WorldWideScience

Sample records for satellite application facility

  1. SCARF - The Swarm Satellite Constellation Application and Research Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils

    2014-01-01

    Swarm, a three-satellite constellation to study the dynamics of the Earth's magnetic field and its interactions with the Earth system, has been launched in November 2013. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution, which...... will bring new insights into the Earth system by improving our understanding of the Earth's interior and environment. In order to take advantage of the unique constellation aspect of Swarm, considerably advanced data analysis tools have been developed. Scientific users will also benefit significantly from...... derived products, the so-called Level-2 products, that take into account the features of the constellation. The Swarm SCARF (Satellite Constellation Application and Research Facility), a consortium of several research institutions, has been established with the goal of deriving Level-2 products...

  2. GPS Satellite Simulation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The GPS satellite simulation facility consists of a GPS satellite simulator controlled by either a Silicon Graphics Origin 2000 or PC depending upon unit under test...

  3. Operational climate monitoring from space: the EUMETSAT satellite application facility on climate monitoring (CM-SAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schulz

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM-SAF aims at the provision of satellite-derived geophysical parameter data sets suitable for climate monitoring. CM-SAF provides climatologies for Essential Climate Variables (ECV, as required by the Global Climate Observing System implementation plan in support of the UNFCCC. Several cloud parameters, surface albedo, radiation fluxes at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as atmospheric temperature and humidity products form a sound basis for climate monitoring of the atmosphere. The products are categorized in monitoring data sets obtained in near real time and data sets based on carefully intercalibrated radiances. The CM-SAF products are derived from several instruments on-board operational satellites in geostationary and polar orbit, i.e., the Meteosat and NOAA satellites, respectively. The existing data sets will be continued using data from the instruments on-board the new EUMETSAT Meteorological Operational satellite (MetOP. The products have mostly been validated against several ground-based data sets both in situ and remotely sensed. The accomplished accuracy for products derived in near real time is sufficient to monitor variability on diurnal and seasonal scales. Products based on intercalibrated radiance data can also be used for climate variability analysis up to inter-annual scale. A central goal of the recently started Continuous Development and Operations Phase of the CM-SAF (2007–2012 is to further improve all CM-SAF data sets to a quality level that allows for studies of inter-annual variability.

  4. Global Daily Sea Ice Concentration Reprocessing Data Set for 1978-2007 from the EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (NCEI Accession 0068294)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data constitute the reprocessed sea ice concentration data set from the EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI SAF), covering the...

  5. Foodstuff Survey Around a Major Nuclear Facility with Test of Satellite Image Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fledderman, P.D.

    1999-07-16

    'A foodstuff survey was performed around the Savannah River Site, Aiken SC. It included a census of buildings and fields within 5 km of the boundary and determination of the locations and amounts of crops grown within 80 km of SRS center. Recent information for this region was collected on the amounts of meat, poultry, milk, and eggs produced, of deer hunted, and of sports fish caught. The locations and areas devoted to growing each crop were determined in two ways: by the usual process of assuming uniform crop distribution in each county on the basis of agricultural statistics reported by state agencies, and by analysis of two LANDSAT TM images obtained in May and September. For use with environmental radionuclide transfer and radiation dose calculation codes, locations within 80 km were defined for 64 sections by 16 sectors centered on the Site and by 16-km distance intervals from 16 km to 80 km. Most locally-raised foodstuff was distributed regionally and not retained locally for consumption. For four food crops, the amounts per section based on county agricultural statistics prorated by area were compared with the amounts per section based on satellite image analysis. The median ratios of the former to the latter were 0.6 - 0.7, suggesting that the two approaches are comparable but that satellite image analysis gave consistently higher amounts. Use of satellite image analysis is recommended on the basis of these findings to obtain site-specific, as compared to area-averaged, information on crop locations in conjunction with radionuclide pathway modelling. Some improvements in technique are suggested for satellite image application to characterize additional crops.'

  6. Operational Estimation of Accumulated Precipitation using Satellite Observation, by Eumetsat Satellite Application facility in Support to Hydrology (H-SAF Consortium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Diodato, A.; de Leonibus, L.; Zauli, F.; Biron, D.; Melfi, D.

    2009-04-01

    Operational Estimation of Accumulated Precipitation using Satellite Observation, by Eumetsat Satellite Application facility in Support to Hydrology (H-SAF Consortium). Cap. Attilio DI DIODATO(*), T.Col. Luigi DE LEONIBUS(*), T.Col Francesco ZAULI(*), Cap. Daniele BIRON(*), Ten. Davide Melfi(*) Satellite Application Facilities (SAFs) are specialised development and processing centres of the EUMETSAT Distributed Ground Segment. SAFs process level 1b data from meteorological satellites (geostationary and polar ones) in conjunction with all other relevant sources of data and appropriate models to generate services and level 2 products. Each SAF is a consortium of EUMETSAT European partners lead by a host institute responsible for the management of the complete SAF project. The Meteorological Service of Italian Air Force is the host Institute for the Satellite Application Facility on Support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management (H-SAF). HSAF has the commitment to develop and to provide, operationally after 2010, products regarding precipitation, soil moisture and snow. HSAF is going to provide information on error structure of its products and validation of the products via their impacts into Hydrological models. To that purpose it has been structured a specific subgroups. Accumulated precipitation is computed by temporal integration of the instantaneous rain rate achieved by the blended LEO/MW and GEO/IR precipitation rate products generated by Rapid Update method available every 15 minutes. The algorithm provides four outputs, consisting in accumulated precipitation in 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours, delivered every 3 hours at the synoptic hours. These outputs are our precipitation background fields. Satellite estimates can cover most of the globe, however, they suffer from errors due to lack of a direct relationship between observation parameters and precipitation, the poor sampling and algorithm imperfections. For this reason the 3 hours accumulated precipitation is

  7. New Equipment Training Center-Satellite Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Satellite Facility is a 24-hour on-site military satellite transmission and downlink capability to Southwest Asia and all other military OCONUS and CONUS...

  8. The Swarm Satellite Constellation Application and Research Facility (SCARF) and Swarm data products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Friis-Christensen, Eigil; Floberghagen, R.

    2013-01-01

    Swarm, a three-satellite constellation to study the dynamics of the Earth's magnetic field and its interactions with the Earth system, is expected to be launched in late 2013. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution......, in order to gain new insights into the Earth system by improving our understanding of the Earth's interior and environment. In order to derive advanced models of the geomagnetic field (and other higher-level data products) it is necessary to take explicit advantage of the constellation aspect of Swarm...

  9. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The first edition of this ground breaking reference work was the most comprehensive reference source available about the key aspects of the satellite applications field. This updated second edition covers the technology, the markets, applications and regulations related to satellite telecommunications, broadcasting and networking—including civilian and military systems; precise satellite navigation and timing networks (i.e. GPS and others); remote sensing and meteorological satellite systems. Created under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, this brand new edition is now expanded to cover new innovative small satellite constellations, new commercial launching systems, innovation in military application satellites and their acquisition, updated appendices, a useful glossary and more.

  10. The precipitation products generation chain for the EUMETSAT Hydrological Satellite Application Facility at C.N.M.C.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biron, Daniele; Melfi, Davide; Zauli, Francesco

    2008-08-01

    The EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility in support to Hydrology (H-SAF) focuses on development of new geophysical products on precipitation, soil moisture and snow parameters and the utilisation of these parameters in hydrological models, NWP models and water management. The development phase of the H-SAF started in September 2005 under the leadership of Italian Meteorological Service. The "Centro Nazionale di Meteorologia e Climatologia Aeronautica (C.N.M.C.A.)", the Italian National Weather Centre, that physically hosts the generation chain of precipitation products, carried on activities to reach the final target: development of algorithms, validation of results, implementation of operative procedure to supply the service and to monitor the service performances. The paper shows the architectural status of the H-SAF precipitation group and stress the component of operations. It is shown the full correspondence with the EUMETSAT approved H-SAF documents, in particular the Algorithm Theoretical Design Document (ATDD), where products characteristics are referenced. Are also reported the first results, produced during the first H-SAF Workshop, held in Rome in October 2007, of validation activities performed on version 1 products, and last results of products distribution to beta-users in preparation of distributing version 2.

  11. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Top space experts from around the world have collaborated to produce this comprehensive, authoritative, and clearly illustrated reference guide to the fast growing, multi-billion dollar field of satellite applications and space communications. This handbook, done under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, addresses not only system technologies but also examines market dynamics, technical standards and regulatory constraints. The handbook is a completely multi-disciplinary reference book that covers, in an in-depth fashion, the fields of satellite telecommunications, Earth observation, remote sensing, satellite navigation, geographical information systems, and geosynchronous meteorological systems. It covers current practices and designs as well as advanced concepts and future systems. It provides a comparative analysis of the common technologies and design elements for satellite application bus structures, thermal controls, power systems, stabilization techniques, telemetry, com...

  12. Future communications satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwell, James W.

    1992-01-01

    The point of view of the research is made through the use of viewgraphs. It is suggested that future communications satellite applications will be made through switched point to point narrowband communications. Some characteristics of which are as follows: small/low cost terminals; single hop communications; voice compatible; full mesh networking; ISDN compatible; and possible limited use of full motion video. Some target applications are as follows: voice/data networks between plants and offices in a corporation; data base networking for commercial and science users; and cellular radio internodal voice/data networking.

  13. China's Meteorological Satellite Application System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jiashen

    2008-01-01

    @@ China's meteorological satellite program consists of five systems,namely the satellite system,the launch vehicle system,the launch center system,TT&C and the ground application system.The satellite system consists of FengYun (FY) polar orbiting series and FY geostationary series,which are launched by LM launch vehicles from Taiyan Satellite Launch Center (TSLC) and Xichang Satellite Launch Center (XSLC) respectively.

  14. Meteosat SEVIRI Fire Radiative Power (FRP products from the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA SAF – Part 1: Algorithms, product contents and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Wooster

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Characterising changes in landscape scale fire activity at very high temporal resolution is best achieved using thermal observations of actively burning fires made from geostationary Earth observation (EO satellites. Over the last decade or more, a series of research and/or operational "active fire" products have been developed from these types of geostationary observations, often with the aim of supporting the generation of data related to biomass burning fuel consumption and trace gas and aerosol emission fields. The Fire Radiative Power (FRP products generated by the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA SAF from data collected by the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI are one such set of products, and are freely available in both near real-time and archived form. Every 15 min, the algorithms used to generate these products identify and map the location of new SEVIRI observations containing actively burning fires, and characterise their individual rates of radiative energy release (fire radiative power; FRP that is believed proportional to rates of biomass consumption and smoke emission. The FRP-PIXEL product contains the highest spatial resolution FRP dataset, delivered for all of Europe, northern and southern Africa, and part of South America at a spatial resolution of 3 km (decreasing away from the west African sub-satellite point at the full 15 min temporal resolution. The FRP-GRID product is an hourly summary of the FRP-PIXEL data, produced at a 5° grid cell size and including simple bias adjustments for meteorological cloud cover and for the regional underestimation of FRP caused, primarily, by the non-detection of low FRP fire pixels at SEVIRI's relatively coarse pixel size. Here we describe the enhanced geostationary Fire Thermal Anomaly (FTA algorithm used to detect the SEVIRI active fire pixels, and detail methods used to deliver atmospherically corrected FRP

  15. China's Meteorological Satellite Application System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jiashen

    2008-01-01

    @@ (Continued) Applications In Global Environment And Natural Disaster Monitoring 1) Application in world crop yield estimation China is now one of the few nations in the world that can provide operational service with both GEO and polar-orbit meteorological satellites.

  16. Operational generation of AVHRR-based cloud products for Europe and the Arctic at EUMETSAT's Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM-SAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kaspar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Satelite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring has implemented a new processing environment for AVHRR-based climate monitoring products. AVHRR measurements from NOAA-17, NOAA-18 and MetOp-A are utilized to generate daily and monthly means of several cloud parameters for Europe and the Inner Arctic: Cloud fraction, cloud types, cloud phase, cloud top height, cloud optical thickness and cloud liquid water path.

  17. Biophysical applications of satellite remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Hanes, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Including an introduction and historical overview of the field, this comprehensive synthesis of the major biophysical applications of satellite remote sensing includes in-depth discussion of satellite-sourced biophysical metrics such as leaf area index.

  18. An Earth Orbiting Satellite Service and Repair Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Andrew; Cardoza, Mike; Chen, John; Daley, Gunter; Frizzell, Andy; Linton, Richard; Rast, Wayne

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual design was produced for the Geosynchronous Satellite Servicing Platform (GSSP), an orbital facility capable of repairing and servicing satellites in geosynchronous orbit. The GSSP is a man-tended platform, which consists of a habitation module, operations module, service bay and truss assembly. This design review includes an analysis of life support systems, thermal and power requirements, robotic and automated systems, control methods and navigation, and communications systems. The GSSP will utilize existing technology available at the time of construction, focusing mainly on modifying and integrating existing systems. The entire facility, along with two satellite retrieval vehicles (SRV), will be placed in geosynchronous orbit by the Advanced Launch System. The SRV will be used to ferry satellites to and from the GSSP. Technicians will be transferred from Earth to the GSSP and back in an Apollo-derived Crew Transfer Capsule (CTC). These missions will use advanced telerobotic equipment to inspect and service satellites. Four of these missions are tentatively scheduled per year. At this rate, the GSSP will service over 650 satelites during the projected 25 year lifespan.

  19. Population-based geographic access to parent and satellite National Cancer Institute Cancer Center Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onega, Tracy; Alford-Teaster, Jennifer; Wang, Fahui

    2017-09-01

    Satellite facilities of National Cancer Institute (NCI) cancer centers have expanded their regional footprints. This study characterized geographic access to parent and satellite NCI cancer center facilities nationally overall and by sociodemographics. Parent and satellite NCI cancer center facilities, which were geocoded in ArcGIS, were ascertained. Travel times from every census tract in the continental United States and Hawaii to the nearest parent and satellite facilities were calculated. Census-based population attributes were used to characterize measures of geographic access for sociodemographic groups. From the 62 NCI cancer centers providing clinical care in 2014, 76 unique parent locations and 211 satellite locations were mapped. The overall proportion of the population within 60 minutes of a facility was 22% for parent facilities and 32.7% for satellite facilities. When satellites were included for potential access, the proportion of some racial groups for which a satellite was the closest NCI cancer center facility increased notably (Native Americans, 22.6% with parent facilities and 39.7% with satellite facilities; whites, 34.8% with parent facilities and 50.3% with satellite facilities; and Asians, 40.0% with parent facilities and 54.0% with satellite facilities), with less marked increases for Hispanic and black populations. Rural populations of all categories had dramatically low proportions living within 60 minutes of an NCI cancer center facility of any type (1.0%-6.6%). Approximately 14% of the population (n = 43,033,310) lived more than 180 minutes from a parent or satellite facility, and most of these individuals were Native Americans and/or rural residents (37% of Native Americans and 41.7% of isolated rural residents). Racial/ethnic and rural populations showed markedly improved geographic access to NCI cancer center care when satellite facilities were included. Cancer 2017;123:3305-11. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American

  20. National Satellite Disaster Reduction Application Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The groundbreaking ceremony for National Satellite Disaster Reduction Application Service was held on January 22,2008 in Beijing.The establishment of the center will further improve the disaster monitoring system using remote sensing technology and provides a platform for the application of remote sensing technology and satellite constellation in China's disaster reduction and relief services.

  1. Umatilla Hatchery Satellite Facilities Operation and Maintenance; 1996 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowan, Gerald D.

    1997-06-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) are cooperating in a joint effort to enhance steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. As an integral part of this program, Bonifer Pond, Minthorn Springs, Imeques C-mem-ini-kem and Thornhollow satellite facilities are operated for acclimation and release of juvenile summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), fall and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch). Minthorn is also used for holding and spawning adult summer steelhead and Three Mile Dam is used for holding and spawning adult fall chinook and coho salmon. Bonifer, Minthorn, Imeques and Thornhollow facilities are operated for acclimation and release of juvenile salmon and summer steelhead. The main goal of acclimation is to reduce stress from trucking prior to release and improve imprinting of juvenile salmonids in the Umatilla River Basin. Juveniles are transported to the acclimation facilities primarily from Umatilla and Bonneville Hatcheries. This report details activities associated with operation and maintenance of the Bonifer, Minthorn, Imeques, Thornhollow and Three Mile Dam facilities in 1996.

  2. Global navigation satellite systems and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Dr. Madry, one of the world's leading experts in the field, provides in a condensed form a quick yet comprehensive overview of satellite navigation. This book concisely addresses the latest technology, the applications, the regulatory issues, and the strategic implications of satellite navigation systems. This assesses the strengths and weaknesses of satellite navigation networks and review of all the various national systems now being deployed and the motivation behind the proliferation of these systems.

  3. Narrow-Band Applications of Communications Satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowlan, Bert; Horowitz, Andrew

    This paper attempts to describe the advantages of "narrow-band" applications of communications satellites for education. It begins by discussing the general controversy surrounding the use of satellites in education, by placing the concern within the larger context of the general debate over the uses of new technologies in education, and by…

  4. Satellite communications principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Calcutt, David

    1994-01-01

    Satellites are increasingly used for global communications, as well as for radio and television transmissions. With the growth of mobile communications, and of digital technology, the use of satellite systems is set to expand substantially and already all students of electronics or communications engineering must study the subject.This book steers a middle path between offering a basic understanding of the process of communication by satellite and the methodology used; and the extensive mathematical analysis normally adopted in similar texts. It presents the basic concepts, using as mu

  5. Satellite Networks: Architectures, Applications, and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    Since global satellite networks are moving to the forefront in enhancing the national and global information infrastructures due to communication satellites' unique networking characteristics, a workshop was organized to assess the progress made to date and chart the future. This workshop provided the forum to assess the current state-of-the-art, identify key issues, and highlight the emerging trends in the next-generation architectures, data protocol development, communication interoperability, and applications. Presentations on overview, state-of-the-art in research, development, deployment and applications and future trends on satellite networks are assembled.

  6. Secure voice for mobile satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisnys, Arvydas; Berner, Jeff

    The initial system studies are described which were performed at JPL on secure voice for mobile satellite applications. Some options are examined for adapting existing Secure Telephone Unit III (STU-III) secure telephone equipment for use over a digital mobile satellite link, as well as for the evolution of a dedicated secure voice mobile earth terminal (MET). The work has included some lab and field testing of prototype equipment. The work is part of an ongoing study at JPL for the National Communications System (NCS) on the use of mobile satellites for emergency communications. The purpose of the overall task is to identify and enable the technologies which will allow the NCS to use mobile satellite services for its National Security Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) communications needs. Various other government agencies will also contribute to a mobile satellite user base, and for some of these, secure communications will be an essential feature.

  7. Secure voice for mobile satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisnys, Arvydas; Berner, Jeff

    1990-01-01

    The initial system studies are described which were performed at JPL on secure voice for mobile satellite applications. Some options are examined for adapting existing Secure Telephone Unit III (STU-III) secure telephone equipment for use over a digital mobile satellite link, as well as for the evolution of a dedicated secure voice mobile earth terminal (MET). The work has included some lab and field testing of prototype equipment. The work is part of an ongoing study at JPL for the National Communications System (NCS) on the use of mobile satellites for emergency communications. The purpose of the overall task is to identify and enable the technologies which will allow the NCS to use mobile satellite services for its National Security Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) communications needs. Various other government agencies will also contribute to a mobile satellite user base, and for some of these, secure communications will be an essential feature.

  8. Booster Applications Facility report: Addendum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thieberger, P. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    This proposal is based on the conceptual design and feasibility study (BNL report {number sign}52291) which was performed at the request, and with the support of NASA's Life Sciences Division. The BNL Booster, which is now being successfully commissioned with protons, will undergo similar tests and initial heavy-ion operation in early 1992. This accelerator is a fast cycling synchrotron, and therefore capable of sequentially delivering independent alternate pulses of different ions for two applications. Thus, after a pulse is injected in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) for further acceleration, there will be ample time to deliver a pulse of a different ion to a proposed Booster Applications Facility (BAF) before the next AGS pulse is required. Cost effective BAF operation and reliable beam delivery would result. This is guaranteed by the need to maintain all the systems in good operating condition for the main mission of the facility, which is the injection of AGS, and eventually of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). A large variety of high-Z high-energy (HZE) particles can be produced, ranging from maximum energies of 1.5 GeV/AMU for ions lighter than iron, to {approximately}1.25 GeV/AMU for iron, and to {approximately}350 MeV/AMU for gold.

  9. Data Collection Satellite Application in Precision Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durào, O.

    2002-01-01

    's over Brazilian territory. There were 25 platforms when SCD-1 was launched. However this number is growing rapidly to 400 platforms, at first for measurements of water reservoir levels as well as other hydrology applications (The Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency - ANEEL is the customer), and for many other different applications such as meteorology, oceanography, environmental monitoring sciences, and people and animal tracking. The clear feeling is that users are discovering a satellite system whose benefits were not previously well understood when launched and being able to propose and come up with different and useful applications. A new field in the country that has a great potential to benefit from this system is agriculture. Per se, this is a very important sector of the Brazilian economy and its international trade. Combining it with space technology may justify the investment of new and low cost dedicated satellites. This paper describes a new proposal for use of the SCD-1,2,CBERS-1 satellite system for precision agriculture. New PCD's would be developed for measurements of chemical content of the soil, such as, for example, Nitrogen and others, beyond humidity and solar incidence. This can lead to a more efficient fertilization, harvesting and even the spray of chemical defensives, with the consequence of environment protection. The PCD's ground network so established, along with the information network already available, combined with the space segment of such a system may, as previously said, be able to justify the investment in low cost satellites with this sole purpose.

  10. China Land Observation Satellite Third User Conference Promotes The Applications Of Domestic Satellite Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong He

    2009-01-01

    @@ China Land Observation Satellite Third User Conference with the theme of "Strengthening cooperation,enlarging sharing and promoting the application of domestic satellite data" was held on July 16,2009 in Beijing. The conference was hosted by China Centre for Resources Satellite Data and Applications(CRESDA),a subsidiary of China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC).

  11. Near-Real-Time, Global Radar Data at the Alaska Satellite Facility DAAC from NASA's SMAP Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, S. A.; Allen, A. R.; Dixon, I. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) is supporting NASA's SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) satellite mission, which launches in January 2015. SMAP will measure global soil moisture and its freeze-thaw state every 3 days using an L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and radiometer. ASF, along with the National Snow and Ice Data Center DAAC and NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS), is identifying and developing tools and technologies to facilitate use of global, near-real-time data by the SMAP user community. ASF will host the SMAP Level 1 radar data and make them available for download through ASF's data discovery interface, Vertex, and the ASF Application Programming Interface. Vertex allows a user to search, visualize and download SAR data, browse images and relevant metadata, and will offer the complete SMAP L1 radar archive to the public. The entire SMAP archive consisting of level 1-4 data can be accessed via Reverb, the NASA EOSDIS metadata and service discovery tool. In anticipation of the SMAP launch and data release, ASF has developed and released a new website (https://www.asf.alaska.edu/smap/) and a suite of web resources, including interactive media, technical information, a product guide, related publications, and tools for working with the HDF5 data format. The ASF SMAP team is exploring OPeNDAP and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Webification technologies for enhancing in-browser data visualization and analysis. These technologies, and tools developed with them, represent opportunities for exposing this valuable dataset to areas with limited bandwidth or understanding of radar data. This presentation will highlight the enabling technologies and techniques ASF is employing to bring these data to new scientific and applications users and respond to ever-changing user needs.

  12. Umatilla Hatchery Satellite Facilities; Operations and Maintenance, Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowan, Gerald

    2003-05-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) are cooperating in a joint effort to enhance steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. As an integral part of this program, Bonifer Pond, Minthorn Springs, Imeques C-mem-ini-kem, Thornhollow and Pendleton satellite facilities are operated for acclimation and release of juvenile summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), fall and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch). Minthorn is also used for holding and spawning adult summer steelhead and Three Mile Dam and South Fork Walla Walla facilities are used for holding and spawning chinook salmon. In some years, Three Mile Dam may also be used for holding and spawning coho salmon. In the spring of 2002, summer steelhead were acclimated and released at Bonifer Pond (54,917), Minthorn Springs (47,521), and Pendleton (54,366). Yearling coho (1,621,857) were also acclimated and released at Pendleton. Yearling spring chinook salmon (876,121) were acclimated and released at Imeques C-mem-ini-kem. At Thornhollow, 520,564 yearling fall chinook and 307,194 subyearling fall chinook were acclimated. In addition, 104,908 spring chinook were transported to Imeques C-mem-ini-kem in November for release in the spring of 2003. CTUIR and ODFW personnel monitored the progress of outmigration for juvenile releases at the Westland Canal juvenile facility. Nearly all juveniles released in the spring migrated downstream prior to the trap being opened in early July. A total of 100 unmarked and 10 marked summer steelhead were collected for broodstock at Three Mile Dam from September 21, 2001, through April 2, 2002. An estimated 180,955 green eggs were taken from 36 females and were transferred to Umatilla Hatchery for incubation and rearing. A total of 560 adult and 26 jack spring chinook salmon were collected for broodstock at Three Mile Dam from April 22 through June 12, 2002

  13. Application of robotics in nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrd, J S; Fisher, J J

    1986-01-01

    Industrial robots and other robotic systems have been successfully applied at the Savannah River nuclear site. These applications, new robotic systems presently under development, general techniques for the employment of robots in nuclear facilities, and future systems are discussed.

  14. Theory of satellite geodesy applications of satellites to geodesy

    CERN Document Server

    Kaula, William M

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of this classic text is to demonstrate how Newtonian gravitational theory and Euclidean geometry can be used and developed in the earth's environment. The second is to collect and explain some of the mathematical techniques developed for measuring the earth by satellite.Book chapters include discussions of the earth's gravitational field, with special emphasis on spherical harmonies and the potential of the ellipsoid; matrices and orbital geometry; elliptic motion, linear perturbations, resonance, and other aspects of satellite orbit dynamics; the geometry of satellite obser

  15. Satellite information for wind energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, M.; Astrup, P.; Bay Hasager, C.

    2004-11-01

    An introduction to satellite information relevant for wind energy applications is given. It includes digital elevation model (DEM) data based on satellite observations. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) is useful for regional scale wind resource studies. Comparison results from complex terrain in Spain and flat terrain in Denmark are found to be acceptable for both sites. Also land cover type information can be retrieved from satellite observations. Land cover type maps have to be combined with roughness data from field observation or literature values. Land cover type maps constitute an aid to map larger regions within shorter time. Field site observations of obstacles and hedges are still necessary. The raster-based map information from DEM and land cover maps can be converted for use in WASP. For offshore locations it is possible to estimate the wind resources based on ocean surface wind data from several types of satellite observations. The RWT software allows an optimal calculation of SAR wind resource statistics. A tab-file with SAR-based observed wind climate (OWC) data can be obtained for 10 m above sea level and used in WASP. RWT uses a footprint averaging technique to obtain data as similar as possible to mast observations. Maximum-likelihood fitting is used to calculate the Weibull A and k parameters from the constrained data set. Satellite SAR wind maps cover the coastal zone from 3 km and offshore with very detailed information of 400 m by 400 m grid resolution. Spatial trends in mean wind, energy density, Weibull A and k and uncertainty values are provided for the area of interest. Satellite scatterometer wind observations have a spatial resolution of 25 km by 25 km. These data typically represent a site further offshore, and the tab-file statistics should be used in WASP combined with topography and roughness information to assess the coastal wind power potential. Scatterometer wind data are observed {approx} twice per day, whereas SAR only

  16. Satellite Applications for K-12 Geoscience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, M.; Ackerman, S.; Lettvin, E.; Emerson, N.; Whittaker, T. M.

    2007-12-01

    This presentation will highlight interactive on-line curriculum developed at the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) at the University of Wisconsin in Madison. CIMSS has been on the forefront of educational software design for over two decades, routinely integrating on-line activities into courses on satellite remote sensing. In 2006, CIMSS began collaborating with education experts and researchers from the University of Washington to create an NSF-funded distance learning course for science teachers called Satellite Applications for Geoscience Education. This course includes numerous web-based learning activities, including a distance education tool called VISITview which allows instructors to connect with multiple students simultaneously to conduct a lesson. Developed at CIMSS to facilitate training of National Weather Service forecasters economically and remotely, VISITview is especially effective for groups of people discussing and analyzing maps or images interactively from many locations. Along with an on-line chat function, VISITview participants can use a speaker phone or a networked voice-enabled application to create a learning environment similar to a traditional classroom. VISITview will be used in two capacities: first, instructors will convey topics of current relevance in geoscience disciplines via VISITview. Second, the content experts will participate in "virtual visits" to the classrooms of the educators who take the course for full credit. This will enable scientists to interact with both teachers and students to answer questions and discuss exciting or inspiring examples that link satellite data to their areas of research. As long as a school has Internet access, an LCD projector and a speakerphone, VISITview sessions can be shared with an entire classroom. The geoscientists who developed material for the course and conducting VISITview lectures include a geologist from the University of Wisconsin-Richland, an

  17. Laser power beaming for satellite applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, H.W.

    1993-09-22

    A serious consideration of laser power beaming for satellite applications appears to have grown out of a NASA mission analysis for transmitting power to lunar bases during the two week dark period. System analyses showed that laser power beaming to the moon in conjunction with efficient, large area solar cell collection panels, were an attractive alternative to other schemes such as battery storage and nuclear generators, largely because of the high space transportation costs. The primary difficulty with this scheme is the need for very high average power visible lasers. One system study indicated that lasers in excess of 10 MW at a wavelength of approximately 850 nm were required. Although such lasers systems have received much attention for military applications, their realization is still a long term goal.

  18. A generalized transmultiplexer and its application to mobile satellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiyoshi, Osamu

    A generalization of digital transmultiplexer technology is presented. The proposed method can realize transmultiplexer (TMUX) and transdemultiplexer (TDUX) filter banks whose element filters have bandwidths greater than the channel spacing frequency. This feature is useful in many communications applications. As an example, a satellite switched (SS) Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) system is proposed for spot beam satellite communications, particularly for mobile satellite communications.

  19. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenenberg, J.G.

    1997-08-15

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating

  20. China's FY-3 Polar Orbit Meteorological Satellite And Its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jiashen; Fang Meng; Sun Anlai

    2009-01-01

    @@ FY-3 is China's second generation of polar orbit meteorological satellite. FY-3A,the first of the FY-3 series,was launched on May 27,2008 from Taiyuan Satellite Launeh Center. After 5 months of in-orbit test,the satellite and its ground application system were put into trial operation on November 18,2008,marking the successful technical upgrading of China's polar-orbit meteorological satellite.

  1. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-09-18

    This document, Set 2, the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Part B Permit Application, consists of 15 chapters that address the content of the Part B checklists prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 270), with additional information requirements mandated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 and revisions of WAC 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow the chapter headings and subheadings. This permit application contains umbrella- type'' documentation with overall application to the Hanford Facility. This documentation is broad in nature and applies to all TSD units that have final status under the Hanford Facility Permit.

  2. Analysis on the Utility of Satellite Imagery for Detection of Agricultural Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J.-M.; Baek, S.-H.; Jung, K.-Y.

    2012-07-01

    Now that the agricultural facilities are being increase owing to development of technology and diversification of agriculture and the ratio of garden crops that are imported a lot and the crops cultivated in facilities are raised in Korea, the number of vinyl greenhouses is tending upward. So, it is important to grasp the distribution of vinyl greenhouses as much as that of rice fields, dry fields and orchards, but it is difficult to collect the information of wide areas economically and correctly. Remote sensing using satellite imagery is able to obtain data of wide area at the same time, quickly and cost-effectively collect, monitor and analyze information from every object on earth. In this study, in order to analyze the utilization of satellite imagery at detection of agricultural facility, image classification was performed about the agricultural facility, vinyl greenhouse using Formosat-2 satellite imagery. The training set of sea, vegetation, building, bare ground and vinyl greenhouse was set to monitor the agricultural facilities of the object area and the training set for the vinyl greenhouses that are main monitoring object was classified and set again into 3 types according the spectral characteristics. The image classification using 4 kinds of supervise classification methods applied by the same training set were carried out to grasp the image classification method which is effective for monitoring agricultural facilities. And, in order to minimize the misclassification appeared in the classification using the spectral information, the accuracy of classification was intended to be raised by adding texture information. The results of classification were analyzed regarding the accuracy comparing with that of naked-eyed detection. As the results of classification, the method of Mahalanobis distance was shown as more efficient than other methods and the accuracy of classification was higher when adding texture information. Hence the more effective

  3. Umatilla Hatchery Satellite Facilities Operation and Maintenance; 1995 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowan, Gerald D.

    1996-05-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservoir (CTUIR) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) are cooperating in a joint effort to enhance steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. As an integral part of this program, Bonifer Pond, Minthorn Springs, Imeques C-mem-ini-kem and Thornhollow facilities are operated for acclimation and release of juvenile summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), fall and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch). Minthorn is also used for holding and spawning adult summer steelhead, fall chinook and coho salmon. Personnel from the ODFW Eastern Oregon Fish Pathology Laboratory in La Grande took samples of tissues and reproductive fluids from Umatilla River summer steelhead and coho salmon broodstock for monitoring and evaluation purposes. Coded-wire tag recovery information was accessed to determine the contribution of Umatilla river releases to ocean, Columbia River and Umatilla River fisheries.

  4. Routine Ocean Monitoring With Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery Obtained From the Alaska Satellite Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichel, W. G.; Clemente-Colon, P.; Li, X.; Friedman, K.; Monaldo, F.; Thompson, D.; Wackerman, C.; Scott, C.; Jackson, C.; Beal, R.; McGuire, J.; Nicoll, J.

    2006-12-01

    The Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) has been processing synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data for research and for near-real-time applications demonstrations since shortly after the launch of the European Space Agency's ERS-1 satellite in 1991. The long coastline of Alaska, the vast extent of ocean adjacent to Alaska, a scarcity of in-situ observations, and the persistence of cloud cover all contribute to the need for all-weather ocean observations in the Alaska region. Extensive experience with SAR product processing algorithms and SAR data analysis techniques, and a growing sophistication on the part of SAR data and product users have amply demonstrated the value of SAR instruments in providing this all-weather ocean observation capability. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has been conducting a near-real-time applications demonstration of SAR ocean and hydrologic products in Alaska since September 1999. This Alaska SAR Demonstration (AKDEMO) has shown the value of SAR-derived, high-resolution (sub kilometer) ocean surface winds to coastal weather forecasting and the understanding of coastal wind phenomena such as gap winds, barrier jets, vortex streets, and lee waves. Vessel positions and ice information derived from SAR imagery have been used for management of fisheries, protection of the fishing fleet, enforcement of fisheries regulations, and protection of endangered marine mammals. Other ocean measurements, with potentially valuable applications, include measurement of wave state (significant wave height, dominant wave direction and wavelength, and wave spectra), mapping of oil spills, and detection of shallow-water bathymetric features. In addition to the AKDEMO, ASF-processed SAR imagery is being used: (1) in the Gulf of Mexico for hurricane wind studies, and post-hurricane oil-spill and oil-platform analyses (the latter employing ship-detection algorithms for detection of changes in oil-platform locations); (2) in the North Pacific

  5. Applications of Communications Satellites in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Robert P.

    Early experiments with the ATS-1 and ATS-3 satellites utilized one way and two way audio for a variety of university purposes, and several different television modes were employed in the ATS-6 satellite. Among the higher education activities on ATS-6 were inservice teacher education and the facilitation of regionalized medical education. A college…

  6. Satellite Application for Disaster Management Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpanachi, George

    Abstract Satellites are becoming increasingly vital to modern day disaster management activities. Earth observation (EO) satellites provide images at various wavelengths that assist rapid-mapping in all phases of the disaster management cycle: mitigation of potential risks in a given area, preparedness for eventual disasters, immediate response to a disaster event, and the recovery/reconstruction efforts follo wing it. Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) assist all the phases by providing precise location and navigation data, helping manage land and infrastructures, and aiding rescue crews coordinate their search efforts. Effective disaster management is a complex problem, because it involves many parameters, which are usually not easy to measure and even identify: Analysis of current situation, planning, optimum resource management, coordination, controlling and monitoring current activities and making quick and correct decisions are only some of these parameters, whose complete list is very long. Disaster management information systems (DMIS) assist disaster management to analyse the situation better, make decisions and suggest further actions following the emergency plans. This requires not only fast and thorough processing and optimization abilities, but also real-time data provided to the DMIS. The need of DMIS for disaster’s real-time data can be satisfied by small satellites data utilization. Small satellites can provide up-to-data, plus a better media to transfer data. This paper suggests a rationale and a framework for utilization of small Satellite data by DMIS. DMIS should be used ‘’before’’, ‘’during’’ and ‘’after’’ the disasters. Data provided by the Small Satellites are almost crucial in any period of the disasters, because early warning can save lives, and satellite data may help to identify disasters before they occur. The paper also presents’ ‘when’’,

  7. Satellite communications application to Pacific countries above Ku band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Takashi

    1992-01-01

    An application of satellite communications above the Ku band to the Pacific region is described, focusing on: (1) Lightsat system and (2) a high capacity satellite system. A small geostationary satellite system using Ku band for the Federated States of Micronesia is shown as an example. A concept of multi-gigabits/second high capacity communications system using two satellites in the Ka band is described. The onboard bit-by-bit processing is very useful in the low link margin environment due to rain attenuation. These topics were obtained by the Asia Pacific Telecommunications Study granted by NASA conducted by the University of Colorado at Boulder.

  8. High-Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, J. L.; Weingart, R. C.

    1989-03-01

    This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) reviews the safety and environmental aspects of the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF). Topics covered include the site selected for the HEAF, safety design criteria, operations planned within the facility, and the safety and environmental analyses performed on this project to date. Provided in the Summary section is a review of hazards and the analyses, conclusions, and operating limits developed in this SAR. Appendices provide supporting documents relating to this SAR. This SAR is required by the LLNL Health and Safety Manual and DOE Order 5481.1B(2) to document the safety analysis efforts. The SAR was assembled by the Hazards Control Department, B-Division, and HEAF project personnel. This document was reviewed by B Division, the Chemistry Department, the Hazards Control Department, the Laboratory Associate Director for Administration and Operations, and the Associate Directors ultimately responsible for HEAF operations.

  9. A Robust Controller Structure for Pico-Satellite Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Martin Nygaard; Green, Martin; Kristensen, Mads

    This paper describes the development of a robust controller structure for use in pico-satellite missions. The structure relies on unknown disturbance estimation and use of robust control theory to implement a system that is robust to both unmodeled disturbances and parameter uncertainties. As one...... possible application, a satellite mission with the purpose of monitoring shipping routes for oil spills has been considered. However, it is the aim of the control structure to be widely applicable and adaptable for a vide variety of pico-satellite missions. The robust control structure has been evaluated...

  10. Vehicle antenna development for mobile satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, K.

    1988-01-01

    The paper summarizes results of a vehicle antenna program at JPL in support of a developing U.S. mobile satellite services (MSS) designed to provide telephone and data services for the continental United States. Two classes of circularly polarized vehicle antennas have been considered for the MSS: medium-gain, satellite-tracking antennas with 10-12-dBic gain; and low-gain, azimuthally omnidirectional antennas with 3-5-dBic gain. The design and performance of these antennas are described, and the two antennas are shown to have peculiar advantages and disadvantages.

  11. A satellite based telemetry link for a UAV application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloise, Anthony

    1995-01-01

    The requirements for a satellite based communication facility to service the needs of the Geographical Information System (GIS) data collection community are addressed in this paper. GIS data is supplied in the form of video imagery at sub-television rates in one or more spectral bands / polarizations laced with a position correlated data stream. The limitations and vicissitudes of using a terrestrial based telecommunications link to collect GIS data are illustrated from actual mission scenarios. The expectations from a satellite based communications link by the geophysical data collection community concerning satellite architecture, operating bands, bandwidth, footprint agility, up link and down link hardware configurations on the UAV, the Mobile Control Vehicle and at the Central Command and Data Collection Facility comprise the principle issues discussed in the first section of this paper. The final section of the paper discusses satellite based communication links would have an increased volume and scope of services the GIS data collection community could make available to the GIS user community, and the price the data collection community could afford to pay for access to the communication satellite described in the paper.

  12. Advanced Power Technology Development Activities for Small Satellite Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczor, Michael F.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Miller, Thomas B.; Taylor, Linda M.; Hernandez-Lugo, Dionne; Raffaelle, Ryne; Landi, Brian; Hubbard, Seth; Schauerman, Christopher; Ganter, Mathew; hide

    2017-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has a long history related to the development of advanced power technology for space applications. This expertise covers the breadth of energy generation (photovoltaics, thermal energy conversion, etc.), energy storage (batteries, fuel cell technology, etc.), power management and distribution, and power systems architecture and analysis. Such advanced technology is now being developed for small satellite and cubesat applications and could have a significant impact on the longevity and capabilities of these missions. A presentation during the Pre-Conference Workshop will focus on various advanced power technologies being developed and demonstrated by NASA, and their possible application within the small satellite community.

  13. Satellite information for wind energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.; Astrup, Poul; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2004-01-01

    wind data from several types of satellite observations. The RWT software allows an optimal calculation ofSAR wind resource statistics. A tab-file with SAR-based observed wind climate (OWC) data can be obtained for 10 m above sea level and used in WASP. RWT uses a footprint averaging technique to obtain...... an aid to map larger regions within shorter time. Field site observations of obstacles and hedges are still necessary. The raster-based map information from DEMand land cover maps can be converted for use in WASP. For offshore locations it is possible to estimate the wind resources based on ocean surface...

  14. Detection of facilities in satellite imagery using semi-supervized image classification and auxiliary contextual observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Neal R.; Ruggiero, C.; Pawley, N. H.; MacDonald, B.; Oyer, A.; Balick, L.; Brumby, S. P.

    2009-05-01

    Detecting complex targets, such as facilities, in commercially available satellite imagery is a difficult problem that human analysts try to solve by applying world knowledge. Often there are known observables that can be extracted by pixel-level feature detectors that can assist in the facility detection process. Individually, each of these observables is not sufficient for an accurate and reliable detection, but in combination, these auxiliary observables may provide sufficient context for detection by a machine learning algorithm. We describe an approach for automatic detection of facilities that uses an automated feature extraction algorithm to extract auxiliary observables, and a semi-supervised assisted target recognition algorithm to then identify facilities of interest. We illustrate the approach using an example of finding schools in Quickbird image data of Albuquerque, New Mexico. We use Los Alamos National Laboratory's Genie Pro automated feature extraction algorithm to find a set of auxiliary features that should be useful in the search for schools, such as parking lots, large buildings, sports fields and residential areas and then combine these features using Genie Pro's assisted target recognition algorithm to learn a classifier that finds schools in the image data.

  15. Detection of facilities in satellite imagery using semi-supervised image classification and auxiliary contextual observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, Neal R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ruggiero, Christy E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pawley, Norma H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brumby, Steven P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Macdonald, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Balick, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oyer, Alden [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Detecting complex targets, such as facilities, in commercially available satellite imagery is a difficult problem that human analysts try to solve by applying world knowledge. Often there are known observables that can be extracted by pixel-level feature detectors that can assist in the facility detection process. Individually, each of these observables is not sufficient for an accurate and reliable detection, but in combination, these auxiliary observables may provide sufficient context for detection by a machine learning algorithm. We describe an approach for automatic detection of facilities that uses an automated feature extraction algorithm to extract auxiliary observables, and a semi-supervised assisted target recognition algorithm to then identify facilities of interest. We illustrate the approach using an example of finding schools in Quickbird image data of Albuquerque, New Mexico. We use Los Alamos National Laboratory's Genie Pro automated feature extraction algorithm to find a set of auxiliary features that should be useful in the search for schools, such as parking lots, large buildings, sports fields and residential areas and then combine these features using Genie Pro's assisted target recognition algorithm to learn a classifier that finds schools in the image data.

  16. Satellite systems for personal applications concepts and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Richharia, Madhavendra

    2010-01-01

    Presents the concepts, technology, and role of satellite systems in support of personal applications, such as mobile and broadband communications, navigation, television, radio and multimedia broadcasting, safety of life services, etc. This book presents a novel perspective on satellite systems, reflecting the modern personal technology context, and hence a focus on the individual as end-user. The book begins by outlining key generic concepts before discussing techniques adopted in particular application areas; next, it exemplifies these techniques through discussion of state-of-art c

  17. Downburst Prediction Applications of Meteorological Geostationary Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Pryor, Kenneth L

    2014-01-01

    A suite of products has been developed and evaluated to assess hazards presented by convective storm downbursts derived from the current generation of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) (13-15). The existing suite of GOES downburst prediction products employs the GOES sounder to calculate risk based on conceptual models of favorable environmental profiles for convective downburst generation. A diagnostic nowcasting product, the Microburst Windspeed Potential Index (MWPI), is designed to infer attributes of a favorable downburst environment: 1) the presence of large convective available potential energy (CAPE), and 2) the presence of a surface-based or elevated mixed layer with a steep temperature lapse rate and vertical relative humidity gradient. These conditions foster intense convective downdrafts upon the interaction of sub-saturated air in the elevated or sub-cloud mixed layer with the storm precipitation core. This paper provides an updated assessment of the MWPI algorithm, present...

  18. Application of adaptive antenna techniques to future commercial satellite communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, L.; Lee, E. A.; Matthews, E. W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this contract was to identify the application of adaptive antenna technique in future operational commercial satellite communication systems and to quantify potential benefits. The contract consisted of two major subtasks. Task 1, Assessment of Future Commercial Satellite System Requirements, was generally referred to as the Adaptive section. Task 2 dealt with Pointing Error Compensation Study for a Multiple Scanning/Fixed Spot Beam Reflector Antenna System and was referred to as the reconfigurable system. Each of these tasks was further sub-divided into smaller subtasks. It should also be noted that the reconfigurable system is usually defined as an open-loop system while the adaptive system is a closed-loop system. The differences between the open- and closed-loop systems were defined. Both the adaptive and reconfigurable systems were explained and the potential applications of such systems were presented in the context of commercial communication satellite systems.

  19. Non-Federal Facilities National Application

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Navigation and Administrative tool to monitor Air Traffic Facilities from inception to commissioning. Ability to track field inspections and analysis. It influences...

  20. 47 CFR 25.159 - Limits on pending applications and unbuilt satellite systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... satellite systems. 25.159 Section 25.159 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Processing of Applications § 25.159 Limits on pending applications and unbuilt satellite systems. (a) Applicants with a total...

  1. The Application Achievements And Perspective Of CBERS Series Satellite Imagery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xingchao; Qi Xueyong; Lu Yilin

    2009-01-01

    @@ Since the first China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS-1),launched in 1999,the CBERS data has been applied in many fields extensively.Remarkable social and economic benefits have been achieved.This article presents the application achievements during the past nine years,and gives a perspective for the future.All these applications demonstrate that the CBERS data has been an important data source for resources investigation and monitoring.

  2. 47 CFR 25.401 - Satellite DARS applications subject to competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Satellite DARS applications subject to...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Competitive Bidding Procedures for DARS § 25.401 Satellite DARS applications subject to competitive bidding. Mutually exclusive initial applications for...

  3. Applications of two-way satellite time and frequency transfer in the BeiDou navigation satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, ShanShi; Hu, XiaoGong; Liu, Li; Guo, Rui; Zhu, LingFeng; Chang, ZhiQiao; Tang, ChengPan; Gong, XiuQiang; Li, Ran; Yu, Yang

    2016-10-01

    A two-way satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT) device equipped in the BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) can calculate clock error between satellite and ground master clock. TWSTFT is a real-time method with high accuracy because most system errors such as orbital error, station position error, and tropospheric and ionospheric delay error can be eliminated by calculating the two-way pseudorange difference. Another method, the multi-satellite precision orbit determination (MPOD) method, can be applied to estimate satellite clock errors. By comparison with MPOD clock estimations, this paper discusses the applications of the BDS TWSTFT clock observations in satellite clock measurement, satellite clock prediction, navigation system time monitor, and satellite clock performance assessment in orbit. The results show that with TWSTFT clock observations, the accuracy of satellite clock prediction is higher than MPOD. Five continuous weeks of comparisons with three international GNSS Service (IGS) analysis centers (ACs) show that the reference time difference between BeiDou time (BDT) and golbal positoning system (GPS) time (GPST) realized IGS ACs is in the tens of nanoseconds. Applying the TWSTFT clock error observations may obtain more accurate satellite clock performance evaluation in the 104 s interval because the accuracy of the MPOD clock estimation is not sufficiently high. By comparing the BDS and GPS satellite clock performance, we found that the BDS clock stability at the 103 s interval is approximately 10-12, which is similar to the GPS IIR.

  4. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application documentation consists of both Part A and a Part B permit application documentation. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this treatment and storage unit, including the current revision, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. Once the initial Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit is issued, the following process will be used. As final, certified treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit-specific documents are developed, and completeness notifications are made by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology, additional unit-specific permit conditions will be incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit through the permit modification process. All treatment, storage, and/or disposal units that are included in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application will operate under interim status until final status conditions for these units are incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit. The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility contains information current as of May 1, 1993.

  5. Application of altitude control techniques for low altitude earth satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, K. G.; Herder, R. W.; Glass, A. B.; Cooley, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    The applications sensors of many low altitude earth satellites designed for recording surface or atmospheric data require near zero orbital eccentricities for maximum usefulness. Coverage patterns and altitude profiles require specified values of orbit semimajor axis. Certain initial combinations of semimajor axis, eccentricity, and argument of perigee can produce a so called 'frozen orbit' and minimum altitude variation which enhances sensor coverage. This paper develops information on frozen orbits and minimum altitude variation for all inclinations, generalizing previous results. In the altitude regions where most of these satellites function (between 200 and 1000 kilometers) strong atmospheric drag effects influence the evolution of the initial orbits. Active orbital maneuver control techniques to correct evolution of orbit parameters while minimizing the frequency of maneuvers are presented. The paper presents the application of theoretical techniques for control of near frozen orbits and expands upon the methods useful for simultaneously targeting several inplane orbital parameters. The applications of these techniques are illustrated by performance results from the Atmosphere Explorer (AE-3 and -5) missions and in preflight maneuver analysis and plans for the Seasat Oceanographic Satellite.

  6. Interdisciplinary Earth Science Applications Using Satellite Radar Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, C.; Shum, C.; Lee, H.; Dai, C.; Yi, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Satellite altimetry was conceived as a space geodetic concept for ocean surface topography mapping in the NASA-sponsored 1969 Williamstown, MA Conference, and was tested as part of the passive and active radar payload (S192), along with a radiometer and a scatterometer, on Skylab-1 in May 14, 1973. Since then, numerous radar and laser satellite altimetry missions orbiting/flying-by the Earth, Mars, Mercury, Titan and the Moon have been launched, evolving from the original scientific objective of marine gravity field mapping to a geodetic tool to address interdisciplinary Earth and planetary sciences. The accuracy of the radar altimeter has improved from 0.9 m RMS for the S-192 Skylab Ku-band compressed-pulse altimeter, to 2 cm RMS (2 second average) for the dual-frequency pulse-limited radar altimetry and associated sensors onboard TOPEX/POSEIDON. Satellite altimetry has evolved into a unique cross-disciplinary geodetic tool in addressing contemporary Earth science problems including sea-level rise, large-scale general ocean circulation, ice-sheet mass balance, terrestrial hydrology, and bathymetry. Here we provide a concise review and describe specific results on the additional recent innovative and unconventional applications of interdisciplinary science research using satellite radar altimetry, including geodynamics, land subsidence, snow depth, wetland and cold region hydrology.

  7. Fifteen Years of Synthetic Aperture Radar Calibration Using Trihedral Reflectors at the Alaska Satellite Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, W.; Atwood, D.; Lawlor, O. S.; Utley, P.; Slater, C.

    2006-12-01

    For the past 15 years, the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) has provided calibration support for singly polarized SAR datasets in C-band (ERS-1, ERS-2, and RADARSAT-1 and L-Band (JERS-1. Passive point targets like trihedral corner reflectors offer a reliable and well established means to perform radiometric, geometric, and impulse response measurements for SAR calibration. Routine support of an array of corner reflectors in interior Alaska has permitted ASF an opportunity to monitor satellite health, calibrate SAR processors, and experiment with new reflector designs. Corner reflectors offer the advantages of low maintenance and low cost compared to active devices such as transponders. In order to maintain radar cross section, as the microwave wavelength get longer, so too does the size of the reflector. Increased size means decreased portability, exacerbating the difficulty of providing calibration support in remote locations. In response, ASF is developing low cost, light weight corner reflectors that can be deployed with minimal effort and no maintenance. These efforts will help to extend our present calibration efforts to more remote locations. But more importantly, these designs are expected to play an important role in Permanent Scatterer InSAR (PS-InSAR) methodology. The use of corner reflector arrays in support PS-InSAR may provide new means for monitoring terrain displacements in regions of heavy vegetation. This paper presents some long term measurements from ASF's array of corner reflectors, outlines improvements performed on trihedral corner reflectors, and describes current efforts at ASF to support the next generation of SAR missions and techniques.

  8. Optical intersatellite links - Application to commercial satellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, D.; Faris, F.; Garlow, R.; Inukai, T.; Pontano, B.; Razdan, R.; Ganz, Aura; Caudill, L.

    1992-01-01

    Application of optical intersatellite links for commercial satellite communications services is addressed in this paper. The feasibility of commercialization centers around basic issues such as the need and derived benefits, implementation complexity and overall cost. In this paper, commercialization of optical ISLs is assessed in terms of the services provided, systems requirements and feasibility of appropriate technology. Both long- and short-range ISLs for GEO-GEO, GEO-LEO and LEO applications are considered. Impact of systems requirements on the payload design and use of advanced technology in reducing its mass, power, and volume requirements are discussed.

  9. Sura heating facility transmissions to the CASSIOPE/e-POP satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, H. G.; Frolov, V. L.; Andreeva, E. S.; Padokhin, A. M.; Siefring, C. L.

    2017-02-01

    Throughout a nighttime pass of the CASSIOPE satellite at an altitude of about 1300 km above the Sura heating facility, transmission of O-mode radiation from Sura to the enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) Radio Receiver Instrument on CASSIOPE was maintained. Also, during this pass, continuous VHF/UHF transmission from the e-POP Coherent Electromagnetic Radio Tomography radio beacon to three coordinated ground receivers in the Sura vicinity was achieved. Tomography of the VHF/UHF received wave data based on total electron content permitted the two-dimensional distribution of ionospheric ambient electron plasma frequency fpe to be determined in the latitude-altitude space between Sura and CASSIOPE. The foF2 values about 0.1 MHz above the Sura pump frequency of 4.3 MHz were measured by the tomography. We examine the question of whether the observations can be explained on the basis of classic propagation in a smooth ionosphere. Tracing of rays from Sura toward CASSIOPE orbital locations finds most rays reflected away from the topside by the patchy ionospheric structure in bottomside fpe. It is concluded that O-mode ducting in underdense field-aligned irregularities is responsible for maintaining the transionospheric transmission across the 2 min pass. O- to Z-mode "radio-window" conversion in the F region bottomside is not required to explain these data.

  10. Sentinel-1 Data System at the Alaska Satellite Facility Distributed Active Archive Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, V. G.

    2014-12-01

    The Alaska Satellite Facility Distributed Active Archive Center (ASF DAAC) has a long history of supporting international collaborations between NASA and foreign flight agencies to promote access to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data for US science research. Based on the agreement between the US and the EC, data from the Sentinel missions will be distributed by NASA through archives that mirror those established by ESA. The ASF DAAC is the designated archive and distributor for Sentinel-1 data. The data will be copied from the ESA archive to a rolling archive at the NASA Goddard center, and then pushed to a landing area at the ASF DAAC. The system at ASF DAAC will take the files as they arrive and put them through an ingest process. Ingest will populate the database with the information required to enable search and download of the data through Vertex, the ASF DAAC user interface. Metadata will be pushed to the NASA Common Metadata Repository, enabling data discovery through clients that utilize the repository. Visual metadata will be pushed to the NASA GIBS system for visualization through clients linked to that system. Data files will be archived in the DataDirect Networks (DDN) device that is the primary storage device for the ASF DAAC. A backup copy of the data will be placed in a second DDN device that serves as the disaster recovery solution for the ASF DAAC.

  11. Application of Satellite Gravimetry for Water Resource Vulnerability Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The force of Earth's gravity field varies in proportion to the amount of mass near the surface. Spatial and temporal variations in the gravity field can be measured via their effects on the orbits of satellites. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) is the first satellite mission dedicated to monitoring temporal variations in the gravity field. The monthly gravity anomaly maps that have been delivered by GRACE since 2002 are being used to infer changes in terrestrial water storage (the sum of groundwater, soil moisture, surface waters, and snow and ice), which are the primary source of gravity variability on monthly to decadal timescales after atmospheric and oceanic circulation effects have been removed. Other remote sensing techniques are unable to detect water below the first few centimeters of the land surface. Conventional ground based techniques can be used to monitor terrestrial water storage, but groundwater, soil moisture, and snow observation networks are sparse in most of the world, and the countries that do collect such data rarely are willing to share them. Thus GRACE is unique in its ability to provide global data on variations in the availability of fresh water, which is both vital to life on land and vulnerable to climate variability and mismanagement. This chapter describes the unique and challenging aspects of GRACE terrestrial water storage data, examples of how the data have been used for research and applications related to fresh water vulnerability and change, and prospects for continued contributions of satellite gravimetry to water resources science and policy.

