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Sample records for satb2 regulate embryonic

  1. Mutual regulation between Satb2 and Fezf2 promotes subcerebral projection neuron identity in the developing cerebral cortex.

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    McKenna, William L; Ortiz-Londono, Christian F; Mathew, Thomas K; Hoang, Kendy; Katzman, Sol; Chen, Bin

    2015-09-15

    Generation of distinct cortical projection neuron subtypes during development relies in part on repression of alternative neuron identities. It was reported that the special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (Satb2) is required for proper development of callosal neuron identity and represses expression of genes that are essential for subcerebral axon development. Surprisingly, Satb2 has recently been shown to be necessary for subcerebral axon development. Here, we unravel a previously unidentified mechanism underlying this paradox. We show that SATB2 directly activates transcription of forebrain embryonic zinc finger 2 (Fezf2) and SRY-box 5 (Sox5), genes essential for subcerebral neuron development. We find that the mutual regulation between Satb2 and Fezf2 enables Satb2 to promote subcerebral neuron identity in layer 5 neurons, and to repress subcerebral characters in callosal neurons. Thus, Satb2 promotes the development of callosal and subcerebral neurons in a cell context-dependent manner.

  2. Disruption of SATB2 or its long-range cis-regulation by SOX9 causes a syndromic form of Pierre Robin sequence.

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    Rainger, Jacqueline K; Bhatia, Shipra; Bengani, Hemant; Gautier, Philippe; Rainger, Joe; Pearson, Matt; Ansari, Morad; Crow, Jayne; Mehendale, Felicity; Palinkasova, Bozena; Dixon, Michael J; Thompson, Pamela J; Matarin, Mar; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Kleinjan, Dirk A; Fitzpatrick, David R

    2014-05-15

    Heterozygous loss-of-function (LOF) mutations in the gene encoding the DNA-binding protein, SATB2, result in micrognathia and cleft palate in both humans and mice. In three unrelated individuals, we show that translocation breakpoints (BPs) up to 896 kb 3' of SATB2 polyadenylation site cause a phenotype which is indistinguishable from that caused by SATB2 LOF mutations. This syndrome comprises long nose, small mouth, micrognathia, cleft palate, arachnodactyly and intellectual disability. These BPs map to a gene desert between PLCL1 and SATB2. We identified three putative cis-regulatory elements (CRE1-3) using a comparative genomic approach each of which would be placed in trans relative to SATB2 by all three BPs. CRE1-3 each bind p300 and mono-methylated H3K4 consistent with enhancer function. In silico analysis suggested that CRE1-3 contain one or more conserved SOX9-binding sites, and this binding was confirmed using chromatin immunoprecipitation on cells derived from mouse embryonic pharyngeal arch. Interphase bacterial artificial chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization measurements in embryonic craniofacial tissues showed that the orthologous region in mice exhibits Satb2 expression-dependent chromatin decondensation consistent with Satb2 being a target gene of CRE1-3. To assess their in vivo function, we made multiple stable reporter transgenic lines for each enhancer in zebrafish. CRE2 was shown to drive SATB2-like expression in the embryonic craniofacial region. This expression could be eliminated by mutating the SOX9-binding site of CRE2. These observations suggest that SATB2 and SOX9 may be acting together via complex cis-regulation to coordinate the growth of the developing jaw.

  3. Bmp and Shh signaling mediate the expression of satb2 in the pharyngeal arches.

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    Kelly Sheehan-Rooney

    Full Text Available In human, mutation of the transcription factor SATB2 causes severe defects to the palate and jaw. The expression and sequence of SATB2 is highly conserved across vertebrate species, including zebrafish. We sought to understand the regulation of satb2 using the zebrafish model system. Due to the normal expression domains of satb2, we analyzed satb2 expression in mutants with disrupted Hh signaling or defective ventral patterning. While satb2 expression appears independent of Edn1 signaling, appropriate expression requires Shha, Smo, Smad5 and Hand2 function. Transplantation experiments show that neural crest cells receive both Bmp and Hh signaling to induce satb2 expression. Dorsomorphin- and cyclopamine-mediated inhibition of Bmp and Hh signaling, respectively, suggests that proper satb2 expression requires a relatively earlier Bmp signal and a later Hh signal. We propose that Bmp signaling establishes competence for the neural crest to respond to Hh signaling, thus inducing satb2 expression.

  4. The CB1 cannabinoid receptor drives corticospinal motor neuron differentiation through the Ctip2/Satb2 transcriptional regulation axis

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    Díaz-Alonso, Javier; Aguado, Tania; Wu, Chia-Shan; Palazuelos, Javier; Hofmann, Clementine; Garcez, Patricia; Guillemot, Francois; Lu, Hui-Chen; Lutz, Beat; Guzmán, Manuel; Galve-Roperh, Ismael

    2012-01-01

    The generation and specification of pyramidal neuron subpopulations during development relies on a complex network of transcription factors. The CB1 cannabinoid receptor is the major molecular target of endocannabinoids and marijuana active compounds. This receptor has been shown to influence neural progenitor proliferation and axonal growth, but its involvement in neuronal differentiation and the functional impact in the adulthood caused by altering its signaling during brain development are not known. Here we show that the CB1 receptor, by preventing Satb2-mediated repression, increased Ctip2 promoter activity and Ctip2+ neuron generation. Unbalanced neurogenic fate determination found in complete CB1−/− mice and in glutamatergic neuron-specific Nex-CB1−/− mice induced overt alterations in corticospinal motor neuron generation and subcerebral connectivity, thereby resulting in an impairment of skilled motor function in adult mice. Likewise, genetic deletion of CB1 receptors in Thy1-YFP-H mice elicited alterations in corticospinal tract development. Altogether, these data demonstrate that the CB1 receptor contributes to the generation of deep-layer cortical neurons, by coupling endocannabinoid signals from the neurogenic niche to the intrinsic proneurogenic Ctip2/Satb2 axis, thus influencing appropriate subcerebral projection neuron specification and corticospinal motor function in the adulthood. PMID:23175820

  5. Genetics Home Reference: SATB2-associated syndrome

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    ... such as repetitive movements. A happy or overfriendly personality is also common among individuals with SATB2 -associated ... Health Topic: Developmental Disabilities Health Topic: Speech and Language Problems in Children Genetic and Rare Diseases Information ...

  6. Satb2 determines miRNA expression and long-term memory in the adult central nervous system.

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    Jaitner, Clemens; Reddy, Chethan; Abentung, Andreas; Whittle, Nigel; Rieder, Dietmar; Delekate, Andrea; Korte, Martin; Jain, Gaurav; Fischer, Andre; Sananbenesi, Farahnaz; Cera, Isabella; Singewald, Nicolas; Dechant, Georg; Apostolova, Galina

    2016-11-29

    SATB2 is a risk locus for schizophrenia and encodes a DNA-binding protein that regulates higher-order chromatin configuration. In the adult brain Satb2 is almost exclusively expressed in pyramidal neurons of two brain regions important for memory formation, the cerebral cortex and the CA1-hippocampal field. Here we show that Satb2 is required for key hippocampal functions since deletion of Satb2 from the adult mouse forebrain prevents the stabilization of synaptic long-term potentiation and markedly impairs long-term fear and object discrimination memory. At the molecular level, we find that synaptic activity and BDNF up-regulate Satb2, which itself binds to the promoters of coding and non-coding genes. Satb2 controls the hippocampal levels of a large cohort of miRNAs, many of which are implicated in synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Together, our findings demonstrate that Satb2 is critically involved in long-term plasticity processes in the adult forebrain that underlie the consolidation and stabilization of context-linked memory.

  7. Protooncogene Ski cooperates with the chromatin-remodeling factor Satb2 in specifying callosal neurons.

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    Baranek, Constanze; Dittrich, Manuela; Parthasarathy, Srinivas; Bonnon, Carine Gaiser; Britanova, Olga; Lanshakov, Dmitriy; Boukhtouche, Fatiha; Sommer, Julia E; Colmenares, Clemencia; Tarabykin, Victor; Atanasoski, Suzana

    2012-02-28

    First insights into the molecular programs orchestrating the progression from neural stem cells to cortical projection neurons are emerging. Loss of the transcriptional regulator Ski has been linked to the human 1p36 deletion syndrome, which includes central nervous system defects. Here, we report critical roles for Ski in the maintenance of the neural stem cell pool and the specification of callosal neurons. Ski-deficient callosal neurons lose their identity and ectopically express the transcription factor Ctip2. The misspecified callosal neurons largely fail to form the corpus callosum and instead redirect their axons toward subcortical targets. We identify the chromatin-remodeling factor Satb2 as a partner of Ski, and show that both proteins are required for transcriptional repression of Ctip2 in callosal neurons. We propose a model in which Satb2 recruits Ski to the Ctip2 locus, and Ski attracts histone deacetylases, thereby enabling the formation of a functional nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase repressor complex. Our findings establish a central role for Ski-Satb2 interactions in regulating transcriptional mechanisms of callosal neuron specification.

  8. Transplantation of osteoporotic bone marrow stromal cells rejuvenated by the overexpression of SATB2 prevents alveolar bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

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    Xu, Rongyao; Fu, Zongyun; Liu, Xue; Xiao, Tao; Zhang, Ping; Du, Yifei; Yuan, Hua; Cheng, Jie; Jiang, Hongbing

    2016-11-01

    Estrogen-deficient osteoporosis is an aging-related disease with high morbidity that not only significantly increases a woman's risk of fragility fracture but is also associated with tooth and bone loss in the supporting alveolar bone of the jaw. Emerging evidence suggests that the aging of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) contributes to the development of osteoporosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of the special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2), a stemness and senescence regulator of craniofacial BMSCs, in rat ovariectomy-induced alveolar osteoporosis. We also sought to determine whether transplantation of SATB2-modified BMSCs could ameliorate estrogen deficient alveolar bone loss. Our data revealed that BMSCs from ovariectomy-induced alveolar bone exhibited typical senescence phenotypes such as diminished stemness and osteogenic capacity, increased expression of senescence or osteoclastic markers and enhanced adipogenic potential. These phenotypic changes are a result of SATB2-mediated senescence dysregulation as evidenced by nuclear γH2AX foci formation. Moreover, overexpression of SATB2 significantly alleviated the senescence of osteoporotic BMSCs in vitro. Importantly, transplantation of SATB2-modified BMSCs significantly attenuated ovariectomy-induced alveolar bone loss in vivo. Together, our results revealed that SATB2 is a critical regulator of alveolar BMSC senescence, and its overexpression decreases these senescent changes both in vitro and in vivo. SATB2-modified BMSC delivery could be a viable and promising therapeutic strategy for alveolar bone loss induced by estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. TNF-α inhibits SATB2 expression and osteoblast differentiation through NF-κB and MAPK pathways.

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    Zuo, Chijian; Zhao, Xiaoying; Shi, Yu; Wu, Wen; Zhang, Ning; Xu, Jiake; Wang, Chuandong; Hu, Guoli; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2018-01-12

    Although the mechanisms of Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) on facilitating osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption is well known, the mechanisms behind the suppression of the osteoblast differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are still poorly understood. In this study, we observed a negative correlation between TNF-α levels and the expression of special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2), a critical osteoblastogenesis transcription factor, in ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss and IL-1-induced arthritis animal model. We found that TNF-α treatment inhibited mesenchymal cell line C2C12 osteoblast differentiation and sharply decreased BMP2-induced SATB2 expression. Upon TNF-α treatment, the activity of smad1/5/8 was inhibited, by contrast, extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2) and P38 was increased in C2C12 cells, the inhibitor of ERK1/2 (U0126) was found to abrogate the TNF-α inhibition of SATB2 expression. Furthermore, the NF-κB signaling pathway in C2C12 cells was significantly activated by the treatment of TNF-α, and TNF-α induced NF-κB directly binds to SATB2 promoter to suppress its expression. These results suggest that TNF-α suppresses SATB2 expression through activating NF-κB and MAPK signaling and depressing smad1/5/8 signaling, which contributes to the inhibition of osteoblast differentiation and might be potential therapeutic targets for inflammation-induced bone loss.

  10. The mRNA expression of SATB1 and SATB2 in human breast cancer

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    Mansel Robert

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SATB1 is a nuclear protein that has been recently reported to be a 'genome organizer' which delineates specific epigenetic modifications at target gene loci, directly up-regulating metastasis-associated genes while down-regulating tumor-suppressor genes. In this study, the level of mRNA expression of SATB1 and SATB2 were assessed in normal and malignant breast tissue in a cohort of women with breast cancer and correlated to conventional clinico-pathological parameters. Materials and methods Breast cancer tissues (n = 115 and normal background tissues (n = 31 were collected immediately after excision during surgery. Following RNA extraction, reverse transcription was carried out and transcript levels were determined using real-time quantitative PCR and normalized against β-actin expression. Transcript levels within the breast cancer specimens were compared to the normal background tissues and analyzed against TNM stage, nodal involvement, tumour grade and clinical outcome over a 10 year follow-up period. Results The levels of SATB1 were higher in malignant compared with normal breast tissue (p = 0.0167. SATB1 expression increased with increasing TNM stage (TNM1 vs. TNM2 p = 0.0264, increasing tumour grade (grade1 vs. grade 3 p = 0.017; grade 2 vs. grade 3 p = 0.0437; grade 1 vs. grade 2&3 p = 0.021 and Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI (NPI-1 vs. NPI-3 p = 0.0614; NPI-2 vs. NPI-3 p = 0.0495. Transcript levels were associated with oestrogen receptor (ER positivity (ER(- vs. ER(+ p = 0.046. SABT1 expression was also significantly correlated with downstream regulated genes IL-4 and MAF-1 (Pearson's correlation coefficient r = 0.21 and r = 0.162 and SATB2 (r = 0.506. After a median follow up of 10 years, there was a trend for higher SATB1 expression to be associated with shorter overall survival (OS. Higher levels of SATB2 were also found in malignant compared to background tissue (p = 0.049. SATB2 expression increased with

  11. Small deletions of SATB2 cause some of the clinical features of the 2q33.1 microdeletion syndrome.

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    Jill A Rosenfeld

    Full Text Available Recurrent deletions of 2q32q33 have recently been reported as a new microdeletion syndrome. Clinical features of this syndrome include severe mental retardation, growth retardation, dysmorphic features, thin and sparse hair, feeding difficulties and cleft or high palate. The commonly deleted region contains at least seven genes. Haploinsufficiency of one of these genes, SATB2, a DNA-binding protein that regulates gene expression, has been implicated as causative in the cleft or high palate of individuals with 2q32q33 microdeletion syndrome. In this study we describe three individuals with smaller microdeletions of this region, within 2q33.1. The deletions ranged in size from 173.1 kb to 185.2 kb and spanned part of SATB2. Review of clinical records showed similar clinical features among these individuals, including severe developmental delay and tooth abnormalities. Two of the individuals had behavioral problems. Only one of the subjects presented here had a cleft palate, suggesting reduced penetrance for this feature. Our results suggest that deletion of SATB2 is responsible for several of the clinical features associated with 2q32q33 microdeletion syndrome.

