperature in test cell increased with the feed of sodium. The pressure in test cell increased with the feed of sodium. When the feed of sodium was 8kg, peak pressure was 0.075 bar. Peak temperature in sodium pool appeared to be 854 deg C regardless of the feed of sodium. Decrease of 1% in oxygen concentration showed the rise of 0.036bar in pressure.

  15. Technology for analysis of sodium pool fire characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, K. C.; Jeong, J. Y.; Kim, T. J.; Choi, J. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Hwang, S. T.

    2000-09-01

    Basic and detail design for medium sodium fire test facility was carried out and medium sodium fire test facility was constructed. Design data is as follows. - Test cell material : Concrete with high strength - Test cell dimension ; 48m 3 (3x4x4m) - Design temp. ; 700 deg C - Operation temp. ; 530 deg C - Design pressure ; 1 bar (max.) - Dimension(Inside) : 3 x 4 x 4(m) - Test cell thickness ; 45cm - Liner plate with (Thickness : 3mm) In this study, sodium fire characteristics was analyzed and data for validation of computer code was produced. Oxygen and sodium filled in pool pan didn't burns instantly, but pool fire occurred through pre-ignition. Distribution of temperature in test cell was divided by two parts, and temperature at upper position appeared to be higher than temperature at lower position. The temperature in test cell increased with the feed of sodium. The pressure in test cell increased with the feed of sodium. When the feed of sodium was 8kg, peak pressure was 0.075 bar. Peak temperature in sodium pool appeared to be 854 deg C regardless of the feed of sodium. Decrease of 1% in oxygen concentration showed the rise of 0.036bar in pressure

  16. Technology for analysis of sodium pool fire characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, K. C.; Jeong, J. Y.; Kim, T. J.; Choi, J. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Hwang, S. T

    2000-09-01

    Basic and detail design for medium sodium fire test facility was carried out and medium sodium fire test facility was constructed. Design data is as follows. - Test cell material : Concrete with high strength - Test cell dimension ; 48m{sup 3} (3x4x4m) - Design temp. ; 700 deg C - Operation temp. ; 530 deg C - Design pressure ; 1 bar (max.) - Dimension(Inside) : 3 x 4 x 4(m) - Test cell thickness ; 45cm - Liner plate with (Thickness : 3mm) In this study, sodium fire characteristics was analyzed and data for validation of computer code was produced. Oxygen and sodium filled in pool pan didn't burns instantly, but pool fire occurred through pre-ignition. Distribution of temperature in test cell was divided by two parts, and temperature at upper position appeared to be higher than temperature at lower position. The temperature in test cell increased with the feed of sodium. The pressure in test cell increased with the feed of sodium. When the feed of sodium was 8kg, peak pressure was 0.075 bar. Peak temperature in sodium pool appeared to be 854 deg C regardless of the feed of sodium. Decrease of 1% in oxygen concentration showed the rise of 0.036bar in pressure.

  17. Structural integrity assessment of HANARO pool cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo

    2001-11-01

    This report is for the seismic analysis and the structural integrity evaluation of HANARO Pool Cover in accordances with the requirement of the Technical Specification for Seismic Analysis of HANARO Pool Cover. For performing the seismic analysis and evaluating the structural integrity for HANARO Pool Cover, the finite element analysis model using ANSYS 5.7 was developed and the dynamic characteristics were analyzed. The seismic response spectrum analyses of HANARO Pool Cover under the design floor response spectrum loads of OBE and SSE were performed. The analysis results show that the stress values in HANARO Pool Cover for the seismic loads are within the ASME Code limits. It is also confirmed that the fatigue usage factor is less than 1.0. Therefore any damage on structural integrity is not expected when an HANARO Pool Cover is installed in the upper part of the reactor pool

  18. Intra-patient variability of FDG standardized uptake values in mediastinal blood pool, liver, and myocardium during R-CHOP chemotherapy in patients with diffuse large B- cell lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soo Jeong; Yi, Hyun Kyung; Lim, Chae Hong; Cho, Young Seok; Choi, Joon Young; Choe, Yeam Seong; Lee, Kyung Han; Moon, Seung Hwan [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT is useful for staging and evaluating treatment response in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). A five-point scale model using the mediastinal blood pool (MBP) and liver as references is a recommended method for interpreting treatment response. We evaluated the variability in standardized uptake values (SUVs) of the MBP, liver, and myocardium during chemotherapy in patients with DLBCL. We analyzed 60 patients with DLBCL who received rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP) treatment and underwent baseline, interim, and final FDG PET/CT scans. The FDG uptakes of lymphoma lesions, MBP, liver, and myocardium were assessed, and changes in the MBP and liver SUV and possible associated factors were evaluated. The SUV of the liver did not change significantly during the chemotherapy. However, the SUV{sub mean} of MBP showed a significant change though the difference was small (p = 0.019). SUV{sub mean} of MBP and liver at baseline and interim scans was significantly lower in patients with advanced Ann Arbor stage on diagnosis. The SUV{sub mean} of the MBP and liver was negatively correlated with the volumetric index of lymphoma lesions in baseline scans (r = -0.547, p < 0.001; r = -0.502, p < 0.001). Positive myocardial FDG uptake was more frequently observed in interim and final scans than in the baseline scan, but there was no significant association between the MBP and liver uptake and myocardial uptake. The SUV of the liver was not significantly changed during R-CHOP chemotherapy in patients with DLBCL, whereas the MBP SUV of the interim scan decreased slightly. However, the SUV of the reference organs may be affected by tumor burden, and this should be considered when assessing follow-up scans. Although myocardial FDG uptake was more frequently observed after R-CHOP chemotherapy, it did not affect the SUV of the MBP and liver.

  19. Characterization of depolarization-coupled release of glutamate from cultured mouse cerebellar granule cells using DL-threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartate (DL-TBOA) to distinguish between the vesicular and cytoplasmic pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Lasse K; Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2003-01-01

    Release of preloaded [3H]D-aspartate in response to depolarization induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or the endogenous agonist glutamate was characterized using cultured glutamatergic cerebellar granule neurons. Release from the vesicular and the cytoplasmic glutamate pools, respectively, wa...

  20. Satellite image collection optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William

    2002-09-01

    Imaging satellite systems represent a high capital cost. Optimizing the collection of images is critical for both satisfying customer orders and building a sustainable satellite operations business. We describe the functions of an operational, multivariable, time dynamic optimization system that maximizes the daily collection of satellite images. A graphical user interface allows the operator to quickly see the results of what if adjustments to an image collection plan. Used for both long range planning and daily collection scheduling of Space Imaging's IKONOS satellite, the satellite control and tasking (SCT) software allows collection commands to be altered up to 10 min before upload to the satellite.

  1. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The first edition of this ground breaking reference work was the most comprehensive reference source available about the key aspects of the satellite applications field. This updated second edition covers the technology, the markets, applications and regulations related to satellite telecommunications, broadcasting and networking—including civilian and military systems; precise satellite navigation and timing networks (i.e. GPS and others); remote sensing and meteorological satellite systems. Created under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, this brand new edition is now expanded to cover new innovative small satellite constellations, new commercial launching systems, innovation in military application satellites and their acquisition, updated appendices, a useful glossary and more.

  2. H3-THYMIDINE DERIVATIVE POOLS IN RELATION TO MACRONUCLEAR DNA SYNTHESIS IN TETRAHYMENA PYRIFORMIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, G. E.; Miller, O. L.; Prescott, D. M.

    1965-01-01

    The formation of a soluble H3-thymidine derivative pool has been examined in Tetrahymena pyriformis as a function of macronuclear DNA synthesis during the cell life cycle. An autoradiographic technique which allows the detection of water-soluble materials within a cell has shown that these cells do not take up and retain exogenous H3-thymidine during G1 or G2. Uptake of H3-thymidine is restricted to the S period of the cell cycle. Additional autoradiographic experiments show, however, that a soluble pool of H3-thymidine derivatives persists from the end of one DNA synthesis period to the beginning of the next synthesis period in the subsequent cell cycle. Since this persisting pool cannot be labeled with H3-thymidine, the pool does not turn over during non-S periods. PMID:19866660

  3. Livermore pool-type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, L.G.

    1977-01-01

    The Livermore Pool-Type Reactor (LPTR) has served a dual purpose since 1958--as an instrument for fundamental research and as a tool for measurement and calibration. Our early efforts centered on neutron-diffraction, fission, and capture gamma-ray studies. During the 1960's it was used for extensive calibration work associated with radiochemical and physical measurements on nuclear-explosive tests. Since 1970 the principal applications have been for trace-element measurements and radiation-damage studies. Today's research program is dominated by radiochemical studies of the shorter-lived fission products and by research on the mechanisms of radiation damage. Trace-element measurement for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program is the major measurement application today

  4. Cardiac blood pool emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itti, R.; Philippe, L.; Lorgeron, J.M.; Charbonnier, B.; Raynaud, P.; Brochier, M.

    1983-01-01

    After blood pool labeling using technetium-99m, a series of cardiac pictures is acquired during the rotation of a gamma-camera about the patient. Computer processing leads to reconstruction of various tomographic slices from the original planar projection. Electrocardiographic gating selects the different phases of the cardiac cycle. Individual slices through the left ventricular region are added in order to provide ''thick'' slices on which global and regional parameters of the left ventricular function can be determined. Due to the proportionality existing between count rates and labeled blood volumes, any geometrical model can be avoided. The delineation of regions of interest for count integration is made easier due to the absence of superimposition of structures; no correction for background is necessary. Tomography thus appears to be more consistent and more accurate than the classical methods using planar projections. In addition, right ventricular morphological and kinetic studies can be performed in the same conditions as for the left ventricle [fr

  5. Arc-weld pool interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glickstein, S.S.

    1978-08-01

    The mechanisms involved in arc-weld pool interactions are extremely complex and no complete theory is presently available to describe much of the phenomena observed during welding. For the past several years, experimental and analytical studies have been undertaken at the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory to increase basic understanding of the gas tungsten arc welding process. These studies have included experimental spectral analysis of the arc in order to determine arc temperature and analytical modeling of the arc and weld puddle. The investigations have been directed toward determining the cause and effects of variations in the energy distribution incident upon the weldment. In addition, the effect of weld puddle distortion on weld penetration was investigated, and experimental and analytical studies of weld process variables have been undertaken to determine the effects of the variables upon weld penetration and configuration. A review of the results and analysis of these studies are presented

  6. DNA methylation at a bovine alpha satellite I repeat CpG site during development following fertilization and somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Couldrey

    Full Text Available Incomplete epigenetic reprogramming is postulated to contribute to the low developmental success following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. Here, we describe the epigenetic reprogramming of DNA methylation at an alpha satellite I CpG site (αsatI-5 during development of cattle generated either by artificial insemination (AI or in vitro fertilization (IVF and SCNT. Quantitative methylation analysis identified that SCNT donor cells were highly methylated at αsatI-5 and resulting SCNT blastocysts showed significantly more methylation than IVF blastocysts. At implantation, no difference in methylation was observed between SCNT and AI in trophoblast tissue at αsatI-5, however, SCNT embryos were significantly hyper-methylated compared to AI controls at this time point. Following implantation, DNA methylation at αsatI-5 decreased in AI but not SCNT placental tissues. In contrast to placenta, the proportion of methylation at αsatI-5 remained high in adrenal, kidney and muscle tissues during development. Differences in the average proportion of methylation were smaller in somatic tissues than placental tissues but, on average, SCNT somatic tissues were hyper-methylated at αsatI-5. Although sperm from all bulls was less methylated than somatic tissues at αsatI-5, on average this site remained hyper-methylated in sperm from cloned bulls compared with control bulls. This developmental time course confirms that epigenetic reprogramming does occur, at least to some extent, following SCNT. However, the elevated methylation levels observed in SCNT blastocysts and cellular derivatives implies that there is either insufficient time or abundance of appropriate reprogramming factors in oocytes to ensure complete reprogramming. Incomplete reprogramming at this CpG site may be a contributing factor to low SCNT success rates, but more likely represents the tip of the iceberg in terms of incompletely reprogramming. Until protocols ensure the epigenetic

  7. Solar array experiments on the SPHINX satellite. [Space Plasma High voltage INteraction eXperiment satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, N. J.