  12. Satellite Applications Information Notes, October 1975 - December 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    the practical applications of satellite data. Geographical coverage of topics range from Hawaii to tHe east coast of continental U. S. and the Atlantic...34 in extreme southeast Nebraska. The geographical location of this old boundary, with respect to the squall line(s) easing in from the west, was...REASON FOR SEGEMENT ENHANCEMENT *1 +58.8 To +28.2 Little or no useful Met Data (Black) *2 +28.8 To + 6.8 Low Level/Sea Surface Difference 3 + 6.8 To

  13. Application of Unscented Kalman Filter in Satellite Orbit Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Dongming; CAI Zhiwu

    2006-01-01

    A new estimate method is proposed, which takes advantage of the unscented transform method, thus the true mean and covariance are approximated more accurately. The new method can be applied to non-linear systems without the linearization process necessary for the EKF, and it does not demand a Gaussian distribution of noise and what's more, its ease of implementation and more accurate estimation features enables it to demonstrate its good performance in the experiment of satellite orbit simulation. Numerical experiments show that the application of the unscented Kalman filter is more effective than the EKF.

  14. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, PUREX storage tunnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, C. R.

    1997-09-08

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the PUREX Storage Tunnels (this document, DOE/RL-90-24).

  15. Space qualification mechanical tests of HTS filters for satellite application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG JianDong; LI Hong; GU ChangZhi; LUO Qiang; SUN QinFen; WANG XiaoLin; SUN YiFan; WANG ZhiBing; WANG YunFei; LUO Sheng; HE YuSheng; SUN Liang; LI ShunZhou; MENG QingDuan; ZHANG Qiang; LI Fei; ZHANG XueQiang; LI ChunGuang; HE AiSheng

    2007-01-01

    High performance high-temperature superconducting (HTS) filters have been designed and constructed for satellite application. The filters are actually a superconducting integration of an 8-pole band-pass filter with an adjustable band-stop filter onto a single piece of LaAlO3 substrate (with dimension of 0.5×45×20 mm3). Typical results of the filters,i.e.,Filters A (made by YBCO) & B (made by TBCCO) will be reported. The measured responses of Filter A showed excellent specifications,e.g.,an insertion loss less than 0.1 dB,a return loss better than -22.5 dB in pass-band,band-edge steepness greater than 12 dB/MHz and out-of-band rejection at a certain band deeper than -110 dB. To satisfy the requirement of rocket launch and space operation,three filters of the above design have undergone mechanical environmental simulation tests for space qualification. Detailed analysis of the response curves of Filter B measured before and after the tests showed that no noticeable change in the performance can be found. All the filters passed the rigorous ground simulation tests,which is the first time in China for HTS devices and provided a solid foundation for satellite applications of high-temperature superconductors in the near future.

  16. Utilizing Satellite-derived Precipitation Products in Hydrometeorological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Ostrenga, D.; Teng, W. L.; Kempler, S. J.; Huffman, G. J.

    2012-12-01

    Each year droughts and floods happen around the world and can cause severe property damages and human casualties. Accurate measurement and forecast are important for preparedness and mitigation efforts. Through multi-satellite blended techniques, significant progress has been made over the past decade in satellite-based precipitation product development, such as, products' spatial and temporal resolutions as well as timely availability. These new products are widely used in various research and applications. In particular, the TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) products archived and distributed by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) provide 3-hourly, daily and monthly near-global (50° N - 50° S) precipitation datasets for research and applications. Two versions of TMPA products are available, research (3B42, 3B43, rain gauge adjusted) and near-real-time (3B42RT). At GES DISC, we have developed precipitation data services to support hydrometeorological applications in order to maximize the TRMM mission's societal benefits. In this presentation, we will present examples of utilizing TMPA precipitation products in hydrometeorological applications including: 1) monitoring global floods and droughts; 2) providing data services to support the USDA Crop Explorer; 3) support hurricane monitoring activities and research; and 4) retrospective analog year analyses to improve USDA's world agricultural supply and demand estimates. We will also present precipitation data services that can be used to support hydrometeorological applications including: 1) User friendly TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS; URL: http://disc2.nascom.nasa.gov/Giovanni/tovas/); 2) Mirador (http://mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov/), a simplified interface for searching, browsing, and ordering Earth science data at GES DISC; 3) Simple Subset Wizard (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/SSW/ ) for data subsetting and format conversion; 4) Data

  17. Accuracy of Satellite-Measured Wave Heights in the Australian Region for Wave Power Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meath, Sian E.; Aye, Lu; Haritos, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the accuracy of satellite data, which may then be used in wave power applications. The satellite data are compared to data from wave buoys, which are currently considered to be the most accurate of the devices available for measuring wave characteristics. This article presents an analysis of satellite- (Topex/Poseidon) and…

  18. Applications of a Networked Array of Small Satellites for Planetary Observation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunter, B.C.; Maessen, D.C.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to explore those applications which can best utilize a network of orbiting satellites working as a distributed computing array. The satellites are presumed to be low-cost mini- or micro-satellites orbiting Earth or some other celestial body (i.e., an asteroid, moon, etc.),

  19. Applications of a Networked Array of Small Satellites for Planetary Observation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunter, B.C.; Maessen, D.C.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to explore those applications which can best utilize a network of orbiting satellites working as a distributed computing array. The satellites are presumed to be low-cost mini- or micro-satellites orbiting Earth or some other celestial body (i.e., an asteroid, moon, etc.),

  20. Hardware demonstration of high-speed networks for satellite applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, Jonathon W.; Lee, David S.

    2008-09-01

    This report documents the implementation results of a hardware demonstration utilizing the Serial RapidIO{trademark} and SpaceWire protocols that was funded by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL's) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) office. This demonstration was one of the activities in the Modeling and Design of High-Speed Networks for Satellite Applications LDRD. This effort has demonstrated the transport of application layer packets across both RapidIO and SpaceWire networks to a common downlink destination using small topologies comprised of commercial-off-the-shelf and custom devices. The RapidFET and NEX-SRIO debug and verification tools were instrumental in the successful implementation of the RapidIO hardware demonstration. The SpaceWire hardware demonstration successfully demonstrated the transfer and routing of application data packets between multiple nodes and also was able reprogram remote nodes using configuration bitfiles transmitted over the network, a key feature proposed in node-based architectures (NBAs). Although a much larger network (at least 18 to 27 nodes) would be required to fully verify the design for use in a real-world application, this demonstration has shown that both RapidIO and SpaceWire are capable of routing application packets across a network to a common downlink node, illustrating their potential use in real-world NBAs.

  1. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, general information portion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, S.M., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-29

    The `Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application` is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (this document, DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit- Specific Portion. The scope of the General Information Portion includes information that could be used to discuss operating units, units undergoing closure, or units being dispositioned through other options. Documentation included in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units. A checklist indicating where information is contained in the General Information Portion, in relation to the Washington State Department of Ecology guidance documentation, is located in the Contents Section. The intent of the General Information Portion is: (1) to provide an overview of the Hanford Facility; and (2) to assist in streamlining efforts associated with treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit-specific Part B permit application, preclosure work plan, closure work plan, closure plan, closure/postclosure plan, or postclosure permit application documentation development, and the `Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit` modification process. Revision 2 of the General Information Portion of the `Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application` contains information current as of May 1, 1996. This document is a complete submittal and supersedes Revision 1.

  2. The long-term Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS) product suite and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Our Earth's environment is experiencing rapid changes due to natural variability and human activities. To monitor, understand and predict environment changes to meet the economic, social and environmental needs, use of long-term high-quality satellite data products is critical. The Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS) product suite, generated at Beijing Normal University, currently includes 12 products, including leaf area index (LAI), broadband shortwave albedo, broadband longwave emissivity, downwelling shortwave radiation and photosynthetically active radiation, land surface skin temperature, longwave net radiation, daytime all-wave net radiation, fraction of absorbed photosynetically active radiation absorbed by green vegetation (FAPAR), fraction of green vegetation coverage, gross primary productivity (GPP), and evapotranspiration (ET). Most products span from 1981-2014. The algorithms for producing these products have been published in the top remote sensing related journals and books. More and more applications have being reported in the scientific literature. The GLASS products are freely available at the Center for Global Change Data Processing and Analysis of Beijing Normal University (http://www.bnu-datacenter.com/), and the University of Maryland Global Land Cover Facility (http://glcf.umd.edu). After briefly introducing the basic characteristics of GLASS products, we will present some applications on the long-term environmental changes detected from GLASS products at both global and local scales. Detailed analysis of regional hotspots, such as Greenland, Tibetan plateau, and northern China, will be emphasized, where environmental changes have been mainly associated with climate warming, drought, land-atmosphere interactions, and human activities.

  3. Application of Geostatistical Simulation to Enhance Satellite Image Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavka, Christine A.; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Thirulanambi, Rajkumar; Roy, David

    2004-01-01

    With the deployment of Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites that provide daily, global imagery, there is increasing interest in defining the limitations of the data and derived products due to its coarse spatial resolution. Much of the detail, i.e. small fragments and notches in boundaries, is lost with coarse resolution imagery such as the EOS MODerate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Higher spatial resolution data such as the EOS Advanced Spaceborn Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Landsat and airborne sensor imagery provide more detailed information but are less frequently available. There are, however, both theoretical and analytical evidence that burn scars and other fragmented types of land covers form self-similar or self-affine patterns, that is, patterns that look similar when viewed at widely differing spatial scales. Therefore small features of the patterns should be predictable, at least in a statistical sense, with knowledge about the large features. Recent developments in fractal modeling for characterizing the spatial distribution of undiscovered petroleum deposits are thus applicable to generating simulations of finer resolution satellite image products. We will present example EOS products, analysis to investigate self-similarity, and simulation results.

  4. Alaska Satellite Facility: The Quest to Stay Ahead of the Big Data Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle-Hamer, A. L.; Nicoll, J.; Munk, S.

    2014-12-01

    Big Data is getting bigger. Fast enough is getting faster. The number and type of products produced is growing. The ideas on how to handle the day-to-day management of data and data systems need to scale with the data and the demand. We have seen the effects of rapid growth spurts at the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) and anticipate we are not done yet. Looking back, ASF was conceived in 1982 to be a single-purpose imaging radar receiving station supporting a science team focused on geophysical processes. The primary construction at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) was completed in 1988 and full operational status achieved in 1991. The expected supports were estimated at 10 minutes per day and quickly grew to 70 minutes per day. In 1994, a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between NASA and UAF formed the ASF Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) complementing, the existing agreement for ASF. The demand for the use of ASF as a receiving station and as a data center grew as fast as, and at times faster, than the capabilities. Looking forward, as demand drives the system larger just adding on more of the same often complicates rather than simplifies the system. A growing percentage of efforts and resources spent on dealing with problems that originate from a legacy system can creep up on an organization. This in turn limits the ability to keep the overall sustaining costs under control and leads to a crisis. Such growth means more-of-the-same philosophy has to shift into change-or-die philosophy in order to boot strap up to the next level. In this talk, we review how ASF has faced this several times in the past as the volume and demand of data grew along with the technology to acquire and disseminate it. We will look at what is coming for ASF as a data center and what we think are the next steps to stay ahead of the Big Data wave.

  5. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, general information portion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, C.B.

    1998-05-19

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needed by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in this report).

  6. Applications of Fuzzy Set Theory to Satellite Soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteanu, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    The introduction of an appropriate fuzzy setting for satellite soundings and its application to clustering methods via unimodal fuzzy sets in the future is proposed. Methods of hard clustering analysis and fuzzy partitioned clustering were applied on simulated data with very encouraging results. The proposed clustering technique is discussed. The notion of a unimodal fuzzy set was chosen to represent the partition of a data set for two reasons: (1) it detects all the locations in the vector space where highly concentrated clusters of points exist; and (2) the notion is general enough to represent clusters that exhibit quite general distributions of points. The technique detects all of the existing unimodal fuzzy sets and realizes the maximum separation among them. It is economical in memory space and computational time requirements and also detects groups that are fairly generally distributed in the feature space.

  7. PACTEL and PWR PACTEL Test Facilities for Versatile LWR Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virpi Kouhia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes construction and experimental research activities with two test facilities, PACTEL and PWR PACTEL. The PACTEL facility, comprising of reactor pressure vessel parts, three loops with horizontal steam generators, a pressurizer, and emergency core cooling systems, was designed to model the thermal-hydraulic behaviour of VVER-440-type reactors. The facility has been utilized in miscellaneous applications and experiments, for example, in the OECD International Standard Problem ISP-33. PACTEL has been upgraded and modified on a case-by-case basis. The latest facility configuration, the PWR PACTEL facility, was constructed for research activities associated with the EPR-type reactor. A significant design basis is to utilize certain parts of PACTEL, and at the same time, to focus on a proper construction of two new loops and vertical steam generators with an extensive instrumentation. The PWR PACTEL benchmark exercise was launched in 2010 with a small break loss-of-coolant accident test as the chosen transient. Both facilities, PACTEL and PWR PACTEL, are maintained fully operational side by side.

  8. An Application of Business Process Management to Health Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohsen M D

    The purpose of this article is to help health care facility managers and personnel identify significant elements of their facilities to address, and steps and actions to follow, when applying business process management to them. The ABPMP (Association of Business Process Management Professionals) life-cycle model of business process management is adopted, and steps from Lean, business process reengineering, and Six Sigma, and actions from operations management are presented to implement it. Managers of health care facilities can find in business process management a more comprehensive approach to improving their facilities than Lean, Six Sigma, business process reengineering, and ad hoc approaches that does not conflict with them because many of their elements can be included under its umbrella. Furthermore, the suggested application of business process management can guide and relieve them from selecting among these approaches, as well as provide them with specific steps and actions that they can follow. This article fills a gap in the literature by presenting a much needed comprehensive application of business process management to health care facilities that has specific steps and actions for implementation.

  9. MITRA Virtual laboratory for operative application of satellite time series for land degradation risk estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nole, Gabriele; Scorza, Francesco; Lanorte, Antonio; Manzi, Teresa; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    This paper aims to present the development of a tool to integrate time series from active and passive satellite sensors (such as of MODIS, Vegetation, Landsat, ASTER, COSMO, Sentinel) into a virtual laboratory to support studies on landscape and archaeological landscape, investigation on environmental changes, estimation and monitoring of natural and anthropogenic risks. The virtual laboratory is composed by both data and open source tools specifically developed for the above mentioned applications. Results obtained for investigations carried out using the implemented tools for monitoring land degradation issues and subtle changes ongoing on forestry and natural areas are herein presented. In detail MODIS, SPOT Vegetation and Landsat time series were analyzed comparing results of different statistical analyses and the results integrated with ancillary data and evaluated with field survey. The comparison of the outputs we obtained for the Basilicata Region from satellite data analyses and independent data sets clearly pointed out the reliability for the diverse change analyses we performed, at the pixel level, using MODIS, SPOT Vegetation and Landsat TM data. Next steps are going to be implemented to further advance the current Virtual Laboratory tools, by extending current facilities adding new computational algorithms and applying to other geographic regions. Acknowledgement This research was performed within the framework of the project PO FESR Basilicata 2007/2013 - Progetto di cooperazione internazionale MITRA "Remote Sensing tecnologies for Natural and Cultural heritage Degradation Monitoring for Preservation and valorization" funded by Basilicata Region Reference 1. A. Lanorte, R Lasaponara, M Lovallo, L Telesca 2014 Fisher-Shannon information plane analysis of SPOT/VEGETATION Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series to characterize vegetation recovery after fire disturbance International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and

  10. Preface: BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS)/GNSS+: Recent progress and new applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shuanggen

    2017-02-01

    Nowadays, the new China's BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) has been developed well. At the end of 2016, over 23 BDS satellites were launched, including five geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) satellites, five inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO) satellites and nine medium Earth orbit (MEO) satellites. The current BDS service covers China and most Asia-Pacific regions with accuracy of better than 10 m in positioning, 0.2 m/s in velocity and 50 ns in timing. The BDS with global coverage will be completely established by 2020 with five GEO satellites and 30 MEO satellites. The main function of BDS is the positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) as well as short message communications. Together with the United States' GPS, Russia's GLONASS and the European Union's Galileo system as well as other regional augmentation systems, more new applications of multi-Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) will be exploited and realized in the next decades.

  11. Anticipated prospects and civilian applications of Indian satellite navigation services in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. Senanayake

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, positive impacts of 3 Indian Navigational Satellite programmes (GAGAN, IRNSS and INSAT-MSS reporting system for the civilian applications over Sri Lanka are discussed. Other neighbouring countries covered under the footprint of Indian navigational satellite programmes can also employ these services for the location based applications productively.

  12. Selected Applications of Planar Imaging Velocimetry in Combustion Test Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willert, Christian; Stockhausen, Guido; Voges, Melanie; Klinner, Joachim; Schodl, Richard; Hassa, Christoph; Schürmans, Bruno; Güthe, Felix

    This chapter provides an overview on the application of particle image velocimetry (PIV) and Doppler global velocimetry (DGV) in combustion test facilities that are operated at pressures of up to 10 bar. Emphasis is placed on the experimental aspects of each application rather than the interpretation of the acquired flow-field data because many of the encountered problems and chosen solution strategies are unique to this area of velocimetry application. In particular, imaging configurations, seeding techniques, data-acquisition strategies as well as pre- and postprocessing methodologies are outlined.

  13. Indian remote sensing satellites: Planned missions and future applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, M. G.; Jayaraman, V.; Rao, Mukund

    1996-02-01

    To cater the enhanced user demands, Indian Space Research Organisation is stepping a giant leap forward towards development of the state-of-the-art second generation Indian Remote Sensing Satellites, IRS-1C/1D following the successful design, launch and in-orbit performance of the first generation satellites, IRS-1A/1B. Characterised by improved spatial resolution, extended spectral bands, stereo-viewing and more frequent revisit capability, IRS-1C/1D are expected for launch during the timeframe of 1995-96/8. The IRS-1C and ID, which are identical, will have three major payloads. The Linear Imaging Spectral Scanner (LISS-III) in four spectral bands covering from 0.52 to 1.70 microns will have a spatial resolution of 23m along with a swath of 142 km in the visible and NIR spectral bands and a spatial resolution of 70m along with a swath of 148 km in the SWIR spectral band. The Panchromatic Camera (PAN) with a spectral band of 0.50 to 0.75 microns will have a spatial resolution of information on water stress, pest infestation and vegetation indices to arrive at better agricultural management practices, besides providing enhanced capabilities for arriving solutions for micro-level resource development and generation of digital terrain models. Having marked by the successful launch of IRS-P2 in 1994 through the indigenous development flight of PSLV, India is now poised to launch IRS-P3 satellite with unique payloads in the timeframe of 1995-1996 The IRS-P3 will carry three operational payloads viz., Wide Field Sensor (WiFS), Modular Opto-electronic Scanner (MOS) imaging spectrometer and an X-ray Astronomy payload. These payload mix of sensors will provide further capabilities for application studies related to vegetation dynamics, oceanography and X-ray astronomy. With the launch of these payloads, India will provide more effective and assured data services to the user community beyond the 90's.

  14. Network coding and its applications to satellite systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieira, Fausto; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    Network coding has its roots in information theory where it was initially proposed as a way to improve a two-node communication using a (broadcasting) relay. For this theoretical construct, a satellite communications system was proposed as an illustrative example, where the relay node would...... be a satellite covering the two nodes. The benefits in terms of throughput, resilience, and flexibility of network coding are quite relevant for wireless networks in general, and for satellite systems in particular. This chapter presents some of the basics in network coding, as well as an overview of specific...... scenarios where network coding provides a significant improvement compared to existing solutions, for example, in broadcast and multicast satellite networks, hybrid satellite-terrestrial networks, and broadband multibeam satellites. The chapter also compares coding perspectives and revisits the layered...

  15. Network coding and its applications to satellite systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieira, Fausto; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    Network coding has its roots in information theory where it was initially proposed as a way to improve a two-node communication using a (broadcasting) relay. For this theoretical construct, a satellite communications system was proposed as an illustrative example, where the relay node would...... be a satellite covering the two nodes. The benefits in terms of throughput, resilience, and flexibility of network coding are quite relevant for wireless networks in general, and for satellite systems in particular. This chapter presents some of the basics in network coding, as well as an overview of specific...... scenarios where network coding provides a significant improvement compared to existing solutions, for example, in broadcast and multicast satellite networks, hybrid satellite-terrestrial networks, and broadband multibeam satellites. The chapter also compares coding perspectives and revisits the layered...

  16. Smart facility application: exploiting space technology for smart city solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termizi, A. A. A.; Ahmad, N.; Omar, M. F.; Wahap, N. A.; Zainal, D.; Ismail, N. M.

    2016-06-01

    Facilities and amenities management is amongst the core functionalities of local government. Considering the vast area that local government has to manage, a smart solution is extremely inevitable to solve issues such as inefficient maintenance of public parks, drainage system and so forth. Therefore, this paper aims to offer a smart city solution which exploits the benefit of space technology. This proposed solution is one of the modules developed in Spatial Smart City Service Delivery Engine (SSC SDE) Project undertaken by Agensi Angkasa Negara (ANGKASA). Various levels of local government have been chosen to understand real issues faced by them. Based on this data, a Smart Facility application has been developed with the aim to enhance the service delivery by the local government hence improving citizens’ satisfaction. Since this project is still in progress, this paper will merely discussing the concept of this application.

  17. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, general information. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The current Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (this document, number DOE/RL-91-28) and a treatment, storage, and/or disposal Unit-Specific Portion, which includes documentation for individual TSD units (e.g., document numbers DOE/RL-89-03 and DOE/RL-90-01). Both portions consist of a Part A division and a Part B division. The Part B division consists of 15 chapters that address the content of the Part B checklists prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information requirements mandated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow the chapter headings and subheadings. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion (i.e., this document, number DOE/RL-91-28) is broader in nature and applies to all treatment, storage, and/or disposal units for which final status is sought. Because of its broad nature, the Part A division of the General Information Portion references the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Part A Permit Application (document number DOE/RL-88-21), a compilation of all Part A documentation for the Hanford Facility.

  18. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, PUREX storage tunnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, S.M.

    1997-09-08

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, operating treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the PUREX Storage Tunnels (this document, DOE/RL-90-24). Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is contained in the PUREX Storage Tunnels permit application documentation, in relation to the Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents Section. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever appropriate, the PUREX Storage Tunnels permit application documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. Information provided in this PUREX Storage Tunnels permit application documentation is current as of April 1997.

  19. Solar Power Satellites for Space Exploration and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cougnet, C.; Sein, E.; Celeste, A.; Summerer, L.

    2004-12-01

    Power generation is one of the crucial elements of space vehicles and of future infrastructures on planets and moons. The increased demand for power faces many constraints, in particular the sizing of the power generation system also driven by eclipse periods and the solar intensity at the operational spot. In the medium term, Earth orbiting platforms will require higher power levels. Interplanetary exploration vehicles face the problem of distance to the Sun, especially when large amount of power may be needed. Large infrastructures on Moon and planets, like Mars, are constrained by environment attenuation, long eclipse or distance to the Sun. New systems and technologies have to be found, which go beyond simple improvements of the current technologies. Solar Power Satellite (SPS) systems, based on wireless power transmission, are attractive candidate solutions to provide power to space vehicles or to elements on planet surface. Studies have been carried out for many years on the problem of providing renewable electrical energy from space to Earth with SPS. This paper reviews the main results of an ESA funded study, led by EADS Astrium with the support of the Université of La Réunion, which assessed the utilisation of SPS concepts for space-to-space and space-to-planet applications.

  20. Sea ice-atmospheric interaction: Application of multispectral satellite data in polar surface energy flux estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Konrad; Key, J.; Maslanik, J.; Schweiger, A.

    1993-01-01

    This is the third annual report on: Sea Ice-Atmosphere Interaction - Application of Multispectral Satellite Data in Polar Surface Energy Flux Estimates. The main emphasis during the past year was on: radiative flux estimates from satellite data; intercomparison of satellite and ground-based cloud amounts; radiative cloud forcing; calibration of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) visible channels and comparison of two satellite derived albedo data sets; and on flux modeling for leads. Major topics covered are arctic clouds and radiation; snow and ice albedo, and leads and modeling.

  1. Internetworking satellite and local exchange networks for personal communications applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Richard S.; Pinck, Deborah

    1993-01-01

    The demand for personal communications services has shown unprecedented growth, and the next decade and beyond promise an era in which the needs for ubiquitous, transparent and personalized access to information will continue to expand in both scale and scope. The exchange of personalized information is growing from two-way voice to include data communications, electronic messaging and information services, image transfer, video, and interactive multimedia. The emergence of new land-based and satellite-based wireless networks illustrates the expanding scale and trend toward globalization and the need to establish new local exchange and exchange access services to meet the communications needs of people on the move. An important issue is to identify the roles that satellite networking can play in meeting these new communications needs. The unique capabilities of satellites, in providing coverage to large geographic areas, reaching widely dispersed users, for position location determination, and in offering broadcast and multicast services, can complement and extend the capabilities of terrestrial networks. As an initial step in exploring the opportunities afforded by the merger of satellite-based and land-based networks, several experiments utilizing the NASA ACTS satellite and the public switched local exchange network were undertaken to demonstrate the use of satellites in the delivery of personal communications services.

  2. Diffraction studies applicable to 60-foot microwave research facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, R. F.

    1973-01-01

    The principal features of this document are the analysis of a large dual-reflector antenna system by vector Kirchhoff theory, the evaluation of subreflector aperture-blocking, determination of the diffraction and blockage effects of a subreflector mounting structure, and an estimate of strut-blockage effects. Most of the computations are for a frequency of 15.3 GHz, and were carried out using the IBM 360/91 and 360/95 systems at Goddard Space Flight Center. The FORTRAN 4 computer program used to perform the computations is of a general and modular type so that various system parameters such as frequency, eccentricity, diameter, focal-length, etc. can be varied at will. The parameters of the 60-foot NRL Ku-band installation at Waldorf, Maryland, were entered into the program for purposes of this report. Similar calculations could be performed for the NELC installation at La Posta, California, the NASA Wallops Station facility in Virginia, and other antenna systems, by a simple change in IBM control cards. A comparison is made between secondary radiation patterns of the NRL antenna measured by DOD Satellite and those obtained by analytical/numerical methods at a frequency of 7.3 GHz.

  3. Finite Element Analysis for Satellite Structures Applications to Their Design, Manufacture and Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Abdelal, Gasser F; Gad, Ahmed H

    2013-01-01

    Designing satellite structures poses an ongoing challenge as the interaction between analysis, experimental testing, and manufacturing phases is underdeveloped. Finite Element Analysis for Satellite Structures: Applications to Their Design, Manufacture and Testing explains the theoretical and practical knowledge needed to perform design of satellite structures. By layering detailed practical discussions with fully developed examples, Finite Element Analysis for Satellite Structures: Applications to Their Design, Manufacture and Testing provides the missing link between theory and implementation.   Computational examples cover all the major aspects of advanced analysis; including modal analysis, harmonic analysis, mechanical and thermal fatigue analysis using finite element method. Test cases are included to support explanations an a range of different manufacturing simulation techniques are described from riveting to shot peening to material cutting. Mechanical design of a satellites structures are covered...

  4. Current and Future Applications of Multispectral (RGB) Satellite Imagery for Weather Analysis and Forecasting Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Fuell, Kevin K.; LaFontaine, Frank; McGrath, Kevin; Smith, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Current and future satellite sensors provide remotely sensed quantities from a variety of wavelengths ranging from the visible to the passive microwave, from both geostationary and low ]Earth orbits. The NASA Short ]term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has a long history of providing multispectral imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA fs Terra and Aqua satellites in support of NWS forecast office activities. Products from MODIS have recently been extended to include a broader suite of multispectral imagery similar to those developed by EUMETSAT, based upon the spectral channels available from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) aboard METEOSAT ]9. This broader suite includes products that discriminate between air mass types associated with synoptic ]scale features, assists in the identification of dust, and improves upon paired channel difference detection of fog and low cloud events. Future instruments will continue the availability of these products and also expand upon current capabilities. The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on GOES ]R will improve the spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution of our current geostationary capabilities, and the recent launch of the Suomi National Polar ]Orbiting Partnership (S ]NPP) carries instruments such as the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), the Cross ]track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), and the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS), which have unrivaled spectral and spatial resolution, as precursors to the JPSS era (i.e., the next generation of polar orbiting satellites. New applications from VIIRS extend multispectral composites available from MODIS and SEVIRI while adding new capabilities through incorporation of additional CrIS channels or information from the Near Constant Contrast or gDay ]Night Band h, which provides moonlit reflectance from clouds and detection of fires or city lights. This presentation will

  5. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program; Satellite Facilities Operation and Maintenance, 2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, Michael L.; Seeger, Ryan; Hewitt, Laurie (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Department of Natural Resources, Pendleton, OR)

    2006-01-01

    There were 2 acclimation periods at the Catherine Creek Acclimation Facility (CCAF) in 2005. During the early acclimation period, 130,748 smolts were delivered from Lookingglass Hatchery (LGH) on 7 March. This group contained progeny of both the captive (53%) and conventional broodstock programs. The size of the fish at delivery was 23.9 fish/lb. Volitional releases began 14 March 2005 and ended 27 March with an estimated total (based on PIT tag detections of 3,187) of 29,402 fish leaving the raceways. This was 22.5% of the total fish delivered. Fish remaining in the raceways after volitional release were forced out. Hourly detections of PIT-tagged fish showed that most of the fish left around 1900 hours. The size of the fish just before the volitional release was 23.9 and the size of the fish remaining just before the forced release was 23.2 fish/lb. The total mortality for the acclimation period was 204 (0.16%). The total number of fish released from the acclimation facility during the early period was 130,544. During the second acclimation period 59,100 smolts were delivered from LGH on 28 March. This group was comprised entirely of progeny from the conventional broodstock program. The size of the fish at delivery was 21.8 fish/lb. Volitional releases began 3 April 2005 and ended with a force out emergency release on 7 April. The size of the fish just before the volitional release was 21.8. The total mortality for the acclimation period was 64 (0.11 %). The total number of fish released from the acclimation facility during the late period was 59,036. There was only 1 planned acclimation period at the Upper Grande Ronde Acclimation Facility (UGRAF) in 2005. During the early acclimation period 105,418 smolts were delivered from LGH on 8 March. This group was comprised entirely of progeny from the conventional broodstock program. The size of the fish at delivery was 21.0 fish/lb. There was no volitional release in 2005 due to freezing air and water conditions

  6. Program on application of communications satellites to educational development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R. P.; Singh, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research in needs analysis, communications technology studies, and systems synthesis is reported. Existing and planned educational telecommunications services are studied and library utilization of telecommunications is described. Preliminary estimates are presented of ranges of utilization of educational telecommunications services for 1975 and 1985; instructional and public television, computer-aided instruction, computing resources, and information resource sharing for various educational levels and purposes. Communications technology studies include transmission schemes for still-picture television, use of Gunn effect devices, and TV receiver front ends for direct satellite reception at 12 GHz. Two major studies in the systems synthesis project concern (1) organizational and administrative aspects of a large-scale instructional satellite system to be used with schools and (2) an analysis of future development of instructional television, with emphasis on the use of video tape recorders and cable television. A communications satellite system synthesis program developed for NASA is now operational on the university IBM 360-50 computer.

  7. Satellite Communications for Aeronautical Applications: Recent research and Development Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    Communications systems have always been a critical element in aviation. Until recently, nearly all communications between the ground and aircraft have been based on analog voice technology. But the future of global aviation requires a more sophisticated "information infrastructure" which not only provides more and better communications, but integrates the key information functions (communications, navigation, and surveillance) into a modern, network-based infrastructure. Satellite communications will play an increasing role in providing information infrastructure solutions for aviation. Developing and adapting satellite communications technologies for aviation use is now receiving increased attention as the urgency to develop information infrastructure solutions grows. The NASA Glenn Research Center is actively involved in research and development activities for aeronautical satellite communications, with a key emphasis on air traffic management communications needs. This paper describes the recent results and status of NASA Glenn's research program.

  8. Multi-agent robotic systems and applications for satellite missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Miguel A.

    A revolution in the space sector is happening. It is expected that in the next decade there will be more satellites launched than in the previous sixty years of space exploration. Major challenges are associated with this growth of space assets such as the autonomy and management of large groups of satellites, in particular with small satellites. There are two main objectives for this work. First, a flexible and distributed software architecture is presented to expand the possibilities of spacecraft autonomy and in particular autonomous motion in attitude and position. The approach taken is based on the concept of distributed software agents, also referred to as multi-agent robotic system. Agents are defined as software programs that are social, reactive and proactive to autonomously maximize the chances of achieving the set goals. Part of the work is to demonstrate that a multi-agent robotic system is a feasible approach for different problems of autonomy such as satellite attitude determination and control and autonomous rendezvous and docking. The second main objective is to develop a method to optimize multi-satellite configurations in space, also known as satellite constellations. This automated method generates new optimal mega-constellations designs for Earth observations and fast revisit times on large ground areas. The optimal satellite constellation can be used by researchers as the baseline for new missions. The first contribution of this work is the development of a new multi-agent robotic system for distributing the attitude determination and control subsystem for HiakaSat. The multi-agent robotic system is implemented and tested on the satellite hardware-in-the-loop testbed that simulates a representative space environment. The results show that the newly proposed system for this particular case achieves an equivalent control performance when compared to the monolithic implementation. In terms on computational efficiency it is found that the multi

  9. 40 CFR 60.730 - Applicability and designation of affected facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Performance for Calciners and Dryers in Mineral Industries § 60.730 Applicability and designation of affected facility. (a) The affected facility to which the provisions of this subpart apply is each calciner...

  10. A distributed MDO architecture and its application on small satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zheng; Li, Guanhua; Fu, Junming

    2009-12-01

    This paper introduces the technical feature of a former developed MDO (Multidisciplinary Design Optimization) architecture for spacecraft design, which is called Spacecraft Distributed Design Environment (SDIDE). SDIDE is an interactive spacecraft design system based on distributed network computing environment. It applies MDO in the whole lifecycle of spacecraft design, and makes nearly all kinds of system-level and discipline-level analysis tools work collaboratively. SDIDE uses a flexible bus scheme based on Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) to improve the integration and efficiency. The paper takes the structural optimization of the Tsinghua University "NS-1" small satellite as an example to illustrate the usage of the software system of SDIDE in assisting the overall design of satellite. The result of calculation shows that the software system can effectively decrease the cost of developing a satellite system and improve the overall performance of the satellite, accordingly proving the practicality and feasibility of the SDIDE architecture into the design process of a spacecraft.

  11. Sunflower array antenna for multi-beam satellite applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigano, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Saving space on board, reducing costs and improving the antenna performances are tasks of outmost importance in the field of satellite communication. In this work it is shown how a non-uniformly spaced, direct radiating array designed according to the so called ‘sunflower’ law is able to satisfy str

  12. Applications of the Petite Amateur Navy Satellite (PANSAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    want to do a rescue!" 82 LIST OF REFERENCES [I] Hutchinson, Charles L. and Kleinman, Joel P., editors, The ARRL Handbook for the Radio Amateur, The...the US Naval Postgraduate School’s PANSAT," Oct. 1988. [24] Davidoff, Martin, The Satellite Experimenter’s Handbook , The American Radio Relay League

  13. An assessment of the status and trends in satellite communications 1986-2000: An information document prepared for the Communications Subcommittee of the Space Applications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poley, W. A.; Stevens, G. H.; Stevenson, S. M.; Lekan, J.; Arth, C. H.; Hollansworth, J. E.; Miller, E. F.

    1986-01-01

    This is a response to a Space Applications Advisory Committee (SAAC) request for information about the status and trends in satellite communications, to be used to support efforts to conceive and recommend long range goals for NASA communications activities. Included in this document are assessments of: (1) the outlook for satellite communications, including current applications, potential future applications, and impact of the changing environment such as optical fiber networks, the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) standard, and the rapidly growing market for Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSAT); (2) the restrictions imposed by our limited spectrum resource; and (3) technology needs indicated by future trends. Potential future systems discussed include: large powerful satellites for providing personal communications; VSAT compatible satellites with onboard switching and having voice capability; large satellites which offer a pervasive T1 network service (primarily for video-phone); and large geostationary communications facilities which support common use by several carriers. Also, discussion is included of NASA particular needs and possible future systems. Based on the mentioned system concepts, specific technology recommendations are provided for the time frames of now - 1993, 1994 - 2000, and 2000 - 2010.

  14. Global mobile satellite communications theory for maritime, land and aeronautical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ilčev, Stojče Dimov

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses current theory regarding global mobile satellite communications (GMSC) for maritime, land (road and rail), and aeronautical applications. It covers how these can enable connections between moving objects such as ships, road and rail vehicles and aircrafts on one hand, and on the other ground telecommunications subscribers through the medium of communications satellites, ground earth stations, Terrestrial Telecommunication Networks (TTN), Internet Service Providers (ISP) and other wireless and landline telecommunications providers. This new edition covers new developments and initiatives that have resulted in land and aeronautical applications and the introduction of new satellite constellations in non-geostationary orbits and projects of new hybrid satellite constellations. The book presents current GMSC trends, mobile system concepts and network architecture using a simple mode of style with understandable technical information, characteristics, graphics, illustrations and mathematics equ...

  15. Evaluation of CDMA system capacity for mobile satellite system applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Partrick O.; Geraniotis, Evaggelos A.

    1988-01-01

    A specific Direct-Sequence/Pseudo-Noise (DS/PN) Code-Division Multiple-Access (CDMA) mobile satellite system (MSAT) architecture is discussed. The performance of this system is evaluated in terms of the maximum number of active MSAT subscribers that can be supported at a given uncoded bit-error probability. The evaluation decouples the analysis of the multiple-access capability (i.e., the number of instantaneous user signals) from the analysis of the multiple-access mutliplier effect allowed by the use of CDMA with burst-modem operation. We combine the results of these two analyses and present numerical results for scenarios of interest to the mobile satellite system community.

  16. Application of chlorine dioxide as an oilfield facilities treatment fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romaine, J.; Strawser, T.G.; Knippers, M.L.

    1995-11-01

    Both mechanical and chemical treatments are used to clean water flood injection distribution systems whose efficiency has been reduced as a result of plugging material such as iron sulfide sludge. Most mechanical treatments rely on uniform line diameter to be effective, while chemical treatments require good contact with the plugging material for efficient removal. This paper describes the design and operation of a new innovative application using chlorine dioxide for the removal of iron sulfide sludge from water flood injection distribution systems. This technology has evolved from the use of chlorine dioxide in well stimulation applications. The use of chlorine dioxide for continuous treatment of injection brines will also be discussed. Exxon USA`s Hartzog Draw facility in Gillette, Wyoming was the site for the application described. 4,500 barrels of chlorine dioxide was pumped in three phases to clean sixty-six miles of the water flood distribution system. Results indicate that chlorine dioxide was effective in cleaning the well guard screens, the injection lines, frac tanks used to collect the treatment fluids and the injection wells.

  17. Application of communications satellites to educational development. [technology utilization/information systems - bibliographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    A summary of research is presented. The broad objectives of this interdisciplinary research effort were: (1) to assess the role of satellite communications as a means of improving education in the United States, as well as in less-developed areas of the world; (2) to generate basic knowledge which will aid in making rational decisions about satellite application in the field of education in the years ahead; (3) to devise systems and strategies for improving education; and (4) to educate individuals who will be knowledgeable about aspects of satellite communications policy which transcend any single discipline.

  18. Satellite Formation Design for Space Based Radar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-30

    Practical Guidance Methodology for Relative Motion of LEO Spacecraft Based on the Clohessy-Wiltshire Equations,” AAS Paper 04-252, AAS/AIAA Space...Non- Circular Reference Orbit," AAS Paper 01-222, AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, Santa Barbara, CA, Feb 11-16, 2001. 11. D. Brouwer ...Small Eccentricities or Inclinations in the Brouwer Theory of the Artificial Satellite,” The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 68, October 1963, pp. 555

  19. A new approach to design of quasi-isotropic antenna systems for satellite applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Hansen, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    The new approach considered takes into account the maximum error of the quasi-isotropic radiation pattern relative to the ideal pattern. A design example involving a spherical satellite with quarter wave monopoles is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new approach. An investigation...... is conducted concerning the minimax optimization of power radiation patterns. It is shown that the minimax objective represents a useful alternative to the isotropy concept in the design of quasi-isotropic antenna systems for satellite applications....

  20. A new approach to design of quasi-isotropic antenna systems for satellite applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Hansen, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    The new approach considered takes into account the maximum error of the quasi-isotropic radiation pattern relative to the ideal pattern. A design example involving a spherical satellite with quarter wave monopoles is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new approach. An investigation...... is conducted concerning the minimax optimization of power radiation patterns. It is shown that the minimax objective represents a useful alternative to the isotropy concept in the design of quasi-isotropic antenna systems for satellite applications....

  1. Application of Satellite Laser Ranging Techniques for Space Situational Awareness Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shappirio, M.; McGarry, J. F.; Bufton, J.; Cheek, J. W.; Coyle, D. B.; Hull, S. M.; Stysley, P. R.; Sun, X.; Young, R. P.; Zagwodzki, T.

    2016-09-01

    With the numbers of conjunction avoidance maneuvers for the International Space Station and other Low Earth Orbit satellites rising and likely to continue to increase, the need to develop methods to produce accurate 72+ hour orbital predictions is becoming critical. One emerging solution is to utilize satellite laser ranging techniques to range to debris and refine the initial positions to improve the orbital predictions for objects predicted to experience a close approach. Some stations in Europe have already demonstrated that this technique is possible, but it has not been employed to refine the likelihood of collision. We will present a notional architecture for laser ranging to debris utilizing existing satellite laser ranging or visual tracking facilities. We will also discuss the capabilities of laser ranging for Space Situational Awareness and provide a direct comparison to current visual and radar tracking methods.

  2. The pan-sharpening of satellite and UAV imagery for agricultural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenerowicz, Agnieszka; Woroszkiewicz, Malgorzata

    2016-10-01

    Remote sensing techniques are widely used in many different areas of interest, i.e. urban studies, environmental studies, agriculture, etc., due to fact that they provide rapid, accurate and information over large areas with optimal time, spatial and spectral resolutions. Agricultural management is one of the most common application of remote sensing methods nowadays. Monitoring of agricultural sites and creating information regarding spatial distribution and characteristics of crops are important tasks to provide data for precision agriculture, crop management and registries of agricultural lands. For monitoring of cultivated areas many different types of remote sensing data can be used- most popular are multispectral satellites imagery. Such data allow for generating land use and land cover maps, based on various methods of image processing and remote sensing methods. This paper presents fusion of satellite and unnamed aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery for agricultural applications, especially for distinguishing crop types. Authors in their article presented chosen data fusion methods for satellite images and data obtained from low altitudes. Moreover the authors described pan- sharpening approaches and applied chosen pan- sharpening methods for multiresolution image fusion of satellite and UAV imagery. For such purpose, satellite images from Landsat- 8 OLI sensor and data collected within various UAV flights (with mounted RGB camera) were used. In this article, the authors not only had shown the potential of fusion of satellite and UAV images, but also presented the application of pan- sharpening in crop identification and management.

  3. A survey of decontamination processes applicable to DOE nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1997-05-01

    The objective of this survey was to select an appropriate technology for in situ decontamination of equipment interiors as part of the decommissioning of U.S. Department of Energy nuclear facilities. This selection depends on knowledge of existing chemical decontamination methods. This report provides an up-to-date review of chemical decontamination methods. According to available information, aqueous systems are probably the most universally used method for decontaminating and cleaning metal surfaces. We have subdivided the technologies, on the basis of the types of chemical solvents, into acid, alkaline permanganate, highly oxidizing, peroxide, and miscellaneous systems. Two miscellaneous chemical decontamination methods (electrochemical processes and foam and gel systems) are also described. A concise technical description of various processes is given, and the report also outlines technical considerations in the choice of technologies, including decontamination effectiveness, waste handing, fields of application, and the advantages and limitations in application. On the basis of this survey, six processes were identified for further evaluation. 144 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Application of Petri Net to Fault Diagnosis in Satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A prototype of fault diagnosis based on Petri net, which is developed for a satellite tele-control subsystem, is introduced in this paper. Its structure is first given with the emphasis on a Petri net modeling tool which is designed using the object oriented method. The prototype is connected to the database with DAO (Date Access Object) technique, and makes the Petri net's firing mechanism and its analyzing methods to be packed up as DLL (Dynamic Link Library) documents. Compared with the rule-based expert system method, the Petri net-based one can store the knowledge in mathematical matrix and make inference more quickly and effectively.

  5. Transfer of satellite applications and technology - The need for a U.S. initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Heather E.

    In the brief history of satellite communications, the United States has passed through three major eras: the Era of Conjecture, the Era of Experiments and the Era of Services. NASA took the lead in the experimental era to demonstrate both technology and applications - and to ensure their transfer for commercial use. The developing world has also entered the Era of Services, but without the benefit of an experimental phase. Several developing countries now have their own domestic systems; others share regqional systems or lease domestic capacity from INTELSAT. However, the record of developmental applications of these satellites has been disappointing to date. Much capacity sits idle. The U.S. has a great deal to share with the developing world to assist in the effective utilization of this technology. A U.S. Satellite Applications and Technology Transfer (SATT) program is proposed.

  6. Applications of Satellite Fluorescence to Constrain Global Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazoo, Nicholas

    2016-07-01

    Terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) by plant photosynthesis is the largest flux component of the global carbon budget and primary conduit for biological sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. While much is known about the functioning of photosynthesis at the leave-level, gross photosynthetic fluxes are still only loosely constrained at ecosystem, regional, and global scales. Uncertainty in the response of photosynthesis to the environment at these scales is a major source of uncertainty in prediction of biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks under climate change, and thus novel methods are needed to push the boundaries of carbon cycle science beyond leaf-level. Chlorophyll fluorescence has been a major tool for basic research in photosynthesis for nearly a century. It was recently discovered that solar induced fluorescence (SIF) can be accurately retrieved from space using high spectral resolution radiances, providing a new way to study photosynthesis at scales ranging from the ecosystem to the globe. Over the last 5-10 years, satellite based measurements of SIF have provided key new insights into the global distribution and functioning of plant photosynthesis, providing new ways to quantify global GPP, detect regional-scale changes in plant productivity in relation to light use efficiency and environmental controls, disentangle biological contributions to atmospheric carbon dioxide mole fractions, and refine process understanding in terrestrial biosphere models. Here, we highlight some of the key research advances emerging from satellite SIF.

  7. Low-stiction magnetic bearing for satellite application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, K. R.; Sivadasan, K. K.

    2002-05-01

    In this article, the design and development of a low-stiction two-axis-active magnetic bearing used in the reaction wheel of a remote sensing satellite is presented. Conventional design of the magnetic circuit and improvements in the design using finite element (FE) analysis were carried out. The results of investigations carried out to bring down the stiction torque of the magnetic bearing to a very low value of less than 1×10-4 Nm are also presented. Ideally for zero stiction, the cogging between the moving and stationary parts must be zero. In a reaction wheel of the satellite, there will be a permanent magnet brushless dc motor as the drive motor. Magnetic or eddy current sensors present in the motor commutation circuit will induce cogging between the moving and stationary parts. In this work, by properly designing all subsystems, the stiction has been brought down to as low as 0.75×10-4 Nm. Test results of the developed magnetic bearing match fairly with the computed values by FE analysis.

  8. Mapping reference evapotranspiration from meteorological satellite data and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hwi Yao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reference evapotranspiration (ETo is an agrometeorological variable widely used in hydrology and agriculture. The FAO-56 Penman-Monteith combination method (PM method is a standard for computing ETo for water management. However, this scheme is limited to areas where climatic data with good quality are available. Maps of 10-day averaged ETo at 5 km × 5 km grid spacing for the Taiwan region were produced by multiplying pan evaporation (Epan, derived from ground solar radiation (GSR retrieved from satellite images using the Heliosat-3 method, by a fixed pan coefficient (Kp. Validation results indicated that the overall mean absolute percentage error (MAPE and normalized root-mean-square deviation (NRMSD were 6.2 and 7.7%, respectively, when compared with ETo computed by the PM method using spatially interpolated 10-day averaged daily maximum and minimum temperature datasets and GSR derived from satellite inputs. Land coefficient (KL values based on the derived ETo estimates and long term latent heat flux measurements, were determined for the following landscapes: Paddy rice (Oryza sativa, subtropical cypress forest (Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana and Chamaecyparis formosensis, warm-to-temperate mixed rainforest (Cryptocarya chinensis, Engelhardtia roxburghiana, Tutcheria shinkoensis, and Helicia formosana, and grass marsh (Brachiaria mutica and Phragmites australis. The determined land coefficients are indispensable to scale ETo in estimating regional evapotranspiration.

  9. APPLICABILITY EVALUATION OF OBJECT DETECTION METHOD TO SATELLITE AND AERIAL IMAGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kamiya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since satellite and aerial imageries are recently widely spread and frequently observed, combination of them are expected to complement spatial and temporal resolution each other. One of the prospective applications is traffic monitoring, where objects of interest, or vehicles, need to be recognized automatically. Techniques that employ object detection before object recognition can save a computational time and cost, and thus take a significant role. However, there is not enough knowledge whether object detection method can perform well on satellite and aerial imageries. In addition, it also has to be studied how characteristics of satellite and aerial imageries affect the object detection performance. This study employ binarized normed gradients (BING method that runs significantly fast and is robust to rotation and noise. For our experiments, 11-bits BGR-IR satellite imageries from WorldView-3, and BGR-color aerial imageries are used respectively, and we create thousands of ground truth samples. We conducted several experiments to compare the performances with different images, to verify whether combination of different resolution images improved the performance, and to analyze the applicability of mixing satellite and aerial imageries. The results showed that infrared band had little effect on the detection rate, that 11-bit images performed less than 8-bit images and that the better spatial resolution brought the better performance. Another result might imply that mixing higher and lower resolution images for training dataset could help detection performance. Furthermore, we found that aerial images improved the detection performance on satellite images.

  10. Applicability Evaluation of Object Detection Method to Satellite and Aerial Imageries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, K.; Fuse, T.; Takahashi, M.

    2016-06-01

    Since satellite and aerial imageries are recently widely spread and frequently observed, combination of them are expected to complement spatial and temporal resolution each other. One of the prospective applications is traffic monitoring, where objects of interest, or vehicles, need to be recognized automatically. Techniques that employ object detection before object recognition can save a computational time and cost, and thus take a significant role. However, there is not enough knowledge whether object detection method can perform well on satellite and aerial imageries. In addition, it also has to be studied how characteristics of satellite and aerial imageries affect the object detection performance. This study employ binarized normed gradients (BING) method that runs significantly fast and is robust to rotation and noise. For our experiments, 11-bits BGR-IR satellite imageries from WorldView-3, and BGR-color aerial imageries are used respectively, and we create thousands of ground truth samples. We conducted several experiments to compare the performances with different images, to verify whether combination of different resolution images improved the performance, and to analyze the applicability of mixing satellite and aerial imageries. The results showed that infrared band had little effect on the detection rate, that 11-bit images performed less than 8-bit images and that the better spatial resolution brought the better performance. Another result might imply that mixing higher and lower resolution images for training dataset could help detection performance. Furthermore, we found that aerial images improved the detection performance on satellite images.

  11. Application of the HY-1 satellite to sea ice monitoring and forecasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yawei; WU Huiding; ZHANG Yunfei; SUN Congrong; LIU Yu

    2004-01-01

    The HY-1A satellite is the first oceanic satellite of China. During the winter of 2002~2003, the data of the HY-1A were applied to the sea ice monitoring and forecasting for the Bohai Sea of China for the first time. The sea ice retrieval system of the HY-1A has been constructed. It receives 1B data from the satellite, outputs sea ice images and provides digital products of ice concentration, ice thickness and ice edge, which can be used as important information for sea ice monitoring and the initial fields of the numeric sea ice forecast and as one of the reference data for the sea ice forecasting verification. The sea ice retrieval system of the satellite is described, including its processes, methods and parameters. The retrieving results and their application to the sea ice monitoring and forecasting for the Bohai Sea are also discussed.

  12. Radiation applications research and facilities in AECL research company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, S. L.

    In the 60's and 70's Atomic Energy of Canada had a very active R&D program to discover and develop applications of ionizing radiation. Out of this grew the technology underlying the company's current product line of industrial irradiators. With the commercial success of that product line the company turned its R&D attention to other activities. Presently, widespread interest in the use of radiation for food processing and the possibility of developing reliable and competitive machine sources of radiation hold out the promise of a major increase in industrial use of radiation. While many of the applications being considered are straightforward applications of existing knowledge, others depend on more subtle effects including combined effects of two or more agents. Further research is required in these areas. In March 1985 a new branch, Radiation Applications Research, began operations with the objective of working closely with industry to develop and assist the introduction of new uses of ionizing radiation. The Branch is equipped with appropriate analytical equipment including HPLC (high performance liquid chromatograph) and GC/MS (gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer) as well as a Gammacell 220 and an I-10/1, one kilowatt 10 MeV electron accelerator. The accelerator is located in a specially designed facility equipped for experimental irradiation of test quantities of packaged products as well as solids, liquids and gases in various configurations. A conveyor system moves the packaged products from the receiving area, through a maze, past the electron beam at a controlled rate and finally to the shipping area. Other necessary capabilities, such as gamma and electron dosimetry and a microbiology laboratory, have also been developed. Initial projects in areas ranging from food through environmental and industrial applications have been assessed and the most promising have been selected for further work. As an example, the use of charcoal adsorbent beds to concentrate

  13. Vigorously Develop Satellite Application Industry to Serve National Socio-economic Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bian Ji

    2010-01-01

    @@ China International Aviation and Aerospace Forum 2010 was held on November 15 in Zhuhai, Guangdong Province.Vice President of China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC)Rui Xiaowu delivered a speech at the forum with the theme of "vigorously developing satellite application industry to serve national socio-economic construction".He stated in his speech that as an important method for information transmission, navigation and position and obtaining geographic information satellite applications have been integrated into all industries in the national economy in China and have become one of the indispensable information infrastructures for national security, the economy and society.

  14. Advanced Multipath Mitigation Techniques for Satellite-Based Positioning Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zahidul H. Bhuiyan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Multipath remains a dominant source of ranging errors in Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS or the future European satellite navigation system Galileo. Multipath is generally considered undesirable in the context of GNSS, since the reception of multipath can make significant distortion to the shape of the correlation function used for time delay estimation. However, some wireless communications techniques exploit multipath in order to provide signal diversity though in GNSS, the major challenge is to effectively mitigate the multipath, since we are interested only in the satellite-receiver transit time offset of the Line-Of-Sight (LOS signal for the receiver's position estimate. Therefore, the multipath problem has been approached from several directions in order to mitigate the impact of multipath on navigation receivers, including the development of novel signal processing techniques. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood-based technique, namely, the Reduced Search Space Maximum Likelihood (RSSML delay estimator, which is capable of mitigating the multipath effects reasonably well at the expense of increased complexity. The proposed RSSML attempts to compensate the multipath error contribution by performing a nonlinear curve fit on the input correlation function, which finds a perfect match from a set of ideal reference correlation functions with certain amplitude(s, phase(s, and delay(s of the multipath signal. It also incorporates a threshold-based peak detection method, which eventually reduces the code-delay search space significantly. However, the downfall of RSSML is the memory requirement which it uses to store the reference correlation functions. The multipath performance of other delay-tracking methods previously studied for Binary Phase Shift Keying-(BPSK- and Sine Binary Offset Carrier- (SinBOC- modulated signals is also analyzed in closed loop model with the new Composite

  15. Application of SAW technology in satellites for mobile services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, O.; Viddal, V.; Galteland, J.

    1990-03-01

    Two surface acoustic wave (SAW) technologies for IF processing in a mobile satellite are discussed. The components and operations of the SAW filters method and the SAW filtering, routing, and beamforming concept are described. The capabilities of these two concepts are evaluated and compared. It is observed that the use of SAW filters is the more conventional and mature technology; it performs the channelizing function with a bank of SAW filters and routing of these channels by a switch matrix arrangement. The SAW filtering, routing, and beamforming concept is a more advanced technology that has the ability to give high resolution at low cost in volume and power; however, it has a high power consumption at large total processed bandwidth.

  16. Satellite Climate Data Records: Development, Applications, and Societal Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenze Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This review paper discusses how to develop, produce, sustain, and serve satellite climate data records (CDRs in the context of transitioning research to operation (R2O. Requirements and critical procedures of producing various CDRs, including Fundamental CDRs (FCDRs, Thematic CDRs (TCDRs, Interim CDRs (ICDRs, and climate information records (CIRs are discussed in detail, including radiance/reflectance and the essential climate variables (ECVs of land, ocean, and atmosphere. Major international CDR initiatives, programs, and projects are summarized. Societal benefits of CDRs in various user sectors, including Agriculture, Forestry, Fisheries, Energy, Heath, Water, Transportation, and Tourism are also briefly discussed. The challenges and opportunities for CDR development, production and service are also addressed. It is essential to maintain credible CDR products by allowing free access to products and keeping the production process transparent by making source code and documentation available with the dataset.

  17. THE APPLICATION OF SATELLITE POSITIONING TECHNOLOGY AND ITS INDUSTRIALIZATION IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Satellite positioning technology has been widely used in all kinds of military and civil land, marine, space and aeronautical target positioning tasks, naviga tion activities and accurate surveying measurements since 90 s in the last cen tury due to its advantage in providing all-weather, real-time, three dimensional and high precision positioning information, as well as speed and accurate timing information. By now, it has already formed a new hi-tech industry basically.This paper briefly reviews the development of the global satellite positioning and navigation technologies including the basic information of China's "Plough navigation system", introduces the history of satellite positioning technology and its major application fields as well as the status quo of this being industri alized trade in China, gives an account of the writers' vision for the application and prospect of the satellite positioning technologies in China, and approaches the tactics and stresses of the satellite positioning technology's application and its industrialization future in China.

  18. 42 CFR 488.56 - Temporary waivers applicable to skilled nursing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary waivers applicable to skilled nursing... PROCEDURES Special Requirements § 488.56 Temporary waivers applicable to skilled nursing facilities. (a... skilled nursing facility to engage the services of a registered nurse more than 40 hours a week,...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1712-8 - Application for waiver of location requirements for underground sanitary facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground sanitary facilities. Applications for waivers of the location requirements of § 75.1712-6 shall be... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application for waiver of location requirements for underground sanitary facilities. 75.1712-8 Section 75.1712-8 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND...

