WorldWideScience

Sample records for satellite 1c irs

  1. Internal Calibration of HJ-1-C Satellite SAR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The HJ-1-C satellite is a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR satellite of a small constellation for environmental and disaster monitoring. At present, it is in orbit and working well. The SAR system uses a mesh reflector antenna and centralized power amplifier, and has an internal calibration function in orbit. This study introduces the internal calibration modes and signal paths. The design and realization of the internal calibrator are discussed in detail. Finally, the internal calibration data acquired in orbit are also analyzed.

  2. Design and Analysis of HJ-1-C Satellite SAR Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Shi-kun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With truss deployable mesh parabolic reflector, the HJ-1-C SAR antenna has complex structure and multiple steps during the deployed processing. The design of the antenna is difficult in terms of deployed reliability and electrical performance. This paper makes intensive research on system, structure and electrical design, and the analysis of mechanical and thermal performance in the actual space conditions is also presented. The successful deploying in orbit and high image quality of the HJ-1-C satellite indicate that the mechanical, electronic, thermal and reliability design of the antenna satisfy the project requirement, and these research provides valuable experience for the design of the centralized mesh parabolic SAR antenna.

  3. Cross calibration of IRS-P4 OCM satellite sensor

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Desa, E.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Naik, P.; Nayak, S.R.

    The cross calibration of ocean color satellite sensor, IRS-P4 OCM using the radiative transfer code, with SeaWiFS as a reference are presented here. Since the bands of IRS-P4 OCM are identical to those of SeaWiFS and SeaWiFS has been continuously...

  4. System Design and In-orbit Verification of the HJ-1-C SAR Satellite

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Run-ning; Jiang Xiu-peng

    2014-01-01

    HJ-1-C is a SAR satellite owned by the Chinese Environment and Natural Disaster Monitoring constellation, and works together with the optical satellites HJ-1-A/B for monitoring environment and natural disasters. In this paper, the system design and characteristics of the first Chinese civil SAR satellite are described. In addition, the interface relation between SAR payload and platform is studied. Meanwhile, the data transmission capability, attitude, power, and temperature control that supp...

  5. System Design and In-orbit Verification of the HJ-1-C SAR Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Run-ning

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available HJ-1-C is a SAR satellite owned by the Chinese Environment and Natural Disaster Monitoring constellation, and works together with the optical satellites HJ-1-A/B for monitoring environment and natural disasters. In this paper, the system design and characteristics of the first Chinese civil SAR satellite are described. In addition, the interface relation between SAR payload and platform is studied. Meanwhile, the data transmission capability, attitude, power, and temperature control that support SAR imaging are reviewed. Finally, the corresponding in-orbit verification results are presented.

  6. Geo-correction Algorithm Based on Equivalent RD Model for ScanSAR of HJ-1-C Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jia-yin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available HJ-1-C satellite is the first Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR satellite for civilian use in China, and it has a strip and scan mode. According to the characteristics of the ScanSAR of the HJ-1-C satellite, a geo-correction algorithm based on an equivalent RD model has been outlined in this paper on the basis of an ECS image processing algorithm and a traditional Range-Doppler location method. An azimuth mosaic was presented by a time series relationship, then the different burst was stitched by range, and the equivalent parameters were fitted to locations on the RD model. Finally, the ScanSAR image was geo-corrected. The HJ-1-C satellite data results showed that the location accuracy of ScanSAR for the HJ-1-C satellite was less than 100 m, and the geo-correction algorithm was realized in 10 s in fewer than 24 parallel cores.

  7. Global Land Surface Emissivity Retrieved From Satellite Ultraspectral IR Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, D. K.; Larar, A. M.; Liu, Xu; Smith, W. L.; Strow, L. L.; Yang, Ping; Schlussel, P.; Calbet, X.

    2011-01-01

    Ultraspectral resolution infrared (IR) radiances obtained from nadir observations provide information about the atmosphere, surface, aerosols, and clouds. Surface spectral emissivity (SSE) and surface skin temperature from current and future operational satellites can and will reveal critical information about the Earth s ecosystem and land-surface-type properties, which might be utilized as a means of long-term monitoring of the Earth s environment and global climate change. In this study, fast radiative transfer models applied to the atmosphere under all weather conditions are used for atmospheric profile and surface or cloud parameter retrieval from ultraspectral and/or hyperspectral spaceborne IR soundings. An inversion scheme, dealing with cloudy as well as cloud-free radiances observed with ultraspectral IR sounders, has been developed to simultaneously retrieve atmospheric thermodynamic and surface or cloud microphysical parameters. This inversion scheme has been applied to the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). Rapidly produced SSE is initially evaluated through quality control checks on the retrievals of other impacted surface and atmospheric parameters. Initial validation of retrieved emissivity spectra is conducted with Namib and Kalahari desert laboratory measurements. Seasonal products of global land SSE and surface skin temperature retrieved with IASI are presented to demonstrate seasonal variation of SSE.

  8. Temperature-dependent absorption cross-section measurements of 1-butene (1-C4H8) in VUV and IR

    KAUST Repository

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami

    2013-01-01

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and infrared (IR) absorption cross-section measurements of 1-butene (1-C4H8; CH2=CHCH2CH3; Butylene) are reported over the temperature range of 296-529K. The VUV measurements are performed between 115 and 205nm using synchrotron radiation as a tunable VUV light source. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is employed to measure absorption cross-section and band strengths in the IR region between 1.54 and 25μm (~6500-400cm-1). The measured room-temperature VUV and IR absorption cross-sections are compared with available literature data and are found to be in good agreement. The oscillator strength for the electronic transition (A1A\\'→X1A\\') around 150-205nm is determined to be 0.32±0.01.The gas temperature has a strong effect on both VUV and IR spectra. Measurements made in the VUV region show that the peak value of the band cross-section decreases and the background continuum increases with increasing gas temperature. This behavior is due to a change in the rotational and vibrational population distribution of 1-butene molecule. Similar changes in rotational population are observed in the IR spectra. Moreover, variation of the IR spectra with temperature is used to measure the enthalpy difference between syn and skew conformations of 1-butene and is found to be 0.24±0.03. kcal/mol, which is in excellent agreement with values reported in the literature. The measurements reported in this work will provide the much-needed spectroscopic information for the development of high-temperature quantitative diagnostics in combustion applications and validation of atmospheric chemistry models of extra-solar planets. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Design Optimization of Expansion Driven Components for the HJ-1-C Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Zhi-rong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Expansion-driven HJ-1-C satellite components are prone to fatigue and fracture; thus, a reliability study on the optimal design is performed. According to the Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA of the components, the main failure modes are stress relaxation and impact breakage of the torsion and scroll springs. On the basis of the failure modes, a prototype spring is tested, and the relative reliabilities are calculated. Then, reliability measures are proposed, and the design optimization of the springs is carried out. The improvements introduced by the prototype spring are indicative of the effectiveness and reliability of the design optimization process, which can help design and analyze similar antenna reflectors in the future.

  10. Geo-correction Algorithm Based on Equivalent RD Model for ScanSAR of HJ-1-C Satellite

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Jia-yin; Wen Shuang-yan; Zhang Hong-yi; Hong Wen

    2014-01-01

    HJ-1-C satellite is the first Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite for civilian use in China, and it has a strip and scan mode. According to the characteristics of the ScanSAR of the HJ-1-C satellite, a geo-correction algorithm based on an equivalent RD model has been outlined in this paper on the basis of an ECS image processing algorithm and a traditional Range-Doppler location method. An azimuth mosaic was presented by a time series relationship, then the different burst was stitched b...

  11. Design and Implementation of the HJ-1-C Satellite SAR Full-power Radiation Test

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Hua-chun; Tao Xin; Ni Jiang; Yu Wei-dong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the HJ-1-C SAR full-power radiation test design is presented. For the new problems caused by SAR high-power concentrated emissions, the radar-receiving channel-leakage power test is proposed to ensure the safety of the radar-receiving path, and the transceiver channel closed-loop radar system test is discussed. The experimental results show that the proposed HJ-1-C SAR full-power radiation test scheme is reasonable and feasible, with the desired outcome.

  12. Design and Implementation of the HJ-1-C Satellite SAR Full-power Radiation Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hua-chun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the HJ-1-C SAR full-power radiation test design is presented. For the new problems caused by SAR high-power concentrated emissions, the radar-receiving channel-leakage power test is proposed to ensure the safety of the radar-receiving path, and the transceiver channel closed-loop radar system test is discussed. The experimental results show that the proposed HJ-1-C SAR full-power radiation test scheme is reasonable and feasible, with the desired outcome.

  13. Estimation of Leaf Area Index Using IRS Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Faridhosseini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of vegetation cover attributes, such as the Leaf Area Index (LAI, is an important step in identifying the amount of water use for some plants. The goal of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using IRS LISS-III data to retrieve LAI. To get a LAI retrieval model based on reflectance and vegetation index, detailed field data were collected in the study area of eastern Iran. In this study, atmospheric corrected IRS LISS-III imagery was used to calculate Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI. Data of 50 samples of LAI were measured by Sun Scan System – SS1 in the study area. In situ measurements of LAI were related to widely use spectral vegetation indices (NDVI. The best model through analyzing the results was LAI = 19.305×NDVI+5.514 using the method of linear-regression analysis. The results showed that the correlation coefficient R2 was 0.534 and RMSE was 0.67. Thereby, suggesting that, when using remote sensing NDVI for LAI estimation, not only is the choice of NDVI of importance but also prior knowledge of plant architecture and soil background. Hence, some kind of landscape stratification is required before using multi- spectral imagery for large-scale mapping of vegetation biophysical variables.

  14. Librations and vibrations of Rb{sub 1}C{sub 60}: polymers and dimers from IR and neutron studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M.C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Wochner, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Mihaly, L. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Forro, L. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1996-06-01

    Infrared transmission and inelastic scattering measurements were performed in a quest for a further understanding of the inter- fullerene interactions in the monomer, dimer, and polymer structural phases or RbC{sub 60}. The IR measurements clearly demonstrate the symmetry lowerings due to the bonds between fullerene molecules in the dimer and polymer states. A group theoretical analysis of the activated modes is in good agreement with the structures proposed for x-ray measurements. Elastic neutron scattering structural results show that we are indeed in the dimer or polymer phases, and inelastic scans for -8 to 8 MeV transferred energy were performed. The lowest librational mode is seen to be stiffer and less intense in the polymer phase as compared to the dimer, in agreement with a basic picture of the structures.

  15. PM-GCD - a combined IR-MW satellite technique for frequent retrieval of heavy precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, D.; Dietrich, S.; di Paola, F.; Formenton, M.; Mugnai, A.; Porcù, F.; Sanò, P.

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation retrievals based on measurements from microwave (MW) radiometers onboard low-Earth-orbit (LEO) satellites can reach high level of accuracy - especially regarding convective precipitation. At the present stage though, these observations cannot provide satisfactory coverage of the evolution of intense and rapid precipitating systems. As a result, the obtained precipitation retrievals are often of limited use for many important applications - especially in supporting authorities for flood alerts and weather warnings. To tackle this problem, over the past two decades several techniques have been developed combining accurate MW estimates with frequent infrared (IR) observations from geosynchronous (GEO) satellites, such as the European Meteosat Second Generation (MSG). In this framework, we have developed a new fast and simple precipitation retrieval technique which we call Passive Microwave - Global Convective Diagnostic, (PM-GCD). This method uses MW retrievals in conjunction with the Global Convective Diagnostic (GCD) technique which discriminates deep convective clouds based on the difference between the MSG water vapor (6.2 μm) and thermal-IR (10.8 μm) channels. Specifically, MSG observations and the GCD technique are used to identify deep convective areas. These areas are then calibrated using MW precipitation estimates based on observations from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) radiometers onboard operational NOAA and Eumetsat satellites, and then finally propagated in time with a simple tracking algorithm. In this paper, we describe the PM-GCD technique, analyzing its results for a case study that refers to a flood event that struck the island of Sicily in southern Italy on 1-2 October 2009.

  16. Progress in Understanding the Pre-Earthquake Associated Events by Analyzing IR Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Taylor, Patrick; Bryant, Nevin

    2004-01-01

    We present latest result in understanding the potential relationship between tectonic stress, electro-chemical and thermodynamic processes in the Earths crust and atmosphere with an increase in IR flux as a potential signature of electromagnetic (EM) phenomena that are related to earthquake activity, either pre-, co- or post seismic. Thermal infra-red (TIR) surveys performed by the polar orbiting (NOAA/AVHRR MODIS) and geosynchronous weather satellites (GOES, METEOSAT) gave an indication of the appearance (from days to weeks before the event) of "anomalous" space-time TIR transients that are associated with the location (epicenter and local tectonic structures) and time of a number of major earthquakes with M>5 and focal depths less than 50km. We analyzed broad category of associated pre-earthquake events, which provided evidence for changes in surface temperature, surface latent heat flux, chlorophyll concentrations, soil moisture, brightness temperature, emissivity of surface, water vapour in the atmosphere prior to the earthquakes occurred in Algeria, India, Iran, Italy, Mexico and Japan. The cause of such anomalies has been mainly related to the change of near-surface thermal properties due to complex lithosphere-hydrosphere-atmospheric interactions. As final results we present examples from the most recent (2000-2004) worldwide strong earthquakes and the techniques used to capture the tracks of EM emission mid-IR anomalies and a methodology for practical future use of such phenomena in the early warning systems.

  17. Surface Emissivity Retrieved with Satellite Ultraspectral IR Measurements for Monitoring Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Surface and atmospheric thermodynamic parameters retrieved with advanced ultraspectral remote sensors aboard Earth observing satellites are critical to general atmospheric and Earth science research, climate monitoring, and weather prediction. Ultraspectral resolution infrared radiance obtained from nadir observations provide atmospheric, surface, and cloud information. Presented here is the global surface IR emissivity retrieved from Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) measurements under "clear-sky" conditions. Fast radiative transfer models, applied to the cloud-free (or clouded) atmosphere, are used for atmospheric profile and surface parameter (or cloud parameter) retrieval. The inversion scheme, dealing with cloudy as well as cloud-free radiances observed with ultraspectral infrared sounders, has been developed to simultaneously retrieve atmospheric thermodynamic and surface (or cloud microphysical) parameters. Rapidly produced surface emissivity is initially evaluated through quality control checks on the retrievals of other impacted atmospheric and surface parameters. Surface emissivity and surface skin temperature from the current and future operational satellites can and will reveal critical information on the Earth s ecosystem and land surface type properties, which can be utilized as part of long-term monitoring for the Earth s environment and global climate change.

  18. IR multiple-photon excitation of C2H5F and 1,1-C2H4F2 near dissociation threshold: vibrational emissions from parent and product species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero, J.F.; Wittig, C.

    1981-08-15

    The IR multiple photon excitation and dissociation of C2H5F and 1,1-C2H4F2 has been studied by monitoring vibrational fluorescence in the region 2000-4000 cm following excitation with the focused output from a CO2 TEA laser. 21 references, 2 figures.

  19. Ir-Ru/Al2O3 catalysts used in satellite propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.G. Soares Neto

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Ir/Al2O3, Ir-Ru/Al2O3 and Ru/Al2O3, catalysts with total metal contents of 30% were prepared using the methods of incipient wetness and incipient coimpregnation wetness and were tested in a 2N microthruster. Their performances were then compared with that of the Shell 405 commercial catalyst (30% Ir/Al2O3. Tests were performed in continuous and pulsed regimes, where there are steep temperature and pressure gradients, from ambient values up to 650 ºC and 14 bar. Performance stability, thrust produced, temperature and stagnation pressure in the chamber and losses of mass were analyzed and compared to the corresponding parameters in Shell 405 tests. It was observed that the performance of all the above-mentioned catalysts was comparable to that of the commercial one, except for in loss of mass, where the values was higher, which was attributed to the lower mechanical resistance of the support.

  20. Remote Sensing of Clouds using Satellites, Lidars, CLF/XLF and IR Cameras at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirinos J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clouds in the field of view of the fluorescence detectors affect the detection of the extensive air showers. Several remote sensing techniques are used to detect night-time clouds over the 3000 km2 of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Four lidars at the fluorescence detector sites are performing different patterns of scans of the surrounding sky detecting clouds. Two laser facilities (CLF and XLF are shooting into the sky delivering cloud cover above them every 15 minutes. Four IR cameras detect the presence of clouds within the FOV of the fluorescence detectors every 5 minutes. A method using GOES-12 and GOES-13 satellites identifies night-time clouds twice per hour with a spatial resolution of 2.4 km by 5.5 km over the Observatory. We upload all this information into several databases to be used for the reconstruction of cosmic ray events and to find exotic events.

  1. Remote Sensing of Clouds using Satellites, Lidars, CLF/XLF and IR Cameras at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirinos, J.

    2015-12-01

    Clouds in the field of view of the fluorescence detectors affect the detection of the extensive air showers. Several remote sensing techniques are used to detect night-time clouds over the 3000 km2 of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Four lidars at the fluorescence detector sites are performing different patterns of scans of the surrounding sky detecting clouds. Two laser facilities (CLF and XLF) are shooting into the sky delivering cloud cover above them every 15 minutes. Four IR cameras detect the presence of clouds within the FOV of the fluorescence detectors every 5 minutes. A method using GOES-12 and GOES-13 satellites identifies night-time clouds twice per hour with a spatial resolution of 2.4 km by 5.5 km over the Observatory. We upload all this information into several databases to be used for the reconstruction of cosmic ray events and to find exotic events.

  2. Estimation of surface latent heat fluxes from IRS-P4/MSMR satellite data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Randhir Singh; B Simon; P C Joshi

    2001-09-01

    The brightness temperatures of the Microwave sensor MSMR (Multichannel Scanning Microwave Radiometer) launched in May 1999 onboard Indian Oceansat-1 IRS-P4 are used to develop a direct retrieval method for latent heat ux by multivariate regression technique. The MSMR measures the microwave radiances at 8 channels at frequencies of 6.6, 10.7, 18 and 21 GHz at both vertical and horizontal polarizations. It is found that the surface LHF (Latent Heat Flux) is sensitive to all the channels. The coeficients were derived using the National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data of three months: July, September, November of 1999. The NCEP daily analyzed latent heat uxes and brightness temperatures observed by MSMR were used to derive the coeficients. Validity of the derived coeficients was checked with in situ observations over the Indian Ocean and with NCEP analyzed LHF for global points. The LHF derived directly from the MSMR brightness temperature (Tb) yielded an accuracy of 35 watt/m2. LHF was also computed by applying bulk formula using the geophysical parameters extracted from MSMR. In this case the errors were higher apparently due to the errors involved in derivation of the geophysical parameters.

  3. A Spatio-Temporal Model for Forest Fire Detection Using HJ-IRS Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Lin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fire detection based on multi-temporal remote sensing data is an active research field. However, multi-temporal detection processes are usually complicated because of the spatial and temporal variability of remote sensing imagery. This paper presents a spatio-temporal model (STM based forest fire detection method that uses multiple images of the inspected scene. In STM, the strong correlation between an inspected pixel and its neighboring pixels is considered, which can mitigate adverse impacts of spatial heterogeneity on background intensity predictions. The integration of spatial contextual information and temporal information makes it a more robust model for anomaly detection. The proposed algorithm was applied to a forest fire in 2009 in the Yinanhe forest, Heilongjiang province, China, using two-month HJ-1B infrared camera sensor (IRS images. A comparison of detection results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm described in this paper are useful to represent the spatio-temporal information contained in multi-temporal remotely sensed data, and the STM detection method can be used to obtain a higher detection accuracy than the optimized contextual algorithm.

  4. Automated Burned Area Delineation Using IRS AWiFS satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, J.; Kiranchand, T. R.; Rajashekar, G.; Jha, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    spectral data from the IRS AWiFS sensor. The method is intended to be used by non-specialist users for diagnostic rapid burnt area mapping.

  5. The 2010 Eyja eruption evolution by using IR satellite sensors measurements: retrieval comparison and insights into explosive volcanic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscini, A.; Corradini, S.; Merucci, L.; Scollo, S.

    2010-12-01

    The 2010 April-May Eyja eruption caused an unprecedented disruption to economic, political and cultural activities in Europe and across the world. Because of the harming effects of fine ash particles on aircrafts, many European airports were in fact closed causing millions of passengers to be stranded, and with a worldwide airline industry loss estimated of about 2.5 billion Euros. Both security and economical issues require robust and affordable volcanic cloud retrievals that may be really improved through the intercomparison among different remote sensing instruments. In this work the Thermal InfraRed (TIR) measurements of different polar and geostationary satellites instruments as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the Spin Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI), have been used to retrieve the volcanic ash and SO2 in the entire eruption period over Iceland. The ash retrievals (mass, AOD and effective radius) have been carried out by means of the split window BTD technique using the channels centered around 11 and 12 micron. The least square fit procedure is used for the SO2 retrieval by using the 7.3 and 8.7 micron channels. The simulated TOA radiance Look-Up Table (LUT) needed for both the ash and SO2 column abundance retrievals have been computed using the MODTRAN 4 Radiative Transfer Model. Further, the volcanic plume column altitude and ash density have been computed and compared, when available, with ground observations. The results coming from the retrieval of different IR sensors show a good agreement over the entire eruption period. The column height, the volcanic ash and the SO2 emission trend confirm the indentified different phases occurred during the Eyja eruption. We remark that the retrieved volcanic plume evolution can give important insights into eruptive dynamics during long-lived explosive activity.

  6. Surface chlorophyll a estimation in the Arabian Sea using IRS-P4 Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) satellite data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, P.; Mohan, M.; Sarangi, R.K; Kumari, B.; Nayak, S.; Matondkar, S.G.P.

    to the concentration of phytoplankton pigments, coloured dissolved organic matter and suspended particulate matter. Remote sensing data obtained from IRS-P4 OCM sensor is processed for the removal of atmospheric effects of Rayleigh and aerosol scattering to derive...

  7. Towards stochastically downscaled precipitation in the Tropics based on a robust 1DD combined satellite product and a high resolution IR-based rain mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilloteau, Clement; Roca, Rémy; Gosset, Marielle

    2015-04-01

    In the Tropics where the ground-based rain gauges network is very sparse, satellite rainfall estimates are becoming a compulsory source of information for various applications: hydrological modeling, water resources management or vegetation-monitoring. The tropical Tropical Amount of Precipitation with Estimate of Error (TAPEER) algorithm, developed within the framework of Megha-Tropiques satellite mission is a robust estimate of surface rainfall accumulations at the daily, one degree resolution. TAPEER validation in West Africa has proven its accuracy. Nevertheless applications that involve non-linear processes (such as surface runoff) require finer space / time resolution than one degree one day, or at least the statistical characterization of the sub-grid rainfall variability. TAPEER is based on a Universally Adjusted Global Precipitation Index (UAGPI) technique. The one degree, one day estimation relies on the combination of observations from microwave radiometers embarked on the 7 platforms forming the GPM constellation of low earth orbit satellites together with geostationary infra-red (GEO-IR) imagery. TAPEER provides as an intermediate product a high-resolution rain-mask based on the GEO-IR information (2.8 km, 15 min in Africa). The main question of this work is, how to use this high-resolution mask information as a constraint for downscaling ? This work first presents the multi-scale evaluation of TAPEER's rain detection mask against ground X-band polarimetric radar data and TRMM precipitation radar data in West Africa, through wavelet transform. Other algorithms (climate prediction center morphing technique CMORPH, global satellite mapping of precipitation GSMaP, multi-sensor precipitation estimate MPE) detection capabilities are also evaluated. Spatio-temporal wavelet filtering of the detection mask is then used to compute precipitation probability at the GEO-IR resolution. The wavelet tool is finally used to stochastically generate rain / no rain field

  8. A1C test

    Science.gov (United States)

    HbA1C test; Glycated hemoglobin test; Glycosylated hemoglobin test; Hemoglobin glycosylated test; Glycohemoglobin test ... have recently eaten does not affect the A1C test, so you do not need to fast to ...

  9. FY-1C BEING THE LONGEST SERVING METSAT IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunQing

    2004-01-01

    FY-1C, with a designed lifetime of 2 years, has been working on orbit for more than 5 years and its working life is the longest among China's satellites operating on sunsynchronous polar orbit. FY-1C meteorological satellite, developed by Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology (SAST), was launched from Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center by LM-4B launch vehicle on May 10,

  10. PM-GCD - A combined IR-MW satellite technique for frequent retrieval of heavy precipitation: Application to the EU FLASH project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Daniele; Dietrich, Stefano; di Paola, Francesco; Formenton, Marco; Mugnai, Alberto; Sanò, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    Precipitation retrievals based on measurements from microwave (MW) radiometers onboard low-Earth-orbit (LEO) satellites can reach a high level of accuracy - and especially so, for deep convective precipitating systems. However, these observations do not provide a satisfactorily coverage of the rapid evolution of intense precipitating systems. As a result, the obtained precipitation retrievals are often of limited use for many important applications -- including support to authorities in activating flood alarms. To avoid this problem, several techniques have been developed that combine accurate MW estimates with frequent infrared (IR) observations from geosynchronous (GEO) satellites, such as the European Meteosat Second Generation (MSG). Within the European Union FP6 FLASH project, we have developed a new combined MW-IR technique for producing frequent precipitation retrievals from space (which we call PM-GCD technique). This technique uses passive-microwave (PM) retrievals in conjunction with the Global Convection Detection (GCD) technique that discriminates deep convective clouds within the GEO observations, based on the difference between the water vapor (6.2 μm ) and thermal-IR (10.8 μm ) channels. In essence, within the PM-GCD technique, deep convective areas are defined from MSG observations, then calibrated using MW-AMSU precipitation retrievals and finally propagated over time with a simple tracking algorithm. In this paper, we describe the PM-GCD technique and discuss the results of its application to a flood event that occurred on September 12-15, 2006 over the north-western Mediterranean coastal areas, and that has been selected for joint research by the EU FLASH and HYDRATE projects.

  11. Inversion of Aerosol Optical Depth Based on the CCD and IRS Sensors on the HJ-1 Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To perform a high-resolution aerosol optical depth (AOD inversion from the HJ-1 satellites, a dark pixel algorithm utilizing the HJ-1 satellite data was developed based on the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS algorithm. By analyzing the relationship between the apparent reflectance from the 1.65 μm and 2.1 μm channels of MODIS, a method for estimating albedo using the 1.65 μm channel data of the HJ-1 satellites was established, and a high-resolution AOD inversion in the Chengdu region based on the HJ-1 satellite was completed. A comparison of the inversion results with CE318 measured data produced a correlation of 0.957, respectively, with an absolute error of 0.106. An analysis of the AOD inversion results from different aerosol models showed that the rural aerosol model was suitable as a general model for establishing an aerosol inversion look-up table for the Chengdu region.

  12. Potential of multispectral synergism for observing tropospheric ozone by combining IR and UV measurements from incoming LEO (EPS-SG) and GEO (MTG) satellite sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Lorenzo; Cuesta, Juan; Emili, Emanuele; Coman, Adriana; Foret, Gilles; Dufour, Gaëlle; Eremenko, Maxim; Chailleux, Yohann; Beekmann, Matthias; Flaud, Jean-Marie

    2017-04-01

    Satellite observations offer a great potential for monitoring air quality on daily and global basis. However, measurements from currently in orbit sensors do not allow to probe surface concentrations of gaseous pollutants such as tropospheric ozone (Liu et al., 2010). Using single-band approaches based on spaceborne measurements of either thermal infrared radiance (TIR, Eremenko et al., 2008) or ultraviolet reflectance (UV, Liu et al., 2010) only ozone down to the lower troposphere (3 km) may be observed. A recent multispectral method (referred to as IASI+GOME-2) combining the information of IASI and GOME-2 (both onboard MetOp satellites) spectra, respectively from the TIR and UV, has shown enhanced sensitivity for probing ozone at the lowermost troposphere (LMT, below 3 km of altitude) with maximum sensitivity down to 2.20 km a.s.l. over land, while sensitivity for IASI or GOME-2 only peaks at 3 to 4 km at lowest (Cuesta et al., 2013). Future spatial missions will be launched in the upcoming years on both low and geostationary orbits, such as EPS-SG (EUMETSAT Polar System Second Generation) and MTG (Meteosat Third Generation), carrying respectively IASI-NG (for IR) and UVNS (for UV), and IRS (for IR) and UVN (Sentinel 4, for UV). This new-generation sensors will enhance the capacity to observe ozone pollution and particularly by synergism of multispectral measurements. In this work we develop a pseudo-observation simulator and evaluate the potential of future EPS-SG and MTG satellite observations, through IASI-NG+UVNS and IRS+UVN multispectral methods to observe near-surface O3. The pseudo-real state of atmosphere (nature run) is provided by MOCAGE (MOdèle de Chimie Atmosphérique à Grande Échelle) chemical transport model. Simulations are calibrated by careful comparisons with real data, to ensure the best coherence between pseudo-reality and reality, as well as between the pseudo-observation simulator and existing satellite products. We perform full and

  13. Subsurface Dynamical Properties of Variable Features Seen in Satellite IR Imagery off Point Sur and Their Acoustic Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    profile as in Fig. 87 except 60 foot source at 50 Hz -------------------------------. 205 90 Graph showing the difference between clima - tological PL...graph as in Fig. 90 except 300 foot source ---------------------------------------- 207 92 Graph showing the difference between clima - tological PL and... temporal scales, to make observations on the subsurface structure of features observed by satellite imagery, to investigate the diurnal variation of the sea

  14. Estimation and Mapping Forest Attributes Using “k Nearest Neighbor” Method on IRS-P6 LISS III Satellite Image Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Eslam Bonyad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we explored the utility of k Nearest Neighbor (kNN algorithm to integrate IRS-P6 LISS III satellite imagery data and ground inventory data for application in forest attributes (DBH, trees height, volume, basal area, density and forest cover type estimation and mapping. The ground inventory data was based on a systematic-random sampling grid and the numbers of sampling plots were 408 circular plots in a plantation in Guilan province, north of Iran. We concluded that kNN method was useful tool for mapping at a fine accuracy between 80% and 93.94%. Values of k between 5 and 8 seemed appropriate. The best distance metrics were found Euclidean, Fuzzy and Mahalanobis. Results showed that kNN was accurate enough for practical applicability for mapping forest areas.

  15. Vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient () based optical classification of IRS-P3 MOS-B satellite ocean colour data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Sarangi; Prakash Chauhan; S R Nayak

    2002-09-01

    The optical classification of the different water types provides vital input for studies related to primary productivity, water clarity and determination of euphotic depth. Image data of the IRS- P3 MOS-B, for Path 90 of 27th February, 1998 was used for deriving vertical diffuse attenuation Coeffcient () and an optical classification based on values was performed. An atmospheric correction scheme was used for retrieving water leaving radiances in blue and green channels of 412, 443, 490 and 550 nm. The upwelling radiances from 443nm and 550nm spectral channels were used for computation of vertical diffuse attenuation coeffcient at 490 nm. The waters off the Gujarat coast were classified into different water types based on Jerlov classification scheme. The oceanic water type IA ( range 0.035-0.040m-1), type IB (0.042-0.065m-1), type II (0.07-0.1m-1) and type III (0.115-0.14m-1) were identified. For the coastal waters along Gujarat coast and Gulf of Kachchh, (490) values ranged between 0.15m-1 and 0.35m-1. The depth of 1% of surface light for water type IA, IB, II and III corresponds to 88, 68, 58 and 34 meters respectively. Classification of oceanic and coastal waters based on is useful in understanding the light transmission characteristics for sub-marine navigation and under-water imaging.

  16. 2型糖尿病患者血清维生素D与糖化血红蛋白水平及胰岛素抵抗的相关性%The correlation of vitamin D, HbA1c and HOMA-IR in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡娟玉; 李礼

    2015-01-01

    Objective To discuss the relation of vitamin D with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and HOMA-IR in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods 75 cases T2DM patients (research group) and 50 cases healthy people (control group) were collected in our hospital from March 2014 to August 2014. The fasting plasma glucose(FPG), fasting insulin(FIN), HbA1c, 25-hydroxy vitamin D3[25-(OH)D3] levels of all subjects were detected and HOMA-IR was calculation , all data were analyzed statistically. Results The levels of FPG, FIN, HbA1c and HOMA-IR in T2DM group were all higher than that of control group, and the differences all had statistical significance(Pall<0.05). The level of 25-(OH)D3 in T2DM group was lower than that of control group, and the difference had statistical significance (P<0.05). The level of 25-(OH)D3 had negative correlation with HbA1c and HOMA-IR(r=-0.548, r=-0.454, Pall<0.05). Conclusion The level of serum VitD has a remarkably decrease in T2DM patients , and has negative correlation with HbA1c level and HOMA-IR.%目的:探讨2型糖尿病(type 2 diabetes mellitus, T2DM)患者血清维生素 D(vitamin D, VitD)水平的变化与糖化血红蛋白A1c(hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c)及胰岛素抵抗的相关性。方法选取2014年3月至2014年8月来我院就诊的T2DM患者75例为研究组,同期健康体检者50例为对照组,检测两组中空腹血糖(fasting plasma glucose, FPG)、空腹胰岛素(fasting insulin, FIN)、HbA1c、25羟维生素D3[25-hydroxy vitamin D3,25-(OH)D3]水平并且计算胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR),对检测结果进行统计学分析。结果 T2DM组中FPG、FIN、HbA1c和HOMA-IR水平均高于对照组,差异均具有统计学意义(P均<0.05)。T2DM组血清25-(OH)D3水平显著低于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。25-(OH)D3水平与HbA1c和HOMA-IR均呈负相关(r=-0.548,r=-0.454,P均<0.05)。结论2型糖

  17. Investigating the Capability of IRS-P6-LISS IV Satellite Image for Pistachio Forests Density Mapping (case Study: Northeast of Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseini, F.; Darvishsefat, A. A.; Zargham, N.

    2012-07-01

    In order to investigate the capability of satellite images for Pistachio forests density mapping, IRS-P6-LISS IV data were analyzed in an area of 500 ha in Iran. After geometric correction, suitable training areas were determined based on fieldwork. Suitable spectral transformations like NDVI, PVI and PCA were performed. A ground truth map included of 34 plots (each plot 1 ha) were prepared. Hard and soft supervised classifications were performed with 5 density classes (0-5%, 5-10%, 10-15%, 15-20% and > 20%). Because of low separability of classes, some classes were merged and classifications were repeated with 3 classes. Finally, the highest overall accuracy and kappa coefficient of 70% and 0.44, respectively, were obtained with three classes (0-5%, 5-20%, and > 20%) by fuzzy classifier. Considering the low kappa value obtained, it could be concluded that the result of the classification was not desirable. Therefore, this approach is not appropriate for operational mapping of these valuable Pistachio forests.

  18. Climate Prediction Center IR 4km Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CPC IR 4km dataset was created from all available individual geostationary satellite data which have been merged to form nearly seamless global (60N-60S) IR...

  19. IR Hot Wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, T. B.

    2010-04-01

    The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace is a breakthrough heat treatment system for manufacturing metal components. Near-infrared (IR) radiant energy combines with IR convective heating for heat treating. Heat treatment is an essential process in the manufacture of most components. The controlled heating and cooling of a metal or metal alloy alters its physical, mechanical, and sometimes chemical properties without changing the object's shape. The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace offers the simplest, quickest, most efficient, and cost-effective heat treatment option for metals and metal alloys. Compared with other heat treatment alternatives, the IR Hot Wave{trademark} system: (1) is 3 to 15 times faster; (2) is 2 to 3 times more energy efficient; (3) is 20% to 50% more cost-effective; (4) has a {+-}1 C thermal profile compared to a {+-}10 C thermal profile for conventional gas furnaces; and (5) has a 25% to 50% smaller footprint.

  20. 印度IRS-P5影像的几何纠正%Geometric Rectiifcation of India P5 Mapping Satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔嘉

    2014-01-01

    本文给出了IRS-P5测图卫星及其传感器的有关性能参数,根据IRS-P5测图卫星的特点,重点分析了基于有理函数模型的几何纠正,使用北京怀柔地区的立体像对数据进行了有关试验研究。%The paper gives the related parameters of IRS-P5 Mapping Satel ite, According to the features of IRS-P5 mapping satel ite, the paper focuses on the theory of geometric rectification based on RFM and gives research on the method of calculating coefficient of RFM. And at last an experiment is made based on a pair of stereo images of Huairou country in Beijing city.

  1. IR intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Definitions, formulas, and code for producing epsilon values (molar absorption coefficients) and IR spectral curve from 'Gaussian' FREQ output.......Definitions, formulas, and code for producing epsilon values (molar absorption coefficients) and IR spectral curve from 'Gaussian' FREQ output....

  2. Hemoglobina glucosilada a1c (a1c)

    OpenAIRE

    Mendivil Anaya, Carlos Olimpo; Pérez Gualdrón, Clara Eugenia; Sierra Ariza, Iván Dario; Pinzón, Giuliana Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes. La Hemoglobina GlucosiladaA1c es un examen de laboratorio empleado paraevaluar el control glucémico en pacientes condiabetes. Clásicamente el personal de atenciónen salud asume que solamente la glucemia promediodetermina el valor de A1c. Sin embargoalgunos estudios han encontrado variación en laA1c de acuerdo a la edad y el sexo.Objetivos. El objetivo principal de este estudioera determinar si existía alguna tendencia o patrónde comportamiento de los niveles de A1c adiferentes e...

  3. Applications of Environmental Remote Sensing by HJ-1C SAR Imageries

    OpenAIRE

    Tian Wei; Xu Xu; Bian Xiao-lin; Chai Xun; Wang Shi-ang; Gong Hua-ze; Xiong Wen-cheng; Shao Yun

    2014-01-01

    The HJ-1C satellite was successfully launched in November 19, 2012. The HJ-1C and HJ-1A/1B satellites, which were launched in September 06, 2008, constitute the “2+1” small satellite constellation for environmental and disaster monitoring. This study focuses on the analysis and evaluation of the satellite performance with respect to environmental remote sensing, including land use interpretation, land cover classification, oil spill identification, retrieval of sea waves, and monitoring of...

  4. Reducing the Impact of Sampling Bias in NASA MODIS and VIIRS Level 3 Satellite Derived IR SST Observations over the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnett, P. J.; Liu, Y.; Kilpatrick, K. A.

    2016-12-01

    Sea-surface temperature (SST) measurements by satellites in the northern hemisphere high latitudes confront several difficulties. Year-round prevalent clouds, effects near ice edges, and the relative small difference between SST and low-level cloud temperatures lead to a significant loss of infrared observations regardless of the more frequent polar satellite overpasses. Recent research (Liu and Minnett, 2016) identified sampling issues in the Level 3 NASA MODIS SST products when 4km observations are aggregated into global grids at different time and space scales, particularly in the Arctic, where a binary decision cloud mask designed for global data is often overly conservative at high latitudes and results in many gaps and missing data. This under sampling of some Arctic regions results in a warm bias in Level 3 products, likely a result of warmer surface temperature, more distant from the ice edge, being identified more frequently as cloud free. Here we present an improved method for cloud detection in the Arctic using a majority vote from an ensemble of four classifiers trained based on an Alternative Decision Tree (ADT) algorithm (Freund and Mason 1999, Pfahringer et. al. 2001). This new cloud classifier increases sampling of clear pixel by 50% in several regions and generally produces cooler monthly average SST fields in the ice-free Arctic, while still retaining the same error characteristics at 1km resolution relative to in situ observations. SST time series of 12 years of MODIS (Aqua and Terra) and more recently VIIRS sensors are compared and the improvements in errors and uncertainties resulting from better cloud screening for Level 3 gridded products are assessed and summarized.

  5. Hyperspectral IASI L1C Data Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín García-Sobrino

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI, implemented on the MetOp satellite series, represents a significant step forward in atmospheric forecast and weather understanding. The instrument provides infrared soundings of unprecedented accuracy and spectral resolution to derive humidity and atmospheric temperature profiles, as well as some of the chemical components playing a key role in climate monitoring. IASI collects rich spectral information, which results in large amounts of data (about 16 Gigabytes per day. Efficient compression techniques are requested for both transmission and storage of such huge data. This study reviews the performance of several state of the art coding standards and techniques for IASI L1C data compression. Discussion embraces lossless, near-lossless and lossy compression. Several spectral transforms, essential to achieve improved coding performance due to the high spectral redundancy inherent to IASI products, are also discussed. Illustrative results are reported for a set of 96 IASI L1C orbits acquired over a full year (4 orbits per month for each IASI-A and IASI-B from July 2013 to June 2014 . Further, this survey provides organized data and facts to assist future research and the atmospheric scientific community.

  6. Satellite detection of IR precursors using bi-angular advanced along-track scanning radiometer data: a case study of Yushu earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Xiong; Xuhui Shen; Xingfa Gu; Qingyan Meng; Yaxin Bi; Liming Zhao; Yanhua Zhao

    2015-01-01

    The paper has developed and proposed a synthesis analysis method based on the robust satellite data analysis technique (RST) to detect seismic anomalies within the bi-angular advanced along-track scanning radiometer (AATSR) gridded brightness temperature (BT)data based on spatial/temporal continuity analysis.The proposed methods have been applied to analyze the Yushu (Qinghai,China) earthquake occurred on 14th April 2010,and a full AATSR data-set of 8 years data from March 2003 to May 2010 with longitude from 91°E to 101°E and latitude from 28°N to 38°N has been analyzed.Combining with the tectonic explanation of spatial and temporal continuity of the abnormal phenomena,the analyzed results indicate that the infrared radiation anomalies detected by the AATSR BT data with nadir view appear and enhance gradually along with the development and occurring of the earthquake,especially along the Ganzi-Yushu fault,Nu River fault and Jiali-Chayu fault;more infrared anomalies along the earthquake fault zone (Lancangjiang fault and Ning Karma Monastery-Deqin fault) are detected using the proposed synthesis analysis method,which can also characterize the activity of seismic faults more precisely.

  7. Rule-based semi-automated approach for the detection of landslides induced by 18 September 2011 Sikkim, Himalaya, earthquake using IRS LISS3 satellite images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Siyahghalati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslide is considered as one of the most devastating and most costly natural hazards in highlands, which is triggered mainly by rainfalls or earthquakes. In comparison with other methods, landslide mapping and monitoring via remote sensing data products are considered as the least expensive method of data collection. The current research attempts to detect landslides which occurred due to a 6.9 magnitude earthquake in Sikkim Himalaya, India, on 18 September 2011 and also to establish the spatial relationship between landslides and the slope of the terrain. To detect the landslides, decision tree method was applied on two Indian remote sensing satellites linear imaging self-scanning sensor (LISS III images acquired from 2007 and 2011 which were taken before and after the earthquake. As the study area was relatively huge for identifying the landslides, the region was separated into two parts: “tested study area” and “real study area”. The overall accuracy of landslide detection was 76%, and 75% for tested and real study area, respectively. Then, the spatial relationship between the landslides and the slope of the terrain was conducted using the digital elevation model. The results revealed that most of the landslides occurred between the slope of 25° and 45° covering 2.3 km2 and no landslide recorded in the slope of 65°–90° in the real study area. The results obtained in this study may be useful for decision-making and policy support towards reconstruction effort after the landslide occurrence. In addition, the information can be useful for reducing the risk of potential damages to substructures and properties by developing new and efficient strategies.

  8. A1C Test and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis The A1C Test & Diabetes The A1C Test & Diabetes What is the A1C test? The A1C test ... A1C test be used to diagnose type 2 diabetes and prediabetes? Yes. In 2009, an international expert ...

  9. IRS organigram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerschmid, Ernst

    1991-01-01

    Charts and graphs relative to magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster technology are given. The research activities at the Institute of Space Transportation, University of Stuttgart, are summarized. Information is given on the Institute's Electric Propulsion and Plasma Wind Tunnel; thermal arcjet research; the nozzle-type thruster, DT-IRS; nozzle-type MPD thrusters; a hot anode thruster; the DT6 thruster; the ZT-1 thruster; the cylindrical MPD thruster; and a comparison of continuous and quasi-steady MPD.

  10. Indian remote sensing satellites: Planned missions and future applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, M. G.; Jayaraman, V.; Rao, Mukund

    1996-02-01

    To cater the enhanced user demands, Indian Space Research Organisation is stepping a giant leap forward towards development of the state-of-the-art second generation Indian Remote Sensing Satellites, IRS-1C/1D following the successful design, launch and in-orbit performance of the first generation satellites, IRS-1A/1B. Characterised by improved spatial resolution, extended spectral bands, stereo-viewing and more frequent revisit capability, IRS-1C/1D are expected for launch during the timeframe of 1995-96/8. The IRS-1C and ID, which are identical, will have three major payloads. The Linear Imaging Spectral Scanner (LISS-III) in four spectral bands covering from 0.52 to 1.70 microns will have a spatial resolution of 23m along with a swath of 142 km in the visible and NIR spectral bands and a spatial resolution of 70m along with a swath of 148 km in the SWIR spectral band. The Panchromatic Camera (PAN) with a spectral band of 0.50 to 0.75 microns will have a spatial resolution of information on water stress, pest infestation and vegetation indices to arrive at better agricultural management practices, besides providing enhanced capabilities for arriving solutions for micro-level resource development and generation of digital terrain models. Having marked by the successful launch of IRS-P2 in 1994 through the indigenous development flight of PSLV, India is now poised to launch IRS-P3 satellite with unique payloads in the timeframe of 1995-1996 The IRS-P3 will carry three operational payloads viz., Wide Field Sensor (WiFS), Modular Opto-electronic Scanner (MOS) imaging spectrometer and an X-ray Astronomy payload. These payload mix of sensors will provide further capabilities for application studies related to vegetation dynamics, oceanography and X-ray astronomy. With the launch of these payloads, India will provide more effective and assured data services to the user community beyond the 90's.

  11. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of MSU Level 1c Brightness Temperature, Version 1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains Level 1c inter-calibrated brightness temperatures from the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) sensors onboard nine polar orbiting satellites...

  12. Applications of Environmental Remote Sensing by HJ-1C SAR Imageries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Wei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The HJ-1C satellite was successfully launched in November 19, 2012. The HJ-1C and HJ-1A/1B satellites, which were launched in September 06, 2008, constitute the “2+1” small satellite constellation for environmental and disaster monitoring. This study focuses on the analysis and evaluation of the satellite performance with respect to environmental remote sensing, including land use interpretation, land cover classification, oil spill identification, retrieval of sea waves, and monitoring of coastal mariculture. The data used in this study cover the city of Beijing and the sea of the Fujian Province. Nine HJ-1C satellite images (level-2, S band, VV Pol, strip mode, 5 m resolution from December 2012 to January 2013 are used. The conclusions are as follows: (1 the HJ-1C SAR images can be used to manually identify farmland, woodland, roads, rivers, urban construction, and rural residential areas; (2 the accuracy of the automatic land cover classification increased significantly when the HJ-1C SAR and HJ-1B CCD fusion images are used; (3 the HJ-1C satellite can be used to identify oil spills, to invert wave parameters, and to extract information regarding inshore aquaculture.

  13. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section 1c.114 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than...

  14. The Load Design and Implementation of HJ-1-C Space-borne SAR

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Wei-dong; Yang Ru-liang; Deng Yun-kai; Zhao Feng-jun; Lei Hong

    2014-01-01

    HJ-1-C is a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite in the Constellation of “2+1” for China environment and disaster monitoring. It works at S-band with a resolution of 5 m. SAR payload uses a reflector antenna and a high-power concentrated transmitter. Its light weight and high efficiency is very suitable for a small satellite platform. Now HJ-1-C satellite has been launched into orbit and has acquired Chinese first S-band SAR images from space, which demonstrate excellent quality and rich ...

  15. Led Astray by Hemoglobin A1c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Chen MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin A1c (A1c is used frequently to diagnose and treat diabetes mellitus. Therefore, it is important be aware of factors that may interfere with the accuracy of A1c measurements. This is a case of a rare hemoglobin variant that falsely elevated a nondiabetic patient’s A1c level and led to a misdiagnosis of diabetes. A 67-year-old male presented to endocrine clinic for further management after he was diagnosed with diabetes based on an elevated A1c of 10.7%, which is approximately equivalent to an average blood glucose of 260 mg/dL. Multiple repeat A1c levels remained >10%, but his home fasting and random glucose monitoring ranged from 92 to 130 mg/dL. Hemoglobin electrophoresis and subsequent genetic analysis diagnosed the patient with hemoglobin Wayne, a rare hemoglobin variant. This variant falsely elevates A1c levels when A1c is measured using cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography. When the boronate affinity method was applied instead, the patient’s A1c level was actually 4.7%. Though hemoglobin Wayne is clinically silent, this patient was erroneously diagnosed with diabetes and started on an antiglycemic medication. Due to this misdiagnosis, the patient was at risk of escalation in his “diabetes management” and hypoglycemia. Therefore, it is important that providers are aware of factors that may result in hemoglobin A1c inaccuracy including hemoglobin variants.

  16. Application Capacity Evaluation of HJ-1-C towards Ice Disaster during On-orbit Test Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available On November 19, 2012, HJ-1-C was launched successfully, which is the first civil Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR satellite in China and is also the only S-band SAR on-orbit satellite in the world. During the on-orbit period, National Disaster Reduction Center of China (NDRCC preliminarily evaluated the application capacity towards the ice disaster, and also evaluated the relative precision by using multispectral images of ZY-3 satellite. The result shows that, the S-band SAR satellite has super response towards ice. Entirely freeze-up area, non entirely freeze-up area and drift ice area can be effectively identified, and the S-band SAR satellite has better disaster reduction application capacity. The S-band SAR satellite data will fill up the band’s blank of SAR satellite in China and even the world, and its disaster reduction potentiality remains to be excavated further more.

  17. Research and Realization of the HJ-1C Real-time Software Frame Synchronization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Yang-shuan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Conventional software frame synchronization methods are inefficient in processing huge continuous data without synchronization words. To improve the processing speed, a real-time synchronization algorithm is proposed based on reverse searching. Satellite data are grouped and searched in the reverse direction to avoid searching for synchronization words in huge continuous invalid data; thus, the frame synchronization speed is improved enormously. The fastest processing speed is up to 15445.9 Mbps when HJ-1C data are tested. This method is presently applied to the HJ-1C quick-look system in remote sensing satellite ground stations.

  18. SREBP-1c, regulated by the insulin and AMPK signaling pathways, plays a role in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohjima, Motoyuki; Higuchi, Nobito; Kato, Masaki; Kotoh, Kazuhiro; Yoshimoto, Tsuyoshi; Fujino, Tatsuya; Yada, Masayoshi; Yada, Ryoko; Harada, Naohiko; Enjoji, Munechika; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Nakamuta, Makoto

    2008-04-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disease whose prevalence has increased markedly. We reported previously that fatty acid synthesis was enhanced in NAFLD with the accumulation of fatty acids. To clarify the disorder, we evaluated the expression of genes regulating fatty acid synthesis by real-time PCR using samples from NAFLD (n=22) and normal liver (control; n=10). A major regulator of fatty acids synthesis is sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c). Its expression was significantly higher in NAFLD, nearly 5-fold greater than the controls. SREBP-1c is positively regulated by insulin signaling pathways, including insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and -2. In NAFLD, IRS-1 expression was enhanced and correlated positively with SREBP-1c expression. In contrast, IRS-2 expression decreased by 50% and was not correlated with SREBP-1c. Forkhead box protein A2 (Foxa2) is a positive regulator of fatty acid oxidation and is itself negatively regulated by IRSs. Foxa2 expression increased in NAFLD and showed a negative correlation with IRS-2, but not with IRS-1, expression. It is known that SREBP-1c is negatively regulated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) but expression levels of AMPK in NAFLD were almost equal to those of the controls. These data indicate that, in NAFLD, insulin signaling via IRS-1 causes the up-regulation of SREBP1-c, leading to the increased synthesis of fatty acids by the hepatocytes; negative feedback regulation via AMPK does not occur and the activation of Foxa2, following a decrease of IRS-2, up-regulates fatty acid oxidation.

  19. Satellite Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a discussion of communication satellites: explains the principles of satellite communication, describes examples of how governments and industries are currently applying communication satellites, analyzes issues confronting satellite communication, links mathematics and science to the study of satellite communication, and applies…

  20. Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 previous 1 • 2 • 3 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Diabetes Control: Why It's Important Monitoring Blood Sugar Helping Kids Deal With Injections and Blood Tests Blood Test: Hemoglobin ... Center Word! Glycosylated Hemoglobin Test (Hemoglobin A1c) Medical ...

  1. The Load Design and Implementation of HJ-1-C Space-borne SAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wei-dong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available HJ-1-C is a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR satellite in the Constellation of “2+1” for China environment and disaster monitoring. It works at S-band with a resolution of 5 m. SAR payload uses a reflector antenna and a high-power concentrated transmitter. Its light weight and high efficiency is very suitable for a small satellite platform. Now HJ-1-C satellite has been launched into orbit and has acquired Chinese first S-band SAR images from space, which demonstrate excellent quality and rich information about scenes imaged. This success verifies our design, testing and experiment work on the payload. With its following operation, HJ-1-C satellite is expected to make a great contribution to the applications of environment protection and disaster monitoring in China. This paper introduces the design and development of HJ-1-C SAR payload, present its main parameters and performance, describes its device details and its manufacture, testing and experiment process. Some images acquired in the orbit are showed.

  2. IOT Overview: IR Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, E.

    In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype for the coming instruments.