  12. Role of SATB2 in distinguishing the site of origin in glandular lesions of the bladder/urinary tract.

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    Giannico, Giovanna Angela; Gown, Allen M; Epstein, Jonathan I; Revetta, Frank; Bishop, Justin A

    2017-09-01

    The differential diagnosis of glandular lesions of the bladder/urinary tract can be challenging because of significant morphologic and immunohistochemical overlap between primary lesions and metastasis/direct extension from adjacent organs. Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2), encoded on chromosome 2q32-33, is a recently described DNA-binding protein involved in osteoblast lineage commitment and expressed in colorectal and appendiceal neoplasms. In this study, we hypothesized that immunohistochemistry for SATB2 may be of value in distinguishing primary adenocarcinoma of the bladder/urinary tract and urothelial carcinoma with glandular differentiation from gastrointestinal and endocervical primaries. Intensity and distribution of SATB2 nuclear labeling were semiquantitatively scored and compared with those of CDX2. The study included 43 primary adenocarcinomas of the bladder/urinary tract, 20 urothelial carcinomas with glandular differentiation, 26 adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix, and 22 colorectal adenocarcinomas involving the bladder. Positive SATB2 immunostaining was observed in 21 of 43 (49%) primary bladder/urinary tract adenocarcinomas, in 17 of 22 (77%) colorectal adenocarcinomas, and in the glandular component of 4 of 18 (22%) urothelial carcinomas with glandular differentiation. SATB2 was negative in 25 of 26 endocervical adenocarcinomas and showed focal weak immunostaining (1+) in 1 of 26 (4%). The results were not significantly different from those seen with CDX2. We conclude that SATB2 immunohistochemistry is not useful in supporting urothelial versus gastrointestinal or endocervical origin in the differential diagnosis of glandular lesions of the bladder/urinary tract. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Multiple growth factors regulate coronary embryonic vasculogenesis.

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    Tomanek, R J; Zheng, W; Peters, K G; Lin, P; Holifield, J S; Suvarna, P R

    2001-07-01

    Mechanisms regulating coronary vascularization are not well understood. To test hypotheses regarding the influence of key growth factors and their interactions, we studied vascular tube formation (vasculogenesis) in collagen gels onto which quail embryonic ventricles were placed and incubated in the presence of growth factors or inhibitors. Vasculogenesis in this model is dependent on tyrosine kinase receptors, since tube formation was totally blocked by genestein. Tube formation was attenuated when anti-bFGF or anti-VEGF neutralizing antibodies were added to the medium and nearly completely inhibited when the both were added. The attenuation associated with anti-VEGF was due primarily to a decrease in assembly of endothelial cells, while that associated with bFGF was primarily due to a reduction in endothelial cells. Soluble tie-2, the receptor for angiopoietins, also had an inhibitory effect and, when added with either anti-bFGF or anti-VEGF, markedly attenuated tube formation. At optimal doses, tube formation was enhanced 6.5-fold by bFGF and 2.5-fold by VEGF over the controls. Each of these growth factors was dependent upon the other for optimal induction of tube formation, since neutralizing antibodies to one markedly reduced the potency of the other. VEGF potency was also markedly reduced when soluble tie-2 was added to the medium. Tube formation was virtually totally blocked by exogenous TGF-beta at doses > 1 ng/ml, while neutralizing TGF-beta antibodies enhanced tube formation 2-fold in the 30 ng-30 microg range. These data provide the first documentation of multiple growth factor regulation of coronary tube formation. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. p53 regulation and activity in mouse embryonic stem cells

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    Solozobova, Valeriya

    2010-01-01

    P53 is a tumour development p53. The aim of this work was to study the regulation of p53 in embryonic stem cells and its activation in response to DNA damage. p53 was found that p53 becomes transcriptionally active in ES cells after DNA damage. Embryonic stem cells contain a relatively high amount of p53 protein and p53 RNA. After differentiation p53 level is rapidly downregulated. The high abundance of p53 in undifferentiated ES cells is a result of enhanced translation.

  15. Ctip2-, Satb2-, Prox1-, and GAD65-Expressing Neurons in Rat Cultures: Preponderance of Single- and Double-Positive Cells, and Cell Type-Specific Expression of Neuron-Specific Gene Family Members, Nsg-1 (NEEP21 and Nsg-2 (P19.

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    Laura Digilio

    Full Text Available The brain consists of many distinct neuronal cell types, but which cell types are present in widely used primary cultures of embryonic rodent brain is often not known. We characterized how abundantly four cell type markers (Ctip2, Satb2, Prox1, GAD65 were represented in cultured rat neurons, how easily neurons expressing different markers can be transfected with commonly used plasmids, and whether neuronal-enriched endosomal proteins Nsg-1 (NEEP21 and Nsg-2 (P19 are ubiquitously expressed in all types of cultured neurons. We found that cultured neurons stably maintain cell type identities that are reflective of cell types in vivo. This includes neurons maintaining simultaneous expression of two transcription factors, such as Ctip2+/Satb2+ or Prox1+/Ctip2+ double-positive cells, which have also been described in vivo. Secondly, we established the superior efficiency of CAG promoters for both Lipofectamine-mediated transfection as well as for electroporation. Thirdly, we discovered that Nsg-1 and Nsg-2 were not expressed equally in all neurons: whereas high levels of both Nsg-1 and Nsg-2 were found in Satb2-, Ctip2-, and GAD65-positive neurons, Prox1-positive neurons in hippocampal cultures expressed low levels of both. Our findings thus highlight the importance of identifying neuronal cell types for doing cell biology in cultured neurons: Keeping track of neuronal cell type might uncover effects in assays that might otherwise be masked by the mixture of responsive and non-responsive neurons in the dish.

  16. Factors that regulate embryonic gustatory development

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    Krimm Robin F

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerous molecular factors orchestrate the development of the peripheral taste system. The unique anatomy/function of the taste system makes this system ideal for understanding the mechanisms by which these factors function; yet the taste system is underutilized for this role. This review focuses on some of the many factors that are known to regulate gustatory development, and discusses a few topics where more work is needed. Some attention is given to factors that regulate epibranchial placode formation, since gustatory neurons are thought to be primarily derived from this region. Epibranchial placodes appear to arise from a pan-placodal region and a number of regulatory factors control the differentiation of individual placodes. Gustatory neuron differentiation is regulated by a series of transcription factors and perhaps bone morphongenic proteins (BMP. As neurons differentiate, they also proliferate such that their numbers exceed those in the adult, and this is followed by developmental death. Some of these cell-cycling events are regulated by neurotrophins. After gustatory neurons become post-mitotic, axon outgrowth occurs. Axons are guided by multiple chemoattractive and chemorepulsive factors, including semaphorins, to the tongue epithelium. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, functions as a targeting factor in the final stages of axon guidance and is required for gustatory axons to find and innervate taste epithelium. Numerous factors are involved in the development of gustatory papillae including Sox-2, Sonic hedge hog and Wnt-β-catenin signaling. It is likely that just as many factors regulate taste bud differentiation; however, these factors have not yet been identified. Studies examining the molecular factors that regulate terminal field formation in the nucleus of the solitary tract are also lacking. However, it is possible that some of the factors that regulate geniculate ganglion development, outgrowth, guidance and

  17. Factors that regulate embryonic gustatory development.

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    Krimm, Robin F

    2007-09-18

    Numerous molecular factors orchestrate the development of the peripheral taste system. The unique anatomy/function of the taste system makes this system ideal for understanding the mechanisms by which these factors function; yet the taste system is underutilized for this role. This review focuses on some of the many factors that are known to regulate gustatory development, and discusses a few topics where more work is needed. Some attention is given to factors that regulate epibranchial placode formation, since gustatory neurons are thought to be primarily derived from this region. Epibranchial placodes appear to arise from a pan-placodal region and a number of regulatory factors control the differentiation of individual placodes. Gustatory neuron differentiation is regulated by a series of transcription factors and perhaps bone morphongenic proteins (BMP). As neurons differentiate, they also proliferate such that their numbers exceed those in the adult, and this is followed by developmental death. Some of these cell-cycling events are regulated by neurotrophins. After gustatory neurons become post-mitotic, axon outgrowth occurs. Axons are guided by multiple chemoattractive and chemorepulsive factors, including semaphorins, to the tongue epithelium. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), functions as a targeting factor in the final stages of axon guidance and is required for gustatory axons to find and innervate taste epithelium. Numerous factors are involved in the development of gustatory papillae including Sox-2, Sonic hedge hog and Wnt-beta-catenin signaling. It is likely that just as many factors regulate taste bud differentiation; however, these factors have not yet been identified. Studies examining the molecular factors that regulate terminal field formation in the nucleus of the solitary tract are also lacking. However, it is possible that some of the factors that regulate geniculate ganglion development, outgrowth, guidance and targeting of peripheral

  18. Mechanisms Regulating Stemness and Differentiation in Embryonal Carcinoma Cells

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    Gregory M. Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Just over ten years have passed since the seminal Takahashi-Yamanaka paper, and while most attention nowadays is on induced, embryonic, and cancer stem cells, much of the pioneering work arose from studies with embryonal carcinoma cells (ECCs derived from teratocarcinomas. This original work was broad in scope, but eventually led the way for us to focus on the components involved in the gene regulation of stemness and differentiation. As the name implies, ECCs are malignant in nature, yet maintain the ability to differentiate into the 3 germ layers and extraembryonic tissues, as well as behave normally when reintroduced into a healthy blastocyst. Retinoic acid signaling has been thoroughly interrogated in ECCs, especially in the F9 and P19 murine cell models, and while we have touched on this aspect, this review purposely highlights how some key transcription factors regulate pluripotency and cell stemness prior to this signaling. Another major focus is on the epigenetic regulation of ECCs and stem cells, and, towards that end, this review closes on what we see as a new frontier in combating aging and human disease, namely, how cellular metabolism shapes the epigenetic landscape and hence the pluripotency of all stem cells.

  19. Regulation of bone morphogenetic proteins in early embryonic development

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    Yamamoto, Yukiyo; Oelgeschläger, Michael

    2004-11-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), a large subgroup of the TGF-β family of secreted growth factors, control fundamental events in early embryonic development, organogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis. The plethora of dose-dependent cellular processes regulated by BMP signalling demand a tight regulation of BMP activity. Over the last decade, a number of proteins have been identified that bind BMPs in the extracellular space and regulate the interaction of BMPs with their cognate receptors, including the secreted BMP antagonist Chordin. In the early vertebrate embryo, the localized secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip establishes a functional BMP signalling gradient that is required for the determination of the dorsoventral or back to belly body axis. In particular, inhibition of BMP activity is essential for the formation of neural tissue in the development of vertebrate and invertebrate embryos. Here we review recent studies that have provided new insight into the regulation of BMP signalling in the extracellular space. In particular, we discuss the recently identified Twisted gastrulation protein that modulates, in concert with metalloproteinases of the Tolloid family, the interaction of Chordin with BMP and a family of proteins that share structural similarities with Chordin in the respective BMP binding domains. In addition, genetic and functional studies in zebrafish and frog provide compelling evidence that the secreted protein Sizzled functionally interacts with the Chd BMP pathway, despite being expressed ventrally in the early gastrula-stage embryo. These intriguing discoveries may have important implications, not only for our current concept of early embryonic patterning, but also for the regulation of BMP activity at later developmental stages and tissue homeostasis in the adult.

  20. Localization in Oogenesis of Maternal Regulators of Embryonic Development.

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    Escobar-Aguirre, Matias; Elkouby, Yaniv M; Mullins, Mary C

    2017-01-01

    Cell polarity generates intracellular asymmetries and functional regionalization in tissues and morphogenetic processes. Cell polarity in development often relies on mechanisms of RNA localization to specific subcellular domains to define the identity of future developing tissues. The totipotent egg of most animals illustrates in a grand way the importance of cell polarity and RNA localization in regulating multiple crucial developmental events. The polarization of the egg arises during its development in oogenesis. RNAs localize asymmetrically in the early oocyte defining its animal-vegetal (AV) axis, which upon further elaboration in mid- and late-oogenesis stages produces a mature egg with specific localized factors along its AV axis. These localized factors will define the future anterior-posterior (AP) and dorsal-ventral (DV) axes of the embryo. Furthermore, AV polarity confines germ cell determinants to the vegetal pole, from where they redistribute to the cleavage furrows of the 2- and 4-cell stage embryo, ultimately specifying the primordial germ cells (PGCs). The sperm entry region during fertilization is also defined by the AV axis. In frogs and fish, sperm enters through the animal pole, similar to the mouse where it enters predominantly in the animal half. Thus, AV polarity establishment and RNA localization are involved in all the major events of early embryonic development. In this chapter, we will review the RNA localization mechanisms in vertebrate oocytes that are key to embryonic patterning, referring to some of the groundbreaking studies in frog oocytes and incorporating the current genetic evidence from the zebrafish.

  1. Chromatin regulation landscape of embryonic stem cell identity.

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    Lee, Yun Hwa; Wu, Qiang

    2011-04-01

    ES cells (embryonic stem cells) derived from the ICM (inner cell mass) of blastocysts are pluripotent and are capable of giving rise to most cell types. The ES cell identity is mainly maintained by the Oct4 (octamer-binding transcription factor 4) and Nanog transcriptional networks. Recently, a tremendous amount of work has focused on deciphering how ES cell identity is regulated epigenetically. It has been shown that histone methylation/demethylation, histone acetylation/deacetylation, histone variants and chromatin remodelling play crucial roles in ES cell maintenance and differentiation. Moreover, perturbation of those chromatin regulators results in loss of ES cell identity or aberrant differentiation. Therefore, it is important to fully understand the chromatin regulation landscape of ES cells. The knowledge gained will help us to harness the unique characteristics of ES cells for stem cell-related therapy and regenerative medicine. In the present review, we will discuss recent proceedings that provide novel insights into chromatin regulation of ES cell identity.

  2. GATA-1 directly regulates Nanog in mouse embryonic stem cells

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    Li, Wen-Zhong; Ai, Zhi-Ying [College of Life Sciences, Northwest A& F University, Yangling 712100 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest A& F University, Yangling 712100 (China); Wang, Zhi-Wei [School of Life Sciences and Medical Center, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Chen, Lin-Lin [College of Life Sciences, Northwest A& F University, Yangling 712100 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest A& F University, Yangling 712100 (China); Guo, Ze-Kun, E-mail: gzknwaf@126.com [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A& F University, Yangling 712100 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest A& F University, Yangling 712100 (China); Zhang, Yong, E-mail: zylabnwaf@126.com [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A& F University, Yangling 712100 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest A& F University, Yangling 712100 (China)

    2015-09-25

    Nanog safeguards pluripotency in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Insight into the regulation of Nanog is important for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control pluripotency of mESCs. In a silico analysis, we identify four GATA-1 putative binding sites in Nanog proximal promoter. The Nanog promoter activity can be significantly repressed by ectopic expression of GATA-1 evidenced by a promoter reporter assay. Mutation studies reveal that one of the four putative binding sites counts for GATA-1 repressing Nanog promoter activity. Direct binding of GATA-1 on Nanog proximal promoter is confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Our data provide new insights into the expanded regulatory circuitry that coordinates Nanog expression. - Highlights: • The Nanog proximal promoter conceives functional element for GATA-1. • GATA-1 occupies the Nanog proximal promoter in vitro and in vivo. • GATA-1 transcriptionally suppresses Nanog.

  3. Col11a1 Regulates Bone Microarchitecture during Embryonic Development

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    Anthony Hafez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Collagen XI alpha 1 (Col11a1 is an extracellular matrix molecule required for embryonic development with a role in both nucleating the formation of fibrils and regulating the diameter of heterotypic fibrils during collagen fibrillar assembly. Although found in many different tissues throughout the vertebrate body, Col11a1 plays an essential role in endochondral ossification. To further understand the function of Col11a1 in the process of bone formation, we compared skeletal mineralization in wild-type (WT mice and Col11a1-deficient mice using X-ray microtomography (micro-CT and histology. Changes in trabecular bone microstructure were observed and are presented here. Additionally, changes to the periosteal bone collar of developing long bones were observed and resulted in an increase in thickness in the case of Col11a1-deficient mice compared to WT littermates. Vertebral bodies were incompletely formed in the absence of Col11a1. The data demonstrate that Col11a1 depletion results in alteration to newly-formed bone and is consistent with a role for Col11a1 in mineralization. These findings indicate that expression of Col11a1 in the growth plate and perichondrium is essential for trabecular bone and bone collar formation during endochondral ossification. The observed changes to mineralized tissues further define the function of Col11a1.