    1974-01-01

    The Space Plasma, High Voltage Interaction Experiment (SPHINX) is the name given to an auxiliary payload satellite scheduled to be launched in January 1974. The principal experiments carried on this satellite are specifically designed to obtain the engineering data on the interaction of high voltage systems with the space plasma. The classes of experiments are solar array segments, insulators, insulators with pin holes and conductors. The satellite is also carrying experiments to obtain flight data on three new solar array configurations: the edge illuminated-multijunction cells, the teflon encased cells, and the violet cells.

  8. GPS Satellite Simulation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The GPS satellite simulation facility consists of a GPS satellite simulator controlled by either a Silicon Graphics Origin 2000 or PC depending upon unit under test...

  9. The solar power satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combes, P.F.

    1982-01-01

    The construction, launch, components, and operations of satellite solar power systems (SSPS) for direct beaming of solar energy converted to electricity to earth stations are outlined. The reference designs of either Si or concentrator GaAs solar cell assemblies large enough to project 5 GW of power are described. The beam will be furnished by klystrons or amplitrons for reception by rectennas on earth. Conforming to the law of amplitude and the equiphase law will permit high efficiencies, pointing accuracy, and low power deposition/sq cm, thus avoiding environmental problems, although some telecommunications systems may suffer interference. The construction of the dipole rectenna grid is sketched, noting that one receiver would be an ellipse sized at 10 x 13 km. Various forms of pollution which could result from the construction of an SSPS are examined.

  10. Protein Supplementation Augments Muscle Fiber Hypertrophy but Does Not Modulate Satellite Cell Content During Prolonged Resistance-Type Exercise Training in Frail Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Marlou L; Tieland, Michael; Verdijk, Lex B; Losen, Mario; Nilwik, Rachel; Mensink, Marco; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2017-07-01

    Protein supplementation increases gains in lean body mass following prolonged resistance-type exercise training in frail older adults. We assessed whether the greater increase in lean body mass can be attributed to muscle fiber type specific hypertrophy with concomitant changes in satellite cell (SC) content. A total of 34 frail elderly individuals (77 ± 1 years, n = 12 male adults) participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 2 arms in parallel. Participants performed 24 weeks of progressive resistance-type exercise training (2 sessions per week) during which they were supplemented twice-daily with milk protein (2 × 15 g) or a placebo. Muscle biopsies were taken at baseline, and after 12 and 24 weeks of intervention, to determine type I and type II muscle fiber specific cross-sectional area (CSA), SC content, and myocellular characteristics. In the placebo group, a trend for a 20% ± 11% increase in muscle fiber CSA was observed in type II fibers only (P = .051), with no increase in type I muscle fiber CSA. In the protein group, type I and II muscle fiber CSA increased by 23% ± 7% and 34% ± 10% following 6 months of training, respectively (P  .05). No changes in myonuclear content and SC contents were observed over time in either group (both P > .05). Regression analysis showed that changes in myonuclear content and domain size are predictive of muscle fiber hypertrophy. Protein supplementation augments muscle fiber hypertrophy following prolonged resistance-type exercise training in frail older people, without changes in myonuclear and SC content. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. P2Y12 receptor upregulation in satellite glial cells is involved in neuropathic pain induced by HIV glycoprotein 120 and 2',3'-dideoxycytidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhihua; Xie, Lihui; Zhou, Congfa; Yuan, Huilong; Ouyang, Shuai; Fang, Zhi; Zhao, Shanhong; Jia, Tianyu; Zou, Lifang; Wang, Shouyu; Xue, Yun; Wu, Bing; Gao, Yun; Li, Guilin; Liu, Shuangmei; Xu, Hong; Xu, Changshui; Zhang, Chunping; Liang, Shangdong

    2018-03-01

    The direct neurotoxicity of HIV and neurotoxicity of combination antiretroviral therapy medications both contribute to the development of neuropathic pain. Activation of satellite glial cells (SGCs) in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) plays a crucial role in mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia. The P2Y 12 receptor expressed in SGCs of the DRG is involved in pain transmission. In this study, we explored the role of the P2Y 12 receptor in neuropathic pain induced by HIV envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120) combined with ddC (2',3'-dideoxycytidine). A rat model of gp120+ddC-induced neuropathic pain was used. Peripheral nerve exposure to HIV-gp120+ddC increased mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in gp120+ddC-treated model rats. The gp120+ddC treatment increased expression of P2Y 12 receptor mRNA and protein in DRG SGCs. In primary cultured DRG SGCs treated with gp120+ddC, the levels of [Ca 2+ ] i activated by the P2Y 12 receptor agonist 2-(Methylthio) adenosine 5'-diphosphate trisodium salt (2-MeSADP) were significantly increased. P2Y 12 receptor shRNA treatment inhibited 2-MeSADP-induced [Ca 2+ ] i in primary cultured DRG SGCs treated with gp120+ddC. Intrathecal treatment with a shRNA against P2Y 12 receptor in DRG SGCs reduced the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, decreased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in the DRG of gp120+ddC-treated rats. Thus, downregulating the P2Y 12 receptor relieved mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in gp120+ddC-treated rats.

  12. Effects of high-orbit spaceflight on signaling cascades and apoptosis in immune cells from mice flied on board the BION-M1 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoselova, Elena; Shenkman, Boris; Lunin, Sergey; Parfenyuk, Svetlana; Novoselova, Tatyana; Fesenko, Eugeny

    The study was designed to evaluate immune cell activity in male C57bl mice after a 30-day high-orbit spaceflight (550 km, higher than conventional manned spaceflights) on board the BION-M1 satellite (Roskosmos Program, Russia). For the present study, thymus, spleens and plasma samples were collected from mice 12 h after landing and, additionally, 7 days subsequently. Assessing the activity of NF-kappaB signaling cascade by measuring Rel A (p65) protein phosphorylation in splenic lymphocytes, we showed that the NF-kappaB activity was significantly increased at 12 h after landing. Contrariwise, one week after landing, the NF-kappaB activity was markedly decreased, even below to the control values. Interestingly, after landing there were no significant changes in SAPK/JNK cascade activity in splenic lymphocytes as well as in the expression of transcription factor IRF3 in thymus cells. To assess the apoptosis status in thymus lymphocytes, levels of p53 protein and its phosphorylated form were measured in thymic lymphocytes. It is known that p53 plays an important role in the cellular response to DNA damage, genomic aberrations, and other characteristic of apoptosis. The results showed that the high-orbit spaceflight environment caused some increase in level of p53 protein, but most notably, activated phosphorylated form of p53 protein. Calculated ratio of active and inactive forms of the protein (ph-p53/p53) 12 h after landing increased by more than 2-fold, indicating the apparent induction of apoptosis in thymus cells. Interestingly, 7 days after the landing, this ratio was not restored, but rather increased: the specified ratio was 4 times higher as compared to the ground-based control. We can conclude that response to the prolonged high-orbit spaceflight is not like the classic "stress response", which is usually observed under various stressful factors. It is known that the stress response is surely accompanied by increased SAPK/JNK cascade activity as well as the

  13. Guide for decontaminating swimming pool at schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuhashi, Shimpei; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Ryo; Takano, Takao; Seko, Noriaki; Naganawa, Hirochika; Kuroki, Ryota; Saegusa, Jun

    2012-07-01

    Because of TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident due to the Great East Japan Earthquake, a huge amount of radioactive materials was widely dispersed and precipitated into the environment. Swimming pools in Fukushima prefectures were contaminated with the radioactives. We JAEA carried out several demonstration tests to decontaminate the radioactives and discharge the pool water safely. We concluded the results obtained from the tests as 'Guide for decontaminating Swimming Pool at School' and released it quickly. Following this, we also released the guide in English. This manuscript, as an experimental report of the swimming pool water decontamination, is consisted from the guide in Japanese and English prepared. (author)

  14. Current operating practices of nuclear insurance pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the nuclear pooling system and co-operation between the pools, present practice and capacity, with a breakdown of the limits for third party liability and material damage. The author also describes the relationship between the pools and the nuclear operators (the policyholders), and concludes that the nuclear pools have been successful in serving the interests of their member companies, their policyholders and the governments as they have provided a stable insurance market by making available capacity in amounts that had never before been assembled and placed at risk in a single location. 2 tabs

  15. Guide for decontaminating swimming pool at schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuhashi, Shimpei; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Ryo; Takano, Takao; Seko, Noriaki; Naganawa, Hirochika; Kuroki, Ryota; Saegusa, Jun

    2012-07-15

    Because of TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident due to the Great East Japan Earthquake, a huge amount of radioactive materials was widely dispersed and precipitated into the environment. Swimming pools in Fukushima prefectures were contaminated with the radioactives. We JAEA carried out several demonstration tests to decontaminate the radioactives and discharge the pool water safely. We concluded the results obtained from the tests as 'Guide for decontaminating Swimming Pool at School' and released it quickly. Following this, we also released the guide in English. This manuscript, as an experimental report of the swimming pool water decontamination, is consisted from the guide in Japanese and English prepared. (author)

  16. Structure for nuclear fuel storage pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, Sakae; Nichiei, Shinji.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To enable leak detection in nuclear fuel storage pools, as well as prevent external leakages while keeping the strength of the constructional structures. Constitution: Protection plates are provided around pool linear plates and a leak reception is provided to the bottom. Leakages are detected by leak detecting pipeways and the external leakages are prevented by collecting them in a detection area provided in the intermediate layer. Since ferro-reinforcements at the bottom wall of the pool are disconnected by the protection plate making it impossible to form the constructional body, body hunches are provided to the bottom wall of the pool for processing the ferro-reinforcements. (Yoshino, Y.)

  17. Heat transfer from internally heated hemispherical pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabor, J.D.; Ellsion, P.G.; Cassulo, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on heat transfer from internally heated ZnSO 4 -H 2 O pools to the walls of hemispherical containers. This experimental technique provides data for a heat transfer system that has to date been only theoretically treated. Three different sizes of copper hemispherical containers were used: 240, 280, 320 mm in diameter. The pool container served both as a heat transfer surface and as an electrode. The opposing electrode was a copper disk, 50 mm in diameter located at the top of the pool in the center. The top surface of the pool was open to the atmosphere

  18. Oxidation kinetics of corium pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulatsky, A.A., E-mail: andrei314@mail.ru [Alexandrov Research Institute of Technologies (NITI), Sosnovy Bor (Russian Federation); Smirnov, S.A. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (NIIEFA), St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Granovsky, V.S.; Khabensky, V.B.; Krushinov, E.V.; Vitol, S.A.; Kotova, S.Yu. [Alexandrov Research Institute of Technologies (NITI), Sosnovy Bor (Russian Federation); Fischer, M.; Hellmann, S. [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Tromm, W.; Miassoedov, A. [Forschungzentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), Karlsruhe (Germany); Bottomley, D. [EUROPÄISCHE KOMMISSION, Joint Research Centre Institut für Transurane (ITU), Karlsruhe (Germany); Piluso, P. [CEA Cadarache-DEN/DTN/STRI, St.Paul-lez-Durance (France); Barrachin, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et Sûreté Nucléaire, St.Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • The analysis of experimental data on molten corium oxidation was been carried out. • The analysis has revealed the main factors influencing the oxidation kinetics. • The analysis was used for developing a qualitative analytical model. • The numerical modeling has confirmed the results of experimental data analysis. -- Abstract: Experimental, theoretical and numerical studies of oxidation kinetics of an open surface corium pool have been reported. The experiments have been carried out within OECD MASCA program and ISTC METCOR, METCOR-P and EVAN projects. It has been shown that the melt oxidation is controlled by an oxidant supply to the melt free surface from the atmosphere, not by the reducer supply from the melt. The project experiments have not detected any input of the zirconium oxidation kinetics into the process chemistry. The completed analysis puts forward a simple analytical model, which gives an explanation of the main features of melt oxidation process. The numerical modeling results are in good agreement with experimental data and theoretical considerations.

