WorldWideScience

Sample records for satellite carrier compulsory

  1. 75 FR 39891 - Rate Adjustment for the Satellite Carrier Compulsory License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... the purpose of determining the royalty fees to be paid under the satellite carrier statutory license... royalty fees in that agreement be applied to all satellite carriers, distributors, and copyright owners...: PART 386--ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEES FOR SECONDARY TRANSMISSIONS BY SATELLITE CARRIERS Sec. 386.1...

  2. 75 FR 53198 - Rate Adjustment for the Satellite Carrier Compulsory License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... ROYALTY FEES FOR SECONDARY TRANSMISSIONS BY SATELLITE CARRIERS Sec. 386.1 General. 386.2 Royalty fee for... transmission of broadcast stations under 17 U.S.C. 119. Sec. 386.2 Royalty fee for secondary transmission by... LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 386 [Docket No. 2010-4 CRB Satellite Rate...

  3. 75 FR 32228 - Rate Adjustment for the Satellite Carrier Compulsory License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... voluntary negotiation period for the purpose of determining the royalty fees to be paid by satellite... President on May 27, 2010. Satellite carriers pay royalties based on a flat, per-subscriber, per-month fee... initiation of the voluntary negotiation proceedings for the purpose of determining the royalty fee to be paid...

  4. 75 FR 75624 - Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License Royalty Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... ROYALTY FEES FOR SECONDARY TRANSMISSIONS BY SATELLITE CARRIERS 0 1. The authority citation for part 386... revising paragraphs (b)(1)(ii) and (b)(2)(ii) as follows: Sec. 386.2 Royalty fee for secondary transmission... LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 386 [Docket No. 2010-10 CRB Satellite COLA...

  5. 78 FR 71501 - Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License Royalty Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... follows: PART 386--ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEES FOR SECONDARY TRANSMISSIONS BY SATELLITE CARRIERS 0 1. The.... Section 386.2 is amended by revising paragraphs (b)(1)(v) and (b)(2)(v) as follows: Sec. 386.2 Royalty fee... LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 386 [Docket No. 2013-8 CRB Satellite COLA...

  6. 77 FR 70373 - Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License Royalty Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... ROYALTY FEES FOR SECONDARY TRANSMISSIONS BY SATELLITE CARRIERS 0 1. The authority citation for part 386... revising paragraphs (b)(1)(iv) and (b)(2)(iv) as follows: Sec. 386.2 Royalty fee for secondary transmission... LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 386 [Docket No. 2012-8 CRB Satellite COLA...

  7. 76 FR 74703 - Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License Royalty Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... Federal Regulations is amended as follows: PART 386--ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEES FOR SECONDARY... (b)(2)(iii) to read as follows: Sec. 386.2 Royalty fee for secondary transmission by satellite... LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 386 [Docket No. 2011-10 CRB Satellite COLA...

  8. 77 FR 55783 - Verification of Statements of Account Submitted by Cable Operators and Satellite Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... the Office by cable operators and satellite carriers. Initial comments are available for review on the... Program Suppliers represent copyright owners that produce and/or syndicate movies, programs, and specials...

  9. 78 FR 78257 - Verification of Statements of Account Submitted by Cable Operators and Satellite Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... royalty fees with the Office in order to use the statutory licenses that allow for the retransmission of... royalty fees that cable operators and satellite carriers file with the Office. See 17 U.S.C. 111(d)(6... new process to allow copyright owners to audit the SOAs and associated royalty payments. The Office...

  10. Satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.A.; Matthews, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    The present work is based on a conference: Natural Satellites, Colloquium 77 of the IAU, held at Cornell University from July 5 to 9, 1983. Attention is given to the background and origins of satellites, protosatellite swarms, the tectonics of icy satellites, the physical characteristics of satellite surfaces, and the interactions of planetary magnetospheres with icy satellite surfaces. Other topics include the surface composition of natural satellites, the cratering of planetary satellites, the moon, Io, and Europa. Consideration is also given to Ganymede and Callisto, the satellites of Saturn, small satellites, satellites of Uranus and Neptune, and the Pluto-Charon system

  11. Precise orbit determination of the Sentinel-3A altimetry satellite using ambiguity-fixed GPS carrier phase observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenbruck, Oliver; Hackel, Stefan; Jäggi, Adrian

    2017-11-01

    The Sentinel-3 mission takes routine measurements of sea surface heights and depends crucially on accurate and precise knowledge of the spacecraft. Orbit determination with a targeted uncertainty of less than 2 cm in radial direction is supported through an onboard Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, a Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite instrument, and a complementary laser retroreflector for satellite laser ranging. Within this study, the potential of ambiguity fixing for GPS-only precise orbit determination (POD) of the Sentinel-3 spacecraft is assessed. A refined strategy for carrier phase generation out of low-level measurements is employed to cope with half-cycle ambiguities in the tracking of the Sentinel-3 GPS receiver that have so far inhibited ambiguity-fixed POD solutions. Rather than explicitly fixing double-difference phase ambiguities with respect to a network of terrestrial reference stations, a single-receiver ambiguity resolution concept is employed that builds on dedicated GPS orbit, clock, and wide-lane bias products provided by the CNES/CLS (Centre National d'Études Spatiales/Collecte Localisation Satellites) analysis center of the International GNSS Service. Compared to float ambiguity solutions, a notably improved precision can be inferred from laser ranging residuals. These decrease from roughly 9 mm down to 5 mm standard deviation for high-grade stations on average over low and high elevations. Furthermore, the ambiguity-fixed orbits offer a substantially improved cross-track accuracy and help to identify lateral offsets in the GPS antenna or center-of-mass (CoM) location. With respect to altimetry, the improved orbit precision also benefits the global consistency of sea surface measurements. However, modeling of the absolute height continues to rely on proper dynamical models for the spacecraft motion as well as ground calibrations for the relative position of the altimeter reference point and the CoM.

  12. Compulsory Treatment in Anorexia Nervosa : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzakkers, Isis F. F. M.; Danner, Unna N.; Hoek, Hans W.; Schmidt, Ulrike; van Elburg, Annemarie A.

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveCompulsory in-patient refeeding of patients with severe anorexia nervosa (AN) has caused considerable controversy. The effects of such treatment on longer-term outcome are not well known. The objective of this article is to review the evidence on the outcome of compulsory treatment for AN.

  13. A defense of compulsory vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, Jessica

    2014-03-01

    Vaccine refusal harms and risks harming innocent bystanders. People are not entitled to harm innocents or to impose deadly risks on others, so in these cases there is nothing to be said for the right to refuse vaccination. Compulsory vaccination is therefore justified because non-vaccination can rightly be prohibited, just as other kinds of harmful and risky conduct are rightly prohibited. I develop an analogy to random gunfire to illustrate this point. Vaccine refusal, I argue, is morally similar to firing a weapon into the air and endangering innocent bystanders. By re-framing vaccine refusal as harmful and reckless conduct my aim is to shift the focus of the vaccine debate from non-vaccinators' religious and refusal rights to everyone else's rights against being infected with contagious illnesses. Religious freedom and rights of informed consent do not entitle non-vaccinators to harm innocent bystanders, and so coercive vaccination requirements are permissible for the sake of the potential victims of the anti-vaccine movement.

  14. Crime, Compulsory Schooling Laws and Education

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Bell; Rui Costa; Stephen Machin

    2015-01-01

    Do compulsory schooling laws reduce crime? Previous evidence for the U.S. from the 1960s and 1970s suggests they do, primarily working through their effect on educational attainment to generate a causal impact on crime. In this paper, we consider whether more recent experience replicates this. There are two key findings. First, there is a strong and consistent negative effect on crime from stricter compulsory schooling laws. Second, there is a weaker and sometimes non-existent link between su...

  15. 16 CFR 1118.3 - Compulsory processes and service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compulsory processes and service. 1118.3... Investigations, Inspections, and Inquiries § 1118.3 Compulsory processes and service. (a) In addition to or in...) Depositions; and (4) General or special orders. (b) Service in connection with any of the compulsory processes...

  16. Compulsory acquisition of shares buyer, other shareholders, abuse of right of compulsory acquisition of shares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Zoran V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Company Act of Republic of Serbia includes mechanism for the compulsory acquisition of the shareholdings of minority shareholders. Technically this procedure is effected on the basis of the shareholders assembly resolution. Buyer is shareholder who has at least 90% of share capital and at least 90% of votes. Shares owned by entity under his dominant influence will be treated as shares of that shareholder provided that dominant influence exists at least one year. Company's own shares, and shares subject o a pledge do not represent shares of other shareholders. There are several actions which may be treated as abuse of right of compulsory acquisition of shares.

  17. Compulsory Schooling Laws and Migration Across European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio Fenoll, Ainhoa; Kuehn, Zoë

    2017-12-01

    Educational attainment is a key factor for understanding why some individuals migrate and others do not. Compulsory schooling laws, which determine an individual's minimum level of education, can potentially affect migration. We test whether and how increasing the length of compulsory schooling influences migration of affected cohorts across European countries, a context where labor mobility is essentially free. We construct a novel database that includes information for 31 European countries on compulsory education reforms passed between 1950 and 1990. Combining this data with information on recent migration flows by cohorts, we find that an additional year of compulsory education reduces the number of individuals from affected cohorts who migrate in a given year by 9 %. Our results rely on the exogeneity of compulsory schooling laws. A variety of empirical tests indicate that European legislators did not pass compulsory education reforms as a reaction to changes in emigration rates or educational attainment.

  18. Compulsory outpatient treatment can prevent involuntary commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lene Nørregård; Svensson, Eva Maria Birgitta; Brandt-Christensen, Anne Mette

    2014-01-01

    Compulsory outpatient treatment (co-pt) has been possible in Denmark since 2010. The aim is to secure necessary treatment, reduce involuntary commitment and improve quality of life for patients with a severe psychiatric illness. Co-pt has been brought into use in 33 cases. This case report...... describes a patient with paranoid schizophrenia who several times developed severe psychotic symptoms shortly after discharge due to lack of compliance with treatment. Within one year of co-pt the patient was not admitted to hospital and improved in overall functioning. After terminating co-pt the patient...

  19. Procedural Aspects of Compulsory Licensing Under TRIPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wested, Jakob; Minssen, Timo

    2017-01-01

    and discussion addressed the framework and context for CL provided by the TRIPS convention. Both the specific requirements enshrined in TRIPS art 31 and the broader objectives and principles enshrined in TRIPS, e.g. transfer and dissemination of technology (art 7), protection of public health (art 8......In 2013, Indian authorities granted a compulsory license to NATCO Pharmaceuticals for a patented pharmaceutical product sold by Bayer. This decision raised several complex issues regarding the grant a CL and their consistency with the principles and objectives of TRIPS. Furthermore, in January 2017...

  20. A Geometry-Based Cycle Slip Detection and Repair Method with Time-Differenced Carrier Phase (TDCP for a Single Frequency Global Position System (GPS + BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Qian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As the field of high-precision applications based on carriers continues to expand, the development of low-cost, small, modular receivers and their application in diverse scenarios and situations with complex data quality has increased the requirements of carrier-phase data preprocessing. A new geometry-based cycle slip detection and repair method based on Global Position System (GPS + BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS is proposed. The method uses a Time-differenced Carrier Phase (TDCP model, which eliminates the Inner-System Bias (ISB between GPS and BDS, and it is conducive to the effective combination of GPS and BDS. It avoids the interference of the noise of the pseudo-range with cycle slip detection, while the cycle slips are preserved as integers. This method does not limit the receiver frequency number, and it is applicable to single-frequency data. The process is divided into two steps to detect and repair cycle slip. The first step is cycle slip detection, using the Improved Local Analysis Method (ILAM to find satellites that have cycle slips; The second step is to repair the cycle slips, including estimating the float solution of changes in ambiguities at the satellites that have cycle slips with the least squares method and the integer solution of the cycle slips by rounding. In the process of rounding, in addition to the success probability, a decimal test is carried out to validate the result. Finally, experiments with filed test data are carried out to prove the effectiveness of this method. The results show that the detectable cycle slips number with GPS + BDS is much greater than that with GPS. The method can also detect the non-integer outliers while fixing the cycle slip. The maximum decimal bias in repair is less than that with GPS. It implies that this method takes full advantages of multi-system.

  1. Implementing Nunavut Education Act: Compulsory School Attendance Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwarteng, E. Fredua

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of Nunavut compulsory school attendance policy as part of the Nunavut Education Act (2002). Using a bottom-up approach to policy implementation in the literature and the author's six years teaching experience in Nunavut, the paper argues that the compulsory school attendance policy may not achieve its…

  2. 77 FR 44179 - Mechanical and Digital Phonorecord Delivery Compulsory License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... of account, certified by a certified public accountant, shall be filed for every compulsory license... Statements of Account, certified by a certified public accountant, shall be filed for every compulsory... it to the public for private use. The mechanical license may be used once phonorecords of a...

  3. 47 CFR 80.59 - Compulsory ship inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compulsory ship inspections. 80.59 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.59 Compulsory ship inspections. (a) Inspection of ships subject to the Communications Act or the Safety Convention. (1) The FCC will not normally...

  4. 19 CFR 210.61 - Discovery and compulsory process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery and compulsory process. 210.61 Section 210.61 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Temporary Relief § 210.61 Discovery and compulsory...

  5. Comparing Youth Opinions toward Compulsory Voting across Five Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesek, Jessamay T.

    2014-01-01

    This study uses a comparative case study design to examine youth (ages 13-20) opinions toward compulsory voting across five democratic countries: Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, and the United States. Youth responses toward compulsory voting demonstrate how youth come to learn about citizen rights and responsibilities with varied understandings…

  6. Turkish Compulsory Earthquake Insurance and "Istanbul Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durukal, E.; Sesetyan, K.; Erdik, M.

    2009-04-01

    The city of Istanbul will likely experience substantial direct and indirect losses as a result of a future large (M=7+) earthquake with an annual probability of occurrence of about 2%. This paper dwells on the expected building losses in terms of probable maximum and average annualized losses and discusses the results from the perspective of the compulsory earthquake insurance scheme operational in the country. The TCIP system is essentially designed to operate in Turkey with sufficient penetration to enable the accumulation of funds in the pool. Today, with only 20% national penetration, and about approximately one-half of all policies in highly earthquake prone areas (one-third in Istanbul) the system exhibits signs of adverse selection, inadequate premium structure and insufficient funding. Our findings indicate that the national compulsory earthquake insurance pool in Turkey will face difficulties in covering incurring building losses in Istanbul in the occurrence of a large earthquake. The annualized earthquake losses in Istanbul are between 140-300 million. Even if we assume that the deductible is raised to 15%, the earthquake losses that need to be paid after a large earthquake in Istanbul will be at about 2.5 Billion, somewhat above the current capacity of the TCIP. Thus, a modification to the system for the insured in Istanbul (or Marmara region) is necessary. This may mean an increase in the premia and deductible rates, purchase of larger re-insurance covers and development of a claim processing system. Also, to avoid adverse selection, the penetration rates elsewhere in Turkey need to be increased substantially. A better model would be introduction of parametric insurance for Istanbul. By such a model the losses will not be indemnified, however will be directly calculated on the basis of indexed ground motion levels and damages. The immediate improvement of a parametric insurance model over the existing one will be the elimination of the claim processing

  7. When Learning English is Compulsory at School:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Azarnoosh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Research findings highlight the role of motivation in the long-term process of learning a second/foreign language. One’s motivation can change even in a short period of time under the influence of multifarious factors. To enrich our understanding of the attitudinal/motivational basis of foreign language learning this study attempts to investigate L2 motivational fluctuation, and the possibility of predicting EFL learners’ motivated learning behavior in light of Dörnyei’s (2005, 2009 theory of L2 motivational self system. To this end, 1670 junior high and high school students studying English as a compulsory subject in Iran filled out L2 motivational self system questionnaire. Independent samples t-test and regression analyses were applied; and the findings indicated a higher motivational disposition for junior high school students in comparison to high school students, except for their attitudes towards L2 community. For both groups, attitudes towards L2 learning was the best predictor of students motivated learning behavior.

  8. Pros and Cons: Compulsory 12 year education reform in Turkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By CEYLAN

    2016-05-28

    Öztürk, 2005). ... compulsory, and education following primary school (middle school, high school and university) was ...... initially very popular in the mass media in 2012, ... in Turkey: opinions and concerns of elementary.

  9. Mental health law: compulsory treatment in a general medical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Steven

    2005-10-01

    Compulsory treatment of severe mental disorder can seem complicated even to psychiatrists. This article attempts to explain the current legal framework as it applies in common clinical situations in a general medical context.

  10. Introduction of China's Compulsory Product Certification System (Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Why does China establish a new Compulso-ry Product Certification System? For a long time, our compulsory product certification system has had problems such as lack of a unified management department, repeated assessments,repeated charging and no separation between certification activities and behaviors of law enforcement.The most obvious problem is that two certification management systems exist respectively for domestic products and imported products.

  11. The case against libertarian arguments for compulsory vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Justin

    2017-11-01

    In a recent paper in this journal, Jason Brennan correctly notes that libertarians struggle to justify a policy of compulsory vaccination. The most straightforward argument that justifies compulsory vaccination is that such a policy promotes welfare. But libertarians cannot make this argument because they claim that the state is justified only in protecting negative rights, not in promoting welfare. I consider two representative libertarian attempts to justify compulsory vaccination, and I argue that such arguments are unsuccessful. They either fail to show that the state is justified in implementing the policy or overgeneralise. I suggest that Brennan's solution is especially well motivated insofar as it addresses the shortcomings of these arguments. Brennan argues that we violate the rights of others by participating in an activity that imposes an unacceptable collective risk of harm. Going unvaccinated is an activity that imposes an unacceptable collective risk of harm, and thus amounts to a rights violation. So, the state can implement a policy of compulsory vaccination I object, however, that Brennan's delineation of acceptable and unacceptable risk implicitly rests on classical liberal rather than libertarian principles; he justifies compulsory vaccination on the grounds that it promotes welfare. I also object that Brennan's argument would entail significant departures from libertarian institutional arrangements. This leaves libertarians with a choice: they can develop new arguments to demonstrate that their position is compatible with compulsory vaccination, or they can accept that their view entails the impermissibility of compulsory vaccination, and argue that this is not an unpalatable implication of their view. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Family Economy and Its Implementation on Compulsory Education Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neni Hendaryati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine and describe family economy and the implementation of nine-year compulsory education program at Kajenengan village, Bojong Sub District of Tegal in 2014. It was a qualitative descriptive study. The population of study was 1011 family leaders. This research used purposive sampling technique and 252 family leaders or about 25% of the population were as samples. Data were collected by observation, interview and documentation. Then, the data was analyzed by using data reduction, data display, and concluding. Findings show that the obstacles of social and economy faced by family: 47.20% of Kajenengan villagers are as farm labors, 28,57 % of  villagers get the average income per day from IDR 21,000 up to IDR 30,000,  33.73% of them have 5-6 family members in their nuclear family, and 32.80% of them who prioritize in education, especially on nine-years compulsory education program.  Then, there are only 8.73% of samples who implement the nine-year compulsory education program. Moreover, 47.62% family leaders say that most of their family members join the nine-year compulsory education and 43.65% of the family leaders say that all of their family members do not join the nine-year compulsory education at all.

  13. Compulsory Education: An Idea Whose Time Has Passed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipher, Roger

    1978-01-01

    The author discusses some changes that occurred in American education from the late 1950s through the early 1970s, why these changes failed to improved the quality of education, the effect of compulsory attendance laws on educational deterioration, and what abolishing mandatory attendance would do to develop the learning environment. (RK)

  14. What should be the moral aims of compulsory sex education?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steutel, J.W.; de Ruyter, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    With reference to the unsuccessful attempt of the Labour Government to make sex education a statutory part of the National Curriculum, this paper argues in favour of making liberal sex education compulsory at all state schools. First, the main characteristics of a liberal sex education are briefly

  15. Managing "Spoiled Identities": Parents' Experiences of Compulsory Parenting Support Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    While recent years have seen a rapid growth of research exploring the usefulness of parenting support programmes, no empirical research to date has specifically explored experiences of compulsory parenting support. The present study examines the narrative accounts of 17 parents who, through a Parenting Order, were made to participate in such…

  16. How to Use Technology Effectively in Post-Compulsory Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The use of technology within the lifelong learning sector brings many benefits to learners, teachers and managers. Aimed at trainee and practising teachers, this book contains clear, practical guidance on how to use technology and e-learning effectively to enhance all aspects of teaching and learning in the post-compulsory sector. Alan Clarke…

  17. What Should Be the Moral Aims of Compulsory Sex Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steutel, Jan; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    With reference to the unsuccessful attempt of the Labour Government to make sex education a statutory part of the National Curriculum, this paper argues in favour of making liberal sex education compulsory at all state schools. First, the main characteristics of a liberal sex education are briefly explained. Promoting the virtue of respect for…

  18. Compulsory treatment of 50 alcoholic drunken drivers | Ben-Aire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty alcoholic drunken drivers receiving treatment as part of a suspended sentence were studied to assess the efficacy of compulsory treatment. Twenty-six showed improvement in drinking behaviour, 12 did not co-operate and were referred back to court, 7 were re-arrested on further charges of drunken driving and 4 were ...

  19. Compulsory Book Reading at School and within Leisure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Slavica

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with attitudes of secondary school pupils towards compulsory book reading at school, being the integral part of the subject Croat language and literature teaching subject, and its possible impact on their book (not-)reading in their leisure time. It is based on the research carried out through five-point Likert-type scale in…

  20. Compulsory Attendance Policies: About Age or Intervention? SREB Focus Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, SREB state policy-makers have focused on actions to reduce dropout rates and increase high school graduation rates. Some policy-makers have suggested that raising their state's compulsory attendance age (often called the dropout age) to require students to stay in school until age 17 or 18 is an important step. However,…

  1. COMPULSORY EDUCATION IN ROMANIA BETWEEN EQUITY AND EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asandului Laura

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at investigating the two main characteristics of a modern system of compulsory education with a focus on Romania. It assumes that the equity of the education sector and the efficiency of resource use are strongly correlated, both supporting

  2. 78 FR 78309 - Mechanical and Digital Phonorecord Delivery Compulsory License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... time since the issuance of the NPRM, marketplace developments and changes in business models may be... and Digital Phonorecord Delivery Compulsory License AGENCY: U.S. Copyright Office, Library of Congress... locker services and purchased content locker services. Mechanical and Digital Phonorecord Delivery...

  3. Comparative analyses of compulsory school curricula in Denmark and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    Tuborgvej 164 2400 København NV Denmark jera@dpu.dk The curriculum for the compulsory school is normally seen as a suitable steering and control instrument for handling the national responsibility for the content of education and also as a means to reduction of content complexity. Within the latest years...

  4. 16 CFR 1115.21 - Compulsory remedial actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compulsory remedial actions. 1115.21 Section 1115.21 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS... Proceedings (16 CFR part 1025). (b) Injunctive relief. The Commission may apply to a U.S. district court in...

  5. Does mental health service integration affect compulsory admissions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André I. Wierdsma

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over recent years, the number of compulsory admissions in many countries has increased, probably as a result of the shift from inpatient to outpatient mental health care. This might be mitigated by formal or collaborative relationships between services. Methods: In a retrospective record linkage study, we compared two neighboring districts, varying in level of service integration. Two periods were combined: 1991–1993 and 2001–2003. We included patients aged 18–60, who had a first emergency compulsory admission (n=830. Their psychiatric history was assessed, and service-use after admission was monitored over a 12-month follow-up. Results: Over a 10-year period, compulsory admission rates increased by 47%. Difference in relative increase between the integrated and non-integrated services was 14%. Patient characteristics showed different profiles in the two districts. Length of stay was >10 days shorter in the integrated district, where the proportion of involuntary readmissions decreased more, and where aftercare was swift and provided to about 10% more patients than in the non-integrated district. Conclusions: Services outcomes showed better results where mental healthcare was more integrated. However, limited effects were found and other factors than integration of services may be more important in preventing compulsory admissions.

  6. Radionuclide carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, F.A.; Kretschmar, H.C.; Tofe, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    A physiologically acceptable particulate radionuclide carrier is described. It comprises a modified anionic starch derivative with 0.1% to 1.5% by weight of a reducing agent and 1 to 20% by weight of anionic substituents

  7. Carrier Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How accurate is carrier screening? No test is perfect. In a small number of cases, test results ... in which an egg is removed from a woman’s ovary, fertilized in a laboratory with the man’s ...

  8. The CPD Needs of Mentors in Post-Compulsory Initial Teacher Training in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingleby, Ewan; Hunt, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the compulsory professional development (CPD) needs of mentors within post-compulsory Initial Teacher Training (ITT) provision in England. The discussion applies the ideas of Weber, Foucault, Habermas and Bourdieu in interpreting the implications for post-compulsory ITT mentor CPD training. The paper's primary and secondary…

  9. 16 CFR 1605.3 - Compulsory processes and the service thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compulsory processes and the service thereof... Investigations, Inspections and Inquiries § 1605.3 Compulsory processes and the service thereof. (a) In addition... inquired of. (c) The date of service of any form of compulsory process shall be the date on which the...

  10. 37 CFR 256.2 - Royalty fee for compulsory license for secondary transmission by cable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty fee for compulsory... ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEE FOR CABLE COMPULSORY LICENSE § 256.2 Royalty fee for compulsory license for... receipts be reduced to less than $10,400. The royalty fee payable under this paragraph shall be 0.5 of 1...

  11. Compulsory patent licensing and local drug manufacturing capacity in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Africa has the highest disease burden in the world and continues to depend on pharmaceutical imports to meet public health needs. As Asian manufacturers of generic medicines begin to operate under a more protectionist intellectual property regime, their ability to manufacture medicines at prices that are affordable to poorer countries is becoming more circumscribed. The Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health gives member states of the World Trade Organization (WTO) the right to adopt legislation permitting the use of patented material without authorization by the patent holder, a provision known as “compulsory licensing”. For African countries to take full advantage of compulsory licensing they must develop substantial local manufacturing capacity. Because building manufacturing capacity in each African country is daunting and almost illusory, an African free trade area should be developed to serve as a platform not only for the free movement of goods made pursuant to compulsory licences, but also for an economic or financial collaboration towards the development of strong pharmaceutical manufacturing capacity in the continent. Most countries in Africa are in the United Nations list of least developed countries, and this allows them, under WTO law, to refuse to grant patents for pharmaceuticals until 2021. Thus, there is a compelling need for African countries to collaborate to build strong pharmaceutical manufacturing capacity in the continent now, while the current flexibilities in international intellectual property law offer considerable benefits. PMID:24700981

  12. Leadership: professional communities of leadership practice in post-compulsory education

    OpenAIRE

    Jameson, Jill

    2008-01-01

    Summary: This is a paper that reviews and outlines the academic basis behind leadership in the post-compulsory setting.\\ud Description: Leadership has been for some years a key area of strategic and operational importance in the UK post-compulsory sector - this publication aims to addresss some of the issues surrounding this topic. It discusses theories and definitions of leadership, leader professionalism and post-compulsory education. A collaborative model of professional leadership is reco...

  13. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    as their purchases of aircraft carrier systems, makes it more than likely that the country is preparing such an acquisition. China has territorial disputes in the South China Sea over the Spratly Islands and is also worried about the security of its sea lines of communications, by which China transports the majority......, submarines, aircraft and helicopters, is not likely to be fully operational and war-capable until 2020, given the fact that China is starting from a clean sheet of paper. The United States of America (USA), the United Kingdom (UK), Russia and India are currently building or have made decisions to build new...

  14. The Unified Patent Court (UPC), Compulsory Licensing and Competition Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Clement Salung; Riis, Thomas; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2014-01-01

    Competition law and rules on compulsory licensing are considered as indispensable instruments to balance patent rights. In this article, we examine the room for using such balancing instruments in the context of the UPC. We analyse whether the balancing instruments will remain applicable...... that the UPC is likely to be less inclined to use them. To redress that problem we suggest that the UPC acknowledges the institutional biases of the court and looks for ways to include other values and interests than the proprietary values and interests of patent law....

  15. An Idiographic Analysis of Amotivation in Compulsory School Physical Education

    OpenAIRE

    Ntoumanis, Nikos; Pensgaard, Anne-Marte; Martin, Chris; Pipe, Katie

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide an in-depth account of amotivation in compulsory school physical education by examining its major causes, the way it is displayed, and how it can be tackled. From an initial participant pool of 390 British schoolchildren ages 14 to 15 years, 21 of them (15 girls and 6 boys) were selected to participate in semi-structured interviews. They were categorized as being amotivated based on their responses to a questionnaire measuring motivation in physical ed...

  16. WTO approves TRIPS amendment on importing under compulsory licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herget, Greg

    2006-04-01

    On 6 December 2005, the World Trade Organization (WTO) amended the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement to allow WTO member states to produce, under compulsory licences, lower-cost generic pharmaceutical products for export to countries that lack domestic production capacity to make such products. The amendment makes permanent the previous decision of 30 August 2003, which has not yet proven to be an effective mechanism to encourage the supply of more affordable medicines and other pharmaceutical products to countries in need.

  17. 47 CFR 25.279 - Inter-satellite service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inter-satellite service. 25.279 Section 25.279 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.279 Inter-satellite service. (a) Any satellite communicating with other space...

  18. Information processing style used by Compulsory Secondary Education students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Campos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mental images are mental representations of people, objects and situations that are not present and are formed by using the imagination. Many studies have addressed this psychological ability, its typology and its involvement in the academic environment. Along these lines, the aim of our study was to assess the information processing style (verbal, object, spatial scales, and mental rotation that is commonly used by students from different specialties of Compulsory Secondary Education. To that end, two tests: The Mental Rotation Test (MRT and the Object-Spatial Imagery and Verbal Questionnaire (OSIVQ were administered to a sample of 126 Compulsory Secondary Education students. MRT assessed any significant difference in the ability to mentally rotate images depending on gender and specialty. Significant differences were found by specialty, showing that science students had better ability to mentally rotate images than humanities ones. Significant differences were found by gender and specialty in the OSIVQ. Men showed better spatial and verbal processing style than women, and humanities students excelled in object processing (in comparison to science students and in verbal processing (in comparison to science and art students.

  19. 5 CFR 297.402 - Disclosure pursuant to a compulsory legal process served on the Office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure pursuant to a compulsory legal process served on the Office. 297.402 Section 297.402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PRIVACY PROCEDURES FOR PERSONNEL RECORDS Disclosure of Records § 297.402 Disclosure pursuant to a compulsory...

  20. 47 CFR 80.307 - Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. 80.307 Section 80.307 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... Safety Watches § 80.307 Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. The radiotelegraph auto alarm...

  1. On Financial Support System for Compulsory Education in China's Western Minority Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinyu, Qi

    2008-01-01

    China's Western Development is a policy adopted to boost its less developed Western regions, that is, a systematic project and a longterm and arduous task. The development of compulsory education in China's minority areas is the key to it. This paper attempts to use the beneficial experience of developing compulsory education support system of…

  2. Constitutional Mandate for Free and Compulsory Education: New Light on the Intention of the "Founding Fathers"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Nalini

    2015-01-01

    The original constitutional provision for free and compulsory education, granted under Article 45 stated that it was to be available for "all children until they complete the age of fourteen years", but it did not specify the lower age limit nor the stage of education (whether elementary or primary) that would be free and compulsory.…

  3. What Is the Influence of a Compulsory Attendance Policy on Absenteeism and Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jason L.; Lee-Partridge, Joo Eng; Jarmoszko, A. Tomasz; Petkova, Olga; D'Onofrio, Marianne J.

    2014-01-01

    The authors utilized a quasiexperimental design across sections of managerial communication and management information systems classes (N = 212) to test the impact of compulsory attendance policies on student absenteeism and performance. Students in the compulsory attendance policy condition received an attendance policy that punished excessive…

  4. Compulsory licensing in Canada and Thailand: comparing regimes to ensure legitimate use of the WTO rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybecker, Kristina M; Fowler, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines two recent examples of compulsory licensing legislation: one globally embraced regime and one internationally controversial regime operating under the same WTO rules. In particular, we consider Canadian legislation and the use of compulsory licensing for HIV/AIDS drugs destined for a developing country. This is then contrasted with the conditions under which Thai authorities are pursuing compulsory licenses, the outcomes of their compulsory licenses, as well as the likely impact of the Thai policy. Finally, we construct a rubric to evaluate characteristics of a successful regime. This is used to analyze the Canadian and Thai regimes and frame the expected implications of each national policy. It is hoped that the assessment will guide changes to compulsory licensing design to ensure that legitimate regimes are embraced while illegitimate ones are disallowed.

  5. Compulsory creativity – a critique of cognitive capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen Nepper

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary capitalism can be labelled cognitive capitalism. In this dynamic, demanding and extremely transformative mode of production, knowledge becomes a strategic force of production and an important commodity, while concepts and ideas become items. This article sheds light on some...... of the implications of the emergence of a cognitive capitalism. In response to modern oxymorons, such as compulsory creativity and mandatory originality, this article offers various attempts to interpret and criticise how human inventiveness and a whole range of externalities get attuned to economic and market...... strategies, depriving them their natural, social and individual qualities. The aim of this article is to renew and sharpen a critique of the new type of capitalism and to foster some normative bricks that might be able to inspire alternative ways of thinking and living. Keywords: Cognitive capitalism...

  6. INNOVATIVE APPROACH IN THE COMPULSORY HEALTH INSURANCE TARIFF SETTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Zasypkin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Development of a single channel financing in the health system of the Russian Federation based on the standards of the compulsory health insurance (CHI requires a single channel financing of the health system through the CHI as one of the main direction using payment of the medical services in the form of so-called «full» tariff [1-12].It is not a secret that for many years the medical services tariff in the CHI system contained from only five items of expenditures (salary, charges on payroll, soft goods and clothing, medicines, bandages, other medical expenses, and food. On one hand, such defective tariff was based on the parallel government financing of the medical institutions (MIs, on the other hand, because of this tariff, the manager was hoppled in the control of the financial flows.

  7. 49 CFR 510.3 - Compulsory process, the service thereof, claims for confidential treatment, and terms of compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compulsory process, the service thereof, claims... OF TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION GATHERING POWERS § 510.3 Compulsory process, the service thereof... description of the documents or things to be produced. (c) Service of the compulsory processes specified in...

  8. 37 CFR 360.15 - Separate claims required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBMISSION OF ROYALTY CLAIMS FILING OF CLAIMS TO ROYALTY FEES COLLECTED UNDER COMPULSORY LICENSE Satellite... license and satellite carrier compulsory license royalty fees during the same month of July, that party... both cable and satellite carrier royalty fees will be dismissed. ...

  9. Waste management association with compulsory membership ante portas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2004-01-01

    In the course of considerations in the early nineties of reforming atomic energy law, the possibilities was analyzed to privatize the final storage of radioactive waste. One key idea incorporated the finding that the government was of limited usefulness when acting as an entrepreneur, while privatization of this duty could solve the problems associated with planning, building, and operating a repository more speedily and, above all, more economically. In the reform of atomic energy law, final storage remained a government function. The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety (BMU) is now considering ''reforming the regulations on the final storage of radioactive waste.'' One of the basic ideas underlying this concept is to transfer to an association the site selection, installation, and operation of a repository. The federal government then could limit its functions of those of legal supervision. The upshot would be that the former duties of the federal government of exploring and establishing repositories would be transferred to the association, membership of which would be compulsory and which would have the legal form of a public corporation. A structure of this kind raises a number of organizational and legal problems which are discussed in this contribution. (orig.)

  10. What should we expect from Switzerland's compulsory dental insurance reform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Bella, Enrico; Krejci, Ivo; Ardu, Stefano; Leporatti, Lucia; Montefiori, Marcello

    2018-04-10

    A vast and heated debate is arising in Switzerland as a result of some recent citizens' initiatives aimed at introducing compulsory dental health care insurance. The Grand Conseils of the Vaud, Geneva, and Neuchâtel cantons recently approved three public initiatives and their citizens are expected to vote on the proposal in 2018. The process of collecting signatures has begun in several other cantons and the discussion has now moved to a national level. At present, there is no scientific research that can help policy-makers and citizens to understand the main economic implications of such reform. We attempt to fill this gap by analysing three critical issues: the level and determinants of unmet needs for dental care in Switzerland; the protection of vulnerable individuals; and the economic sustainability of reform. The results show that income is not a unique determinant of barriers to access to dental care but rather, cultural and socio-demographic factors impact the perceived level of unmet dental care needs. The reform might only partially, if at all, improve the equity of the current system. In addition, the results show that the 1% wage-based contribution that the reform promoters suggest should finance the insurance is inadequate to provide full and free dental care to Swiss residents, but is merely sufficient to guarantee basic preventive care, whereas this could be provided by dental hygienists for less.

  11. The social surplus of broadband initiatives in compulsory education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Peter Parsons

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the New Zealand government embarked upon an ambitious programme of broadband infrastructure investment, a process that will continue until at least 2019. Part of this investment is specifically targeted at compulsory education, with initiatives that include bringing fibre connections to the school gate, supporting on-site network upgrades (including wireless and providing teaching, learning and support services delivered through these networks. Such investments are not made without some projections of the likely rate of return, but calculating return on investment (ROI in educational broadband is complex, as it encompasses a range of factors. This article reports on an interview-based study engaging a range of stakeholders in educational broadband provision. The study utilises a research model that considers the various elements of social surplus, namely; producer surplus (savings, producer surplus (profit and consumer surplus (perceived value over and above cost, to explore the elements of social surplus that have been used to define educational broadband ROI calculations and justify the scale of investment. The results indicate that all three components of social surplus are relevant, though the concept of profit can only be seen in the broader context of long term contributions to the economy. A note of caution is that projections of ROI based only on positive returns fail to acknowledge the potential for some innovations to actually increase costs. Further, purely quantitative models do not properly take into account qualitative components of consumer surplus.

  12. Attitudes of South African oral hygienists towards compulsory community service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhayat, A; Yengopal, V; Rudolph, M J; Naidoo, U; Vayej, A

    2008-02-01

    Compulsory Community Service (CCS) was introduced into the health service by the government to address the shortage and maldistribution of health professionals within the public sector. The aim of this study was to assess the perceptions of oral hygiene (OH) students, registered in 2004 at the five dental universities regarding the introduction of a 1-year-long CCS. To determine: (a) the students' socio-demographic profile and (b) their attitudes towards CCS. A self-administered questionnaire was hand delivered to all OH students who were registered during 2004 at the respective dental universities. The study yielded a response rate of 70% (109) with the average age of participants being 21.4 years. Most students were female (94%) and more than half were White (52%). More than half (53%) did not want to perform CCS even though 75% acknowledged its' importance. The most common concern for not supporting CCS was security (89%). Ninety per cent (90%) indicated that their preferred tasks would be to engage in clinical work and oral health promotion. Although the majority of participants supported the principles of CCS, a significant number were against the introduction citing security as their main concern. Most of the students preferred to perform clinical work and preventive programmes during their CCS.

  13. 47 CFR 76.127 - Satellite sports blackout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Satellite sports blackout. 76.127 Section 76... Sports Blackout § 76.127 Satellite sports blackout. (a) Upon the request of the holder of the broadcast rights to a sports event, or its agent, no satellite carrier shall retransmit to subscribers within the...

  14. Saturn satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruskol, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of the Saturn satellites are discussed. The satellites close to Saturn - Janus, Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione and Rhea - rotate along the circular orbits. High reflectivity is attributed to them, and the density of the satellites is 1 g/cm 3 . Titan is one of the biggest Saturn satellites. Titan has atmosphere many times more powerful than that of Mars. The Titan atmosphere is a peculiar medium with a unique methane and hydrogen distribution in the whole Solar system. The external satellites - Hyperion, Japetus and Phoebe - are poorly investigated. Neither satellite substance density, nor their composition are known. The experimental data on the Saturn rings obtained on the ''Pioneer-11'' and ''Voyager-1'' satellites are presented [ru

  15. Object and subject of evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koval L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to such topical issue of Criminal Law as Object and Subject of Evasion of Taxes and Other Compulsory Payments. There are analyzed researched crime determination problems, which are connected with subject and object of tax and other compulsory payments evasion. In the course of the research, the author has made the conclusions that the object of the evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments group is the national economic interests. The direct object is the national economic interests in the sphere of state revenues or the national fiscal interests. While analyzing the law and regulations it is concluded that the subject of the evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments is the tax base (income, property, expenses and consumption, taxes, state and local government fees, as well as other payments determined by the State. The author has also concluded that the subject of the evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments does not include increase in the tax principal debt, fine and late charge, which are covered by the financial responsibility. The subject of the evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments may not include also income from illegal activity or proceeds resulting from criminal offences.