  4. Col11a1 Regulates Bone Microarchitecture during Embryonic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, Anthony; Squires, Ryan; Pedracini, Amber; Joshi, Alark; Seegmiller, Robert E; Oxford, Julia Thom

    Collagen XI alpha 1 (Col11a1) is an extracellular matrix molecule required for embryonic development with a role in both nucleating the formation of fibrils and regulating the diameter of heterotypic fibrils during collagen fibrillar assembly. Although found in many different tissues throughout the vertebrate body, Col11a1 plays an essential role in endochondral ossification. To further understand the function of Col11a1 in the process of bone formation, we compared skeletal mineralization in wild-type (WT) mice and Col11a1-deficient mice using X-ray microtomography (micro-CT) and histology. Changes in trabecular bone microstructure were observed and are presented here. Additionally, changes to the periosteal bone collar of developing long bones were observed and resulted in an increase in thickness in the case of Col11a1-deficient mice compared to WT littermates. Vertebral bodies were incompletely formed in the absence of Col11a1. The data demonstrate that Col11a1 depletion results in alteration to newly-formed bone and is consistent with a role for Col11a1 in mineralization. These findings indicate that expression of Col11a1 in the growth plate and perichondrium is essential for trabecular bone and bone collar formation during endochondral ossification. The observed changes to mineralized tissues further define the function of Col11a1.

  5. Undifferentiated Embryonic Cell Transcription Factor 1 Regulates ESC Chromatin Organization and Gene Expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, Susanne M.; van den Boom, Vincent; Thummer, Rajkumar P.; Johannes, Frank; Wardenaar, Rene; Tesson, Bruno M.; Veenhoff, Liesbeth M.; Fusetti, Fabrizia; O'Neill, Laura P.; Turner, Bryan M.; de Haan, Gerald; Eggen, Bart J. L.; O’Neill, Laura P.

    2010-01-01

    Previous reports showed that embryonic stem (ES) cells contain hyperdynamic and globally transcribed chromatin-properties that are important for ES cell pluripotency and differentiation. Here, we demonstrate a role for undifferentiated embryonic cell transcription factor 1 (UTF1) in regulating ES

  6. Prion protein expression regulates embryonic stem cell pluripotency and differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Miranda

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cellular prion protein (PRNP is a glycoprotein involved in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs. Although the physiological function of PRNP is largely unknown, its key role in prion infection has been extensively documented. This study examines the functionality of PRNP during the course of embryoid body (EB differentiation in mouse Prnp-null (KO and WT embryonic stem cell (ESC lines. The first feature observed was a new population of EBs that only appeared in the KO line after 5 days of differentiation. These EBs were characterized by their expression of several primordial germ cell (PGC markers until Day 13. In a comparative mRNA expression analysis of genes playing an important developmental role during ESC differentiation to EBs, Prnp was found to participate in the transcription of a key pluripotency marker such as Nanog. A clear switching off of this gene on Day 5 was observed in the KO line as opposed to the WT line, in which maximum Prnp and Nanog mRNA levels appeared at this time. Using a specific antibody against PRNP to block PRNP pathways, reduced Nanog expression was confirmed in the WT line. In addition, antibody-mediated inhibition of ITGB5 (integrin αvβ5 in the KO line rescued the low expression of Nanog on Day 5, suggesting the regulation of Nanog transcription by Prnp via this Itgb5. mRNA expression analysis of the PRNP-related proteins PRND (Doppel and SPRN (Shadoo, whose PRNP function is known to be redundant, revealed their incapacity to compensate for the absence of PRNP during early ESC differentiation. Our findings provide strong evidence for a relationship between Prnp and several key pluripotency genes and attribute Prnp a crucial role in regulating self-renewal/differentiation status of ESC, confirming the participation of PRNP during early embryogenesis.

  7. Maternal Embryonic Leucine Zipper Kinase (MELK: A Novel Regulator in Cell Cycle Control, Embryonic Development, and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Jiang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK functions as a modulator of intracellular signaling and affects various cellular and biological processes, including cell cycle, cell proliferation, apoptosis, spliceosome assembly, gene expression, embryonic development, hematopoiesis, and oncogenesis. In these cellular processes, MELK functions by binding to numerous proteins. In general, the effects of multiple protein interactions with MELK are oncogenic in nature, and the overexpression of MELK in kinds of cancer provides some evidence that it may be involved in tumorigenic process. In this review, our current knowledge of MELK function and recent discoveries in MELK signaling pathway were discussed. The regulation of MELK in cancers and its potential as a therapeutic target were also described.

  8. Early gene regulation of osteogenesis in embryonic stem cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kirkham, Glen R.

    2012-01-01

    The early gene regulatory networks (GRNs) that mediate stem cell differentiation are complex, and the underlying regulatory associations can be difficult to map accurately. In this study, the expression profiles of the genes Dlx5, Msx2 and Runx2 in mouse embryonic stem cells were monitored over a 48 hour period after exposure to the growth factors BMP2 and TGFβ1. Candidate GRNs of early osteogenesis were constructed based on published experimental findings and simulation results of Boolean and ordinary differential equation models were compared with our experimental data in order to test the validity of these models. Three gene regulatory networks were found to be consistent with the data, one of these networks exhibited sustained oscillation, a behaviour which is consistent with the general view of embryonic stem cell plasticity. The work cycle presented in this paper illustrates how mathematical modelling can be used to elucidate from gene expression profiles GRNs that are consistent with experimental data. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. Retroviral transcriptional regulation and embryonic stem cells: war and peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Sharon; Goff, Stephen P

    2015-03-01

    Retroviruses have evolved complex transcriptional enhancers and promoters that allow their replication in a wide range of tissue and cell types. Embryonic stem (ES) cells, however, characteristically suppress transcription of proviruses formed after infection by exogenous retroviruses and also of most members of the vast array of endogenous retroviruses in the genome. These cells have unusual profiles of transcribed genes and are poised to make rapid changes in those profiles upon induction of differentiation. Many of the transcription factors in ES cells control both host and retroviral genes coordinately, such that retroviral expression patterns can serve as markers of ES cell pluripotency. This overlap is not coincidental; retrovirus-derived regulatory sequences are often used to control cellular genes important for pluripotency. These sequences specify the temporal control and perhaps "noisy" control of cellular genes that direct proper cell gene expression in primitive cells and their differentiating progeny. The evidence suggests that the viral elements have been domesticated for host needs, reflecting the wide-ranging exploitation of any and all available DNA sequences in assembling regulatory networks. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. EVA1A/TMEM166 Regulates Embryonic Neurogenesis by Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengtao; Lu, Guang; Hu, Jia; Shen, Xue; Ju, Jiabao; Gao, Yuanxu; Qu, Liujing; Xia, Yan; Chen, Yingyu; Bai, Yun

    2016-03-08

    Self-renewal and differentiation of neural stem cells is essential for embryonic neurogenesis, which is associated with cell autophagy. However, the mechanism by which autophagy regulates neurogenesis remains undefined. Here, we show that Eva1a/Tmem166, an autophagy-related gene, regulates neural stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Eva1a depletion impaired the generation of newborn neurons, both in vivo and in vitro. Conversely, overexpression of EVA1A enhanced newborn neuron generation and maturation. Moreover, Eva1a depletion activated the PIK3CA-AKT axis, leading to the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin and the subsequent inhibition of autophagy. Furthermore, addition of methylpyruvate to the culture during neural stem cell differentiation rescued the defective embryonic neurogenesis induced by Eva1a depletion, suggesting that energy availability is a significant factor in embryonic neurogenesis. Collectively, these data demonstrated that EVA1A regulates embryonic neurogenesis by modulating autophagy. Our results have potential implications for understanding the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders caused by autophagy dysregulation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tbx20 Is an Essential Regulator of Embryonic Heart Growth in Zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Just

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms that regulate cardiomyocyte proliferation during embryonic heart growth are not completely deciphered yet. In a forward genetic N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU mutagenesis screen, we identified the recessive embryonic-lethal zebrafish mutant line weiches herz (whz. Homozygous mutant whz embryos display impaired heart growth due to diminished embryonic cardiomyocyte proliferation resulting in cardiac hypoplasia and weak cardiac contraction. By positional cloning, we found in whz mutant zebrafish a missense mutation within the T-box 20 (Tbx20 transcription factor gene leading to destabilization of Tbx20 protein. Morpholino-mediated knock-down of Tbx20 in wild-type zebrafish embryos phenocopies whz, indicating that the whz phenotype is due to loss of Tbx20 function, thereby leading to significantly reduced cardiomyocyte numbers by impaired proliferation of heart muscle cells. Ectopic overexpression of wild-type Tbx20 in whz mutant embryos restored cardiomyocyte proliferation and heart growth. Interestingly, ectopic overexpression of Tbx20 in wild-type zebrafish embryos resulted, similar to the situation in the embryonic mouse heart, in significantly reduced proliferation rates of ventricular cardiomyocytes, suggesting that Tbx20 activity needs to be tightly fine-tuned to guarantee regular cardiomyocyte proliferation and embryonic heart growth in vivo.

  12. Final Report for Regulation of Embryonic Development in Higher Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, John J. [University of California, Davis

    2013-10-22

    The overall goal of the project was to define the cellular processes that underlie embryo development in plants at a mechanistic level. Our studies focused on a critical transcriptional regulator, Arabidopsis LEAFY COTYLEDON (LEC1), that is necessary and sufficient to induce processes required for embryo development. Because LEC1 regulates lipid accumulation during the maturation phase of embryo development, information about LEC1 may be useful in designing approaches to enhance biofuel production in plants. During the tenure of this project, we determined the molecular mechanisms by which LEC1 acts as a transcription factor in embryos. We also identified genes directly regulated by LEC1 and showed that many of these genes are involved in maturation processes. This information has been useful in dissecting the gene regulatory networks controlling embryo development. Finally, LEC1 is a novel isoform of a transcription factor that is conserved among eukaryotes, and LEC1 is active primarily in seeds. Therefore, we determined that the LEC1-type transcription factors first appeared in lycophytes during land plant evolution. Together, this study provides basic information that has implications for biofuel production.

  13. Kisspeptin regulates ovarian steroidogenesis during delayed embryonic development in the fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha; Krishna, Amitabh

    2017-11-01

    Cynopterus sphinx, a fruit bat, undergoes delayed embryonic development during the winter months, a period that corresponds to low levels of progesterone and estradiol synthesis by the ovary. Kisspeptins (KPs) are a group of neuropeptide hormones that act via G-protein coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) to stimulate hypothalamic secretion of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, thereby regulating ovarian steroidogenesis, folliculogenesis, and ovulation. GPR54 is also expressed in the ovary, suggesting a direct role for KPs in ovarian steroidogenesis. The aim of present study was to determine if a low serum level of KP is responsible for reduced progesterone and estradiol levels during the period of delayed embryonic development in C. sphinx. Indeed, low serum KP abundance corresponded to reduced expression of GPR54 in ovarian luteal cells during the period of delayed development compared to normal development. In vitro and in vivo treatment with KP increased GPR54 abundance, via Extracellular signal regulated kinase and its downstream mediators, leading to increased progesterone synthesis in the ovary during delayed embryonic development. KP treatment also increased cholesterol uptake and elevated expression of Luteinizing hormone receptor and Steroid acute regulatory protein in the ovary, suggesting that elevation in circulating KP during delayed embryonic development may reactivate luteal activity. KPs may also enhance cell survival (BCL-2, reduced Caspase 3 activity) and angiogenesis (Vascular endothelium growth factor) during this period. The findings of this study thus demonstrate a regulatory role for KPs in the maintenance of luteal steroidogenesis during pregnancy in C. sphinx. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. G protein-coupled estrogen receptor regulates embryonic heart rate in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Shannon N; Edwards, Hailey E; Souder, Jaclyn Paige; Ryan, Kevin J; Cui, Xiangqin; Gorelick, Daniel A

    2017-10-24

    Estrogens act by binding to estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ERα, ERβ), ligand-dependent transcription factors that play crucial roles in sex differentiation, tumor growth and cardiovascular physiology. Estrogens also activate the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), however the function of GPER in vivo is less well understood. Here we find that GPER is required for normal heart rate in zebrafish embryos. Acute exposure to estrogens increased heart rate in wildtype and in ERα and ERβ mutant embryos but not in GPER mutants. GPER mutant embryos exhibited reduced basal heart rate, while heart rate was normal in ERα and ERβ mutants. We detected gper transcript in discrete regions of the brain and pituitary but not in the heart, suggesting that GPER acts centrally to regulate heart rate. In the pituitary, we observed gper expression in cells that regulate levels of thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3), a hormone known to increase heart rate. Compared to wild type, GPER mutants had reduced levels of T3 and estrogens, suggesting pituitary abnormalities. Exposure to exogenous T3, but not estradiol, rescued the reduced heart rate phenotype in gper mutant embryos, demonstrating that T3 acts downstream of GPER to regulate heart rate. Using genetic and mass spectrometry approaches, we find that GPER regulates maternal estrogen levels, which are required for normal embryonic heart rate. Our results demonstrate that estradiol plays a previously unappreciated role in the acute modulation of heart rate during zebrafish embryonic development and suggest that GPER regulates embryonic heart rate by altering maternal estrogen levels and embryonic T3 levels.

  15. Regulation of protein phosphatase 2A during embryonic diapause process in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shi-Hong; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yen; Lin, Pei-Ling

    2017-11-01

    Regulation of protein phosphorylation requires coordinated interactions between protein kinases and protein phosphatases. In the present study, we investigated regulation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) during the embryonic diapause process of B. mori. An immunoblotting analysis showed that Bombyx eggs contained a catalytic C subunit, a major regulatory B subunit (B55/PR55 subunit), and a structural A subunit, with the A and B subunits undergoing differential changes between diapause and non-diapause eggs during embryonic process. In non-diapause eggs, eggs whose diapause initiation was prevented by HCl, and eggs in which diapause had been terminated by chilling of diapausing eggs at 5°C for 70days and then were transferred to 25°C, protein levels of the A and B subunits of PP2A gradually increased toward embryonic development. However, protein levels of the A and B subunits in diapause eggs remained at low levels during the first 8days after oviposition. The direct determination of PP2A enzymatic activity showed that the activity remained at low levels in diapause eggs during the first 8days after oviposition. However, in non-diapause eggs, eggs whose diapause initiation was prevented by HCl, and eggs in which diapause had been terminated by chilling, PP2A enzymatic activity sharply increased during the first several days, reached a peak during the middle embryonic development, and then greatly decreased 3 or 4days before hatching. Examination of temporal changes in mRNA expression levels of the catalytic β subunit and regulatory subunit of PP2A showed high levels in eggs whose diapause initiation was prevented by HCl compared to those in diapause eggs. These results demonstrate that the higher PP2A gene expression and PP2A A and B subunit protein levels and increased enzymatic activity are related to embryonic development of B. mori. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Melatonin Inhibits Embryonic Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis by Regulating Both Epithelial Cell Adhesion and Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Jiro; Sakai, Manabu; Uchida, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Wataru; Nohara, Kanji; Maruyama, Yusuke; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Sakai, Takayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Many organs, including salivary glands, lung, and kidney, are formed by epithelial branching during embryonic development. Branching morphogenesis occurs via either local outgrowths or the formation of clefts that subdivide epithelia into buds. This process is promoted by various factors, but the mechanism of branching morphogenesis is not fully understood. Here we have defined melatonin as a potential negative regulator or “brake” of branching morphogenesis, shown that the levels of it and its receptors decline when branching morphogenesis begins, and identified the process that it regulates. Melatonin has various physiological functions, including circadian rhythm regulation, free-radical scavenging, and gonadal development. Furthermore, melatonin is present in saliva and may have an important physiological role in the oral cavity. In this study, we found that the melatonin receptor is highly expressed on the acinar epithelium of the embryonic submandibular gland. We also found that exogenous melatonin reduces salivary gland size and inhibits branching morphogenesis. We suggest that this inhibition does not depend on changes in either proliferation or apoptosis, but rather relates to changes in epithelial cell adhesion and morphology. In summary, we have demonstrated a novel function of melatonin in organ formation during embryonic development. PMID:25876057

  17. Melatonin inhibits embryonic salivary gland branching morphogenesis by regulating both epithelial cell adhesion and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obana-Koshino, Aya; Ono, Hitomi; Miura, Jiro; Sakai, Manabu; Uchida, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Wataru; Nohara, Kanji; Maruyama, Yusuke; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Sakai, Takayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Many organs, including salivary glands, lung, and kidney, are formed by epithelial branching during embryonic development. Branching morphogenesis occurs via either local outgrowths or the formation of clefts that subdivide epithelia into buds. This process is promoted by various factors, but the mechanism of branching morphogenesis is not fully understood. Here we have defined melatonin as a potential negative regulator or "brake" of branching morphogenesis, shown that the levels of it and its receptors decline when branching morphogenesis begins, and identified the process that it regulates. Melatonin has various physiological functions, including circadian rhythm regulation, free-radical scavenging, and gonadal development. Furthermore, melatonin is present in saliva and may have an important physiological role in the oral cavity. In this study, we found that the melatonin receptor is highly expressed on the acinar epithelium of the embryonic submandibular gland. We also found that exogenous melatonin reduces salivary gland size and inhibits branching morphogenesis. We suggest that this inhibition does not depend on changes in either proliferation or apoptosis, but rather relates to changes in epithelial cell adhesion and morphology. In summary, we have demonstrated a novel function of melatonin in organ formation during embryonic development.