  19. Oxidation kinetics of corium pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulatsky, A.A.; Smirnov, S.A.; Granovsky, V.S.; Khabensky, V.B.; Krushinov, E.V.; Vitol, S.A.; Kotova, S.Yu.; Fischer, M.; Hellmann, S.; Tromm, W.; Miassoedov, A.; Bottomley, D.; Piluso, P.; Barrachin, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The analysis of experimental data on molten corium oxidation was been carried out. • The analysis has revealed the main factors influencing the oxidation kinetics. • The analysis was used for developing a qualitative analytical model. • The numerical modeling has confirmed the results of experimental data analysis. -- Abstract: Experimental, theoretical and numerical studies of oxidation kinetics of an open surface corium pool have been reported. The experiments have been carried out within OECD MASCA program and ISTC METCOR, METCOR-P and EVAN projects. It has been shown that the melt oxidation is controlled by an oxidant supply to the melt free surface from the atmosphere, not by the reducer supply from the melt. The project experiments have not detected any input of the zirconium oxidation kinetics into the process chemistry. The completed analysis puts forward a simple analytical model, which gives an explanation of the main features of melt oxidation process. The numerical modeling results are in good agreement with experimental data and theoretical considerations

  20. Meteorological satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Su-Yin

    2014-01-01

    “Meteorological Satellite Systems” is a primer on weather satellites and their Earth applications. This book reviews historic developments and recent technological advancements in GEO and polar orbiting meteorological satellites. It explores the evolution of these remote sensing technologies and their capabilities to monitor short- and long-term changes in weather patterns in response to climate change. Satellites developed by various countries, such as U.S. meteorological satellites, EUMETSAT, and Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Indian satellite platforms are reviewed. This book also discusses international efforts to coordinate meteorological remote sensing data collection and sharing. This title provides a ready and quick reference for information about meteorological satellites. It serves as a useful tool for a broad audience that includes students, academics, private consultants, engineers, scientists, and teachers.

  1. Theory of geostationary satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Zee, Chong-Hung

    1989-01-01

    Geostationary or equatorial synchronous satellites are a daily reminder of our space efforts during the past two decades. The nightly television satellite weather picture, the intercontinental telecommunications of television transmissions and telephone conversations, and the establishrnent of educational programs in remote regions on Earth are constant reminders of the presence of these satellites. As used here, the term 'geo­ stationary' must be taken loosely because, in the long run, the satellites will not remain 'stationary' with respect to an Earth-fixed reference frame. This results from the fact that these satellites, as is true for all satellites, are incessantly subject to perturbations other than the central-body attraction of the Earth. Among the more predominant pertur­ bations are: the ellipticity of the Earth's equator, the Sun and Moon, and solar radiation pressure. Higher harmonics of the Earth's potential and tidal effects also influence satellite motion, but they are of second­ order whe...

  2. Bioreactor scale up and protein product quality characterization of piggyBac transposon derived CHO pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendra, Yashas; Balasubramanian, Sowmya; Peery, Robert B; Swartling, James R; McCracken, Neil A; Norris, Dawn L; Frye, Christopher C; Barnard, Gavin C

    2017-03-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells remain the most popular host for the production of biopharmaceutical drugs, particularly monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), bispecific antibodies, and Fc-fusion proteins. Creating and characterizing the stable CHO clonally-derived cell lines (CDCLs) needed to manufacture these therapeutic proteins is a lengthy and laborious process. Therefore, CHO pools have increasingly been used to rapidly produce protein to support and enable preclinical drug development. We recently described the generation of CHO pools yielding mAb titers as high as 7.6 g/L in a 16 day bioprocess using piggyBac transposon-mediated gene integration. In this study, we wanted to understand why the piggyBac pool titers were significantly higher (2-10 fold) than the control CHO pools. Higher titers were the result of a combination of increased average gene copy number, significantly higher messenger RNA levels and the homogeneity (i.e. less diverse population distribution) of the piggyBac pools, relative to the control pools. In order to validate the use of piggyBac pools to support preclinical drug development, we then performed an in-depth product quality analysis of purified protein. The product quality of protein obtained from the piggyBac pools was very similar to the product quality profile of protein obtained from the control pools. Finally, we demonstrated the scalability of these pools from shake flasks to 36L bioreactors. Overall, these results suggest that gram quantities of therapeutic protein can be rapidly obtained from piggyBac CHO pools without significantly changing product quality attributes. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:534-540, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  3. FOP is a centriolar satellite protein involved in ciliogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Y Lee

    Full Text Available Centriolar satellites are proteinaceous granules that are often clustered around the centrosome. Although centriolar satellites have been implicated in protein trafficking in relation to the centrosome and cilium, the details of their function and composition remain unknown. FOP (FGFR1 Oncogene Partner is a known centrosome protein with homology to the centriolar satellite proteins FOR20 and OFD1. We find that FOP partially co-localizes with the satellite component PCM1 in a cell cycle-dependent manner, similarly to the satellite and cilium component BBS4. As for BBS4, FOP localization to satellites is cell cycle dependent, with few satellites labeled in G1, when FOP protein levels are lowest, and most labeled in G2. FOP-FGFR1, an oncogenic fusion that causes a form of leukemia called myeloproliferative neoplasm, also localizes to centriolar satellites where it increases tyrosine phosphorylation. Depletion of FOP strongly inhibits primary cilium formation in human RPE-1 cells. These results suggest that FOP is a centriolar satellite cargo protein and, as for several other satellite-associated proteins, is involved in ciliogenesis. Localization of the FOP-FGFR1 fusion kinase to centriolar satellites may be relevant to myeloproliferative neoplasm disease progression.

  4. 13 CFR 120.1708 - Pool Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... United States. (c) SBA purchase of a Loan Interest. SBA will determine whether to purchase a Loan... reserves the right to purchase a Loan Interest from a Pool at any time. (d) Self-liquidating. A Pool... market conditions and program experience, and will publish any such change in the Federal Register. (h...

  5. Compact fuel storage rack for fuel pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parras, F.; Louvat, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    ETS LEMER and FRAMATOME propose a new compact storage rack. This rack permits a considerable increase of the storage capacity of cooling pools. A short description of the structure and the components is presented, to propose racks that are: . Inalterable, . Compact, . Insensitive to earthquakes. Installation in pools already in operation is simplified by their light structure and the bearing device [fr

  6. The warm pool in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayachandran, P.N.; Shetye, S.R.

    is larger and warmer, a peculiarity of the pool in the Indian Ocean is its seasonal variation. The surface area of the pool changes from 24 x 106 km2 in April to 8 x 106 km2 in September due to interaction with the southwest monsoon. The annual cycles of sea...

  7. Shedding Light on Dark Liquidity Pools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; van Achter, M.; Wuyts, G.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the recent developments on dark liquidity pools starting from the theoretical and empirical academic literature. The number of dark liquidity pools as well as their trading volume has grown substantially in the last couple of years. We highlight the incentives of providers as

  8. Reracking Possibilities of the NPP Krsko Spent Fuel Pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bace, M.; Pevec, D.; Smuc, T.

    1998-01-01

    Using the SCALE-4 code package reracking possibilities of the NPP Krsko spent fuel pool were analyzed. Two cases were considered: the first case assuming the 40 years lifetime of the plant, and the second case assuming the 50 years lifetime of the plant. It was shown that it is possible to design the additional racks in free space of the spent fuel pool with the sufficient total capacity to store all the spent fuel generated during the 40 years lifetime of the plant. In the case of 50 years plant lifetime, completely new racks (capacity of 1890 spent fuel assemblies), containing 4mm boral in storage cell walls, were proposed for the NPP Krsko spent fuel pool. The effective multiplication factor of the spent fuel pool fully loaded with new racks containing spent fuel assemblies of initial enrichment 4.3 w/o, burned to 40 GWd/tU and cooled 2 years is lower than the value required by standard. It showed the possibility of the safe disposal of all spent fuel accumulated during more than 50 years lifetime of the plant. (author)

  9. Big city consultants shut down our pool : a shocking community pool gets checked for stray voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, P. [Power Line Systems Engineering Inc., Markham, ON (Canada)

    2009-12-15

    This article discussed an investigation conducted at a community pool where swimmers complained of receiving electrical shocks both in the pool and on the pool's deck area. Electrical measurements taken at the pool revealed current flows from the pool water to various points around the deck area. Measured current flow in the pool area was 30 amps even when the main pool service breaker was opened to shut off power to the entire facility. Thirty amps of primary neutral current was then measured on the primary side aerial neutral in front of the pool. A 10 amp primary feeder from the pool joined up with the complex's primary neutral wire to increase the neutral current to 40 amps. The combined 40 amps current then returned to the secondary side of a nearby utility transformer substation. The study showed that the underground wet low-resistance grounded surface area of the pool was attracting the 30 amps of utility current from the surrounding ground area. The local utility disconnected the primary and secondary neutral interconnection at the pool's main 600-volt step-down transformer. The pool deck was removed in order to install additional copper bonding grounds. In order to avert serious injuries, many experts propose that all electric utilities should be required by law to reconfigure their power systems to prevent primary power neutral currents from entering private buildings. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  10. Ripples in a superconducting tidal pool

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, E

    2003-01-01

    The behaviour of electrons in a metal is often compared to that of water in a pool. An empty pool is like a material that has all of its electrons removed. As electrons are 'poured' into the metal, they first occupy the lowest energies available - the bottom of the pool - and eventually fill up to the Fermi energy, the top of the pool. At this point we no longer discuss electrons but quasiparticles. These are electrons that have modified properties due to their interactions within the material. Waves in a pool can be excited, and their properties will depend on the depth of the water. Similarly in a metal, quasiparticles behave like waves that have a material-dependent dispersion relation between their energy and their wavevector, which specifies their direction and wavelength. This simple analogy also hints at an indirect method of measuring the dispersion relation of a metal, and hence the myriad of properties that depend on it. (U.K.)

  11. Design and Construction of Pool Door for Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kwangsub; Lee, Sangjin; Choi, Jinbok; Oh, Jinho; Lee, Jongmin [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The pool door is a structure to isolate the reactor pool from the service pool for maintenance. The pool door is installed before the reactor pool is drained. The pool door consists of structural component and sealing component. The main structures of the pool door are stainless steel plates and side frames. The plates and frames are assembled by welded joints. Lug is welded at the top of the plate. The pool door is submerged in the pool water when it is used. Materials of the pool door should be resistive to corrosion and radiation. Stainless steel is used in structural components and air nozzle assemblies. Features of design and construction of the pool door for the research reactor are introduced. The pool door is designed to isolate the reactor pool for maintenance. Structural analysis is performed to evaluate the structural integrity during earthquake. Tests and inspections are also carried out during construction to identify the safety and function of the pool door.

  12. Design and Construction of Pool Door for Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kwangsub; Lee, Sangjin; Choi, Jinbok; Oh, Jinho; Lee, Jongmin

    2016-01-01

    The pool door is a structure to isolate the reactor pool from the service pool for maintenance. The pool door is installed before the reactor pool is drained. The pool door consists of structural component and sealing component. The main structures of the pool door are stainless steel plates and side frames. The plates and frames are assembled by welded joints. Lug is welded at the top of the plate. The pool door is submerged in the pool water when it is used. Materials of the pool door should be resistive to corrosion and radiation. Stainless steel is used in structural components and air nozzle assemblies. Features of design and construction of the pool door for the research reactor are introduced. The pool door is designed to isolate the reactor pool for maintenance. Structural analysis is performed to evaluate the structural integrity during earthquake. Tests and inspections are also carried out during construction to identify the safety and function of the pool door

  13. Pool scrubbing models for iodine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, K [Battelle Ingenieurtechnik GmbH, Eschborn (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    Pool scrubbing is an important mechanism to retain radioactive fission products from being carried into the containment atmosphere or into the secondary piping system. A number of models and computer codes has been developed to predict the retention of aerosols and fission product vapours that are released from the core and injected into water pools of BWR and PWR type reactors during severe accidents. Important codes in this field are BUSCA, SPARC and SUPRA. The present paper summarizes the models for scrubbing of gaseous Iodine components in these codes, discusses the experimental validation, and gives an assessment of the state of knowledge reached and the open questions which persist. The retention of gaseous Iodine components is modelled by the various codes in a very heterogeneous manner. Differences show up in the chemical species considered, the treatment of mass transfer boundary layers on the gaseous and liquid sides, the gas-liquid interface geometry, calculation of equilibrium concentrations and numerical procedures. Especially important is the determination of the pool water pH value. This value is affected by basic aerosols deposited in the water, e.g. Cesium and Rubidium compounds. A consistent model requires a mass balance of these compounds in the pool, thus effectively coupling the pool scrubbing phenomena of aerosols and gaseous Iodine species. Since the water pool conditions are also affected by drainage flow of condensate water from different regions in the containment, and desorption of dissolved gases on the pool surface is determined by the gas concentrations above the pool, some basic limitations of specialized pool scrubbing codes are given. The paper draws conclusions about the necessity of coupling between containment thermal-hydraulics and pool scrubbing models, and proposes ways of further simulation model development in order to improve source term predictions. (author) 2 tabs., refs.