  20. 76 FR 65544 - Standard Format and Content of License Applications for Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... issuance of the guide (74 FR 36780). The comment period closed on September 21, 2009. The staff's responses... COMMISSION Standard Format and Content of License Applications for Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facilities... Format and Content of License Applications for Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facilities.'' This...

  1. Study on application potentiality of the first China's ocean satellite HY- 1A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Delu; He Xianqiang; Li Shujing; Gong Fang

    2003-01-01

    China has launched her first ocean color satellite HY- 1A on May 15, 2002 since American ocean color satellite SeaSTAR was on the orbit in 1997. First, the properties and characteristics of HY - 1A are briefly introduced; second, the quality and availability are evaluated by means of the complex signal noise ratio (CSNR) which is simulated theoretically; third, the received HY- 1A data are compared with SeaSTAR data to understand the accuracy of radiance measurement by the HY- 1A; finally, the remote sensing products of ocean color and temperature are mapped to study the application potentiality of HY- 1A. The results show that the HY- 1A has its latent capability for the application of marine environment detection, the management and protection of marine resources, and the national rights and interests. Meanwhile some suggestions are proposed to modify the next ocean satellite.

  2. Application of adaptive antenna techniques to future commercial satellite communications. Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, L.; Lee, E. A.; Matthews, E. W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this contract was to identify the application of adaptive antenna technique in future operational commercial satellite communication systems and to quantify potential benefits. The contract consisted of two major subtasks. Task 1, Assessment of Future Commercial Satellite System Requirements, was generally referred to as the Adaptive section. Task 2 dealt with Pointing Error Compensation Study for a Multiple Scanning/Fixed Spot Beam Reflector Antenna System and was referred to as the reconfigurable system. Each of these tasks was further subdivided into smaller subtasks. It should also be noted that the reconfigurable system is usually defined as an open-loop system while the adaptive system is a closed-loop system. The differences between the open- and closed-loop systems were defined. Both the adaptive and reconfigurable systems were explained and the potential applications of such systems were presented in the context of commercial communication satellite systems.

  3. The application of GIS in land satellite data management and service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenhua; Liu, Defeng

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, with the rapid development of China's satellite remote sensing technology, ZY-1 02C, ZY-3 and TH-1 satellites have been successfully launched, ZY-3 satellite is China's first autonomous civilian high-resolution stereo mapping satellite, achieved a breakthrough in the field of civil high resolution mapping satellite[1]. Its successful applications have become a new milestone in the history of Chinese satellite surveying and mapping, undertake to build database of remote sensing information, promote the development of geographic space information industry. This paper, based on data distribution service subsystem of the construction of ZY-3 ground processing as an example, introduces GIS in the subsystem which plays an important role. This sub-system is the window of the ground system of information collection and product distribution, whose task is to provide ZY-3, ZY-1 02C a variety of sensor data distribution service at all levels of products, to provide users with a unified search, browse, order and download services, and has a certain capacity expansion upgrade, which provides a technical basis and guarantee for subsequent satellite distribution service. With ZY-3 satellite in orbit, the amount of data is increasing, how to efficiently manage multi-source image data becomes the system to be solved. In this paper, ArcGIS mosaic datasets is used to manage large-scale image data to solve the many problems that exist in the traditional image management and shared services to complete data distribution. At present, the distribution system has been stabilized, and serves the masses of users.

  4. TIRCIS: thermal infrared compact imaging spectrometer for small satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robert; Lucey, Paul; Crites, Sarah; Garbeil, Harold; Wood, Mark; Pilger, Eric; Gabrieli, Andrea; Honniball, Casey

    2016-10-01

    Measurements of reflectance or emittance in tens of narrow, contiguous wavebands, allow for the derivation of laboratory quality spectra remotely, from which the chemical composition and physical properties of targets can be determined. Although spaceborne (e.g. EO-1 Hyperion) hyperspectral data in the 0.4-2.5 micron (VSWIR) region are available, the provision of equivalent data in the log-wave infrared has lagged behind, there being no currently operational high spatial resolution LWIR imaging spectrometer on orbit. TIRCIS (Thermal Infra-Red Compact Imaging Spectrometer), uses a Fabry-Perot interferometer, an uncooled microbolometer array, and push-broom scanning to acquire hyperspectral image data. Radiometric calibration is provided by blackbody targets while spectral calibration is achieved using monochromatic light sources. The instrument has a mass of <15 kg and dimensions of 53 cm × 25 cm ♢ 22 cm, and has been designed to be compatible with integration into a micro-satellite platform. (A precursor to this instrument was launched onboard a 55 kg microsatellite in October 2015). The optical design yields a 120 m ground sample size given an orbit of 500 km. Over the wavelength interval of 7.5 to 14 microns up to 50 spectral samples are possible. Measured signal-to-noise ratios range from peak values of 500:1 to 1500:1, for source temperature of 10 to 100°C.

  5. Microstrip Yagi array antenna for mobile satellite vehicle application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, John; Densmore, Arthur C.

    1991-01-01

    A novel antenna structure formed by combining the Yagi-Uda array concept and the microstrip radiator technique is discussed. This antenna, called the microstrip Yagi array, has been developed for the mobile satellite (MSAT) system as a low-profile, low-cost, and mechanically steered medium-gain land-vehicle antenna. With the antenna's active patches (driven elements) and parasitic patches (reflector and director elements) located on the same horizontal plane, the main beam of the array can be tilted, by the effect of mutual coupling, in the elevation direction providing optimal coverage for users in the continental United States. Because the parasitic patches are not connected to any of the lossy RF power distributing circuit the antenna is an efficient radiating system. With the complete monopulse beamforming and power distributing circuits etched on a single thin stripline board underneath the microstrip Yagi array, the overall L-band antenna system has achieved a very low profile for vehicle's rooftop mounting, as well as a low manufacturing cost. Experimental results demonstrate the performance of this antenna.

  6. Applications technology satellite F&G /ATS F&G/ mobile terminal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, L. A.; Baker, J. L.

    1971-01-01

    The mobile terminal is a flexible, easily transportable system. The terminal design incorporates a combination of unique and proven hardware to provide maximum utility consistent with reliability. The flexibility built into the system will make it possible to satisfy the requirements of the applications technology satellite program concerned with the conduction of various spacecraft technology experiments. The terminal includes two parabolic antennas.

  7. Analytical solution of perturbed relative motion: an application of satellite formations to geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wnuk, Edwin

    In the upcoming years, several space missions will be operated using a number of spacecraft flying in formation. Clusters of spacecraft with a carefully designed orbits and optimal formation geometry enable a wide variety of applications ranging from remote sensing to astronomy, geodesy and basic physics. Many of the applications require precise relative navigation and autonomous orbit control of satellites moving in a formation. For many missions a centimeter level of orbit control accuracy is required. The GRACE mission, since its launch in 2002, has been improving the Earth's gravity field model to a very high level of accuracy. This mission is a formation flying one consisting of two satellites moving in coplanar orbits and provides range and range-rate measurements between the satellites in the along-track direction. Future geodetic missions probably will employ alternative architectures using additional satellites and/or performing out-of-plane motion, e.g cartwheel orbits. The paper presents an analytical model of a satellite formation motion that enables propagation of the relative spacecraft motion. The model is based on the analytical theory of satellite relative motion that was presented in the previous our papers (Wnuk and Golebiewska, 2005, 2006). This theory takes into account the influence of the following gravitational perturbation effects: 1) zonal and tesseral harmonic geopotential coefficients up to arbitrary degree and order, 2) Lunar gravity, 3) Sun gravity. Formulas for differential perturbations were derived with any restriction concerning a plane of satellite orbits. They can be applied in both: in plane and out of plane cases. Using this propagator we calculated relative orbits and future relative satellite positions for different types of formations: in plane, out of plane, cartwheel and others. We analyzed the influence of particular parts of perturbation effects and estimated the accuracy of predicted relative spacecrafts positions

  8. Japanese Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission status and application of satellite-based global rainfall map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachi, Misako; Shimizu, Shuji; Kubota, Takuji; Yoshida, Naofumi; Oki, Riko; Kojima, Masahiro; Iguchi, Toshio; Nakamura, Kenji

    2010-05-01

    As accuracy of satellite precipitation estimates improves and observation frequency increases, application of those data to societal benefit areas, such as weather forecasts and flood predictions, is expected, in addition to research of precipitation climatology to analyze precipitation systems. There is, however, limitation on single satellite observation in coverage and frequency. Currently, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is scheduled under international collaboration to fulfill various user requirements that cannot be achieved by the single satellite, like the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM). The GPM mission is an international mission to achieve high-accurate and high-frequent rainfall observation over a global area. GPM is composed of a TRMM-like non-sun-synchronous orbit satellite (GPM core satellite) and constellation of satellites carrying microwave radiometer instruments. The GPM core satellite carries the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR), which is being developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), and microwave radiometer provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Development of DPR instrument is in good progress for scheduled launch in 2013, and DPR Critical Design Review has completed in July - September 2009. Constellation satellites, which carry a microwave imager and/or sounder, are planned to be launched around 2013 by each partner agency for its own purpose, and will contribute to extending coverage and increasing frequency. JAXA's future mission, the Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) - Water (GCOM-W) satellite will be one of constellation satellites. The first generation of GCOM-W satellite is scheduled to be launched in 2011, and it carries the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2), which is being developed based on the experience of the AMSR-E on EOS Aqua satellite

  9. ESPACE - a geodetic Master's program for the education of Satellite Application Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, K.; Kirschner, S.; Seitz, F.

    2012-04-01

    In the last decades there has been a rapid development of new geodetic and other Earth observation satellites. Applications of these satellites such as car navigation systems, weather predictions, and, digital maps (such as Google Earth or Google Maps) play a more and more important role in our daily life. For geosciences, satellite applications such as remote sensing and precise positioning/navigation have turned out to be extremely useful and are meanwhile indispensable. Today, researchers within geodesy, climatology, oceanography, meteorology as well as within Earth system science are all dependent on up-to-date satellite data. Design, development and handling of these missions require experts with knowledge not only in space engineering, but also in the specific applications. That gives rise to a new kind of engineers - satellite application engineers. The study program for these engineers combines parts of different classical disciplines such as geodesy, aerospace engineering or electronic engineering. The satellite application engineering program Earth Oriented Space Science and Technology (ESPACE) was founded in 2005 at the Technische Universität München, mainly from institutions involved in geodesy and aerospace engineering. It is an international, interdisciplinary Master's program, and is open to students with a BSc in both Science (e.g. Geodesy, Mathematics, Informatics, Geophysics) and Engineering (e.g. Aerospace, Electronical and Mechanical Engineering). The program is completely conducted in English. ESPACE benefits from and utilizes its location in Munich with its unique concentration of expertise related to space science and technology. Teaching staff from 3 universities (Technische Universität München, Ludwig-Maximilian University, University of the Federal Armed Forces), research institutions (such as the German Aerospace Center, DLR and the German Geodetic Research Institute, DGFI) and space industry (such as EADS or Kayser-Threde) are

  10. Application of satellite infrared measurements to mapping sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    The application of the ITOS-SR (scanning radiometer) infrared measurements for mapping sea ice was examined. The work included detailed mapping of ice features visible in the ITOS nighttime DRSR (direct readout scanning radiometer) pictorial data and in Nimbus summertime film strip data. Analyses of digital temperature values from computer printouts of ITOS stored data and from Nimbus data listings were also undertaken, and densitometric measurements of both ITOS and Nimbus data were initiated.

  11. Modeling Polarized Solar Radiation from Various Scene Types for Satellite Remote-Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W.

    2015-12-01

    To correct the polarization-induced errors in measured reflected solar spectra, the polarization state of the reflected solar light must be known. In this presentation, recent modeling of the polarized solar radiation from the ocean, desert, forest, and clouds is reported. The modeled polarized solar radiation quantities are compared with the PARASOL satellite measurements for various scene types. A novel super-thin cloud optical depth (OD) retrieval method based on polarization measurement is also introduced. This study provides a reliable approach for making the spectral Polarization Distribution Models (PDMs) for satellite inter-calibration applications of NASA's future Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission. This study also reports the advance in developing a technique to retrieve super-thin clouds with OD correction of satellite data, retrieval of super-thin clouds.

  12. Web-Based Satellite Products Database for Meteorological and Climate Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Dung; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; Palikonda, Rabindra; Khaiyer, Mandana M.; Nordeen, Michele L.; Nguyen, Louis; Minnis, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    The need for ready access to satellite data and associated physical parameters such as cloud properties has been steadily growing. Air traffic management, weather forecasters, energy producers, and weather and climate researchers among others can utilize more satellite information than in the past. Thus, it is essential that such data are made available in near real-time and as archival products in an easy-access and user friendly environment. A host of Internet web sites currently provide a variety of satellite products for various applications. Each site has a unique contribution with appeal to a particular segment of the public and scientific community. This is no less true for the NASA Langley's Clouds and Radiation (NLCR) website (http://www-pm.larc.nasa.gov) that has been evolving over the past 10 years to support a variety of research projects This website was originally developed to display cloud products derived from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) over the Southern Great Plains for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. It has evolved into a site providing a comprehensive database of near real-time and historical satellite products used for meteorological, aviation, and climate studies. To encourage the user community to take advantage of the site, this paper summarizes the various products and projects supported by the website and discusses future options for new datasets.

  13. 24 CFR 960.205 - Drug use by applicants: Obtaining information from drug treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... information from drug treatment facility. 960.205 Section 960.205 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... Admission § 960.205 Drug use by applicants: Obtaining information from drug treatment facility. (a) Purpose. This section addresses a PHA's authority to request and obtain information from drug abuse...

  14. The Case for the Application of Worldwide Marine Radioactivity Studies In the Search for Undeclared Facilities and Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Schanfein

    2013-06-01

    Undeclared nuclear facilities unequivocally remain the most difficult safeguards challenge facing the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Recent cases of undeclared facilities revealed in Iran and Syria, which are NPT signatory States, show both the difficulty and the seriousness of this threat to nonproliferation. In the case of undeclared nuclear facilities, the most effective deterrent against proliferation is the application of Wide-Area Environmental Sampling (WAES); however, WAES is currently cost-prohibitive. As with any threat, the most effective countering strategy is a multifaceted approach. Some of the approaches applied by the IAEA include: open source analysis, satellite imagery, on-site environmental sampling, complementary access under the Additional Protocol (where in force), traditional safeguards inspections, and information provided by member States. These approaches, naturally, are focused on specific States. Are there other opportunities not currently within the IAEA purview to assess States that may provide another opportunity to detect clandestine facilities? In this paper, the author will make the case that the IAEA Department of Safeguards should explore the area of worldwide marine radioactivity studies as one possible opportunity. One such study was released by the IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory in January 2005. This technical document focused on 90Sr, 137Cs, and 239/240Pu. It is clearly a challenging area because of the many sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the world’s oceans and seas including: nuclear weapons testing, reprocessing, accidents, waste dumping, and industrial and medical radioisotopes, whose distributions change based on oceanographic, geochemical, and biological processes, and their sources. It is additionally challenging where multiple States share oceans, seas, and rivers. But with the application of modern science, historical sampling to establish baselines, and a focus on the most relevant

  15. 78 FR 40519 - Cooper Nuclear Station; Application and Amendment to Facility Operating License Involving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Cooper Nuclear Station; Application and Amendment to Facility Operating License Involving Proposed... No. DPR-46, issued to Nebraska Public Power District (the licensee), for operation of the...

  16. Flood and Landslide Applications of High Time Resolution Satellite Rain Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert F.; Hong, Yang; Huffman, George J.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental, potentially real-time systems to detect floods and landslides related to heavy rain events are described. A key basis for these applications is high time resolution satellite rainfall analyses. Rainfall is the primary cause for devastating floods across the world. However, in many countries, satellite-based precipitation estimation may be the best source of rainfall data due to insufficient ground networks and absence of data sharing along many trans-boundary river basins. Remotely sensed precipitation from the NASA's TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) operational system (near real-time precipitation at a spatial-temporal resolution of 3 hours and 0.25deg x 0.25deg) is used to monitor extreme precipitation events. Then these data are ingested into a macro-scale hydrological model which is parameterized using spatially distributed elevation, soil and land cover datasets available globally from satellite remote sensing. Preliminary flood results appear reasonable in terms of location and frequency of events, with implementation on a quasi-global basis underway. With the availability of satellite rainfall analyses at fine time resolution, it has also become possible to assess landslide risk on a near-global basis. Early results show that landslide occurrence is closely associated with the spatial patterns and temporal distribution of TRMM rainfall characteristics. Particularly, the number of landslides triggered by rainfall is related to rainfall climatology, antecedent rainfall accumulation, and intensity-duration of rainstorms. For the purpose of prediction, an empirical TMPA-based rainfall intensity-duration threshold is developed and shown to have skill in determining potential areas of landslides. These experimental findings, in combination with landslide surface susceptibility information based on satellite-based land surface information, form a starting point towards a potential operational landslide monitoring/warning system

  17. Calibration and Testing Facility for Silicon Microseismometers for Planetary Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Ranah; Teanby, N. A.; Calcutt, S. B.; Pike, W. T.; Bowles, N. E.; Flynn, W.; Temple, J. M.

    2009-09-01

    A calibration and test facility has been developed for microseismometers designed to measure seismic data on planetary or lunar surfaces. The set-up allows the testing of microseismometers under vacuum, at temperatures from 300K down to 70K. In addition, the facility is designed for calibration of the microseismometers using a commercial broad-band seismometer as a reference, that remains at a constant temperature of 300K. The facility consists of a solid granite block which acts as a support for both the commercial seismometer and the microseismometers to be tested. The entire set-up is isolated from ambient seismic noise by a 10 ton seismic mass and pneumatic isolators that are part of an existing calibration facility in a class 100 cleanroom at Oxford. The commercial seismometer sits on top of the horizontal granite slab and the microseismometers are mounted directly opposite, underneath the granite, on thermally isolated supports in a vacuum chamber and surrounded by a radiative cooling system. A small oscillating mass will be coupled to the granite in such a way as to provide identical vibrations to both seismometers. The performance of the microseismometers may thus be characterised as a function of temperature and pressure. The facility also incorporates a dual fibre-optic laser vibrometer system which can measure the surface vibrations of the microseismometer accommodation relative to the base of the granite. This allows the characterisation of the mechanical transfer function of the thermally isolating legs supporting the microseismometers, as well as the absolute motion recorded on each instrument. This work is supported by the STFC.

  18. Methods of Celestial Mechanics Volume II: Application to Planetary System, Geodynamics and Satellite Geodesy

    CERN Document Server

    Beutler, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    G. Beutler's Methods of Celestial Mechanics is a coherent textbook for students as well as an excellent reference for practitioners. Volume II is devoted to the applications and to the presentation of the program system CelestialMechanics. Three major areas of applications are covered: (1) Orbital and rotational motion of extended celestial bodies. The properties of the Earth-Moon system are developed from the simplest case (rigid bodies) to more general cases, including the rotation of an elastic Earth, the rotation of an Earth partly covered by oceans and surrounded by an atmosphere, and the rotation of an Earth composed of a liquid core and a rigid shell (Poincaré model). (2) Artificial Earth Satellites. The oblateness perturbation acting on a satellite and the exploitation of its properties in practice is discussed using simulation methods (CelestialMechanics) and (simplified) first order perturbation methods. The perturbations due to the higher-order terms of the Earth's gravitational potential and reso...

  19. Economic Feasibility Analysis of the Application of Geothermal Energy Facilities to Public Building Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyong Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to present an efficient plan for the application of a geothermal energy facility at the building structure planning phase. Energy consumption, energy cost and the primary energy consumption of buildings were calculated to enable a comparison of buildings prior to the application of a geothermal energy facility. The capacity for energy savings and the costs related to the installation of such a facility were estimated. To obtain more reliable criteria for economic feasibility, the lifecycle cost (LCC analysis incorporated maintenance costs (reflecting repair and replacement cycles based on construction work specifications of a new renewable energy facility and initial construction costs (calculated based on design drawings for its practical installation. It is expected that the findings of this study will help in the selection of an economically viable geothermal energy facility at the building construction planning phase.

  20. The Evolution of Successful Satellite Science to Air Quality Application Projects: From Inception to Realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Teams of scientist have been working for almost a decade with state, local, regional and federal Air Quality regulators and scientists on several projects that have been focused on improving biomass burning emissions within our nation's National Emissions Inventory (NEI). Initially, the NEI was based strictly on ground-based information that often used data aggregated from previous years reported at the county-centroid and completely ignored the spatial domain of all fires. This methodology resulted in gross inaccuracies; however it was an ingrained system and the users and organizations were largely comfortable. Improvements were viewed as too costly. Our task was to convince regulators, managers and users of the value that could be added by using satellite data to enhance the NEI. Certainly, there were individuals that understood the value of using satellite data, but they needed support to convince the establishment of the intrinsic, cost-effective value of publically-available satellite data. It was essential to present arguments, as well as requested verification and validation statistics, in the format that most suited the objectives of application organizations. This process incorporated: knowledge of state-of-the-art satellite data, algorithms and science; a working knowledge of the users applications and requirements; interacting with individuals with a variety of skill sets and goals; and perhaps most importantly, listening to the goals and responsibilities of the user community and fully communicating. Today, the Environmental Protection Agency and several state and regional organizations are using satellite data to estimate biomass burnings emissions at daily and annual scales for a number of critical environmental management and policy activities including regulation setting and regional strategy development for attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). We continue to work at the local, state and federal levels to improve the

  1. Benefits of explosive cutting for nuclear-facility applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazelton, R.F.; Lundgren, R.A.; Allen, R.P.

    1981-06-01

    The study discussed in this report was a cost/benefit analysis to determine: (1) whether explosive cutting is cost effective in comparison with alternative metal sectioning methods and (2) whether explosive cutting would reduce radiation exposure or provide other benefits. Two separate approaches were pursued. The first was to qualitatively assess cutting methods and factors involved in typical sectioning cases and then compare the results for the cutting methods. The second was to prepare estimates of work schedules and potential radiation exposures for candidate sectioning methods for two hypothetical, but typical, sectioning tasks. The analysis shows that explosive cutting would be cost effective and would also reduce radiation exposure when used for typical nuclear facility sectioning tasks. These results indicate that explosive cutting should be one of the principal cutting methods considered whenever steel or similar metal structures or equipment in a nuclear facility are to be sectioned for repair or decommissioning. 13 figures, 7 tables. (DLC)

  2. Multi-antenna synchronized global navigation satellite system receiver and its advantages in high-precision positioning applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Danan; Chen, Wen; Cai, Miaomiao; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Minghua; Yu, Chao; Zheng, Zhengqi; Wang, Yuanfei

    2016-12-01

    The multi-antenna synchronized global navigation satellite system receiver is a high precision, low cost, and widely used emerging receiver. Using this type of receiver, the satellite and receiver clock errors can be eliminated simultaneously by forming between antenna single-differences, which is equivalent to the conventional double-difference model. However, current multi-antenna synchronized global navigation satellite system receiver products have not fully realized their potential to achieve better accuracy, efficiency, and broader applications. This paper introduces the conceptual design and derivable products of multi-antenna synchronized global navigation satellite system receivers involving the aspects of attitude determination, multipath effect mitigation, phase center variation correction, and ground-based carrier phase windup calibration. Through case studies, the advantages of multi-antenna synchronized global navigation satellite system receivers in high-precision positioning applications are demonstrated.

  3. Satellite Data Support for the ARM Climate Research Facility, 8/01/2009 - 7/31/2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnis, Patrick [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Khaiyer, Mandana M [Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Hampton, VA (United States)

    2015-10-06

    This report summarizes the support provided by NASA Langley Research for the DOE ARM Program in the form of cloud and radiation products derived from satellite imager data for the period between 8/01/09 through 7/31/15. Cloud properties such as cloud amount, height, and optical depth as well as outgoing longwave and shortwave broadband radiative fluxes were derived from geostationary and low-earth orbiting satellite imager radiance measurements for domains encompassing ARM permanent sites and field campaigns during the performance period. Datasets provided and documents produced are listed.

  4. Atmospheric correction for satellite remotely sensed data intended for agricultural applications: impact on vegetation indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Hadjimitsis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation reflected by the Earth's surface to satellite sensors is modified by its interaction with the atmosphere. The objective of applying an atmospheric correction is to determine true surface reflectance values and to retrieve physical parameters of the Earth's surface, including surface reflectance, by removing atmospheric effects from satellite images. Atmospheric correction is arguably the most important part of the pre-processing of satellite remotely sensed data. Such a correction is especially important in cases where multi-temporal images are to be compared and analyzed. For agricultural applications, in which several vegetation indices are applied for monitoring purposes, multi-temporal images are used. The integration of vegetation indices from remotely sensed images with other hydro-meteorological data is widely used for monitoring natural hazards such as droughts. Indeed, the most important task is to retrieve the true values of the vegetation status from the satellite-remotely sensed data. Any omission of considering the effects of the atmosphere when vegetation indices from satellite images are used, may lead to major discrepancies in the final outcomes. This paper highlights the importance of considering atmospheric effects when vegetation indices, such as DVI, NDVI, SAVI, MSAVI and SARVI, are used (or considered and presents the results obtained by applying the darkest-pixel atmospheric correction method on ten Landsat TM/ETM+ images of Cyprus acquired from July to December 2008. Finally, in this analysis, an attempt is made to determine evapotranspiration and to examine its dependence on the consideration of atmospheric effects when multi-temporal image data are used. It was found that, without applying any atmospheric correction, the real daily evapotranspiration was less than the one found after applying the darkest pixel atmospheric correction method.

  5. An emission source inversion model based on satellite data and its application in air quality forecasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims at constructing an emission source inversion model using a variational processing method and adaptive nudging scheme for the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) based on satellite data to investigate the applicability of high resolution OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) column concentration data for air quality forecasts over the North China. The results show a reasonable consistency and good correlation between the spatial distributions of NO2 from surface and OMI satellite measurements in both winter and summer. Such OMI products may be used to implement integrated variational analysis based on observation data on the ground. With linear and variational corrections made, the spatial distribution of OMI NO2 clearly revealed more localized distributing characteristics of NO2 concentration. With such information, emission sources in the southwest and southeast of North China are found to have greater impacts on air quality in Beijing. When the retrieved emission source inventory based on high-resolution OMI NO2 data was used, the coupled Weather Research Forecasting CMAQ model (WRF-CMAQ) performed significantly better in forecasting NO2 concentration level and its tendency as reflected by the more consistencies between the NO2 concentrations from surface observation and model result. In conclusion, satellite data are particularly important for simulating NO2 concentrations on urban and street-block scale. High-resolution OMI NO2 data are applicable for inversing NOx emission source inventory, assessing the regional pollution status and pollution control strategy, and improving the model forecasting results on urban scale.

  6. Remote sensing application system for water environments developed for Environment Satellite 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing data collected by the Environment Satellite I are characterized by high temporal resolution,high spectral resolution and mid-high spatial resolution.We designed the Remote Sensing Application System for Water Environments(RSASWE) to create an integrated platform for remote sensing data processing,parameter information extraction and thematic mapping using both remote sensing and GIS technologies.This system provides support for regional water environmental monitoring,and prediction and warning of water pollution.Developed to process and apply data collected by Environment Satellite I,this system has automated procedures including clipping,observation geometry computation,radiometric calibration,6S atmospheric correction and water quality parameter inversion.RSASWE consists of six subsystems:remote sensing image processing,basic parameter inversion,water environment remote sensing thematic outputs,application outputs,automated water environment outputs and a non-point source pollution monitoring subsystem.At present RSASWE plays an important role in operations at the Satellite Environment Center.

  7. R3D-B2 - Measurement of ionizing and solar radiation in open space in the BIOPAN 5 facility outside the FOTON M2 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häder, D.-P.; Richter, P.; Schuster, M.; Dachev, Ts.; Tomov, B.; Georgiev, Pl.; Matviichuk, Yu.

    2009-04-01

    Solar and space radiation have been monitored using the R3D-B2 radiation risks radiometer-dosimeter on board a recent space flight on the Russian satellite Foton M2 within the ESA Biopan 5 facility mounted on the outside of the satellite exposed to space conditions. The solar radiation has been assayed in four wavelength bands (UV-C, 170-280 nm, UV-B, 280-315 nm), UV-A (315-400 nm) and PAR (photosynthetic active radiation, 400-700 nm). The data show an increasing tumbling rotation of the satellite during the mission. The photodiodes do not show a cosine response to the incident light which has been corrected. After calibration of the signals using the extraterrestrial spectrum, doses have been calculated for each orbit, for each day and for the total mission as basic data for the biological material which has been exposed in parallel in the Biopan facility. Cosmic ionizing radiation has been monitored and separated in 256 deposited energy spectra, which were further used for determination of the absorbed dose rate and flux. Basic data tables were prepared to be used by other Biopan 5 experiments. The paper summarizes the results for the Earth radiation environment at the altitude (262-304 km) of the Foton M2 spacecraft. Comparisons with the predictions of NASA Earth radiation environment experimental models AE-8 and AP-8, and the PSB97 model are also presented, which calculate the fluxes of ionizing radiation from a simulation. AP-8 is a model for trapped radiation.

  8. Satellite Remote Sensing Atmospheric Compositions and their Application in Air Quality Monitoring in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P.; Zhang, X. Y.; Bai, W. G.; Wang, W. H.; Huang, F. X.; Li, X. J.; Sun, L.; Wang, G.; Qi, J.; Qiu, H.; Zhang, Y.; van der A, R. J.; Mijling, B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the achievements related to atmospheric compositions remote sensing from the bilateral cooperation under the framework of MOST-ESA Dragon Programme. The algorithms to retrieve Aerosol, ozone amount and profile, NO2, SO2, CH4, CO2, etc. have been developed since 2004. Such algorithms are used to process FY-3 series (Chinese second generation polar orbit satellites) observation and ground based FTIR observation. The results are validated with in-situ measurements. Aerosol, total ozone amount shows the very good consistent with the ground measurements. The temporal and spatial characteristics of the important atmospheric compositions, such as aerosol, O3, NO2, SO2, CH4, CO etc., have been analysed from satellite derived products. These works demonstrate the satellite’s capacity on atmospheric composition monitoring, as well as the possible application in the air quality monitoring and climate change research.

  9. Application of remote sensing to thermal pollution analysis. [satellite sea surface temperature measurement assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiser, H. W.; Lee, S. S.; Veziroglu, T. N.; Sengupta, S.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive numerical model development program for near-field thermal plume discharge and far field general circulation in coastal regions is being carried on at the University of Miami Clean Energy Research Institute. The objective of the program is to develop a generalized, three-dimensional, predictive model for thermal pollution studies. Two regions of specific application of the model are the power plants sites at the Biscayne Bay and Hutchinson Island area along the Florida coastline. Remote sensing from aircraft as well as satellites are used in parallel with in situ measurements to provide information needed for the development and verification of the mathematical model. This paper describes the efforts that have been made to identify problems and limitations of the presently available satellite data and to develop methods for enhancing and enlarging thermal infrared displays for mesoscale sea surface temperature measurements.

  10. Application for the On-line Isotope Mass Separator ISOLDE Facility: the Target Heater

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Conejo, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the Heater Application is to heat and cool the target and line used on the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator ISOLDE facility up to a desired temperature selected by the user. The application has been developed in Java, making use of the Java Development Kit 1.4 and the PS Java environment.

  11. Application for the On-line Isotope Mass Separator ISOLDE Facility: the Mass Scan

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Conejo, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the Mass Scan Application is to scan the mass of the ion beam that passes through the GPS (General Purpose Separator) on the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator ISOLDE facility. The application has been developed in Java, making use of the Java Development Kit 1.4 and the PS Java environment.

  12. Evaluating the Application of Multi-Satellite Observations in Hydrologic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolten, John

    2011-01-01

    When monitoring local or regional hydrosphere dynamics for applications such as agricultural productivity or drought and flooding events, it is necessary to have accurate, high-resolution estimates of terrestrial water and energy storages. Though in-situ observations provide reliable estimates of hydrologic states and fluxes, they are only capable of accurately capturing the dynamics at relatively discrete points in space and time, which makes them inadequate for characterizing the variability of the water budget across scales. In contrast, satellite-based remote sensing is ideal for providing observations of hydrological states and fluxes because it provides spatially-distributed observations at spatial and temporal scales required for regional land surface process modeling. Due to the continued progress in algorithm development and emerging satellite technology, we now have near-real time monitoring of several components of the water cycle including precipitation, soil moisture, lake and river height, terrestrial water storage, snow cover, and evapotranspiration. As these data become more readily available, their application to hydrologic modeling is becoming more common, however there remains little consensus on the most appropriate method for optimal integration and evaluation in regard to hydrological applications. Here we present two case studies operationally applying several remotely sensed products from AMSR-E, GRACE, and MODIS and discuss assimilation strategies, ease of integration and interpretation, and methods for quantifying the success of the application methodology.

  13. Facility layout planning for educational systems: An application of fuzzy GIS and AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ebrhaimzadeh Asmin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues in urban planning programs is to allocate necessary spaces for educational applications. Selecting appropriate locations for training centers increases students' mental capabilities. Suitable location for the establishment of educational facilities is the first fundamental step for development of educational systems. The selection of optimal sites for educational facilities involves numerous parameters and it is essential to use multiple criteria decision making approaches to make wise decisions. This paper presents an empirical investigation on facility layout planning for educational systems in city of Birjand, Iran. Using fuzzy GIS as well as analytical hierarchy process (AHP, the study determines the most appropriate candidates for training centers.

  14. APPLICATION OF VISION METROLOGY TO IN-ORBIT MEASUREMENT OF LARGE REFLECTOR ONBOARD COMMUNICATION SATELLITE FOR NEXT GENERATION MOBILE SATELLITE COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akioka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Satellite for next generation mobile satellite communication service with small personal terminal requires onboard antenna with very large aperture reflector larger than twenty meters diameter because small personal terminal with lower power consumption in ground base requires the large onboard reflector with high antenna gain. But, large deployable antenna will deform in orbit because the antenna is not a solid dish but the flexible structure with fine cable and mesh supported by truss. Deformation of reflector shape deteriorate the antenna performance and quality and stability of communication service. However, in case of digital beam forming antenna with phased array can modify the antenna beam performance due to adjustment of excitation amplitude and excitation phase. If we can measure the reflector shape precisely in orbit, beam pattern and antenna performance can be compensated with the updated excitation amplitude and excitation phase parameters optimized for the reflector shape measured every moment. Softbank Corporation and National Institute of Information and Communications Technology has started the project "R&D on dynamic beam control technique for next generation mobile communication satellite" as a contracted research project sponsored by Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communication of Japan. In this topic, one of the problem in vision metrology application is a strong constraints on geometry for camera arrangement on satellite bus with very limited space. On satellite in orbit, we cannot take many images from many different directions as ordinary vision metrology measurement and the available area for camera positioning is quite limited. Feasibility of vision metrology application and general methodology to apply to future mobile satellite communication satellite is to be found. Our approach is as follows: 1 Development of prototyping simulator to evaluate the expected precision for network design in zero order and first order

  15. Application of Vision Metrology to In-Orbit Measurement of Large Reflector Onboard Communication Satellite for Next Generation Mobile Satellite Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akioka, M.; Orikasa, T.; Satoh, M.; Miura, A.; Tsuji, H.; Toyoshima, M.; Fujino, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Satellite for next generation mobile satellite communication service with small personal terminal requires onboard antenna with very large aperture reflector larger than twenty meters diameter because small personal terminal with lower power consumption in ground base requires the large onboard reflector with high antenna gain. But, large deployable antenna will deform in orbit because the antenna is not a solid dish but the flexible structure with fine cable and mesh supported by truss. Deformation of reflector shape deteriorate the antenna performance and quality and stability of communication service. However, in case of digital beam forming antenna with phased array can modify the antenna beam performance due to adjustment of excitation amplitude and excitation phase. If we can measure the reflector shape precisely in orbit, beam pattern and antenna performance can be compensated with the updated excitation amplitude and excitation phase parameters optimized for the reflector shape measured every moment. Softbank Corporation and National Institute of Information and Communications Technology has started the project "R&D on dynamic beam control technique for next generation mobile communication satellite" as a contracted research project sponsored by Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communication of Japan. In this topic, one of the problem in vision metrology application is a strong constraints on geometry for camera arrangement on satellite bus with very limited space. On satellite in orbit, we cannot take many images from many different directions as ordinary vision metrology measurement and the available area for camera positioning is quite limited. Feasibility of vision metrology application and general methodology to apply to future mobile satellite communication satellite is to be found. Our approach is as follows: 1) Development of prototyping simulator to evaluate the expected precision for network design in zero order and first order 2) Trial

  16. Technology development of the Space Transportation System mission and terrestrial applications of satellite technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The Space Transportation System (STS) is discussed, including the launch processing system, the thermal protection subsystem, meteorological research, sound supression water system, rotating service structure, improved hypergol or removal systems, fiber optics research, precision positioning, remote controlled solid rocket booster nozzle plugs, ground operations for Centaur orbital transfer vehicle, parachute drying, STS hazardous waste disposal and recycle, toxic waste technology and control concepts, fast analytical densitometry study, shuttle inventory management system, operational intercommunications system improvement, and protective garment ensemble. Terrestrial applications are also covered, including LANDSAT applications to water resources, satellite freeze forecast system, application of ground penetrating radar to soil survey, turtle tracking, evaluating computer drawn ground cover maps, sparkless load pulsar, and coupling a microcomputer and computing integrator with a gas chromatograph.

  17. A methodology for assessing computer software applicability to inventory and facility management

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Debashis

    1989-01-01

    Computer applications have become popular and widespread in architecture and other related fields. While the architect uses a computer for design and construction of a building, the user takes the advantage of computer for maintenance of the building. Inventory and facility management are two such fields where computer applications have become predominant. The project has investigated the use and application of different commercially available computer software in the above men...

  18. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, low-level burial grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, R.H.

    1997-08-12

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Plaste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the Low-Level Burial Grounds (this document, DOE/RL-88-20).

  19. Management concepts and safety applications for nuclear fuel facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisner, H.; Scotti, R.S. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States). School of Engineering and Applied Science; Delicate, W.S. [KEVRIC Co., Inc., Silver Spring, MD (United States)

    1995-05-01

    This report presents an overview of effectiveness of management control of safety. It reviews several modern management control theories as well as the general functions of management and relates them to safety issues at the corporate and at the process safety management (PSM) program level. Following these discussions, structured technique for assessing management of the safety function is suggested. Seven modern management control theories are summarized, including business process reengineering, the learning organization, capability maturity, total quality management, quality assurance and control, reliability centered maintenance, and industrial process safety. Each of these theories is examined for-its principal characteristics and implications for safety management. The five general management functions of planning, organizing, directing, monitoring, and integrating, which together provide control over all company operations, are discussed. Under the broad categories of Safety Culture, Leadership and Commitment, and Operating Excellence, key corporate safety elements and their subelements are examined. The three categories under which PSM program-level safety issues are described are Technology, Personnel, and Facilities.

  20. Flood and Landslide Applications of Near Real-time Satellite Rainfall Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yang; Adler, Robert F.; Negri, Andrew; Huffman, George J.

    2007-01-01

    Floods and associated landslides are one of the most widespread natural hazards on Earth, responsible for tens of thousands of deaths and billions of dollars in property damage every year. During 1993-2002, over 1000 of the more than 2,900 natural disasters reported were due to floods. These floods and associated landslides claimed over 90,000 lives, affected over 1.4 billion people and cost about $210 billion. The impact of these disasters is often felt most acutely in less developed regions. In many countries around the world, satellite-based precipitation estimation may be the best source of rainfall data due to lack of surface observing networks. Satellite observations can be of essential value in improving our understanding of the occurrence of hazardous events and possibly in lessening their impact on local economies and in reducing injuries, if they can be used to create reliable warning systems in cost-effective ways. This article addressed these opportunities and challenges by describing a combination of satellite-based real-time precipitation estimation with land surface characteristics as input, with empirical and numerical models to map potential of landslides and floods. In this article, a framework to detect floods and landslides related to heavy rain events in near-real-time is proposed. Key components of the framework are: a fine resolution precipitation acquisition system; a comprehensive land surface database; a hydrological modeling component; and landslide and debris flow model components. A key precipitation input dataset for the integrated applications is the NASA TRMM-based multi-satellite precipitation estimates. This dataset provides near real-time precipitation at a spatial-temporal resolution of 3 hours and 0.25deg x 0.25deg. By careful integration of remote sensing and in-situ observations, and assimilation of these observations into hydrological and landslide/debris flow models with surface topographic information, prediction of useful

  1. A 2.4 GHz Cross Rhombic Antenna for a Cube Satellite Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sosa-Pedroza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present design and construction results of a 2.4 Ghz cross rhombic antenna to be used in a cubesat. Computational design agrees with experimental results after its construction. cross rhombic antenna is a novel planar structure of our own design, presenting circular polarization and medium gain; it is built over a RF60A substrate with εr=6.15, decreasing its size to fit the required dimensions of satellite. A special characteristic of this design is the enhancing of operational bandwidth using a technique we have been studying, related to softening the structures with sharp edges. Results show applicability and success of our technique.

  2. A 20 GHz low noise, low cost receiver for digital satellite communication system, ground terminal applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Glen

    1988-01-01

    A 45 month effort for the development of a 20 GHz, low-noise, low-cost receiver for digital, satellite communication system, ground terminal applications is discussed. Six proof-of-concept receivers were built in two lots of three each. Performance was generally consistent between the two lots. Except for overall noise figure, parameters were within or very close to specification. While noise figure was specified as 3.5 dB, typical performance was measured at 3.0 to 5.5 dB, over the full temperature range of minus 30 C to plus 75 C.

  3. Evaluation of Satellite Precipitation Products with Rain Gauge Data at Different Scales: Implications for Hydrological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruifang Guo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rain gauge and satellite-retrieved data have been widely used in basin-scale hydrological applications. While rain gauges provide accurate measurements that are generally unevenly distributed in space, satellites offer spatially regular observations and common error prone retrieval. Comparative evaluation of gauge-based and satellite-based data is necessary in hydrological studies, as precipitation is the most important input in basin-scale water balance. This study uses quality-controlled rain gauge data and prevailing satellite products (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM 3B43, 3B42 and 3B42RT to examine the consistency and discrepancies between them at different scales. Rain gauges and TRMM products were available in the Poyang Lake Basin, China, from 1998 to 2007 (3B42RT: 2000–2007. Our results show that the performance of TRMM products generally increases with increasing spatial scale. At both the monthly and annual scales, the accuracy is highest for TRMM 3B43, with 3B42 second and 3B42RT third. TRMM products generally overestimate precipitation because of a high frequency and degree of overestimation in light and moderate rain cases. At the daily scale, the accuracy is relatively low between TRMM 3B42 and 3B42RT. Meanwhile, the performances of TRMM 3B42 and 3B42RT are highly variable in different seasons. At both the basin and pixel scales, TRMM 3B43 and 3B42 exhibit significant discrepancies from July to September, performing worst in September. For TRMM 3B42RT, all statistical indices fluctuate and are low throughout the year, performing worst in July at the pixel scale and January at the basin scale. Furthermore, the spatial distributions of the statistical indices of TRMM 3B43 and 3B42 performed well, while TRMM 3B42RT displayed a poor performance.

  4. Cross-layer anticipation of ressource allocation for multimedia applications based on SIP signaling over DVB-RCS satellite system

    OpenAIRE

    Nivor, Frédéric; Gineste, Mathieu; Baudoin, C; Berthou, Pascal; Gayraud, Thierry

    2007-01-01

    International audience; This paper introduces a cross-layer approach for improving QoS guaranties to interactive multimedia applications over an efficient satellite access assignment scheme (on-demand). It particularly focuses on the communication opening which represents the weakness of on-demand capacity allocation in the satellite context (due to significant delays). It finally presents experimental results of the various proposed enhancements.

  5. Satellite mobile data service for Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Glenn R.; Sward, David J.

    A commercial mobile satellite system which is to be constructed and operated in Canada is examined. This is done in two phases. First, mobile data services was introduced. Hub equipment and 3000 mobile data terminals were supplied. Over the satellite tests were performed. The mobile data service provides full two way digital messaging automatic vehicle location and fleet management services. The second phase is to construct, launch and make operational the MSAT satellite and associated network control facilities. The implementation is examined of the mobile data service in Canada, including the technical description. Marketing and applications are also examined.

  6. A Study on the Potential Applications of Satellite Data in Air Quality Monitoring and Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2011-01-01

    In this study we explore the potential applications of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) -like satellite sensors in air quality research for some Asian regions. The MODIS aerosol optical thickness (AOT), NCEP global reanalysis meteorological data, and daily surface PM(sub 10) concentrations over China and Thailand from 2001 to 2009 were analyzed using simple and multiple regression models. The AOT-PM(sub 10) correlation demonstrates substantial seasonal and regional difference, likely reflecting variations in aerosol composition and atmospheric conditions, Meteorological factors, particularly relative humidity, were found to influence the AOT-PM(sub 10) relationship. Their inclusion in regression models leads to more accurate assessment of PM(sub 10) from space borne observations. We further introduced a simple method for employing the satellite data to empirically forecast surface particulate pollution, In general, AOT from the previous day (day 0) is used as a predicator variable, along with the forecasted meteorology for the following day (day 1), to predict the PM(sub 10) level for day 1. The contribution of regional transport is represented by backward trajectories combined with AOT. This method was evaluated through PM(sub 10) hindcasts for 2008-2009, using ohservations from 2005 to 2007 as a training data set to obtain model coefficients. For five big Chinese cities, over 50% of the hindcasts have percentage error less than or equal to 30%. Similar performance was achieved for cities in northern Thailand. The MODIS AOT data are responsible for at least part of the demonstrated forecasting skill. This method can be easily adapted for other regions, but is probably most useful for those having sparse ground monitoring networks or no access to sophisticated deterministic models. We also highlight several existing issues, including some inherent to a regression-based approach as exemplified by a case study for Beijing, Further studies will be

  7. Combining satellite observations to develop a global soil moisture product for near-real-time applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enenkel, Markus; Reimer, Christoph; Dorigo, Wouter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Pfeil, Isabella; Parinussa, Robert; De Jeu, Richard

    2016-10-01

    The soil moisture dataset that is generated via the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) of the European Space Agency (ESA) (ESA CCI SM) is a popular research product. It is composed of observations from 10 different satellites and aims to exploit the individual strengths of active (radar) and passive (radiometer) sensors, thereby providing surface soil moisture estimates at a spatial resolution of 0.25°. However, the annual updating cycle limits the use of the ESA CCI SM dataset for operational applications. Therefore, this study proposes an adaptation of the ESA CCI product for daily global updates via satellite-derived near-real-time (NRT) soil moisture observations. In order to extend the ESA CCI SM dataset from 1978 to present we use NRT observations from the Advanced Scatterometer on-board the two MetOp satellites and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 on-board GCOM-W. Since these NRT observations do not incorporate the latest algorithmic updates, parameter databases and intercalibration efforts, by nature they offer a lower quality than reprocessed offline datasets. In addition to adaptations of the ESA CCI SM processing chain for NRT datasets, the quality of the NRT datasets is a main source of uncertainty. Our findings indicate that, despite issues in arid regions, the new CCI NRT dataset shows a good correlation with ESA CCI SM. The average global correlation coefficient between CCI NRT and ESA CCI SM (Pearson's R) is 0.80. An initial validation with 40 in situ observations in France, Spain, Senegal and Kenya yields an average R of 0.58 and 0.49 for ESA CCI SM and CCI NRT, respectively. In summary, the CCI NRT product is nearly as accurate as the existing ESA CCI SM product and, therefore, of significant value for operational applications such as drought and flood forecasting, agricultural index insurance or weather forecasting.

  8. Swords into Ploughshares: Archaeological Applications of CORONA Satellite Imagery in the Near East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Casana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Since their declassification in 1995, CORONA satellite images collected by the United States military from 1960-1972 have proved to be an invaluable resource in the archaeology of the Near East. Because CORONA images pre-date the widespread construction of reservoirs, urban expansion, and agricultural intensification the region has undergone in recent decades, these high-resolution, stereo images preserve a picture of archaeological sites and landscapes that have often been destroyed or obscured by modern development. Despite its widely recognised value, the application of CORONA imagery in archaeological research has remained limited to a small group of specialists, largely because of the challenges involved in correcting spatial distortions produced by the satellites' unusual panoramic cameras. This article presents results of an effort to develop new methods of efficiently orthorectifying CORONA imagery and to use these methods to produce geographically corrected images across the Near East, now freely available through an online database. Following an overview of our methods, we present examples of how recent development has affected the archaeological record, new discoveries that analysis of our CORONA imagery database has already made possible, and emerging applications of CORONA including stereo analysis and DEM extraction.

  9. Iodine Propulsion Advantages for Low Cost Mission Applications and the Iodine Satellite (ISAT) Technology Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.; Schumacher, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Science and Technology Office is continuously exploring technology options to increase performance or reduce cost and risk to future NASA missions including science and exploration. Electric propulsion is a prevalent technology known to reduce mission costs by reduction in launch costs and spacecraft mass through increased post launch propulsion performance. The exploration of alternative propellants for electric propulsion continues to be of interest to the community. Iodine testing has demonstrated comparable performance to xenon. However, iodine has a higher storage density resulting in higher ?V capability for volume constrained systems. Iodine's unique properties also allow for unpressurized storage yet sublimation with minimal power requirements to produce required gas flow rates. These characteristics make iodine an ideal propellant for secondary spacecraft. A range of mission have been evaluated with a focus on low-cost applications. Results highlight the potential for significant cost reduction over state of the art. Based on the potential, NASA has been developing the iodine Satellite for a near-term iodine Hall propulsion technology demonstration. Mission applications and progress of the iodine Satellite project are presented.

  10. Satellite-Based Sunshine Duration for Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo Ahrens

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two different methods were applied to derive daily and monthly sunshine duration based on high-resolution satellite products provided by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring using data from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager. The satellite products were either hourly cloud type or hourly surface incoming direct radiation. The satellite sunshine duration estimates were not found to be significantly different using the native 15-minute temporal resolution of SEVIRI. The satellite-based sunshine duration products give additional spatial information over the European continent compared with equivalent in situ-based products. An evaluation of the satellite sunshine duration by product intercomparison and against station measurements was carried out to determine their accuracy. The satellite data were found to be within ±1 h/day compared to high-quality Baseline Surface Radiation Network or surface synoptic observations (SYNOP station measurements. The satellite-based products differ more over the oceans than over land, mainly because of the treatment of fractional clouds in the cloud type-based sunshine duration product. This paper presents the methods used to derive the satellite sunshine duration products and the performance of the different retrievals. The main benefits and disadvantages compared to station-based products are also discussed.

  11. Hardware Development Process for Human Research Facility Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Liz

    2000-01-01

    The simple goal of the Human Research Facility (HRF) is to conduct human research experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) astronauts during long-duration missions. This is accomplished by providing integration and operation of the necessary hardware and software capabilities. A typical hardware development flow consists of five stages: functional inputs and requirements definition, market research, design life cycle through hardware delivery, crew training, and mission support. The purpose of this presentation is to guide the audience through the early hardware development process: requirement definition through selecting a development path. Specific HRF equipment is used to illustrate the hardware development paths. The source of hardware requirements is the science community and HRF program. The HRF Science Working Group, consisting of SCientists from various medical disciplines, defined a basic set of equipment with functional requirements. This established the performance requirements of the hardware. HRF program requirements focus on making the hardware safe and operational in a space environment. This includes structural, thermal, human factors, and material requirements. Science and HRF program requirements are defined in a hardware requirements document which includes verification methods. Once the hardware is fabricated, requirements are verified by inspection, test, analysis, or demonstration. All data is compiled and reviewed to certify the hardware for flight. Obviously, the basis for all hardware development activities is requirement definition. Full and complete requirement definition is ideal prior to initiating the hardware development. However, this is generally not the case, but the hardware team typically has functional inputs as a guide. The first step is for engineers to conduct market research based on the functional inputs provided by scientists. CommerCially available products are evaluated against the science requirements as

  12. Exploring the Application of Capital Facility Investment Justification Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijan Karić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available For decades now, the models for identifying and quantifying the level of risk of investment projects and investment justification evaluation have been the subject of investigation by members of professional and research communities. It is important to quantify the level of risk because by evaluating investment justification in terms of the risks involved, the decision-maker (investor is able to choose from available alternatives the one that will achieve the most favourable ratio of expected profit to the assumed risk. In this way, the economic entity can raise its productivity, profitability and the quality of business operation in general. The aim of this paper was to investigate the extent to which medium and large companies have been using modern methods of investment justification evaluation in their decision-making process and determine the level of quality of the application of the selected methods in practice. The study was conducted on a sample of medium and large enterprises in the eastern Croatia during 2011 and 2012, and it was established that despite the fact that a large number of modern investment project profitability and risk assessment models have been developed, the level of their application in practice is not high enough. The analyzed investment proposals included only basic methods of capital budgeting without risk assessment. Hence, it was concluded that individual investors were presented with low-quality and incomplete investment justification evaluation results on the basis of which the decisions of key importance for the development of the economic entity as a whole were made. This paper aims to underline the need for financial managers to get informed and educate themselves about contemporary investment project profitability and risk assessment models as well as the need to create educational programmes and computer solutions that will encourage key people in companies to acquire new knowledge and apply modern

  13. Software-defined radio with flexible RF front end for satellite maritime radio applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budroweit, Jan

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the concept of a software-defined radio with a flexible RF front end. The design and architecture of this system, as well as possible application examples will be explained. One specific scenario is the operation in maritime frequency bands. A well-known service is the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which has been captured by the DLR mission AISat, and will be chosen as a maritime application example. The results of an embedded solution for AIS on the SDR platform are presented in this paper. Since there is an increasing request for more performance on maritime radio bands, services like AIS will be enhanced by the International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA). The new VHF Data Exchange Service (VDES) shall implement a dedicated satellite link. This paper describes that the SDR with a flexible RF front end can be used as a technology demonstration platform for this upcoming data exchange service.

  14. A Report on University Applications of Satellite/Cable Technology; First Annual International Communications Conference (Madison, Wisconsin, June 3-5, 1975).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lorne A., Comp.; Riccomini, Betsy, Comp.

    The aim of the conference on University Applications of Satellite/Cable Technology was to stimulate discussion among universities, industry, and government on the possibilities of satellite and cable technology in the future. Twenty-six presentations were made covering the following topics: the current status of satellite/cable technology; the…

  15. Application of the advanced communications technology satellite for teleradiology and telemedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Brent K.; Carter, Stephen J.; Rowberg, Alan H.

    1995-05-01

    The authors have an in-kind grant from NASA to investigate the application of the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to teleradiology and telemedicine using the JPL developed ACTS Mobile Terminal (AMT) uplink. This experiment involves the transmission of medical imagery (CT, MR, CR, US and digitized radiographs including mammograms), between the ACTS/AMT and the University of Washington. This is accomplished by locating the AMT experiment van in various locations throughout Washington state, Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Hawaii. The medical images are transmitted from the ACTS to the downlink at the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, consisting of AMT equipment and the high burst rate-link evaluation terminal (HBR-LET). These images are then routed from LeRC to the University of Washington School of Medicine (UWSoM) through the Internet and public switched Integrated Serviced Digital Network (ISDN). Once images arrive in the UW Radiology Department, they are reviewed using both video monitor softcopy and laser-printed hardcopy. Compressed video teleconferencing and transmission of real-time ultrasound video between the AMT van and the UWSoM are also tested. Image quality comparisons are made using both subjective diagnostic criteria and quantitative engineering analysis. Evaluation is performed during various weather conditions (including rain to assess rain fade compensation algorithms). Compression techniques also are tested to evaluate their effects on image quality, allowing further evaluation of portable teleradiology/telemedicine at lower data rates and providing useful information for additional applications (e.g., smaller remote units, shipboard, emergency disaster, etc.). The medical images received at the UWSoM over the ACTS are directly evaluated against the original digital images. The project demonstrates that a portable satellite-land connection can provide subspecialty consultation and education for rural and remote

  16. Recycled Water Reuse Permit Renewal Application for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mike [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This renewal application for a Recycled Water Reuse Permit is being submitted in accordance with the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.17 “Recycled Water Rules” and the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit LA-000141-03 for continuing the operation of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant located at the Idaho National Laboratory. The permit expires March 16, 2015. The permit requires a renewal application to be submitted six months prior to the expiration date of the existing permit. For the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant, the renewal application must be submitted by September 16, 2014. The information in this application is consistent with the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater and discussions with Idaho Department of Environmental Quality personnel.

  17. 40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.19 Provisions of specific applicability to the... Industrial Users” includes the following Industrial Users in the City of Owatonna, Minnesota: Crown Cork and... Industrial User discharging to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility in Owatonna, Minnesota, when a...

  18. 40 CFR 60.440 - Applicability and designation of affected facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... affected facility. 60.440 Section 60.440 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for Pressure Sensitive Tape and Label Surface Coating Operations § 60.440 Applicability and... each coating line used in the manufacture of pressure sensitive tape and label materials. (b) Any...

  19. 78 FR 16302 - Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant, Application for Amendment to Facility Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant, Application for Amendment to Facility Operating... Operating License No. DPR-72 for the Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant (CR-3), located in...

  20. Facile synthesis and application of poly(ionic liquid)-bonded silica hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Wentao; Tian, Minglei; Row, Kyung Ho

    2012-05-07

    Facile methods were developed to prepare hybrid poly(ionic liquid)-bonded silica for a wide range of applications, particularly in analytical chemistry. The hybrid material obtained was evaluated by comparing its adsorption capacity with other conventional separation materials. In addition, the hybrid material has the potential for industrial scale production.

  1. 75 FR 51258 - Boott Hydropower, Inc.; Eldred L Field Hydroelectric Facility Trust; Notice of Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Boott Hydropower, Inc.; Eldred L Field Hydroelectric Facility Trust; Notice... No.: 2790-055. c. Date Filed: July 6, 2010. d. Applicant: Boott Hydropower, Inc. and Eldred L Field... Hydropower, Inc., One Tech Drive, Suite 220, Andover, MA 01810. Tel: (978) 681-1900 Ext 809. i. FERC Contact...