  3. SMOS L1C and L2 Validation in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudiger, Christoph; Walker, Jeffrey P.; Kerr, Yann H.; Mialon, Arnaud; Merlin, Olivier; Kim, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive airborne field campaigns (Australian Airborne Cal/val Experiments for SMOS - AACES) were undertaken during the 2010 summer and winter seasons of the southern hemisphere. The purpose of those campaigns was the validation of the Level 1c (brightness temperature) and Level 2 (soil moisture) products of the ESA-led Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. As SMOS is the first satellite to globally map L-band (1.4GHz) emissions from the Earth?s surface, and the first 2-dimensional interferometric microwave radiometer used for Earth observation, large scale and long-term validation campaigns have been conducted world-wide, of which AACES is the most extensive. AACES combined large scale medium-resolution airborne L-band and spectral observations, along with high-resolution in-situ measurements of soil moisture across a 50,000km2 area of the Murrumbidgee River catchment, located in south-eastern Australia. This paper presents a qualitative assessment of the SMOS brightness temperature and soil moisture products.

  4. Hemoglobin variants detected by hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) analysis and the effects on HbA1c measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir, Nadzimah Mohd; Thevarajah, M; Yean, Chew Yee

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hemoglobin (Hb) A1c is a tool widely used to monitor long-term glycemic control in diabetic patients. The objective of our study is to compare the HbA1c values measured on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and immunoassay in patients who were detected to have hemoglobin variant after HbA1c analysis. Materials and Methods: We compared the HbA1c values measured using the Arkray Adams A1c HA-8160 (HPLC method) and Roche Cobas Integra (immunoturbidimetric method) from diab...

  5. Analysis list: Myo1c [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Myo1c Embryonic fibroblast + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/My...o1c.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Myo1c.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscienc...edbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Myo1c.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Myo1c.Embryonic

  6. CONFIGURATION DEVELOPMENT ON THE PLATFORM 1C FOR ENTERPRISE AUTOMATION

    OpenAIRE

    О.L. LIAKHOV; T.A. DMYTRENKO; A.О. TVERDOKHLIB; T.M. DERKACH; A.O. DMYTRENKO

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the results of configuration development on the platform 1C for limited liability companies were presented. The object of study is the development process configuration platform 1C. The purpose of the study is the technological platform “1C: Enterprise”. The tasks included analyzing the technological platform “1C: Enterprise”, comparing the most popular ERP-systems, configurator devel-opment on the platform 1C. Such research methods as structured programming techniques and meth...

  7. Analysis list: Jmjd1c [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Jmjd1c Pluripotent stem cell + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Jmjd1...c.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Jmjd1c.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosc...iencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Jmjd1c.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Jmjd1c.Plu

  8. Deeply embedded objects and shocked molecular hydrogen : The environment of the FU Orionis stars RNO 1B/1C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quanz, S. P.; Henning, Th.; Bouwman, J.; Linz, H.; Lahuis, F.

    2007-01-01

    We present Spitzer IRAC and IRS observations of the dark cloud L1287. The mid-infrared ( MIR) IRAC images show deeply embedded infrared sources in the vicinity of the FU Orionis objects RNO 1B and RNO 1C, suggesting their association with a small young stellar cluster. We resolve for the first time

  9. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palukaitis, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Satellite RNAs and satellite viruses are extraviral components that can affect either the pathogenicity, the accumulation, or both of their associated viruses while themselves being dependent on the associated viruses as helper viruses for their infection. Most of these satellite RNAs are noncoding RNAs, and in many cases, have been shown to alter the interaction of their helper viruses with their hosts. In only a few cases have the functions of these satellite RNAs in such interactions been studied in detail. In particular, work on the satellite RNAs of Cucumber mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus have provided novel insights into RNAs functioning as noncoding RNAs. These effects are described and potential roles for satellite RNAs in the processes involved in symptom intensification or attenuation are discussed. In most cases, models describing these roles involve some aspect of RNA silencing or its suppression, either directly or indirectly involving the particular satellite RNA.

  10. Centriolar satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollenaere, Maxim A X; Mailand, Niels; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Centriolar satellites are small, microscopically visible granules that cluster around centrosomes. These structures, which contain numerous proteins directly involved in centrosome maintenance, ciliogenesis, and neurogenesis, have traditionally been viewed as vehicles for protein trafficking...... highlight newly discovered regulatory mechanisms targeting centriolar satellites and their functional status, and we discuss how defects in centriolar satellite components are intimately linked to a wide spectrum of human diseases....

  11. RTN1-C mediates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury via ER stress and mitochondria-associated apoptosis pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Lingli; Tang, Yuewen; An, Ran; Lin, Muya; Chen, Lijian; Du, Jian

    2017-10-05

    The reticulon family has been found to induce apoptosis, inhibit axon regeneration and regulate protein trafficking. However, little is known about the mechanisms of how reticulon proteins are involved in neuronal death-promoting processes during ischemia. Here, we report that the expression of Reticulon Protein 1-C (RTN1-C) was associated with the progression of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Using a combination of rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) stroke and oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reoxygenation (OGD/R) models, we determined that the expression of RTN1-C was significantly increased during cerebral ischemic/reperfusion. RTN1-C overexpression induced apoptosis and increased the cell vulnerability to ischemic injury, whereas RTN1-C knockdown reversed ischemia-induced apoptosis and attenuated the vulnerability of OGD/R-treated neural cells. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that RTN1-C mediated OGD/R-induced apoptosis through ER stress and mitochondria-associated pathways. RTN1-C interacted with Bcl-xL and increased its localization in the ER, thus reducing the anti-apoptotic activity of Bcl-xL. Most importantly, knockdown of Rtn1-c expression in vivo attenuated apoptosis in MCAO rats and reduced the extent of I/R-induced brain injury, as assessed by infarct volume and neurological score. Collectively, these data support for the first time that RTN1-C may represent a novel candidate for therapies against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  12. Satellite theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozai, Y.

    1981-04-01

    The dynamical characteristics of the natural satellite of Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are analyzed on the basis of the solar tidal perturbation factor and the oblateness factor of the primary planet for each satellite. For the inner satellites, for which the value of the solar tidal factor is much smaller than the planetary oblateness factor, it is shown that the eccentricity and inclination of satellite orbits are generally very small and almost constant; several pairs of inner satellites are also found to exhibit commensurable mean motions, or secular accelerations in mean longitude. In the case of the outer satellites, for which solar perturbations are dominant, secular perturbations and long-period perturbations may be derived by the solution of equations of motion reduced to one degree of freedom. The existence of a few satellites, termed intermediary satellites, for which the solar tidal perturbation is on the order of the planetary oblateness factor, is also observed, and the pole of the orbital plane of the satellite is noted to execute a complex motion around the pole of the planet or the orbital plane of the planet.

  13. Analysis list: JMJD1C [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available JMJD1C Blood + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/JMJD1C.1....tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/JMJD1C.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/JM...JD1C.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/JMJD1C.Blood.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/Blood.gml ...

  14. HWIL IR imaging testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, R. J.; Passwater, R. D.

    1981-03-01

    The Army simulator facilities are presently configured to conduct hardware-in-the-loop mission tasks on the HELLFIRE and COPPERHEAD missile systems. These systems presently use a LASER seeker. The facility is an ideal candidate to be converted to include infrared (IR) seekers used on the TGSM system. This study investigates the possibility and impact of a facility update. This report documents the feasibility of developing a hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) hybrid simulation incorporating infrared IR seekers used for the Assault Breaker program. Other hardware to be considered are the autopilot, signal conditioning, signal processing, and actuators which may be integrated into the system simulation. Considerations are given to replacing all or elements of hardware while substituting math models in the system simulation.

  15. An Analysis of the FY-1C, Iridium 33, and Cosmos 2251 Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, J.-C.

    2014-01-01

    The beginning of the year 2013 marks the sixth anniversary of the destruction of the Fengyun-1C (FY-1C) weather satellite as the result of an anti-satellite test conducted by China in January 2007 and the fourth anniversary of the accidental collision between Cosmos 2251 and the operational Iridium 33 in February 2009. These two events represent the worst satellite breakups in history. A total of 5579 fragments have been cataloged by the U.S. Space Surveillance Network (SSN), and almost 5000 of them were still in orbit in January 2013. In addition to these cataloged objects, hundreds of thousands (or more) of fragments down to the millimeter size regime were also generated during the breakups. These fragments are too small to be tracked by the SSN, but are large enough to be a safety concern for human space activities and robotic missions in low Earth orbit (LEO, the region below 2000 km altitude). Like their cataloged siblings, many of them remain in orbit today. These two breakup events dramatically changed the landscape of the orbital debris environment in LEO. The spatial density of the cataloged population in January 2013 is shown as the top blue curve. The combined FY-1C, Iridium 33, and Cosmos 2251 fragments (black curve) account for about 50 percent of the cataloged population below an altitude of 1000 km. They are also responsible for the concentrations at 770 km and 850 km, altitudes at which the collisions occurred. The effects of the FY-1C, Iridium 33, and Cosmos 2251 fragments will continue to be felt for decades to come. For example, approximately half of the generated FY-1C fragments will remain in orbit 20 years from now. In general, the Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 fragments will decay faster than the FY-1C fragments because of their lower altitudes. Of the Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 fragments, the former have much shorter orbital lifetimes than the latter, because lightweight composite materials were heavily used in the construction of the Iridium

  16. Satellite Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N

    2012-01-01

    The field of satellite communications represents the world's largest space industry. Those who are interested in space need to understand the fundamentals of satellite communications, its technology, operation, business, economic, and regulatory aspects. This book explains all this along with key insights into the field's future growth trends and current strategic challenges. Fundamentals of Satellite Communications is a concise book that gives all of the key facts and figures as well as a strategic view of where this dynamic industry is going. Author Joseph N. Pelton, PhD, former Dean of the International Space University and former Director of Strategic Policy at Intelstat, presents a r

  17. Localised IR spectroscopy of hemoglobin

    CERN Document Server

    Yarrow, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    IR absorption spectroscopy of hemoglobin was performed using an IR optical parametric oscillator laser and a commercial atomic force microscope in a novel experimental arrangement based on the use of a bottom-up excitation alignment. This experimental approach enables detection of protein samples with a resolution that is much higher than that of standard IR spectroscopy. Presented here are AFM based IR absorption spectra of micron sized hemoglobin features

  18. IR nanoscale spectroscopy and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Eamonn; Yarrow, Fiona; Rice, James H.

    2011-10-01

    Sub diffraction limited infrared absorption imaging was applied to hemoglobin by coupling IR optics with an atomic force microscope. Comparisons between the AFM topography and IR absorption images of micron sized hemoglobin features are presented, along with nanoscale IR spectroscopic analysis of the metalloprotein.

  19. Satellite Geomagnetism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Stolle, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Observations of Earth’s magnetic field from space began more than 50 years ago. A continuous monitoring of the field using low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites, however, started only in 1999, and three satellites have taken highprecision measurements of the geomagnetic field during the past decade...... ability to characterize and understand the many sources that contribute to Earth’s magnetic field. In this review, we summarize investigations of Earth’s interior and environment that have been possible through the analysis of high-precision magnetic field observations taken by LEO satellites........ The unprecedented time-space coverage of their data opened revolutionary new possibilities for monitoring, understanding, and exploring Earth’s magnetic field. In the near future, the three-satellite constellation Swarm will ensure continuity of such measurement and provide enhanced possibilities to improve our...

  20. Satellite (Natural)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    In its most general sense, any celestial object in orbit around a similar larger object. Thus, for example, the Magellanic Clouds are satellite galaxies of our own Milky Way galaxy. Without qualification, the term is used to mean a body in orbit around a planet; an alternative term is moon. The term natural satellite distinguishes these bodies from artificial satellites—spacecraft placed in orbi...

  1. Albuminas ir jo vartojimas

    OpenAIRE

    Reingardienė, Dagmara Ona

    2002-01-01

    Albuminas yra natūralus koloidas, tačiau jo vartojimo svarba ir efektyvumas, gydant kritines būkles, pastaraisiais metais iš esmės pasikeitė. Šiame straipsnyje aptariami naujausi literatūros duomenys apie albumino vartojimą. Aišku, kad įprastas albumino vartojimas, esant sumažėjusiam jo kiekiui plazmoje, nerekomenduotinas. Šiuo metu moksliškai pagrįstų indikacijų albumino vartojimui nėra. Jo galima skirti tik kaip antrojo pasirinkimo tirpalą tais atvejais, kai kiti tirpalai neindikuotini ar k...

  2. IR and the Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf; Stevenson, Hayley

    2017-01-01

    , in the end, one finite interconnected space. Together these two starting points make for the basic conundrum of Inter- national Relations and the Earth: how does a divided world live on a single globe? This introduction first provides an overview of the recent rise of ‘the environment’ in international......, ‘what has the environment ever done for IR?’, before the plan for the rest of the book sketches the content and direction of the ensuing chapters that explore the problematique of International Relations and the Earth....

  3. The IRS-1 signaling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M F

    1994-02-01

    IRS-1 is a principal substrate of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase. It undergoes multi-site tyrosine phosphorylation and mediates the insulin signal by associating with various signaling molecules containing Src homology 2 domains. Interleukin-4 also stimulates IRS-1 phosphorylation, and it is suspected that a few more growth factors or cytokines will be added to form a select group of receptors that utilize the IRS-1 signaling pathway. More IRS-1-like adapter molecules, such as 4PS (IRS-2), may remain to be found.

  4. Contribution To The Data Warehouse And Prospects Of The IRS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barner, Frithjof; Haydn, Rupert; Parmar, Manish; Makiola, Jens

    2013-12-01

    Over the past two years, the IRS program has again significantly contributed to the GSC-DA Data Warehouse. From its suite of optical EO satellites which operate in the visible, near IR and shortwave IR domain, multispectral data from the HR LISS-III and MR AWiFS sensors have been provided. Both cameras are implemented on board of Resourcesat-1 and Resourcesat-2 respectively. Despite reduced capacities, the Resourcesat constellation of satellites so far acquired cloud-free images of a vast majority of the first HR coverage of CORE_001 and several monthly MR coverages for CORE_008 over the EEA-39. The results regarding the above mentioned data sets will be discussed including an appraisal of the possible future role of upcoming IRS EO satellites for European data requirements.

  5. CD1c-Expression by Monocytes - Implications for the Use of Commercial CD1c+ Dendritic Cell Isolation Kits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Schrøder

    Full Text Available Conventional dendritic cells (cDCs comprise a heterogeneous population of cells that are important regulators of immunity and homeostasis. CD1c+ cDCs are present in human blood and tissues, and found to efficiently activate naïve CD4+ T cells. While CD1c is thought to specifically identify this subset of human cDCs, we show here that also classical and intermediate monocytes express CD1c. Accordingly, the commercial CD1c (BDCA-1+ Dendritic Cell Isolation Kit isolates two distinct cell populations from blood: CD1c+CD14- cDCs and CD1c+CD14+ monocytes. CD1c+ cDCs and CD1c+ monocytes exhibited strikingly different properties, including their differential regulation of surface marker expression, their levels of cytokine production, and their ability to stimulate naïve CD4+ T cells. These results demonstrate that a commercial CD1c (BDCA-1+ Dendritic Cell Isolation Kit isolates two functionally different cell populations, which has important implications for the interpretation of previously generated data using this kit to characterize CD1c+ cDCs.

  6. Drugs affecting HbA1c levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjit Unnikrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c is an important indicator of glycemic control in diabetes mellitus, based on which important diagnostic and therapeutic decisions are routinely made. However, there are several situations in which the level of HbA1c may not faithfully reflect the glycemic control in a given patient. Important among these is the use of certain non-diabetic medications, which can affect the HbA1c levels in different ways. This review focuses on the non-diabetic medications which can inappropriately raise or lower the HbA1c levels, and the postulated mechanisms for the same.

  7. Detailed IR aperture measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Roderik; Garcia Morales, Hector; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hermes, Pascal Dominik; Mirarchi, Daniele; Quaranta, Elena; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, Carlo; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Wretborn, Sven Joel; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    MD 1673 was carried out on October 5 2016, in order to investigate in more detail the available aperture in the LHC high-luminosity insertions at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm. Previous aperture measurements in 2016 during commissioning had shown that the available aperture is at the edge of protection, and that the aperture bottleneck at β∗=40 cm in certain cases is found in the separation plane instead of in the crossing plane. Furthermore, the bottlenecks were consistently found in close to the upstream end of Q3 on the side of the incoming beam, and not in Q2 on the outgoing beam as expected from calculations. Therefore, this MD aimed at measuring IR1 and IR5 separately (at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm, for 185 µrad half crossing angle), to further localize the bottlenecks longitudinally using newly installed BLMs, investigate the difference in aperture between Q2 and Q3, and to see if any aperture can be gained using special orbit bumps.

  8. 7 CFR 1c.117 - Documentation of informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Documentation of informed consent. 1c.117 Section 1c... Documentation of informed consent. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, informed consent... wants documentation linking the subject with the research, and the subject's wishes will govern; or...

  9. ROBOTIC SYNTHESIS OF L-[1-C-11]TYROSINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LUURTSEMA, G; MEDEMA, J; ELSINGA, PH; VISSER, GM; VAALBURG, W

    L-[1-C-11]tyrosine promises to become an important tracer for determination of the protein synthesis rate (PSR) in tumor tissue and brain. The commercially available Anatech RB-86 robotic system is utilized for the automation of the L-[1-C-11]tyrosine production via the isocyanide method as reported

  10. ROBOTIC SYNTHESIS OF L-[1-C-11]TYROSINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LUURTSEMA, G; MEDEMA, J; ELSINGA, PH; VISSER, GM; VAALBURG, W

    1994-01-01

    L-[1-C-11]tyrosine promises to become an important tracer for determination of the protein synthesis rate (PSR) in tumor tissue and brain. The commercially available Anatech RB-86 robotic system is utilized for the automation of the L-[1-C-11]tyrosine production via the isocyanide method as reported

  11. CDKN1C mutations: two sides of the same coin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggermann, Thomas; Binder, Gerhard; Brioude, Frédéric; Maher, Eamonn R; Lapunzina, Pablo; Cubellis, Maria Vittoria; Bergadá, Ignacio; Prawitt, Dirk; Begemann, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C) negatively regulates cellular proliferation and it has been shown that loss-of-function mutations in the imprinted CDKN1C gene (11p15.5) are associated with the overgrowth disorder Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). With recent reports of gain-of-function mutations of the PCNA domain of CDKN1C in growth-retarded patients with IMAGe syndrome or Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS), its key role for growth has been confirmed. Thereby, the last gap in the spectrum of molecular alterations in 11p15.5 in growth-retardation and overgrowth syndromes could be closed. Recent functional studies explain the strict association of CDKN1C mutations with clinically opposite phenotypes and thereby contribute to our understanding of the function and regulation of the gene in particular and epigenetic regulation in general.

  12. The extragalactic IR background

    CERN Document Server

    De Zotti, G; Mazzei, P; Toffolatti, L; Danese, L; De Zotti, G; Franceschini, A; Mazzei, P; Toffolatti, L; Danese, L

    1994-01-01

    Current limits on the intensity of the extragalactic infrared background are consistent with the expected contribution from evolving galaxies. Depending on the behaviour of the star formation rate and of the initial mass function, we can expect that dust extinction during early evolutionary phases ranges from moderate to strong. An example of the latter case may be the ultraluminous galaxy IRAS F10214 + 4724. The remarkable lack of high redshift galaxies in faint optically selected samples may be indirect evidence that strong extinction is common during early phases. Testable implications of different scenarios are discussed; ISO can play a key role in this context. Estimates of possible contributions of galaxies to the background under different assumptions are presented. The COBE/FIRAS limits on deviations from a blackbody spectrum at sub-mm wavelengths already set important constraints on the evolution of the far-IR emission of galaxies and on the density of obscured (``Type 2'') AGNs. A major progress in ...

  13. Scientific Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    followed Hale’s into orbit. In 1879, Jules Verne wrote about launching small satellites with a gun possessing a muzzle velocity of 10 000 m/sec (ref. 3...was activated in 1950.11 It was located only a few tens of miles from the spot where Jules Verne had his Baltimore Gun Club fire a manned projectile to...principle, satellites can be launched by a single impulse applied at the Earth’s surface-say, with a large cannon, & la Jules Verne (sec. 8-3). In

  14. Water Quality Determination of Küçükçekmece Lake, Turkey by Using Multispectral Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Alparslan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the analysis of the Landsat-5 TM + SPOT-Pan (1992, IRS-1C/D LISS + Pan (2000, and Landsat-5 TM (2006 satellite images that reflect the drastic land use/land cover changes in the Küçükçekmece Lake region, Istanbul. Landsat-5 TM satellite data dated 2006 was used for mapping water quality. A multiple regression analysis was carried out between the unitless planetary reflectance values derived from the satellite image and in situ water quality parameters chlorophyll a, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, turbidity, and biological and chemical oxygen demand measured at a number of stations homogenously distributed over the lake surface. The results of this study provided valuable information to local administrators on the water quality of Küçükçekmece Lake, which is a large water resource of the Istanbul Metropolitan Area. Results also show that such a methodology structured by use of reflectance values provided from satellite imagery, in situ water quality measurements, and basin land use/land cover characteristics obtained from images can serve as a powerful and rapid monitoring tool for the drinking water basins that suffer from rapid urbanization and pollution, all around the world.

  15. The IRS-1 signaling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, M G; Sun, X J; White, M F

    1994-07-01

    Insulin-receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) is a principal substrate of the receptor tyrosine kinase for insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1, and a substrate for a tyrosine kinase activated by interleukin 4. IRS-1 undergoes multisite tyrosine phosphorylation and mediates downstream signals by 'docking' various proteins that contain Src homology 2 domains. IRS-1 appears to be a unique molecule; however, 4PS, a protein found mainly in hemopoietic cells, may represent another member of this family.

  16. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C deficiency causes motor impairment and hypoactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Patricia; Jacas, Jordi; Sahún, Ignasi; Muley, Helena; Ramírez, Sara; Puisac, Beatriz; Mezquita, Pau; Pié, Juan; Dierssen, Mara; Casals, Núria

    2013-11-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1c (CPT1C), a brain-specific protein localized in the endoplasmic reticulum of neurons, is expressed in almost all brain regions, but its only known functions to date are involved in the hypothalamic control of energy homeostasis and in hippocampus-dependent spatial learning. To identify other physiological and behavioral functions of this protein, we performed a battery of neurological tests on Cpt1c-deficient mice. The animals showed intact autonomic and sensory systems, but some motor disturbances were observed. A more detailed study of motor function revealed impaired coordination and gait, severe muscle weakness, and reduced daily locomotor activity. Analysis of motor function in these mice at ages of 6-24 weeks showed that motor disorders were already present in young animals and that impairment increased progressively with age. Analysis of CPT1C expression in different motor brain areas during development revealed that CPT1C levels were low from birth to postnatal day 10 and then rapidly increased peaking at postnatal day 21, which suggests that CPT1C plays a relevant role in motor function during and after weaning. As CPT1C is known to regulate ceramide levels, we measured these biolipids in different motor areas in adult mice. Cerebellar, striatum, and motor cortex extracts from Cpt1c knockout mice showed reduced levels of ceramide and its derivative sphingosine when compared to wild-type animals. Our results indicate that altered ceramide metabolism in motor brain areas induced by Cpt1c deficiency causes progressive motor dysfunction from a young age. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hemoglobin A1c: Standardizacija “zlatnog standarda”

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) je u proteklih 30 godina primjene postao "zlatnim standardom" u kliničkom praćenju šećerne bolesti. Dobra kontrola glikemije, izražena kroz koncentraciju HbA1c ≤7%, danas je klinički normativ kroz koji se procjenjuje djelotvornost terapije i rizik pojave komplikacija šećerne bolesti i glavna tema komunikacije između dijabetologa i pacijenata. Raznovrsna i nestandardizirana metodologija, varijabilnost kemijskih entiteta nastalih glikacijom molekule hemoglobina i nepos...

  18. Immunochemical Determination of Hemoglobin-A1c Utilizing a Glycated Peptide as Hemoglobin-A1c Analogon

    OpenAIRE

    Stöllner, Daniela; Warsinke, Axel; Stöcklein, Walter; Dölling, Rudolf; Scheller, Frieder

    2001-01-01

    We describe the development of a heterogeneous affinity-matrix based immunoassay for the determination of HbA1c which could in future be applicable to analytical devices. We developed an immunoenzymometric assay (IEMA) where the glycated pentapeptide Val-His-Leu-Thr-Pro (VHLTP) as HbA1c analogon is immobilized either to the surface of a microtiter plate by adsorption or to an amino-modified cellulose membrane by covalent linkage. The immobilized analogon competes together with the HbA1c in...

  19. Climatic potential productivity and an IRS-1CWiFS image in Natural Park Los Alcornocales. Relationship with the standing forest biomass; Productividad Potencial Climatica y una imagen IRS-1CWiFS en el Parque Natural Los Alcornocales. Relacion con la biomasa forestal real

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas, J. M.; Gonzalez-Alonso, F.; Roldan, A.; Huesca, M.

    2009-07-01

    It is studied the use of the Map of Forest Potential Productivity of Spain as information in base to which classify an Indian IRS-1C WiFS satellite image in Los Alcornocales Natural Park (Andalucia, Spain), a large forest area covered by natural forests of Mediterranean broad-leaved species, mainly cork oak (Quercus suber L.). Grouping the classes of climatic potential productivity of this map were obtained three macro classes that resulted significantly different among them at the 99% confidence level for the visible and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of the WiFS image. It was built a classifier using these macro classes of climatic potential productivity as ground truth areas. By maximum likelihood supervised classification of the NDVI were obtained classes who resulted significantly different among them at the 90% confidence level for the basal area from the Second Spanish National Forest Inventory ground plots located in the park. (Author) 60 refs.

  20. Trimester-specific reference intervals for haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Catherine

    2011-11-26

    Abstract Background: Diabetes in pregnancy imposes additional risks to both mother and infant. These increased risks are considered to be primarily related to glycaemic control which is monitored by means of glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)). The correlation of HbA(1c) with clinical outcomes emphasises the need to measure HbA(1c) accurately, precisely and for correct interpretation, comparison to appropriately defined reference intervals. Since July 2010, the HbA(1c) assay in Irish laboratories is fully metrologically traceable to the IFCC standard. The objective was to establish trimester-specific reference intervals in pregnancy for IFCC standardised HbA(1c) in non-diabetic Caucasian women. Methods: The authors recruited 311 non-diabetic Caucasian pregnant (n=246) and non-pregnant women (n=65). A selective screening based on risk factors for gestational diabetes was employed. All subjects had a random plasma glucose <7.7 mmol\\/L and normal haemoglobin level. Pregnancy trimester was defined as trimester 1 (T1, n=40) up to 12 weeks +6 days, trimester 2 (T2, n=106) 13-27 weeks +6 days, trimester 3 (T3, n=100) >28 weeks to term. Results: The normal HbA(1c) reference interval for Caucasian non-pregnant women was 29-37 mmol\\/mol (Diabetes Control and Complications Trial; DCCT: 4.8%-5.5%), T1: 24-36 mmol\\/mol (DCCT: 4.3%-5.4%), T2: 25-35 mmol\\/mol (DCCT: 4.4%-5.4%) and T3: 28-39 mmol\\/mol (DCCT: 4.7%-5.7%). HbA(1c) was significantly decreased in trimesters 1 and 2 compared to non-pregnant women. Conclusions: HbA(1c) trimester-specific reference intervals are required to better inform the management of pregnancies complicated by diabetes.

  1. IR seeker simulator and IR scene generation to evaluate IR decoy effectiveness; 2005BU1-EO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, W. de; Dam, F.A.M.; Kunz, G.J.; Schleijpen, H.M.A.

    2005-01-01

    IR decoys can be an effective countermeasure against IR guided anti ship missiles. However, it's not so easy to determine how the decoys should be deployed to get maximum effectiveness. A limitation of trials is that results are obtained for the specific trial condition only. Software tools have bee

  2. Optical constants of infrared (IR) materials in the IR region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendra, C. L.; Thutupalli, G. K. M.

    1992-01-01

    Optical constants, i.e., refractive index 'n' and absorption index 'k' of the IR materials, Ge, ThF4, CdTe and CdSe have been determined, through spectrophotometric method, in the IR region from 2.5 to 15 microns. It is seen that all these films are transparent in the IR region, and the optical constants of the films deposited at elevated temperatures (T = 200 C) are unaffected, even after subjecting to severe environs such as humidity and thermal shock/cycling. Making use of Ge/ThF4 and CdTe/CdSe coating combinations, IR antireflection coatings (ARCs) which can find applications in space-borne electrooptical systems have been successfully designed and developed. The resulting ARCs have not only efficient optical properties, low reflection loss and high transmission, but are also durable against adverse environments.

  3. Contributions to the Data Warehouse 2 and Prospects of the IRS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barner, Frithjof; Venkataraman, V. Raghu; Makiola, Jens

    2016-08-01

    During 2015 and 2016, the IRS program has significantly contributed to the CSC-DA Data Warehouse. From its suite of optical EO satellites which operate in the visible, near IR and shortwave IR domain, data from the HR LISS-III and MR AWiFS sensors on board of Resourcesat-2 have been provided. Resourcesat-2 so far acquired cloud-free images of a vast majority of the first and second coverage of HR_IMAGE_2015 and several monthly MR coverages for MR_IMAGE_2015 over the EEA-39. The results regarding the above mentioned data sets will be discussed including an appraisal of the possible future role of upcoming IRS EO satellites for European data requirements.

  4. Advanced IR imaging seeker program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiera, R. A.

    1980-05-01

    An advanced IR Imaging Seeker System was developed which is compatible with the Hellfire Missile System mission. A technical overview of this program and current status is presented. The IR imaging seeker was tested during late 1979 and early 1980. This seeker utilizes a 1024 element InAsSb/silicon hybrid focal plane array (FPA) operating at 77 degrees K and IR-sensitive in the 2.4-4.0 micrometer wavelength region. A multimode tracker provides improved tracking capability for operation against targets in a high clutter background.

  5. Human sulfotransferase SULT1C1: cDNA cloning, tissue-specific expression, and chromosomal localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Her, Chengtao; Weinshilboum, R.M. [Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States); Kaur, G.P. [Temple Univ. Medical School, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1997-05-01

    We have isolated and sequenced a cDNA that encodes an apparent human orthologue of a rat sulfotransferase (ST) cDNA that has been referred to as {open_quotes}ST1C1{close_quotes} - although it was recently recommended that sulfotransferase proteins and cDNAs be abbreviated {open_quotes}SULT.{close_quotes} The new human cDNA was cloned from a fetal liver-spleen cDNA library and had an 888-bp open reading frame. The amino acid sequence of the protein encoded by the cDNA was 62% identical with that encoded by the rat ST1C1 cDNA and included signature sequences that are conserved in all cytosolic SULT enzymes. Dot blot analysis of mRNA from 50 human tissues indicated that the cDNA was expressed in adult human stomach, kidney, and thyroid, as well as fetal kidney and liver. Northern blot analyses demonstrated that the major SULT1C1 mRNA in those same tissues was 1.4 kb in length. We next determined the partial human SULT1C1 gene sequence for a portion of the 5{prime}-terminus of one intron. That sequence was used to design SULT1C1 gene-specific primers that were used to perform the PCR with DNA from human/rodent somatic cell hybrids to demonstrate that the gene was located on chromosome 2. PCR amplifications performed with human chromosome 2/rodent hybrid cell DNA as template sublocalized SULT1C1 to a region between bands 2q11.1 and 2q11.2. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Main: 1C2A [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1C2A 大麦 Barley Hordeum vulgare l. Bowman-Birk Type Trypsin Inhibitor. Hordeum Vulgare Molecule: Bowma..., J.Y.Lee, S.W.Suh H.K.Song, Y.S.Kim, J.K.Yang, J.Moon, J.Y.Lee, S.W.Suh Crystal Structure Of A 16 Kda Double-Headed Bowma...B; 1C2A; X-ray; A=4-122.|InterPro; IPR000877; Prot_inh_BBI.|Pfam; PF00228; Bowman-Birk_leg; 4.|SMART; SM0026

  7. Genetic and bibliographic information: CACNA1C [GenLibi

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CACNA1C calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit human Long QT Syndrome... (MeSH) Cardiovascular Diseases (C14) > Heart Diseases (C14.280) > Arrhythmias, Cardiac (C14.280.067) > Long QT Syndrome...) > Heart Defects, Congenital (C16.131.240.400) > Long QT Syndrome (C16.131.240.400.715) Pathological Condit...ions, Signs and Symptoms (C23) > Pathologic Processes (C23.550) > Arrhythmias, Cardiac (C23.550.073) > Long QT Syndrome (C23.550.073.547) 02A0514005 ...

  8. Results of IR working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritson, D. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)]|[Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1992-03-01

    The IP luminosity at the Eloisatron will direct very large fluxes of hadronic debris into the IR quads. For instance at 1.10{sup 35} cm{sup 2}/sec the flux corresponds to 180 kilowatts. Already at the SSC fluxes in the neighborhood of 2 kilowatts are expected to require special handling. Scaling from SSC design experience we propose a configuration for the first IR quads at the Eloisatron capable of handling the heat load and radiation problems.

  9. Reduction of Fasting Blood Glucose and Hemoglobin A1c Using Oral Aloe Vera: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, William R; Fletcher, Emily A; Shah, Sachin A

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a global epidemic and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Additional medications that are novel, affordable, and efficacious are needed to treat this rampant disease. This meta-analysis was performed to ascertain the effectiveness of oral aloe vera consumption on the reduction of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). PubMed, CINAHL, Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, and Natural Standard databases were searched. Studies of aloe vera's effect on FBG, HbA1c, homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), fasting serum insulin, fructosamine, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in prediabetic and diabetic populations were examined. After data extraction, the parameters of FBG and HbA1c had appropriate data for meta-analyses. Extracted data were verified and then analyzed by StatsDirect Statistical Software. Reductions of FBG and HbA1c were reported as the weighted mean differences from baseline, calculated by a random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals. Subgroup analyses to determine clinical and statistical heterogeneity were also performed. Publication bias was assessed by using the Egger bias statistic. Nine studies were included in the FBG parameter (n = 283); 5 of these studies included HbA1c data (n = 89). Aloe vera decreased FBG by 46.6 mg/dL (p aloe vera for significantly reducing FBG (46.6 mg/dL) and HbA1c (1.05%). Further clinical studies that are more robust and better controlled are warranted to further explore these findings.

  10. Dynamics and phase transitions in A 1C 60 compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, H.; Renker, B.; Heid, R.; Tölle, A.

    1997-02-01

    We present an overview of extensive inelastic neutron scattering experiments carried out on powders of A 1C 60. The various phases leave strong fingerprints in the microscopic dynamics confirming the solid-state chemical reactions. The strong kinetic phase transitions can be followed in real time and turn out to be highly complex.

  11. Postoperative Trunk Shift in Lenke 1C Scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yu; Bünger, Cody Eric; Wu, Chunsen

    2012-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A risk factor analysis study. OBJECTIVE: To identify the causative factors for postoperative trunk shift in Lenke 1C scoliosis and investigate how to prevent it. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: When selective thoracic fusion is performed, postoperative trunk shift is a significant probl...

  12. SREBP-1c regulates glucose-stimulated hepatic clusterin expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gukhan [Department of Pharmacology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Geun Hyang; Oh, Gyun-Sik; Yoon, Jin [Department of Pharmacology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Bio-Medical Institute of Technology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hae Won [Department of Pharmacology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min-Seon [Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung-Whan, E-mail: swkim7@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Pharmacology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Bio-Medical Institute of Technology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-20

    Highlights: {yields} This is the first report to show nutrient-regulated clusterin expression. {yields} Clusterin expression in hepatocytes was increased by high glucose concentration. {yields} SREBP-1c is directly involved in the transcriptional activation of clusterin by glucose. {yields} This glucose-stimulated activation process is mediated through tandem E-box motifs. -- Abstract: Clusterin is a stress-response protein that is involved in diverse biological processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, tissue differentiation, inflammation, and lipid transport. Its expression is upregulated in a broad spectrum of diverse pathological states. Clusterin was recently reported to be associated with diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and their sequelae. However, the regulation of clusterin expression by metabolic signals was not addressed. In this study we evaluated the effects of glucose on hepatic clusterin expression. Interestingly, high glucose concentrations significantly increased clusterin expression in primary hepatocytes and hepatoma cell lines, but the conventional promoter region of the clusterin gene did not respond to glucose stimulation. In contrast, the first intronic region was transcriptionally activated by high glucose concentrations. We then defined a glucose response element (GlRE) of the clusterin gene, showing that it consists of two E-box motifs separated by five nucleotides and resembles carbohydrate response element (ChoRE). Unexpectedly, however, these E-box motifs were not activated by ChoRE binding protein (ChREBP), but were activated by sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c). Furthermore, we found that glucose induced recruitment of SREBP-1c to the E-box of the clusterin gene intronic region. Taken together, these results suggest that clusterin expression is increased by glucose stimulation, and SREBP-1c plays a crucial role in the metabolic regulation of clusterin.

  13. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1C4XA-2OG1B [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1C4XA-2OG1B 1C4X 2OG1 A B ---TVEIIEKRFPSGT---LASHALVAGDPQSPAVVLLH...EEEEEEE HHHHHHHHHHHHH 0 1C4X... A 1C4XA FPSGT---LASHA ...645107269287 4.700198173522949 1 1C4X... A 1C4XA

  14. Effect of alcohol dehydrogenase 1C (ADH1C genotype on vitamin A restriction and marbling in Korean native steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Qiao Peng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective This work was to find the correlation of alcohol dehydrogenase 1C (ADH1C genotype with vitamin A reduction and carcass traits during the vitamin A restriction period. Methods In study 1, 60 Korean native steers were fed a diet (890 IU/kg with 8,000 IU and 0 IU of supplemental premix vitamin A/kg of dry matter (DM for control and treatment group, respectively. The levels of serum vitamin A were analyzed through high preparative performance liquid chromatography, and the ADH1C genotype was analyzed based on polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP; 78.1% TT type, 21.9% TC type; however, CC type was not found. Then, the interaction between ADH1C and carcass traits on the vitamin A restriction was investigated in study 2. A total of 136 Korean native steers were fed a diet that included 930 IU/kg vitamin A of DM. Results Serum vitamin A in treatment was reduced to 112.4 IU/dL in steers with TT type of ADH1C, while for steers with TC type the concentration of serum vitamin A was dropped to 79.5 IU/dL (p<0.1 in study 1. This showed that TC type had the potential to lower serum vitamin A concentration during vitamin A restriction compared to TT type. In study 2 we found that eye muscle area, marbling and carcass weight in Korean native steers with TC type were higher than in steers with TT type (p<0.05. Conclusion The interaction between vitamin A restriction and TC type of ADH1C gene could have the potential of increasing the marbling in Korean native steers. These results indicated that steers with TC type of the ADH1C gene were more sensitive to the change of serum vitamin A than TT types. Furthermore, this finding has the potential to enable a higher marbling score under the condition of vitamin A restriction in Korean native steers.

  15. Geostationary Satellite (GOES) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from radiometer instruments on SMS (ATS) and GOES satellites in geostationary orbit. These satellites produced...

  16. Standalone GPS L1 C/A Receiver for Lunar Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Vincenzo; Blunt, Paul; Botteron, Cyril; Tian, Jia; Leclère, Jérôme; Wang, Yanguang; Basile, Francesco; Farine, Pierre-André

    2016-03-09

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs) were originally introduced to provide positioning and timing services for terrestrial Earth users. However, space users increasingly rely on GNSS for spacecraft navigation and other science applications at several different altitudes from the Earth surface, in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO), and feasibility studies have proved that GNSS signals can even be tracked at Moon altitude. Despite this, space remains a challenging operational environment, particularly on the way from the Earth to the Moon, characterized by weaker signals with wider gain variability, larger dynamic ranges resulting in higher Doppler and Doppler rates and critically low satellite signal availability. Following our previous studies, this paper describes the proof of concept "WeakHEO" receiver; a GPS L1 C/A receiver we developed in our laboratory specifically for lunar missions. The paper also assesses the performance of the receiver in two representative portions of an Earth Moon Transfer Orbit (MTO). The receiver was connected to our GNSS Spirent simulator in order to collect real-time hardware-in-the-loop observations, and then processed by the navigation module. This demonstrates the feasibility, using current technology, of effectively exploiting GNSS signals for navigation in a MTO.

  17. Magnetic properties of Sr2IrO4 a DFT stud

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Mora, Pablo; Cosio-Castaneda, Carlos; Tavizon, Gustavo

    2009-03-01

    Sr2IrO4 is a magnetic insulator with a small Ir-magnetic moment [1]. IrO4 rotations (due to the I41/acd space group) allow non-collinear magnetic ordering, thus this material could have weak ferromagnetism (non-collinear antiferromagnetically ordered Ir magnetic moments); other possible explanation is band-magnetism. Simple DFT calculations give a non-magnetic conductor. Intra-atomic electron repulsion can generate magnetic moments in the d-orbitals (via the Hubbard U (UH)), but due to extended character of these 5d-orbitals the UH should be quite small. Sr2IrO4 is analyzed with the WIEN2k package. Different magnetic configurations with varying UH are calculated in order to try to explain the observed magnetic behaviour. [1] C Cos'io-Castaneda, G Taviz'on, A Baeza and R Escudero, J. Phys.: Cond. Matter 19 (2007) 446210

  18. The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, G.; Habing, H. J.; Van Duinen, R.; Aumann, H. H.; Beichman, C. A.; Baud, B.; Beintema, D. A.; Boggess, N.; Clegg, P. E.; De Jong, T.

    1984-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) consists of a spacecraft and a liquid helium cryostat that contains a cooled IR telescope. The telescope's focal plane assembly is cooled to less than 3 K, and contains 62 IR detectors in the survey array which are arranged so that every source crossing the field of view can be seen by at least two detectors in each of four wavelength bands. The satellite was launched into a 900 km-altitude near-polar orbit, and its cryogenic helium supply was exhausted on November 22, 1983. By mission's end, 72 percent of the sky had been observed with three or more hours-confirming scans, and 95 percent with two or more hours-confirming scans. About 2000 stars detected at 12 and 25 microns early in the mission, and identified in the SAO (1966) catalog, have a positional uncertainty ellipse whose axes are 45 x 9 arcsec for an hours-confirmed source.

  19. Neptune's small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P.

    1992-04-01

    The small satellites of Neptune and other planets discovered during the Voyager 2 mission are discussed in terms of their composition and relationship to the planetary systems. The satellite Proteus is described in terms of its orbit, five other satellites are described, and they are compared to ther small satellites and systems. Neptune's satellites are hypothesized to be related to the ring system, and the satellite Galatea is related to the confinement of the rings.

  20. Impaired Insulin Signaling is Associated with Hepatic Mitochondrial Dysfunction in IR+/−-IRS-1+/− Double Heterozygous (IR-IRS1dh Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Franko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a pivotal role in energy metabolism, but whether insulin signaling per se could regulate mitochondrial function has not been identified yet. To investigate whether mitochondrial function is regulated by insulin signaling, we analyzed muscle and liver of insulin receptor (IR+/−-insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1+/− double heterozygous (IR-IRS1dh mice, a well described model for insulin resistance. IR-IRS1dh mice were studied at the age of 6 and 12 months and glucose metabolism was determined by glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Mitochondrial enzyme activities, oxygen consumption, and membrane potential were assessed using spectrophotometric, respirometric, and proton motive force analysis, respectively. IR-IRS1dh mice showed elevated serum insulin levels. Hepatic mitochondrial oxygen consumption was reduced in IR-IRS1dh animals at 12 months of age. Furthermore, 6-month-old IR-IRS1dh mice demonstrated enhanced mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle, but a tendency of impaired glucose tolerance. On the other hand, 12-month-old IR-IRS1dh mice showed improved glucose tolerance, but normal muscle mitochondrial function. Our data revealed that deficiency in IR/IRS-1 resulted in normal or even elevated skeletal muscle, but impaired hepatic mitochondrial function, suggesting a direct cross-talk between insulin signaling and mitochondria in the liver.

  1. #Occupy IR: Exposing the Orthodoxy

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Manokha; Mona Chalabi

    2012-01-01

    The #occupy IR/IPE initiative was created in response to the #occupy movement, whose own roots can be traced backed to the latest crisis of global finance. In this contribution, we link #occupy and the crisis in a different way. We argue that we must occupy IR/IPE because of the discipline’s failure to apprehend and acknowledge the crisis itself, just as the Occupy movement is calling for their overarching authorities to notice and help address the social and economic inequalities produced by...

  2. Rethinking IR from the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Picq

    Full Text Available Abstract This article proposes Amazonia as a site to think world politics. The Amazon is invisible in the study International Relations (IR, yet its experiences are deeply global. I present the international dynamics at play in Amazonia at different historical moments to posit that this periphery has contributed to forging the political-economy of what is refer to as the core. The Amazon's absence from the study of IR speaks about the larger inequality in processes of knowledge production. Serious engagements with Amazonia are one way to invite a plurality of worlds in the production of theories, disrupting global divisions of labor in knowledge production ally.

  3. MMP-2 inhibits PCSK9-induced degradation of the LDL receptor in Hepa1-c1c7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Berry, Evan; Hernandez-Anzaldo, Samuel; Sun, Difei; Adijiang, Ayinuer; Li, Liang; Zhang, Dawei; Fernandez-Patron, Carlos

    2015-02-13

    Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) catalyzes the uptake of LDL-cholesterol by liver and peripheral organs. The function of the LDLR is antagonized by pro-protein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), which binds to LDLR at the plasma membrane inducing LDLR degradation. Here, we report that matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) interacts with and cleaves PCSK9, as evidenced by proteomic, chemical cross-linkage, blue native-PAGE and domain-specific antibodies Western blot analyses. Furthermore, MMP-2 overexpression renders Hepa1-c1c7 cells resistant to PCSK9-induced LDLR degradation. The data suggest that pathological MMP-2 overexpression may protect the LDLR from PCSK-9-induced degradation.

  4. EFFICACY OF MODIFIED MULTICOMPONENT SYSTEM “1C: ENTERPRISE” IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Modestov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Automated accounting and controlling system “1C: Enterprise” is widely used in Russia for optimizing the system of controlling materials and technical resources. Medical organizations modify them in line with their primary activity objectives. For many years, the Scientific Center of Children’s Health has been successfully using a 1C-based medical information system including electronic patient records. An innovative product — an additional block for accounting equipment and supplies (E&S — was developed in 2014.Objective: Our aim was to conduct a sociological analysis of results of the first stage of modified multicomponent system “1C: Enterprise” implementation.Methods: The cross-sectional full-design study was conducted from October 2014 to June 2015. We used the analytical method, the opinion poll method and the expert method. We developed a special questionnaire for the purposes of the poll. We assessed opinions of clinic employees, departments and services indirectly or directly working with the system.Results: The study results demonstrate that multifunctional and adapted towards peculiarities of activities of the Scientific Center of Children’s Health system “1C: Enterprise” provides more efficient control over the use of drugs, expendables and other E&S in patient terms. It also allows simplifying and automatizing operation of the E&S accounting system by the employees and generating financial statements for a given period in terms of patient/department/clinic. At the same time, the poll revealed problematic technical, informational and motivational aspects. This is confirmed by the degree of involvement/personal interest of employees in the end result, as well as by the priorities of motivation for quality work.Conclusion: Analysis of attitude of accountable persons to the modification of accounting policy of the Scientific Center of Children’s Health served as the basis for developing measures of

  5. Technicians prepare the inflatable wing on Paresev 1-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    This photo shows the Paresev (Paraglider Research Vehicle) space frame receiving a new wing. Frank Fedor and a technician helper are attaching a half-scale version of an inflatable wing in a hangar at NASA Flight Research Center at Edwards, California. The Paresev in this configuration was called the 1-C and was expected to closely approximate the aerodynamic characteristics that would be encountered with the Gemini space capsule with a parawing extended. The whole wing was not inflatable; the three chambers that acted as spars and supported the wing inflated.

  6. CD1c+ blood dendritic cells have Langerhans cell potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Paul; Bigley, Venetia; Gunawan, Merry; Haniffa, Muzlifah; Collin, Matthew

    2015-01-15

    Langerhans cells (LCs) are self-renewing in the steady state but repopulated by myeloid precursors after injury. Human monocytes give rise to langerin-positive cells in vitro, suggesting a potential precursor role. However, differentiation experiments with human lineage-negative cells and CD34(+) progenitors suggest that there is an alternative monocyte-independent pathway of LC differentiation. Recent data in mice also show long-term repopulation of the LC compartment with alternative myeloid precursors. Here we show that, although monocytes are able to express langerin, when cultured with soluble ligands granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), and bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7), CD1c(+) dendritic cells (DCs) become much more LC-like with high langerin, Birbeck granules, EpCAM, and E-cadherin expression under the same conditions. These data highlight a new potential precursor function of CD1c(+) DCs and demonstrate an alternative pathway of LC differentiation that may have relevance in vivo.

  7. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1C5QA-3BSQA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1C5QA-3BSQA 1C5Q 3BSQ A A IVGGYTCGANTVPYQVSLNSG-YHFCGGSLINSQWVVSA...ALLSGNQLHCGGVLVNERWVLTAAHCKMNEYTVHLGSDTLGDRRA--QRIKASKSFRHPGYSTQTHVNDLMLVKLNSQARL...el> 0 1C5Q A 1C5QA...A 3BSQA ALLSGNQLHCGA 1C5QA VSWGS-GCAQK<

  8. Satellite data compression

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Bormin

    2011-01-01

    Satellite Data Compression covers recent progress in compression techniques for multispectral, hyperspectral and ultra spectral data. A survey of recent advances in the fields of satellite communications, remote sensing and geographical information systems is included. Satellite Data Compression, contributed by leaders in this field, is the first book available on satellite data compression. It covers onboard compression methodology and hardware developments in several space agencies. Case studies are presented on recent advances in satellite data compression techniques via various prediction-

  9. Trends in communications satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Curtin, Denis J

    1979-01-01

    Trends in Communications Satellites offers a comprehensive look at trends and advances in satellite communications, including experimental ones such as NASA satellites and those jointly developed by France and Germany. The economic aspects of communications satellites are also examined. This book consists of 16 chapters and begins with a discussion on the fundamentals of electrical communications and their application to space communications, including spacecraft, earth stations, and orbit and wavelength utilization. The next section demonstrates how successful commercial satellite communicati

  10. Shaped Ir-Ni bimetallic nanoparticles for minimizing Ir utilization in oxygen evolution reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jinkyu; Yang, Sungeun; Kim, Chanyeon; Roh, Chi-Woo; Kwon, Yongwoo; Kim, Yong-Tae; Lee, Hyunjoo

    2016-04-25

    Shaped Ir-Ni bimetallic nanoparticles were synthesized and used for electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The obtained bimetallic nanoparticles showed significantly enhanced Ir mass activity and durability compared with Ir nanoparticles.

  11. DECOVALEX ll PROJECT. Technical Report Task 1C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, L.; Stephansson, O. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Knight, L.J. [United Kingdom Nirex Ltd., Harwell (United Kingdom); Kautsky, F. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Tsang, C-F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Science Division

    1999-05-01

    The DECOVALEX II project is an international co-operative research project supported by eleven funding organizations from seven countries. The project studied four tasks: Task 1: numerical simulation of the RCF3 pump test at Sellafield, UK; Task 2: numerical simulation if the in situ T-H-M experiment at Kamaishi Mine, Japan; Task 3: monitoring of current development in rock fracture research; and Task 4: report on treatment of T-H-M processes in Performance Assessment works for nuclear waste repositories. The project started in 1995 and is scheduled to be finalised in June 1999. This report concerns the Task 1 of the DECOVALEX 11 project. Task 1 consists of three subtasks: i) Task 1 A - the blind numerical prediction to the hydraulic response of the rock mass of the in-situ RCF3 pump test in the Borrowdale Volcanic Group (BVG) at Sellafield, UK; ii) Task 1B -calibration of the numerical models of Task 1A against measured results of the RCF3 pump test; iii) Task 1C - the numerical predictions of the hydro-mechanical effects of the BVG rock mass to the excavation of a shaft along the axis of the RCF3 borehole, without actual excavation of the shaft and associated experiments and measurements. The aim of the subtasks 1 (A+B) was to characterise the hydro-mechanical property field of the fractured rock mass at the RCF3 test site, which could then be used to predict the hydro-mechanical responses of the rock mass to the excavation of a shaft centred on the RCF3 borehole. Task 1C involves a numerical simulation of an assumed excavation of a single shaft on the line of the RCF3 borehole used for Task 1 (A+B). The subtask is basically a generic prediction, with realistic site geology and hydrogeology data but without feedback from an actual excavation of the shaft and associated measurements. A model calibration is not possible due to lack of measured results. On the other hand, some additional components were introduced into the subtask, such as studies of EDZ formation

  12. GPM, METOPA MHS Level 1C Common Calibrated Brightness Temperatures VV02A

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — All 1C products have a common L1C data structure, simple and generic. Each L1C swath includes scan time, latitude and longitude, scan status, quality, incidence...

  13. GPM, SSMI F16 Level 1C Common Calibrated Brightness Temperatures VV02A

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — All 1C products have a common L1C data structure, simple and generic. Each L1C swath includes scan time, latitude and longitude, scan status, quality, incidence...

  14. GPM, MT1 SAPHIR Level 1C Common Calibrated Brightness Temperatures VV02A

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — All 1C products have a common L1C data structure, simple and generic. Each L1C swath includes scan time, latitude and longitude, scan status, quality, incidence...

  15. GPM, NOAA-18 MHS Level 1C Common Calibrated Brightness Temperatures VV02A

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — All 1C products have a common L1C data structure, simple and generic. Each L1C swath includes scan time, latitude and longitude, scan status, quality, incidence...

  16. GPM, SSMI F17 Level 1C Common Calibrated Brightness Temperatures VV02A

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — All 1C products have a common L1C data structure, simple and generic. Each L1C swath includes scan time, latitude and longitude, scan status, quality, incidence...