  14. Pool scrubbing models for iodine components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, K.

    1996-01-01

    Pool scrubbing is an important mechanism to retain radioactive fission products from being carried into the containment atmosphere or into the secondary piping system. A number of models and computer codes has been developed to predict the retention of aerosols and fission product vapours that are released from the core and injected into water pools of BWR and PWR type reactors during severe accidents. Important codes in this field are BUSCA, SPARC and SUPRA. The present paper summarizes the models for scrubbing of gaseous Iodine components in these codes, discusses the experimental validation, and gives an assessment of the state of knowledge reached and the open questions which persist. The retention of gaseous Iodine components is modelled by the various codes in a very heterogeneous manner. Differences show up in the chemical species considered, the treatment of mass transfer boundary layers on the gaseous and liquid sides, the gas-liquid interface geometry, calculation of equilibrium concentrations and numerical procedures. Especially important is the determination of the pool water pH value. This value is affected by basic aerosols deposited in the water, e.g. Cesium and Rubidium compounds. A consistent model requires a mass balance of these compounds in the pool, thus effectively coupling the pool scrubbing phenomena of aerosols and gaseous Iodine species. Since the water pool conditions are also affected by drainage flow of condensate water from different regions in the containment, and desorption of dissolved gases on the pool surface is determined by the gas concentrations above the pool, some basic limitations of specialized pool scrubbing codes are given. The paper draws conclusions about the necessity of coupling between containment thermal-hydraulics and pool scrubbing models, and proposes ways of further simulation model development in order to improve source term predictions. (author) 2 tabs., refs

  15. P2X7 receptors in satellite glial cells mediate high functional expression of P2X3 receptors in immature dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purinergic P2X3 receptor (P2X3R expressed in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG sensory neuron and the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R expressed in the surrounding satellite glial cell (SGC are two major receptors participating in neuron-SGC communication in adult DRGs. Activation of P2X7Rs was found to tonically reduce the expression of P2X3Rs in DRGs, thus inhibiting the abnormal pain behaviors in adult rats. P2X receptors are also actively involved in sensory signaling in developing rodents. However, very little is known about the developmental change of P2X7Rs in DRGs and the interaction between P2X7Rs and P2X3Rs in those animals. We therefore examined the expression of P2X3Rs and P2X7Rs in postnatal rats and determined if P2X7R-P2X3R control exists in developing rats. Findings We immunostained DRGs of immature rats and found that P2X3Rs were expressed only in neurons and P2X7Rs were expressed only in SGCs. Western blot analyses indicated that P2X3R expression decreased while P2X7R expression increased with the age of rats. Electrophysiological studies showed that the number of DRG neurons responding to the stimulation of the P2XR agonist, α,β-meATP, was higher and the amplitudes of α,β-meATP-induced depolarizations were larger in immature DRG neurons. As a result, P2X3R-mediated flinching responses were much more pronounced in immature rats than those found in adult rats. When we reduced P2X7R expression with P2X7R-siRNA in postnatal and adult rats, P2X3R-mediated flinch responses were greatly enhanced in both rat populations. Conclusions These results show that the P2X7R expression increases as rats age. In addition, P2X7Rs in SGCs exert inhibitory control on the P2X3R expression and function in sensory neurons of immature rats, just as observed in adult rats. Regulation of P2X7R expression is likely an effective way to control P2X3R activity and manage pain relief in infants.

  16. Communication satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    The status and future of the technologies, numbers and services provided by communications satellites worldwide are explored. The evolution of Intelsat satellites and the associated earth terminals toward high-rate all-digital telephony, data, facsimile, videophone, videoconferencing and DBS capabilities are described. The capabilities, services and usage of the Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Arabsat and Palapa systems are also outlined. Domestic satellite communications by means of the Molniya, ANIK, Olympus, Intelsat and Palapa spacecraft are outlined, noting the fast growth of the market and the growing number of different satellite manufacturers. The technical, economic and service definition issues surrounding DBS systems are discussed, along with presently operating and planned maritime and aeronautical communications and positioning systems. Features of search and rescue and tracking, data, and relay satellite systems are summarized, and services offered or which will be offered by every existing or planned communication satellite worldwide are tabulated.

  17. Crowd density estimation based on convolutional neural networks with mixed pooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Zheng, Hong; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Dongming

    2017-09-01

    Crowd density estimation is an important topic in the fields of machine learning and video surveillance. Existing methods do not provide satisfactory classification accuracy; moreover, they have difficulty in adapting to complex scenes. Therefore, we propose a method based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs). The proposed method improves performance of crowd density estimation in two key ways. First, we propose a feature pooling method named mixed pooling to regularize the CNNs. It replaces deterministic pooling operations with a parameter that, by studying the algorithm, could combine the conventional max pooling with average pooling methods. Second, we present a classification strategy, in which an image is divided into two cells and respectively categorized. The proposed approach was evaluated on three datasets: two ground truth image sequences and the University of California, San Diego, anomaly detection dataset. The results demonstrate that the proposed approach performs more effectively and easily than other methods.

  18. Sodium/water pool-deposit bed model of the CONACS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peak, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    A new Pool-Bed model of the CONACS (Containment Analysis Code System) code represents a major advance over the pool models of other containment analysis code (NABE code of France, CEDAN code of Japan and CACECO and CONTAIN codes of the United States). This new model advances pool-bed modeling because of the number of significant materials and processes which are included with appropriate rigor. This CONACS pool-bed model maintains material balances for eight chemical species (C, H 2 O, Na, NaH, Na 2 O, Na 2 O 2 , Na 2 CO 3 and NaOH) that collect in the stationary liquid pool on the floor and in the desposit bed on the elevated shelf of the standard CONACS analysis cell

  19. Swimming pool hydraulics and their significance for public pools. Bedeutung der Beckenhydraulik in oeffentlichen Schwimmbaedern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gansloser, G

    1989-11-01

    The term of swimming pool hydraulics means the process of letting in and drawing off water to and from the pool while ensuring that no inadmissible water-borne contaminant concentrations will occur anywhere within the pool. Measurements were performed on a pool to study the significance of correct pool hydraulics. The author points out that a wrong water recirculation design will bring to nought the effects of an elaborate water treatment system; by contrast, poor pool water quality can be greatly improved by redesigning the pool water hydraulics approach. In principle, systems with with water inlet at one side and water outlet at the far side will fall short of hygienic requirements. (BWI).

  20. Satellite services system overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysavy, G.

    1982-01-01

    The benefits of a satellite services system and the basic needs of the Space Transportation System to have improved satellite service capability are identified. Specific required servicing equipment are discussed in terms of their technology development status and their operative functions. Concepts include maneuverable television systems, extravehicular maneuvering unit, orbiter exterior lighting, satellite holding and positioning aid, fluid transfer equipment, end effectors for the remote manipulator system, teleoperator maneuvering system, and hand and power tools.

  1. Studies of thermal stratification in water pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, P.K.; Chandraker, D.K.; Nayak, A.K.; Vijayan, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    Large water pools are used as a heat sink for various cooling systems used in industry. In context of advance nuclear reactors like AHWR, it is used as ultimate heat sink for passive systems for decay heat removal and containment cooling. This system incorporates heat exchangers submerged in the large water pool. However, heat transfer by natural convection in pool poses a problem of thermal stratification. Due to thermal stratification hot layers of water accumulate over the relatively cold one. The heat transfer performance of heat exchanger gets deteriorated as a hot fluid envelops it. In the nuclear reactors, the walls of the pool are made of concrete and it may subject to high temperature due to thermal stratification which is not desirable. In this paper, a concept of employing shrouds around the heat source is studied. These shrouds provide a bulk flow in the water pool, thereby facilitating mixing of hot and cold fluid, which eliminate stratification. The concept has been applied to the a scaled model of Gravity Driven Water Pool (GDWP) of AHWR in which Isolation Condensers (IC) tubes are submerged for decay heat removal of AHWR using ICS and thermal stratification phenomenon was predicted with and without shrouds. To demonstrate the adequacy of the effectiveness of shroud arrangement and to validate the simulation methodology of RELAP5/Mod3.2, experiments has been conducted on a scaled model of the pool with and without shroud. (author)

  2. Spent fuel pool cleanup and stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1987-06-01

    Each of the plutonium production reactors at Hanford had a large water-filled spent fuel pool to provide interim storage of irradiated fuel while awaiting shipment to the separation facilities. After cessation of reactor operations the fuel was removed from the pools and the water levels were drawn down to a 5- to 10-foot depth. The pools were maintained with the water to provide shielding and radiological control. What appeared to be a straightforward project to process the water, remove the sediments from the basin, and stabilize the contamination on the floors and walls became a very complex and time consuming operation. The sediment characteristics varied from pool to pool, the ion exchange system required modification, areas of hard-pack sediments were discovered on the floors, special arrangements to handle and package high dose rate items for shipment were required, and contract problems ensued with the subcontractor. The original schedule to complete the project from preliminary engineering to final stabilization of the pools was 15 months. The actual time required was about 25 months. The original cost estimate to perform the work was $2,651,000. The actual cost of the project was $5,120,000, which included $150,000 for payment of claims to the subcontractor. This paper summarizes the experiences associated with the cleanup and radiological stabilization of the 100-B, -C, -D, and -DR spent fuel pools, and discusses a number of lessons learned items

  3. Modal analysis of pool door in water tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Soo; Jeong, Kyeong Hoon; Park, Chan Gook; Koo, In Soo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    A pool door is installed at the chase of the pool gate by means of an overhead crane in the building of a research reactor. The principal function of the pool door, which is located between the reactor pool and service pool, is to separate the reactor pool from the service pool for the maintenance and/or the removal of the equipment either in the reactor pool or service pool. The pool door consists of stainless steel plates supported by structural steel frames and sealing components. The pool door is equipped with double inflatable gaskets. The configuration of the pool door is shown in Figure 1. The FEM analysis and theoretical calculation by the formula were performed to evaluate the natural frequency for the pool door in the water. The results from the two methods were compared.

  4. The Role of Nuclear Insurance Pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.

    2006-01-01

    Since fifty years insurers respond to the need of both governments and the electricity industry to provide financial protection to cover the perils presented by the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. This paper aims at explaining what difficulties had to be solved in order to enable insurers to provide such protection, that as a solution to these difficulties Nuclear Insurance Pools were formed, how such pools operate and what security they provide. Thereby not only a number of universal principles underlying nuclear pool insurance will be explained, but also some differences in the characteristics of such insurance per group of countries. (author)

  5. Laser surveillance systems for fuel storage pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.

    1985-06-01

    A Laser Surveillance System (LASSY) as a new safeguards device has been developed under the IAEA research contract No. 3458/RB at the Atominstitut Wien using earlier results by S. Fiarman. This system is designed to act as a sheet of light covering spent fuel assemblies in spent fuel storage pools. When movement of assemblies takes place, LASSY detects and locates the position of the movement in the pool and when interrogated, presents a list of pool positions and times of movement to the safeguards inspector. A complete prototype system was developed and built. Full scale tests showed the principal working capabilities of a LASSY underwater

  6. In Silico Pooling of ChIP-seq Control Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guannan; Srinivasan, Rajini; Lopez-Anido, Camila; Hung, Holly A.; Svaren, John; Keleş, Sündüz

    2014-01-01

    As next generation sequencing technologies are becoming more economical, large-scale ChIP-seq studies are enabling the investigation of the roles of transcription factor binding and epigenome on phenotypic variation. Studying such variation requires individual level ChIP-seq experiments. Standard designs for ChIP-seq experiments employ a paired control per ChIP-seq sample. Genomic coverage for control experiments is often sacrificed to increase the resources for ChIP samples. However, the quality of ChIP-enriched regions identifiable from a ChIP-seq experiment depends on the quality and the coverage of the control experiments. Insufficient coverage leads to loss of power in detecting enrichment. We investigate the effect of in silico pooling of control samples within multiple biological replicates, multiple treatment conditions, and multiple cell lines and tissues across multiple datasets with varying levels of genomic coverage. Our computational studies suggest guidelines for performing in silico pooling of control experiments. Using vast amounts of ENCODE data, we show that pairwise correlations between control samples originating from multiple biological replicates, treatments, and cell lines/tissues can be grouped into two classes representing whether or not in silico pooling leads to power gain in detecting enrichment between the ChIP and the control samples. Our findings have important implications for multiplexing samples. PMID:25380244

  7. Solar power satellites: Commercialization and socio-economic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storelli, V.