  16. [Nutricional adequacy of students of compulsory secondary education in Badajoz].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba-Caro, L G; Luego Pérez, L M; García Preciado, V

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate nutricional adequacy of students of compulsory secondary education (ESO) in Badajoz, Spain. We included 1197 students of ESO from 12 to 18 years old, 49.9% male and 50.1% female, which is a representative sample of this population. They filled in a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) self-administered and previously validated in a pilot study. Nutrients were quantified from FFQ with a food composition table (Novartis, 2004) and nutritional Adequacy Index (AI) was calculated according to Spanish Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA). Nutritional adequacy of a nutrient was measured by the following relation: mean daily intake of the nutrient / RDA of that nutrient * 100. Average caloric intake of secondary education students is not very high, protein AI is over 200%, and cholesterol over 150%, being appropriate the intake of carbohydrates and lipids. The intake of fiber, vitamin E and iodine was lower than 50% in both genders; the one of iron less than 90% in females and there were no other differences between both genders. Only 1% to 3% of students reach RDA of fiber, iodine and vitamin E, and 37.3% of female reach RDA of iron. Cholesterol dietary intake of 17.2% males and 25.3% females is high, and saturated fatty acids intake is high in 46.1% males and 50.0% females. Diet of students of secondary education in Badajoz is normocaloric, hyperproteic, appropriate in carbohydrates and lipids, without differences between genders; it is very deficient in fiber, iodine and vitamin E in both genders and deficient in iron in females. We can see their diet is far from Mediterranean diet, and this is why education plans about food intake are advised to the students and their families.

  17. Implementation of Compulsory Study 12 Year Policy to Increase Education Quality in Kudus Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asih Widi Lestari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Education is an important instrument in improving the human resources quality. Kudus Regency has implemented compulsory study since 2010 through Kudus Regency Regional Regulation Number 2/ 2010 about Compulsory Study 12 (Twelve Years. While, Central Government issued compulsory study 12 year policy in June 2013 through Ministry of Education and Culture Regulation Number 80/2013 about Universal Secondary Education. Obviously, this is a bold step of Kudus Regency Government in improving the education quality at Kudus Regency. The research objectives are: to know, analyze, and describe about Implementation of compulsory study 12 years policy to increase education in Kudus Regency; and to know, analyze, and describe about supporting and inhibiting factors toward implementation of compulsory study 12 years policy to increase education quality in Kudus Regency. This research resulted that the implementation compulsory study 12 years policy in Kudus Regency has been successfully, viewed from the actor that completely carry out their duties and responsibilities; the existence of funding and programs from Kudus Regency Government and Central Government is supporting the mechanism implementation in accordance with the provisions. The compulsory study 12 years policy in Kudus Regency had positive impact in improving the education quality at Kudus Regency, it is seen from the increase of Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER for secondary education from 60% in 2008 to 80,59% in 2013. The success in improving the education quality is also seen from achievement of Kudus Regency in obtained champions in various championships. The supporting factors are The content of the Kudus Regency Regional Regulation Number 2/ 2010 about Compulsory Study 12 Years and the Minister of Education and Culture Regulation Number 80/ 2013 about Universal Secondary Education which clear and easy to understand; the willingness of Kudus Society in receiving the compulsory study 12 years policy

  18. Centriolar satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollenaere, Maxim A X; Mailand, Niels; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Centriolar satellites are small, microscopically visible granules that cluster around centrosomes. These structures, which contain numerous proteins directly involved in centrosome maintenance, ciliogenesis, and neurogenesis, have traditionally been viewed as vehicles for protein trafficking...... highlight newly discovered regulatory mechanisms targeting centriolar satellites and their functional status, and we discuss how defects in centriolar satellite components are intimately linked to a wide spectrum of human diseases....

  19. Satellite Communications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Satellite Communications. Arthur C Clarke wrote a seminal paper in 1945 in wireless world. Use three satellites in geo-synchronous orbit to enable intercontinental communications. System could be realised in '50 to 100 years'

  20. Satellite Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N

    2012-01-01

    The field of satellite communications represents the world's largest space industry. Those who are interested in space need to understand the fundamentals of satellite communications, its technology, operation, business, economic, and regulatory aspects. This book explains all this along with key insights into the field's future growth trends and current strategic challenges. Fundamentals of Satellite Communications is a concise book that gives all of the key facts and figures as well as a strategic view of where this dynamic industry is going. Author Joseph N. Pelton, PhD, former Dean of the International Space University and former Director of Strategic Policy at Intelstat, presents a r

  1. Satellite myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Roger L.; Hall, David

    2008-01-01

    Richard Corfield's article “Sputnik's legacy” (October 2007 pp23-27) states that the satellite on board the US Vanguard rocket, which exploded during launch on 6 December 1957 two months after Sputnik's successful take-off, was “a hastily put together contraption of wires and circuitry designed only to send a radio signal back to Earth”. In fact, the Vanguard satellite was developed over a period of several years and put together carefully using the best techniques and equipment available at the time - such as transistors from Bell Laboratories/Western Electric. The satellite contained not one but two transmitters, in which the crystal-controlled oscillators had been designed to measure both the temperature of the satellite shell and of the internal package.

  2. Satellite Geomagnetism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Stolle, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Observations of Earth’s magnetic field from space began more than 50 years ago. A continuous monitoring of the field using low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites, however, started only in 1999, and three satellites have taken highprecision measurements of the geomagnetic field during the past decade....... The unprecedented time-space coverage of their data opened revolutionary new possibilities for monitoring, understanding, and exploring Earth’s magnetic field. In the near future, the three-satellite constellation Swarm will ensure continuity of such measurement and provide enhanced possibilities to improve our...... ability to characterize and understand the many sources that contribute to Earth’s magnetic field. In this review, we summarize investigations of Earth’s interior and environment that have been possible through the analysis of high-precision magnetic field observations taken by LEO satellites....

  3. Boomerang Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselbrock, Andrew; Minton, David A.

    2017-10-01

    We recently reported that the orbital architecture of the Martian environment allows for material in orbit around the planet to ``cycle'' between orbiting the planet as a ring, or as coherent satellites. Here we generalize our previous analysis to examine several factors that determine whether satellites accreting at the edge of planetary rings will cycle. In order for the orbiting material to cycle, tidal evolution must decrease the semi-major axis of any accreting satellites. In some systems, the density of the ring/satellite material, the surface mass density of the ring, the tidal parameters of the system, and the rotation rate of the primary body contribute to a competition between resonant ring torques and tidal dissipation that prevent this from occurring, either permanently or temporarily. Analyzing these criteria, we examine various bodies in our solar system (such as Saturn, Uranus, and Eris) to identify systems where cycling may occur. We find that a ring-satellite cycle may give rise to the current Uranian ring-satellite system, and suggest that Miranda may have formed from an early, more massive Uranian ring.

  4. "Compulsory Schooling" Despite the Law: How Education Policy Underpins the Widespread Ignorance of the Right to Home Educate in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongrand, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Everyone in France takes for granted the existence of compulsory school attendance ("école obligatoire") while home education remains very exceptional. Yet school attendance is not, and has never been, legally compulsory in France. How can one explain the fact that the right to home educate is little known and practiced? This article…

  5. Compulsory teaching of occupational health: impact on attitude of medical students in Brazil and Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russ, Paul; Strümpell, Stephanie; Carvalho, Denise; Zander, Sabrina; Smits, Paul; Nowak, Dennis; Radon, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To assess medical students' attitude toward occupational health (OH) in Brazil and Germany before and after a compulsory OH course. Methods A questionnaire regarding the attitude toward OH was completed by medical students at the beginning of the OH teaching term at the Federal University of

  6. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour to Understand Students' Subject Choices in Post-Compulsory Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachel Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there have been concerns in the UK regarding the uptake of particular subjects in post-compulsory education. Whilst entries for Advanced level (A-level) subjects such as media studies have experienced considerable growth, entries for A-level physics have, until recently, been declining, prompting fears of a skills crisis in future…

  7. Childhood maltreatment and motivation for treatment in girls in compulsory residential care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenarts, L.E.W.; Hoeve, M.; van de Ven, P.M.; Lodewijks, H.P.B.; Dorelijers, T.A.H.

    2013-01-01

    The first objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between childhood maltreatment, trauma-related symptoms and motivation for treatment in girls in compulsory residential treatment facilities. The second objective was to examine the extent to which various forms of childhood

  8. A Compulsory Bioethics Module for a Large Final Year Undergraduate Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Roger S.

    2009-01-01

    The article describes a compulsory bioethics module delivered to [approximately] 120 biology students in their final year. The main intended learning outcome is that students should be able to analyse and reason about bioethical issues. Interactive lectures explain and illustrate bioethics. Underlying principles and example issues are used to…

  9. Should Undergraduate Lectures be Compulsory? The Views of Dental and Medical Students from a UK University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Daud

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Formal lectures have been a traditional part of medical and dental education, but there is debate as to their compulsory status. This study was designed to explore dental and medical students’ views on compulsory lectures and the use of Video-Recorded Lectures (VRL. A cross-sectional study of University of Bristol students in Years 2 to 4 was conducted using an online questionnaire. The majority of both dental (76% and medical (66% students felt lectures should be non-compulsory. The most common learning resources used by both dental and medical students were live lectures, lecture handouts and VRL. The majority of both dental (84% and medical (88% students used VRL. Most students attended lectures all of the time both before and after the introduction of VRL, even though most dental and medical students believe lectures should be non-compulsory. VRL is a popular learning resource. These findings tie-in with General Dental Council and General Medical Council recommendations that encourage self-directed learning. Dental and Medical schools should offer a range of learning resources and make use of current technology, including the use of VRL.

  10. [Potentials and limitations of the planned compulsory quality assurance program for cataract surgery (Qesü)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, U; Bertram, B; Krummenauer, F; Reuscher, A; Fabian, E; Neuhann, T; Schmickler, S; Neuhann, I

    2013-04-01

    Cataract surgery is scheduled for a federal program for quality improvement across the different sectors of care (outpatient care and hospitals). In case of implementation not only ophthalmic surgeons but all ophthalmologists would have to contribute to the documentation. Urgency, potential benefits and limitations of a compulsory compared to a voluntary quality assessment system are analyzed.

  11. 76 FR 590 - Adjustment or Determination of Compulsory License Rates for Making and Distributing Phonorecords

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... $150 filing fee, must be addressed to: Copyright Royalty Board, P.O. Box 70977, Washington, DC 20024... LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Royalty Board [Docket No. 2011-3 CRB Phonorecords II] Adjustment or Determination of Compulsory License Rates for Making and Distributing Phonorecords AGENCY: Copyright Royalty...

  12. 75 FR 32857 - Adjustment of Royalty Fee for Cable Compulsory License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Office 37 CFR Part 256 Adjustment of Royalty Fee for Cable Compulsory License CFR Correction In Title 37 of the Code of Federal Regulations, revised as of July 1, 2009, on page 666, in Sec. 256.2, make the following changes: a. In paragraph (b)(2)(i), remove ``$189,800...

  13. Asclepius or Hippocrates? Differing Interpretations of Post-Compulsory Initial Teacher Training Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingleby, Ewan

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses qualitative research findings on mentoring within PCET ITT (post-compulsory education and training initial teacher training). The article complements the findings of Tedder and Lawy (2009) and Ingleby (2010). The article develops Downie and Randall's consideration of the merits or otherwise of mirroring either "Asclepius" or…

  14. Leadership in Post-Compulsory Education: Inspiring Leaders of the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Jill

    2005-01-01

    Based around case studies of current leaders in post-compulsory education, this book explores a number of leadership models and styles in order to provide inspiration and guidance for the next wave of potential leaders. After an introduction, the book is divided into four parts and 18 chapters. Part One contains: (1) Leadership in Post-Compulsory…

  15. Computer Science Education in Secondary Schools--The Introduction of a New Compulsory Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubwieser, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In 2004 the German state of Bavaria introduced a new compulsory subject of computer science (CS) in its grammar schools ("Gymnasium"). The subject is based on a comprehensive teaching concept that was developed by the author and his colleagues during the years 1995-2000. It comprises mandatory courses in grades 6/7 for all students of…

  16. Promoting Compulsory Education in Rural China: What Are the NPOs Doing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huiquan

    2012-01-01

    Due to imbalanced social and economic development, education in poverty-stricken rural areas in China is lagging behind that of urban areas. The current study explores the role of the nonprofit organizations (NPOs) involved in rural compulsory education promotion. Results show that the NPOs are providing a variety of programs to promote rural…

  17. Policies for Compulsory Education Disparity Between Urban and Rural Areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Chuanyou

    2006-01-01

    An important function of public policies is to distribute public resources rationally.But for a long time.our public policies have been SO"city-oriented"that public resources are allocated unfairly and majority of high-quality education resources are concentrated in cities.This has already led to a serious unbalanced development in compdsory education and to a tremendous gap in conditions in schools--running and enrollment chances fur the school-age children between rural and urban areas.which tend to be enlarged.The unbalanced development in compulsory education has not only blocked the realization of public interest and equity of compulsory education but also restricted the harmonious social and economic development between urban and rural areas.It iS necessary to look into Public policies that have influence on the division of public resources and criticize them rationally.These policies include land institutions,tax systems,social security systems,policies for the input of compulsory education,and policies for teachers,etc.New policies should be made to distribute public resources fairly and rationally,narrowing the gap in compulsory education between urban and rural areas.

  18. Does "Compulsory Volunteering" Affect Subsequent Behavior? Evidence from a Natural Experiment in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    This paper estimates the impact of "compulsory volunteerism" for adolescents on subsequent volunteer behavior exploiting the introduction of a mandatory community service program for high school (HS) students in Ontario, Canada. We use difference-in-differences approach with a large longitudinal dataset. Our estimates show that the…

  19. Enhancing adolescents' motivation for treatment in compulsory residential care: A clinical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauers, Malou; Kroneman, Leoniek; Otten, Rene; Lindauer, Ramon; Popma, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Youths in compulsory residential care show a high prevalence of various mental health problems but often lack motivation to engage in therapeutic treatment. Although the self-determination-theory (SDT) and the transtheoretical model of change (TTM) offer a useful framework for treatment motivation,

  20. Disciplining the Conduct of Young People in Compulsory Education Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, David

    2018-01-01

    Disciplining and pastoral power are central to the strategies and practices of intervening in the lives of young people deemed at risk of disengaging from school, or not completing their compulsory education. As an expression of power concerned with young people's welfare and self-improvement, disciplining and pastoral practices push young people…

  1. Should I Take Further Mathematics? Physics Undergraduates' Experiences of Post-Compulsory Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Jessica; Darlington, Ellie

    2017-01-01

    It is essential that physics undergraduates are appropriately prepared for the mathematical demands of their course. This study investigated physics students' perceptions of post-compulsory mathematics as preparation for their degree course. 494 physics undergraduates responded to an online questionnaire about their experiences of A-level…

  2. Disenchantment and Participatory Limits of Compulsory Education: Lessons from Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinting

    2012-01-01

    Despite the state's unrelenting efforts to enforce compulsory basic education, schooling in rural ethnic China remains an elusive ideal that leads to massive dropout and prepares many only for factory sweatshops. Based on 16 months of ethnographic research, this article examines the disjuncture between the official education policy known as the…

  3. Computer Science (CS) in the Compulsory Education Curriculum: Implications for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Don

    2017-01-01

    The subject of computer science (CS) and computer science education (CSE) has relatively recently arisen as a subject for inclusion within the compulsory school curriculum. Up to this present time, a major focus of technologies in the school curriculum has in many countries been on applications of existing technologies into subject practice (both…

  4. Does school time matter? On the impact of compulsory education age on school dropout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabus, S.J.; de Witte, K.

    2010-01-01

    A straightforward way to prevent students from leaving education without a higher secondary diploma consists of increasing the compulsory education age. By staying longer in school, the idea is that more students eventually obtain a higher secondary diploma. This paper examines by a

  5. The compulsory psychiatric regime in Hong Kong: Constitutional and ethical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Daisy

    This article examines the compulsory psychiatric regime in Hong Kong. Under section 36 of the Mental Health Ordinance, which authorises long-term detention of psychiatric patients, a District Judge is required to countersign the form filled out by the registered medical practitioners in order for the detention to be valid. Case law, however, has shown that the role of the District Judge is merely administrative. This article suggests that, as it currently stands, the compulsory psychiatric regime in Hong Kong is unconstitutional because it fails the proportionality test. In light of this conclusion, the author proposes two solutions to deal with the issue, by common law or by legislative reform. The former would see an exercise of discretion by the courts read into section 36, while the latter would involve piecemeal reform of the relevant provisions to give the courts an explicit discretion to consider substantive issues when reviewing compulsory detention applications. The author argues that these solutions would introduce effective judicial supervision into the compulsory psychiatric regime and safeguard against abuse of process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. School Socioeconomic Context and Teacher Job Satisfaction in Japanese Compulsory Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoji

    2015-01-01

    Sociologists in education have pointed out disparities associated with socioeconomic status (SES) in the Japanese compulsory education system that was once regarded as egalitarian. In addition to disparities between individual students, prior studies have empirically shown SES-based disparities among schools on important indicators such as…

  7. Second Chance Programmes: A Response to Educational Needs in Compulsory Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asin, Antonio Sanchez; Peinado, Jose Luis Boix

    2008-01-01

    This paper asks whether the integrated training provision currently offered through the different Spanish Second Chance Programmes (SCPs) constitutes a valid response to the educational needs and deficits known to exist among those young people who do not satisfactorily complete the Compulsory Secondary Education stage (ESO). The objectives of the…

  8. Reform of the Educational Finance System as the Foundation of Compulsory Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetomi, Kaori; Murray, Nadezhda

    2014-01-01

    The conditions required for a reform of the educational finance system as the foundation of compulsory education are 1) devolution to schools and introduction of national standards in order to deal with "individual equality" while compensating for the insufficiency of "aspectual equality," and 2) dealing with educational needs…

  9. Compulsory Disclosure by Newsmen: The Implications of the Legal Heritage for the Contemporary Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshelman, David

    In the almost 100 years of reported litigation pertaining to compulsory disclosure of news sources, the basic pleadings asserted in common law cases have included employer's regulations, professional ethics, self-incrimination, lack of jurisdictional authority, and relevancy. American courts have consistently denied an evidentiary privilege for…

  10. 38 CFR 1.468 - Relationship to Federal statutes protecting research subjects against compulsory disclosure of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Information from Department of Veterans Affairs (va) Records Relating to Drug Abuse, Alcoholism Or Alcohol... on the Attorney General, respectively, the power to authorize researchers conducting certain types of... statutes protecting research subjects against compulsory disclosure of their identity. 1.468 Section 1.468...

  11. The Ideology of Innovation Education and Its Emergence as a New Subject in Compulsory Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsdottir, Svanborg R.; Thorsteinsson, Gisli; Page, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Innovation Education and Practical Use of Knowledge was introduced into the Icelandic National Curriculum for compulsory schools in 1999, where it is defined by the curriculum writers as a "school subject" but is not allocated any direct time in the recommended guidelines for subjects. This paper describes a master's research project…

  12. Cultivating a Troubled Consciousness: Compulsory sound-mindedness and complicity in oppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chapman

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Implicating oneself in oppression provokes uncertainty, shame and anxiety, and identity destabilizations. Yet anti-oppressive texts often denigrate these experiences, participating in forces I call “compulsory sound-mindedness.” Narratives of three women confronting their complicity illustrate the workings of compulsory sound-mindedness: a white Canadian recognizing the racism in her development work and both a white woman and a racialized Muslim reflecting on their complicity in ongoing Canadian colonization. The three narratives devalue affect, uncertainty, and destabilized identity. They also reveal these denigrated experiences as fundamental to personal-is-political ethical transformation. Compulsory sound-mindedness cannot consistently prevent people from journeying with pain, uncertainty, and coming undone. But when people undertake such journeys, compulsory sound-mindedness frames pain, identity destabilization, and uncertainty as regrettable and without value. I advocate that people cultivate a “troubled consciousness” by journeying with internalized accountability narratives, uncertainties, painful feelings, and destabilizations of a straightforwardly moral self.

  13. On the Brink of Education: Experiences of Refugees beyond the Age of Compulsory Education in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasoska, Tatjana; Proyer, Michelle

    2018-01-01

    This paper offers first-hand accounts of refugees beyond the age of compulsory education having arrived in Austria during the last five years. Their accounts were collected using qualitative interviews and a visual method to allow for different approaches towards their educational biographies. Nine individual and two group interviews (altogether…

  14. Private Property Rights and Compulsory Acquisition Process in Nigeria: the Past, Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akintunde OTUBU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A property right is the exclusive authority to determine how a resource is used, whether that resource is owned by government or by individuals. In the context of land, it is the authority of the land owner to determine its use or otherwise. On the other hand, compulsory acquisition is the process by which government obtain land from private owners for development purposes in the best interest of the community. These diametrically opposed concepts of property rights and compulsory acquisition is reconciled with the payment of compensation for the extinguishment of private property rights. Implications: In Nigeria, these two concepts have a history of mutual conflicts, resulting in congruous resolutions most of the time, until the introduction of the Land Use Act 1978. With the coming of the Act, the pendulum has tilted in favors of compulsory acquisition to the detriment of private property rights; as compensation fails to assuage the loss occasioned by expropriation. Value: The paper explored the dichotomy between private property rights and compulsory acquisition in Nigeria in the last 50 years and submitted that the process under the Land Use Act changed the equilibrium that existed between these two concepts and produced a skewed and unfavorable result to the detriment of private property rights and National economy. It finally proposed a new equitable arrangement to the quagmire.

  15. Struggle with School Absenteeism in Compulsory Education: Different Country Approaches and Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbasli, Sait; Sahin, Mehmet; Yilmaz, St. Pinar Mardin

    2017-01-01

    This research has been conducted to discuss the absenteeism in compulsory education and the proposed policies for reducing this problem with the school practices. In this context, the general situation regarding the absenteeism in the Turkish education system has been put forward and the current practices and policies have been addressed.…

  16. 16 CFR 5.61 - Prehearing procedures; motions; interlocutory appeals; summary decision; discovery; compulsory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prehearing procedures; motions; interlocutory appeals; summary decision; discovery; compulsory process. 5.61 Section 5.61 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Disciplinary...

  17. Mobile Phone Voting for Participation and Engagement in a Large Compulsory Law Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Chad; Stubbs, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an action-research project designed to investigate the effect of a technological intervention on the complex interactions between student engagement, participation, attendance and preparation in a large lecture delivered as part of a compulsory first-year law course, a discipline which has not been the focus of any previous…

  18. 77 FR 34211 - Modification of Multiple Compulsory Reporting Points; Continental United States, Alaska and Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 [Docket No. FAA-2012-0130; Airspace Docket No. 12-AWA-2] RIN 2120-AA66 Modification of Multiple Compulsory Reporting Points; Continental United States, Alaska and Hawaii AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final...

  19. 47 CFR 76.66 - Satellite broadcast signal carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... carriers are required to carry digital-only stations upon request in markets in which the satellite carrier... digital signals of each television broadcast station that is located in a local market in Alaska or Hawaii... retransmits a local television station signal back into the local market of that television station for...

  20. Peptide-Carrier Conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Paul Robert

    2015-01-01

    To produce antibodies against synthetic peptides it is necessary to couple them to a protein carrier. This chapter provides a nonspecialist overview of peptide-carrier conjugation. Furthermore, a protocol for coupling cysteine-containing peptides to bovine serum albumin is outlined....

  1. Air Carrier Traffic Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report contains airline operating statistics for large certificated air carriers based on data reported to U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) by carriers that hold a certificate issued under Section 401 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 a...

  2. Air Carrier Traffic Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This report contains airline operating statistics for large certificated air carriers based on data reported to U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) by carriers that hold a certificate issued under Section 401 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 a...

  3. 47 CFR 25.143 - Licensing provisions for the 1.6/2.4 GHz mobile-satellite service and 2 GHz mobile-satellite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing provisions for the 1.6/2.4 GHz mobile-satellite service and 2 GHz mobile-satellite service. 25.143 Section 25.143 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses...

  4. Satellite Radio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Satellites have been a highly effective platform for multi- form broadcasts. This has led to a ... diversity offormats, languages, genre, and a universal reach that cannot be met by .... programs can be delivered to whom it is intended. In the case of.

  5. Reframing less conventional speech to disrupt conventions of "compulsory fluency": A conversation analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Duque

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose is to illuminate compliances with, and resistances to, what we are calling "compulsory fluency" which we define as conventions for what constitutes competent speech. We achieve our purpose through a study of day-to-day communication between a woman with less conventional speech and her support providing family members and friends. Drawing from McRuer's (2006 compulsory ablebodiedness and Kafer's (2013 compulsory able-mindedness, we use "compulsory fluency" to refer to a form of articulation that is standardized and idealized and imposed on all speakers including those whose speech is less conventional. We see compulsory fluency as central to North American conceptions of personhood which are tied to individual ability to speak for one's self (Brueggemann, 2005. In this paper, we trace some North American principles for linguistic competence to outline widely held ideals of receptive and expressive language use, namely, conventions for how language should be understood and expressed. Using Critical Disability Studies (Goodley, 2013; McRuer, 2006 together with a feminist framework of relational autonomy (Nedelsky, 1989, our goal is to focus on experiences of people with less conventional speech and draw attention to power in communication as it flows in idiosyncratic and intersubjective fashion (Mackenzie & Stoljar, 2000; Westlund, 2009. In other words, we use a critical disability and feminist framing to call attention to less conventional forms of communication competence and, in this process, we challenge assumptions about what constitutes competent speech. As part of a larger qualitative study, we conduct a conversation analysis informed by Rapley and Antaki (1996 to examine day-to-day verbal, vocal and non-verbal communications of a young woman who self identifies as "having autism" - pseudonym Addison - in interaction with her support-providing family members and friends. We illustrate a multitude of Addison's compliances with

  6. Scientific Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    noise signal level exceeds 10 times the normal background. EXPERIMENTS FOR SATELLITE ASTRONOMY 615 ANTENNA MONOPOLE -., PREAMPLFE = BANDPASS-FILTER...OUTPUT TO AND DETECTOR TELEMETRYCHANNELS (18) CALIBRATION NOISE MATRIX CLOCK NOISE SOURCE ’ON’ SOURCE COMMAND F ROM PROGRAMERP ANTENNA MONOPOLE FIGURE 13...Animal Tempera- ture Sensing for Studying the Effect of Prolonged Orbital Flight on the Circadian Rhythms of Pocket Mice . Unmanned Spacecraft Meeting

  7. Solar satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poher, C.

    1982-01-01

    A reference system design, projected costs, and the functional concepts of a satellite solar power system (SSPS) for converting sunlight falling on solar panels of a satellite in GEO to a multi-GW beam which could be received by a rectenna on earth are outlined. Electricity transmission by microwaves has been demonstrated, and a reference design system for supplying 5 GW dc to earth was devised. The system will use either monocrystalline Si or concentrator GaAs solar cells for energy collection in GEO. Development is still needed to improve the lifespan of the cells. Currently, the cell performance degrades 50 percent in efficiency after 7-8 yr in space. Each SSPS satellite would weigh either 34,000 tons (Si) or 51,000 tons (GaAs), thereby requiring the fabrication of a heavy lift launch vehicle or a single-stage-to-orbit transport in order to minimize launch costs. Costs for the solar panels have been estimated at $500/kW using the GaAs technology, with transport costs for materials to GEO being $40/kg.

  8. Solar satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poher, C.

    A reference system design, projected costs, and the functional concepts of a satellite solar power system (SSPS) for converting sunlight falling on solar panels of a satellite in GEO to a multi-GW beam which could be received by a rectenna on earth are outlined. Electricity transmission by microwaves has been demonstrated, and a reference design system for supplying 5 GW dc to earth was devised. The system will use either monocrystalline Si or concentrator GaAs solar cells for energy collection in GEO. Development is still needed to improve the lifespan of the cells. Currently, the cell performance degrades 50 percent in efficiency after 7-8 yr in space. Each SSPS satellite would weigh either 34,000 tons (Si) or 51,000 tons (GaAs), thereby requiring the fabrication of a heavy lift launch vehicle or a single-stage-to-orbit transport in order to minimize launch costs. Costs for the solar panels have been estimated at $500/kW using the GaAs technology, with transport costs for materials to GEO being $40/kg.

  9. Do compulsory secondary science courses change students’ attitude towards studying science?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lærke Elisabeth; Petersen, Morten Rask

    2015-01-01

    recruitment to STEM education has been a compulsory course in the Gymnasium called Natural Science Subject (NSS). This is an interdisciplinary, introductory course with the intention that students shall “ … realize the importance of knowing and understanding natural science thinking” (Authors translation...... science and science careers. In this approach we ended up with the following research question: “Does a compulsory introductory sciences course have an impact on students’ attitude towards studying sciences in secondary school?” In this approach we chose to use parameters as motivation (Deci & Ryan, 2002...... Subject course. The distribution included all levels (K10-K12) and all study lines. Student answers were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U-test using SPSS statistics 22 as analytical tool. Comparisons for this study were made across study lines (natural science vs. human science & social science...

  10. Compensation and Resettlement Policies after Compulsory Land Acquisition for Hydropower Development in Vietnam: Policy and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Huu Ty

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Under Vietnam’s State land ownership regime, the Government holds supreme authority over compulsory land acquisition. The results show that many improvements in land acquisition policies have been made, but poor implementation measures largely cannot prevent or even mitigate the adverse impacts on displaced persons. In particular, ineffective compensation measures and a lack of production land and livelihood alternatives accelerate the resistance of communities displaced as a result of hydropower development. The close alliance between the local government and the investor, which is considered as an “interest group”, is the main factor that leads to the ignorance of benefits of displaced people within the compulsory land acquisition process.

  11. [Techniques for nutrition education in particular for maternal and compulsory schools (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, A F

    1975-01-01

    After an introduction on the various factors involved in food habits of humans, the A. is calling the attention on the importance of nutrition education, examining then some of the programs in use. Already in the maternal school the child can learn nutrition with applicative plays. It is compulsory to teach and follow also the in parents. For the compulsory school the nutrition should be taught as such or integrated in other courses as geography, history, mathematics and science. For adults the deep-seated food habits are making more difficult the educational programs. For successful results in nutrition education is essential that the programs are well planned and carried out from well trained personnel not only in nutritional sciences but also in education, cultural anthropology, psicology and sociology.

  12. Focus on Formative Feedback communication and self-regulated learning – a study in compulsory schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Preben Olund

    This study addresses the conceptual challenge of providing students in compulsory schools with good quality formative feedback to enhance self-regulated learning in social interactions. Resent educational research indicates that social communicative interactions in the classroom, with a focus...... qualitative data from video recorded teaching sessions and student group interviews. Methodologically we are inspired by the ethnographical classroom research method. The empirical basis for studying these aspects is data from two compulsory schools in Denmark. This study is a work in progress. Our findings...... on formative feedback, hold the potential to enhance students learning. Self-regulated learning is highly pertinent and can be seen as one of the most import skills for the 21st century learner. We argue that formative feedbackcommunication in interactions is crucial for students to develop self...

  13. Conscription in the Afghan Army. Compulsory Service Versus an All Volunteer Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    580 in 2004) to avoid compulsory service. Dual citizens and only sons or breadwinners are exempted. There appears to be substantial corruption in...their Soviet advisors. There were many reports of conscripts showing up for training just long enough to be issued So- viet-made weapons and...create a national ID card program and a census, as well as other initiatives to collect information on the popula- tion - but these programs are just

  14. The political and scientific challenges in evaluating compulsory drug treatment centers in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Vuong, Thu; Nguyen, Nhu; Le, Giang; Shanahan, Marian; Ali, Robert; Ritter, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Background In Vietnam, like many countries in Southeast Asia, the commonly used approach of center-based compulsory drug treatment (CCT) has been criticized on human rights ground. Meanwhile, community-based voluntary methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been implemented for nearly a decade with promising results. Reform-minded leaders have been seeking empirical evidence of the costs and effectiveness associated with these two main treatment modalities. Conducting evaluations of these t...

  15. Prosocial behavior and self-concept of Spanish students of Compulsory Secondary Education

    OpenAIRE

    Inglés, Cándido J.; Martínez-González, Agustín Ernesto; García-Fernández, José Manuel; Torregrosa, María S.; Ruiz Esteban, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between prosocial behavior and self-concept dimensions in a sample of 2022 Spanish students (51.1% males) of Compulsory Secondary Education. The prosocial behavior was measured with the Prosocial Behavior scale of the Teenage Inventory of Social Skills (TISS) and the self-concept was measured with the Self-Description Questionnaire-II (SDQ-II). Logistic regression analyses revealed that prosocial behavior is a positive and significant statistically predict...

  16. Compulsory Community Care in New Zealand Mental Health Legislation 1846-1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony John O’Brien

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Community treatment orders are considered a new development in mental health care and are consistent with current New Zealand mental health policy of care in the community. However, since its first adoption in 1846, New Zealand mental health legislation has always made provision for compulsory mental health care out of hospital. Analysis of the text of each of the five iterations of mental health legislation shows that an initial (1846 provision for a friend or relative to take a committed patient into his or her care, as an alternative to committal to hospital, continued though various revisions until its current expression as a community treatment order. Using Rochefort’s model of change in mental health policy, we argue that a long static period until 1911 was followed by progressive change throughout the 20th century, although provision for compulsory out-of-hospital care has been continuous over the life of New Zealand’s legislation. In the late-20th century, compulsory mental health care is tied to medical treatment and mental health service surveillance of the patient’s social circumstances. We conclude with recommendations for how reformed legislation may contribute to future mental health policy by giving effect to agendas of positive rights and social inclusion.

  17. Voluntary vs. compulsory student evaluation of clerkships: effect on validity and potential bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun Bahous, Sola; Salameh, Pascale; Salloum, Angelique; Salameh, Wael; Park, Yoon Soo; Tekian, Ara

    2018-01-05

    Students evaluations of their learning experiences can provide a useful source of information about clerkship effectiveness in undergraduate medical education. However, low response rates in clerkship evaluation surveys remain an important limitation. This study examined the impact of increasing response rates using a compulsory approach on validity evidence. Data included 192 responses obtained voluntarily from 49 third-year students in 2014-2015, and 171 responses obtained compulsorily from 49 students in the first six months of the consecutive year at one medical school in Lebanon. Evidence supporting internal structure and response process validity was compared between the two administration modalities. The authors also tested for potential bias introduced by the use of the compulsory approach by examining students' responses to a sham item that was added to the last survey administration. Response rates increased from 56% in the voluntary group to 100% in the compulsory group (P two consecutive years. Testing for non-response bias in the voluntary group showed that females were more frequent responders in two clerkships. Testing for authority-induced bias revealed that students might complete the evaluation randomly without attention to content. While increasing response rates is often a policy requirement aimed to improve the credibility of ratings, using authority to enforce responses may not increase reliability and can raise concerns over the meaningfulness of the evaluation. Administrators are urged to consider not only response rates, but also representativeness and quality of responses in administering evaluation surveys.

  18. Compulsory of Malaysia’s Quality Assessment System in Construction (QLASSIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manap, N.; Goh, YK; Syahrom, N.

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, the quality in the construction industry has become very important because it contribute to the nation’s economic growth and quality of life of the house occupants. Therefore, CIDB is proposed to enforce the implementation of QLASSIC as the main element of project approval for issuance of Certificate of Fitness (CFO) or Certificate of Compliances (C.C.C) in construction industry of Malaysia. The objectives of this study are to identify the views of contractors toward the compulsory of the QLASSIC and to determine the impacts of the QLASSIC in the construction industry. The methodology used are literature review and the questionnaires. The descriptive statistic like the frequency and percentage were used for describing the respondent background. While the mean distribution analysis was used to analysis the views on the compulsory of QLASSIC and the impacts of the QLASSIC. The result of the study shows that, the views of the respondents toward the compulsory of QLASSIC and the main impacts of the QLASSIC were identified. The significance of this study is it can help contractors to understand the impacts and the important of using QLASSIC.

  19. [Certain medico-economic prerequisites for the integration of spa and resort facilities into the system of compulsory health insurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artem'eva, G B; Gekht, I A

    2013-01-01

    The involvement of spa and resort facilities in the system of compulsory health insurance is of primary importance for the improvement of medical aid provided to the population. The application of the methods for the calculation of differential expenditures on the spa and resort-based treatment and estimation of their dependence on a variety of factors may facilitate the more rational use of the available resources of compulsory health insurance.

  20. First test of WTO mechanism for procuring generic medicines under compulsory licence, via Canada's Access to Medicines Regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Richard

    2007-12-01

    In July 2007, Rwanda became the first nation to initiate use of a procedure under the rules of the World Trade Organization (WTO) that is supposed to let developing countries import lower-cost, generic medicines produced in other countries under compulsory licences. And two months later, based on Rwanda's initiative, Canada's Commissioner of Patents issued the first compulsory licence under this system to permit the production of a patented AIDS drug to that country.

  1. The impact of compulsory drug detention exposure on the avoidance of healthcare among injection drug users in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Thomas; Hayashi, Kanna; Ti, Lianping; Kaplan, Karyn; Suwannawong, Paisan; Wood, Evan

    2014-01-01

    Although Thailand has relied on the use of compulsory drug detention centres as a strategy to try to address problematic drug use, little is known about the effects of exposure to these centres on people who inject drugs (IDU). Therefore, we undertook this study to explore whether exposure to compulsory drug detention was associated with avoiding healthcare among Thai IDU. Using Poisson regression analyses, we examined the relationship between compulsory drug detention exposure and avoiding healthcare among participants in the Mitsampan Community Research Project based in Bangkok. 435 IDU participated in this study, including 111 (25.5%) participants who reported avoiding healthcare. In multivariate analyses, avoiding healthcare was positively associated with exposure to compulsory drug detention (adjusted prevalence ratio [APR]=1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-2.21), having been refused healthcare (APR=3.46; 95% CI: 2.61-4.60), and experiencing shame associated with one's drug use (APR=1.93; 95% CI: 1.21-3.09). Exposure to compulsory drug detention was associated with avoiding healthcare among Thai IDU, suggesting that this system of detention may be contributing to the burden of preventable morbidity among IDU in this setting. Although further research is needed to confirm these findings, the results of this study reinforce previous calls to replace the system of compulsory drug detention with evidence-based public health interventions for IDU. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Satellite switched FDMA advanced communication technology satellite program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, S.; Higton, G. H.; Wood, K.; Kline, A.; Furiga, A.; Rausch, M.; Jan, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The satellite switched frequency division multiple access system provided a detailed system architecture that supports a point to point communication system for long haul voice, video and data traffic between small Earth terminals at Ka band frequencies at 30/20 GHz. A detailed system design is presented for the space segment, small terminal/trunking segment at network control segment for domestic traffic model A or B, each totaling 3.8 Gb/s of small terminal traffic and 6.2 Gb/s trunk traffic. The small terminal traffic (3.8 Gb/s) is emphasized, for the satellite router portion of the system design, which is a composite of thousands of Earth stations with digital traffic ranging from a single 32 Kb/s CVSD voice channel to thousands of channels containing voice, video and data with a data rate as high as 33 Mb/s. The system design concept presented, effectively optimizes a unique frequency and channelization plan for both traffic models A and B with minimum reorganization of the satellite payload transponder subsystem hardware design. The unique zoning concept allows multiple beam antennas while maximizing multiple carrier frequency reuse. Detailed hardware design estimates for an FDMA router (part of the satellite transponder subsystem) indicate a weight and dc power budget of 353 lbs, 195 watts for traffic model A and 498 lbs, 244 watts for traffic model B.

  3. Self-esteem of adolescents with specific language impairment as they move from compulsory education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Geoff; Dockrell, Julie; Palikara, Olympia

    2010-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) are at risk of low self-esteem during their school years. However, there is a lack of evidence of the self-esteem of young people with a history of SLI during adolescence, as they transfer from compulsory schooling to post-compulsory education, employment or training. To examine the self-esteem of young people with a history of SLI at the transition from compulsory education (16 years) to the first year of post-compulsory education, employment and training (17 years) in England. A total of 54 young people identified as having SLI at 8 years were followed up at 16 and at 17 years. The young people completed two measures of self-esteem: the Self-perception Profile for Adolescents (16 years) and the Self-perception Profile for College Students (17 years). Assessments of language, literacy and non-verbal ability were also conducted. Perceptions of scholastic competence were significantly lower than the norm at 16 years; the female students also had lower self-esteem in the social and physical appearance domains and global self-worth. However, at 17 years there were no significant differences from the norm for these self-esteem domains. There was evidence of stability within self-esteem domains over this period but also an improvement in self-perceptions of scholastic and job competence, physical appearance and athletic competence, and also global self-worth, but not the three social domains. Non-verbal cognitive ability was not correlated with any measures of self-esteem, at 16 or 17 years. Language and literacy ability, especially spelling, were correlated with scholastic and job competence at 16 years but only spelling correlated at 17 years. This study has provided evidence for improvements in self-esteem for young people with SLI after they leave school and enter the world of non-compulsory education (typically at a college), employment and training. The study has also indicated the importance of addressing self

  4. Duchenne muscular dystrophy carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, K.; Nakano, I.

    1989-01-01

    By means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1 values) of the skeletal muscles were measured in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) carriers and normal controls. The bound water fraction (BWF) was calculated from the T1 values obtained, according to the fast proton diffusion model. In the DMD carriers, T1 values of the gluteus maximus and quadriceps femoris muscles were significantly higher, and BWFs of these muscles were significantly lower than in normal control. Degenerative muscular changes accompanied by interstitial edema were presumed responsible for this abnormality. No correlation was observed between the muscle T1 and serum creatine kinase values. The present study showed that MRI could be a useful method for studying the dynamic state of water in both normal and pathological skeletal muscles. Its possible utility for DMD carrier detection was discussed briefly. (orig.)