  2. RAFT-HDA Chemistry - Conception, Development and Application of a Facile Tool for Precision Macromolecular Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Inglis, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The conceptualization, development and application of the herein named RAFT-HDA Chemistry is reported. This chemistry is presented as a facile conjugation method (falling within the field of click chemistry) whereby synthetic polymeric materials may be covalently linked to other species, including other polymers with high efficiency.

  3. 40 CFR 60.380 - Applicability and designation of affected facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Performance for Metallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.380 Applicability and designation of affected facility... mineral processing plants: Each crusher and screen in open-pit mines; each crusher, screen, bucket... underground mines are exempted from the provisions of this subpart. At uranium ore processing plants,...

  4. 18 CFR 157.18 - Applications to abandon facilities or service; exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applications to abandon facilities or service; exhibits. 157.18 Section 157.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL..., Concerning Any Operation, Sales, Service, Construction, Extension, Acquisition or Abandonment §...

  5. Experimental Investigation of Radio Signal Propagation in Scientific Facilities for Telerobotic Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ramviyas Parasuraman; Keith Kershaw(CERN); Manuel Ferre

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the radio signal transmission characteristics in the environment where the telerobotic application is sought is a key part of achieving a reliable wireless communication link between a telerobot and a control station. In this paper, wireless communication requirements and a case study of a typical telerobotic application in an underground facility at CERN are presented. Then, the theoretical and experimental characteristics of radio propagation are investigated with respect to t...

  6. Promoting space research and applications in developing countries through small satellite missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeting, M.

    The high vantage-point of space offers very direct and tangible benefits to developing countries when carefully focused upon their real and particular communications and Earth observation needs. However, until recently, access to space has been effectively restricted to only those countries prepared to invest enormous sums in complex facilities and expensive satellites and launchers: this has placed individual participation in space beyond the sensible grasp of developing countries. However, during the last decade, highly capable and yet inexpensive small satellites have been developed which provide an opportunity for developing countries realistically to acquire and operate their own independent space assets - customized to their particular national needs. Over the last 22 years, the Surrey Space Centre has pioneered, developed and launched 23 nano-micro-minisatellite missions, and has worked in partnership with 12 developing countries to enable them to take their first independent steps into space. Surrey has developed a comprehensive and in-depth space technology know-how transfer and 'hands-on' training programme that uses a collaborative project comprising the design, construction, launch and operation of a microsatellite to acquire an indigenous space capability and create the nucleus of a national space agency and space industry. Using low cost small satellite projects as a focus, developing countries are able to initiate a long term, affordable and sustainable national space programme specifically tailored to their requirements, that is able to access the benefits derived from Earth observation for land use and national security; improved communications services; catalyzing scientific research and indigenous high-technology supporting industries. Perhaps even more important is the long-term benefit to the country provided by stimulating educational and career opportunities for your scientists and engineers and retaining them inside the country rather the

  7. Final Report: Detection and Characterization of Underground Facilities by Stochastic Inversion and Modeling of Data from the New Generation of Synthetic Aperture Satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxall, W; Cunningham, C; Mellors, R; Templeton, D; Dyer, K; White, J

    2012-02-27

    Many clandestine development and production activities can be conducted underground to evade surveillance. The purpose of the study reported here was to develop a technique to detect underground facilities by broad-area search and then to characterize the facilities by inversion of the collected data. This would enable constraints to be placed on the types of activities that would be feasible at each underground site, providing a basis the design of targeted surveillance and analysis for more complete characterization. Excavation of underground cavities causes deformation in the host material and overburden that produces displacements at the ground surface. Such displacements are often measurable by a variety of surveying or geodetic techniques. One measurement technique, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), uses data from satellite-borne (or airborne) synthetic aperture radars (SARs) and so is ideal for detecting and measuring surface displacements in denied access regions. Depending on the radar frequency and the acquisition mode and the surface conditions, displacement maps derived from SAR interferograms can provide millimeter- to centimeter-level measurement accuracy on regional and local scales at spatial resolution of {approx}1-10 m. Relatively low-resolution ({approx}20 m, say) maps covering large regions can be used for broad-area detection, while finer resolutions ({approx}1 m) can be used to image details of displacement fields over targeted small areas. Surface displacements are generally expected to be largest during or a relatively short time after active excavation, but, depending on the material properties, measurable displacement may continue at a decreasing rate for a considerable time after completion. For a given excavated volume in a given geological setting, the amplitude of the surface displacements decreases as the depth of excavation increases, while the area of the discernable displacement pattern increases. Therefore, the

  8. Applications of Satellite Remote Sensing for Response to and Recovery from Meteorological Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Burks, Jason E.; McGrath, Kevin M.; Camp, Parks; Leonardo, Dario; Bell, Jordan R.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous on-orbit satellites provide a wide range of spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions supporting the use of their resulting imagery in assessments of disasters that are meteorological in nature. This presentation will provide an overview of recent use of Earth remote sensing by NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in response to disaster activities in 2012 and 2013, along with case studies supporting ongoing research and development. The SPoRT Center, with support from NASA's Applied Sciences Program, has explored a variety of new applications of Earth-observing sensors to support disaster response. In May 2013, the SPoRT Center developed unique power outage composites representing the first clear sky view of damage inflicted upon Moore and Oklahoma City, Oklahoma following the devastating EF-5 tornado that occurred on May 20. Subsequent ASTER, MODIS, Landsat-7 and Landsat-8 imagery help to identify the damaged areas. Higher resolution imagery of Moore, Oklahoma were provided by commercial satellites and the recently available International Space Station (ISS) SERVIR Environmental Research and Visualization System (ISERV) instrument. New techniques are being explored by the SPoRT team in order to better identify damage visible in high resolution imagery, and to monitor ongoing recovery for Moore, Oklahoma. This presentation will provide an overview of near real-time data products developed for dissemination to SPoRT's partners in NOAA's National Weather Service, through collaboration with the USGS and other federal agencies. Specifically, it will focus on integration of various data sets within the NOAA National Weather Service Damage Assessment Toolkit, which allows meteorologists in the field to consult available satellite imagery while performing their damage assessment.

  9. Application of SVM on satellite images to detect hotspots in Jharia coal field region of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, R.S.; Singh, D.; Mittal, A.; Sajin, P. [Indian Institute for Technology, Roorkee (India)

    2008-07-01

    The present paper deals with the application of Support Vector Machine (SVM) and image analysis techniques on NOAA/AVHRR satellite image to detect hotspots on the Jharia coal field region of India. One of the major advantages of using these satellite data is that the data are free with very good temporal resolution; while, one drawback is that these have low spatial resolution (i.e., approximately 1.1 km at nadir). Therefore, it is important to do research by applying some efficient optimization techniques along with the image analysis techniques to rectify these drawbacks and use satellite images for efficient hotspot detection and monitoring. For this purpose, SVM and multi-threshold techniques are explored for hotspot detection. The multi-threshold algorithm is developed to remove the cloud coverage from the land coverage. This algorithm also highlights the hotspots or fire spots in the suspected regions. SVM has the advantage over multi-thresholding technique that it can learn patterns from the examples and therefore is used to optimize the performance by removing the false points which are highlighted in the threshold technique. Both approaches can be used separately or in combination depending on the size of the image. The RBF (Radial Basis Function) kernel is used in training of three sets of inputs: brightness temperature of channel 3, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Global Environment Monitoring Index (GEMI), respectively. This makes a classified image in the output that highlights the hotspot and non-hotspot pixels. The performance of the SVM is also compared with the performance obtained from the neural networks and SVM appears to detect hotspots more accurately (greater than 91% classification accuracy) with lesser false alarm rate. The results obtained are found to be in good agreement with the ground based observations of the hotspots.

  10. Potential application of Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi tracker on satellite images for automatic change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tasneem; Singh, Dharmendra; Raman, Balasubramanian

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring agricultural areas is still a very challenging task. Various models and methodologies have been developed for monitoring the agricultural areas with satellite images, but their practical applicability is limited due to the complexity in processing and dependence on a priori information. Therefore, in this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate the utility of the Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi (KLT) tracker, which is generally useful for tracking objects in video images, for monitoring agricultural areas. The KLT tracker was proposed to deal with the problem of image registration, but the use of the KLT tracker in satellite images for land cover monitoring is rarely reported. Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (ALOS PALSAR) data has been used to identify and track the agricultural areas. The tracked pixels were compared with the agriculture pixels obtained from a decision tree algorithm and both results are closely matched. An image differencing change detection technique has been applied after KLT tracker implementation to observe the "change" and "no change" pixels in agricultural areas. It is observed that two kinds of changes are being detected. The areas where agriculture was not there earlier, but now is present, the changes are called positive changes. In the areas where agriculture was present earlier, but now is not present, those changes are referred to as negative changes. Unchanged areas retrieved from both the images are labeled as "no change" pixels. The novelty of the proposed algorithm is that it uses a simplified version of the KLT tracker to efficiently select and track the agriculture features on the basis of their spatial information and does not require a priori information every time.

  11. Applicability of base-isolation R and D in nonreactor facilities to a nuclear reactor plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidensticker, R.W.; Chang, Y.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Reactor Analysis and Safety Div.)

    1990-01-01

    Seismic isolation is gaining increased attention worldwide for use in a wide spectrum of critical facilities, ranging from hospitals and computing centers to nuclear power plants. While the fundamental principles and technology are applicable to all of these facilities, the degree of assurance that the actual behavior of the isolation systems is as specified varies with the nature of the facility involved. Obviously, the level of effort to provide such assurance for a nuclear power plant will be much greater than that required for, say, a critical computer facility. This paper reviews the R and D programs ongoing for seismic isolation in non-nuclear facilities and related experience and makes a preliminary assessment of the extent to which such R and D and experience can be used for nuclear power plant application. Ways are suggested to improve the usefulness of such non-nuclear R and D in providing the high level of confidence required for the use of seismic isolation in a nuclear reactor plant.

  12. Systematic Evaluation of Satellite-Based Rainfall Products over the Brahmaputra Basin for Hydrological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Ratna Bajracharya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of the flow generated in the Brahmaputra river basin is important for establishing an effective flood prediction and warning services as well as for water resources assessment and management. But this is a data scarce region with few and unevenly distributed hydrometeorological stations. Five high-resolution satellite rainfall products (CPC RFE2.0, RFE2.0-Modified, CMORPH, GSMaP, and TRMM 3B42 were evaluated at different spatial and temporal resolutions (daily, dekadal, monthly, and seasonal with observed rain gauge data from 2004 to 2006 to determine their ability to fill the data gap and suitability for use in hydrological and water resources management applications. Grid-to-grid (G-G and catchment-to-catchment (C-C comparisons were performed using the verification methods developed by the International Precipitation Working Group (IPWG. Comparing different products, RFE2.0-Modified, TRMM 3B42, and CMORPH performed best; they all detected heavy, moderate, and low rainfall but still significantly underestimated magnitude of rainfall, particularly in orographically influenced areas. Overall, RFE2.0-Modified performed best showing a high correlation coefficient with observed data and low mean absolute error, root mean square error, and multiple bias and is reasonably good at detecting the occurrence of rainfall. TRMM 3B42 showed the second best performance. The study demonstrates that there is a potential use of satellite rainfall in a data scarce region.

  13. An overview of neural network applications for soil moisture retrieval from radar satellite sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, E.; Paloscia, S.; Pettinato, S.

    2014-10-01

    Frequent and spatially distributed measurements of soil moisture (SMC), at different spatial scales, are advisable for all applications related to the environmental disciplines, such as climatology, meteorology, hydrology and agriculture. Satellite sensors operating in the low part of microwave spectrum are very suitable for this purpose, and their signals can be directly related to the moisture content of the observed surfaces, provided that all the contributions from soil and vegetation to the measured signal are properly accounted for. Among the algorithms used for the retrieval of SMC from both active (i.e. Synthetic Aperture Radar, SAR or real aperture radars) and passive (radiometers) microwave sensors, the artificial neural networks (ANN) represent the best compromise between accuracy and computation speed. ANN based algorithms have been developed at IFAC, and adapted to several radar and radiometric satellite sensors, in order to generate SMC products at different spatial resolutions, varying from hundreds of meters to tens of kilometers. These algorithms, which use the ANN techniques for inverting theoretical and semi-empirical models, such as Advanced Integral Equation (AIEM), Oh models, and Radiative transfer Theory (RTT), have been adapted to the C-band acquisitions from SAR (Envisat/ASAR) and real aperture radar (ASCAT) and to the X-band SAR acquisitions of Cosmo-SkyMed and TerraSAR-X. Moreover, a specific ANN algorithm has also been implemented for the L-band active and passive acquisitions of the incoming SMAP mission. The latter satellite will carry onboard simultaneously one radar and one radiometer operating at the same frequency, but with different spatial resolutions (3 and 40 km, respectively). Large datasets of co-located satellite acquisitions and direct SMC measurements on several test sites located worldwide have been used along with simulations derived from forward electromagnetic models for setting up, training and validating these

  14. Representation of Unknown and Unmodeled Space Events for Satellites: Characteristics and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hyun Chul

    A new way of representing unknown and unmodeled space events (USEs) with Thrust-Fourier-Coefficients (TFCs) is introduced and its applications to satellite orbit determination (OD) and event detection are studied. A USE is regarded as an event due to unknown changes of force model caused by unplanned maneuvers, unknown deployment, collision, or some other drastic change in space environment. A satellite's motion under USEs, transitioning between two arbitrary orbit states, can be represented as an equivalent orbital maneuver connecting those two states by applying the Fourier series representation of perturbing accelerations. This event representation with TFCs rigorously provides a unique control law that can generate the given secular behavior of a satellite due to a USE. This technique enables us to facilitate the analytical propagation of orbit information across a USE, which allows for the usage of an existing pre-event orbit solution to compute a post-event orbit solution. By directly appending TFCs and the represented event dynamics to a regular OD filter, the modified filter using TFCs is able to blend post-event tracking data to improve a post-event orbit solution in the absence of a dynamics model of USE. Case studies with simulated tracking data show that the event representation using TFCs helps to maintain OD across a period of USEs. In addition, when there is measurement data available during USEs, a modified sequential filter with TFCs is able to detect the onset and the termination time of an event. This event representation-based OD and event detection distinguishes itself from other approaches in that it does not rely on any assumption or a priori information of a USE. This generic approach enables us to fit tracking data in real time and therefore to maintain a satellite tracking in the presence of USEs. This method has the advantage of avoiding the difficulty of manual parameter tuning and, thus, is able to provide more accurate post-event OD

  15. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 325 hazardous waste treatment units. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This report contains the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application for the 325 Hazardous Waste Treatment Units (325 HWTUs) which consist of the Shielded Analytical Laboratory, the 325 Building, and the 325 Collection/Loadout Station Tank. The 325 HWTUs receive, store, and treat dangerous waste generated by Hanford Facility programs. Routine dangerous and/or mixed waste treatment that will be conducted in the 325 HWTUs will include pH adjustment, ion exchange, carbon absorption, oxidation, reduction, waste concentration by evaporation, precipitation, filtration, solvent extraction, solids washing, phase separation, catalytic destruction, and solidification/stabilization.

  16. Trial Application of the Facility Safeguardability Assessment Process to the NuScale SMR Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Garill A.; Hockert, John; Gitau, Ernest TN; Zentner, Michael D.

    2013-01-26

    FSA is a screening process intended to focus a facility designer’s attention on the aspects of their facility or process design that would most benefit from application of SBD principles and practices. The process is meant to identify the most relevant guidance within the SBD tools for enhancing the safeguardability of the design. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, NNSA sponsored PNNL to evaluate the practical application of FSA by applying it to the NuScale small modular nuclear power plant. This report documents the application of the FSA process, presenting conclusions regarding its efficiency and robustness. It describes the NuScale safeguards design concept and presents functional "infrastructure" guidelines that were developed using the FSA process.

  17. An Automated DAKOTA and VULCAN-CFD Framework with Application to Supersonic Facility Nozzle Flowpath Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axdahl, Erik L.

    2015-01-01

    Removing human interaction from design processes by using automation may lead to gains in both productivity and design precision. This memorandum describes efforts to incorporate high fidelity numerical analysis tools into an automated framework and applying that framework to applications of practical interest. The purpose of this effort was to integrate VULCAN-CFD into an automated, DAKOTA-enabled framework with a proof-of-concept application being the optimization of supersonic test facility nozzles. It was shown that the optimization framework could be deployed on a high performance computing cluster with the flow of information handled effectively to guide the optimization process. Furthermore, the application of the framework to supersonic test facility nozzle flowpath design and optimization was demonstrated using multiple optimization algorithms.

  18. Trial Application of the Facility Safeguardability Assessment Process to the NuScale SMR Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Garill A.; Gitau, Ernest TN; Hockert, John; Zentner, Michael D.

    2012-11-09

    FSA is a screening process intended to focus a facility designer’s attention on the aspects of their facility or process design that would most benefit from application of SBD principles and practices. The process is meant to identify the most relevant guidance within the SBD tools for enhancing the safeguardability of the design. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, NNSA sponsored PNNL to evaluate the practical application of FSA by applying it to the NuScale small modular nuclear power plant. This report documents the application of the FSA process, presenting conclusions regarding its efficiency and robustness. It describes the NuScale safeguards design concept and presents functional "infrastructure" guidelines that were developed using the FSA process.

  19. Study, optimization, and design of a laser heat engine. [for satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taussig, R. T.; Cassady, P. E.; Zumdieck, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    Laser heat engine concepts, proposed for satellite applications, are analyzed to determine which engine concept best meets the requirements of high efficiency (50 percent or better), continuous operation in space using near-term technology. The analysis of laser heat engines includes the thermodynamic cycles, engine design, laser power sources, collector/concentrator optics, receiving windows, absorbers, working fluids, electricity generation, and heat rejection. Specific engine concepts, optimized according to thermal efficiency, are rated by their technological availability and scaling to higher powers. A near-term experimental demonstration of the laser heat engine concept appears feasible utilizing an Otto cycle powered by CO2 laser radiation coupled into the engine through a diamond window. Higher cycle temperatures, higher efficiencies, and scalability to larger sizes appear to be achievable from a laser heat engine design based on the Brayton cycle and powered by a CO laser.

  20. Application of satellite estimates of rainfall distribution to simulate the potential for malaria transmission in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamana, T. K.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Hydrology, Entomology and Malaria Transmission Simulator (HYDREMATS) is a mechanistic model developed to assess malaria risk in areas where the disease is water-limited. This model relies on precipitation inputs as its primary forcing. Until now, applications of the model have used ground-based precipitation observations. However, rain gauge networks in the areas most affected by malaria are often sparse. The increasing availability of satellite based rainfall estimates could greatly extend the range of the model. The minimum temporal resolution of precipitation data needed was determined to be one hour. The CPC Morphing technique (CMORPH ) distributed by NOAA fits this criteria, as it provides 30-minute estimates at 8km resolution. CMORPH data were compared to ground observations in four West African villages, and calibrated to reduce overestimation and false alarm biases. The calibrated CMORPH data were used to force HYDREMATS, resulting in outputs for mosquito populations, vectorial capacity and malaria transmission.

  1. The Satellite Systems Applications to Automate Navigation in the Coastal Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katenin Vladimir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The methods of automatic pilotage along a guided path are well known in the practice of navigation. However these methods have a number of drawbacks, which reduce the effectiveness of their application. It is especially important for river-sea vessel in poor visibility. Because of the large inertia of the vessel and its hydrodynamic properties that are changed by external influences, the process has unstable oscillatory nature. Therefore the vessel moves not in a straight line, but on a winding curve having the general direction that corresponds to the specified value. In this paper new method of coastal navigation with invented new devices supported with satellite navigation receiver is presented.

  2. The Application of GeoRSC Based on Domestic Satellite in Field Remote Sensing Anomaly Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ting; Yang, Min; Han, Haihui; Li, Jianqiang; Yi, Huan

    2016-11-01

    The Geo REC is the digital remote sensing survey system which based on domestic satellites, and by means of it, the thesis carriedy out a remote sensing anomaly verification field application test in Nachitai area of Qinghai. Field test checks the system installation, the stability of the system operation, the efficiency of reading and show the romoate image or vector data, the security of the data management system and the accuracy of BeiDou navigation; through the test data, the author indicated that the hardware and software system could satisfy the remote sensing anomaly verification work in field, which could also could make it convenient forconvenient the workflow of remote sense survey and, improve the work efficiency,. Aat the same time, in the course of the experiment, we also found some shortcomings of the system, and give some suggestions for improvement combineding with the practical work for the system.

  3. A survey of particle image velocimetry applications in Langley aerospace facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, W. M.; Bartram, S. M.; Blackshire, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes several applications of the global velocity measurement technique known as particle image velocimetry to three different facilities at Langley Research Center. These three applications represent global velocity measurements in distinctly different flows, namely a reacting hydrogen - air flame, a low Reynolds number boundary layer, and hypersonic flow over a wedge. In addition, these applications illustrate the power of the instrument to obtain data such as vorticity and Reynolds stress. Finally, the ability to obtain particle dynamics data in supersonic/hypersonic flows similar to that which can be obtained with point measurement techniques is demonstrated.

  4. Experimental Investigation of Radio Signal Propagation in Scientific Facilities for Telerobotic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramviyas Parasuraman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the radio signal transmission characteristics in the environment where the telerobotic application is sought is a key part of achieving a reliable wireless communication link between a telerobot and a control station. In this paper, wireless communication requirements and a case study of a typical telerobotic application in an underground facility at CERN are presented. Then, the theoretical and experimental characteristics of radio propagation are investigated with respect to time, distance, location and surrounding objects. Based on analysis of the experimental findings, we show how a commercial wireless system, such as Wi-Fi, can be made suitable for a case study application at CERN.

  5. Research and Development initiative of Satellite Technology Application for Environmental Issues in Asia Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, K.; Kaneko, Y.; Sobue, S.; Oyoshi, K.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change and human activities are directly or indirectly influence the acceleration of environmental problems and natural hazards such as forest fires, drought and floods in the Asia-Pacific countries. Satellite technology has become one of the key information sources in assessment, monitoring and mitigation of these hazards and related phenomenon. However, there are still gaps between science and application of space technology in practical usage. Asia-Pacific Regional Space Agency Forum (APRSAF) recommended to initiate the Space Applications for Environment (SAFE) proposal providing opportunity to potential user agencies in the Asia Pacific region to develop prototype applications of space technology for number of key issues including forest resources management, coastal monitoring and management, agriculture and food security, water resource management and development user-friendly tools for application of space technology. The main activity of SAFE is SAFE prototyping. SAFE prototyping is a demonstration for end users and decision makers to apply space technology applications for solving environmental issues in Asia-Pacific region. By utilizing space technology and getting technical support by experts, prototype executers can develop the application system, which could support decision making activities. SAFE holds a workshop once a year. In the workshop, new prototypes are approved and the progress of on-going prototypes are confirmed. Every prototype is limited for two years period and all activities are operated by volunteer manner. As of 2016, 20 prototypes are completed and 6 prototypes are on-going. Some of the completed prototypes, for example drought monitoring in Indonesia were applied to operational use by a local official organization.

  6. Application of Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation Equivalency to Construction of New Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BISHOP, G.E.

    1999-06-02

    The Spent Nuclear Fuels Project (SNFP) Office of the Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office, is charged with moving 2.100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel elements left over from plutonium production into semi-permanent storage at DOE'S Hanford site in Washington state. In anticipation of eventual NRC regulation, the DOE decided to impose NRC requirements on new SNFP facility design and construction, specifically for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and the Canister Storage Building (CSB). The SNFP implemented this policy of ''NRC equivalency'' with the goal of achieving a level of nuclear safety equivalent to that of NRC-licensed fuel processing facilities. Appropriate features of the NRC licensing process were adopted. However, the SNFP maintained applicable DOE requirements in tandem with the NRC regulations. Project work is continuing, with the first fuel movement scheduled for November, 2000.

  7. Educational Applications of Communications Satellites in Canada. New Technologies in Canadian Education Series. Paper 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, J. Murray

    Canada has explored the use of satellites as a means to provide information and communications services to geographically isolated populations since 1962. Between 1972 and 1984, five series of satellites known as Anik A, B, C, and D and Hermes were launched. Each satellite provided expanded communications services, and each led to research and…

  8. Systematic identification of applications for a cluster of femto-satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundaramoorthy, P.P.; Gill, E.; Verhoeven, C.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Embracing reduced requirements and leveraging commercial technology has led to a fast growing small satellite industry. Although most interest in small satellites has hovered around the micro satellites through to the picosatellites, academic interest now extends up to the sub 100 g range of

  9. Satellite cloud and precipitation property retrievals for climate monitoring and hydrological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, E. L. A.

    2012-03-01

    This thesis presents the retrieval, evaluation, and application of cloud physical property datasets (cloud phase, cloud particle effective radius, and precipitation occurrence and intensity) obtained from Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) reflectance measurements using the Cloud Physical Properties (CPP) retrieval algorithm. In Chapter 3 it is shown that the CPP cloud-phase retrieval algorithm has sufficient accuracy (West Africa. During the afternoon, precipitation occurrence frequency over dry soils becomes significantly higher than over wet soils, whereas for precipitation intensity no significant difference is discerned. The study demonstrates that the combination of satellite-based soil moisture and precipitation observations can be helpful in improving the understanding of the land surface-precipitation interaction over tropical areas. The thesis concludes with a number of recommendations on future algorithm improvements and potential research applications. For both cloud phase and precipitation properties, extension of the algorithm to include nighttime observations would be desirable to enable detailed studies on the full diurnal cycle. Further, the SEVIRI High-Resolution Visible (HRV) channel could be incorporated to correct retrieved cloud physical properties for broken and inhomogeneous cloud cases. Finally, the accurate cloud phase and precipitation datasets combined with the high SEVIRI spatial and temporal sampling resolution enables possibilities for detailed research on climate monitoring, nowcasting applications, evaluation of cloud schemes in climate models, studies on land surface-precipitation interactions (with a special focus on the diurnal cycle), and assimilation of the datasets in weather and climate models

  10. Creation and Application of Expert System Framework in Granting the Credit Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaye Hoseini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the development of a knowledge base for expert system for credit risk assessment of bank’s legal customers. It analyzed the customers’ credit risk based on experts’ financial ratio analysis. Financial ratios were derived from financial statements of customers; however, the knowledge that helps banking experts to determine the relationship between customers’ credit risk and financial situation has been derived from these laws. In this study, expert system considered customer financial ratios as input and prediction of credit risk level as the output. This study was a descriptive-case study research. The population consisted of credit experts of Tejarat bank who were the member of bank’s credit Committee and had the right to vote for facilities approval and the individuals whose main task was providing reports for granting facilities and monitoring the use of facilities. After an initial interview and determining the evaluation criteria for facilities and determining the items for each of the criteria, a questionnaire was designed using Likert scale. Data normality test was conducted to ensure the accuracy of the collected data. T-test was performed to realize the selected criteria are important. Then, experts were asked to determine the minimum score for providing the facility to the applicant in each section of the questionnaire. The laws of expert system were provided based on determined minimum scores.

  11. The Design and Application of Data Storage System in Miyun Satellite Ground Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiping; Su, Yan; Zhang, Hongbo; Liu, Bin; Yao, Meijuan; Zhao, Shu

    2015-04-01

    China has launched Chang'E-3 satellite in 2013, firstly achieved soft landing on moon for China's lunar probe. Miyun satellite ground station firstly used SAN storage network system based-on Stornext sharing software in Chang'E-3 mission. System performance fully meets the application requirements of Miyun ground station data storage.The Stornext file system is a sharing file system with high performance, supports multiple servers to access the file system using different operating system at the same time, and supports access to data on a variety of topologies, such as SAN and LAN. Stornext focused on data protection and big data management. It is announced that Quantum province has sold more than 70,000 licenses of Stornext file system worldwide, and its customer base is growing, which marks its leading position in the big data management.The responsibilities of Miyun satellite ground station are the reception of Chang'E-3 satellite downlink data and management of local data storage. The station mainly completes exploration mission management, receiving and management of observation data, and provides a comprehensive, centralized monitoring and control functions on data receiving equipment. The ground station applied SAN storage network system based on Stornext shared software for receiving and managing data reliable.The computer system in Miyun ground station is composed by business running servers, application workstations and other storage equipments. So storage systems need a shared file system which supports heterogeneous multi-operating system. In practical applications, 10 nodes simultaneously write data to the file system through 16 channels, and the maximum data transfer rate of each channel is up to 15MB/s. Thus the network throughput of file system is not less than 240MB/s. At the same time, the maximum capacity of each data file is up to 810GB. The storage system planned requires that 10 nodes simultaneously write data to the file system through 16

  12. Towards a protocol for validating satellite-based Land Surface Temperature: Application to AATSR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghent, Darren; Schneider, Philipp; Remedios, John

    2013-04-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) retrieval accuracy can be challenging as a result of emissivity variability and atmospheric effects. Surface emissivities can be highly variable owing to the heterogeneity of the land; a problem which is amplified in regions of high topographic variance or for larger viewing angles. Atmospheric effects caused by the presence of aerosols and by water vapour absorption can give a bias to the underlying LST. Combined, atmospheric effects and emissivity variability can result in retrieval errors of several degrees. If though these are appropriately handled satellite-derived LST products can be used to improve our ability to monitor and to understand land surface and climate change processes, such as desertification, urbanization, deforestation and land/atmosphere coupling. Here we present validation of an improved LST data record from the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) and illustrate the improvements in accuracy and precision compared with the standard ESA LST product. Validation is a critical part of developing any satellite product, although over the land heterogeneity ensures this is a challenging undertaking. A substantial amount of previous effort has gone into the area of structuring and standardizing calibration and validation approaches within the field of Earth Observation. However, no unified approach for accomplishing this for LST has yet to be practised by the LST community. Recent work has attempted to address this situation with the development of a protocol for validating LST (Schneider et al., 2012) under the auspices of ESA and the support of the wider LST community. We report here on a first application of this protocol to satellite LST data. The approach can briefly be summarised thus: in situ validation is performed where ground-based observations are available - being predominantly homogeneous sites; heterogeneous pixels are validated by way of established radiometric-based techniques (Wan and Li

  13. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, general information portion. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnichsen, J.C.

    1997-08-21

    For purposes of the Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, the US Department of Energy`s contractors are identified as ``co-operators`` and sign in that capacity (refer to Condition I.A.2. of the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit). Any identification of these contractors as an ``operator`` elsewhere in the application is not meant to conflict with the contractors` designation as co-operators but rather is based on the contractors` contractual status with the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. The Dangerous Waste Portion of the initial Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit, which incorporated five treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, was based on information submitted in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application and in closure plan and closure/postclosure plan documentation. During 1995, the Dangerous Waste Portion was modified twice to incorporate another eight treatment, storage, and/or disposal units; during 1996, the Dangerous Waste Portion was modified once to incorporate another five treatment, storage, and/or disposal units. The permit modification process will be used at least annually to incorporate additional treatment, storage, and/or disposal units as permitting documentation for these units is finalized. The units to be included in annual modifications are specified in a schedule contained in the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit. Treatment, storage, and/or disposal units will remain in interim status until incorporated into the Permit. The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (this document, DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to individual operating treatment, storage, and/or disposal units for which

  14. Trends in communications satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Curtin, Denis J

    1979-01-01

    Trends in Communications Satellites offers a comprehensive look at trends and advances in satellite communications, including experimental ones such as NASA satellites and those jointly developed by France and Germany. The economic aspects of communications satellites are also examined. This book consists of 16 chapters and begins with a discussion on the fundamentals of electrical communications and their application to space communications, including spacecraft, earth stations, and orbit and wavelength utilization. The next section demonstrates how successful commercial satellite communicati

  15. 77 FR 73060 - Standard Review Plan for Review of Fuel Cycle Facility License Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is planning to revise NUREG-1520, Revision 1, ``Standard Review Plan (SRP) for the Review of a License Application for a Fuel Cycle Facility.'' The staff proposes to revise NUREG-1520 to provide guidance and further clarify several technical areas. In addition to revising NUREG-1520, the staff is also planning to issue Interim Staff Guidance (ISG)......

  16. Cloud retrievals from satellite data using optimal estimation: evaluation and application to ATSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Poulsen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Clouds play an important role in balancing the Earth's radiation budget. Hence, it is vital that cloud climatologies are produced that quantify cloud macro and micro physical parameters and the associated uncertainty. In this paper, we present an algorithm ORAC (Oxford-RAL retrieval of Aerosol and Cloud which is based on fitting a physically consistent cloud model to satellite observations simultaneously from the visible to the mid-infrared, thereby ensuring that the resulting cloud properties provide both a good representation of the short-wave and long-wave radiative effects of the observed cloud. The advantages of the optimal estimation method are that it enables rigorous error propagation and the inclusion of all measurements and any a priori information and associated errors in a rigorous mathematical framework. The algorithm provides a measure of the consistency between retrieval representation of cloud and satellite radiances. The cloud parameters retrieved are the cloud top pressure, cloud optical depth, cloud effective radius, cloud fraction and cloud phase.

    The algorithm can be applied to most visible/infrared satellite instruments. In this paper, we demonstrate the applicability to the Along-Track Scanning Radiometers ATSR-2 and AATSR. Examples of applying the algorithm to ATSR-2 flight data are presented and the sensitivity of the retrievals assessed, in particular the algorithm is evaluated for a number of simulated single-layer and multi-layer conditions. The algorithm was found to perform well for single-layer cloud except when the cloud was very thin; i.e., less than 1 optical depths. For the multi-layer cloud, the algorithm was robust except when the upper ice cloud layer is less than five optical depths. In these cases the retrieved cloud top pressure and cloud effective radius become a weighted average of the 2 layers. The sum of optical depth of multi-layer cloud is retrieved well until the cloud becomes thick

  17. South African Weather Service operational satellite based precipitation estimation technique: applications and improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. de Coning

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Extreme weather related to heavy or more frequent precipitation events seem to be a likely possibility for the future of our planet. While precipitation measurements can be done by means of rain gauges, the obvious disadvantages of point measurements are driving meteorologists towards remotely sensed precipitation methods. In South Africa more sophisticated and expensive nowcasting technology such as radar and lightning networks are available, supported by a fairly dense rain gauge network of about 1500 gauges. In the rest of southern Africa rainfall measurements are more difficult to obtain. The availability of the local version of the Unified Model and the Meteosat Second Generation satellite data make these products ideal components of precipitation measurement in data sparse regions such as Africa. In this article the local version of the Hydroestimator (originally from NOAA/NESDIS is discussed as well as its applications for precipitation measurement in this region. Hourly accumulations of the Hydroestimator are currently used as a satellite based precipitation estimator for the South African Flash Flood Guidance system. However, the Hydroestimator is by no means a perfect representation of the real rainfall. In this study the Hydroestimator and the stratiform rainfall field from the Unified Model are both bias corrected and then combined into a new precipitation field which can feed into the South African Flash Flood Guidance system. This new product should provide a more accurate and comprehensive input to the Flash Flood Guidance systems in South Africa as well as southern Africa. In this way the southern African region where data is sparse and very few radars are available can have access to more accurate flash flood guidance.

  18. Application of Multispectral Satellite Data for Geological Mapping in Antarctic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, A. B.; Hashim, M.; Hong, J. K.

    2016-09-01

    Remote sensing imagery is capable to provide a solution to overcome the difficulties associated with geological field mapping in the Antarctic. Advanced optical and radar satellite imagery is the most applicable tool for mapping and identification of inaccessible regions in Antarctic. Consequently, an improved scientific research using remote sensing technology would be essential to provide new and more complete lithological and structural data to fill the numerous knowledge gaps on Antarctica's geology. In this investigation, Oscar coast area in Graham Land, Antarctic Peninsula (AP) was selected to conduct a remote sensing study using Landsat-7 Thematic Mapper (TM), Landsat-8 and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data. Contrast-enhanced Red-Green-Blue (RGB) composites, band ratios and Relative Band Depth (RBD) image processing techniques were applied to Landsat-8 and ASTER dataset for establishing the spectral separation of the main lithologic groups exposed in the study area. The outcomes of this investigation demonstrated the applications of SWIR and TIR bands of the multispectral remote sensing datasets to identify lithological units and producing geological maps with suitable accuracy of ice-free rock regions in the Antarctic Peninsula. The results could be extended to map coverage of non-investigated regions further east and validated previously inferred geological observations concerning other rocks and mineral deposits throughout the Antarctica.

  19. APPLICATION OF MULTISPECTRAL SATELLITE DATA FOR GEOLOGICAL MAPPING IN ANTARCTIC ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Pour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing imagery is capable to provide a solution to overcome the difficulties associated with geological field mapping in the Antarctic. Advanced optical and radar satellite imagery is the most applicable tool for mapping and identification of inaccessible regions in Antarctic. Consequently, an improved scientific research using remote sensing technology would be essential to provide new and more complete lithological and structural data to fill the numerous knowledge gaps on Antarctica’s geology. In this investigation, Oscar coast area in Graham Land, Antarctic Peninsula (AP was selected to conduct a remote sensing study using Landsat-7 Thematic Mapper (TM, Landsat-8 and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER data. Contrast-enhanced Red-Green-Blue (RGB composites, band ratios and Relative Band Depth (RBD image processing techniques were applied to Landsat-8 and ASTER dataset for establishing the spectral separation of the main lithologic groups exposed in the study area. The outcomes of this investigation demonstrated the applications of SWIR and TIR bands of the multispectral remote sensing datasets to identify lithological units and producing geological maps with suitable accuracy of ice-free rock regions in the Antarctic Peninsula. The results could be extended to map coverage of non-investigated regions further east and validated previously inferred geological observations concerning other rocks and mineral deposits throughout the Antarctica.

  20. Application of satellite imagery to monitoring human rights abuse of vulnerable communities, with minimal risk to relief staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavers, C.; Bishop, C.; Hawkins, O.; Grealey, E.; Cox, C.; Thomas, D.; Trimel, S.

    2009-07-01

    Space imagery offers remote surveillance of ethnic people groups at risk of human rights abuse. We highlight work in alleged violations in Burma and Sudan, using satellite imagery for verification with Amnesty International. We consider how imaging may effectively support small to medium-sized Non Governmental Organisations and charities, e.g. HART, working in dangerous zones on the ground. Satellite based sensing applications are now at a sufficiently mature stage for moderate Governmental funding levels to help prevent human rights abuse, rather than the greater cost of rebuilding communities and healing sectarian divisions after abuse has taken place.

  1. Facile Synthesis of Colloidal CuO Nanocrystals for Light-Harvesting Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee-Fun Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available CuO is an earth-abundant, nontoxic, and low band-gap material; hence it is an attractive candidate for application in solar cells. In this paper, a synthesis of CuO nanocrystals by a facile alcohothermal route is reported. The nanocrystals are dispersible in a solvent mixture of methanol and chloroform, thus enabling the processing of CuO by solution. A bilayer solar cell comprising of CuO nanocrystals and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM achieved a power conversion efficiency of 0.04%, indicating the potential of this material for light-harvesting applications.

  2. Facile Synthesis of Colloidal CuO Nanocrystals for Light-Harvesting Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Lim, Yee-Fun

    2012-01-01

    CuO is an earth-abundant, nontoxic, and low band-gap material; hence it is an attractive candidate for application in solar cells. In this paper, a synthesis of CuO nanocrystals by a facile alcohothermal route is reported. The nanocrystals are dispersible in a solvent mixture of methanol and chloroform, thus enabling the processing of CuO by solution. A bilayer solar cell comprising of CuO nanocrystals and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) achieved a power conversion efficiency of 0.04%, indicating the potential of this material for light-harvesting applications.

  3. Satellite-Delivered Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnall, Gail C.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the application of satellite information delivery to training. Describes a new trend, horizontal programming. Also discusses vertical programming and in-house production of training materials. Lists vendors of satellite-based training. (CH)

  4. Final Report: Detection and Characterization of Underground Facilities by Stochastic Inversion and Modeling of Data from the New Generation of Synthetic Aperture Satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxall, W; Cunningham, C; Mellors, R; Templeton, D; Dyer, K; White, J

    2012-02-27

    Many clandestine development and production activities can be conducted underground to evade surveillance. The purpose of the study reported here was to develop a technique to detect underground facilities by broad-area search and then to characterize the facilities by inversion of the collected data. This would enable constraints to be placed on the types of activities that would be feasible at each underground site, providing a basis the design of targeted surveillance and analysis for more complete characterization. Excavation of underground cavities causes deformation in the host material and overburden that produces displacements at the ground surface. Such displacements are often measurable by a variety of surveying or geodetic techniques. One measurement technique, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), uses data from satellite-borne (or airborne) synthetic aperture radars (SARs) and so is ideal for detecting and measuring surface displacements in denied access regions. Depending on the radar frequency and the acquisition mode and the surface conditions, displacement maps derived from SAR interferograms can provide millimeter- to centimeter-level measurement accuracy on regional and local scales at spatial resolution of {approx}1-10 m. Relatively low-resolution ({approx}20 m, say) maps covering large regions can be used for broad-area detection, while finer resolutions ({approx}1 m) can be used to image details of displacement fields over targeted small areas. Surface displacements are generally expected to be largest during or a relatively short time after active excavation, but, depending on the material properties, measurable displacement may continue at a decreasing rate for a considerable time after completion. For a given excavated volume in a given geological setting, the amplitude of the surface displacements decreases as the depth of excavation increases, while the area of the discernable displacement pattern increases. Therefore, the

  5. Telescope Spectrophotometric and Absolute Flux Calibration, and National Security Applications, Using a Tunable Laser on a Satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, J; Rhodes, J; Albert, Justin; Burgett, William; Rhodes, Jason

    2006-01-01

    We propose a tunable laser-based satellite-mounted spectrophotometric and absolute flux calibration system, to be utilized by ground- and space-based telescopes. As uncertainties on the photometry, due to imperfect knowledge of both telescope optics and the atmosphere, will in the near future begin to dominate the uncertainties on fundamental cosmological parameters such as Omega_Lambda and w in measurements from SNIa, weak gravitational lensing, and baryon oscillations, a method for reducing such uncertainties is needed. We propose to improve spectrophotometric calibration, currently obtained using standard stars, by placing a tunable laser and a wide-angle light source on a satellite by early next decade (perhaps included in the upgrade to the GPS satellite network) to improve absolute flux calibration to 0.1% and relative spectrophotometric calibration to better than 0.001% across the visible and near-infrared spectrum. As well as fundamental astrophysical applications, the system proposed here potentially...

  6. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. Automated Process Application in Steel Fabrication and Subassembly Facilities; Phase I (Process Analysis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    6 Automated Process Application in Steel Fabrication and Subassembly Facilities; Phase I ( Process Analysis ) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CARDEROCK...Subassembly Facilities; Phase I ( Process Analysis ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  7. Navigation Facility for High Accuracy Offline Trajectory and Attitude Estimation in Airborne Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Renga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on a navigation facility, relying on commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS technology, developed to generate high-accuracy attitude and trajectory measurements in postprocessing. Target performance is cm-level positioning with tenth of degree attitude accuracy. The facility is based on the concept of GPS-aided inertial navigation but comprises carrier-phase differential GPS (CDGPS processing and attitude estimation based on multiantenna GPS configurations. Expected applications of the system include: (a performance assessment of integrated navigation systems, developed for general aviation aircraft and medium size unmanned aircraft systems (UAS; (b generation of reference measurements to evaluate the flight performance of airborne sensors (e.g., radar or laser; and (c generation of reference trajectory and attitude for improving imaging quality of airborne remote sensing data. The paper describes system architecture, selected algorithms for data processing and integration, and theoretical performance evaluation. Experimental results are also presented confirming the effectiveness of the implemented approach.

  8. A guide to the literature on application of communications satellites to educational development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R. P.; Singh, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    A review of literature dealing with communication satellite technology is presented for the nontechnical reader with emphasis on the educational aspects. An introduction is provided for: satellite technology; nontechnological aspects including economic, organizational, social, and political factors; and educational and developmental uses. A guide to selected literature, and a bibliography are included.

  9. President's Task Force on Communications Policy. Domestic Applications of Communication Satellite Technology. Staff Paper Four.

    Science.gov (United States)

    President's Task Force on Communications Policy, Washington, DC.

    A staff paper to the President's Task Force on Communications Policy examines the feasibility of a domestic communications satellite system. Although, with expected technological advancement, satellites may play a significant role in domestic transmission and are economically feasible right now, a number of remaining questions make the…

  10. A Guide to the Literature on Application of Communications Satellites to Educational Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Robert P.; Singh, Jai P.

    Because of the ability of communications satellites to distribute electronic information (radio, television, digital computer data) over wide areas with potentially attractive costs, considerable interest has been shown in using satellite technology to enhance educational programs, both in the United States and in other countries. In view of these…

  11. Application of MMIC modules in future multiple beam satellite antenna systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, J.

    1982-01-01

    Multiple beam antenna systems for advanced communication satellites operating in the 30/20 GHz frequency bands (30 GHz uplink, 20 GHz downlink) were developed. Up to twenty 0.3 deg HPBW fixed spot beams and six 0.3 deg HPBW scanning spot beams will be required. Array-fed dual reflector antenna systems in which monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) phase shift and amplifier modules are used with each radiating element of the feed array for beam pointing and power gain were developed. The feasibility of distributed power amplification and beam pointing with MMIC modules in the elements of an array and to develop a data base for future development were demonstrated. The technical discussion centers around the potential advantages of ""monolithic'' antennas for specific applications as compared to systems using high powered TWT's. These include: reduced losses in the beam forming network; advantage of space combining and graceful degradation; dynamic control of beam pointing and illumination contour; and possibilities for cost and weight reduction.

  12. Optical frequency comb based multi-band microwave frequency conversion for satellite applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinwu; Xu, Kun; Yin, Jie; Dai, Yitang; Yin, Feifei; Li, Jianqiang; Lu, Hua; Liu, Tao; Ji, Yuefeng

    2014-01-13

    Based on optical frequency combs (OFC), we propose an efficient and flexible multi-band frequency conversion scheme for satellite repeater applications. The underlying principle is to mix dual coherent OFCs with one of which carrying the input signal. By optically channelizing the mixed OFCs, the converted signal in different bands can be obtained in different channels. Alternatively, the scheme can be configured to generate multi-band local oscillators (LO) for widely distribution. Moreover, the scheme realizes simultaneous inter- and intra-band frequency conversion just in a single structure and needs only three frequency-fixed microwave sources. We carry out a proof of concept experiment in which multiple LOs with 2 GHz, 10 GHz, 18 GHz, and 26 GHz are generated. A C-band signal of 6.1 GHz input to the proposed scheme is successfully converted to 4.1 GHz (C band), 3.9 GHz (C band) and 11.9 GHz (X band), etc. Compared with the back-to-back (B2B) case measured at 0 dBm input power, the proposed scheme shows a 9.3% error vector magnitude (EVM) degradation at each output channel. Furthermore, all channels satisfy the EVM limit in a very wide input power range.

  13. Development of Ray Tracing Algorithms for Scanning Plane and Transverse Plane Analysis for Satellite Multibeam Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Abd Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reflector antennas have been widely used in many areas. In the implementation of parabolic reflector antenna for broadcasting satellite applications, it is essential for the spacecraft antenna to provide precise contoured beam to effectively serve the required region. For this purpose, combinations of more than one beam are required. Therefore, a tool utilizing ray tracing method is developed to calculate precise off-axis beams for multibeam antenna system. In the multibeam system, each beam will be fed from different feed positions to allow the main beam to be radiated at the exact direction on the coverage area. Thus, detailed study on caustics of a parabolic reflector antenna is performed and presented in this paper, which is to investigate the behaviour of the rays and its relation to various antenna parameters. In order to produce accurate data for the analysis, the caustic behaviours are investigated in two distinctive modes: scanning plane and transverse plane. This paper presents the detailed discussions on the derivation of the ray tracing algorithms, the establishment of the equations of caustic loci, and the verification of the method through calculation of radiation pattern.

  14. Circularly Polarized Transparent Microstrip Patch Reflectarray Integrated with Solar Cell for Satellite Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Zainud-Deen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Circularly polarized (CP transparent microstrip reflectarray antenna is integrated with solar cell for small satellite applications at 10 GHz. The reflectarray unit cell consists of a perfect electric conductor (PEC square patch printed on an optically transparent substrate with the PEC ground plane. A comparison between using transparent conducting polymers and using the PEC in unit-cell construction has been introduced. The waveguide simulator is used to calculate the required compensation phase of each unit cell in the reflectarray. The radiation characteristics of 13 × 13 CP transparent reflectarray antenna are investigated. A circularly polarized horn antenna is used to feed the reflectarray. The solar cell is incorporated with the transparent reflectarray on the same area. The solar-cell integration with the reflectarray reduces the maximum gain by about 0.5 dB due to the increase in the magnitude of the reflection coefficient. The results are calculated using the finite integral technique (FIT.

  15. Trellis-coded MPSK modulation for highly efficient military satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterbi, Andrew J.; Wolf, Jack K.; Zehavi, Ephraim

    Trellis-coded multiple-phase-shift-keyed (MPSK) modulation is an effective technique for increasing the bandwidth efficiency of an existing channel while maintaining at least a moderate degree of power efficiency through coding. The authors consider the application of this technique to increase markedly the capacity of a 25-kHz military satellite channel. It is shown that with only minor modifications to the QPSK modem to incorporate 8 PSK and 16 PSK modulation and no modification to the rate-1/2 coder used to transmit 16 kb/s over this channel, transmission rates of 32 kb/s and 48 kb/s, can be supported at E(b)/N(0) levels only moderately higher than for the lower data rate. In fact, it is demonstrated that 48 Kb/s can be transmitted within exactly the same bandwidth and at the same E(b)/N(0) levels as that required to transmit uncoded QPSK at 32 kb/s at bit error rate of 10-5.

  16. Comparison of Global Navigation Satellite System Devices on Speed Tracking in Road (TranSPORT Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Supej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS are, in addition to being most widely used vehicle navigation method, becoming popular in sport-related tests. There is a lack of knowledge regarding tracking speed using GNSS, therefore the aims of this study were to examine under dynamic conditions: (1 how accurate technologically different GNSS measure speed and (2 how large is latency in speed measurements in real time applications. Five GNSSs were tested. They were fixed to a car’s roof-rack: a  smart phone, a wrist watch, a handheld device, a professional system for testing vehicles and a high-end Real Time Kinematics (RTK GNSS. The speed data were recorded and analyzed during rapid acceleration and deceleration as well as at steady speed. The study produced four main findings. Higher frequency and high quality GNSS receivers track speed at least at comparable accuracy to a vehicle speedometer. All GNSS systems measured maximum speed and movement at a constant speed well. Acceleration and deceleration have different level of error at different speeds. Low cost GNSS receivers operating at 1 Hz sampling rate had high latency (up to 2.16 s and are not appropriate for tracking speed in real time, especially during dynamic movements.

  17. Application of Satellite-Based Spectrally-Resolved Solar Radiation Data to PV Performance Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Gracia Amillo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, satellite-based solar radiation data resolved in spectral bands have become available. This has for the first time made it possible to produce maps of the geographical variation in the solar spectrum. It also makes it possible to estimate the influence of these variations on the performance of photovoltaic (PV modules. Here, we present a study showing the magnitude of the spectral influence on PV performance over Europe and Africa. The method has been validated using measurements of a CdTe module in Ispra, Italy, showing that the method predicts the spectral influence to within ±2% on a monthly basis and 0.1% over a 19-month period. Application of the method to measured spectral responses of crystalline silicon, CdTe and single-junction amorphous silicon (a-Si modules shows that the spectral effect is smallest over desert areas for all module types, higher in temperate Europe and highest in tropical Africa, where CdTe modules would be expected to yield +6% and single- junction a-Si modules up to +10% more energy due to spectral effects. In contrast, the effect for crystalline silicon modules is less than ±1% in nearly all of Africa and Southern Europe, rising to +1% or +2% in Northern Europe.

  18. LASERIX: An open facility for developments of EUV and soft X-ray lasers and applications-Developments of XUV sources using high power laser facilities: ILE, ELI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, D., E-mail: david.ros@u-psud.fr [CLUPS-LUMAT, Universite Paris Sud 11-CNRS (France); LPGP, CNRS-Universite Paris Sud 11 (France); Cassou, K.; Cros, B.; Daboussi, S. [CLUPS-LUMAT, Universite Paris Sud 11-CNRS (France); LPGP, CNRS-Universite Paris Sud 11 (France); Demailly, J. [CLUPS-LUMAT, Universite Paris Sud 11-CNRS (France); Guilbaud, O.; Kazamias, S.; Lagron, J.-C. [CLUPS-LUMAT, Universite Paris Sud 11-CNRS (France); LPGP, CNRS-Universite Paris Sud 11 (France); Maynard, G. [LPGP, CNRS-Universite Paris Sud 11 (France); Neveu, O.; Pittman, M. [CLUPS-LUMAT, Universite Paris Sud 11-CNRS (France); LPGP, CNRS-Universite Paris Sud 11 (France); Zielbauer, B. [CLUPS-LUMAT, Universite Paris Sud 11-CNRS (France); LPGP, CNRS-Universite Paris Sud 11 (France); GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Zimmer, D. [CLUPS-LUMAT, Universite Paris Sud 11-CNRS (France); GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Kuhl, T. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Lacombe, S.; Porcel, E. [ISMO, CNRS-Universite Paris Sud 11 (France); Penhoat, M.-A. du [IMCP, Paris VI (France); Zeitoun, P. [LOA, ENSTA-Ecole Polytechnique-CNRS (France); Mourou, G. [ILE (France)

    2011-10-11

    LASERIX is a high-power laser facility leading to High-repetition-rate XUV laser pumped by Titanium:Sapphire laser. The aim of this laser facility is to offer Soft XRLs in the 30-7 nm range and auxiliary IR beam, which could also be used to produce synchronized XUV sources. In this contribution, the main results concerning both the development of XUV sources and their use for applications (irradiation of DNA samples) are presented, as well the present status and some perspectives for LASERIX.

  19. Application of the generalized vertical coordinate ocean model for better representing satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y. T.

    2002-01-01

    It is found that two adaptive parametric functions can be introduced into the basic ocean equations for utilizing the optimal or hybrid features of commonly used z-level, terrain- following, isopycnal, and pressure coordinates in numerical ocean models. The two parametric functions are formulated by combining three techniques: the arbitrary vertical coordinate system of Kasahara (1 974), the Jacobian pressure gradient formulation of Song (1 998), and a newly developed metric factor that permits both compressible (non-Boussinesq) and incompressible (Boussinesq) approximations. Based on the new formulation, an adaptive modeling strategy is proposed and a staggered finite volume method is designed to ensure conservation of important physical properties and numerical accuracy. Implementation of the combined techniques to SCRUM (Song and Haidvogel1994) shows that the adaptive modeling strategy can be applied to any existing ocean model without incurring computational expense or altering the original numerical schemes. Such a generalized coordinate model is expected to benefit diverse ocean modelers for easily choosing optimal vertical structures and sharing modeling resources based on a common model platform. Several representing oceanographic problems with different scales and characteristics, such as coastal canyons, basin-scale circulation, and global ocean circulation, are used to demonstrate the model's capability for multiple applications. New results show that the model is capable of simultaneously resolving both Boussinesq and non-Boussinesq, and both small- and large-scale processes well. This talk will focus on its applications of multiple satellite sensing data in eddy-resolving simulations of Asian Marginal Sea and Kurosio. Attention will be given to how Topex/Poseidon SSH, TRMM SST; and GRACE ocean bottom pressure can be correctly represented in a non- Boussinesq model.

  20. Evaluation and Application of Satellite-Based Latent Heating Profile Estimation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, William S.; Grecu, Mircea; Yang, Song; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, methods for estimating atmospheric latent heating vertical structure from both passive and active microwave remote sensing have matured to the point where quantitative evaluation of these methods is the next logical step. Two approaches for heating algorithm evaluation are proposed: First, application of heating algorithms to synthetic data, based upon cloud-resolving model simulations, can be used to test the internal consistency of heating estimates in the absence of systematic errors in physical assumptions. Second, comparisons of satellite-retrieved vertical heating structures to independent ground-based estimates, such as rawinsonde-derived analyses of heating, provide an additional test. The two approaches are complementary, since systematic errors in heating indicated by the second approach may be confirmed by the first. A passive microwave and combined passive/active microwave heating retrieval algorithm are evaluated using the described approaches. In general, the passive microwave algorithm heating profile estimates are subject to biases due to the limited vertical heating structure information contained in the passive microwave observations. These biases may be partly overcome by including more environment-specific a priori information into the algorithm s database of candidate solution profiles. The combined passive/active microwave algorithm utilizes the much higher-resolution vertical structure information provided by spaceborne radar data to produce less biased estimates; however, the global spatio-temporal sampling by spaceborne radar is limited. In the present study, the passive/active microwave algorithm is used to construct a more physically-consistent and environment-specific set of candidate solution profiles for the passive microwave algorithm and to help evaluate errors in the passive algorithm s heating estimates. Although satellite estimates of latent heating are based upon instantaneous, footprint- scale data, suppression

  1. Remote Sensing of Tropical Cyclones: Applications from Microwave Radiometry and Global Navigation Satellite System Reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Mary

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) are important to observe, especially over the course of their lifetimes, most of which is spent over the ocean. Very few in situ observations are available. Remote sensing has afforded researchers and forecasters the ability to observe and understand TCs better. Every remote sensing platform used to observe TCs has benefits and disadvantages. Some remote sensing instruments are more sensitive to clouds, precipitation, and other atmospheric constituents. Some remote sensing instruments are insensitive to the atmosphere, which allows for unobstructed observations of the ocean surface. Observations of the ocean surface, either of surface roughness or emission can be used to estimate ocean surface wind speed. Estimates of surface wind speed can help determine the intensity, structure, and destructive potential of TCs. While there are many methods by which TCs are observed, this thesis focuses on two main types of remote sensing techniques: passive microwave radiometry and Global Navigation Satellite System reflectometry (GNSS-R). First, we develop and apply a rain rate and ocean surface wind speed retrieval algorithm for the Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD). HIRAD, an airborne passive microwave radiometer, operates at C-band frequencies, and is sensitive to rain absorption and emission, as well as ocean surface emission. Motivated by the unique observing geometry and high gradient rain scenes that HIRAD typically observes, a more robust rain rate and wind speed retrieval algorithm is developed. HIRAD's observing geometry must be accounted for in the forward model and retrieval algorithm, if high rain gradients are to be estimated from HIRAD's observations, with the ultimate goal of improving surface wind speed estimation. Lastly, TC science data products are developed for the Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS). The CYGNSS constellation employs GNSS-R techniques to estimate ocean surface wind speed in all precipitating

  2. Facility Environment Thermal Control Technology and Facility Application%设施环境热调控技术及设施应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕桂菊

    2012-01-01

    Based on the thermal characteristics of horticultural facilities,causes and ways of research and analysis of heat loss,on the production of the thermal environment in the regulation of different purposes,focus on temperature keep,temperature increase,temperature change three kinds of measures,involving the facilities and technology application,to guide the production facilities.%通过对园艺设施内热变化特点、产生原因以及热量损失途径的研究与分析,对生产中热环境调控目的不同,重点进行保温、增温、变温三种措施介绍,涉及设施及技术应用,对设施生产进行指导。

  3. Facile synthesis and application of a carbon foam with large mesopores

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Liling

    2013-01-01

    By combining elements of hard- and soft-templating, a facile synthesis method for carbon foams with large mesopores has been demonstrated. A commercial Pluronic surfactant was used as the structure-directing agent as well as the carbon precursor. No micelle swelling agent or post treatment is necessary to enlarge mesopores. As such this method requires fewer synthesis steps and is highly scalable. The as-synthesized meso-carbons showed potential applications in the fields of carbon oxide capture and lithium-sulfur batteries. © 2013 the Owner Societies.