    1993-01-01

    Commercialization prospects for solar power satellites are assessed with reference to their possible impacts on the viability of the fossil fuel market and on international energy and environmental policies. The technical aspects which are examined include: solar panel sizing in relation to solar cell efficiency; the development of point-contact solar cell technology; the feasibility of the use of lunar materials; microwave transmission from the moon; optimum satellite positioning; the use of robots for in-space satellite assembly; satellite transmitted power for hydrogen production and storage; marketable product estimated development time

  8. 10 CFR 36.63 - Pool water purity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pool water purity. 36.63 Section 36.63 Energy NUCLEAR... § 36.63 Pool water purity. (a) Pool water purification system must be run sufficiently to maintain the conductivity of the pool water below 20 microsiemens per centimeter under normal circumstances. If pool water...

  9. The Nuclear Insurance Pools: Operations and Covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetley, M.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear insurance pools have provided insurance for the nuclear industry for over fifty years and it is fair to say that the development of civil nuclear power would not have been possible without the support of the commercial insurance market. The unknown risks presented by the nascent nuclear power industry in the 1950s required a leap of faith by insurers who developed specialist pooled insurance capacity to ensure adequate capacity to back up the operators' compensation obligations. Since then, nuclear insurance pools have evolved to become comprehensive suppliers of most types of insurance for nuclear plant globally. This paper will outline the structure, development, products and current operations of nuclear insurance pools.(author)

  10. Ingestion of swimming pool water by recreational

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Swimming pool water ingestion data. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Dufour, A., L. Wymer, M. Magnuson, T. Behymer, and R. Cantu. Ingestion...

  11. Nuclear Insurance Pools: Worldwide Practice and Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.

    1998-01-01

    The development of nuclear installations to produce electricity led to the establishment of Nuclear Insurance Pools and the introduction of international Conventions on Third Party Liability. Nuclear Pools offer both Third Party Liability insurance, reflecting the Conventions' principles, and other insurance products. They are market-wide, providing a facility for participation by insurers who could not otherwise write the insurance for the particularly sensitive nuclear risk. All acceptances are for the net retention of each Member without recourse to individual reinsurance protection. Common account reinsurance is arranged with other Nuclear Pools all over the world. Thus, a transparency is created, which ensures the highest degree of reinsurance security and imposes a known finite limit to each participating insurer's commitment. Therefore, Pool-members are prepared to make a greater commitment to nuclear risks than would be case where they felt uncertain as regards their total exposure following a significant loss. (author)

  12. AE/VCE Unconfirmed Vernal Pools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is derived from a project by the Vermont Center for Ecostudies(VCE) and Arrowwood Environmental(AE) to map vernal pools throughout the state of Vermont....

  13. AE/VCE Confirmed Vernal Pools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is derived from a project by the Vermont Center for Ecostudies(VCE) and Arrowwood Environmental(AE) to map vernal pools throughout the state of Vermont....

  14. Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Tide Pool Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Students investigated the salinity of tide pools at different levels in the intertidal zone. Data are analyzed collectively. Students graphed and discussed data. Included are suggestions for evaluation and further study. (Author)

  15. 7 CFR 1126.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... excluded from the supply plant's shipments in computing the plant's shipping percentage. (d) A plant... part, or the plant has automatic pooling status under the other Federal order; and (7) That portion of...

  16. 7 CFR 1001.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... excluded from the supply plant's shipments in computing the percentages in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of... plant has automatic pooling status under the other Federal order. [64 FR 47954, Sept. 1, 1999, as...

  17. 7 CFR 1007.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-upon use other than Class I shall be excluded from the supply plant's shipments in computing the plant... under the order in this part, or such plant has automatic pooling status under such other order. (h) Any...

  18. Microbial quality of a marine tidal pool

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the source of microbial pollution to a tidal pool was investigated. Both adjacent seawater which could contribute to possible faecal pollution and potential direct bather pollution were studied. The microbial quality of the marine...

  19. Robotic cleaning of a spent fuel pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, H.T.; Marian, F.A.; Silverman, E.B.; Barkley, V.P.

    1987-01-01

    Spent fuel pools at nuclear power plants are not cleaned routinely, other than by purifying the water that they contain. Yet, debris can collect on the bottom of a pool and should be removed prior to fuel transfer. At Public Service Electric and Gas Company's Hope Creek Nuclear Power Plant, a submersible mobile robot - ARD Corporation's SCAVENGER - was used to clean the bottom of the spent fuel pool prior to initial fuel loading. The robotic device was operated remotely (as opposed to autonomously) with a simple forward/reverse control, and it cleaned 70-80% of the pool bottom. This paper reports that a simple cost-benefit analysis shows that the robotic device would be less expensive, on a per mission basis, than other cleaning alternatives, especially if it were used for other similar cleaning operations throughout the plant

  20. Pooling strategies for St Petersburg gamblers

    OpenAIRE

    Csörgö, Sandor; Simons, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    Peter offers to play exactly one St Petersburg game with each of [math] players, Paul [math] , [math] , Paul [math] , whose conceivable pooling strategies are described by all possible probability distributions [math] . Comparing infinite expectations, we characterize among all [math] those admissible strategies for which the pooled winnings, each distributed as [math] , yield a finite added value for each and every one of Paul [math] , [math] , Paul [math] in comparison with their individual...

  1. Welding pool measurement using thermal array sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chia-Hung; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Chen, Hsin-Yi

    2015-08-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technology that uses a high-power laser beam to melt metal powder in chamber of inert gas. The process starts by slicing the 3D CAD data as a digital information source into layers to create a 2D image of each layer. Melting pool was formed by using laser irradiation on metal powders which then solidified to consolidated structure. In a selective laser melting process, the variation of melt pool affects the yield of a printed three-dimensional product. For three dimensional parts, the border conditions of the conductive heat transport have a very large influence on the melt pool dimensions. Therefore, melting pool is an important behavior that affects the final quality of the 3D object. To meet the temperature and geometry of the melting pool for monitoring in additive manufacturing technology. In this paper, we proposed the temperature sensing system which is composed of infrared photodiode, high speed camera, band-pass filter, dichroic beam splitter and focus lens. Since the infrared photodiode and high speed camera look at the process through the 2D galvanometer scanner and f-theta lens, the temperature sensing system can be used to observe the melting pool at any time, regardless of the movement of the laser spot. In order to obtain a wide temperature detecting range, 500 °C to 2500 °C, the radiation from the melting pool to be measured is filtered into a plurality of radiation portions, and since the intensity ratio distribution of the radiation portions is calculated by using black-body radiation. The experimental result shows that the system is suitable for melting pool to measure temperature.

  2. Satellite Communications Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Ariane $loom SAJAC 1 Hughes Satellite Japan 06/94 $150m SAJAC 2 Hughes Satellite Japan -- (spare) $150m SatcomHl GE GE Americom /95 $50m SOLIDARIDAD ...1 Hughes SCT (Mexico) 11/93 Ariane $loom SOLIDARIDAD 2 Hughes SCT (Mexico) /94 $loom Superbird Al Loral Space Com Gp (Jap) 11/92 Ariane $175m

  3. Partnership via Satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Marie Clare

    1980-01-01

    Segments of the 1980 National Catholic Educational Association (NCEA) conference were to be telecast nationally by satellite. The author briefly explains the satellite transmission process and advises Catholic educators on how to pick up the broadcast through their local cable television system. (SJL)

  4. Numerical modelling of methanol liquid pool fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kuldeep; Li, Chiping; Kailasanath, K.; Ndubizu, Chuka; Ananth, Ramagopal; Tatem, P. A.

    1999-12-01

    The focus of this paper is on numerical modelling of methanol liquid pool fires. A mathematical model is first developed to describe the evaporation and burning of a two-dimensional or axisymmetric pool containing pure liquid methanol. Then, the complete set of unsteady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations for reactive flows are solved in the gas phase to describe the convection of the fuel gases away from the pool surface, diffusion of the gases into the surrounding air and the oxidation of the fuel into product species. Heat transfer into the liquid pool and the metal container through conduction, convection and radiation are modelled by solving a modified form of the energy equation. Clausius-Clapeyron relationships are invoked to model the evaporation rate of a two-dimensional pool of pure liquid methanol. The governing equations along with appropriate boundary and interface conditions are solved using the flux-corrected transport algorithm. Numerical results exhibit a flame structure that compares well with experimental observations. Temperature profiles and burning rates were found to compare favourably with experimental data from single- and three-compartment laboratory burners. The model predicts a puffing frequency of approximately 12 Hz for a 1 cm diameter methanol pool in the absence of any air co-flow. It is also observed that increasing the air co-flow velocity helps in stabilizing the diffusion flame, by pushing the vortical structures away from the flame region.

  5. Recent advances in probabilistic species pool delineations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Nikolaus Karger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A species pool is the set of species that could potentially colonize and establish within a community. It has been a commonly used concept in biogeography since the early days of MacArthur and Wilson’s work on Island Biogeography. Despite their simple and appealing definition, an operational application of species pools is bundled with a multitude of problems, which have often resulted in arbitrary decisions and workarounds when defining species pools. Two recently published papers address the operational problems of species pool delineations, and show ways of delineating them in a probabilistic fashion. In both papers, species pools were delineated using a process-based, mechanistical approach, which opens the door for a multitude of new applications in biogeography. Such applications include detecting the hidden signature of biotic interactions, disentangling the geographical structure of community assembly processes, and incorporating a temporal extent into species pools. Although similar in their conclusions, both ‘probabilistic approaches’ differ in their implementation and definitions. Here I give a brief overview of the differences and similarities of both approaches, and identify the challenges and advantages in their application.

  6. The satellite situation center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teague, M.J.; Sawyer, D.M.; Vette, J.I.

    1982-01-01

    Considerations related to the early planning for the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) took into account the desirability of an establishment of specific entities for generating and disseminating coordination information for both retrospective and predictive periods. The organizations established include the IMS/Satellite Situation Center (IMS/SSC) operated by NASA. The activities of the SSC are related to the preparation of reports on predicted and actually achieved satellite positions, the response to inquiries, the compilation of information on satellite experiments, and the issue of periodic status summaries. Attention is given to high-altitude satellite services, other correlative satellite services, non-IMS activities of the SSC, a summary of the SSC request activity, and post-IMS and future activities

  7. Template DNA-strand co-segregation and asymmetric cell division in skeletal muscle stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinin, Vasily; Gayraud-Morel, Barbara; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim

    2009-01-01

    Stem cells are present in all tissues and organs, and are crucial for normal regulated growth. How the pool size of stem cells and their progeny is regulated to establish the tissue prenatally, then maintain it throughout life, is a key question in biology and medicine. The ability to precisely locate stem and progenitors requires defining lineage progression from stem to differentiated cells, assessing the mode of cell expansion and self-renewal and identifying markers to assess the different cell states within the lineage. We have shown that during lineage progression from a quiescent adult muscle satellite cell to a differentiated myofibre, both symmetric and asymmetric divisions take place. Furthermore, we provide evidence that a sub-population of label retaining satellite cells co-segregate template DNA strands to one daughter cell. These findings provide a means of identifying presumed stem and progenitor cells within the lineage. In addition, asymmetric segregation of template DNA and the cytoplasmic protein Numb provides a landmark to define cell behaviour as self-renewal and differentiation decisions are being executed.

  8. Probability of satellite collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarter, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    A method is presented for computing the probability of a collision between a particular artificial earth satellite and any one of the total population of earth satellites. The collision hazard incurred by the proposed modular Space Station is assessed using the technique presented. The results of a parametric study to determine what type of satellite orbits produce the greatest contribution to the total collision probability are presented. Collision probability for the Space Station is given as a function of Space Station altitude and inclination. Collision probability was also parameterized over miss distance and mission duration.