  5. 37 CFR 258.3 - Royalty fee for secondary transmission of analog signals of broadcast stations by satellite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty fee for secondary... AND PROCEDURES ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEE FOR SECONDARY TRANSMISSIONS BY SATELLITE CARRIERS § 258.3 Royalty fee for secondary transmission of analog signals of broadcast stations by satellite carriers. (a...

  6. 37 CFR 258.4 - Royalty fee for secondary transmission of digital signals of broadcast stations by satellite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty fee for secondary... AND PROCEDURES ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEE FOR SECONDARY TRANSMISSIONS BY SATELLITE CARRIERS § 258.4 Royalty fee for secondary transmission of digital signals of broadcast stations by satellite carriers. (a...

  7. Asymmetric Carrier Random PWM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Lungeanu, Florin; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2010-01-01

    index. The flat motor current spectrum generates an acoustical noise close to the white noise, which may improve the acoustical performance of the drive. The new carrier wave is easy to implement digitally, without employing any external circuits. The modulation method can be used in open, as well...

  8. Willis H Carrier

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 2. Willis H. Carrier - Father of Air Conditioning. R V Simha. General Article Volume 17 Issue 2 February 2012 pp 117-138. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/02/0117-0138 ...

  9. Sealed substrate carrier for electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganti, Kalyana Bhargava [Fremont, CA

    2012-07-17

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The substrate carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are held, and conductive lines are embedded within the carrier body. A conductive bus bar is embedded into a top side of the carrier body and is conductively coupled to the conductive lines. A thermoplastic overmold covers a portion of the bus bar, and there is a plastic-to-plastic bond between the thermoplastic overmold and the non-conductive carrier body. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  10. 37 CFR 360.11 - Time of filing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF ROYALTY CLAIMS FILING OF CLAIMS TO ROYALTY FEES COLLECTED UNDER COMPULSORY LICENSE Satellite... compulsory license royalty fees for secondary transmissions by satellite carriers during the previous... Copyright Royalty Board. No royalty fees shall be distributed to any party during the specified period...

  11. 37 CFR 360.10 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....10 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS SUBMISSION OF ROYALTY CLAIMS FILING OF CLAIMS TO ROYALTY FEES COLLECTED UNDER COMPULSORY LICENSE Satellite Claims § 360... to be entitled to compulsory license royalty fees for secondary transmissions by satellite carriers...

  12. Geostationary Satellite (GOES) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from radiometer instruments on SMS (ATS) and GOES satellites in geostationary orbit. These satellites produced...

  13. Pelaksanaan Compulsory Licensing Paten Obat-obatan Bidang Farmasi di Indonesia Dikaitkan dengan Doha Declaration On The Trips Agreement And Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Samariadi, Samariadi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of this study is firstly to find out implementation of compulsory licensing patent medicines in Indonesia's pharmaceutical field linked Declaration DOHA, secondly to know resistance implementation of compulsory licensing to access drug in Indonesia, thirdly to know efforts should be done in implementation compulsory licensing as to support access public health. Author used legal research methods to get the result. Results of formulation problem, it can be concluded that, firstly imple...

  14. Preventing compulsory admission to psychiatric inpatient care through psycho-education and crisis focused monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Barbara; Salize, Hans Joachim; Dressing, Harald; Rüsch, Nicolas; Schönenberger, Thekla; Bühlmann, Monika; Bleiker, Marco; Lengler, Silke; Korinth, Lena; Rössler, Wulf

    2012-09-05

    The high number of involuntary placements of people with mental disorders in Switzerland and other European countries constitutes a major public health issue. In view of the ethical and personal relevance of compulsory admission for the patients concerned and given the far-reaching effects in terms of health care costs, innovative interventions to improve the current situation are much needed. A number of promising approaches to prevent involuntary placements have been proposed that target continuity of care by increasing self-management skills of patients. However, the effectiveness of such interventions in terms of more robust criteria (e.g., admission rates) has not been sufficiently analysed in larger study samples. The current study aims to evaluate an intervention programme for patients at high risk of compulsory admission to psychiatric hospitals. Effectiveness will be assessed in terms of a reduced number of psychiatric hospitalisations and days of inpatient care in connection with involuntary psychiatric admissions as well as in terms of cost-containment in inpatient mental health care. The intervention furthermore intends to reduce the degree of patients' perceived coercion and to increase patient satisfaction, their quality of life and empowerment. This paper describes the design of a randomised controlled intervention study conducted currently at four psychiatric hospitals in the Canton of Zurich. The intervention programme consists of individualised psycho-education focusing on behaviours prior to and during illness-related crisis, the distribution of a crisis card and, after inpatient admission, a 24-month preventive monitoring of individual risk factors for compulsory re-admission to hospital. All measures are provided by a mental health care worker who maintains permanent contact to the patient over the course of the study. In order to prove its effectiveness the intervention programme will be compared with standard care procedures (control group

  15. Preventing compulsory admission to psychiatric inpatient care through psycho-education and crisis focused monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lay Barbara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high number of involuntary placements of people with mental disorders in Switzerland and other European countries constitutes a major public health issue. In view of the ethical and personal relevance of compulsory admission for the patients concerned and given the far-reaching effects in terms of health care costs, innovative interventions to improve the current situation are much needed. A number of promising approaches to prevent involuntary placements have been proposed that target continuity of care by increasing self-management skills of patients. However, the effectiveness of such interventions in terms of more robust criteria (e.g., admission rates has not been sufficiently analysed in larger study samples. The current study aims to evaluate an intervention programme for patients at high risk of compulsory admission to psychiatric hospitals. Effectiveness will be assessed in terms of a reduced number of psychiatric hospitalisations and days of inpatient care in connection with involuntary psychiatric admissions as well as in terms of cost-containment in inpatient mental health care. The intervention furthermore intends to reduce the degree of patients’ perceived coercion and to increase patient satisfaction, their quality of life and empowerment. Methods/Design This paper describes the design of a randomised controlled intervention study conducted currently at four psychiatric hospitals in the Canton of Zurich. The intervention programme consists of individualised psycho-education focusing on behaviours prior to and during illness-related crisis, the distribution of a crisis card and, after inpatient admission, a 24-month preventive monitoring of individual risk factors for compulsory re-admission to hospital. All measures are provided by a mental health care worker who maintains permanent contact to the patient over the course of the study. In order to prove its effectiveness the intervention programme will be

  16. ALGORITHM OF SAR SATELLITE ATTITUDE MEASUREMENT USING GPS AIDED BY KINEMATIC VECTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, in order to improve the accuracy of the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)satellite attitude using Global Positioning System (GPS) wide-band carrier phase, the SAR satellite attitude kinematic vector and Kalman filter are introduced. Introducing the state variable function of GPS attitude determination algorithm in SAR satellite by means of kinematic vector and describing the observation function by the GPS wide-band carrier phase, the paper uses the Kalman filter algorithm to obtian the attitude variables of SAR satellite. Compared the simulation results of Kalman filter algorithm with the least square algorithm and explicit solution, it is indicated that the Kalman filter algorithm is the best.

  17. Motor carrier evaluation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portsmouth, James

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ), Transportation Management Program (TMP) has the overall responsibility to provide a well-managed transportation program for the safe, efficient, and economical transportation of DOE-owned materials. The DOE-TMP has established an excellent safety record in the transportation of hazardous materials including radioactive materials and radioactive wastes. This safety record can be maintained only through continued diligence and sustained effort on the part of the DOE-TMP, its field offices, and the contractors' organizations. Key elements in the DOE'S effective hazardous and radioactive materials shipping program are (1) integrity of packages, (2) strict adherence to regulations and procedures, (3) trained personnel, (4) complete management support, and (5) use of the best commercial carriers. The DOE Motor Carrier Evaluation Program was developed to better define the criteria and methodology needed to identify motor carriers for use in the transportation of Highway Route Controlled Quantities (HRCQ), Truck Load (TL) quantities of radioactive materials, hazardous materials and waste. (author)

  18. Carrier transport uphill. I. General

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T; Wilbrandt, W

    1963-01-01

    A quantitative treatment of a carrier pump operating with two carrier forms C and Z is presented. Asymmetric metabolic reactions are assumed to transform Z into C on one and C into Z on the other side of the membrane, establishing a carrier cycle. The kinetical consequences of this mechanism...

  19. Negative moods correlate with craving in female methamphetamine users enrolled in compulsory detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Wenwen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methamphetamine (METH use, especially in females, has become a growing public health concern in China. In this study, we aimed to characterize the factors that contributed to drug craving in female METH users under isolated compulsory detoxification. We characterized factors contributing to craving such as duration of detoxification, history of drug use and self-reported mood state. Methods Subjects (N=113 undergoing a 1- to 3-year METH detoxification program were recruited from the Zhejiang Compulsory Detoxification Center for Women. The Questionnaire of METH-use Urge (QMU was used to evaluate the level of craving for METH. The Abbreviate Profile of Mood States (A-POMS was applied as an assessment for the negative mood disturbances. Results The participants were at a mean age of 25.2, primarily lowly educated and unemployed, and single. Smoking was the only route of METH administration at an average dose of 0.5 g/day, and 4 times/week. The reported craving level was positively correlated with the negative mood disturbances and the weekly dose of METH, but independent of the duration of detoxification. Furthermore, all five aspects of negative mood disturbances, including fatigue, bewilderment, anxiety, depression and hostility, were shown to positively correlate to the self-reported craving level after controlling for weekly dose of METH. Conclusions The data demonstrate a robust correlation between mood distress and craving for METH. Our results call for close evaluation of mood distress in treatment of METH users in China.

  20. Iodine Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Dankanich, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Iodine Satellite (iSat) spacecraft will be the first CubeSat to demonstrate high change in velocity from a primary propulsion system by using Hall thruster technology and iodine as a propellant. The mission will demonstrate CubeSat maneuverability, including plane change, altitude change and change in its closest approach to Earth to ensure atmospheric reentry in less than 90 days. The mission is planned for launch in fall 2017. Hall thruster technology is a type of electric propulsion. Electric propulsion uses electricity, typically from solar panels, to accelerate the propellant. Electric propulsion can accelerate propellant to 10 times higher velocities than traditional chemical propulsion systems, which significantly increases fuel efficiency. To enable the success of the propulsion subsystem, iSat will also demonstrate power management and thermal control capabilities well beyond the current state-of-the-art for spacecraft of its size. This technology is a viable primary propulsion system that can be used on small satellites ranging from about 22 pounds (10 kilograms) to more than 1,000 pounds (450 kilograms). iSat's fuel efficiency is ten times greater and its propulsion per volume is 100 times greater than current cold-gas systems and three times better than the same system operating on xenon. iSat's iodine propulsion system consists of a 200 watt (W) Hall thruster, a cathode, a tank to store solid iodine, a power processing unit (PPU) and the feed system to supply the iodine. This propulsion system is based on a 200 W Hall thruster developed by Busek Co. Inc., which was previously flown using xenon as the propellant. Several improvements have been made to the original system to include a compact PPU, targeting greater than 80 percent reduction in mass and volume of conventional PPU designs. The cathode technology is planned to enable heaterless cathode conditioning, significantly increasing total system efficiency. The feed system has been designed to

  1. Maintainable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-An [Milpitas, CA; Abas, Emmanuel Chua [Laguna, PH; Divino, Edmundo Anida [Cavite, PH; Ermita, Jake Randal G [Laguna, PH; Capulong, Jose Francisco S [Laguna, PH; Castillo, Arnold Villamor [Batangas, PH; Ma,; Xiaobing, Diana [Saratoga, CA

    2012-07-17

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are placed and conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of conductive clip attachment parts are attached in a permanent manner to the conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of contact clips are attached in a removable manner to the clip attachment parts. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and conductively connecting the substrates with the conductive lines. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  2. Advanced mobile satellite communications system using Ka and MM-wave bands in Japan's R and D satellite project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Shunkichi; Ohmori, Shingo; Hamamoto, Naokazu; Yamamoto, Minoru

    1991-01-01

    Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) studied an advanced mobile satellite communications system using Ka and millimeter-wave bands in the R&D Satellite project. The project started in 1990 and the satellite will be launched in 1997. On-board multi-beam interconnecting is one of basic functions to realize one-hop connection among Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSATs), mobile, and hand-held terminals in future mobile satellite communications system. An Intermediate Frequency (IF) filter bank and regenerative transponder are suitable for this function. The transponder configuration of an advanced mobile communications mission of the R&D Satellite for experiment is shown. High power transmitters of Ka and millimeter-wave bands, a 3x3 IF filter band and Single Channel Per Carrier/Time Division Multiplexing (SCPC/TDM) regenerative MODEMS, which will be boarded on the R&D Satellite, are being developed for the purpose of studying the feasibility of advanced mobile communications system.

  3. Coverage Extension via Side-Lobe Transmission in Multibeam Satellite System

    OpenAIRE

    Gharanjik, Ahmad; Kmieciak, Jarek; Shankar, Bhavani; Ottersten, Björn

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study feasibility of coverage extension of a multibeam satellite network by providing low-rate communications to terminals located outside the coverage of main beams. Focusing on the MEO satellite network, and using realistic link budgets from O3b networks, we investigate the performance of both forward and return-links for terminals stationed in the side lobes of the main beams. Particularly, multi-carrier transmission for forward-link and single carrier transmission for re...

  4. Asteroid Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merline, W. J.

    2001-11-01

    Discovery and study of small satellites of asteroids or double asteroids can yield valuable information about the intrinsic properties of asteroids themselves and about their history and evolution. Determination of the orbits of these moons can provide precise masses of the primaries, and hence reliable estimates of the fundamental property of bulk density. This reveals much about the composition and structure of the primary and will allow us to make comparisons between, for example, asteroid taxonomic type and our inventory of meteorites. The nature and prevalence of these systems will also give clues as to the collisional environment in which they formed, and have further implications for the role of collisions in shaping our solar system. A decade ago, binary asteroids were more of a theoretical curiosity. In 1993, the Galileo spacecraft allowed the first undeniable detection of an asteroid moon, with the discovery of Dactyl, a small moon of Ida. Since that time, and particularly in the last year, the number of known binaries has risen dramatically. Previously odd-shaped and lobate near-Earth asteroids, observed by radar, have given way to signatures indicating, almost certainly, that at least four NEAs are binary systems. The tell-tale lightcurves of several other NEAs reveal a high likelihood of being double. Indications are that among the NEAs, there may be a binary frequency of several tens of percent. Among the main-belt asteroids, we now know of 6 confirmed binary systems, although their overall frequency is likely to be low, perhaps a few percent. The detections have largely come about because of significant advances in adaptive optics systems on large telescopes, which can now reduce the blurring of the Earth's atmosphere to compete with the spatial resolution of space-based imaging (which itself, via HST, is now contributing valuable observations). Most of these binary systems have similarities, but there are important exceptions. Searches among other

  5. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    management and efficient system operation. Due to the expected large number of user-deployed cells, centralized network planning becomes unpractical and new scalable alternatives must be sought. In this article, we propose a fully distributed and scalable solution to the interference management problem...... in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...... the experience of all users and not just the few best ones; while overall cell capacity is not compromised....

  6. Trends in communications satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Curtin, Denis J

    1979-01-01

    Trends in Communications Satellites offers a comprehensive look at trends and advances in satellite communications, including experimental ones such as NASA satellites and those jointly developed by France and Germany. The economic aspects of communications satellites are also examined. This book consists of 16 chapters and begins with a discussion on the fundamentals of electrical communications and their application to space communications, including spacecraft, earth stations, and orbit and wavelength utilization. The next section demonstrates how successful commercial satellite communicati

  7. Measuring the Long-Term Effectiveness of a Compulsory Approach to Behaviour Change: Analysis of the "Say No to Plastic Bag" Campaign at the Universiti Sains Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Hasrina; Yusoff, Ronzi Mohd

    2011-01-01

    This research looked into the effectiveness of a campaign at the Universiti Sains Malaysia for a compulsory ban on disposable plastics. Although there was high awareness of the "Say No to Plastic Bags" bags campaign, and moderate compliance on campus, we wondered whether a compulsory approach would maintain the desired behaviours off…

  8. The indirect and direct pathways between physical fitness and academic achievement on commencement in post-compulsory education in a historical cohort of Danish school youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Porsborg; Starkof, Liis; Sessa, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Background: Some studies have found positive associations between physical fitness and academic achievements. Pupils' academic achievements should indicate scholastic abilities to commence a post-compulsory education. However, the effect magnitude of physical fitness and academic achievements...... on commencement in post-compulsory education is unknown. We examined the pathways between physical fitness and academic achievement on pupils' commencement in post-compulsory education. Methods: This historical cohort study followed 530 girls and 554 boys from the Danish municipality of Aalborg in the period 2008.......e., through academic achievement) OR of 1.37 (95% CI: 1.20; 1.57). Thus, 51% (95% CI: 27%; 122%) of the effect of physical fitness on post-compulsory education commencement was mediated through academic achievement. Conclusion: Physical fitness had a positive effect on post-compulsory education commencement...

  9. Compulsory citizenship behavior and organizational citizenship behavior: the role of organizational identification and perceived interactional justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongdan; Peng, Zhenglong; Chen, Hsiu-Kuei

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the psychological mechanism underlying the relationship between compulsory citizenship behavior (CCB) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) by developing a moderated mediation model. The model focuses on the mediating role of organizational identification and the moderating role of interactional justice in influencing the mediation. Using a time-lagged research design, the authors collected two waves of data from 388 supervisor-subordinate dyads in 67 teams to test the moderated mediation model. Results revealed that CCB negatively influenced OCB via impairing organizational identification. Moreover, interactional justice moderated the strength of the indirect effect of CCB on OCB (through organizational identification), such that the mediated relationship was stronger under low interactional justice than under high interactional justice.

  10. Should I take Further Mathematics? Physics undergraduates’ experiences of post-compulsory Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Jessica; Darlington, Ellie

    2017-01-01

    It is essential that physics undergraduates are appropriately prepared for the mathematical demands of their course. This study investigated physics students’ perceptions of post-compulsory mathematics as preparation for their degree course. 494 physics undergraduates responded to an online questionnaire about their experiences of A-level Mathematics and Further Mathematics. The findings suggest that physics undergraduates would benefit from studying Further Mathematics and specialising in mechanics during their A-level studies. As both A-level Mathematics and Further Mathematics are being reformed, universities should look closely at the benefits of Further Mathematics as preparation for their physics courses and either increase their admissions requirements, or recommend that students take Further Mathematics.

  11. The Returns to Education in China: Evidence from the 1986 Compulsory Education Law. NBER Working Paper No. 18189

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hai; Eggleston, Karen N.; Rizzo, John A.; Rozelle, Scott; Zeckhauser, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    As China transforms from a socialist planned economy to a market-oriented economy, its returns to education are expected to rise to meet those found in middle-income established market economies. This study employs a plausible instrument for education: the China Compulsory Education Law of 1986. We use differences among provinces in the dates of…

  12. Establishing a compulsory drug treatment prison: Therapeutic policy, principles, and practices in addressing offender rights and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgden, Astrid; Grant, Luke

    2010-01-01

    A Compulsory Drug Treatment Correctional Center (CDTCC) was established in Australia in 2006 for repeat drug-related male offenders. Compulsory treatment law is inconsistent with a therapeutic jurisprudence approach. Despite the compulsory law, a normative offender rehabilitation framework has been established based on offender moral rights. Within moral rights, the offender rehabilitation framework addresses the core values of freedom (supporting autonomous decision-making) and well-being (supporting support physical, social, and psychological needs). Moral rights are underpinned by a theory or principle which, in this instance, is a humane approach to offender rehabilitation. While a law that permits offenders to choose drug treatment and rehabilitation is preferable, the article discusses the establishment of a prison based on therapeutic policy, principles, and practices that respond to participants as both rights-violators and rights-holders. The opportunity for accelerated community access and a therapeutic alliance with staff has resulted in offenders actively seeking to be ordered into compulsory drug treatment and rehabilitation. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hidden Gains: Effects of Early U.S. Compulsory Schooling Laws on Attendance and Attainment by Social Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Research on early compulsory schooling laws finds minimal effects on attendance but fails to investigate heterogeneous effects. Similarly, research proposes limited contexts in which expansion policies can increase equality but has difficulty separating policy and cohort effects. Capitalizing on within-country variation in timing of early…

  14. Optional Protocol concerning the compulsory settlement of disputes to the Vienna Convention on civil liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Optional Protocol Concerning the Compulsory Settlement of Disputes to the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage which was adopted on 21 May 1963 by the International Conference held in Vienna from 29 April to 19 May 1963. It came into force on 13 May 1999

  15. Developing a Model of Compulsory Basic Education Completion Acceleration in Support of Millennium Development Goals in Magelang, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukarno; Haryati, Sri

    2015-01-01

    This article reports Year One of a two-year study to develop a model to accelerate compulsory basic education completion toward Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Magelang, Indonesia. The study focuses on five issues: (1) profile of MDGs in Magelang, (2) achievement of MDGs, (3) problems in MDGs implementation, (4) model of compulsary basic…

  16. Robust and Specific Personality Traits as Predictors of Adolescents' Final Grades and GPA at the End of Compulsory Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrtnik Vitulic, Helena; Zupancic, Maja

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the predictive value of robust and specific personality traits in adolescents (M[subscript age]?=?14.7 years), in explaining their academic achievement at the end of basic compulsory schooling. Personality data were obtained through self, maternal, and peer reports using the Inventory of Child/Adolescent Individual…

  17. The Care Manager's Dilemma: Balancing Human Rights with Risk Management under the Intellectual Disability (Compulsory Care and Rehabilitation) Act 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebble, Kate; Diesfeld, Kate; Frey, Rosemary; Sutton, Daniel; Honey, Michelle; Vickery, Russell; McKenna, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In New Zealand, the Intellectual Disability (Compulsory Care and Rehabilitation) Act 2003 provides diversion for persons with an intellectual disability who have been charged with, or convicted of, a criminal offence. This unique Act moves the responsibility for such "care recipients" from the criminal justice system to a disability…

  18. Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market. What the Research Says For... Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This summary brings together the relevant key findings for industry from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between vocational education and training (VET) and…

  19. Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market. What the Research Says For... Qualification & Approval Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This summary pulls together the relevant key findings for qualification and approval bodies from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between vocational education…

  20. Self-Stigma and Quality of Life among People with Mental Illness Who Receive Compulsory Community Treatment Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, James

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the relationship between self-stigma and quality of life over a one year time period for 71 people with mental illness who were receiving compulsory community mental health treatment. It was hypothesized that, over time, self-stigma would have the direct effect of eroding quality of life among people with…

  1. Analysis of Measures for Attention to Diversity in Compulsory Secondary Education: The Case of the Region of Murcia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaiz, Pilar; Martinez, Rogelio; de Haro, Remedios; Escarbajal, Andres

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present an analysis of the implementation of measures of attention to diversity for students with special educational support needs studying Compulsory Secondary Education (12-16 years) in the Region of Murcia, Spain. Our aim is to learn about the organisational and curricular structures implemented in five secondary education…

  2. Satellite image collection optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William

    2002-09-01

    Imaging satellite systems represent a high capital cost. Optimizing the collection of images is critical for both satisfying customer orders and building a sustainable satellite operations business. We describe the functions of an operational, multivariable, time dynamic optimization system that maximizes the daily collection of satellite images. A graphical user interface allows the operator to quickly see the results of what if adjustments to an image collection plan. Used for both long range planning and daily collection scheduling of Space Imaging's IKONOS satellite, the satellite control and tasking (SCT) software allows collection commands to be altered up to 10 min before upload to the satellite.

  3. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The first edition of this ground breaking reference work was the most comprehensive reference source available about the key aspects of the satellite applications field. This updated second edition covers the technology, the markets, applications and regulations related to satellite telecommunications, broadcasting and networking—including civilian and military systems; precise satellite navigation and timing networks (i.e. GPS and others); remote sensing and meteorological satellite systems. Created under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, this brand new edition is now expanded to cover new innovative small satellite constellations, new commercial launching systems, innovation in military application satellites and their acquisition, updated appendices, a useful glossary and more.

  4. LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG CARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Posavec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern liquefied natural gas carriers are double-bottom ships classified according to the type of LNG tank. The tanks are specially designed to store natural gas cooled to -161°C, the boiling point of methane. Since LNG is highly flammable, special care must be taken when designing and operating the ship. The development of LNG carriers has begun in the middle of the twentieth century. LNG carrier storage space has gradually grown to the current maximum of 260000 m3. There are more than 300 LNG carriers currently in operation (the paper is published in Croatian.

  5. INTRODUCTION OF VAT SPLIT PAYMENT MECHANISM IN ROMANIA – COMPULSORY VERSUS OPTIONALLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ECOBICI NICOLAE

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to analyze the implications of introducing the VAT split payment mechanism in Romania, as it is regulated, as a compulsory system, through GO 23/2017 respectively, as well as in the case of the modification of the regulation in the sense of replacing the compulsory by optionality. We will analyze the effects of Ordinance 23/2017 of the Romanian Government regarding the mandatory distinctly payment of VAT for Romanian legal persons, registered or not for VAT purposes, as well as the result which the Government hopes to obtain as a result of the application of this provision, on the one hand. On the other hand, we will discuss the effects of a change in regulation for the optionally application of the VAT split payment mechanism, as of January 1, 2018, as compared with the amendments already approved by the Romanian Senate on October 31st, 2017. The structure of the article includes the following main sections: a briefly presents of the VAT split payment mechanism, as it was originally regulated by GO 23/2017; the second part includes the analysis of the implications of introducing the VAT split payment mechanism on legal entities and the state, in the initial phase of the Ordinance; the third part is devoted to the presentation of the amendments approved at the end of October 2017, respectively to the recommendations on amendments needed to be taken into account by the Chamber of Deputies, and the last part will include the conclusions and recommendations.

  6. The political and scientific challenges in evaluating compulsory drug treatment centers in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Thu; Nguyen, Nhu; Le, Giang; Shanahan, Marian; Ali, Robert; Ritter, Alison

    2017-01-11

    In Vietnam, like many countries in Southeast Asia, the commonly used approach of center-based compulsory drug treatment (CCT) has been criticized on human rights ground. Meanwhile, community-based voluntary methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been implemented for nearly a decade with promising results. Reform-minded leaders have been seeking empirical evidence of the costs and effectiveness associated with these two main treatment modalities. Conducting evaluations of these treatments, especially where randomization is not ethical, presents challenges. The aim of this paper is to discuss political challenges and methodological issues when conducting cost-effectiveness studies within the context of a non-democratic Southeast Asian country. A retrospective analysis of the political and scientific challenges that were experienced in the study design, sample size determination, government approval and ethics approvals, participant recruitment, data collection, and determination of sources, and quantification of cost and effectiveness data was undertaken. As a consequence of the non-randomized design, analysis of patient characteristics for both treatment types was undertaken to identify the magnitude of baseline group differences. Concordance between self-reported heroin use and urine drug testing was undertaken to determine the reliability of self-report data in a politically challenging environment. We demonstrate that conducting research around compulsory treatment in a non-democratic society is feasible, yet it is politically challenging and requires navigation between science and politics. We also demonstrate that engagement with the government decision makers in the research conception, implementation, and dissemination of the results increases the likelihood of research evidence being considered for change in a contentious drug policy area. Local empirical evidence on the comparative cost-effectiveness of CCT and MMT in a Southeast Asian setting is

  7. ASSESSMENT OF EFFECTIVENESS OF TB POSTING DURING THE COMPULSORY ROTATORY RESIDENTIAL INTERNSHIP (CRRI PROGRAMME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Aggarwal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the effectiveness of TB posting during the Compulsory Rotatory Residential Internship (CRRI programme? Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of TB posting during the CRRI programme. To find out the need of making Tuberculosis & Respiratory Diseases Department posting mandatory during CRRI Programme. Study Design: Cross Sectional study. Study Duration: 12 months i.e. 01st April 2009 till 31st March 2010 Participants: 90 students who joined the CRRI programme formed the study group. Out of these 90 interns only 57 (64% of them joined their two months Compulsory Rotatory Internship in the Department of Community Medicine and these were posted in Tuberculosis & Respiratory Diseases Department for 15 days. Methodology: A pre-designed pre-tested self-administered questionnaire was administered to the participants on the first day and last day of their posting in Tuberculosis & Respiratory Diseases Department. The results were analysed by using suitable statistical package. Results: The mean pre-test score was 28 (49.6% and the mean post-test score was 38 (61.5%. It was observed that there was a 27% improvement in the knowledge of the participants when the question about the year of launching of RNTCP programme in India was asked. A remarkable improvement (46% was found in the difference between pre and post-test knowledge of the participants when the questions like “Who are the DOTS providers” and “What is the colour coding of boxes for different categories of patients” were asked. A significant difference in the knowledge was found in the pre and post-test assessment in reference to Tuberculosis and its National Programm

  8. Rating the Efficiency of Regional Health Systems and Compulsory Health Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Nikolayevna Russkikh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the face of increasing of the regional differentiation of the health systems and compulsory health insurance, the comparative analysis and efficiency assessment of their performance in the context of the subjects of the Russian Federation becomes particularly relevant. Therefore, the research is focused on the regional health systems and compulsory health insurance (CHI, and the subject matter of the study is the analysis of the system performance. In the article, the comparative analysis of the authors’ approaches to the formation of efficiency criteria of the performance of regional health systems and CHI, as well as to the development of a typology of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation based on these criteria is conducted. The authors propose a system of indicators to measure the economic, medical and social efficiency of the systems under consideration. Moreover, a set of indicators of economic efficiency forms two groups of indicators. The first group of indicators reflects the financial performance, and the second — the structural efficiency. A methodological approach to the formation of the rating for subjects of the Russian Federation according to the levels of efficiency, based on the procedures of cluster analysis and fuzzy mathematics are developed. A feature of the proposed approach to the construction of a typology of the subjects in terms of efficiency is the introduction of a reference subject with the national average performance indicators system that allows to qualitatively assess the effectiveness of regional health systems and CHI by comparing them with the «reference subject». The results of the empirical research have indicated a high differentiation of the subjects of the Russian Federation in terms of economic efficiency, have allowed to identify the subjects-outsiders. The theoretical and practical results can be used for the rational choice of priorities of the state policy in the field of the

  9. 47 CFR 25.401 - Satellite DARS applications subject to competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Satellite DARS applications subject to competitive bidding. 25.401 Section 25.401 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Competitive Bidding Procedures for DARS § 25.401...

  10. 47 CFR 25.210 - Technical requirements for space stations in the Fixed-Satellite Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technical requirements for space stations in the Fixed-Satellite Service. 25.210 Section 25.210 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.210 Technical...

  11. 47 CFR 25.148 - Licensing provisions for the Direct Broadcast Satellite Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing provisions for the Direct Broadcast Satellite Service. 25.148 Section 25.148 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.148...

  12. 47 CFR 25.211 - Analog video transmissions in the Fixed-Satellite Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Analog video transmissions in the Fixed-Satellite Services. 25.211 Section 25.211 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.211 Analog video transmissions...

  13. 47 CFR 25.215 - Technical requirements for space stations in the Direct Broadcast Satellite Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technical requirements for space stations in the Direct Broadcast Satellite Service. 25.215 Section 25.215 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.215...

  14. 47 CFR 25.140 - Qualifications of fixed-satellite space station licensees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualifications of fixed-satellite space station licensees. 25.140 Section 25.140 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.140 Qualifications...

  15. 47 CFR 25.225 - Geographic Service Requirements for 17/24 GHz Broadcasting Satellite Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Geographic Service Requirements for 17/24 GHz Broadcasting Satellite Service. 25.225 Section 25.225 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.225 Geographic Service...

  16. Caregiving in first-episode psychosis: social characteristics associated with perceived 'burden' and associations with compulsory treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, Jane; Onwumere, Juliana; Dutta, Rina; Bhavsar, Vishal; Hill, Nathan; Morgan, Craig; Dazzan, Paola; Morgan, Kevin; Pararajan, Madonna; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Jones, Peter; Murray, Robin; Fearon, Paul

    2014-05-01

    High incidence of psychosis and compulsory treatment within black and minority ethnic (BME) groups in the UK remain a concern. Psychosis has an impact on families and family involvement is important in predicting compulsory treatment. We therefore aimed to report the levels and predictors of caregiver burden in first-episode psychosis, in white British, and BME groups of carers, and investigate their relevance to compulsory treatment. A total of 124 caregivers were interviewed soon after the onset of psychosis using the General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-28, the Experience of Caregiving Inventory, the Personal and Psychiatric History Schedule, and the MRC Sociodemographic Schedule. The overall level of distress as measured by GHQ-28 was high (mean 50, SD 11.4). Feelings of carer burden were also high (mean total negative score 72.5, SD 34.8), increased in men, and with carer age. Neither ethnicity nor social class nor social support was associated with distress or burden. Compulsory treatment was predicted by carer burden (as indicated by carer reports of 'problems with services' (OR 1.08; 95% CI 1.01, 1.15; P = 0.023)); this was particularly evident in the black Caribbean group of carers (OR 1.28; 95% CI 1.04, 1.57; P = 0.02) CONCLUSION: Carers of adults with first-episode psychosis experience considerable psychological distress and feelings of burden. There was a specific association between carer burden, specifically in terms of experience of services, and compulsory admission of service users, particularly in the black Caribbean group. Better ways of liaising with carers and targeted efforts to reduce carer burden at illness onset are needed. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. GPS Satellite Simulation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The GPS satellite simulation facility consists of a GPS satellite simulator controlled by either a Silicon Graphics Origin 2000 or PC depending upon unit under test...

  18. The energy carrier hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The potential of hydrogen to be used as a clean fuel for the production of heat and power, as well as for the propulsion of aeroplanes and vehicles, is described, in particular for Germany. First, attention is paid to the application of hydrogen as a basic material for the (petro)chemical industry, as an indirect energy source for (petro)chemical processes, and as a direct energy source for several purposes. Than the importance of hydrogen as an energy carrier in a large-scale application of renewable energy sources is discussed. Next an overview is given of new and old hydrogen production techniques from fossil fuels, biomass, or the electrolysis of water. Energetic applications of hydrogen in the transportation sector and the production of electric power and heat are mentioned. Brief descriptions are given of techniques to store hydrogen safely. Finally attention is paid to hydrogen research in Germany. Two hydrogen projects, in which Germany participates, are briefly dealt with: the Euro-Quebec project (production of hydrogen by means of hydropower), and the HYSOLAR project (hydrogen production by means of solar energy). 18 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs

  19. Visa refusal following compulsory hospital admission under the Mental Health Act 1983 (England and Wales): fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmore, R

    2015-08-01

    Historically, compulsory hospital admission led to discrimination for service users. For example, until recently detention under the Mental Health Act 1983 (England and Wales) would disqualify a person from being a Member of Parliament. There is a belief among mental health professionals that compulsory hospital admission will result in service users being refused a tourist visa. However, there is a paucity of literature on this topic, particularly from an international perspective. Based on the information reviewed in this study, there is no evidence to support this belief. Of 262 travel destinations, 96 (36.6%) require British citizens to obtain a tourist visa. Six (2.3%) destinations require applicants to declare a mental health condition in order to obtain a tourist visa. None of these destinations ask applicants to declare a history of compulsory hospital admission. However, the possibility exists that anyone declaring a mental health problem may be asked to provide further information about their condition before a visa is granted. Mental health nurses require education to ensure that their knowledge of mental health legislation is up to date. This education should include information on the potential consequences of compulsory hospital admission for the service user's social life following discharge. Service users and their families should be provided with written information on the potential social impact of detention along with a list of organizations that can provide advice on specific issues. This study sought to establish whether a history of compulsory hospital admission prevented a person from obtaining a tourist visa. A visa application form and/or other relevant information were obtained for 262 travel destinations visited by British citizens. Ninety-six (36.6%) destinations require British citizens to obtain a tourist visa. All visas are issued subject to travellers meeting a number of conditions, for example being in possession of travel insurance

  20. Compulsory and recommended vaccination in Italy: evaluation of coverage and non-compliance between 1998-2002 in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruffilli Isa

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since vaccinations are an effective prevention tool for maintaining the health of society, the monitoring of immunization coverage allows us to identify areas where disease outbreaks are likely to occur, and possibly assist us in predicting future outbreaks. The aim of this study is the investigation of the coverage achieved for compulsory (diphtheria, tetanus, polio, hepatitis B, and recommended (pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae, measles-mumps-rubella vaccinations between 1998 and 2002 in the municipality of Bologna and the identification of the subjects not complying with compulsory and recommended vaccinations. Methods The statistics regarding vaccinal coverage were elaborated from the data supplied by the Bologna vaccinal registration system (1998–2000 and the IPV4 program (2001–2002. To calculate the coverage for compulsory vaccinations and cases of non-compliance reference was made to the protocol drawn up by the Emilia Romagna Regional Administration. The reasons for non-compliance were divided into various categories Results In Bologna the levels of immunization for the four compulsory vaccinations are satisfactory: over 95% children completed the vaccinal cycle, receiving the booster for anti-polio foreseen in their 3rd year and for anti-dyphteria, tetanus, pertussis at 6 years. The frequency of subjects with total non-compliance (i.e. those who have not begun any compulsory vaccinations by the age of one year is generally higher in Bologna than in the region, with a slight increase in 2002 (2.52% and 1.06% in the city and the region respectively. The frequency of the anti-measles vaccination is higher than that of mumps and rubella, which means that the single vaccine, as opposed to the combined MMR (measles-mumps-rubella was still being used in the period in question. The most common reason for non compliance is objection of parents and is probably due to reduction of certain diseases or anxiety about the

  1. Compulsory and recommended vaccination in Italy: evaluation of coverage and non-compliance between 1998-2002 in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampi, Serena; Ricci, Rita; Ruffilli, Isa; Zanetti, Franca

    2005-04-21

    Since vaccinations are an effective prevention tool for maintaining the health of society, the monitoring of immunization coverage allows us to identify areas where disease outbreaks are likely to occur, and possibly assist us in predicting future outbreaks. The aim of this study is the investigation of the coverage achieved for compulsory (diphtheria, tetanus, polio, hepatitis B,) and recommended (pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae, measles-mumps-rubella) vaccinations between 1998 and 2002 in the municipality of Bologna and the identification of the subjects not complying with compulsory and recommended vaccinations. The statistics regarding vaccinal coverage were elaborated from the data supplied by the Bologna vaccinal registration system (1998-2000) and the IPV4 program (2001-2002). To calculate the coverage for compulsory vaccinations and cases of non-compliance reference was made to the protocol drawn up by the Emilia Romagna Regional Administration. The reasons for non-compliance were divided into various categories In Bologna the levels of immunization for the four compulsory vaccinations are satisfactory: over 95% children completed the vaccinal cycle, receiving the booster for anti-polio foreseen in their 3rd year and for anti-diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis at 6 years. The frequency of subjects with total non-compliance (i.e. those who have not begun any compulsory vaccinations by the age of one year) is generally higher in Bologna than in the region, with a slight increase in 2002 (2.52% and 1.06% in the city and the region respectively). The frequency of the anti-measles vaccination is higher than that of mumps and rubella, which means that the single vaccine, as opposed to the combined MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) was still being used in the period in question. The most common reason for non compliance is objection of parents and is probably due to reduction of certain diseases or anxiety about the possible risks. In Bologna the frequency of children

  2. Meteorological satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Su-Yin

    2014-01-01

    “Meteorological Satellite Systems” is a primer on weather satellites and their Earth applications. This book reviews historic developments and recent technological advancements in GEO and polar orbiting meteorological satellites. It explores the evolution of these remote sensing technologies and their capabilities to monitor short- and long-term changes in weather patterns in response to climate change. Satellites developed by various countries, such as U.S. meteorological satellites, EUMETSAT, and Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Indian satellite platforms are reviewed. This book also discusses international efforts to coordinate meteorological remote sensing data collection and sharing. This title provides a ready and quick reference for information about meteorological satellites. It serves as a useful tool for a broad audience that includes students, academics, private consultants, engineers, scientists, and teachers.