  17. GPM, SSMI F18 Level 1C Common Calibrated Brightness Temperatures VV02A

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — All 1C products have a common L1C data structure, simple and generic. Each L1C swath includes scan time, latitude and longitude, scan status, quality, incidence...

  18. GPM, NOAA-19 MHS Level 1C Common Calibrated Brightness Temperatures VV02A

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — All 1C products have a common L1C data structure, simple and generic. Each L1C swath includes scan time, latitude and longitude, scan status, quality, incidence...

  19. GPM, METOPB MHS Level 1C Common Calibrated Brightness Temperatures VV02A

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — All 1C products have a common L1C data structure, simple and generic. Each L1C swath includes scan time, latitude and longitude, scan status, quality, incidence...

  20. GPM Level 1C R Common Calibrated Brightness Temperatures Collocated VV03B

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — All 1C products have a common L1C data structure, simple and generic. Each L1C swath includes scan time, latitude and longitude, scan status, quality, incidence...

  1. GPM GMI Level 1C Common Calibrated Brightness Temperatures Collocated VV03B

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — All 1C products have a common L1C data structure, simple and generic. Each L1C swath includes scan time, latitude and longitude, scan status, quality, incidence...

  2. GPM, TRMM TMI Level 1C Common Calibrated Brightness Temperatures VV02A

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — All 1C products have a common L1C data structure, simple and generic. Each L1C swath includes scan time, latitude and longitude, scan status, quality, incidence...

  3. GPM GMI Level 1C Common Calibrated Brightness Temperatures Collocated VV03A

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — All 1C products have a common L1C data structure, simple and generic. Each L1C swath includes scan time, latitude and longitude, scan status, quality, incidence...

  4. GPM Level 1C R Common Calibrated Brightness Temperatures Collocated VV03A

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — All 1C products have a common L1C data structure, simple and generic. Each L1C swath includes scan time, latitude and longitude, scan status, quality, incidence...

  5. Oferta ir akceptas vartojimo sutartyse

    OpenAIRE

    Ežerskytė, Ramunė

    2011-01-01

    Sutarčiai sudaryti paprastai reikia, kad viena šalis pasiūlytų sudaryti sutartį (oferta), o kita šalis sutiktų su pasiūlymu (akceptas). Sutarčių įvairovėje išskiriamos vartojimo sutartys, kurios dėl silpnesnės šalies apsaugos principo įgyvendinimo pasižymi tam tikrais ypatumais. Vartojimo sutarčių sudarymas pateikiant ofertą ir akceptą yra šio magistro baigiamojo darbo objektas. Magistro baigiamąjį darbą sudaro trys dalys. Pirmojoje darbo dalyje analizuojama vartojimo sutarties sąvoka ir spec...

  6. IRS memorandum limits joint ventures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, A W

    1992-08-01

    Based on a new memorandum, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) will be looking at joint hospital/physician activities with greater attention to the nuances of public versus private benefit. As a result, hospitals face greater risk of losing their tax-exempt status in the maze of joint ventures, physician recruitment, and practice acquisition. To be successful, ventures will have to be backed by sound reasoning and thorough documentation.

  7. Surface Emissivity Effects on Thermodynamic Retrieval of IR Spectral Radiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Smith, William L.; Liu, Xu

    2006-01-01

    The surface emissivity effect on the thermodynamic parameters (e.g., the surface skin temperature, atmospheric temperature, and moisture) retrieved from satellite infrared (IR) spectral radiance is studied. Simulation analysis demonstrates that surface emissivity plays an important role in retrieval of surface skin temperature and terrestrial boundary layer (TBL) moisture. NAST-I ultraspectral data collected during the CLAMS field campaign are used to retrieve thermodynamic properties of the atmosphere and surface. The retrievals are then validated by coincident in-situ measurements, such as sea surface temperature, radiosonde temperature and moisture profiles. Retrieved surface emissivity is also validated by that computed from the observed radiance and calculated emissions based on the retrievals of surface temperature and atmospheric profiles. In addition, retrieved surface skin temperature and emissivity are validated together by radiance comparison between the observation and retrieval-based calculation in the window region where atmospheric contribution is minimized. Both simulation and validation results have lead to the conclusion that variable surface emissivity in the inversion process is needed to obtain accurate retrievals from satellite IR spectral radiance measurements. Retrieval examples are presented to reveal that surface emissivity plays a significant role in retrieving accurate surface skin temperature and TBL thermodynamic parameters.

  8. Xichang Satellite Launch Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuJie

    2004-01-01

    Xichang Satellite Launch Center(XSLC) is mainly for geosynchronous orbit launches. The main purpose of XSLC is to launch spacecraft, such as broadcasting,communications and meteorological satellites, into geo-stationary orbit.Most of the commercial satellite launches of Long March vehicles have been from Xichang Satellite Launch Center. With 20 years' development,XSLC can launch 5 kinds of launch vehicles and send satellites into geostationary orbit and polar orbit. In the future, moon exploration satellites will also be launched from XSLC.

  9. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The first edition of this ground breaking reference work was the most comprehensive reference source available about the key aspects of the satellite applications field. This updated second edition covers the technology, the markets, applications and regulations related to satellite telecommunications, broadcasting and networking—including civilian and military systems; precise satellite navigation and timing networks (i.e. GPS and others); remote sensing and meteorological satellite systems. Created under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, this brand new edition is now expanded to cover new innovative small satellite constellations, new commercial launching systems, innovation in military application satellites and their acquisition, updated appendices, a useful glossary and more.

  10. ABCA1 C69T gene polymorphism and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Saudi population

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Khalid K Alharbi; Imran Ali Khan; Nasser M Al-Daghri; Anjana Munshi; Vandana Sharma; Abdul Khader Mohammed; Kaiser A Wani; Yazeed A Al-Sheikh; May Salem Al-Nbaheen; Mohammed Ghouse Ahmed Ansari; Rabbani Syed

    2013-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a disease induced by complex interactions between environmental factors and certain genetic factors. Genetic variants in the Adenosine Binding Cassette Transporter Proteins 1 (ABCA1) have been associated with abnormalities of serum lipid levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C). Decreased serum levels of HDL-C have often been observed in T2DM cases, and this condition has been considered to be involved in the mechanism of insulin resistance (IR). Therefore, we investigated possible association between ABCA1 C69T gene polymorphism and T2DMin a Saudi population. This study was carried out with 380 healthy control subjects and 376 T2DM patients. Genotyping of ABCA1 C69T polymorphism was carried out by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism technique. We observed that the frequency of the T allele of the ABCA1 C69T gene was significantly higher in healthy subjects compared to T2DMpatients (0.28 vs 0.45; < 0.0001; OR (95% CI) = 0.4624 (0.3732–0.5729), and therefore the T allele may be a protective factor against T2DM in the Saudi population.

  11. 3-Nitrobenzanthrone and 3-aminobenzanthrone induce DNA damage and cell signalling in Hepa1c1c7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landvik, N E; Arlt, V M; Nagy, E; Solhaug, A; Tekpli, X; Schmeiser, H H; Refsnes, M; Phillips, D H; Lagadic-Gossmann, D; Holme, J A

    2010-02-03

    3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is a mutagenic and carcinogenic environmental pollutant found in diesel exhaust and urban air pollution. In the present work we have characterised the effects of 3-NBA and its metabolite 3-aminobenzanthrone (3-ABA) on cell death and cytokine release in mouse hepatoma Hepa1c1c7 cells. These effects were related to induced DNA damage and changes in cell signalling pathways. 3-NBA resulted in cell death and caused most DNA damage as judged by the amount of DNA adducts ((32)P-postlabelling assay), single strand (ss)DNA breaks and oxidative DNA lesions (comet assay) detected. An increased phosphorylation of H2AX, chk1, chk2 and partly ATM was observed using flow cytometry and/or Western blotting. Both compounds increased phosphorylation of p53 and MAPKs (ERK, p38 and JNK). However, only 3-NBA caused an accumulation of p53 in the nucleus and a translocation of Bax to the mitochondria. The p53 inhibitor pifithrin-alpha inhibited 3-NBA-induced apoptosis, indicating that cell death was a result of the triggering of DNA signalling pathways. The highest phosphorylation of Akt and degradation of IkappaB-alpha (suggesting activation of NF-kappaB) were also seen after treatment with 3-NBA. In contrast 3-ABA increased IL-6 release, but caused little or no toxicity. Cytokine release was inhibited by PD98059 and curcumin, suggesting that ERK and NF-kappaB play a role in this process. In conclusion, 3-NBA seems to have a higher potency to induce DNA damage compatible with its cytotoxic effects, while 3-ABA seems to have a greater effect on the immune system. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Galileo satellite antenna modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigenberger, Peter; Dach, Rolf; Prange, Lars; Montenbruck, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The space segment of the European satellite navigation system Galileo currently consists of six satellites. Four of them belong to the first generation of In-Orbit Validation (IOV) satellites whereas the other two are Full Operational Capability (FOC) satellites. High-precision geodetic applications require detailed knowledge about the actual phase center of the satellite and receiver antenna. The deviation of this actual phase center from a well-defined reference point is described by phase center offsets (PCOs) and phase center variations (PCVs). Unfortunately, no public information is available about the Galileo satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs, neither for the IOV, nor the FOC satellites. Therefore, conventional values for the IOV satellite antenna PCOs have been adopted for the Multi-GNSS experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service (IGS). The effect of the PCVs is currently neglected and no PCOs for the FOC satellites are available yet. To overcome this deficiency in GNSS observation modeling, satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs are estimated for the Galileo IOV satellites based on global GNSS tracking data of the MGEX network and additional stations of the legacy IGS network. Two completely independent solutions are computed with the Bernese and Napeos software packages. The PCO and PCV values of the individual satellites are analyzed and the availability of two different solutions allows for an accuracy assessment. The FOC satellites are built by a different manufacturer and are also equipped with another type of antenna panel compared to the IOV satellites. Signal transmission of the first FOC satellite has started in December 2014 and activation of the second satellite is expected for early 2015. Based on the available observations PCO estimates and, optionally PCVs of the FOC satellites will be presented as well. Finally, the impact of the new antenna model on the precision and accuracy of the Galileo orbit determination is analyzed.

  13. Power-Law Template for IR Point Source Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Graeme E.; Dunkley, Joanna; Hajian, Amir; Viero, Marco; Bond, J. Richard; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark; Halpern, Mark; Hincks, Adam; Hlozek, Renee; Marriage, Tobias A.; Moodley, Kavilan; Page, Lyman A.; Reese, Erik D.; Scott, Douglass; Spergel, David N.; Staggs,Suzanne T.; Wollack, Edward

    2011-01-01

    We perform a combined fit to angular power spectra of unresolved infrared (IR) point sources from the Planck satellite (at 217,353,545 and 857 GHz, over angular scales 100 law of the form C_l\\propto I(sup -n) with n = 1.25 +/- 0.06. While the IR sources are understood to lie at a range of redshifts, with a variety of dust properties, we find that the frequency dependence of the clustering power can be described by the square of a modified blackbody, nu(sup beta) B(nu,T_eff), with a single emissivity index beta = 2.20 +/- 0.07 and effective temperature T_eff= 9.7 K. Our predictions for the clustering amplitude are consistent with existing ACT and South Pole Telescope results at around 150 and 220 GHz, as is our prediction for the effective dust spectral index, which we find to be alpha_150-220 = 3.68 +/- 0.07 between 150 and 220 GHz. Our constraints on the clustering shape and frequency dependence can be used to model the IR clustering as a contaminant in Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy measurements. The combined Planck and BLAST data also rule out a linear bias clustering model.

  14. Satellite-Delivered Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnall, Gail C.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the application of satellite information delivery to training. Describes a new trend, horizontal programming. Also discusses vertical programming and in-house production of training materials. Lists vendors of satellite-based training. (CH)

  15. GPS Satellite Simulation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The GPS satellite simulation facility consists of a GPS satellite simulator controlled by either a Silicon Graphics Origin 2000 or PC depending upon unit under test...

  16. China's Recoverable Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Boehang

    2008-01-01

    @@ By the end of 2006, China had launched 24 recoverable satellites (FSW) in total. Among them, 23 were launched successfully, of which all but one were successfully recovered. Recoverable satellites launched by China are listed in Table 1.

  17. Satellite Tags- Hawaii EEZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Satellite tagging was implemented in 2013. Satellite tagging is conducted using a Dan Inject air rifle and deployment arrows designed by Wildlife Computers. Two...

  18. Black Hole Collapse in the 1/c Expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Anous, Tarek; Rovai, Antonin; Sonner, Julian

    2016-01-01

    We present a first-principles CFT calculation corresponding to the spherical collapse of a shell of matter in three dimensional quantum gravity. In field theory terms, we describe the equilibration process, from early times to thermalization, of a CFT following a sudden injection of energy at time t=0. By formulating a continuum version of Zamolodchikov's monodromy method to calculate conformal blocks at large central charge c, we give a framework to compute a general class of probe observables in the collapse state, incorporating the full backreaction of matter fields on the dual geometry. This is illustrated by calculating a scalar field two-point function at time-like separation and the time-dependent entanglement entropy of an interval, both showing thermalization at late times. The results are in perfect agreement with previous gravity calculations in the AdS$_3$-Vaidya geometry. Information loss appears in the CFT as an explicit violation of unitarity in the 1/c expansion, restored by nonperturbative co...

  19. The biomechanical properties of F1C pili

    CERN Document Server

    Castelain, Mickaël; Klinth, Jeanna; Lindberg, Stina; Andersson, Magnus; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Axner, Ove

    2014-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) express various kinds of organelles, so-called pili or fimbriae, that mediate adhesion to host tissue in the urinary tract through specific receptor-adhesin interactions. The biomechanical properties of these pili have been considered important for the ability of bacteria to withstand shear forces from rinsing urine flows. Force measuring optical tweezers have been used to characterize individual organelles of F1C type expressed by UPEC bacteria with respect to such properties. Qualitatively, the force-vs.-elongation response was found to be similar to that of other types of helix-like pili expressed by UPEC, i.e. type 1, P, and S, with force-induced elongation in three regions of which one represents the important uncoiling mechanism of the helix-like quaternary structure. Quantitatively, the steady-state uncoiling force was assessed to 26.4(1.4) pN, which is similar to those of other pili (which range from 21 pN for SI to 30 pN for type 1). The corner velocity for dynam...

  20. Satellite communication engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kolawole, Michael Olorunfunmi

    2013-01-01

    An undeniably rich and thorough guide to satellite communication engineering, Satellite Communication Engineering, Second Edition presents the fundamentals of information communications systems in a simple and succinct way. This book considers both the engineering aspects of satellite systems as well as the practical issues in the broad field of information transmission. Implementing concepts developed on an intuitive, physical basis and utilizing a combination of applications and performance curves, this book starts off with a progressive foundation in satellite technology, and then moves on

  1. Enhanced formic acid electro-oxidation reaction on ternary Pd-Ir-Cu/C catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinwei; Zhang, Jie; Jiang, Yiwu; Yang, Liu; Zhong, Jing; Wang, Gang; Wang, Ruilin

    2015-12-01

    Aim to further reduce the cost of Pd-Ir for formic acid electro-oxidation (FAEO), the Cu was used to construct a ternary metallic alloy catalyst. The prepared catalysts are characterized using XRD, TGA, EDX, TEM, XPS, CO-stripping, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. It is found that the Pd18Ir1Cu6 nanoparticles with a mean size of 3.3 nm are highly dispersed on carbon support. Componential distributions on catalyst are consistent with initial contents. Electrochemical measurements show that the PdIrCu/C catalyst exhibits the highest activity for FAEO. The mass activity of Pd in Pd18Ir1Cu6/C at 0.16 V (vs. SCE) is about 1.47, 1.62 and 2.08 times as high as that of Pd18Cu6/C, Pd18Ir1/C and Pd/C, respectively. The activity enhancement of PdIrCu/C should be attributed to the weakened CO adsorption strength and the removal of adsorbed intermediates at lower potential with the addition of Cu and Ir.

  2. Moisture map by IR thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinzato, E.; Cadelano, G.; Bison, P.

    2010-10-01

    A new approach to moisture detection in buildings by an optical method is presented. Limits of classical and new methods are discussed. The state of the art about the use of IR thermography is illustrated as well. The new technique exploits characteristics of the materials and takes into account explicitly the heat and mass exchange between surface and environment. A set of experiments in controlled laboratory conditions on different materials is used to better understand the physical problem. The testing procedure and the data reduction are illustrated. A case study on a heritage building points up the features of this technique.

  3. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1C7IA-1QIIA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1C7IA-1QIIA 1C7I 1QII A A THQIVTTQYGKVKGTTE----NGVHKWKGIPYAKPPVGQ...GPFGFMHLSSFDEAYSDNLGLLDQAAALKWVRENISAFGGDPDNVTVFGESAGGMSIAALLAMPAAKGLFQKAIMESGAS----RTMTKEQAASTAAAFLQVLGINES...QLDRLHTVAAEDLLKAAD----QLRIAEKE------NIFQLFFQPALDPKTLPEEPEKSIAEGAASGIPLLIGTTRDEGYF...ndex> 1C7I A 1C7IA...1QII A 1QIIA MGTRVPVLSSHISA <

  4. Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuJie

    2004-01-01

    There are three major space launch bases in China, the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center,the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center and the Xichang Satellite Launch Center. All the three launch centers are located in sparsely populated areas where the terrain is even and the field of vision is broad. Security, transport conditions and the influence of the axial rotation

  5. Geodetic Secor Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-01

    simple, and had low-power lem. 17 14. Satellite Orientation . The satellite was designed to maintain a constant relationship between the antenna...the same satellite orientation . Further considerations were Th oscillations, however, when higher orbital ranges (500-2500 nautical miles) -, 3 a

  6. TC-2 Satellite Delivered

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    On April 18, 2005, TC-2, the second satellite of Double Star Program (DSP), which was jointly developed by CNSA and ESA, was approved to be delivered to the user after the on-board test and trial operation. The satellite is working well and the performance can meet the user's need. The satellite has collected large amount of valuable scientific data

  7. STUDY OF HBA1C LEVELS IN ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Naidu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a disease of Antiquity known to mankind since the past 3500 years. It is a big concern because of devastating effects of its complications. Diabetes is considered a highly vascular disease with both microvascular and macrovascular complications . Macrovascular complications start taking place long before the patient has over diabetes . 1 Hyperglycemia accelerates the process of atherosclerosis by the formation of glycated proteins and advanced glycation end products, which act by increasing the end othelial dysfunction . 2 High admission blood glucose levels after acute Myocardial Infarction are common and are associated with an increased risk of death in subjects with and without diabetes . 3 Glycometabolic state at hospital admission is an important ri sk Marker for long - term mortality in patients with AMI. Glycosylated hemoglobin provides a measure of average blood glucose levels during the period of 8 to 12 weeks . 4 So it could prove useful for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in ACS when stress induc ed hyperglycemia is a confounding factor as it is unlikely to rise with acute hyperglycemia. This study has been carried out in Medicine department of Rangaraya medical college GGH Kakinada, Sraddha Hospital, Visakhapatnam, Andhra medical college, KGH, Vis akhapatnam, GEMS hospital Srikakulam with an aim to estimate glycosylated Hemoglobin in ACS which is a prognostic factor for ACS. Among various variables and clinical details during course of disease, the estimation of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c gives useful estimation for ACS in prognosis, outcome and sequelae of complications. Patients with higher levels of glycosylated hemoglobin have higher risk factors like hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia and hence predisposed to ACS in early age.

  8. Coprates Chasma Landslides in IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Today's daytime IR image is of a portion of Coprates Chasma, part of Valles Marineris. As with yesterday's image, this image shows multiple large landslides. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -8.2, Longitude 300.2 East (59.8 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Meteorological satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Su-Yin

    2014-01-01

    “Meteorological Satellite Systems” is a primer on weather satellites and their Earth applications. This book reviews historic developments and recent technological advancements in GEO and polar orbiting meteorological satellites. It explores the evolution of these remote sensing technologies and their capabilities to monitor short- and long-term changes in weather patterns in response to climate change. Satellites developed by various countries, such as U.S. meteorological satellites, EUMETSAT, and Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Indian satellite platforms are reviewed. This book also discusses international efforts to coordinate meteorological remote sensing data collection and sharing. This title provides a ready and quick reference for information about meteorological satellites. It serves as a useful tool for a broad audience that includes students, academics, private consultants, engineers, scientists, and teachers.

  10. Theory of geostationary satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Zee, Chong-Hung

    1989-01-01

    Geostationary or equatorial synchronous satellites are a daily reminder of our space efforts during the past two decades. The nightly television satellite weather picture, the intercontinental telecommunications of television transmissions and telephone conversations, and the establishrnent of educational programs in remote regions on Earth are constant reminders of the presence of these satellites. As used here, the term 'geo­ stationary' must be taken loosely because, in the long run, the satellites will not remain 'stationary' with respect to an Earth-fixed reference frame. This results from the fact that these satellites, as is true for all satellites, are incessantly subject to perturbations other than the central-body attraction of the Earth. Among the more predominant pertur­ bations are: the ellipticity of the Earth's equator, the Sun and Moon, and solar radiation pressure. Higher harmonics of the Earth's potential and tidal effects also influence satellite motion, but they are of second­ order whe...

  11. Validation of SMOS L1C and L2 Products and Important Parameters of the Retrieval Algorithm in the Skjern River Catchment, Western Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bircher, Simone; Skou, Niels; Kerr, Yann H.

    2013-01-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite with a passive L-band radiometer monitors surface soil moisture. In addition to soil moisture, vegetation optical thickness tau(NAD) is retrieved (L2 product) from brightness temperatures (T-B, L1C product) using an algorithm based on the L...... and the most sensitive algorithm parameters were analyzed by network and airborne campaign data collected within one SMOS pixel (44 km diameter). The SMOS retrieval is based on the prevailing low vegetation class. For the L1C comparison, T-B's were calculated from in situ soil moisture using L-MEB. Consistent......-band Microwave Emission of the Biosphere (L-MEB) model with initial guesses on the two parameters (derived from ECMWF products and ECOCLIMAP Leaf Area Index, respectively) and other auxiliary input. This paper presents the validation work carried out in the Skjern River Catchment, Denmark. L1C/L2 data...

  12. Combined MW-IR Precipitation Evolving Technique (PET of convective rain fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Di Paola

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new multi-sensor approach for convective rain cell continuous monitoring based on rainfall derived from Passive Microwave (PM remote sensing from the Low Earth Orbit (LEO satellite coupled with Infrared (IR remote sensing Brightness Temperature (TB from the Geosynchronous (GEO orbit satellite. The proposed technique, which we call Precipitation Evolving Technique (PET, propagates forward in time and space the last available rain-rate (RR maps derived from Advanced Microwave Sounding Units (AMSU and Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS observations by using IR TB maps of water vapor (6.2 μm and thermal-IR (10.8 μm channels from a Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI radiometer. PET is based on two different modules, the first for morphing and tracking rain cells and the second for dynamic calibration IR-RR. The Morphing module uses two consecutive IR data to identify the motion vector to be applied to the rain field so as to propagate it in time and space, whilst the Calibration module computes the dynamic relationship between IR and RR in order to take into account genesis, extinction or size variation of rain cells. Finally, a combination of the Morphing and Calibration output provides a rainfall map at IR space and time scale, and the whole procedure is reiterated by using the last RR map output until a new MW-based rainfall is available. The PET results have been analyzed with respect to two different PM-RR retrieval algorithms for seven case studies referring to different rainfall convective events. The qualitative, dichotomous and continuous assessments show an overall ability of this technique to propagate rain field at least for 2–3 h propagation time.

  13. IR Thermography NDE of ISS Radiator Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay; Winfree, William; Morton, Richard; Wilson, Walter; Reynolds, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The presentation covers an active and a passive infrared (IR) thermography for detection of delaminations in the radiator panels used for the International Space Station (ISS) program. The passive radiator IR data was taken by a NASA astronaut in an extravehicular activity (EVA) using a modified FLIR EVA hand-held camera. The IR data could be successfully analyzed to detect gross facesheet disbonds. The technique used the internal hot fluid tube as the heat source in analyzing the IR data. Some non-flight ISS radiators were inspected using an active technique of IR flash thermography to detect disbond of face sheet with honeycomb core, and debonds in facesheet overlap areas. The surface temperature and radiated heat emission from flight radiators is stable during acquisition of the IR video data. This data was analyzed to detect locations of unexpected surface temperature gradients. The flash thermography data was analyzed using derivative analysis and contrast evolutions. Results of the inspection are provided.

  14. A Study Assessing the Association of Glycated Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) Associated Variants with HbA1C, Chronic Kidney Disease and Diabetic Retinopathy in Populations of Asian Ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Tay, Wan-Ting; Sim, Xueling; Ali, Mohammad; Xu, Haiyan; Suo, Chen; Liu, Jianjun; Chia, Kee-Seng; Vithana, Eranga; Young, Terri L.; Aung, Tin; Lim, Wei-Yen; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien-Yin; Teo, Yik-Ying; Tai, E-Shyong

    2013-01-01

    Glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) level is used as a diagnostic marker for diabetes mellitus and a predictor of diabetes associated complications. Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associated with HbA1C level. Most of these studies have been conducted in populations of European ancestry. Here we report the findings from a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of HbA1C levels in 6,682 non-diabetic subjects of Chinese, Malay and South Asian ancestries. We also sought to examine the associations between HbA1C associated SNPs and microvascular complications associated with diabetes mellitus, namely chronic kidney disease and retinopathy. A cluster of 6 SNPs on chromosome 17 showed an association with HbA1C which achieved genome-wide significance in the Malays but not in Chinese and Asian Indians. No other variants achieved genome-wide significance in the individual studies or in the meta-analysis. When we investigated the reproducibility of the findings that emerged from the European studies, six loci out of fifteen were found to be associated with HbA1C with effect sizes similar to those reported in the populations of European ancestry and P-value ≤ 0.05. No convincing associations with chronic kidney disease and retinopathy were identified in this study. PMID:24244560

  15. How to remedy Eurocentrism in IR?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilgin, Pinar

    2016-01-01

    While IR's Eurocentric limits are usually acknowledged, what those limits mean for theorizing about the international is seldom clarified. In The Global Transformation, Buzan and Lawson offer a 'composite approach' that goes some way towards addressing IR's Eurocentrism, challenging existing myth...... helps us recognize what is missing from IR theorizing - conceptions of the international by 'others' who also constitute the international. I illustrate this point by focussing on a landmark text on Ottoman history, Ortayll's The Longest Century of the Empire....

  16. IR properties of AGN and SB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talezade Lari, M. H.; Davoudifar, P.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    Through multi-wavelength flux ratios it is possible to detect AGN and Star-burst Galaxies. Techniques of detecting extragalactic objects as well as AGN are studied in different wavelengths (X-Ray, Radio and IR). Specification of AGN as IR and radio sources is discussed. IR catalogues of 2MASS and WISE were used to study the interrelationship between interactions/merging, starburst and AGN phenomena.

  17. The initial design of LAPAN's IR micro bolometer using mission analysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustanul, A.; Irwan, P.; M. T., Andi; Firman, B.

    2016-11-01

    As new player in Infra Red (IR) sector, uncooled, small, and lightweight IR Micro Bolometer has been chosen as one of payloads for LAPAN's next micro satellite project. Driven the desire to create our own IR Micro Bolometer, mission analysis design procedure has been applied. After tracing all possible missions, the Planck's and Wien's Law for black body, Temperature Responsivity (TR), and sub-pixel response had been utilized in order to determine the appropriate spectral radiance. The 3.8 - 4 μm wavelength were available to detect wild fire (forest fire) and active volcanoes, two major problems faced by Indonesia. In order to strengthen and broaden the result, iteration process had been used throughout the process. The analysis, then, were continued by calculating Ground pixel size, IFOV pixel, swath width, and focus length. Meanwhile, regarding of resolution, at least it is 400 m. The further procedure covered the integrated of optical design, wherein we combined among optical design software, Zemax, with mechanical analysis software (structure and thermal analysis), such as Nastran and Thermal Desktop / Sinda Fluint. The integration process was intended to produce high performance optical system of our IR Micro Bolometer that can be used under extreme environment. The results of all those analysis, either in graphs or in measurement, show that the initial design of LAPAN'S IR Micro Bolometer meets the determined requirement. However, it needs the further evaluation (iteration). This paper describes the initial design of LAPAN's IR Micro Bolometer using mission analysis process

  18. Atmospheric Entry Experiments at IRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auweter-Kurtz, M.; Endlich, P.; Herdrich, G.; Kurtz, H.; Laux, T.; Löhle, S.; Nazina, N.; Pidan, S.

    2002-01-01

    Entering the atmosphere of celestial bodies, spacecrafts encounter gases at velocities of several km/s, thereby being subjected to great heat loads. The thermal protection systems and the environment (plasma) have to be investigated by means of computational and ground facility based simulations. For more than a decade, plasma wind tunnels at IRS have been used for the investigation of TPS materials. Nevertheless, ground tests and computer simulations cannot re- place space flights completely. Particularly, entry mission phases encounter challenging problems, such as hypersonic aerothermodynamics. Concerning the TPS, radiation-cooled materials used for reuseable spacecrafts and ablator tech- nologies are of importance. Besides the mentioned technologies, there is the goal to manage guidance navigation, con- trol, landing technology and inflatable technologies such as ballutes that aim to keep vehicles in the atmosphere without landing. The requirement to save mass and energy for planned interplanetary missions such as Mars Society Balloon Mission, Mars Sample Return Mission, Mars Express or Venus Sample Return mission led to the need for manoeuvres like aerocapture, aero-breaking and hyperbolic entries. All three are characterized by very high kinetic vehicle energies to be dissipated by the manoeuvre. In this field flight data are rare. The importance of these manoeuvres and the need to increase the knowledge of required TPS designs and behavior during such mission phases point out the need of flight experiments. As result of the experience within the plasma diagnostic tool development and the plasma wind tunnel data base, flight experiments like the PYrometric RE-entry EXperiment PYREX were developed, fully qualified and successfully flown. Flight experiments such as the entry spectrometer RESPECT and PYREX on HOPE-X are in the conceptual phase. To increase knowledge in the scope of atmospheric manoeuvres and entries, data bases have to be created combining both

  19. Relationship of HbA1c variability, absolute changes in HbA1c, and all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Mette Vinther; Sandbæk, Annelli; Kristensen, Jette Kolding;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We assessed the relationship of mortality with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) variability and with absolute change in HbA1c. DESIGN: A population-based prospective observational study with a median follow-up time of 6 years. METHODS: Based on a validated algorithm, 11 205 Danish individuals...

  20. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dehydrogenase 1C (ADH1C) genotype, and risk of colorectal cancer in the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, B.W.C.; Goeij, A.F.P.M. de; Wouters, K.A.D.; Engeland, M. van; Gottschalk, R.W.H.; Schooten, F.J. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Weijenberg, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Within the Netherlands Cohort Study (1986), we examined associations between alcohol consumption, the alcohol dehydrogenase 1C (ADH1C) genotype, and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). After a follow-up period of 7.3 years, 594 CRC cases with information on genotype and baseline alcohol intake were

  1. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1C7IA-1P0IA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1C7IA-1P0IA 1C7I 1P0I A A THQIVTTQYGKVKGT--TE--NGVHKWKGIPYAKPPVGQ...GPFGFMHLSSFDEAYSDNLGLLDQAAALKWVRENISAFGGDPDNVTVFGESAGGMSIAALLAMPAAKGLFQKAIMESGAS----RTMTKEQAASTAAAFLQVLGINES...QLDRLHTVAAEDLLKA-----ADQLRIAE-----KENIFQLFFQPALDPKTLPEEPEKSIAEGAASGIPLLIGTTRDEGYF...TLELPFVFGNLDELERMAKAEITDEVKQLSHTIQSAWTTFAKTGNPST---EAVNWPAYHEESRETVILDS-EITIENDPESEKRQKLF------ --IIIA...WNPNTDLSEDCLYLNVWIPAPKPKNATVLIWIYGGGFQTGTSSLHVYDGKFLARVERVIVVSMNYRVGALGFLALPG-NPEAPGNMGLFDQQLALQWVQKNIAAFGGN

  2. Mobile satellite communications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Cochetti, Roger

    2014-01-01

    With a Preface by noted satellite scientist Dr. Ahmad Ghais, the Second Edition reflects the expanded user base for this technology by updating information on historic, current, and planned commercial and military satellite systems and by expanding sections that explain the technology for non-technical professionals.   The book begins with an introduction to satellite communications and goes on to provide an overview of the technologies involved in mobile satellite communications, providing basic introductions to RF Issues, power Issues, link issues and system issues. It describes

  3. Satellite communication antenna technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittra, R. (Editor); Imbriale, W. A. (Editor); Maanders, E. J. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    A general overview of current technology in the field of communication satellite antennas is presented. Among the topics discussed are: the design of multiple beam systems; frequency reuse; and polarization control of antenna measurements. Consideration is also given to: contour beam synthesis; dual shaped reflector synthesis; beam shaping; and offset reflector design. The applications of the above technologies to present and future generations of communications satellites is considered, with emphasis given to such systems as: the Intelsats; the Defense Satellite Communications System, (DSCS-III); Satellite Business System (SBS), and Comstar.

  4. Methods of satellite oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The theoretical basis for remote sensing measurements of climate and ocean dynamics is examined. Consideration is given to: the absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the atmosphere; scattering in the atmosphere; and satellite observations using visible light. Consideration is also given to: the theory of radio scatter from the sea; scatter of centimeter waves from the sea; and the theory of operation of synthetic aperture radars. Additional topics include: the coordinate systems of satellite orbits for oceanographic remote sensing applications; the operating features of the major U.S. satellite systems for viewing the ocean; and satellite altimetry.

  5. Modeling single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human AKR1C1 and AKR1C2 genes: implications for functional and genotyping analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan W Arthur

    Full Text Available Enzymes encoded by the AKR1C1 and AKR1C2 genes are responsible for the metabolism of progesterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT, respectively. The effect of amino acid substitutions, resulting from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the AKR1C2 gene, on the enzyme kinetics of the AKR1C2 gene product were determined experimentally by Takashi et al. In this paper, we used homology modeling to predict and analyze the structure of AKR1C1 and AKR1C2 genetic variants. The experimental reduction in enzyme activity in the AKR1C2 variants F46Y and L172Q, as determined by Takahashi et al., is predicted to be due to increased instability in cofactor binding, caused by disruptions to the hydrogen bonds between NADP and AKR1C2, resulting from the insertion of polar residues into largely non-polar environments near the site of cofactor binding. Other AKR1C2 variants were shown to involve either conservative substitutions or changes taking place on the surface of the molecule and distant from the active site, confirming the experimental finding of Takahashi et al. that these variants do not result in any statistically significant reduction in enzyme activity. The AKR1C1 R258C variant is predicted to have no effect on enzyme activity for similar reasons. Thus, we provide further insight into the molecular mechanism of the enzyme kinetics of these proteins. Our data also highlight previously reported difficulties with online databases.

  6. HST Frontier Fields: WFC3/IR data processing, persistence, time-variable background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandrika, Harish G.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Mack, Jennifer; Robberto, Massimo; Hilbert, Bryan; Sabbi, Elena; Hubble Frontier Fields Pipeline Team, WFC3 Team

    2016-06-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields (HFF) pipeline and WFC3 teams discuss the specialized procedures for processing IR data for the Frontier Fields program. Frontier Fields is a Director's Discretionary program that uses ultra-deep imaging to observe lensing galaxy clusters in an effort to search for the most distant observable galaxy. The program uses both the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and Wide-Field Camera 3 (WFC3/IR) observing the prime and parallel areas of each field simultaneously. The WFC3/IR data are processed through a pipeline which performs calibrations not included in the standard CalWF3 software including persistence correction, Time-Variable-Background (TVB) correction, and scripts used to create satellite trail masks. Here the HFF pipeline team present the individual methods that perform the corrections and showcase the results of these corrections on sample data of Abell 370, Abell S1063 and others.

  7. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1C7MA-1CTYA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1C7MA-1CTYA 1C7M 1CTY A A MADPAAGEKVFGK-CKACHKLDG--NDGVGPHLNGVVGR...ID> A 1C7MA HKLDG--NDGVG ...ure> EE -- ure> ATOM 234 CA HIS A ...hain> 1CTY A 1CTYA H...TVEKGGPHKVG ure> ure>

  8. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1C5DA-3FCTA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1C5DA-3FCTA 1C5D 3FCT A A DIQMTQSPPSLSASLGDKVTITCQASQDINKYIAWYQQK...>A 1C5DA LQYGN-LYTFG ...ure>EE - ure> ATOM 3925 CA LEU A 89 -8.668 18.46...ne> 3FCT A 3FCT...A QQYSSYPLTFG ure>EE EE

  9. 7 CFR 1c.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 1c.118 Section 1c.118 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement...

  10. HbA1c measurements from dried blood spots : validation and patient satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, Margaretha; Bakker, Andries J; de Boer, Fokje; Kooistra, Jeltsje; de Vries, Sifra; Wolthuis, Albert

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study evaluates HbA1c measurements from dried blood spots collected on filter paper and compares HbA1c from filter paper (capillary blood) with HbA1c measured in venous blood. Methods: Patient satisfaction was evaluated using a questionnaire. The performance with the filter paper me

  11. 7 CFR 1c.123 - Early termination of research support: Evaluation of applications and proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Early termination of research support: Evaluation of applications and proposals. 1c.123 Section 1c.123 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.123 Early termination of research support: Evaluation of applications...

  12. File list: Oth.Bld.05.JMJD1C.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.05.JMJD1C.AllCell hg19 TFs and others JMJD1C Blood SRX1304576,SRX1304581,SR...X1304579,SRX763970 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Bld.05.JMJD1C.AllCell.bed ...

  13. File list: Oth.ALL.50.JMJD1C.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.50.JMJD1C.AllCell hg19 TFs and others JMJD1C All cell types SRX1304576,SRX1...304581,SRX1304579,SRX763970 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.ALL.50.JMJD1C.AllCell.bed ...

  14. File list: Oth.ALL.20.JMJD1C.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.20.JMJD1C.AllCell hg19 TFs and others JMJD1C All cell types SRX1304576,SRX1...304581,SRX1304579,SRX763970 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.ALL.20.JMJD1C.AllCell.bed ...

  15. File list: Oth.Bld.10.JMJD1C.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.10.JMJD1C.AllCell hg19 TFs and others JMJD1C Blood SRX1304576,SRX1304581,SR...X1304579,SRX763970 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Bld.10.JMJD1C.AllCell.bed ...

  16. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1C75A-1CTJA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1C75A-1CTJA 1C75 1CTJ A A -VD---AEAVVQQKCISCHGGDLTGASA--PAID-KAGA... A 1C75A AGANY-----SEEEI ...ure> HHHH----- HHHHure> ATOM 398 C... 481 GLU CA 425 GLU CA 452 ILE CA 652 1CT...J A 1CTJA AIEQFLDGGF

  17. To Your Health: NLM update transcript - Beyond A1C for diabetes treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the 'resources' section of MedlinePlus.gov's A1C health topic page . The National Diabetes Education Program provides additional information ... the 'resources' section of MedlinePlus.gov's A1C health topic page. MedlinePlus.gov's A1C health topic page additionally provides ...

  18. Changing from glucose to HbA1c for diabetes diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Aneta Aleksandra; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Green, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Denmark, the use of HbA1c in the diagnosis of diabetes was adopted from March 2012. We evaluated the change in the number of diabetes cases diagnosed by haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) versus fasting venous plasma glucose (FPG), and estimated the influence of analytical variation and bias ...

  19. Attenuation of insulin resistance in rats by agmatine: role of SREBP-1c, mTOR and GLUT-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharawy, Maha H; El-Awady, Mohammed S; Megahed, Nirmeen; Gameil, Nariman M

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a serious health condition worldwide; however, its exact mechanisms are still unclear. This study investigates agmatine (AGM; an endogenous metabolite of L-arginine) effects on insulin resistance induced by high fructose diet (HFD) in rats and the possible involved mechanisms. Sprague Dawley rats were fed 60% HFD for 12 weeks, and AGM (10 mg/kg/day, orally) was given from week 9 to 12. AGM significantly reduced HFD-induced elevation in fasting insulin level, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index and liver glycogen content from 3.44-, 3.62- and 2.07- to 2.59-, 2.78- and 1.3-fold, respectively, compared to the control group, while it increased HFD-induced reduction in glucose tolerance. Additionally, AGM significantly decreased HFD-induced elevation in serum triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels from 3.18-, 2.97- and 4.75- to 1.25-, 1.25- and 1.07-fold, respectively, compared to control group. Conversely, AGM had no significant effect on HFD-induced changes in fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin tolerance and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Furthermore, AGM significantly reduced HFD-induced elevation in mRNA expression of glucose transporter type-2 (GLUT-2), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) without affecting that of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) in the liver. Additionally, AGM enhanced ACh-induced aortic relaxation and attenuated liver steatosis induced by HFD. In conclusion, AGM may have a therapeutic potential in insulin resistance through suppressing SREBP-1c, mTOR and GLUT-2 in liver.

  20. Design of inspection and acceptance test methodology for TIG welded aluminum-alloy bracket for camera housings for IRS-1A space craft and executing it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manglik, V. K.; Vaghmare, Rajeev; Shah, A. K.

    1992-10-01

    The Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) 1A was the first indigenously developed operational remote sensing satellite. The most critical element in the satellite was the remote sensing camera. The camera was mounted on aluminum alloy bracket which was fabricated by TIG welding. The methodology of acceptance and inspection of the TIG welded bracket is presented and discussed. These efforts not only provided the confidence in reliable welded joint but also provided trouble free operation of the camera on board the satellite for its whole life.

  1. Hydrogen intercalation under graphene on Ir(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grånäs, Elin; Gerber, Timm; Schröder, Ulrike A.; Schulte, Karina; Andersen, Jesper N.; Michely, Thomas; Knudsen, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Using high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy we study the intercalation of hydrogen under graphene/Ir(111). The hydrogen intercalated graphene is characterized by a component in C 1s that is shifted -0.10 to -0.18 eV with respect to pristine graphene and a component in Ir 4f at 60.54 eV. The position of this Ir 4f component is identical to that of the Ir(111) surface layer with hydrogen atoms adsorbed, indicating that the atomic hydrogen adsorption site on bare Ir(111) and beneath graphene is the same. Based on co-existence of fully- and non-intercalated graphene, and the inability to intercalate a closed graphene film covering the entire Ir(111) surface, we conclude that hydrogen dissociatively adsorbs at bare Ir(111) patches, and subsequently diffuses rapidly under graphene. A likely entry point for the intercalating hydrogen atoms is identified to be where graphene crosses an underlying Ir(111) step.

  2. Quantitative gas analysis with FT-IR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, J.; Larsen, A.

    1995-01-01

    Calibration spectra of CO in the 2.38-5100 ppm concentration range (22 spectra) have been measured with a spectral resolution of 4 cm(-1), in the mid-IR (2186-2001 cm(-1)) region, with a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) instrument. The multivariate calibration method partial least-squares (PLS1...

  3. Measuring Collimator Infrared (IR) Spectral Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT RDMR-WD-16-15 MEASURING COLLIMATOR INFRARED (IR) SPECTRAL TRANSMISSION Christopher L. Dobbins Weapons...Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. DESTRUCTION NOTICE FOR CLASSIFIED DOCUMENTS...AND DATES COVERED Final 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Measuring Collimator Infrared (IR) Spectral Transmission 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Christopher L

  4. The IR Luminosity Functions of Rich Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Lei; Rieke, Marcia J; Christlein, Daniel; Zabludoff, Ann I

    2008-01-01

    We present MIPS observations of the cluster A3266. About 100 spectroscopic cluster members have been detected at 24 micron. The IR luminosity function in A3266 is very similar to that in the Coma cluster down to the detection limit L_IR~10^43 ergs/s, suggesting a universal form of the bright end IR LF for local rich clusters with M~10^15 M_sun. The shape of the bright end of the A3266-Coma composite IR LF is not significantly different from that of nearby field galaxies, but the fraction of IR-bright galaxies (SFR > 0.2M_sun/yr) in both clusters increases with cluster-centric radius. The decrease of the blue galaxy fraction toward the high density cores only accounts for part of the trend; the fraction of red galaxies with moderate SFRs (0.2 < SFR < 1 M_sun/yr) also decreases with increasing galaxy density. These results suggest that for the IR bright galaxies, nearby rich clusters are distinguished from the field by a lower star-forming galaxy fraction, but not by a change in L*_IR. The composite IR LF...

  5. Status Of Sofradir IR-CCD Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribolet, Philippe; Radisson, Patrick

    1988-05-01

    The topics of this paper deal with the IR-CCD detectors manufactured by SOFRADIR the new French joint venture. Description of the IRCCD technology and the advantages of this approach are given. In conclusion, some IR-CCD typical results are given.

  6. Increasing Medical Student Exposure to IR through Integration of IR into the Gross Anatomy Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePietro, Daniel M; Kiefer, Ryan M; Redmond, Jonas W; Workman, Alan D; Nadolski, Gregory J; Gade, Terence P; Trerotola, Scott O; Hunt, Stephen J

    2017-10-01

    To compare medical student knowledge of and interest in interventional radiology (IR) before and after the integration of an IR lecture series within the gross anatomy course. Four elective IR lectures were scheduled to coincide with the relevant anatomy dissection curriculum. Anonymous surveys were distributed to 146 students before and after the lectures regarding students' knowledge of and interest in IR, responsibilities of an IR physician, and IR training pathways. Those who did not attend served as controls. Response rates were 67% (n = 98) in the prelecture group, 55% (n = 22) in the group who attended the lecture, and 28% (n = 30) in the control group. A total of 73% of the prelecture group reported little knowledge of IR compared with other specialties. This decreased to 27% in those who attended the lecture (P attended believed they had more knowledge of IR than any other specialty, compared with 7% of controls (P value not significant) and 2% of the prelecture group (P attendance could name a significantly greater number of IR procedures (mean, 1.82) than the prelecture group (mean, 0.57; P attended would consider a career in IR, compared with 24% in the prelecture group and 33% in the control group (P attended had knowledge of the IR residency, compared with 5% in the prelecture group and 33% in the control group (P students about IR and generating interest in the field. Copyright © 2017 SIR. All rights reserved.

  7. Passive IR flexi-scope with two spectral colors for household screening of gastrointestinal disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Kenneth; Szu, Harold

    2006-04-01

    According to our generalized Shannon Sampling Theorem of developmental system biology, we should increase the sampling frequency of the passive Infrared (IR) spectrum ratio test, (I 8~12mm / I 3~5mm). This procedure proved to be effective in DCIS using the satellite-grade IR spectrum cameras for an early developmental symptom of the "angiogenesis" effect. Thus, we propose to augment the annual hospital checkup of, or biannual Colonoscopy, with an inexpensive non-imaging IR-Flexi-scope intensity measurement device which could be conducted regularly at a household residence without the need doctoral expertise or a data basis system. The only required component would be a smart PC, which would be used to compute the degree of thermal activities through the IR spectral ratio. It will also be used to keep track of the record and send to the medical center for tele-diagnosis. For the purpose of household screening, we propose to have two integrated passive IR probes of dual-IR-color spectrum inserted into the body via the IR fiber-optic device. In order to extract the percentage of malignancy, based on the ratio of dual color IR measurements, the key enabler is the unsupervised learning algorithm in the sense of the Duda & Hart Unlabelled Data Classifier without lookup table exemplars. This learning methodology belongs to the Natural Intelligence (NI) of the human brain, which can effortlessly reduce the redundancy of pair inputs and thereby enhance the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) better than any single sensor for the salient feature extraction. Thus, we can go beyond a closed data basis AI expert system to tailor to the individual ground truth without the biases of the prior knowledge.

  8. Haemoglobin J-Baltimore can be detected by HbA1c electropherogram but with underestimated HbA1c value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunel, Valéry; Lahary, Agnčs; Chagraoui, Abdeslam; Thuillez, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) is considered the gold standard for assessing diabetes compensation and treatment. In addition, fortuitous detection of haemoglobin variants during HbA1c measurement is not rare. Recently, two publications reported different conclusions on accuracy of HbA(1c) value using capillary electrophoresis method in presence of haemoglobin J-Baltimore (HbJ).
Here we describe the fortuitous detection of unknown HbJ using capillary electrophoresis for measurement of HbA(1c). A patient followed for gestational diabetes in our laboratory presented unknown haemoglobin on Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing analyser which was identified as HbJ. HbJ is not associated with haematological abnormalities. High Performance Liquid Chromatography methods are known to possibly underestimate HbA(1c) value in the presence of this variant. This variant and its glycated form are clearly distinguished on electropherogram but HbJ was responsible for underestimating the true area of HbA(1c).
 Capillary electrophoresis is a good method for detecting HbJ but does not seem suitable for evaluation of HbA(1C) value in patients in presence of HbJ variant.

  9. Multi-spectral band selection for satellite-based systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clodius, W.B.; Weber, P.G.; Borel, C.C.; Smith, B.W.

    1998-09-01

    The design of satellite based multispectral imaging systems requires the consideration of a number of tradeoffs between cost and performance. The authors have recently been involved in the design and evaluation of a satellite based multispectral sensor operating from the visible through the long wavelength IR. The criteria that led to some of the proposed designs and the modeling used to evaluate and fine tune the designs will both be discussed. These criteria emphasized the use of bands for surface temperature retrieval and the correction of atmospheric effects. The impact of cost estimate changes on the final design will also be discussed.

  10. Use of fructosyl peptide oxidase for HbA1c assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonehara, Satoshi; Inamura, Norio; Fukuda, Miho; Sugiyama, Koji

    2015-03-01

    ARKRAY, Inc developed the world's first automatic glycohemoglobin analyzer based on HPLC (1981). After that, ARKRAY developed enzymatic HbA1c assay "CinQ HbA1c" with the spread and diversification of HbA1c measurement (2007). CinQ HbA1c is the kit of Clinical Chemistry Analyzer, which uses fructosyl peptide oxidase (FPOX) for a measurement reaction. This report mainly indicates the developmental background, measurement principle, and future of the enzymatic method HbA1c reagent.

  11. Satellites of spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaritsky, Dennis; Smith, Rodney; Frenk, Carlos; White, Simon D. M.

    1993-01-01

    We present a survey of satellites around a homogeneous set of late-type spirals with luminosity similar to that of the Milky Way. On average, we find fewer than 1.5 satellites per primary, but we argue that we can treat the survey as an ensemble and so derive the properties of the halo of a 'typical' isolated spiral. The projected density profile of the ensemble falls off approximately as 1/r. Within 50 kpc the azimuthal distribution of satellites shows some evidence for the 'Holmberg effect', an excess near the minor axis of the primary; however, at larger projected distances, the distribution appears isotropic. There is a weak but significant correlation between the size of a satellite and its distance from its primary, as expected if satellites are tidally truncated. Neither Hubble type nor spectral characteristics correlate with apparent separation. The ensemble of satellites appears to be rotating at about 30 km/s in the same direction as the galactic disk. Satellites on prograde orbits tend to be brighter than those on retrograde orbits. The typical velocity difference between a satellite and its primary shows no clear dependence either on apparent separation, or on the rotation speed of the primary. Thus our survey demonstrates that isolated spiral galaxies have massive halos that extend to many optical radii.

  12. Communication satellite technology trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccia, Louis

    1986-01-01

    A chronology of space-Earth interconnectivity is presented. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) system, Land Mobile Satellite, space-Earth antennas, impact of antenna size on coverage, intersatellite links are outlined. This presentation is represented by graphs and charts only.

  13. Visualizing Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy with Computer Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Charles B.; Fine, Leonard W.

    1996-01-01

    IR Tutor, an interactive, animated infrared (IR) spectroscopy tutorial has been developed for Macintosh and IBM-compatible computers. Using unique color animation, complicated vibrational modes can be introduced to beginning students. Rules governing the appearance of IR absorption bands become obvious because the vibrational modes can be visualized. Each peak in the IR spectrum is highlighted, and the animation of the corresponding normal mode can be shown. Students can study each spectrum stepwise, or click on any individual peak to see its assignment. Important regions of each spectrum can be expanded and spectra can be overlaid for comparison. An introduction to the theory of IR spectroscopy is included, making the program a complete instructional package. Our own success in using this software for teaching and research in both academic and industrial environments will be described. IR Tutor consists of three sections: (1) The 'Introduction' is a review of basic principles of spectroscopy. (2) 'Theory' begins with the classical model of a simple diatomic molecule and is expanded to include larger molecules by introducing normal modes and group frequencies. (3) 'Interpretation' is the heart of the tutorial. Thirteen IR spectra are analyzed in detail, covering the most important functional groups. This section features color animation of each normal mode, full interactivity, overlay of related spectra, and expansion of important regions. This section can also be used as a reference.

  14. The synthetic retinoid AGN 193109 but not retinoic acid elevates CYP1A1 levels in mouse embryos and Hepa-1c1c7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soprano, D R; Gambone, C J; Sheikh, S N; Gabriel, J L; Chandraratna, R A; Soprano, K J; Kochhar, D M

    2001-07-15

    The synthetic retinoid AGN 193109 is a potent pan retinoic acid receptor (RAR) antagonist. Treatment of pregnant mice with a single oral 1 mg/kg dose of this antagonist on day 8 postcoitum results in severe craniofacial (median cleft face or frontonasal deficiency) and eye malformations in virtually all exposed fetuses. Using differential display analysis, we have determined that CYP1A1 mRNA levels are elevated in mouse embryos 6 h following treatment with AGN 193109. Similarly, an elevation in CYP1A1 mRNA levels, protein levels, and aryl hydrocarbon hydoxylase activity occurs in Hepa-1c1c7 cells, with the maximal elevation observed when the cells were treated with 10(-5) M AGN 193109 for 4 to 8 h. Elevation in CYP1A1 mRNA levels in mouse embryos and Hepa-1c1c7 cells does not occur upon treatment with the natural retinoid, all-trans-retinoic acid. Finally, elevation in CYP1A1 mRNA levels was not observed when mutant Hepa-1c1c7 cells, which are defective in either the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) or aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), were treated with AGN 193109. This suggests that the AhR/ARNT pathway and not the RAR/RXR pathway is mediating the elevation of CYP1A1 mRNA levels by AGN 193109, at least in the Hepa-1c1c7 cells. This is the first example of a retinoid that displays the abililty to regulate both the RAR/RXR and AhR/ARNT transcriptional regulatory pathways.