  9. Self-formed waterfall plunge pools in homogeneous rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheingross, Joel S.; Lo, Daniel Y.; Lamb, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Waterfalls are ubiquitous, and their upstream propagation can set the pace of landscape evolution, yet no experimental studies have examined waterfall plunge pool erosion in homogeneous rock. We performed laboratory experiments, using synthetic foam as a bedrock simulant, to produce self-formed waterfall plunge pools via particle impact abrasion. Plunge pool vertical incision exceeded lateral erosion by approximately tenfold until pools deepened to the point that the supplied sediment could not be evacuated and deposition armored the pool bedrock floor. Lateral erosion of plunge pool sidewalls continued after sediment deposition, but primarily at the downstream pool wall, which might lead to undermining of the plunge pool lip, sediment evacuation, and continued vertical pool floor incision in natural streams. Undercutting of the upstream pool wall was absent, and our results suggest that vertical drilling of successive plunge pools is a more efficient waterfall retreat mechanism than the classic model of headwall undercutting and collapse in homogeneous rock.

  10. Structure of pool in reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Shigeki.

    1997-01-01

    Shielding walls made of iron-reinforced concrete having a metal liner including two body walls rigidly combined to the upper surface of a reactor container are disposed at least to one of an equipment pool or spent fuel storage pool in a reactor building. A rack for temporarily placing an upper lattice plate is detachably attached at least above one of a steam dryer or a gas/liquid separator temporarily placed in the temporary pool, and the height from the bottom portion to the upper end of the shielding wall is determined based on the height of an upper lattice plate temporary placed on the rack and the water depth required for shielding radiation from the upper lattice plate. An operator's exposure on the operation floor can be reduced by the shielding wall, and radiation dose from the spent fuels is reduced. The increase of the height of a pool guarder enhances bending resistance as a ceiling. In addition, the total height of them is made identical with the depth of the spent fuel storage pool thereby enabling to increase storage area for spent fuels. (N.H.)

  11. Cooling device for reactor suppression pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togasaki, Susumu; Kato, Kiyoshi.

    1994-01-01

    In a cooling device of a reactor suppression pool, when a temperature of pool water is abnormally increased and a heat absorbing portion is heated by, for example, occurrence of an accident, coolants are sent to the outside of the reactor container to actuates a thermally operating portion by the heat energy of coolants and drive heat exchanging fluids of a secondary cooling system. If the heat exchanging fluids are sent to a cooling portion, the coolants are cooled and returned to the heat absorbing portion of the suppression pool water. If the heat absorbing portion is heat pipes, the coolants are evaporated by heat absorbed from the suppression pool water, steams are sent to the thermally operating portion, then coolants are liquefied and caused to return to the heat absorbing portion. If the thermal operation portion is a gas turbine, the gas turbine is operated by the coolants, and it is converted to a rotational force to drive heat exchanging fluids by pumps. By constituting the cooling portion with a condensator, the coolants are condensed and liquefied and returned to the heat absorbing portion of the suppression pool water. (N.H.)

  12. Condensation in a two-phase pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, R.B.; Hughes, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    We consider the case of vapor condensation in a liquid pool, when the heat transfer is controlled by heat losses through the walls. The analysis is based on drift flux theory for phase separation in the pool, and determines the two-phase mixture height for the pool. To our knowledge this is the first analytical treatment of this classic problem that gives an explicit result, previous work having established the result for the evaporative case. From conservation of mass and energy in a one-dimensional steady flow, together with a void relation between the liquid and vapor fluxes, we determine the increase in the mixture level from the base level of the pool. It can be seen that the thermal and hydrodynamic influences are separable. Thus, the thermal influence of the wall heat transfer appears through its effect on the condensing length L*, so that at high condensation rates the pool is all liquid, and at low rates overflows (the level swell or foaming effect). Similarly, the phase separation effect hydrodynamically determines the height via the relative velocity of the mixture to the entering flux. We examine some practical applications of this result to level swell in condensing flows, and also examine some limits in ideal cases

  13. Investigation of Processes Controlling Elution of Solutes from Nonaqueous Phase Liquid (NAPL) Pools into Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedabbasi, M.; Pirestani, K.; Holland, S. B.; Imhoff, P. T.

    2005-12-01

    Two major processes influencing the elution of solutes from porous media contaminated with nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) are external mass transfer between the NAPL and groundwater and internal diffusion through NAPL ganglia and pools. There is a relatively large body of literature on the dissolution of single-species NAPLs. Less is known about the rates of elution of compounds dissolving from multicomponent NAPLs. We examined the mass transfer of one solute, 2,3-dimethyl-2-butanol (DMB) - a partitioning tracer, between groundwater and a dense NAPL - trichloroethylene (TCE). Diffusion cell experiments were used to measure the molecular diffusion coefficient of DMB in pure TCE and in porous media contaminated with a TCE pool. Measured diffusion coefficients were compared with empirical correlations (pure TCE) and a parallel resistance model (TCE pool). Based on the results from these analyses, a dimensionless Biot number was derived to express the ratio of the external rate of mass transfer from a NAPL pool to the internal rate of diffusion within the pool, which varies with NAPL saturation and NAPL-water partition coefficient. Biot numbers were then estimated for several laboratory scale experiments involving DMB transport between NAPL pools and groundwater. The estimated Biot numbers were in good agreement with experimental results. The expression for the Biot number developed here may be used to assess the processes controlling the elution of solutes from NAPL pools, which has implications on long-term predictions of solute dissolution from NAPLs in the field.

  14. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Top space experts from around the world have collaborated to produce this comprehensive, authoritative, and clearly illustrated reference guide to the fast growing, multi-billion dollar field of satellite applications and space communications. This handbook, done under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, addresses not only system technologies but also examines market dynamics, technical standards and regulatory constraints. The handbook is a completely multi-disciplinary reference book that covers, in an in-depth fashion, the fields of satellite telecommunications, Earth observation, remote sensing, satellite navigation, geographical information systems, and geosynchronous meteorological systems. It covers current practices and designs as well as advanced concepts and future systems. It provides a comparative analysis of the common technologies and design elements for satellite application bus structures, thermal controls, power systems, stabilization techniques, telemetry, com...

  15. Domestic Communication Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Andrew

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of the Federal Communications Commission's new policy on domestic satellites in light of our 1) military and economic history; 2) corporate interests; 3) citizen surveillance; and 4) media control. (HB)

  16. SATELLITE CONSTELLATION DESIGN PARAMETER

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. SATELLITE CONSTELLATION DESIGN PARAMETER. 1. ORBIT CHARACTERISTICS. ORBITAL HEIGHT >= 20,000 KM. LONGER VISIBILITY; ORBITAL PERIOD. PERTURBATIONS(MINIMUM). SOLAR RADIATION PRESSURE (IMPACTS ECCENTRICITY); LUNI ...

  17. 13 CFR 120.1706 - Pool Originator's retained interest in Pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pool Originator's retained interest in Pool. 120.1706 Section 120.1706 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Establishment of SBA Secondary Market Guarantee Program for First Lien Position 504 Loan...

  18. Strategies for chemically healthy public swimming pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht

    spreading of pathogens between swimmers because of its residual disinfection effect. In addition to potential contamination of pathogenic microorganisms, swimming pool water is polluted by organic matter deposited from the bathers such as saliva, urine, sweat, hair and personal care products. Since chlorine...... is a strong oxidant it oxidizes the organic matter in the pool water and forms disinfection byproducts (DBPs). More than 100 different DBPs have been identified. Some of these have been found to be genotoxic and may pose an increased cancer risk for the bathers. The aim of this thesis was to give an overview...... of the strategies which can be used to achieve microbiological safe water with low levels of DBPs to ensure healthy environment for bathers. There are different approaches to achieve healthy environment in public swimming pools which in this thesis are divided into three strategies: alternatives to chlorination...

  19. A comparison of positron-emitting blood pool imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hnatowich, D.J.; Kulprathipanja, S.; Evans, G.; Elmaleh, D.

    1979-01-01

    The three agents, 11 C-carboxyhaemoglobin, 68 Ga-transferrin and 68 Ga-labelled red cells have been compared in dogs to assess their relative merits for blood-pool imaging. For 1 h following administration of each agent, periodic blood samples were withdrawn for counting in a NaI (Tl) well counter while conventional two-dimensional images were obtained simultaneously on the Massachusetts General Hospital positron camera. Count rates in regions about the heart, liver and spleen were obtained for each image. The disappearance of blood activity as shown from the results of counting the blood samples and from the counting rates in regions about the heart was found to be identical within experimental error for the three agents. In the liver and spleen regions, the highest count rates were obtained with 68 Ga-transferrin and the lowest with 68 Ga-labelled red cells; count rates in these regions with labelled red cells were virtually constant throughout the 1 h study. It may be concluded that with the exceptions noted above, the three agents are approximately equivalent for blood-pool imaging. (author)

  20. Influence of exercise and aging on extracellular matrix composition in the skeletal muscle stem cell niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Koyal; Boppart, Marni D

    2016-11-01

    Skeletal muscle is endowed with a remarkable capacity for regeneration, primarily due to the reserve pool of muscle resident satellite cells. The satellite cell is the physiologically quiescent muscle stem cell that resides beneath the basal lamina and adjacent to the sarcolemma. The anatomic location of satellite cells is in close proximity to vasculature where they interact with other muscle resident stem/stromal cells (e.g., mesenchymal stem cells and pericytes) through paracrine mechanisms. This mini-review describes the components of the muscle stem cell niche, as well as the influence of exercise and aging on the muscle stem cell niche. Although exercise promotes ECM reorganization and stem cell accumulation, aging is associated with dense ECM deposition and loss of stem cell function resulting in reduced regenerative capacity and strength. An improved understanding of the niche elements will be valuable to inform the development of therapeutic interventions aimed at improving skeletal muscle regeneration and adaptation over the life span. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Simulation of pool scrubbing experiments using BUSCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehbi, A.; Guentay, S.

    1994-01-01

    BUSCA-PSI is a computer code which predicts the aerosol scrubbing taking place when gas bubbles containing fission products rise through stagnant pools of water after a postulated severe accident. A Lagrangian formulation is adopted to follow the path of a bubble as it rises toward the surface of the pool. The BUSCA model includes most aerosol removal mechanisms which are thought to be significant, namely: Jet Impaction at tile orifice, Convection/Diffusiophoresis during steam condensation, Thermophoresis, Sedimentation, Centrifugal Impaction during bubble rise, and Brownian Diffusion. The hydraulic modelling offers a variety of options for the initial globule volume, the stable bubble size, tile bubble rise velocity, and the bubble shape. The heat and mass transfer part of tile model uses correlations found in the relevant literature. BUSCA simulations were performed to determine the decontamination factor (DF) dependence on key aerosol and thermal hydraulic parameters. The decontamination factor increases with height, pool temperature subcooling, and steam content. The decontamination factor exhibits a parabolic dependence on the particle radius. At low particle sizes, the DF is high due to Brownian Diffusion which is the dominant removal mechanism. The DF hits a minimum and then increases with particle size as Centrifugal Impaction and Sedimentation become important. In separate calculations, BUSCA was used to the simulate the aerosol scrubbing experiments performed by EPRI. For cold pool tests, the predicted scrubbing efficiencies were in a good, conservative agreement with the data for both Tin and CsI, and the discrepancies were within the reported measurement errors. For hot pool tests, the code systematically underpredicted the scrubbing DF's; this is potentially due to condensation in the gas space above the pool, a situation not currently modelled by BUSCA. The code was also tested against data produced by the Tepco-Toshiba-Hitachi experiments. The

  2. Zooplankton at deep Red Sea brine pools

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2016-03-02

    The deep-sea anoxic brines of the Red Sea comprise unique, complex and extreme habitats. These environments are too harsh for metazoans, while the brine–seawater interface harbors dense microbial populations. We investigated the adjacent pelagic fauna at two brine pools using net tows, video records from a remotely operated vehicle and submerged echosounders. Waters just above the brine pool of Atlantis II Deep (2000 m depth) appeared depleted of macrofauna. In contrast, the fauna appeared to be enriched at the Kebrit Deep brine–seawater interface (1466 m).