  18. Undifferentiated embryonic cell transcription factor 1 regulates ESC chromatin organization and gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kooistra, Susanne M; van den Boom, Vincent; Thummer, Rajkumar P

    2010-01-01

    Previous reports showed that embryonic stem (ES) cells contain hyperdynamic and globally transcribed chromatin-properties that are important for ES cell pluripotency and differentiation. Here, we demonstrate a role for undifferentiated embryonic cell transcription factor 1 (UTF1) in regulating ES...... cell chromatin structure. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation-on-chip analysis, we identified >1,700 UTF1 target genes that significantly overlap with previously identified Nanog, Oct4, Klf-4, c-Myc, and Rex1 targets. Gene expression profiling showed that UTF1 knock down results in increased expression...... of a large set of genes, including a significant number of UTF1 targets. UTF1 knock down (KD) ES cells are, irrespective of the increased expression of several self-renewal genes, Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) dependent. However, UTF1 KD ES cells are perturbed in their differentiation in response...

  19. DNA context represents transcription regulation of the gene in mouse embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Misook; Hong, Soondo

    2016-04-01

    Understanding gene regulatory information in DNA remains a significant challenge in biomedical research. This study presents a computational approach to infer gene regulatory programs from primary DNA sequences. Using DNA around transcription start sites as attributes, our model predicts gene regulation in the gene. We find that H3K27ac around TSS is an informative descriptor of the transcription program in mouse embryonic stem cells. We build a computational model inferring the cell-type-specific H3K27ac signatures in the DNA around TSS. A comparison of embryonic stem cell and liver cell-specific H3K27ac signatures in DNA shows that the H3K27ac signatures in DNA around TSS efficiently distinguish the cell-type specific H3K27ac peaks and the gene regulation. The arrangement of the H3K27ac signatures inferred from the DNA represents the transcription regulation of the gene in mESC. We show that the DNA around transcription start sites is associated with the gene regulatory program by specific interaction with H3K27ac.

  20. Distinct regulators for Plk1 activation in starfish meiotic and early embryonic cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano-Uchida, Takayuki; Okumura, Eiichi; Iwashita, Motoko; Yoshida, Hitoshi; Tachibana, Kazunori; Kishimoto, Takeo

    2003-01-01

    The Polo-like kinase, Plk, has multiple roles in regulating mitosis. In particular, Plk1 has been postulated to function as a trigger kinase that phosphorylates and activates Cdc25C prior to the activation of cyclin B–Cdc2 and thereby initiates its activation. However, the upstream regulation of Plk1 activation remains unclear. Here we have studied the interplay between Plk1 and Cdc2 through meiotic and early embryonic cycles in starfish. Distinct kinases, cyclin B–Cdc2, MAPK along with cyclin B– and/or cyclin A–Cdc2 and cyclin A–Cdc2, were unique upstream regulators for Plk1 activation at meiosis I, meiosis II and embryonic M-phase, respectively, indicating that Plk1 is not the trigger kinase at meiotic reinitiation. When Plk1 was required for cyclin B–Cdc2 activation, the action of Plk1 was mediated primarily through suppression of Myt1 rather than through activation of Cdc25. We propose that Plk1 can be activated by either cyclin A– or cyclin B–Cdc2, and its primary target is Myt1. PMID:14532135

  1. Nono, a Bivalent Domain Factor, Regulates Erk Signaling and Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Pluripotency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Ma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nono is a component of the para-speckle, which stores and processes RNA. Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs lack para-speckles, leaving the function of Nono in mESCs unclear. Here, we find that Nono functions as a chromatin regulator cooperating with Erk to regulate mESC pluripotency. We report that Nono loss results in robust self-renewing mESCs with epigenomic and transcriptomic features resembling the 2i (GSK and Erk inhibitors-induced “ground state.” Erk interacts with and is required for Nono localization to a subset of bivalent genes that have high levels of poised RNA polymerase. Nono loss compromises Erk activation and RNA polymerase poising at its target bivalent genes in undifferentiated mESCs, thus disrupting target gene activation and differentiation. These findings argue that Nono collaborates with Erk signaling to regulate the integrity of bivalent domains and mESC pluripotency.

  2. Regulation of Embryonic and Postnatal Development by the CSF-1 Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitu, Violeta; Stanley, E Richard

    2017-01-01

    Macrophages are found in all tissues and regulate tissue morphogenesis during development through trophic and scavenger functions. The colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) receptor (CSF-1R) is the major regulator of tissue macrophage development and maintenance. In combination with receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK), the CSF-1R also regulates the differentiation of the bone-resorbing osteoclast and controls bone remodeling during embryonic and early postnatal development. CSF-1R-regulated macrophages play trophic and remodeling roles in development. Outside the mononuclear phagocytic system, the CSF-1R directly regulates neuronal survival and differentiation, the development of intestinal Paneth cells and of preimplantation embryos, as well as trophoblast innate immune function. Consistent with the pleiotropic roles of the receptor during development, CSF-1R deficiency in most mouse strains causes embryonic or perinatal death and the surviving mice exhibit multiple developmental and functional deficits. The CSF-1R is activated by two dimeric glycoprotein ligands, CSF-1, and interleukin-34 (IL-34). Homozygous Csf1-null mutations phenocopy most of the deficits of Csf1r-null mice. In contrast, Il34-null mice have no gross phenotype, except for decreased numbers of Langerhans cells and microglia, indicating that CSF-1 plays the major developmental role. Homozygous inactivating mutations of the Csf1r or its ligands have not been reported in man. However, heterozygous inactivating mutations in the Csf1r lead to a dominantly inherited adult-onset progressive dementia, highlighting the importance of CSF-1R signaling in the brain. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Zebrafish Noxa promotes mitosis in early embryonic development and regulates apoptosis in subsequent embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, J-X; Zhou, L; Li, Z; Wang, Y; Gui, J-F

    2014-06-01

    Noxa functions in apoptosis and immune system of vertebrates, but its activities in embryo development remain unclear. In this study, we have studied the role of zebrafish Noxa (zNoxa) by using zNoxa-specifc morpholino knockdown and overexpression approaches in developing zebrafish embryos. Expression pattern analysis indicates that zNoxa transcript is of maternal origin, which displays a uniform distribution in early embryonic development until shield stage, and the zygote zNoxa transcription is initiated from this stage and mainly localized in YSL of the embryos. The zNoxa expression alterations result in strong embryonic development defects, demonstrating that zNoxa regulates apoptosis from 75% epiboly stage of development onward, in which zNoxa firstly induces the expression of zBik, and then cooperates with zBik to regulate apoptosis. Moreover, zNoxa knockdown also causes a reduction in number of mitotic cells before 8 h.p.f., suggesting that zNoxa also promotes mitosis before 75% epiboly stage. The effect of zNoxa on mitosis is mediated by zWnt4b in early embryos, whereas zMcl1a and zMcl1b suppress the ability of zNoxa to regulate mitosis and apoptosis at different developmental stages. In addition, mammalian mouse Noxa (mNoxa) mRNA was demonstrated to rescue the arrest of mitosis when zNoxa was knocked down, suggesting that mouse and zebrafish Noxa might have similar dual functions. Therefore, the current findings indicate that Noxa is a novel regulator of early mitosis before 75% epiboly stage when it translates into a key mediator of apoptosis in subsequent embryogenesis.

  4. Regulation of embryonic size in early mouse development in vitro culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisaki, Tomoka; Kawai, Ikuma; Sugiura, Koji; Naito, Kunihiko; Kano, Kiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Mammals self-regulate their body size throughout development. In the uterus, embryos are properly regulated to be a specific size at birth. Previously, size and cell number in aggregated embryos, which were made from two or more morulae, and half embryos, which were halved at the 2-cell stage, have been analysed in vivo in preimplantation and post-implantation development in mice. Here, we examined whether or not the mouse embryo has the capacity to self-regulate growth using an in vitro culture system. To elucidate embryonic histology, cells were counted in aggregated or half embryos in comparison with control embryos. Both double- and triple-aggregated embryos contained more cells than did control embryos during all culture periods, and the relative growth ratios showed no growth inhibition in an in vitro culture system. Meanwhile, half embryos contained fewer cells than control embryos, but the number grew throughout the culture period. Our data suggest that the growth of aggregated embryos is not affected and continues in an in vitro culture system. On the other hand, the growth of half embryos accelerates and continues in an in vitro culture system. This situation, in turn, implied that post-implantation mouse embryos might have some potential to regulate their own growth and size as seen by using an in vitro culture system without uterus factors. In conclusion, our results indicated that embryos have some ways in which to regulate their own size in mouse early development.

  5. Artificial induction of Sox21 regulates sensory cell formation in the embryonic chicken inner ear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D Freeman

    Full Text Available During embryonic development, hair cells and support cells in the sensory epithelia of the inner ear derive from progenitors that express Sox2, a member of the SoxB1 family of transcription factors. Sox2 is essential for sensory specification, but high levels of Sox2 expression appear to inhibit hair cell differentiation, suggesting that factors regulating Sox2 activity could be critical for both processes. Antagonistic interactions between SoxB1 and SoxB2 factors are known to regulate cell differentiation in neural tissue, which led us to investigate the potential roles of the SoxB2 member Sox21 during chicken inner ear development. Sox21 is normally expressed by sensory progenitors within vestibular and auditory regions of the early embryonic chicken inner ear. At later stages, Sox21 is differentially expressed in the vestibular and auditory organs. Sox21 is restricted to the support cell layer of the auditory epithelium, while it is enriched in the hair cell layer of the vestibular organs. To test Sox21 function, we used two temporally distinct gain-of-function approaches. Sustained over-expression of Sox21 from early developmental stages prevented prosensory specification, and abolished the formation of both hair cells and support cells. However, later induction of Sox21 expression at the time of hair cell formation in organotypic cultures of vestibular epithelia inhibited endogenous Sox2 expression and Notch activity, and biased progenitor cells towards a hair cell fate. Interestingly, Sox21 did not promote hair cell differentiation in the immature auditory epithelium, which fits with the expression of endogenous Sox21 within mature support cells in this tissue. These results suggest that interactions among endogenous SoxB family transcription factors may regulate sensory cell formation in the inner ear, but in a context-dependent manner.

  6. Impact of transient down-regulation of DREAM in human embryonic stem cell pluripotency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fontán-Lozano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the functions of downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM in embryonic stem cells (ESCs. However, DREAM interacts with cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB in a Ca2+-dependent manner, preventing CREB binding protein (CBP recruitment. Furthermore, CREB and CBP are involved in maintaining ESC self-renewal and pluripotency. However, a previous knockout study revealed the protective function of DREAM depletion in brain aging degeneration and that aging is accompanied by a progressive decline in stem cells (SCs function. Interestingly, we found that DREAM is expressed in different cell types, including human ESCs (hESCs, human adipose-derived stromal cells (hASCs, human bone marrow-derived stromal cells (hBMSCs, and human newborn foreskin fibroblasts (hFFs, and that transitory inhibition of DREAM in hESCs reduces their pluripotency, increasing differentiation. We stipulate that these changes are partly mediated by increased CREB transcriptional activity. Overall, our data indicates that DREAM acts in the regulation of hESC pluripotency and could be a target to promote or prevent differentiation in embryonic cells.

  7. Polycomb group protein Ezh2 regulates hepatic progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation in murine embryonic liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Koike

    Full Text Available In embryonic liver, hepatic progenitor cells are actively proliferating and generate a fundamental cellular pool for establishing parenchymal components. However, the molecular basis for the expansion of the progenitors maintaining their immature state remains elusive. Polycomb group proteins regulate gene expression throughout the genome by modulating of chromatin structure and play crucial roles in development. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (Ezh2, a key component of polycomb group proteins, catalyzes tri-methylation of lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3, which trigger the gene suppression. In the present study, we investigated a role of Ezh2 in the regulation of the expanding hepatic progenitor population in vivo. We found that Ezh2 is highly expressed in the actively proliferating cells at the early developmental stage. Using a conditional knockout mouse model, we show that the deletion of the SET domain of Ezh2, which is responsible for catalytic induction of H3K27me3, results in significant reduction of the total liver size, absolute number of liver parenchymal cells, and hepatic progenitor cell population in size. A clonal colony assay in the hepatic progenitor cells directly isolated from in vivo fetal livers revealed that the bi-potent clonogenicity was significantly attenuated by the Ezh2 loss of function. Moreover, a marker expression based analysis and a global gene expression analysis showed that the knockout of Ezh2 inhibited differentiation to hepatocyte with reduced expression of a number of liver-function related genes. Taken together, our results indicate that Ezh2 is required for the hepatic progenitor expansion in vivo, which is essential for the functional maturation of embryonic liver, through its activity for catalyzing H3K27me3.