  15. Thermal-structure coupled deformation in an optical-mechanical system for radiometric calibration of satellite IR remote sensor%卫星红外遥感器辐射定标光机系统热-结构耦合变形分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖庆生; 杨林华; 赵寿根

    2011-01-01

    The thermal deformation of a radiometric calibration optical-structure system under simulated space environments would cause a great damage to the imaging quality of the system, and reduce the precision of the calibration test eventually.In this paper, a finite element model of such a system is built.Based on the model, with the temperature values at nodes obtained in the radiometric calibration test for the satellite multi-spectral scanner, the distribution of the thermal-structure coupling deformation is calculated and analyzed.The results show that the thermal distortion of the optical bracket would cause rigid displacements of the primary mirror and the primary reflector,making them off the axis or acclivitous and the black body off the focus, and changing the focal distance of the system in a non-uniform steady-state Iow temperature condition.But the root-mean-square (RMS) values of deformation of the anamorphic mirrors are both less than one fortieth of the wave length, within the actual surface shape accuracy requirements of the optical system.%辐射定标光机系统在模拟空间环境下的热变形直接影响定标光学系统成像质量,并决定星载遥感器辐射定标试验精度.文章建立的辐射定标光机系统有限元模型,以某卫星多光谱扫描仪辐射定标试验中的实测温度变化作为温度载荷,计算和研究了该系统在真空低温环境下的热-结构耦合变形的分布情况和分布规律.结果表明:在非均匀稳态低温环境下,该系统光学支架热变形使主镜及主反射镜发生刚性位移,引起垂轴方向位移、倾斜,黑体的离焦和光学系统焦距变化;反射镜表面畸变RMS值均为1/40波长以下,可以满足实际光学系统的面形准确度要求.

  16. AVALIAÇÃO DE A1C E GLICOSE POR DRIFTS: UMA NOVA ABORDAGEM ANALÍTICA PARA DIAGNÓSTICO DE DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Estevam Severo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O diabetes mellitus (DM inclui um grupo de doenças metabólicas resultante de disfunção na secreção e/ou ação da insulina. O diagnóstico de DM é definido com base na avaliação da glicemia de jejum(GJ e hemoglobina glicada (A1C que também informa a persistência da hiperglicemia. Entretanto novas tecnologias analíticas estão sempre sob constante investigação. A espectroscopia de absorção molecular no infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier (FT-IR associada à análise multivariada tem surgido como uma alternativa nesse contexto. O presente estudo buscou avaliar a FT-IR, através da técnica de reflectância difusa, para quantificar glicose e A1C em um grupo de indivíduos adultos. O estudo foi composto por 46 pacientes de 32 a 59 anos, com valores GJ de 71,67 a 135 mg/dL e de A1C de 5,3 a 7,2 %. O modelo PLS-DRIFTS para GJ o apresentou RMSECV=1,37 mg/dL e R²=0,995 e para A1C, RMSECV=0,06% R²=0,993 sem exclusão de amostras e usando a faixa de 4000-2401, 2300-600 cm-1. Dessa forma foi possível concluir que FT-IR associada a análise multivariada se mostrou adequado para predizer os parâmetros bioquímicos de glicose e A1C de jejum com um erro mínimo, atendendo os requisitos analíticos da ANVISA para quantificação destes parâmetros.

  17. Transgenic restorer rice line T1c-19 with stackedcry1C*/bargenes has low weediness potential without selection pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yao; LI Ji-kun; QIANG Sheng; DAI Wei-min; SONG Xiao-ling

    2016-01-01

    Stacked (insect and herbicide resistant) transgenic rice T1c-19 withcry1C*/bargenes, its receptor rice Minghui 63 (herein MH63) and a local two-line hybridindica rice Fengliangyou Xiang 1 (used as a control) were compared for agronomic performance under ifeld conditions without the relevant selection pressures. Agronomic traits (plant height, tiler number, and aboveground dry biomass), reproductive ability (polen viability, panicle length, and ifled grain number of main pani-cles, seed set, and grain yield), and weediness characteristics (seed shattering, seed overwintering ability, and volunteer seedling recruitment) were used to assess the potential weediness without selection pressure of stacked transgene rice T1c-19. In wet direct-seeded and transplanted rice ifelds, T1c-19 and its receptor MH63 performed similarly regarding vegetative growth and reproductive ability, but both of them were signiifcantly inferior to the control. T1c-19 did not display weed characteristics; it had weak overwintering ability, low seed shattering and failed to establish volunteers. Exogenous insect and herbicide resistance genes did not confer competitive advantage to transgenic rice T1c-19 grown in the ifeld without the relevant selection pressures.

  18. Synthesis of New Pyrazolo[5,1-c]triazine, Triazolo[5,1-c]triazine, Triazino[4,3-b]indazole and Benzimidazo[2,1-c]triazine Derivatives Incorporating Chromen-2-one Moiety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Mohamed A.; Sayed, Samia M.; Raslan, Mohamed A. [Aswan Univ., Aswan (Egypt)

    2013-10-15

    The versatile, hitherto unreported 3-(4-(2-phenyldiazenyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-3-oxopropanenitrile 3 was prepared by two convenient routes: either by the reaction of ethyl 4-(2-phenyldiazenyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-carboxylate 2 with acetonitrile in the presence of sodium hydride or by treatment of 4-(2-phenyldiazenyl)-3-(2-bromoacetyl)-2H-chromen-2-one 5 with potassium cyanide. Reaction of 3 with heterocyclic diazonium salts 6, 7, 14 and 17 furnished the corresponding hydrazones 8, 9, 15 and 18. The latter hydrazones underwent intramolecular cyclization into the corresponding pyrazolo[5,1-c]-1,2,4-triazine 10, 1,2,4-triazolo[5,1-c]-1,2,4-triazine 11, 1,2,4-triazino[4,3-b]indazole 16 and imidazo[2,1-c]-1,2,4-triazine 19 derivatives, respectively upon refluxing in pyridine.

  19. Holographic RG flows with nematic IR phases

    CERN Document Server

    Cremonini, Sera; Rong, Junchen; Sun, Kai

    2014-01-01

    We construct zero-temperature geometries that interpolate between a Lifshitz fixed point in the UV and an IR phase that breaks spatial rotations but preserves translations. We work with a simple holographic model describing two massive gauge fields coupled to gravity and a neutral scalar. Our construction can be used to describe RG flows in non-relativistic, strongly coupled quantum systems with nematic order in the IR. In particular, when the dynamical critical exponent of the UV fixed point is z=2 and the IR scaling exponents are chosen appropriately, our model realizes holographically the scaling properties of the bosonic modes of the quadratic band crossing model.

  20. Beginnings of Satellite Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Solarić

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The first satellite navigation system called the Navy Navigation Satellite System (NNSS or TRANSIT was planned in the USA in 1958. It consisted of 5-6 artificial Earth satellites, was set in motion for the USA military in 1964, and in 1967 for civilian purposes. The frequency shift of received radio waves emitted from the satellite and caused by the Doppler effect was measured. The TRANSIT satellite speed of approaching or moving away was derived from that; the TRANSIT satellites emmited also their own coordinates. Then the ship's position was determined by an intersection of three hyperboloids, which were determined from differences of distances in three time intervals. Maintenance of this navigation system was stopped in 1996, but it is still being used in the USA Navy for exploring the ionosphere. Furthermore, results of Doppler measurements in international projects at the Hvar Observatory from 1982 and 1983. This was the first time in Croatia and the former country that the coordinates of the Hvar Observatory were determined in the unique world coordinate system WGS'72. The paper ends with a brief representation of the Tsiklon Doppler navigation system produced in the former Soviet Union, and there is a list of some of numerous produced and designed satellite navigation systems.Ključne riječi

  1. Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c): Clinical Applications of a Mathematical Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Melvin Khee Shing

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) reflects the cumulative glucose exposure of erythrocytes over a preceding time frame proportional to erythrocyte survival. HbA1c is thus an areal function of the glucose-time curve, an educationally useful concept to aid teaching and clinical judgment. Methods: An ordinary differential equation is formulated as a parsimonious model of HbA1c. The integrated form yields HbA1c as an area-under-the-curve (AUC) of a glucose-time profile. The rate constant of the HbA1c model is then derived using the validated regression equation in the ADAG study that links mean blood glucose and HbA1c with a very high degree of goodness-of-fit. Results: This model has didactic utility to enable patients, biomedical students and clinicians to appreciate how HbA1c may be conceptually inferred from discrete blood glucose values using continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) or self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) glucometer readings as shown in the examples. It can be appreciated how hypoglycemia can occur with rapid HbA1c decline despite poor glycemic control. Conclusions: Being independent of laboratory assay pitfalls, computed ‘virtual’ HbA1c serves as an invaluable internal consistency cross-check against laboratory-measured HbA1c discordant with SMBG readings suggestive of inaccurate/fraudulent glucometer records or hematologic disorders including thalassemia and hemoglobinopathy. This model could be implemented within portable glucometers, CGMS devices and even smartphone apps for deriving tentative ‘virtual’ HbA1c from serial glucose readings as an adjunct to measured HbA1c. Such predicted ‘virtual’ HbA1c readily accessible via glucometers may serve as feedback to modify behavior and empower diabetic patients to achieve better glycemic control. PMID:27708483

  2. Role of Satellite Sensors in Groundwater Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saumitra Mukherjee

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial as well as spectral resolution has a very important role to play in water resource management. It was a challenge to explore the groundwater and rainwater harvesting sites in the Aravalli Quartzite-Granite-Pegmatite Precambrian terrain of Delhi, India. Use of only panchromatic sensor data of IRS-1D satellite with 5.8-meter spatial resolution has the potential to infer lineaments and faults in this hard rock area. It is essential to identify the location of interconnected lineaments below buried pediment plains in the hard rock area for targeting sub-surface water resources. Linear Image Self Scanning sensor data of the same satellite with 23.5-meter resolution when merged with the panchromatic data has produced very good results in delineation of interconnected lineaments over buried pediment plains as vegetation anomaly. These specific locations of vegetation anomaly were detected as dark red patches in various hard rock areas of Delhi. Field investigation was carried out on these patches by resistivity and magnetic survey in parts of Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU, Indira Gandhi national Open University, Research and Referral Hospital and Humayuns Tomb areas. Drilling was carried out in four locations of JNU that proved to be the most potential site with ground water discharge ranging from 20,000 to 30,000 liters per hour with 2 to 4 meters draw down. Further the impact of urbanization on groundwater recharging in the terrain was studied by generating Normalized difference Vegetation Index (NDVI map which was possible to generate by using the LISS-III sensor of IRS-1D satellite. Selection of suitable sensors has definitely a cutting edge on natural resource exploration and management including groundwater.

  3. The interference by HbF on HbA1c (BM Test HbA1c) measurement in enzymatic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Takenori; Yamashiro, Yasuhiro; Hattori, Yukio; Ezumi, Tomoko; Nishioka, Mituaki; Nakamura, Junji

    2015-09-01

    High performance liquid chromatography and immunological and enzymatic methods are known as the methods for HbA1c measurement. However, the differences in the principles of the methods may cause slight discrepancies, which become problems especially in the regions where hemoglobinopathies that have high HbF concentrations are commonly seen. In this report, we discuss the effect of HbF on the HbA1c measurement by the enzymatic method (BM Test HbA1c) which can be applied to automatic analyzer of high sample throughput. Thirty-five samples (HbF concentration: between 1.4 and 90.1%) and 68 samples (HbF concentration: <1.0%) were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (Tosoh G8) and BM Test HbA1c. The results by BM Test HbA1c were compared with those by the high performance liquid chromatography and International Federation of Clinical Chemistry reference method. The high and positive correlation coefficient was demonstrated between the enzymatic and International Federation of Clinical Chemistry methods for the samples with normal HbF concentration. The samples with high HbF concentration exhibited high and positive correlation coefficient, although the figure is lower than that of the normal HbF concentration group. BM Test HbA1c revealed a high and positive correlation with high performance liquid chromatography and International Federation of Clinical Chemistry reference methods. However, the HbA1c values by BM Test HbA1c and high performance liquid chromatography method were lower than those by International Federation of Clinical Chemistry reference method when the HbF concentration was high. BM Test HbA1c had some deviation from the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry reference method, while no significant interference was seen when the HbF values were less than 15%. When HbF is higher than 15%, however, the interpretation of HbA1c by BM Test may require some special consideration. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Lipid and liver abnormalities in haemoglobin A1c-defined prediabetes and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calanna, S; Scicali, R; Di Pino, A

    2014-01-01

    .7 to 6.4% (39-46 mmol/mol), 50 newly diagnosed patients with HbA1c-defined type 2 diabetes (HbA1c ≥6.5% [≥48 mmol/mol]), and 67 controls with HbA1c lower than 5.7% (lipid profiles, fatty liver index (FLI), bioimpedance analysis, ultrasound scan......-defined prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, respectively, are characterised by abnormalities in lipid profile and liver steatosis, thus exhibiting a severe risk profile for cardiovascular and liver diseases.......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed to investigate lipid abnormalities and liver steatosis in patients with HbA1c-defined prediabetes and type 2 diabetes compared to individuals with HbA1c-defined normoglycaemia. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ninety-one subjects with prediabetes according to HbA1c, i.e. from 5...

  5. Near-IR Photoluminescence of C60().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelnikov, Dmitry V; Kern, Bastian; Kappes, Manfred M

    2017-10-05

    We have observed that C60(+) ions isolated in cryogenic matrices show distinct near-IR photoluminescence upon excitation in the near-IR range. By contrast, UV photoexcitation does not lead to measurable luminescence. Near-IR C60(+) photoluminescence is a one-photon process. The emission is mainly concentrated in one band and corresponds to (2)A1u ← (2)E1g relaxation. We present experimental data for the Stokes shift, power, and temperature dependencies as well as the quantum efficiency of the photoluminescence. Our findings may be relevant for astronomy, considering recent unequivocal assignment of five diffuse interstellar bands to near-IR absorption bands of C60(+).

  6. IR aperture measurement at β*=40 cm

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Roderik; Hermes, Pascal Dominik; Kwee-Hinzmann, Regina; Mereghetti, Alessio; Mirarchi, Daniele; Redaelli, Stefano; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Valentino, Gianluca; Valloni, Alessandra; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    This note summarizes MD 307, performed on August 27 2015, during which we measured with beam the global apertures at 6.5 TeV with IR1 and IR5 squeezed to β* =40 cm and a half crossing angle of 205 rad. The measurement technique involved opening collimators in steps, while inducing beam losses at each step, until the main loss location moved from the collimators to the global bottleneck in one of the triplets. Measurements were performed in both beams and planes, and each measurement gave the minimum triplet aperture over IR1 and IR5. The results are in very good agreement with theoretical predictions. At the end of the MD, an asynchronous beam dump test was performed with all collimators moved in to so-called 2-σ retraction settings. This MD is one in a series meant to address various open points for the reach in β* in Run II.

  7. WFC3 IR Image Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, Linda

    2009-07-01

    The IR imaging performance over the detector will be assessed periodically {every 4 months} in two passbands to check for image stability. The field around star 58 in the open cluster NGC188 is the chosen target because it is sufficiently dense to provide good sampling over the FOV while providing enough isolated stars to permit accurate PSF {point spread function} measurement. It is available year-round and used previously for ACS image quality assessment. The field is astrometric, and astrometric guide stars will be used, so that the plate scale and image orientation may also be determined if necessary {as in SMOV proposals 11437 and 11443}. Full frame images will be obtained at each of 4 POSTARG offset positions designed to improve sampling over the detector in F098M, F105W, and F160W. The PSFs will be sampled at 4 positions with subpixel shifts in filters F164N and F127M.This proposal is a periodic repeat {once every 4 months} of the visits in SMOV proposal 11437 {activity ID WFC3-24}. The data will be analyzed using the code and techniques described in ISR WFC3 2008-41 {Hartig}. Profiles of encircled energy will be monitored and presented in an ISR. If an update to the SIAF is needed, {V2,V3} locations of stars will be obtained from the Flight Ops Sensors and Calibrations group at GSFC, the {V2,V3} of the reference pixel and the orientation of the detector will be determined by the WFC3 group, and the Telescopes group will update and deliver the SIAF to the PRDB branch.The specific PSF metrics to be examined are encircled energy for aperture diameter 0.25, 0.37, and 0.60 arcsec, FWHM, and sharpness. {See ISR WFC3 2008-41 tables 2 and 3 and preceding text.} 20 stars distributed over the detector will be measured in each exposure for each filter. The mean, rms, and rms of the mean will be determined for each metric. The values determined from each of the 4 exposures per filter within a visit will be compared to each other to see to what extent they are affected

  8. Should Studies of Diabetes Treatment Stratification Correct for Baseline HbA1c?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus G Jones

    Full Text Available Baseline HbA1c is a major predictor of response to glucose lowering therapy and therefore a potential confounder in studies aiming to identify other predictors. However, baseline adjustment may introduce error if the association between baseline HbA1c and response is substantially due to measurement error and regression to the mean. We aimed to determine whether studies of predictors of response should adjust for baseline HbA1c.We assessed the relationship between baseline HbA1c and glycaemic response in 257 participants treated with GLP-1R agonists and assessed whether it reflected measurement error and regression to the mean using duplicate 'pre-baseline' HbA1c measurements not included in the response variable. In this cohort and an additional 2659 participants treated with sulfonylureas we assessed the relationship between covariates associated with baseline HbA1c and treatment response with and without baseline adjustment, and with a bias correction using pre-baseline HbA1c to adjust for the effects of error in baseline HbA1c.Baseline HbA1c was a major predictor of response (R2 = 0.19,β = -0.44,p<0.001.The association between pre-baseline and response was similar suggesting the greater response at higher baseline HbA1cs is not mainly due to measurement error and subsequent regression to the mean. In unadjusted analysis in both cohorts, factors associated with baseline HbA1c were associated with response, however these associations were weak or absent after adjustment for baseline HbA1c. Bias correction did not substantially alter associations.Adjustment for the baseline HbA1c measurement is a simple and effective way to reduce bias in studies of predictors of response to glucose lowering therapy.

  9. Hemoglobin A1c May Be an Inadequate Diagnostic Tool for Diabetes Mellitus in Anemic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Il Son

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRecently, a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c level of 6.5% has been determined to be a criterion for diabetes mellitus (DM, and it is a widely used marker for the diagnosis of DM. However, HbA1c may be influenced by a number of factors. Anemia is one of the most prevalent diseases with an influence on HbA1c; however, its effect on HbA1c varies based on the variable pathophysiology of anemia. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of anemia on HbA1c levels.MethodsAnemic subjects (n=112 and age- and sex-matched controls (n=217 who were drug naive and suspected of having DM were enrolled. The subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test and HbA1c simultaneously. We compared mean HbA1c and its sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing DM between each subgroup.ResultsClinical characteristics were found to be similar between each subgroup. Also, when glucose levels were within the normal range, the difference in mean HbA1c was not significant (P=0.580. However, when plasma glucose levels were above the diagnostic cutoff for prediabetes and DM, the mean HbA1c of the anemic subgroup was modestly higher than in the nonanemic group. The specificity of HbA1c for diagnosis of DM was significantly lower in the anemic subgroup (P<0.05.ConclusionThese results suggest that the diagnostic significance of HbA1c might be limited in anemic patients.

  10. Targeting the MUC1-C oncoprotein inhibits self-renewal capacity of breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Maroof; Rajabi, Hasan; Ahmad, Rehan; Jin, Caining; Kufe, Donald

    2014-05-15

    The capacity of breast cancer cells to form mammospheres in non-adherent serum-free culture is used as a functional characteristic of the self-renewing stem-like cell population. The present studies demonstrate that silencing expression of the MUC1-C oncoprotein inhibits growth of luminal MCF-7 and HER2-overexpressing SKBR3 breast cancer cells as mammospheres. We also show that triple-negative MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells are dependent on MUC1-C for growth as mammospheres and tumor xenografts. Similar results were obtained when MUC1-C function was inhibited by expression of a MUC1-C(CQCAQA) mutant. Moreover, treatment with the MUC1-C inhibitor GO-203, a cell penetrating peptide that binds to the MUC1-C cytoplasmic domain and blocks MUC1-C function, confirmed the importance of this target for self-renewal. The mechanistic basis for these findings is supported by the demonstration that MUC1-C activates NF-κB, occupies the IL-8 promoter with NF-κB, and induces IL-8 transcription. MUC1-C also induces NF-κB-dependent expression of the IL-8 receptor, CXCR1. In concert with these results, targeting MUC1-C with GO-203 suppresses IL-8/CXCR1 expression and disrupts the formation of established mammospheres. Our findings indicate that MUC1-C contributes to the self-renewal of breast cancer cells by activating the NF-κBIL-8/CXCR1 pathway and that targeting MUC1-C represents a potential approach for the treatment of this population.

  11. Hemoglobin A1c Versus Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Postpartum Diabetes Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Picón, María José; Murri, Mora; Muñoz, Araceli; Fernández-García, José Carlos; Gomez-Huelgas, Ricardo; Francisco J Tinahones

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the usefulness of measuring hemoglobin A1c (A1C), alone or combined with the fasting glucose test, compared with the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for the reassessment of the carbohydrate metabolism status in postpartum women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We evaluated the status of carbohydrate metabolism by performing the OGTT and fasting glucose and A1C tests in 231 postpartum women with prior GDM 1 year after ...

  12. IR Optimization, DID and anti-DID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seryi, Andrei; Maruyama, Takashi; /SLAC; Parker, Brett; /Brookhaven

    2006-02-03

    In this paper, we discuss optimization of the larger crossing angle Interaction Region of the Linear Collider, where specially shaped transverse field of the Detector Integrated Dipole can be reversed and adjusted to optimize trajectories of the low energy pairs, so that their majority would be directed into the extraction exit hole. This decreases the backscattering and makes background in 14mrad IR to be similar to background in 2mrad IR.

  13. Present status and future plans of the Japanese earth observation satellite program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Kiyoshi; Arai, Kohei; Igarashi, Tamotsu

    Japan is now operating 3 earth observation satellites, i. e. MOS-1 (Marine Observation Satellite-1, Momo-1 in Japanese), EGS (Experimental Geodetic Satellite, Ajisai in Japanese) and GMS (Geostationary Meteorological Satellite, Himawari in Japanese). MOS-1 has 3 different sensors, MESSR (Multispectral Electronic Self Scanning Radiometer), VTIR (Visible and Thermal Infrared Radiometer) and MSR (Microwave Scanning Radiometer) in addition to DCS (Data Collection System). GMS has two sensors, VISSR (Visible and IR Spin Scan Radiometer) and SEM (Solar Environmental Monitor). EGS is equipped with reflecting mirrors of the sun light and laser reflecters. For the future earth observation satellites, ERS-1 (Earth Resources Satellite-1), MOS-1b, ADEOS (Advanced Earth Observing Satellite) are under development. Two sensors, AMSR (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer) and ITIR (Intermediate Thermal IR Radiometer) for NASA's polar platform are initial stage of development. Study and planning are made for future earth observation satellites including Japanese polor platform, TRMM, etc.). The study for the second generation GMS has been made by the Committee on the Function of Future GMS under the request of Japan Meteorological Agency in FY 1987.

  14. Trends In Satellite Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poley, William A.; Stevens, Grady H.; Stevenson, Steven M.; Lekan, Jack; Arth, Clifford H.; Hollansworth, James E.; Miller, Edward F.

    1988-01-01

    Report assesses trends in satellite communication from present to year 2010. Examines restrictions imposed by limited spectrum resource and technology needs created by trends. Personal communications, orbiting switchboards, and videophones foreseen.

  15. Domestic Communication Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Andrew

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of the Federal Communications Commission's new policy on domestic satellites in light of our 1) military and economic history; 2) corporate interests; 3) citizen surveillance; and 4) media control. (HB)

  16. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Top space experts from around the world have collaborated to produce this comprehensive, authoritative, and clearly illustrated reference guide to the fast growing, multi-billion dollar field of satellite applications and space communications. This handbook, done under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, addresses not only system technologies but also examines market dynamics, technical standards and regulatory constraints. The handbook is a completely multi-disciplinary reference book that covers, in an in-depth fashion, the fields of satellite telecommunications, Earth observation, remote sensing, satellite navigation, geographical information systems, and geosynchronous meteorological systems. It covers current practices and designs as well as advanced concepts and future systems. It provides a comparative analysis of the common technologies and design elements for satellite application bus structures, thermal controls, power systems, stabilization techniques, telemetry, com...

  17. Biological satellite Kosmos-936

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedeshin, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of physiological experiments performed on the biological satellite Kosmos-936. Other experiments to determine the electrostatic and dielectric responses to the effects of cosmic radiation are discussed.

  18. Small Satellite Transporter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary objective is to determine whether this small satellite transporter is capable of transporting at least four 6U CubeSats is possible for a given set of...

  19. Matrix isolation studies with Fourier transform IR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, David W.; Reedy, Gerald T.

    1977-01-01

    The combination of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy with the matrix-isolation techniques has advantages compared with the use of more conventional grating spectroscopy. Furthermore, the recent commercial availability of Fourier transform spectrometers has made FT-IR a practical alternative. Some advantages of the FT-IR spectrometer over the grating spectrometer are the result of the computerized data system that is a necessary part of the FT-IR spectrometer; other advantages are a consequence of the difference in optical arrangements and these represent the inherent advantages of the FT-IR method. In most applications with the matrix-isolation technique, the use of FT-IR spectroscopy results in either an improved signal-to-noise ratio or a shorter time for data collection compared with grating infrared spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has been used in the laboratory to study several molecular species in low-temperature matrices. Some species have been produced by high-temperature vaporization from Knudsen cells and others by sputtering. By sputtering, Ar and Kr matrices have been prepared which contain U atoms, UO, UO/sub 2/, UO/sub 3/, PuO, PuO/sub 2/, UN, or UN/sub 2/, depending upon the composition of the gas used to sputter as well as the identity of the metallic cathode. Infrared spectra of matrices containing these compounds are presented and discussed. (JRD)

  20. Methods, units and quality requirements for the analysis of haemoglobin A1c in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penttilä, Ilkka; Penttilä, Karri; Holm, Päivi; Laitinen, Harri; Ranta, Päivi; Törrönen, Jukka; Rauramaa, Rainer

    2016-06-26

    The formation of glycohemoglobin, especially the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) fraction, occurs when glucose becomes coupled with the amino acid valine in the β-chain of Hb; this reaction is dependent on the plasma concentration of glucose. Since the early 1970s it has been known that diabetics display higher values OF HbA1C because they have elevated blood glucose concentrations. Thus HbA1c has acquired a very important role in the treatment and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. After the introduction of the first quantitative measurement OF HbA1C, numerous methods for glycohemoglobin have been introduced with different assay principles: From a simple mini-column technique to the very accurate automated high-pressure chromatography and lastly to many automated immunochemical or enzymatic assays. In early days, the results of the quality control reports for HbA1c varied extensively between laboratories, therefore in United States and Canada working groups (WG) of the Diabetes Controls and Complications Trial (DCCT) were set up to standardize the HbA1c assays against the DCCT/National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program reference method based on liquid chromatography. In the 1990s, the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) appointed a new WG to plan a reference preparation and method for the HBA1c measurement. When the reference procedures were established, in 2004 IFCC recommended that all manufacturers for equipment used in HbA1c assays should calibrate their methods to their proposals. This led to an improvement in the coefficient of variation (CV%) associated with the assay. In this review, we describe the glycation of Hb, methods, standardization of the HbA1c assays, analytical problems, problems with the units in which HbA1c values are expressed, reference values, quality control aspects, target requirements for HbA1c, and the relationship of the plasma glucose values to HbA1c concentrations. We also note that the acceptance

  1. MUC1-C oncoprotein regulates glycolysis and pyruvate kinase M2 activity in cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Kosugi

    Full Text Available Aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells is regulated by multiple effectors that include Akt and pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2. Mucin 1 (MUC1 is a heterodimeric glycoprotein that is aberrantly overexpressed by human breast and other carcinomas. Here we show that transformation of rat fibroblasts by the oncogenic MUC1-C subunit is associated with Akt-mediated increases in glucose uptake and lactate production, consistent with the stimulation of glycolysis. The results also demonstrate that the MUC1-C cytoplasmic domain binds directly to PKM2 at the B- and C-domains. Interaction between the MUC1-C cytoplasmic domain Cys-3 and the PKM2 C-domain Cys-474 was found to stimulate PKM2 activity. Conversely, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-mediated phosphorylation of the MUC1-C cytoplasmic domain on Tyr-46 conferred binding to PKM2 Lys-433 and inhibited PKM2 activity. In human breast cancer cells, silencing MUC1-C was associated with decreases in glucose uptake and lactate production, confirming involvement of MUC1-C in the regulation of glycolysis. In addition, EGFR-mediated phosphorylation of MUC1-C in breast cancer cells was associated with decreases in PKM2 activity. These findings indicate that the MUC1-C subunit regulates glycolysis and that this response is conferred in part by PKM2. Thus, the overexpression of MUC1-C oncoprotein in diverse human carcinomas could be of importance to the Warburg effect of aerobic glycolysis.

  2. Use of Fructosyl Peptide Oxidase for HbA1c Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Yonehara, Satoshi; Inamura, Norio; Fukuda, Miho; Sugiyama, Koji

    2015-01-01

    ARKRAY, Inc developed the world’s first automatic glycohemoglobin analyzer based on HPLC (1981). After that, ARKRAY developed enzymatic HbA1c assay “CinQ HbA1c” with the spread and diversification of HbA1c measurement (2007). CinQ HbA1c is the kit of Clinical Chemistry Analyzer, which uses fructosyl peptide oxidase (FPOX) for a measurement reaction. This report mainly indicates the developmental background, measurement principle, and future of the enzymatic method HbA1c reagent.

  3. Thyroid hormone transport and metabolism by OATP1C1 and consequences of genetic variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Deure, Wendy M; Hansen, Pia Skov; Peeters, Robin P

    2008-01-01

    OATP1C1 has been characterized as a specific thyroid hormone transporter. Based on its expression in capillaries in different brain regions, OATP1C1 is thought to play a key-role in transporting thyroid hormone across the blood-brain barrier. For this reason, we studied the specificity of iodothy......OATP1C1 has been characterized as a specific thyroid hormone transporter. Based on its expression in capillaries in different brain regions, OATP1C1 is thought to play a key-role in transporting thyroid hormone across the blood-brain barrier. For this reason, we studied the specificity...... of iodothyronine transport by OATP1C1 in detail by analysis of thyroid hormone uptake in OATP1C1-transfected COS1 cells. Furthermore, we examined whether OATP1C1 is rate-limiting in subsequent thyroid hormone metabolism in cells co-transfected with deiodinases. We also studied the effect of genetic variation...... (T4S), little transport of rT3 and no transport of T3 or T3S compared to mock transfected cells. Metabolism of T4, T4S and rT3 by co-transfected deiodinases was greatly augmented in the presence of OATP1C1. The OATP1C1-intron3C>T, Pro143Thr and C3035T polymorphisms were not consistently associated...

  4. Effect of Long-Term Periodontal Care on Hemoglobin A1c in Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, A T; Georgantopoulos, P; Howe, C J; Virani, S S; Morales, D A; Haddock, K S

    2016-04-01

    This was a prospective cohort study evaluating 126,805 individuals with diabetes and periodontal disease receiving care at all Veterans Administration medical centers and clinics in the United States from 2005 through 2012. The exposures were periodontal treatment at baseline (PT0) and at follow-up (PT2). The outcomes were change in HbA1c following initial treatment (ΔHbA1c1) and follow-up treatment (ΔHbA1c2), and diabetes control was defined as HbA1c at periodontal disease on glycemic control among individuals with type 2 diabetes. Participants were 64 y old on average, 97% were men, and 71% were white. At baseline, the average diabetes duration was 4 y, 12% of participants were receiving insulin, and 60% had HbA1c periodontal maintenance visit following baseline. Periodontal treatment at baseline and follow-up reduced HbA1c by -0.02% and -0.074%, respectively. Treatment at follow-up increased the likelihood of individuals achieving diabetes control by 5% and 3% at the HbA1c periodontal treatment at follow-up was greater (ΔHbA1c2 = -0.25%) among individuals with higher baseline HbA1c. Long-term periodontal care provided in a clinical setting improved long-term glycemic control among individuals with type 2 diabetes and periodontal disease.

  5. Selective Coactivator Interactions in Gene Activation by SREBP-1a and -1c

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, Julia I.; Datta, Shrimati; Athanikar, Jyoti N.; Freedman, Leonard P.; Osborne, Timothy F.

    2004-01-01

    Requisite levels of intracellular cholesterol and fatty acids are maintained in part by the sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs). Three major SREBP isoforms exist; SREBP-1a and SREBP-1c are expressed from overlapping mRNAs, whereas SREBP-2 is encoded by a separate gene. The active forms of SREBP-1a and SREBP-1c differ only at their extreme N termini; SREBP-1c lacks 28 aa present in SREBP-1a and instead contains 4 unique aa of its own. While the SREBP-1a and -1c isoforms differe...

  6. [Progress on X-linked mental retardation related gene JARID1C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xu; Gao, Xiao-Cai; Zhang, Fu-Chang

    2010-03-01

    JARID1C is one of the genes related to X-linked mental retardation. Its express product influences transcription and expression of the related genes in brain nervous system, and may be associated with human cognitive ability. Study on the functions of JARID1C not only helps to understand its molecular role in mental retardation and human cognitive ability, but also provides references for clinical diagnosis and prevention of mental retardation. This article reviews the progresses on JARID1C in location, isolation, physiological functions, and cognitive functions of its encoding product. The future re-search work of JARID1C is also discussed.

  7. Relationship of hemoglobin A1c to mortality in nonsmoking insurance applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Robert L; Fulks, Michael; Dolan, Vera F; Magee, Mark E; Suarez, Luis

    2007-01-01

    Determine the relationship between hemoglobin A1c value and 5-year, all-cause mortality in nonsmoking life insurance applicants. By use of the Social Security Master Death Index, mortality was examined in 286,443 non-smoking insurance applicants aged 40 and up for whom blood samples for hemoglobin A1c were submitted to the Clinical Reference Laboratory. Results were stratified by hemoglobin A1c value, gender and age bands 40 to 59, 60 to 69 and 70 and up. Increased mortality is apparent at hemoglobin A1c values of 6% and above, is linear, and on a percentage basis decreases with age. Hemoglobin A1c values less than 5% also are associated with increased mortality. Absolute mortality rates for females with elevated hemoglobin A1c are generally lower than rates for males, although mortality relative to the gender-specific reference group with hemoglobin A1c of 5% to 5.9% is generally the same for both. The importance of even small elevations of hemoglobin A1c above 5.9% is apparent. For screening, it is the degree of blood sugar elevation as measured by hemoglobin A1c rather than any diagnostic label that is critical in risk assessment.

  8. ADD1/SREBP1c activates the PGC1-alpha promoter in brown adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, Qin; Hansen, Jacob B; Petersen, Rasmus K

    2010-01-01

    regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP1c) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC1alpha) in brown and inguinal white adipose tissues, but not in epididymal white adipose tissue. Using in vitro models of white and brown adipocytes we demonstrate that beta......-adrenergic stimulation induced expression of LXRalpha, ADD1/SREBP1c and PGC1alpha in cells with a brown-like adipose phenotype. We demonstrate that ADD1/SREBP1c is a powerful inducer of PGC1alpha expression via a conserved E box in the proximal promoter and that beta-adrenergic stimulation led to recruitment of ADD1...

  9. Recent Progress in Electrochemical HbA1c Sensors: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baozhen Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews recent progress made in the development of electrochemical glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c sensors for the diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus. Electrochemical HbA1c sensors are divided into two categories based on the detection protocol of the sensors. The first type of sensor directly detects HbA1c by binding HbA1c on the surface of an electrode through bio-affinity of antibody and boronic acids, followed by an appropriate mode of signal transduction. In the second type of sensor, HbA1c is indirectly determined by detecting a digestion product of HbA1c, fructosyl valine (FV. Thus, the former sensors rely on the selective binding of HbA1c to the surface of the electrodes followed by electrochemical signaling in amperometric, voltammetric, impedometric, or potentiometric mode. Redox active markers, such as ferrocene derivatives and ferricyanide/ferrocyanide ions, are often used for electrochemical signaling. For the latter sensors, HbA1c must be digested in advance by proteolytic enzymes to produce the FV fragment. FV is electrochemically detected through catalytic oxidation by fructosyl amine oxidase or by selective binding to imprinted polymers. The performance characteristics of HbA1c sensors are discussed in relation to their use in the diagnosis and control of diabetic mellitus.

  10. DFH-3 Satellite Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RenShufang

    2005-01-01

    The DFH-3 satellite platform is designed and developed by China Academy of Space Technology (CAST). It is a medium capability communications satellite platform. The platform adopts threeaxis attitude stabilization control system, having solar array output power of 1.7kW by the end of its design lifetime of 8 years. Its mass is 2100kg with payload capacity of 220kg.

  11. The Archimedes satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stuart C.; Shurvinton, William D.

    1992-03-01

    Archimedes is a satellite system conceived by the European Space Agency (ESA) to effectively serve the European market for Mobile Radio Services (MRS). This paper describes the requirements and technical design of the Archimedes satellite system. The underlying assumptions and trade-offs behind the design are detailed and the design is compared and contrasted against alternative design solutions, both technically and economically. A path forward for the development of the system is indicated.

  12. ASTRID II satellit projekt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Primdahl, Fritz

    1997-01-01

    The report describes the instruments developed for the Swedish micro satellite "ASTRID II". Specifications of the two instruments realized under this contract, a Stellar Compass and a CSC magnetometer are given follwed by a description of the project status and plan.......The report describes the instruments developed for the Swedish micro satellite "ASTRID II". Specifications of the two instruments realized under this contract, a Stellar Compass and a CSC magnetometer are given follwed by a description of the project status and plan....

  13. Satellite formation. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A. W.

    1978-01-01

    A satellite formation model is extended to include evolution of planetary ring material and elliptic orbital motion. In this model the formation of the moon begins at a later time in the growth of the earth, and a significant fraction of the lunar material is processed through a circumterrestrial debris cloud where volatiles might have been lost. Thus, the chemical differences between the earth and moon are more plausibly accounted for. Satellites of the outer planets probably formed in large numbers throughout the growth of those planets. Because of rapid inward evolution of the orbits of small satellites, the present satellite systems represent only satellites formed in the last few percent of the growths of their primaries. The rings of Saturn and Uranus are most plausibly explained as the debris of satellites disrupted within the Roche limit. Because such a ring would collapse onto the planet in the course of any significant further accretion by the planet, the rings must have formed very near or even after the conclusion of accretion.

  14. CHINA LAUNCHES NEW SCIENTIFIC SATELLITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China on Sept. 27, 2004 launched a scientific satellite atop a Long March 2D carrier rocket from Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in Gansu province. 10 minutes after the launch, the satellite entered a preset orbit and is running sound at the orbit. It is the 20th recoverable satellite for scientific and technological

  15. Monitoring Surface Climate With its Emissivity Derived From Satellite Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu

    2012-01-01

    Satellite thermal infrared (IR) spectral emissivity data have been shown to be significant for atmospheric research and monitoring the Earth fs environment. Long-term and large-scale observations needed for global monitoring and research can be supplied by satellite-based remote sensing. Presented here is the global surface IR emissivity data retrieved from the last 5 years of Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) measurements observed from the MetOp-A satellite. Monthly mean surface properties (i.e., skin temperature T(sub s) and emissivity spectra epsilon(sub v) with a spatial resolution of 0.5x0.5-degrees latitude-longitude are produced to monitor seasonal and inter-annual variations. We demonstrate that surface epsilon(sub v) and T(sub s) retrieved with IASI measurements can be used to assist in monitoring surface weather and surface climate change. Surface epsilon(sub v) together with T(sub s) from current and future operational satellites can be utilized as a means of long-term and large-scale monitoring of Earth 's surface weather environment and associated changes.

  16. Dopaminergic and behavioural changes in a loss-of-imprinting model of Cdkn1c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, G I; Davis, B A; Browne, M; Humby, T; Dalley, J W; Xia, J; John, R M; Isles, A R

    2017-08-31

    The imprinted gene Cdkn1c is expressed exclusively from the maternally inherited allele as a consequences of epigenetic regulation. Cdkn1c exemplifies many of the functional characteristics of imprinted genes, playing a role in foetal growth and placental development. However, Cdkn1c also plays an important role in the brain, being key to the appropriate proliferation and differentiation of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Using a transgenic model (Cdkn1c(BACx1) ) with a twofold elevation in Cdkn1c expression that mimics loss-of-imprinting, we show that increased expression of Cdkn1c in the brain gives rise to neurobiological and behavioural changes indicative of a functionally altered dopaminergic system. Cdkn1c(BACX1) mice displayed altered expression of dopamine system-related genes, increased tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) staining and increased tissue content of dopamine in the striatum. In addition, Cdkn1c(BACx1) animals were hypersensitive to amphetamine as showed by c-fos expression in the nucleus accumbens. Cdkn1c(BACX1) mice had significant changes in behaviours that are dependent on the mesolimbic dopaminergic system. Specifically, increased motivation for palatable food stuffs, as indexed on a progressive ratio task. In addition, Cdkn1c(BACX1) mice displayed enhanced social dominance. These data show, for the first time, the consequence of elevated Cdkn1c expression on dopamine-related behaviours highlighting the importance of correct dosage of this imprinted gene in the brain. This work has significant relevance for deepening our understanding of the epigenetic factors that can shape neurobiology and behaviour. © 2017 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior published by International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. MUC1-C ONCOPROTEIN INDUCES TAMOXIFEN RESISTANCE IN HUMAN BREAST CANCER CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharbanda, Akriti; Rajabi, Hasan; Jin, Caining; Raina, Deepak; Kufe, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Resistance of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer cells to tamoxifen has been linked in part to activation of (i) certain receptor tyrosine kinases, such as HER2, and (ii) the PI3K→AKT pathway. Mucin 1 (MUC1) is aberrantly overexpressed in about 90% of human breast cancers and the oncogenic MUC1-C subunit associates with ERα. The present studies using HER2 overexpressing BT-474 breast cancer cells, which are constitutively resistant to tamoxifen, demonstrate that silencing MUC1-C is associated with (i) downregulation of p-HER2 levels, and (ii) sensitivity to tamoxifen-induced growth inhibition and loss of clonogenic survival. The results also demonstate that overexpression of MUC1-C in tamoxifen-sensitive MCF-7 breast cancer cells results in upregulation of p-AKT and tamoxifen resistance. We show that MUC1-C forms complexes with ERα on the estrogen-responsive promoter of the Rab31 gene and that MUC1-C blocks tamoxifen-induced decreases in ERα occupancy. MUC1-C also attenuated tamoxifen-induced decreases in (i) recruitment of the coactivator CREB binding protein, (ii) Rab31 promoter activation, and (ii) Rab31 mRNA and protein levels. The importance of MUC1-C is further supported by the demonstration that targeting MUC1-C with the cell-penetrating peptide inhibitor, GO-203, sensitizes tamoxifen-resistant cells to tamoxifen treatment. Moreover, we show that targeting MUC1-C in combination with tamoxifen is highly synergistic in the treatment of tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells. These findings indicate that MUC1-C contributes to tamoxifen resistance and provide support for the investigation of MUC1-C inhibitors in the setting of tamoxifen refractory disease. PMID:23538857

  18. The use of Yo-Yo IR1 and Andersen testing for fitness and maximal heart rate assessments of 6-10 yr old school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahler, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated a sub-maximal and maximal version of the Yo-Yo IR1 childrens test (YYIR1C) and the Andersen test for fitness and maximal HR assessments of children aged 6-10. Two repetitions of the YYIR1C and Andersen tests were carried out within one week by 6-7 and 8-9 year olds (grade 0, n=17...

  19. Satellite Communications for ATM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation is an overview on Satellite Communication for the Aeronautical Telecommunication Management (ATM) research. Satellite Communications are being considered by the FAA and NASA as a possible alternative to the present and future ground systems supporting Air Traffic Communications. The international Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) have in place Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS) for the Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Services (AMSS) which is mainly derived from the pre-existing Inmarsat service that has been in service since the 1980s. The Working Group A of the Aeronautical Mobile Communication Panel of ICAO has also been investigating SARPS for what is called the Next Generation Satellite Service (NGSS) which conforms less to the Inmarsat based architecture and explores wider options in terms of satellite architectures. Several designs are being proposed by Firms such as Boeing, ESA, NASA that are geared toward full or secondary usage of satellite communications for ATM. Satellite communications for ATM can serve several purposes ranging from primary usage where ground services would play a minimal backup role, to an integrated solution where it will be used to cover services, or areas that are less likely to be supported by the proposed and existing ground infrastructure. Such Integrated roles can include usage of satellite communications for oceanic and remote land areas for example. It also can include relieving the capacity of the ground network by providing broadcast based services of Traffic Information Services messages (TIS-B), or Flight Information Services (FIS-B) which can take a significant portion of the ground system capacity. Additionally, satellite communication can play a backup role to support any needs for ground replacement, or additional needed capacity even after the new digital systems are in place. The additional bandwidth that can be provided via satellite communications can also open the door for many new

  20. Experimental Satellite 2 Successfully Launched

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuJie

    2004-01-01

    Small satellite Experimental Satellite 2 (SY-2) was launched by LM-2C launch vehicle from Xichang Satellite Launch Center on Nov. 18, 2004. Later the satellite entered the preset sun-synchronous orbit, which is 700 kilometers above the earth. The launch was the eighthmission this year by China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation(CASC), which aims to test the technology of the satellite, conduct survey and monitoring of the land and resources and geographical environment on a trial basis.

  1. China's Meteorological Satellite Application System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jiashen

    2008-01-01

    @@ China's meteorological satellite program consists of five systems,namely the satellite system,the launch vehicle system,the launch center system,TT&C and the ground application system.The satellite system consists of FengYun (FY) polar orbiting series and FY geostationary series,which are launched by LM launch vehicles from Taiyan Satellite Launch Center (TSLC) and Xichang Satellite Launch Center (XSLC) respectively.

  2. Expression of progesterone metabolizing enzyme genes (AKR1C1, AKR1C2, AKR1C3, SRD5A1, SRD5A2 is altered in human breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebe John P

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that progesterone metabolites play important roles in regulating breast cancer. Previous studies have shown that tumorous tissues have higher 5α-reductase (5αR and lower 3α-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase (3α-HSO and 20α-HSO activities. The resulting higher levels of 5α-reduced progesterone metabolites such as 5α-pregnane-3,20-dione (5αP in tumorous tissue promote cell proliferation and detachment, whereas the 4-pregnene metabolites, 4-pregnen-3α-ol-20-one (3αHP and 4-pregnen-20α-ol-3-one (20αDHP, more prominent in normal tissue, have the opposite (anti-cancer-like effects. The aim of this study was to determine if the differences in enzyme activities between tumorous and nontumorous breast tissues are associated with differences in progesterone metabolizing enzyme gene expression. Methods Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to compare relative expression (as a ratio of 18S rRNA of 5αR type 1 (SRD5A1, 5αR type 2 (SRD5A2, 3α-HSO type 2 (AKR1C3, 3α-HSO type 3 (AKR1C2 and 20α-HSO (AKR1C1 mRNAs in paired (tumorous and nontumorous breast tissues from 11 patients, and unpaired tumor tissues from 17 patients and normal tissues from 10 reduction mammoplasty samples. Results Expression of 5αR1 and 5αR2 in 11/11 patients was higher (mean of 4.9- and 3.5-fold, respectively; p Conclusions The study shows changes in progesterone metabolizing enzyme gene expression in human breast carcinoma. Expression of SRD5A1 (5αR1 and SRD5A2 (5αR2 is elevated, and expression of AKR1C1 (20α-HSO, AKR1C2 (3α-HSO3 and AKR1C3 (3α-HSO2 is reduced in tumorous as compared to normal breast tissue. The changes in progesterone metabolizing enzyme expression levels help to explain the increases in mitogen/metastasis inducing 5αP and decreases in mitogen/metastasis inhibiting 3αHP progesterone metabolites found in breast tumor tissues. Understanding what causes these changes in expression could help in designing

  3. Elevated third-trimester haemoglobin A 1c predicts preterm delivery in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekbom, Pia; Damm, Peter; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of preterm delivery is considerably elevated in women with type 1 diabetes. The aim of the study was to evaluate haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) as a predictor of preterm delivery. Two hundred thirteen consecutive pregnant women with type 1 diabetes and normal urinary albumin excretion...

  4. Hb A1c Separation by High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Hemoglobinopathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekar, Vani

    2016-01-01

    Hb A1c measurement is subject to interference by hemoglobin traits and this is dependent on the method used for determination. In this paper we studied the difference between Hb A1c measured by HPLC in hemoglobin traits and normal chromatograms. We also studied the correlation of Hb A1c with age. Hemoglobin analysis was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography. Spearman's rank correlation was used to study correlation between A1c levels and age. Mann-Whitney U test was used to study the difference in Hb A1c between patients with normal hemoglobin and hemoglobin traits. A total of 431 patients were studied. There was positive correlation with age in patients with normal chromatograms only. No correlation was seen in Hb E trait or beta thalassemia trait. No significant difference in Hb A1c of patients with normal chromatograms and patients with hemoglobin traits was seen. There is no interference by abnormal hemoglobin in the detection of A1c by high performance liquid chromatography. This method cannot be used for detection of A1c in compound heterozygous and homozygous disorders. PMID:26989559

  5. An Innovative Mathematical Model: A Key to the Riddle of HbA1c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Kahrom

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available HbA1c is a standard clinical assessment of glycemia and the basis of most data relating glycemic control to complications. While daily blood glucose testing gives a picture of day-to-day fluctuations, the HbA1c test offers an overview of how well glucose has been controlled over the past 4 months. I devised an innovative mathematical model to describe novel equations governing HbA1c which enables analysis of HbA1c behavior and provides emerging new concepts in assessment of diabetes management. Linear relationship of HbA1c and mean plasma glucose along with the kinetic analysis of HbA1c formation has been used as the basic suppositions to construct this model. The main application of this devised model is prediction of mean plasma glucose at any desired point in time after a change in therapy and with great certainty. This model also appraises the pattern of HbA1c changes over time and provides a unique opportunity to address common mistakes and misconceptions in routine application of HbA1c that could have potentially important implications on diabetes control.

  6. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1C12A-1MCEA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1C12A-1MCEA 1C12 1MCE A A DIELTQSPSSMSVSLGDTVSITCHASQ---GISSNIGWL...DINVKWKIDGSERQNGVLNSWTDQDSKDSTYSMSSTLTLTKDEYERHNSYTCEATHKTSTSPIVKSFNRNEA- PSALTQ-PPSASGSLGQSVTI.../line> 1MCE A 1MCEA...ne> 1MCE A 1MCEA 2 1MCE A 1MCEA

  7. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1C7JA-2ACEA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1C7JA-2ACEA 1C7J 2ACE A A THQIVTTQYGKVKGTTE----NGVHKWKGIPYAKPPVGQ...A 2ACEA MGTRVPVLSSHISA EEE...A 341 GLU CA 425 2ACE A 2ACEA...ne> ALA CA 282 2ACE A 2ACEA...ain> 2ACE A 2ACEA

  8. Information Management System training in the conditions of application configurations "1C: Enterprise"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Bogatenkov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of information technology increases the efficiency of solving professional problems and to increase the role of information training. The article describes a system of information training in the conditions of application configurations "1C: Enterprise" based on the classification of staff according to their level of training and quality requirements, including the availability of appropriate certificates of 1C.

  9. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1C5SA-1QRZD [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available dbID> A 1C5SA AHCYK-----SGIQV ...>GGG ----- EEE> ATOM 550 CA ALA A 56 34.816 22.651...QRZD AHCLEKSPRPSSYKV >EGGG EEEe>...DChain>1C5SA SCKSA--YPGQI ure>HHHHH-- ...DChain> VCNRYEFLNGRV >HH > <

  10. CALCINEURIN INHIBITS DESENSITIZATION OF CLONED RAT 5-HT(1C)RECEPTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BODDEKE, HWGM; HOFFMAN, BJ; PALACIOS, JM; HOYER, D

    1993-01-01

    Functional responses to stimulation of rat 5-HT1C receptors expressed in A9 cells were studied using whole cell voltage clamp recording technique. Stimulation of 5-HT1C receptors with serotonin (5-HT) evoked calcium-dependent outward currents of 109 pA in cells clamped at -50 mV. Pretreatment with t

  11. DYX1C1 is required for axonemal dynein assembly and ciliary motility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarkar, A.; Loges, N.T.; Slagle, C.E.; Francis, R.; Dougherty, G.W.; Tamayo, J.V.; Shook, B.; Cantino, M.; Schwartz, D.; Jahnke, C.; Olbrich, H.; Werner, C.; Raidt, J.; Pennekamp, P.; Abouhamed, M.; Hjeij, R.; Kohler, G.; Griese, M.; Li, Y.; Lemke, K.; Klena, N.; Liu, X.; Gabriel, G.; Tobita, K.; Jaspers, M.; Morgan, L.C.; Shapiro, A.J.; Letteboer, S.J.F.; Mans, D.A.; Carson, J.L.; Leigh, M.W.; Wolf, W.E.; Chen, S.; Lucas, J.S.; Onoufriadis, A.; Plagnol, V.; Schmidts, M.; Boldt, K.; Uk10K, .; Roepman, R.; Zariwala, M.A.; Lo, C.W.; Mitchison, H.M.; Knowles, M.R.; Burdine, R.D.; Loturco, J.J.; Omran, H.