  3. One component, volume heated, boiling pool thermohydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bede, M.; Perret, C.; Pretrel, H.; Seiler, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Prior work on boiling pools provided heat exchange correlations valid for bubbly flow with laminar or turbulent boundary layers. New experiments performed with water (SEBULON) and UO 2 (SCARABEE BF2) in a churn-turbulent flow configuration show unexpected heat flux distributions for which the maximum heat flux may be situated well below the pool surface. The origin of this behaviour is attributed to condensation effects, very unstable boundary layer flow and surface oscillation. A calculation model is discussed which permits to approach the experimental heat flux distribution with reasonable accuracy. (authors). 7 figs., 2 appendix., 14 refs

  4. Numerical modeling of sodium fire – Part II: Pool combustion and combined spray and pool combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathiah, Pratap; Roelofs, Ferry

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A CFD based method is proposed for the simulation of sodium pool combustion. • A sodium evaporation based model is proposed to model sodium pool evaporation. • The proposed method is validated against sodium pool experiments of Newman and Payne. • The results obtained using the proposed method are in good agreement with the experiments. - Abstract: The risk of sodium-air reaction has received considerable attention after the sodium-fire accident in Monju reactor. The fires resulting from the sodium-air reaction can be detrimental to the safety of a sodium fast reactor. Therefore, predicting the consequences of a sodium fire is important from a safety point of view. A computational method based on CFD is proposed here to simulate sodium pool fire and understand its characteristics. The method solves the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equation and uses a non-premixed mixture fraction based combustion model. The mass transfer of sodium vapor from the pool surface to the flame is obtained using a sodium evaporation model. The proposed method is then validated against well-known sodium pool experiments of Newman and Payne. The flame temperature and location predicted by the model are in good agreement with experiments. Furthermore, the trends of the mean burning rate with initial pool temperature and oxygen concentration are captured well. Additionally, parametric studies have been performed to understand the effects of pool diameter and initial air temperature on the mean burning rate. Furthermore, the sodium spray and sodium pool combustion models are combined to simulate simultaneous spray and pool combustion. Simulations were performed to demonstrate that the combined code could be applied to simulate this. Once sufficiently validated, the present code can be used for safety evaluation of a sodium fast reactor

  5. Numerical modeling of sodium fire – Part II: Pool combustion and combined spray and pool combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathiah, Pratap, E-mail: pratap.sathiah78@gmail.com [Shell Global Solutions Ltd., Brabazon House, Concord Business Park, Threapwood Road, Manchester M220RR (United Kingdom); Roelofs, Ferry, E-mail: roelofs@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Westerduinweg 3, 1755ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • A CFD based method is proposed for the simulation of sodium pool combustion. • A sodium evaporation based model is proposed to model sodium pool evaporation. • The proposed method is validated against sodium pool experiments of Newman and Payne. • The results obtained using the proposed method are in good agreement with the experiments. - Abstract: The risk of sodium-air reaction has received considerable attention after the sodium-fire accident in Monju reactor. The fires resulting from the sodium-air reaction can be detrimental to the safety of a sodium fast reactor. Therefore, predicting the consequences of a sodium fire is important from a safety point of view. A computational method based on CFD is proposed here to simulate sodium pool fire and understand its characteristics. The method solves the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equation and uses a non-premixed mixture fraction based combustion model. The mass transfer of sodium vapor from the pool surface to the flame is obtained using a sodium evaporation model. The proposed method is then validated against well-known sodium pool experiments of Newman and Payne. The flame temperature and location predicted by the model are in good agreement with experiments. Furthermore, the trends of the mean burning rate with initial pool temperature and oxygen concentration are captured well. Additionally, parametric studies have been performed to understand the effects of pool diameter and initial air temperature on the mean burning rate. Furthermore, the sodium spray and sodium pool combustion models are combined to simulate simultaneous spray and pool combustion. Simulations were performed to demonstrate that the combined code could be applied to simulate this. Once sufficiently validated, the present code can be used for safety evaluation of a sodium fast reactor.

  6. 13 CFR 120.1705 - Pool formation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements. SBA may adjust the Pool characteristics periodically based on program experience and market... a Pool involving a Pool Loan it does not own, it must purchase the Loan Interest it proposes to pool... purchase the Loan Interest and take it into inventory or settle the purchase of the Loan Interest through...

  7. Delineating probabilistic species pools in ecology and biogeography

    OpenAIRE

    Karger, Dirk Nikolaus; Cord, Anna F; Kessler, Michael; Kreft, Holger; Kühn, Ingolf; Pompe, Sven; Sandel, Brody; Sarmento Cabral, Juliano; Smith, Adam B; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Tuomisto, Hanna; Weigelt, Patrick; Wesche, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Aim To provide a mechanistic and probabilistic framework for defining the species pool based on species-specific probabilities of dispersal, environmental suitability and biotic interactions within a specific temporal extent, and to show how probabilistic species pools can help disentangle the geographical structure of different community assembly processes. Innovation Probabilistic species pools provide an improved species pool definition based on probabilities in conjuncti...

  8. A strategy for optimizing item-pool management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariel, A.; van der Linden, Willem J.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2006-01-01

    Item-pool management requires a balancing act between the input of new items into the pool and the output of tests assembled from it. A strategy for optimizing item-pool management is presented that is based on the idea of a periodic update of an optimal blueprint for the item pool to tune item

  9. [Investigation of toxigenic microcystis and microcystin pollution in Huayuankou Conservation Pool of Yellow River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Haiqun; Ba, Yue; Cheng, Xuemin; Wang, Guangzhou

    2007-09-01

    To investigate the contaminative, condition of planktonic algae, cyanobacteria, toxigenic microcystis and microcystin in Huayuankou Conservation Pool of Yellow River. From March 2005 to January 2006, water samples were taken 15 times by 2. 5L plastic sampler from Huayuankou Conservation Pool. The density of algae were counted by using blood cell counter. Phycocyanin intergenic spacer region (PC-IGS) and microcystin synthetase gene B (mcyB) of toxigenic microcystis was identified by the whole cell PCR. The concentration of microcystin was determined by ELISA kit. The positive results of PCR and ELISA were compared. Bacillariophyta, chlorophyta, cyanophyta (cyanobacteria) and euglenophyta were main algaes in Huayuankou conservation pool, and the dominant algae and cell density changed seasonally. Algae cell density and cyanobacteria cell density were higher in summer and autumn than in spring and winter. From July to November, 2005, PC-IGS and mcyB were detected positively by whole cell PCR. Microcystin was positively detected from July, the concentration of microcystin changed from 0 to 0.25microg/L, it was more higher in summer than other seasons. Toxigenic microcystis and microcystin could be detected in Huayuankou Conservation Pool of Yellow River. Whole cell PCR could be used to identify toxigenic microcystis.

  10. Validation analysis of pool fire experiment (Run-F7) using SPHINCS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Akira; Tajima, Yuji

    1998-04-01

    SPHINCS (Sodium Fire Phenomenology IN multi-Cell System) code has been developed for the safety analysis of sodium fire accident in a Fast Breeder Reactor. The main features of the SPHINCS code with respect to the sodium pool fire phenomena are multi-dimensional modeling of the thermal behavior in sodium pool and steel liner, modeling of the extension of sodium pool area based on the sodium mass conservation, and equilibrium model for the chemical reaction of pool fire on the flame sheet at the surface of sodium pool during. Therefore, the SPHINCS code is capable of temperature evaluation of the steel liner in detail during the small and/or medium scale sodium leakage accidents. In this study, Run-F7 experiment in which the sodium leakage rate is 11.8 kg/hour has been analyzed. In the experiment the diameter of the sodium pool is approximately 60 cm and the maximum steel liner temperature was 616 degree C. The analytical results tell us the agreement between the SPHINCS analysis and the experiment is excellent with respect to the time history and spatial distribution of the liner temperature, sodium pool extension behavior, as well as atmosphere gas temperature. It is concluded that the pool fire modeling of the SPHINCS code has been validated for this experiment. The SPHINCS code is currently applicable to the sodium pool fire phenomena and the temperature evaluation of the steel liner. The experiment series are continued to check some parameters, i.e., sodium leakage rate and the height of sodium leakage. Thus, the author will analyze the subsequent experiments to check the influence of the parameters and applies SPHINCS to the sodium fire consequence analysis of fast reactor. (author)

  11. Satellite Communications for ATM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation is an overview on Satellite Communication for the Aeronautical Telecommunication Management (ATM) research. Satellite Communications are being considered by the FAA and NASA as a possible alternative to the present and future ground systems supporting Air Traffic Communications. The international Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) have in place Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS) for the Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Services (AMSS) which is mainly derived from the pre-existing Inmarsat service that has been in service since the 1980s. The Working Group A of the Aeronautical Mobile Communication Panel of ICAO has also been investigating SARPS for what is called the Next Generation Satellite Service (NGSS) which conforms less to the Inmarsat based architecture and explores wider options in terms of satellite architectures. Several designs are being proposed by Firms such as Boeing, ESA, NASA that are geared toward full or secondary usage of satellite communications for ATM. Satellite communications for ATM can serve several purposes ranging from primary usage where ground services would play a minimal backup role, to an integrated solution where it will be used to cover services, or areas that are less likely to be supported by the proposed and existing ground infrastructure. Such Integrated roles can include usage of satellite communications for oceanic and remote land areas for example. It also can include relieving the capacity of the ground network by providing broadcast based services of Traffic Information Services messages (TIS-B), or Flight Information Services (FIS-B) which can take a significant portion of the ground system capacity. Additionally, satellite communication can play a backup role to support any needs for ground replacement, or additional needed capacity even after the new digital systems are in place. The additional bandwidth that can be provided via satellite communications can also open the door for many new

  12. Study on the growth promoting capacity of calf and fetal bovine serum for animal cells "in vitro" II: electrophoretic study and survey on the antiproteolytic activity of pools of calf and fetal bovine serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edda de Rizzo

    1984-04-01

    Full Text Available Calf serum and fetal bovine serum present great variability as to its growth promoting efficiency (GPE. As supplement of culture media to cultivate cells of animal origin they stimulate the "in vitro" multiplication and maintain cell viability. When fourteen lots of calf sera of variable GPE had the total protein contents as well as the percentages of serum fractions determined, no significant differences that could possibly explain the variability of the GPE were observed. Evaluation of the antiproteolytic activity of nineteen lots of calf serum and eighteen serum lots of younger calves showed that the former exhibited lower antiproteolytic titers (1:40 to 1:80 than the latter (1:80 to 1:160. Twelve lots of fetal bovine serum studied in parallel, showed the highest concentration of antiproteolytic factors, with titers equal to 1:320. Sera of bovine origin, but not fetal sera, are usually heat-inactivated, what was demonstrated to be responsible for the decrease of the antiproteolytic activity of 75% of the lots tested. This could explain the inability of certain heat-inactivated sera in promoting multiplication of some cells "in vitro", as verified with primary monkey kidney cells. The results obtained in this study indicated the convenience of submiting each lot of serum to be introduced in cell culture to previous determination of its characteristics, such as growth promoting efficiency, antiproteolytic activity and also toxicity, absence of extraneous agents, etc., in order to minimize the possibility of using serum lots of questionable quality, thus preventing not only the loss of cell lines, but also undesirable and sometimes expensive delays.

  13. Public Swimming Pools | Florida Department of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illness Disease Reporting and Surveillance Bureau of Public Health Laboratories Environmental Health Air Air Monitoring Carbon Monoxide Indoor Air Quality Mold Radon Water Aquatic Toxins Beach Water Quality purification, testing, treatment, and disinfection procedures. To ensure that the pool technicians are

  14. 28 CFR 540.64 - Press pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.64 Press pools. (a) The Warden may establish a... shall notify all news media representatives who have requested interviews or visits that have not been...