  3. Theory of geostationary satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Zee, Chong-Hung

    1989-01-01

    Geostationary or equatorial synchronous satellites are a daily reminder of our space efforts during the past two decades. The nightly television satellite weather picture, the intercontinental telecommunications of television transmissions and telephone conversations, and the establishrnent of educational programs in remote regions on Earth are constant reminders of the presence of these satellites. As used here, the term 'geo­ stationary' must be taken loosely because, in the long run, the satellites will not remain 'stationary' with respect to an Earth-fixed reference frame. This results from the fact that these satellites, as is true for all satellites, are incessantly subject to perturbations other than the central-body attraction of the Earth. Among the more predominant pertur­ bations are: the ellipticity of the Earth's equator, the Sun and Moon, and solar radiation pressure. Higher harmonics of the Earth's potential and tidal effects also influence satellite motion, but they are of second­ order whe...

  4. LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG) CARRIERS

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Posavec; Katarina Simon; Matija Malnar

    2010-01-01

    Modern liquefied natural gas carriers are double-bottom ships classified according to the type of LNG tank. The tanks are specially designed to store natural gas cooled to -161°C, the boiling point of methane. Since LNG is highly flammable, special care must be taken when designing and operating the ship. The development of LNG carriers has begun in the middle of the twentieth century. LNG carrier storage space has gradually grown to the current maximum of 260000 m3. There are more than 300 L...

  5. Impact of carriers in oral absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Luise Kvisgaard; Rist, Gerda Marie; Lennernäs, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Carriers may mediate the permeation across enterocytes for drug substances being organic anions. Carrier mediated permeation for the organic anions estrone-3-sulfate (ES) and glipizide across Caco-2 cells were investigated kinetically, and interactions on involved carriers evaluated. Initial...

  6. 7 CFR 35.4 - Carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND PLUMS Definitions § 35.4 Carrier. Carrier means any common or private carrier, including, but not being limited to, trucks, rail, airplanes, vessels, tramp or chartered steamers, whether carrying for...

  7. Basic Stand Alone Carrier Line Items PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Carrier Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare Carrier claims. The CMS BSA Carrier Line...

  8. Communication subjective assessments of patients undergoing compulsory treatment with the severity of negative symptoms and cognitive functioning level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabanov T.N.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies on the relationship of subjective assessments of the mentally ill with the severity of negative symptoms and cognitive functioning level. The features of patients perception of various aspects of compulsory treatment and subjective satisfaction with treatment. In a study of 94 male patients with a diagnosis of organic mental disorder and schizophrenia was used diagnostic system, consisting of patopsihologicheskogo study, formal survey map, the scale of assessment of negative symptoms SANS, questionnaire symptom levels SCL-90, self-existing problems, as well as - in Test authoring tool sheet to treatment and hospital stay (VG Bulygin, Kabanov, TN, 2011. The differences in subjective assessments of aspects of compulsory treatment and social functioning of patients with varying degrees of severity of negative symptoms and dependence of subjective assessments of the level of cognitive functioning.

  9. Women's stress in compulsory army service in Israel: A gendered perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Ephrat; Cwikel, Julie

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of women are serving in the military in a variety of roles, yet information on their experience of stressors not associated with either combat or sexual harassment is not commonly reported. To present phenomenological data on stressors experienced in military service, together with the use of coping strategies as a way to focus on women's mental needs following deployment from service. Twenty women who had recently completed their compulsory army service in Israel drew a picture expressing stressors they experienced in the army. They analyzed their own pictures on three levels: the content, context, and the composition as expressing stress and the resources they used in coping with stress. Six themes were raised: proximity to war situations, coping with accidents in training soldiers under their command, a conflict between political values and military orders, witnessing the injury of another female soldier, responsibility for accidental injury of a civilian, and distress over the army placement. Coping resources were relational, primarily family and friend support, rather than from the army framework. This reliance on relational sources of support was both a resource and a source of vulnerability and is viewed as distinct from men's style of coping.

  10. New evidence of the effects of education on health in the US: compulsory schooling laws revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason M

    2015-02-01

    Estimating the effects of education on health and mortality has been the subject of intense debate and competing findings and summaries. The original Lleras-Muney (2005) methods utilizing state compulsory schooling laws as instrumental variables for completed education and US data to establish effects of education on mortality have been extended to several countries, with mixed and often null findings. However, additional US studies have lagged behind due to small samples and/or lack of mortality information in many available datasets. This paper uses a large, novel survey from the AARP on several hundred thousand respondents to present new evidence of the effects of education on a variety of health outcomes. Results suggest that education may have a role in improving several dimensions of health, such as self reports, cardiovascular outcomes, and weight outcomes. Other results appear underpowered, suggesting that further use of this methodology may require even larger, and potentially unattainable, sample sizes in the US. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mobile phone voting for participation and engagement in a large compulsory law course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Habel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on an action-research project designed to investigate the effect of a technological intervention on the complex interactions between student engagement, participation, attendance and preparation in a large lecture delivered as part of a compulsory first-year law course, a discipline which has not been the focus of any previous study. The technology used was VotApedia, a form of mobile phone voting, and it was implemented in tandem with constructivist pedagogies such as explicit pre-reading and a prior context of interactive lecturing. Data were collected through observation, via mobile phone voting in class and by an online survey designed to specifically explore the relationship between attendance at VotApedia lectures and factors such as self-reported engagement, attendance and preparation. The findings indicated that student response systems (SRSs are just as applicable to more Humanities-style disciplines which require divergent questioning, and supported complex interactions between engagement, attendance and preparation. Preliminary findings indicated that, although more work needs to be done, especially on the types of students who prefer to use these systems, there is a clear potential to increase student engagement in large law lectures through the use of SRSs.

  12. After compulsory licensing: coming issues in Canadian pharmaceutical policy and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexchin, J

    1997-04-01

    Bills C-22 and C-91 eliminated compulsory licensing for pharmaceutical products in Canada. However, in the wake of these bills there are pressing issues of pharmaceutical policy that need to be decided. The value of additional spending in pharmaceutical R and D has yet to be evaluated. There needs to be a public debate about how far government policy should go in encouraging pharmaceutical R and D as opposed to investing resources in other areas. There has been a continuing escalation in the cost of the average prescription, due to the introduction of newer, but not necessarily more effective, medications. So far government has not been willing to commit resources to promote cost-effective prescribing. Pharmaceutical companies are now lobbying for more rapid approval of products and an extension to the normal patent period to make up for the time that drugs spend in the regulatory process. The process that the government uses to resolve these issues will be just as important as the ultimate decisions.

  13. A Tale Of Two States: Mississippi, West Virginia, And Exemptions To Compulsory School Vaccination Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgrove, James; Lowin, Abigail

    2016-02-01

    School-based compulsory vaccination laws have provoked debates over the legitimacy of government coercion versus the scope of parental rights. A key point of contention in these school vaccination laws are provisions known as exemption clauses that allow some parents to enroll their children in school unimmunized for reasons other than medical conditions. For more than three decades Mississippi and West Virginia stood apart as the only two US states that did not offer nonmedical exemptions to school vaccination laws. But other states seem to be moving in this direction, such as California, which in 2015 eliminated nonmedical exemptions following the Disneyland measles outbreak. The apparent shift creates an opportune moment to look at the experiences of Mississippi and West Virginia. Through a review of legislative histories, legal rulings, media accounts, and interviews with health officials in the two states, we consider the reasons for and consequences of their allowing only medical exemptions and the prospects their approach holds out for other states that may wish to emulate it. The experiences of these two states suggest that contrary to conventional wisdom, it may be politically tenable to limit exemptions to only medical reasons without damaging either the stature of public health or the immunization system. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  14. Effects of an instruction method in thinking skills with students from compulsory secondary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Acedo Lizarraga, María Luisa Sanz; de Acedo Baquedano, María Teresa Sanz; Pollán Rufo, Milagros

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects caused by the instruction method "Think actively in academic contexts, TAAC", an adaptation of Wallace and Adams' (1993) method of thinking skills, creativity, self-regulation, and academic learning, with students from the second grade of Compulsory Secondary Education (CSE). We used a pretest-intervention-posttest design with control group. The sample was made up of 110 participants, aged between 13 and 15 years, 58 of them in the experimental group and 52 in the control group. Six assessment instruments were administered before and after applying the method in order to measure the dependent variables. The method, divided into eight stages, was used in all the didactic units of the syllabus content of Natural Sciences, Social Sciences, and Language, during one academic course, and allowed the conjoint teaching of thinking skills and the syllabus content. The results of the analyses of variance indicate positive impact of the intervention, as the experimental subjects improved significantly in thinking skills and academic achievement. Some interesting reflections for research and education are derived from this study.

  15. Motor carrier evaluation program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portsmouth, J.H.; Maxwell, J.E.; Boness, G.O.; Rice, L.E.

    1991-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Transportation Management Program (TMP) has established a program to assist the DOE field offices and their contractors in evaluating the motor carriers used to transport DOE-owned hazardous and radioactive materials. This program was initiated to provide the DOE field offices with the tools necessary to help ensure, during this period of motor carrier deregulation, that only highly qualified carriers transport radioactive and hazardous commodities for the DOE. This program will assist DOE in maintaining their excellent performance record in the safe transportation of hazardous commodities. The program was also developed in response to public concern surrounding the transportation of hazardous materials. Representatives of other federal agencies, states, and tribal governments, as well as the news media, have expressed concern about the selection and qualification of carriers engaged in the transportation of Highway Route-Controlled Quantities (HRCQ) and Truckload (TL) quantities of radioactive material for the DOE. 8 refs

  16. Solute carrier transporters: Pharmacogenomics research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghogho

    2010-12-27

    Dec 27, 2010 ... This paper reviews the solute carrier transporters and highlights the fact that there is much to be learnt from .... transporters, drug targets, effect or proteins and meta- ... basolateral or apical plasma membrane of polarized cells,.

  17. Ethnic variations in pathways to acute care and compulsory detention for women experiencing a mental health crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Caroline; Johnson, Sonia; Cole, Laura; Howard, Louise M

    2012-01-01

    Much recent debate on excess rates of compulsory detention and coercive routes to care has focused on young black men; evidence is less clear regarding ethnic variations among women and factors that may mediate these. To explore ethnic variations in compulsory detentions of women, and to explore the potential role of immediate pathways to admission and clinician-rated reasons for admission as mediators of these differences. All women admitted to an acute psychiatric inpatient ward or a women's crisis house in four London boroughs during a 12-week period were included. Data were collected regarding their pathways to care, clinician-rated reasons for admission, hospital stays, and social and clinical characteristics. Two hundred and eighty seven (287) women from white British, white other, black Caribbean, black African and black other groups were included. Adjusting for social and clinical characteristics, all groups of black patients and white other patients were significantly more likely to have been compulsorily admitted than white British patients; white British patients were more likely than other groups to be admitted to a crisis house and more likely than all the black groups to be admitted because of perceived suicide risk. Immediate pathways to care differed: white other, black African and black other groups were less likely to have referred themselves in a crisis and more likely to have been in contact with the police. When adjustment was made for differences in pathways to care, the ethnic differences in compulsory admission were considerably reduced. There are marked ethnic inequities not only between white British and black women, but also between white British and white other women in experiences of acute admission. Differences between groups in help-seeking behaviours in a crisis may contribute to explaining differences in rates of compulsory admission.

  18. Compulsory and recommended vaccination in Italy: evaluation of coverage and non-compliance between 1998-2002 in Northern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Stampi, Serena; Ricci, Rita; Ruffilli, Isa; Zanetti, Franca

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Since vaccinations are an effective prevention tool for maintaining the health of society, the monitoring of immunization coverage allows us to identify areas where disease outbreaks are likely to occur, and possibly assist us in predicting future outbreaks. The aim of this study is the investigation of the coverage achieved for compulsory (diphtheria, tetanus, polio, hepatitis B,) and recommended (pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae, measles-mumps-rubella) vaccinations betw...

  19. Effect of reducing portion size at a compulsory meal on later energy intake, gut hormones, and appetite in overweight adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, HB; Ahern, AL; Solis-Trapala, I; Walker, CG; Reimann, F; Gribble, FM; Jebb, SA

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Larger portion sizes (PS) are associated with greater energy intake (EI), but little evidence exists on the appetitive effects of PS reduction. This study investigated the impact of reducing breakfast PS on subsequent EI, postprandial gastrointestinal hormone responses, and appetite ratings. METHODS: In a randomized crossover design (n = 33 adults; mean BMI 29 kg/m(2) ), a compulsory breakfast was based on 25% of gender-specific estimated daily energy requirements; PS was reduced b...

  20. 37 CFR 251.71 - Commencement of proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROCEDURE Royalty Fee Distribution Proceedings § 251.71 Commencement of proceedings. (a) Cable. In the case of royalty fees collected under the cable compulsory license (17 U.S.C. 111), any person claiming to... royalty fees collected under the satellite carrier compulsory license (17 U.S.C. 119), any person claiming...

  1. Communication satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    The status and future of the technologies, numbers and services provided by communications satellites worldwide are explored. The evolution of Intelsat satellites and the associated earth terminals toward high-rate all-digital telephony, data, facsimile, videophone, videoconferencing and DBS capabilities are described. The capabilities, services and usage of the Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Arabsat and Palapa systems are also outlined. Domestic satellite communications by means of the Molniya, ANIK, Olympus, Intelsat and Palapa spacecraft are outlined, noting the fast growth of the market and the growing number of different satellite manufacturers. The technical, economic and service definition issues surrounding DBS systems are discussed, along with presently operating and planned maritime and aeronautical communications and positioning systems. Features of search and rescue and tracking, data, and relay satellite systems are summarized, and services offered or which will be offered by every existing or planned communication satellite worldwide are tabulated.

  2. Satellite services system overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysavy, G.

    1982-01-01

    The benefits of a satellite services system and the basic needs of the Space Transportation System to have improved satellite service capability are identified. Specific required servicing equipment are discussed in terms of their technology development status and their operative functions. Concepts include maneuverable television systems, extravehicular maneuvering unit, orbiter exterior lighting, satellite holding and positioning aid, fluid transfer equipment, end effectors for the remote manipulator system, teleoperator maneuvering system, and hand and power tools.

  3. High Dynamic Optimized Carrier Loop Improvement for Tracking Doppler Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirhossein Fereidountabar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical analysis and optimization of a carrier tracking loop are presented. Due to fast changing of the carrier frequency in some satellite systems, such as Low Earth Orbit (LEO or Global Positioning System (GPS, or some planes like Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs, high dynamic tracking loops play a very important role. In this paper an optimized tracking loop consisting of a third-order Phase Locked Loop (PLL assisted by a second-order Frequency Locked Loop (FLL for UAVs is proposed and discussed. Based on this structure an optimal loop has been designed. The main advantages of this approach are the reduction of the computation complexity and smaller phase error. The paper shows the simulation results, comparing them with a previous work.

  4. 29 CFR 1201.1 - Carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carrier. 1201.1 Section 1201.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD DEFINITIONS § 1201.1 Carrier. The term carrier includes any express company, sleeping car company, carrier by railroad, subject to the Interstate Commerce Act...

  5. Low-cost carriers fare competition effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effects that low-cost carriers (LCC’s) produce when entering new routes operated only by full-service carriers (FSC’s) and routes operated by low-cost carriers in competition with full-service carriers. A mathematical model has been developed to determine what routes should

  6. Trends in compulsory licensing of pharmaceuticals since the Doha Declaration: a database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, Reed; Kuhn, Randall

    2012-01-01

    It is now a decade since the World Trade Organization (WTO) adopted the "Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health" at its 4th Ministerial Conference in Doha. Many anticipated that these actions would lead nations to claim compulsory licenses (CLs) for pharmaceutical products with greater regularity. A CL is the use of a patented innovation that has been licensed by a state without the permission of the patent title holder. Skeptics doubted that many CLs would occur, given political pressure against CL activity and continued health system weakness in poor countries. The subsequent decade has seen little systematic assessment of the Doha Declaration's impact. We assembled a database of all episodes in which a CL was publically entertained or announced by a WTO member state since 1995. Broad searches of CL activity were conducted using media, academic, and legal databases, yielding 34 potential CL episodes in 26 countries. Country- and product-specific searches were used to verify government participation, resulting in a final database of 24 verified CLs in 17 nations. We coded CL episodes in terms of outcome, national income, and disease group over three distinct periods of CL activity. Most CL episodes occurred between 2003 and 2005, involved drugs for HIV/AIDS, and occurred in upper-middle-income countries (UMICs). Aside from HIV/AIDS, few CL episodes involved communicable disease, and none occurred in least-developed or low-income countries. Given skepticism about the Doha Declaration's likely impact, we note the relatively high occurrence of CLs, yet CL activity has diminished markedly since 2006. While UMICs have high CL activity and strong incentives to use CLs compared to other countries, we note considerable countervailing pressures against CL use even in UMICs. We conclude that there is a low probability of continued CL activity. We highlight the need for further systematic evaluation of global health governance actions. Please see later in the

  7. Trends in compulsory licensing of pharmaceuticals since the Doha Declaration: a database analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed Beall

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is now a decade since the World Trade Organization (WTO adopted the "Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health" at its 4th Ministerial Conference in Doha. Many anticipated that these actions would lead nations to claim compulsory licenses (CLs for pharmaceutical products with greater regularity. A CL is the use of a patented innovation that has been licensed by a state without the permission of the patent title holder. Skeptics doubted that many CLs would occur, given political pressure against CL activity and continued health system weakness in poor countries. The subsequent decade has seen little systematic assessment of the Doha Declaration's impact. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assembled a database of all episodes in which a CL was publically entertained or announced by a WTO member state since 1995. Broad searches of CL activity were conducted using media, academic, and legal databases, yielding 34 potential CL episodes in 26 countries. Country- and product-specific searches were used to verify government participation, resulting in a final database of 24 verified CLs in 17 nations. We coded CL episodes in terms of outcome, national income, and disease group over three distinct periods of CL activity. Most CL episodes occurred between 2003 and 2005, involved drugs for HIV/AIDS, and occurred in upper-middle-income countries (UMICs. Aside from HIV/AIDS, few CL episodes involved communicable disease, and none occurred in least-developed or low-income countries. CONCLUSIONS: Given skepticism about the Doha Declaration's likely impact, we note the relatively high occurrence of CLs, yet CL activity has diminished markedly since 2006. While UMICs have high CL activity and strong incentives to use CLs compared to other countries, we note considerable countervailing pressures against CL use even in UMICs. We conclude that there is a low probability of continued CL activity. We highlight the need for further systematic

  8. Perceptions of newly-qualified nurses performing compulsory community service in KwaZulu-Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Selverani; Brysiewicz, Petra; Bhengu, Busisiwe

    2015-07-08

    Compulsory community service (CCS) for nurses commenced in South African January 2008 after it was legislated in the new Nursing Act (Act No. 33 of 2005). Nurses completing their registered nurse programme are registered as community nurse practitioners (CNPs) during the CCS period and make up the largest number of health professionals serving CCS. Whilst health institutions have welcomed CNPs as additional resources for the shortage of nursing staff, no structured guidelines have been provided at a regional level as to how these nurses should be utilised or managed during the CCS year. To date, no large-scale study has been conducted on nurses carrying out CCS in order to generalise the findings. To establish the perceptions of newly-qualified nurses carrying out CCS in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A quantitative survey design was used to obtain data from a randomly selected sample of the 2012 cohort of nurses carrying out CCS in KwaZulu-Natal. CNPs have a positive attitude toward CCS and perceive themselves as being well prepared for the year of community service in terms of knowledge, skills and ability to administer nursing care. They identified positive benefits of the year of community service.The concerns raised were limited orientation and support; and a few CNPs experienced problems of acceptance by the nurses with whom they work. It is recommended that all health institutions who receive CNPs develop structured orientation and support for these nurses in order to promote their development, thereby enhancing their benefit to the communities they serve.

  9. Substance use disorder and compulsory commitment to care: a care-ethical decision-making framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolini, Marie; Vandenberghe, Joris; Gastmans, Chris

    2017-11-29

    In the era of deinstitutionalisation of psychiatric patients, steady or even increasing rates of compulsory commitment to care (CCC) are an intriguing phenomenon to analyse. From a clinical, legal and ethical perspective, CCC continues to be a controversial practice in psychiatry, and perhaps even more so when applied to patients with severe substance use disorder (SUD). Several reasons make it controversial. The lack of consensus about the benefits of CCC and professional disagreement about what mental illness and autonomy mean in the case of SUD make it difficult to apply ethically sound clinical decision-making in CCC. Also, the medico-legal framework underlying CCC use sometimes appears to foster the use of reductionist clinical evaluation. Layered on top of these issues is how stakeholders view coercion. There is a discrepancy between clinicians' and patients' perception of coercion, which leads to clinician-patient differences on whether CCC is necessary. Moreover, the way in which the evaluation is typically carried out influences patients' perception of coercion and subsequently their motivation for participating fully in treatment. In this article, we explore the value of care ethics, often applied to care practices such as nursing, when applied to more procedural medical practices, such as decision-making regarding CCC. The care-ethical approach views decision-making as part of a dynamic care process, within which the lived experience, interpretative dialogue and promotion of dignity are core features. Embracing this new framework means a paradigm shift in when the therapeutic relationship begins, namely, investing in it occurs while conducting an evaluation for a possible CCC procedure. Unlike in current typical evaluations, early cultivation of the therapeutic relationship enables the patient to participate in the definition of his needs, reduces perceived coercion and negative emotions and enhances treatment motivation. Finally, implications of this

  10. The introduction of compulsory compliance testing of medical diagnostic x-ray equipment in Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafferty, M. W.; Jacob, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    Performance testing of medical diagnostic X-ray equipment can reveal equipment faults which, while not always clinically detectable, may contribute to reduced image quality and unnecessary radiation exposure of both patients and staff. Routine testing of such equipment is highly desirable to identify such faults and allows them to be rectified. The Radiological council of Western Australia is moving towards requiring compulsory compliance testing of all (new and existing) medical diagnostic X-ray equipment that all new mobile radiographic and new mammographic X-ray equipment be issued with a compliance test certificate as a prerequisite for registration. Workbooks which provide details of the tests required and recommended test methods have been prepared for medical radiographic (mobile and fixed), fluoroscopic and mammographic X-ray equipment. It is intended that future workbooks include details of the tests and methods for dental and computed tomography X-ray units. The workbooks are not limited to the compliance testing of items as specified in the Regulations, but include tests for other items such as film processing, darkrooms and image quality (for fluoroscopic equipment). Many of the workbook tests could be used within a regular quality assurance program for diagnostic X-ray equipment. Persons who conduct such compliance tests will need to be licensed and have all test certificates endorsed by a qualified expert. Suitable training and assessment of compliance testers will be required. Notification of such tests (including non-compliant items and corrective actions taken) will be required by the Radiological Council as a condition of equipment registration. 9 refs

  11. 47 CFR 25.278 - Additional coordination obligation for non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional coordination obligation for non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in frequencies allocated to the fixed-satellite service. 25.278 Section 25.278 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER...

  12. 47 CFR 25.214 - Technical requirements for space stations in the satellite digital audio radio service and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technical requirements for space stations in the satellite digital audio radio service and associated terrestrial repeaters. 25.214 Section 25.214 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS...

  13. 47 CFR 25.144 - Licensing provisions for the 2.3 GHz satellite digital audio radio service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing provisions for the 2.3 GHz satellite digital audio radio service. 25.144 Section 25.144 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25...

  14. 47 CFR 25.142 - Licensing provisions for the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile-satellite service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing provisions for the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile-satellite service. 25.142 Section 25.142 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space...

  15. 47 CFR 25.145 - Licensing conditions for the Fixed-Satellite Service in the 20/30 GHz bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing conditions for the Fixed-Satellite Service in the 20/30 GHz bands. 25.145 Section 25.145 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25...

  16. Bacterial Carriers for Glioblastoma Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Mehta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of aggressive glioblastoma brain tumors is challenging, largely due to diffusion barriers preventing efficient drug dosing to tumors. To overcome these barriers, bacterial carriers that are actively motile and programmed to migrate and localize to tumor zones were designed. These carriers can induce apoptosis via hypoxia-controlled expression of a tumor suppressor protein p53 and a pro-apoptotic drug, Azurin. In a xenograft model of human glioblastoma in rats, bacterial carrier therapy conferred a significant survival benefit with 19% overall long-term survival of >100 days in treated animals relative to a median survival of 26 days in control untreated animals. Histological and proteomic analyses were performed to elucidate the safety and efficacy of these carriers, showing an absence of systemic toxicity and a restored neural environment in treated responders. In the treated non-responders, proteomic analysis revealed competing mechanisms of pro-apoptotic and drug-resistant activity. This bacterial carrier opens a versatile avenue to overcome diffusion barriers in glioblastoma by virtue of its active motility in extracellular space and can lead to tailored therapies via tumor-specific expression of tumoricidal proteins.

  17. Satellite Communications Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Ariane $loom SAJAC 1 Hughes Satellite Japan 06/94 $150m SAJAC 2 Hughes Satellite Japan -- (spare) $150m SatcomHl GE GE Americom /95 $50m SOLIDARIDAD ...1 Hughes SCT (Mexico) 11/93 Ariane $loom SOLIDARIDAD 2 Hughes SCT (Mexico) /94 $loom Superbird Al Loral Space Com Gp (Jap) 11/92 Ariane $175m

  18. Partnership via Satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Marie Clare

    1980-01-01

    Segments of the 1980 National Catholic Educational Association (NCEA) conference were to be telecast nationally by satellite. The author briefly explains the satellite transmission process and advises Catholic educators on how to pick up the broadcast through their local cable television system. (SJL)

  19. The satellite situation center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teague, M.J.; Sawyer, D.M.; Vette, J.I.

    1982-01-01

    Considerations related to the early planning for the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) took into account the desirability of an establishment of specific entities for generating and disseminating coordination information for both retrospective and predictive periods. The organizations established include the IMS/Satellite Situation Center (IMS/SSC) operated by NASA. The activities of the SSC are related to the preparation of reports on predicted and actually achieved satellite positions, the response to inquiries, the compilation of information on satellite experiments, and the issue of periodic status summaries. Attention is given to high-altitude satellite services, other correlative satellite services, non-IMS activities of the SSC, a summary of the SSC request activity, and post-IMS and future activities

  20. 78 FR 66801 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... and recommendations on motor carrier safety programs and motor carrier safety regulations through a...

  1. The indirect and direct pathways between physical fitness and academic achievement on commencement in post-compulsory education in a historical cohort of Danish school youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Mikkel Porsborg; Starkopf, Liis; Sessa, Maurizio; Mortensen, Rikke Nørmark; Vardinghus-Nielsen, Henrik; Bøggild, Henrik; Lange, Theis; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2017-09-11

    Some studies have found positive associations between physical fitness and academic achievements. Pupils' academic achievements should indicate scholastic abilities to commence a post-compulsory education. However, the effect magnitude of physical fitness and academic achievements on commencement in post-compulsory education is unknown. We examined the pathways between physical fitness and academic achievement on pupils' commencement in post-compulsory education. This historical cohort study followed 530 girls and 554 boys from the Danish municipality of Aalborg in the period 2008-2014, 13 to 15 years old in 2010. Physical fitness was assessed through a watt-max cycle ergometer test represented as VO 2 max (mL·kg -1 ·min -1 ). Academic achievement, commencement status and information on covariates were obtained from Danish nationwide registers. Causal inference based mediation analysis was used to investigate the indirect and direct pathways by separating the total effect of physical fitness on post-compulsory education commencement. Adjusting for sex, age, ethnicity and socioeconomic status, the overall mediation analysis showed an odds ratio (OR) of 1.87 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30; 2.73) for the total effect, corresponding to an increase in odds of post-compulsory education commencement when the physical fitness was increased by 10 units of VO 2 max. The separated total effect showed a natural direct OR of 1.36 (95% CI: 0.93; 1.98) and a natural indirect (i.e., through academic achievement) OR of 1.37 (95% CI: 1.20; 1.57). Thus, 51% (95% CI: 27%; 122%) of the effect of physical fitness on post-compulsory education commencement was mediated through academic achievement. Physical fitness had a positive effect on post-compulsory education commencement. A substantial part of this effect was mediated through academic achievement.

  2. Hot carrier degradation in semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book provides readers with a variety of tools to address the challenges posed by hot carrier degradation, one of today’s most complicated reliability issues in semiconductor devices.  Coverage includes an explanation of carrier transport within devices and book-keeping of how they acquire energy (“become hot”), interaction of an ensemble of colder and hotter carriers with defect precursors, which eventually leads to the creation of a defect, and a description of how these defects interact with the device, degrading its performance. • Describes the intricacies of hot carrier degradation in modern semiconductor technologies; • Covers the entire hot carrier degradation phenomenon, including topics such as characterization, carrier transport, carrier-defect interaction, technological impact, circuit impact, etc.; • Enables detailed understanding of carrier transport, interaction of the carrier ensemble with the defect precursors, and an accurate assessment of how the newly created defects imp...

  3. Probability of satellite collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarter, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    A method is presented for computing the probability of a collision between a particular artificial earth satellite and any one of the total population of earth satellites. The collision hazard incurred by the proposed modular Space Station is assessed using the technique presented. The results of a parametric study to determine what type of satellite orbits produce the greatest contribution to the total collision probability are presented. Collision probability for the Space Station is given as a function of Space Station altitude and inclination. Collision probability was also parameterized over miss distance and mission duration.

  4. ISS qualified thermal carrier equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuser, Mark S.; Vellinger, John C.; Jennings, Wm. M.

    2000-01-01

    Biotechnology is undergoing a period of rapid and sustained growth, a trend which is expected to continue as the general population ages and as new medical treatments and products are conceived. As pharmaceutical and biomedical companies continue to search for improved methods of production and, for answers to basic research questions, they will seek out new avenues of research. Space processing on the International Space Station (ISS) offers such an opportunity! Space is rapidly becoming an industrial laboratory for biotechnology research and processing. Space bioprocessing offers exciting possibilities for developing new pharmaceuticals and medical treatments, which can be used to benefit mankind on Earth. It also represents a new economic frontier for the private sector. For over eight years, the thermal carrier development team at SHOT has been working with government and commercial sector scientists who are conducting microgravity experiments that require thermal control. SHOT realized several years ago that the hardware currently being used for microgravity thermal control was becoming obsolete. It is likely that the government, academic, and industrial bioscience community members could utilize SHOT's hardware as a replacement to their current microgravity thermal carrier equipment. Moreover, SHOT is aware of several international scientists interested in utilizing our space qualified thermal carrier. SHOT's economic financing concept could be extremely beneficial to the international participant, while providing a source of geographic return for their particular region. Beginning in 2000, flight qualified thermal carriers are expected to be available to both the private and government sectors. .

  5. Trends in Compulsory Licensing of Pharmaceuticals Since the Doha Declaration: A Database Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, Reed; Kuhn, Randall

    2012-01-01

    Background It is now a decade since the World Trade Organization (WTO) adopted the “Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health” at its 4th Ministerial Conference in Doha. Many anticipated that these actions would lead nations to claim compulsory licenses (CLs) for pharmaceutical products with greater regularity. A CL is the use of a patented innovation that has been licensed by a state without the permission of the patent title holder. Skeptics doubted that many CLs would occur, given political pressure against CL activity and continued health system weakness in poor countries. The subsequent decade has seen little systematic assessment of the Doha Declaration's impact. Methods and Findings We assembled a database of all episodes in which a CL was publically entertained or announced by a WTO member state since 1995. Broad searches of CL activity were conducted using media, academic, and legal databases, yielding 34 potential CL episodes in 26 countries. Country- and product-specific searches were used to verify government participation, resulting in a final database of 24 verified CLs in 17 nations. We coded CL episodes in terms of outcome, national income, and disease group over three distinct periods of CL activity. Most CL episodes occurred between 2003 and 2005, involved drugs for HIV/AIDS, and occurred in upper-middle-income countries (UMICs). Aside from HIV/AIDS, few CL episodes involved communicable disease, and none occurred in least-developed or low-income countries. Conclusions Given skepticism about the Doha Declaration's likely impact, we note the relatively high occurrence of CLs, yet CL activity has diminished markedly since 2006. While UMICs have high CL activity and strong incentives to use CLs compared to other countries, we note considerable countervailing pressures against CL use even in UMICs. We conclude that there is a low probability of continued CL activity. We highlight the need for further systematic evaluation of global

  6. [Experience feed back committee in radiotherapy (CREx): a compulsory tool for security management evaluation at two years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartigau, E; Coche-Dequeant, B; Dumortier, V; Giscard, S; Lacornerie, T; Lasue, A; Cheval, V; Martel, V; Malfait, B; Fuchs, A; Pestel, M; Damman, M; Forrest, M

    2008-11-01

    After working on treatment organisation in radiotherapy (bonne pratiques organisationnelles en radiothérapie - action pilote MEAH 2003), the development of a security policy has become crucial. With the help of Air France Consulting and the MEAH, three cancer centers in Angers, Lille and Villejuif worked together on the implantation of experience feed back committees (CREx) dedicated to the registration, analysis and correction of precursor events. After two years, we report the centre Oscar-Lambret experience in Lille and try to get the recommendations for generalisation of the process. This seems now to be compulsory for security management in oncology.

  7. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Top space experts from around the world have collaborated to produce this comprehensive, authoritative, and clearly illustrated reference guide to the fast growing, multi-billion dollar field of satellite applications and space communications. This handbook, done under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, addresses not only system technologies but also examines market dynamics, technical standards and regulatory constraints. The handbook is a completely multi-disciplinary reference book that covers, in an in-depth fashion, the fields of satellite telecommunications, Earth observation, remote sensing, satellite navigation, geographical information systems, and geosynchronous meteorological systems. It covers current practices and designs as well as advanced concepts and future systems. It provides a comparative analysis of the common technologies and design elements for satellite application bus structures, thermal controls, power systems, stabilization techniques, telemetry, com...

  8. Domestic Communication Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Andrew

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of the Federal Communications Commission's new policy on domestic satellites in light of our 1) military and economic history; 2) corporate interests; 3) citizen surveillance; and 4) media control. (HB)

  9. SATELLITE CONSTELLATION DESIGN PARAMETER

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. SATELLITE CONSTELLATION DESIGN PARAMETER. 1. ORBIT CHARACTERISTICS. ORBITAL HEIGHT >= 20,000 KM. LONGER VISIBILITY; ORBITAL PERIOD. PERTURBATIONS(MINIMUM). SOLAR RADIATION PRESSURE (IMPACTS ECCENTRICITY); LUNI ...

  10. Analysis of BeiDou Satellite Measurements with Code Multipath and Geometry-Free Ionosphere-Free Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qile Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using GNSS observable from some stations in the Asia-Pacific area, the carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR and multipath combinations of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS, as well as their variations with time and/or elevation were investigated and compared with those of GPS and Galileo. Provided the same elevation, the CNR of B1 observables is the lowest among the three BDS frequencies, while B3 is the highest. The code multipath combinations of BDS inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO and medium Earth orbit (MEO satellites are remarkably correlated with elevation, and the systematic “V” shape trends could be eliminated through between-station-differencing or modeling correction. Daily periodicity was found in the geometry-free ionosphere-free (GFIF combinations of both BDS geostationary Earth orbit (GEO and IGSO satellites. The variation range of carrier phase GFIF combinations of GEO satellites is −2.0 to 2.0 cm. The periodicity of carrier phase GFIF combination could be significantly mitigated through between-station differencing. Carrier phase GFIF combinations of BDS GEO and IGSO satellites might also contain delays related to satellites. Cross-correlation suggests that the GFIF combinations’ time series of some GEO satellites might vary according to their relative geometries with the sun.

  11. Analysis of BeiDou Satellite Measurements with Code Multipath and Geometry-Free Ionosphere-Free Combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qile; Wang, Guangxing; Liu, Zhizhao; Hu, Zhigang; Dai, Zhiqiang; Liu, Jingnan

    2016-01-20

    Using GNSS observable from some stations in the Asia-Pacific area, the carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) and multipath combinations of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS), as well as their variations with time and/or elevation were investigated and compared with those of GPS and Galileo. Provided the same elevation, the CNR of B1 observables is the lowest among the three BDS frequencies, while B3 is the highest. The code multipath combinations of BDS inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO) and medium Earth orbit (MEO) satellites are remarkably correlated with elevation, and the systematic "V" shape trends could be eliminated through between-station-differencing or modeling correction. Daily periodicity was found in the geometry-free ionosphere-free (GFIF) combinations of both BDS geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) and IGSO satellites. The variation range of carrier phase GFIF combinations of GEO satellites is -2.0 to 2.0 cm. The periodicity of carrier phase GFIF combination could be significantly mitigated through between-station differencing. Carrier phase GFIF combinations of BDS GEO and IGSO satellites might also contain delays related to satellites. Cross-correlation suggests that the GFIF combinations' time series of some GEO satellites might vary according to their relative geometries with the sun.

  12. Satellite Communications for ATM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation is an overview on Satellite Communication for the Aeronautical Telecommunication Management (ATM) research. Satellite Communications are being considered by the FAA and NASA as a possible alternative to the present and future ground systems supporting Air Traffic Communications. The international Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) have in place Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS) for the Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Services (AMSS) which is mainly derived from the pre-existing Inmarsat service that has been in service since the 1980s. The Working Group A of the Aeronautical Mobile Communication Panel of ICAO has also been investigating SARPS for what is called the Next Generation Satellite Service (NGSS) which conforms less to the Inmarsat based architecture and explores wider options in terms of satellite architectures. Several designs are being proposed by Firms such as Boeing, ESA, NASA that are geared toward full or secondary usage of satellite communications for ATM. Satellite communications for ATM can serve several purposes ranging from primary usage where ground services would play a minimal backup role, to an integrated solution where it will be used to cover services, or areas that are less likely to be supported by the proposed and existing ground infrastructure. Such Integrated roles can include usage of satellite communications for oceanic and remote land areas for example. It also can include relieving the capacity of the ground network by providing broadcast based services of Traffic Information Services messages (TIS-B), or Flight Information Services (FIS-B) which can take a significant portion of the ground system capacity. Additionally, satellite communication can play a backup role to support any needs for ground replacement, or additional needed capacity even after the new digital systems are in place. The additional bandwidth that can be provided via satellite communications can also open the door for many new

  13. Evaluating the Comparability of PPT and CBT by Implementing the Compulsory Islamic Culture Course Test in Jordan University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelnaser Sanad Alakyleh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Study aims to determine whether the university students' scores in the compulsory Islamic culture course test on a selected sample differ across the paper-and pencil test (PPT & computer-based test (CBT versions, and to reveal the relationship between gender and the student's level of performance in the test. Therefore, the study evaluated the comparability of two versions of a compulsory Islamic culture course test (PPTs and (CBTs. The importance of conducting the study in Jordan stems from the fact that public and private universities have begun to move away from the traditional patterns of tests such (PPTs and went towards (CBTs. In addition to detecting which model gives the best in the output and has the characteristics of the psychometric test, furthermore, indicates whether there were any differences between males and females, the study sample consisted of 120 individuals, 67 females and 53 males from scientific, health and humanities colleges. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the two versions provided to students CBT and PPT with 0.36 moderate correlation indicators in the pre-CBT test, no significant differences between the males and females in the CBT test results. Therefore, on the basis of the results of the present study, the CBT test is an option and a preferred alternative for regular students of the bachelor's level at the University of Jordan.

  14. Schools That Make a Difference to Post-Compulsory Uptake of Physical Science Subjects: Some comparative case studies in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Judith; Lubben, Fred; Hampden-Thompson, Gillian

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents the findings of the qualitative component of a combined methods research study that explores a range of individual and school factors that influence the uptake of chemistry and physics in post-compulsory study in England. The first phase involves using the National Pupil Database to provide a sampling frame to identify four matched pairs of high-uptake and low-uptake schools by salient school factors. Case studies of these eight schools indicate that students employ selection strategies related to their career aspirations, their sense of identity and tactics, and their prior experience. The school factors influencing subject choice relate to school management, student support and guidance, and student empowerment. The most notable differences between students in high-uptake and low-uptake schools are that students in high-uptake schools appear to make a proactive choice in relation to career aspirations, rather than a reactive choice on the basis of past experience. Schools with a high uptake offer a diverse science curriculum in the final two years of compulsory study, set higher examination entry requirements for further study and, crucially, provide a range of opportunities for students to interact with the world of work and to gain knowledge and experience of science-related careers.