    2013-01-01

    DYX1C1 has been associated with dyslexia and neuronal migration in the developing neocortex. Unexpectedly, we found that deleting exons 2-4 of Dyx1c1 in mice caused a phenotype resembling primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a disorder characterized by chronic airway disease, laterality defects and mal

  12. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1C4TC-1DPCA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1C4TC-1DPCA 1C4T 1DPC C A -----------ARSEKRVP----RKRVAERLLEAKNSTA...> ARG CA 109 VAL CA 154 ALA CA 140 1DPC... A 1DPCA IEEVPMTRLMQIGA GLU CA 181 1DPC A 1DPC... TYR CA 237 HIS CA 284 ASN CA 217 1DPC

  13. Soil pH regulates the abundance and diversity of Group 1.1c Crenarchaeota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtovirta, Laura E; Prosser, James I; Nicol, Graeme W

    2009-12-01

    Archaeal communities in many acidic forest soil systems are dominated by a distinct crenarchaeal lineage Group 1.1c. In addition, they are found consistently in other acidic soils including grassland pasture, moorland and alpine soils. To determine whether soil pH is a major factor in determining their presence and abundance, Group 1.1c community size and composition were investigated across a pH gradient from 4.5 to 7.5 that has been maintained for > 40 years. The abundances of Group 1.1c Crenarchaeota, total Crenarchaeota and total bacteria were assessed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting 16S rRNA genes and the diversity of Group 1.1c crenarchaeal community was investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and phylogenetic analysis. The abundance of Group 1.1c Crenarchaeota declined as the pH increased, whereas total Crenarchaeota and Bacteria showed no clear trend. Community diversity of Group 1.1c Crenarchaeota was also influenced with different DGGE bands dominating at different pH. Group 1.1c Crenarchaeota were also quantified in 13 other soils representing a range of habitats, soil types and pH. These results exhibited the same trend as that shown across the pH gradient with Group 1.1c Crenarchaeota representing a greater proportion of total Crenarchaeota in the most acidic soils.

  14. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1C2RA-1COTA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1C2RA-1COTA 1C2R 1COT A A -GDAAKGEKEFNKCKTCHSIIAPDGTEIVKGAKTGPNLY... THR CA 278 1COT A 1COTA...9563 20.21500015258789 -19.988000869750977 tion> 0.286000013351440430.7390000224113464 tion> 1.702983021736145 3.216418981552124 ...

  15. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1C2RB-1COTA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1C2RB-1COTA 1C2R 1COT B A -GDAAKGEKEFNKCKTCHSIIAPDGTEIVKGAKTGPNLY...CA 337 THR CA 277 1COT A 37.21200180053711 -25.844999313354492 tion> -0.03099999949336...3 0.597000002861023 tion> 1.6881250143051147 3.115614891052246 ...

  16. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1C7IA-1LPSA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1C7IA-1LPSA 1C7I 1LPS A A THQIVTTQY-GKVKGTTENGVHKWKGIPYAKPPVGQWRF...line> ARG CA 277 GLN CA 344 1LPS... A 1LPSA LVMQSKVFEAVSP...e> PRO CA 415 VAL CA 521 MET CA 592 1LPS... A 1LPSA

  17. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1C8RA-3CODB [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1C8RA-3CODB 1C8R 3COD A B TGRPEWIWLALGTALMGLGTLYFLVKGMGVSDPDAKKFY...ne>PHE CA 209 GLY CA 249 PHE CA 274 3COD... B 3CODB YILYVLFFGFTSKA...ne>GLU CA 222 VAL CA 302 3COD B 3CODB TSKAESMRPEV HHGGG

  18. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1C8RA-3CODA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1C8RA-3CODA 1C8R 3COD A A TGRPEWIWLALGTALMGLGTLYFLVKGMGVSDPDAKKFY...ne>PHE CA 209 GLY CA 249 PHE CA 274 3COD... A 3CODA YILYVLFFGFTSKA...>GLU CA 222 VAL CA 302 3COD A... 3CODA TSKAESMRPEV HHGGG H

  19. Mutations in JMJD1C are involved in Rett syndrome and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Mauricio A; Fernández-Rodríguez, Juana; Moutinho, Catia; Sanchez-Mut, Jose V; Gomez, Antonio; Vidal, Enrique; Petazzi, Paolo; Szczesna, Karolina; Lopez-Serra, Paula; Lucariello, Mario; Lorden, Patricia; Delgado-Morales, Raul; de la Caridad, Olga J; Huertas, Dori; Gelpí, Josep L; Orozco, Modesto; López-Doriga, Adriana; Milà, Montserrat; Perez-Jurado, Luís A; Pineda, Mercedes; Armstrong, Judith; Lázaro, Conxi; Esteller, Manel

    2016-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are associated with defects in social response and communication that often occur in the context of intellectual disability. Rett syndrome is one example in which epilepsy, motor impairment, and motor disturbance may co-occur. Mutations in histone demethylases are known to occur in several of these syndromes. Herein, we aimed to identify whether mutations in the candidate histone demethylase JMJD1C (jumonji domain containing 1C) are implicated in these disorders. We performed the mutational and functional analysis of JMJD1C in 215 cases of autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disability, and Rett syndrome without a known genetic defect. We found seven JMJD1C variants that were not present in any control sample (~ 6,000) and caused an amino acid change involving a different functional group. From these, two de novo JMJD1C germline mutations were identified in a case of Rett syndrome and in a patient with intellectual disability. The functional study of the JMJD1C mutant Rett syndrome patient demonstrated that the altered protein had abnormal subcellular localization, diminished activity to demethylate the DNA damage-response protein MDC1, and reduced binding to MECP2. We confirmed that JMJD1C protein is widely expressed in brain regions and that its depletion compromises dendritic activity. Our findings indicate that mutations in JMJD1C contribute to the development of Rett syndrome and intellectual disability.Genet Med 18 1, 378-385.

  20. Histone H1c decreases markedly in postreplicative stages of chicken spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boix, J; Mezquita, C

    1991-03-01

    The relative proportions of four major chicken histone H1 subtypes (referred to as H1a, H1b, H1c and H1d) change markedly in different chicken tissues. The relative amount of H1c is higher in nonreplicating somatic tissues, such as liver, than in replicating immature testis. The proportion of H1c sharply decreases as spermatogenesis proceeds, being much lower in mature than in immature testis. It has been proposed that the relative increment of H1c correlates with low rates of cell division in chicken tissues. It was assumed that the sharp decrease in H1c observed during maturation of chicken testis was a consequence of the intensification of proliferative activity in spermatogonia (Berdnikov et al., 1976). Our results, however, clearly show that the decrease of H1c during maturation is due to the low levels of this protein in postreplicative stages of spermatogenesis, where H1c is barely detectable. These results suggest that the presence of the arginine-rich H1c subtype would neither be compatible with the relaxed structure of acetylated chromatin present in active replicating cells nor with the hyperacetylated chromatin characteristic of postreplicative late spermatids undergoing the nucleohistone nucleoprotamine transition.

  1. The relationship of regional hemoglobin A1c testing and amputation rate among patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhall, Karina A; Bekelis, Kimon; Suckow, Bjoern D; Gottlieb, Daniel J; Farber, Adrienne E; Goodney, Philip P; Skinner, Jonathan S

    2017-04-01

    Objective The risk of leg amputation among patients with diabetes has declined over the past decade, while use of preventative measures-such as hemoglobin A1c monitoring-has increased. However, the relationship between hemoglobin A1c testing and amputation risk remains unclear. Methods We examined annual rates of hemoglobin A1c testing and major leg amputation among Medicare patients with diabetes from 2003 to 2012 across 306 hospital referral regions. We created linear regression models to study associations between hemoglobin A1c testing and lower extremity amputation. Results From 2003 to 2012, the proportion of patients who received hemoglobin A1c testing increased 10% (74% to 84%), while their rate of lower extremity amputation decreased 50% (430 to 232/100,000 beneficiaries). Regional hemoglobin A1c testing weakly correlated with crude amputation rate in both years (2003 R = -0.20, 2012 R = -0.21), and further weakened with adjustment for age, sex, and disability status (2003 R = -0.11, 2012 R = -0.17). In a multivariable model of 2012 amputation rates, hemoglobin A1c testing was not a significant predictor. Conclusion Lower extremity amputation among patients with diabetes nearly halved over the past decade but only weakly correlated with hemoglobin A1c testing throughout the study period. Better metrics are needed to understand the relationship between preventative care and amputation.

  2. Hb A1c Separation by High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Hemoglobinopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Chandrashekar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hb A1c measurement is subject to interference by hemoglobin traits and this is dependent on the method used for determination. In this paper we studied the difference between Hb A1c measured by HPLC in hemoglobin traits and normal chromatograms. We also studied the correlation of Hb A1c with age. Hemoglobin analysis was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography. Spearman’s rank correlation was used to study correlation between A1c levels and age. Mann-Whitney U test was used to study the difference in Hb A1c between patients with normal hemoglobin and hemoglobin traits. A total of 431 patients were studied. There was positive correlation with age in patients with normal chromatograms only. No correlation was seen in Hb E trait or beta thalassemia trait. No significant difference in Hb A1c of patients with normal chromatograms and patients with hemoglobin traits was seen. There is no interference by abnormal hemoglobin in the detection of A1c by high performance liquid chromatography. This method cannot be used for detection of A1c in compound heterozygous and homozygous disorders.

  3. 18 CFR 1c.1 - Prohibition of natural gas market manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibition of natural gas market manipulation. 1c.1 Section 1c.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES PROHIBITION OF ENERGY MARKET MANIPULATION §...

  4. 18 CFR 2.1c - Policy statement on consultation with Indian tribes in Commission proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policy statement on consultation with Indian tribes in Commission proceedings. 2.1c Section 2.1c Conservation of Power and Water... (3) Is filed with the Secretary of the Commission. See generally 18 CFR 2.19. Statements of...

  5. High maternal HbA1c is associated with overweight in neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Maria R.; Nielsen, Sigrid Bruun; Stage, E;

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) not obtaining HbA1c within the normal range (≤ 5.6%) before delivery and to examine whether elevated HbA1c values are associated with an increased risk of large for gestational age (LGA) infa...

  6. High maternal HbA1c is associated with overweight in neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Maria R.; Nielsen, Sigrid Bruun; Stage, E;

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) not obtaining HbA1c within the normal range (= 5.6%) before delivery and to examine whether elevated HbA1c values are associated with an increased risk of large for gestational age (LGA) infa...

  7. An enzymatic method for the determination of hemoglobinA(1C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, Kozo; Shimoji, Kazuhiko; Kajiyama, Naoki

    2005-07-01

    Fructosyl peptide oxidase is a flavoenzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deglycation of N-(1-deoxyfructosyl)-Val-His, a model compound of hemoglobin (Hb)A(1C). To develop an enzymatic method for the measurement of HbA(1C), we screened for a proper protease using N-(1-deoxyfructosyl)-hexapeptide as a substrate. Several proteases, including Neutral protease from Bacillus polymyxa, were found to release N-(1-deoxyfructosyl)-Val-His efficiently, however no protease was found to release N-(1-deoxyfructosyl)-Val. Neutral protease also digested HbA(1C) to release N-(1-deoxyfructosyl)-Val-His, and then the fructosyl peptide was detected using fructosyl peptide oxidase. The linear relationship was observed between the concentration of HbA(1C) and the absorbancy of fructosyl peptide oxidase reaction, hence this new method is a practical means for measuring HbA(1C.).

  8. Trajectories of HbA1c levels in children and youth with type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orit Pinhas-Hamiel

    Full Text Available To illustrate the distribution of Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c levels according to age and gender among children, adolescents and youth with type 1 diabetes (T1DM.Consecutive HbA1c measurements of 349 patients, aged 2 to 30 years with T1DM were obtained from 1995 through 2010. Measurement from patients diagnosed with celiac disease (n = 20, eating disorders (n = 41 and hemoglobinopathy (n = 1 were excluded. The study sample comprised 4815 measurements of HbA1c from 287 patients. Regression percentiles of HbA1c were calculated as a function of age and gender by the quantile regression method using the SAS procedure QUANTREG.Crude percentiles of HbA1c as a function of age and gender, and the modeled curves produced using quantile regression showed good concordance. The curves show a decline in HbA1c levels from age 2 to 4 years at each percentile. Thereafter, there is a gradual increase during the prepubertal years with a peak at ages 12 to 14 years. HbA1c levels subsequently decline to the lowest values in the third decade. Curves of females and males followed closely, with females having HbA1c levels about 0.1% (1.1 mmol/mol higher in the 25th 50th and 75th percentiles.We constructed age-specific distribution curves for HbA1c levels for patients with T1DM. These percentiles may be used to demonstrate the individual patient's measurements longitudinally compared with age-matched patients.

  9. Selective reduction of AKR1C2 in prostate cancer and its role in DHT metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qing; Chang, Lilly; VanDenBerg, David; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Stolz, Andrew

    2003-03-01

    As androgens play an essential role in prostate cancer, we sought to develop a real-time PCR to characterize mRNA expression profiles of human members of the Aldo-Keto Reductase (AKR) 1C gene family, as well as of 5 alpha-steroid reductase Type II (SRD5A2) in prostate cancer samples. Functional activity and regulation of AKR1C2, a 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) type III, was also assessed in prostate cancer cell lines. Gene specific PCR primers were established and relative gene expression of human AKR1C family members was determined in paired samples of cancerous and surrounding unaffected prostate tissue. AKR1C2 preferentially reduces DHT to the weak metabolite 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha,17 beta-diol (3 alpha-diol) without conversion of 3 alpha-diol to DHT in the PC-3 cell line, and its expression was increased by DHT treatment in LNCaP cells. Selectively reduced expression of AKR1C2 mRNA, but not AKR1C1 (97% sequence identity), was found in approximately half of the pairs whereas AKR1C3 relative expression was not significantly altered. No aberrant expression of AKR1C4 expression or significant differences in SRD5A2 gene expression were found. AKR1C2 functions as a DHT reductase in prostate-derived cells lines and is regulated by DHT. Additional studies are needed to further define the significance of reduced AKR1C2 expression in prostate cancer and its potential role in modulating local availability of DHT. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Monitoring HIV-infected Patients with Diabetes: Hemoglobin A1c, Fructosamine, or Glucose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Young; Friedmann, Patricia; Seth, Amit; Fleckman, Adrienne M

    2014-01-01

    Published studies report inappropriately low hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) values that underestimate glycemia in HIV patients. We reviewed the charts of all HIV patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) at our clinic. Fifty-nine patients had HbA1c data, of whom 26 patients also had fructosamine data. We compared the most recent HbA1c to finger-stick (FS) glucose averaged over three months, and fructosamine to FS averaged over six weeks. Predicted average glucose (pAG) was calculated as reported by Nathan et al: pAG (mg/dL) = 28.7 × A1C% - 46.7. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) and Kruskal-Wallis test. HbA1c values underestimated (UE) actual average glucose (aAG) in 19% of these patients and overestimated (OE) aAG in 27%. HbA1c estimated aAG within the established range in only 54% of the patients. There were no statistical differences in the types of HIV medication used in patients with UE, OE, or accurately estimated (AE) glycemia. A Spearman correlation coefficient between HbA1c and aAG was r = 0.53 (P < 0.0001). Correlation between fructosamine and aAG was r = 0.47 (P = 0.016). The correlations between HbA1c and aAG and between fructosamine and aAG were weaker than expected, and fructosamine was not more accurate than HbA1c.

  11. SREBP-1c Gene Silencing can Decrease Lipid Deposits in Bovine Hepatocytes Cultured in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Deng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatty liver is a major metabolic disorder that occurs during early lactation in high-producing dairy cows. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c is an important transcription factor that regulates lipid synthesis by regulating the expression of lipid metabolism genes. Methods: In this study, we reduced the expression of SREBP-1c by adenovirus-mediated SREBP-1c with a low expression vector (AD-GFP-SREBP-1c to study the effects of SREBP-1c on lipid deposits in bovine hepatocytes. The expression levels and enzyme activities of SERBP-1c and its target genes were determined by real-time PCR, western blot, and ELISA. Results: These results showed that Ad-GFP-SREBP-1c could inhibit SREBP-1c expression. The expression of the lipid synthesis enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC was down-regulated. The expression levels of the lipid oxidation enzymes long-chain fatty acyl-COA synthetase (ACSL-1, carnitine palmitoyltransferase І (CPT-І, carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT- II, and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA-DH (HADH were significantly elevated. Furthermore, the expression levels of factors involved in the assembly and transport of very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs, such as apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB, apolipoprotein E (ApoE, and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP were decreased comparison with the negative control and the blank control groups, but the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR was elevated. The concentrations of TG (triglyceride and VLDL were also reduced. Conclusion: These data suggest that low SREBP-1c expression can decrease lipid synthesis, increase lipid oxidation, and decrease the TG and VLDL content in bovine hepatocytes.

  12. Resonant optical devices for IR lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric G.; Li, Yuan; Raghu Srimathi, Indumathi; Woodward, Ryan H.; Poutous, Menelaos K.; Pung, Aaron J.; Richardson, Martin; Shah, Lawrence; Shori, Ramesh; Magnusson, Robert

    2013-03-01

    This paper highlights recent developments in resonant optical devices for infrared (IR) and mid-infrared (mid- IR) lasers. Sub-wavelength grating based resonant optical filters are introduced and their application in 2 μm thulium fiber laser and amplifier systems has been discussed. The paper focuses on applying such filtering techniques to 2.8 μm mid-IR fiber laser systems. A narrowband mid-IR Guided-Mode Resonance Filter (GMRF) was designed and fabricated using Hafnium(IV) Oxide film/quartz wafer material system. The fabricated GMRF was then integrated into an Erbium (Er)-doped Zr-Ba-La-Al-Na (ZBLAN) fluoride glass fiber laser as a wavelength selective feedback element. The laser operated at 2782 nm with a linewidth less than 2 nm demonstrating the viability of GMRF's for wavelength selection in the mid-IR. Furthermore, a GMRF of narrower linewidth based on Aluminum Oxide/quartz wafer material system is fabricated and tested in the same setup. The potentials and challenges with GMRFs will be discussed and summarized.

  13. Differences in TCDD-elicited gene expression profiles in human HepG2, mouse Hepa1c1c7 and rat H4IIE hepatoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgoon Lyle D

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD is an environmental contaminant that elicits a broad spectrum of toxic effects in a species-specific manner. Current risk assessment practices routinely extrapolate results from in vivo and in vitro rodent models to assess human risk. In order to further investigate the species-specific responses elicited by TCDD, temporal gene expression responses in human HepG2, mouse Hepa1c1c7 and rat H4IIE cells were compared. Results Microarray analysis identified a core set of conserved gene expression responses across species consistent with the role of AhR in mediating adaptive metabolic responses. However, significant species-specific as well as species-divergent responses were identified. Computational analysis of the regulatory regions of species-specific and -divergent responses suggests that dioxin response elements (DREs are involved. These results are consistent with in vivo rat vs. mouse species-specific differential gene expression, and more comprehensive comparative DRE searches. Conclusions Comparative analysis of human HepG2, mouse Hepa1c1c7 and rat H4IIE TCDD-elicited gene expression responses is consistent with in vivo rat-mouse comparative gene expression studies, and more comprehensive comparative DRE searches, suggesting that AhR-mediated gene expression is species-specific.

  14. Separation and conductimetric detection of C1-C7 aliphatic monocarboxylic acids and C1-C7 aliphatic monoamines on unfunctionized polymethacrylate resin columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Kazutoku; Towata, Atsuya; Ohashi, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Toyohide

    2004-06-11

    The application of unfunctionized polymethacrylate resin (TSKgel G3000PWXL) as a stationary phase in liquid chromatography with conductimetric detection for C1-C7 aliphatic monocarboxylic acids (formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, isovaleric acid, valeric acid, 3,3-dimethylbutyric acid, 4-methylvaleric acid, hexanoic acid, 2-methylhexanoic acid, 5-methylhexanoic acid and heptanoic acid) and C1-C7 aliphatic monoamines (methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, isobutylamine, butylamine, isoamylamine, amylamine, 1,3-dimethylbutylamine, hexylamine, 2-heptylamine and heptylamine) was attempted with C8 aliphatic monocarboxylic acids (2-propylvaleric acid, 2-ethylhexanoic acid, 2-methylheptanoic acid and octanoic acid) and C8 aliphatic monoamines (1,5-dimethylhexylamine, 2-ethylhexylamine, 1-methylheptylamine and octylamine) as eluents, respectively. Using 1 mM 2-methylheptanoic acid at pH 4.0 as the eluent, excellent separation and relatively high sensitive detection for these C1-C7 carboxylic acids were achieved on a TSKgel G3000PWXL column (150 mm x 6 mm i.d.) in 60 min. Using 2 mM octylamine at pH 11.0 as the eluent, excellent separation and relatively high sensitive detection for these C1-C7 amines were also achieved on the TSKgel G3000PWXL column in 60 min.

  15. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dehydrogenase 1C (ADH1C) genotype, and risk of colorectal cancer in the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongaerts, Brenda W C; de Goeij, Anton F P M; Wouters, Kim A D; van Engeland, Manon; Gottschalk, Ralph W H; Van Schooten, Frederik J; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; van den Brandt, Piet A; Weijenberg, Matty P

    2011-05-01

    Within the Netherlands Cohort Study (1986), we examined associations between alcohol consumption, the alcohol dehydrogenase 1C (ADH1C) genotype, and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). After a follow-up period of 7.3 years, 594 CRC cases with information on genotype and baseline alcohol intake were available for analyses. Adjusted incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. In subjects who reported to have consumed equal amounts of total alcohol both 5 years before baseline and at baseline, drinkers of ≥30g of alcohol per day with the ADH1C*2/*2 genotype were associated-although not statistically significant-with an increased risk of CRC relative to abstainers with the ADH1C*1/*1 genotype (RR: 1.91, 95% CI: 0.68, 5.34). The risk estimate in this exposure group increased slightly when compared with light drinkers of ≥0.5-.05). In subjects who reported to have consumed equal amounts of total alcohol both 5 years before baseline and at baseline, drinkers of ≥30g of alcohol per day were associated-although not statistically significant-with an increased risk of CRC relative to abstainers (RR: 1.38, 95% CI: 0.80, 2.38). This risk estimate for high-level drinkers became stronger when compared with light drinkers (RR: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.99). As main effect of genotype, we observed that the ADH1C*2/*2 genotype was associated with a 42% increase in risk of CRC when compared with the ADH1C*1/*1 genotype. In conclusion, both genotype and alcohol consumption were associated with an increased risk of CRC. Owing to limited statistical power, we found no apparent evidence for the ADH1C genotype as effect modifier of the relationship between alcohol intake and CRC. Nevertheless, the interaction deserves further investigation in larger genetic epidemiologic studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Proper depiction of monsoon depression through IRS-P4 MSMR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P N Mahajan; R M Khaladkar; S G Narkhedkar; Sathy Nair; P C Joshi; P K Pal

    2004-06-01

    In this paper, daily variations of satellite-derived geophysical parameters such as integrated water vapour (IWV), cloud liquid water content (CLW), sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface wind speed (SSW) have been studied for a case of monsoon depression that formed over the Bay of Bengal during 19th-24th August 2000. For this purpose, IRS P4 MSMR satellite data have been utilized over the domain equator- 25°N and 40°-100°E. An integrated approach of satellite data obtained from IRS-P4, METEOSAT-5 and INSAT was made for getting a signal for the development of monsoon depression over the Indian region. Variations in deep convective activity obtained through visible, infrared and OLR data at 06UTC was thoroughly analyzed for the complete life cycle of monsoon depression. Geophysical parameters obtained through IRS-P4 satellite data were compared with vorticity, convergence and divergence at 850 and 200 hPa levels generated through cloud motion vectors (CMVs) and water vapour wind vectors (WVWVs) obtained from METEOSAT-5 satellite. This comparison was made for finding proper consistency of geophysical parameters with dynamical aspects of major convective activity of the depression. From the results of this study it is revealed that there was strengthening of sea surface winds to the south of low-pressure area prior to the formation of depression. This indicated the possibility of increase in cyclonic vorticity in the lower troposphere. Hence, wind field at 850 hPa with satellite input of CMVs in objective analysis of wind field using optimum interpolation (OI) scheme was computed. Maximum cyclonic vorticity field at 850 hPa was obtained in the region of depression just one day before its formation. Similarly, with the same procedure maximum anticyclonic vorticity was observed at 200 hPa with WVWVs input. Consistent convergence and divergence at 850 and 200 hPa was noticed with respect to these vorticities. In association with these developments, we could

  17. Using IRS Products to Recover 7ETM+ Defective Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobasheri M. Reza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available On May 31st, 2003, Landsat 7 faced an anomaly in the Scan Line Corrector (SLC normal operation. This malfunctioning of SLC caused the individual scan lines alternately overlap each other and consequently produce large gaps at the edges of the image. Regarding the unique specification of ETM+ sensor on board of Landsat-7 satellite such as its spectral bands in the shortwave IR and TIR region and its suitable spatial resolution which is ideal for most of the scientific researches, a technique for the reconstruction of the defected images due to the SLC malfunctioning, was built up. Due to the availability of IRS/1D LISS-III images for our region of interest i.e., southwest of Iran, it was decided to use these images to recover 7ETM+ products. The procedure in reconstructing the defected 7ETM+ images is divided in to two stages. In the first stage, after implementation of some preprocessing to both LISS-III and 7ETM+, a linear regression model between bands 3 and 4 of 7ETM+ and bands 2 and 3 of LISS-III was setup. This model is used to fill up the missing places in 7ETM+ defected image and produced two new images in bands 3 and 4. In the second stage, these two newly reconstructed images of 7ETM+ were used to recover images of 7ETM+ in other spectral bands. At this stage, two methods were introduced, one using linear relationship between band 3 and bands 1 and 2 and in the second method we introduced a planar relationship between bands 3 and 4 with each one of bands 5, 6 and 7. The models are applied to few images and are found to be fairly reliable. The primary and necessary conditions for applying these methods have been explained in detail.

  18. System design of the compact IR space imaging system MIRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wonyong; Lee, Dae-Hee; Park, Youngsik; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Ree, Chang-Hee; Moon, Bongkon; Cha, Sang-Mok; Park, Sung-Joon; Park, Jang-Hyun; Nam, Uk-Won; Ka, Nung Hyun; Lee, Mi Hyun; Pyo, Jeonghyun; Seon, Kwang-Il; Lee, Duk-Hang; Yang, Sun Choel; Rhee, Seung-Woo; Park, Jong-Oh; Lee, Hyung Mok; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2010-07-01

    Multi-purpose Infra-Red Imaging System (MIRIS) is the main payload of the Korea Science and Technology Satellite-3 (STSAT-3), which is being developed by Korea Astronomy & Space Science Institute (KASI). MIRIS is a small space telescope mainly for astronomical survey observations in the near infrared wavelengths of 0.9~2 μm. A compact wide field (3.67 x 3.67 degree) optical design has been studied using a 256 x 256 Teledyne PICNIC FPA IR sensor with a pixel scale of 51.6 arcsec. The passive cooling technique is applied to maintain telescope temperature below 200 K with a cold shutter in the filter wheel for accurate dark calibration and to reach required sensitivity, and a micro stirling cooler is employed to cool down the IR detector array below 100K in a cold box. The science mission of the MIRIS is to survey the Galactic plane in the emission line of Paschen-α (Paα, 1.88 μm) and to detect the cosmic infrared background (CIB) radiation. Comparing the Paα map with the Hα data from ground-based surveys, we can probe the origin of the warm-ionized medium (WIM) of the Galaxy. The CIB is being suspected to be originated from the first generation stars of the Universe and we will test this hypothesis by comparing the fluctuations in I (0.9~1.2 um) and H (1.2~2.0 um) bands to search the red shifted Lyman cutoff signature. Recent progress of the MIRIS imaging system design will be presented.

  19. Tuning the Graphene on Ir(111) adsorption regime by Fe/Ir surface-alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brede, Jens; Sławińska, Jagoda; Abadia, Mikel; Rogero, Celia; Ortega, J. Enrique; Piquero-Zulaica, Ignacio; Lobo-Checa, Jorge; Arnau, Andres; Iribas Cerdá, Jorge

    2017-03-01

    A combined scanning tunneling microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, and density functional theory study of graphene on a Fe-Ir(111) alloy with variable Ir concentration is presented. Starting from an intercalated Fe layer between the graphene and Ir(111) surface we find that graphene-substrate interaction can be fine-tuned by Fe-Ir alloying at the interface. When a critical Ir-concentration close to 0.25 is reached in the Fe layer, the Dirac cone of graphene is largely restored and can thereafter be tuned across the Fermi level by further increasing the Ir content. Indeed, our study reveals an abrupt transition between a chemisorbed phase at small Ir concentrations and a physisorbed phase above the critical concentration. The latter phase is highly reminiscent of the graphene on the clean Ir(111) surface. Furthermore, the transition is accompanied by an inversion of the graphene’s induced magnetization due to the coupling with the Fe atoms from antiferromagnetic when chemisorbed to weakly ferromagnetic in the physisorption regime, with spin polarizations whose magnitude may be tuned with the amount of Fe content.

  20. Ras-association domain family 1C protein promotes breast cancer cell migration and attenuates apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragon Robert J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ras association domain family 1 (RASSF1 gene is a Ras effector encoding two major mRNA forms, RASSF1A and RASSF1C, derived by alternative promoter selection and alternative mRNA splicing. RASSF1A is a tumor suppressor gene. However, very little is known about the function of RASSF1C both in normal and transformed cells. Methods Gene silencing and over-expression techniques were used to modulate RASSF1C expression in human breast cancer cells. Affymetrix-microarray analysis was performed using T47D cells over-expressing RASSF1C to identify RASSF1C target genes. RT-PCR and western blot techniques were used to validate target gene expression. Cell invasion and apoptosis assays were also performed. Results In this article, we report the effects of altering RASSF1C expression in human breast cancer cells. We found that silencing RASSF1C mRNA in breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB231 and T47D caused a small but significant decrease in cell proliferation. Conversely, inducible over-expression of RASSF1C in breast cancer cells (MDA-MB231 and T47D resulted in a small increase in cell proliferation. We also report on the identification of novel RASSF1C target genes. RASSF1C down-regulates several pro-apoptotic and tumor suppressor genes and up-regulates several growth promoting genes in breast cancer cells. We further show that down-regulation of caspase 3 via overexpression of RASSF1C reduces breast cancer cells' sensitivity to the apoptosis inducing agent, etoposide. Furthermore, we found that RASSF1C over-expression enhances T47D cell invasion/migration in vitro. Conclusion Together, our findings suggest that RASSF1C, unlike RASSF1A, is not a tumor suppressor, but instead may play a role in stimulating metastasis and survival in breast cancer cells.

  1. Four and a half LIM protein 1C (FHL1C: a binding partner for voltage-gated potassium channel K(v1.5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Poparic

    Full Text Available Four-and-a-half LIM domain protein 1 isoform A (FHL1A is predominantly expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Mutations in the FHL1 gene are causative for several types of hereditary myopathies including X-linked myopathy with postural muscle atrophy (XMPMA. We here studied myoblasts from XMPMA patients. We found that functional FHL1A protein is completely absent in patient myoblasts. In parallel, expression of FHL1C is either unaffected or increased. Furthermore, a decreased proliferation rate of XMPMA myoblasts compared to controls was observed but an increased number of XMPMA myoblasts was found in the G(0/G(1 phase. Furthermore, low expression of K(v1.5, a voltage-gated potassium channel known to alter myoblast proliferation during the G(1 phase and to control repolarization of action potential, was detected. In order to substantiate a possible relation between K(v1.5 and FHL1C, a pull-down assay was performed. A physical and direct interaction of both proteins was observed in vitro. In addition, confocal microscopy revealed substantial colocalization of FHL1C and K(v1.5 within atrial cells, supporting a possible interaction between both proteins in vivo. Two-electrode voltage clamp experiments demonstrated that coexpression of K(v1.5 with FHL1C in Xenopus laevis oocytes markedly reduced K(+ currents when compared to oocytes expressing K(v1.5 only. We here present the first evidence on a biological relevance of FHL1C.

  2. Tunable mid IR plasmon in GZO nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, M K; Bluet, J-M; Masenelli-Varlot, K; Canut, B; Boisron, O; Melinon, P; Masenelli, B

    2015-07-28

    Degenerate metal oxide nanoparticles are promising systems to expand the significant achievements of plasmonics into the infrared (IR) range. Among the possible candidates, Ga-doped ZnO nanocrystals are particularly suited for mid IR, considering their wide range of possible doping levels and thus of plasmon tuning. In the present work, we report on the tunable mid IR plasmon induced in degenerate Ga-doped ZnO nanocrystals. The nanocrystals are produced by a plasma expansion and exhibit unprotected surfaces. Tuning the Ga concentration allows tuning the localized surface plasmon resonance. Moreover, the plasmon resonance is characterized by a large damping. By comparing the plasmon of nanocrystal assemblies to that of nanoparticles dispersed in an alumina matrix, we investigate the possible origins of such damping. We demonstrate that it partially results from the self-organization of the naked particles and also from intrinsic inhomogeneity of dopants.

  3. Solar Power Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Flournoy, Don M

    2012-01-01

    Communication satellites are a $144 billion industry. Is there any space-based industry that could possibly beat that market? 'Solar Power Satellites' shows why and how the space satellite industry will soon begin expanding its market from relaying signals to Earth to generating energy in space and delivering it to the ground as electricity. In all industrialized nations, energy demand is growing exponentially. In the developing world, the need for energy is as basic as food and water. The Sun's energy is available everywhere, and it is non-polluting. As business plans demonstrate its technical feasibility, commercial potential, and environmental acceptability, every country on Earth will look to space for the power it needs.

  4. Geostationary satellites collocation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hengnian

    2014-01-01

    Geostationary Satellites Collocation aims to find solutions for deploying a safe and reliable collocation control. Focusing on the orbital perturbation analysis, the mathematical foundations for orbit and control of the geostationary satellite are summarized. The mathematical and physical principle of orbital maneuver and collocation strategies for multi geostationary satellites sharing with the same dead band is also stressed. Moreover, the book presents some applications using the above algorithms and mathematical models to help readers master the corrective method for planning station keeping maneuvers. Engineers and scientists in the fields of aerospace technology and space science can benefit from this book. Hengnian Li is the Deputy Director of State Key Laboratory of Astronautic Dynamics, China.

  5. ESA's satellite communications programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholome, P.

    1985-02-01

    The developmental history, current status, and future plans of the ESA satellite-communications programs are discussed in a general survey and illustrated with network diagrams and maps. Consideration is given to the parallel development of national and European direct-broadcast systems and telecommunications networks, the position of the European space and electronics industries in the growing world market, the impact of technological improvements (both in satellite systems and in ground-based networks), and the technological and commercial advantages of integrated space-terrestrial networks. The needs for a European definition of the precise national and international roles of satellite communications, for maximum speed in implementing such decisions (before the technology becomes obsolete), and for increased cooperation and standardization to assure European equipment manufacturers a reasonable share of the market are stressed.

  6. AVS on satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haiwu; Wang, Guozhong; Hou, Gang

    2005-07-01

    AVS is a new digital audio-video coding standard established by China. AVS will be used in digital TV broadcasting and next general optical disk. AVS adopted many digital audio-video coding techniques developed by Chinese company and universities in recent years, it has very low complexity compared to H.264, and AVS will charge very low royalty fee through one-step license including all AVS tools. So AVS is a good and competitive candidate for Chinese DTV and next generation optical disk. In addition, Chinese government has published a plan for satellite TV signal directly to home(DTH) and a telecommunication satellite named as SINO 2 will be launched in 2006. AVS will be also one of the best hopeful candidates of audio-video coding standard on satellite signal transmission.

  7. Satellite Control Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Bak, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The Satellite Laboratory at the Department of Control Engineering of Aalborg University (SatLab) is a dynamic motion facility designed for analysis and test of micro spacecraft. A unique feature of the laboratory is that it provides a completely gravity-free environment. A test spacecraft...... is suspended on an air bearing, and rotates freely in 3 degrees of freedom. In order to avoid any influence of the gravitational force the centre of mass of the satellite is placed in the geometric centre of the air bearing by an automatic balancing system. The test spacecraft is equipped with a three......-axis magnetometer, three piezoelectric gyros, and four reaction wheels in a tetrahedron configuration. The operation of the spacecraft is fully autonomous. The data flow between the transducers and the onboard computer placed physically outside the satellite is provided by a radio link. The purpose...

  8. A Phytophthora infestans RXLR effector targets plant PP1c isoforms that promote late blight disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boevink, Petra C; Wang, Xiaodan; McLellan, Hazel; He, Qin; Naqvi, Shaista; Armstrong, Miles R; Zhang, Wei; Hein, Ingo; Gilroy, Eleanor M; Tian, Zhendong; Birch, Paul R J

    2016-01-29

    Plant pathogens deliver effectors to alter host processes. Knowledge of how effectors target and manipulate host proteins is critical to understand crop disease. Here, we show that in planta expression of the RXLR effector Pi04314 enhances leaf colonization by Phytophthora infestans via activity in the host nucleus and attenuates induction of jasmonic and salicylic acid-responsive genes. Pi04314 interacts with three host protein phosphatase 1 catalytic (PP1c) isoforms, causing their re-localization from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm. Re-localization of PP1c-1 also occurs during infection and is dependent on an R/KVxF motif in the effector. Silencing the PP1c isoforms or overexpression of a phosphatase-dead PP1c-1 mutant attenuates infection, demonstrating that host PP1c activity is required for disease. Moreover, expression of PP1c-1mut abolishes enhanced leaf colonization mediated by in planta Pi04314 expression. We argue that PP1c isoforms are susceptibility factors forming holoenzymes with Pi04314 to promote late blight disease.

  9. Interference of the Hope Hemoglobin With Hemoglobin A1c Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sutirtha; Chanda, Dalia; Gain, Mithun; Krishnan, Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is now considered to be the marker of choice in diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus, based on the results of certain landmark clinical trials. Herein, we report the case of a 52-year-old ethnic Southeast Asian Indian man with impaired glucose tolerance whose glycated hemoglobin (ie, HbA1c) levels, as measured via Bio-Rad D10 high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Roche Tina-quant immunoassay were 47.8% and 44.0%, respectively. No variant hemoglobin (Hb) peak was observed via the D10 chromatogram. We assayed the patient specimen on the Sebia MINICAP capillary electrophoresis platform; the HbA1c level was 6.8%, with a large variant Hb peak of 42.0%. This finding suggested the possible presence of the heterozygous Hb Hope, which can result in spuriously elevated HbA1c results on HPLC and turbidimetric immunoassays. Although the capillary electrophoresis system was able to identify the variant, the A1c results should not be considered accurate due to overlapping of the variant and adult Hb peaks on the electrophoretogram reading. Hb Hope is usually clinically silent but can present such analytical challenges. Through this case study, we critically discuss the limitations of various HbA1c assay methods, highlighting the fact that laboratory professionals need to be aware of occurrences of Hb Hope, to help ensure patient safety.

  10. Hemoglobin A1c levels and aortic arterial stiffness: the Cardiometabolic Risk in Chinese (CRC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The American Diabetes Association (ADA recently published new clinical guidelines in which hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c was recommended as a diagnostic test for diabetes. The present study was to investigate the association between HbA1c and cardiovascular risk, and compare the associations with fasting glucose and 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (2 h OGTT. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study samples are from a community-based health examination survey in central China. Carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV and HbA1c were measured in 5,098 men and women. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, sex, and BMI, the levels of HbA1c were significantly associated with an increasing trend of cfPWV in a dose-dependent fashion (P for trend 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: HbA1c was related to high cfPWV, independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Senior age and high blood pressure might amplify the adverse effects of HbA1c on cardiovascular risk.

  11. Multicenter Evaluation of a New High-Throughput HbA1c Testing Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imdahl, R; Roddiger, R; Casis-Saenz, E

    2016-12-01

    This non-interventional, multicenter study with anonymized leftover patient samples was performed to evaluate the reliability and analytical performance of the novel high-throughput HbA1c cobas c 513 analyzer. A performance evaluation was carried out at three sites to validate the overall system functionality, user interaction and analytical performance of the new cobas c 513 analyzer using the Tina-quant® HbA1c Gen. 3 assay. HbA1c applications for both whole blood and hemolysate samples show a high precision using both quality control materials and pools of whole blood or hemolysates. The method comparison of HbA1c Gen. 3 on the cobas c 513 with HbA1c Gen. 2 on the Menarini HA-8180V using 249 whole blood samples shows high concordance. Moreover, analyte concentrations as measured by the cobas c 513 and Tosoh G8 and HbA1c Gen. 2 on COBAS INTEGRA® 800 CTS are comparable. The cobas c 513 has proven to be a reliable system with excellent analytical performance of the Tinaquant® HbA1c Gen. 3 assay in high throughput laboratories.

  12. Myo1c binding to submembrane actin mediates insulin-induced tethering of GLUT4 vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguslavsky, Shlomit; Chiu, Tim; Foley, Kevin P; Osorio-Fuentealba, Cesar; Antonescu, Costin N; Bayer, K Ulrich; Bilan, Philip J; Klip, Amira

    2012-10-01

    GLUT4-containing vesicles cycle between the plasma membrane and intracellular compartments. Insulin promotes GLUT4 exocytosis by regulating GLUT4 vesicle arrival at the cell periphery and its subsequent tethering, docking, and fusion with the plasma membrane. The molecular machinery involved in GLUT4 vesicle tethering is unknown. We show here that Myo1c, an actin-based motor protein that associates with membranes and actin filaments, is required for insulin-induced vesicle tethering in muscle cells. Myo1c was found to associate with both mobile and tethered GLUT4 vesicles and to be required for vesicle capture in the total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) zone beneath the plasma membrane. Myo1c knockdown or overexpression of an actin binding-deficient Myo1c mutant abolished insulin-induced vesicle immobilization, increased GLUT4 vesicle velocity in the TIRF zone, and prevented their externalization. Conversely, Myo1c overexpression immobilized GLUT4 vesicles in the TIRF zone and promoted insulin-induced GLUT4 exposure to the extracellular milieu. Myo1c also contributed to insulin-dependent actin filament remodeling. Thus we propose that interaction of vesicular Myo1c with cortical actin filaments is required for insulin-mediated tethering of GLUT4 vesicles and for efficient GLUT4 surface delivery in muscle cells.

  13. The FLUKA Model of IR8

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R B

    2010-01-01

    The study of machine induced background (MIB), the radiation environment and beam dynamics of the LHC requires a detailed model of the machine tunnel, elements and electromagnetic fields. In this note, a specially created model of IR8 in FLUKA is described, including the tunnel, vacuum chambers, magnets, collimators, injection elements and shielding. The inclusion of all relevant machine elements in the LSS of IR8 results in a very flexible model suitable for a large variety of calculations and studies. The validation of the model is discussed, and some example applications described.

  14. Compressive sensing in the EO/IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehm, M E; Brady, D J

    2015-03-10

    We investigate the utility of compressive sensing (CS) to electro-optic and infrared (EO/IR) applications. We introduce the field through a discussion of historical antecedents and the development of the modern CS framework. Basic economic arguments (in the broadest sense) are presented regarding the applicability of CS to the EO/IR and used to draw conclusions regarding application areas where CS would be most viable. A number of experimental success stories are presented to demonstrate the overall feasibility of the approaches, and we conclude with a discussion of open challenges to practical adoption of CS methods.

  15. GPS satellite surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Leick, Alfred; Tatarnikov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE, UP-TO-DATE GUIDE ON GPS TECHNOLOGY FOR SURVEYING Three previous editions have established GPS Satellite Surveying as the definitive industry reference. Now fully updated and expanded to reflect the newest developments in the field, this Fourth Edition features cutting-edge information on GNSS antennas, precise point positioning, real-time relative positioning, lattice reduction, and much more. Expert authors examine additional tools and applications, offering complete coverage of geodetic surveying using satellite technologies. The past decade has seen a major evolut

  16. Declassified intelligence satellite photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1998-01-01

    Recently declassified photographs from spy satellites are an important addition to the record of the Earth?s land surface held by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). More than 800,000 high-resolution photos taken between 1959 through 1972 were made available by Executive Order of the President. The collection is held at the USGS EROS Data Center, near Sioux Falls, S. Dak., and are offered for public sale. For some purposes in earth science studies, these photos extend the record of changes in the land surface another decade back in time from the advent of the Landsat earth-observing satellite program.

  17. Oceanography from satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, W. S.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that oceanographers have benefited from the space program mainly through the increased efficiency it has brought to ship operations. For example, the Transit navigation system has enabled oceanographers to compile detailed maps of sea-floor properties and to more accurately locate moored subsurface instrumentation. General descriptions are given of instruments used in satellite observations (altimeter, color scanner, infrared radiometer, microwave radiometer, scatterometer, synthetic aperture radar). It is pointed out that because of the large volume of data that satellite instruments generate, the development of algorithms for converting the data into a form expressed in geophysical units has become especially important.

  18. Satellite oceanography - The instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that no instrument is sensitive to only one oceanographic variable; rather, each responds to a combination of atmospheric and oceanic phenomena. This complicates data interpretation and usually requires that a number of observations, each sensitive to somewhat different phenomena, be combined to provide unambiguous information. The distinction between active and passive instruments is described. A block diagram illustrating the steps necessary to convert data from satellite instruments into oceanographic information is included, as is a diagram illustrating the operation of a radio-frequency radiometer. Attention is also given to the satellites that carry the various oceanographic instruments.

  19. Evaluation and interference study of hemoglobin A1c measured by turbidimetric inhibition immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J; Hoke, C; Ettinger, B; Penerian, G

    1998-03-01

    The technical performance of the turbidimetric immunoinhibition (TI) assay for hemoglobin (Hb) A1c (Tina-quant Hb A1c, Boehringer Mannheim, Indianapolis, Ind) was evaluated by using the BM/Hitachi 911 analyzer. Intra-assay imprecision was less than 2.7%, and interassay imprecision was less than 2.8% as measured by coefficient of variation. In 93 subjects with diabetes who did not have hemoglobin variants, results of the TI assay for Hb A1c correlated strongly with those obtained by using a high-performance liquid chromatography analyzer (Diamat, BioRad Laboratories, Hercules, Calif). Among 241 subjects who had or did not have hemoglobin variants, the TI assay for Hb A1c correlated strongly with results of affinity chromatography for total glycated hemoglobin (Glyc-Affin GHb, IsoLab, Akron, Ohio). We also studied the effect of various percentages of hemoglobin S, C, E, and F on the accuracy of the TI Hb A1c assay. Only high hemoglobin F percentages caused interference. More than 14 times as many samples can be analyzed per hour by using the TI Hb A1c assay than can be analyzed by using the HPLC assay. For high-volume reference laboratories, using the fully automated TI Hb A1c assay to monitor glycemic control in patients with diabetes may be preferable to using the conventional ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography Hb A1c assay because the TI assay measures Hb A1c more accurately in patients with diabetes who have hemoglobin variants, and it requires less time.

  20. Challenges in HbA1c Analysis and Reporting in Patients with Variant Hemoglobins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, T A; Sheme, Z A; Sultana, G S; Sultana, B; Mishu, F A; Khan, N Z; Sarkar, B C; Muttalib, M A; Khan, S A; Choudhury, S; Mahtab, H

    2016-04-01

    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA(1)c) is a well-established indicator of mean glycemia. The presence of genetic variants of hemoglobin can profoundly affect the accuracy of HbA(1)c measurements. Variants of hemoglobin especially Hemoglobin E (HbE) is prevalent in South East Asia including Bangladesh. The objective of our study is to compare the HbA(1)c values measured on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Turbidimetric Inhibition Immunoassay (TINIA) in diabetic patients with variant hemoglobins including HbE. A total of 7595 diabetic patients receiving treatment at BIRDEM General Hospital were analyzed for HbA(1)c results within a period of two months from December 2013 to January 2014. Seventy two cases out of 7595 (0.95%) had either undetectable or below normal HbA(1)c levels (males-33 and females-39; ratio = 0.82:1) by HPLC method. In 34(0.45%) cases, HbA(1)c value was undetectable by HPLC method but was in the reportable range by TINIA method. In the other 38 (0.55%) cases, HbA(1)c levels were below the reportable range (Hb variant, proper knowledge of hemoglobin variants which affect the measurements HbA(1)c level is essential. MCV of 80fl or below may serve as a rough guide to select samples that require analysis by TINIA method. Moreover, HPLC may be a convenient and inexpensive tool for screening of hemoglobinopathies especially among diabetic population in Bangladesh. It may therefore be helpful in improving management of complications related to both anaemia and iron overload.

  1. Antepartum A1C, maternal diabetes outcomes, and selected offspring outcomes: an epidemiological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katon, Jodie; Williams, Michelle A; Reiber, Gayle; Miller, Edith

    2011-05-01

    Between 1989 and 2004, the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the United States increased by 122%. Glycated haemoglobin, as measured by haemoglobin A1C (A1C), can potentially identify pregnant women at high risk for adverse outcomes associated with GDM including macrosomia and post-partum glucose intolerance. Our objective was to systematically review the literature with respect to A1C levels during pregnancy and associated maternal and offspring outcomes. We used MEDLINE to identify relevant publications from 1975 to 2009. We included articles if they met the following criteria: original full text articles in English; primary exposure of antepartum A1C; women with GDM at baseline or who developed GDM during the study; primary outcome of GDM, insulin use, post-partum abnormal glucose or type 2 diabetes (T2DM), birthweight, macrosomia or large for gestational age. Case series and case reports were excluded. Twenty studies met our criteria. A1C at GDM diagnosis was positively associated with post-partum abnormal glucose. Women with post-partum T2DM or impaired glucose tolerance had mean A1C at GDM diagnosis higher than those with normal post-partum glucose (P ≤ 0.002) and a 1% increase in A1C at GDM diagnosis was associated with 2.36 times higher odds of post-partum abnormal glucose 6 weeks after delivery [95% confidence interval 1.19, 4.68]. The association of A1C and birthweight varied substantially between studies, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.11 to 0.51. A1C, a less burdensome and costly measure than an oral glucose tolerance test, appears to be an attractive measure for identifying women at high risk of adverse outcomes associated with GDM.

  2. MUC1-C Represses the Crumbs Complex Polarity Factor CRB3 and Downregulates the Hippo Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Maroof; Bouillez, Audrey; Tagde, Ashujit; Ahmad, Rehan; Rajabi, Hasan; Maeda, Takahiro; Hiraki, Masayuki; Suzuki, Yozo; Kufe, Donald

    2016-12-01

    Apical-basal polarity and epithelial integrity are maintained in part by the Crumbs (CRB) complex. The C--terminal subunit of MUC1 (MUC1-C) is a transmembrane protein that is expressed at the apical border of normal epithelial cells and aberrantly at high levels over the entire surface of their transformed counterparts. However, it is not known whether MUC1-C contributes to this loss of polarity that is characteristic of carcinoma cells. Here it is demonstrated that MUC1-C downregulates expression of the Crumbs complex CRB3 protein in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. MUC1-C associates with ZEB1 on the CRB3 promoter and represses CRB3 transcription. Notably, CRB3 activates the core kinase cassette of the Hippo pathway, which includes LATS1 and LATS2. In this context, targeting MUC1-C was associated with increased phosphorylation of LATS1, consistent with activation of the Hippo pathway, which is critical for regulating cell contact, tissue repair, proliferation, and apoptosis. Also shown is that MUC1-C--mediated suppression of CRB3 and the Hippo pathway is associated with dephosphorylation and activation of the oncogenic YAP protein. In turn, MUC1-C interacts with YAP, promotes formation of YAP/β-catenin complexes, and induces the WNT target gene MYC. These data support a previously unrecognized pathway in which targeting MUC1-C in TNBC cells (i) induces CRB3 expression, (ii) activates the CRB3-driven Hippo pathway, (iii) inactivates YAP, and thereby (iv) suppresses YAP/β-catenin-mediated induction of MYC expression. These findings demonstrate a previously unrecognized role for the MUC1-C oncoprotein in the regulation of polarity and the Hippo pathway in breast cancer. Mol Cancer Res; 14(12); 1266-76. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Near-IR imaging and imaging polarimetry of OMC 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, John; Mclean, Ian; Aspin, Colin; Mccaughrean, Mark

    1989-01-01

    NIR and 2.2-micron imaging polarimetry of the molecular cloud region OMC 2, reveals a cluster of low- to intermediate-mass premain-sequence stars embedded in circumstellar disks. The 2.2-micron imaging polarimetry indicates that the compact NIR sources OMC 2 IRS1, IRS2, IRS3 and IRS4 N, are illumination centers for the surrounding extended emission. By application of Hubble's relation to the nebulae illuminated by IRS1, IRS2 and IRS4 N, the illuminating geometry is explained and the intrinsic NIR colors of these objects are estimated.

  4. Near-IR imaging and imaging polarimetry of OMC 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, John; Mclean, Ian; Aspin, Colin; Mccaughrean, Mark

    1989-01-01

    NIR and 2.2-micron imaging polarimetry of the molecular cloud region OMC 2, reveals a cluster of low- to intermediate-mass premain-sequence stars embedded in circumstellar disks. The 2.2-micron imaging polarimetry indicates that the compact NIR sources OMC 2 IRS1, IRS2, IRS3 and IRS4 N, are illumination centers for the surrounding extended emission. By application of Hubble's relation to the nebulae illuminated by IRS1, IRS2 and IRS4 N, the illuminating geometry is explained and the intrinsic NIR colors of these objects are estimated.