  4. Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program: WAsP 11 Help Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP) is a PC-program for horizontal and vertical extrapolation of wind climates. The program contains a complete set of models to calculate the effects on the wind of sheltering obstacles, surface roughness changes and terrain height variations...... of specific wind turbines and wind farms. The WAsP Help Facility includes a Quick Start Tutorial, a User's Guide and a Technical Reference. It further includes descriptions of the Observed Wind Climate Wizard, the WAsP Climate Analyst, the WAsP Map Editor tool, the WAsP Turbine Editor tool, the Air Density...

  5. Model tracking system for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: License application interrogatories and responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benbennick, M.E.; Broton, M.S.; Fuoto, J.S.; Novgrod, R.L.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes a model tracking system for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility license application. In particular, the model tracks interrogatories (questions, requests for information, comments) and responses. A set of requirements and desired features for the model tracking system was developed, including required structure and computer screens. Nine tracking systems were then reviewed against the model system requirements and only two were found to meet all requirements. Using Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis, a model tracking system was selected.

  6. A facile TiO2/PVDF composite membrane synthesis and their application in water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yiming; Fan, Rong; Lewis, Rosmala

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we have demonstrated a facile wet chemical method to synthesise TiO2/PVDF composite membranes as alternative water purification method to traditional polymer-based membrane. For the first time, hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanofibers under alkali conditions were successfully inserted into PVDF membranes matrix. The structure, permeability and anti-fouling performance of as-prepared PVDF/TiO2 composite membranes were studied systematically. The TiO2/PVDF composite membranes prepared in this work promise great potential uses in water purification applications as microfiltration membranes due to its excellent physical/chemical resistance, anti-fouling and mechanical properties.

  7. Review of past experiments at the FELIX facility and future plans for ITER applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, T.Q.; Turner, L.R.

    1993-10-01

    FELIX is an experimental test facility at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the study of electromagnetic effects in first wall, blanket, shield systems of fusion reactors. From 1983 to 1986 five major test series, including static and dynamic tests, were conducted and are reviewed in this paper. The dynamic tests demonstrated an important coupling effect between eddy currents and motion in a conducting structure. Recently the US has proposed to the ITER Joint Central Team to use FELIX for testing mock-up components to study electromagnetic effects encountered during plasma disruptions and other off-normal events. The near and long term plans for ITER applications are discussed.

  8. Application of Satellite Communication in Emergency%卫星通信在消防应急中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁舒羽; 郭阳

    2015-01-01

    突发灾害和自然灾害所造成的损失和破环是十分严重的,预防和处理突发灾害显得尤为重要,所以卫星通信的需求和要求日益增多和提高。应急卫星通信系统不仅要求机动性强,通信无死角,而且要求适用范围广,反应快速,根据这些需求,文章进行了卫星应急通信系统的研究工作。主要讲述了在消防救援中的应用。文章涉及应急通信系统研究的目的、意义、发展现状及趋势;然后从卫星通信技术手段分析了卫星通信的组成和原理等等。%Sudden disasters and the losses caused by natural disasters and the damage is very serious, the prevention and treatment of sudden disaster is particularly important, so the satellite communication needs and requirements are increasing and improving. Emergency satellite communications system requires not only strong mobility, communication is not dead, but also wide application range, fast response, according to these requirements, this paper carried out research work of satellite emergency communication system. Focuses on the application in ifre ifghting and rescue. The purpose, signiifcance, current situation and development trend of the research involving emergency communication system; and then analyzes the composition and principle of satellite communication technology and so on in satellite communication.

  9. Handling of subpixel structures in the application of satellite derived irradiance data for solar energy system analysis - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Hans Georg

    2016-04-01

    With the increasing availability of satellite derived irradiance information, this type of data set is more and more in use for the design and operation of solar energy systems, most notably PV- and CSP-systems. By this, the need for data measured on-site is reduced. However, due to basic limitations of the satellite-derived data, several requirements put by the intended application cannot be coped with this data type directly. Traw satellite information has to be enhanced in both space and time resolution by additional information to be fully applicable for all aspects of the modelling od solar energy systems. To cope with this problem, several individual and collaborative projects had been performed in the recent years or are ongoing. Approaches are on one hand based on pasting synthesized high-resolution data into the low-resolution original sets. Pre-requite is an appropriate model, validated against real world data. For the case of irradiance data, these models can be extracted either directly from ground measured data sets or from data referring to the cloud situation as gained from the images of sky cameras or from monte -carlo initialized physical models. The current models refer to the spatial structure of the cloud fields. Dynamics are imposed by moving the cloud structures according to a large scale cloud motion vector, either extracted from the dynamics interfered from consecutive satellite images or taken from a meso-scale meteorological model. Dynamic irradiance information is then derived from the cloud field structure and the cloud motion vector. This contribution, which is linked to subtask A - Solar Resource Applications for High Penetration of Solar Technologies - of IEA SHC task 46, will present the different approaches and discuss examples in view of validation, need for auxiliary information and respective general applicability.

  10. Development and application of PIE apparatuses in Tokai hot cell facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Hidetoshi; Kodaira, Tsuneo; Sukegawa, Tomohide [Department of Hot Laboratories, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    The Department of Hot Laboratories (DHL) operates three hot cell facilities, which are the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF), the Research Hot Laboratory (RHL) and the Waste Safety Testing Facility (WASTEF). The RFEF is especially examining the reliability of actual power reactor fuel assemblies for PWR and BWR. The RHL is established to perform post irradiation examinations (PIEs) for fuels and materials irradiated in research and test reactors. In the WASTEF, Synroc and new ceramic waste forms were prepared and investigated for the safety disposal of high level radioactive waste. At present, one of concentrated works is the PIE of high burnup fuels, for which the RFEF improved and developed several apparatuses such as thermal properties measurement and microscopic analysis. The other is the PIE concerning with studies of component aging and structural reliability, for which the charpy impact-testing machine is instrumented and a low-cycle and high-cycle fatigue test apparatus is now under developing in the RHL. This paper describes these development and application of PIE apparatuses in DHL. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the latest satellite-gauge precipitation products and their hydrologic applications over the Huaihe River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ruochen; Yuan, Huiling; Liu, Xiaoli; Jiang, Xiaoman

    2016-05-01

    Satellite-gauge quantitative precipitation estimate (QPE) products may reduce the errors in near real-time satellite precipitation estimates by combining rain gauge data, which provides great potential to hydrometeorological applications. This study aims to comprehensively evaluate four of the latest satellite-gauge QPEs, including NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B42V7 product, NOAA's Climate Prediction Center (CPC) MORPHing technique (CMORPH) bias-corrected product (CMORPH CRT), CMORPH satellite-gauge merged product (CMORPH BLD) and CMORPH satellite-gauge merged product developed at the National Meteorological Information Center (NMIC) of the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) (CMORPH CMA). These four satellite-gauge QPEs are statistically evaluated over the Huaihe River basin during 2003-2012 and applied into the distributed Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model to assess hydrologic utilities. Compared to the China Gauge-based Daily Precipitation Analysis (CGDPA) newly developed at CMA/NMIC, the four satellite-gauge QPEs generally depict the spatial distribution well, with the underestimation in the southern mountains and overestimation in the northern plain of the Huaihe River basin. Specifically, both TRMM and CMORPH CRT adopt simple gauge adjustment algorithms and exhibit relatively poor performance, with evidently deteriorated quality in winter. In contrast, the probability density function-optimal interpolation (PDF-OI) gauge adjustment procedure has been applied in CMORPH BLD and CMORPH CMA, resulting in higher quality and more stable performance. CMORPH CMA further benefits from a merged dense gauge observation network and outperforms the other QPEs with significant improvements in rainfall amount and spatial/temporal distributions. Due to the insufficient gauge observations in the merging process, CMORPH BLD features the similar error characteristics of CMORPH CRT with a positive bias of light precipitation and a negative

  12. Weather Satellite Enterprise Information Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Grant, K. D.; Miller, S. W.; Cochran, S.

    2015-12-01

    NOAA & NASA are acquiring the next-generation civilian operational weather satellite: Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). Contributing the afternoon orbit & ground system (GS) to replace current NOAA POES Satellites, its sensors will collect meteorological, oceanographic & climatological data. The JPSS Common Ground System (CGS), consisting of C3 and IDP segments, is developed by Raytheon. It now flies the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, transferring data between ground facilities, processing them into environmental products for NOAA weather centers, and expanding to support JPSS-1 in 2017. As a multi-mission system, CGS provides combinations of C3, data processing, and product delivery for numerous NASA, NOAA, DoD and international missions.The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of missions: Command and control and mission management for the S-NPP mission today, expanding this support to the JPSS-1 satellite mission in 2017 Data acquisition for S-NPP, the JAXA's Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), POES, and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and Coriolis/WindSat for the DoD Data routing over a global fiber network for S-NPP, JPSS-1, GCOM-W1, POES, DMSP, Coriolis/WindSat, NASA EOS missions, MetOp for EUMETSAT and the National Science Foundation Environmental data processing and distribution for S-NPP, GCOM-W1 and JPSS-1 The CGS plays a key role in facilitating the movement and value-added enhancement of data all the way from satellite-based sensor data to delivery to the consumers who generate forecasts and produce watches and warnings. This presentation will discuss the information flow from sensors, through data routing and processing, and finally to product delivery. It will highlight how advances in architecture developed through lessons learned from S-NPP and implemented for JPSS-1 will increase data availability and reduce latency for end user applications.

  13. Corrective action management unit application for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, G.C.

    1994-06-01

    The Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) is to accept both CERCLA (EPA-regulated) and RCRA (Ecology-regulated) remediation waste. The ERDF is considered part of the overall remediation strategy on the Hanford Site, and as such, determination of ERDF viability has followed both RCRA and CERCLA decision making processes. Typically, determination of the viability of a unit, such as the ERDF, would occur as part of record of decision (ROD) or permit modification for each remediation site before construction of the ERDF. However, because construction of the ERDF may take a significant amount of time, it is necessary to begin design and construction of the ERDF before final RODs/permit modifications for the remediation sites. This will allow movement of waste to occur quickly once the final remediation strategy for the RCRA and CERCLA past-practice units is determined. Construction of the ERDF is a unique situation relative to Hanford Facility cleanup, requiring a Hanford Facility specific process be developed for implementing the ERDF that would satisfy both RCRA and CERCLA requirements. While the ERDF will play a significant role in the remediation process, initiation of the ERDF does not preclude the evaluation of remedial alternatives at each remediation site. To facilitate this, the January 1994 amendment to the Tri-Party Agreement recognizes the necessity for the ERDF, and the Tri-Party Agreement states: ``Ecology, EPA, and DOE agree to proceed with the steps necessary to design, approve, construct, and operate such a ... facility.`` The Tri-Party Agreement requires the DOE-RL to prepare a comprehensive ``package`` for the EPA and Ecology to consider in evaluating the ERDF. The package is to address the criteria listed in 40 CFR 264.552(c) for corrective action management unit (CAMU) designation and a CERCLA ROD. This CAMU application is submitted as part of the Tri-Party Agreement-required information package.

  14. Low-Cost and High-Performance Propulsion for Small Satellite Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — While small satellites continue to show immense promise for high-capability and low-cost missions, they remain limited by post-deployment propulsion for a variety of...

  15. Applications of satellite snow cover in computerized short-term streamflow forecasting. [Conejos River, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    A procedure is described whereby the correlation between: (1) satellite derived snow-cover depletion and (2) residual snowpack water equivalent, can be used to update computerized residual flow forecasts for the Conejos River in southern Colorado.

  16. The Application of the Technology of 3D Satellite Cloud Imaging in Virtual Reality Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-fang Xie

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Using satellite cloud images to simulate clouds is one of the new visual simulation technologies in Virtual Reality (VR. Taking the original data of satellite cloud images as the source, this paper depicts specifically the technology of 3D satellite cloud imaging through the transforming of coordinates and projection, creating a DEM (Digital Elevation Model of cloud imaging and 3D simulation. A Mercator projection was introduced to create a cloud image DEM, while solutions for geodetic problems were introduced to calculate distances, and the outer-trajectory science of rockets was introduced to obtain the elevation of clouds. For demonstration, we report on a computer program to simulate the 3D satellite cloud images.

  17. China's Stereo Surveying And Mapping Satellite ZY-3 And Its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Chengzhi; Tang Xinming

    2009-01-01

    @@ CHINA URGENTLY NEEDS TO DEVELOP INDEPENDENT SURVEYING AND MAPPING SATELLITE Surveying and mapping is indispensable for economic and social development and widely applied in various fields in economic construction and social development. Modern surveying and mapping technology, taking satellite navigation and positioning, airborne and space remote sensing and geographical information system technologies as its core, represents a nation's science and technology development level and comprehensive state power.

  18. THE APPLICATION OF HOMEMADE FY-2 SATELLITE INFRARED DATA TO MM5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qing; SHEN Tong-li

    2006-01-01

    @@ 1 INTRODUCTION In the end of 1980's, an operational system for 3-D variation and assimilation of meteorological data was set up in the U.S.A that supplemented data assimilation,retrieval of satellite data and numerical prediction each other. NWP was thus improved. Towards the end of 1990's, satellite observations were extensively used in NWP at ECMWF to upgrade the quality of analysis and forecasting.

  19. A Neural Network MLSE Receiver Based on Natural Gradient Descent: Application to Satellite Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibnkahla Mohamed

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a maximum likelihood sequence estimator (MLSE receiver for satellite communications. The satellite channel model is composed of a nonlinear traveling wave tube (TWT amplifier followed by a multipath propagation channel. The receiver is composed of a neural network channel estimator (NNCE and a Viterbi detector. The natural gradient (NG descent is used for training. Computer simulations show that the performance of our receiver is close to the ideal MLSE receiver in which the channel is perfectly known.

  20. Level-2 product generation for the Swarm satellite constellation mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Poul Erik Holmdahl; Tøffner-Clausen, Lars; Olsen, Nils

    In order to take advantage of the unique constellation aspect of ESA's Swarm constellation mission, considerably advanced data analysis tools have been developed. The Swarm ESL/SCARF (Satellite Constellation Application and Research Facility), a consortium of several research institutions, derives...

  1. Level-2 product generation for the Swarm satellite constellation mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Poul Erik Holmdahl; Tøffner-Clausen, Lars; Olsen, Nils

    In order to take advantage of the unique constellation aspect of ESA's Swarm constellation mission, considerably advanced data analysis tools have been developed. The Swarm ESL/SCARF (Satellite Constellation Application and Research Facility), a consortium of several research institutions, derives...

  2. A service for the application of data quality information to NASA earth science satellite records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, E. M.; Xing, Z.; Fry, C.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Huang, T.; Chen, G.; Chin, T. M.; Alarcon, C.

    2016-12-01

    A recurring demand in working with satellite-based earth science data records is the need to apply data quality information. Such quality information is often contained within the data files as an array of "flags", but can also be represented by more complex quality descriptions such as combinations of bit flags, or even other ancillary variables that can be applied as thresholds to the geophysical variable of interest. For example, with Level 2 granules from the Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) project up to 6 independent variables could be used to screen the sea surface temperature measurements on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Quality screening of Level 3 data from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) instrument can be become even more complex, involving 161 unique bit states or conditions a user can screen for. The application of quality information is often a laborious process for the user until they understand the implications of all the flags and bit conditions, and requires iterative approaches using custom software. The Virtual Quality Screening Service, a NASA ACCESS project, is addressing these issues and concerns. The project has developed an infrastructure to expose, apply, and extract quality screening information building off known and proven NASA components for data extraction and subset-by-value, data discovery, and exposure to the user of granule-based quality information. Further sharing of results through well-defined URLs and web service specifications has also been implemented. The presentation will focus on overall description of the technologies and informatics principals employed by the project. Examples of implementations of the end-to-end web service for quality screening with GHRSST and SMAP granules will be demonstrated.

  3. Practical applicability and preliminary results of the Baltic Environmental Satellite Remote Sensing System (SatBaltic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, B.; Ostrowska, M.; Bradtke, K.; Darecki, M.; Dera, J.; Dudzinska-Nowak, J.; Dzierzbicka, L.; Ficek, D.; Furmanczyk, K.; Kowalewski, M.; Krezel, A.; Majchrowski, R.; Paszkuta, M.; Ston-Egiert, J.; Stramska, M.; Zapadka, T.

    2012-04-01

    SatBaltic (Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment) project is being realized in Poland by the SatBaltic Scientific Consortium, specifically appointed for this purpose, which associates four scientific institutions: the Institute of Oceanology PAN in Sopot - coordinator, the University of Gdańsk (Institute of Oceanography), the Pomeranian Academy in Słupsk (Institute of Physics) and the University of Szczecin (Institute of Marine Sciences). We present the first the results of the first year and a half of SatBaltic's implementation. The final result of the project is to be the creation and setting in motion of the SatBaltic Operational System (SBOS), the aim of which is to monitor effectively and comprehensively the state of the Baltic Sea environment using remote sensing techniques. Various aspects of the practical applicability of SBOS to the monitoring of the Baltic ecosystem are discussed. We present some examples of the maps of the various characteristics of the Baltic obtained using the current version of SBOS, including algorithms and models that are still in an unfinished state. At the current stage of research, these algorithms apply mainly to the characteristics of the solar energy influx and the distribution of this energy among the various processes taking place in the atmosphere-sea system, and also to the radiation balance of the sea surface, the irradiance conditions for photosynthesis and the condition of plant communities in the water, sea surface temperature distributions and some other marine phenomena correlated with this temperature. Also given are results of preliminary inspections of the accuracy of the magnitudes shown on the maps.

  4. The contractor`s role in low-level waste disposal facility application review and licensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serie, P.J.; Dressen, A.L. [Environmental Issues Management, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The California Department of Health Services will soon reach a licensing decision on the proposed Ward Valley low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. As the first regulatory agency in the country to address the 10 CFR Part 61 requirements for a new disposal facility, California`s program has broken new ground in its approach. Throughout the review process, the Department has relied on contractor support to augment its technical and administrative staff. A team consisting of Roy F. Weston, Inc., supported by ERM-Program Management Corp., Environmental Issues Management, Inc., and Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation, has worked closely with the Department in a staff extension role. The authors have been involved with the project in contractor project management roles since 1987, and continue to support the Department`s program as it proceeds to finalize its licensing process. This paper describes the selection process used to identify a contractor team with the needed skills and experience, and the makeup of team capabilities. It outlines the management, communication, and technical approaches used to assure a smooth agency-contractor function and relationship. It describes the techniques used to ensure that decisions and documents represented the Department credibly in its role as the regulatory and licensing agency under the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Agreement State program. The paper outlines the license application review process and activities, through preparation of licensing documentation and responses to public comments. Lessons learned in coordination of an agency-contractor team effort to review and license a low-level waste disposal facility are reviewed and suggestions made for approaching a similar license application review and licensing situation.

  5. Design, properties and application of a facile fluorescence switch for Cu(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Haipeng; Niu, Weiping; Liu, Wen; Feng, Liheng; Xie, Jun

    2017-01-01

    A facile fluorescence switch based on Schiff base 2,2‧-[1,3-phenylenbis- (methylidynenitrilo)]bis[benzenethiol] (PMBB) has been developed and used to sensing metal ions. UV-vis absorption and fluorescence emission spectra show that the PMBB receptor has high selectivity and sensitivity for Cu(II) ions. Based on the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) and chelation enhanced fluorescence (CHEF) mechanisms, the receptor exhibits an fluorescence "turn-on" switch signal for Cu(II). The 1:1 binding mode of PMBB and Cu (II) ions can be obtained by the Job-plot and ESI-Mass spectra data. Noticeably, the color changes (from colorless to yellow) of PMBB solutions for Cu(II) sensing can be observed by naked eyes in the sunlight. The detection limit of the receptor for Cu(II) may reach 10- 7 mol/L with a good linear relation in the lower concentrations of Cu(II). To develop the practical application, the Cu(II) ions in swimming pool water samples were detected. Results show that PMBB receptor as a fluorescent probe can use to detect the trace level of Cu(II) in the environmental samples. This work contributes to providing a facile strategy for designing efficient probes and developing their practical application value.

  6. Benchmarking study and its application for shielding analysis of large accelerator facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee-Seock; Kim, Dong-hyun; Oranj, Leila Mokhtari; Oh, Joo-Hee; Lee, Arim; Jung, Nam-Suk [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Shielding Analysis is one of subjects which are indispensable to construct large accelerator facility. Several methods, such as the Monte Carlo, discrete ordinate, and simplified calculation, have been used for this purpose. The calculation precision is overcome by increasing the trial (history) numbers. However its accuracy is still a big issue in the shielding analysis. To secure the accuracy in the Monte Carlo calculation, the benchmarking study using experimental data and the code comparison are adopted fundamentally. In this paper, the benchmarking result for electrons, protons, and heavy ions are presented as well as the proper application of the results is discussed. The benchmarking calculations, which are indispensable in the shielding analysis were performed for different particles: proton, heavy ion and electron. Four different multi-particle Monte Carlo codes, MCNPX, FLUKA, PHITS, and MARS, were examined for higher energy range equivalent to large accelerator facility. The degree of agreement between the experimental data including the SINBAD database and the calculated results were estimated in the terms of secondary neutron production and attenuation through the concrete and iron shields. The degree of discrepancy and the features of Monte Carlo codes were investigated and the application way of the benchmarking results are discussed in the view of safety margin and selecting the code for the shielding analysis. In most cases, the tested Monte Carlo codes give proper credible results except of a few limitation of each codes.

  7. Satellite communication engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kolawole, Michael Olorunfunmi

    2013-01-01

    An undeniably rich and thorough guide to satellite communication engineering, Satellite Communication Engineering, Second Edition presents the fundamentals of information communications systems in a simple and succinct way. This book considers both the engineering aspects of satellite systems as well as the practical issues in the broad field of information transmission. Implementing concepts developed on an intuitive, physical basis and utilizing a combination of applications and performance curves, this book starts off with a progressive foundation in satellite technology, and then moves on

  8. Google Earth as a Vehicle to Integrating Multiple Layers of Environmental Satellite Data for Weather and Science Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, F. J.; Miller, S. D.

    2007-12-01

    One of the main challenges facing current and future environmental satellite systems (e.g, the future National Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS)) is reaching and entraining the diverse user community via communication of how these systems address their particular needs. A necessary element to meeting this challenge is effective data visualization: facilitating the display, animation and layering of multiple satellite imaging and sounding sensors (providing complementary information) in a user-friendly and intuitive fashion. In light of the fact that these data are rapidly making their way into the classroom owing to efficient and timely data archival systems and dissemination over the Internet, there is a golden opportunity to leverage existing technology to introduce environmental science to wide spectrum of users. Google Earth's simplified interface and underlying markup language enables access to detailed global geographic information, and contains features which are both desirable and advantageous for geo-referencing and combining a wide range of environmental satellite data types. Since these satellite data are available with a variety of horizontal spatial resolutions (tens of km down to hundreds of meters), the imagery can be sub-setted (tiled) at a very small size. This allows low-bandwidth users to efficiently view and animate a sequence of imagery while zoomed out from the surface, whereas high-bandwidth users can efficiently zoom into the finest image resolution when viewing fine-scale phenomena such as fires, volcanic activity, as well as the details of meteorological phenomena such as hurricanes, rainfall, lightning, winds, etc. Dynamically updated network links allow for near real-time updates such that these data can be integrated with other Earth-hosted applications and exploited not only in the teaching environment, but also for operational users in the government and private industry sectors. To conceptualize how environmental

  9. Analysis of Software Development Methodologies to Build Safety Software Applications for the SATEX-II: A Mexican Experimental Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Cisneros, Jorge; Vargas Martinez, Hector; Pedroza Melendez, Alejandro; Alonso Arevalo, Miguel

    2013-09-01

    Mexico is a country where the experience to build software for satellite applications is beginning. This is a delicate situation because in the near future we will need to develop software for the SATEX-II (Mexican Experimental Satellite). SATEX- II is a SOMECyTA's project (the Mexican Society of Aerospace Science and Technology). We have experienced applying software development methodologies, like TSP (Team Software Process) and SCRUM in other areas. Then, we analyzed these methodologies and we concluded: these can be applied to develop software for the SATEX-II, also, we supported these methodologies with SSP-05-0 Standard in particular with ESA PSS-05-11. Our analysis was focusing on main characteristics of each methodology and how these methodologies could be used with the ESA PSS 05-0 Standards. Our outcomes, in general, may be used by teams who need to build small satellites, but, in particular, these are going to be used when we will build the on board software applications for the SATEX-II.

  10. Near-Real Time Satellite-Retrieved Cloud and Surface Properties for Weather and Aviation Safety Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Patrick; Smith, William L., Jr.; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Nguyen, Louis; Palikonda, Rabindra; Hong, Gang; Trepte, Qing Z.; Chee, Thad; Scarino, Benjamin; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; Sun-Mack, Szedung; Fleeger, Cecilia; Ayers, J. Kirk; Chang, Fu-Lung; Heck, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Cloud properties determined from satellite imager radiances provide a valuable source of information for nowcasting and weather forecasting. In recent years, it has been shown that assimilation of cloud top temperature, optical depth, and total water path can increase the accuracies of weather analyses and forecasts. Aircraft icing conditions can be accurately diagnosed in near-­-real time (NRT) retrievals of cloud effective particle size, phase, and water path, providing valuable data for pilots. NRT retrievals of surface skin temperature can also be assimilated in numerical weather prediction models to provide more accurate representations of solar heating and longwave cooling at the surface, where convective initiation. These and other applications are being exploited more frequently as the value of NRT cloud data become recognized. At NASA Langley, cloud properties and surface skin temperature are being retrieved in near-­-real time globally from both geostationary (GEO) and low-­-earth orbiting (LEO) satellite imagers for weather model assimilation and nowcasting for hazards such as aircraft icing. Cloud data from GEO satellites over North America are disseminated through NCEP, while those data and global LEO and GEO retrievals are disseminated from a Langley website. This paper presents an overview of the various available datasets, provides examples of their application, and discusses the use of the various datasets downstream. Future challenges and areas of improvement are also presented.

  11. Effect of nanofluid on thermal performance of heat pipe with two evaporators; application to satellite equipment cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashaei, P. R.; Shahryari, M.

    2015-06-01

    A study on the behavior of nanofluid in a cylindrical heat pipe with two heat sources is performed to analyze the nanofluid application in heat-dissipating satellite equipment cooling. Pure water, Al2O3-water and TiO2-water nanofluids are used as working fluids. An analytical modeling is presented to predict the wall temperature profile for the heat pipe assuming saturated vapor and conduction heat transfer for porous media and wall, respectively. The effects of particle concentration levels (φ=0 (distilled water), 2, 4, and 8%), particle diameters (dp=10, 20, and 40 nm) on the local wall temperature, heat transfer coefficient, thermal resistance, and the size of the heat pipe are investigated. It is observed that the better wall temperature uniformity can be achieved using nanofluid which results in lower temperature difference between evaporators and condenser sections. Results reveal that applying nanoparticle with smaller size and higher concentration level increases heat transfer coefficient remarkably by reducing thermal resistance of saturated porous media. It is also found that the presence of nanoparticles in water can lead to a reduction in weight of heat pipe, and thus satellite, under nearly identical condition. The findings of this paper prove the potential of nanofluid in satellite equipment cooling application.

  12. An analytic algorithm for global coverage of the revisiting orbit and its application to the CFOSAT satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming; Huang, Li

    2014-08-01

    This paper addresses a new analytic algorithm for global coverage of the revisiting orbit and its application to the mission revisiting the Earth within long periods of time, such as Chinese-French Oceanic Satellite (abbr., CFOSAT). In the first, it is presented that the traditional design methodology of the revisiting orbit for some imaging satellites only on the single (ascending or descending) pass, and the repeating orbit is employed to perform the global coverage within short periods of time. However, the selection of the repeating orbit is essentially to yield the suboptimum from the rare measure of rational numbers of passes per day, which will lose lots of available revisiting orbits. Thus, an innovative design scheme is proposed to check both rational and irrational passes per day to acquire the relationship between the coverage percentage and the altitude. To improve the traditional imaging only on the single pass, the proposed algorithm is mapping every pass into its ascending and descending nodes on the specified latitude circle, and then is accumulating the projected width on the circle by the field of view of the satellite. The ergodic geometry of coverage percentage produced from the algorithm is affecting the final scheme, such as the optimal one owning the largest percentage, and the balance one possessing the less gradient in its vicinity, and is guiding to heuristic design for the station-keeping control strategies. The application of CFOSAT validates the feasibility of the algorithm.

  13. Filling the Gaps: The Synergistic Application of Satellite Data for the Volcanic Ash Threat to Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John; Vernier, Jean-Paul; Fairlie, T. Duncan; Pavolonis, Michael; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Lindsay, Francis; Haynes, John

    2013-01-01

    Although significant progress has been made in recent years, estimating volcanic ash concentration for the full extent of the airspace affected by volcanic ash remains a challenge. No single satellite, airborne or ground observing system currently exists which can sufficiently inform dispersion models to provide the degree of accuracy required to use them with a high degree of confidence for routing aircraft in and near volcanic ash. Toward this end, the detection and characterization of volcanic ash in the atmosphere may be substantially improved by integrating a wider array of observing systems and advancements in trajectory and dispersion modeling to help solve this problem. The qualitative aspect of this effort has advanced significantly in the past decade due to the increase of highly complementary observational and model data currently available. Satellite observations, especially when coupled with trajectory and dispersion models can provide a very accurate picture of the 3-dimensional location of ash clouds. The accurate estimate of the mass loading at various locations throughout the entire plume, however improving, remains elusive. This paper examines the capabilities of various satellite observation systems and postulates that model-based volcanic ash concentration maps and forecasts might be significantly improved if the various extant satellite capabilities are used together with independent, accurate mass loading data from other observing systems available to calibrate (tune) ash concentration retrievals from the satellite systems.

  14. Digital Radio Broadcasting using the mixed satellite/terrestrial approach: An application study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiement, Richard V.; Voyer, Rene; Prendergast, Doug

    1995-01-01

    Digital radio broadcasting (DRB) is a new service that offers CD quality stereo programs to fixed, portable and mobile receivers. Terrestrial DRB in Canada is considered as a replacement technology for existing AM and FM services, and it is expected to start up in 1996. Canada currently favors Eureka 147 technology operating in the L-band, in the 1452-1492 MHz frequency band allocated during WARC'92 for DRB. Terrestrial DRB delivery is appropriate for small to medium sized service areas, such as cities and their associated suburbs. For larger areas such as provinces, as well as for sparsely populated areas such as the regions in northern Canada, satellite delivery is more appropriate. The mixed approach is based on both satellite and terrestrial broadcasting services using a common frequency band. Spectrum efficiency is achieved through close coordination of both service types, to achieve proper frequency sharing and spectrum re-use. As well, use of a common transmission format by both types of services allows for a common receiver. This mixed satellite/terrestrial approach to DRB is being seriously considered in Canada and in other countries. This paper studies the feasibility of such a mixed satellite/terrestrial DRB system. It looks at possible coverage scenarios for Canada, and at the satellite and receiver technology requirements.

  15. Application of Uncertainty Reasoning Theory to satellite Fault Detection and Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangTianshe; LiHuaizu; SunYanbong

    2004-01-01

    Reasoning theories are divided into certainty reasoning theories and uncertainty reasoning theories.Now,only certainty reason-ing theories use to deitcs are used to detect and diagnose satellite faults.However,in practice,it is difficult to detect and diagnose some faults of the satellite autiomatically only by use of ccrtainty.Fortunately.uncerlainty Reasoning theories are applied to detect and diagnose satellite faults.Uncertainty reasoning theories include several kinds of theories,such as inclusion degree theory,rough set theory,evidence reasoning theory,probabilisticresoning theory,fuzzy,fuzzy reasoningteory,and so on.Inclusion degree theory.rough set theory and evidence reasoning theory are three advanced ones,Based on these three theories respectively.the audhor introduces three new methods to detect and diagnose satellite faults in this paper.It is shown that the methods,suitable for detecting and diagnosing satellite faults,especially uncertainty faults,can remedy the defects of the current methods.

  16. A technique for measurement of earth station antenna G/T by radio stars and Applications Technology Satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochevar, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    A new technique has been developed to accurately measure the G/T of a small aperture antenna using geostationary satellites and the well established radio star method. A large aperture antenna having the capability of accurately measuring its G/T by using a radio star of known power density is used to obtain an accurate G/T to use as a reference. The CNR of both the large and small aperture antennas are then measured using an Applications Technology Satellite (ATS). After normalizing the two C/N ratios to the large antenna system noise temperature the G/T or the gain G of the small aperture antenna can then be determined.

  17. Safety Assessment Methodologies and Their Application in Development of Near Surface Waste Disposal Facilities--ASAM Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batandjieva, B.; Metcalf, P.

    2003-02-25

    Safety of near surface disposal facilities is a primary focus and objective of stakeholders involved in radioactive waste management of low and intermediate level waste and safety assessment is an important tool contributing to the evaluation and demonstration of the overall safety of these facilities. It plays significant role in different stages of development of these facilities (site characterization, design, operation, closure) and especially for those facilities for which safety assessment has not been performed or safety has not been demonstrated yet and the future has not been decided. Safety assessments also create the basis for the safety arguments presented to nuclear regulators, public and other interested parties in respect of the safety of existing facilities, the measures to upgrade existing facilities and development of new facilities. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has initiated a number of research coordinated projects in the field of development and improvement of approaches to safety assessment and methodologies for safety assessment of near surface disposal facilities, such as NSARS (Near Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Safety Assessment Reliability Study) and ISAM (Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities) projects. These projects were very successful and showed that there is a need to promote the consistent application of the safety assessment methodologies and to explore approaches to regulatory review of safety assessments and safety cases in order to make safety related decisions. These objectives have been the basis of the IAEA follow up coordinated research project--ASAM (Application of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities), which will commence in November 2002 and continue for a period of three years.

  18. The application of very high resolution satellite image in urban vegetation cover investigation: a case study of Xiamen City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENGChengqi; LiBin; MATing

    2003-01-01

    With the technological improvements of satellite sensors, we will acquire more information about the earth so that we have reached a new application epoch of observation on earth environmental change and cartography. But with the enhancement of spatial resolution, some questions have arisen in the application of using traditional image processing and classification methods. Aiming for such questions, we studied the application of IKONOS very high resolution image (1 m) in Xiamen City on Urban Vegetation Cover Investigation and discussed the difference between the very high resolution image and traditional low spatial resolution image at classification,information abstraction etc. It is an advantageous test for the large-scale application of very high resolution data in the future.

  19. Linking satellite ICT application businesses with regional innovation centers and investors: The EC “INVESaT” project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiron, Florence; Kreisel, Joerg

    2009-09-01

    In the sector of information and communication technologies (ICT), whether in the USA, Japan, or Europe, innovative services are already in use, based on large-scale space-based infrastructure investments. Such systems are e.g. earth observation, telecommunication, and navigation, timing and positioning satellites. In combination with the advent of powerful handheld terminals and the demand for ubiquitous services, it is expected that info-mobility applications will reveal new sources of business in the years ahead, using in particular the Earth observation and future GALILEO systems to position any feature or user anywhere in the world within a few meter accuracy. Hence, satellite-based capabilities provide new and unique opportunities for economic stimulation and development. Many incubators and innovation centers in Europe have already grasped this growth potential. Yet, for many European players business growth appears below expectations compared to developments in the USA following the launch of GPS (Global Positioning System). Europe still has to overcome intrinsic barriers to seize these new business opportunities faster and with more visible economic impact by leveraging on SMEs and regional innovation centers to expand the commercial utilization of satellite capabilities and mobilization of appropriate financial resources. The paper elaborates on the INVESat project (funded by the EuropeInnova—European Commission), which aims at bridging the gap between Innovative enterprises and financial In VEstors in the emerging markets of SaTellite applications. The critical success factors required to stimulate and support more efficiently investments in this bread of innovative services will also be highlighted.

  20. Application of Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis to Floods and Landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert; Hong, Yang; Huffman, George

    2007-01-01

    Satellite data acquired and processed in real time now have the potential to provide the spacetime information on rainfall needed to monitor flood and landslide events around the world. This can be achieved by integrating the satellite-derived forcing data with hydrological models and landslide algorithms. Progress in using the TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) as input to flood and landslide forecasts is outlined, with a focus on understanding limitations of the rainfall data and impacts of those limitations on flood/landslide analyses. Case studies of both successes and failures will be shown, as well as comparison with ground comparison data sets both in terms of rainfall and in terms of flood/landslide events. In addition to potential uses in real-time, the nearly ten years of TMPA data allow retrospective running of the models to examine variations in extreme events. The flood determination algorithm consists of four major components: 1) multi-satellite precipitation estimation; 2) characterization of land surface including digital elevation from NASA SRTM (Shuttle Radar Terrain Mission), topography-derived hydrologic parameters such as flow direction, flow accumulation, basin, and river network etc.; 3) a hydrological model to infiltrate rainfall and route overland runoff; and 4) an implementation interface to relay the input data to the models and display the flood inundation results to potential users and decision-makers. In terms of landslides, the satellite rainfall information is combined with a global landslide susceptibility map, derived from a combination of global surface characteristics (digital elevation topography, slope, soil types, soil texture, and land cover classification etc.) using a weighted linear combination approach. In those areas identified as "susceptible" (based on the surface characteristics), landslides are forecast where and when a rainfall intensity/duration threshold is exceeded. Results are described

  1. Study of a passive companion microsatellite to the SAOCOM-1B satellite of Argentina, for bistatic and interferometric SAR applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Christian; Derauw, Dominique; Orban, Anne; Davidson, Malcolm W. J.

    2014-10-01

    We report the results of a preparatory study aimed at exploring candidate applications that could benefit from a passive micro-satellite accompanying the L-band SAOCOM-1B satellite of Argentina, and to carry out a limited demonstration, based on data acquired during ESA airborne campaigns, of selected applications. In a first step of the study, the potential applications were identified and prioritized based on the mission context and strategic applications, scientific need, and feasibility. The next step of the study was to carry out some demonstrations using data sets acquired during the BioSAR 2007-2009, TropiSAR 2009 and IceSAR 2007 campaigns. A P-band InSAR digital elevation model was generated from BioSAR 2007 data. Time-series of interferometric coherence maps were obtained as a tool for change detection and monitoring. PolInSAR processing was carried out on BioSAR 2007 and IceSAR data.

  2. Optimization and application of satellite observations for air quality monitoring in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Brunner, D.; Boersma, F.

    2009-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides are key precursors of both ozone and secondary aerosols, and they are harmful to humans and ecosystems. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is a recent UV/visible spectrometer on NASA’s Aura satellite with a comparatively small pixel size and daily global coverage which makes it particularly suitable for air quality monitoring. Information on vertical tropospheric columns (VTCs) of tropospheric trace gases is derived from the spectroscopic data by means of a retrieval algorithm. The retrieval depends on a number of so-called a priori assumptions which introduce important uncertainties in the derived quantity. Current operational retrievals are based on global a priori data sets at coarse spatial and temporal resolution, which are much coarser than the resolution of individual OMI pixels. In order to obtain a more accurate retrieval of vertical tropospheric columns of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) than currently available, we are developing new data sets of critical retrieval parameters at high temporal and spatial resolution for Europe, such as high resolution surface pressure maps, surface reflectance, and a-priori vertical NO2 profiles from a regional model. As a first step, we analyzed the sensitivity of retrieved NO2 to the surface pressure, and the results demonstrate the importance of an accurate (i.e. high resolution) treatment of this parameter, in particular in the vicinity of complex topography such as the Alps. As a second step, a new illumination and viewing geometry dependent surface reflectance data set has been developed based on high temporal and spatial resolution multiangular reflectance observations from NASA’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Comparisons of this new surface reflectance data set with the coarse albedo data set of the operational OMI product will be shown and a sensitivity analysis of the impact on the retrieved NO2 will be presented. As a third step, a-priori vertical NO2 profiles used in

  3. 基于云计算的卫星地面应用系统设计%Design of satellite ground application system based on Cloud Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温志军

    2016-01-01

    Article writing around satellite ground system design of expansion,mainly describes the challenges faced by the satellite ground application system design,in the analysis of the challenge to design under the premise,elaborate scheme design of satellite ground application system of concrete.At last,the paper introduces the satellite ground application system implementation and deployment of the system.%文章的撰写围绕卫星地面系统设计展开,主要内容阐述了卫星地面应用系统设计面临的挑战,在分析设计挑战的前提下,阐述卫星地面应用系统方案设计的具体,最后详细介绍了卫星地面应用系统实现与部署系统。

  4. A facile homogeneous precipitation synthesis of NiO nanosheets and their applications in water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Junfeng, E-mail: daidai02304@163.com [School of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); Jiangsu Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); Tan, Yang; Su, Kang; Zhao, Junjie; Yang, Chen; Sang, Lingling [School of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); Lu, Hongbin [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing (China); Chen, JianHua [School of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); Jiangsu Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • NiO nanosheets were synthesized via a facile homogeneous precipitation method. • The NiO nanosheets have a large surface area. • This preparation method was low-cost, simple equipments, easy preparation, short reaction time and better repeatability. • The product also showed a favourable ability to remove Cr(VI) and Congo red (CR) in water treatment. - Abstract: NiO nanosheets were successfully synthesized by a facile homogeneous precipitation method with the assistance of ethanol amine. The sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and nitrogen adsorption–desorption techniques. The results demonstrated that the as-prepared product was cubic NiO nanosheets with a large surface area of 170.1 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. Further, the as-prepared product was used to investigate its potential application for wastewater treatment. The maximum adsorption capacity for Cr(VI) and Congo red (CR) on NiO nanosheets has been determined using the Langmuir equation and found to reach up to 48.98 and 167.73 mg g{sup −1}, respectively. It could be concluded that NiO nanosheets with special surface features had the potential as adsorbents for wastewater treatment.

  5. Potential applications of the dielectric wakefield accelerators in the SINBAD facility at DESY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Y.C., E-mail: yuancun.nie@desy.de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Assmann, R.; Dorda, U.; Marchetti, B. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Weikum, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); University of Strathclyde, G1 1XQ Glasgow (United Kingdom); Zhu, J.; Hüning, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-09-01

    Short, high-brightness relativistic electron bunches can drive ultra-high wakefields in the dielectric wakefield accelerators (DWFAs). This effect can be used to generate high power THz coherent Cherenkov radiation, accelerate a witness bunch with gradient two or three orders of magnitude larger than that in the conventional RF linear accelerators, introduce energy modulation within the driving bunch itself, etc. The paper studies potential applications of the DWFAs in the SINBAD facility at DESY. The simulations show that the ultra-short relativistic bunches from the SINBAD injector ARES can excite accelerating wakefields with peak amplitudes as high as GV/m at THz frequencies in proper DWFA structures. In addition, it illustrates that the DWFA structure can serve as a dechirper to compensate the correlated energy spread of the bunches accelerated by the laser plasma wakefield accelerator.

  6. Facile synthesis of SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scano, A., E-mail: alescano80@tiscali.it; Pilloni, M., E-mail: alescano80@tiscali.it; Cabras, V., E-mail: alescano80@tiscali.it; Ennas, G. [Università di Cagliari, Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche and Research Unit of the National Consortium of Materials Science and Technology (INSTM), Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato- 09042 Monserrato (Canada) (Italy); Vazquez-Vazquez, C. [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Química, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Galicia (Spain)

    2014-10-21

    Silica nanoparticles (SiO{sub 2} NPs) for biomedical applications have been prepared by using a facile modified Stöber-synthesis. Potassium borohydride (KBH{sub 4}) has been introduced in the synthesis procedure in order to control NP size. Several samples have been prepared varying tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) concentration, and using different process conditions (temperature, reaction time and atmosphere). In order to study the influence of the process conditions on the NP size, morphology and properties, several characterization techniques were used. Size and morphology of the as-prepared SiO{sub 2} NPs have been studied by using Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) techniques. Structural characterization was carried out by X-ray powder diffraction. To investigate the SiO{sub 2} NP fluorescence emission properties the fluorescence spectroscopy was also used.

  7. Applications of SU-8 in the development of a Single Ion Hit Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteaga-Marrero, N. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Professorsgatan 1, Box 118, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden)], E-mail: natalia.arteaga@nuclear.lu.se; Astromskas, G. [Division of Solid State Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Professorsgatan 1, Box 118, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Olsson, M.G. [Department of Infection Medicine, Lund University, Soelvegatan 19, B14, SE-22184 Lund (Sweden); Elfman, M.; Kristiansson, P.; Nilsson, E.J.C.; Nilsson, C.; Pallon, J. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Professorsgatan 1, Box 118, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden)

    2009-06-15

    The Lund Nuclear Microprobe (LNM) has been adapted to be used as a Single Ion Hit Facility (SIHF) for proton cell irradiation experiments at low dose. In order to test the capabilities of the system, Ni dot arrays and artificial cells have been fabricated with the photopolymer SU-8 and common lithographic techniques. The primary purpose of the Ni dot arrays was to determine the targeting accuracy of the beam in vacuum and in air. Additionally, this sample was employed to evaluate the system performance during cell target irradiation experiments. The Ni dot arrays were also used for beam characterization. The artificial cells were originally fabricated to test the software for cell recognition and localization, developed and implemented at the LNM. However, this sample became very functional to make small adjustments at the irradiation chamber for cell irradiation experiments. A description of the samples, fabrication procedure and applications are presented in this paper.

  8. Materials science and biophysics applications at the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam facility

    CERN Document Server

    Wahl, U

    2011-01-01

    The ISOLDE isotope separator facility at CERN provides a variety of radioactive ion beams, currently more than 800 different isotopes from ~65 chemical elements. The radioisotopes are produced on-line by nuclear reactions from a 1.4 GeV proton beam with various types of targets, outdiffusion of the reaction products and, if possible, chemically selective ionisation, followed by 60 kV acceleration and mass separation. While ISOLDE is mainly used for nuclear and atomic physics studies, applications in materials science and biophysics account for a significant part (currently ~15%) of the delivered beam time, requested by 18 different experiments. The ISOLDE materials science and biophysics community currently consists of ~80 scientists from more than 40 participating institutes and 21 countries. In the field of materials science, investigations focus on the study of semiconductors and oxides, with the recent additions of nanoparticles and metals, while the biophysics studies address the toxicity of metal ions i...

  9. A new and inexpensive temperature-measuring system. Application to photovoltaic solar facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohorquez, Miguel Angel Martinez; Enrique Gomez, Juan Manuel; Andujar Marquez, Jose Manuel [Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, de Sistemas Informaticos y Automatica, Universidad de Huelva, Carretera Huelva - Palos de la, Frontera S/N, 21819 Huelva (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    This article presents the design, construction and testing of a new and inexpensive digital sensor-based temperature-measuring system, whose principal characteristics are: precision, ease of connection, immunity to noise, remote operation and easy scaling, and all this at a very low cost. This new digital sensor-based measuring system overcomes the traditional problems of digital measuring sensors, offering characteristics similar to Pt100-based measuring systems, and therefore can be used in any installation where reliable temperature measurement is necessary. It is especially suitable for installations where cost is a deciding factor in the choice of measuring system. It presents a practical application of the developed instrumentation system for use in photovoltaic solar facilities. This new temperature-measuring system has been registered in the Spanish Patent and Trademark Office with the number P200803364. (author)

  10. Safety requirements, facility user needs, and reactor concepts for a new Broad Application Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryskamp, J.M. [ed.; Liebenthal, J.L.; Denison, A.B.; Fletcher, C.D.

    1992-07-01

    This report describes the EG&G Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (LDRD) Broad Application Test Reactor (BATR) Project that was conducted in fiscal year 1991. The scope of this project was divided into three phases: a project process definition phase, a requirements development phase, and a preconceptual reactor design and evaluation phase. Multidisciplinary teams of experts conducted each phase. This report presents the need for a new test reactor, the project process definition, a set of current and projected regulatory compliance and safety requirements, a set of facility user needs for a broad range of projected testing missions, and descriptions of reactor concepts capable of meeting these requirements. This information can be applied to strategic planning to provide the Department of Energy with management options.

  11. Safety requirements, facility user needs, and reactor concepts for a new Broad Application Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryskamp, J.M. (ed.); Liebenthal, J.L.; Denison, A.B.; Fletcher, C.D.

    1992-07-01

    This report describes the EG G Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (LDRD) Broad Application Test Reactor (BATR) Project that was conducted in fiscal year 1991. The scope of this project was divided into three phases: a project process definition phase, a requirements development phase, and a preconceptual reactor design and evaluation phase. Multidisciplinary teams of experts conducted each phase. This report presents the need for a new test reactor, the project process definition, a set of current and projected regulatory compliance and safety requirements, a set of facility user needs for a broad range of projected testing missions, and descriptions of reactor concepts capable of meeting these requirements. This information can be applied to strategic planning to provide the Department of Energy with management options.

  12. Facile hydrothermal preparation of niobium pentaoxide decorated reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, M.; Kumar, R. Mohan; Alsalme, Ali; Alghamdi, Abdulaziz; Jayavel, R.

    2016-04-01

    Facile synthesis of graphene-Nb2O5 composite has been reported. Graphene oxide was prepared by the modified Hummer's method. The metal oxide (Nb2O5) was introduced to the graphene to form the composite by the hydrothermal method. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM and TEM results revealed that the metal oxide particles are uniformly dispersed on the surface of thin sheets of well-defined multilayered graphene structure. Thermal stability of the graphene metal oxide nanocomposites was also investigated. The CV measurements reveal a significant enhancement in the specific capacitance reaching 321 Fg-1 at a scan rate of 10 mV s-1. With promising electrochemical characteristics, Nb2O5 decorated graphene nanocomposite are explored as potential electrode material for supercapacitor applications.

  13. The development of mobile robot for security application and nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B. S.; Lee, Y. B.; Choi, Y. S.; Seo, Y. C.; Park, Y. M

    1999-12-01

    The use of a mobile robot system in nuclear radioactive environments has the advantage of watching and inspecting the NPP safety-related equipment systematically and repairing damaged parts efficiently, thereby enhancing the safe operations of NPPs as well as reducing significantly personnel's dose rate to radioactive environment. Key technology achieved through the development of such robotic system can be used for security application and can offer new approaches to many of the tasks faced to the industry as well. The mobile robot system was composed of a mobile subsystem, a manipulator subsystem, a control subsystem, and a sensor subsystem to use in security application and nuclear radioactive environments. The mobile subsystem was adopted to synchro-drive method to improve the mobility of it. And the manipulator subsystem was developed to minimize the weight and easy to control at remote site. Finally, we developed the USB-based robot control system considering the expandability and modularity. The developed mobile robot for inspection and security was experimented for the collision avoidance and autonomous algorithm, and then it was confirmed that the mobile robot was very effective to the security application and inspection of nuclear facilities. (author)

  14. Application of satellite imagery to analyse the distribution and recruitment of sardinella - Annual Report 2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeberg, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Remote sensing studies at the Netherlands Institute for Fisheries Research (RIVO) aim to stimulate the use of satellite images on board of Dutch freezer-trawlers in the Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone (MEEZ). During four research missions (5-12 July 2002, 23-30 August 2002, 13-20 October 2002, a

  15. Application of satellite products and hydrological modelling for flood early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriche, Sifan A.; Rientjes, Tom H. M.

    2016-06-01

    Floods have caused devastating impacts to the environment and society in Awash River Basin, Ethiopia. Since flooding events are frequent, this marks the need to develop tools for flood early warning. In this study, we propose a satellite based flood index to identify the runoff source areas that largely contribute to extreme runoff production and floods in the basin. Satellite based products used for development of the flood index are CMORPH (Climate Prediction Center MORPHing technique: 0.25° by 0.25°, daily) product for calculation of the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) and a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) for calculation of the Topographic Wetness Index (TWI). Other satellite products used in this study are for rainfall-runoff modelling to represent rainfall, potential evapotranspiration, vegetation cover and topography. Results of the study show that assessment of spatial and temporal rainfall variability by satellite products may well serve in flood early warning. Preliminary findings on effectiveness of the flood index developed in this study indicate that the index is well suited for flood early warning. The index combines SPI and TWI, and preliminary results illustrate the spatial distribution of likely runoff source areas that cause floods in flood prone areas.

  16. Steerable K/Ka-Band Antenna For Land-Mobile Satellite Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Arthur; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Woo, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    Prototype steerable microwave antenna tracks and communicates with geostationary satellite. Designed to mount on roof of vehicle and only 10 cm tall. K/Ka-band antenna rugged and compact to suit rooftop mobile operating environment. More-delicate signal-processing and control equipment located inside vehicle.

  17. Satellite communications provisions on NASA Ames instrumented aircraft platforms for Earth science research/applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameson, L.; Brass, J. A.; Hanratty, J. J.; Roberts, A. C.; Wegener, S. S.

    1995-01-01

    Earth science activities at NASA Ames are research in atmospheric and ecosystem science, development of remote sensing and in situ sampling instruments, and their integration into scientific research platform aircraft. The use of satellite communications can greatly extend the capability of these agency research platform aircraft. Current projects and plans involve satellite links on the Perseus UAV and the ER-2 via TDRSS and a proposed experiment on the NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite. Provisions for data links on the Perseus research platform, via TDRSS S-band multiple access service, have been developed and are being tested. Test flights at Dryden are planned to demonstrate successful end-to-end data transfer. A Unisys Corp. airborne satcom STARLink system is being integrated into an Ames ER-2 aircraft. This equipment will support multiple data rates up to 43 Mb/s each via the TDRS S Ku-band single access service. The first flight mission for this high-rate link is planned for August 1995. Ames and JPL have proposed an ACTS experiment to use real-time satellite communications to improve wildfire research campaigns. Researchers and fire management teams making use of instrumented aircraft platforms at a prescribed burn site will be able to communicate with experts at Ames, the U.S. Forest Service, and emergency response agencies.

  18. Application of Communications Satellites to Educational Development. Final Technical Report, September 1, 1969-August 31, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Robert P.

    Research is summarized in a brief final report built around a four-section bibliography. The first section lists periodic progress reports and articles which provide an overview of the program, including articles which pertain primarily to educational rather than technical aspects of satellite utilization. Theses carried out in the fields of…

  19. Application of Communications Satellite to Educational Development; An Overview of the Washington University Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Robert P.; And Others

    Selected aspects and results of an interdisciplinary research and education program to examine the potential and problems associated with the use of communication satellites to help meet educational needs in the United States are summarized. The progress of the program to date in four major areas is described: needs analysis, communications…

  20. A compilation of global bio-optical in situ data for ocean-colour satellite applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente, A.; Wernand, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    A compiled set of in situ data is important to evaluate the quality of ocean-colour satellite-datarecords. Here we describe the data compiled for the validation of the ocean-colour products from the ESA OceanColour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI). The data were acquired from several sources (MOBY

  1. Development of tritiated vapor absorbent applicable to the atmospheric detritiation system in a nuclear facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Yasunori; Yamanishi, Toshihiko

    2010-09-01

    The combination of hydrogen oxidation reactor packed noble metal catalysts and water vapor absorber has been applied to the atmospheric detritiation system of the tritium handling facility. Commercial synthetic zeolite such as molecular sieve 5A has been used as an adsorbent of ADS absorber. In the case of application of molecular sieve 5A to the ADS absorber of a large-scale tritium handling facility such as a future fusion plant, an absorber becomes huge due mainly to the difficulty in dehydration from molecular sieve 5A. Hence, application of CaY Faujasite-type zeolite with a high framework silica-to-alumina ratio to the adsorbent for atmospheric detritiation system was investigated. It was clear that the dehydration behavior at room temperature was significantly improved using CaY zeolite. In contrast, detritiation factor for CaY zeolite with a high framework silica-to-alumina ratio depended strongly on the space velocity through the absorber. To apply CaY zeolite with a high framework SiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) ratio to the ADS absorbent, the space velocity less than 250h(-1) was recommended to maintain the detritiation factor more than 1000. The steep increase in water adsorption at the relative pressure lower than 0.05 is a feature of synthetic zeolite with calcium cation. However, such an increase was not observed in water adsorption on CaY zeolite with a framework SiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) ratio more than 7.0. Consequently, the CaY zeolite with the framework SiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) ratio of 5.0 is a promising candidate as absorbent of ADS absorber.