  15. The indirect and direct pathways between physical fitness and academic achievement on commencement in post-compulsory education in a historical cohort of Danish school youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Porsborg; Starkopf, Liis; Sessa, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Background: Some studies have found positive associations between physical fitness and academic achievements. Pupils' academic achievements should indicate scholastic abilities to commence a post-compulsory education. However, the effect magnitude of physical fitness and academic achievements...... on commencement in post-compulsory education is unknown. We examined the pathways between physical fitness and academic achievement on pupils' commencement in post-compulsory education. Methods: This historical cohort study followed 530 girls and 554 boys from the Danish municipality of Aalborg in the period 2008......-2014, 13 to 15 years old in 2010. Physical fitness was assessed through a watt-max cycle ergometer test represented as VO2max (mL·kg-1·min-1). Academic achievement, commencement status and information on covariates were obtained from Danish nationwide registers. Causal inference based mediation analysis...

  16. Licença compulsória do efavirenz no Brasil em 2007: contextualização Compulsory licensing of efavirenz in Brazil in 2007: contextualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. V. Rodrigues

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims at contextualizing the first Brazilian experience with compulsory licensing, which functions as a defense mechanism to prevent excessive pricing by holders of patents. According to this mechanism, a government can authorize a third party to explore the patented object (in this case a drug without previous consent from the patent holder. On May 4, 2007, Brazil officially issued compulsory licensing of the antiretroviral drug efavirenz for public, non-commercial use. Initially, generic versions of the drug were purchased from laboratories in India. The next step was the manufacture of efavirenz by Farmanguinhos, official pharmaceutical laboratory (Fundação Osvaldo Cruz. It is concluded that the decision made by the Brazilian government to issue compulsory licensing of efavirenz nwas correct, taking into account the projected savings of US$ 236.8 until 2012 and the guarantee of availability of efavirenz, the most usual free antiretroviral treatment provided in Brazil.

  17. Efficiency of some spectrochemical carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    A comparative study of the efficiency of some spectrochemical carriers for the quantitative spectrographic analysis of Ag, Al, B, Bi, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Si, Sn, V and Zn in uranium-base materials is presented. The volatility behavior of the eighteen elements is verified by means of the moving plate technique and each of the mentioned carriers. The best results are obtained with 4% In 2 O 3 , 6% AgCl and 5% NaF in a U 3 O 8 matrix. The sensitivities for some elements were extended to fractions of p.p.m. The precision, accuracy and acceptability of the method are calculated for all elements. The total error values as approximately in the range of 16-45% [pt

  18. Preventative maintenance of straddle carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Li

    2015-04-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this industry-driven study is to model preventative maintenance (PM influences on the operational effectiveness of straddle carriers. Method: The study employs historical data consisting of 21 273 work orders covering a 27-month period. Two models are developed, both of which forecast influences of PM regimes for different types of carrier. Results: The findings of the study suggest that the reliability of the straddle fleet decreases with increased intervals of PM services. The study also finds that three factors – namely resources, number of new straddles, and the number of new lifting work centres – influence the performances of straddles. Conclusion: The authors argue that this collaborative research exercise makes a significant contribution to existing supply chain management literature, particularly in the area of operations efficiency. The study also serves as an avenue to enhance relevant management practice.

  19. Protein carriers of conjugate vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichichero, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    The immunogenicity of polysaccharides as human vaccines was enhanced by coupling to protein carriers. Conjugation transformed the T cell-independent polysaccharide vaccines of the past to T cell-dependent antigenic vaccines that were much more immunogenic and launched a renaissance in vaccinology. This review discusses the conjugate vaccines for prevention of infections caused by Hemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Specifically, the characteristics of the proteins used in the construction of the vaccines including CRM, tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane complex, and Hemophilus influenzae protein D are discussed. The studies that established differences among and key features of conjugate vaccines including immunologic memory induction, reduction of nasopharyngeal colonization and herd immunity, and antibody avidity and avidity maturation are presented. Studies of dose, schedule, response to boosters, of single protein carriers with single and multiple polysaccharides, of multiple protein carriers with multiple polysaccharides and conjugate vaccines administered concurrently with other vaccines are discussed along with undesirable consequences of conjugate vaccines. The clear benefits of conjugate vaccines in improving the protective responses of the immature immune systems of young infants and the senescent immune systems of the elderly have been made clear and opened the way to development of additional vaccines using this technology for future vaccine products. PMID:23955057

  20. 7 CFR 33.4 - Carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrier. 33.4 Section 33.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.4 Carrier. Carrier means any common or...

  1. 8 CFR 217.6 - Carrier agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrier agreements. 217.6 Section 217.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS VISA WAIVER PROGRAM § 217... may notify a carrier of the existence of a basis for termination of a carrier agreement under this...

  2. 14 CFR 271.4 - Carrier costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS GUIDELINES FOR SUBSIDIZING AIR CARRIERS PROVIDING ESSENTIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION § 271.4 Carrier costs. (a) The reasonable costs projected for a carrier providing essential air service at an eligible...

  3. 14 CFR 271.5 - Carrier revenues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS GUIDELINES FOR SUBSIDIZING AIR CARRIERS PROVIDING ESSENTIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION § 271.5 Carrier revenues. (a) The projected passenger revenue for a carrier providing essential air service at an eligible...

  4. Emerging markets for satellite data communications in the public service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses some of the current and potential markets for satellite data communications as projected by the Public Service Satellite Consortium (PSSC). Organizations in the public service sector are divided into three categories, depending on their expected benefits and organizational changes due to increased satellite telecommunications use: A - modest institutional adjustments are necessary and significant productivity gains are likely; B - institutional requirements picture is promising, but more information is needed to assess benefits and risk; and C - major institutional adjustments are needed, risks are high but possible benefits are high. These criteria are applied to the U.S. health care system, continuing education, equipment maintenance, libraries, environmental monitoring, and other potential markets. The potential revenues are seen to be significant, but what is needed is a cooperative effort by common carriers and major public service institutions to aggregate the market.

  5. 14 CFR 399.82 - Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... forth in paragraph (c) of this section. In such cases the Board may determine in an adjudicatory... carrier shall not engage in joint public relations activities at points served by both carriers which tend... either carrier are performed in common with the other carrier or as part of a single system. In cases...

  6. Satellite failures revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-12-01

    In January 1994, the two geostationary satellites known as Anik-E1 and Anik-E2, operated by Telesat Canada, failed one after the other within 9 hours, leaving many northern Canadian communities without television and data services. The outage, which shut down much of the country's broadcast television for hours and cost Telesat Canada more than $15 million, generated significant media attention. Lam et al. used publicly available records to revisit the event; they looked at failure details, media coverage, recovery effort, and cost. They also used satellite and ground data to determine the precise causes of those satellite failures. The researchers traced the entire space weather event from conditions on the Sun through the interplanetary medium to the particle environment in geostationary orbit.

  7. ESA's satellite communications programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholome, P.

    1985-02-01

    The developmental history, current status, and future plans of the ESA satellite-communications programs are discussed in a general survey and illustrated with network diagrams and maps. Consideration is given to the parallel development of national and European direct-broadcast systems and telecommunications networks, the position of the European space and electronics industries in the growing world market, the impact of technological improvements (both in satellite systems and in ground-based networks), and the technological and commercial advantages of integrated space-terrestrial networks. The needs for a European definition of the precise national and international roles of satellite communications, for maximum speed in implementing such decisions (before the technology becomes obsolete), and for increased cooperation and standardization to assure European equipment manufacturers a reasonable share of the market are stressed.

  8. Solar Power Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Flournoy, Don M

    2012-01-01

    Communication satellites are a $144 billion industry. Is there any space-based industry that could possibly beat that market? 'Solar Power Satellites' shows why and how the space satellite industry will soon begin expanding its market from relaying signals to Earth to generating energy in space and delivering it to the ground as electricity. In all industrialized nations, energy demand is growing exponentially. In the developing world, the need for energy is as basic as food and water. The Sun's energy is available everywhere, and it is non-polluting. As business plans demonstrate its technical feasibility, commercial potential, and environmental acceptability, every country on Earth will look to space for the power it needs.

  9. Geostationary satellites collocation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hengnian

    2014-01-01

    Geostationary Satellites Collocation aims to find solutions for deploying a safe and reliable collocation control. Focusing on the orbital perturbation analysis, the mathematical foundations for orbit and control of the geostationary satellite are summarized. The mathematical and physical principle of orbital maneuver and collocation strategies for multi geostationary satellites sharing with the same dead band is also stressed. Moreover, the book presents some applications using the above algorithms and mathematical models to help readers master the corrective method for planning station keeping maneuvers. Engineers and scientists in the fields of aerospace technology and space science can benefit from this book. Hengnian Li is the Deputy Director of State Key Laboratory of Astronautic Dynamics, China.

  10. Exobiology of icy satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakov, M. B.

    At the beginning of 2004 the total number of discovered planets near other stars was 119 All of them are massive giants and met practically in all orbits In a habitable zone from 0 8 up to 1 1 AU at less 11 planets has been found starting with HD 134987 and up to HD 4203 It would be naive to suppose existence of life in unique known to us amino-nucleic acid form on the gas-liquid giant planets Nevertheless conditions for onset and evolutions of life can be realized on hypothetical satellites extrasolar planets All giant planets of the Solar system have a big number of satellites 61 of Jupiter 52 of Saturn known in 2003 A small part of them consist very large bodies quite comparable to planets of terrestrial type but including very significant share of water ice Some from them have an atmosphere E g the mass of a column of the Titan s atmosphere exceeds 15 times the mass of the Earth atmosphere column Formation or capture of satellites is a natural phenomenon and satellite systems definitely should exist at extrasolar planets A hypothetical satellite of the planet HD 28185 with a dense enough atmosphere and hydrosphere could have biosphere of terrestrial type within the limits of our notion about an origin of terrestrial biosphere As an example we can see on Titan the largest satellite of Saturn which has a dense nitrogen atmosphere and a large quantity of liquid water under ice cover and so has a great exobiological significance The most recent models of the Titan s interior lead to the conclusion that a substantial liquid layer

  11. Non-permeable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Chen, Chen-An; Ma, Diana Xiaobing; Ganti, Kalyana Bhargava

    2012-11-27

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The substrate carrier comprises a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are to be held. Electrically-conductive lines are embedded within the carrier body, and a plurality of contact clips are coupled to the electrically-conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and electrically couple the substrates to the electrically-conductive lines. The non-conductive carrier body is continuous so as to be impermeable to flow of electroplating solution through the non-conductive carrier body. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  12. GPS satellite surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Leick, Alfred; Tatarnikov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE, UP-TO-DATE GUIDE ON GPS TECHNOLOGY FOR SURVEYING Three previous editions have established GPS Satellite Surveying as the definitive industry reference. Now fully updated and expanded to reflect the newest developments in the field, this Fourth Edition features cutting-edge information on GNSS antennas, precise point positioning, real-time relative positioning, lattice reduction, and much more. Expert authors examine additional tools and applications, offering complete coverage of geodetic surveying using satellite technologies. The past decade has seen a major evolut

  13. Key issues of multiple access technique for LEO satellite communication systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温萍萍; 顾学迈

    2004-01-01

    The large carrier frequency shift caused by the high-speed movement of satellite (Doppler effects) and the propagation delay on the up-down link are very critical issues in an LEO satellite communication system, which affects both the selection and the implementation of a suitable access method. A Doppler based multiple access technique is used here to control the flow and an MPRMA-HS protocol is proposed for the application in LEO satellite communication systems. The extended simulation trials prove that the proposed scheme seems to be a very promising access method.

  14. 76 FR 32390 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC) Meeting. SUMMARY...

  15. 77 FR 46555 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee: Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee: Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC...

  16. 75 FR 2923 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA...

  17. 75 FR 29384 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2010-0143] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA...

  18. 75 FR 72863 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces...

  19. 75 FR 50797 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2010-0143] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA...

  20. The American Satellite Company (ASC) satellite deployed from payload bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The American Satellite Company (ASC) communications satellite is deployed from the payload bay of the Shuttle Discovery. A portion of the cloudy surface of the earth can be seen to the left of the frame.

  1. 47 CFR 25.213 - Inter-Service coordination requirements for the 1.6/2.4 GHz mobile-satellite service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inter-Service coordination requirements for the 1.6/2.4 GHz mobile-satellite service. 25.213 Section 25.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.213 Inter...

  2. 47 CFR 25.260 - Time sharing between DoD meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-geostationary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time sharing between DoD meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-geostationary satellite systems in the 400.15-401 MHz band. 25.260 Section 25.260 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES...

  3. Wuestite - a solar energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenkaff, A; Nueesch, P; Wokaun, A [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Reller, A [Hamburg Univ., Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    Hydrogen is produced when Wuestite (Fe{sub 1-y}O) is oxidised by water. This reaction is part of a two-step thermochemical metal oxide cycle for the storage of solar energy in the form of chemical energy carriers, characterised by a high chemical potential. The reaction was studied in a tubular furnace with on-line gas analysis and further characterised in detail by DTA und high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction. The influence of non-stoichiometry, morphology and temperature on the mechanism and kinetics of the water-splitting reaction was determined. (author) 3 figs., tabs., 3 refs.

  4. Biocheese: A Food Probiotic Carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, J. M.; Tornadijo, M. E.; Fresno, J. M.; Sandoval, H.

    2015-01-01

    This review describes some aspects related to the technological barriers encountered in the development and stability of probiotic cheeses. Aspects concerning the viability of probiotic cultures in this matrix are discussed and the potential of cheese as a biofunctional food carrier is analyzed, outlying some points related to health and safety. In general, the manufacture of probiotic cheese should have little change when compared with the elaboration of cheese in the traditional way. The physicochemical and technological parameters influencing the quality of these products have also to be measured so as to obtain a process optimization. PMID:25802862

  5. Leveraging the NPS Femto Satellite for Alternative Satellite Communication Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    programmed for eventual integration with the Iridium Network , which is then tested. C. THESIS ORGANIZATION The thesis addresses these questions...NPS FEMTO SATELLITE FOR ALTERNATIVE SATELLITE COMMUNICATION NETWORKS by Faisal S. Alshaya September 2017 Co-Advisors: Steven J. Iatrou...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE LEVERAGING THE NPS FEMTO SATELLITE FOR ALTERNATIVE SATELLITE COMMUNICATION NETWORKS 5

  6. Satellite Surveillance: Domestic Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Best, Jr., Richard A; Elsea, Jennifer K

    2008-01-01

    ... and law enforcement purposes, in addition to the civil applications that have been supported for years. In 2007, it moved to transfer responsibility for coordinating civilian use of satellites to the Department of Homeland Security. The transfer occurred, however, apparently without notification of key congressional oversight committees.

  7. Analysis of Performance Differences among Students in Urban and Non-urban Centers Based on Compulsory Secondary Education Special Awards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Chao-Fernández

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes how the teaching-learning contexts (urban and non-urban of four provinces and their different towns influence the school performance of Galician students who apply for the compulsory secondary education (ESO, in Spanish special award. The sample is of 1,212 students who have finished the 4th level of ESO with an average score greater than or equal to 9 between 2008 and 2012. For such purpose, we made a comparative analysis using independent samples with Levene’s test through the SPSS V. 22.0.0.0 statistical package. The results indicate that, out of the 12 scores (Galician, Spanish, foreign language, Mathematics and Social Sciences, Geography and History and a test to choose from different options (Physics and Chemistry, Biology and Geology, Latin, Music, Technology and Arts, students from urban schools get better results in 10 of them (83.33%, with significant differences in 6 subjects.

  8. "A Place Where Open Minds Meet": The Constraints of Alignment and the Effects of Compulsory Teacher Training on Teaching and Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailova, Paulina

    2014-01-01

    The article investigates how university lecturers taking part in the compulsory teacher training at Stockholm University (SU) conceive of the effects of standardised and formalised training on their teaching. The study explores the emotions and responses evoked among academics when everyone is required to embrace the same pedagogic philosophy of…

  9. MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING SYSTEM OF PUBLIC OFF-BUDGET FUNDS AS AN INFORMATIONAL BASIS FOR PUBLIC INSURANCE MECHANISMS FORMATION (CASE STUDY OF FEDERAL COMPULSORY MEDICAL INSURANCE FUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly A. Kozlov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article justifies the introduced proposals for a management accounting of theFederal Compulsory Medical InsuranceFund formation and the characteristics and principles of management accounting forms for the analysis of the territorialcompulsory medical insurance programs.

  10. Knowledge about the Greenhouse Effect and the Effects of the Ozone Layer among Norwegian Pupils Finishing Compulsory Education in 1989, 1993, and 2005--What Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Pal J. Kirkeby

    2010-01-01

    The greenhouse effect and the effects of the ozone layer have been in the media and public focus for more than two decades. During the same period, Norwegian compulsory schools have had four national curricula. The two last-mentioned prescribe explicitly the two topics. Media and public discourse might have been sources of information causing…

  11. Preventing compulsory admission to psychiatric inpatient care: Perceived coercion, empowerment and self-reported mental health functioning after 12 months of preventive monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eLay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate effects of a preventive monitoring program targeted to reduce compulsory re-hospitalization and perceived coercion in patients with severe mental disorder. We analyze patient outcomes in terms of perceived coercion, empowerment and self-reported mental health functioning at 12 months. Methods: The program consists of individualized psycho-education, crisis cards and, after discharge from the psychiatric hospital, a 24-month preventive monitoring. In total, 238 psychiatric inpatients who had had compulsory admission(s during the past 24 months were included in the trial. T1-assessment 12 months after baseline was achieved for 182 patients. Results: Study participants reported lower levels of perceived coercion, negative pressures and process exclusion, a higher level of optimism, and a lesser degree of distress due to symptoms, interpersonal relations and social role functioning (significant time effects. However, improvements were not confined to the intervention group, but seen also in the TAU group (no significant group or interaction effects. Altered perceptions were linked to older age, shorter illness duration, female sex, non-psychotic disorder, and compulsory hospitalization not due to risk of harm to others. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that changes in the subjective perspective were fuelled primarily by participation in this study, rather than by having received the specific intervention. The study contributes to a better understanding of the interaction between 'objective' measures (compulsory readmissions and patients’ perceptions and highlights the need for treatment approaches promoting empowerment in individuals with a history of involuntary psychiatric hospitalizations.

  12. Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market. What the Research Says For... Government & Policy-Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This summary brings together the relevant key findings for government and policy-makers from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between vocational education and…

  13. Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market. What the Research Says For... Tertiary Education Providers & School Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This summary brings together the relevant key findings for tertiary education providers and school educators from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between…

  14. Drama and Theatre in a Nordic Curriculum Perspective--A Challenged Arts Subject Used as a Learning Medium in Compulsory Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österlind, Eva; Østern, Anna-Lena; Thorkelsdóttir, Rannveig Björk

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a Nordic curriculum perspective on drama and theatre in education ranging from preschool to upper secondary education and cultural schools. Underlined in the Nordic welfare model is an equity, inclusive and democracy perspective, which guarantees free access to compulsory education and to upper secondary…

  15. Use of dihydro-isobenzofuran in combination with serotonin reuptake inhibitors for CNS disease e.g. depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsory disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    NOVELTY - For treatment of a CNS disease in a patient, dihydro-isobenzofuran compound (I) in combination with serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is used. USE - For treatment of CNS disease (claimed) including depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsory disorder, post traumatic stress d...

  16. Cibola flight experiment satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P.; Liddle, Doug; Paffett, John; Sweeting, Martin; Curiel, A.; Sun, Wei; Eves, Stuart

    2004-11-01

    In order to achieve an "economy of scale" with respect to payload capacity the major trend in telecommunications satellites is for larger and larger platforms. With these large platforms the level of integration between platform and payload is increasing leading to longer delivery schedules. The typical lifecycle for procurement of these large telecommunications satellites is now 3-6 years depending on the level of non-recurring engineering needed. Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) has designed a low-cost platform aimed at telecommunications and navigation applications. SSTL's Geostationary Minisatellite Platform (GMP) is a new entrant addressing the lower end of the market with payloads up to 250kg requiring less than 1.5 kW power. The British National Space Centre through the MOSAIC Small Satellite Initiative supported the development of GMP. The main design goals for GMP are low-cost for the complete mission including launch and operations and a platform allowing flexible payload accommodation. GMP is specifically designed to allow rapid development and deployment with schedules typically between 1 and 2 years from contract signature to flight readiness. GMP achieves these aims by a modular design where the level of integration between the platform and payload is low. The modular design decomposes the satellite into three major components - the propulsion bay, the avionics bay and the payload module. Both the propulsion and avionics bays are reusable, largely unchanged, and independent of the payload configuration. Such a design means that SSTL or a 3rd party manufacturer can manufacture the payload in parallel to the platform with integration taking place quite late in the schedule. In July 2003 SSTL signed a contract for ESA's first Galileo navigation satellite known as GSTBV2/A. The satellite is based on GMP and ESA plan to launch it into a MEO orbit late in 2005. The second flight of GMP is likely to be in 2006 carrying a geostationary payload

  17. The design of a linear L-band high power amplifier for mobile communication satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, N.; Brassard, G.; Li, E.; Goux, P.

    1990-01-01

    A linear L-band solid state high power amplifier designed for the space segment of the Mobile Satellite (MSAT) mobile communication system is described. The amplifier is capable of producing 35 watts of RF power with multitone signal at an efficiency of 25 percent and with intermodulation products better than 16 dB below carrier.

  18. Efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children: the healthy homework pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Scott

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most physical activity and nutrition interventions in children focus on the school setting; however, evidence suggests that children are less active and have greater access to unhealthy food at home. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children. Methods The six-week 'Healthy Homework' programme and complementary teaching resource was developed under the guidance of an intersectoral steering group. Eight senior classes (year levels 5-6 from two diverse Auckland primary schools were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. A total of 97 children (57 intervention, 40 control aged 9-11 years participated in the evaluation of the intervention. Daily step counts were monitored immediately before and after the intervention using sealed multiday memory pedometers. Screen time, sports participation, active transport to and from school, and the consumption of fruits, vegetables, unhealthy foods and drinks were recorded concurrently in a 4-day food and activity diary. Results Healthy Homework resulted in a significant intervention effect of 2,830 steps.day-1 (95% CI: 560, 5,300, P = 0.013. This effect was consistent between sexes, schools, and day types (weekdays and weekend days. In addition, significant intervention effects were observed for vegetable consumption (0.83 servings.day-1, 95% CI: 0.24, 1.43, P = 0.007 and unhealthy food consumption (-0.56 servings.day-1, 95% CI: -1.05, -0.07, P = 0.027 on weekends but not weekdays, with no interactions with sex or school. Effects for all other variables were not statistically significant regardless of day type. Conclusions Compulsory health-related homework appears to be an effective approach for increasing physical activity and improving vegetable and unhealthy food consumption in children. Further research in a larger study is required to confirm these initial

  19. Gender differences in prevalence and correlates of antisocial personality disorder among heroin dependent users in compulsory isolation treatment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Mamy, Jules; Zhou, Liang; Liao, Yan-Hui; Wang, Qiang; Seewoobudul, Vasish; Xiao, Shui-Yuan; Hao, Wei

    2014-03-01

    Little is known about gender difference in correlates of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) among drug users. To detect gender difference in correlates of ASPD in a Chinese heroin dependent sample. Structured interviews were conducted among 882 heroin dependent users in two compulsory isolation settings in Changsha, China. Descriptive statistics were employed to report sample characteristics by gender. Bivariate relationships were examined between co-occurring ASPD and variables measuring demographic, drug use, and psychiatric co-morbidities. Multivariate logistic regressions with stepwise forward method were conducted to determine independent predictors for co-occurring ASPD. All analyses examining correlates of co-occurring ASPD were conducted for the total, the male and the female participants respectively to detect both the common and the unique correlates of ASPD by gender. Of the total participants, 41.4% (54.2% of males and 15.4% of females) met the DSM-IV criteria of ASPD. For male participants, lower educational level, unemployment, unmarried, younger age at first heroin use, previous history of compulsory treatment, larger amounts of heroin used per day and poly-drug abuse during past month before admission, as well as psychiatric co-morbidities of lifetime major depressive disorder and borderline personality disorder were independent predictors for co-occurring ASPD; while for female participants, only three variables: younger age at first heroin use, paranoid personality disorder and borderline personality disorder were independent predictors for co-occurring ASPD. Gender differences in prevalence and correlates of ASPD among heroin dependent users were detected. The findings highlight a need for gender-specific interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Are recent graduates enough prepared to perform obstetric skills in their rural and compulsory year? A study from Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez del Hierro, Galo; Remmen, Roy; Verhoeven, Veronique; Van Royen, Paul; Hendrickx, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the possible mismatch of obstetrical skills between the training offered in Ecuadorian medical schools and the tasks required for compulsory rural service. Setting Primary care, rural health centres in Southern Ecuador. Participants A total of 92 recent graduated medical doctors during their compulsory rural year. Primary and secondary outcomes measures A web-based survey was developed with 21 obstetrical skills. The questionnaire was sent to all rural doctors who work in Loja province, Southern Ecuador, at the Ministry of Health (n=92). We measured two categories ‘importance of skills in rural practice’ with a five-point Likert-type scale (1= strongly disagree; 5= strongly agree); and ‘clerkship experience’ using a nominal scale divided in five levels: level 1 (not seen, not performed) to level 5 (performed 10 times or more). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r) was used to observe associations. Results A negative correlation was found in the skills: ‘episiotomy and repair’, ‘umbilical vein catheterisation’, ‘speculum examination’, ‘evaluation of cervical dilation during active labour’, ‘neonatal resuscitation’ and ‘vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery’. For instance ‘Episiotomy and repair’ is important (strongly agree and agree) to 100% of respondents, but in practice, only 38.9% of rural doctors performed the task three times and 8.3% only once during the internship, similar pattern is seen in the others. Conclusions In this study we have noted the gap between the medical needs of populations in rural areas and training provided during the clerkship experiences of physicians during their rural service year. It is imperative to ensure that rural doctors are appropriately trained and skilled in the performance of routine obstetrical duties. This will help to decrease perinatal morbidity and mortality in rural Ecuador. PMID:25082424

  1. Are recent graduates enough prepared to perform obstetric skills in their rural and compulsory year? A study from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Del Hierro, Galo; Remmen, Roy; Verhoeven, Veronique; Van Royen, Paul; Hendrickx, Kristin

    2014-07-31

    The aim of this study was to assess the possible mismatch of obstetrical skills between the training offered in Ecuadorian medical schools and the tasks required for compulsory rural service. Primary care, rural health centres in Southern Ecuador. A total of 92 recent graduated medical doctors during their compulsory rural year. A web-based survey was developed with 21 obstetrical skills. The questionnaire was sent to all rural doctors who work in Loja province, Southern Ecuador, at the Ministry of Health (n=92). 'importance of skills in rural practice' with a five-point Likert-type scale (1= strongly disagree; 5= strongly agree); and 'clerkship experience' using a nominal scale divided in five levels: level 1 (not seen, not performed) to level 5 (performed 10 times or more). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r) was used to observe associations. A negative correlation was found in the skills: 'episiotomy and repair', 'umbilical vein catheterisation', 'speculum examination', 'evaluation of cervical dilation during active labour', 'neonatal resuscitation' and 'vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery'. For instance 'Episiotomy and repair' is important (strongly agree and agree) to 100% of respondents, but in practice, only 38.9% of rural doctors performed the task three times and 8.3% only once during the internship, similar pattern is seen in the others. In this study we have noted the gap between the medical needs of populations in rural areas and training provided during the clerkship experiences of physicians during their rural service year. It is imperative to ensure that rural doctors are appropriately trained and skilled in the performance of routine obstetrical duties. This will help to decrease perinatal morbidity and mortality in rural Ecuador. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Rising to the human rights challenge in compulsory treatment--new approaches to mental health law in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Sascha; Ryan, Christopher J

    2012-07-01

    To analyse, and explain to Australasian psychiatrists, recent proposed changes to the terms of coercive treatment for mental illness in Tasmania and Victoria and to place the proposals in the context of a broader human rights framework that is likely to impact the future shape of mental health legislation more generally. The Australian law reform proposals are reviewed against the requirements of numerous human rights instruments, including the recently ratified United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Ethical and legal arguments are made to support the proposed changes and to introduce others, taking into account academic commentary on mental health law and recent empirical work on the ability to usefully categorise patients by their likelihood of harm to self and others. The Victorian and Tasmanian draft mental health bills propose a new basis for compulsory psychiatric treatment in Australasia. If they become law, coercive psychiatric treatment could only be applied to patients who lack decision-making capacity. The Tasmanian draft bill also sets a new benchmark for timely independent review of compulsory treatment. However both jurisdictions propose to retain an 'additional harm' test which must be satisfied before patients may be treated without consent. This differs from non-psychiatric cases, where if patients are unable to consent to medical treatment for themselves, they will be entitled to receive coercive treatment if it is in their best interests. The proposed changes under the Tasmanian and Victorian draft mental health bills will ensure that, in line with local and international human rights obligations, only patients who lack decision-making capacity may be coercively treated for mental illness. However the continuing 'additional harm' criteria may breach human rights obligations by imposing a discriminatory threshold for care on patients who are unable to consent to treatment for themselves. This could be avoided by

  3. Silicon nanowire hot carrier electroluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plessis, M. du, E-mail: monuko@up.ac.za; Joubert, T.-H.

    2016-08-31

    Avalanche electroluminescence from silicon pn junctions has been known for many years. However, the internal quantum efficiencies of these devices are quite low due to the indirect band gap nature of the semiconductor material. In this study we have used reach-through biasing and SOI (silicon-on-insulator) thin film structures to improve the internal power efficiency and the external light extraction efficiency. Both continuous silicon thin film pn junctions and parallel nanowire pn junctions were manufactured using a custom SOI technology. The pn junctions are operated in the reach-through mode of operation, thus increasing the average electric field within the fully depleted region. Experimental results of the emission spectrum indicate that the most dominant photon generating mechanism is due to intraband hot carrier relaxation processes. It was found that the SOI nanowire light source external power efficiency is at least an order of magnitude better than the comparable bulk CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) light source. - Highlights: • We investigate effect of electric field on silicon avalanche electroluminescence. • With reach-through pn junctions the current and carrier densities are kept constant. • Higher electric fields increase short wavelength radiation. • Higher electric fields decrease long wavelength radiation. • The effect of the electric field indicates intraband transitions as main mechanism.

  4. Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) Microwave (MW)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) from Microwave (MW) observations of tropical cyclones worldwide data consist of raw satellite observations. The data derive from the...

  5. Satellite transmission of oceanographic data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.S.; Desai, R.G.P.; DeSa, E.J.

    Oceanographic data collected on a research vessel has been transmitted to a shore laboratory using the INMARSAT maritime satellite The system configuration used, consisted of Satellite Communication Terminals interfaced to desk top computers...

  6. Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains an operational Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite (SOHCS) product generated by NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information...

  7. Monitoring Cyanobacteria with Satellites Webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    real-world satellite applications can quantify cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms and related water quality parameters. Provisional satellite derived cyanobacteria data and different software tools are available to state environmental and health agencies.

  8. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...

  9. Telelibrary: Library Services via Satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rosa

    1979-01-01

    Investigates the provision of library services via satellite, explains briefly the operation and advantages of communication satellites, and discusses the various telecommunications equipment and services which, when coupled with satellite transmission, will enhance library activities. Demand trend projections for telecommunications services…

  10. Low-complexity Joint Sub-carrier Phase Noise Compensation for Digital Multi-carrier Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Barletta, Luca; Zibar, Darko

    2017-01-01

    Joint sub-carrier phase noise processing is proposed which recovers the SNR penalty related to decreased sub-carrier baudrate w.r.t. single carrier systems. The method enables digital sub-banding to be safely employed for nonlinear mitigation for modulation formats of up to 256-QAM.......Joint sub-carrier phase noise processing is proposed which recovers the SNR penalty related to decreased sub-carrier baudrate w.r.t. single carrier systems. The method enables digital sub-banding to be safely employed for nonlinear mitigation for modulation formats of up to 256-QAM....

  11. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schonning, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium...... microbiome of pigs that are not colonized with S. aureus harbours several species/taxa that are significantly less abundant in pig carriers, suggesting that the nasal microbiota may play a role in the individual predisposition to S. aureus nasal carriage in pigs. Further research is warranted to isolate...

  12. Inert carriers for column extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katykhin, G.S.

    1978-01-01

    Inert carriers used in column extraction chromatography are reviewed. Such carriers are devided into two large groups: hydrophilic carriers which possess high surface energy and are well wetted only with strongly polar liquids (kieselguhrs, silica gels, glasses, cellulose, Al 2 O 3 ) and water-repellent carriers which possess low surface energy and are well wetted with various organic solvents (polyethylene, polytetrafluorethylene polytrifluorochlorethylene). Properties of various carriers are presented: structure, chemical and radiation stability, adsorption properties, extracting agent capacity. The effect of structure and sizes of particles on the efficiency of chromatography columns is considered. Ways of immovable phase deposition on the carrier and the latter's regeneration. Peculiarities of column packing for preparative and continuous chromatography are discussed

  13. A parallel-pipelined architecture for a multi carrier demodulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwatra, S. C.; Jamali, M. M.; Eugene, Linus P.

    1991-03-01

    Analog devices have been used for processing the information on board the satellites. Presently, digital devices are being used because they are economical and flexible as compared to their analog counterparts. Several schemes of digital transmission can be used depending on the data rate requirement of the user. An economical scheme of transmission for small earth stations uses single channel per carrier/frequency division multiple access (SCPC/FDMA) on the uplink and time division multiplexing (TDM) on the downlink. This is a typical communication service offered to low data rate users in commercial mass market. These channels usually pertain to either voice or data transmission. An efficient digital demodulator architecture is provided for a large number of law data rate users. A demodulator primarily consists of carrier, clock, and data recovery modules. This design uses principles of parallel processing, pipelining, and time sharing schemes to process large numbers of voice or data channels. It maintains the optimum throughput which is derived from the designed architecture and from the use of high speed components. The design is optimized for reduced power and area requirements. This is essential for satellite applications. The design is also flexible in processing a group of a varying number of channels. The algorithms that are used are verified by the use of a computer aided software engineering (CASE) tool called the Block Oriented System Simulator. The data flow, control circuitry, and interface of the hardware design is simulated in C language. Also, a multiprocessor approach is provided to map, model, and simulate the demodulation algorithms mainly from a speed view point. A hypercude based architecture implementation is provided for such a scheme of operation. The hypercube structure and the demodulation models on hypercubes are simulated in Ada.

  14. Aerial Logistics Management for Carrier Onboard Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS AERIAL LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT FOR CARRIER ONBOARD DELIVERY by Samuel L. Chen September 2016...AND SUBTITLE AERIAL LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT FOR CARRIER ONBOARD DELIVERY 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Samuel L. Chen 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...delivery (COD) is the use of aircraft to transport people and cargo from a forward logistics site (FLS) to a carrier strike group (CSG). The goal of

  15. A GPS measurement system for precise satellite tracking and geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunck, T. P.; Wu, S.-C.; Lichten, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    NASA is pursuing two key applications of differential positioning with the Global Positioning System (GPS): sub-decimeter tracking of earth satellites and few-centimeter determination of ground-fixed baselines. Key requirements of the two applications include the use of dual-frequency carrier phase data, multiple ground receivers to serve as reference points, simultaneous solution for use position and GPS orbits, and calibration of atmospheric delays using water vapor radiometers. Sub-decimeter tracking will be first demonstrated on the TOPEX oceanographic satellite to be launched in 1991. A GPS flight receiver together with at least six ground receivers will acquire delta range data from the GPS carriers for non-real-time analysis. Altitude accuracies of 5 to 10 cm are expected. For baseline measurements, efforts will be made to obtain precise differential pseudorange by resolving the cycle ambiguity in differential carrier phase. This could lead to accuracies of 2 or 3 cm over a few thousand kilometers. To achieve this, a high-performance receiver is being developed, along with improved calibration and data processing techniques. Demonstrations may begin in 1986.

  16. Both Hemophilia Health Care Providers and Hemophilia A Carriers Report that Carriers have Excessive Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paroskie, Allison; Oso, Olatunde; DeBaun, Michael R.; Sidonio, Robert F

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Hemophilia A, the result of reduced factor VIII (FVIII) activity, is an X-linked recessive bleeding disorder. Previous reports of Hemophilia A carriers suggest an increased bleeding tendency. Our objective was to determine the attitudes and understanding of the Hemophilia A carrier bleeding phenotype, and opinions regarding timing of carrier testing from the perspective of both medical providers and affected patients. Data from this survey was used as preliminary data for an ongoing prospective study. Material and Methods An electronic survey was distributed to physicians and nurses employed at Hemophilia Treatment Centers (HTC), and Hemophilia A carriers who were members of Hemophilia Federation of America. Questions focused on the clinical understanding of bleeding symptoms and management of Hemophilia A carriers, and the timing and intensity of carrier testing. Results Our survey indicates that 51% (36/51) of providers compared to 78% (36/46) of carriers believe that Hemophilia A carriers with normal FVIII activity have an increased bleeding tendency (pHemophilia A carriers report a high frequency of bleeding symptoms. Regarding carrier testing, 72% (50/69) of medical providers recommend testing after 14 years of age, conversely 65% (29/45) of Hemophilia A carriers prefer testing to be done prior to this age (pHemophilia A carriers self-report a higher frequency of bleeding than previously acknowledged, and have a preference for earlier testing to confirm carrier status. PMID:24309601

  17. Infrared Astronomy Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrera, G. A.

    1981-09-01

    In 1982, the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) will be launched into a 900-km sun-synchronous (twilight) orbit to perform an unbiased, all-sky survey of the far-infrared spectrum from 8 to 120 microns. Observations telemetered to ground stations will be compiled into an IR astronomy catalog. Attention is given the cryogenically cooled, 60-cm Ritchey-Chretien telescope carried by the satellite, whose primary and secondary mirrors are fabricated from beryllium by means of 'Cryo-Null Figuring'. This technique anticipates the mirror distortions that will result from cryogenic cooling of the telescope and introduces dimensional compensations for them during machining and polishing. Consideration is also given to the interferometric characterization of telescope performance and Cryo/Thermal/Vacuum simulated space environment testing.

  18. Satellite Control Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Bak, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The Satellite Laboratory at the Department of Control Engineering of Aalborg University (SatLab) is a dynamic motion facility designed for analysis and test of micro spacecraft. A unique feature of the laboratory is that it provides a completely gravity-free environment. A test spacecraft......-axis magnetometer, three piezoelectric gyros, and four reaction wheels in a tetrahedron configuration. The operation of the spacecraft is fully autonomous. The data flow between the transducers and the onboard computer placed physically outside the satellite is provided by a radio link. The purpose...... can be implemented in the laboratory, e.g. three-axis attitude control, slew manoeuvres, spins stabilization using magnetic actuation and/or reaction wheels. The spacecraft attitude can be determined applying magnetometer measurements....

  19. Thematic mapping from satellite imagery

    CERN Document Server

    Denègre, J

    2013-01-01

    Thematic Mapping from Satellite Imagery: A Guidebook discusses methods in producing maps using satellite images. The book is comprised of five chapters; each chapter covers one stage of the process. Chapter 1 tackles the satellite remote sensing imaging and its cartographic significance. Chapter 2 discusses the production processes for extracting information from satellite data. The next chapter covers the methods for combining satellite-derived information with that obtained from conventional sources. Chapter 4 deals with design and semiology for cartographic representation, and Chapter 5 pre

  20. Cooperative and cognitive satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzinotas, Symeon; De Gaudenzi, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative and Cognitive Satellite Systems provides a solid overview of the current research in the field of cooperative and cognitive satellite systems, helping users understand how to incorporate state-of-the-art communication techniques in innovative satellite network architectures to enable the next generation of satellite systems. The book is edited and written by top researchers and practitioners in the field, providing a comprehensive explanation of current research that allows users to discover future technologies and their applications, integrate satellite and terrestrial systems

  1. Cyclodextrins in drug carrier systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uekama, K; Otagiri, M

    1987-01-01

    One of the important characteristics of cyclodextrins is the formation of an inclusion complex with a variety of drug molecules in solution and in the solid state. As a consequence of intensive basic research, exhaustive toxic studies, and realization of industrial production during the past decade, there seem to be no more barriers for the practical application of natural cyclodextrins in the biomedical field. Recently, a number of cyclodextrin derivatives and cyclodextrin polymers have been prepared to obtain better inclusion abilities than parent cyclodextrins. The natural cyclodextrins and their synthetic derivatives have been successfully utilized to improve various drug properties, such as solubility, dissolution and release rates, stability, or bioavailability. In addition, the enhancement of drug activity, selective transfer, or the reduction of side effects has been achieved by means of inclusion complexation. The drug-cyclodextrin complex is generally formed outside of the body and, after administration, it dissociates, releasing the drug into the organism in a fast and nearly uniform manner. In the biomedical application of cyclodextrins, therefore, particular attention should be directed to the magnitude of the stability constant of the inclusion complex. In the case of parenteral application, a rather limited amount of work has been done because the cyclodextrins in the drug carrier systems have to be more effectively designed to compete with various biological components in the circulatory system. However, the works published thus far apparently indicate that the inclusion phenomena of cyclodextrin analogs may allow the rational design of drug formulation and that the combination of molecular encapsulation with other carrier systems will become a very effective and valuable method for the development of a new drug delivery system in the near future.