  5. Integrated Satellite-HAP Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cianca, Ernestina; De Sanctis, Mauro; De Luise, Aldo

    2005-01-01

    for an efficient hybrid terrestrial-satellite communication system. Two integrated HAP-satellite scenarios are presented, in which the HAP is used to overcome some of the shortcomings of satellite- based communications. Moreover, it is shown that the integration of HAPs with satellite systems can be used......Thus far, high-altitude platform (HAP)-based systems have been mainly conceived as an alternative to satellites for complementing the terrestrial network. This article aims to show that HAP should no longer be seen as a competitor technology by investors of satellites, but as a key element...

  6. Neue biosensorische Prinzipien für die Hämoglobin-A1c Bestimmung

    OpenAIRE

    Stöllner, Daniela

    2005-01-01

    Hämoglobin-A1c (HbA1c) ist ein Hämoglobin (Hb)-Subtypus, der durch nicht-enzymatische Glykierung des N-terminalen Valinrestes der Hämoglobin-beta-Kette entsteht. Das gemessene Verhältnis von HbA1c zum Gesamt-Hämoglobin (5-20 % bei Diabetikern) repräsentiert den Mittelwert der Blutglucosekonzentration über einen zweimonatigen Zeitraum und stellt zur Beurteilung der diabetischen Stoffwechsellage eine Ergänzung zur Akutkontrolle der Glukosekonzentration dar. Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war es, ...

  7. Atlantoaxial arthrodesis using C1-C2 transarticular screw fixation in a case of Morquio syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Arvind G; Shah, Siddharth M

    2011-09-01

    Prophylactic or therapeutic arthrodesis is recommended for atlantoaxial instability in Morquio syndrome. Occipitocervical fusion, the common approach for upper cervical fusion in Morquio syndrome sacrifices the movements at the occipitoatlantal joints. The use of C1-C2 transarticular screws for achieving C1-C2 arthrodesis, without compromising mobility at the occipitoatlantal joint in Morquio syndrome has not been reported. We report a case of Morquio syndrome with atlantoaxial instability and odontoid hypoplasia, where we successfully achieved C1-C2 arthrodesis using transarticular screws and bone graft. The advantages of this method over other methods of atlantoaxial arthrodesis in Morquio syndrome have also been discussed.

  8. Atlantoaxial arthrodesis using C1-C2 transarticular screw fixation in a case of Morquio syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind G Kulkarni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prophylactic or therapeutic arthrodesis is recommended for atlantoaxial instability in Morquio syndrome. Occipitocervical fusion, the common approach for upper cervical fusion in Morquio syndrome sacrifices the movements at the occipitoatlantal joints. The use of C1-C2 transarticular screws for achieving C1-C2 arthrodesis, without compromising mobility at the occipitoatlantal joint in Morquio syndrome has not been reported. We report a case of Morquio syndrome with atlantoaxial instability and odontoid hypoplasia, where we successfully achieved C1-C2 arthrodesis using transarticular screws and bone graft. The advantages of this method over other methods of atlantoaxial arthrodesis in Morquio syndrome have also been discussed.

  9. Pengaruh Level HBA1C Terhadap Fungsi Fagositosis Neutrofil (PMN pada Penderita Periodontitis Diabetika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Syaify

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang. Diabetes Melitus (DM merupakan penyakit sistemik yang sangat terkait dengan meningkatnya keparahan penyakit periodontal. Pada penderita DM diduga kuat bahwa keparahan periodontitis disebabkan oleh gangguan fungsi leukosit. Sel neutrofil (PMN diketahui berperan besar di dalam system pertahanan jaringan periodontal. Kontrol glikemik pada penderita DM dapat diketahui dengan pemeriksaan level HbA1c. Tujuan. Penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh level HbA1c pada penderita periodontitis diabetika terhadap fungsi fagositosis sel PMN. Bahan dan Cara. Sel PMN dari darah tepi 15 pasien periodontitis terdiri 5 periodontitis tana DM, 5 periodontitis diabetika terkontrol (HbA1c7 diuji aktivitas fagositosinya dengan partikel lateks. Fungsi fagositosis dihitung dengan rumus indeks fagositosis (IF. Hasil. Terdapat perbedaan significant IF sel PMN subyek periodontitis diabetika tidak terkontrol (HbA1c>7 dengan periodontitis non DM. IF tertinggi pada subyek periodontitis non DM dan tertinggi pada periodontitis diabetika tidak terkontrol (HbA1c>7. Kesimpulan. Level HbA1c berpengaruh terhadap fungsi fagositosis sel PMN yang dilihat dari indeks fagositosis (IF.    Background. Diabetes mellitus is a systemic condition that has long been associated with an increased and severity of periodontal disease. The severity of periodontitis in diabetic patients was thought caused by decreation of leukocytes function. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN play a key role in the maintenance of gingival (HbA1c level. Aims. The objective of this study was to analyse the influence of HbA1C level to fagositosis index on diabetic periodontitis patients. Material and Methods. PMN were taken from peripheral blood of 15 periodontitis patients consisted of 5 subject with uncontrolled DM (HbA1c>7, 5 subject with controlled DM (HbA1c7 and periodontitis non diabetic subjects. The higest PI was on diabetic periodontitis with HbA1c level >7 and the lowest PI was on non

  10. Vertical profiles of heating derived from IR-based precipitation estimates during FGGE SOP-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; Vincent, Dayton G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines a technique for retrieving from geostationary IR data the vertical profiles of heating and cooling due to moist diabatic processes. First, GOES IR imagery is used to estimate precipitation fields which are independent of fields inferred from residuals in heat budget analysis based on the FGGE level III-b data. Vertical distributions of the associated heating are then obtained using thermodynamic data from the level III-b analysis, one-dimensional cloud models, and the satellite-estimated precipitation. The technique was applied to infer heating in the South Pacific convergence zone during a portion of FGEE SOP-1, and the results were compared with heat-budget calculations made using the ECMWF analyses.

  11. Satellite orbit determination and gravity field recovery from satellite-to-satellite tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakker, K. F.; Ambrosius, B. A. C.; Leenman, H.

    1989-07-01

    Studies on satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST) with POPSAT (a geodetic satellite concept) and a ERS-class (Earth observation) satellite, a Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (SST) gravity mission, and precise gravity field determination methods and mission requirements are reported. The first two studies primarily address the application of SST between the high altitude POPSAT and an ERS-class or GRM (Geopotential Research Mission) satellite to the orbit determination of the latter two satellites. Activities focussed on the determination of the tracking coverage of the lower altitude satellite by ground based tracking systems and by POPSAT, orbit determination error analysis and the determination of the surface forces acting on GRM. The third study surveys principles of SST, uncertainties of existing drag models, effects of direct luni-solar attraction and tides on orbit and the gravity gradient observable. Detailed ARISTOTELES (which replaced POPSAT) orbit determination error analyses were performed for various ground based tracking networks.

  12. Yb{sub 6}Ir{sub 5}Ga{sub 7} - a MgZn{sub 2} superstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Stefan; Poettgen, Rainer [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Universitaet Muenster, Corrensstrasse 30, 48149, Muenster (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    The gallide Yb{sub 6}Ir{sub 5}Ga{sub 7} was synthesized by high-frequency melting of the elements in a sealed niobium ampoule. The structure was refined from single-crystal X-ray diffractometer data: Nb{sub 6.4}Ir{sub 4}Al{sub 7.6} type, P6{sub 3}/mcm, a = 930.4(1), c = 843.0(1) pm, wR{sub 2} = 0.0597, 379 F{sup 2} values and 22 variables. Yb{sub 6}Ir{sub 5}Ga{sub 7} adopts a superstructure of the MgZn{sub 2} Laves phase by a complete ordering of the iridium and gallium atoms on the zinc substructure, i.e. the network consists of ordered and condensed Ir{sub 3}Ga and IrGa{sub 3} tetrahedra with Ir-Ga distances ranging from 260 to 265 pm. The crystal chemical details and the underlying group-subgroup scheme are discussed. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. GPM, AMSR2 GCOMW1 Level 1C Common Calibrated Brightness Temperature VV02A

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 1CAMSR2 contains common calibrated brightness temperature from the AMSR2 passive microwave instrument flown on the GCOMW1 satellite. This products contains 6 swaths....

  14. GPM, AMSR2 GCOMW1 Level 1C Common Calibrated Brightness Temperature VV03A

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 1CAMSR2 contains common calibrated brightness temperature from the AMSR2 passive microwave instrument flown on the GCOMW1 satellite. This products contains 6 swaths....

  15. Man-made Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝昌明

    2005-01-01

    If you watch the sky about an hour after the sun goes down, you may see some “moving stars”. But they're not real stars. They're manmade satellites (卫星). And the biggest of all is the International Space Station (ISS国际空间站).

  16. Observations of artificial satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MAMMANO

    1964-06-01

    Full Text Available The following publication gives the results of photographic
    observations of artificial satellites made at Asiago during the second
    and third year of this programme. The fixed camera technique and that
    with moving film (the latter still in its experimental stage have been used.

  17. Experimental Satellite Quantum Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallone, Giuseppe; Bacco, Davide; Dequal, Daniele; Gaiarin, Simone; Luceri, Vincenza; Bianco, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo

    2015-07-24

    Quantum communication (QC), namely, the faithful transmission of generic quantum states, is a key ingredient of quantum information science. Here we demonstrate QC with polarization encoding from space to ground by exploiting satellite corner cube retroreflectors as quantum transmitters in orbit and the Matera Laser Ranging Observatory of the Italian Space Agency in Matera, Italy, as a quantum receiver. The quantum bit error ratio (QBER) has been kept steadily low to a level suitable for several quantum information protocols, as the violation of Bell inequalities or quantum key distribution (QKD). Indeed, by taking data from different satellites, we demonstrate an average value of QBER=4.6% for a total link duration of 85 s. The mean photon number per pulse μ_{sat} leaving the satellites was estimated to be of the order of one. In addition, we propose a fully operational satellite QKD system by exploiting our communication scheme with orbiting retroreflectors equipped with a modulator, a very compact payload. Our scheme paves the way toward the implementation of a QC worldwide network leveraging existing receivers.

  18. Perception via satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinove, Charles J.

    1970-01-01

    The earth resources observation satellite (EROS) program in the Department of the Interior is intended to gather and use data from satellites and aircraft on natural and man-made features of the earth's surface. Earth resources technology satellite will provide the EROS program with data for use in dealing with natural resource problems and understanding the interaction between man and the environment. Applications will include studies of tectonic features, hydrologic problems, location of fish schools, determination of the conditions of range land, mapping land use for urban planning, studies of erosion and change along coastlines and major streams, and inventories of land use and land forms. In addition, the ERTS data may be used for detecting forest and crop diseases and inventorying crops. The ERTS satellite will be in a polar, sun-synchronous orbit so that each point on the earth's surface will be sensed every 17 to 20 days, at the same time of day. Multispectral photography is being investigated for its usefulness in hydrology. Side-looking airborne radar has not yet been widely used in hydrologic studies, although it is an excellent tool for all-weather, day or night, coverage of large areas. Other techniques being investigated include passive microwave radiometry, ultraviolet and visible stimulated luminescence, and absorption spectroscopy.

  19. Satellite Photometric Error Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-18

    of nearly specular reflections from most solar panels. Our primary purpose in presenting these two plots is to demonstrate the usefulness of...than a transformation for stars because the spectral energy distribution of satellites can change with phase angle and is subject to specular

  20. Creating Better Satellite Conferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Tommy

    1998-01-01

    Presents four ways to improve broadcasts of company satellite conferences, including creative site selection (using facilities at educational institutions rather than hotel rooms); creative programming (using graphics and other interruptions to break up lectures or speeches); creative crew selection; and creative downlink site activities (to…

  1. Ocean surveillance satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, D.

    Soviet and U.S. programs involving satellites for surveillance of ships and submarines are discussed, considering differences in approaches. The Soviet program began with the Cosmos 198 in 1967 and the latest, the Cosmos 1400 series, 15 m long and weighing 5 tons, carry radar for monitoring ships and a nuclear reactor for a power supply. Other Soviet spacecraft carrying passive microwave sensors and ion drives powered by solar panels have recently been detonated in orbit for unknown reasons. It has also been observed that the Soviet satellites are controlled in pairs, with sequential orbital changes for one following the other, and both satellites then overflying the same points. In contrast, U.S. surveillance satellites have been placed in higher orbits, thus placing greater demands on the capabilities of the on-board radar and camera systems. Project White Cloud and the Clipper Bow program are described, noting the continued operation of the White Cloud spacecraft, which are equipped to intercept radio signals from surface ships. Currently, the integrated tactical surveillance system program has completed its study and a decision is expected soon.

  2. OMV With Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    This 1986 artist's concept shows the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) towing a satellite. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center plarners, the OMV would be a remotely-controlled free-flying space tug which would place, rendezvous, dock, and retrieve orbital payloads.

  3. Advances in satellite oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, O. B.; Cheney, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Technical advances and recent applications of active and passive satellite remote sensing techniques to the study of oceanic processes are summarized. The general themes include infrared and visible radiometry, active and passive microwave sensors, and buoy location systems. The surface parameters of sea surface temperature, windstream, sea state, altimetry, color, and ice are treated as applicable under each of the general methods.

  4. A history of HbA1c through Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillery, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    HbA(1c) was discovered in the late 1960s and its use as marker of glycemic control has gradually increased over the course of the last four decades. Recognized as the gold standard of diabetic survey, this parameter was successfully implemented in clinical practice in the 1970s and 1980s and internationally standardized in the 1990s and 2000s. The use of standardized and well-controlled methods, with well-defined performance criteria, has recently opened new directions for HbA(1c) use in patient care, e.g., for diabetes diagnosis. Many reports devoted to HbA1c have been published in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM) journal. This review reminds the major steps of HbA(1c) history, with a special emphasis on the contribution of CCLM in this field.

  5. IR thermography diagnostics for the WEST project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, X., E-mail: xavier.courtois@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Aumeunier, M.H. [OPTIS, ZE de La Farlède, F-83078 Toulon Cedex 9 (France); Joanny, M.; Roche, H.; Micolon, F.; Salasca, S.; Balorin, C.; Jouve, M. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The WEST project requires a set of three infrared diagnostics. • The tungsten divertor will be monitored by the existing diagnostic renewed. • The antennas monitoring require the development of an innovative diagnostic. • A fiber bundle will be used as image transport for the antennas monitoring. • A wide angle tangential view of the upper divertor and the first wall is studied. - Abstract: To operate long plasma discharge in tokamak equipped with actively cooled plasma facing components (PFC), infrared (IR) thermography is a key diagnostic. Indeed IR data are used for both PFC safety monitoring, to avoid material degradation and water leak, and various physics studies on plasma-wall interaction. The IR monitoring is becoming even more crucial with today metallic PFCs. This is the case for the WEST project (Tungsten (W) Environment for Steady State Tokamak), which aims at installing a W divertor in Tore Supra (TS), in order to operate the 1st tokamak with a full W actively cooled divertor in long plasma discharges. The IR thermography system for the WEST project described in this paper will consist of a set of 3 different diagnostics: (1) Six cameras located in upper ports viewing the full W divertor, which reuse a part of the existing diagnostic of TS. (2) Five novel views located behind the inner protection panels for the antennas monitoring, based on an innovative imaging fibers bundle technology. (3) A tangential wide angle view located in a median port, for the upper divertor and first wall monitoring.

  6. Controlling Hydrogenation of Graphene on Ir(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balog, Richard; Andersen, Mie; Jørgensen, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    Combined fast X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations reveal the presence of two types of hydrogen adsorbate structures at the graphene/ Ir(111) interface, namely, graphane-like islands and hydrogen dimer structures. While the former give rise to a periodic...

  7. Interactive Response Systems (IRS) Socrative Application Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Bilge; Seker, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    In globally developing education system, technology has made instructional improved in many ways. One of these improvements is the Interactive Response Systems (IRS) that are applied in classroom activities. Therefore, it is "smart" to focus on interactive response systems in learning environment. This study was conducted aiming to focus…

  8. Synchrotron IR spectromicroscopy: chemistry of living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N; Bechtel, Hans A; Hao, Zhao; Martin, Michael C

    2010-11-01

    Advanced analytical capabilities of synchrotron IR spectromicroscopy meet the demands of modern biological research for studying molecular reactions in individual living cells. (To listen to a podcast about this article, please go to the Analytical Chemistry multimedia page at pubs.acs.org/page/ancham/audio/index.html.).

  9. Panel discussion: The future of IR astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroff, Lawrence J.

    1995-01-01

    A panel discussion was held on the future of IR astronomy. The chairman gave a brief introduction to current planned programs for NASA and other space agencies, followed by short contributions from the six panel members on a variety of special topics. After that, a short question and answer session was held.

  10. Encapsulated thermopile detector array for IR microspectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, H.; Emadi, A.; De Graaf, G.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    The miniaturized IR spectrometer discussed in this paper is comprised of: slit, planar imaging diffraction grating and Thermo-Electric (TE) detector array, which is fabricated using CMOS compatible MEMS technology. The resolving power is maximized by spacing the TE elements at an as narrow as possib

  11. Cibola flight experiment satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P.; Liddle, Doug; Paffett, John; Sweeting, Martin; Curiel, A.; Sun, Wei; Eves, Stuart

    2004-11-01

    In order to achieve an "economy of scale" with respect to payload capacity the major trend in telecommunications satellites is for larger and larger platforms. With these large platforms the level of integration between platform and payload is increasing leading to longer delivery schedules. The typical lifecycle for procurement of these large telecommunications satellites is now 3-6 years depending on the level of non-recurring engineering needed. Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) has designed a low-cost platform aimed at telecommunications and navigation applications. SSTL's Geostationary Minisatellite Platform (GMP) is a new entrant addressing the lower end of the market with payloads up to 250kg requiring less than 1.5 kW power. The British National Space Centre through the MOSAIC Small Satellite Initiative supported the development of GMP. The main design goals for GMP are low-cost for the complete mission including launch and operations and a platform allowing flexible payload accommodation. GMP is specifically designed to allow rapid development and deployment with schedules typically between 1 and 2 years from contract signature to flight readiness. GMP achieves these aims by a modular design where the level of integration between the platform and payload is low. The modular design decomposes the satellite into three major components - the propulsion bay, the avionics bay and the payload module. Both the propulsion and avionics bays are reusable, largely unchanged, and independent of the payload configuration. Such a design means that SSTL or a 3rd party manufacturer can manufacture the payload in parallel to the platform with integration taking place quite late in the schedule. In July 2003 SSTL signed a contract for ESA's first Galileo navigation satellite known as GSTBV2/A. The satellite is based on GMP and ESA plan to launch it into a MEO orbit late in 2005. The second flight of GMP is likely to be in 2006 carrying a geostationary payload

  12. Enzymes of the AKR1B and AKR1C subfamilies and uterine diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea eLanisnik Rizner

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial and cervical cancers, uterine myoma, and endometriosis are very common uterine diseases. Worldwide, more than 800,000 women are affected annually by gynecological cancers, as a result of which, more than 360,000 die. During their reproductive age, about 70% of women develop uterine myomas, 10% to 15% suffer from endometriosis, and 35% to 50% from infertility associated with endometriosis. Uterine diseases are associated with aberrant inflammatory responses and concomitant increased production of prostaglandins (PG. They are also related to decreased differentiation, due to low levels of protective progesterone and retinoic acid, and to enhanced proliferation, due to high local concentrations of estrogens. The pathogenesis of these diseases can thus be attributed to disturbed PG, estrogen and retinoid metabolism and actions. Five human members of the aldo-keto reductase 1B (AKR1B and 1C (AKR1C superfamilies, i.e., AKR1B1, AKR1B10, AKR1C1, AKR1C2 and AKR1C3, have roles in these processes and can thus be implicated in uterine diseases. AKR1B1 and AKR1C3 catalyze the formation of PGF2alpha which stimulates cell proliferation. AKR1C3 converts PGD2 to 9alpha,11beta-PGF2, and thus counteracts the formation of 15deoxy-PGJ2, which can activate pro-apoptotic peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor beta. AKR1B10 catalyzes the reduction of retinal to retinol, and in thus lessens the formation of retinoic acid, with potential pro-differentiating actions. The AKR1C1-AKR1C3 enzymes also act as 17-keto- and 20-ketosteroid reductases to varying extents, and are implicated in increased estradiol and decreased progesterone levels. This review comprises a short introduction to uterine diseases, followed by an overview of the current literature on the AKR1B and AKR1C expression in the uterus and in uterine diseases. The potential implications of the AKR1B and AKR1C enzymes and their pathophysiologies are then discussed, followed by conclusions and

  13. LARES Satellite Thermal Forces and a Test of General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Matzner, Richard; Brooks, Jason; Ciufolini, Ignazio; Paolozzi, Antonio; Pavlis, Erricos C; Koenig, Rolf; Ries, John; Gurzadyan, Vahe; Penrose, Roger; Sindoni, Giampiero; Paris, Claudio; Khachatryan, Harutyun; Mirzoyan, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    We summarize a laser-ranged satellite test of General Relativity, the measurement of the Earth's dragging of inertial frames, and then describe the modeling of an important perturbing effect, thermally induced forces, on the satellite. The frame dragging result is obtained by using about 3.5 years of laser-ranged observations of the LARES, LAGEOS, and LAGEOS 2 laser-ranged satellites together with the Earth gravity field model GGM05S produced by the space geodesy mission GRACE. It produces a result in agreement with the prediction of General Relativity: $\\mu = (0.994 \\pm 0.002) \\pm 0.05$, where $\\mu$ is the Earth's dragging of inertial frames normalized to its General Relativity value, 0.002 is the 1-sigma formal error and 0.05 is the estimated systematic error. The thermal force model assumes heat flow from the sun (visual) and from Earth (IR) to the satellite core and to the fused silica reflectors on the satellite, and reradiation into space. For a roughly current epoch (days 1460 - 1580 after launch) we c...

  14. Detection of HbA(1c) by boronate affinity immunoassay using bacterial magnetic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, T; Matsunaga, T

    2001-12-01

    We have developed a boronate affinity immunoassay system using m-aminophenylboronic acid (mAPB) coupling to bacterial magnetic particles (BMPs). Homobifunctional crosslinker, Bis-(succcimidyl)suberate (BS3), was employed for preparation of mAPB-BMPs conjugates (mAPB-BMPs). Quantities of HbA(1c) on mAPB-BMPs were evaluated based on luminescence from alkaline phosphatase-conjugated anti-Hb antibody (ALP-antibody) binding to HbA(1c) on the BMP surface. The binding of HbA(1c) to mAPB-BMPs occurred gradually and was almost completed within 10 mm. The coupling reaction is enhanced due to static electric interaction between the positive charges on HbA(1c) and negative charges on BMPs. The amount of HbA(1c) binding to mAPB-BMPs increased with increasing sodium chloride concentrations in the range of 0-100 mM. However, the amount of Hb binding to mAPB-BMPs also increased in high concentration of sodium chloride. The Hb binding to mAPB-BMPs was detached from mAPB-BMPs when Hb-mAPB-BMPs were washed with low salt buffer. This indicates that Hb is nonspecifically adsorbed onto the surface of mAPB-BMPs in high concentration of sodium chloride. These results suggest that selective separation of HbA(1c) using mAPB-BMPs can be achieved with these conditions. A dose-response curve was obtained between luminescence intensity and HbA(1c) concentration using a fully automated boronate affinity immunoassay. A linear relationship between luminescence intensity and HbA(1c) concentration was obtained in the range of 10-10(4) ng/ml.

  15. Adjoint representation of the graded Lie algebra osp(2/1; C) and its exponentiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ilyenko, K

    2003-01-01

    We construct explicitly the grade star Hermitian adjoint representation of osp(2/1; C) graded Lie algebra. Its proper Lie subalgebra, the even part of the graded Lie algebra osp(2/1; C), is given by su(2) compact Lie algebra. The Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula is considered and reality conditions for the Grassman-odd transformation parameters, which multiply the pair of odd generators of the graded Lie algebra, are clarified.

  16. Deletion of psychiatric risk gene Cacna1c impairs hippocampal neurogenesis in cell-autonomous fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völkening, Bianca; Schönig, Kai; Kronenberg, Golo; Bartsch, Dusan; Weber, Tillmann

    2017-05-01

    Ca(2+) is a universal signal transducer which fulfills essential functions in cell development and differentiation. CACNA1C, the gene encoding the alpha-1C subunit (i.e., Cav 1.2) of the voltage-dependent l-type calcium channel (LTCC), has been implicated as a risk gene in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. To parse the role of Cav 1.2 channels located on astrocyte-like stem cells and their descendants in the development of new granule neurons, we created Tg(GLAST-CreERT2) /Cacna1c(fl/fl) /RCE:loxP mice, a transgenic tool that allows cell-type-specific inducible deletion of Cacna1c. The EGFP reporter was used to trace the progeny of recombined type-1 cells. FACS-sorted Cacna1c-deficient neural precursor cells from the dentate gyrus showed reduced proliferative activity in neurosphere cultures. Moreover, under differentiation conditions, Cacna1c-deficient NPCs gave rise to fewer neurons and more astroglia. Similarly, under basal conditions in vivo, Cacna1c gene deletion in type-1 cells decreased type-1 cell proliferation and reduced the neuronal fate-choice decision of newly born cells, resulting in reduced net hippocampal neurogenesis. Unexpectedly, electroconvulsive seizures completely compensated for the proliferation deficit of Cacna1c deficient type-1 cells, indicating that there must be Cav 1.2-independent mechanisms of controlling proliferation related to excitation. In the aggregate, this is the first report demonstrating the presence of functional L-type 1.2 channels on type-1 cells. Cav 1.2 channels promote type-1 cell proliferation and push the glia-to-neuron ratio in the direction of a neuronal fate choice and subsequent neuronal differentiation. Cav 1.2 channels expressed on NPCs and their progeny possess the ability to shape neurogenesis in a cell-autonomous fashion. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Reduced levels of Cacna1c attenuate mesolimbic dopamine system function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrillion, C E; Dao, D T; Cachope, R; Lobo, M K; Puche, A C; Cheer, J F; Gould, T D

    2017-06-01

    Genetic variation in CACNA1C, which codes for the L-type calcium channel (LTCC) Cav 1.2, is associated with clinical diagnoses of bipolar disorder, depression and schizophrenia. Dysregulation of the mesolimbic-dopamine (ML-DA) system is linked to these syndromes and LTCCs are required for normal DAergic neurotransmission between the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc). It is unclear, however, how variations in CACNA1C genotype, and potential subsequent changes in expression levels in these regions, modify risk. Using constitutive and conditional knockout mice, and treatment with the LTCC antagonist nimodipine, we examined the role of Cacna1c in DA-mediated behaviors elicited by psychomotor stimulants. Using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, DA release and reuptake in the NAc were measured. We find that subsecond DA release in Cacna1c haploinsufficient mice lacks normal sensitivity to inhibition of the DA transporter (DAT). Constitutive haploinsufficiency of Cacna1c led to attenuation of hyperlocomotion following acute administration of stimulants specific to DAT, and locomotor sensitization of these mice to the DAT antagonist GBR12909 did not reach the same level as wild-type mice. The maintenance of sensitization to GBR12909 was attenuated by administration of nimodipine. Sensitization to GBR12909 was attenuated in mice with reduced Cacna1c selectively in the VTA but not in the NAc. Our findings show that Cacna1c is crucial for normal behavioral responses to DA stimulants and that its activity in the VTA is required for behavioral sensitization. Cacna1c likely exerts these effects through modifications to presynaptic ML-DA system function. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  18. Epigenetic Characterization of CDKN1C in Placenta Samples from Non-syndromic Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Abad, Miriam; Iglesias-Platas, Isabel; Monk, David

    2016-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C) gene is expressed from the maternal allele and is located within the centromeric imprinted domain at chromosome 11p15. It is a negative regulator of proliferation, with loss-of-function mutations associated with the overgrowth disorder Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome. Recently, gain-of-function mutations within the PCNA domain have been described in two disorders characterized by growth failure, namely IMAGe (intra-uterine growth restriction, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita and genital abnormalities) syndrome and Silver–Russell syndrome (SRS). Over-expression of CDKN1C by maternally inherited microduplications also results in SRS, suggesting that in addition to activating mutations this gene may regulate growth by changes in dosage. To determine if CDKN1C is involved in non-syndromic IUGR we compared the expression and DNA methylation levels in a large cohort of placental biopsies from IUGR and uneventful pregnancies. We observe higher levels of expression of CDKN1C in IUGR placentas compared to those of controls. All placenta biopsies heterozygous for the PAPA repeat sequence in exon 2 showed appropriate monoallelic expression and no mutations in the PCNA domain were observed. The expression profile was independent of both genetic or methylation variation in the minimal CDKN1C promoter interval and of methylation of the cis-acting maternally methylated region associated with the neighboring KCNQ1OT1 non-coding RNA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed binding sites for CTCF within the unmethylated CDKN1C gene body CpG island and putative enhancer regions, associated with the canonical enhancer histone signature, H3K4me1 and H3K27ac, located ∼58 and 360 kb away. Using 3C-PCR we identify constitutive higher-order chromatin loops that occur between one of these putative enhancer regions and CDKN1C in human placenta tissues, which we propose facilitates expression. PMID:27200075

  19. Epigenetic characterization of CDKN1C in placenta samples from non-syndromic intrauterine growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eMonk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK-inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C gene is expressed from the maternal allele and is located within the centromeric imprinted domain at chromosome 11p15. It is a negative regulator of proliferation, with loss-of-function mutations associated with the overgrowth disorder Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Recently, gain-of-function mutations within the PCNA domain have been described in two disorders characterized by growth failure, namely IMAGe (intra-uterine growth restriction, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita and genital abnormalities syndrome and Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS. Over-expression of CDKN1C by maternally inherited microduplications also results in SRS, suggesting that in addition to activating mutations this gene may regulate growth by changes in dosage. To determine if CDKN1C is involved in non-syndromic IUGR we compared the expression and DNA methylation levels in a large cohort of placental biopsies from IUGR and uneventful pregnancies. We observe higher levels of expression of CDKN1C in IUGR placentas compared to those of controls. All placenta biopsies heterozygous for the PAPA repeat sequence in exon 2 showed appropriate monoallelic expression and no mutations in the PCNA domain were observed. The expression profile was independent of both genetic or methylation variation in the minimal CDKN1C promoter interval and of methylation of the cis-acting maternally methylated region associated with the neighboring KCNQ1OT1 non-coding RNA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed binding sites for CTCF within the unmethylated CDKN1C gene body CpG island and putative enhancer regions, associated with the canonical enhancer histone signature, H3K4me1 and H3K27ac, located ~58 and 360 kb away. Using 3C-PCR we identify constitutive higher-order chromatin loops that occur between one of these putative enhancer regions and CDKN1C in human placenta tissues, which we propose facilitates expression.

  20. Pengaruh Level HBA1C Terhadap Fungsi Fagositosis Neutrofil (PMN) pada Penderita Periodontitis Diabetika

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Syaify

    2016-01-01

    Latar belakang. Diabetes Melitus (DM) merupakan penyakit sistemik yang sangat terkait dengan meningkatnya keparahan penyakit periodontal. Pada penderita DM diduga kuat bahwa keparahan periodontitis disebabkan oleh gangguan fungsi leukosit. Sel neutrofil (PMN) diketahui berperan besar di dalam system pertahanan jaringan periodontal. Kontrol glikemik pada penderita DM dapat diketahui dengan pemeriksaan level HbA1c. Tujuan. Penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh level HbA1c pada penderita peri...

  1. Maternal and offspring genetic variants of AKR1C3 and the risk of childhood leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chen-Yu; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Pan, Pi-Chen; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Ho, Chi-Kung; Su, Li; Xu, Xin; Li, Yi; Christiani, David C.

    2008-01-01

    The aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3) gene located on chromosome 10p15-p14, a regulator of myeloid cell proliferation and differentiation, represents an important candidate gene for studying human carcinogenesis. In a prospectively enrolled population-based case–control study of Han Chinese conducted in Kaohsiung in southern Taiwan, a total of 114 leukemia cases and 221 controls

  2. Comparing risk profiles of individuals diagnosed with diabetes by OGTT and HbA1c

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, R; Vistisen, D; Witte, Daniel Rinse;

    2010-01-01

    Glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) has been proposed as an alternative to the oral glucose tolerance test for diagnosing diabetes. We compared the cardiovascular risk profile of individuals identified by these two alternative methods.......Glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) has been proposed as an alternative to the oral glucose tolerance test for diagnosing diabetes. We compared the cardiovascular risk profile of individuals identified by these two alternative methods....

  3. Alcohol and colorectal cancer: the role of alcohol dehydrogenase 1C polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homann, Nils; König, Inke R; Marks, Michael; Benesova, Monika; Stickel, Felix; Millonig, Gunda; Mueller, Sebastian; Seitz, Helmut K

    2009-03-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption is a risk factor for colorectal cancer. Animal experiments as well as genetic linkage studies in Japanese individuals with inactive acetaldehyde dehydrogenase leading to elevated acetaldehyde concentrations following ethanol ingestion support the hypothesis that acetaldehyde may be responsible for this carcinogenic effect of alcohol. In Caucasians, a polymorphism of alcohol dehydrogenase 1C (ADH1C) exists resulting in different acetaldehyde concentrations following ethanol oxidation. To evaluate whether the association between alcohol consumption and colorectal tumor development is modified by ADH1C polymorphism, we recruited 173 individuals with colorectal tumors diagnosed by colonoscopy and 788 control individuals without colorectal tumors. Genotyping was performed using genomic DNA extracted from whole blood followed by polymerase chain reaction. Genotype ADH1C*1/1 was more frequent in patients with alcohol-associated colorectal neoplasia compared to patients without cancers in the multivariate model controlling for age, gender, and alcohol intake (odds ratio = 1.674, 95% confidence interval = 1.110-2.524, 2-sided p from Wald test = 0.0139). In addition, the joint test of the genetic effect and interaction between ADH1C genotype and alcohol intake (2-sided p = 0.0007) indicated that the difference in ADH1C*1 polymorphisms between controls and colorectal neoplasia is strongly influenced by the alcohol consumption and that only individuals drinking more than 30 g ethanol per day with the genotype ADH1C*1/1 had an increased risk for colorectal tumors. These data identify ADH1C homozygosity as a genetic risk marker for colorectal tumors in individuals consuming more than 30 g alcohol per day and emphasize the role of acetaldehyde as a carcinogenic agent in alcohol-related colorectal carcinogenesis.

  4. Comparison of Hemoglobin A1c assay performance on two different commercial systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozo Ćorić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c is formed by non-enzymatic binding of glucose to the free amino group of the N-terminal end of the ß-chain of hemoglobin A. HbA1c is representative of the mean blood glucose level over three months. The aim of the study was to evaluate the Hemoglobin A1c immunoturbidimetric assay performance on two different commercial systems.Methods: We evaluated the precision and trueness for determination of HbA1c in whole blood. Concentrations of total hemoglobin and HbA1c were evaluated on Dimension Xpand (Siemens and Cobas 501 (Roche analyzers. HbA1c was measured in a latex agglutination inhibition test. Commercial controls Liquichek Diabetes Control Level 1 and Liquichek Diabetes Control Level 2 (Bio Rad at two levels were used for quality control. Analytical validation of HbA1c included: within-run imprecision, between-day imprecision, inaccuracy and comparison determination on the human samples on 2 systems: Dimension Xpand and Cobas 501 analyzers. Results: Within-run imprecision on the commercially controls for Level 1 is 4.5% and Level 2 is 3.2% between-day imprecision on commercially controls is 6.1% Level 1 and 5.1% Level 2 for respectively inac- curacy on commercially controls for Level 1 is 1.8% and Level 2 is 4.8%. Method comparison on human samples shows the correlation coefficient of 0.99.Conclusion: The presented results of the analytical evaluation methods for the determination of HbA1c showed an acceptable accuracy and precision.

  5. Comparing risk profiles of individuals diagnosed with diabetes by OGTT and HbA1c

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, R; Vistisen, D; Witte, Daniel Rinse

    2010-01-01

    Glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) has been proposed as an alternative to the oral glucose tolerance test for diagnosing diabetes. We compared the cardiovascular risk profile of individuals identified by these two alternative methods.......Glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) has been proposed as an alternative to the oral glucose tolerance test for diagnosing diabetes. We compared the cardiovascular risk profile of individuals identified by these two alternative methods....

  6. Conformational and membrane interaction studies of the antimicrobial peptide alyteserin-1c and its analogue [E4K]alyteserin-1c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasinghage, Anusha P; O'Flynn, Donal; Conlon, J Michael; Hewage, Chandralal M

    2011-08-01

    Alyteserin-1c (GLKEIFKAGLGSLVKGIAAHVAS.NH(2)), first isolated from skin secretions of the midwife toad Alytes obstetricans, shows selective growth-inhibitory activity against Gram-negative bacteria. The structures of alyteserin-1c and its more potent and less haemolytic analogue [E4K]alyteserin-1c were investigated in various solution and membrane mimicking environments by proton NMR spectroscopy and molecular modelling. In aqueous solution, the peptide displays a lack of secondary structure but, in a 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE-d(3))-H(2)O solvent mixture, the structure is characterised by an extended alpha helix between residues Leu(2) and Val(21). Solution structural studies in the membrane mimicking environments, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), dodecylphosphocholine (DPC), and 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DHPC) micelles, indicate that these peptides display an alpha helical structure between residues Lys(3) and Val(21). Positional studies of the peptides in SDS, DPC and DHPC media show that the N-terminal and central residues lie inside the micelle while C-terminal residues beyond Ala(19) do not interact with the micelles.

  7. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...

  8. Growth and termination of a rutile IrO2(100) layer on Ir(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Rahul; Li, Tao; Liang, Zhu; Kim, Minkyu; Asthagiri, Aravind; Weaver, Jason F.

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the oxidation of Ir(111) by gas-phase oxygen atoms at temperatures between 500 and 625 K using temperature programmed desorption (TPD), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), low energy ion scattering spectroscopy (LEISS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We find that a well-ordered surface oxide with (√ 3 × √ 3)R30° periodicity relative to Ir(111) develops prior to the formation of a rutile IrO2(100) layer. The IrO2(100) layer reaches a saturation thickness of about four oxide layers under the oxidation conditions employed, and decomposes during TPD to produce a single, sharp O2 desorption peak at 770 K. Favorable lattice matching at the oxide-metal interface is likely responsible for the preferential growth of the IrO2(100) facet during the initial oxidation of Ir(111), with the resulting coincidence lattice generating a clear (6 × 1) moiré pattern in LEED. Temperature programmed reaction spectroscopy (TPRS) experiments reveal that CO and H2O molecules bind only weakly on the IrO2(100) surface and LEISS measurements show that the oxide surface is highly enriched in O-atoms. These characteristics provide strong evidence that the rutile IrO2(100) layer is oxygen-terminated, and thus lacks reactive Ir atoms that can strongly bind molecular adsorbates. Oxygen binding energies predicted by DFT suggest that on-top O-atoms will remain adsorbed on IrO2(100) at temperatures up to 625 K, thus supporting the conclusion that the rutile IrO2 layer grown in our experiments is oxygen-terminated. As such, the appearance of only a single O2 TPD peak indicates that the singly coordinate, on-top O-atoms remain stable on the IrO2(100) surface up to temperatures at which the oxide layer begins to thermally decompose.

  9. Indian satellite IRS-P4 (OCEANSAT). Monitoring algal blooms in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Bhat, S.R.; Dwivedi, R.M.; Nayak, S.R.

    ). Ciguatoxins were detected with the ELISA immunological procedure, after a simple chromatographic extraction in methanol. The toxicological test with Artemia salina was done with filtrates of the microalgae homogenized in sea- water, and on suspended cells...

  10. A hemoglobin A1C immunoassay method not affected by carbamylated hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, A M; Tongate, C; Valdes, R

    1995-01-01

    Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) methods based on charge separation of Hb species are subject to interference from carbamylated Hb (carb Hb). Carb Hb adducts are formed via interaction of terminal amino groups of HbA with isocyanic acid, after the spontaneous dissociation of urea to cyanate. It is hypothesized that a new immunoassay method, using a monoclonal antibody that recognizes the N-terminus of the Hb beta-chain and its sugar moiety, should be refractory to cross-reactive interference from carb Hb. To test this hypothesis, Hb was carbamylated in vitro and co-migration of carb Hb assessed with HbA1C using an electrophoretic method. Densitometric scans - post sodium cyanate incubation and electrophoretic separation - showed a 5 to 7 fold elevation of the HbA1C peak only, while HbA1C values obtained using immunoassay were unaffected. Also assessed was carbamylation interference in vivo, and a positive proportional bias with the electrophoretic system (Y) was observed compared to the immunoassay system (X) (y = 1.2x - 0.21 percent). Others have shown that carb Hb may cause a clinically significant false elevation in patient HbA1C values, when methods based on charge separation of Hb species are used. It is our conclusion, however, that while carb Hb may play a role, the differences observed in this study are largely due to calibration.

  11. Stability study for magnetic reagent assaying Hb and HbA1c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Wen-Pin [Actherm Inc., Hsinchu 200, Taiwan (China); Chieh, J.J.; Yang, C.C. [Institute of Electro-optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Yang, S.Y. [Institute of Electro-optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); MagQu Co., Ltd., Sindian Dist., New Taipei City 231, Taiwan (China); Chen, Po-Yu; Huang, Yu-Hao [Actherm Inc., Hsinchu 200, Taiwan (China); Hong, Y.W. [Institute of Electro-optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Horng, H.E., E-mail: phyfv001@ntnu.edu.tw [Institute of Electro-optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China)

    2013-01-15

    Reagents for magnetically labeled immunoassay on human Hb and human HbA1c have been synthesized. The reagents consist of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic particles biofunctionalized with antibodies against Hb and HbA1c. It has been demonstrated that the reagents can be applied to quantitatively detect Hb and HbA1c by using immunomagnetic reduction assay. In addition to characterizing the assay properties, such as the standard curve and the low-detection limit, the stability of reagents is investigated. To do this, the temporal dependence of particle sizes and the bio-activity of reagents are monitored. The results show that the reagents are highly stable when stored at 2-8 Degree-Sign C. This means that the reagents synthesized in this work are promising for practical applications. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The properties of assaying Hb and HbA1c using immunomagnetic reduction are studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic nanoparticles with antibodies are highly stable in solutions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant mutual interference between Hb and HbA1c in assays is observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-sensitivity assays on Hb and HbA1c using immunomagnetic reduction are achieved.

  12. HbA1c, Fructosamine, and Glycated Albumin in the Detection of Dysglycaemic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rogério Tavares; Macedo, Maria Paula; Raposo, João Filipe

    2016-01-01

    Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is currently the gold standard for glucose monitoring in patients with diabetes, and has been increasingly adopted as a criteria for diabetes diagnosis. However, conditions that determine alterations in haemoglobin metabolism can interfere with the reliability of HbA1c measurements. Glycated albumin and fructosamine (total glycated serum proteins) are alternative markers of glycaemia, which have been recognised to provide additional information to HbA1c or to provide a reliable measure when HbA1c is observed not to be dependable. Additionally, while HbA1c monitors the exposure to circulating glycaemia in the previous 3 months, glycated albumin and fructosamine represent exposure for a shorter period, which may be beneficial to monitor rapid metabolic alterations or changes in diabetes treatment. The present review further discusses the relative value of HbA1c, glycated albumin, and fructosamine, in prediabetes and diabetes diagnosis, evaluation of glucose variability, and complications risk prediction. Also, a novel molecular role for albumin is presented by which glycated albumin contributes to glucose intolerance development and thus to progression to diabetes, besides the role of glycated albumin as a pro-atherogenic factor.

  13. What is the Role of HbA1c in Diabetic Hemodialysis Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The definition of a good glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus on hemodialysis is far from settled. In the general population, hemoglobin A1c is highly correlated with the average glycemia of the last 8-12 weeks. However, in hemodialysis patients, the correlation of hbA1c with glycemia is weaker as it also reflects changes in hemoglobin characteristics and red blood cells half-life. As expected, studies show that the association between HbA1c and outcomes in these patients differ from the general population. Therefore, the value of HbA1c in the treatment of hemodialysis patients has been questioned. Guidelines are generally cautious in their recommendations about possible targets of HbA1c in this population. Indeed, the risk of not treating hyperglycemia should be weighed against the particularly high risk of precipitating hypoglycemia in dialysis patients. In this review, a critical analysis of the current role of HbA1c in the care of hemodialysis patients is presented.

  14. Development of hemoglobin A1c certified reference material by liquid chromatography isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Jiaming; Wu, Liqing; Yang, Bin; Yang, Yi; Wang, Jing

    2012-04-01

    We report the development of a National Institute of Metrology (NIM) hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) certified reference material (CRM). Each CRM unit contains about 10 μL of hemoglobin. Both hemoglobin and glycated hemoglobin were quantitatively determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) with synthesized VHLTPE and glycated VHLTPE as standards. The mass fraction of synthesized VHLTPE or glycated VHLTPE was also quantitatively determined by HPLC-IDMS with NIM amino acid CRMs as standards. The homogeneity and stability of the CRMs were examined with a commercial HbA(1c) analyzer based on the HPLC principle. Fifteen units were randomly selected for homogeneity examination, and statistical analysis showed there was no inhomogeneity. Examination of the stability showed that the CRM was stable for at least 6 months at -80 °C. Uncertainty components of the balance, amino acid purity, hydrolysis and proteolysis efficiency, method reproducibility, homogeneity, and stability were taken into consideration for uncertainty evaluation. The certified value of NIM HbA(1c) CRM was expressed as the ratio of HbA(1c) to total hemoglobin in moles, and was (9.6 ± 1.9)%. The CRM can be used as a calibration or validation standard for clinical diagnostics. It is expected to improve the comparability for HbA(1c) measurement in China.

  15. Aldo-Keto Reductase (AKR) 1C3 inhibitors: a patent review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning, Trevor M

    2017-09-19

    AKR1C3 is a drug target in hormonal and hormonal independent malignancies and acts as a major peripheral 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase to yield the potent androgens testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, and as a prostaglandin (PG) F synthase to produce proliferative ligands for the PG FP receptor. AKR1C3 inhibitors may have distinct advantages over existing therapeutics for the treatment of castration resistant prostate cancer, breast cancer and acute myeloid leukemia. Area covered: This article reviews the patent literature on AKR1C3 inhibitors using SciFinder which identified inhibitors in the following chemical classes: N-phenylsulfonyl-indoles, N-(benzimidazoylylcarbonyl)- N-(indoylylcarbonyl)- and N-(pyridinepyrrolyl)- piperidines, N-benzimidazoles and N-benzindoles, repurposed nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (indole acetic acids, N-phenylanthranilates and aryl propionic acids), isoquinolines, and nitrogen and sulfur substituted estrenes. The article evaluates inhibitor AKR potency, specificity, efficacy in cell-based and xenograft models and clinical utility. The advantage of bifunctional compounds that either competitively inhibit AKR1C3 and block its androgen receptor (AR) coactivator function or act as AKR1C3 inhibitors and direct acting AR antagonists are discussed. Expert opinion: A large number of potent and selective inhibitors of AKR1C3 have been described however, preclinical optimization, is required before their benefit in human disease can be assessed.

  16. Corrected Hemoglobin A1c as an Index of Glycemic Control in the Preceding One Month

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    The corrected hemoglobin A1c(cHbA1c) value was calculated on the basis of HbA1c data obtained over 4 months in 19 patients with type 2 diabetes. The usefulness of cHbA1c as a short-term glycemic control index was compared with that of glycated albumin. Both the HbA1c value (measured by immunoassay) and the calculated cHbA1c value showed significant positive correlations with glycated albumin. However, cHbA1c showed a stronger correlation with glycated albumin. In each patient,the variation of...

  17. DFH Satellite Co.,Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunQing

    2004-01-01

    DFH Satellite Co.,Ltd. is a hi-tech enterprise founded and sponsored by China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation(CASC) and one of CASC subsidiaries,China Academy of Space Technology (CAST). The company is mainly engaged in the research and development of small satellites and micro-satellites, Osystem designs and product development for satellite application projects as well as the international exchanges and cooperation.

  18. Developing Geostationary Satellite Imaging at Lowell Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Belle, G.

    2016-09-01

    Lowell Observatory operates the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer (NPOI), and owns & operates the Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT). This unique & necessary combination of facilities positions Lowell to develop a robust program of observing geostationary, GPS-plane, and other high-altitude (&1000mi) satellites. NPOI is a six-beam long-baseline optical interferometer, located in Flagstaff, Arizona; the facility is supported by a partnership between Lowell Observatory, the US Naval Observatory, and the Naval Research Laboratory. NPOI operates year-round in the visible with baselines between 8 and 100 meters (up to 432m is available), conducting programs of astronomical research and imaging technology development. NPOI is the only such facility as yet to directly observe geostationary satellites, enabling milliarcsecond resolution of these objects. To enhance this capability towards true imaging of geosats, an ongoing program of facility upgrades will be outlined. These upgrades include AO-assisted 1.0-m apertures feeding each beam line, and new near-infrared instrumentation on the back end. The large apertures will enable `at-will' observations of objects brighter than mK = 8:3 in the near-IR, corresponding to brighter than mV = 11:3 in the visible. At its core, the system is enabled by a `wavelength-baseline bootstrapping' approach discussed herein. A complementary pilot imaging study of visible speckle and aperture masked imaging at Lowell's 4.3-m DCT, for constraining the low-spatial frequency imaging information, is also outlined.

  19. Telelibrary: Library Services via Satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rosa

    1979-01-01

    Investigates the provision of library services via satellite, explains briefly the operation and advantages of communication satellites, and discusses the various telecommunications equipment and services which, when coupled with satellite transmission, will enhance library activities. Demand trend projections for telecommunications services…

  20. Mobile satellite service for Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sward, David

    1988-05-01

    The Mobile Satellite (MSAT) system and a special program designed to provide interim mobile satellite services (IMSS) during the construction phase of MSAT are described. A mobile satellite system is a key element in extending voice and and data telecommunications to all Canadians.

  1. Frequent Rain Observation From Geostationary Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzarri, B.; Gomas Science Team

    The target 3-h observing cycle of GPM will meet requirements from Global NWP and, to a large extent, Regional NWP; and be supportive of VIS/IR-derived rain estimates from geostationary satellites for the purpose of Nowcasting. MW rain observation from geostationary orbit at, say, 15 min intervals, would fully meet Regional NWP requirements and have greatest impact on Nowcasting: but this implies either unprac- tically large antennas or unacceptably coarse resolution. Concepts to overcome this problem have been developed in the US within the study called GEM (Geostationary Microwave Observatory), and now there is in Europe a proposal for a demonstration satellite submitted to ESA as GOMAS (Geostationary Observatory for Microwave Atmospheric Sounding). To overcome the problem of resolution, use of Sub-mm fre- quencies is envisaged: e.g., at 425 GHz, a 10-km resolution at nadir would require a 3-m antenna. The observing principle is based on the use of absorption bands of oxygen (54, 118 and 425 GHz) and of water vapour (183 and 380 GHz). Narrow- bandwidths channels are implemented (for a total of about 40 in the five bands) so as to observe the full profile of temperature and water vapour. Profiles from different bands are differently affected by liquid and ice water of different drop size, and fi- nally by precipitation. Simultaneous retrieval of temperature/humidity profiles, cloud liquid/ice water (total-columns and gross profile) and precipitation rate is in principle possible, and partially demonstrated by several airborne MW/Sub-mm instruments. To transfer this demonstrations in the geostationary orbit, the problem of radiometric sensitivity (additional to that one of the antenna size) has to be solved. With current technology, it is feasible to get sufficient accuracy if scan is limited to about 1/12 of the Earth disk, which is sufficient to abundantly cover Europe, the Mediterranean and Eastern Atlantic. The imaged area can be moved everywhere within the disk

  2. HbA1c Test as a Tool in the Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Breitenbach Renz

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is a prevalent and potentially serious condition which may put both mothers and neonates at risk. The current recommendation for diagnosis is the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. This study aimed to determine the usefulness of HbA1c test as a diagnostic tool for GDM as compared to the traditional criteria based on the OGTT.This was a diagnostic test accuracy study. We performed OGTT and HbA1c test in women attending prenatal visits at a tertiary hospital. GDM was defined according to WHO1999 or ADA/WHO 2013 criteria. ROC curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of HbA1c. Sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios for different HbA1c cut-off points were calculated.Of the 262 women in the third trimester of gestation enrolled in the study, 86 (33% were diagnosed with GDM. Only five of these women presented HbA1c ≥48 mmol/mol (6.5%. This cut-off point presented 100% specificity but very low sensitivity (7%. Based on ROC curve, and considering OGTT as the reference criterion, HbA1c ≥40 mmol/mol (5.8% showed adequate specificity in diagnosing GDM (94.9% but low sensitivity (26.4%. Unlike, HbA1c values of 31 mmol/mol (5.0% presented adequate sensitivity (89.7% but low specificity (32.6% to detect GDM. For women with HbA1c ≥40 mmol/mol (5.8%, the positive and negative likelihood ratios were 5.14 (95%CI 2.49-10.63 and 0.78 (0.68-0.88, respectively. The post-test probability of GDM was about 40%, representing a 4.0-fold increase in the mean pre-test probability. This cut-off point could eliminate the need for the unpleasant and laborious OGTT tests in almost one third of cases, as 38% of patients with GDM may be diagnosable by HbA1c test alone.Our results show that combined HbA1c and OGTT measurements may be useful in diagnosing GDM.