  8. The Histone Acetyltransferase MOF is a Key Regulator of the Embryonic Stem Cell Core Transcriptional Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangzhi; Li, Li; Pandey, Ruchi; Byun, Jung S.; Gardner, Kevin; Qin, Zhaohui; Dou, Yali

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) maintain self-renewal and the potential for rapid response to differentiation cues. Both ESC features are subject to epigenetic regulation. Here we show that histone acetyltransferase Mof plays an essential role in the maintenance of ESC self-renewal and pluripotency. ESCs with Mof deletion lose characteristic morphology, alkaline phosphatase (AP) staining and differentiation potential. They also have aberrant expression of core transcription factors Nanog, Oct4 and Sox2. Importantly, the phenotypes of Mof null ESCs can be partially suppressed by Nanog overexpression, supporting that Mof functions as an upstream regulator of Nanog in ESCs. Genome-wide ChIP sequencing and transcriptome analyses further demonstrate that Mof is an integral component of ESC core transcription network and Mof primes genes for diverse developmental programs. Mof is also required for Wdr5 recruitment and H3 K4 methylation at key regulatory loci, highlighting complexity and interconnectivity of various chromatin regulators in ESCs. PMID:22862943

  9. Divergent RNA Localisation Patterns of Maternal Genes Regulating Embryonic Patterning in the Butterfly Pararge aegeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Carter

    Full Text Available The maternal effect genes responsible for patterning the embryo along the antero-posterior (AP axis are broadly conserved in insects. The precise function of these maternal effect genes is the result of the localisation of their mRNA in the oocyte. The main developmental mechanisms involved have been elucidated in Drosophila melanogaster, but recent studies have shown that other insect orders often diverge in RNA localisation patterns. A recent study has shown that in the butterfly Pararge aegeria the distinction between blastodermal embryonic (i.e. germ band and extra-embryonic tissue (i.e. serosa is already specified in the oocyte during oogenesis in the ovariole, long before blastoderm cellularisation. To examine the extent by which a female butterfly specifies and patterns the AP axis within the region fated to be the germ band, and whether she specifies a germ plasm, we performed in situ hybridisation experiments on oocytes in P. aegeria ovarioles and on early embryos. RNA localisation of the following key maternal effect genes were investigated: caudal (cad, orthodenticle (otd, hunchback (hb and four nanos (nos paralogs, as well as TDRD7 a gene containing a key functional domain (OST-HTH/LOTUS shared with oskar. TDRD7 was mainly confined to the follicle cells, whilst hb was exclusively zygotically transcribed. RNA of some of the nos paralogs, otd and cad revealed complex localisation patterns within the cortical region prefiguring the germ band (i.e. germ cortex. Rather interestingly, otd was localised within and outside the anterior of the germ cortex. Transcripts of nos-O formed a distinct granular ring in the middle of the germ cortex possibly prefiguring the region where germline stem cells form. These butterfly RNA localisation patterns are highly divergent with respect to other insects, highlighting the diverse ways in which different insect orders maternally regulate early embryogenesis of their offspring.

  10. Divergent RNA Localisation Patterns of Maternal Genes Regulating Embryonic Patterning in the Butterfly Pararge aegeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jean-Michel; Gibbs, Melanie; Breuker, Casper J

    2015-01-01

    The maternal effect genes responsible for patterning the embryo along the antero-posterior (AP) axis are broadly conserved in insects. The precise function of these maternal effect genes is the result of the localisation of their mRNA in the oocyte. The main developmental mechanisms involved have been elucidated in Drosophila melanogaster, but recent studies have shown that other insect orders often diverge in RNA localisation patterns. A recent study has shown that in the butterfly Pararge aegeria the distinction between blastodermal embryonic (i.e. germ band) and extra-embryonic tissue (i.e. serosa) is already specified in the oocyte during oogenesis in the ovariole, long before blastoderm cellularisation. To examine the extent by which a female butterfly specifies and patterns the AP axis within the region fated to be the germ band, and whether she specifies a germ plasm, we performed in situ hybridisation experiments on oocytes in P. aegeria ovarioles and on early embryos. RNA localisation of the following key maternal effect genes were investigated: caudal (cad), orthodenticle (otd), hunchback (hb) and four nanos (nos) paralogs, as well as TDRD7 a gene containing a key functional domain (OST-HTH/LOTUS) shared with oskar. TDRD7 was mainly confined to the follicle cells, whilst hb was exclusively zygotically transcribed. RNA of some of the nos paralogs, otd and cad revealed complex localisation patterns within the cortical region prefiguring the germ band (i.e. germ cortex). Rather interestingly, otd was localised within and outside the anterior of the germ cortex. Transcripts of nos-O formed a distinct granular ring in the middle of the germ cortex possibly prefiguring the region where germline stem cells form. These butterfly RNA localisation patterns are highly divergent with respect to other insects, highlighting the diverse ways in which different insect orders maternally regulate early embryogenesis of their offspring.

  11. Expression, function, and regulation of the embryonic transcription factor TBX1 in parathyroid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdelli, Chiara; Avagliano, Laura; Guarnieri, Vito; Cetani, Filomena; Ferrero, Stefano; Vicentini, Leonardo; Beretta, Edoardo; Scillitani, Alfredo; Creo, Pasquale; Bulfamante, Gaetano Pietro; Vaira, Valentina; Corbetta, Sabrina

    2017-12-01

    Transcription factors active in embryonic parathyroid cells can be maintained in adult parathyroids and be involved in tumorigenesis. TBX1, the candidate gene of 22q11.2-DiGeorge syndrome, which includes congenital hypoparathyroidism, is involved in parathyroid embryogenesis. The study aimed to investigate expression, function, and regulation of the parathyroid embryonic transcription factor TBX1 in human parathyroid adult normal and tumor tissues. TBX1 transcripts were detected in normal parathyroids and were deregulated in parathyroid tumors. Using immunohistochemistry, TBX1 protein was detected, mainly at the nuclear level, in a consistent proportion of cells in normal adult parathyroids, whereas TBX1 immunoreactivity was absent in fetal parathyroids. TBX1-expressing cells were markedly reduced in about a half of adenomas (PAds) and two-thirds of carcinomas and the proportion of TBX1-expressing cells negatively correlated with the serum albumin-corrected calcium levels in the analyzed tumors. Moreover, a subset of TBX1-expressing tumor cells coexpressed PTH. TBX1 silencing in HEK293 cells, expressing endogenous TBX1, increased the proportion of cells in the G0/G1 phase of cell cycle; concomitantly, CDKN1A/p21 and CDKN2A/p16 transcripts increased and ID1 mRNA levels decreased. TBX1 silencing exerted similar effects in PAd-derived cells, suggesting cell cycle arrest. Moreover, in PAd-derived cells GCM2 and PTH mRNA levels were unaffected by TBX1 deficiency, whereas it was associated with reduction of WNT5A, an antagonist of canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway. WNT/β-catenin activation by lithium chloride inhibited TBX1 expression levels both in HEK293 and PAd-derived cells. In conclusion, TBX1 is expressed in adult parathyroid cells and deregulated in parathyroid tumors, where TBX1 deficiency may potentially contribute to the low proliferative nature of parathyroid tumors.

  12. MicroRNA-130b targets Fmr1 and regulates embryonic neural progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Xi [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, College of Life Sciences and Food Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Zhang, Kunshan [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cell Center, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Yanlu; Wang, Junbang; Cui, Yaru [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, College of Life Sciences and Food Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Li, Siguang, E-mail: siguangli@163.com [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cell Center, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092 (China); Luo, Yuping, E-mail: luoyuping@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, College of Life Sciences and Food Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China)

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •We found that the 3′ UTR of the Fmr1 mRNA is a target of miR-130b. •MiR-130b suppresses the expression of Fmr1 in mouse embryonic stem cell. •MiR-130b alters the proliferation of mouse embryonic stem cell. •MiR-130b alters fate specification of mouse embryonic stem cell. -- Abstract: Fragile X syndrome, one of the most common forms of inherited mental retardation, is caused by expansion of the CGG repeat in the 5′-untranslated region of the X-linked Fmr1 gene, which results in transcriptional silencing and loss of expression of its encoded protein FMRP. The loss of FMRP increases proliferation and alters fate specification in adult neural progenitor cells (aNPCs). However, little is known about Fmr1 mRNA regulation at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In the present study, we report that miR-130b regulated Fmr1 expression by directly targeting its 3′-untranslated region (3′ UTR). Up-regulation of miR-130b in mouse embryonic neural progenitor cells (eNPCs) decreased Fmr1 expression, markedly increased eNPC proliferation and altered the differentiation tendency of eNPCs, suggesting that antagonizing miR-130b may be a new therapeutic entry point for treating Fragile X syndrome.

  13. Melatonin regulates delayed embryonic development in the short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Arnab; Meenakumari, K J; Udin, S; Krishna, A

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the seasonal variation in serum melatonin levels and their relationship to the changes in the serum progesterone level, ovarian steroidogenesis, and embryonic development during two successive pregnancies of Cynopterus sphinx. Circulating melatonin concentrations showed two peaks; one coincided with the period of low progesterone synthesis and delayed embryonic development, whereas the second peak coincided with regressing corpus luteum. This finding suggests that increased serum melatonin level during November-December may be responsible for delayed embryonic development by suppressing progesterone synthesis. The study showed increased melatonin receptors (MTNR1A and MTNR1B) in the corpus luteum and in the utero-embryonic unit during the period of delayed embryonic development. The in vitro study showed that a high dose of melatonin suppressed progesterone synthesis, whereas a lower dose of melatonin increased progesterone synthesis by the ovary. The effects of melatonin on ovarian steroidogenesis are mediated through changes in the expression of peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor, P450 side chain cleavage enzyme, and LH receptor proteins. This study further showed a suppressive impact of melatonin on the progesterone receptor (PGR) in the utero-embryonic unit; this effect might contribute to delayed embryonic development in C. sphinx. The results of the present study thus suggest that a high circulating melatonin level has a dual contribution in retarding embryonic development in C. sphinx by impairing progesterone synthesis as well as by inhibiting progesterone action by reducing expression of PGR in the utero-embryonic unit.

  14. The transcription factor Pitx2 positions the embryonic axis and regulates twinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torlopp, Angela; Khan, Mohsin A F; Oliveira, Nidia M M; Lekk, Ingrid; Soto-Jiménez, Luz Mayela; Sosinsky, Alona; Stern, Claudio D

    2014-01-01

    Embryonic polarity of invertebrates, amphibians and fish is specified largely by maternal determinants, which fixes cell fates early in development. In contrast, amniote embryos remain plastic and can form multiple individuals until gastrulation. How is their polarity determined? In the chick embryo, the earliest known factor is cVg1 (homologous to mammalian growth differentiation factor 1, GDF1), a transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signal expressed posteriorly before gastrulation. A molecular screen to find upstream regulators of cVg1 in normal embryos and in embryos manipulated to form twins now uncovers the transcription factor Pitx2 as a candidate. We show that Pitx2 is essential for axis formation, and that it acts as a direct regulator of cVg1 expression by binding to enhancers within neighbouring genes. Pitx2, Vg1/GDF1 and Nodal are also key actors in left–right asymmetry, suggesting that the same ancient polarity determination mechanism has been co-opted to different functions during evolution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03743.001 PMID:25496870

  15. Ras-dva is a novel Pit-1- and glucocorticoid-regulated gene in the embryonic anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellestad, Laura E; Porter, Tom E

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids play a role in functional differentiation of pituitary somatotrophs and lactotrophs during embryogenesis. Ras-dva was identified as a gene regulated by anterior neural fold protein-1/homeobox expressed in embryonic stem cells-1, a transcription factor known to be critical in pituitary development, and has an expression profile in the chicken embryonic pituitary gland that is consistent with in vivo regulation by glucocorticoids. The objective of this study was to characterize expression and regulation of ras-dva mRNA in the developing chicken anterior pituitary. Pituitary ras-dva mRNA levels increased during embryogenesis to a maximum on embryonic day (e) 18 and then decreased and remained low or undetectable after hatch. Ras-dva expression was highly enriched in the pituitary gland on e18 relative to other tissues examined. Glucocorticoid treatment of pituitary cells from mid- and late-stage embryos rapidly increased ras-dva mRNA, suggesting it may be a direct transcriptional target of glucocorticoids. A reporter construct driven by 4 kb of the chicken ras-dva 5'-flanking region, containing six putative pituitary-specific transcription factor-1 (Pit-1) binding sites and two potential glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding sites, was highly activated in embryonic pituitary cells and up-regulated by corticosterone. Mutagenesis of the most proximal Pit-1 site decreased promoter activity in chicken e11 pituitary cells, indicating regulation of ras-dva by Pit-1. However, mutating putative GR binding sites did not substantially reduce induction of ras-dva promoter activity by corticosterone, suggesting additional DNA elements within the 5'-flanking region are responsible for glucocorticoid regulation. We have identified ras-dva as a glucocorticoid-regulated gene that is likely expressed in cells of the Pit-1 lineage within the developing anterior pituitary gland.

  16. Erk5 Is a Key Regulator of Naive-Primed Transition and Embryonic Stem Cell Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A.C. Williams

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cells (ESCs can self-renew or differentiate into any cell type, a phenomenon known as pluripotency. Distinct pluripotent states, termed naive and primed pluripotency, have been described. However, the mechanisms that control naive-primed pluripotent transition are poorly understood. Here, we perform a targeted screen for kinase inhibitors, which modulate the naive-primed pluripotent transition. We find that XMD compounds, which selectively inhibit Erk5 kinase and BET bromodomain family proteins, drive ESCs toward primed pluripotency. Using compound selectivity engineering and CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, we reveal distinct functions for Erk5 and Brd4 in pluripotency regulation. We show that Erk5 signaling maintains ESCs in the naive state and suppresses progression toward primed pluripotency and neuroectoderm differentiation. Additionally, we identify a specialized role for Erk5 in defining ESC lineage selection, whereby Erk5 inhibits a cardiomyocyte-specific differentiation program. Our data therefore reveal multiple critical functions for Erk5 in controlling ESC identity.

  17. Stromal regulation of embryonic and postnatal mammary epithelial development and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Beatrice A; Lu, Pengfei

    2014-01-01

    The stroma, which is composed of supporting cells and connective tissue, comprises a large component of the local microenvironment of many epithelial cell types, and influences several fundamental aspects of cell behaviour through both tissue interactions and niche regulation. The significance of the stroma in development and disease has been increasingly recognised. Whereas normal stroma is essential for various developmental processes during vertebrate organogenesis, it can be deregulated and become abnormal, which in turn can initiate or promote a disease process, including cancer. The mouse mammary gland has emerged in recent years as an excellent model system for understanding stromal function in both developmental and cancer biology. Here, we take a systematic approach and focus on the dynamic interactions that the stroma engages with the epithelium during mammary specification, cell differentiation, and branching morphogenesis of both the embryonic and postnatal development of the mammary gland. Similar stromal-epithelial interactions underlie the aetiology of breast cancer, making targeting the cancer stroma an increasingly important and promising therapeutic strategy to pursue for breast cancer treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Extracellular matrix regulates expressions of germ cell differentiation associated genes in mouse embryonic stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xin; Qi, Zheng-Yu; Qin, Jie; Cui, Guang-Hui; Gui, Yao-Ting; Cai, Zhi-Ming

    2009-11-01

    Interactions of cells with the extracellular matrix (ECM) are essential for cell differentiation. The authors sought to determine the roles of different ECMs in the expressions of germ cell differentiation associated genes after mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) differentiated into embryoid bodies (EBs). EBs derived from mESCs were maintained in suspension for 3 days and then cultured on the plates coated with various ECMs, including fibronectin (F), laminin (L), matrigel (M), collagen (C) and nonadhensive agarose (A), respectively, for 1, 2, 3 or 4 days, followed by evaluation of the expressions of the genes associated with germ cell differentiation by RT-PCR. The EBs of the F and L groups exhibited facilitated adherent differentiation. The expressions of the Blimp-1, Stella, Mvh and Stra8 genes were increased gradually in the F and L but not obviously in the M and C groups. The overall gene expressions were low in the A group, but high and then gradually decreased in the blank control group. Endogenous fibronectin, laminin and integrin beta1 were obviously expressed in the L and control groups. Laminin /integrin beta1 signaling may play a role in regulating the differentiation of mESCs into primordial germ cells (PGCs). Exogenous laminin can facilitate the differentiation of mESC-derived EBs into PGCs by acting on the integrin beta1 subunit, while exogenous fibronectin may be involved in the regulation of the differentiation through other integrin subunit. Endogenous laminin and fibronectin secreted by EBs may also facilitate cell differentiation in the absence of exogenous ECMs.