  2. Satellite Photometric Error Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-18

    Satellite Photometric Error Determination Tamara E. Payne, Philip J. Castro, Stephen A. Gregory Applied Optimization 714 East Monument Ave, Suite...advocate the adoption of new techniques based on in-frame photometric calibrations enabled by newly available all-sky star catalogs that contain highly...filter systems will likely be supplanted by the Sloan based filter systems. The Johnson photometric system is a set of filters in the optical

  3. Carrier-carrier relaxation kinetics in quantum well semiconductor structures with nonparabolic energy bands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dery, H.; Tromborg, Bjarne; Eisenstein, G.

    2003-01-01

    We describe carrier-carrier scattering dynamics in an inverted quantum well structure including the nonparabolic nature of the valance band. A solution of the semiconductor Bloch equations yields strong evidence to a large change in the temporal evolution of the carrier distributions compared to ...

  4. Facilitated transport of hydrophilic salts by mixtures of anion and cation carriers and by ditopic carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chrisstoffels, L.A.J.; de Jong, Feike; Reinhoudt, David; Sivelli, Stefano; Gazzola, Licia; Casnati, Alessandro; Ungaro, Rocco

    1999-01-01

    Anion transfer to the membrane phase affects the extraction efficiency of salt transport by cation carriers 1 and 3. Addition of anion receptors 5 or 6 to cation carriers 1, 3, or 4 in the membrane phase enhances the transport of salts under conditions in which the cation carriers alone do not

  5. Driver citation/carrier data relationship project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The Driver/Carrier Relationship Project was commissioned to address three issues. The first was to determine if drivers of commercial motor vehicles get tickets at a different rate, depending on the carrier that they are working for. The second issue...

  6. Method and apparatus for information carrier authentication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of enabling authentication of an information carrier, the information carrier comprising a writeable part and a physical token arranged to supply a response upon receiving a challenge, the method comprising the following steps; applying a first challenge to

  7. Immobilisation of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus using natural carriers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-04-02

    Apr 2, 2005 ... and Cloete, 1995) or ceramic (Kariminiaae-Hamedaani et al.,. 2003) carriers. Besides the synthetic carriers, natural zeolite. (NZ) has been shown as a .... ing 9 mℓ of sterile distilled water, crushed with a sterile glass rod and dispersed by mixing (2 700 r/min for 10 min using the test tube shaker Kartell TK3S) ...

  8. High capacity carrier ethernet transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Hao

    2009-01-01

    OAM functions, survivability and the increased bandwidth requirements of carrier class systems. This article provides an overview of PBB-TE and T-MPLS and demonstrates how IPTV services can be realized in the framework of Carrier Ethernet. In addition we provide a case study on performing bit error...

  9. Providing resilience for carrier ethernet multicast traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we detail how multicast traffic, which is essential for e.g. IPTV can be protected. We present Carrier Ethernet resilience methods for linear and ring networks and show by simulation...

  10. Inert carrier drying and coating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An inert carrier process is described for drying radioactive (particularly low level) waste material and for incorporating the dry material into a binder matrix from which the dried material will not be leached. Experimental details, and examples of the carrier and binder materials, are given. (U.K.)

  11. Safety requirements for the Pu carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, H.

    1993-01-01

    Ministry of Transport of Japan has now set about studying requirements for Pu carriers to ensure safety. It was first studied what the basic concept of safe carriage of Pu should be, and the basic ideas have been worked out. Next the requirements for the Pu carriers were studied based on the above. There are at present no international requirements of construction and equipment for the nuclear-material carriers, but MOT of Japan has so far required special construction and equipment for the nuclear-material carriers which carry a large amount of radioactive material, such as spent fuel or low level radioactive waste, corresponding to the level of the respective potential hazard. The requirements of construction and equipment of the Pu carriers have been established considering the difference in heat generation between Pu and spent fuel, physical protection, and so forth, in addition to the above basic concept. (J.P.N.)

  12. Modeling the impact of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Chinese infants: an economic analysis of a compulsory vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Datian; Zhou, Hua; He, Jinchun; Wu, Bin

    2014-02-07

    The purpose of this study was to compare, from a Chinese societal perspective, the projected health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of adding pneumococcal conjugate heptavalent vaccine (PCV-7) to the routine compulsory child immunization schedule. A decision-tree model, with data and assumptions adapted for relevance to China, was developed to project the health outcomes of PCV-7 vaccination (compared with no vaccination) over a 5-year period as well as a lifetime. The vaccinated birth cohort included 16,000,000 children in China. A 2 + 1 dose schedule at US$136.51 per vaccine dose was used in the base-case analysis. One-way sensitivity analysis was used to test the robustness of the model. The impact of a net indirect effect (herd immunity) was evaluated. Outcomes are presented in terms of the saved disease burden, costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. In a Chinese birth cohort, a PCV-7 vaccination program would reduce the number of pneumococcus-related infections by at least 32% and would prevent 2,682 deaths in the first 5 years of life, saving $1,190 million in total costs and gaining an additional 9,895 QALYs (discounted by 3%). The incremental cost per QALY was estimated to be $530,354. When herd immunity was taken into account, the cost per QALY was estimated to be $95,319. The robustness of the model was influenced mainly by the PCV-7 cost per dose, effectiveness herd immunity and incidence of pneumococcal diseases. With and without herd immunity, the break-even costs in China were $29.05 and $25.87, respectively. Compulsory routine infant vaccination with PCV-7 is projected to substantially reduce pneumococcal disease morbidity, mortality, and related costs in China. However, a universal vaccination program with PCV-7 is not cost-effective at the willingness-to-pay threshold that is currently recommended for China by the World Health Organization.

  13. Mobile satellite service communications tests using a NASA satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Katherine H.; Koschmeder, Louis A.; Hollansworth, James E.; ONeill, Jack; Jones, Robert E.; Gibbons, Richard C.

    1995-01-01

    Emerging applications of commercial mobile satellite communications include satellite delivery of compact disc (CD) quality radio to car drivers who can select their favorite programming as they drive any distance; transmission of current air traffic data to aircraft; and handheld communication of data and images from any remote corner of the world. Experiments with the enabling technologies and tests and demonstrations of these concepts are being conducted before the first satellite is launched by utilizing an existing NASA spacecraft.

  14. Methanol as an energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biedermann, P.; Grube, T.; Hoehlein, B. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    For the future, a strongly growing energy demand is expected in the transport sector worldwide. Economically efficient oil production will run through a maximum in the next decade. Higher fuel prices and an environmentally desirable reduction of emissions will increase the pressure for reducing fuel consumption and emissions in road traffic. These criteria show the urgent necessity of structural changes in the fuel market. Due to its advantages concerning industrial-scale production, storage and global availability, methanol has the short- to medium-term potential for gaining increased significance as a substitution product in the energy market. Methanol can be produced both from fossil energy sources and from biomass or waste materials through the process steps of synthesis gas generation with subsequent methanol synthesis. Methanol has the potential to be used in an environmentally friendly manner in gasoline/methanol mixtures for flexible fuel vehicles with internal combustion engines and in diesel engines with pure methanol. Furthermore, it can be used in fuel cell vehicles with on-board hydrogen production in direct methanol fuel cell drives, and in stationary systems for electricity and heat generation as well as for hydrogen production. Finally, in portable applications it serves as an energy carrier for electric power generation. In this book, the processes for the production and use of methanol are presented and evaluated, markets and future options are discussed and issues of safety and environmental impacts are addressed by a team of well-known authors. (orig.)

  15. Satellite disintegration dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasenbrock, R. R.; Kaufman, B.; Heard, W. B.

    1975-01-01

    The subject of satellite disintegration is examined in detail. Elements of the orbits of individual fragments, determined by DOD space surveillance systems, are used to accurately predict the time and place of fragmentation. Dual time independent and time dependent analyses are performed for simulated and real breakups. Methods of statistical mechanics are used to study the evolution of the fragment clouds. The fragments are treated as an ensemble of non-interacting particles. A solution of Liouville's equation is obtained which enables the spatial density to be calculated as a function of position, time and initial velocity distribution.

  16. Do asteroids have satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenschilling, S.J.; Paolicchi, P.; Zappala, V.

    1989-01-01

    A substantial body of indirect evidence suggests that some asteroids have satelities, although none has been detected unambiguously. Collisions between asteroids provide physically plausible mechanisms for the production of binaries, but these operate with low probability; only a small minority of asteroids are likely to have satellites. The abundance of binary asteroids can constrain the collisional history of the entire belt population. The allowed angular momentum of binaries and their rate of tidal evolution limit separations to no more than a few tens of the primary's radii. Their expected properties are consistent with failure to detect them by current imaging techniques

  17. China Satellite Navigation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jingnan; Fan, Shiwei; Wang, Feixue

    2016-01-01

    These Proceedings present selected research papers from CSNC2016, held during 18th-20th May in Changsha, China. The theme of CSNC2016 is Smart Sensing, Smart Perception. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 12 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2016, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.

  18. China Satellite Navigation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jingnan; Yang, Yuanxi; Fan, Shiwei; Yu, Wenxian

    2017-01-01

    These proceedings present selected research papers from CSNC2017, held during 23th-25th May in Shanghai, China. The theme of CSNC2017 is Positioning, Connecting All. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 12 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2017, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.

  19. Understanding satellite navigation

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Rajat

    2014-01-01

    This book explains the basic principles of satellite navigation technology with the bare minimum of mathematics and without complex equations. It helps you to conceptualize the underlying theory from first principles, building up your knowledge gradually using practical demonstrations and worked examples. A full range of MATLAB simulations is used to visualize concepts and solve problems, allowing you to see what happens to signals and systems with different configurations. Implementation and applications are discussed, along with some special topics such as Kalman Filter and Ionosphere. W

  20. Why is CDMA the solution for mobile satellite communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilhousen, Klein S.; Jacobs, Irwin M.; Padovani, Roberto; Weaver, Lindsay A.

    1989-01-01

    It is demonstrated that spread spectrum Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) systems provide an economically superior solution to satellite mobile communications by increasing the system maximum capacity with respect to single channel per carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) systems. Following the comparative analysis of CDMA and FDMA systems, the design of a model that was developed to test the feasibility of the approach and the performance of a spread spectrum system in a mobile environment. Results of extensive computer simulations as well as laboratory and field tests results are presented.

  1. Overview of the Anik C satellites and services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, F. H.

    An overview of the important technical characteristics of the Anik C series of Canadian communications satellites is presented. The system was launched as part of the Telesat Communications payload of the Space Shuttle in 1982. Among the services the system will in the near future provide are: a 27 MHz channel bandwidth television service for pay-TV distribution in Canada; two TV channels for hockey broadcasts and a transportable TV system; a heavy-voice route telephone service for five major Canadian cities; and a telephone system for business voice and data communications. Services anticipated for Anik-C satellites later in the decade include a Single Channel Per Carrier (SCPC) voice and data communications system for British Columbia and the Maritime Provinces, and a direct-to-home broadcast service to be sold to television markets in the United States.

  2. Living antennas on communication satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumholt, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Crises change the global pattern of communication. The communications problems occur because the satellites are optimized to cover specific geographic areas, and these areas cannot be altered once the satellites are in Earth orbit. An effective solution to the problem is to equip communication sa...... satellites with "living" antennas that can adjust their radiation coverage areas according to the new demands. The development of living antennas is, therefore, among the focus areas identified and supported by the European Space Agency, ESA....

  3. Agent control of cooperating satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Lincoln, N.K.; Veres, S.M.; Dennis, Louise; Fisher, Michael; Lisitsa, Alexei

    2011-01-01

    A novel, hybrid, agent architecture for (small)swarms of satellites has been developed. The software architecture for each satellite comprises ahigh-level rational agent linked to a low-level control system. The rational agent forms dynamicgoals, decides how to tackle them and passes theactual implementation of these plans to the control layer. The rational agent also has access to aMatLabmodel of the satellite dynamics, thus allowing it to carry out selective hypothetical reasoningabout pote...

  4. Aggressive Behavior as a Predictor of Self-Concept: A Study with a Sample of Spanish Compulsory Secondary Education Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María S. Torregrosa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the relationship between aggressive behavior and self-concept in a sample of 2,022 Spanish students (51.09% males of Compulsory Secondary Education, ranging in age from 12 to 16 years. Aggressive behavior was assessed using the Teenage Inventory of Social Skills (TISS, and selfconcept was assessed with the Self-Description Questionnaire II (SDQ-II. Logistic regression analyses showed that adolescents with aggressive behavior were more likely to perceive their relationship with their parents as negative, show little interest in verbal activities, be less sincere, and have lower self-esteem than their non-aggressive peers. Furthermore, despite models varied according to sex and grade, in most cases adolescents with high aggressive behavior also showed a higher probability of perceiving their relation with peers of the same sex in a negative way, being less interested in school domains and showing higher emotional instability than their non-aggressive counterparts. Non-expected results were obtained regarding the perceptions about interactions with peers of the opposite sex and physical appearance. Results are discussed attending to their practical implications.

  5. Analysis of the Conceptions of Teachers of Compulsory Secondary Education and Baccalaureate on the Teaching of Oral Language: Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Arredondo Ruiz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available People use the language constantly without realizing how valuable it is. The oral language is a basic tool, it is necessary and it is so used that few people stop to think about its complexity, its essence, or its great power. The educational stages of Compulsory Secondary Education and Baccalaureate are essential for the development and improvement of oral skills (speaking and listening. It is about two stages in which students get prepared for later autonomous development in «adult life», so it is a key moment to carry out a correct acquisition and teaching of the suitable use of oral skills. Therefore, it may be deduced that the teachers of any subject in these educational stages, and their conceptions about general didactics, play a fundamental role in teaching and assessment of oral skills. This paper is aimed to present a qualitative research in which the case study will be done through the clinical interview in order to study in depth teachers’ conceptions about teaching and didactics of the oral language of the educational stages that we deal.. Thus, we will analyze the data obtained and we will take the didactic proposals used by teachers interviewed as a starting point to propose a model of action and improvement of the teaching-learning process of oral language in the classrooms of these educational stages.

  6. [Modulator effect of socio-emotional variables on training in elaboration strategies in Compulsory Secondary Education (CSE): paraphrase and applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Antón, Luis Jorge; Carbonero Martín, Miguel Angel; Román Sánchez, José María

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this work is to verify the modulation of motivation, self-concept, and causal attributions in the efficacy of a training program of strategies to elaborate information in the stage of Compulsory Secondary Education (CSE). We selected 328 students from CSE, 179 from second grade and 149 from fourth grade, and three measurement moments: pretest, posttest, and follow-up. The results indicate greater use of learning strategies by students with higher intrinsic motivation, in contrast to students with higher extrinsic motivation, who use learning strategies less frequently. With regard to self-concept, the results differ as a function of the course. In second grade, we found modulation of the variable Academic self-concept, whereas in fourth grade, such modulation is produced by General self-concept and Private self-concept. In general, there is a tendency towards more enduring significant improvements in students with medium and high self-concept, especially in their perception of the use of strategies or in complex tasks that involve relating the contents to be learned with experiences from their daily life. However, students with low self-concept significantly improve strategies associated with learning how to perform specific tasks.

  7. School lunches v. packed lunches: a comparison of secondary schools in England following the introduction of compulsory school food standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Lesley; Nicholas, Jo; Wood, Lesley; Nelson, Michael

    2013-06-01

    To compare food choices and nutrient intakes of pupils taking a school lunch or a packed lunch in eighty secondary schools in England, following the introduction of the food-based and nutrient-based standards for school food. Cross-sectional data collected between October 2010 and April 2011. Pupils' lunchtime food choices were recorded over five consecutive days. Secondary schools, England. A random selection of 5925 pupils having school lunches and 1805 pupils having a packed lunch in a nationally representative sample of eighty secondary schools in England. The differences in the specific types of food and drink consumed by the two groups of pupils are typical of differences between a hot and cold meal. On average, school lunches as eaten contained significantly more energy, carbohydrate, protein, fibre, vitamin A, folate, Fe and Zn than packed lunches, and 8 % less Na. Although neither school lunches nor packed lunches provided the balance of nutrients required to meet the nutrient-based standards (based on about one-third of daily energy and nutrient requirements), school lunches generally had a healthier nutrient profile, with lower Na and percentage of energy from fat, and higher fibre and micronutrient content. These differences were greater than those reported prior to the introduction of compulsory standards for school lunches. In order to ensure more pupils have a healthy lunch, schools could introduce and enforce a packed lunch policy or make school meals the only option at lunchtime.

  8. [Analysis of knowledge about healthy breakfast and its relation to life style habits and academic performance in compulsory secondary students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba Caro, Luis Gonzalo; Luengo Pérez, Luis Miguel; García Preciado, Ventura

    2014-05-01

    The main objective of the study is to analyze whether students of Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO) of Badajoz city known foods that are part of a healthy breakfast. It also intends to see the relationship of this knowledge with lifestyle habits and academic performance. A representative sample of 1197 secondary students in the city of Badajoz (Spain) (50.1% female) was calculated their Body Mass Index (BMI) and were asked to fill in a questionnaire, previously validated in a pilot study, which included sociodemographic items as well as others related with life style habits. They were also asked to choose among a series of food, which of them were a part of a healthy breakfast. 49.2% of adolescents know foods which are a part of a healthy breakfast. Very low correlations were obtained between all the variables analyzed and knowledge of foods that make up a healthy breakfast. However, within a few variables are significant differences (Phabit, passing lot of time with friends, who have been on a diet, make less than 3 meals a day and spend less than 10minutes for breakfast and know the amount of fruit that should be consumed daily. Life style habits of adolescents are not related to the knowledge about the foods that are part of a healthy breakfast. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Knowledge about the Greenhouse Effect and the Effects of the Ozone Layer among Norwegian Pupils Finishing Compulsory Education in 1989, 1993, and 2005 : What Now?

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Pål J. Kirkeby

    2010-01-01

    The greenhouse effect and the effects of the ozone layer have been in the media and public focus for more than two decades. During the same period, Norwegian compulsory schools have had four national curricula. The two last-mentioned prescribe explicitly the two topics. Media and public discourse might have been sources of information causing informal learning among pupils. The point of departure for this questionnaire-based examination of the development of pupils' knowledge about the greenh...

  10. Preventing compulsory admission to psychiatric inpatient care: Perceived coercion, empowerment and self-reported mental health functioning after 12 months of preventive monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara eLay; Barbara eLay; Thekla eDrack; Marco eBleiker; Silke eLengler; Christina eBlank; Wulf eRössler; Wulf eRössler; Wulf eRössler

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate effects of a preventive monitoring program targeted to reduce compulsory re-hospitalization and perceived coercion in patients with severe mental disorder. We analyze patient outcomes in terms of perceived coercion, empowerment and self-reported mental health functioning at 12 months. Methods: The program consists of individualized psycho-education, crisis cards and, after discharge from the psychiatric hospital, a 24-month preventive monitoring. In total, 238 psychiatr...

  11. CASTOR: Cathode/Anode Satellite Thruster for Orbital Repositioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mruphy, Gloria A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of CASTOR (Cathode/Anode Satellite Thruster for Orbital Repositioning) satellite is to demonstrate in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) a nanosatellite that uses a Divergent Cusped Field Thruster (DCFT) to perform orbital maneuvers representative of an orbital transfer vehicle. Powered by semi-deployable solar arrays generating 165W of power, CASTOR will achieve nearly 1 km/s of velocity increment over one year. As a technology demonstration mission, success of CASTOR in LEO will pave the way for a low cost, high delta-V orbital transfer capability for small military and civilian payloads in support of Air Force and NASA missions. The educational objective is to engage graduate and undergraduate students in critical roles in the design, development, test, carrier integration and on-orbit operations of CASTOR as a supplement to their curricular activities. This program is laying the foundation for a long-term satellite construction program at MIT. The satellite is being designed as a part of AFRL's University Nanosatellite Program, which provides the funding and a framework in which student satellite teams compete for a launch to orbit. To this end, the satellite must fit within an envelope of 50cmx50cmx60cm, have a mass of less than 50kg, and meet stringent structural and other requirements. In this framework, the CASTOR team successfully completed PDR in August 2009 and CDR in April 2010 and will compete at FCR (Flight Competition Review) in January 2011. The complexity of the project requires implementation of many systems engineering techniques which allow for development of CASTOR from conception through FCR and encompass the full design, fabrication, and testing process.

  12. Trends in mobile satellite communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, Klaus G.; Bowles, Mike W.; Milliken, Samuel; Cherrette, Alan R.; Busche, Gregory C.

    1993-01-01

    Ever since the U.S. Federal Communication Commission opened the discussion on spectrum usage for personal handheld communication, the community of satellite manufacturers has been searching for an economically viable and technically feasible satellite mobile communication system. Hughes Aircraft Company and others have joined in providing proposals for such systems, ranging from low to medium to geosynchronous orbits. These proposals make it clear that the trend in mobile satellite communication is toward more sophisticated satellites with a large number of spot beams and onboard processing, providing worldwide interconnectivity. Recent Hughes studies indicate that from a cost standpoint the geosynchronous satellite (GEOS) is most economical, followed by the medium earth orbit satellite (MEOS) and then by the low earth orbit satellite (LEOS). From a system performance standpoint, this evaluation may be in reverse order, depending on how the public will react to speech delay and collision. This paper discusses the trends and various mobile satellite constellations in satellite communication under investigation. It considers the effect of orbital altitude and modulation/multiple access on the link and spacecraft design.

  13. Magnetic Satellite Missions and Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Kotsiaros, Stavros

    2011-01-01

    Although the first satellite observations of the Earth’s magnetic field were already taken more than 50 years ago, continuous geomagnetic measurements from space are only available since 1999. The unprecedented time-space coverage of this recent data set opened revolutionary new possibilities...... for exploring the Earth’s magnetic field from space. In this chapter we discuss characteristics of satellites measuring the geomagnetic field and report on past, present and upcoming magnetic satellite missions. We conclude with some basics about space magnetic gradiometry as a possible path for future...... exploration of Earth’s magnetic field with satellites....

  14. Precise Time Synchronisation and Ranging in Nano-Satellite Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laabs, Martin; Plettemeier, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    Precise time synchronization and ranging is very important for a variety of scientific experiments with more than two nano-satellites: For synthetic aperture radar (SAR) applications, for example, the radar signal phase (which corresponds to a synchronized time) as well as the location must be known on each satellite forming synthetic antenna. Also multi-static radar systems, MIMO radar systems or radio tomography applications will take advantage from highly accurate synchronization and position determination. We propose a method for synchronizing the time as well as measuring the distance between nano-satellites very precisely by utilizing mm-wave radio links. This approach can also be used for time synchronization of more than two satellites and accordingly determinating the precise relative location of nano-satellites in space. The time synchronization signal is modulated onto a mm-wave carrier. In the simplest form it is a harmonic sinusoidal signal with a frequency in the MHz range. The distance is measured with a frequency sweep or short pulse modulated onto a different carrier frequency. The sweep or pulse transmission start is synchronized to the received time synchronization. The time synchronization transmitter receives the pulse/sweep signal and can calculate the (double) time of flight for both signals. This measurement can be easily converted to the distance. The use of a mm-wave carrier leads to small antennas and the free space loss linked to the high frequency reduces non line of sight echoes. It also allows a high sweep/pulse bandwidth enabling superior ranging accuracy. Additionally, there is also less electromagnetic interference probability since telemetry and scientific applications typically do not use mm-wavefrequencies. Since the system is working full-duplex the time synchronization can be performed continuously and coherently. Up to now the required semiconductor processes did not achieve enough gain/bandwidth to realize this concept at

  15. A Qualitative Strategy for the Balance of Compulsory Education in the County%县域义务教育均衡的质性策略探寻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉红; 程媛; 赵丽

    2016-01-01

    县域义务教育均衡八项具体指标可以概括为教育场馆建设、教育装备配备、师资合理搭配三方面。义务教育均衡根本在于教育质量均衡,教师流动制度可以共享优质师资,学区连片共建能分享教育设施,远程在线培训能够推动教研改革,教育信息化可以互递网络资源,校本课程实践能够互补学校特色。县域义务教育实现优质均衡是基础教育的愿景。%County compulsory education balanced eight specific indicators can be summarized as three aspects of the con-struction of educational facilities, equipment, education and reasonable collocation of teachers. Compulsory education is fun-damental education quality equilibrium, teacher mobility system can share the quality of teachers, the school district to build a contiguous share of educational facilities, remote online training can promote the teaching reform, education information can pass cyber source, the practice of school-based curriculum can complement the school characteristics. County compulsory edu-cation to achieve high quality balance is the vision of basic education.

  16. Resister's logic: the anti-vaccination arguments of Alfred Russel Wallace and their role in the debates over compulsory vaccination in England, 1870-1907.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichman, Martin; Keelan, Jennifer E

    2007-09-01

    In the 1880s, Alfred Russel Wallace, the celebrated co-discoverer of natural selection, launched himself into the centre of a politicised and polarised debate over the unpopular compulsory vaccination laws in England. Wallace never wavered in his belief that smallpox vaccination was useless and likely dangerous. Six years before his death, the anti-vaccinationists successfully secured a conscience clause that effectively dismantled the compulsory vaccination laws. Several other important Victorian scientists joined Wallace in the fight to repeal compulsory vaccination arguing that widely held views on the effectiveness of vaccination and evidence for immunity were inconclusive in the light of (then) contemporary standards of evidence. This article situates Wallace's anti-vaccination logic within the broader matrix of sociopolitical and cultural reform movements of the late Victorian era. Additionally it provides the first detailed analysis of his critique of vaccination science, in particular the role statistics played in his arguments. In this period, both pro-vaccinationists and anti-vaccinationists invested great efforts in collating and analysing statistical data sets that either supported or refuted the claims of vaccination's effectiveness. While each side presented 'controlled' case studies to support their assertions, without an unambiguous test to measure or demonstrate vaccination's effectiveness, the anti-vaccinationists continued to mount credible statistical critiques of vaccination science.

  17. Carrier scattering in metals and semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Gantmakher, VF

    1987-01-01

    The transport properties of solids, as well as the many optical phenomena in them are determined by the scattering of current carriers. ``Carrier Scattering in Metals and Semiconductors'' elucidates the state of the art in the research on the scattering mechanisms for current carriers in metals and semiconductors and describes experiments in which these mechanisms are most dramatically manifested.The selection and organization of the material is in a form to prepare the reader to reason independently and to deal just as independently with available theoretical results and experimental

  18. Gigabit Satellite Network for NASA's Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoder, Douglas; Bergamo, Marcos

    1996-01-01

    The advanced communication technology satellite (ACTS) gigabit satellite network provides long-haul point-to-point and point-to-multipoint full-duplex SONET services over NASA's ACTS. at rates up to 622 Mbit/s (SONET OC-12), with signal quality comparable to that obtained with terrestrial fiber networks. Data multiplexing over the satellite is accomplished using time-division multiple access (TDMA) techniques coordinated with the switching and beam hopping facilities provided by ACTS. Transmissions through the satellite are protected with Reed-Solomon encoding. providing virtually error-free transmission under most weather conditions. Unique to the system are a TDMA frame structure and satellite synchronization mechanism that allow: (a) very efficient utilization of the satellite capacity: (b) over-the-satellite dosed-loop synchronization of the network in configurations with up to 64 ground stations: and (c) ground station initial acquisition without collisions with existing signalling or data traffic. The user interfaces are compatible with SONET standards, performing the function of conventional SONET multiplexers and. as such. can be: readily integrated with standard SONET fiber-based terrestrial networks. Management of the network is based upon the simple network management protocol (SNMP). and includes an over-the-satellite signalling network and backup terrestrial internet (IP-based) connectivity. A description of the ground stations is also included.

  19. Personality traits in Huntington's disease: An exploratory study of gene expansion carriers and non-carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ida Unmack; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik; Knudsen, Gitte Moos; Vogel, Asmus

    2016-12-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is associated with risk for developing psychiatric symptoms. Vulnerability or resilience to psychiatric symptoms may be associated with personality traits. This exploratory study, aimed to investigate personality traits in a large cohort of HD carriers and at risk gene-expansion negative individuals (HD non-carriers), exploring whether carrying the HD gene or growing up in an HD family influences personality traits. Forty-seven HD carriers, Thirty-nine HD non-carriers, and 121 healthy controls answered the Danish version of the revised NEO personality inventory. Comparisons between HD carriers and HD non-carriers were mostly non-significant but the combined group of HD carriers and non-carriers showed significantly higher scores on the facets: "hostility," "assertiveness," and "activity" and on the trait "Conscientiousness" relative to controls, "Conscientiousness" have been associated with resilience to psychiatric symptoms. Twelve HD carriers and non-carriers were classified as depressed and showed significantly lower scores on "Extraversion" and "Conscientiousness" and significantly higher scores on "Neuroticism," which are associated with vulnerability to psychiatric symptoms. Our findings suggest that, there is no direct effect of the HD gene on personality traits, but that personality assessment may be relevant to use when identifying individuals from HD families who are vulnerable to develop psychiatric symptoms. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Space Station needs, attributes and architectural options. Volume 2, book 1, part 3: Manned Space Station relevance to commercial telecommunications satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A document containing a forecast of satellite traffic and revelant technology trends to the year 2000 was prepared which includes those space station capabilities and characteristics that should be provided to make the station useful to commercial satellite owners. The document was circulated to key representative organizations within the commercial telecommunications satellite and related communities of interest, including spacecraft manufacturers, commercial satellite owners, communications carriers, networks and risk insurers. The prospectus document is presented as well as the transmittal letter and the mailing list of the people and companies that were asked to review it. Key commercial telecommunications comments are summarized the actual response letters from the industry are included.

  1. International Satellite Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Dunk, Frans

    2017-07-01

    there are the major categories of space applications—as these have started to impact everyday life on earth: the involvement of satellites in communications infrastructures and services, the most commercialized area of space applications yet; the special issue of space serving to mitigate disasters and their consequences on earth; the use of satellites for remote sensing purposes ranging from weather and climate monitoring to spying; and the use of satellites for positioning, navigation, and timing.

  2. The Future of Satellite Communications Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowland, Wayne

    1985-01-01

    Discusses technical advances in satellite technology since the 1960s, and the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization's role in these developments; describes how AUSSAT, Australia's domestic satellite system, exemplifies the latest developments in satellite technology; and reviews satellite system features, possible future…

  3. Auto Carrier Transporter Loading and Unloading Improvement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Brian

    2003-01-01

    .... Any reduction in time and energy will result in a significant savings of money. The intent of this research is to develop an algorithm to solve the Auto Carrier Transport Pickup and Delivery Problem...

  4. Aircraft Carrier Exposure Testing of Aircraft Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Eui

    2004-01-01

    .... Test and control specimens were affixed on exposure racks and installed on aircraft carriers to compare adhesive bonding primers for aluminum and to determine the static property behavior of various...

  5. Commercial Air Carrier Vulnerabilities to Information Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shelburn, Bryan H

    2002-01-01

    .... Among those elements susceptible to these vulnerabilities are the operations of commercial air carriers that are essential to the military's ability to wage war and project power wherever needed in the world...

  6. Part B Carrier Summary Data File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Data sets are summarized at the carrier level by meaningful Healthcare Common Procedure Coding-Current Procedural Terminology, (HCPC-CPT), code ranges. The data set...

  7. Satellite Control Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Bak, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The Satellite Laboratory at the Department of Control Engineering of Aalborg University (SatLab) is a dynamic motion facility designed for analysis and test of micro spacecraft. A unique feature of the laboratory is that it provides a completely gravity-free environment. A test spacecraft...... of the laboratory is to conduct dynamic tests of the control and attitude determination algorithms during nominal operation and in abnormal conditions. Further it is intended to use SatLab for validation of various algorithms for fault detection, accommodation and supervisory control. Different mission objectives...... can be implemented in the laboratory, e.g. three-axis attitude control, slew manoeuvres, spins stabilization using magnetic actuation and/or reaction wheels. The spacecraft attitude can be determined applying magnetometer measurements...

  8. The solar power satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combes, P.F.

    1982-01-01

    The construction, launch, components, and operations of satellite solar power systems (SSPS) for direct beaming of solar energy converted to electricity to earth stations are outlined. The reference designs of either Si or concentrator GaAs solar cell assemblies large enough to project 5 GW of power are described. The beam will be furnished by klystrons or amplitrons for reception by rectennas on earth. Conforming to the law of amplitude and the equiphase law will permit high efficiencies, pointing accuracy, and low power deposition/sq cm, thus avoiding environmental problems, although some telecommunications systems may suffer interference. The construction of the dipole rectenna grid is sketched, noting that one receiver would be an ellipse sized at 10 x 13 km. Various forms of pollution which could result from the construction of an SSPS are examined.

  9. Launching the First Indian Satellite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    materials and chemicals, rocket propulsion, satellite technology, control and guidance system, etc. ... entire country, especially the rural areas, and in the survey and management of natural resources. Listeners are no .... satellite will store the information over a longer period and then on command from the ground station at ...

  10. Integrated Satellite-HAP Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cianca, Ernestina; De Sanctis, Mauro; De Luise, Aldo

    2005-01-01

    Thus far, high-altitude platform (HAP)-based systems have been mainly conceived as an alternative to satellites for complementing the terrestrial network. This article aims to show that HAP should no longer be seen as a competitor technology by investors of satellites, but as a key element for an...

  11. Newspaper Uses of Satellite Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, David

    Replacing slower mail service, satellite transmission now gives the newspaper industry a practical and almost spontaneous method for sending all kinds of information to any newspaper across the country. Unlike other communication industries, newspapers did not begin to make widespread use of satellite technology until 1979, when government…

  12. Satellite Demonstration: The Videodisc Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propp, George; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Originally part of a symposium on educational media for the deaf, the paper describes a satellite demonstration of video disc materials. It is explained that a panel of deaf individuals in Washington, D.C. and another in Nebraska came into direct two-way communication for the first time, and video disc materials were broadcast via the satellite.…

  13. A Primer on Satellite Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Information provided for school districts desiring to offer distance education courses to their students describes the kind of satellite dish needed; its size, sturdiness, placement, and number of dishes needed; satellite receivers; the function of a descrambler; copyright restrictions; features of an Integrated Receiver/Descrambler; selecting a…

  14. The Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The skeletal muscle satellite cell was first described and named based on its anatomic location between the myofiber plasma and basement membranes. In 1961, two independent studies by Alexander Mauro and Bernard Katz provided the first electron microscopic descriptions of satellite cells in frog and rat muscles. These cells were soon detected in other vertebrates and acquired candidacy as the source of myogenic cells needed for myofiber growth and repair throughout life. Cultures of isolated myofibers and, subsequently, transplantation of single myofibers demonstrated that satellite cells were myogenic progenitors. More recently, satellite cells were redefined as myogenic stem cells given their ability to self-renew in addition to producing differentiated progeny. Identification of distinctively expressed molecular markers, in particular Pax7, has facilitated detection of satellite cells using light microscopy. Notwithstanding the remarkable progress made since the discovery of satellite cells, researchers have looked for alternative cells with myogenic capacity that can potentially be used for whole body cell-based therapy of skeletal muscle. Yet, new studies show that inducible ablation of satellite cells in adult muscle impairs myofiber regeneration. Thus, on the 50th anniversary since its discovery, the satellite cell’s indispensable role in muscle repair has been reaffirmed. PMID:22147605

  15. Mobility management in satellite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Gary A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses the methods used or proposed for use in multi-beam and/or multi-satellite networks designed to provide Mobile Satellite Services (MSS). Specific topics include beam crossover in the North American Mobile Satellite (MSAT) system as well as registration and live call hand-off for a multi-regional geosynchronous (GEO) satellite based system and a global coverage Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) system. In the MSAT system, the individual satellite beams cover very large geographic areas so the need for live call hand-off was not anticipated. This paper discusses the methods used to keep track of the beam location of the users so that incoming call announcements or other messages may be directed to them. Proposed new GEO systems with large numbers of beams will provide much smaller geographic coverage in individual beams and thus the need arises to keep track of the user's location as well as to provide live call hand-off as the user traverses from beam to beam. This situation also occurs in proposed LEO systems where the problems are worsened by the need for satellite to satellite hand-off as well as beam to beam hand-off within a single satellite. The paper discusses methods to accomplish these handoffs and proposes system architectures to address the various hand-off scenarios.

  16. Accumulation of satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safronov, V.S.; Ruskol, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    Formation and evolution of circumplanetary satellite swarms are investigated. Characteristic times of various processes are estimated. The characteristic time for the accumulation of the bodies in the swarm was several orders of magnitude shorter than that of the planet, i.e. than the time of the replenishment of the material by the swarm (10 8 yr). The model of the accumulation of the swarm is constructed taking into account the increase of its mass due to trapping of heliocentrically moving particles and its decrease due to outfall of the inner part of the swarm onto the growing planet. The accumulation of circumplanetary bodies is also considered. The main features of the evolution of the swarm essentially depend on the size distribution of bodies in the swarm and in the zone of the planet and also on the degree of the concentration of the swarm mass toward the planet. If the sum of the exponents of the inverse power laws of these distributions is less than 7, the model of the transparent swarm developed in this paper should be preferred. When this sum is greater than 7, the model of opaque swarm suggested by A. Harris and W.M. Kaula is better. There is predominant trapping of small particles into the swarm due to their more frequent collisions. Optical thickness of the protoplanetary cloud in radial direction is estimated. It is shown that at the final stage of the planetary accumulation, the cloud was semitransparent in the region of terrestrial planets and volatile substances evaporated at collisions could be swept out from the outer parts of the satellite swarm by the solar wind

  17. Evaluating multicast resilience in carrier ethernet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we show how multicast traffic, which is essential for IPTV can be protected. We detail the ackground for resilience mechanisms and their control and e present Carrier Ethernet...... resilience methods for linear nd ring networks. By simulation we show that the vailability of a multicast connection can be significantly increased by applying protection methods....

  18. Synthetic Lipoproteins as Carriers for Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gangliang; Liu, Yang; Huang, Hualiang

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic lipoprotein is an effective carrier of targeted delivery for drugs. It has the very small size, good biocompatibility, suitable half-life, and specific lipoprotein receptorbinding capacity. Compared with the traditional natural lipoprotein, synthetic lipoprotein not only retains the original biological characteristics and functions, but also exhibits the excellent characteristics in drug delivery. Herein, the advantages, development, applications, and prospect of synthetic lipoproteins as drug carriers were summarized.

  19. Ultrafast carrier dynamics in a p-type GaN wafer under different carrier distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu; Yang, Junyi; Yang, Yong; Wu, Xingzhi; Xiao, Zhengguo; Zhou, Feng; Song, Yinglin

    2016-02-01

    The dependence of the carrier distribution on photoexcited carrier dynamics in a p-type Mg-doped GaN (GaN:Mg) wafer were systematically measured by femtosecond transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy. The homogeneity of the carrier distribution was modified by tuning the wavelength of the UV pulse excitation around the band gap of GaN:Mg. The TA kinetics appeared to be biexponential for all carrier distributions, and only the slower component decayed faster as the inhomogeneity of the carrier distribution increased. It was concluded that the faster component (50-70 ps) corresponded to the trap process of holes by the Mg acceptors, and the slower component (150-600 ps) corresponded to the combination of non-radiative surface recombination and intrinsic carrier recombination via dislocations. Moreover, the slower component increased gradually with the incident fluence due to the saturation of surface states.

  20. Sky alert! when satellites fail

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Les

    2013-01-01

    How much do we depend on space satellites? Defense, travel, agriculture, weather forecasting, mobile phones and broadband, commerce...the list seems endless. But what would our live be like if the unimaginable happened and, by accident or design, those space assets disappeared? Sky Alert! explores what our world would be like, looking in turn at areas where the loss could have catastrophic effects. The book - demonstrates our dependence on space technology and satellites; - outlines the effect on our economy, defense, and daily lives if satellites and orbiting spacecraft were destroyed; - illustrates the danger of dead satellites, spent rocket stages, and space debris colliding with a functioning satellites; - demonstrates the threat of dramatically increased radiation levels associated with geomagnetic storms; - introduces space as a potential area of conflict between nations.

  1. Encryption protection for communication satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, D. R.; Hoernig, O. W., Jr.

    In connection with the growing importance of the commercial communication satellite systems and the introduction of new technological developments, users and operators of these systems become increasingly concerned with aspects of security. The user community is concerned with maintaining confidentiality and integrity of the information being transmitted over the satellite links, while the satellite operators are concerned about the safety of their assets in space. In response to these concerns, the commercial satellite operators are now taking steps to protect the communication information and the satellites. Thus, communication information is being protected by end-to-end encryption of the customer communication traffic. Attention is given to the selection of the NBS DES algorithm, the command protection systems, and the communication protection systems.