  3. Fasting Plasma Glucose and Hemoglobin A1c in Identifying and Predicting Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenyu; Lee, Elisa T.; Howard, Barbara V.; Fabsitz, Richard R.; Devereux, Richard B.; Welty, Thomas K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c in identifying and predicting type 2 diabetes in a population with high rates of diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Diabetes was defined as an FPG level ≥126 mg/dL or an HbA1c level ≥6.5%. Data collected from the baseline and second exams (1989–1995) of the Strong Heart Study were used. RESULTS For cases of diabetes identified by FPG ≥126 mg/dL, using HbA1c ≥6.5% at the initial and 4-year follow-up diabetes screenings (or in identifying incident cases in 4 years) among undiagnosed participants left 46% and 59% of cases of diabetes undetected, respectively, whereas for cases identified by HbA1c ≥6.5%, using FPG ≥126 mg/dL left 11% and 59% unidentified, respectively. Age, waist circumference, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio, and baseline FPG and HbA1c levels were common significant risk factors for incident diabetes defined by either FPG or HbA1c; triglyceride levels were significant for diabetes defined by HbA1c alone, and blood pressure and sibling history of diabetes were significant for diabetes defined by FPG alone. Using both the baseline FPG and HbA1c in diabetes prediction identified more people at risk than using either measure alone. CONCLUSIONS Among undiagnosed participants, using HbA1c alone in initial diabetes screening identifies fewer cases of diabetes than FPG, and using either FPG or HbA1c alone cannot effectively identify diabetes in a 4-year periodic successive diabetes screening or incident cases of diabetes in 4 years. Using both criteria may identify more people at risk. The proposed models using the commonly available clinical measures can be applied to assessing the risk of incident diabetes using either criterion. PMID:21270194

  4. Satellite Aerodynamics and Density Determination from Satellite Dynamic Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, G. R.

    1972-01-01

    The aerodynamic drag and lift properties of a satellite are first expressed as a function of two parameters associated with gas-surface interaction at the satellite surface. The dynamic response of the satellite as it passes through the atmosphere is then expressed as a function of the two gas-surface interaction parameters, the atmospheric density, the satellite velocity, and the satellite orientation to the high speed flow. By proper correlation of the observed dynamic response with the changing angle of attack of the satellite, it is found that the two unknown gas-surface interaction parameters can be determined. Once the gas-surface interaction parameters are known, the aerodynamic properties of the satellite at all angles of attack are also determined.

  5. Metal-Mesh Optical Filter Technology for Mid IR, Far IR, and Submillimeter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposal describes a method of fabrication of far IR and THZ range multilayer metal-mesh filters. This type of filter consists of alternative...

  6. Metal-Mesh Optical Filter Technology for Mid IR, Far IR, and Submillimeter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovative, high transmission band-pass filter technology proposed here is an improvement in multilayer metal-mesh filter design and manufacture for the far IR...

  7. Overexpression of AtBMI1C, a polycomb group protein gene, accelerates flowering in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    Full Text Available Polycomb group protein (PcG-mediated gene silencing is emerging as an essential developmental regulatory mechanism in eukaryotic organisms. PcGs inactivate or maintain the silenced state of their target chromatin by forming complexes, including Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1 and 2 (PRC2. Three PRC2 complexes have been identified and characterized in Arabidopsis; of these, the EMF and VRN complexes suppress flowering by catalyzing the trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 of FLOWER LOCUS T (FT and FLOWER LOCUS C (FLC. However, little is known about the role of PRC1 in regulating the floral transition, although AtRING1A, AtRING1B, AtBMI1A, and AtBMI1B are believed to regulate shoot apical meristem and embryonic development as components of PRC1. Moreover, among the five RING finger PcGs in the Arabidopsis genome, four have been characterized. Here, we report that the fifth, AtBMI1C, is a novel, ubiquitously expressed nuclear PcG protein and part of PRC1, which is evolutionarily conserved with Psc and BMI1. Overexpression of AtBMI1C caused increased H2A monoubiquitination and flowering defects in Arabidopsis. Both the suppression of FLC and activation of FT were observed in AtBMI1C-overexpressing lines, resulting in early flowering. No change in the H3K27me3 level in FLC chromatin was detected in an AtBMI1C-overexpressing line. Our results suggest that AtBMI1C participates in flowering time control by regulating the expression of FLC; moreover, the repression of FLC by AtBMI1C is not due to the activity of PRC2. Instead, it is likely the result of PRC1 activity, into which AtBMI1C is integrated.

  8. Transporters MCT8 and OATP1C1 maintain murine brain thyroid hormone homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerl, Steffen; Müller, Julia; Bauer, Reinhard; Richert, Sarah; Kassmann, Celia M.; Darras, Veerle M.; Buder, Katrin; Boelen, Anita; Visser, Theo J.; Heuer, Heike

    2014-01-01

    Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS), a severe form of psychomotor retardation with abnormal thyroid hormone (TH) parameters, is linked to mutations in the TH-specific monocarboxylate transporter MCT8. In mice, deletion of Mct8 (Mct8 KO) faithfully replicates AHDS-associated endocrine abnormalities; however, unlike patients, these animals do not exhibit neurological impairments. While transport of the active form of TH (T3) across the blood-brain barrier is strongly diminished in Mct8 KO animals, prohormone (T4) can still enter the brain, possibly due to the presence of T4-selective organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP1C1). Here, we characterized mice deficient for both TH transporters, MCT8 and OATP1C1 (Mct8/Oatp1c1 DKO). Mct8/Oatp1c1 DKO mice exhibited alterations in peripheral TH homeostasis that were similar to those in Mct8 KO mice; however, uptake of both T3 and T4 into the brains of Mct8/Oatp1c1 DKO mice was strongly reduced. Evidence of TH deprivation in the CNS of Mct8/Oatp1c1 DKO mice included highly decreased brain TH content as well as altered deiodinase activities and TH target gene expression. Consistent with delayed cerebellar development and reduced myelination, Mct8/Oatp1c1 DKO mice displayed pronounced locomotor abnormalities. Intriguingly, differentiation of GABAergic interneurons in the cerebral cortex was highly compromised. Our findings underscore the importance of TH transporters for proper brain development and provide a basis to study the pathogenic mechanisms underlying AHDS. PMID:24691440

  9. Genic and global functions for Paf1C in chromatin modification and gene expression in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sookyung Oh

    Full Text Available In budding yeast, intragenic histone modification is linked with transcriptional elongation through the conserved regulator Paf1C. To investigate Paf1C-related function in higher eukaryotes, we analyzed the effects of loss of Paf1C on histone H3 density and patterns of H3 methylated at K4, K27, and K36 in Arabidopsis genes, and integrated this with existing gene expression data. Loss of Paf1C did not change global abundance of H3K4me3 or H3K36me2 within chromatin, but instead led to a 3' shift in the distribution of H3K4me3 and a 5' shift in the distribution of H3K36me2 within genes. We found that genes regulated by plant Paf1C showed strong enrichment for both H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 and also showed a high degree of tissue-specific expression. At the Paf1C- and PcG-regulated gene FLC, transcriptional silencing and loss of H3K4me3 and H3K36me2 were accompanied by expansion of H3K27me3 into the promoter and transcriptional start regions and further enrichment of H3K27me3 within the transcribed region. These results highlight both genic and global functions for plant Paf1C in histone modification and gene expression, and link transcriptional activity with cellular memory.

  10. Expression of ATP6V1C1 during oral carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Alves, M G; Carta, C F L; Padín-Iruegas, M-E; Pérez-Sayáns, M; Suarez-Peñaranda, J M; Issa, J S; García-García, A; Almeida, J D

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the gene and protein expressions of V-type ATPase protein subunit C1 (ATP6V1C1) in cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and contralateral normal mucosa in smokers, nonsmokers and former smokers. Subjects were separated into five groups of 15: group 1, smokers with OSCC; group 2, normal contralateral mucosa of OSCC patients; group 3, chronic smokers; group 4, former smokers who had stopped smoking 1 year earlier; group 5, individuals who had never smoked. Exfoliative cytology specimens from oral mucosa of smokers, former smokers and nonsmokers showed normal gene and protein expression. We found significantly greater gene expression in the OSCC group than in the nonsmoker groups. No difference in gene expression was observed between normal contralateral mucosa and nonsmoker groups, smoker and nonsmoker groups or former smoker and nonsmoker groups. We observed intense immunostaining for ATP6V1C1 protein in all cases of OSCC and weak or no staining in smoker, former smoker and nonsmoker groups. Significantly greater expression of ATP6V1C1 protein was observed in the OSCC group compared to the other groups, which supports the role of ATP6V1C1 in effecting changes associated with oral cancer. Analysis of the mucosae of chronic smokers, former smokers and the normal contralateral mucosa of patients with OSCC showed unaltered ATP6V1C1 gene and protein expression. Early stages of carcinogenesis, represented by altered epithelium of chronic smokers, had neither gene nor protein alterations as seen in OSCC. Therefore, we infer that the changes in ATP6V1C1 occur during later stages of carcinogenesis. Our preliminary study provides a basis for future studies of using ATP6V1C1 levels for detecting early stage OSCC.

  11. Polyguluronate sulfate and its oligosaccharides but not heparin promotes FGF19/FGFR1c signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ying; Zeng, Xuan; Guo, Zhihua; Zeng, Pengjiao; Hao, Cui; Zhao, Xia; Yu, Guangli; Zhang, Lijuan

    2017-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 19(FGF19) functions as a hormone by affecting glucose metabolism. FGF19 improves glucose tolerance when overexpressed in mice with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes. A functional cellular FGF19 receptor consists of FGF receptor (FGFR) and glycosaminoglycan complexed with either α Klotho or β Klotho. Interestingly, in mice with diet-induced diabetes, a single injection of FGF1 is enough to restore blood sugar levels to a healthy range. FGF1 binds heparin with high affinity whereas FGF19 does not, indicating that polysaccharides other than heparin might enhance FGF19/FGFR signaling. Using a FGFs/FGFR1c signaling-dependent BaF3 cell proliferation assay, we discovered that polyguluronate sulfate (PGS) and its oligosaccharides, PGS12 and PGS25, but not polyguluronate (PG), a natural marine polysaccharide, enhanced FGF19/FGFR1c signaling better than that of heparin based on 3H-thymidine incorporation. Interestingly, PGS6, PGS8, PGS10, PGS12, PGS25, and PGS, but not PG, had comparable FGF1/FGFR1c signal-stimulating activity compared to that of heparin. These results indicated that PGS and its oligosaccharides were excellent FGF1/FGFR1c and FGF19/FGFR1c signaling enhancers at cellular level. Since the inexpensive PGS and PGS oligosaccharides can be absorbed through oral route, these seaweed-derived compounds merit further investigation as novel agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes through enhancing FGF1/FGFR1c and FGF19/FGFR1c signaling in future.

  12. Tax-deferred annuity plans: meeting the IRS audit challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schussler, M

    1997-01-01

    A growing number of nonprofit organizations are being fined for violations of IRS regulations following IRS audits of their tax-deferred annuity (TDA) plans. To ensure that their organizations can withstand the scrutiny of an IRS audit, TDA plan administrators must ensure that plans meet IRS regulations and be prepared for IRS audits. Documentation--particularly of the TDA plan itself, and procedures related to salary reduction programs, compensation limits, excess deferrals and other excess contributions, loans, and distributions--must be comprehensive and in compliance with IRS regulations.

  13. Thematic mapping from satellite imagery

    CERN Document Server

    Denègre, J

    2013-01-01

    Thematic Mapping from Satellite Imagery: A Guidebook discusses methods in producing maps using satellite images. The book is comprised of five chapters; each chapter covers one stage of the process. Chapter 1 tackles the satellite remote sensing imaging and its cartographic significance. Chapter 2 discusses the production processes for extracting information from satellite data. The next chapter covers the methods for combining satellite-derived information with that obtained from conventional sources. Chapter 4 deals with design and semiology for cartographic representation, and Chapter 5 pre

  14. Cooperative and cognitive satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzinotas, Symeon; De Gaudenzi, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative and Cognitive Satellite Systems provides a solid overview of the current research in the field of cooperative and cognitive satellite systems, helping users understand how to incorporate state-of-the-art communication techniques in innovative satellite network architectures to enable the next generation of satellite systems. The book is edited and written by top researchers and practitioners in the field, providing a comprehensive explanation of current research that allows users to discover future technologies and their applications, integrate satellite and terrestrial systems

  15. Suppression of superconductivity in Nb by IrMn in IrMn/Nb bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, B. L.

    2013-10-10

    Effect of antiferromagnet on superconductivity has been investigated in IrMn/Nb bilayers. Significant suppression of both transition temperature (Tc) and lower critical field (Hc1) of Nb is found in IrMn/Nb bilayers as compared to a single layer Nb of same thickness; the suppression effect is even stronger than that of a ferromagnet in NiFe/Nb bilayers. The addition of an insulating MgO layer at the IrMn-Nb interface nearly restores Tc to that of the single layer Nb, but Hc1 still remains suppressed. These results suggest that, in addition to proximity effect and magnetic impurity scattering, magnetostatic interaction also plays a role in suppressing superconductivity of Nb in IrMn/Nb bilayers. In addition to reduced Tc and Hc1, the IrMn layer also induces broadening in the transition temperature of Nb, which can be accounted for by a finite distribution of stray field from IrMn.

  16. Neue biosensorische Prinzipien für die Hämoglobin-A1c Bestimmung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöllner, Daniela

    2002-06-01

    Hämoglobin-A1c (HbA1c) ist ein Hämoglobin (Hb)-Subtypus, der durch nicht-enzymatische Glykierung des N-terminalen Valinrestes der Hämoglobin-beta-Kette entsteht. Das gemessene Verhältnis von HbA1c zum Gesamt-Hämoglobin (5-20 % bei Diabetikern) repräsentiert den Mittelwert der Blutglucosekonzentration über einen zweimonatigen Zeitraum und stellt zur Beurteilung der diabetischen Stoffwechsellage eine Ergänzung zur Akutkontrolle der Glukosekonzentration dar. Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war es, einen amperometrischen Biosensor für die Bestimmung des medizinisch relevanten Parameters HbA1c zu entwickeln. Durch Selektion geeigneter Bioerkennungselemente und deren Immobilisierung unter Erhalt der Bindungsfunktion für die Zielmoleküle Hämoglobin bzw. HbA1c wurden spezifische, hochaffine und regenerationsstabile Sensoroberflächen geschaffen. Für die Entwicklung des HbA1c-Biosensors wurden zwei Konzepte - Enzymsensor und Immunosensor - miteinander verglichen. Die enzymatische Umsetzung von HbA1c erfolgte mit der Fructosylamin Oxidase (FAO) aus Pichia pastoris N 1-1 unter Freisetzung von H2O2, welches sowohl optisch über eine Indikatorreaktion als auch elektrochemisch nach Einschluss der FAO in PVA-SbQ und Fixierung des Immobilisats vor einer H2O2-Elektrode nachgewiesen wurde. Die Kalibration des Enzymsensors mit der HbA1c-Modellsubstanz Fructosyl-Valin ergab Nachweisgrenzen, die ausserhalb des physiologisch relevanten HbA1c-Konzentrationsbereich lagen. Aus der Umsetzung von glykierten Peptiden mit einer nicht HbA1c analogen Aminosäurensequenz, z.B. Fructosyl-Valin-Glycin wurde zudem eine geringe HbA1c-Spezifität abgeleitet. Für den Immunosensor wurden zwei heterogene Immunoassay-Formate unter Verwendung von hochaffinen und spezifischen Antikörpern in Kombination mit Glucose Oxidase (GOD) als Markerenzym zum Nachweis von HbA1c untersucht. Beim indirekt-kompetitiven Immunoassay wurde anstelle des kompletten HbA1c-Moleküls das glykierte Pentapeptid

  17. Satellite Control Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Bak, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The Satellite Laboratory at the Department of Control Engineering of Aalborg University (SatLab) is a dynamic motion facility designed for analysis and test of micro spacecraft. A unique feature of the laboratory is that it provides a completely gravity-free environment. A test spacecraft...... is suspended on an air bearing, and rotates freely in 3 degrees of freedom. In order to avoid any influence of the gravitational force the centre of mass of the satellite is placed in the geometric centre of the air bearing by an automatic balancing system. The test spacecraft is equipped with a three...... of the laboratory is to conduct dynamic tests of the control and attitude determination algorithms during nominal operation and in abnormal conditions. Further it is intended to use SatLab for validation of various algorithms for fault detection, accommodation and supervisory control. Different mission objectives...

  18. Declassified Intelligence Satellite Photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Declassified photographs from U.S. intelligence satellites provide an important worldwide addition to the public record of the Earth's land surface. This imagery was released to the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in accordance with Executive Order 12951 on February 23, 1995. The NARA has the original declassified film and a viewing copy. The USGS has another copy of the film to complement the Landsat archive. The declassified collection involves more than 990,000 photographs taken from 1959 through 1980 and was released on two separate occasions: February 1995 (Declass 1) and September 2002 (Declass 2). The USGS copy is maintained by the Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, near Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Both the NARA and EROS provide public access to this unique collection that extends the record of land-surface change back another decade from the advent of the Landsat program that began satellite operations in 1972.

  19. Survey of Air Pollution Effect on Variation of Glycosylated Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C level in Diabetic Patients in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mousavi

    2013-05-01

    Materials and Methods: During November-January 2010-11, Tehran, capital of Iran, was exposed with high levels of air pollution. A retrospective cohort study was carried out on 330 patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus for at least 12 months referring to 3 endocrinal care clinics. A questionnaire in two demographic and diabetic related sections was prepared. The patients' HbA1C level recorded on November-January 2009-10 was compared with November-January 2010-11. Descriptive analysis and paired t-test were carried out using SPSS 18 software. Results: The patients investigated were divided into two groups. The first group was composed of 108 patients (53.7% female and 46.3% male with diabetes mellitus type I (Insulin Dependent, age mean of 17.22, and SD of 11.57. The second group was composed of 222 patients (58.6% female and 41.4% male with diabetes mellitus type II (Noninsulin Dependent, age mean of 53.91, and SD of 12.12. The change of HbAIC level in both groups wa not statistically significant; in first group, HbA1C level increased from 7.71 to 7.75 mg / 100 ml (P =0.828 and in second group, it increased from 7.06 to 7.08 mg / 100 ml (P = 0.798. Conclusion: According to the results obtained, it can be concluded that relation of air pollution and HbA1C mean variation in diabetic patients was insignificant.

  20. Satellites in Canadian broadcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siocos, C. A.

    The involvement of Canadian broadcasting and related enterprises in satellite telecommunications is surveyed. This includes point-to-point transmissions and direct ones to the general public. The mode of such utilizations is indicated in both these cases. For the forthcoming DBS systems the many types of service offerings and utilization concepts under discussion elasewhere are presented as well as the business prospects and regulatory climate offering them.

  1. Neptune: Minor Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2003-04-01

    All but one of Neptune's minor satellites orbit within or just outside its ringsystem; the exception is the distant object Nereid. Some of them are betterdescribed as `mid-sized' rather than `minor', but are included under thisheading as little is known of them. The inner four, with approximatediameters, are Naiad (60 km), Thalassa (80 km), Despina (150 km) and Galatea(160 km). The first three lie...

  2. Satellite Surveillance: Domestic Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    earthquake and tsunami in the Indian Ocean and Hurricane Katrina in 2005, when the NGA provided graphics for “relief efforts that depicted the locations of...that show the damage resulting from an earthquake , fire, flood, hurricane, oil spill, or volcanic eruption.8 Bush Administration Policies...Satellite information has continued to have important civil applications in such disparate areas as the movement of glaciers in Yakutat Bay in Alaska

  3. Communications satellites - The experimental years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelson, B. I.

    1983-10-01

    Only eight years after the launc of Sputnik-1 by the Soviet Union, the first commercial satellite, 'Early Bird', entered service. In just twelve years commercial satellite service extended around the earth and became profitable. The reasons for the successful development of the communications satellite services in a comparatively short time are considered. These reasons are related to the presence of three ingredients, taking into account technology to create the system, communications requirements to form a market, and a management structure to implement the system. The formation of the concept of using earth orbiting satellites for telecommunications is discussed. It is pointed out that the years from 1958 to 1964 were the true 'experimental years' for satellite communications. The rapid development of technology during this crucial period is described, giving attention to passive satellites, active systems, and development satellites.

  4. Studying the nonlinearity in Sonic IR NDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiuye; Obeidat, Omar; Han, Xiaoyan

    2017-02-01

    Sonic IR Imaging combines pulsed ultrasound excitation and infrared imaging to detect defects in materials. The sound pulse causes rubbing due to non--unison motion between faces of defects, and infrared sensors image the temperature map over the target to identify defects. It works in various materials, including metal/metal alloy, ceramics, and composite materials. Its biggest advantage is that it's a fast, wide area NDE technique. It takes only a fraction of a second or a few seconds, depending on the thermal properties of the target, for one test over a few square feet. However, due to the nonlinearity in the coupling between the ultrasound transducer and the target, the repeatability has been an issue, which affects its application. In this paper, we present our study on this issue in Sonic IR.

  5. Flexible high-performance IR camera systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelter, Theodore R.; Petronio, Susan M.; Carralejo, Ronald J.; Frank, Jeffery D.; Graff, John H.

    1999-07-01

    Indigo Systems Corporation has developed a family of standard readout integrated circuits (ROIC) for use in IR focal plane arrays (FPAs) imaging systems. These standard ROICs are designed to provide a compete set of operating features for camera level FPA control, while also providing high performance capability with any of several detector materials. By creating a uniform electrical interface for FPAs, these standard ROICs simplify the task of FPA integration with imaging electronics and physical packages. This paper begins with a brief description of the features of four Indigo standard ROICs and continues with a description of the features, design, and measured performance of indium antimonide, quantum well IR photo- detectors and indium gallium arsenide imaging system built using the described standard ROICs.

  6. Fermion RG blocking transformations and IR structure

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, X

    2011-01-01

    We explore fermion RG block-spinning transformations on the lattice with the aim of studying the IR structure of gauge theories and, in particular, the existence of IR fixed points for varying fermion content. In the case of light fermions the main concern and difficulty is ensuring locality of any adopted blocking scheme. We discuss the problem of constructing a local blocked fermion action in the background of arbitrary gauge fields. We then discuss the carrying out of accompanying gauge field blocking. In the presence of the blocked fermions implementation of MCRG is not straightforward. By adopting judicious approximations we arrive at an easily implementable approximate RG recursion scheme that allows quick, inexpensive estimates of the location of conformal windows for various groups and fermion representations. We apply this scheme to locate the conformal windows in the case of SU(2) and SU(3) gauge groups. Some of the reasons for the apparent efficacy of this and similar decimation schemes are discuss...

  7. Intermediate filament-associated cytolinker plectin 1c destabilizes microtubules in keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Rocio G.; Walko, Gernot; Janda, Lubomir; Novacek, Jirka; Mihailovska, Eva; Reipert, Siegfried; Andrä-Marobela, Kerstin; Wiche, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    The transition of microtubules (MTs) from an assembled to a disassembled state plays an essential role in several cellular functions. While MT dynamics are often linked to those of actin filaments, little is known about whether intermediate filaments (IFs) have an influence on MT dynamics. We show here that plectin 1c (P1c), one of the multiple isoforms of the IF-associated cytolinker protein plectin, acts as an MT destabilizer. We found that MTs in P1c-deficient (P1c−/−) keratinocytes are more resistant toward nocodazole-induced disassembly and display increased acetylation. In addition, live imaging of MTs in P1c−/−, as well as in plectin-null, cells revealed decreased MT dynamics. Increased MT stability due to P1c deficiency led to changes in cell shape, increased velocity but loss of directionality of migration, smaller-sized focal adhesions, higher glucose uptake, and mitotic spindle aberrations combined with reduced growth rates of cells. On the basis of ex vivo and in vitro experimental approaches, we suggest a mechanism for MT destabilization in which isoform-specific binding of P1c to MTs antagonizes the MT-stabilizing and assembly-promoting function of MT-associated proteins through an inhibitory function exerted by plectin's SH3 domain. Our results open new perspectives on cytolinker-coordinated IF-MT interaction and its physiological significance. PMID:23363598

  8. Tethered satellite design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manarini, G.

    1986-01-01

    The capability of the satellite to perform a variety of space operations to be accomplished from the shuttle is reviewed considering use of the satellite with man-in-loop and closed loop modes and deployment (toward or away from Earth, up to 100 km), stationkeeping, retrieval and control of the satellite. Scientific payloads are to be used to perform experiments and scientific investigation for applications such as magnetometry, electrodynamics, atmospheric science, chemical release, communications, plasmaphysics, dynamic environment, and power and thrust generation. The TSS-S will be reused for at least 3 missions after reconfiguration and refurbishment by changing the peculiar mission items such as thermal control, fixed boom for experiments, aerodynamic tail for yaw attitude control, external skin, experiments, and any other feature. The TSS-S is to be composed of three modules in order to allow independent integration of a single module and to facilitate the refurbishment and reconfiguration between flights. The three modules are service, auxiliary propulsion, and payload modules.

  9. Heart Monitoring By Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The ambulance antenna shown is a specially designed system that allows satellite-relayed two-way communications between a moving emergency vehicle and a hospital emergency room. It is a key component of a demonstration program aimed at showing how emergency medical service can be provided to people in remote rural areas. Satellite communication permits immediate, hospital- guided treatment of heart attacks or other emergencies by ambulance personnel, saving vital time when the scene of the emergency is remote from the hospital. If widely adopted, the system could save tens of thousands of lives annually in the U.S. alone, medical experts say. The problem in conventional communication with rural areas is the fact that radio signals travel in line of sight. They may be blocked by tall buildings, hills and mountains, or even by the curvature of the Earth, so signal range is sharply limited. Microwave relay towers could solve the problem, but a complete network of repeater towers would be extremely expensive. The satellite provides an obstruction-free relay station in space.

  10. Tactical Satellite 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T. M.; Straight, S. D.; Lockwook, R. B.

    2008-08-01

    Tactical Satellite 3 is an Air Force Research Laboratory Science and Technology (S&T) initiative that explores the capability and technological maturity of small, low-cost satellites. It features a low cost "plug and play" modular bus and low cost militarily significant payloads - a Raytheon developed Hyperspectral imager and secondary payload data exfiltration provided by the Office of Naval Research. In addition to providing for ongoing innovation and demonstration in this important technology area, these S&T efforts also help mitigate technology risk and establish a potential concept of operations for future acquisitions. The key objectives are rapid launch and on-orbit checkout, theater commanding, and near-real time theater data integration. It will also feature a rapid development of the space vehicle and integrated payload and spacecraft bus by using components and processes developed by the satellite modular bus initiative. Planned for a late summer 2008 launch, the TacSat-3 spacecraft will collect and process images and then downlink processed data using a Common Data Link. An in-theater tactical ground station will have the capability to uplink tasking to spacecraft and will receive full data image. An international program, the United Kingdom Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (DSTL) and Australian Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) plan to participate in TacSat-3 experiments.

  11. A satellite anemometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, W. B.; Heelis, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the design, development, and testing of components of a satellite anemometer, an instrument for measuring neutral winds in the upper atmosphere from a satellite platform. The device, which uses four nearly identical pressure sensors, measures the angle of arrival of the bulk neutral flow in the satellite frame of reference. It could also be used in a feedback loop to control spacecraft attitude with respect to the ram velocity direction. We have now developed miniaturized ionization pressure gauges that will work well from the slip flow region near 115 km up to the base of the exosphere, which covers the entire altitude range currently being considered for Tether. Laboratory tests have demonstrated a very linear response to changes in ram angle out to +/- 20 deg. (transverse wind component of 2.7 km s(exp -1)) from the ram, and a monotonic response to out beyond 45 deg. Pitch (vertical wind) and yaw (horizontal wind) can be sampled simultaneously and meaningfully up to 10 Hz. Angular sensitivity of 30 arc seconds (approximately 1 ms(exp -1) is readily attainable, but absolute accuracy for winds will be approximately 1 deg (130 m/s) unless independent attitude knowledge is available. The critical elements of the design have all been tested in the laboratory.

  12. Binary Satellite Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Evslin, Jarah

    2013-01-01

    Suggestions have appeared in the literature that the following five pairs of Milky Way and Andromeda satellite galaxies are gravitationally bound: Draco and Ursa Minor, Leo IV and V, Andromeda I and III, NGC 147 and 185, and the Magellanic clouds. Under the assumption that a given pair is gravitationally bound, the Virial theorem provides an estimate of its total mass and so its instantaneous tidal radius. For all of these pairs except for the Magellanic clouds the resulting total mass is 2 to 4 orders of magnitude higher than that within the half light radius. Furthermore in the case of each pair except for Leo IV and Leo V, the estimated tidal radius is inferior to the separation between the two satellites. Therefore all or almost all of these systems are not gravitationally bound. We note several possible explanations for the proximities and similar radial velocities of the satellites in each pair, for example they may have condensed from the same infalling structure or they may be bound by a nongravitatio...

  13. Medical Applications of IR Focal Plane Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    imaging in deep venous thrombosis, coming up with definitive conclusions. Kunihiko Mabuchi (Japan) describes the development of an image processing... Hemodialysis Shunts", Proc. 19th Annual Intl. IEEE/EMBS Conf., Chicago, II., Nov. 1997. 60. Marcott, C, Reeder, R., Paschelis, E., Boskey, A., "FT-IR...major thrust for all the infrared measurements. These, coupled with standard equipment and methods will definitely give us the further validation

  14. Overview of IRS Plasma Wind Tunnel Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    Saturn system with the 80- 30, 40, Cassini spacecraft, which was designed, built and 120 h launched by NASA [30]. During the entry into Titan’s i 60...launched in 1995, a ring reentry for landing in Cayenne and the re- first experiment was conducted to determine whether quired mass flow within the PWK... formation . In the IRS MPG facility continuous The operating times range typically from several operation with methane components up to 10%, as minutes to

  15. Aircraft and satellite remote sensing of desert soils and landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, G. W.; Connors, K. F.; Miller, D. A.; Day, R. L.; Gardner, T. W.

    1987-01-01

    Remote sensing data on desert soils and landscapes, obtained by the Landsat TM, Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM), Simulated SPOT, and Thermal IR Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) aboard an aircraft, are discussed together with the analytical techniques used in the studies. The TM data for southwestern Nevada were used to discriminate among the alluvial fan deposits with different degrees of desert pavement and varnish, and different vegetation cover. Thermal-IR data acquired from the HCMM satellite were used to map the spatial distribution of diurnal surface temperatures and to estimate mean annual soil temperatures in central Utah. Simulated SPOT data for northwestern New Mexico identified geomorphic features, such as differences in eolian sand cover and fluvial incision, while the TIMS data depicted surface geologic features of the Saline Valley in California.

  16. An uncooled capacitive sensor for IR detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebke, Georg; Gerngroß, Kathrin; Holik, Peter; Schmitz, Sam; Rohloff, Markus; Tätzner, Simon; Steltenkamp, Siegfried

    2014-06-01

    The beetle Melanophila acuminata detects forest fires from distances as far as 80 miles away. To accomplish this, the beetle uses highly specific IR receptors with a diameter of approximately 15 μm. These receptors are mechanoreceptors that detect deformations induced by the absorption of radiation. Although the detection mechanism is understood in principle, it is still unclear how the beetle reaches such high sensitivity. In this work, we present the biomimetic approach of an uncooled IR sensor based on the beetle's receptors. This sensor is based on a fluid-filled pressure cell and operates at room temperature. Upon absorbing IR radiation, the fluid heats up and expands. The expanding fluid deflects one electrode of a plate capacitor. By measuring the change in capacitance, the volume increase and the absorbed energy can be inferred. To prevent the risk of damage at high energy absorption, a compensation mechanism is presented in this work. The mechanism prevents large but slow volume changes inside the pressure cell by a microfluidic connection of the pressure cell with a compensation chamber. The channel and the compensation chamber act as a microfluidic low-pass filter and do not affect the overall sensitivity above an appropriate cut-off frequency. Using MEMS technology, we are able to incorporate the complete system into a silicon chip with an area of a few mm2. Here, we show a proof-of-concept and first measurements of the sensor.

  17. Analysis of some methods for obtaining sea surface temperature from satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Satellite measurements of sea surface temperature must be corrected for atmospheric moisture, cloud contamination, reflected solar radiation and other sources of error. Procedures for reducing errors are discussed. It appears that routine accuracies of 1 C are possible, given low noise spectral measurements in the infrared.

  18. Stability study for magnetic reagent assaying Hb and HbA1c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wen-Pin; Chieh, J. J.; Yang, C. C.; Yang, S. Y.; Chen, Po-Yu; Huang, Yu-Hao; Hong, Y. W.; Horng, H. E.

    2013-01-01

    Reagents for magnetically labeled immunoassay on human Hb and human HbA1c have been synthesized. The reagents consist of Fe3O4 magnetic particles biofunctionalized with antibodies against Hb and HbA1c. It has been demonstrated that the reagents can be applied to quantitatively detect Hb and HbA1c by using immunomagnetic reduction assay. In addition to characterizing the assay properties, such as the standard curve and the low-detection limit, the stability of reagents is investigated. To do this, the temporal dependence of particle sizes and the bio-activity of reagents are monitored. The results show that the reagents are highly stable when stored at 2-8 °C. This means that the reagents synthesized in this work are promising for practical applications.

  19. KADAR HbA1c DAN RASIO LIPID PADA WANITA DEWASA DENGAN OBESITAS SENTRAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Sudaryanto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Central obesity was accumulation of fat in the abdominal region. Many studies showed correlations between central obesity and cardiovascular diseases, e.g. diabetes and dyslipidemia.  This study was conducted to know the difference between HbA1c and lipid profil between the women with and without central obesity. This study was an analytic observational study with cross-sectional design. Subjects of 52 respondents were healthy adult women staff in campus I, II, III Sanata Dharma University in Yogyakarta and selected using purposive sampling technique. The data of waist circumference, pelvic/hip circumference, HbA1c and lipid profile were collected among the subjects and analyzed with computer with 95% confidence interval. The results of this study showed HbA1c levels and lipid profile were different between the women with and without central obesity, although the difference was not statistically significant.

  20. Postoperative spinal alignment remodeling in Lenke 1C scoliosis treated with selective thoracic fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yu; Bünger, Cody; Zhang, Yanqun;

    2012-01-01

    and how spinal alignment remodeling affects spinal balance. METHODS: All adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) cases surgically treated in our institution between 2002 and 2008 were reviewed. Inclusion criteria were as follows: Lenke 1C scoliosis patients treated with posterior pedicle screw...... after surgery. Although some patients regained spinal balance through postoperative spinal alignment remodeling, 11 patients remained imbalanced at 2-year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Selective thoracic fusion is prone to cause leftward spinal imbalance in Lenke 1C scoliosis patients. Postoperative spinal...... alignment remodeling can facilitate recovery of spinal balance in some patients. Postoperative spinal imbalance in Lenke 1C scoliosis patients could be prevented by selecting stable vertebra or the vertebrae above as LIV, checking the balance condition during surgery, or considering ratio criteria when...

  1. Allelic variants of DYX1C1 are not associated with dyslexia in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saviour Pushpa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyslexia is a hereditary neurological disorder that manifests as an unexpected difficulty in learning to read despite adequate intelligence, education, and normal senses. The prevalence of dyslexia ranges from 3 to 15% of the school aged children. Many genetic studies indicated that loci on 6p21.3, 15q15-21, and 18p11.2 have been identified as promising candidate gene regions for dyslexia. Recently, it has been suggested that allelic variants of gene, DYX1C1 influence dyslexia. In the present study, exon 2 and 10 of DYX1C1 has been analyzed to verify whether these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs influence dyslexia, in our population. Our study identified 4 SNPs however, none of these SNPS were found to be significantly associated with dyslexia suggesting DYX1C1 allelic variants are not associated with dyslexia.

  2. Association Between the Presence of Iron Deficiency Anemia and Hemoglobin A1c in Korean Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jae W.; Ku, Cheol R.; Noh, Jung H.; Ko, Kyung S.; Rhee, Byoung D.; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Few studies have investigated the clinical effect of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) on the use of the Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) as a screening parameter for diabetes or prediabetes. We investigated the association between IDA and HbA1c levels in Korean adults. Among the 11,472 adults (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2011–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (a cross-sectional and nationally representative survey conducted by the Korean Center for Disease Control for Health Statistics), 807 patients with diabetes currently taking anti-diabetes medications were excluded from this study. We compared the weighted HbA1c levels and weighted proportion (%) of HbA1c levels of ≥5.7%, ≥6.1%, and ≥6.5% according to the range of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels and the presence of IDA. Among 10,665 participants (weighted n = 35,229,108), the prevalence of anemia and IDA was 7.3% and 4.3%, respectively. The HbA1c levels were higher in participants with IDA (5.70% ± 0.02%) than in normal participants (5.59% ± 0.01%; P < 0.001), whereas there was no significant difference in FPG levels. In participants with an FPG level of <100 mg/dL and 100 to 125 mg/dL, the weighted HbA1c level was higher in those with IDA (5.59% ± 0.02% and 6.00% ± 0.05%) than in normal participants (5.44% ± 0.01% and 5.82% ± 0.01%) after adjusting for confounders such as age, sex, FPG level, heavy alcohol drinking, waist circumference, and smoking status as well as after exclusion of an estimated glomerular filtration rate of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (P < 0.001, <0.01). The weighted proportions (%) of an HbA1c level of ≥5.7% and ≥6.1% were also higher in participants with IDA than in normal participants (P < 0.001, <0.05). However, the weighted HbA1c levels in individuals with an FPG level ≥126 mg/dL and a weighted proportion (%) of an HbA1c level of ≥6.5% showed no significant differences according to

  3. The Effect of Aromatic Hydrocarbon Receptor on the Phenotype of the Hepa 1c1c7 Murine Hepatoma Cells in the Absence of Dioxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR mediates biological responses to certain exogenous ligands, such as the environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, and has also been demonstrated to modulate the cell cycle and differentiated state of several cell lines independently of exogenous ligands. In this study, we used DNA micorarray analysis to elucidate the profile of genes responsive to the expression of unliganded AhR by re-introducing AhR into an AhR-deficient mouse derivative (c19 of the mouse hepatoma cell line Hepa1c1c7. 22 gene products were up-regulated and 8 were down-regulated two-fold or more in c19 cells infected with a retroviral vector expressing mouse AhR. Surprisingly, expression of genes involved in cell proliferation or differentiation were not affected by introduction of AhR. AhR also did not restore expression of the albumin gene in c19 cells. Introduction of AhR into c12, a similar AhRdefective mouse hepatoma cell line, also did not restore albumin expression, and furthermore, did not lead to changes in cellular morphology or cell cycle parameters. These observations fail to support the notion that unliganded AhR regulates proliferation and differentiation of liver-derived cells.

  4. Sanger Sequencing for BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del Mutation Screen on Pap Smear Cytology Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sin Hang; Zhou, Shaoxia; Zhou, Tianjun; Hong, Guofan

    2016-02-08

    Three sets of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed for heminested PCR amplification of the target DNA fragments in the human genome which include the site of BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del respectively, to prepare the templates for direct Sanger sequencing screen of these three founder mutations. With a robust PCR mixture, crude proteinase K digestate of the fixed cervicovaginal cells in the liquid-based Papanicolaou (Pap) cytology specimens can be used as the sample for target DNA amplification without pre-PCR DNA extraction, purification and quantitation. The post-PCR products can be used directly as the sequencing templates without further purification or quantitation. By simplifying the frontend procedures for template preparation, the cost for screening these three founder mutations can be reduced to about US $200 per test when performed in conjunction with human papillomavirus (HPV) assays now routinely ordered for cervical cancer prevention. With this projected price structure, selective patients in a high-risk population can be tested and each provided with a set of DNA sequencing electropherograms to document the absence or presence of these founder mutations in her genome to help assess inherited susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer in this era of precision molecular personalized medicine.

  5. Sanger Sequencing for BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del Mutation Screen on Pap Smear Cytology Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin Hang Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Three sets of polymerase chain reaction (PCR primers were designed for heminested PCR amplification of the target DNA fragments in the human genome which include the site of BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del respectively, to prepare the templates for direct Sanger sequencing screen of these three founder mutations. With a robust PCR mixture, crude proteinase K digestate of the fixed cervicovaginal cells in the liquid-based Papanicolaou (Pap cytology specimens can be used as the sample for target DNA amplification without pre-PCR DNA extraction, purification and quantitation. The post-PCR products can be used directly as the sequencing templates without further purification or quantitation. By simplifying the frontend procedures for template preparation, the cost for screening these three founder mutations can be reduced to about US $200 per test when performed in conjunction with human papillomavirus (HPV assays now routinely ordered for cervical cancer prevention. With this projected price structure, selective patients in a high-risk population can be tested and each provided with a set of DNA sequencing electropherograms to document the absence or presence of these founder mutations in her genome to help assess inherited susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer in this era of precision molecular personalized medicine.

  6. Alpha- and beta-cell abnormalities in haemoglobin A1c-defined prediabetes and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calanna, Salvatore; Scicali, Roberto; Di Pino, Antonino;

    2014-01-01

    New recommendations for the use of glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) to diagnose prediabetes and type 2 diabetes have changed the constitution of the two populations. We aimed to investigate the pathophysiological characteristics of individuals with HbA1c-defined prediabetes and type 2 diabetes...... compared to subjects with HbA1c-defined prediabetes and controls. Plasma levels of incretin hormones were similar across the three groups. HbA1c associated negatively with insulinogenic index, disposition index, and incretin effect. Our findings show clear alpha- and beta-cell dysfunction in HbA1c...

  7. TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR Β1 C-509T GENE POLYMORPHISM IN PATIENTS WITH BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Despotović

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial asthma is a poligenic disorder caused by the influence of genetic and envioromental factors. The functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs in the regulatory regions of the cytokine genes may affect the cytokine production and thus play a contributory role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Substitution of cytosine (C by thymine (T at the position -509 in the promoter region of the transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 gene could be associated with asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the TGF-β1 C-509T polymorphism with asthma and to determine the distribution of this polymorphism in the Serbian population. A total of 57 patients with diagnosed asthma and 49 healthy controls were screened for TGF-β1 C-509T polymorphisms using the polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method. The TGF-β1 C-509T genotype (p=0.413 and allele frequencies (p=0.227 distributions in patients did not reveal statistically significant difference compared to controls. Additionally, no difference in genotype and allele frequencies distribution between male and female subjects was observed. In conclusion, to the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first study examining the association of TGF-β1 C-509T polymorphism in the Serbian patients with asthma. The present study did not confirm the specific role of TGF-β1 C-509T polymorphisms in asthma. No differences in the distribution of TGF-β1 C-509T polymorphism between patients and healthy subjects were observed.

  8. HIGH MATERNAL HbA1c IS ASSOCIATED WITH NEONATAL HYPOCALCEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Tawab

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hypocalcemia occurs within the first 72 hours of birth in up to 50% of IDMs. The objective of the study was to compare the incidence of hypocalcemia in Infants of Pre-Gestational Diabetic & Gestational Diabetic mothers and to find the association of hypocalcemia and maternal diabetic control. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A tertiary care teaching hospital based prospective study over a period of 2 years. 40 Cases were included in the study 20 breast fed full term infants of Gestational diabetic mothers and 20 breastfed full term infants of Pre-Gestational diabetic mothers were enrolled in the study. Serum calcium of neonates in both groups was sent at 48 hours of life. Mean maternal HbA1c level was used to access maternal diabetic control. OBSERVATION AND RESULTS: Neonates of GDM showed statistically significant change in the serum calcium levels (Mean calcium level 9.055 mg/dl and maternal HBA1c levels (mean HbA1c level 5.85% an compared to neonates of PGDM (Mean calcium level 8.015 mg/dl, mean HbA1c level 6.75% (p=0.0001. 7 out of 20 neonates (35 % of Pre Gestational Diabetic mothers had hypocalcemia at 48 hour postnatal age and 3 out of 20 neonates (15% of Gestational Diabetic mothers had hypocalcemia at 48 hour postnatal age. Incidence of hypocalcemia is more when diabetes is poorly controlled [HbA1C>6%] in both groups and it was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Infants born to Pre-Gestational diabetic mothers are at a higher risk of developing hypocalcemia than infants of gestational diabetic mothers. Incidence of hypocalcemia can be predicted with diabetic control [maternal HbA1c levels]. Studies with larger sample size will give more definitive results on this issue.

  9. Hemoglobin A1c and arterial and ventricular stiffness in older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J Zieman

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Arterial and ventricular stiffening are characteristics of diabetes and aging which confer significant morbidity and mortality; advanced glycation endproducts (AGE are implicated in this stiffening pathophysiology. We examined the association between HbA(1c, an AGE, with arterial and ventricular stiffness measures in older individuals without diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN & METHODS: Baseline HbA(1c was measured in 830 participants free of diabetes defined by fasting glucose or medication use in the Cardiovascular Health Study, a population-based cohort study of adults aged ≥ 65 years. We performed cross-sectional analyses using baseline exam data including echocardiography, ankle and brachial blood pressure measurement, and carotid ultrasonography. We examined the adjusted associations between HbA(1c and multiple arterial and ventricular stiffness measures by linear regression models and compared these results to the association of fasting glucose (FG with like measures. RESULTS: HbA(1c was correlated with fasting and 2-hour postload glucose levels (r = 0.21; p<0.001 for both and positively associated with greater body-mass index and black race. In adjusted models, HbA(1c was not associated with any measure of arterial or ventricular stiffness, including pulse pressure (PP, carotid intima-media thickness, ankle-brachial index, end-arterial elastance, or left ventricular mass (LVM. FG levels were positively associated with systolic, diastolic and PP and LVM. CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of older adults without diabetes, HbA(1c was not associated with arterial or ventricular stiffness measures, whereas FG levels were. The role of AGE in arterial and ventricular stiffness in older adults may be better assessed using alternate AGE markers.

  10. RANTES In1.1C allele polymorphisms in 13 Chinese ethnic populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Yuan; SUN Hao; CHU Jia-you

    2009-01-01

    Background The In1.1C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) allele results in reduced RANTES transcription, which is associated with increased frequency of HIV-1 infection, and rapid progression to AIDS among HIV-1-infected individuals. This study aimed to study the mutant frequency and polymorphism of RANTES in Chinese populations.Methods The genotypes of RANTES In1.1C were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) with the digestion of restriction endonuclease Mbo Ⅱ.Results Of the 617 individuals, 290 (47%) were carriers of the RANTES In1.1C allele, 52 of whom were homozygotes,whereas 238 were heterozygotes. The frequency of the RANTES In1.1C allele in those tested individuals was 0.2840.The frequencies of Inl.lC allele vaded from 0.07-0.27 in most of the populations in South-west China except for the two Lisu populations, while the frequencies of In1.1C spans from 0.35 to 0.45 in North-west China. The prevalence of the allele varied substantially between the South-west groups and North-west groups (X2=7.838, P=0.006).Conclusions The prevalence of the RANTES In1.1C allele varies substantially between the South-west groups and North-west groups. There is no significant difference between the groups with different languages, which suggests that language relationship is not consistent with the genetic relationship. These results have important implications for the design, assessment, and implementation of HIV-1 vaccines.

  11. Conformational Changes in the Orai1 C-Terminus Evoked by STIM1 Binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidamarie Tirado-Lee

    Full Text Available Store-operated CRAC channels regulate a wide range of cellular functions including gene expression, chemotaxis, and proliferation. CRAC channels consist of two components: the Orai proteins (Orai1-3, which form the ion-selective pore, and STIM proteins (STIM1-2, which form the endoplasmic reticulum (ER Ca2+ sensors. Activation of CRAC channels is initiated by the migration of STIM1 to the ER-plasma membrane (PM junctions, where it directly interacts with Orai1 to open the Ca2+-selective pores of the CRAC channels. The recent elucidation of the Drosophila Orai structure revealed a hexameric channel wherein the C-terminal helices of adjacent Orai subunits associate in an anti-parallel orientation. This association is maintained by hydrophobic interactions between the Drosophila equivalents of human Orai1 residues L273 and L276. Here, we used mutagenesis and chemical cross-linking to assess the nature and extent of conformational changes in the self-associated Orai1 C-termini during STIM1 binding. We find that linking the anti-parallel coiled-coils of the adjacent Orai1 C-termini through disulfide cross-links diminishes STIM1-Orai1 interaction, as assessed by FRET. Conversely, prior binding of STIM1 to the Orai1 C-terminus impairs cross-linking of the Orai1 C-termini. Mutational analysis indicated that a bend of the Orai1 helix located upstream of the self-associated coils (formed by the amino acid sequence SHK establishes an appropriate orientation of the Orai1 C-termini that is required for STIM1 binding. Together, our results support a model wherein the self-associated Orai1 C-termini rearrange modestly to accommodate STIM1 binding.

  12. Supplemental Security Income (SSI) / Internal Revenue Service (IRS) 1099

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A finder file from SSA's Title XVI database is provided to the IRS. The IRS discloses 1099 information to SSA for use in verifying eligibility, amount, and benefits...

  13. IR decoys modeling method based on particle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-yu; Wu, Kai-feng; Dong, Yan-bing

    2016-10-01

    Due to the complexity in combustion processes of IR decoys, it is difficult to describe its infrared radiation characteristics by deterministic model. In this work, the IR decoys simulation based on particle system was found. The measured date of the IR decoy is used to analyze the typical characteristic of the IR decoy. A semi-empirical model of the IR decoy motion law has been set up based on friction factors and a IR decoys simulation model has been build up based on particle system. The infrared imaging characteristic and time varying characteristic of the IR decoy were simulated by making use of the particle feature such as lifetime, speed and color. The dynamic IR decoys simulation is realized with the VC++6.0 and OpenGL.

  14. Improving aerosol vertical retrieval for NWP application: Studying the impact of IR-sensed aerosol on data assimilation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyola, Mayra; Marquis, Jared; Ruston, Benjamin; Campbell, James; Baker, Nancy; Westphal, Douglas; Zhang, Jianglong; Hyer, Edward

    2017-04-01

    Radiometric measurements from passive infrared (IR) sensors are important in numerical weather prediction (NWP) because they are sensitive to surface temperatures and atmospheric temperature profiles. However, these measurements are also sensitive to absorbing and scattering constituents in the atmosphere. Dust aerosols absorb in the IR and are found over many global regions with irregular spatial and temporal frequency. Retrievals of temperature using IR data are thus vulnerable to dust-IR radiance biases, most notably over tropical oceans where accurate surface and atmospheric temperatures are critical to accurate prediction of tropical cyclone development. Previous studies have shown that dust aerosols can bias retrieved brightness temperatures (BT) by up to 10K in some IR channels that are assimilated to constrain atmospheric temperature and water vapor profiles. Other BT-derived parameters such as sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are susceptible to negative biases of at least 1K or higher, which conflicts with the accuracy requirement for most research and operational applications (i.e., +/- 0.3 K). This problem is not limited to just satellite retrievals. BT bias also impacts the incorporation of background fields from NWP analyses in data assimilation (DA) systems. The effect of aerosols on IR fluxes at the ocean surface is a function of both aerosol loading and vertical profile. Therefore, knowledge of the aerosol vertical distribution, and understanding of how well this distribution is captured by NWP models, is necessary to ensuring proper treatment of aerosol-affected radiances in both retrieval and data assimilation. This understanding can be achieved by conducting modeling studies and by the exploitation of a robust observational dataset, such as satellite-based lidar profiling, which can be used to characterize aerosol type and distribution. In this talk, we describe such an application using the Navy Aerosol Analysis Prediction System (NAAPS) and

  15. HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose and the prediction of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soulimane, Soraya; Simon, Dominique; Shaw, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    With diabetes defined by HbA1c≥6.5% and/or FPG≥7.0mmol/l and/or diabetes treatment, we investigated HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) thresholds/change-points above which the incidence of diabetes increases.......With diabetes defined by HbA1c≥6.5% and/or FPG≥7.0mmol/l and/or diabetes treatment, we investigated HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) thresholds/change-points above which the incidence of diabetes increases....

  16. Feature Fusion Based Road Extraction for HJ-1-C SAR Image

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Ping-ping; Du Kang-ning; Yu Wei-dong; Wang Yu; Deng Yun-kai

    2014-01-01

    Road network extraction in SAR images is one of the key tasks of military and civilian technologies. To solve the issues of road extraction of HJ-1-C SAR images, a road extraction algorithm is proposed based on the integration of ratio and directional information. Due to the characteristic narrow dynamic range and low signal to noise ratio of HJ-1-C SAR images, a nonlinear quantization and an image filtering method based on a multi-scale autoregressive model are proposed here. A road extracti...

  17. HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose and the prediction of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soulimane, Soraya; Simon, Dominique; Shaw, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    With diabetes defined by HbA1c≥6.5% and/or FPG≥7.0mmol/l and/or diabetes treatment, we investigated HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) thresholds/change-points above which the incidence of diabetes increases.......With diabetes defined by HbA1c≥6.5% and/or FPG≥7.0mmol/l and/or diabetes treatment, we investigated HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) thresholds/change-points above which the incidence of diabetes increases....

  18. Science operations management. [with Infrared Astronomy Satellite project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squibb, G. F.

    1984-01-01

    The operation teams engaged in the IR Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) project included scientists from the IRAS International Science Team. The detailed involvement of these scientists in the design, testing, validation, and operations phases of the IRAS mission contributed to the success of this project. The Project Management Group spent a substantial amount of time discussing science-related issues, because science team coleaders were members from the outset. A single scientific point-of-contact for the Management Group enhanced the depth and continuity of agreement reached in decision-making.