  2. Application and facility of neutron activation analysis in HANARO research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y.S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2001-11-01

    The facilities for neutron activation analysis in the HANARO research reactor are described and the main applications of NAA in Korea are reviewed. The sample irradiation tube, automatic and manual pneumatic transfer system, were installed at three irradiation holes at the end of 1995. One irradiation hole is lined with a cadmium tube for epithermal NAA. The performance of the NAA facility was examined to identify the characteristics of tube transfer system, irradiation sites and custom made polythylene irradiation capsule. The available thermal neutron flux with each irradiation site are in the range of 3 x 10{sup 13} {approx} 1 x 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}s and cadmium ratios are 15 {approx} 250. For an automatic sample changer for gamma-ray counting, a domestic product was designed and manufactured. An integrated computer program (Labview) for the calculation of content was developed. Neutron activation analysis has been applied in the trace component analysis of nuclear, geological, biological, environmental and high purity materials and various polymers for research and development. Improvement of analytical procedures and establishment of an analytical quality control and assurance system were studied. Applied research and development for the environment, industry and human health by NAA and its standardization was carried out. For the application of the Korea Laboratory Accreditation Scheme (KOLAS), evaluation of measurement uncertainty and proficiency testing of reference materials was performed. Also to verify the reliability and validity of analytical results, intercomparison studies between laboratories were carried out. In this paper, analytical services, national cooperation and the results of the researches are summarized. (author)

  3. Real-Time Application of Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis for Floods and Landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert; Hong, Yang; Huffman, George

    2007-01-01

    Satellite data acquired and processed in real time now have the potential to provide the spacetime information on rainfall needed to monitor flood and landslide events around the world. This can be achieved by integrating the satellite-derived forcing data with hydrological models and landslide algorithms. Progress in using the TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) as input to flood and landslide forecasts is outlined, with a focus on understanding limitations of the rainfall data and impacts of those limitations on flood/landslide analyses. Case studies of both successes and failures will be shown, as well as comparison with ground comparison data sets-- both in terms of rainfall and in terms of flood/landslide events. In addition to potential uses in real-time, the nearly ten years of TMPA data allow retrospective running of the models to examine variations in extreme events. The flood determination algorithm consists of four major components: 1) multi-satellite precipitation estimation; 2) characterization of land surface including digital elevation from NASA SRTM (Shuttle Radar Terrain Mission), topography-derived hydrologic parameters such as flow direction, flow accumulation, basin, and river network etc.; 3) a hydrological model to infiltrate rainfall and route overland runoff; and 4) an implementation interface to relay the input data to the models and display the flood inundation results to potential users and decision-makers, In terms of landslides, the satellite rainfall information is combined with a global landslide susceptibility map, derived from a combination of global surface characteristics (digital elevation topography, slope, soil types, soil texture, and land cover classification etc.) using a weighted linear combination approach. In those areas identified as "susceptible" (based on the surface characteristics), landslides are forecast where and when a rainfall intensity/duration threshold is exceeded. Results are described

  4. Precipitation Analysis at Fine Time Scales Using Multiple Satellites: Real-time and Research Products and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert; Huffman, George; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric; Curtis, Scott; Pierce, Harold

    2004-01-01

    Quasi-global precipitation analyses at fine time scales (3-hr) are described. TRMM observations (radar and passive microwave) are used to calibrate polar-orbit microwave observations from SSM/I (and other satellites instruments, including AMSR and AMSU) and geosynchronous IR observations. The individual data sets are then merged using a priority order based on quality to form the Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (MPA). Raingauge information is used to help constrain the satellite-based estimates over land. The TRMM standard research product (Version 6 3B-42 of the TRMM products) will be available for the entire TRMM period (January 1998-present) in 2004. The real-time version of this merged product has been produced over the past two years and is available on the U.S. TRMM web site (trmm.gsfc.nasa.gov) at 0.25" latitude-longitude resolution over the latitude range from 5O"N-5O0S. Validation of daily totals indicates good results, with limitations noted in mid-latitude winter over land and regions of shallow, orographic precipitation. Various applications of these estimates are described, including: 1) detecting potential floods in near real-time; 2) analyzing Indian Ocean precipitation variations related to the initiation of El Nino; 3) determining characteristics of the African monsoon; and 4) analysis of diurnal variations.

  5. Precipitation Analysis at Fine Time Scales using TRMM and Other Satellites: Real-time and Research Products and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert; Huffman, George; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric; Curtis, Scott; Pierce, Harold; Gu, Guo-Jon

    2004-01-01

    Quasi-global precipitation analyses at fine time scales (3-hr) are described. TRMM observations (radar and passive microwave) are used to calibrate polar-orbit microwave observations from SSM/I (and other satellites instruments, including AMSR and AMSU) and geosynchronous IR observations. The individual data sets are then merged using a priority order based on quality to form the TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (MPA). Raingauge information is used to help constrain the satellite-based estimates over land. The TRMM standard research product (Version 6 3B-42 of the TRMM products) will be available for the entire TRMM period (January 1998-present) by the end of 2004. The real-time version of this merged product has been produced over the past two years and is available on the U.S. TRMM web site (trmm.gsfc.nasa.gov) at 0.25" latitude-longitude resolution over the latitude range from 5O0N-50"S. Validation of daily totals indicates good results, with limitations noted in mid-latitude winter over land and regions of shallow, orographic precipitation. Various applications of these estimates are described, includmg: 1) detecting potential floods in near real-time; 2) analyzing Indian Ocean precipitation variations related to the initiation of El Nino; 3) determining characteristics of the African monsoon; and 4) analysis of diurnal variations.

  6. 'Taking X-ray phase contrast imaging into mainstream applications' and its satellite workshop 'Real and reciprocal space X-ray imaging'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivo, Alessandro; Robinson, Ian

    2014-03-06

    A double event, supported as part of the Royal Society scientific meetings, was organized in February 2013 in London and at Chicheley Hall in Buckinghamshire by Dr A. Olivo and Prof. I. Robinson. The theme that joined the two events was the use of X-ray phase in novel imaging approaches, as opposed to conventional methods based on X-ray attenuation. The event in London, led by Olivo, addressed the main roadblocks that X-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) is encountering in terms of commercial translation, for clinical and industrial applications. The main driver behind this is the development of new approaches that enable XPCI, traditionally a synchrotron method, to be performed with conventional laboratory sources, thus opening the way to its deployment in clinics and industrial settings. The satellite meeting at Chicheley Hall, led by Robinson, focused on the new scientific developments that have recently emerged at specialized facilities such as third-generation synchrotrons and free-electron lasers, which enable the direct measurement of the phase shift induced by a sample from intensity measurements, typically in the far field. The two events were therefore highly complementary, in terms of covering both the more applied/translational and the blue-sky aspects of the use of phase in X-ray research. 

  7. Combining satellite observations to develop a daily global soil moisture product for a wide range of applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enenkel, M.; Reimer, C.; Dorigo, W.; Wagner, W.; Pfeil, I.; Parinussa, R.; De Jeu, R.

    2015-11-01

    The soil moisture dataset that is generated via the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) of the European Space Agency (ESA) (ESA CCI SM) is a popular research product. It is composed of observations from nine different satellites and aims to exploit the individual strengths of active (radar) and passive (radiometer) sensors, thereby providing surface soil moisture estimates at a spatial resolution of 0.25°. However, the annual updating cycle limits the use of the ESA CCI SM dataset for operational applications. Therefore, this study proposes an adaptation of the ESA CCI processing chain for daily global updates via satellite-derived near real-time (NRT) soil moisture observations. In order to extend the ESA CCI SM dataset from 1978 to present we use NRT observations from the Advanced SCATterometer on-board the MetOp satellites and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 on-board GCOM-W. Since these NRT observations do not incorporate the latest algorithmic updates, parameter databases, and intercalibration efforts, by nature they offer a lower quality than reprocessed offline datasets. Our findings indicate that, despite issues in arid regions, the new "CCI NRT" dataset shows a good correlation with ESA CCI SM. The average global correlation coefficient between CCI NRT and ESA CCI SM (Pearson's R) is 0.8. An initial validation with 40 in-situ observations in France, Kenya, Senegal and Kenya yields an average R of 0.58 and 0.49 for ESA CCI SM and CCI NRT respectively. In summary, the CCI NRT dataset is getting ready for operational use, supporting applications such as drought and flood monitoring, weather forecasting or agricultural applications.

  8. Combining satellite observations to develop a daily global soil moisture product for a wide range of applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Enenkel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The soil moisture dataset that is generated via the Climate Change Initiative (CCI of the European Space Agency (ESA (ESA CCI SM is a popular research product. It is composed of observations from nine different satellites and aims to exploit the individual strengths of active (radar and passive (radiometer sensors, thereby providing surface soil moisture estimates at a spatial resolution of 0.25°. However, the annual updating cycle limits the use of the ESA CCI SM dataset for operational applications. Therefore, this study proposes an adaptation of the ESA CCI processing chain for daily global updates via satellite-derived near real-time (NRT soil moisture observations. In order to extend the ESA CCI SM dataset from 1978 to present we use NRT observations from the Advanced SCATterometer on-board the MetOp satellites and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 on-board GCOM-W. Since these NRT observations do not incorporate the latest algorithmic updates, parameter databases, and intercalibration efforts, by nature they offer a lower quality than reprocessed offline datasets. Our findings indicate that, despite issues in arid regions, the new "CCI NRT" dataset shows a good correlation with ESA CCI SM. The average global correlation coefficient between CCI NRT and ESA CCI SM (Pearson's R is 0.8. An initial validation with 40 in-situ observations in France, Kenya, Senegal and Kenya yields an average R of 0.58 and 0.49 for ESA CCI SM and CCI NRT respectively. In summary, the CCI NRT dataset is getting ready for operational use, supporting applications such as drought and flood monitoring, weather forecasting or agricultural applications.

  9. Galileo satellite antenna modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigenberger, Peter; Dach, Rolf; Prange, Lars; Montenbruck, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The space segment of the European satellite navigation system Galileo currently consists of six satellites. Four of them belong to the first generation of In-Orbit Validation (IOV) satellites whereas the other two are Full Operational Capability (FOC) satellites. High-precision geodetic applications require detailed knowledge about the actual phase center of the satellite and receiver antenna. The deviation of this actual phase center from a well-defined reference point is described by phase center offsets (PCOs) and phase center variations (PCVs). Unfortunately, no public information is available about the Galileo satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs, neither for the IOV, nor the FOC satellites. Therefore, conventional values for the IOV satellite antenna PCOs have been adopted for the Multi-GNSS experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service (IGS). The effect of the PCVs is currently neglected and no PCOs for the FOC satellites are available yet. To overcome this deficiency in GNSS observation modeling, satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs are estimated for the Galileo IOV satellites based on global GNSS tracking data of the MGEX network and additional stations of the legacy IGS network. Two completely independent solutions are computed with the Bernese and Napeos software packages. The PCO and PCV values of the individual satellites are analyzed and the availability of two different solutions allows for an accuracy assessment. The FOC satellites are built by a different manufacturer and are also equipped with another type of antenna panel compared to the IOV satellites. Signal transmission of the first FOC satellite has started in December 2014 and activation of the second satellite is expected for early 2015. Based on the available observations PCO estimates and, optionally PCVs of the FOC satellites will be presented as well. Finally, the impact of the new antenna model on the precision and accuracy of the Galileo orbit determination is analyzed.

  10. Propagation of Rainfall Products uncertainties in hydrological applications : Studies in the framework of the Megha-Tropiques Satellite Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosset, M.; Roca, R.

    2012-04-01

    The use of satellite based rainfall in research or operational Hydrological application is becoming more and more frequent. This is specially true in the Tropics where ground based gages (or radar) network are generally scarce and generally degrading. The new French-Indian satellite Mission Megha-Tropiques (MT) dedicated to the water and energy budget in the tropical atmosphere will contribute to a better monitoring of rainfall in the inter-tropical zone. As part of this mission, research is developed on the use of MT rainfall products for hydrological research or operational application such as flood monitoring. A key issue for such applications is how to account for rainfall products biases and uncertainties, and how to propagate them in the end user models ? Another important question is how to chose the best space-time resolution for the rainfall forcing, given that both model performances and rain-product uncertainties are resolution dependent. This talk will present on going investigations and perspectives on this subject, with examples from the Megha_tropiques Ground validation sites. Several sensitivity studies have been carried out in the Oueme Basin in Benin, West Africa, one the instrumented basin that will be used for MT products direct and hydrological validation.

  11. 40 CFR 60.560 - Applicability and designation of affected facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (including expandable polystyrene) manufacturing processes, the affected facilities are each group of... apply to affected facilities involved in the manufacture of polypropylene, polyethylene, polystyrene, or... that are emitted intermittently. (2) For process emissions from polystyrene manufacturing...

  12. Immobilized graphene-based composite from asphalt: Facile synthesis and application in water purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreeprasad, Theruvakkattil Sreenivasan; Gupta, Soujit Sen [DST Unit on Nanoscience, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Maliyekkal, Shihabudheen Mundampra [School of Mechanical and Building Sciences, VIT University, Chennai Campus, Chennai 600048 (India); Pradeep, Thalappil, E-mail: pradeep@iitm.ac.in [DST Unit on Nanoscience, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► Facile strategy to make graphenic materials from cheaper precursor such as asphalt. ► Material can be made in solution; also as anchored on solid substrates. ► The synthesized material, GSC, was found to be excellent for water purification. ► The applicability was demonstrated through batch and laboratory columns experiments. ► The capacity was compared to other similar adsorbents and was found to be superior. -- Abstract: An in situ strategy for the preparation of graphene immobilized on sand using asphalt, a cheap carbon precursor is presented. The as-synthesized material was characterized in detail using various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The presence of G and D bands at 1578 cm{sup −1} and 1345 cm{sup −1} in Raman spectroscopy and the 2D sheet-like structure with wrinkles in transmission electron microscopy confirmed the formation of graphenic materials. In view of the potential applicability of supported graphenic materials in environmental application, the as-synthesized material was tested for purifying water. Removal of a dye (rhodamine-6G) and a pesticide (chlorpyrifos), two of the important types of pollutants of concern in water, were investigated in this study. Adsorption studies were conducted in batch mode as a function of time, particle size, and adsorbent dose. The continuous mode experiments were conducted in multiple cycles and they confirmed that the material can be used for water purification applications. The adsorption efficacy of the present adsorbent system was compared to other reported similar adsorbent systems and the results illustrated that the present materials are superior. The adsorbents were analyzed for post treatment and their reusability was evaluated.

  13. APPLICATION OF LINEAR PROGRAMMING TO FACILITY MAINTENANCE PROBLEMS IN THE NAVY SHORE ESTABLISHMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LINEAR PROGRAMMING ), (*NAVAL SHORE FACILITIES, MAINTENANCE), (*MAINTENANCE, COSTS, MATHEMATICAL MODELS, MANAGEMENT PLANNING AND CONTROL, MANPOWER, FEASIBILITY STUDIES, OPTIMIZATION, MANAGEMENT ENGINEERING.

  14. NASA Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite-2 Applications - Advancing Dialogue for More Effective Decisions and Societal benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Arias, S.; Brown, M. E.; Escobar, V. M.; Jasinski, M. F.; Neumann, T.

    2016-12-01

    Since 2012, the NASA Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) Applications Program has worked to understand how future mission observations can be effectively used to inform operational sea ice forecasting for Arctic shipping, global flood risk monitoring, fire fuel mapping, and other applications. The ICESat-2 Applications Program has implemented various engagement and outreach activities, as well as an Early Adopter program, to facilitate dialogue between potential users, project scientists, science definition team members, NASA Headquarters and the mission's data distribution center. This dialogue clarifies how ICESat-2's science data can be integrated, improved or leveraged to advance science objectives aligned with or beyond those of the mission, and in support of a range of decisions and actions of benefit to communities across the globe. In this presentation, we will present an overview of the Program initiatives and highlight the research-to-applications chains that mission Early Adopters are helping build for ICESat-2. With a total of 19 Early Adopters and more than 400 people engaged as part of the applications community, ICESat-2 has positioned itself to ensure applications where its observations are used to meet the needs of decision makers, policy makers and managers at different scales. For more information visit: http://icesat-2.gsfc.nasa.gov/applications

  15. Satellite microwave estimates of soil moisture and applications for desertification studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owe, Manfred; Van de Griend, Adriaan A.; de Jeu, Richard A.; de Vries, Jorrit; Seyhan, E.

    1998-12-01

    Based on a series of studies conducted in Botswana and preliminary results from an ongoing study in Spain, developments in microwave remote sensing by satellite which can be used to monitor near real-time surface moisture and also study long term soil moisture climatology are described. A progression of methodologies beginning with single polarization studies and leading to both dual polarization and multiple frequency techniques are described. Continuing analysis of a nine year data set of satellite-derived surface moisture in Spain is ongoing. Preliminary results from this study appear to provide some evidence of long term decertification in certain parts of this region. The methodologies developed during these investigations can be applied to other regions, and have the potential for providing modelers with extended data sets of independently derived surface moisture for simulation and validation studies, and climate change studies at the global scale.

  16. SOME KEY ISSUES ON THE APPLICATION OF SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING TO MINING AREAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In order to apply Satellite Remote Sensing (RS) to mining areas, some key issues should be solved. Based on an introduction to relative studying background, related key issues are proposed and analyzed oriented to the development of RS information science and demands of mining areas. Band selection and combination optimization of Landsat TM is discussed firstly, and it proved that the combination of Band 3, Band 4 and Band 5 has the largest information amount in all three-band combination schemes by both N-dimensional entropy method and Genetic Algorithm (GA). After that the filtering of Radarsat image is discussed. Different filtering methods are experimented and compared, and adaptive methods are more efficient than others. Finally the classification of satellite RS image is studied, and some new methods including classification by improved BPNN(Back Propagation Neural Network) and classification based on GIS and knowledge are proposed.

  17. The application of the instantaneous states reduction to the orbital monitoring of pivotal arcs of the Chang’E-1 satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In the Chinese lunar exploration project,the Chang’E-1 (CE-1) satellite was jointly monitored by the United S-band range and Doppler and the VLBI technique. A real-time reduction of the tracking data is realized to deduce the time series of the instantaneous state vectors (ISV) (position and velocity vec-tors) of the CE-1 satellite,and is applied to the orbital monitoring of pivotal arcs. This paper introduces this real-time data reduction method and its application to the orbital monitoring of pivotal arcs of the CE-1 satellite in order to serve as a source of criticism and reference.

  18. Applications Technology Satellite ATS-6 experiment checkout and continuing spacecraft evaluation report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, W.; Prensky, W. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    The activities of the ATS-6 spacecraft are reviewed. The following subsystems and experiments are summarized: (1) radio beacon experiments; (2) spacecraft attitude precision pointing and slewing adaptive control experiment; (3) satellite instruction television experiment; (4) thermal control subsystem; (5) spacecraft propulsion subsystem; (6) telemetry and control subsystem; (7) millimeter wave experiment; and (8) communications subsystem. The results of performance evaluation of its subsystems and experiments are presented.

  19. Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) mapping - Validation, early results and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, Lee S.; Froidevaux, Lucien; Waters, Joe

    1992-01-01

    The results of limitation studies performed with the UARS MLS are presented. A consistent set of algorithms allows the extraction of the spectral coefficients in time and longitude from asynoptically sampled satellite data and the subsequent reconstruction of synoptic maps from that spectral information. In addition to providing synoptic maps, the asynoptic technique allows the use of standard spectral analysis tools such as autocorrelation and cross correlation.

  20. Application of chlorine dioxide as an oilfield-facilities-treatment fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romaine, J. [Rio Linda Chemical Co., Inc., Sugar Land, TX (United States); Strawser, T.J. [Exxon Co. USA, Gillette, WY (United States); Knippers, M.L. [Nalco/Exxon Energy Chemicals L.P., Sugar Land, TX (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Both mechanical and chemical treatments are used to clean waterflood-injection distribution systems whose efficiency has been reduced as a result of plugging material, such as iron sulfide (FeS) containing sludge. Most mechanical treatments rely on uniform-line diameter to be effective, while chemical treatments require good contact with the plugging material for efficient removal. This paper describes the design and operation of a new innovative application using chlorine dioxide (ClO{sub 2}) for the removal of FeS sludge from waterflood-injection distribution systems. The use of ClO{sub 2} for continuous treatment of injection brines will also be discussed. Exxon USA`s Hartzog Draw facility in Gillette, WY, was the site for the application described. A total of 4,500 bbl of ClO{sub 2} was pumped in three phases to clean 66 miles of the waterflood-distribution system. Results indicated that ClO{sub 2} was effective in cleaning the well guard screens, the injection lines, and the injection wells. The addition of excess ClO{sub 2} to the frac tanks used to collect the treatment fluids also reduced waste handling and disposal costs.

  1. Jackson State University's Center for Spatial Data Research and Applications: New facilities and new paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Bruce E.; Elliot, Gregory

    1989-01-01

    Jackson State University recently established the Center for Spatial Data Research and Applications, a Geographical Information System (GIS) and remote sensing laboratory. Taking advantage of new technologies and new directions in the spatial (geographic) sciences, JSU is building a Center of Excellence in Spatial Data Management. New opportunities for research, applications, and employment are emerging. GIS requires fundamental shifts and new demands in traditional computer science and geographic training. The Center is not merely another computer lab but is one setting the pace in a new applied frontier. GIS and its associated technologies are discussed. The Center's facilities are described. An ARC/INFO GIS runs on a Vax mainframe, with numerous workstations. Image processing packages include ELAS, LIPS, VICAR, and ERDAS. A host of hardware and software peripheral are used in support. Numerous projects are underway, such as the construction of a Gulf of Mexico environmental data base, development of AI in image processing, a land use dynamics study of metropolitan Jackson, and others. A new academic interdisciplinary program in Spatial Data Management is under development, combining courses in Geography and Computer Science. The broad range of JSU's GIS and remote sensing activities is addressed. The impacts on changing paradigms in the university and in the professional world conclude the discussion.

  2. Application of satellite derived information for disaster risk reduction: vulnerability assessment for southwest coast of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Lubna; Blaschke, Thomas; Zeil, Peter

    2010-10-01

    The SW-coast of Pakistan is vulnerable to natural disasters, such as cyclones and tsunamis. Lack of spatially referenced information is a major hinder for proper disaster risk management programs in Pakistan, but satellite remote sensing being reliable, fast and spatially referenced information can be used as an important component in various natural disaster risk reduction activities. This study aimed to investigate vulnerability of coastal communities to cyclone and tsunamis based on satellite derived information. It is observed that SPOT-5 is relevant source on threatened features with respect to certain vulnerabilities like road, settlements, infrastructure and used in preparation of hazard zonation and vulnerability maps. Landsat ETM found very useful in demarcation of flood inundated areas. The GIS integrated evaluation of LANDSAT and ASTER GDEM helps identify low lying areas most susceptible to flooding and inundation by cyclone surges and tsunamis. The GIS integrated evaluation of SPOT, LANDSAT and ASTER GDEM data helps identify areas and infrastructure most vulnerable to cyclone surges and tsunami. Additionally, analysis of the vulnerability of critical infrastructures (schools, hospitals) within hazard zones provides indicators for the degree of spatial exposure to disaster. Satellite derived information in conjunction with detailed surveys of hazard prone areas can provide comprehensive vulnerability and risk analysis.

  3. Application of MODIS satellite products to the air pollution research in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Chengcai; MAO; Jietai; Alexis; K.; H.; Lau; YUAN; Zibin

    2005-01-01

    The direct correlation between NASA MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) products and the air pollution index (API) in Beijing was found relatively low based on the long-term comparison analysis. The correlation improved to some extent after taking account of the seasonal variation of scale height and the vertical distribution of aerosols. The correlation coefficient further improved significantly after considering the influencing factor of Relative Humidity (RH). This study concluded that satellite remote-sensing could serve as an efficient tool for monitoring the spatial distribution of particulate pollutants on the ground-level, as long as corrections have been made in the two aforementioned processes. Taking advantage of the MODIS information, we analyzed a pollution episode occurring in October 2004 in Beijing. It indicated that satellite remote-sensing could describe the formation process of the ground-level pollution episode in detail, and showed that regional transport and the topography were crucial factors to air quality in Beijing. The annual averaged distribution in the urban area of Beijing and its surroundings could be also obtained from the high-resolution retrieval results, implicating that high-resolution satellite remote-sensing might be potential in monitoring the source distribution of particulate pollutants.

  4. Signal Conditioning for the Kalman Filter: Application to Satellite Attitude Estimation with Magnetometer and Sun Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Segundo; Girón-Sierra, Jose M; Polo, Óscar R; Angulo, Manuel

    2016-10-31

    Most satellites use an on-board attitude estimation system, based on available sensors. In the case of low-cost satellites, which are of increasing interest, it is usual to use magnetometers and Sun sensors. A Kalman filter is commonly recommended for the estimation, to simultaneously exploit the information from sensors and from a mathematical model of the satellite motion. It would be also convenient to adhere to a quaternion representation. This article focuses on some problems linked to this context. The state of the system should be represented in observable form. Singularities due to alignment of measured vectors cause estimation problems. Accommodation of the Kalman filter originates convergence difficulties. The article includes a new proposal that solves these problems, not needing changes in the Kalman filter algorithm. In addition, the article includes assessment of different errors, initialization values for the Kalman filter; and considers the influence of the magnetic dipole moment perturbation, showing how to handle it as part of the Kalman filter framework.

  5. Astrometry of mutual approximations between natural satellites. Application to the Galilean moons

    CERN Document Server

    Morgado, B; Vieira-Martins, R; Camargo, J I B; Dias-Oliveira, A; Gomes-Júnior, A R

    2016-01-01

    Typically we can deliver astrometric positions of natural satellites with errors in the 50-150 mas range. Apparent distances from mutual phenomena, have much smaller errors, less than 10 mas. However, this method can only be applied during the equinox of the planets. We developed a method that can provide accurate astrometric data for natural satellites -- the mutual approximations. The method can be applied when any two satellites pass close by each other in the apparent sky plane. The fundamental parameter is the central instant $t_0$ of the passage when the distances reach a minimum. We applied the method for the Galilean moons. All observations were made with a 0.6 m telescope with a narrow-band filter centred at 889 nm with width of 15 nm which attenuated Jupiter's scattered light. We obtained central instants for 14 mutual approximations observed in 2014-2015. We determined $t_0$ with an average precision of 3.42 mas (10.43 km). For comparison, we also applied the method for 5 occultations in the 2009 m...

  6. Signal Conditioning for the Kalman Filter: Application to Satellite Attitude Estimation with Magnetometer and Sun Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segundo Esteban

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Most satellites use an on-board attitude estimation system, based on available sensors. In the case of low-cost satellites, which are of increasing interest, it is usual to use magnetometers and Sun sensors. A Kalman filter is commonly recommended for the estimation, to simultaneously exploit the information from sensors and from a mathematical model of the satellite motion. It would be also convenient to adhere to a quaternion representation. This article focuses on some problems linked to this context. The state of the system should be represented in observable form. Singularities due to alignment of measured vectors cause estimation problems. Accommodation of the Kalman filter originates convergence difficulties. The article includes a new proposal that solves these problems, not needing changes in the Kalman filter algorithm. In addition, the article includes assessment of different errors, initialization values for the Kalman filter; and considers the influence of the magnetic dipole moment perturbation, showing how to handle it as part of the Kalman filter framework.

  7. Astrometry of mutual approximations between natural satellites. Application to the Galilean moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, B.; Assafin, M.; Vieira-Martins, R.; Camargo, J. I. B.; Dias-Oliveira, A.; Gomes-Júnior, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    Typically we can deliver astrometric positions of natural satellites with errors in the 50-150 mas range. Apparent distances from mutual phenomena, have much smaller errors, less than 10 mas. However, this method can only be applied during the equinox of the planets. We developed a method that can provide accurate astrometric data for natural satellites - the mutual approximations. The method can be applied when any two satellites pass close by each other in the apparent sky plane. The fundamental parameter is the central instant t0 of the passage when the distances reach a minimum. We applied the method for the Galilean moons. All observations were made with a 0.6 m telescope with a narrow-band filter centred at 889 nm with width of 15 nm which attenuated Jupiter's scattered light. We obtained central instants for 14 mutual approximations observed in 2014-2015. We determined t0 with an average precision of 3.42 mas (10.43 km). For comparison, we also applied the method for 5 occultations in the 2009 mutual phenomena campaign and for 22 occultations in the 2014-2015 campaign. The comparisons of t0 determined by our method with the results from mutual phenomena show an agreement by less than 1σ error in t0, typically less than 10 mas. This new method is particularly suitable for observations by small telescopes.

  8. Configurable software for satellite graphics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartzman, P D

    1977-12-01

    An important goal in interactive computer graphics is to provide users with both quick system responses for basic graphics functions and enough computing power for complex calculations. One solution is to have a distributed graphics system in which a minicomputer and a powerful large computer share the work. The most versatile type of distributed system is an intelligent satellite system in which the minicomputer is programmable by the application user and can do most of the work while the large remote machine is used for difficult computations. At New York University, the hardware was configured from available equipment. The level of system intelligence resulted almost completely from software development. Unlike previous work with intelligent satellites, the resulting system had system control centered in the satellite. It also had the ability to reconfigure software during realtime operation. The design of the system was done at a very high level using set theoretic language. The specification clearly illustrated processor boundaries and interfaces. The high-level specification also produced a compact, machine-independent virtual graphics data structure for picture representation. The software was written in a systems implementation language; thus, only one set of programs was needed for both machines. A user can program both machines in a single language. Tests of the system with an application program indicate that is has very high potential. A major result of this work is the demonstration that a gigantic investment in new hardware is not necessary for computing facilities interested in graphics.

  9. Advanced Deployable Shell-Based Composite Booms for Small Satellite Structural Applications Including Solar Sails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Juan M.

    2017-01-01

    State of the art deployable structures are mainly being designed for medium to large size satellites. The lack of reliable deployable structural systems for low cost, small volume, rideshare-class spacecraft severely constrains the potential for using small satellite platforms for affordable deep space science and exploration precursor missions that could be realized with solar sails. There is thus a need for reliable, lightweight, high packaging efficiency deployable booms that can serve as the supporting structure for a wide range of small satellite systems including solar sails for propulsion. The National Air and Space Administration (NASA) is currently investing in the development of a new class of advanced deployable shell-based composite booms to support future deep space small satellite missions using solar sails. The concepts are being designed to: meet the unique requirements of small satellites, maximize ground testability, permit the use of low-cost manufacturing processes that will benefit scalability, be scalable for use as elements of hierarchical structures (e.g. trusses), allow long duration storage, have high deployment reliability, and have controlled deployment behavior and predictable deployed dynamics. This paper will present the various rollable boom concepts that are being developed for 5-20 m class size deployable structures that include solar sails with the so-called High Strain Composites (HSC) materials. The deployable composite booms to be presented are being developed to expand the portfolio of available rollable booms for small satellites and maximize their length for a given packaged volume. Given that solar sails are a great example of volume and mass optimization, the booms were designed to comply with nominal solar sail system requirements for 6U CubeSats, which are a good compromise between those of smaller form factors (1U, 2U and 3U CubeSats) and larger ones (12 U and 27 U future CubeSats, and ESPA-class microsatellites). Solar

  10. Time and frequency requirement for the earth and ocean physics applications program. [characteristics and orbital mechanics of artificial satellites for data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonbun, F. O.

    1972-01-01

    The application of time and frequency standards to the Earth and Ocean Physics Applications Program (EOPAP) is discussed. The goals and experiments of the EOPAP are described. Methods for obtaining frequency stability and time synchronization are analyzed. The orbits, trajectories, and characteristics of the satellites used in the program are reported.

  11. Blossom Point Satellite Tracking and Command Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The Blossom Point Satellite Command and Tracking Facility (BP) provides engineering and operational support to several complex space systems for the Navy...

  12. Meteorological satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Su-Yin

    2014-01-01

    “Meteorological Satellite Systems” is a primer on weather satellites and their Earth applications. This book reviews historic developments and recent technological advancements in GEO and polar orbiting meteorological satellites. It explores the evolution of these remote sensing technologies and their capabilities to monitor short- and long-term changes in weather patterns in response to climate change. Satellites developed by various countries, such as U.S. meteorological satellites, EUMETSAT, and Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Indian satellite platforms are reviewed. This book also discusses international efforts to coordinate meteorological remote sensing data collection and sharing. This title provides a ready and quick reference for information about meteorological satellites. It serves as a useful tool for a broad audience that includes students, academics, private consultants, engineers, scientists, and teachers.

  13. 78 FR 14842 - Crystal River Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit 3; Application for Renewal of License to Facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... COMMISSION Crystal River Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit 3; Application for Renewal of License to Facility... operate the Crystal River Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit 3 (CR3), at 2609 megawatts thermal. The FPC... located near Crystal River, FL; the current operating license for the CR3 expires on December 3, 2016. The...

  14. Satellite Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a discussion of communication satellites: explains the principles of satellite communication, describes examples of how governments and industries are currently applying communication satellites, analyzes issues confronting satellite communication, links mathematics and science to the study of satellite communication, and applies…

  15. Comparative Analysis on Applicability of Satellite and Meteorological Data for Prediction of Malaria in Endemic Area in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiqur Rahman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between yearly malaria incidence and (1 climate data from weather station and (2 satellite-based vegetation health (VH indices were investigated for prediction of malaria vector activities in Bangladesh. Correlation analysis of percent of malaria cases with Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer- (AVHRR- based VH indices represented by the vegetation condition index (VCI—moisture condition and the temperature condition index (TCI—estimates thermal condition and with rainfall, relative humidity, and temperature from ground-based meteorological stations. Results show that climate data from weather stations are poorly correlated and are not applicable to estimate prevalence in Bangladesh. The study also has shown that AVHRR-based vegetation health (VH indices are highly applicable for malaria trend assessment and also for the estimation of the total number of malaria cases in Bangladesh for the period of 1992–2001.

  16. Automatic cloud detection for high resolution satellite stereo images and its application in terrain extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Teng; Hu, Xiangyun; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Lulin; Tao, Pengjie; Lu, Luping

    2016-11-01

    The automatic extraction of terrain from high-resolution satellite optical images is very difficult under cloudy conditions. Therefore, accurate cloud detection is necessary to fully use the cloud-free parts of images for terrain extraction. This paper addresses automated cloud detection by introducing an image matching based method under a stereo vision framework, and the optimization usage of non-cloudy areas in stereo matching and the generation of digital surface models (DSMs). Given that clouds are often separated from the terrain surface, cloudy areas are extracted by integrating dense matching DSM, worldwide digital elevation model (DEM) (i.e., shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM)) and gray information from the images. This process consists of the following steps: an image based DSM is firstly generated through a multiple primitive multi-image matcher. Once it is aligned with the reference DEM based on common features, places with significant height differences between the DSM and the DEM will suggest the potential cloud covers. Detecting cloud at these places in the images then enables precise cloud delineation. In the final step, elevations of the reference DEM within the cloud covers are assigned to the corresponding region of the DSM to generate a cloud-free DEM. The proposed approach is evaluated with the panchromatic images of the Tianhui satellite and has been successfully used in its daily operation. The cloud detection accuracy for images without snow is as high as 95%. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can significantly improve the usage of the cloudy panchromatic satellite images for terrain extraction.

  17. Application of LANDSAT satellite imagery for iron ore prospecting in the Western Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshazly, E. M.; Abdelhady, M. A.; Elghawaby, M. A.; Khawasik, S. M.

    1977-01-01

    Prospecting for iron ore occurrences was conducted by the Remote Sensing Center in Bahariya Oasis-El Faiyum area covering some 100,000 km squared in the Western Desert of Egypt. LANDSAT-1 satellite images were utilized as the main tool in the regional prospecting of the iron ores. The delineation of the geological units and geological structure through the interpretation of the images corroborated by field observations and structural analysis led to the discovery of new iron ore occurrences in the area of investigation.

  18. Applications of HCMM satellite data. [Lake Ontario, Buffalo, Syracuse, and Rochester, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The thermal properties of Lake Ontario as they relate to water equality, lake hydrology and energy exchange were investigated as well as the urban heat island problem in selected areas adjacent to the lake. The HCMM thermal sensor was fully calibrated for several underflight data. Actual surface water temperature maps were generated for all of Lake Ontario using the calibration procedure developed. Major water quality changes associated with the thermal bar as located by HCMM thermal data were observed from satellite and aerial data and verified by ground truth.

  19. Applications of asynoptic space - Time Fourier transform methods to scanning satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lait, Leslie R.; Stanford, John L.

    1988-01-01

    A method proposed by Salby (1982) for computing the zonal space-time Fourier transform of asynoptically acquired satellite data is discussed. The method and its relationship to other techniques are briefly described, and possible problems in applying it to real data are outlined. Examples of results obtained using this technique are given which demonstrate its sensitivity to small-amplitude signals. A number of waves are found which have previously been observed as well as two not heretofore reported. A possible extension of the method which could increase temporal and longitudinal resolution is described.

  20. New Methods for Retrieval of Chlorophyll Red Fluorescence from Hyperspectral Satellite Instruments: Simulations and Application to GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Joanna; Yoshida, Yasuko; Guanter, Luis; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Global satellite measurements of solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) from chlorophyll over land and ocean have proven useful for a number of different applications related to physiology, phenology, and productivity of plants and phytoplankton. Terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence is emitted throughout the red and far-red spectrum, producing two broad peaks near 683 and 736nm. From ocean surfaces, phytoplankton fluorescence emissions are entirely from the red region (683nm peak). Studies using satellite-derived SIF over land have focused almost exclusively on measurements in the far red (wavelengths greater than 712nm), since those are the most easily obtained with existing instrumentation. Here, we examine new ways to use existing hyperspectral satellite data sets to retrieve red SIF (wavelengths less than 712nm) over both land and ocean. Red SIF is thought to provide complementary information to that from the far red for terrestrial vegetation. The satellite instruments that we use were designed to make atmospheric trace-gas measurements and are therefore not optimal for observing SIF; they have coarse spatial resolution and only moderate spectral resolution (0.5nm). Nevertheless, these instruments, the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2) and the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY), offer a unique opportunity to compare red and far-red terrestrial SIF at regional spatial scales. Terrestrial SIF has been estimated with ground-, aircraft-, or satellite-based instruments by measuring the filling-in of atmospheric andor solar absorption spectral features by SIF. Our approach makes use of the oxygen (O2) gamma band that is not affected by SIF. The SIF-free O2 gamma band helps to estimate absorption within the spectrally variable O2 B band, which is filled in by red SIF. SIF also fills in the spectrally stable solar Fraunhofer lines (SFLs) at wavelengths both inside and just outside the O2 B band, which further helps

  1. Sources and potential application of waste heat utilization at a gas processing facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshehhi, Alyas Ali

    Waste heat recovery (WHR) has the potential to significantly improve the efficiency of oil and gas plants, chemical and other processing facilities, and reduce their environmental impact. In this Thesis a comprehensive energy audit at Abu Dhabi Gas Industries Ltd. (GASCO) ASAB gas processing facilities is undertaken to identify sources of waste heat and evaluate their potential for on-site recovery. Two plants are considered, namely ASAB0 and ASAB1. Waste heat evaluation criteria include waste heat grade (i.e., temperature), rate, accessibility (i.e., proximity) to potential on-site waste heat recovery applications, and potential impact of recovery on installation performance and safety. The operating parameters of key waste heat source producing equipment are compiled, as well as characteristics of the waste heat streams. In addition, potential waste heat recovery applications and strategies are proposed, focusing on utilities, i.e., enhancement of process cooling/heating, electrical/mechanical power generation, and steam production. The sources of waste heat identified at ASAB facilities consist of gas turbine and gas generator exhaust gases, flared gases, excess propane cooling capacity, excess process steam, process gas air-cooler heat dissipation, furnace exhaust gases and steam turbine outlet steam. Of the above waste heat sources, exhaust gases from five gas turbines and one gas generator at ASAB0 plant, as well as from four gas turbines at ASAB1 plant, were found to meet the rate (i.e., > 1 MW), grade (i.e., > 180°C), accessibility (i.e., absorption refrigeration unit for gas turbine inlet air cooling, which would result in additional electric or mechanical power generation, and pre-cooling of process gas, which could reduce the need for or eliminate air coolers, as well as reduce propane chiller load, and ii) serve for heating of lean gas, which would reduce furnace load. At ASAB1, it is proposed that exhaust gases from all four gas turbines be used to

  2. Applicability of base-isolation R D in non-reactor facilities to a nuclear reactor plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidensticker, R.W.; Chang, Y.W.

    1990-01-01

    Seismic isolation is gaining increased attention worldwide for use in a wide spectrum of critical facilities, ranging from hospitals and computing centers to nuclear power plants. While the fundamental principles and technology are applicable to all of these facilities, the degree of assurance that the actual behavior of the isolation systems is as specified varies with the nature of the facility involved. Obviously, the level of effort to provide such assurance for a nuclear power plant will be much greater than that required for, say, a critical computer facility. The question, therefore, is to what extent can research and development (R D) for non-nuclear use be used to provide technological data needed for seismic isolation of a nuclear power plant. This question, of course is not unique to seismic isolation. Virtually every structural component, system, or piece of equipment used in nuclear power plants is also used in non- nuclear facilities. Experience shows that considerable effort is needed to adapt conventional technology into a nuclear power plant. Usually, more thorough analysis is required, material and fabrication quality-control requirements are more stringent as are controls on field installation. In addition, increased emphasis on maintainability and inservice inspection throughout the life of the plant is generally required to gain acceptance in nuclear power plant application. This paper reviews the R D programs ongoing for seismic isolation in non-nuclear facilities and related experience and makes a preliminary assessment of the extent to which such R D and experience can be used for nuclear power plant application. Ways are suggested to improve the usefulness of such non-nuclear R D in providing the high level of confidence required for the use of seismic isolation in a nuclear reactor plant. 2 refs.

  3. A Study on Applicability of Distributed Energy Generation, Storage and Consumption within Small Scale Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rodríguez-Molina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Distributed generation and storage of energy, conceived as one of the prominent applications of the Smart Grid, has become one of the most popular ways for generation and usage of electricity. Not only does it offer environmental advantages and a more decentralized way to produce energy, but it also enables former consumers to become producers (thus turning them into prosumers. Alternatively, regular power production and consumption is still widely used in most of the world. Unfortunately, accurate business models representations and descriptive use cases for small scale facilitates, either involved in distributed energy or not, have not been provided in a descriptive enough manner. What is more, the possibilities that electricity trade and its storage and consumption activities offer for small users to obtain profits are yet to be addressed and offered to the research community in a thorough manner, so that small consumers will use them to their advantage. This paper puts forward a study on four different business models for small scale facilities and offers an economical study on how they can be deployed as a way to offer profitability for end users and new companies, while at the same time showing the required technological background to have them implemented.

  4. Facile synthesis of PdSx/C porous nanospheres and their applications for ethanol oxidation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Fuhua; Ma, Xuemei; Zheng, Yiqun; Hou, Shifeng

    2016-12-01

    We report a facile approach for the synthesis of carbon-supported palladium polysulphide porous nanospheres (PdSx/C) and their applications for ethanol oxidation reaction. Typical synthesis started with generation of palladium/poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)(Pd/PEDOT) nanospheres, followed by a calcination process at an optimized temperature to form PdSx/C, with an average size of 2.47 ± 0.60 and 50 nm of PdSx nanoparticles and carbon porous nanospheres, respectively. Various techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrochemical techniques were performed to characterize their morphologies, compositions and structures. In contrary to most Pd-based electrochemical catalysts that could be easily poised with trace sulfur during the catalytic oxidation process, the as-prepared PdSx/C porous nanospheres exhibited high electrocatalytic activities and stabilities for the electrochemical catalytic oxidation of ethanol in alkaline medium. In particular, the forward peak current intensity achieved 162.1 mA mg-1 and still maintained at 46.7 mA mg-1 even after 1000 cycles. This current work not only offers a novel type of fuel-cell catalyst for ethanol oxidation reaction, but also provides a possible route for solving the sulfur-poisoning problem in catalysis.

  5. 237 Np analytical method using 239 Np tracers and application to a contaminated nuclear disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, Mathew S.; Morrison, Samuel S.; Clark, Sue B.; Olson, John E.; Watrous, Matthew G.

    2017-06-01

    Environmental 237Np analyses are challenged by low 237Np concentrations and lack of an available yield tracer; we report a rapid, inexpensive 237Np analytical approach employing the short lived 239Np (t1/2 = 2.3 days) as a chemical yield tracer followed by 237Np quantification using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. 239Np tracer is obtained via separation from a 243Am stock solution and standardized using gamma spectrometry immediately prior to sample processing. Rapid digestions using a commercial, 900 watt “Walmart” microwave and Parr microwave vessels result in 99.8 ± 0.1% digestion yields, while chromatographic separations enable Np/U separation factors on the order of 106 and total Np yields of 95 ± 4% (2σ). Application of this method to legacy soil samples surrounding a radioactive disposal facility (the Subsurface Disposal Area at Idaho National Laboratory) reveal the presence of low level 237Np contamination within 600 meters of this site, with maximum 237Np concentrations on the order of 103 times greater than nuclear weapons testing fallout levels.

  6. Facile and Scalable Preparation of Fluorescent Carbon Dots for Multifunctional Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of fluorescent nanomaterials has received considerable attention due to the great potential of these materials for a wide range of applications, from chemical sensing through bioimaging to optoelectronics. Herein, we report a facile and scalable approach to prepare fluorescent carbon dots (FCDs via a one-pot reaction of citric acid with ethylenediamine at 150 °C under ambient air pressure. The resultant FCDs possess an optical bandgap of 3.4 eV and exhibit strong excitation-wavelength-independent blue emission (λEm = 450 nm under either one- or two-photon excitation. Owing to their low cytotoxicity and long fluorescence lifetime, these FCDs were successfully used as internalized fluorescent probes in human cancer cell lines (HeLa cells for two-photon excited imaging of cells by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy with a high-contrast resolution. They were also homogenously mixed with commercial inks and used to draw fluorescent patterns on normal papers and on many other substrates (e.g., certain flexible plastic films, textiles, and clothes. Thus, these nanomaterials are promising for use in solid-state fluorescent sensing, security labeling, and wearable optoelectronics.

  7. Active-passive integrated vibration control for control moment gyros and its application to satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Zang, Yue; Li, Mou; Wang, Youyi; Li, Wenbo

    2017-04-01

    The strategy of active-passive integrated vibration control on the truss enveloping control moment gyroscopes (CMGs) is presented and its characteristics of time domain and frequency domain are analyzed. Truss enveloping CMGs contains pyramid-type CMGs, which are enveloped by multiple struts. These struts can be employed to realize the active-passive integrated vibration control. In addition, the struts of the trusses can maintain the working space of CMGs. Firstly, the disturbance characteristics of CMGs are analyzed considering static and dynamic imbalances of the CMG's rotor; then, an active-passive integrated vibration isolation truss structure is developed based on its characteristics. This structure can restrain the CMG vibration as much as possible and reduce its influence on the photographic quality of optical payloads. Next, the dynamic model of the active-passive vibration isolation truss structure is established. The frequency domain analysis of this model shows that the active-passive integrated vibration control method can restrain the high-frequency vibration and also improve the characteristics of low-frequency vibration. Finally, the dynamic model for the whole satellite is built with this type of CMGs. The time domain simulations of satellite attitude control verify the attitude control improvements resulting from the CMGs vibration control strategy.

  8. Development of a Hydrogen and Heat Storage System for Satellite Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissner, Alexander; Pawelke, Roland; Hummel, Stefan; Gerger, Joachim; Lutz, Matthias; Farnes, Jarle; Vik, Arild; Wernhus, Ivar; Svendsen, Tjalve; Schautz, Max; Geneste, Xavier

    2014-08-01

    Next generation telecommunication satellites will demand increasingly more power in the range of 30 kW or more within the next 10 years. Battery technology that can sustain 30 kW for an eclipse length of up to 72 minutes will represent a major impact on the total mass of the satellite, even with new Li-ion battery technologies. Regenerative fuel cell systems (RFCS) were identified years ago as a possible alternative to rechargeable batteries. They consist of a dedicated fuel cell unit for electricity generation and a dedicated electrolyser which regenerates the fuel cell reactants hydrogen and oxygen from the fuel cell reaction product water. All units are integrated in a closed loop system. Nevertheless, one major drawback has been identified by several independent system studies [4,5], namely the need to dissipate large amounts of heat from the fuel cell during Eclipse. This in turn requires massive thermal hardware (mainly large radiators) that can contribute up to 50% of the system mass. FOTEC has suggested the use of metal hydrides as combined hydrogen and heat storage system to overcome this issue and is currently manufacturing a technology demonstrator within an ongoing ESA project. The status of these developments is outlined in this paper.

  9. Time-variable Earth's albedo model characteristics and applications to satellite sampling errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartman, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    Characteristics of the time variable Earth albedo model are described. With the cloud cover multiplying factor adjusted to produce a global annual average albedo of 30.3, the global annual average cloud cover is 45.5 percent. Global annual average sunlit cloud cover is 48.5 percent; nighttime cloud cover is 42.7 percent. Month-to-month global average albedo is almost sinusoidal with maxima in June and December and minima in April and October. Month-to-month variation of sunlit cloud cover is similar, but not in all details. The diurnal variation of global albedo is greatest from November to March; the corresponding variation of sunlit cloud cover is greatest from May to October. Annual average zonal albedos and monthly average zonal albedos are in good agreement with satellite-measured values, with notable differences in the polar regions in some months and at 15 S. The albedo of some 10 deg by 10 deg. areas of the Earth versus zenith angle are described. Satellite albedo measurement sampling effects are described in local time and in Greenwich mean time.

  10. TIRCIS: Hyperspectral Thermal Infrared Imaging Using a Small-Satellite Compliant Fourier-Transform Imaging Spectrometer, for Natural Hazard Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, R.; Lucey, P. G.; Crites, S.; Garbeil, H.; Wood, M.

    2015-12-01

    Many natural hazards, including wildfires, volcanic eruptions, and, from the perspective of climate-related hazards, urban heat islands, could be better quantified via the routine availability of hyperspectral thermal infrared remote sensing data from orbit. However, no sensors are currently in operation that provide such data at high-to-moderate spatial resolution (e.g. Landsat-class resolution). In this presentation we will describe a prototype instrument, developed using funding provided by NASA's Instrument Incubator Program, that can make these important measurements. Significantly, the instrument has been designed such that its size, mass, power, and cost are consistent with its integration into small satellite platforms, or deployment as part of small satellite constellations. The instrument, TIRCIS (Thermal Infra-Red Compact Imaging Spectrometer), uses a Fabry-Perot interferometer, an uncooled microbolometer array, and push-broom scanning to acquire hyperspectral image data cubes. Radiometric calibration is provided by blackbody targets while spectral calibration is achieved using monochromatic light sources. Neither the focal plane nor the optics need to be cooled, and the instrument has a mass of <10 kg and dimensions of 53 cm × 25 cm × 22 cm. Although the prototype has four moving parts, this can easily be reduced to one. The current optical design yields a 120 m ground sample size given an orbit of 500 km. Over the wavelength interval of 7.5 to 14 microns up to 90 spectral samples are possible, by varying the physical design of the interferometer. Our performance model indicates signal-to-noise ratios of the order of about 200 to 300:1. In this presentation we will provide an overview of the instrument design, fabrication, results from our initial laboratory characterization, and some of the application areas in which small-satellite-ready instruments such as TIRCIS could make a valuable contribution to the study of natural hazards.

  11. Application of an Optimized Entropy-TOPSIS Multicriteria Decision Making Model to Facilities Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhao-hong; ZHAN Wei; QIU Wan-hua

    2006-01-01

    Performance evaluation of facilities management plays a key role in the facilities management process. This paper proposes an optimized multicriteria decision making model to evaluate the performance of facilities management in schools in Hong Kong. In this model, entropy weights acted as weight coefficients for evaluated criteria in order to avoid uncertainty and randomicity of subjective judgments. Besides, the TOPSIS method was incorporated in this model. Then this model was employed to evaluate the performance of facilities management in classrooms, offices and laboratories and satisfying results were obtained. Moreover, findings indicated that one of the schools could be rehabilitated rather than removed.

  12. 40 CFR 60.260 - Applicability and designation of affected facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., silicomanganese, ferromanganese silicon, or calcium carbide; and dust-handling equipment. (b) Any facility under... submerged arc furnaces which produce silicon metal, ferrosilicon, calcium silicon, silicomanganese...

  13. Materials science and biophysics applications at the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, U., E-mail: uwahl@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-12-15

    The ISOLDE isotope separator facility at CERN provides a variety of radioactive ion beams, currently more than 800 different isotopes from {approx}70 chemical elements. The radioisotopes are produced on-line by nuclear reactions from a 1.4 GeV proton beam with various types of targets, outdiffusion of the reaction products and, if possible, chemically selective ionisation, followed by 60 kV acceleration and mass separation. While ISOLDE is mainly used for nuclear and atomic physics studies, applications in materials science and biophysics account for a significant part (currently {approx}15%) of the delivered beam time, requested by 18 different experiments. The ISOLDE materials science and biophysics community currently consists of {approx}80 scientists from more than 40 participating institutes and 21 countries. In the field of materials science, investigations focus on the study of semiconductors and oxides, with the recent additions of nanoparticles and metals, while the biophysics studies address the toxicity of metal ions in biological systems. The characterisation methods used are typical radioactive probe techniques such as Moessbauer spectroscopy, perturbed angular correlation, emission channeling, and tracer diffusion studies. In addition to these 'classic' methods of nuclear solid state physics, also standard semiconductor analysis techniques such as photoluminescence or deep level transient spectroscopy profit from the application of radioactive isotopes, which helps them to overcome their chemical 'blindness' since the nuclear half life of radioisotopes provides a signal that changes in time with characteristic exponential decay or saturation curves. In this presentation an overview will be given on the recent research activities in materials science and biophysics at ISOLDE, presenting some of the highlights during the last five years, together with a short outlook on the new developments under way.

  14. Application of Satellite Observations to Manage Natural Disasters in the Lake Victoria Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid; Policelli, F.; Irwin, D.; Korme, Tesfaye; Adler, Bob; Hong, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Lake Victoria, the second largest fresh water lake in the Eastern part of Africa is a vital natural resource for the economic well being and prosperity of over 30 million people located in riparian regions of Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania. It covers a large area of about 68,870 km2 and produces a GDP of about US $30 billion per year. The region is also very much prone to natural disasters such as severe floods during heavy precipitation periods in the Eastern part of Africa. In addition to floods, the precipitation also produces large infestations of mosquito larvae due to the standing water in many areas. This further causes multiple vector borne diseases such as Malaria, Rift Valley Fever and more. These problems are of serious concern and require active and aggressive surveillance and management to minimize the loss of human and animal lives and property damage. Satellite imagery and observations along with the in situ measurements provide a great tool to analyze and study this area and inform the policy makers to make calculated policy decisions which are more beneficial to the environment. Recently, NASA and USAID have joined forces with the Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD) located in Nairobi, Kenya to utilize multiple NASA sensors such as TRMM, SRTM and MODIS to develop flood potential maps for the Lake Victoria Basin. The idea is to generate a flood forecasts and "nowcasts" that can be sent to the disaster management organizations of Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania. Post flood event satellite imagery is becoming a common tool to assess the areas inundated by flooding. However, this work is unique undertaking by utilizing land imaging and atmospheric satellites to build credible flood potential maps. At same time, we are also studying the potential occurrence and spread of Rift Valley Fever disease based on the short term climate records and precipitation data. These activities require multi-nation coordination and agreements and

  15. Enabling Extreme Scale Earth Science Applications at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantharaj, V. G.; Mozdzynski, G.; Hamrud, M.; Deconinck, W.; Smith, L.; Hack, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Oak Ridge Leadership Facility (OLCF), established at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), welcomes investigators from universities, government agencies, national laboratories and industry who are prepared to perform breakthrough research across a broad domain of scientific disciplines, including earth and space sciences. Titan, the OLCF flagship system, is currently listed as #2 in the Top500 list of supercomputers in the world, and the largest available for open science. The computational resources are allocated primarily via the Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment (INCITE) program, sponsored by the U.S. DOE Office of Science. In 2014, over 2.25 billion core hours on Titan were awarded via INCITE projects., including 14% of the allocation toward earth sciences. The INCITE competition is also open to research scientists based outside the USA. In fact, international research projects account for 12% of the INCITE awards in 2014. The INCITE scientific review panel also includes 20% participation from international experts. Recent accomplishments in earth sciences at OLCF include the world's first continuous simulation of 21,000 years of earth's climate history (2009); and an unprecedented simulation of a magnitude 8 earthquake over 125 sq. miles. One of the ongoing international projects involves scaling the ECMWF Integrated Forecasting System (IFS) model to over 200K cores of Titan. ECMWF is a partner in the EU funded Collaborative Research into Exascale Systemware, Tools and Applications (CRESTA) project. The significance of the research carried out within this project is the demonstration of techniques required to scale current generation Petascale capable simulation codes towards the performance levels required for running on future Exascale systems. One of the techniques pursued by ECMWF is to use Fortran2008 coarrays to overlap computations and communications and

  16. Coseismic displacements from SAR image offsets between different satellite sensors: Application to the 2001 Bhuj (India) earthquake

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Teng

    2015-09-05

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image offset tracking is increasingly being used for measuring ground displacements, e.g., due to earthquakes and landslide movement. However, this technique has been applied only to images acquired by the same or identical satellites. Here we propose a novel approach for determining offsets between images acquired by different satellite sensors, extending the usability of existing SAR image archives. The offsets are measured between two multiimage reflectivity maps obtained from different SAR data sets, which provide significantly better results than with single preevent and postevent images. Application to the 2001 Mw7.6 Bhuj earthquake reveals, for the first time, its near-field deformation using multiple preearthquake ERS and postearthquake Envisat images. The rupture model estimated from these cross-sensor offsets and teleseismic waveforms shows a compact fault slip pattern with fairly short rise times (<3 s) and a large stress drop (20 MPa), explaining the intense shaking observed in the earthquake.