  2. The Kinetics of Carrier Transport Inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T.; Wilbrandt, Robert Walter

    1962-01-01

    The kinetical treatment of enzymatic carrier transports as given in previous communications has been extended to conditions of inhibition. Various possible types of inhibitors have been considered differing in the site of attack (enzyme or carrier), in the mode of action (competing with the subst......The kinetical treatment of enzymatic carrier transports as given in previous communications has been extended to conditions of inhibition. Various possible types of inhibitors have been considered differing in the site of attack (enzyme or carrier), in the mode of action (competing...... with the substrate for the enzyme or the carrier or for both, competing with the carrier for the enzyme, or non-competitive) and in the ability of penetrating the membrane. Experiments are reported on the inhibition of glucose and fructose transport across the human red cell membrane by phlorizine, phloretine...... and polyphloretinephosphate. The results of the analysis for these inhibitors indicate a substrate competitive mode of action. The effect of reversing the transport direction by interchanging the substrate concentration has been treated for the case of a non-penetrating substrate competitive inhibitor in the external medium...

  3. Polar-Orbiting Satellite (POES) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from camera systems or radiometer instruments on satellites in orbit around the poles. Satellite campaigns include...

  4. Science as a general education: Conceptual science should constitute the compulsory core of multi-disciplinary undergraduate degrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2006-01-01

    It is plausible to assume that in the future science will form the compulsory core element both of school curricula and multi-disciplinary undergraduate degrees. But for this to happen entails a shift in the emphasis and methods of science teaching, away from the traditional concern with educating specialists and professionals. Traditional science teaching was essentially vocational, designed to provide precise and comprehensive scientific knowledge for practical application. By contrast, future science teaching will be a general education, hence primarily conceptual. Its aim should be to provide an education in flexible rationality. Vocational science teaching was focused on a single-discipline undergraduate degree, but a general education in abstract systematic thinking is best inculcated by studying several scientific disciplines. In this sense, 'science' is understood as mathematics and the natural sciences, but also the abstract and systematic aspects of disciplines such as economics, linguistics, music theory, history, sociology, political science and management science. Such a wide variety of science options in a multi-disciplinary degree will increase the possibility of student motivation and aptitude. Specialist vocational science education will progressively be shifted to post-graduate level, in Masters and Doctoral programs. A multi-disciplinary and conceptually-based science core curriculum should provide an appropriate preparation for dealing with the demands of modern societies; their complex and rapidly changing social systems; and the need for individual social and professional mobility. Training in rational conceptual thinking also has potential benefits to human health and happiness, since it allows people to over-ride inappropriate instincts, integrate conflicting desires and pursue long-term goals.

  5. Assessment of an Innovative Voluntary Substance Abuse Treatment Program Designed to Replace Compulsory Drug Detention Centers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farrah; Krishnan, Archana; Ghani, Mansur A; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Fu, Jeannia J; Lim, Sin How; Dhaliwal, Sangeeth Kaur; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2018-01-28

    As part of an ongoing initiative by the Malaysian government to implement alternative approaches to involuntary detention of people who use drugs, the National Anti-Drug Agency has created new voluntary drug treatment programs known as Cure and Care (C&C) Centers that provide free access to addiction treatment services, including methadone maintenance therapy, integrated with social and health services.   We evaluated early treatment outcomes and client satisfaction among patients accessing C&C treatment and ancillary services at Malaysia's second C&C Center located in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. In June-July 2012, a cross-sectional convenience survey of 96 C&C inpatients and outpatients who entered treatment >30 days previously was conducted to assess drug use, criminal justice experience, medical co-morbidities, motivation for seeking treatment, and attitudes towards the C&C. Drug use was compared for the 30-day-period before C&C entry and the 30-day-period before the interview. Self-reported drug use levels decreased significantly among both inpatient and outpatient clients after enrolling in C&C treatment. Higher levels of past drug use, lower levels of social support, and more severe mental health issues were reported by participants who were previously imprisoned. Self-reported satisfaction with C&C treatment services was high. Conclusions/Importance: Preliminary evidence of reduced drug use and high levels of client satisfaction among C&C clients provide support for Malaysia's ongoing transition from compulsory drug detention centers (CDDCs) to these voluntary drug treatment centers. If C&C centers are successful, Malaysia plans to gradually transition away from CDDCs entirely.

  6. From Abstinence to Relapse: A Preliminary Qualitative Study of Drug Users in a Compulsory Drug Rehabilitation Center in Changsha, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yang

    Full Text Available Relapse among abstinent drug users is normal. Several factors are related to relapse, but it remains unclear what individuals' actual life circumstances are during periods of abstinence, and how these circumstances facilitate or prevent relapse.To illuminate drug users' experiences during abstinence periods and explore the real-life catalysts and inhibitors contributing to drug use relapse.Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 drug users recruited from a compulsory isolated drug rehabilitation center in Changsha. The interviews were guided by open-ended questions on individuals' experiences in drug use initiation, getting addicted, treatment history, social environment, abstinence, and relapse. Participants were also encouraged to share their own stories. Interviews were digitally recorded and fully transcribed. The data of 18 participants who reported abstinence experiences before admission were included in the analyses. The data were analyzed using a thematic analysis with inductive hand coding to derive themes.Most drug users were able to successfully abstain from drugs. During abstinence, their lives were congested with challenges, such as adverse socioeconomic conditions, poor family/social support, interpersonal conflicts, and stigma and discrimination, all of which kept them excluded from mainstream society. Furthermore, the police's system of ID card registration, which identifies individuals as drug users, worsened already grave situations. Relapse triggers reported by the participants focused mainly on negative feelings, interpersonal conflicts, and stressful events. Craving was experienced but not perceived as a relapse trigger by most participants.This study of in-depth interview with drug users found evidence of situations and environments they live during abstinence appear rather disadvantaged, making it extremely difficult for them to remain abstinent. Comprehensive programs on relapse prevention that acknowledge

  7. An economic evaluation of preclinical testing strategies compared to the compulsory scrapie flock scheme in the control of classical scrapie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Boden

    Full Text Available Cost-benefit is rarely combined with nonlinear dynamic models when evaluating control options for infectious diseases. The current strategy for scrapie in Great Britain requires that all genetically susceptible livestock in affected flocks be culled (Compulsory Scrapie Flock Scheme or CSFS. However, this results in the removal of many healthy sheep, and a recently developed pre-clinical test for scrapie now offers a strategy based on disease detection. We explore the flock level cost-effectiveness of scrapie control using a deterministic transmission model and industry estimates of costs associated with genotype testing, pre-clinical tests and the value of a sheep culled. Benefit was measured in terms of the reduction in the number of infected sheep sold on, compared to a baseline strategy of doing nothing, using Incremental Cost Effectiveness analysis to compare across strategies. As market data was not available for pre-clinical testing, a threshold analysis was used to set a unit-cost giving equal costs for CSFS and multiple pre-clinical testing (MT, one test each year for three consecutive years. Assuming a 40% within-flock proportion of susceptible genotypes and a test sensitivity of 90%, a single test (ST was cheaper but less effective than either the CSFS or MT strategies (30 infected-sales-averted over the lifetime of the average epidemic. The MT strategy was slightly less effective than the CSFS and would be a dominated strategy unless preclinical testing was cheaper than the threshold price of £6.28, but may be appropriate for flocks with particularly valuable livestock. Though the ST is not currently recommended, the proportion of susceptible genotypes in the national flock is likely to continue to decrease; this may eventually make it a cost-effective alternative to the MT or CSFS.

  8. Effect of reducing portion size at a compulsory meal on later energy intake, gut hormones, and appetite in overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Hannah B; Ahern, Amy L; Solis-Trapala, Ivonne; Walker, Celia G; Reimann, Frank; Gribble, Fiona M; Jebb, Susan A

    2015-07-01

    Larger portion sizes (PS) are associated with greater energy intake (EI), but little evidence exists on the appetitive effects of PS reduction. This study investigated the impact of reducing breakfast PS on subsequent EI, postprandial gastrointestinal hormone responses, and appetite ratings. In a randomized crossover design (n = 33 adults; mean BMI 29 kg/m(2) ), a compulsory breakfast was based on 25% of gender-specific estimated daily energy requirements; PS was reduced by 20% and 40%. EI was measured at an ad libitum lunch (240 min) and snack (360 min) and by weighed diet diaries until bed. Blood was sampled until lunch in 20 participants. Appetite ratings were measured using visual analogue scales. EI at lunch (control: 2,930 ± 203; 20% reduction: 2,853 ± 198; 40% reduction: 2,911 ± 179 kJ) and over the whole day except breakfast (control: 7,374 ± 361; 20% reduction: 7,566 ± 468; 40% reduction: 7,413 ± 417 kJ) did not differ. Postprandial PYY, GLP-1, GIP, insulin, and fullness profiles were lower and hunger, desire to eat, and prospective consumption higher following 40% reduction compared to control. Appetite ratings profiles, but not hormone concentrations, were associated with subsequent EI. Smaller portions at breakfast led to reductions in gastrointestinal hormone secretion but did not affect subsequent energy intake, suggesting small reductions in portion size may be a useful strategy to constrain EI. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  9. 78 FR 27137 - Verification of Statements of Account Submitted by Cable Operators and Satellite Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... Statements of Account. They agreed that the verification should be conducted by a certified public accountant... Public Accountants (``AICPA'') or the State Board of Accountancy that licensed the auditor while the... professional association for certified public accountants. In any event, it seems unlikely that the copyright...

  10. 77 FR 35643 - Verification of Statements of Account Submitted by Cable Operators and Satellite Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... for accounting periods beginning on or after January 1, 2010, in order that the auditor designated... review the auditor's conclusions, to remedy any errors identified in the auditor's report, and to correct any underpayments that the auditor may discover. Congress indicated that a single auditor should...

  11. 37 CFR 201.11 - Satellite carrier statements of account covering statutory licenses for secondary transmissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... deposited or changes or additions are made in the Statement of Account, the date that additional deposit or... existing on the last day of the accounting period covered by the Statement of Account. (3) The designation..., information, and belief, and are made in good faith. (18 U.S.C., section 1001 (1986)) (f) Royalty fee payment...

  12. Theory of satellite geodesy applications of satellites to geodesy

    CERN Document Server

    Kaula, William M

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of this classic text is to demonstrate how Newtonian gravitational theory and Euclidean geometry can be used and developed in the earth's environment. The second is to collect and explain some of the mathematical techniques developed for measuring the earth by satellite.Book chapters include discussions of the earth's gravitational field, with special emphasis on spherical harmonies and the potential of the ellipsoid; matrices and orbital geometry; elliptic motion, linear perturbations, resonance, and other aspects of satellite orbit dynamics; the geometry of satellite obser

  13. VLBI Observations of Geostationary Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, T.; Nothnagel, A.; La Porta, L.

    2013-08-01

    For a consistent realization of a Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS), a proper tie between the individual global reference systems used in the analysis of space-geodetic observations is a prerequisite. For instance, the link between the terrestrial, the celestial and the dynamic reference system of artificial Earth orbiters may be realized by Very Long O Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations of one or several satellites. In the preparation phase for a dedicated satellite mission, one option to realize this is using a geostationary (GEO) satellite emitting a radio signal in X-Band and/or S-Band and, thus, imitating a quasar. In this way, the GEO satellite can be observed by VLBI together with nearby quasars and the GEO orbit can, thus, be determined in a celestial reference frame. If the GEO satellite is, e.g., also equipped with a GNSS-type transmitter, a further tie between GNSS and VLBI may be realized. In this paper, a concept for the generation of a radio signal is shown. Furthermore, simulation studies for estimating the GEO position are presented with a GEO satellite included in the VLBI schedule. VLBI group delay observations are then simulated for the quasars as well as for the GEO satellite. The analysis of the simulated observations shows that constant orbit changes are adequately absorbed by estimated orbit parameters. Furthermore, the post-fit residuals are comparable to those from real VLBI sessions.

  14. Security Concepts for Satellite Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobehn, C.; Penné, B.; Rathje, R.; Weigl, A.; Gorecki, Ch.; Michalik, H.

    2008-08-01

    The high costs to develop, launch and maintain a satellite network makes protecting the assets imperative. Attacks may be passive such as eavesdropping on the payload data. More serious threat are active attacks that try to gain control of the satellite, which may lead to the total lost of the satellite asset. To counter these threats, new satellite and ground systems are using cryptographic technologies to provide a range of services: confidentiality, entity & message authentication, and data integrity. Additionally, key management cryptographic services are required to support these services. This paper describes the key points of current satellite control and operations, that are authentication of the access to the satellite TMTC link and encryption of security relevant TM/TC data. For payload data management the key points are multi-user ground station access and high data rates both requiring frequent updates and uploads of keys with the corresponding key management methods. For secure satellite management authentication & key negotiation algorithms as HMAC-RIPEMD160, EC- DSA and EC-DH are used. Encryption of data uses algorithms as IDEA, AES, Triple-DES, or other. A channel coding and encryption unit for payload data provides download data rates up to Nx250 Mbps. The presented concepts are based on our experience and heritage of the security systems for all German MOD satellite projects (SATCOMBw2, SAR-Lupe multi- satellite system and German-French SAR-Lupe-Helios- II systems inter-operability) as well as for further international (KOMPSAT-II Payload data link system) and ESA activities (TMTC security and GMES).

  15. Satellite communications principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Calcutt, David

    1994-01-01

    Satellites are increasingly used for global communications, as well as for radio and television transmissions. With the growth of mobile communications, and of digital technology, the use of satellite systems is set to expand substantially and already all students of electronics or communications engineering must study the subject.This book steers a middle path between offering a basic understanding of the process of communication by satellite and the methodology used; and the extensive mathematical analysis normally adopted in similar texts. It presents the basic concepts, using as mu

  16. Absence of satellites of asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrels, T.; Drummond, J.D.; Levenson, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    The absence of satellites within 0.1-7.0 arcmin of minor planets noted in the present CCD imaging survey is judged consistent with previous theoretical studies of collisions in which it is held that satellites would have to be larger than about 30 km in order to be collisionally stable. In view of tidal stability, the only main belt asteroid satellites which could conceivably possess stability over eons are near-contact binaries. Any recent collisional debris would be chaotic and collisionally unstable. 15 references

  17. Performance of Uplink Carrier Aggregation in LTE-Advanced Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Rosa, Claudio; Pedersen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Carrier aggregation (CA) has been proposed to aggregate two or more component carriers (CCs) to support a much wider transmission bandwidth for LTE-Advanced systems. With carrier aggregation, it is possible to schedule a user equipment (UE) on multiple component carriers simultaneously. In this p...

  18. Extracting hot carriers from photoexcited semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10

    This research program addresses a fundamental question related to the use of nanomaterials in solar energy -- namely, whether semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) can help surpass the efficiency limits, the so-called “Shockley-Queisser” limit, in conventional solar cells. In these cells, absorption of photons with energies above the semiconductor bandgap generates “hot” charge carriers that quickly “cool” to the band edges before they can be utilized to do work; this sets the solar cell efficiency at a limit of ~31%. If instead, all of the energy of the hot carriers could be captured, solar-to-electric power conversion efficiencies could be increased, theoretically, to as high as 66%. A potential route to capture this energy is to utilize semiconductor nanocrystals. In these materials, the quasi-continuous conduction and valence bands of the bulk semiconductor become discretized due to confinement of the charge carriers. Consequently, the energy spacing between the electronic levels can be much larger than the highest phonon frequency of the lattice, creating a “phonon bottleneck” wherein hot-carrier relaxation is possible via slower multiphonon emission. For example, hot-electron lifetimes as long as ~1 ns have been observed in NCs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In colloidal NCs, long lifetimes have been demonstrated through careful design of the nanocrystal interfaces. Due to their ability to slow electronic relaxation, semiconductor NCs can in principle enable extraction of hot carriers before they cool to the band edges, leading to more efficient solar cells.

  19. Carbon: Hydrogen carrier or disappearing skeleton?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, K.P.; Van Wechem, H.M.H.

    1994-01-01

    The use of liquid hydrocarbons as energy carriers implies the use of carbon as a carrier for hydrogen to facilitate hydrogen transport and storage. The current trend for liquid energy carriers used in the transport sector is to maximize the load of hydrogen on the carbon carrier. The recently developed Shell Middle Distillate Hydrogenation process for the manufacture of high quality diesel from aromatic refinery streams fits this picture. In the future, the hydrogen required to raise the product H/C ratio will be increasingly produced via gasification of large amounts of heavy residues. In the light of the strong preference towards using liquid fuels in the transport sector, the Shell Middle Distillate Synthesis process to convert natural gas into diesel of very high quality is discussed. Finally, a few comments on the use of hydrogen without a carbon carrier are made. Long lead times and the likelihood of producing the 'first' hydrogen from fossil fuel are highlighted. 13 figs., 6 tabs., 5 refs

  20. Estimating Motor Carrier Management Information System Crash File Underreporting from Carrier Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This FMCSA-sponsored research investigated the claim that motor carriers have a substantial number of crashes in their own records that are not contained in the Motor Carrier Management Information System (MCMIS) crash file. Based on the results of t...

  1. Estimating motor carrier management information system crash file underreporting from carrier records : research brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This study estimated a significant amount of underreporting to the MCMIS crash file by the States, for the carriers who cooperated in the study. For the study carriers, it appears that the MCMIS file contained about 66 percent of their reportable cra...

  2. Charge-carrier mobilities in disordered semiconducting polymers: effects of carrier density and electric field [refereed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meisel, K.D.; Pasveer, W.F.; Cottaar, J.; Tanase, C.; Coehoorn, R.; Bobbert, P.A.; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, de D.M.; Michels, M.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    We model charge transport in disordered semiconducting polymers by hopping of charge carriers on a square lattice of sites with Gaussian on-site energy disorder, using Fermi-Dirac statistics. From numerically exact solns. of the Master equation, we study the dependence of the charge-carrier mobility

  3. Charge-carrier mobilities in disordered semiconducting polymers : effects of carrier density and electric field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meisel, K.D.; Pasveer, W.F.; Cottaar, J.; Tanase, C.; Coehoorn, R.; Bobbert, P.A.; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, D.M. de; Michels, M.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    We model charge transport in disordered semiconducting polymers by hopping of charge carriers on a square lattice of sites with Gaussian on-site energy disorder, using Fermi-Dirac statistics. From numerically exact solutions of the Master equation, we study the dependence of the charge-carrier

  4. Satellite tracking of threatened species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M.; Lunsford, A.; Ellis, D.; Robinson, J.; Coronado, P.; Campbell, W.

    1998-01-01

    In 1990, a joint effort of two U.S. federal agencies, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, began. We initially joined forces in a project that used satellite telemetry to discover the winter home of a tiny dwindling population of Siberian Cranes. Since then several projects have emerged, and a web site was created to follow some of these activities. This web site is called the Satellite Tracking of Threatened Species and its location is http://sdcd.gsfc.nasa.gov/ISTO/satellite_tracking. It describes the overall program, and links you to three subsections that describe the projects in more detail: Satellite Direct Readout, Birdtracks, and Birdworld.

  5. Commercial satellite broadcasting for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, J. R.

    1988-12-01

    A review is presented of the current television broadcasting situation in European countries, which involves a varied mix of terrestrial VHF or UHF systems and cable networks. A small market has emerged in Europe for receivers using the low-power telecommunications satellite transmission between the program providers and cable network companies. This is expected to change with the launch of medium-power pan-European telecommunication satellites (e.g. ASTRA, EUTELSAT II), which are now directly addressing the market of home reception. DBS (direct broadcast satellite) in the UK, using the D-MAC transmission standard, will offer three additional television channels, data broadcasting services, and a planned evolution to compatible forms of wide-screen, high-definition television. Comments are given on receiver and conditional access system standardization. Some views are expressed on satellite broadcasting as part of an overall broadcasting framework for the future.

  6. Small Satellite Mechanical Design Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Meyers, Stewart

    1993-01-01

    The design approach used and the experience gained in the building of four small satellite payloads is explained. Specific recommendations are made and the lessons learned on the SAMPEX program are detailed.

  7. Sea Turtle Satellite Telemetry Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea turtles captured in various fishing gear (pound nets, long haul seines, gill nets) were outfitted with satellite transmitters so that their movements, migratory...

  8. Next generation satellite communications networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, P. J.; Osborne, F. J.; Streibl, I.

    The paper introduces two potential uses for new space hardware to permit enhanced levels of signal handling and switching in satellite communication service for Canada. One application involves increased private-sector services in the Ku band; the second supports new personal/mobile services by employing higher levels of handling and switching in the Ka band. First-generation satellite regeneration and switching experiments involving the NASA/ACTS spacecraft are described, where the Ka band and switching satellite network problems are emphasized. Second-generation satellite development is outlined based on demand trends for more packet-based switching, low-cost earth stations, and closed user groups. A demonstration mission for new Ka- and Ku-band technologies is proposed, including the payload configuration. The half ANIK E payload is shown to meet the demonstration objectives, and projected to maintain a fully operational payload for at least 10 years.

  9. Satellite Teleconferencing in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Hollis C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the need for, and the development, use, and future trends of, the University of the West Indies Distance Teaching Experiment, which utilizes telephone and communications satellite technology teleconferencing to extend educational opportunities to the peoples of the Caribbean. (MBR)

  10. The Educational Satellite in Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, D. O.

    1975-01-01

    A discussion which contends that there is merit in not gearing satellite systems solely to educational broadcasting and that they should be designed for general communication, including telephony and television entertainment. (Author/HB)

  11. Protection switching for carrier ethernet multicast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses network survivability for IPTV multicast transport in Carrier Ethernet networks. The impact of link failures is investigated and suggestions for intelligent multicast resilience schemes are proposed. In particular, functions of the multicast tree are integrated with the Carri...... recovery path length, recovery time, number of branch nodes and operational complexity. The integrated approach therefore shows significant potential to increase the QoE for IPTV users in case of network failures and recovery actions.......This paper addresses network survivability for IPTV multicast transport in Carrier Ethernet networks. The impact of link failures is investigated and suggestions for intelligent multicast resilience schemes are proposed. In particular, functions of the multicast tree are integrated with the Carrier...

  12. Natural carriers in bioremediation: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dzionek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater or soil is currently the cheapest and the least harmful method of removing xenobiotics from the environment. Immobilization of microorganisms capable of degrading specific contaminants significantly promotes bioremediation processes, reduces their costs, and also allows for the multiple use of biocatalysts. Among the developed methods of immobilization, adsorption on the surface is the most common method in bioremediation, due to the simplicity of the procedure and its non-toxicity. The choice of carrier is an essential element for successful bioremediation. It is also important to consider the type of process (in situ or ex situ, type of pollution, and properties of immobilized microorganisms. For these reasons, the article summarizes recent scientific reports about the use of natural carriers in bioremediation, including efficiency, the impact of the carrier on microorganisms and contamination, and the nature of the conducted research.

  13. Hiding secret data into a carrier image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu COSMA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of steganography is embedding hidden information in an appropriate multimedia carrier, e.g., image, audio, or video. There are several known methods of solving this problem, which operate either in the space domain or in the frequency domain, and are distinguished by the following characteristics: payload, robustness and strength. The payload is the amount of secret data that can be embedded in the carrier without inducing suspicious artefacts, robustness indicates the degree in which the secret data is affected by the normal processing of the carrier e.g., compression, and the strength indicate how easy the presence of hidden data can be detected by steganalysis techniques. This paper presents a new method of hiding secret data into a digital image compressed by a technique based on the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT [2] and the Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT subband coding algorithm [6]. The proposed method admits huge payloads and has considerable strength.

  14. Existence of undiscovered Uranian satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, D.C.

    1986-04-01

    Structure in the Uranian ring system as observed in recent occultations may contain indirect evidence for the existence of undiscovered satellites. Using the Alfven and Arrhenius (1975, 1976) scenario for the formation of planetary systems, the orbital radii of up to nine hypothetical satellites interior to Miranda are computed. These calculations should provide interesting comparisons when the results from the Voyager 2 encounter with Uranus are made public. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. Satellite medical centers project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Arvind

    2002-08-01

    World class health care for common man at low affordable cost: anywhere, anytime The project envisages to set up a national network of satellite Medical centers. Each SMC would be manned by doctors, nurses and technicians, six doctors, six nurses, six technicians would be required to provide 24 hour cover, each SMC would operate 24 hours x 7 days. It would be equipped with the Digital telemedicine devices for capturing clinical patient information and investigations in the form of voice, images and data and create an audiovisual text file - a virtual Digital patient. Through the broad band connectivity the virtual patient can be sent to the central hub, manned by specialists, specialists from several specialists sitting together can view the virtual patient and provide a specialized opinion, they can see the virtual patient, see the examination on line through video conference or even PCs, talk to the patient and the doctor at the SMC and controlle capturing of information during examination and investigations of the patient at the SMC - thus creating a virtual Digital consultant at the SMC. Central hub shall be connected to the doctors and consultants in remote locations or tertiary care hospitals any where in the world, thus creating a virtual hub the hierarchical system shall provide upgradation of knowledge to thedoctors in central hub and smc and thus continued medical education and benefit the patient thru the world class treatment in the smc located at his door step. SMC shall be set up by franchisee who shall get safe business opportunity with high returns, patients shall get Low cost user friendly worldclass health care anywhere anytime, Doctors can get better meaningful selfemplyment with better earnings, flexibility of working time and place. SMC shall provide a wide variety of services from primary care to world class Global consultation for difficult patients.

  16. Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, A.; Cerezo, F.; Fernandez, M.; Lomba, J.; Lopez, M.; Moreno, J.; Neira, A.; Quintana, C.; Torres, J.; Trigo, R.; Urena, J.; Vega, E.; Vez, E.

    2010-12-01

    The Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITyC) and the Ministry of Defense (MoD) signed an agreement in 2007 for the development of a "Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System" based, in first instance, on two satellites: a high resolution optical satellite, called SEOSAT/Ingenio, and a radar satellite based on SAR technology, called SEOSAR/Paz. SEOSAT/Ingenio is managed by MITyC through the Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI), with technical and contractual support from the European Space Agency (ESA). HISDESA T together with the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA, National Institute for Aerospace Technology) will be responsible for the in-orbit operation and the commercial operation of both satellites, and for the technical management of SEOSAR/Paz on behalf of the MoD. In both cases EADS CASA Espacio (ECE) is the prime contractor leading the industrial consortia. The ground segment development will be assigned to a Spanish consortium. This system is the most important contribution of Spain to the European Programme Global Monitoring for Environment and Security, GMES. This paper presents the Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System focusing on SEOSA T/Ingenio Programme and with special emphasis in the potential contribution to the ESA Third Party Missions Programme and to the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security initiative (GMES) Data Access.

  17. Multi-band microwave photonic satellite repeater scheme employing intensity Mach-Zehnder modulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Jie; Dong Tao; Zhang Bin; Hao Yan; Cao Guixing; Cheng Zijing; Xu Kun; Zhou Yue; Dai Jian

    2017-01-01

    To solve the satellite repeater's flexible and wideband frequency conversion problem,we propose a novel microwave photonic repeater system,which can convert the upload signal's carrier to six different frequencies.The scheme employs one 20 GHz bandwidth dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) and two 10 GHz bandwidth MZMs.The basic principle of this scheme is filtering out two optical sidebands after the optical carrier suppression (OCS) modulation and combining two sidebands modulated by the input radio frequency (RF) signal.This structure can realize simultaneous multi-band frequency conversion with only one frequency-fixed microwave source and prevent generating harmful interference sidebands by using two corresponding optical filters after optical modulation.In the simulation,one C-band signal of 6 GHz carrier can be successfully converted to 12 GHz (Ku-band),28 GHz,34 GHz,40 GHz,46 GHz (Ka-band) and 52 GHz (V-band),which can be an attractive method to realize multi-band microwave photonic satellite repeater.Alternatively,the scheme can be configured to generate multi-band local oscillators (LOs) for widely satellite onboard clock distribution when the input RF signal is replaced by the internal clock source.

  18. Towards 100 gigabit carrier ethernet transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Hao

    2010-01-01

    technology, making the use of Ethernet as a convergence layer for Next Generation Networks a distinct possibility. Triple Play services, in particular IPTV, are expected to be a main drivers for carrier Ethernet, however, a number of challenges must be addressed including QoS enabled control plane, enhanced......Ethernet as a transport technology has, up to now, lacked the features such as network layer architecture, customer separation and manageability that carriers require for wide-scale deployment. However, with the advent of PBB-TE and TMPLS, it is now possible to use Ethernet as a transport...

  19. Interface recombination influence on carrier transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konin, A

    2013-01-01

    A theory of interface recombination in the semiconductor–semiconductor junction is developed. The interface recombination rate dependence on the nonequilibrium carrier densities is derived on the basis of a model in which the interface recombination occurs through the mechanism of trapping. The general relation between the interface recombination parameters at small carrier density deviation from the equilibrium ones is obtained. The validity of this relation is proved considering the generation of the Hall electric field in the extrinsic semiconductor sample. The anomalous Hall electromotive force in a weak magnetic field was investigated and interpreted by means of a new interface recombination model. The experimental data corroborate the developed theory. (paper)

  20. Hot-carrier effects in MOS devices

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, Eiji; Miura-Hamada, Akemi

    1995-01-01

    The exploding number of uses for ultrafast, ultrasmall integrated circuits has increased the importance of hot-carrier effects in manufacturing as well as for other technological applications. They are rapidly movingout of the research lab and into the real world.This book is derived from Dr. Takedas book in Japanese, Hot-Carrier Effects, (published in 1987 by Nikkei Business Publishers). However, the new book is much more than a translation. Takedas original work was a starting point for developing this much more complete and fundamental text on this increasingly important topic. The new work

  1. Satellites You Can See for Homework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Artificial satellites are easily observed most nights when the weather is fine. The website called "Heavens Above" at www.heavens-above.com will help locate these satellites flying over one's location. It also includes how bright they will appear. The direction of travel of each satellite in the night sky also indicates the type of satellite. For…

  2. Oltre la scuola dell’obbligo. Un’analisi empirica della decisione di proseguire nell’istruzione post-obbligatoria in Italia (Beyond Post-Compulsory Schooling: An Empirical Analysis of the Decision to Go On in Post-Compulsory Education in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Bratti

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the decision to continue in post-compulsory education in Italy. Using data from the Survey of Household Income and Wealth (SHIW of the Bank of Italy we estimate binary choice models (probit and logit with the primary aim of investigating factors which affect the decision to continue in post-compulsory education. The estimates of the econometric model show that the individual with the smallest probability to continue in education has one or more of the following attributes: residence in the South, in big towns, father without formal education, self-employed or working in the agricultural sector, mother with less than high secondary schooling (licenza media superiore. The role of family income in shaping educational decisions is especially important in Central and Southern Italy, where income levels are lower. The economic variables whose role is emphasised by the mainstream approach to educational choices, the theory of human capital, turn out not to be significant in the explanation of post-compulsory schooling in Italy where social and long-term and short-term family factors appear to be dominant.

  3. Oltre la scuola dell’obbligo. Un’analisi empirica della decisione di proseguire nell’istruzione post-obbligatoria in Italia (Beyond Post-Compulsory Schooling: An Empirical Analysis of the Decision to Go On in Post-Compulsory Education in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Bratti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the decision to continue in post-compulsory education in Italy. Using data from the Survey of Household Income and Wealth (SHIW of the Bank of Italy we estimate binary choice models (probit and logit with the primary aim of investigating factors which affect the decision to continue in post-compulsory education. The estimates of the econometric model show that the individual with the smallest probability to continue in education has one or more of the following attributes: residence in the South, in big towns, father without formal education, self-employed or working in the agricultural sector, mother with less than high secondary schooling (licenza media superiore. The role of family income in shaping educational decisions is especially important in Central and Southern Italy, where income levels are lower. The economic variables whose role is emphasised by the mainstream approach to educational choices, the theory of human capital, turn out not to be significant in the explanation of post-compulsory schooling in Italy where social and long-term and short-term family factors appear to be dominant.          JEL Codes: I21, I28Keywords: Education, Schooling

  4. Shadow imaging of geosynchronous satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Dennis Michael

    Geosynchronous (GEO) satellites are essential for modern communication networks. If communication to a GEO satellite is lost and a malfunction occurs upon orbit insertion such as a solar panel not deploying there is no direct way to observe it from Earth. Due to the GEO orbit distance of ~36,000 km from Earth's surface, the Rayleigh criteria dictates that a 14 m telescope is required to conventionally image a satellite with spatial resolution down to 1 m using visible light. Furthermore, a telescope larger than 30 m is required under ideal conditions to obtain spatial resolution down to 0.4 m. This dissertation evaluates a method for obtaining high spatial resolution images of GEO satellites from an Earth based system by measuring the irradiance distribution on the ground resulting from the occultation of the satellite passing in front of a star. The representative size of a GEO satellite combined with the orbital distance results in the ground shadow being consistent with a Fresnel diffraction pattern when observed at visible wavelengths. A measurement of the ground shadow irradiance is used as an amplitude constraint in a Gerchberg-Saxton phase retrieval algorithm that produces a reconstruction of the satellite's 2D transmission function which is analogous to a reverse contrast image of the satellite. The advantage of shadow imaging is that a terrestrial based redundant set of linearly distributed inexpensive small telescopes, each coupled to high speed detectors, is a more effective resolved imaging system for GEO satellites than a very large telescope under ideal conditions. Modeling and simulation efforts indicate sub-meter spatial resolution can be readily achieved using collection apertures of less than 1 meter in diameter. A mathematical basis is established for the treatment of the physical phenomena involved in the shadow imaging process. This includes the source star brightness and angular extent, and the diffraction of starlight from the satellite

  5. Solid state cloaking for electrical charge carrier mobility control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Liao, Bolin; Esfarjani, Keivan; Chen, Gang

    2015-07-07

    An electrical mobility-controlled material includes a solid state host material having a controllable Fermi energy level and electrical charge carriers with a charge carrier mobility. At least one Fermi level energy at which a peak in charge carrier mobility is to occur is prespecified for the host material. A plurality of particles are distributed in the host material, with at least one particle disposed with an effective mass and a radius that minimize scattering of the electrical charge carriers for the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy of peak charge carrier mobility. The minimized scattering of electrical charge carriers produces the peak charge carrier mobility only at the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy, set by the particle effective mass and radius, the charge carrier mobility being less than the peak charge carrier mobility at Fermi level energies other than the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy.

  6. Carrier portfolio management for shipping seasonal products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, T.; Fransoo, J.C.; Lee, C.-Y.

    2017-01-01

    Many seasonal products are transported via ocean carriers from origin to destination markets. The shipments arriving earlier in the market may sell at higher prices, but faster shipping services can be costly. In this paper, we study a newsvendor-type shipper who transports and sells seasonal

  7. OCP: Opportunistic Carrier Prediction for Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Many protocols have been proposed for medium access control in wireless networks. MACA [13], MACAW [3], and FAMA [8] are the earlier proposals for...world performance of carrier sense. In Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM E-WIND Workshop, 2005. [13] P. Karn. MACA : A new channel access method for packet radio

  8. A new lubricant carrier for metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Bay, Niels; Tang, Peter Torben

    2009-01-01

    A lubricant carrier for metal forming processes is developed. Surfaces with pores of micrometer size for entrapping lubricant are generated by electrochemical deposition of an alloy, consisting of two immiscible metals, of which one metal subsequently is etched away leaving 5 mu m layers with a s...... extrusion at high reduction and excessive stroke comparing with conventionally lubrication using phosphate coating and soap....

  9. Probing ultrafast carrier dynamics, nonlinear absorption

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We investigate the relaxation dynamics of photogenerated carriers in silicon nanowires consisting of a crystalline core and a surrounding amorphous shell, using femtosecond time resolved differential reflectivity and transmission spectroscopy at 3.15 eV and 1.57 eV photon energies. The complex behaviour of the ...

  10. European regulatory framework for person carrier robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fosch Villaronga, E.; Roig, A.

    The aim of this paper is to establish the grounds for a future regulatory framework for Person Carrier Robots, which includes legal and ethical aspects. Current industrial standards focus on physical human–robot interaction, i.e. on the prevention of harm. Current robot technology nonetheless

  11. On safety of radioactive waste carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Toshikazu

    1995-01-01

    The waste generated by reprocessing the spent fuel from Japanese nuclear power stations in France and U.K. is to be returned to Japan. The first return transport was carried out from February to April when the waste management facility in Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture, was completed. Most of this return transport was the sea transport using the exclusively used carrier, Pacific Pintail, from Cherbourg, France, to Mutsu Ogawara, Japan. Ministry of Transport carried out the examination on the safety of this method of transport including the safety of the carrier based on the rule for the sea transport and storage of dangerous substances. The international rule on the sea transport of high level radioactive waste, the course of adopting the INF code and its outline, and the Japanese safety standard for the carriers exclusively used for high level radioactive waste are explained. The Pacific Pintail is the ship of 5087 GT, which was built in 1987 as the carrier exclusively used for radioactive substances, owned by Pacific Nuclear Transport Ltd. of U.K. The main features related to the safety of the Pacific Pintail are explained, and the sufficient countermeasures are taken. (K.I.)

  12. Cosmogenic radionuclide carriers in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lujaniene, G.; Lujanas, V.

    1998-01-01

    The investigation of radionuclides ( 7 Be 32,33 P and 35 S) and stable sulfur and phosphorus forms was based on the Tessier sequential extraction method. The properties of radionuclide carriers can be transformed in the atmosphere in a very short time (days, hours), in contrast to soil and the hydrosphere. Oxidation processes proceeding in the atmosphere induce changes in the aerosol carrier properties. The aerosol can be characterized by low pH and high Eh values corresponding to high 7Be solubility. The unexpectedly high negative Eh values obtained in dry summer period indicate that the 7 Be 32,33 P aerosol is bound to insoluble carriers. 137 Cs solubility does not depend on changes in pH. This can be explained by the fact that in contrast to 7 Be, 137 Cs is associated with the exchangeable fraction. Cs ions can be replaced not only by H + but also by NH 4 + and other ions. 7 Be aerosols collected at the seaside of the Baltic sea (Preila) were found to be more soluble than those in Vilnius, their solubility was up to 50-90 % and clear dependence between 7 Be solubility, pH and Eh was not observed. It can be attributed to differences in the atmospheric aerosol composition (e.g. soluble chlorides) in Vilnius and Preila. A great variety of 7 Be carriers properties as well as their dependence on the season and the existence of admixtures in the atmosphere require great caution in applying this isotope in tracer investigations. Soluble carriers are removed faster from the atmosphere by precipitation. The significance of this fact is confirmed by the ratio of 7 Be/ 32 P in the air and precipitation. Both soluble and insoluble aerosols can be formed depending on the environmental conditions

  13. Limitations of high dose carrier based formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Stewart; Traini, Daniela; Tweedie, Alan; Lewis, David; Church, Tanya; Young, Paul M

    2018-06-10

    This study was performed to investigate how increasing the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) content within a formulation affects the dispersion of particles and the aerosol performance efficiency of a carrier based dry powder inhalable (DPI) formulation, using a custom dry powder inhaler (DPI) development rig. Five formulations with varying concentrations of API beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) between 1% and 30% (w/w) were formulated as a multi-component carrier system containing coarse lactose and fine lactose with magnesium stearate. The morphology of the formulation and each component were investigated using scanning electron micrographs while the particle size was measured by laser diffraction. The aerosol performance, in terms of aerodynamic diameter, was assessed using the British pharmacopeia Apparatus E cascade impactor (Next generation impactor). Chemical analysis of the API was observed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Increasing the concentration of BDP in the blend resulted in increasing numbers and size of individual agglomerates and densely packed BDP multi-layers on the surface of the lactose carrier. BDP present within the multi-layer did not disperse as individual primary particles but as dense agglomerates, which led to a decrease in aerosol performance and increased percentage of BDP deposition within the Apparatus E induction port and pre-separator. As the BDP concentration in the blends increases, aerosol performance of the formulation decreases, in an inversely proportional manner. Concurrently, the percentage of API deposition in the induction port and pre-separator could also be linked to the amount of micronized particles (BDP and Micronized composite carrier) present in the formulation. The effect of such dose increase on the behaviour of aerosol dispersion was investigated to gain greater insight in the development and optimisation of higher dosed carrier-based formulations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  14. Choosing ESRO's first scientific satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Arturo

    1992-11-01

    The choice of the scientific payloads of the European Space Research Organization's (ESRO's) first generation of satellites is analyzed. Concentration is on those aspects of the decision process that involved more directly the scientific community and that emerged as major issues in the discussion of the Launching Program Advisory Committee (LPAC). The main theme was the growing competition between the various fields of space science within the progressive retrenching of the Organization's financial resources available for the satellite program. A general overview of the status of the program by the end of 1966 is presented. The choice of the first small satellites' payloads (ESRO 1 and 2, and HEOS-A) and the difficult definition of the TD satellite program are discussed. This part covers a time span going from early 1963 to the spring of 1966. In the second part, the narrative starts from the spring of 1967, when the decision to recommend a second HEOS-type satellite was taken, and then analyzes the complex situation determined by the crisis of the TD program in 1968, and the debates which eventually led to the abandonment of TD-2 and the start of the far less ambitious ESRO 5 project.