  15. Stein's neuronal model with pooled renewal input

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rajdl, K.; Lánský, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 3 (2015), s. 389-399 ISSN 0340-1200 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Stein’s model * Poisson process * pooled renewal processes * first-passage time Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.611, year: 2015

  16. Phase analysis in gated blood pool tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Kenichi; Bunko, Hisashi; Tada, Akira; Taki, Junichi; Nanbu, Ichiro

    1984-01-01

    Phase analysis of gated blood pool study has been applied to detect the site of accessory conduction pathway (ACP) in the Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome; however, there was a limitation to detect the precise location of ACP by phase analysis alone. In this study, we applied phase analysis to gated blood pool tomography using seven pin hole tomography (7PT) and gated emission computed tomography (GECT) in 21 patients with WPW syndrome and 3 normal subjects. In 17 patients, the sites of ACPs were confirmed by epicardial mapping and the result of the surgical division of ACP. In 7PT, the site of ACP grossly agreed to the abnormal initial phase in phase image in 5 out of 6 patients with left cardiac type. In GECT, phase images were generated in short axial, vertical and horizontal long axial sections. In 8 out of 9 patients, the site of ACP was correctly identified by phase images, and in a patient who had two ACPs, initial phase corresponded to one of the two locations. Phase analysis of gated blood pool tomography has advantages for avoiding overlap of blood pools and for estimating three-dimensional propagation of the contraction, and can be a good adjunctive method in patients with WPW syndrome. (author)

  17. Swimming-pool piles; Piles piscines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trioulaire, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    In France two swimming-pool piles, Melusine and Triton, have just been set in operation. The swimming-pool pile is the ideal research tool for neutron fluxes of the order of 10{sup 13}. This type of pile can be of immediate interest to many research centres, but its cost must be reduced and a break with tradition should be observed in its design. It would be an advantage: - to bury the swimming-pool; - to reject the experimental channel; - to concentrate the cooling circuit in the swimming-pool; - to carry out all manipulations in the water; - to double the core. (author) [French] En France, deux piles piscines, Melusine et Triton, viennent d'entrer en service. La pile piscine est l'outil de recherche ideal pour des flux de neutrons de l'ordre de 10{sup 13}. Ce type de pile peut interesser des maintenant de nombreux centres de recherches mais il faut reduire son prix de revient et rompre avec le conformisme de sa conception. Il y a avantage: - a enterrer la piscine; - a supprimer les canaux experimentaux; - a concentrer le circuit de refrigeration dans la piscine; - a effectuer toutes les manipulations dans l'eau; - a doubler le coeur. (auteur)

  18. Spectrum pooling in MnWave Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boccardi, Federico; Shokri-Ghadikolaei, Hossein; Fodor, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the specific characteristics of mmWave technologies, we discuss the possibility of an authorization regime that allows spectrum sharing between multiple operators, also referred to as spectrum pooling. In particular, considering user rate as the performance measure, we assess...

  19. Pooling Objects for Recognizing Scenes without Examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kordumova, S.; Mensink, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we aim to recognize scenes in images without using any scene images as training data. Different from attribute based approaches, we do not carefully select the training classes to match the unseen scene classes. Instead, we propose a pooling over ten thousand of off-the-shelf object

  20. The new pooled cohort equations risk calculator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preiss, David; Kristensen, Søren L

    2015-01-01

    disease and any measure of social deprivation. An early criticism of the Pooled Cohort Equations Risk Calculator has been its alleged overestimation of ASCVD risk which, if confirmed in the general population, is likely to result in statin therapy being prescribed to many individuals at lower risk than...

  1. DNA pooling strategies for categorical (ordinal) traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite reduced genotyping costs in recent years, obtaining genotypes for all individuals in a population may still not be feasible when sample size is large. DNA pooling provides a useful alternative to determining genotype effects. Clustering algorithms allow for grouping of individuals (observati...

  2. Pooling ASR data for closely related languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, C

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe several experiments that were conducted to assess the viability of data pooling as a means to improve speech-recognition performance for under-resourced languages. Two groups of closely related languages from the Southern Bantu language...

  3. "Teisele poole" Agambeniga ja Agambenita / Ragne Nukk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nukk, Ragne, 1984-

    2012-01-01

    Tallinna Fotokuu rahvusvahelise fotonäituse "Teisele poole" ideeliste lähtekohtade tõlgendamisest. Autor kõrvutab Adam Budaki kuraatornäituse aluseks olnud Giorgio Agambeni esseed „Viimne kohtupäev“ näitusel eksponeeritud piltidega

  4. 7 CFR 1033.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... association and it fulfills the following conditions: (1) The aggregate monthly quantity supplied by all... or aseptically-processed fluid milk products. (c) A supply plant from which the quantity of bulk... operator of a supply plant located within the marketing area may include deliveries to pool distributing...

  5. Benthic assemblages of rock pools in northern Portugal: seasonal and between-pool variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacopo Bertocci

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the seasonal (winter vs summer and within season and spatial (between-pool variability of benthic assemblages of rock pools at mid-intertidal level along the shore of Viana do Castelo (North Portugal. Physical traits of rock pools, including size, depth and position along the shore, were also compared between pools. While pools did not differ for any of the examined physical traits, results indicated a clear seasonal difference in the structure of assemblages, including a total of 49 macroalgal and 13 animal taxa. This finding was driven by six taxa that are more abundant in winter (the reef-forming polychaete Sabellaria alveolata, the articulated coralline algae Corallina spp., the brown alga Bifurcaria bifurcata, the encrusting coralline alga Lithophyllum incrustans, the red alga Chondracanthus acicularis and the grazing snails Gibbula spp. and four algal taxa that are more abundant in summer (the invasive brown Sargassum muticum, the green Ulva spp., the kelp Laminaria ochroleuca and the filamentous red Ceramium spp.. These data provide a new contribution to the knowledge of rock pool systems and have potential implications for monitoring programmes aimed at assessing ecological modifications related to natural and anthropogenic disturbances and for identifying processes responsible for the variability of rock pool assemblages.

  6. Generalizing Pooling Functions in CNNs: Mixed, Gated, and Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chen-Yu; Gallagher, Patrick; Tu, Zhuowen

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we seek to improve deep neural networks by generalizing the pooling operations that play a central role in the current architectures. We pursue a careful exploration of approaches to allow pooling to learn and to adapt to complex and variable patterns. The two primary directions lie in: (1) learning a pooling function via (two strategies of) combining of max and average pooling, and (2) learning a pooling function in the form of a tree-structured fusion of pooling filters that are themselves learned. In our experiments every generalized pooling operation we explore improves performance when used in place of average or max pooling. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed pooling operations provide a boost in invariance properties relative to conventional pooling and set the state of the art on several widely adopted benchmark datasets. These benefits come with only a light increase in computational overhead during training (ranging from additional 5 to 15 percent in time complexity) and a very modest increase in the number of model parameters (e.g., additional 1, 9, and 27 parameters for mixed, gated, and 2-level tree pooling operators, respectively). To gain more insights about our proposed pooling methods, we also visualize the learned pooling masks and the embeddings of the internal feature responses for different pooling operations. Our proposed pooling operations are easy to implement and can be applied within various deep neural network architectures.

  7. Corium quench in deep pool mixing experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B.W.; McUmber, L.; Gregorash, D.; Aeschlimann, R.; Sienicki, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The results of two recent corium-water thermal interaction (CWTI) tests are described in which a stream of molten corium was poured into a deep pool of water in order to determine the mixing behavior, the corium-to-water heat transfer rates, and the characteristic sizes of the quenched debris. The corium composition was 60% UO 2 , 16% ZrO 2 , and 24% stainless steel by weight; its initial temperature was 3080 K, approx.160 K above the oxide phase liquidus temperature. The corium pour stream was a single-phase 2.2 cm dia liquid column which entered the water pool in film boiling at approx.4 m/s. The water subcooling was 6 and 75C in the two tests. Test results showed that with low subcooling, rapid steam generation caused the pool to boil up into a high void fraction regime. In contrast, with large subcooling no net steam generation occurred, and the pool remained relatively quiescent. Breakup of the jet appeared to occur by surface stripping. In neither test was the breakup complete during transit through the 32 cm deep water pool, and molten corium channeled to the base where it formed a melt layer. The characteristic heat transfer rates measured 3.5 MJ/s and 2.7 MJ/s during the fall stage for small and large subcooling, respectively; during the initial stage of bed quench, the surface heat fluxes measured 2.4 MW/m 2 and 3.7 MW/m 2 , respectively. A small mass of particles was formed in each test, measuring typically 0.1 to 1 mm and 1 to 5 mm dia for the large and small subcooling conditions, respectively. 9 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  8. Suncatcher and cool pool. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, J.

    1981-03-01

    The Suncatcher is a simple, conical solar concentrating device that captures light entering clerestory windows and directs it onto thermal storage elements at the back of a south facing living space. The cone shape and inclination are designed to capture low angle winter sunlight and to reflect away higher angle summer sunlight. It is found that winter radiation through a Suncatcher window is 40 to 50% higher than through an ordinary window, and that the average solar fraction is 59%. Water-filled steal culvert pipes used for thermal storage are found to undergo less stratification, and thus to be more effective, when located where sunlight strikes the bottom rather than the top. Five Suncatcher buildings are described. Designs are considered for 32/sup 0/, 40/sup 0/ and 48/sup 0/ north latitude, and as the latitude increases, the inclination angle of the cone should be lowered. The Cool Pool is an evaporating, shaded roof pond which thermosiphons cool water into water-filled columns within a building. Preliminary experiments indicate that the best shade design has unimpeded north sky view, good ventilation, complete summer shading, a low architectural profile, and low cost attic vent lowers work. Another series of experiments established the satisfactory performance of the Cool Pool on a test building using four water-filled cylinders, two cylinders, and two cylinders connected to the Cool Pool through a heat exchanger. Although an unshaded pool cools better at night than a shaded one, daytime heat gain far offsets this advantage. A vinyl waterbag heat exchanger was developed for use with the Cool Pool. (LEW)

  9. Spectroscopic Characterization of GEO Satellites with Gunma LOW Resolution Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, T.; Ono, H.; Hosokawa, M.; Ando, T.; Takanezawa, T.; Hashimoto, O.

    The spectroscopic observation is potentially a powerful tool for understanding the Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) objects. We present here the results of an investigation of energy spectra of GEO satellites obtained from a groundbased optical telescope. The spectroscopic observations were made from April to June 2016 with the Gunma LOW resolution Spectrograph and imager (GLOWS) at the Gunma Astronomical Observatory (GAO) in JAPAN. The observation targets consist of eleven different satellites: two weather satellites, four communications satellites, and five broadcasting satellites. All the spectra of those GEO satellites are inferred to be solar-like. A number of well-known absorption features such as H-alpha, H-beta, Na-D,water vapor and oxygen molecules are clearly seen in thewavelength range of 4,000 - 8,000 Å. For comparison, we calculated the intensity ratio of the spectra of GEO satellites to that of the Moon which is the natural satellite of the earth. As a result, the following characteristics were obtained. 1) Some variations are seen in the strength of absorption features of water vapor and oxygen originated by the telluric atmosphere, but any other characteristic absorption features were not found. 2) For all observed satellites, the intensity ratio of the spectrum of GEO satellites decrease as a function of wavelength or to be flat. It means that the spectral reflectance of satellite materials is bluer than that of the Moon. 3) A characteristic dip at around 4,800 Å is found in all observed spectra of a weather satellite. Based on these observations, it is indicated that the characteristics of the spectrum are mainly derived from the solar panels because the apparent area of the solar cell is probably larger than that of the satellite body.

  10. Satellite failures revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-12-01

    In January 1994, the two geostationary satellites known as Anik-E1 and Anik-E2, operated by Telesat Canada, failed one after the other within 9 hours, leaving many northern Canadian communities without television and data services. The outage, which shut down much of the country's broadcast television for hours and cost Telesat Canada more than $15 million, generated significant media attention. Lam et al. used publicly available records to revisit the event; they looked at failure details, media coverage, recovery effort, and cost. They also used satellite and ground data to determine the precise causes of those satellite failures. The researchers traced the entire space weather event from conditions on the Sun through the interplanetary medium to the particle environment in geostationary orbit.

  11. ESA's satellite communications programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholome, P.

    1985-02-01

    The developmental history, current status, and future plans of the ESA satellite-communications programs are discussed in a general survey and illustrated with network diagrams and maps. Consideration is given to the parallel development of national and European direct-broadcast systems and telecommunications networks, the position of the European space and electronics industries in the growing world market, the impact of technological improvements (both in satellite systems and in ground-based networks), and the technological and commercial advantages of integrated space-terrestrial networks. The needs for a European definition of the precise national and international roles of satellite communications, for maximum speed in implementing such decisions (before the technology becomes obsolete), and for increased cooperation and standardization to assure European equipment manufacturers a reasonable share of the market are stressed.

  12. Solar Power Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Flournoy, Don M

    2012-01-01

    Communication satellites are a $144 billion industry. Is there any space-based industry that could possibly beat that market? 'Solar Power Satellites' shows why and how the space satellite industry will soon begin expanding its market from relaying signals to Earth to generating energy in space and delivering it to the ground as electricity. In all industrialized nations, energy demand is growing exponentially. In the developing world, the need for energy is as basic as food and water. The Sun's energy is available everywhere, and it is non-polluting. As business plans demonstrate its technical feasibility, commercial potential, and environmental acceptability, every country on Earth will look to space for the power it needs.