  17. Application of the advanced communications technology satellite to teleradiology and real-time compressed ultrasound video telemedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, B K; Carter, S J; Cook, J N; Abbe, B S; Pinck, D; Rowberg, A H

    1999-05-01

    The authors have investigated the application of the NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to teleradiology and telemedicine using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)-developed ACTS Mobile Terminal (AMT) uplink. In this experiment, bidirectional 128, 256, and 384 kbps satellite links were established between the ACTS/AMT, the ACTS in geosynchronous orbit, and the downlink terrestrial terminal at JPL. A terrestrial Integrated Digital Services Network (ISDN) link was established from JPL to the University of Washington Department of Radiology to complete the bidirectional connection. Ultrasound video imagery was compressed in real-time using video codecs adhering to the International Telecommunication Union-Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) Recommendation H.261. A 16 kbps in-band audio channel was used throughout. A five-point Likert scale was used to evaluate the quality of the compressed ultrasound imagery at the three transmission bandwidths (128, 256, and 384 kbps). The central question involved determination of the bandwidth requirements to provide sufficient spatial and contrast resolution for the remote visualization of fine- and low-contrast objects. The 384 kbps bandwidth resulted in only slight tiling artifact and fuzziness owing to the quantizer step size; however, these motion artifacts were rapidly resolved in time at this bandwidth. These experiments have demonstrated that real-time compressed ultrasound video imagery can be transmitted over multiple ISDN line bandwidth links with sufficient temporal, contrast, and spatial resolution for clinical diagnosis of multiple disease and pathology states to provide subspecialty consultation and educational at a distance.

  18. Application of the Langley plot method to the calibration of the solar backscattered ultraviolet instrument on the Nimbus 7 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartia, P. K.; Taylor, S.; Mcpeters, R. D.; Wellemeyer, C.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of the well-known Langley plot technique, used for the calibration of ground-based instruments, has been generalized for application to satellite instruments. In polar regions, near summer solstice, the solar backscattered ultraviolet (SBUV) instrument on the Nimbus 7 satellite samples the same ozone field at widely different solar zenith angles. These measurements are compared to assess the long-term drift in the instrument calibration. Although the technique provides only a relative wavelength-to-wavelength calibration, it can be combined with existing techniques to determine the drift of the instrument at any wavelength. Using this technique, we have generated a 12-year data set of ozone vertical profiles from SBUV with an estimated accuracy of +/- 5% at 1 mbar and +/- 2% at 10 mbar (95% confidence) over 12 years. Since the method is insensitive to true changes in the atmospheric ozone profile, it can also be used to compare the calibrations of similar SBUV instruments launched without temporal overlap.

  19. A Satellite Data-Driven, Client-Server Decision Support Application for Agricultural Water Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lee F.; Maneta, Marco P.; Kimball, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Water cycle extremes such as droughts and floods present a challenge for water managers and for policy makers responsible for the administration of water supplies in agricultural regions. In addition to the inherent uncertainties associated with forecasting extreme weather events, water planners need to anticipate water demands and water user behavior in a typical circumstances. This requires the use decision support systems capable of simulating agricultural water demand with the latest available data. Unfortunately, managers from local and regional agencies often use different datasets of variable quality, which complicates coordinated action. In previous work we have demonstrated novel methodologies to use satellite-based observational technologies, in conjunction with hydro-economic models and state of the art data assimilation methods, to enable robust regional assessment and prediction of drought impacts on agricultural production, water resources, and land allocation. These methods create an opportunity for new, cost-effective analysis tools to support policy and decision-making over large spatial extents. The methods can be driven with information from existing satellite-derived operational products, such as the Satellite Irrigation Management Support system (SIMS) operational over California, the Cropland Data Layer (CDL), and using a modified light-use efficiency algorithm to retrieve crop yield from the synergistic use of MODIS and Landsat imagery. Here we present an integration of this modeling framework in a client-server architecture based on the Hydra platform. Assimilation and processing of resource intensive remote sensing data, as well as hydrologic and other ancillary information occur on the server side. This information is processed and summarized as attributes in water demand nodes that are part of a vector description of the water distribution network. With this architecture, our decision support system becomes a light weight 'app' that

  20. A satellite data-driven, client-server decision support application for agricultural water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneta, M. P.; Johnson, L.; Kimball, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Water cycle extremes such as droughts and floods present a challenge for water managers and for policy makers responsible for the administration of water supplies in agricultural regions. In addition to the inherent uncertainties associated with forecasting extreme weather events, water planners need to anticipate water demands and water user behavior in atypical circumstances. This requires the use decision support systems capable of simulating agricultural water demand with the latest available data. Unfortunately, managers from local and regional agencies often use different datasets of variable quality, which complicates coordinated action. In previous work we have demonstrated novel methodologies to use satellite-based observational technologies, in conjunction with hydro-economic models and state of the art data assimilation methods, to enable robust regional assessment and prediction of drought impacts on agricultural production, water resources, and land allocation. These methods create an opportunity for new, cost-effective analysis tools to support policy and decision-making over large spatial extents. The methods can be driven with information from existing satellite-derived operational products, such as the Satellite Irrigation Management Support system (SIMS) operational over California, the Cropland Data Layer (CDL), and using a modified light-use efficiency algorithm to retrieve crop yield from the synergistic use of MODIS and Landsat imagery. Here we present an integration of this modeling framework in a client-server architecture based on the Hydra platform. Assimilation and processing of resource intensive remote sensing data, as well as hydrologic and other ancillary information occur on the server side. This information is processed and summarized as attributes in water demand nodes that are part of a vector description of the water distribution network. With this architecture, our decision support system becomes a light weight `app` that

  1. Application of satellite infrared data for mapping of thermal plume contamination in coastal ecosystem of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Yu-Hwan; Shanmugam, Palanisamy; Lee, Jae-Hak; Kang, Yong Q

    2006-03-01

    The 5900 MW Younggwang nuclear power station on the west coast of Korea discharges warm water affecting coastal ecology [KORDI report (2003). Wide area observation of the impact of the operation of Younggwang nuclear power plant 5 and 6, No. BSPI 319-00-1426-3, KORDI, Seoul, Korea]. Here the spatial and temporal characteristics of the thermal plume signature of warm water are reported from a time series (1985-2003) of space-borne, thermal infrared data from Landsat and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellites. Sea surface temperature (SST) were characterized using advanced very high resolution radiometer data from the NOAA satellites. These data demonstrated the general pattern and extension of the thermal plume signature in the Younggwang coastal areas. In contrast, the analysis of SST from thematic mapper data using the Landsat-5 and 7 satellites provided enhanced information about the plume shape, dimension and direction of dispersion in these waters. The thermal plume signature was detected from 70 to 100 km to the south of the discharge during the summer monsoon and 50 to 70 km to the northwest during the winter monsoon. The mean detected plume temperature was 28 degrees C in summer and 12 degrees C in winter. The DeltaT varied from 2 to 4 degrees C in winter and 2 degrees C in summer. These values are lower than the re-circulating water temperature (6-9 degrees C). In addition the temperature difference between tidal flats and offshore (SSTtidal flats - SSToffsore) was found to vary from 5.4 to 8.5 degrees C during the flood tides and 3.5 degrees C during the ebb tide. The data also suggest that water heated by direct solar radiation on the tidal flats during the flood tides might have been transported offshore during the ebb tide. Based on these results we suggest that there is an urgent need to protect the health of Younggwang coastal marine ecosystem from the severe thermal impact by the large quantity of warm water discharged from

  2. Application of Fuzzy Set Theory and SPOT Satellite Images in Site Selection of Public Libraries (Case Study: Saqqez City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydar Dashti Nasserabadi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Easy availability to public libraries is one of the main keys in successful presentation of public library services with high quality will be valueless for those have not access to them. Availability to services should be configured in such a way that maximizes easiness and facility for potential and de facto users. In present research the required number of public libraries and establishment situation of public libraries in Saqqez city in Kurdistan province in North West of Iran were investigated and evaluated by using fuzzy set theory and SPOT 5 satellite images in 2009. In addition, optimum regions for generation of new public libraries were distinguished in city area in form of recommended map. Results showed that weighting variables classes were determined between 0-1 (profusion proportion. Fuzzification each one of effective factors using IDRISI software terminated and after was assigned type and shape membership function. Final map of suitable regions for construction of new public libraries in saqqez city area indicates that none of the libraries were situated in suitable regions.

  3. Recent Advances on LASERIX Facility: Development of XUV Sources System and Applications. Perspectives from 2008 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, D.; Kazamias, S.; Guilbaud, O.; Habib, J.; Zielbauer, B.; Pittman, M.; Jamelot, G.; Klisnick, A.; Lagron, J.-C.; Joyeux, D.; de Rossi, S.; Delmotte, F.; Lacombe, S.; Porcel, E.; Lesech, C.; Penhoat, A. M.; Touati, A.

    LASERIX is a high-power laser facility leading to High-repetition-rate XUV laser pumped by Titanium:Sapphire laser. The aim of this laser facility is to offer Soft XRLs in the 30-7 nm range and auxiliary IR beam that could also be used to produce synchronized XUV sources. This experimental configuration highly enhances the scientific opportunities of the facility, giving thus the opportunity to realize both X-ray laser experiments and more generally pump/probe experiments, mixing IR and XUV sources. In this contribution, the main results concerning both the development of XUV sources (in the seeded or ASE mode) and their use for applications (irradiation of DNA samples) are presented.

  4. Sentinel-3 Satellite Applications In The Monitoring Of The Active Forest Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, A.; Gonzalez-Alonso, F.

    2013-12-01

    FRP (Fire Radiative Power) is the magnitude associated to the thermal radiance which explains the ecological effects of active fire; it is the component of the chemical power released from burning vegetation and emitted as radiation during the process of combustion. In this paper, a discussion of the procedures for active fire FRP is presented: The Dozier method, the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) fire detection algorithm and semi-empirical relation-ship based on previous studies of BIRD (Bi-spectral InfraRed Detection) satellite. These procedures, described above, are applied to simulated data by a radiative transfer model, based on Sentinel-3/SLSTR spectral characteristics in order to analyze the impact of atmospheric conditions on FRP estimations.

  5. C and L band transionospheric scintillation experiment - Some results for applications to satellite radio systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, P. K.; Dabas, R. S.; Reddy, B. M.

    1992-12-01

    The signal statistics of some scintillation events at the C/L bands are estimated for the high solar activity period of solar cycle 22 at a low-latitude station in the Indian zone. In addition to the morphology at 4 Ghz, data on signal statistics such as the cumulative amplitude distribution function, fade rate distribution, and signal reliability for different message lengths for some events of scintillations, both at C and L band, are presented. The theoretical Nakagami m distribution is found to be the best for describing various levels of fade. Autocorrelation and power-spectrum analysis are used to estimate average fade rates and ground correlation distances. Performance evaluation of satellite earth terminals using small antennas is carried out to show the vulnerability of the system in the hostile ionospheric environment, notwithstanding the advanced modulation systems being employed.

  6. Satellite remote sensing applications for surface soil moisture monitoring: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingli WANG; John J.QU

    2009-01-01

    Surface soil moisture is one of the crucial variables in hydrological processes, which influences the exchange of water and energy fluxes at the land surface/ atmosphere interface. Accurate estimate of the spatial and temporal variations of soil moisture is critical for numerous environmental studies. Recent technological advances in satellite remote sensing have shown that soil moisture can be measured by a variety of remote sensing techniques,each with its own strengths and weaknesses. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the progress in remote sensing of soil moisture, with focus on technique approaches for soil moisture estimation from optical,thermal, passive microwave, and active microwave measurements. The physical principles and the status of current retrieval methods are summarized. Limitations existing in current soil moisture estimation algorithms and key issues that have to be addressed in the near future are also discussed.

  7. Applications of MODIS satellite data and products for monitoring air quality in the state of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Keith D.

    The Center for Space Research (CSR), in conjunction with the Monitoring Operations Division (MOD) of the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ), is evaluating the use of remotely sensed satellite data to assist in monitoring and predicting air quality in Texas. The challenges of meeting air quality standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) are impacted by the transport of pollution into Texas that originates from outside our borders and are cumulative with those generated by local sources. In an attempt to quantify the concentrations of all pollution sources, MOD has installed ground-based monitoring stations in rural regions along the Texas geographic boundaries including the Gulf coast, as well as urban regions that are the predominant sources of domestic pollution. However, analysis of time-lapse GOES satellite imagery at MOD, clearly demonstrates the shortcomings of using only ground-based observations for monitoring air quality across Texas. These shortcomings include the vastness of State borders, that can only be monitored with a large number of ground-based sensors, and gradients in pollution concentration that depend upon the location of the point source, the meteorology governing its transport to Texas, and its diffusion across the region. With the launch of NASA's MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the transport of aerosol-borne pollutants can now be monitored over land and ocean surfaces. Thus, CSR and MOD personnel have applied MODIS data to several classes of pollution that routinely impact Texas air quality. Results demonstrate MODIS data and products can detect and track the migration of pollutants. This paper presents one case study in which continental haze from the northeast moved into the region and subsequently required health advisories to be issued for 150 counties in Texas. It is concluded that MODIS provides the basis for developing advanced data products that will, when used in

  8. Cloud retrievals from satellite data using optimal estimation: evaluation and application to ATSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Poulsen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Clouds play an important role in balancing the Earth's radiation budget. Clouds reflect sunlight which cools the Earth, and also trap infrared radiation in the same manner as greenhouse gases. Changes in cloud cover and cloud properties over time can have important consequences for climate. The Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC has identified current gaps in the understanding of clouds and related climate feedback processes as a leading cause of uncertainty in forecasting climate change. In this paper we present an algorithm that uses optimal estimation to retrieve cloud parameters from satellite multi-spectral imager data, in particular the Along-Track Scanning Radiometers ATSR-2 and AATSR. The cloud parameters retrieved are the cloud top pressure, cloud optical depth, cloud effective radius, cloud fraction and cloud phase. Importantly, the technique also provides estimated errors along with the retrieved values and quantifies the consistency between retrieval representation of cloud and satellite radiances. This should enable the effective use of the products for comparison with climate models or for exploitation via data assimilation. The technique is evaluated by performing retrieval simulations for a variety of simulated single layer and multi-layer conditions. Examples of applying the algorithm to ATSR-2 flight data are presented and the sensitivity of the retrievals assessed. This algorithm has been applied to both ATSR-2 and AATSR visible and infrared measurements in the context of the GRAPE (Global Retrieval and cloud Product Evaluation project to produce a 14 year consistent record for climate research (Sayer et al., 2010.

  9. Application of Satellite remote sensing for detailed landslide inventories using Frequency ratio model and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himan Shahabi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents landslide susceptibility analysis in central Zab basin in the southwest mountainsides of West-Azerbaijan province in Iran using remotely sensed data and Geographic Information System. Landslide database was generated using satellite imagery and aerial photographs accompanied by field investigations using Differential Global Positioning System to generate a landslide inventory map. Digital elevation model (DEM was first constructed using GIS software. Nine landslide inducing factors were used for landslide vulnerability analysis: slope, slope aspect, distance to road, distance to drainage network, distance to fault, land use, Precipitation, Elevation, and geological factors. This study demonstrates the synergistic use of medium resolution, multitemporal Satellite pour lObservation de la Terre (SPOT, for prepare of landslide-inventory map and Landsat ETM+ for prepare of Land use. The post-classification comparison method using the Maximum Likelihood classifier with SPOT images was able to detect approximately 70% of landslides. Frequency ratio of each factor was computed using the above thematic factors with past landslide locations. It employs the landslide events as dependant variable and data layers as independent variable, and makes use of the correlation between these two factors in landslide zonation. Given the employed model and the variables, signification tests were implemented on each independent variable, and the degree of fitness of zonation map was estimated Landslide susceptibility map was produced using raster analysis. The landslide susceptibility map was classified into four classes: low, moderate, high and very high. The model is validated using the Relative landslide density index (R-index method. The final, landslide low hazard susceptibility map was drawn using frequency ratio. As a result, showed that the identified landslides were located in the class (51.37%, moderate (29.35%, high (11.10% and very high

  10. A compilation of global bio-optical in situ data for ocean-colour satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, André; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Brotas, Vanda; Groom, Steve; Grant, Michael; Taberner, Malcolm; Antoine, David; Arnone, Robert; Balch, William M.; Barker, Kathryn; Barlow, Ray; Bélanger, Simon; Berthon, Jean-François; Beşiktepe, Şükrü; Brando, Vittorio; Canuti, Elisabetta; Chavez, Francisco; Claustre, Hervé; Crout, Richard; Frouin, Robert; García-Soto, Carlos; Gibb, Stuart W.; Gould, Richard; Hooker, Stanford; Kahru, Mati; Klein, Holger; Kratzer, Susanne; Loisel, Hubert; McKee, David; Mitchell, Brian G.; Moisan, Tiffany; Muller-Karger, Frank; O'Dowd, Leonie; Ondrusek, Michael; Poulton, Alex J.; Repecaud, Michel; Smyth, Timothy; Sosik, Heidi M.; Twardowski, Michael; Voss, Kenneth; Werdell, Jeremy; Wernand, Marcel; Zibordi, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    A compiled set of in situ data is important to evaluate the quality of ocean-colour satellite-data records. Here we describe the data compiled for the validation of the ocean-colour products from the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI). The data were acquired from several sources (MOBY, BOUSSOLE, AERONET-OC, SeaBASS, NOMAD, MERMAID, AMT, ICES, HOT, GeP&CO), span between 1997 and 2012, and have a global distribution. Observations of the following variables were compiled: spectral remote-sensing reflectances, concentrations of chlorophyll a, spectral inherent optical properties and spectral diffuse attenuation coefficients. The data were from multi-project archives acquired via the open internet services or from individual projects, acquired directly from data providers. Methodologies were implemented for homogenisation, quality control and merging of all data. No changes were made to the original data, other than averaging of observations that were close in time and space, elimination of some points after quality control and conversion to a standard format. The final result is a merged table designed for validation of satellite-derived ocean-colour products and available in text format. Metadata of each in situ measurement (original source, cruise or experiment, principal investigator) were preserved throughout the work and made available in the final table. Using all the data in a validation exercise increases the number of matchups and enhances the representativeness of different marine regimes. By making available the metadata, it is also possible to analyse each set of data separately. The compiled data are available at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.854832 (Valente et al., 2015).

  11. Application of satellite microwave remote sensed brightness temperature in the regional soil moisture simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. K. Shi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available As the satellite microwave remote sensed brightness temperature is sensitive to land surface soil moisture (SM and SM is a basic output variable in model simulation, it is of great significance to use the brightness temperature data to improve SM numerical simulation. In this paper, the theory developed by Yan et al. (2004 about the relationship between satellite microwave remote sensing polarization index and SM was used to estimate the land surface SM from AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer – Earth Observing System brightness temperature data. With consideration of land surface soil texture, surface roughness, vegetation optical thickness, and the AMSR-E monthly SM products, the regional daily land surface SM was estimated over the eastern part of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The results show that the estimated SM is lower than the ground measurements and the NCEP (American National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalysis data at the Maqu Station (33.85° N, 102.57° E and the Tanglha Station (33.07° N, 91.94° E, but its regional distribution is reasonable and somewhat better than that from the daily AMSR-E SM product, and its temporal variation shows a quick response to the ground daily precipitations. Furthermore, in order to improve the simulating ability of the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting model to land surface SM, the estimated SM was assimilated into the Noah land surface model by the Newtonian relaxation (NR method. The results indicate that, by fine tuning of the quality factor in NR method, the simulated SM values are improved most in desert area, followed by grassland, shrub and grass mixed zone. At temporal scale, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE values between simulated and observed SM are decreased 0.03 and 0.07 m3/m3 by using the NR method in the Maqu Station and the Tanglha Station, respectively.

  12. A discussion of regulatory requirements and air dispersion modeling approaches applicable to U.S. chemical demilitarization facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, B W; Robbins, L B; Litynski, J

    1998-09-01

    Owners of hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities, and certain major air pollution sources, must conduct several separate ambient air dispersion modeling analyses before beginning construction of new facilities or modifying existing facilities. These analyses are critical components of the environmental permitting and facility certification processes and must be completed to the satisfaction of federal, state, and local regulatory authorities. The U.S. Army has conducted air dispersion modeling for its proposed chemical agent disposal facilities to fulfill the following environmental regulatory and risk management requirements: (1) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act human health and ecological risk assessment analysis for the hazardous waste treatment and storage permit applications, (2) Quantitative Risk Assessment to support the site-specific risk management programs, and (3) Prevention of Significant Deterioration ambient air impact analysis for the air permit applications. The purpose of these air dispersion modeling studies is to show that the potential impacts on human health and the environment, due to operation of the chemical agent disposal facilities, are acceptable. This paper describes and compares the types of air dispersion models, modeling input data requirements, modeling algorithms, and approaches used to satisfy the three environmental regulatory and risk management requirements listed above. Although this paper discusses only one industry (i.e., chemical demilitarization), the information it contains could help those in other industries who need to communicate to the public the purpose and objectives of each modeling analysis. It may also be useful in integrating the results of each analysis into an overarching summary of compliance and potential risks.

  13. Satellite communication antenna technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittra, R. (Editor); Imbriale, W. A. (Editor); Maanders, E. J. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    A general overview of current technology in the field of communication satellite antennas is presented. Among the topics discussed are: the design of multiple beam systems; frequency reuse; and polarization control of antenna measurements. Consideration is also given to: contour beam synthesis; dual shaped reflector synthesis; beam shaping; and offset reflector design. The applications of the above technologies to present and future generations of communications satellites is considered, with emphasis given to such systems as: the Intelsats; the Defense Satellite Communications System, (DSCS-III); Satellite Business System (SBS), and Comstar.

  14. Methods of satellite oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The theoretical basis for remote sensing measurements of climate and ocean dynamics is examined. Consideration is given to: the absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the atmosphere; scattering in the atmosphere; and satellite observations using visible light. Consideration is also given to: the theory of radio scatter from the sea; scatter of centimeter waves from the sea; and the theory of operation of synthetic aperture radars. Additional topics include: the coordinate systems of satellite orbits for oceanographic remote sensing applications; the operating features of the major U.S. satellite systems for viewing the ocean; and satellite altimetry.

  15. Geospatial Data Analysis Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Geospatial application development, location-based services, spatial modeling, and spatial analysis are examples of the many research applications that this facility...

  16. Validation, Analysis of the Chinese HY-2 Satellite Altimeter Data and their Applications in the China Sea and its Vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jungang; Zhang, Jie; Cui, Wei; Zhao, Xinhua; Han, Weixiao; Martinez, Bernat

    2016-08-01

    Chinese first altimetry satellite HY-2 has been on obit almost 5 years by now and a large amount of marine observing data of HY-2 altimeter have acquired. In this paper, sea surface height (SSH) data of HY-2 altimeter are validated by the SSH difference at the self- crossover of the HY-2 ascending and descending obit, and at the mutual-crossover of HY-2 and Jason-2 obit. Significant wave height (SWH) data of HY-2 altimeter are validated by the data of NDBC buoys. On the data application of HY-2 altimeter, mesoscale eddies in the South China Sea and the western Pacific Ocean, the characteristics of ocean wave in the China Sea and the characteristics of Kuroshio are analyzed by combing with Envsiat RA-2, Jason-1/2 data.

  17. Numerical Color-Magnitude Diagram Analysis of SDSS Data and Application to the New Milky Way satellites

    CERN Document Server

    De Jong, J T A; Martin, N F; Zucker, D B; Dolphin, A E; Bell, E F; Belokurov, V; Evans, N W

    2007-01-01

    We have tested the application to Sloan Digital Sky Survey data of the software package MATCH, which fits color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) to estimate stellar population parameters and distances. These tests on a set of six globular clusters show that these techniques recover their known properties. New ways of using the CMD-fitting software enable us to deal with an extended distribution of stars along the line-of-sight, to constrain the overall properties of sparsely populated objects, and to detect the presence of stellar overdensities in wide-area surveys. We then also apply MATCH to CMDs for twelve recently discovered Milky Way satellites to derive in a uniform fashion their distances, ages and metallicities. While the majority of them appear consistent with a single stellar population, CVn I, UMa II, and Leo T exhibit (from SDSS data alone) a more complex history with multiple epochs of star formation.

  18. Creating Better Satellite Conferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Tommy

    1998-01-01

    Presents four ways to improve broadcasts of company satellite conferences, including creative site selection (using facilities at educational institutions rather than hotel rooms); creative programming (using graphics and other interruptions to break up lectures or speeches); creative crew selection; and creative downlink site activities (to…

  19. Development of particle induced X-ray emission facility at cyclotron laboratory and its prospective applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puri, N.K. [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological Universily (Formerly Delhi College of Engineering, DCE), Delhi (India); Garg, M.L. [Department of Bio-Physics, Panjab Universily, Chandigarh (India); Govil, I.M. [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: We are presenting here a description of modifications in the Variable Energy Cyclotron (VEC) Chandigarh along with the installation of Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) setup. The installation of new main magnet power supply of 400A/125V out put with 10 ppm stability (model 853 M/S Danfysik, Denmark) and a new stabilized solid state power supply for RF oscillator gave the beam characteristics substantially good enough for PIXE work. A new chamber [1] was designed to cater for Proton Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE) and Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) analysis along with PIXE measurements. The HPGe X-ray detector, the Ge(Li) -ray detector and a Silicon Surface Barrier (SSB) detector could be mounted simultaneously in the chamber. A Turbo-Molecular vacuum pump was provided to produce a clean vacuum of the order of 10{sup -7} torr in PIXE chamber. A remotely controlled stepper motor could move the 12/24-position target holder. Beam size optimization along with the minimization of background was done with the help of graphite collimators, thus making the setup suitable for practical applications. We attempted to address some of the limitations using PIXE facility of Institute of Physics (IOP), India [2] and incorporated modifications (e.g. chamber design, sample holder etc.) in our set-up. Preliminary experiments for the PIXE analysis of aerosol samples, gunshot residues samples and bone samples were presented. The aerosol samples were collected using aerosol sampling kit which involves Millipore diaphragmatic vacuum pump and Sequential Filter Unit (SFU) with coarse pored Nucleo pore polycarbonate filter in such a manner that the particles passing through the 8m pore size filter were collected on the 0.4m pore size filter. Two different pistols viz. 7.65mm Indian made and 7.63mm Germany made were used to fire at a filter paper target with card board and cotton wool backing from a distance of 3 feet. Two sheets of Whatman filter paper were used to form the

  20. Assessment of Application Example for a Sodium Fire Extinguishing Facility using Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Minhwan; Jeong, Ji-Young; Kim, Jongman [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Sodium is under regulation of four kinds of laws including the Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act and it is under categorized as Class 3(pyrophoric material, water-prohibiting substance). To obtain a license for a sodium experiment facility, the codes and regulations must be satisfied in the Safety Control of Dangerous Substance Act. However, there are some parts that need to be discussed in related regulations in the Safety Control of Dangerous Substance Act because there are differences with the actual features of sodium. To apply for an actual sodium facility, it is necessary to give a supplementary explanation regarding the regulations. The objective of this study is to assess the application example of a sodium experiment facility using the above mentioned laws and to propose the necessity of an amendment for conventional laws in regard to fire extinguishing systems and agents. In this work, an application example of a sodium experiment facility using the Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act, and the necessity of amending the existing laws in regard to fire extinguishing systems including the agent used, was assessed. The safest standard was applied for cases in which the consideration of a sodium fire is not mentioned in conventional regulations. For the construction of the PGSFR (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor), the described regulations in this work should be reviewed and improved carefully by the fire safety regulatory body.

  1. Incorporating uncertainties into risk assessment with an application to the exploratory studies facilities at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fathauer, Paul M. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    1995-08-01

    A methodology that incorporates variability and reducible sources of uncertainty into the probabilistic and consequence components of risk was developed. The method was applied to the north tunnel of the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain in Nevada. In this assessment, variability and reducible sources of uncertainty were characterized and propagated through the risk assessment models using a Monte Carlo based software package. The results were then manipulated into risk curves at the 5% and 95% confidence levels for both the variability and overall uncertainty analyses, thus distinguishing between variability and reducible sources of uncertainty. In the Yucca Mountain application, the designation of the north tunnel as an item important to public safety, as defined by 10 CFR 60, was determined. Specifically, the annual frequency of a rock fall breaching a waste package causing an off-site dose of 500 mrem (5x10-3 Sv) was calculated. The annual frequency, taking variability into account, ranged from 1.9x10-9 per year at the 5% confidence level to 2.5x10-9 per year at the 95% confidence level. The frequency range after including all uncertainty was 9.5x10-10 to 1.8x10-8 per year. The maximum observable frequency, at the 100% confidence level, was 4.9x10-8 per year. This is below the 10-6 per year frequency criteria of 10 CFR 60. Therefore, based on this work, the north tunnel does not fall under the items important to public safety designation for the event studied.

  2. Feature Extraction in Sequential Multimedia Images: with Applications in Satellite Images and On-line Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu-Li

    Multimedia data is increasingly important in scientific discovery and people's daily lives. Content of massive multimedia is often diverse and noisy, and motion between frames is sometimes crucial in analyzing those data. Among all, still images and videos are commonly used formats. Images are compact in size but do not contain motion information. Videos record motion but are sometimes too big to be analyzed. Sequential images, which are a set of continuous images with low frame rate, stand out because they are smaller than videos and still maintain motion information. This thesis investigates features in different types of noisy sequential images, and the proposed solutions that intelligently combined multiple features to successfully retrieve visual information from on-line videos and cloudy satellite images. The first task is detecting supraglacial lakes above ice sheet in sequential satellite images. The dynamics of supraglacial lakes on the Greenland ice sheet deeply affect glacier movement, which is directly related to sea level rise and global environment change. Detecting lakes above ice is suffering from diverse image qualities and unexpected clouds. A new method is proposed to efficiently extract prominent lake candidates with irregular shapes, heterogeneous backgrounds, and in cloudy images. The proposed system fully automatize the procedure that track lakes with high accuracy. We further cooperated with geoscientists to examine the tracked lakes and found new scientific findings. The second one is detecting obscene content in on-line video chat services, such as Chatroulette, that randomly match pairs of users in video chat sessions. A big problem encountered in such systems is the presence of flashers and obscene content. Because of various obscene content and unstable qualities of videos capture by home web-camera, detecting misbehaving users is a highly challenging task. We propose SafeVchat, which is the first solution that achieves satisfactory

  3. Application of seasonal rainfall forecasts and satellite rainfall observations to crop yield forecasting for Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greatrex, H. L.; Grimes, D. I. F.; Wheeler, T. R.

    2009-04-01

    Rain-fed agriculture is of utmost importance in sub-Saharan Africa; the FAO estimates that over 90% of food consumed in the region is grown in rain-fed farming systems. As the climate in sub-Saharan Africa has a high interannual variability, this dependence on rainfall can leave communities extremely vulnerable to food shortages, especially when coupled with a lack of crop management options. The ability to make a regional forecast of crop yield on a timescale of months would be of enormous benefit; it would enable both governmental and non-governmental organisations to be alerted in advance to crop failure and could facilitate national and regional economic planning. Such a system would also enable individual communities to make more informed crop management decisions, increasing their resilience to climate variability and change. It should be noted that the majority of crops in the region are rainfall limited, therefore the ability to create a seasonal crop forecast depends on the ability to forecast rainfall at a monthly or seasonal timescale and to temporally downscale this to a daily time-series of rainfall. The aim of this project is to develop a regional-scale seasonal forecast for sub-Saharan crops, utilising the General Large Area Model for annual crops (GLAM). GLAM would initially be driven using both dynamical and statistical seasonal rainfall forecasts to provide an initial estimate of crop yield. The system would then be continuously updated throughout the season by replacing the seasonal rainfall forecast with daily weather observations. TAMSAT satellite rainfall estimates are used rather than rain-gauge data due to the scarcity of ground based observations. An important feature of the system is the use of the geo-statistical method of sequential simulation to create an ensemble of daily weather inputs from both the statistical seasonal rainfall forecasts and the satellite rainfall estimates. This allows a range of possible yield outputs to be

  4. 40 CFR 60.120 - Applicability and designation of affected facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Pot furnaces of more than 250 kg (550 lb) charging capacity, blast (cupola) furnaces, and reverberatory furnaces. (b) Any facility under paragraph (a) of this section that commences construction...

  5. Biological restoration of major transportation facilities domestic demonstration and application project (DDAP): technology development at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, James L., Jr. (.,; .); Melton, Brad; Finley, Patrick; Brockman, John; Peyton, Chad E.; Tucker, Mark David; Einfeld, Wayne; Griffith, Richard O.; Brown, Gary Stephen; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Knowlton, Robert G.; Ho, Pauline

    2006-06-01

    The Bio-Restoration of Major Transportation Facilities Domestic Demonstration and Application Program (DDAP) is a designed to accelerate the restoration of transportation nodes following an attack with a biological warfare agent. This report documents the technology development work done at SNL for this DDAP, which include development of the BROOM tool, an investigation of surface sample collection efficiency, and a flow cytometry study of chlorine dioxide effects on Bacillus anthracis spore viability.

  6. Practice on Application of TPM Facility Management Mode%TPM设备管理模式导入实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玉芬

    2014-01-01

    介绍TPM管理模式的内容,具体分析导入过程及取得成效,指出TPM管理模式导入有利于企业综合竞争力的提升。%The paper describes what TPM management is and How it is applied specifically as well as what effect it brings. The application of TPM facility management mode can improve the comprehensive competitiveness of an enterprise.

  7. Satellite cloud and precipitation property retrievals for climate monitoring and hydrological applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, E.L.A.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents the retrieval, evaluation, and application of cloud physical property datasets (cloud phase, cloud particle effective radius, and precipitation occurrence and intensity) obtained from Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) reflectance measurements using the Cloud

  8. Satellite Observations of Groundwater Storage Variations and Their Application for Water Security Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, M.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Li, B.; Kumar, S.; Reager, J. T., II

    2015-12-01

    Fresh water demand is steadily increasing around the world due to population growth, economic development, and people's desire for a "western" lifestyle and diet. Where surface water availability is not sufficient or consistent, groundwater is often the resource of choice for agriculture, industry, and municipal and domestic uses. However, unlike lake levels, aquifer levels are unseen and are not easily measured. This can create the illusion of an infinite water source and impede efforts to monitor and conserve groundwater. Moreover, even where depth-to-water measurements do exist, they often are not digitized, centralized, and accessible. The GRACE satellites are a partial solution to this problem, enabling space-based estimates of groundwater variability at regional scales that are not limited by political boundaries. Here we discuss emerging trends in groundwater storage around the world based on GRACE observations and how they can be combined with other information in order attribute these apparent trends and support sub-regional scale analyses of changing groundwater availability.

  9. Application of Object Based Classification and High Resolution Satellite Imagery for Savanna Ecosystem Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Southworth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Savanna ecosystems are an important component of dryland regions and yet are exceedingly difficult to study using satellite imagery. Savannas are composed are varying amounts of trees, shrubs and grasses and typically traditional classification schemes or vegetation indices cannot differentiate across class type. This research utilizes object based classification (OBC for a region in Namibia, using IKONOS imagery, to help differentiate tree canopies and therefore woodland savanna, from shrub or grasslands. The methodology involved the identification and isolation of tree canopies within the imagery and the creation of tree polygon layers had an overall accuracy of 84%. In addition, the results were scaled up to a corresponding Landsat image of the same region, and the OBC results compared to corresponding pixel values of NDVI. The results were not compelling, indicating once more the problems of these traditional image analysis techniques for savanna ecosystems. Overall, the use of the OBC holds great promise for this ecosystem and could be utilized more frequently in studies of vegetation structure.

  10. Integrated use of field spectroscopy and satellite remote sensing for defence and security applications in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillos, George; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Papadavid, George; Agapiou, Athos; Prodromou, Maria; Michaelides, Silas; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2016-08-01

    Underground structures can affect their surrounding landscapes in different ways such as soil moisture content, soil composition, vegetation vigour etc. The latest is often observed on the ground as a crop mark; a phenomenon which can be used as a proxy to denote the presence of underground and not visible structures. This paper presents the results obtained from field spectroradiometric campaigns at `buried' underground structures in Cyprus. A SVC-1024 field spectroradiometer was used and in-band reflectances were determined for a variety of medium and high resolution satellite sensors as well as Landsat. A number of vegetation indices such as NDVI were obtained while a `smart index' was developed aiming for the detection of military underground structures following the assessment of the existing vegetation indices or other available band combinations algorithm. Test areas were identified, analyzed and modeled. The areas have been analyzed and tested in different scenarios such as: (a) the `natural state' of the underground structure (b) the different type of crop over the underground structure and imported soil (c) the different types of non-natural material over the underground structure. A reference target in the nearby area was selected. Controllable meteorological and environmental parameters were acquired and monitored. As well, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was also used to survey the area with visible and near-infrared cameras in order to generate NDVI values for comparison to the in-situ spectroradiometric measurements

  11. Medical gamma processing facility in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and radiation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grecz, N.; Hahn, E.W.; Jouris, W.E.

    1985-09-01

    A medical cobalt-60 facility was opened at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center in 1984. Features of the facility are that it can be heated to 120-190F during irradiation and has an on-line 30 kw microwave oven. It can be used for small scale batch irradiation or large scale conveyor irradiation. Programs under development are the sterilization of hospital supplies, radiation processing of Saudi foods and radiation of infectious hospital wastes.

  12. Solar photovoltaic research and development program of the Air Force Aero Propulsion Laboratory. [silicon solar cell applicable to satellite power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, J.

    1979-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas: laser weapon effects, solar silicon solar cell concepts, and high voltage hardened, high power system technology. Emphasis is placed on solar cells with increased energy conversion efficiency and radiation resistance characteristics for application to satellite power systems.

  13. From Space Archeology to Serving the World Today: A 20-Year Journey from the Jungles of Guatemala to a Network of Satellite Remote Sensing Facilities Around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Earth observing satellites provide a 21st century capability to detect unrecorded archeological sites that are often invisible to the naked eye. This information can be used to understand issues in human settlement, environmental interaction, and the impact of climate change to past cultures. Archeologists want to know how ancient people successfully adapted to their environment and what factors may have led to their collapse or disappearance. Some cultures overextended the capacity of their landscape, causing destructive environmental effects which led to their demise. To avoid repeating mistakes of the past and adapt to challenges today, NASA and the US Agency for International Development (USAID)-- in partnership with leading regional organizations around the world--have implemented SERVIR. SERVIR is a joint development initiative to help countries use information provided by Earth observing satellites and geospatial technologies for managing climate risks and land use. SERVIR is improving awareness, increasing access to information, and supporting analysis to help people in Africa, Hindu Kush-Himalaya, Lower Mekong, and Mesoamerica manage challenges in the areas of food security, water resources, land use change, and natural disasters.

  14. The ERA2 facility: towards application of a fiber-based astronomical spectrograph for imaging spectroscopy in life sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Roth, Martin M; Tarcea, Nicolae; Popp, Jürgen; Adelhelm, Silvia; Stolz, Marvin; Kelz, Andreas; Sandin, Christer; Bauer, Svend-Marian; Fechner, Thomas; Jahn, Thomas; Popow, Emil; Roth, Bernhard; Singh, Paul; Srivastava, Mudit; Wolter, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Astronomical instrumentation is most of the time faced with challenging requirements in terms of sensitivity, stability, complexity, etc., and therefore leads to high performance developments that at first sight appear to be suitable only for the specific design application at the telescope. However, their usefulness in other disciplines and for other applications is not excluded. The ERA2 facility is a lab demonstrator, based on a high-performance astronomical spectrograph, which is intended to explore the innovation potential of fiber-coupled multi-channel spectroscopy for spatially resolved spectroscopy in life science, material sciences, and other areas of research.

  15. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Closure of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and Land Application Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael G.

    2016-09-23

    This quality assurance project plan describes the technical requirements and quality assurance activities of the environmental data collection/analyses operations to close Central Facilities Area Sewage treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and the land application area. It describes the organization and persons involved, the data quality objectives, the analytical procedures, and the specific quality control measures to be employed. All quality assurance project plan activities are implemented to determine whether the results of the sampling and monitoring performed are of the right type, quantity, and quality to satisfy the requirements for closing Lagoon 3 and the land application area.

  16. Retrieving Clear-Sky Surface Skin Temperature for Numerical Weather Prediction Applications from Geostationary Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baojuan Shan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric models rely on high-accuracy, high-resolution initial radiometric and surface conditions for better short-term meteorological forecasts, as well as improved evaluation of global climate models. Remote sensing of the Earth’s energy budget, particularly with instruments flown on geostationary satellites, allows for near-real-time evaluation of cloud and surface radiation properties. The persistence and coverage of geostationary remote sensing instruments grant the frequent retrieval of near-instantaneous quasi-global skin temperature. Among other cloud and clear-sky retrieval parameters, NASA Langley provides a non-polar, high-resolution land and ocean skin temperature dataset for atmospheric modelers by applying an inverted correlated k-distribution method to clear-pixel values of top-of-atmosphere infrared temperature. The present paper shows that this method yields clear-sky skin temperature values that are, for the most part, within 2 K of measurements from ground-site instruments, like the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Infrared Thermometer and the National Climatic Data Center Apogee Precision Infrared Thermocouple Sensor. The level of accuracy relative to the ARM site is comparable to that of the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS with the benefit of an increased number of daily measurements without added bias or increased error. Additionally, matched comparisons of the high-resolution skin temperature product with MODIS land surface temperature reveal a level of accuracy well within 1 K for both day and night. This confidence will help in characterizing the diurnal and seasonal biases and root-mean-square differences between the retrievals and modeled values from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Version 5 (GEOS-5 in preparation for assimilation of the retrievals into GEOS-5. Modelers should find the immediate availability and broad coverage of these skin temperature

  17. Development of a low-cost, low micro-vibration CMG for small agile satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawak, B. J.

    2017-02-01

    The agility of the spacecraft which refers to the spacecraft's ability to execute fast and accurate manoeuvers within a fixed period of time, is a key satellite parameter. The spacecraft' s agility is directly proportional to the spacecraft actuators' output torque. For high torque inertial actuators (>0.5 Nm), Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG) exhibits better performances in terms of mass and electrical power consumption than reaction wheels. However, in addition to the complex steering law required to avoid CMG singularities, one of the reasons why CMGs are not widely used is also due to their high micro-vibration emission which may interfere and disrupt the spacecraft' s sensitive instruments such as optical payloads. In this paper, an innovative two-stage viscoelastic isolation system has been designed and implemented in a new low micro-vibration CMG prototype. The first stage of the damping system acts at bearing level to attenuate the possible shock vibrations while the second stage acts at mechanism level to attenuate the structural resonances and motor noise. The developed CMG enables to combine high actuator output torque with a low micro-vibration signature. The viscoelastic damping system is cost effective as it is a fully passive system which requires no thermal control and no electronics. Furthermore, the attenuation provided by this innovative two stage damping system can reach a slope up to -80 dB/dec which leads to a Mini-CMG micro-vibration signature lower than similar output torque reaction wheels not equipped with a damping system.

  18. Satellite Observations of Coastal Processes from a Geostationary Orbit: Application to estuarine, coastal, and ocean resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzortziou, M.; Mannino, A.; Schaeffer, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal areas are among the most vulnerable yet economically valuable ecosystems on Earth. Estuaries and coastal oceans are critically important as essential habitat for marine life, as highly productive ecosystems and a rich source of food for human consumption, as a strong economic driver for coastal communities, and as a highly dynamic interface between land and ocean carbon and nutrient cycles. Still, our present capabilities to remotely observe coastal ocean processes from space are limited in their temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution. These limitations, in turn, constrain our ability to observe and understand biogeochemical processes in highly dynamic coastal ecosystems, or predict their response and resilience to current and future pressures including sea level rise, coastal urbanization, and anthropogenic pollution.On a geostationary orbit, and with high spatial resolution and hyper-spectral capabilities, NASA's Decadal Survey mission GEO-CAPE (GEO-stationary for Coastal and Air Pollution Events) will provide, for the first time, a satellite view of the short-term changes and evolution of processes along the economically invaluable but, simultaneously, particularly vulnerable near-shore waters of the United States. GEO-CAPE will observe U.S. lakes, estuaries, and coastal regions at sufficient temporal and spatial scales to resolve near-shore processes, tides, coastal fronts, and eddies, track sediments and pollutants, capture diurnal biogeochemical processes and rates of transformation, monitor harmful algal blooms and large oil spills, observe episodic events and coastal hazards. Here we discuss the GEO-CAPE applications program and the new capabilities afforded by this future satellite mission, to identify potential user communities, incorporate end-user needs into future mission planning, and allow integration of science and management at the coastal interface.

  19. Business Use of Satellite Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelson, Burton I.; Cooper, Robert S.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews business communications development and discusses business applications of satellite communications, system technology, and prospects for future developments in digital transmission systems. (JN)

  20. DFH Satellite Co.,Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunQing

    2004-01-01

    DFH Satellite Co.,Ltd. is a hi-tech enterprise founded and sponsored by China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation(CASC) and one of CASC subsidiaries,China Academy of Space Technology (CAST). The company is mainly engaged in the research and development of small satellites and micro-satellites, Osystem designs and product development for satellite application projects as well as the international exchanges and cooperation.

  1. Odyssey, an optimized personal communications satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Roger J.

    Personal communications places severe demands on service providers and transmission facilities. Customers are not satisfied with the current levels of service and want improvements. Among the characteristics that users seek are: lower service rates, hand held convenience, acceptable time delays, ubiquitous service, high availability, reliability, and high quality. The space industry is developing commercial space systems for providing mobile communications to personal telephones. Provision of land mobile satellite service is fundamentally different from the fixed satellite service provided by geostationary satellites. In fixed service, the earth based antennas can depend on a clear path from user to satellite. Mobile users in a terrestrial environment commonly encounter blockage due to vegetation, terrain or buildings. Consequently, high elevation angles are of premium value. TRW studied the issues and concluded that a Medium Earth Orbit constellation is the best solution for Personal Communications Satellite Service. TRW has developed Odyssey, which uses twelve satellites in medium altitude orbit to provide personal communications satellite service. The Odyssey communications system projects a multibeam antenna pattern to the Earth. The attitude control system orients the satellites to ensure constant coverage of land mass and coastal areas. Pointing can be reprogrammed by ground control to ensure optimized coverage of the desired service areas. The payload architecture features non-processing, "bent pipe" transponders and matrix amplifiers to ensure dynamic power delivery to high demand areas. Circuit capacity is 3000 circuits per satellite. Each satellite weighs 1917 kg (4226 pounds) at launch and the solar arrays provide 3126 Watts of power. Satellites are launched in pairs on Ariane, Atlas, or other vehicles. Each satellite is placed in a circular orbit at an altitude of 10,354 km. There are three orbit planes inclined at 55° to the equatorial plane

  2. Satellite orbit determination and gravity field recovery from satellite-to-satellite tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakker, K. F.; Ambrosius, B. A. C.; Leenman, H.

    1989-07-01

    Studies on satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST) with POPSAT (a geodetic satellite concept) and a ERS-class (Earth observation) satellite, a Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (SST) gravity mission, and precise gravity field determination methods and mission requirements are reported. The first two studies primarily address the application of SST between the high altitude POPSAT and an ERS-class or GRM (Geopotential Research Mission) satellite to the orbit determination of the latter two satellites. Activities focussed on the determination of the tracking coverage of the lower altitude satellite by ground based tracking systems and by POPSAT, orbit determination error analysis and the determination of the surface forces acting on GRM. The third study surveys principles of SST, uncertainties of existing drag models, effects of direct luni-solar attraction and tides on orbit and the gravity gradient observable. Detailed ARISTOTELES (which replaced POPSAT) orbit determination error analyses were performed for various ground based tracking networks.

  3. Development of a Low-cost, FPGA-based, Delay Line Particle Detector for Satellite and Sounding Rocket Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, M.; Kujawski, J. T.; Adrian, M. L.; Weatherwax, A. T.

    2013-12-01

    Electrons are, by definition, a fundamental, chemical and electromagnetic constituent of any plasma. This is especially true within the partially ionized plasmas of Earth's ionosphere where electrons are a critical component of a vast array of plasma processes. Siena College is working on a novel method of processing information from electron spectrometer anodes using delay line techniques and inexpensive COTS electronics to track the movement of high-energy particles. Electron spectrometers use a variety of techniques to determine where an amplified electron cloud falls onto a collecting surface. One traditional method divides the collecting surface into sectors and uses a single detector for each sector. However, as the angular and spatial resolution increases, so does the number of detectors, increasing power consumption, cost, size, and weight of the system. An alternative approach is to connect each sector with a delay line built within the PCB material which is shielded from cross talk by a flooded ground plane. Only one pair of detectors (e.g., one at each end of the chain) are needed with the delay line technique which is different from traditional delay line detectors which use either Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) or very fast clocks. In this paper, we report on the implementation and testing of a delay line detector using a low-cost Xilinx FPGA and a thirty-two sector delay system. This Delay Line Detector has potential satellite and rocket flight applications due to its low cost, small size and power efficiency

  4. Ocean Wind Fields from Satellite Active Microwave Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Zecchetto, S.

    2010-01-01

    Scatterometer QuikSCAT data have been downloaded from the Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PODAAC) of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, USA. The ASCAT data have been obtained from the Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut (Dutch Meteorological Service KNMI, www.knmi.nl) operating in the framework of the Ocean & Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (www.osi-saf.org) of EUMETSAT. The Envisat ASAR Wide Swath image has been downloaded from the ESA web ser...

  5. Applicability of base-isolation R and D in non-reactor facilities to a nuclear reactor plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidensticker, R.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1991-06-01

    Seismic isolation is gaining increased attention worldwide for use in a wide spectrum of critical facilities, ranging from hospitals and computing centers to nuclear power plants. The level of assurance of performance for such isolation systems for a nuclear power plant will be much greater than that required for non-nuclear facilities. The question is to what extent can R and D for non-nuclear use of seismic isolation be applied to a nuclear power plant. Experience shows that considerable effort is needed to adapt any technology to nuclear power facilities. This paper reviews the R and D programs ongoing for seismic isolation in non-nuclear facilities and related experience and makes a preliminary assessment of the extent to which such R and D and experience can be used for nuclear power plant application. Ways are suggested to improve the usefulness of such non-nuclear R and D in providing the high level of confidence required for the use of seismic isolation in a nuclear reactor plant. (orig.).

  6. Development of Charged Particle Detector and Its Application in "FY-2" Satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The monitoring of the radiation environment of earth’s space has important significance for developing space science and application techniques.The measurement of space radiation includes mainly two aspects:(1)measurement of energy spectra and flux of proton and electron,(2)the identification of particle species lighter

  7. Evaluating the application of multi-satellite observation in hydrologic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    When monitoring local or regional hydrosphere dynamics for applications such as agricultural productivity or drought and flooding events, it is necessary to have accurate, high-resolution estimates of terrestrial water and energy storages. Though in-situ observations provide reliable estimates of hy...

  8. Application of Satellite-Derived Wind Profiles to Joint Precision Airdrop System (JPADS) Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    the Vertical Wind Profile ...............................................................59 Ekman Spiral Boundary Layer Wind Profile...61 37. Depiction of Ekman Spiral Wind Profile in the Boundary Layer .......................62 38. Thermal Winds with Ekman ...Menzel, et al., 1998) 23 In a paper detailing the application of GOES soundings to weather forecasting, W. Paul Menzel et al. describe the

  9. Program on application of communications satellites to educational development: Design of a 12 channel FM microwave receiver. [color television from communication satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, C. O.; Rosenbaum, F. J.; Gregory, R. O.

    1974-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and performance of elements of a low cost FM microwave satellite ground station receiver is described. It is capable of accepting 12 contiguous color television equivalent bandwidth channels in the 11.72 to 12.2 GHz band. Each channel is 40 MHz wide and incorporates a 4 MHz guard band. The modulation format is wideband FM and the channels are frequency division multiplexed. Twelve independent CATV compatible baseband outputs are provided. The overall system specifications are first discussed, then consideration is given to the receiver subsystems and the signal branching network.

  10. Applicability of logistic model and integrated satellite data for rice crop phenology detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Farn; Son, Nguyen-Thanh; Chen, Cheng-Ru; Chang, Ly-Yu; Chiang, Shou-Hao

    2016-04-01

    Changes in climate condition through global warming locally altered climatic and hydrological conditions and likely trigger the increase of insect populations and diseases, causing the potential loss of rice yields. Because the rice fields damaged by diseases or insects may affect neighbouring fields, monitoring the cropping progress was important to provide agronomic planners with valuable information that could be used to timely devise strategies to mitigate possible impacts on the potential yield. This study aimed to develop an approach to monitor rice sowing and harvesting progress from the integrated Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Landsat satellite data. We processed for the 2007 winter-spring and summer-autumn cropping seasons in 2007, following four main steps: (1) constructing a set of MODIS-Landsat fusion data using the spatiotemporal adaptive reflectance fusion model (STARFM), (2) creating smooth time-series enhanced vegetation 2 (EVI2) data using the commonly-used empirical mode decomposition (EMD), (3) detecting key phenological stages of rice crops the double logistic algorithm, and (4) error verification of the detected sowing and harvesting dates using field data. The comparison results between the EVI2 data derived from the fusion data and that from the Landsat yielded close agreement between these two datasets (R2 > 0.9). The double logistic algorithm applied to the filtered time-series EVI2 data to estimate phenological events of rice crops indicated the validity of our approach for monitoring the progress of sowing and harvesting activities in the region. The results obtained by comparisons between the estimated sowing/ harvesting dates and the field survey data indicated that the root mean squared error (RMSE) values archived for the winter-spring crop were respectively 8.4 and 5.5 days, while those for the summer-autumn crop were 9.4 and 12.8 days, respectively. The results obtained from this study could provide decision

  11. Application of Texture Characteristics for Urban Feature Extraction from Optical Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Shanmukha Rao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Quest of fool proof methods for extracting various urban features from high resolution satellite imagery with minimal human intervention has resulted in developing texture based algorithms. In view of the fact that the textural properties of images provide valuable information for discrimination purposes, it is appropriate to employ texture based algorithms for feature extraction. The Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM method represents a highly efficient technique of extracting second order statistical texture features. The various urban features can be distinguished based on a set of features viz. energy, entropy, homogeneity etc. that characterize different aspects of the underlying texture. As a preliminary step, notable numbers of regions of interests of the urban feature and contrast locations are identified visually. After calculating Gray Level Co-occurrence matrices of these selected regions, the aforementioned texture features are computed. These features can be used to shape a high-dimensional feature vector to carry out content based retrieval. The insignificant features are eliminated to reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector by executing Principal Components Analysis (PCA. The selection of the discriminating features is also aided by the value of Jeffreys-Matusita (JM distance which serves as a measure of class separability Feature identification is then carried out by computing these chosen feature vectors for every pixel of the entire image and comparing it with their corresponding mean values. This helps in identifying and classifying the pixels corresponding to urban feature being extracted. To reduce the commission errors, various index values viz. Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI are assessed for each pixel. The extracted output is then median filtered to isolate the feature of interest after removing the salt and pepper

  12. Application of satellite precipitation data to analyse and model arbovirus activity in the tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corner Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV is a mosquito-borne Flavivirus (Flaviviridae: Flavivirus which is closely related to Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus and St. Louis encephalitis virus. MVEV is enzootic in northern Australia and Papua New Guinea and epizootic in other parts of Australia. Activity of MVEV in Western Australia (WA is monitored by detection of seroconversions in flocks of sentinel chickens at selected sample sites throughout WA. Rainfall is a major environmental factor influencing MVEV activity. Utilising data on rainfall and seroconversions, statistical relationships between MVEV occurrence and rainfall can be determined. These relationships can be used to predict MVEV activity which, in turn, provides the general public with important information about disease transmission risk. Since ground measurements of rainfall are sparse and irregularly distributed, especially in north WA where rainfall is spatially and temporally highly variable, alternative data sources such as remote sensing (RS data represent an attractive alternative to ground measurements. However, a number of competing alternatives are available and careful evaluation is essential to determine the most appropriate product for a given problem. Results The Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA 3B42 product was chosen from a range of RS rainfall products to develop rainfall-based predictor variables and build logistic regression models for the prediction of MVEV activity in the Kimberley and Pilbara regions of WA. Two models employing monthly time-lagged rainfall variables showed the strongest discriminatory ability of 0.74 and 0.80 as measured by the Receiver Operating Characteristics area under the curve (ROC AUC. Conclusions TMPA data provide a state-of-the-art data source for the development of rainfall-based predictive models for Flavivirus activity in tropical WA. Compared to

  13. Spectroscopy Methods and Applications of the Tor Vergata Laser-Plasma Facility Driven by GW-Level Laser System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Francucci

    2011-01-01

    GW, tabletop, multistage Nd:YAG/Glass laser system, delivering infrared (IR pulses with nanosecond width and 1064 nm wavelength (TEM00 mode. Its applications are discussed providing: wide analysis of IR → soft X-ray conversion efficiency (1.3–1.55 keV; measures and modeling of line emission in soft X-ray spectra, such as those from zinc plasma near Ne-like Zn XXI and from barium plasma near Ni-like Ba XXIX. Particular attention is devoted to high-n dielectronic Rydberg satellites for finding a useful diagnostic tool for plasma conditions. Dependence of plasma spectra on laser parameters is shown. Finally, microradiography applications are presented for thin biological samples. Images permit to visualize specific structures and detect bioaccumulation sites due to contamination from pollutants.