  19. 14-3-3σ regulates β-catenin-mediated mouse embryonic stem cell proliferation by sequestering GSK-3β.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Ching Chang

    Full Text Available Pluripotent embryonic stem cells are considered to be an unlimited cell source for tissue regeneration and cell-based therapy. Investigating the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of embryonic stem cell expansion is thus important. 14-3-3 proteins are implicated in controlling cell division, signaling transduction and survival by interacting with various regulatory proteins. However, the function of 14-3-3 in embryonic stem cell proliferation remains unclear.In this study, we show that all seven 14-3-3 isoforms were detected in mouse embryonic stem cells. Retinoid acid suppressed selectively the expression of 14-3-3σ isoform. Knockdown of 14-3-3σ with siRNA reduced embryonic stem cell proliferation, while only 14-3-3σ transfection increased cell growth and partially rescued retinoid acid-induced growth arrest. Since the growth-enhancing action of 14-3-3σ was abrogated by β-catenin knockdown, we investigated the influence of 14-3-3σ overexpression on β-catenin/GSK-3β. 14-3-3σ bound GSK-3β and increased GSK-3β phosphorylation in a PI-3K/Akt-dependent manner. It disrupted β-catenin binding by the multiprotein destruction complex. 14-3-3σ overexpression attenuated β-catenin phosphorylation and rescued the decline of β-catenin induced by retinoid acid. Furthermore, 14-3-3σ enhanced Wnt3a-induced β-catenin level and GSK-3β phosphorylation. DKK, an inhibitor of Wnt signaling, abolished Wnt3a-induced effect but did not interfere GSK-3β/14-3-3σ binding.Our findings show for the first time that 14-3-3σ plays an important role in regulating mouse embryonic stem cell proliferation by binding and sequestering phosphorylated GSK-3β and enhancing Wnt-signaled GSK-3β inactivation. 14-3-3σ is a novel target for embryonic stem cell expansion.

  20. Epigenetic mechanisms regulate MHC and antigen processing molecules in human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Suárez-Alvarez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs are an attractive resource for new therapeutic approaches that involve tissue regeneration. hESCs have exhibited low immunogenicity due to low levels of Mayor Histocompatibility Complex (MHC class-I and absence of MHC class-II expression. Nevertheless, the mechanisms regulating MHC expression in hESCs had not been explored.We analyzed the expression levels of classical and non-classical MHC class-I, MHC class-II molecules, antigen-processing machinery (APM components and NKG2D ligands (NKG2D-L in hESCs, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs and NTera2 (NT2 teratocarcinoma cell line. Epigenetic mechanisms involved in the regulation of these genes were investigated by bisulfite sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays. We showed that low levels of MHC class-I molecules were associated with absent or reduced expression of the transporter associated with antigen processing 1 (TAP-1 and tapasin (TPN components in hESCs and iPSCs, which are involved in the transport and load of peptides. Furthermore, lack of beta2-microglobulin (beta2m light chain in these cells limited the expression of MHC class I trimeric molecule on the cell surface. NKG2D ligands (MICA, MICB were observed in all pluripotent stem cells lines. Epigenetic analysis showed that H3K9me3 repressed the TPN gene in undifferentiated cells whilst HLA-B and beta2m acquired the H3K4me3 modification during the differentiation to embryoid bodies (EBs. Absence of HLA-DR and HLA-G expression was regulated by DNA methylation.Our data provide fundamental evidence for the epigenetic control of MHC in hESCs and iPSCs. Reduced MHC class I and class II expression in hESCs and iPSCs can limit their recognition by the immune response against these cells. The knowledge of these mechanisms will further allow the development of strategies to induce tolerance and improve stem cell allograft acceptance.

  1. Regulation of mineralocorticoid receptor expression during neuronal differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier, Mathilde; Meduri, Geri; Viengchareun, Say; Leclerc, Philippe; Le Menuet, Damien; Lombès, Marc

    2010-05-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) plays a critical role in brain function. However, the regulatory mechanisms controlling neuronal MR expression that constitutes a key element of the hormonal response are currently unknown. Two alternative P1 and P2 promoters drive human MR gene transcription. To examine promoter activities and their regulation during neuronal differentiation and in mature neurons, we generated stably transfected recombinant murine embryonic stem cell (ES) lines, namely P1-GFP and P2-GFP, in which each promoter drove the expression of the reporter gene green fluorescent protein (GFP). An optimized protocol, using embryoid bodies and retinoic acid, permitted us to obtain a reproducible neuronal differentiation as revealed by the decrease in phosphatase alkaline activity, the concomitant appearance of morphological changes (neurites), and the increase in the expression of neuronal markers (nestin, beta-tubulin III, and microtubule-associated protein-2) as demonstrated by immunocytochemistry and quantitative PCR. Using these cell-based models, we showed that MR expression increased by 5-fold during neuronal differentiation, MR being preferentially if not exclusively expressed in mature neurons. Although the P2 promoter was always weaker than the P1 promoter during neuronal differentiation, their activities increased by 7- and 5-fold, respectively, and correlated with MR expression. Finally, although progesterone and dexamethasone were ineffective, aldosterone stimulated both P1 and P2 activity and MR expression, an effect that was abrogated by knockdown of MR by small interfering RNA. In conclusion, we provide evidence for a tight transcriptional control of MR expression during neuronal differentiation. Given the neuroprotective and antiapoptotic role proposed for MR, the neuronal differentiation of ES cell lines opens potential therapeutic perspectives in neurological and psychiatric diseases.

  2. Zeb2 Regulates Cell Fate at the Exit from Epiblast State in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryjewska, Agata; Dries, Ruben; Pieters, Tim; Verstappen, Griet; Conidi, Andrea; Coddens, Kathleen; Francis, Annick; Umans, Lieve; van IJcken, Wilfred F J; Berx, Geert; van Grunsven, Leo A; Grosveld, Frank G; Goossens, Steven; Haigh, Jody J; Huylebroeck, Danny

    2017-03-01

    In human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) the transcription factor Zeb2 regulates neuroectoderm versus mesendoderm formation, but it is unclear how Zeb2 affects the global transcriptional regulatory network in these cell-fate decisions. We generated Zeb2 knockout (KO) mouse ESCs, subjected them as embryoid bodies (EBs) to neural and general differentiation and carried out temporal RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) and reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) analysis in neural differentiation. This shows that Zeb2 acts preferentially as a transcriptional repressor associated with developmental progression and that Zeb2 KO ESCs can exit from their naïve state. However, most cells in these EBs stall in an early epiblast-like state and are impaired in both neural and mesendodermal differentiation. Genes involved in pluripotency, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and DNA-(de)methylation, including Tet1, are deregulated in the absence of Zeb2. The observed elevated Tet1 levels in the mutant cells and the knowledge of previously mapped Tet1-binding sites correlate with loss-of-methylation in neural-stimulating conditions, however, after the cells initially acquired the correct DNA-methyl marks. Interestingly, cells from such Zeb2 KO EBs maintain the ability to re-adapt to 2i + LIF conditions even after prolonged differentiation, while knockdown of Tet1 partially rescues their impaired differentiation. Hence, in addition to its role in EMT, Zeb2 is critical in ESCs for exit from the epiblast state, and links the pluripotency network and DNA-methylation with irreversible commitment to differentiation. Stem Cells 2017;35:611-625. © 2016 The Authors Stem Cells published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  3. Regulation of Embryonic Kidney Branching Morphogenesis and Glomerular Development by KISS1 Receptor (Gpr54) through NFAT2- and Sp1-mediated Bmp7 Expression*

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Tingfang; Tan, Kunrong; CHO, SUNG-GOOK; Wang, Ying; Luo, Jian; Zhang, Wenzheng; Li, Dali; Liu, Mingyao

    2010-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptor 54 (Gpr54, KISS1 receptor) plays critical roles in puberty regulation, tumor metastasis suppression, and vasoconstriction. Bone morphogenetic protein-7 (Bmp7) is required for kidney organogenesis. However, whether Gpr54 is involved in embryonic kidney development and how Bmp7 expression is regulated in the kidney are largely unknown. Here we report that Gpr54 deletion leads to kidney branching morphogenesis and glomerular development retardation in embryonic kidneys...

  4. GLI1 is involved in cell cycle regulation and proliferation of NT2 embryonal carcinoma stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Janni; Lind-Thomsen, Allan; Pedersen, Mikkel W.

    2008-01-01

    of altered HH signaling are interpreted by specific cell types. We have investigated the role of the HH transcription factor glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (GLI1) in the human Ntera2=D1 (NT2) embryonal carcinoma stem cell line. The study revealed that expression of GLI1 and its direct transcriptional......1 phase cyclins. In conclusion, our results suggest that GLI1 is involved in cell cycle and proliferation control in the embryonal carcinoma stem cell line NT2.......Hedgehog (HH) signaling plays a critical role during embryogenesis and regulates early development of multiple tissues and organs, including the central nervous system. Although much has been revealed of the diverse functions of the HH signaling pathway, it is still unclear how the effects...

  5. Regulation of APC/C (Cdh1) ubiquitin ligase in differentiation of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-On, Ortal; Shapira, Ma'anit; Skorecki, Karl; Hershko, Avram; Hershko, Dan D

    2010-05-15

    We have recently shown that Skp2 levels are high in undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells, but decline rapidly following induction of differentiation, thereby leading to accumulation of p27. Changes in Skp2 levels were found to be caused mainly by its rate of degradation. Here we show that the activity of APC/C (Cdh1), the ubiquitin ligase that targets Skp2 for degradation, increases markedly during the differentiation process of human embryonic stem cells. APC/C (Cdh1) is present but inactive in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells and becomes active in the differentiated state. The rise in APC/C (Cdh1) activity with differentiation appears to be due, at least in part, to a dramatic decline in the levels of its inhibitor Emi1. In addition, protein kinase activity also appears to contribute to the suppression of APC/C (Cdh1) activity in undifferentiated stem cells, possibly by inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdh1.

  6. MicroRNA-181 regulates CARM1 and histone arginine methylation to promote differentiation of human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Xu

    Full Text Available As a novel epigenetic mechanism, histone H3 methylation at R17 and R26, which is mainly catalyzed by coactivator-associated protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1, has been reported to modulate the transcription of key pluripotency factors and to regulate pluripotency in mouse embryos and mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs in previous studies. However, the role of CARM1 in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and the regulatory mechanism that controls CARM1 expression during ESCs differentiation are presently unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CARM1 plays an active role in the resistance to differentiation in hESCs by regulating pluripotency genes in response to BMP4. In a functional screen, we identified the miR-181 family as a regulator of CARM1 that is induced during ESC differentiation and show that endogenous miR-181c represses the expression of CARM1. Depletion of CARM1 or enforced expression of miR-181c inhibits the expression of pluripotency genes and induces differentiation independent of BMP4, whereas overexpression of CARM1 or miR-181c inhibitor elevates Nanog and impedes differentiation. Furthermore, expression of CARM1 rescue constructs inhibits the effect of miR-181c overexpression in promoting differentiation. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the importance of a miR-181c-CARM1 pathway in regulating the differentiation of hESCs.

  7. MONOPTEROS controls embryonic root initiation by regulating a mobile transcription factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlereth, A.; Moller, B.K.; Liu, W.; Kientz, M.; Flipse, J.; Rademacher, E.H.; Schmid, M.; Juergens, G.; Weijers, D.

    2010-01-01

    Acquisition of cell identity in plants relies strongly on positional information1, hence cell–cell communication and inductive signalling are instrumental for developmental patterning. During Arabidopsis embryogenesis, an extra-embryonic cell is specified to become the founder cell of the primary

  8. A genome-wide RNAi screen reveals MAP kinase phosphatases as key ERK pathway regulators during embryonic stem cell differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Hsi Yang

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells represent potentially important therapeutic agents in regenerative medicine. Complex interlinked transcriptional and signaling networks control the fate of these cells towards maintenance of pluripotency or differentiation. In this study we have focused on how mouse embryonic stem cells begin to differentiate and lose pluripotency and, in particular, the role that the ERK MAP kinase and GSK3 signaling pathways play in this process. Through a genome-wide siRNA screen we have identified more than 400 genes involved in loss of pluripotency and promoting the onset of differentiation. These genes were functionally associated with the ERK and/or GSK3 pathways, providing an important resource for studying the roles of these pathways in controlling escape from the pluripotent ground state. More detailed analysis identified MAP kinase phosphatases as a focal point of regulation and demonstrated an important role for these enzymes in controlling ERK activation kinetics and subsequently determining early embryonic stem cell fate decisions.

  9. Why the embryo still matters: CSF and the neuroepithelium as interdependent regulators of embryonic brain growth, morphogenesis and histiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gato, Angel; Desmond, Mary E

    2009-03-15

    The key focus of this review is that both the neuroepithelium and embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) work in an integrated way to promote embryonic brain growth, morphogenesis and histiogenesis. The CSF generates pressure and also contains many biologically powerful trophic factors; both play key roles in early brain development. Accumulation of fluid via an osmotic gradient creates pressure that promotes rapid expansion of the early brain in a developmental regulated way, since the rates of growth differ between the vesicles and for different species. The neuroepithelium and ventricles both contribute to this growth but by different and coordinated mechanisms. The neuroepithelium grows primarily by cell proliferation and at the same time the ventricle expands via hydrostatic pressure generated by active transport of Na(+) and transport or secretion of proteins and proteoglycans that create an osmotic gradient which contribute to the accumulation of fluid inside the sealed brain cavity. Recent evidence shows that the CSF regulates relevant aspects of neuroepithelial behavior such as cell survival, replication and neurogenesis by means of growth factors and morphogens. Here we try to highlight that early brain development requires the coordinated interplay of the CSF contained in the brain cavity with the surrounding neuroepithelium. The information presented is essential in order to understand the earliest phases of brain development and also how neuronal precursor behavior is regulated.

  10. Which bank? A guardian model for regulation of embryonic stem cell research in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, A

    2007-08-01

    In late 2005 the Legislation Review: Prohibition of Human Cloning Act 2002 (Cth) and the Research Involving Human Embryos Act 2002 (Cth) recommended the establishment of an Australian stem cell bank. This article aims to address a lack of discussion of issues surrounding stem cell banking by suggesting possible answers to the questions of whether Australia should establish a stem cell bank and what its underlying philosophy and functions should be. Answers are developed through an analysis of regulatory, scientific and intellectual property issues relating to embryonic stem cell research in the United Kingdom, United States and Australia. This includes a detailed analysis of the United Kingdom Stem Cell Bank. It is argued that a "guardian" model stem cell bank should be established in Australia. This bank would aim to promote the maximum public benefit from human embryonic stem cell research by providing careful regulatory oversight and addressing ethical issues, while also facilitating research by addressing practical scientific concerns and intellectual property issues.

  11. p53 regulates cell cycle and microRNAs to promote differentiation of human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav K Jain

    Full Text Available Multiple studies show that tumor suppressor p53 is a barrier to dedifferentiation; whether this is strictly due to repression of proliferation remains a subject of debate. Here, we show that p53 plays an active role in promoting differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and opposing self-renewal by regulation of specific target genes and microRNAs. In contrast to mouse embryonic stem cells, p53 in hESCs is maintained at low levels in the nucleus, albeit in a deacetylated, inactive state. In response to retinoic acid, CBP/p300 acetylates p53 at lysine 373, which leads to dissociation from E3-ubiquitin ligases HDM2 and TRIM24. Stabilized p53 binds CDKN1A to establish a G(1 phase of cell cycle without activation of cell death pathways. In parallel, p53 activates expression of miR-34a and miR-145, which in turn repress stem cell factors OCT4, KLF4, LIN28A, and SOX2 and prevent backsliding to pluripotency. Induction of p53 levels is a key step: RNA-interference-mediated knockdown of p53 delays differentiation, whereas depletion of negative regulators of p53 or ectopic expression of p53 yields spontaneous differentiation of hESCs, independently of retinoic acid. Ectopic expression of p53R175H, a mutated form of p53 that does not bind DNA or regulate transcription, failed to induce differentiation. These studies underscore the importance of a p53-regulated network in determining the human stem cell state.