  15. Physical characteristics of satellite surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veverka, J.; Thomas, P.; Johnson, T.V.; Matson, D.; Housen, K.

    1986-01-01

    Both exogenic and endogenic effects have been proposed to explain the major observed characteristics of satellite surfaces. The current view is that the basic properties of most surfaces result from the intrinsic composition of a body and its geologic history. Exogenic effects have, however, played a role in modifying the appearance of nearly all surfaces. The most important exogenic effect is impact cratering, one manifestation of which is the production of micrometeoroid gardened regoliths on airless bodies. On large, silicate bodies the micrometeoroid bombardment can produce an optically mature, dark agglutinate-rich soil; the nature of regoliths on predominantly icy satellites remains uncertain. Direct accumulation of infalling material does not appear to play a major role in modifying most surfaces. Solar wind radiation effects have not altered greatly the optical properties of solar system objects; magnetospheric charged particles may have modified the optical properties of some outer planet satellites (e.g., sulfur ion bombardment in the case of some of the satellites of Jupiter). Other effects, such as aeolian and liquid/solid chemical weathering, may be important on satellites with atmospheres like Titan and Triton

  16. Chartering Launchers for Small Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daniel

    The question of how to launch small satellites has been solved over the years by the larger launchers offering small satellites the possibility of piggy-backing. Specific fixtures have been developed and commercialized: Arianespace developed the ASAP interface, the USAF studied ESPA, NASA has promoted Shuttle launch possibilities, Russian authorities and companies have been able to find solutions with many different launchers... It is fair to say that most launcher suppliers have worked hard and finally often been able to find solutions to launch most small satellites into orbit. It is also true, however, that most of these small satellites were technology demonstration missions capable of accepting a wide range of orbit and launch characteristics: orbit altitude and inclination, launch date, etc. In some cases the small satellite missions required a well-defined type of orbit and have therefore been obliged to hire a small launcher on which they were the prime passenger. In our paper we would like to propose an additional solution to all these possibilities: launchers could plan well in advance (for example about 3 years), trips to precisely defined orbits to allow potential passengers to organize themselves and be ready on the D-Day. On the scheduled date the chartered launcher goes to the stated orbit while on another date, another chartered launcher goes to another orbit. The idea is to organize departures for space like trains or airplanes leaving on known schedules for known destinations.

  17. Satellite Cell Self-Renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordani, Lorenzo; Parisi, Alice; Le Grand, Fabien

    2018-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle is endowed with regenerative potential through partially recapitulating the embryonic developmental program. Upon acute injury or in pathological conditions, quiescent muscle-resident stem cells, called satellite cells, become activated and give rise to myogenic progenitors that massively proliferate, differentiate, and fuse to form new myofibers and restore tissue functionality. In addition, a proportion of activated cells returns back to quiescence and replenish the pool of satellite cells in order to maintain the ability of skeletal muscle tissue to repair. Self-renewal is the process by which stem cells divide to make more stem cells to maintain the stem cell population throughout life. This process is controlled by cell-intrinsic transcription factors regulated by cell-extrinsic signals from the niche and the microenvironment. This chapter provides an overview about the general aspects of satellite cell biology and focuses on the cellular and molecular aspects of satellite cell self-renewal. To date, we are still far from understanding how a very small proportion of the satellite cell progeny maintain their stem cell identity when most of their siblings progress through the myogenic program to construct myofibers. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Satellite DNA: An Evolving Topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Ramos, Manuel A

    2017-09-18

    Satellite DNA represents one of the most fascinating parts of the repetitive fraction of the eukaryotic genome. Since the discovery of highly repetitive tandem DNA in the 1960s, a lot of literature has extensively covered various topics related to the structure, organization, function, and evolution of such sequences. Today, with the advent of genomic tools, the study of satellite DNA has regained a great interest. Thus, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), together with high-throughput in silico analysis of the information contained in NGS reads, has revolutionized the analysis of the repetitive fraction of the eukaryotic genomes. The whole of the historical and current approaches to the topic gives us a broad view of the function and evolution of satellite DNA and its role in chromosomal evolution. Currently, we have extensive information on the molecular, chromosomal, biological, and population factors that affect the evolutionary fate of satellite DNA, knowledge that gives rise to a series of hypotheses that get on well with each other about the origin, spreading, and evolution of satellite DNA. In this paper, I review these hypotheses from a methodological, conceptual, and historical perspective and frame them in the context of chromosomal organization and evolution.

  19. Space Solar Power: Satellite Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Frank E.

    1999-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP) applies broadly to the use of solar power for space related applications. The thrust of the NASA SSP initiative is to develop concepts and demonstrate technology for applying space solar power to NASA missions. Providing power from satellites in space via wireless transmission to a receiving station either on earth, another celestial body or a second satellite is one goal of the SSP initiative. The sandwich design is a satellite design in which the microwave transmitting array is the front face of a thin disk and the back of the disk is populated with solar cells, with the microwave electronics in between. The transmitter remains aimed at the earth in geostationary orbit while a system of mirrors directs sunlight to the photovoltaic cells, regardless of the satellite's orientation to the sun. The primary advantage of the sandwich design is it eliminates the need for a massive and complex electric power management and distribution system for the satellite. However, it requires a complex system for focusing sunlight onto the photovoltaic cells. In addition, positioning the photovoltaic array directly behind the transmitting array power conversion electronics will create a thermal management challenge. This project focused on developing designs and finding emerging technology to meet the challenges of solar tracking, a concentrating mirror system including materials and coatings, improved photovoltaic materials and thermal management.

  20. Carrier-interleaved orthogonal multi-electrode multi-carrier resistivity-measurement tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yu; Sha, Shuang

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new carrier-interleaved orthogonal multi-electrode multi-carrier resistivity-measurement tool used in a cylindrical borehole environment during oil-based mud drilling processes. The new tool is an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing access-based contactless multi-measurand detection tool. The tool can measure formation resistivity in different azimuthal angles and elevational depths. It can measure many more measurands simultaneously in a specified bandwidth than the legacy frequency division multiplexing multi-measurand tool without a channel-select filter while avoiding inter-carrier interference. The paper also shows that formation resistivity is not sensitive to frequency in certain frequency bands. The average resistivity collected from N subcarriers can increase the measurement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by N times given no amplitude clipping in the current-injection electrode. If the clipping limit is taken into account, with the phase rotation of each single carrier, the amplitude peak-to-average ratio can be reduced by 3 times, and the SNR can achieve a 9/ N times gain over the single-carrier system. The carrier-interleaving technique is also introduced to counter the carrier frequency offset (CFO) effect, where the CFO will cause inter-pad interference. A qualitative analysis and simulations demonstrate that block-interleaving performs better than tone-interleaving when coping with a large CFO. The theoretical analysis also suggests that increasing the subcarrier number can increase the measurement speed or enhance elevational resolution without sacrificing receiver performance. The complex orthogonal multi-pad multi-carrier resistivity logging tool, in which all subcarriers are complex signals, can provide a larger available subcarrier pool than other types of transceivers. (paper)

  1. Gaussian entanglement distribution via satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinidehaj, Nedasadat; Malaney, Robert

    2015-02-01

    In this work we analyze three quantum communication schemes for the generation of Gaussian entanglement between two ground stations. Communication occurs via a satellite over two independent atmospheric fading channels dominated by turbulence-induced beam wander. In our first scheme, the engineering complexity remains largely on the ground transceivers, with the satellite acting simply as a reflector. Although the channel state information of the two atmospheric channels remains unknown in this scheme, the Gaussian entanglement generation between the ground stations can still be determined. On the ground, distillation and Gaussification procedures can be applied, leading to a refined Gaussian entanglement generation rate between the ground stations. We compare the rates produced by this first scheme with two competing schemes in which quantum complexity is added to the satellite, thereby illustrating the tradeoff between space-based engineering complexity and the rate of ground-station entanglement generation.

  2. Advanced satellite servicing facility studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Garry D.; Ferebee, Melvin J., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-sponsored systems analysis designed to identify and recommend advanced subsystems and technologies specifically for a manned Sun-synchronous platform for satellite management is discussed. An overview of system design, manned and unmanned servicing facilities, and representative mission scenarios are given. Mission areas discussed include facility based satellite assembly, checkout, deployment, refueling, repair, and systems upgrade. The ferrying of materials and consumables to and from manufacturing platforms, deorbit, removal, repositioning, or salvage of satellites and debris, and crew rescue of any other manned vehicles are also examined. Impacted subsytems discussed include guidance navigation and control, propulsion, data management, power, thermal control, structures, life support, and radiation management. In addition, technology issues which would have significant impacts on the system design are discussed.

  3. Small satellites and their regulation

    CERN Document Server

    Jakhu, Ram S

    2014-01-01

    Since the launch of UoSat-1 of the University of Surrey (United Kingdom) in 1981, small satellites proved regularly to be useful, beneficial, and cost-effective tools. Typical tasks cover education and workforce development, technology demonstration, verification and validation, scientific and engineering research as well as commercial applications. Today the launch masses range over almost three orders of magnitude starting at less than a kilogram up to a few hundred kilograms, with budgets of less than US$ 100.00 and up to millions within very short timeframes of sometimes less than two years. Therefore each category of small satellites provides specific challenges in design, development and operations. Small satellites offer great potentials to gain responsive, low-cost access to space within a short timeframe for institutions, companies, regions and countries beyond the traditional big players in the space arena. For these reasons (particularly the low cost of construction, launch and operation), small (m...

  4. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  5. Leucocytes, cytokines and satellite cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Gøran; Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Raastad, Truls

    2012-01-01

    uncertain. The COX enzymes regulate satellite cell activity, as demonstrated in animal models; however the roles of the COX enzymes in human skeletal muscle need further investigation. We suggest using the term 'muscle damage' with care. Comparisons between studies and individuals must consider changes......-damaging exercise', primarily eccentric exercise. We review the evidence for the notion that the degree of muscle damage is related to the magnitude of the cytokine response. In the third and final section, we look at the satellite cell response to a single bout of eccentric exercise, as well as the role...... variation in individual responses to a given exercise should, however be expected. The link between cytokine and satellite cell responses and exercise-induced muscle damage is not so clear The systemic cytokine response may be linked more closely to the metabolic demands of exercise rather than muscle...

  6. Landsat—Earth observation satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-11-25

    Since 1972, Landsat satellites have continuously acquired space-based images of the Earth’s land surface, providing data that serve as valuable resources for land use/land change research. The data are useful to a number of applications including forestry, agriculture, geology, regional planning, and education. Landsat is a joint effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NASA develops remote sensing instruments and the spacecraft, then launches and validates the performance of the instruments and satellites. The USGS then assumes ownership and operation of the satellites, in addition to managing all ground reception, data archiving, product generation, and data distribution. The result of this program is an unprecedented continuing record of natural and human-induced changes on the global landscape.

  7. Resonant satellite transitions in argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, J.A.R.; Lee Eunmee; Chung, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The production of specific Ar + satellite states has been studied with synchrotron radiation at wavelengths between 300 and 350 A with an effective energy resolution of 20 meV. The specific states studied were the ( 3 P)4p( 2 P 3/2 ), ( 1 D)4p( 2 F 7/2 ), and ( 1 D)4p( 2 P 1/2 ) states. The fluorescent radiation emitted from these excited ionic states was measured at 4766, 4611, and 4133 A by the use of narrow band interference filters. The variation of the fluorescence intensity was measured as a function of wavelength. This provided a measure of the relative cross section for production of the satellite states. Each satellite state was found to be completely dominated by autoionization of the neutral doubly excited states (3s 2 3p 4 )nl, n'l' found in this spectral region. (orig.)

  8. Social Marketing Analysis of Attitude Toward Compulsory Earthquake Insurance in Turkey(Türkiye’de Zorunlu Deprem Sigortasına Yönelik Tutumun Sosyal Pazarlama Kapsamında Analizi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülnil AYDIN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the reasons behind the low-level purchases of compulsory earthquake insurance policies in Turkey. Based on online surveys with 667 people the findings of the study point out that there is a major communications gap to be filled in by the authorities and the insurance companies. The findings of the study also show that in addition to the demographic variables the personality characteristics of people also influence the attitude towards and the purchasing of compulsory earthquake insurance policies

  9. Orbit and clock determination of BDS regional navigation satellite system based on IGS M-GEX and WHU BETS tracking network

    Science.gov (United States)

    GENG, T.; Zhao, Q.; Shi, C.; Shum, C.; Guo, J.; Su, X.

    2013-12-01

    BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) began to provide the regional open service on December 27th 2012 and will provide the global open service by the end of 2020. Compared to GPS, the space segment of BDS Regional System consists of 5 Geostationary Earth Orbit satellites (GEO), 5 Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit satellites (IGSO) and 4 Medium Earth orbit (MEO) satellites. Since 2011, IGS Multiple-GNSS Experiment (M-GEX) focuses on tracking the newly available GNSS signals. This includes all signals from the modernized satellites of the GPS and GLONASS systems, as well as signals of the BDS, Galileo and QZSS systems. Up to now, BDS satellites are tracked by around 25 stations with a variety of different antennas and receivers from different GNSS manufacture communities in M-GEX network. Meanwhile, there are 17 stations with Unicore Communications Incorporation's GPS/BDS receivers in BeiDou Experimental Tracking Stations (BETS) network by Wuhan University. In addition, 5 BDS satellites have been tracking by the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS). BDS performance is expected to be further studied by the GNSS communities. Following an introduction of the BDS system and above different tracking network, this paper discusses the achieved BDS characterization and performance assessment. Firstly, the BDS signal and measurement quality are analyzed with different antennas and receivers in detail compared to GPS. This includes depth of coverage for satellite observation, carrier-to-noise-density ratios, code noise and multipath, carrier phase errors. Secondly, BDS Precise Orbit Determination (POD) is processed. Different arc lengths and sets of orbit parameters are tested using Position And Navigation Data Analysis software (PANDA) which is developed at the Wuhan University. GEO, IGSO and MEO satellites orbit quality will be assessed using overlap comparison, 2-day orbit fit and external validations with Satellite Laser Range (SLR). Then BDS satellites are equipped

  10. Satellite communications: possibilities and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hine, M.

    1986-01-01

    Communication links via satellites are becoming available in Europe, both as part of the development of the telephone system and as special services aimed at data traffic. They offer the possibility of speeds between 50 kb/s and 2 Mb/s, without the problems and long term commitments of long distance land lines. Such links are provided by the PTT's as circuits which can be booked for variable periods, and have error rates which can be very low and well controlled. Problems in networking can arise from the satellite delay, particularly if errors occur in the local connections, and from the leased circuit and tariff philosophies of the PTT's. (Auth.)

  11. Satellite constellation design and radio resource management using genetic algorithm.

    OpenAIRE

    Asvial, Muhamad.

    2003-01-01

    A novel strategy for automatic satellite constellation design with satellite diversity is proposed. The automatic satellite constellation design means some parameters of satellite constellation design can be determined simultaneously. The total number of satellites, the altitude of satellite, the angle between planes, the angle shift between satellites and the inclination angle are considered for automatic satellite constellation design. Satellite constellation design is modelled using a mult...

  12. Recovery of carrier-free gold-195

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iofa, B.Z.; Ivanova, N.A.

    1995-01-01

    It is known that gold(III) is readily extracted from nitric acid solutions with ethers. The authors have studied extraction of trace amounts of gold(III) from nitric acid solutions with diethyl and diisopropyl ethers in the presence of significant excess of Pt(IV). Distribution coefficients of gold(III) were measured radiometrically using carrier-free gold-195 or spectrophotometrically in the presence of platinum(IV). Very high coefficients of gold separation from platinum may be achieved. Preliminary experiments have shown that zinc-65 was not extracted with ethers from nitric acid solutions. As an extraction system, the authors have chosen the system 10 M HNO 3 -diisopropyl ether. After model experiments, the authors have performed recovery of carrier-free gold-195 from a real platinum target irradiated with protons in a cyclotron

  13. Solid lipid nanoparticles: A drug carrier system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi R Kokardekar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN are a type of nanoparticles. They are submicron colloidal carriers which are composed of physiological lipids, dispersed in water or in aqueous surfactant solutions. SLN have wide range of advantages over other types of nanoparticles. These include availability of large-scale production methods and no signs of cytotoxicity, which are main hindrances in the application of other types of nanoparticles. Hot and cold homogenization techniques are mainly employed for its production. They are mainly evaluated on the basis of their drug release profile and particle internal structure. The products based on SLN are under development. They have a very wide range of applications in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. They can be applied for any purpose, for which nanoparticles have a distinct advantage. Thus, SLN can be used extensively as an alternative to the existing drug carrier systems, providing more flexibility with respect to the area of applications and also aspects for commercialization.

  14. Energy carriers in Norway; Energibaerere i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-01-15

    Within the Norwegian energy consumption, electricity is by far the most dominant energy carrier. In the last thirty years electricity has had an increased significance, while oil has been reduce. A trend that is likely to continue. Energy politics has among others these objectives: environment, reliability of supply and effective energy supply. These objectives are somewhat contradictory. In agreement with the environmental politic phasing out oil leads to a reduction in greenhouse gases. However this politic will have a local impact only effecting Norway, in a larger European connection it might lead to a larger net emission of CO{sub 2}. A political intervention in the energy market might also lead to a reduction in the energy markets effectiveness and flexibility. This report addresses this problem: If a total phase out of the stationary oil consumption is conducted, what energy carriers will this consumption convert to?

  15. Terahertz transport dynamics of graphene charge carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due

    The electronic transport dynamics of graphene charge carriers at femtosecond (10-15 s) to picosecond (10-12 s) time scales are investigated using terahertz (1012 Hz) time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The technique uses sub-picosecond pulses of electromagnetic radiation to gauge the electrodynamic...... response of thin conducting films at up to multi-terahertz frequencies. In this thesis THz-TDS is applied towards two main goals; (1) investigation of the fundamental carrier transport dynamics in graphene at femtosecond to picosecond timescales and (2) application of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy...... to rapid and non-contact electrical characterization of large-area graphene, relevant for industrial integration. We show that THz-TDS is an accurate and reliable probe of graphene sheet conductance, and that the technique provides insight into fundamental aspects of the nanoscopic nature of conduction...

  16. Competitive position of energy carriers in trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suding, P.H.; Forsbach, H.H.

    Industrial consumers and public institutions, which are classed with the group of minor consumers, differ in their behaviour in energy consumption greatly from the structure of the whole group. Also the willingness to convert from fuel oil to natural gas in these trade groups is relatively high. Within the framework of 5 model enterprises, the profitability of energy carriers and economizing technology in trade is analysed. The model enterprises are a bakery, a meat purveyor, a restaurant, a laundry and a hospital. The basic data are compared with the data from 1985. The comparison shows that the competitive positions of energy carriers in business and public in the process heat sector here not changed dramatically. The competitiveness of natural gas has improved since 1985 through the changes in price. However, in the sectors in which it belongs to the group of economical alternatives (e.g. in the bakeries), electricity has not lost much ground. (BR)

  17. Some remarks on the carrier distillation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avni, R.; Chaput, M.

    1961-01-01

    The method described by SCRIBNER and MULLIN makes possible the spectrographic analysis of the refractory oxides of uranium and plutonium. It uses a distillation of the elements which is more or less selective. The influence of the carrier is the subject of as many hypotheses as there are parameters involved in the process. The measurements of the arc temperature carried out on the leading edges of the vibration bands and of certain copper lines have made it possible to show the influence of the nature of the carrier and to establish a relationship between the values of the excitation potentials of the atoms and the temperatures produced. Further, this result makes it possible to explain certain contradictions between the principle of a fractional distillation in the arc which is incompatible with the refractory properties of certain elements and their spectrographic sensitivity. (author) [fr

  18. Experimental distribution of entanglement with separable carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Zuppardo, Margherita; Gillett, Geoff; Broome, Matthew; de Almeida, Marcelo; Paternostro, Mauro; White, Andrew; Paterek, Tomasz

    2014-03-01

    Quantum networks will allow us to overcome distance limitations in quantum communication, and to share quantum computing tasks between remote quantum processors. The key requirement for quantum networking is the distribution of entanglement between nodes. Surprisingly, entanglement can be generated across a network without directly being communicated between nodes. In contrast to information gain, which cannot exceed the communicated information, the entanglement gain is bounded by the communicated quantum discord, a more general measure of quantum correlation that includes but is not limited to entanglement. Here we report an experiment in which two communicating parties who share three initially separable photonic qubits are entangled by exchange of a carrier photon that is not entangled with either party at all times. We show that distributing entanglement with separable carriers is resilient to noise and in some cases becomes the only way of distributing entanglement over noisy environments.

  19. Formic Acid as a Hydrogen Energy Carrier

    KAUST Repository

    Eppinger, Jö rg; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The high volumetric capacity (S3 g H-2/L) and its low toxicity and flammability under ambient conditions make formic acid a promising hydrogen energy carrier. Particularly, in the past decade, significant advancements have been achieved in catalyst development for selective hydrogen generation from formic acid. This Perspective highlights the advantages of this approach with discussions focused on potential applications in the transportation sector together with analysis of technical requirements, limitations, and costs.

  20. Formic Acid as a Hydrogen Energy Carrier

    KAUST Repository

    Eppinger, Jorg

    2016-12-15

    The high volumetric capacity (S3 g H-2/L) and its low toxicity and flammability under ambient conditions make formic acid a promising hydrogen energy carrier. Particularly, in the past decade, significant advancements have been achieved in catalyst development for selective hydrogen generation from formic acid. This Perspective highlights the advantages of this approach with discussions focused on potential applications in the transportation sector together with analysis of technical requirements, limitations, and costs.

  1. PLUTONIUM PURIFICATION PROCESS EMPLOYING THORIUM PYROPHOSPHATE CARRIER

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, E.L.

    1959-04-28

    The separation and purification of plutonium from the radioactive elements of lower atomic weight is described. The process of this invention comprises forming a 0.5 to 2 M aqueous acidffc solution containing plutonium fons in the tetravalent state and elements with which it is normally contaminated in neutron irradiated uranium, treating the solution with a double thorium compound and a soluble pyrophosphate compound (Na/sub 4/P/sub 2/O/sub 7/) whereby a carrier precipitate of thorium A method is presented of reducing neptunium and - trite is advantageous since it destroys any hydrazine f so that they can be removed from solutions in which they are contained is described. In the carrier precipitation process for the separation of plutonium from uranium and fission products including zirconium and columbium, the precipitated blsmuth phosphate carries some zirconium, columbium, and uranium impurities. According to the invention such impurities can be complexed and removed by dissolving the contaminated carrier precipitate in 10M nitric acid, followed by addition of fluosilicic acid to about 1M, diluting the solution to about 1M in nitric acid, and then adding phosphoric acid to re-precipitate bismuth phosphate carrying plutonium.

  2. Organized polysaccharide fibers as stable drug carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaswamy, Srinivas; Gill, Kristin L.; Campanella, Osvaldo H.; Pinal, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    Many challenges arise during the development of new drug carrier systems, and paramount among them are safety, solubility and controlled release requirements. Although synthetic polymers are effective, the possibility of side effects imposes restrictions on their acceptable use and dose limits. Thus, a new drug carrier system that is safe to handle and free from side effects is very much in need and food grade polysaccharides stand tall as worthy alternatives. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of sodium iota-carrageenan fibers and their distinctive water pockets to embed and release a wide variety of drug molecules. Structural analysis has revealed the existence of crystalline network in the fibers even after encapsulating the drug molecules, and iota-carrageenan maintains its characteristic and reproducible double helical structure suggesting that the composites thus produced are reminiscent of cocrystals. The melting properties of iota-carrageenan:drug complexes are distinctly different from those of either drug or iota-carrageenan fiber. The encapsulated drugs are released in a sustained manner from the fiber matrix. Overall, our research provides an elegant opportunity for developing effective drug carriers with stable network toward enhancing and/or controlling bioavailability and extending shelf-life of drug molecules using GRAS excipients, food polysaccharides, that are inexpensive and non–toxic. PMID:23544530

  3. Acoustic manipulation: Bessel beams and active carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Majid; Mojahed, Alireza

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we address the interaction of zero-order acoustic Bessel beams as an acoustic manipulation tool, with an active spherical shell, as a carrier in drug, agent, or material delivery systems, in order to investigate the controllability of exerted acoustic radiation force as the driver. The active body is comprised of a spherical elastic shell stimulated in its monopole mode of vibrations with the same frequency as the incident wave field via an internally bonded and spatially uniformly excited piezoelectric actuator. The main aim of this work is to examine the performance of a nondiffracting and self-reconstructing zero-order Bessel beam to obtain the full manipulability condition of active carriers in comparison with the case of a plane wave field. The results unveil some unique potentials of the Bessel beams in the company of active carriers, with emphasis on the consumed power of the actuation system. This paper will widen the path toward the single-beam robust acoustic manipulation techniques and may lead to the prospect of combined tweezers and fields, with applications in delivery systems, microswimmers, and trapper designs.

  4. Junction depth measurement using carrier illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borden, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Carrier Illumination [trade mark] (CI) is a new method recently developed to meet the need for a non-destructive, high throughput junction depth measurement on patterned wafers. A laser beam creates a quasi-static excess carrier profile in the semiconductor underlying the activated junction. The excess carrier profile is fairly constant below the junction, and drops rapidly in the junction, creating a steep index of refraction gradient at the junction edge. Interference with light reflected from this index gradient provides a signal that is analyzed to determine the junction depth. The paper summarizes evaluation of performance in full NMOS and PMOS process flows, on both bare and patterned wafers. The aims have been to validate (1) performance in the presence of underlying layers typically found at the source/drain (S/D) process steps and (2) measurement on patterned wafers. Correlation of CI measurements to SIMS and transistor drive current are shown. The data were obtained from NMOS structures using As S/D and LDD implants. Correlations to SRP, SIMS and sheet resistance are shown for PMOS structures using B 11 LDD implants. Gage capability measurements are also presented

  5. 14 CFR 158.69 - Recordkeeping and auditing: Collecting carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recordkeeping and auditing: Collecting carriers. 158.69 Section 158.69 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....69 Recordkeeping and auditing: Collecting carriers. (a) Collecting carriers shall establish and...

  6. 49 CFR 1150.22 - Exemptions and common carrier status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the line itself, it will be considered a common carrier. However, when a State acquires a rail line... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemptions and common carrier status. 1150.22... common carrier status. The acquisition by a State of a fully abandoned line is not subject to the...

  7. Terahertz carrier dynamics in graphene and graphene nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren A.; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Tielrooij, Klaas Jan

    2014-01-01

    Photoexcited charge carriers in 2D graphene and in 1D graphene nanostructures were studied with optical pump-THz probe spectroscopy. We find efficient hot-carrier multiplication in 2D graphene, and predominantly free carrier early time response in 1D nanostructures. © 2014 OSA....

  8. 14 CFR 271.3 - Carrier subsidy need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS GUIDELINES FOR SUBSIDIZING AIR CARRIERS PROVIDING ESSENTIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION § 271.3 Carrier subsidy need. In establishing the subsidy for an air carrier providing essential air service at an...

  9. 49 CFR 373.101 - Motor carrier bills of lading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor carrier bills of lading. 373.101 Section 373.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS RECEIPTS AND...

  10. 49 CFR 397.67 - Motor carrier responsibility for routing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor carrier responsibility for routing. 397.67 Section 397.67 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS...

  11. Satellite monitoring of black bear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craighead, J. J.; Craighead, F. C., Jr.; Varney, J. R.; Cote, C. E.

    1971-01-01

    Description of a feasibility experiment recently performed to test the use of a satellite system for telemetering environmental and physiological data from the winter den of a 'hibernating' black bear, Ursus americanus. The instrumentation procedure and evaluations of the equipment performance and sensory data obtained are discussed in detail.

  12. Atmospheric correction of satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmirko, Konstantin; Bobrikov, Alexey; Pavlov, Andrey

    2015-11-01

    Atmosphere responses for more than 90% of all radiation measured by satellite. Due to this, atmospheric correction plays an important role in separating water leaving radiance from the signal, evaluating concentration of various water pigments (chlorophyll-A, DOM, CDOM, etc). The elimination of atmospheric intrinsic radiance from remote sensing signal referred to as atmospheric correction.

  13. Audio Satellites: Overhearing Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Jonas Rasmussen; Breinbjerg, M.; Højlund, M. K.

    2017-01-01

    around or displaced arbitrarily in a given landscape. In the web browser, the different sound streams from the individual satellites can be mixed together to form a cooperative soundscape. The project thus allows people to tune into and explore the overheard soundscape of everyday life in a collaborative...

  14. Electrophotometric observations of artificial satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vovchyk, Yeva; Blagodyr, Yaroslav; Kraynyuk, Gennadiy; Bilinsky, Andriy; Lohvynenko, Alexander; Klym, Bogdan; Pochapsky, Yevhen

    2004-01-01

    Problems associated with polarimetric observations of low Earth orbit artificial satellites as important solar system objects are discussed. The instrumentation (the optical and mechanical parts, the control and drive electronics, and the application software) for performing such observations is also described

  15. The Mobile Satellite Services Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Samuel

    Mobile satellite (MSAT) technology is the basis for a new component of the telecommunications industry capable of providing services to small inexpensive subscriber terminals located almost any place in the world. The market for MSAT space segment capacity (bandwidth and power) is a natural monopoly that can be logically and technically…

  16. Launching the First Indian Satellite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    long run, this is not bad since it generates self-confidence and self-reliance - which in the final analysis are .... hopes to find some new X-ray sources. The second ... from the state of health of the satellite can be judged. A tracking network gives ...

  17. GOES-R: Satellite Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Austin J.; Leon, Nancy J.; Novati, Alexander; Lincoln, Laura K.; Fisher, Diane K.

    2012-01-01

    GOES-R: Satellite Insight seeks to bring awareness of the GOES-R (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite -- R Series) satellite currently in development to an audience of all ages on the emerging medium of mobile games. The iPhone app (Satellite Insight) was created for the GOES-R Program. The app describes in simple terms the types of data products that can be produced from GOES-R measurements. The game is easy to learn, yet challenging for all audiences. It includes educational content and a path to further information about GOESR, its technology, and the benefits of the data it collects. The game features action-puzzle game play in which the player must prevent an overflow of data by matching falling blocks that represent different types of GOES-R data. The game adds more different types of data blocks over time, as long as the player can prevent a data overflow condition. Points are awarded for matches, and players can compete with themselves to beat their highest score.

  18. University Satellite Campus Management Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Doug; Stott, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Among the 60 or so university satellite campuses in Australia are many that are probably failing to meet the high expectations of their universities and the communities they were designed to serve. While in some cases this may be due to the demand driven system, it may also be attributable in part to the ways in which they are managed. The…

  19. Water Quality Monitoring by Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The availability of abundant water resources in the Upper Midwest of the United States is nullified by their contamination through heavy commercial and industrial activities. Scientists have taken the responsibility of detecting the water quality of these resources through remote-sensing satellites to develop a wide-ranging water purification plan…

  20. Literature review of the passenger airline business models : Full service carrier, low-cost carrier and charter airlines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2008-01-01

    The deregulation and liberalization of the air transportation industry have developed three main passenger business models: full service carriers, low-cost carriers, and charter airlines. Deregulation removed regulated fares and routes increasing competition and yields. Airlines business models main

  1. Satellite-Based Precipitation Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munchak, S. J.; Huffman, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    Of the possible sources of precipitation data, those based on satellites provide the greatest spatial coverage. There is a wide selection of datasets, algorithms, and versions from which to choose, which can be confusing to non-specialists wishing to use the data. The International Precipitation Working Group (IPWG) maintains tables of the major publicly available, long-term, quasi-global precipitation data sets (http://www.isac.cnr.it/ ipwg/data/datasets.html), and this talk briefly reviews the various categories. As examples, NASA provides two sets of quasi-global precipitation data sets: the older Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) and current Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission (IMERG). Both provide near-real-time and post-real-time products that are uniformly gridded in space and time. The TMPA products are 3-hourly 0.25°x0.25° on the latitude band 50°N-S for about 16 years, while the IMERG products are half-hourly 0.1°x0.1° on 60°N-S for over 3 years (with plans to go to 16+ years in Spring 2018). In addition to the precipitation estimates, each data set provides fields of other variables, such as the satellite sensor providing estimates and estimated random error. The discussion concludes with advice about determining suitability for use, the necessity of being clear about product names and versions, and the need for continued support for satellite- and surface-based observation.

  2. Joint Iterative Carrier Synchronization and Signal Detection for Dual Carrier 448 Gb/s PDM 16-QAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Carvalho, Luis; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Soft decision driven joint carrier synchronization and signal detection, employing expectation maximization, is experimentally demonstrated. Employing soft decisions offers an improvement of 0.5 dB compared to hard decision digital PLL based carrier synchronization and demodulation.......Soft decision driven joint carrier synchronization and signal detection, employing expectation maximization, is experimentally demonstrated. Employing soft decisions offers an improvement of 0.5 dB compared to hard decision digital PLL based carrier synchronization and demodulation....

  3. Satellite Tags- Guam/CNMI EEZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Satellite tagging was implemented in 2013. Satellite tagging is conducted using a Dan Inject air rifle and deployment arrows designed by Wildlife Computers. Two...

  4. New Equipment Training Center-Satellite Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Satellite Facility is a 24-hour on-site military satellite transmission and downlink capability to Southwest Asia and all other military OCONUS and CONUS...

  5. Some European capabilities in satellite cinema exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Wolfgang

    1990-08-01

    The likely performance envelope and architecture for satellite cinema systems are derived from simple practical assumptions. A case is made for possible transatlantic cooperation towards establishing a satellite cinema standard.

  6. Multiple Usage of Existing Satellite Sensors (PREPRINT)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keeney, James T

    2006-01-01

    .... Space offers a near-perfect vacuum to operate a passive or active sensor. Volume, mass and power on satellites is limited and risk management approaches tended to remove such sensors from satellite systems...

  7. Multiple Usage of Existing Satellite Sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keeney, James T

    2006-01-01

    .... Space offers a near-perfect vacuum to operate a passive or active sensor. Volume, mass and power on satellites is limited and risk management approaches tended to remove such sensors from satellite systems...

  8. Biophysical applications of satellite remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Hanes, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Including an introduction and historical overview of the field, this comprehensive synthesis of the major biophysical applications of satellite remote sensing includes in-depth discussion of satellite-sourced biophysical metrics such as leaf area index.

  9. Clock Management Data Analysis for Satellite Communications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gross, Rachel; Melkers, Raimond

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory has installed GPS-based timing systems in several Defense Satellite Communication System "DSCS-III" satellite communication facilities to support the Single Channel Transponder "SCT" program...

  10. Core Flight System Satellite Starter Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Core Flight System Satellite Starter Kit (cFS Kit) will allow a small satellite or CubeSat developer to rapidly develop, deploy, test, and operate flight...

  11. RFP for the italien satellite AGILE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch; Jørgensen, John Leif; Riis, Troels

    1999-01-01

    The document descibes the ASC Star Tracker (performance, functionality, requirements etc.) to the Italian satellite AGILE.......The document descibes the ASC Star Tracker (performance, functionality, requirements etc.) to the Italian satellite AGILE....

  12. Highly Enhanced Risk Management Emergency Satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalmeir, Michael; Gataullin, Yunir; Indrajit, Agung

    HERMES (Highly Enhanced Risk Management Emergency Satellite) is potential European satellite mission for global flood management, being implemented by Technical University Munich and European Space Agency. With its main instrument - a reliable and precise Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) antenna...

  13. 37 CFR 258.1 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEE FOR SECONDARY TRANSMISSIONS BY SATELLITE CARRIERS § 258.1 General. This part 258 adjusts the rates of royalties payable under the compulsory license for...

  14. Radon generator and the method of radium carrier fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerski, B.

    1992-01-01

    The radon generator construction and the method of radium carrier fabrication has been the subject of the patent. The generator is a cylindrical vessel with gas valves system and two filters inside. Between them the radium carrier has been located. As a carrier polyurethane foam has been used. The carrier is obtained in a generator vessel from polyester resin in the presence of activated mixture of engine oil, zinc-organic catalyst and toluene. To the obtained mixture the radium chloride in the solution of hydrochloric acid is added. The carrier foam is produced by mechanical stirring of substrates inside the vessel and drying in 50 C in a heater. 1 fig

  15. Knowledge about the Greenhouse Effect and the Effects of the Ozone Layer among Norwegian Pupils Finishing Compulsory Education in 1989, 1993, and 2005—What Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkeby Hansen, Pål J.

    2010-02-01

    The greenhouse effect and the effects of the ozone layer have been in the media and public focus for more than two decades. During the same period, Norwegian compulsory schools have had four national curricula. The two last-mentioned prescribe explicitly the two topics. Media and public discourse might have been sources of information causing informal learning among pupils. The point of departure for this questionnaire-based examination of the development of pupils' knowledge about the greenhouse effect and the effects of the ozone layer from 1989 to 2005 is the changing curricula and formal and informal learning. In 2005 the trends seem to be that more pupils confuse the greenhouse effect with the effects of the ozone layer. At the same time, specific knowledge about the greenhouse effect is improving. This article will discuss some possible causes for these trends, and give some recommendations for teaching the topics in accordance with the last national curriculum implemented in 2006.

  16. Some Sociological Alternatives to Human Capital Theory and Their Implications for Research on Post-Compulsory Education and Training. Patterns of Participation in Adult Education and Training. Working Paper 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fevre, Ralph

    This working paper is a product of a regional study in industrial South Wales of the determinants of participation and non-participation in post-compulsory education and training, with special reference to processes of change in the patterns of these determinants over time and to variations between geographical areas. Based on this data, three…

  17. The five-year costs and benefits of extended psychological and psychiatric assessment versus standard intake interview for women with comorbid substance use disorders treated in compulsory care in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Tina M; Fridell, Mats

    2018-01-30

    Women with comorbid substance use disorders are an extremely vulnerable group having an increased relative risk of negative outcomes such as incarceration, morbidity and mortality. In Sweden, women with comorbid substance use disorders may be placed in compulsory care for substance abuse treatment. Clinical intake assessment procedures are a distinct aspect of clinical practice and are a foundation upon which client motivation and continued treatment occurs. The current study is a naturalistic quasi-experiment and aims to assess the five-year costs and benefits of a standard intake interview versus an extended psychological and psychiatric assessment for a group of chronic substance abusing women placed in compulsory care in Sweden between 1997 and 2000. Official register data on criminal activity, healthcare use, compulsory care stays and other services was retrieved and all resources used by study participants from date of index care episode was valued. In addition, the cost of providing the intake assessment was estimated. Results show that the extended assessment resulted in higher net costs over five years of between 256,000 and 557,000 SEK per person for women placed in care via the Law on Compulsory Care for Substance Abusers (LVM). Higher assessment costs made up a portion of this cost. The majority of this cost (47-57%) falls on the local municipality (social welfare) and 11.6-13.7% falls on the individual patient. Solid evidence supporting the clinical utility or incremental validity of assessment for improving treatment outcomes in this setting was not confirmed.

  18. A Survey of Psychological, Motivational, Family and Perceptions of Physics Education Factors that Explain 15-Year-Old Students' Aspirations to Study Physics in Post-Compulsory English Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujtaba, Tamjid; Reiss, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the factors that influence 15-year-old students' intentions to study physics post-16, when it is no longer compulsory. The analysis is based on the year 10 (age, 15 years) responses of 5,034 students from 137 England schools as learners of physics during the academic year 2008-2009. Factor analyses uncovered a range of…

  19. Is the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act Really Beneficial to the Poorer Children in India? An Analysis with Special Reference to the Admission of Poorer Children in Public Unaided Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheruvalath, Reena

    2015-01-01

    It is proposed to examine whether the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act can achieve its major objective of ensuring education for all children in India. Indian parents like to enter their wards into private schools because they believe that the standard of education in the public schools is poor. The act strengthens this…

  20. Sustained Satellite Missions for Climate Data Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, David

    2012-01-01

    Satellite CDRs possess the accuracy, longevity, and stability for sustained moni toring of critical variables to enhance understanding of the global integrated Earth system and predict future conditions. center dot Satellite CDRs are a critical element of a global climate observing system. center dot Satellite CDRs are a difficult challenge and require high - level managerial commitment, extensive intellectual capital, and adequate funding.