  19. Satellite Upper Air Network (SUAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Tony L.; Thorne, Peter

    2004-10-01

    During the past 20 years of NOAA operational polar satellites, it has become evident that a growing problem concerning their utilization in Climate and also Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) applications are the systematic errors and uncertainties inherent in the satellite measurements. Similar arguments can be made for global radiosonde observations. These uncertainties are often larger than the sensitive signals and processes, that satellite and radiosonde measurements are designed to reveal, particularly in the realm of climate. Possible strategies to quantify and compensate for these problems include the analysis of satellite overlap data and/or available collocations of satellite and ground truth (radiosonde) observations. However, overlap observations are typically not available except in extreme polar regions and current sampling strategies for compiling collocated radiosonde and satellite observations are insufficient, further compounding the inherent uncertainties in the ground-truth radiosonde data. A Satellite Upper Air Network is proposed to provide reference radiosonde launches coincident with operational polar satellite(s) overpass. The SUAN consist of 36 global radiosonde stations sub-sampled from the Global Upper Air Network (GUAN), and is designed to provide a robust, global sample of collocated radiosonde and satellite observations conducive to the monitoring and validation of satellite and radiosonde observations. The routine operation of such a network in conjunction with operational polar satellites would provide a long-term of performance for critical observations of particular importance for climate. The following report presents a candidate network of 36 upper-air sites that could comprise a SUAN. Their selection along with the mutual benefit across the satellite, radiosonde, climate, numerical weather prediction (NWP) and radiative transfer (RT) model areas are discussed.

  20. Accuracy of hemoglobin A1c imputation using fasting plasma glucose in diabetes research using electronic health records data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Xu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In studies that use electronic health record data, imputation of important data elements such as Glycated hemoglobin (A1c has become common. However, few studies have systematically examined the validity of various imputation strategies for missing A1c values. We derived a complete dataset using an incident diabetes population that has no missing values in A1c, fasting and random plasma glucose (FPG and RPG, age, and gender. We then created missing A1c values under two assumptions: missing completely at random (MCAR and missing at random (MAR. We then imputed A1c values, compared the imputed values to the true A1c values, and used these data to assess the impact of A1c on initiation of antihyperglycemic therapy. Under MCAR, imputation of A1c based on FPG 1 estimated a continuous A1c within ± 1.88% of the true A1c 68.3% of the time; 2 estimated a categorical A1c within ± one category from the true A1c about 50% of the time. Including RPG in imputation slightly improved the precision but did not improve the accuracy. Under MAR, including gender and age in addition to FPG improved the accuracy of imputed continuous A1c but not categorical A1c. Moreover, imputation of up to 33% of missing A1c values did not change the accuracy and precision and did not alter the impact of A1c on initiation of antihyperglycemic therapy. When using A1c values as a predictor variable, a simple imputation algorithm based only on age, sex, and fasting plasma glucose gave acceptable results.

  1. Heavy precipitation retrieval from combined satellite observations and ground-based lightning measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnai, A.; Dietrich, S.; Casella, D.; di Paola, F.; Formenton, M.; Sanò, P.

    2010-09-01

    We have developed a series of algorithms for the retrieval of precipitation (especially, heavy precipitation) over the Mediterranean area using satellite observations from the available microwave (MW) radiometers onboard low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites and from the visible-infrared (VIS-IR) SEVIRI radiometer onboard the European geosynchronous (GEO) satellite Meteosat Second Generation (MSG), in conjunction with lightning data from ground-based networks - such as ZEUS and LINET. These are: • A new approach for precipitation retrieval from space (which we call the Cloud Dynamics and Radiation Database approach, CDRD) that incorporates lightning and environmental/dynamical information in addition to the upwelling microwave brightness temperatures (TB’s) so as to reduce the retrieval uncertainty and improve the retrieval performance; • A new combined MW-IR technique for producing frequent precipitation retrievals from space (which we call PM-GCD technique), that uses passive-microwave (PM) retrievals in conjunction with lightning information and the Global Convection Detection (GCD) technique to discriminate deep convective clouds within the GEO observations; • A new morphing approach (which we call the Lightning-based Precipitation Evolving Technique, L-PET) that uses the available lightning measurements for propagating the rainfall estimates from satellite-borne MW radiometers to a much higher time resolution than the MW observations. We will present and discuss our combined MW/IR/lightning precipitation algorithms and analyses with special reference to some case studies over the western Mediterranean.

  2. IR Cards: Inquiry-Based Introduction to Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jacqueline; Forster, Tabetha

    2010-01-01

    As infrared spectroscopy (IR) is frequently used in undergraduate organic chemistry courses, an inductive introduction to IR spectroscopy that uses index cards printed with spectra, structures, and chemical names is described. Groups of students are given an alphabetized deck of these "IR cards" to sort into functional groups. The students then…

  3. Arbitrage Rebate Compliance: Recent IRS Scrutiny of School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given, Lynda K.; Gurrola, George E.; Richardson, James R.

    2002-01-01

    Describes rules and procedures school districts must follow to comply with IRS arbitrage and rebate rules and exceptions on profits derived from investing yields of tax-exempt bonds in a higher yielding account. Describes consequences of noncompliance and seven ways to be prepared for an IRS audit--for example, answering the IRS promptly. (PKP)

  4. IR Cards: Inquiry-Based Introduction to Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jacqueline; Forster, Tabetha

    2010-01-01

    As infrared spectroscopy (IR) is frequently used in undergraduate organic chemistry courses, an inductive introduction to IR spectroscopy that uses index cards printed with spectra, structures, and chemical names is described. Groups of students are given an alphabetized deck of these "IR cards" to sort into functional groups. The students then…

  5. IGF-IR targeted therapy: Past, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.M.J.L. Janssen (Joseph); A.J. Varewijck (Aimee)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) has been studied as an anti-cancer target. However, monotherapy trials with IGF-IR targeted antibodies or with IGF-IR specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors have, overall, been very disappointing in the clinical setting. This review discusses potential reasons wh

  6. Measuring PAH Emission in Ultradeep Spitzer IRS Spectroscopy of High Redshift IR Luminous Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Teplitz, H I; Armus, L; Chary, R; Marshall, J A; Colbert, J W; Frayer, D T; Pope, A; Blain, A; Spoon, H; Charmandaris, V; Scott, D

    2007-01-01

    The study of the dominant population of high redshift IR-luminous galaxies (10^11 - 10^12 Lsun at 1IR. We present the deepest spectra taken to date with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. We targeted two faint (f24~0.15 mJy) sources in the Southern GOODS field at z=1.09 and z=2.69. Spectra of the lower redshift target were taken in the observed-frame 8--21 micron range, while the spectrum of the higher redshift target covered 21--37 microns. We also present the spectra of two secondary sources within the slit. We detect strong PAH emission in all four targets, and compare the spectra to those of local galaxies observed by the IRS. The z=1.09 source appears to be a typical, star-formation dominated IR-luminous galaxy, while the z=2.69 source is a composite source with strong star formation and a prominent AGN. The IRAC colors of this source show no evidence of rest-frame near-infrared stellar photospheric...

  7. Radiometric Cross-Calibration of the HJ-1B IRS in the Thermal Infrared Spectral Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, K.

    2012-12-01

    The natural calamities occur continually, environment pollution and destruction in a severe position on the earth presently, which restricts societal and economic development. The satellite remote sensing technology has an important effect on improving surveillance ability of environment pollution and natural calamities. The radiometric calibration is precondition of quantitative remote sensing; which accuracy decides quality of the retrieval parameters. Since the China Environment Satellite (HJ-1A/B) has been launched successfully on September 6th, 2008, it has made an important role in the economic development of China. The satellite has four infrared bands; and one of it is thermal infrared. With application fields of quantitative remote sensing in china, finding appropriate calibration method becomes more and more important. Many kinds of independent methods can be used to do the absolute radiometric calibration. In this paper, according to the characteristic of thermal infrared channel of HJ-1B thermal infrared multi-spectral camera, the thermal infrared spectral band of HJ-1B IRS was calibrated using cross-calibration methods based on MODIS data. Firstly, the corresponding bands of the two sensors were obtained. Secondly, the MONDTRAN was run to analyze the influences of different spectral response, satellite view zenith angle, atmosphere condition and temperature on the match factor. In the end, their band match factor was calculated in different temperature, considering the dissimilar band response of the match bands. Seven images of Lake Qinghai in different time were chosen as the calibration data. On the basis of radiance of MODIS and match factor, the IRS radiance was calculated. And then the calibration coefficients were obtained by linearly regressing the radiance and the DN value. We compared the result of this cross-calibration with that of the onboard blackbody calibration, which consistency was good.The maximum difference of brightness temperature

  8. Associations of NQO1 C609T and NQO1 C465T polymorphisms with acute leukemia risk: a PRISMA-compliant meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hairong; Zhai, Xiaoyu; Liu, Xiaomin; Zheng, Jie; Zhai, Yajing; Gao, Fan; Chen, Yonghua; Lu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    The NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) C609T and C465T polymorphisms have been widely thought to be associated with the risk of acute leukemia (AL) in recent years, but the correlations are still unclear. A meta-analysis is generally acknowledged as one of the best methods for secondary research, and so it was applied in this study with the aim of elucidating how the NQO1 C609T and C465T polymorphisms are related to the risk of AL. Relevant studies were searched in the PubMed, EMBASE, CNKI, and Wanfang databases, and the obtained data were analyzed using Stata (version 12.1). The allele-contrast model was applied, and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate relationship strengths. Meta-regression was used to identify sources of heterogeneity, and subgroup analyses were conducted. Publication bias was analyzed using funnel plots, with the trim-and-fill method used to analyze the effect of publication bias on pooled results. In addition, sensitivity analysis, the fail-safe number method, and cumulative analysis by publication year were performed to measure the stability of the obtained results. This meta-analysis included 28 relevant studies involving 5,953 patients and 8,667 controls. Overall, the C609T polymorphism was associated with the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; OR =1.18, 95% CI =1.00-1.39, P=0.05). Meanwhile, race was found to be a potential source of heterogeneity for the relationship between the C609T polymorphism and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) risk, and the subgroup analysis identified the C609T polymorphism as a risk factor for AML in Asians (OR =1.34, 95% CI =1.03-1.74, P=0.03). The number of studies about C465T polymorphism was too small to pool the data. There are increased risks of ALL in all subjects and of AML in Asians for carriers of the NQO1 C609T polymorphism. Further studies are needed to verify the associations of the C465T polymorphism with the risk of AL.

  9. Associations of NQO1 C609T and NQO1 C465T polymorphisms with acute leukemia risk: a PRISMA-compliant meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hairong; Zhai, Xiaoyu; Liu, Xiaomin; Zheng, Jie; Zhai, Yajing; Gao, Fan; Chen, Yonghua; Lu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Objective The NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) C609T and C465T polymorphisms have been widely thought to be associated with the risk of acute leukemia (AL) in recent years, but the correlations are still unclear. A meta-analysis is generally acknowledged as one of the best methods for secondary research, and so it was applied in this study with the aim of elucidating how the NQO1 C609T and C465T polymorphisms are related to the risk of AL. Methods Relevant studies were searched in the PubMed, EMBASE, CNKI, and Wanfang databases, and the obtained data were analyzed using Stata (version 12.1). The allele-contrast model was applied, and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate relationship strengths. Meta-regression was used to identify sources of heterogeneity, and subgroup analyses were conducted. Publication bias was analyzed using funnel plots, with the trim-and-fill method used to analyze the effect of publication bias on pooled results. In addition, sensitivity analysis, the fail-safe number method, and cumulative analysis by publication year were performed to measure the stability of the obtained results. Results This meta-analysis included 28 relevant studies involving 5,953 patients and 8,667 controls. Overall, the C609T polymorphism was associated with the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; OR =1.18, 95% CI =1.00–1.39, P=0.05). Meanwhile, race was found to be a potential source of heterogeneity for the relationship between the C609T polymorphism and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) risk, and the subgroup analysis identified the C609T polymorphism as a risk factor for AML in Asians (OR =1.34, 95% CI =1.03–1.74, P=0.03). The number of studies about C465T polymorphism was too small to pool the data. Conclusion There are increased risks of ALL in all subjects and of AML in Asians for carriers of the NQO1 C609T polymorphism. Further studies are needed to verify the associations of the C465T polymorphism with the

  10. Automatic Generation of High Quality DSM Based on IRS-P5 Cartosat-1 Stereo Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Angelo, Pablo; Uttenthaler, Andreas; Carl, Sebastian; Barner, Frithjof; Reinartz, Peter

    2010-12-01

    IRS-P5 Cartosat-1 high resolution stereo satellite imagery is well suited for the creation of digital surface models (DSM). A system for highly automated and operational DSM and orthoimage generation based on IRS-P5 Cartosat-1 imagery is presented, with an emphasis on automated processing and product quality. The proposed system processes IRS-P5 level-1 stereo scenes using the rational polynomial coefficients (RPC) universal sensor model. The described method uses an RPC correction based on DSM alignment instead of using reference images with a lower lateral accuracy, this results in improved geolocation of the DSMs and orthoimages. Following RPC correction, highly detailed DSMs with 5 m grid spacing are derived using Semiglobal Matching. The proposed method is part of an operational Cartosat-1 processor for the generation of a high resolution DSM. Evaluation of 18 scenes against independent ground truth measurements indicates a mean lateral error (CE90) of 6.7 meters and a mean vertical accuracy (LE90) of 5.1 meters.

  11. Predictors of HbA1c levels in patients initiating metformin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martono, Doti P.; Hak, Eelko; Heerspink, Hiddo Lambers; Wilffert, Bob; Denig, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to assess demographic and clinical factors as predictors of short (6 months) and long term (18 months) HbA1c levels in diabetes patients initiating metformin treatment. Research design and methods: We conducted a cohort study including type 2 diabetes patients who received the

  12. H-1, C-13, and N-15 resonance assignment of photoactive yellow protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Trijntje J.; Oktaviani, Nur Alia; Kamikubo, Hironari; Kataoka, Mikio; Mulder, Frans A. A.

    Photoactive yellow protein (PYP) is involved in the negative phototactic response towards blue light of the bacterium Halorhodospira halophila. Here, we report nearly complete backbone and side chain H-1, C-13 and N-15 resonance assignments at pH 5.8 and 20 A degrees C of PYP in its electronic

  13. C1-C2 rotary subluxation following posterior stabilization for congenital atlantoaxial dislocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behari S

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a rare complication of C1-C2 rotary subluxation in two children following posterior stabilization for congenital atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD. A patient, with mobile AAD, underwent Brook′s C1-C2 fusion while the other, with fixed AAD, underwent transoral decompression followed by Jain′s occipitocervical fusion. A pre-existing ligamentous laxity associated with an asymmetrical wire tightening or slippage of the wires due to rotation of the neck in the former, and the drilling of the C1-C2 lateral joints during the transoral procedure in the latter, could have contributed to the rotary subluxation. Both patients presented with persistent torticollis due to fusion in an asymmetrical position with dislocated facet joints. Rotary C1-C2 subluxation, when coexisting with anterior dislocation, has the potential to cause severe and occasionally fatal cord compression. Well defined criteria to diagnose this entity by conventional radiology exist, however, due to the overlap of anatomy, the condition is often overlooked. In the present study, three dimensional reconstruction images using helical computerized tomography were very useful in delineating the subluxation and in planning its surgical reduction and arthrodesis.

  14. Hemoglobin A1c measurement for the diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Chirag; Zeitler, Philip

    2012-12-20

    Laboratory measurements of hemoglobin A1c above 6.5% were approved as an additional diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus by the American Diabetes Association in 2010. Several recent pediatric studies have cast HbA1c measurement in children in an unfavorable light in the pediatric population, by comparing HbA1c measurements to results on oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) or fasting plasma glucose (FPG). However, many of these studies do not recognize that diabetes diagnostic criteria are based upon long-term health outcomes. In this sense, OGTT and FPG have themselves never been validated in the pediatric population. Studies to validate diagnostic tests for diabetes in pediatric populations may take a substantial period of time, and may prove unfeasible. However, studies that tie diagnostic results as a child to diagnostic results as an adult may be more feasible and may provide the data needed to determine which pediatric diagnostic criteria to use. Thus, for the time being, except for cases of hemoglobinopathy, cystic fibrosis, and a few other exceptions, describing HbA1c as 'lacking in sensitivity or specificity' in the pediatric population because of lack of correlation with OGTT is not scientifically sound.

  15. Association of the rs3743205 variant of DYX1C1 with dyslexia in Chinese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waye Mary MY

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dyslexia is a learning disability that is characterized by difficulties in the acquisition of reading and spelling skills independent of intelligence, motivation or schooling. Studies of western populations have suggested that DYX1C1 is a candidate gene for dyslexia. In view of the different languages used in Caucasian and Chinese populations, it is therefore worthwhile to investigate whether there is an association of DYX1C1 in Chinese children with dyslexia. Method and Results Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped from three hundred and ninety three individuals from 131 Chinese families with two which have been reported in the literature and six tag SNPs at DYX1C1. Analysis for allelic and haplotypic associations was performed with the UNPHASED program and multiple testing was corrected using false discovery rates. We replicated the previously reported association of rs3743205 in Chinese children with dyslexia (pcorrected = 0.0072. This SNP was also associated with rapid naming, phonological memory and orthographic skills in quantitative trait analysis. Conclusion Our findings suggest that DYX1C1 is associated with dyslexia in people of Chinese ethnicity in Hong Kong.

  16. C1-c2 pedicle screw fixation for treatment of old odontoid fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lei; Li, Mu; Zhang, Shuai; Si, Haipeng; Xue, Jingsong

    2015-02-01

    Nonunion and C1-C2 instability of odontoid fractures usually result from delayed diagnosis and inappropriate treatment. However, the available treatment options for odontoid fractures remain controversial. The authors evaluated the effectiveness of internal screw fixation via the C1 and C2 pedicle in cases of old odontoid fractures. This retrospective study included 21 patients with old odontoid fractures (13 men and 8 women; mean age, 46.5 years; range, 24-69 years). Internal screw fixation via the C1 and C2 pedicle was performed in all patients. Fracture reduction and C1-C2 fusion were assessed with imaging. The neck pain visual analog scale score and cervical spinal cord functional Japanese Orthopaedic Association score (for those who had cervical spinal cord injury) were used to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. Postoperative complications were recorded. Postoperative imaging showed that the C1-C2 dislocation was satisfactorily repositioned in all patients. Bone fusion was observed 1 year after surgery in all patients. No loosening or breaking of internal fixation occurred. The preoperative neck pain visual analog scale score was 5.9±1.5 and improved significantly to 1.8±0.8 after surgery (PC2 pedicle was found to be an effective and safe surgical approach for the treatment of old odontoid fractures with C1-C2 dislocation or instability.

  17. Dynamics and phase transitions in A{sub 1}C{sub 60} compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schober, H.; Toelle, A. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 38 -Grenoble (France); Renker, B.; Heid, R. [INFP, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    We present an overview of extensive inelastic neutron scattering experiments carried out on powders of A{sub 1}C{sub 60}. The various phases leave strong fingerprints in the microscopic dynamics confirming the solid-state chemical reactions. The strong kinetic phase transitions can be followed in real time and turn to be highly complex. (orig.).

  18. Stereoselective synthesis of the C1-C13 fragment of (+)-discodermolide using asymmetric allyltitanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BouzBouz, Samir; Cossy, Janine

    2003-08-21

    [reaction: see text] The synthesis of the C1-C13 fragment of (+)-discodermolide has been achieved. The configurations of the stereogenic centers have been controlled by enantioselective allyl- and crotyltitanations of aldehydes, and the Z configuration of the olefin at C8-C9 was controlled by a ring-closing metathesis.

  19. Efficient Synthesis of the C1- C7 Fragment of Didemnaketal A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Qiang LI; Xue Zhi ZHAO; Pei Nian LIU; Yong Qiang TU

    2004-01-01

    The stereoselective synthesis of the C1-C7 fragment (3R,4S,6R)-3,4-di[(tert-butyl- dimethylsilyl)oxy]-7-hydroxy-6-methylheptan-2-one, which is the crucial intermediate for synthesis of the HIV-1 protease inhibitive didemnaketals, was developed via 12 steps from the natural (+)-pulegone.

  20. Stereoselective synthesis of C1-C24 fragment of antanapeptin-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Avula

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The stereoselective synthesis of the (C1-C24 fragment of Antanapeptin–A is described. The required stereochemistry of b -hydroxy- a -methyl acid unit was accomplished through Aldol reaction using Evans’ chiral auxiliary followed by the installation of terminal alkyne with Ohira–Bestmann reagent.

  1. Hemoglobin A1c measurement for the diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapadia Chirag

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Laboratory measurements of hemoglobin A1c above 6.5% were approved as an additional diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus by the American Diabetes Association in 2010. Several recent pediatric studies have cast HbA1c measurement in children in an unfavorable light in the pediatric population, by comparing HbA1c measurements to results on oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT or fasting plasma glucose (FPG. However, many of these studies do not recognize that diabetes diagnostic criteria are based upon long-term health outcomes. In this sense, OGTT and FPG have themselves never been validated in the pediatric population. Studies to validate diagnostic tests for diabetes in pediatric populations may take a substantial period of time, and may prove unfeasible. However, studies that tie diagnostic results as a child to diagnostic results as an adult may be more feasible and may provide the data needed to determine which pediatric diagnostic criteria to use. Thus, for the time being, except for cases of hemoglobinopathy, cystic fibrosis, and a few other exceptions, describing HbA1c as ‘lacking in sensitivity or specificity’ in the pediatric population because of lack of correlation with OGTT is not scientifically sound.

  2. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1LA6B-1C7BA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -YDDIG >GGG --HHHHH> ATOM 1233 C...pdbChain> 1C7BA WGKVGAHAGEYG >HHHHGGGHHHHH...pdbChain> 1LA6B QRYFI-----MSNAN >GGG ----- HH.../entryIDChain> KTYFPHFDLSHGSAQ >GGG HH> > ATOM 1430 CA GLN B 39 8.656 -4.420 -18.548 1.00 34.33

  3. On the causes of compositional order in the Ni sub c Pt sub (1-c) alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyorffy, B.L. (Bristol Univ. (United Kingdom). H.H. Wills Physics Lab.); Pinski, F.J. (Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Physics); Ginatempo, B. (Messina Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Teorica); Johnson, D.D. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Staunton, J.B. (Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics); Shelton, W.A.; Stocks, G.M.; Nicholson, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    We review, briefly, the arguments which gave rise to the current controversy concerning the origin of compositional order in Ni{sub c}Pt{sub 1-c} alloys. We note that strain fluctuations play an important role in determining the state of compositional order in this system and outline a theoretical framework that takes account of them. 29 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1BU1C-1OOTA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1BU1C-1OOTA 1BU1 1OOT C A -IIVVALYDYEAIHHEDLSFQKGDQMVVLEES---GEWW...> 1OOT A 1OOTA -34.0260009765625 9.805000305175781 9.982999801635742 ti...x> -0.800000011920929 -0.42399999499320984 tion> 2.0220730304718018 4...bID> A 1OOTA WTGRV--NGREG

  5. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1DSUA-1C1MA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n>1DSUA SVQLN----GAHLC >EEEE ---- Eucture... A 1C1MA SLQYRSGSSWAHTC ...>EEEEEE EEE E> ATOM 123 CA SER A 32 -2.328 59.41...CAESN-RRDSC e>EE - EEEture...ence>CAGGDGVRSGC >EE EEE> ATOM 1

  6. Residual endotoxin contaminations in recombinant proteins are sufficient to activate human CD1c+ dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Harald; Schmittner, Maria; Duschl, Albert; Horejs-Hoeck, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Many commercially available recombinant proteins are produced in Escherichia coli, and most suppliers guarantee contamination levels of less than 1 endotoxin unit (EU). When we analysed commercially available proteins for their endotoxin content, we found contamination levels in the same range as generally stated in the data sheets, but also some that were higher. To analyse whether these low levels of contamination have an effect on immune cells, we stimulated the monocytic cell line THP-1, primary human monocytes, in vitro differentiated human monocyte-derived dendritic cells, and primary human CD1c+ dendritic cells (DCs) with very low concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; ranging from 0.002-2 ng/ml). We show that CD1c+ DCs especially can be activated by minimal amounts of LPS, equivalent to the levels of endotoxin contamination we detected in some commercially available proteins. Notably, the enhanced endotoxin sensitivity of CD1c+ DCs was closely correlated with high CD14 expression levels observed in CD1c+ DCs that had been maintained in cell culture medium for 24 hours. When working with cells that are particularly sensitive to LPS, even low endotoxin contamination may generate erroneous data. We therefore recommend that recombinant proteins be thoroughly screened for endotoxin contamination using the limulus amebocyte lysate test, fluorescence-based assays, or a luciferase based NF-κB reporter assay involving highly LPS-sensitive cells overexpressing TLR4, MD-2 and CD14.

  7. Software selection based on analysis and forecasting methods, practised in 1C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazhdaev, A. N.; Chernysheva, T. Y.; Lisacheva, E. I.

    2015-09-01

    The research focuses on the problem of a “1C: Enterprise 8” platform inboard mechanisms for data analysis and forecasting. It is important to evaluate and select proper software to develop effective strategies for customer relationship management in terms of sales, as well as implementation and further maintenance of software. Research data allows creating new forecast models to schedule further software distribution.

  8. Periodontal treatment and HbA1c levels in subjects with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamash, M; Klinge, B; Engström, P-E

    2016-01-01

    It has earlier been reported that individuals with poorly controlled diabetes have severe periodontal disease (PD) compared to well-controlled diabetes. This longitudinal interventional study compared periodontal treatment outcomes with HbA1c level changes in four groups of diabetic and non-diabetic patients with or without PD, respectively. HbA1c, bleeding on probing (BOP), plaque index and periodontal pocket depth (PPD) 4 Diabetics with PD and without PD showed reductions in HbA1c levels with a mean value of 0·3% after 3 months and mean values of 1% and 0·8%, respectively, after 6 months. Diabetics with PD showed higher levels of BOP versus non-diabetics without PD (P diabetics without PD (P diabetics with PD showed higher number of PPD 4 diabetics without PD (P diabetics with PD (P Diabetics without PD showed higher levels of PPD 4 diabetics without PD (P periodontal treatment in all groups improved periodontal inflammatory conditions with a decrease in HbA1c levels in a period of three and 6 months. No change was seen in the number of pockets PPD 4 diabetic subjects with PD after non-surgical and surgical treatment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Radio broadcasting via satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Neil R.; Pritchard, Wilbur L.

    1990-10-01

    Market areas offering potential for future narrowband broadcast satellites are examined, including international public diplomacy, government- and advertising-supported, and business-application usages. Technical issues such as frequency allocation, spacecraft types, transmission parameters, and radio receiver characteristics are outlined. Service and system requirements, advertising revenue, and business communications services are among the economic issues discussed. The institutional framework required to provide an operational radio broadcast service is studied, and new initiatives in direct broadcast audio radio systems, encompassing studies, tests, in-orbit demonstrations of, and proposals for national and international commercial broadcast services are considered.

  10. Understanding satellite navigation

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Rajat

    2014-01-01

    This book explains the basic principles of satellite navigation technology with the bare minimum of mathematics and without complex equations. It helps you to conceptualize the underlying theory from first principles, building up your knowledge gradually using practical demonstrations and worked examples. A full range of MATLAB simulations is used to visualize concepts and solve problems, allowing you to see what happens to signals and systems with different configurations. Implementation and applications are discussed, along with some special topics such as Kalman Filter and Ionosphere. W

  11. China Satellite Navigation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jingnan; Fan, Shiwei; Wang, Feixue

    2016-01-01

    These Proceedings present selected research papers from CSNC2016, held during 18th-20th May in Changsha, China. The theme of CSNC2016 is Smart Sensing, Smart Perception. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 12 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2016, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.

  12. China Satellite Navigation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jingnan; Yang, Yuanxi; Fan, Shiwei; Yu, Wenxian

    2017-01-01

    These proceedings present selected research papers from CSNC2017, held during 23th-25th May in Shanghai, China. The theme of CSNC2017 is Positioning, Connecting All. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 12 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2017, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.

  13. The Galilean Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This composite includes the four largest moons of Jupiter which are known as the Galilean satellites. The Galilean satellites were first seen by the Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei in 1610. Shown from left to right in order of increasing distance from Jupiter, Io is closest, followed by Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.The order of these satellites from the planet Jupiter helps to explain some of the visible differences among the moons. Io is subject to the strongest tidal stresses from the massive planet. These stresses generate internal heating which is released at the surface and makes Io the most volcanically active body in our solar system. Europa appears to be strongly differentiated with a rock/iron core, an ice layer at its surface, and the potential for local or global zones of water between these layers. Tectonic resurfacing brightens terrain on the less active and partially differentiated moon Ganymede. Callisto, furthest from Jupiter, appears heavily cratered at low resolutions and shows no evidence of internal activity.North is to the top of this composite picture in which these satellites have all been scaled to a common factor of 10 kilometers (6 miles) per picture element.The Solid State Imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft acquired the Io and Ganymede images in June 1996, the Europa images in September 1996, and the Callisto images in November 1997.Launched in October 1989, the spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission

  14. Future communications satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwell, James W.

    1992-01-01

    The point of view of the research is made through the use of viewgraphs. It is suggested that future communications satellite applications will be made through switched point to point narrowband communications. Some characteristics of which are as follows: small/low cost terminals; single hop communications; voice compatible; full mesh networking; ISDN compatible; and possible limited use of full motion video. Some target applications are as follows: voice/data networks between plants and offices in a corporation; data base networking for commercial and science users; and cellular radio internodal voice/data networking.

  15. HETE Satellite Power Subsystem

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    The HETE (High-Energy Transient Experiment) satellite a joint project between MIT's Center for Space Research and AeroAstro. is a high-energy gamma-ray burst/X-Ray/UV observatory platform. HETE will be launched into a 550 km circular orbit with an inclination of 37.7°, and has a design lifetime of 18 months. This paper presents a description of the spacecraft's power subsystem, which collects, regulates, and distributes power to the experiment payload modules and to the various spacecraft sub...

  16. HBx truncation mutants differentially modulate SREBP-1a and -1c transcription and HBV replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qi; Liu, Qiang

    2015-12-01

    As master transcription factors for lipogenesis, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) has two isoforms, SREBP-1a and SREBP-1c. Hepatitis B virus X (HBx) can up-regulate the transcription of both SREBP-1a and SREBP-1c. HBx is a small protein consisting of 154 amino acids. Truncated forms of HBx, often found in the tissues after HBV infection, may have a role in the pathogenesis associated with HBV infection. In this study, we examined the effects of two HBx truncation mutants, HBx aa. 1-127 and HBx aa. 43-154, on the transcription of SREBP-1a and SREBP-1c. HBx 1-127 can up-regulate SREBP-1c, but not SREBP-1a transcription, whereas HBx 43-154 can activate SREBP-1a, but not SREBP-1c transcription. We further determined the activities of two HBV enhancers after the expression of the truncated HBx proteins. HBx 1-127 and HBx 43-154 can only up-regulate HBV enhancer I or HBV enhancer II, respectively. Knocking down SREBP-1 abrogates enhancer activation by HBx proteins, suggesting a role of SREBP-1. In addition, using HBV enhancer mutants, we found that the binding sequence for AP-1 on enhancer I is essential for its activation by HBx 1-127, whereas C/EBP and Sp1 sites are required for enhancer II activation by HBx 43-154. Finally, we showed that both HBx 1-127 and HBx 43-154 can increase HBV transcription and HBV replication dependent upon SREBP-1 because knocking down SREBP-1 abrogates the up-regulation. Furthermore, upon ectopic expression of either SREBP-1a or SREBP-1c, we showed that SREBP-1a is involved in HBV transcription and replication up-regulation by HBx 43-154, whereas SREBP-1c is involved in HBV transcription and replication up-regulation by HBx 1-127. Our results should help understand the interactions between HBV and the SREBP-1-mediated lipogenic pathway.

  17. Schizophrenia Related Variants in CACNA1C also Confer Risk of Autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders with a strong genetic component. Many lines of evidence indicated that ASD shares common genetic variants with other psychiatric disorders (for example, schizophrenia. Previous studies detected that calcium channels are involved in the etiology of many psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and autism. Significant association between CACNA1C (calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit and schizophrenia was detected. Furthermore, rare mutation in CACNA1C is suggested to cause Timothy syndrome, a multisystem disorder including autism-associated phenotype. However, there is no evidence for association between CACNA1C and autism in Chinese Han population. To investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in CACNA1C and autism, we first performed a family-based association study between eighteen SNPs in CACNA1C and autism in 239 trios. All SNPs were genotyped by using Sequenom genotyping platform. Two SNPs (rs1006737 and rs4765905 have a trend of association with autism. To further confirm the association between these two SNPs with autism, we expanded the sample size to 553 trios by adding 314 trios. Association analyses for SNPs and haplotype were performed by using family-based association test (FBAT and Haploview software. Permutation tests were used for multiple testing corrections of the haplotype analyses (n=10,000. The significance level for all statistical tests was two-tailed (p<0.05. The results demonstrated that G allele of rs1006737 and G allele of rs4765905 showed a preferential transmission to affected offspring in 553 trios (p=0.035. Haplotype analyses showed that two haplotypes constructed from rs1006737 and rs4765905 were significantly associated with autism (p=0.030, 0.023, respectively; Global p=0.046. These results were still significant after permutation correction (n=10,000, p=0.027. Our research suggests

  18. Thyrotropin increases hepatic triglyceride content through upregulation of SREBP-1c activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Wang, Qi; Lu, Ming; Chen, Wenbin; Song, Yongfeng; Jing, Fei; Guan, Youfei; Wang, Laicheng; Lin, Yanliang; Bo, Tao; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Tingting; Xin, Wei; Yu, Chunxiao; Guan, Qingbo; Zhou, Xinli; Gao, Ling; Xu, Chao; Zhao, Jiajun

    2014-12-01

    Hallmarks of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are increased triglyceride accumulation within hepatocytes. The prevalence of NAFLD increases steadily with increasing thyrotropin (TSH) levels. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we focused on exploring the effect and mechanism of TSH on the hepatic triglyceride content. As the function of TSH is mediated through the TSH receptor (TSHR), Tshr(-/-) mice (supplemented with thyroxine) were used. Liver steatosis and triglyceride content were analysed in Tshr(-/-) and Tshr(+/+) mice fed a high-fat or normal chow diet, as well as in Srebp-1c(-/-) and Tshr(-/-)Srebp-1c(-/-) mice. The expression levels of proteins and genes involved in liver triglyceride metabolism was measured. Compared with control littermates, the high-fat diet induced a relatively low degree of liver steatosis in Tshr(-/-) mice. Even under chow diet, hepatic triglyceride content was decreased in Tshr(-/-) mice. TSH caused concentration- and time-dependent effects on intracellular triglyceride contents in hepatocytes in vitro. The activity of SREBP-1c, a key regulator involved in triglyceride metabolism and in the pathogenesis of NAFLD, was significantly lower in Tshr(-/-) mice. In Tshr(-/-)Srebp-1c(-/-) mice, the liver triglyceride content showed no significant difference compared with Tshr(+/+)Srebp-1c(-/-) mice. When mice were injected with forskolin (cAMP activator), H89 (inhibitor of PKA) or AICAR (AMPK activator), or HeG2 cells received MK886 (PPARα inhibitor), triglyceride contents presented in a manner dependent on SREBP-1c activity. The mechanism, underlying TSH-induced liver triglyceride accumulation, involved that TSH, through its receptor TSHR, triggered hepatic SREBP-1c activity via the cAMP/PKA/PPARα pathway associated with decreased AMPK, which further increased the expression of genes associated with lipogenesis. TSH increased the hepatic triglyceride content, indicating an essential role for TSH in the

  19. MicroRNA-221 inhibits CDKN1C/p57 expression in human colorectal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai SUN; Wei WANG; Jun-jie ZENG; Cheng-tang WU; Shang-tong LEI; Guo-xin LI

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the regulatory effect of microRNA-221 (miR-221) on CDKN1C/p57 expression in colorectal carcinoma (CRC).Methods: Thirty four CRC and adjacent non-tumorous tissue samples were collected individually. Total RNA and protein were isolatedand from these samples and four human CRC-derived cell lines (including HT-29, Lovo, SW-480 and Caco2). MiR-221 expression was examined using real-time RT-PCR. CRC cells were treated with or without anti-p57-siRNA prior to the addition of premiR-221 or anti-miR-221. The mRNA and protein levels of CDKN1C/p57 were examined using semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. CRC cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed using MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively.The CDKN1C/p57 3'-UTR fragment was amplified using PCR from the genomic DNA of human colon cells and inserted into a luciferase reporter construct. The reporter construct was then transfected into CRC cells together with pre-miR-221 or anti-miR-221, and the luciferase activity in the transfected cells was examined.Results: MiR-221 expression was significantly up-regulated in 90% of CRC samples compared to that in the adjacent non-tumorous tissue, and the expression level was positively correlated to an advanced TNM stage and local invasion. There was no significant difference in CDKN1C/p57 mRNA expression between CRC and corresponding non-tumorous tissues, whereas CDKN1C/p57 protein expression was markedly decreased in the CRC samples. A significant inverse correlation between miR-221 and CDKN1C/p57expression was found in CRC cells. Moreover, a miR-221-specific inhibitor significantly increased CDKN1C/p57 protein expression in CRC cells. Anti-miR-221 markedly inhibited CRC cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. This inhibitory effect was abolished by pretreatment with a nti-p57-siRNA, suggesting that the inhibition was mediated by CDKN1C/p57. A significant increase of the luciferase activity was observed in CRC cells co-transfected with

  20. Peri-conceptional A1C and risk of serious adverse pregnancy outcome in 933 women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte M; Korsholm, Lars; Ovesen, Per;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between peri-conceptional A1C and serious adverse pregnancy outcome (congenital malformations and perinatal mortality). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Prospective data were collected in 933 singleton pregnancies complicated by type 1 diabetes. RESULTS: The risk...... malformation rate increased significantly at A1C above 10.4%, whereas perinatal mortality was increased even at A1C below 6.9%. CONCLUSIONS: These results support recent guidelines of preconceptional A1C levels diabetes....

  1. Ibogaino ir noribogaino toksiškumo ir farmakokinetinių savybių tyrimas

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Ibogainas yra indolo grupės alkaloidas, išskiriamas iš augalo Tabernanthe iboga Baill. (Apocynaceae). Šis alkaloidas mažina priklausomybę nuo opiatų bei lengvina abstinencijos požymius. Noribogainas – ibogaino aktyvusis metabolitas, sukeliantis mažiau nepageidaujamų reiškinių. Darbo tikslas: ištirti ibogaino ir noribogaino toksiškumą ir farmakokinetines savybes taikant eksperimentinį laboratorinių pelių modelį. Uždaviniai: Nustatyti ibogaino ir noribogaino toksiškumą, apskaičiuojant šių medži...

  2. The TAOS/STEP Satellite

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, David; Hosken, Robert

    1995-01-01

    The Technology for Autonomous Operational Survivability / Space Test Experiments Platform (TAOS/STEP) satellite was launched on a Taurus booster from Vandenberg Air Force Base into a nearly circular, 105 degree inclined orbit on March 13, 1994. The purpose of this satellite is twofold: 1) to test a new concept in multiple procurements of fast-track modular satellites and 2) to test a suite of Air Force Phillips Laboratory payloads in space. The TAOS payloads include the Microcosm Autonomous N...

  3. Living antennas on communication satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumholt, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Crises change the global pattern of communication. The communications problems occur because the satellites are optimized to cover specific geographic areas, and these areas cannot be altered once the satellites are in Earth orbit. An effective solution to the problem is to equip communication...... satellites with "living" antennas that can adjust their radiation coverage areas according to the new demands. The development of living antennas is, therefore, among the focus areas identified and supported by the European Space Agency, ESA....

  4. Effects of Sleep Disorders on Hemoglobin A1c Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Ahmet; Ünalacak, Murat; Bilge, Uğur; Yildiz, Pinar; Güler, Seda; Selçuk, Engin Burak; Bilgin, Muzaffer

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies have reported the presence of sleep disorders in approximately 50–70% of diabetic patients, and these may contribute to poor glycemic control, diabetic neuropathy, and overnight hypoglycemia. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of sleep disorders in diabetic patients, and to investigate possible relationships between scores of these sleep disorders and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and diabetic parameters (fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c], and lipid levels). Methods: We used the Berlin questionnaire (BQ) for OSAS, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) to determine the frequency of sleep disorders and their possible relationships with fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, and lipid levels. Results: The study included 585 type 2 diabetic patients admitted to family medicine clinics between October and December 2014. Sleep, sleep quality, and sleep scores were used as the dependent variables in the analysis. The ESS scores showed that 54.40% of patients experienced excessive daytime sleepiness, and according to the PSQI, 64.30% experienced poor-quality sleep. The BQ results indicated that 50.20% of patients were at high-risk of OSAS. HbA1c levels correlated significantly with the ESS and PSQI results (r = 0.23, P < 0.001 and r = 0.14, P = 0.001, respectively), and were significantly higher in those with high-risk of OSAS as defined by the BQ (P < 0.001). These results showed that HbA1c levels were related to sleep disorders. Conclusions: Sleep disorders are common in diabetic patients and negatively affect the control of diabetes. Conversely, poor diabetes control is an important factor disturbing sleep quality. Addressing sleep disturbances in patients who have difficulty controlling their blood glucose has dual benefits: Preventing diabetic complications caused by sleep disturbance and improving diabetes control. PMID:26668142

  5. Commentary: improving persistently elevated HbA1c in diabetes mellitus patients in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oghagbon, Efosa K

    2014-01-01

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level in patients with diabetes reflects quality of disease control and propensity to develop hyperglycemic complications. During more than 12 years of using HbA1c for monitoring of glycemic control among patients at Nigerian hospitals, the mean glycated hemoglobin ranged from 7.9% ± 2.4 to 8.3% ± 2.2. Most of these patients (63% to 68%) had poor glycemic controls with mean HbA1c greater than 7%. Factors that are implicated in this scenario are: 1) high cost of HbA1c testing, 2) ineffective management of risk factors, 3) poor patient compliance, 4) improperly managed diabetes education program, and 5) health care system defect. Central to improving diabetes glycemia is education of doctors, other health workers and patients, within the confines of an overhauled national health system. Physicians need to increase adherence to diabetes mellitus management guidelines and patients must be enrolled into a well-structured education program at health centers. Doctors, as leader of the health team, should drive such education schemes, which must be based on standard training curriculum, sufficient number of trained diabetes educators, and effective monitoring of patients. The most appropriate diabetes education model features small-to-moderate sized participant groups and makes use of motivational interviewing rather than a traditional advice-giving format. Improved health care funding is mandatory given the issue of cost and this can be helped by increased participation of patients in Nigeria's National Health Insurance Scheme. Failure to address the persistently elevated HbA1c will affect long-term quality of life, longevity and health care services in Nigeria.

  6. Corrected Fructosamine improves both correlation with HbA1C and diagnostic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Segade, S; Rodríguez, J; Camiña, F

    2017-02-01

    There is increasing interest in using fructosamine measurements in screening for or managing diabetes, yet uncertainty remains as to whether these measurements should be corrected for variation in serum protein concentrations. We considered all sets of simultaneous measurements of fructosamine, albumin, total serum protein (TP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1C recorded in our laboratory over 10years. The relationships between fructosamine and other variables were studied by multivariate linear regression and other analyses, and receiver operating curves (ROCs) were analysed to compare the diabetes screening performance of uncorrected fructosamine to those of albumin-corrected fructosamine (FAAlb) and TP-corrected fructosamine (FATP). 40,938 sets of measurements were collected from 20,114 patients. Though correlation between fructosamine and serum proteins was strongest among patients with HbA1C <6.5% (48mmol/mol), it was also significant in the whole sample (r=0.193 for albumin, r=0.213 for TP). With diabetes defined by HbA1C ≥6.5% (48mmol/mol), the areas under the ROCs of FAAlb (0.905) and FATP (0.895) were both significantly greater (P<0.001) than that of uncorrected fructosamine (0.878). Correction of fructosamine for albumin or TP slightly improved its correlation with HbA1C. There was no correlation of protein (albumin or TP) with log(fructosamine/protein). Fructosamine concentration correlates significantly with albumin and total protein concentrations throughout their ranges. Correction of fructosamine improves its correlation with HbA1C and its performance in detecting diabetes. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Financial strain, inflammatory factors, and haemoglobin A1c levels in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrona, Carolyn E; Abraham, William T; Russell, Daniel W; Beach, Steven R H; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Monick, Martha; Philibert, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes disproportionately affects African American women, a population exposed to high levels of stress, including financial strain (Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, 2011, http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2011.pdf). We tested a mediational model in which chronic financial strain among African American women contributes to elevated serum inflammation markers, which, in turn, lead to increased haemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) levels and risk for type 2 diabetes. We assessed level of financial strain four times over a 10-year period and tested its effect on two serum inflammation markers, C-reactive protein (CRP) and soluble interleukin-6 receptor (sIL-6R) in year 11 of the study. We tested the inflammation markers as mediators in the association between chronic financial strain and HbA1c, an index of average blood glucose level over several months. Data were from 312 non-diabetic African American women from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS; Cutrona et al., 2000, J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., 79, 1088). Chronic financial strain predicted circulating sIL-6R after controlling for age, BMI, health behaviours, and physical health measures. In turn, sIL-6R significantly predicted HbA1c levels. The path between chronic financial strain and HbA1c was significantly mediated by sIL-6R. Contrary to prediction, CRP was not predicted by chronic financial strain. Results support the role of inflammatory factors in mediating the effects of psychosocial stressors on risk for type 2 diabetes. Findings have implications for interventions that boost economic security and foster effective coping as well as medical interventions that reduce serum inflammation to prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Regulation of GLUT4 gene expression by SREBP-1c in adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Seung-Soon; Kwon, Sool-Ki; Kang, Seung-Youn; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ha-Il; Hur, Man-Wook; Kim, Kyung-Sup; Ahn, Yong-Ho

    2006-10-01

    Expression of the GLUT4 (glucose transporter type 4 isoform) gene in adipocytes is subject to hormonal or metabolic control. In the present study, we have characterized an adipose tissue transcription factor that is influenced by fasting/refeeding regimens and insulin. Northern blotting showed that refeeding increased GLUT4 mRNA levels for 24 h in adipose tissue. Consistent with an increased GLUT4 gene expression, the mRNA levels of SREBP (sterol-regulatory-element-binding protein)-1c in adipose tissue were also increased by refeeding. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, insulin treatment increased the mRNA levels of GLUT4 in adipose tissue. Serial deletion, luciferase reporter assays and electrophoretic mobility-shift assay studies indicated that the putative sterol response element is located in the region between bases -109 and -100 of the human GLUT4 promoter. Transduction of the SREBP-1c dominant negative form to differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes caused a reduction in the mRNA levels of GLUT4, suggesting that SREBP-1c mediates the transcription of GLUT4. In vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that refeeding increased the binding of SREBP-1 to the putative sterol-response element in the GLUT4. Furthermore, treating streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with insulin restored SREBP-1 binding. In addition, we have identified an Sp1 binding site adjacent to the functional sterol-response element in the GLUT4 promoter. The Sp1 site appears to play an additive role in SREBP-1c mediated GLUT4 gene upregulation. These results suggest that upregulation of GLUT4 gene transcription might be directly mediated by SREBP-1c in adipose tissue.

  9. Tekstai ir tekstynai svetimos kalbos mokymosi procese

    OpenAIRE

    Končius, Vytenis

    2013-01-01

    Išanalizavus tyrimo rezultatus straipsnyje aptariamos išvados ir pateikiami tolimesnių tyrimų siūlymai. Corpus linguistics can help in the process of second language acquisition, for example, by examining a number of well-established claims or “myths” about second language teaching and learning. One of these claims, which is rarely examined, is the supposed benefit of extensive reading to the successful acquisition of the vocabulary (Krashen et al). This claim states that a language learne...

  10. Application of IR microbolometers in border surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakfield, David K.; Norton, Peter; Plemons, Dan; Rodriguez, Christian; Sustare, Dennis

    2007-04-01

    BAE Systems led a collaborative study with New Mexico State University to investigate a series of ground based persistent surveillance solutions for potential use along the Southwest border of the United States. This study considered a wide range of system options for mobile and fixed site applications. This paper summarizes the findings of the study including the central role of the imaging subsystems in mobile ground based surveillance solutions and the suitability of uncooled IR Microbolometers within this subsystem. The paper also provides a discussion of the benefits of real time decision support applications when fielding a persistent surveillance solution.

  11. IR and OLAP in XML document warehouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Juan Manuel; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Berlanga, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we propose to combine IR and OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing) technologies to exploit a warehouse of text-rich XML documents. In the system we plan to develop, a multidimensional implementation of a relevance modeling document model will be used for interactively querying...... the warehouse by allowing navigation in the structure of documents and in a concept hierarchy of query terms. The facts described in the relevant documents will be ranked and analyzed in a novel OLAP cube model able to represent and manage facts with relevance indexes....

  12. Low Power Polysilicon Sources for IR Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, N. C.; Jhabvala, M.; Shu, P.

    1998-01-01

    We have designed and fabricated polysilicon thin film infrared (IR) sources by micromachining technology. These sources are made with a lightly doped middle region for light emission and heavy doping of the supporting legs. The sources are fabricated on a 10 mm thick, low temperature process parameters in the fabrication of these silicon dioxide layer. Different doping levels were used to achieve various source resistances. From the power requirement to reach the required light emission versus source resistance curve it is seen that there exists a resistance value which minimizes the necessary input power.

  13. Types of Research Bias Encountered in IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabr, Ahmed; Kallini, Joseph Ralph; Desai, Kush; Hickey, Ryan; Thornburg, Bartley; Kulik, Laura; Lewandowski, Robert J; Salem, Riad

    2016-04-01

    Bias is a systemic error in studies that leads to inaccurate deductions. Relevant biases in the field of IR and interventional oncology were identified after reviewing articles published in the Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology and CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology. Biases cited in these articles were divided into three categories: preinterventional (health care access, participation, referral, and sample biases), periinterventional (contamination, investigator, and operator biases), and postinterventional (guarantee-time, lead time, loss to follow-up, recall, and reporting biases). Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Stringy horizons and UV/IR mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Israel, Roy [Physics Department, Tel-Aviv University Israel,Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel); Giveon, Amit [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University,Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Itzhaki, Nissan; Liram, Lior [Physics Department, Tel-Aviv University Israel,Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel)

    2015-11-24

    The target-space interpretation of the exact (in α{sup ′}) reflection coefficient for scattering from Euclidean black-hole horizons in classical string theory is studied. For concreteness, we focus on the solvable SL(2,ℝ){sub k}/U(1) black hole. It is shown that it exhibits a fascinating UV/IR mixing, dramatically modifying the late-time behavior of general relativity. We speculate that this might play an important role in the black-hole information puzzle, as well as in clarifying features related with the non-locality of Little String Theory.

  15. CORRELATED INTERFERENCE CANCELLATION FOR IR-UWB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zaichen; Yu Xutao; Bi Guangguo

    2008-01-01

    In this letter,we propose a hybrid analog/digital detection algorithm,the Correlated Interference Cancellation (CIC) algorithm,for Impulse Radio Ultra-WideBand (IR-UWB) system. The CIC algorithm correlates received signal with its delayed versions in the analog domain and samples the correlation output at the symbol rate. The symbol rate samples are processed in the digital domain to perform interference cancellation. Therefore,CIC works for high data rate systems with heavy InterSymbol Interference (ISI). Simulation results show that CIC achieves good performance in typical UWB channels.

  16. Unrecognized glycometabolic disturbance as measured by hemoglobin A1c is associated with a poor outcome after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Ida; Kistorp, Caroline N; James, Margaret K;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is a measure of the average blood glucose levels over 2 months and is minimally affected by acute hyperglycemia often observed in myocardial infarction (MI). In a large population of high-risk patients with MI, we examined the prognostic impact of HbA1c...

  17. Shiga toxin 1c-producing Escherichia coli strains : phenotypic and genetic characterization and association with human disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedrich, Alexander W; Borell, Julia; Bielaszewska, Martina; Fruth, Angelika; Tschäpe, Helmut; Karch, Helge

    2003-01-01

    The distribution of the stx(1c) allele among Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and the virulence characteristics of stx(1c)-harboring STEC are unknown. In this study, we identified stx(1c) in 76 (54.3%) of 140 eae-negative, but in none of 155 eae-positive, human STEC isolates (P <

  18. New diagnostic criteria for diabetes: is the change from glucose to HbA1c possible in all populations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Bjerregaard, Peter; Borch-Johnsen, Knut;

    2010-01-01

    Recently, a change of the diagnostic tool for diabetes from an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has been suggested. The aim of the study was to assess whether ethnicity modified the association between glucose levels and HbA1c and to compare diabetes prevalence according...

  19. Shiga toxin 1c-producing Escherichia coli strains : phenotypic and genetic characterization and association with human disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedrich, Alexander W; Borell, Julia; Bielaszewska, Martina; Fruth, Angelika; Tschäpe, Helmut; Karch, Helge

    2003-01-01

    The distribution of the stx(1c) allele among Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and the virulence characteristics of stx(1c)-harboring STEC are unknown. In this study, we identified stx(1c) in 76 (54.3%) of 140 eae-negative, but in none of 155 eae-positive, human STEC isolates (P <

  20. 77 FR 2573 - International Product Change-Global Plus 1C and 2C Negotiated Service Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... International Product Change--Global Plus 1C and 2C Negotiated Service Agreements AGENCY: Postal Service TM... Regulatory Commission to add Global Plus 1C and 2C Negotiated Service Agreements to the Competitive Products... of United States Postal Service to Add Global Plus 1C and 2C Negotiated Service Agreements to the...