  12. Neverland regulates embryonic moltings through the regulation of ecdysteroid synthesis in the water flea Daphnia magna, and may thus act as a target for chemical disruption of molting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiya, Eri; Ogino, Yukiko; Toyota, Kenji; Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Iguchi, Taisen

    2016-11-01

    Embryo development in arthropods is accompanied by a series of moltings. A cladoceran crustacean Daphnia magna molts three times before reaching first instar neonate during embryogenesis. Previous studies argued ecdysteroids might regulate D. magna embryogenesis. However, no direct evidence between innate ecdysteroids fluctuation and functions has been forthcoming. Recently, we identified genes involved in ecdysteroid synthesis called, neverland (neverland1 and neverland 2) and shade and in the ecdysteroid degradation (Cyp18a1). To understand the physiological roles of ecdysteroids in D. magna embryos, we performed expression and functional analyzes of those genes. Examining innate ecdysteroids titer during embryogenesis showed two surges of ecdysteroids titer at 41 and 61 h after oviposition. The first and second embryonic moltings occurred at each ecdysteroid surge. Expression of neverland1 and shade began to increase before the first peak in ecdysteroid. Knockdown of neverland1 or shade by RNAi technique caused defects in embryonic moltings and subsequent development. The ecdysteroids titer seemingly decreased in nvd1-knowckdown embryos. Knockdown of Cyp18a1 resulted in early embryonic lethality before the first molting. Our in situ hybridization analysis revealed that nvd1 was prominently expressed in embryonic gut epithelium suggesting the site for an initial step of ecdysteroidgenesis, a conversion of cholesterol to 7-dehydrocholesterol and possibly for ecdysone production. Taken together, de novo ecdysteroid synthesis by nvd1 in the gut epithelial cells stimulates molting, which is indispensable for D. magna embryo development. These findings identify neverland as a possible target for chemicals, including various pesticides that are known to disrupt molting, development and reproduction. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Delayed Mesoderm and Erythroid Differentiation of Murine Embryonic Stem Cells in the Absence of the Transcriptional Regulator FUBP1

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    Josephine Wesely

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The transcriptional regulator far upstream binding protein 1 (FUBP1 is essential for fetal and adult hematopoietic stem cell (HSC self-renewal, and the constitutive absence of FUBP1 activity during early development leads to embryonic lethality in homozygous mutant mice. To investigate the role of FUBP1 in murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs and in particular during differentiation into hematopoietic lineages, we generated Fubp1 knockout (KO ESC clones using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Although FUBP1 is expressed in undifferentiated ESCs and during spontaneous differentiation following aggregation into embryoid bodies (EBs, absence of FUBP1 did not affect ESC maintenance. Interestingly, we observed a delayed differentiation of FUBP1-deficient ESCs into the mesoderm germ layer, as indicated by impaired expression of several mesoderm markers including Brachyury at an early time point of ESC differentiation upon aggregation to EBs. Coculture experiments with OP9 cells in the presence of erythropoietin revealed a diminished differentiation capacity of Fubp1 KO ESCs into the erythroid lineage. Our data showed that FUBP1 is important for the onset of mesoderm differentiation and maturation of hematopoietic progenitor cells into the erythroid lineage, a finding that is supported by the phenotype of FUBP1-deficient mice.

  14. Porphyrin Homeostasis Maintained by ABCG2 Regulates Self-Renewal of Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun-Nan; Shen, Chia-Rui; Yan, Yu-Ting; Tsai, Sheng-Ta; Chen, Chung-Hsuan; Shen, Chia-Ning

    2008-01-01

    Background Under appropriate culture conditions, undifferentiated embryonic stem (ES) cells can undergo multiple self-renewal cycles without loss of pluripotency suggesting they must be equipped with specific defense mechanisms to ensure sufficient genetic stability during self-renewal expansion. The ATP binding cassette transporter ABCG2 is expressed in a wide variety of somatic and embryonic stem cells. However, whether it plays an important role in stem cell maintenance remains to be defined. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we provide evidence to show that an increase in the level of ABCG2 was observed accompanied by ES colony expansion and then were followed by decreases in the level of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) indicating that ABCG2 plays a role in maintaining porphyrin homoeostasis. RNA-interference mediated inhibition of ABCG2 as well as functional blockage of ABCG2 transporter with fumitremorgin C (FTC), a specific and potent inhibitor of ABCG2, not only elevated the cellular level of PPIX, but also arrest the cell cycle and reduced expression of the pluripotent gene Nanog. Overexpression of ABCG2 in ES cells was able to counteract the increase of endogenous PPIX induced by treatment with 5-Aminolevulinic acid suggesting ABCG2 played a direct role in removal of PPIX from ES cells. We also found that excess PPIX in ES cells led to elevated levels of reactive oxygen species which in turn triggered DNA damage signals as indicated by increased levels of γH2AX and phosphorylated p53. The increased level of p53 reduced Nanog expression because RNA- interference mediated inhibition of p53 was able to prevent the downregulation of Nanog induced by FTC treatment. Conclusions/Significance The present work demonstrated that ABCG2 protects ES cells from PPIX accumulation during colony expansion, and that p53 and γH2AX acts as a downstream checkpoint of ABCG2-dependent defense machinery in order to maintain the self-renewal of ES cells. PMID:19107196

  15. Efficient regulation of branching morphogenesis via fibroblast growth factor receptor 2c in early-stage embryonic mouse salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Minami; Ikari, Tatsuya; Sugiyama, Goro; Ohyama, Yukiko; Kumamaru, Wataru; Nagano, Koki; Sugiura, Tsuyoshi; Shirasuna, Kanemitsu; Mori, Yoshihide

    Salivary gland (SG) defects have a wide range of health implications, including xerostomia, bacterial infections, and oral health issues. Branching morphogenesis is critical for SG development. A clear understanding of the mechanisms underlying this process will accelerate SG regeneration studies. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) interacts with multiple fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), which promote development. FGFR2 consists of two isoforms, FGFR2b and FGFR2c. FGFR2b is critical for SG development, but little is known about the expression and function of FGFR2c. We investigated the expression of all FGFR family members in fetal SGs between embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) and E18.5. Based on RT-PCR, we observed an increase in the expression of not only Fgfr2b, but also Fgfr2c in early-stage embryonic mouse SGs, suggesting that FGFR2c is related to SG development. The branch number decreased in response to exogenous FGF2 stimulation, and this effect was suppressed by a mouse anti-FGFR2c neutralizing antibody (NA) and siRNA targeting FGFR2c, whereas FGFR2b signaling was not inhibited. Moreover, the expression of marker genes related to EMT was induced by FGF2, and this expression was suppressed by the NA. These results suggested that branching morphogenesis in SGs is regulated by FGFR2c, in addition to FGFR2b. Interestingly, FGFR2c signaling also led to increased fgf10 expression, and this increase was suppressed by the NA. FGFR2c signaling regulates branching morphogenesis through the activation of FGFR2b signaling via increased FGF10 autocrine. These results provide new insight into the mechanisms by which crosstalk between FGFR2b and FGFR2c results in efficient branching morphogenesis. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. CIBZ Regulates Mesodermal and Cardiac Differentiation of by Suppressing T and Mesp1 Expression in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotoku, Tomomi; Kosaka, Koji; Nishio, Miki; Ishida, Yasumasa; Kawaichi, Masashi; Matsuda, Eishou

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying mesodermal and cardiac specification from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are not fully understood. Here, we showed that the BTB domain-containing zinc finger protein CIBZ is expressed in mouse ESCs but is dramatically downregulated during ESC differentiation. CIBZ deletion in ESCs induced specification toward mesoderm phenotypes and their differentiation into cardiomyocytes, whereas overexpression of CIBZ delayed these processes. During ESC differentiation, CIBZ loss-and-gain-of-function data indicate that CIBZ negatively regulates the expressions of Brachyury (T) and Mesp1, the key transcriptional factors responsible for the specification of mammalian mesoderm and cardiac progenitors, respectively. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that CIBZ binds to T and Mesp1 promoters in undifferentiated ESCs, and luciferase assays indicate that CIBZ suppresses T and Mesp1 promoters. These findings demonstrate that CIBZ is a novel regulator of mesodermal and cardiac differentiation of ESCs, and suggest that CIBZ-mediated cardiac differentiation depends on the regulation of these two genes. PMID:27659197

  17. IGF-I: A key growth factor that regulates neurogenesis and synaptogenesis from embryonic to adult stages of the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa eNieto-Estévez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The generation of neurons in the adult mammalian brain requires the activation of quiescent neural stem cells (NSCs. This activation and the sequential steps of neuron formation from NSCs are regulated by a number of stimuli, which include growth factors. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I exert pleiotropic effects, regulating multiple cellular processes depending on their concentration, cell type and the developmental stage of the animal. Although IGF-I expression is relatively high in the embryonic brain its levels drop sharply in the adult brain except in neurogenic regions, i.e., the hippocampus (HP and the subventricular zone-olfactory bulb (SVZ-OB. By contrast, the expression of IGF-IR remains relatively high in the brain irrespective of the age of the animal. Evidence indicates that IGF-I influences NSC proliferation and differentiation into neurons and glia as well as neuronal maturation including synapse formation. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that IGF-I not only promote adult neurogenesis by regulating NSC number and differentiation but also, by influencing neuronal positioning and migration as described during SVZ-OB neurogenesis. In this article we will revise and discuss the actions reported for IGF-I signaling in a variety of in vitro and in vivo models, focusing on the maintenance and proliferation of NSCs/progenitors, neurogenesis and neuron integration in synaptic circuits.

  18. Mof-associated complexes have overlapping and unique roles in regulating pluripotency in embryonic stem cells and during differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravens, Sarina; Fournier, Marjorie; Ye, Tao; Stierle, Matthieu; Dembele, Doulaye; Chavant, Virginie; Tora, Làszlò

    2014-01-01

    The histone acetyltransferase (HAT) Mof is essential for mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) pluripotency and early development. Mof is the enzymatic subunit of two different HAT complexes, MSL and NSL. The individual contribution of MSL and NSL to transcription regulation in mESCs is not well understood. Our genome-wide analysis show that i) MSL and NSL bind to specific and common sets of expressed genes, ii) NSL binds exclusively at promoters, iii) while MSL binds in gene bodies. Nsl1 regulates proliferation and cellular homeostasis of mESCs. MSL is the main HAT acetylating H4K16 in mESCs, is enriched at many mESC-specific and bivalent genes. MSL is important to keep a subset of bivalent genes silent in mESCs, while developmental genes require MSL for expression during differentiation. Thus, NSL and MSL HAT complexes differentially regulate specific sets of expressed genes in mESCs and during differentiation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02104.001 PMID:24898753

  19. Striking a balance: regulation of transposable elements by Zfp281 and Mll2 in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qian; Shen, Yang; Wang, Yan; Wang, Xin; Francisco, Joel Celio; Luo, Zhuojuan; Lin, Chengqi

    2017-12-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) compose about 40% of the murine genome. Retrotransposition of active TEs such as LINE-1 (L1) tremendously impacts genetic diversification and genome stability. Therefore, transcription and transposition activities of retrotransposons are tightly controlled. Here, we show that the Krüppel-like zinc finger protein Zfp281 directly binds and suppresses a subset of retrotransposons, including the active young L1 repeat elements, in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. In addition, we find that Zfp281-regulated L1s are highly enriched for 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and H3K4me3. The COMPASS-like H3K4 methyltransferase Mll2 is the major H3K4me3 methylase at the Zfp281-regulated L1s and required for their proper expression. Our studies also reveal that Zfp281 functions partially through recruiting the L1 regulators DNA hydroxymethylase Tet1 and Sin3A, and restricting Mll2 at these active L1s, leading to their balanced expression. In summary, our data indicate an instrumental role of Zfp281 in suppressing the young active L1s in mouse ES cells. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. Cell recognition molecule L1 promotes embryonic stem cell differentiation through the regulation of cell surface glycosylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ying [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Department of Clinical Laboratory, Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116023 (China); Huang, Xiaohua [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Department of Clinical Biochemistry, College of Laboratory Medicine, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); An, Yue [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116023 (China); Ren, Feng [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Yang, Zara Zhuyun; Zhu, Hongmei; Zhou, Lei [The Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, Institute of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Kunming Medical University, Kunming 650228 (China); Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Monash University, Clayton 3800 (Australia); He, Xiaowen; Schachner, Melitta [Keck Center for Collaborative Neuroscience and Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Xiao, Zhicheng, E-mail: zhicheng.xiao@monash.edu [The Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, Institute of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Kunming Medical University, Kunming 650228 (China); Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Monash University, Clayton 3800 (Australia); Ma, Keli, E-mail: makeli666@aliyun.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Li, Yali, E-mail: yalilipaper@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Department of Anatomy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119078 (Singapore)

    2013-10-25

    Highlights: •Down-regulating FUT9 and ST3Gal4 expression blocks L1-induced neuronal differentiation of ESCs. •Up-regulating FUT9 and ST3Gal4 expression in L1-ESCs depends on the activation of PLCγ. •L1 promotes ESCs to differentiate into neuron through regulating cell surface glycosylation. -- Abstract: Cell recognition molecule L1 (CD171) plays an important role in neuronal survival, migration, differentiation, neurite outgrowth, myelination, synaptic plasticity and regeneration after injury. Our previous study has demonstrated that overexpressing L1 enhances cell survival and proliferation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) through promoting the expression of FUT9 and ST3Gal4, which upregulates cell surface sialylation and fucosylation. In the present study, we examined whether sialylation and fucosylation are involved in ESC differentiation through L1 signaling. RNA interference analysis showed that L1 enhanced differentiation of ESCs into neurons through the upregulation of FUT9 and ST3Gal4. Furthermore, blocking the phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ) signaling pathway with either a specific PLCγ inhibitor or knockdown PLCγ reduced the expression levels of both FUT9 and ST3Gal4 mRNAs and inhibited L1-mediated neuronal differentiation. These results demonstrate that L1 promotes neuronal differentiation from ESCs through the L1-mediated enhancement of FUT9 and ST3Gal4 expression.

  1. Stat3 signaling regulates embryonic stem cell fate in a dose-dependent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-I Tai

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Stat3 is essential for mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC self-renewal mediated by LIF/gp130 receptor signaling. Current understanding of Stat3-mediated ESC self-renewal mechanisms is very limited, and has heretofore been dominated by the view that Stat3 signaling functions in a binary “on/off” manner. Here, in contrast to this binary viewpoint, we demonstrate a contextual, rheostat-like mechanism for Stat3's function in mESCs. Activation and expression levels determine whether Stat3 functions in a self-renewal or a differentiation role in mESCs. We also show that Stat3 induces rapid differentiation of mESCs toward the trophectoderm (TE lineage when its activation level exceeds certain thresholds. Stat3 induces this differentiation phenotype via induction of Tfap2c and its downstream target Cdx2. Our findings provide a novel concept in the realm of Stat3, self-renewal signaling, and pluripotent stem cell biology. Ultimately, this finding may facilitate the development of conditions for the establishment of authentic non-rodent ESCs.