  14. 全球导航星座的远地/深空导航应用研究%The application research of global navigation constellation for HEO (high earth orbit) satellites and deep-space satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雯雯; 张立新; 蒙艳松; 宋志强

    2011-01-01

    It has been widely studied that GNSS(global navigation satellite system) offers navigation for Ground-Based users and LEO(low earth orbit.) users. At present, it mainly depends on Ground-Based measurement and control system that HEO satellites and deep-space satellites determine their orbits and attitude, and synchronize their time. The Ground-Based measurement and control system which has complex equipment and high investment can't support abundant aerocrafts at the same time, and can't operate autonomously. This article studied the possibility of orbit determination, attitude determination, and time synchronization with global navigation constellation for HEO satellites and deep-space satellites, and consequently achieved the extended applications of global navigation constellation. It found out a high efficient way for global navigation constellation to operating as time and space reference for constellation networks, in order that constellation networks autonomously operate and navigate. And it also putted forward a solution to realize passive navigation for HEO satellites and deep-space satellites by skillfully designing the links between satellites, without increasing equipment on satellites. The research focused on the number of visible satellites and GDOP(geometric dilution of precision) value. The precision of positioning and time determination was also analyzed in order to provide new ideas for the construction of global navigation constellation.%全球卫星导航系统为低轨和地面用户提供导航服务已有广泛的研究.中高轨卫星以及深空卫星的定轨、定姿和时间同步,目前主要利用地面测控系统完成,存在设备复杂、投资高、无法同时支持大量飞行器、无法自主运行等缺点.本文研究中高轨卫星和深空卫星利用全球导航星座进行定轨、定姿和授时服务的可行性,实现其扩展应用,寻求全球导航星座作为天基网时空基准的高效途径,使得天基网的

  15. Dual-rate MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic transceiver for satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Donald C., Jr.; Rankin, Stephen L.; Marshall, Paul W.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Krainak, Michael A.

    1994-06-01

    A dual rate 1773 fiber optic transceiver chip for space applications is presented. The transceiver will work with either 1 Mbps, or 20 Mbps Manchester data. The receiver features first bit capture with no preamble for 1 Mbps data, and clock recovery for 20 Mbps data. Single event effects in the photo diode are considered in the receiver design. A transmitter switch is included on the chip for driving an LED. The chip will be fabricated in a radiation hard CMOS process.

  16. Improvements to Lunar BRDF-Corrected Nighttime Satellite Imagery: Uses and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, T.; Molthan, A.; Schultz, L. A.; Roman, M. O.; Wanik, D. W.

    2016-12-01

    Observations made by the VIIRS day/night band (DNB) provide daily, nighttime measurements to monitor Earth surface processes. However, these observations are impacted by variations in reflected solar radiation on the moon's surface. As the moon transitions from new to full phase, increasing radiance is reflected to the Earth's surface and contributes additional reflected moonlight from clouds and land surface, in addition to emissions from other light sources observed by the DNB. The introduction of a bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) algorithm serves to remove these lunar variations and normalize observed radiances. Provided by the Terrestrial Information Systems Laboratory at Goddard Space Flight Center, a 1 km gridded lunar BRDF-corrected DNB product and VIIRS cloud mask can be used for a multitude of nighttime applications without influence from the moon. Such applications include the detection of power outages following severe weather events using pre- and post-event DNB imagery, as well as the identification of boat features to curtail illegal fishing practices. This presentation will provide context on the importance of the lunar BRDF correction algorithm and explore the aforementioned uses of this improved DNB product for applied science applications.

  17. Issues in the review of a license application for an above grade low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringenberg, J.D. [Nebraska Dept. of Environmental Quality, NE (United States)

    1993-03-01

    In December 1987, Nebraska was selected by the Central Interstate Compact (CIC) Commission as the host state for the construction of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. After spending a year in the site screening process, the Compact`s developer, US Ecology, selected three sites for detailed site characterization. These sites were located in Nemaha, Nuckolls and Boyd Counties. One year later the Boyd County site was selected as the preferred site and additional site characterization studies were undertaken. On July 29, 1990, US Ecology submitted a license application to the Nebraska Department of Environmental Control (now Department of Environmental Quality-NDEQ). This paper will present issues that the NDEQ has dealt with since Nebraska`s selection as the host state for the CIC facility.

  18. 75 FR 70032 - Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... identify, evaluate, and mitigate cyber attacks up to and including the design basis cyber attack threat, thereby achieving high assurance that the facility's digital computer and communications systems and networks are protected from cyber attacks. The implementation and incorporation of the Cyber Security...

  19. 75 FR 62592 - Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving Proposed No Significant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... amendments to the Renewed Facility Operating Licenses include: (1) The proposed Cyber Security Plan for CCNPP... implement and maintain in effect all provisions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission-approved Cyber Security... cyber security program. This regulation specifically requires each licensee currently licensed...

  20. 40 CFR 60.100a - Applicability, designation of affected facility, and reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... facility, provided it processes gases produced within a petroleum refinery. (b) Except for flares, the...: (1) Any new piping from a refinery process unit or fuel gas system is physically connected to the... of Performance for Petroleum Refineries for Which Construction, Reconstruction, or...

  1. 40 CFR 60.100 - Applicability, designation of affected facility, and reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... petroleum refineries: fluid catalytic cracking unit catalyst regenerators, fuel gas combustion devices, and... boundaries of a petroleum refinery to be an affected facility, provided it processes gases produced within a petroleum refinery. (b) Any fluid catalytic cracking unit catalyst regenerator or fuel gas combustion...

  2. Wireless Occupancy Sensors for Lighting Controls: An Applications Guide for Federal Facility Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-15

    This guide provides federal facility managers with an overview of the energy savings potential of wireless lighting occupancy sensors for various room types, cost considerations, key steps to successful installation of wireless sensors, pros and cons of various technology options, light source considerations, and codes and standards.

  3. 76 FR 64388 - Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses; Involving No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... . Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Docket Nos. 50-317 and 50-318, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant... No. 1 (DBNPS), Ottawa County, Ohio Docket No. 50-440, Perry Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1 (PNPP... maintenance that is performed on plant equipment. Therefore, operation of the facility in accordance with......

  4. 45 CFR 1309.10 - Applications for the purchase, construction and major renovation of facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... available for a playground and for parking). If incidental alterations and renovations or major renovations...)(C)) and its implementing regulations (40 CFR parts 1500 through 1508), as well as a report showing the results of tests for environmental hazards present in the facility, ground water, and soil...

  5. 40 CFR 60.740 - Applicability and designation of affected facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for sale to another company for use in an affected facility (coating operation); (2) Coating mix... fraction; (3) Web coating operations that print an image on the surface of the substrate or any coating applied on the same printing line that applies the image....

  6. 75 FR 76041 - Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving Proposed No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... implement and maintain a cyber security plan as part of the facility's overall program for physical... plant systems or the manner in which systems are operated. Therefore, the inclusion of the Cyber... assurance that the systems within the scope of the 10 CFR 73.54 Rule are protected from cyber attacks...

  7. Summary of Off-Normal Events in US Fuel Cycle Facilities for AFCI Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. C. Cadwallader; S. J. Piet; S. O. Sheetz; D. H. McGuire; W. B. Boore

    2005-09-01

    This report is a collection and review of system operation and failure experiences for facilities comprising the fission reactor fuel cycle, with the exception of reactor operations. This report includes mines, mills, conversion plants, enrichment plants, fuel fabrication plants, transportation of fuel materials between these centers, and waste storage facilities. Some of the facilities discussed are no longer operating; others continue to produce fuel for the commercial fission power plant industry. Some of the facilities discussed have been part of the military’s nuclear effort; these are included when the processes used are similar to those used for commercial nuclear power. When reading compilations of incidents and accidents, after repeated entries it is natural to form an opinion that there exists nothing but accidents. For this reason, production or throughput values are described when available. These adverse operating experiences are compiled to support the design and decisions needed for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). The AFCI is to weigh options for a new fission reactor fuel cycle that is efficient, safe, and productive for US energy security.

  8. Radioactive isotope production for medical applications using Kharkov electron driven subcritical assembly facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, Y.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-05-15

    Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine has a plan to construct an accelerator driven subcritical assembly. The main functions of the subcritical assembly are the medical isotope production, neutron thereby, and the support of the Ukraine nuclear industry. Reactor physics experiments and material research will be carried out using the capabilities of this facility. The United States of America and Ukraine have started collaboration activity for developing a conceptual design for this facility with low enrichment uranium (LEU) fuel. Different conceptual designs are being developed based on the facility mission and the engineering requirements including nuclear physics, neutronics, heat transfer, thermal hydraulics, structure, and material issues. Different fuel designs with LEU and reflector materials are considered in the design process. Safety, reliability, and environmental considerations are included in the facility conceptual design. The facility is configured to accommodate future design improvements and upgrades. This report is a part of the Argonne National Laboratory Activity within this collaboration for developing and characterizing the subcritical assembly conceptual design. In this study, the medical isotope production function of the Kharkov facility is defined. First, a review was carried out to identify the medical isotopes and its medical use. Then a preliminary assessment was performed without including the self-shielding effect of the irradiated samples. Finally, more detailed investigation was carried out including the self-shielding effect, which defined the sample size and irradiation location for producing each medical isotope. In the first part, the reaction rates were calculated as the multiplication of the cross section with the unperturbed neutron flux of the facility. Over fifty isotopes were considered and all transmutation channels are used including (n,{gamma}), (n,2n), (n,p), and ({gamma},n). In the second part

  9. State waste discharge permit application for the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Application is being made for a permit pursuant to Chapter 173--216 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), to discharge treated waste water and cooling tower blowdown from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) to land at the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). The ETF is located in the 200 East Area and the SALDS is located north of the 200 West Area. The ETF is an industrial waste water treatment plant that will initially receive waste water from the following two sources, both located in the 200 Area on the Hanford Site: (1) the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and (2) the 242-A Evaporator. The waste water discharged from these two facilities is process condensate (PC), a by-product of the concentration of waste from DSTs that is performed in the 242-A Evaporator. Because the ETF is designed as a flexible treatment system, other aqueous waste streams generated at the Hanford Site may be considered for treatment at the ETF. The origin of the waste currently contained in the DSTs is explained in Section 2.0. An overview of the concentration of these waste in the 242-A Evaporator is provided in Section 3.0. Section 4.0 describes the LERF, a storage facility for process condensate. Attachment A responds to Section B of the permit application and provides an overview of the processes that generated the wastes, storage of the wastes in double-shell tanks (DST), preliminary treatment in the 242-A Evaporator, and storage at the LERF. Attachment B addresses waste water treatment at the ETF (under construction) and the addition of cooling tower blowdown to the treated waste water prior to disposal at SALDS. Attachment C describes treated waste water disposal at the proposed SALDS.

  10. Medical Applications of Non-Medical Research: Applications Derived from BES-Supported Research and Research at BES Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This publication contains stories that illustrate how the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) research and major user facilities have impacted the medical sciences in the selected topical areas of disease diagnosis, treatment (including drug development, radiation therapy, and surgery), understanding, and prevention.

  11. New book: Earth Imaging and Exploration from Space: Satellites - Sensors - Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinko Olujić

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The book has 516 pages, 310 images-pictures and drawings, 95 plates, it was cited 467 references forin and domestic literature. In fact, that is a glossy full-colour monograph in Croatian language. The book is composed of 8 chapters. It begins with the definition, history and physical principles of remote sensing. Come after information about the carrier rockets for remote sensing and civilian platforms with their sensors. Visual scene analysis and digital image analysis leads to the big 300-pages part dealing with various applications: geology, forestry, agriculture, cartography, meteorology, regional and urban planning, ecology and military applications. There is a chapter about remote sensing and GIS which refers to the use of GPS, concludes the full-text list of acronyms and a glossary of technical terms. The chapter about arriculture dealing with soil mapping, classification land use/cover and crops foreeasting etc. The book can be heavily recommend to any student and experts of remote sensing as a most comprehensive source of information one of the best recent texbooks about this subject.

  12. Satellite Remote Sensing for Coastal Management: A Review of Successful Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Matthew J; Colna, Kaitlyn E; El-Mezayen, Mahmoud M; Laureano-Rosario, Abdiel E; Méndez-Lázaro, Pablo; Otis, Daniel B; Toro-Farmer, Gerardo; Vega-Rodriguez, Maria; Muller-Karger, Frank E

    2017-08-01

    Management of coastal and marine natural resources presents a number of challenges as a growing global population and a changing climate require us to find better strategies to conserve the resources on which our health, economy, and overall well-being depend. To evaluate the status and trends in changing coastal resources over larger areas, managers in government agencies and private stakeholders around the world have increasingly turned to remote sensing technologies. A surge in collaborative and innovative efforts between resource managers, academic researchers, and industry partners is becoming increasingly vital to keep pace with evolving changes of our natural resources. Synoptic capabilities of remote sensing techniques allow assessments that are impossible to do with traditional methods. Sixty years of remote sensing research have paved the way for resource management applications, but uncertainties regarding the use of this technology have hampered its use in management fields. Here we review examples of remote sensing applications in the sectors of coral reefs, wetlands, water quality, public health, and fisheries and aquaculture that have successfully contributed to management and decision-making goals.

  13. Satellite Remote Sensing for Coastal Management: A Review of Successful Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Matthew J.; Colna, Kaitlyn E.; El-Mezayen, Mahmoud M.; Laureano-Rosario, Abdiel E.; Méndez-Lázaro, Pablo; Otis, Daniel B.; Toro-Farmer, Gerardo; Vega-Rodriguez, Maria; Muller-Karger, Frank E.

    2017-08-01

    Management of coastal and marine natural resources presents a number of challenges as a growing global population and a changing climate require us to find better strategies to conserve the resources on which our health, economy, and overall well-being depend. To evaluate the status and trends in changing coastal resources over larger areas, managers in government agencies and private stakeholders around the world have increasingly turned to remote sensing technologies. A surge in collaborative and innovative efforts between resource managers, academic researchers, and industry partners is becoming increasingly vital to keep pace with evolving changes of our natural resources. Synoptic capabilities of remote sensing techniques allow assessments that are impossible to do with traditional methods. Sixty years of remote sensing research have paved the way for resource management applications, but uncertainties regarding the use of this technology have hampered its use in management fields. Here we review examples of remote sensing applications in the sectors of coral reefs, wetlands, water quality, public health, and fisheries and aquaculture that have successfully contributed to management and decision-making goals.

  14. Applicability of the 5S management method for quality improvement in health-care facilities: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Shogo; Shibanuma, Akira; Jimba, Masamine

    2016-01-01

    The 5S management method (where 5S stands for sort, set in order, shine, standardize, and sustain) was originally implemented by manufacturing enterprises in Japan. It was then introduced to the manufacturing sector in the West and eventually applied to the health sector for organizing and standardizing the workplace. 5S has recently received attention as a potential solution for improving government health-care services in low- and middle-income countries. We conducted a narrative literature review to explore its applicability to health-care facilities globally, with a focus on three aspects: (a) the context of its application, (b) its impacts, and (c) its adoption as part of government initiatives. To identify relevant research articles, we researched public health databases in English, including CINAHL, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science. We found 15 of the 114 articles obtained from the search results to be relevant for full-text analysis of the context and impacts of the 5S application. To identify additional information particularly on its adoption as part of government initiatives, we also examined other types of resources including reference books, reports, didactic materials, government documents, and websites. The 15 empirical studies highlighted its application in primary health-care facilities and a wide range of hospital areas in Brazil, India, Jordan, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, the UK, and the USA. The review also found that 5S was considered to be the starting point for health-care quality improvement. Ten studies presented its impacts on quality improvements; the changes resulting from the 5S application were classified into the three dimensions of safety, efficiency, and patient-centeredness. Furthermore, 5S was adopted as part of government quality improvement strategies in India, Senegal, Sri Lanka, and Tanzania. 5S could be applied to health-care facilities regardless of locations. It could be not only a tool for health workers and

  15. Application of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization in Satellite Design%多学科设计优化技术在卫星设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈余军; 周志成; 曲广吉

    2013-01-01

    概述了多学科设计优化(Multidisciplinary Design Optimization,MDO)理论及其研究进展;结合卫星总体设计的特点和设计优化研究现状,分析了开展卫星总体MDO的难点,并指出了需要突破的关键技术;最后综合国内外MDO理论与应用研究的热点,提出了卫星总体MDO的发展方向.%This paper reviews the theory of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) and its development in latest year,summarizes the character of satellite system design and the current state-of-the-art in optimization,and analyzes the difficulties in MDO application to satellite system design.Then,the key technologies needed to overcome in MDO of satellite system design are pointed out.According to the current research on theory and application research of M DO,the potential development directions in MDO research of the satellite system design are proposed for the future researchers.

  16. Linking Satellite Remote Sensing Based Environmental Predictors to Disease: AN Application to the Spatiotemporal Modelling of Schistosomiasis in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrable, M.; Liss, A.; Kulinkina, A.; Koch, M.; Biritwum, N. K.; Ofosu, A.; Kosinski, K. C.; Gute, D. M.; Naumova, E. N.

    2016-06-01

    90% of the worldwide schistosomiasis burden falls on sub-Saharan Africa. Control efforts are often based on infrequent, small-scale health surveys, which are expensive and logistically difficult to conduct. Use of satellite imagery to predictively model infectious disease transmission has great potential for public health applications. Transmission of schistosomiasis requires specific environmental conditions to sustain freshwater snails, however has unknown seasonality, and is difficult to study due to a long lag between infection and clinical symptoms. To overcome this, we employed a comprehensive 8-year time-series built from remote sensing feeds. The purely environmental predictor variables: accumulated precipitation, land surface temperature, vegetative growth indices, and climate zones created from a novel climate regionalization technique, were regressed against 8 years of national surveillance data in Ghana. All data were aggregated temporally into monthly observations, and spatially at the level of administrative districts. The result of an initial mixed effects model had 41% explained variance overall. Stratification by climate zone brought the R2 as high as 50% for major zones and as high as 59% for minor zones. This can lead to a predictive risk model used to develop a decision support framework to design treatment schemes and direct scarce resources to areas with the highest risk of infection. This framework can be applied to diseases sensitive to climate or to locations where remote sensing would be better suited than health surveys.

  17. LINKING SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING BASED ENVIRONMENTAL PREDICTORS TO DISEASE: AN APPLICATION TO THE SPATIOTEMPORAL MODELLING OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wrable

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available 90% of the worldwide schistosomiasis burden falls on sub-Saharan Africa. Control efforts are often based on infrequent, small-scale health surveys, which are expensive and logistically difficult to conduct. Use of satellite imagery to predictively model infectious disease transmission has great potential for public health applications. Transmission of schistosomiasis requires specific environmental conditions to sustain freshwater snails, however has unknown seasonality, and is difficult to study due to a long lag between infection and clinical symptoms. To overcome this, we employed a comprehensive 8-year time-series built from remote sensing feeds. The purely environmental predictor variables: accumulated precipitation, land surface temperature, vegetative growth indices, and climate zones created from a novel climate regionalization technique, were regressed against 8 years of national surveillance data in Ghana. All data were aggregated temporally into monthly observations, and spatially at the level of administrative districts. The result of an initial mixed effects model had 41% explained variance overall. Stratification by climate zone brought the R2 as high as 50% for major zones and as high as 59% for minor zones. This can lead to a predictive risk model used to develop a decision support framework to design treatment schemes and direct scarce resources to areas with the highest risk of infection. This framework can be applied to diseases sensitive to climate or to locations where remote sensing would be better suited than health surveys.

  18. Applications of acoustic-gravity waves numerical modelling to tsunami signals observed by gravimetry satellites in very low orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissaud, Quentin; Garcia, Raphael; Martin, Roland; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Sladen, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    Acoustic and gravity waves propagating in planetary atmospheres have been studied intensively as markers of specific phenomena (tectonic events, explosions) or as contributors to atmosphere dynamics. To get a better understanding of the physics behind these dynamic processes, both acoustic and gravity waves propagation should be modeled in an attenuating and windy 3D atmosphere from the ground all the way to the upper thermosphere. Thus, in order to provide an efficient numerical tool at the regional or global scale we introduce a high-order finite- difference time domain (FDTD) approach that relies on the linearized compressible Navier-Stokes equations with non constant physical parameters (density, viscosities and speed of sound) and background velocities (wind). We present applications of these simulations to the propagation of gravity waves generated by tsunamis for realistic cases for which atmospheric models are extracted from empirical models including 3D variations of atmospheric parameters, and tsunami forcing at the ocean surface is extracted from finite-fault dislocation simulations. We describe the specific difficulties induced by the size of the simulation, the boundary conditions and the spherical geometry and compare the simulation outputs to data gathered by gravimetric satellites crossing gravity waves generated by tsunamis.

  19. A Microstrip Second-Iteration Square Koch Dipole Antenna for TT&C Downlink Applications in Small Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Simón

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A microstrip second-iteration square Koch dipole fractal antenna is presented. This meandered antenna has a total length of 56.56 cm including its feed gap and was printed on the diagonal of a 100 mm × 100 mm PCB card that acts as CubeSat face. The antenna that was designed to optimize space shows acceptable performance at its resonance frequency of 455 MHz within the 70-centimeter band, a band that is commonly used for TTC CubeSat subsystems. The designed fractal antenna shows a reflection coefficient below −20 dB, a VSWR below 1.2, a −10 dB bandwidth of 50 MHz, and impedance magnitude of 56 Ω, while the average maximum gain around its resonance frequency is 2.14 dBi. All these parameters make this designed antenna suitable for small satellite applications at a band where a linear λ/2 dipolar antenna working at 455 MHz would be about 32.97 cm long, which does not fit within the largest dimension of a CubeSat face corresponding to 14.14 cm.

  20. Geographic Object-based Image Analysis for Developing Cryospheric Surface Mapping Application using Remotely Sensed High-Resolution Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawak, S. D.; Luis, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    A novel semi-automated method was devised by coupling spectral index ratios (SIRs) and geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) to extract cryospheric geoinformation from very high resolution WorldView 2 (WV-2) satellite imagery. The present study addresses development of multiple rule sets for GEOBIA-based classification of WV-2 imagery to accurately extract land cover features in the Larsemann Hills, Antarctica. Multi-level segmentation process was applied to WV-2 image to generate different sizes of geographic image objects corresponding to various land cover features w.r.t scale parameter. Several SIRs were applied to geographic objects at different segmentation levels to classify landmass, man-made features, snow/ice, and water bodies. A specific attention was paid to water body class to identify water areas at the image level, considering their uneven appearance on landmass and ice. The results illustrated that synergetic usage of SIRs and GEOBIA can provide accurate means to identify land cover classes with an overall classification accuracy of ≈97%. In conclusion, the results suggest that GEOBIA is a powerful tool for carrying out automatic and semiautomatic analysis for most cryospheric remote-sensing applications, and the synergetic coupling with pixel-based SIRs is found to be a superior method for mining geoinformation.

  1. The pulsed beam facility at the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator in Florence: Overview and examples of applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taccetti, N.; Giuntini, L.; Casini, G.; Stefanini, A. A.; Chiari, M.; Fedi, M. E.; Mandò, P. A.

    2002-04-01

    An electrostatic chopper has been installed at the KN 3000 accelerator in Florence to obtain short beam pulses with a number of particles per pulse whose average value can be chosen by varying the current intensity at the deflector plates input. Beam pulses can be obtained containing an average number of particles per pulse from less than one to thousands. The transmitted beam pulses can be as short as 200 ps FWHM, at a repetition rate up to about 100 kHz. Among the many applications of the facility, the direct measurement of energy loss and straggling of protons in Kapton and aluminium is reported. In this measurement, the facility has been tuned for transmission of mainly single-proton pulses; the beam energy is directly measured downstream with a good energy-resolution detector, without and with absorbers in front. In general, measurements of this kind can be directed both to study the basic processes of charged particles interactions in materials, or more practically to obtain the effective values of energy parameters useful in many IBA applications, avoiding the need to rely on simulations or theoretical estimates. Also briefly described is an application to Si-detector testing. In this case, the facility has been tuned for transmission of pulses containing many hundreds of protons of energy Ep=2.5 MeV and the detector is directly exposed to the pulses. Spectra containing equally spaced peaks at energies multiple of Ep are obtained and the response linearity of the detector plus electronics system can thus be checked.

  2. The pulsed beam facility at the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator in Florence: Overview and examples of applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taccetti, N.; Giuntini, L. E-mail: giuntini@fi.infn.it; Casini, G.; Stefanini, A.A.; Chiari, M.; Fedi, M.E.; Mando, P.A

    2002-04-01

    An electrostatic chopper has been installed at the KN 3000 accelerator in Florence to obtain short beam pulses with a number of particles per pulse whose average value can be chosen by varying the current intensity at the deflector plates input. Beam pulses can be obtained containing an average number of particles per pulse from less than one to thousands. The transmitted beam pulses can be as short as 200 ps FWHM, at a repetition rate up to about 100 kHz. Among the many applications of the facility, the direct measurement of energy loss and straggling of protons in Kapton and aluminium is reported. In this measurement, the facility has been tuned for transmission of mainly single-proton pulses; the beam energy is directly measured downstream with a good energy-resolution detector, without and with absorbers in front. In general, measurements of this kind can be directed both to study the basic processes of charged particles interactions in materials, or more practically to obtain the effective values of energy parameters useful in many IBA applications, avoiding the need to rely on simulations or theoretical estimates. Also briefly described is an application to Si-detector testing. In this case, the facility has been tuned for transmission of pulses containing many hundreds of protons of energy E{sub p}=2.5 MeV and the detector is directly exposed to the pulses. Spectra containing equally spaced peaks at energies multiple of E{sub p} are obtained and the response linearity of the detector plus electronics system can thus be checked.

  3. LTE Adaptation for Mobile Broadband Satellite Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastia Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key factors for the successful deployment of mobile satellite systems in 4G networks is the maximization of the technology commonalities with the terrestrial systems. An effective way of achieving this objective consists in considering the terrestrial radio interface as the baseline for the satellite radio interface. Since the 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE standard will be one of the main players in the 4G scenario, along with other emerging technologies, such as mobile WiMAX; this paper analyzes the possible applicability of the 3GPP LTE interface to satellite transmission, presenting several enabling techniques for this adaptation. In particular, we propose the introduction of an inter-TTI interleaving technique that exploits the existing H-ARQ facilities provided by the LTE physical layer, the use of PAPR reduction techniques to increase the resilience of the OFDM waveform to non linear distortion, and the design of the sequences for Random Access, taking into account the requirements deriving from the large round trip times. The outcomes of this analysis show that, with the required proposed enablers, it is possible to reuse the existing terrestrial air interface to transmit over the satellite link.

  4. Summary of the Geocarto International Special Issue on "NASA Earth Science Satellite Data for Applications to Public Health" to be Published in Early 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2013-01-01

    At the 2011 Applied Science Public Health review held in Santa Fe, NM, it was announced that Dr. Dale Quattrochi from the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, John Haynes, Program Manager for the Applied Sciences Public Health program at NASA Headquarters, and Sue Estes, Deputy Program Manager for the NASA Applied Sciences Public Health Program located at the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) at the National Space Science and Technology Center (NSSTC) in Huntsville, AL, would edit a special issue of the journal Geocarto International on "NASA Earth Science Satellite Data for Applications to Public Health". This issue would be focused on compiling research papers that use NASA Earth Science satellite data for applications to public health. NASA's Public Health Program concentrates on advancing the realization of societal and economic benefits from NASA Earth Science in the areas of infectious disease, emergency preparedness and response, and environmental health (e.g., air quality). This application area as a focus of the NASA Applied Sciences program, has engaged public health institutions and officials with research scientists in exploring new applications of Earth Science satellite data as an integral part of public health decision- and policy-making at the local, state and federal levels. Of interest to this special issue are papers submitted on are topics such as epidemiologic surveillance in the areas of infectious disease, environmental health, and emergency response and preparedness, national and international activities to improve skills, share data and applications, and broaden the range of users who apply Earth Science satellite data in public health decisions, or related focus areas.. This special issue has now been completed and will be published n early 2014. This talk will present an overview of the papers that will be published in this special Geocarto International issue.

  5. TREASURE mobile app: A satellite-enabled application for personalized heatwave risk based on location and user profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramitsoglou, I.; Katsouyanni, K.; Analitis, A.; Sismanidis, P.; Kiranoudis, C. T.

    2016-12-01

    High temperatures and heatwaves are associated with large increases in mortality, especially among susceptible individuals living in urban areas. The within-city variability in the effects associated with specific area characteristics, including the Urban Heat Island effect, have to be taken into account to estimate the level of heatwave risk associated with a specific city location. Real-time appraisal and quantification of spatially distributed heatwave risk is therefore required to develop innovative applications to safeguard citizens' health. TREASURE app (http://treasure.eu-project-sites.com/) integrates the expertise of epidemiologists, Earth Observation scientists and IT developers into intelligent operational and real-time heatwave risk assessment for citizens. The app provides the user with an assessment of personalized location-specific heatwave risk. For the development of the app an epidemiological analysis of a long series of mortality data against measured data series has been carried out to identify the temperature level associated with the minimum mortality (threshold) and the change in risk of death for increases in temperature above this level, in the warm period. Published results have been also taken into account. For the estimation of heatwave hazard thermal infrared Earth Observation data were exploited so as to provide spatially and temporally detailed air and land surface temperatures. An advanced workflow has been developed that uses 4 km/5' geostationary TIR data from EUMETSAT MSG2-SEVIRI satellite, output from the Global Forecast System weather model and SAFNWC software. This workflow consists of the preprocessing of the EO data and the retrieval of LST and TA at an enhanced spatial resolution of 1km. The mobile app was developed for, evaluated in and endorsed by two Mediterranean cities with different characteristics, namely Athens (GR) and Palma (ES) and has set the ground for application to any other European city.

  6. Recent developments and applications for the University of Texas Thermal Neutron Imaging Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, D J; Charlton, W S

    2004-10-01

    The Thermal Neutron Imaging Facility (UT-TNIF) at the University of Texas at Austin is being modified to begin work with the non-destructive evaluation of carbon fiber composite materials intended for use in space. The use of high-resolution borated micro channel plate (MCP) detectors has been investigated. MCNP calculations to redesign the external radiation shielding to allow UT-TNIF operation at higher reactor powers and to minimize internal neutron scattering have been performed.

  7. New irradiation facility for biomedical applications at the RA-3 reactor thermal column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M; Quintana, J; Ojeda, J; Langan, S; Thorp, S; Pozzi, E; Sztejnberg, M; Estryk, G; Nosal, R; Saire, E; Agrazar, H; Graiño, F

    2009-07-01

    A new irradiation facility has been developed in the RA-3 reactor in order to perform trials for the treatment of liver metastases using boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). RA-3 is a production research reactor that works continuously five days a week. It had a thermal column with a small cross section access tunnel that was not accessible during operation. The objective of the work was to perform the necessary modifications to obtain a facility for irradiating a portion of the human liver. This irradiation facility must be operated without disrupting the normal reactor schedule and requires a highly thermalized neutron spectrum, a thermal flux of around 10(10) n cm(-2)s(-1) that is as isotropic and uniform as possible, as well as on-line instrumentation. The main modifications consist of enlarging the access tunnel inside the thermal column to the suitable dimensions, reducing the gamma dose rate at the irradiation position, and constructing properly shielded entrance gates enabled by logical control to safely irradiate and withdraw samples with the reactor at full power. Activation foils and a neutron shielded graphite ionization chamber were used for a preliminary in-air characterization of the irradiation site. The constructed facility is very practical and easy to use. Operational authorization was obtained from radioprotection personnel after confirming radiation levels did not significantly increase after the modification. A highly thermalized and homogenous irradiation field was obtained. Measurements in the empty cavity showed a thermal flux near 10(10) n cm(-2)s(-1), a cadmium ratio of 4100 for gold foils and a gamma dose rate of approximately 5 Gy h(-1).

  8. Facile fabrication of boron nitride nanosheets-amorphous carbon hybrid film for optoelectronic applications

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Shanhong

    2015-01-01

    A novel boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs)-amorphous carbon (a-C) hybrid film has been deposited successfully on silicon substrates by simultaneous electrochemical deposition, and showed a good integrity of this B-C-N composite film by the interfacial bonding. This synthesis can potentially provide the facile control of the B-C-N composite film for the potential optoelectronic devices. This journal is

  9. EV Charging Facilities and Their Application in LV Feeders with Photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Yang, Guangya; Træholt, Chresten

    2013-01-01

    for the different locations in the feeder. With time-series simulations, we quantify the energy size required for a station ESS. A Belgian LV residential grid, modeled using real PV generation and load profiles, is used as case study. The method and simulation results show the effectiveness of using public EV...... charging facilities with the additional function of voltage regulation in feeders with PV....

  10. A high quality voice coder with integrated echo canceller and voice activity detector for mobile satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondoz, A. M.; Evans, B. G.

    1993-01-01

    In the last decade, low bit rate speech coding research has received much attention resulting in newly developed, good quality, speech coders operating at as low as 4.8 Kb/s. Although speech quality at around 8 Kb/s is acceptable for a wide variety of applications, at 4.8 Kb/s more improvements in quality are necessary to make it acceptable to the majority of applications and users. In addition to the required low bit rate with acceptable speech quality, other facilities such as integrated digital echo cancellation and voice activity detection are now becoming necessary to provide a cost effective and compact solution. In this paper we describe a CELP speech coder with integrated echo canceller and a voice activity detector all of which have been implemented on a single DSP32C with 32 KBytes of SRAM. The quality of CELP coded speech has been improved significantly by a new codebook implementation which also simplifies the encoder/decoder complexity making room for the integration of a 64-tap echo canceller together with a voice activity detector.

  11. Globally gridded terrestrial water storage variations from GRACE satellite gravimetry for hydrometeorological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangjing; Dobslaw, Henryk; Thomas, Maik

    2016-07-01

    Globally gridded estimates of monthly-mean anomalies of terrestrial water storage (TWS) are estimated from the most recent GRACE release 05a of GFZ Potsdam in order to provide non-geodetic users a convenient access to state-of-the-art GRACE monitoring data. We use an ensemble of five global land model simulations with different physics and different atmospheric forcing to obtain reliable gridded scaling factors required to correct for spatial leakage introduced during data processing. To allow for the application of this data-set for large-scale monitoring tasks, model validation efforts, and subsequently also data assimilation experiments, globally gridded estimates of TWS uncertainties that include (i) measurement, (ii) leakage and (iii) re-scaling errors are provided as well. The results are generally consistent with the gridded data provided by Tellus, but deviate in some basins which are largely affected by the uncertainties of the model information required for re-scaling, where the approach based on the median of a small ensemble of global land models introduced in this paper leads to more robust results.

  12. Orbital motion in strongly perturbed environments applications to asteroid, comet and planetary satellite orbiters

    CERN Document Server

    Scheeres, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    The proposed book will provide a detailed, technical introduction to the analysis of orbital motion in strongly perturbed environments, focusing on motion about small Solar System bodies, such as comets and asteroids. The author shows why such small bodies are of interest and why they can be used as a motivation for the general analysis of orbital mechanics. He shows how it is possible to model the small body environment, including specialised cases such as those of binary asteroids, comets and ‘rubble piles’, and how the fundamental equations of motion are derived. The properties of the various solutions to the equations of motion are described and the methods of analysis and their application are discussed. Both ballistic motion and powered motion on and about small bodies are considered and case studies for different small body missions are presented. The author concludes his comprehensive treatment with a discussion of the mechanics of multi-body small body systems and a review of advanced topics and ...

  13. Development and Application of Radiation Heating Facility%辐射加热设备的开发及运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈连忠; 张友华; 陈海群; 林国胜; 欧东斌

    2011-01-01

    介绍了中国航天空气动力技术研究院辐射加热设备的开发及运用情况.设备包括0-150 kW的石英灯加热器,试验舱,真空系统以及控制系统.在辐射加热设备上对低密度隔热材料在不同低压下的隔热性能进行了研究,所用模型横截面积为100 mmx100 mm,最长运行时间2000 s,低密度隔热材料的表面温度高达1000 K,试验舱最低压力为10 Pa.%This paper reports the development and application of radiation heating facility in China Academy of Aerospace Aerodynamics (CAAA). The facility includes 0 to 150 kW quartz lamps heater,test chamber,vacuum system and control system. The performances of low density thermal insulation materials in deferent low pressures have been studied on the radiation heating facility. The model cross size is 100 mm x 100 mm. The maximum running time is 2 000 s. The surface temperature of low density thermal insulation materials is up to 1 000 K. The minimum pressure in the test chamber is 10 Pa.

  14. Application of Satellite Remote Sensing to Identify Climatic and Anthropogenic Changes Related to Water and Health Conditions in Emerging Megacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, A. S.; Serman, E. A.; Jutla, A.

    2014-12-01

    By 2050, more than 70% of the world's population is expected to be living in a city. In many of the urbanizing regions in Asia and Africa, most new development is taking place without adequate urban or regional planning, and a majority population is crowded into densely populated unplanned settlements, also known as slums. During the same period, precipitation and temperature patterns are likely to see significant changes in many of these regions while coastal megacities will have to accommodate sea-level rise in their ecosystems. The rapid increase in population is usually observed in fringes of the urban sprawl without adequate water or sanitation facilities or access to other municipal amenities (such as utilities, healthcare, and education). Collectively, these issues make the ever increasing slum dwellers in emerging megacities significantly vulnerable to a combination of climatic and anthropogenic threats. However, how the growth of unplanned urban and peri-urban sprawl and simultaneous change in climatic patterns have impacted public health in the emerging megacities remain largely unexplored due to lack of readily available and usable data. We employ a number of Remote Sensing products (GRACE, LANDSAT, MODIS) to bridge above knowledge gaps and to identify relevant hydrologic and anthropogenic changes in emerging megacities that are most vulnerable due to the climate-water-health nexus. We explore one of the largest and the fastest growing megacities in the world - Dhaka, Bangladesh - on identifying and investigating the changes in the water environment and growth of slum areas, and impact on water services and health outcomes. The hydroclimatology of South Asia is highly seasonal and the asymmetric availability of water affects vast areas of Bangladesh differently in space and time, exposing the population of Dhaka region to both droughts and floods and periodic spring-fall outbreaks of diarrheal diseases, such as cholera and rotavirus. This research

  15. Using NASA Satellite and Model Analysis for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, J. M.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Chandler, W. S.; Whitlock, C. H.; Westberg, D. J.; Zhang, T.

    2009-12-01

    This presentation describes the successful tailoring of NASA research data sets to meet environmental information needs of the renewable energy sector. The data sets currently used for these purposes include the NASA/GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment) Surface Radiation Budget data set (SRB), the FLASHFlux (Fast Longwave and SHortwave Fluxes from Global CERES and MODIS observations), and the NASA GSFC Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) versions 4.0.3 and 5.0/5.1. These data are available through the Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) web interface (http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse). The NASA Earth Science Applied Science program has supported the development of the SSE web interface through a project called the Prediction of World Energy Resource (POWER, http://power.larc.nasa.gov/). The paths of modifying/preparing these data sets for energy applications for the SSE web site are described. These data help engineers, architects, and project analysts develop feasibility studies for renewable energy technology projects, make regional assessments and long-term energy market forecasts. Thus, small-scale projects to regional energy analysis may benefit from this information. The SSE web site has nearly 50,000 users worldwide and version 6.0 is now averaging 250,000 and 60,000 hits and data downloads per month, respectively. Examples of the usage of these data sets are shown to help describe the need and impact of this information. These examples come from the many collaborative partners in this work such as the DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and the Natural Resources Canada RETScreen project. The presentation also gives potential future data needs of these types of technologies and how NASA data could help contribute to meeting those needs. This is particularly pertinent facing the growing needs to develop clean energy sources to

  16. Cooperative and cognitive satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzinotas, Symeon; De Gaudenzi, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative and Cognitive Satellite Systems provides a solid overview of the current research in the field of cooperative and cognitive satellite systems, helping users understand how to incorporate state-of-the-art communication techniques in innovative satellite network architectures to enable the next generation of satellite systems. The book is edited and written by top researchers and practitioners in the field, providing a comprehensive explanation of current research that allows users to discover future technologies and their applications, integrate satellite and terrestrial systems

  17. First calibration results of Jason-2 and SARAL/AltiKa satellite altimeters from the Qianli Yan permanent Cal/Val facilities, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Zhou, Xinghua; Mertikas, S. P.; Zhu, Lin; Yang, Long; Lei, Ning

    2017-06-01

    This work presents the first calibration results for the Jason-2 and the SARAL/AltiKa altimetric missions by using the permanent calibration facilities on the Qianli Yan islet (China). Qianli Yan is located in the Yellow Sea and only ∼3 km from the Jason-2 and SARAL/AltiKa crossover point. Analysis of the Jason-2 and SARAL/AltiKa waveform data and geophysical data over the Qianli Yan calibration area has proven that the altimeters and microwave radiometers are not contaminated by the mainland or the islet. The accuracies of the regional geoid model, provided by the First Institute of Oceanography (FIO), State Oceanic Administration of China, and the DTU10 MSS model were assessed by a GNSS buoy experiment. The results indicated that the FIO model is suitable for altimeter calibration in the Qianli Yan area. From the observations and the geoid model, the absolute biases for the Jason-2 and SARAL/AltiKa altimeters (2013-2014) were determined as 21.0 ± 5.9 and -44.0 ± 7.3 mm, respectively. The 2 years' results indicated that the Jason-2 bias had no trend. However, the SARAL/AltiKa bias presented a downward trend that was more stable in 2014 than in 2013. The Qianli Yan results are consistent with those determined by other international dedicated calibration sites and crossover analysis.

  18. Satellite Control Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Bak, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The Satellite Laboratory at the Department of Control Engineering of Aalborg University (SatLab) is a dynamic motion facility designed for analysis and test of micro spacecraft. A unique feature of the laboratory is that it provides a completely gravity-free environment. A test spacecraft...... is suspended on an air bearing, and rotates freely in 3 degrees of freedom. In order to avoid any influence of the gravitational force the centre of mass of the satellite is placed in the geometric centre of the air bearing by an automatic balancing system. The test spacecraft is equipped with a three......-axis magnetometer, three piezoelectric gyros, and four reaction wheels in a tetrahedron configuration. The operation of the spacecraft is fully autonomous. The data flow between the transducers and the onboard computer placed physically outside the satellite is provided by a radio link. The purpose...

  19. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palukaitis, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Satellite RNAs and satellite viruses are extraviral components that can affect either the pathogenicity, the accumulation, or both of their associated viruses while themselves being dependent on the associated viruses as helper viruses for their infection. Most of these satellite RNAs are noncoding RNAs, and in many cases, have been shown to alter the interaction of their helper viruses with their hosts. In only a few cases have the functions of these satellite RNAs in such interactions been studied in detail. In particular, work on the satellite RNAs of Cucumber mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus have provided novel insights into RNAs functioning as noncoding RNAs. These effects are described and potential roles for satellite RNAs in the processes involved in symptom intensification or attenuation are discussed. In most cases, models describing these roles involve some aspect of RNA silencing or its suppression, either directly or indirectly involving the particular satellite RNA.

  20. Applications Technology Satellite 6 - Upgrading the life style of millions of people. [health and educational TV broadcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thole, J. M.; Dornbrand, H.

    1974-01-01

    The primary objective of the ATS-6 is to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a high-powered geosynchronous communications satellite capable of relaying color TV and other high-quality signals on multiple frequencies to relatively simple and inexpensive ground receivers. Other capabilities include providing a link between ships, aircraft, or other earth satellites (e.g., low-orbit meteorological satellites) and the ground. The ATS-6 flight-objective accomplishments and subsystem performance for its first 30 days in orbit are summarized. Success is predicted for most of the experiments carried.

  1. Principle and geomorphological applicability of summit level and base level technique using Aster Gdem satellite-derived data and the original software Baz

    OpenAIRE

    Akihisa Motoki; Kenji Freire Motoki; Susanna Eleonora Sichel; Samuel da Silva; José Ribeiro Aires

    2015-01-01

    This article presents principle and geomorphological applicability of summit level technique using Aster Gdem satellite-derived topographicdata. Summit level corresponds to thevirtualtopographic surface constituted bylocalhighest points, such as peaks and plateau tops, and reconstitutes palaeo-geomorphology before the drainage erosion. Summit level map is efficient for reconstitution of palaeo-surfaces and detection of active tectonic movement. Base level is thevirtualsurface composed oflocal...

  2. Advances in satellite oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, O. B.; Cheney, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Technical advances and recent applications of active and passive satellite remote sensing techniques to the study of oceanic processes are summarized. The general themes include infrared and visible radiometry, active and passive microwave sensors, and buoy location systems. The surface parameters of sea surface temperature, windstream, sea state, altimetry, color, and ice are treated as applicable under each of the general methods.

  3. Facile and Gram-scale Synthesis of Metal-free Catalysts: Toward Realistic Applications for Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ok-Hee; Cho, Yong-Hun; Chung, Dong Young; Kim, Min Jeong; Yoo, Ji Mun; Park, Ji Eun; Choe, Heeman; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2015-03-01

    Although numerous reports on nonprecious metal catalysts for replacing expensive Pt-based catalysts have been published, few of these studies have demonstrated their practical application in fuel cells. In this work, we report graphitic carbon nitride and carbon nanofiber hybrid materials synthesized by a facile and gram-scale method via liquid-based reactions, without the use of toxic materials or a high pressure-high temperature reactor, for use as fuel cell cathodes. The resulting materials exhibited remarkable methanol tolerance, selectivity, and stability even without a metal dopant. Furthermore, these completely metal-free catalysts exhibited outstanding performance as cathode materials in an actual fuel cell device: a membrane electrode assembly with both acidic and alkaline polymer electrolytes. The fabrication method and remarkable performance of the single cell produced in this study represent progressive steps toward the realistic application of metal-free cathode electrocatalysts in fuel cells.

  4. Facile preparation of hierarchically porous carbons from metal-organic gels and their application in energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Qiu, Bin; Xia, Dingguo; Zou, Ruqiang

    2013-06-01

    Porous carbon materials have numerous applications due to their thermal and chemical stability, high surface area and low densities. However, conventional preparing porous carbon through zeolite or silica templates casting has been criticized by the costly and/or toxic procedure. Creating three-dimensional (3D) carbon products is another challenge. Here, we report a facile way to prepare porous carbons from metal-organic gel (MOG) template, an extended metal-organic framework (MOF) structure. We surprisingly found that the carbon products inherit the highly porous nature of MOF and combine with gel's integrated character, which results in hierarchical porous architectures with ultrahigh surface areas and quite large pore volumes. They exhibit considerable hydrogen uptake and excellent electrochemical performance as cathode material for lithium-sulfur battery. This work provides a general method to fast and clean synthesis of porous carbon materials and opens new avenues for the application of metal-organic gel in energy storage.

  5. Facile and gram-scale synthesis of metal-free catalysts: toward realistic applications for fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ok-Hee; Cho, Yong-Hun; Chung, Dong Young; Kim, Min Jeong; Yoo, Ji Mun; Park, Ji Eun; Choe, Heeman; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2015-03-02

    Although numerous reports on nonprecious metal catalysts for replacing expensive Pt-based catalysts have been published, few of these studies have demonstrated their practical application in fuel cells. In this work, we report graphitic carbon nitride and carbon nanofiber hybrid materials synthesized by a facile and gram-scale method via liquid-based reactions, without the use of toxic materials or a high pressure-high temperature reactor, for use as fuel cell cathodes. The resulting materials exhibited remarkable methanol tolerance, selectivity, and stability even without a metal dopant. Furthermore, these completely metal-free catalysts exhibited outstanding performance as cathode materials in an actual fuel cell device: a membrane electrode assembly with both acidic and alkaline polymer electrolytes. The fabrication method and remarkable performance of the single cell produced in this study represent progressive steps toward the realistic application of metal-free cathode electrocatalysts in fuel cells.

  6. Facile synthesis of porous Co3O4 nanoplates for supercapacitor applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tao Geng; Li Zhang; Hongyan Wang; Keying Zhang; Xia Zhou

    2015-09-01

    Porous tricobalt tetraoxide (Co3O4) nanoplates with large aspect ratio have been obtained by annealing Co(OH)2 precursor nanoplates synthesized by a facile reflux method without the need for any template or surfactant. After the heat treatment, the as-obtained phase-pure Co3O4 nanoplates with a wellretained structure were applied as the electrode material for supercapacitors, and the sample exhibits excellent performance with a high specific capacitance of 225 F g–1 after 2000 charge–discharge cycles at 2 A g–1, corresponding to a retention of 97% of the initial capacitance.

  7. Facile Synthesis of Novel Nanostructured MnO2Thin Films and Their Application in Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia H

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanostructured α-MnO2thin films with different morphologies are grown on the platinum substrates by a facile solution method without any assistance of template or surfactant. Microstructural characterization reveals that morphology evolution from dandelion-like spheres to nanoflakes of the as-grown MnO2is controlled by synthesis temperature. The capacitive behavior of the MnO2thin films with different morphologies are studied by cyclic voltammetry. The α-MnO2thin films composed of dandelion-like spheres exhibit high specific capacitance, good rate capability, and excellent long-term cycling stability.

  8. An application of the IMC software to controller design for the JPL LSCL Experiment Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guoming; Skelton, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    A software package which Integrates Model reduction and Controller design (The IMC software) is applied to design controllers for the JPL Large Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment Facility. Modal Cost Analysis is used for the model reduction, and various Output Covariance Constraints are guaranteed by the controller design. The main motivation is to find the controller with the 'best' performance with respect to output variances. Indeed it is shown that by iterating on the reduced order design model, the controller designed does have better performance than that obtained with the first model reduction.

  9. Thermodynamic Performance Indicators for Offshore Oil and Gas Processing: Application to Four North Sea Facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldsund, Mari; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    achievable potential, they should evaluate the use of theoretical potential, and they should evaluate the total use of energy resources. The performance indicators are tested on four North Sea facilities, and the results are discussed. We recommend the use of a set of indicators for a thorough evaluation......Well-defined performance indicators can motivate optimal operation of offshore oil and gas platforms. We evaluate several thermodynamic performance indicators presented in the literature according to three criteria: Thermodynamic performance indicators should evaluate the use of technically...

  10. Catalytic Fuel Conversion Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility enables unique catalysis research related to power and energy applications using military jet fuels and alternative fuels. It is equipped with research...

  11. Centriolar satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollenaere, Maxim A X; Mailand, Niels; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Centriolar satellites are small, microscopically visible granules that cluster around centrosomes. These structures, which contain numerous proteins directly involved in centrosome maintenance, ciliogenesis, and neurogenesis, have traditionally been viewed as vehicles for protein trafficking...... highlight newly discovered regulatory mechanisms targeting centriolar satellites and their functional status, and we discuss how defects in centriolar satellite components are intimately linked to a wide spectrum of human diseases....

  12. 75 FR 37471 - Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... license amendment application, see the application for amendment which is available for public inspection..., which include the cooling water, starting air, lubrication, intake and exhaust, and fuel oil systems... boiling (DNBR) limits, heat flux hot channel factor (F Q (Z)) limits, nuclear enthalpy rise hot...

  13. Needs for registration and rectification of satellite imagery for land use and land cover and hydrologic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, L.

    1982-01-01

    The use of satellite imagery and data for registration of land use, land cover and hydrology was discussed. Maps and aggregations are made from existing the data in concert with other data in a geographic information system. Basic needs for registration and rectification of satellite imagery related to specifying, reformatting, and overlaying the data are noted. It is found that the data are sufficient for users who must expand much effort in registering data.

  14. Stability of orbits around planetary satellites considering a disturbing body in an elliptical orbit: Applications to Europa and Ganymede

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso dos Santos, Josué; Carvalho, Jean Paulo; Vilhena de Moraes, Rodolpho

    Europa and Ganymede are two of the four Jupiter’s moons which compose the Galilean satellite. These ones are planetary satellites of greater interest at the present moment among the scientific community. There are some missions being planned to visit them and and the Jovian system. One of them is the cooperation between NASA and ESA for the Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM). In this mission are planned the insertion of the spacecrafts JEO (Jupiter Europa Orbiter) and JGO (Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter) into Europa and Ganymede’s orbit. Thus, there is a great necessity for having a better comprehension of the dynamics of the orbits around this planetary satellite. This comprehension is essential for the success of this type of mission. In this context, this work aims to perform a search for low-altitude orbits around these planetary satellites. An emphasis is given in polar orbits. These orbits can be useful in the planning of aerospace activities to be conducted around this planetary satellite, with respect to the stability of orbits of artificial satellites. The study considers orbits of an artificial satellite around Europa and Ganymede under the influence of the third-body perturbation (the gravitational attraction of Jupiter) and the polygenic perturbations. These last ones occur due to forces such as the non-uniform distribution of mass (J2 and J3) of the main (central) body. A simplified dynamic model for polygenic perturbations is used. A new model for the third-body disturbance is presented considering it in an elliptical orbit. The Lagrange planetary equations, which compose a system of nonlinear differential equations, are used to describe the orbital motion of the artificial satellite around Ganymede. The equations showed here are developed in closed form to avoid expansions in inclination and eccentricity.

  15. The BioDyn facility on ISS: Advancing biomaterial production in microgravity for commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Niki; Wessling, Francis; Deuser, Mark; Anderson, C. D.; Lewis, Marian

    1999-01-01

    The primary goals of the BioDyn program are to foster use of the microgravity environment for commercial production of bio-materials from cells, and to develop services and processes for obtaining these materials through space processing. The scope of products includes commercial bio-molecules such as cytokines, other cell growth regulatory proteins, hormones, monoclonal antibodies and enzymes; transplantable cells or tissues which can be improved by low-G processes, or which cannot be obtained through standard processes in earth gravity; agriculture biotechnology products from plant cells; microencapsulation for diabetes treatment; and factors regulating cellular aging. To facilitate BioDyn's commercial science driven goals, hardware designed for ISS incorporates the flexibility for interchange between the different ISS facilities including the glovebox, various thermal units and centrifuges. By providing a permanent research facility, ISS is the critical space-based platform required by scientists for carrying out the long-term experiments necessary for developing bio-molecules and tissues using several cell culture modalities including suspension and anchorage-dependent cell types.

  16. Potential for Ammonia Recapture by Farm Woodlands: Design and Application of a New Experimental Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Theobald

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing pressure on farmers in Europe to reduce the emissions of ammonia from their land. Due to the current financial climate in which farmers have to operate, it is important to identify ammonia control measures that can be adopted with minimum cost. The planting of trees around farmland and buildings has been identified as a potentially effective and low-cost measure to enhance ammonia recapture at a farm level and reduce long-range atmospheric transport. This work assesses experimentally what fraction of ammonia farm woodlands could potentially remove from the atmosphere. We constructed an experimental facility in southern Scotland to simulate a woodland shelterbelt planted in proximity to a small poultry unit. By measuring horizontal and vertical ammonia concentration profiles within the woodland, and comparing this to the concentration of an inert tracer (SF6 we estimate the depletion of ammonia due to dry deposition to the woodland canopy. Together with measurements of mean ammonia concentrations and throughfall fluxes of nitrogen, this information is used to provide a first estimate of the fraction of emitted ammonia that is recaptured by the woodland canopy. Analysis of these data give a lower limit of recapture of emitted ammonia, at the experimental facility, of 3%. By careful design of shelterbelt woodlands this figure could be significantly higher.

  17. Satellite theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozai, Y.

    1981-04-01

    The dynamical characteristics of the natural satellite of Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are analyzed on the basis of the solar tidal perturbation factor and the oblateness factor of the primary planet for each satellite. For the inner satellites, for which the value of the solar tidal factor is much smaller than the planetary oblateness factor, it is shown that the eccentricity and inclination of satellite orbits are generally very small and almost constant; several pairs of inner satellites are also found to exhibit commensurable mean motions, or secular accelerations in mean longitude. In the case of the outer satellites, for which solar perturbations are dominant, secular perturbations and long-period perturbations may be derived by the solution of equations of motion reduced to one degree of freedom. The existence of a few satellites, termed intermediary satellites, for which the solar tidal perturbation is on the order of the planetary oblateness factor, is also observed, and the pole of the orbital plane of the satellite is noted to execute a complex motion around the pole of the planet or the orbital plane of the planet.

  18. Varying applicability of four different satellite-derived soil moisture products to global gridded crop model evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Toru; Iizumi, Toshichika; Okada, Masashi; Nishimori, Motoki; Grünwald, Thomas; Prueger, John; Cescatti, Alessandro; Korres, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Marius; Carrara, Arnaud; Loubet, Benjamin; Ceschia, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Satellite-derived daily surface soil moisture products have been increasingly available, but their applicability to global gridded crop model (GGCM) evaluation is unclear. This study compares four different soil moisture products with the flux tower site observation at 18 cropland sites across the world where either of maize, soybean, rice and wheat is grown. These products include the first and second versions of Climate Change Initiative Soil Moisture (CCISM-1 and CCISM-2) datasets distributed by the European Space Agency and two different AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System)-derived soil moisture datasets, separately provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (AMSRE-J) and U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (AMSRE-N). The comparison demonstrates varying reliability of these products in representing major characteristics of temporal pattern of cropland soil moisture by product and crop. Possible reasons for the varying reliability include the differences in sensors, algorithms, bands and criteria used when estimating soil moisture. Both the CCISM-1 and CCISM-2 products appear the most reliable for soybean- and wheat-growing area. However, the percentage of valid data of these products is always lower than other products due to relatively strict criteria when merging data derived from multiple sources, although the CCISM-2 product has much more data with valid retrievals than the CCISM-1 product. The reliability of the AMSRE-J product is the highest for maize- and rice-growing areas and comparable to or slightly lower than the CCISM products for soybean- and wheat-growing areas. The AMSRE-N is the least reliable in most location-crop combinations. The reliability of the products for rice-growing area is far lower than that of other upland crops likely due to the extensive use of irrigation and patch distribution of rice paddy in the area examined here. We conclude that the CCISM-1, CCISM-2 and AMSRE

  19. MASS DEFLECTOR APPLICATION FOR CERN’s ON-LINE ISOTOPE SEPARATOR FACILITY 073

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Conejo, J

    2004-01-01

    The mass deflector application for the General Purpose Separator GPS allows splitting a beam of particles, characterized by a central mass, into two particle beams, which are sent to a high-mass and low-mass beam lines.

  20. MASS DEFLECTOR APPLICATION FOR CERN’s ON-LINE ISOTOPE SEPARATOR FACILITY 077

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Conejo, J

    2004-01-01

    The mass deflector application for the General Purpose Separator GPS allows splitting a beam of particles, characterized by a central mass, into two particle beams, which are sent to a high-mass and low-mass beam lines.