  2. CTCF counter-regulates cardiomyocyte development and maturation programs in the embryonic heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Velazquez, Melisa; Badia-Careaga, Claudio; Lechuga-Vieco, Ana Victoria; Nieto-Arellano, Rocio; Rollan, Isabel; Alvarez, Alba; Torroja, Carlos; Caceres, Eva F.; Roy, Anna R.; Galjart, Niels; Sanchez-Cabo, Fatima; Enriquez, Jose Antonio; Gomez-Skarmeta, Jose Luis

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac progenitors are specified early in development and progressively differentiate and mature into fully functional cardiomyocytes. This process is controlled by an extensively studied transcriptional program. However, the regulatory events coordinating the progression of such program from development to maturation are largely unknown. Here, we show that the genome organizer CTCF is essential for cardiogenesis and that it mediates genomic interactions to coordinate cardiomyocyte differentiation and maturation in the developing heart. Inactivation of Ctcf in cardiac progenitor cells and their derivatives in vivo during development caused severe cardiac defects and death at embryonic day 12.5. Genome wide expression analysis in Ctcf mutant hearts revealed that genes controlling mitochondrial function and protein production, required for cardiomyocyte maturation, were upregulated. However, mitochondria from mutant cardiomyocytes do not mature properly. In contrast, multiple development regulatory genes near predicted heart enhancers, including genes in the IrxA cluster, were downregulated in Ctcf mutants, suggesting that CTCF promotes cardiomyocyte differentiation by facilitating enhancer-promoter interactions. Accordingly, loss of CTCF disrupts gene expression and chromatin interactions as shown by chromatin conformation capture followed by deep sequencing. Furthermore, CRISPR-mediated deletion of an intergenic CTCF site within the IrxA cluster alters gene expression in the developing heart. Thus, CTCF mediates local regulatory interactions to coordinate transcriptional programs controlling transitions in morphology and function during heart development. PMID:28846746

  3. CTCF counter-regulates cardiomyocyte development and maturation programs in the embryonic heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Velazquez, Melisa; Badia-Careaga, Claudio; Lechuga-Vieco, Ana Victoria; Nieto-Arellano, Rocio; Tena, Juan J; Rollan, Isabel; Alvarez, Alba; Torroja, Carlos; Caceres, Eva F; Roy, Anna R; Galjart, Niels; Delgado-Olguin, Paul; Sanchez-Cabo, Fatima; Enriquez, Jose Antonio; Gomez-Skarmeta, Jose Luis; Manzanares, Miguel

    2017-08-01

    Cardiac progenitors are specified early in development and progressively differentiate and mature into fully functional cardiomyocytes. This process is controlled by an extensively studied transcriptional program. However, the regulatory events coordinating the progression of such program from development to maturation are largely unknown. Here, we show that the genome organizer CTCF is essential for cardiogenesis and that it mediates genomic interactions to coordinate cardiomyocyte differentiation and maturation in the developing heart. Inactivation of Ctcf in cardiac progenitor cells and their derivatives in vivo during development caused severe cardiac defects and death at embryonic day 12.5. Genome wide expression analysis in Ctcf mutant hearts revealed that genes controlling mitochondrial function and protein production, required for cardiomyocyte maturation, were upregulated. However, mitochondria from mutant cardiomyocytes do not mature properly. In contrast, multiple development regulatory genes near predicted heart enhancers, including genes in the IrxA cluster, were downregulated in Ctcf mutants, suggesting that CTCF promotes cardiomyocyte differentiation by facilitating enhancer-promoter interactions. Accordingly, loss of CTCF disrupts gene expression and chromatin interactions as shown by chromatin conformation capture followed by deep sequencing. Furthermore, CRISPR-mediated deletion of an intergenic CTCF site within the IrxA cluster alters gene expression in the developing heart. Thus, CTCF mediates local regulatory interactions to coordinate transcriptional programs controlling transitions in morphology and function during heart development.

  4. Odd-skipped related genes regulate differentiation of embryonic limb mesenchyme and bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Sigmar; Mathia, Susanne; Haupt, Julia; Seemann, Petra; Meier, Julia; Mundlos, Stefan

    2012-03-01

    The regulation of progenitor cell differentiation to a specific tissue type is one of the fundamental questions of biology. Here, we identify Osr1 and Osr2, 2 closely related genes encoding zinc finger transcription factors, as being strongly expressed in irregular connective tissue (ICT) fibroblasts in the chicken embryo, suitable as a developmental marker. We provide evidence that both Osr1 and Osr2 regulate mesenchymal cell-type differentiation. Both Osr1 and Osr2 can promote the formation of ICT, a cell type of so far unknown molecular specification, while suppressing differentiation of other tissues such as cartilage and tendon from uncommitted progenitors. Conversely, knockdown of either Osr gene alone or in combination reverses this effect, thereby leading to decreased differentiation of ICT fibroblasts and increased chondrogenesis in vitro. This indicates that Osr genes play a pivotal role in ICT fibroblast differentiation. Undifferentiated mesenchymal cells reside in the adult body in the form of mesenchymal stem cells in the bone marrow cavity. Using bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) isolated from chicken fetal long bones, we show that Osr1 and Osr2 have an intrinsic role in BMSC differentiation similar to their role in early embryonic development, that is, the enforcement of CT fibroblast differentiation and the repression of other cell types as exemplified here by osteoblast differentiation.

  5. An epigenetic switch regulates de novo DNA methylation at a subset of pluripotency gene enhancers during embryonic stem cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petell, Christopher J.; Alabdi, Lama; He, Ming; San Miguel, Phillip; Rose, Richard; Gowher, Humaira

    2016-01-01

    Coordinated regulation of gene expression that involves activation of lineage specific genes and repression of pluripotency genes drives differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESC). For complete repression of pluripotency genes during ESC differentiation, chromatin at their enhancers is silenced by the activity of the Lsd1-Mi2/NuRD complex. The mechanism/s that regulate DNA methylation at these enhancers are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the affect of the Lsd1-Mi2/NuRD complex on the dynamic regulatory switch that induces the local interaction of histone tails with the Dnmt3 ATRX-DNMT3-DNMT3L (ADD) domain, thus promoting DNA methylation at the enhancers of a subset of pluripotency genes. This is supported by previous structural studies showing a specific interaction between Dnmt3-ADD domain with H3K4 unmethylated histone tails that is disrupted by histone H3K4 methylation and histone acetylation. Our data suggest that Dnmt3a activity is triggered by Lsd1-Mi2/NuRD-mediated histone deacetylation and demethylation at these pluripotency gene enhancers when they are inactivated during mouse ESC differentiation. Using Dnmt3 knockout ESCs and the inhibitors of Lsd1 and p300 histone modifying enzymes during differentiation of E14Tg2A and ZHBTc4 ESCs, our study systematically reveals this mechanism and establishes that Dnmt3a is both reader and effector of the epigenetic state at these target sites. PMID:27179026

  6. Embryonic liver fordin is involved in glucose glycolysis of hepatic stellate cell by regulating PI3K/Akt signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wei; Ye, Jin; Wang, Zhi-Jun

    2016-10-14

    To investigate the role of embryonic liver fordin (ELF) in liver fibrosis by regulating hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) glucose glycolysis. The expression of ELF and the glucose glycolysis-related proteins were evaluated in activated HSCs. siRNA was used to silence ELF expression in activated HSCs in vitro and the subsequent changes in PI3K/Akt signaling and glucose glycolysis-related proteins were observed. The expression of ELF increased remarkably in HSCs of the fibrosis mouse model and HSCs that were cultured for 3 wk in vitro . Glucose glycolysis-related proteins showed an obvious increase in the activated HSCs, such as phosphofructokinase, platelet and glucose transporter 1. ELF-siRNA, which perfectly silenced the expression of ELF in activated HSCs, led to the induction of glucose glycolysis-related proteins and extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Moreover, pAkt, which is an important downstream factor in PI3K/Akt signaling, showed a significant change in response to the ELF silencing. The expression of glucose glycolysis-related proteins and ECM components decreased remarkably when the PI3K/Akt signaling was blocked by Ly294002 in the activated HSCs. ELF is involved in HSC glucose glycolysis by regulating PI3K/Akt signaling.

  7. Gas1 is a pleiotropic regulator of cellular functions: from embryonic development to molecular actions in cancer gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, José; Zarco, Natanael

    2014-01-01

    Cellular homeostasis is governed by a precise regulation of the molecular mechanisms of action of several proteins in a given time. There is a group of proteins that have a particular role depending on the cellular context in which they are present and are known as pleiotropic proteins. The Gas1 (Growth Arrest Specific 1) gene was isolated from a subtraction library from serum arrested versus growing NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast. Gas1 is a member of the alpha receptors (GFRα) for the family of GDNF ligands (GFL), we have previously shown that Gas1 acts as a negative modulator of the GDNF-induced intracellular signaling and induces cell arrest and apoptosis. This modulating activity is the cause of the capacity of Gas1 to act as a tumor suppressor. On the other hand, several studies have shown the interaction between Gas1 and Hh (Hedgehog) proteins to potentiate the positive regulation of this pathway, which is involved in the development of the nervous system, and in both the origin and progression of different tumors. This review summarizes our current understanding of the structure of Gas1 and the molecular mechanism of action in different cellular functions, both during embryonic development, in the adult and its effects inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis of cancer cells.

  8. Growth factor independence 1b (gfi1b is important for the maturation of erythroid cells and the regulation of embryonic globin expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lothar Vassen

    Full Text Available Growth factor independence 1b (GFI1B is a DNA binding repressor of transcription with vital functions in hematopoiesis. Gfi1b-null embryos die at midgestation very likely due to defects in erythro- and megakaryopoiesis. To analyze the full functionality of Gfi1b, we used conditionally deficient mice that harbor floxed Gfi1b alleles and inducible (Mx-Cre, Cre-ERT or erythroid specific (EpoR-Cre Cre expressing transgenes. In contrast to the germline knockout, EpoR-Cre mediated erythroid specific ablation of Gfi1b allows full gestation, but causes perinatal lethality with very few mice surviving to adulthood. Both the embryonic deletion of Gfi1b by EpoR-Cre and the deletion in adult mice by Mx-Cre or Cre-ERT leads to reduced numbers of erythroid precursors, perturbed and delayed erythroid maturation, anemia and extramedullary erythropoiesis. Global expression analyses showed that the Hba-x, Hbb-bh1 and Hbb-y embryonic globin genes were upregulated in Gfi1b deficient TER119+ fetal liver cells over the gestation period from day 12.5-17.5 p.c. and an increased level of Hbb-bh1 and Hbb-y embryonic globin gene expression was even maintained in adult Gfi1b deficient mice. While the expression of Bcl11a, a regulator of embryonic globin expression was not affected by Gfi1b deficiency, the expression of Gata1 was reduced and the expression of Sox6, also involved in globin switch, was almost entirely lost when Gfi1b was absent. These findings establish Gfi1b as a regulator of embryonic globin expression and embryonic and adult erythroid maturation.

  9. The Bicoid class homeodomain factors ceh-36/OTX and unc-30/PITX cooperate in C. elegans embryonic progenitor cells to regulate robust development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Walton

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While many transcriptional regulators of pluripotent and terminally differentiated states have been identified, regulation of intermediate progenitor states is less well understood. Previous high throughput cellular resolution expression studies identified dozens of transcription factors with lineage-specific expression patterns in C. elegans embryos that could regulate progenitor identity. In this study we identified a broad embryonic role for the C. elegans OTX transcription factor ceh-36, which was previously shown to be required for the terminal specification of four neurons. ceh-36 is expressed in progenitors of over 30% of embryonic cells, yet is not required for embryonic viability. Quantitative phenotyping by computational analysis of time-lapse movies of ceh-36 mutant embryos identified cell cycle or cell migration defects in over 100 of these cells, but most defects were low-penetrance, suggesting redundancy. Expression of ceh-36 partially overlaps with that of the PITX transcription factor unc-30. unc-30 single mutants are viable but loss of both ceh-36 and unc-30 causes 100% lethality, and double mutants have significantly higher frequencies of cellular developmental defects in the cells where their expression normally overlaps. These factors are also required for robust expression of the downstream developmental regulator mls-2/HMX. This work provides the first example of genetic redundancy between the related yet evolutionarily distant OTX and PITX families of bicoid class homeodomain factors and demonstrates the power of quantitative developmental phenotyping in C. elegans to identify developmental regulators acting in progenitor cells.

  10. Oct3/4 directly regulates expression of E2F3a in mouse embryonic stem cells

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    Kanai, Dai; Ueda, Atsushi; Akagi, Tadayuki; Yokota, Takashi; Koide, Hiroshi, E-mail: hkoide@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2015-04-10

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells, derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, have a characteristic cell cycle with truncated G1 and G2 phases. Recent findings that suppression of Oct3/4 expression results in a reduced proliferation rate of ES cells suggest the involvement of Oct3/4 in the regulation of ES cell growth, although the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we identified E2F3a as a direct target gene of Oct3/4 in ES cells. Oct3/4 directly bound to the promoter region of the E2F3a gene and positively regulated expression of E2F3a in mouse ES cells. Suppression of E2F3a activity by E2F6 overexpression led to the reduced proliferation in ES cells, which was relieved by co-expression of E2F3a. Furthermore, cell growth retardation caused by loss of Oct3/4 was rescued by E2F3a expression. These results suggest that Oct3/4 upregulates E2F3a expression to promote ES cell growth. - Highlights: • Oct3/4 positively regulates E2F3a expression in ES cells. • Oct3/4 binds to the promoter region of the E2F3a gene. • Overexpression of E2F6, an inhibitor of E2F3a, reduces ES cell growth. • E2F3a recovers growth retardation of ES cells caused by Oct3/4 reduction.

  11. Controlled surface topography regulates collective 3D migration by epithelial-mesenchymal composite embryonic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiho; Shawky, Joseph H; Kim, YongTae; Hazar, Melis; LeDuc, Philip R; Sitti, Metin; Davidson, Lance A

    2015-07-01

    Cells in tissues encounter a range of physical cues as they migrate. Probing single cell and collective migratory responses to physically defined three-dimensional (3D) microenvironments and the factors that modulate those responses are critical to understanding how tissue migration is regulated during development, regeneration, and cancer. One key physical factor that regulates cell migration is topography. Most studies on surface topography and cell mechanics have been carried out with single migratory cells, yet little is known about the spreading and motility response of 3D complex multi-cellular tissues to topographical cues. Here, we examine the response to complex topographical cues of microsurgically isolated tissue explants composed of epithelial and mesenchymal cell layers from naturally 3D organized embryos of the aquatic frog Xenopus laevis. We control topography using fabricated micropost arrays (MPAs) and investigate the collective 3D migration of these multi-cellular systems in these MPAs. We find that the topography regulates both collective and individual cell migration and that dense MPAs reduce but do not eliminate tissue spreading. By modulating cell size through the cell cycle inhibitor Mitomycin C or the spacing of the MPAs we uncover how 3D topographical cues disrupt collective cell migration. We find surface topography can direct both single cell motility and tissue spreading, altering tissue-scale processes that enable efficient conversion of single cell motility into collective movement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Autophagy Regulates Proteasome Inhibitor-Induced Pigmentation in Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juuti-Uusitalo, Kati; Koskela, Ali; Kivinen, Niko; Viiri, Johanna; Hyttinen, Juha M T; Reinisalo, Mika; Koistinen, Arto; Uusitalo, Hannu; Sinha, Debasish; Skottman, Heli; Kaarniranta, Kai

    2017-05-19

    The impairment of autophagic and proteasomal cleansing together with changes in pigmentation has been documented in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell degeneration. However, the function and co-operation of these mechanisms in melanosome-containing RPE cells is still unclear. We show that inhibition of proteasomal degradation with MG-132 or autophagy with bafilomycin A1 increased the accumulation of premelanosomes and autophagic structures in human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived RPE cells. Consequently, upregulation of the autophagy marker p62 (also known as sequestosome-1, SQSTM1) was confirmed in Western blot and perinuclear staining. Interestingly, cells treated with the adenosine monophosphatedependent protein kinase activator, AICAR (5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide), decreased the proteasome inhibitor-induced accumulation of premelanosomes, increased the amount of autophagosomes and eradicated the protein expression of p62 and LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3). These results revealed that autophagic machinery is functional in hESC-RPE cells and may regulate cellular pigmentation with proteasomes.

  13. BMP-SMAD Signaling Regulates Lineage Priming, but Is Dispensable for Self-Renewal in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gomes Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Naive mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs are in a metastable state and fluctuate between inner cell mass- and epiblast-like phenotypes. Here, we show transient activation of the BMP-SMAD signaling pathway in mESCs containing a BMP-SMAD responsive reporter transgene. Activation of the BMP-SMAD reporter transgene in naive mESCs correlated with lower levels of genomic DNA methylation, high expression of 5-methylcytosine hydroxylases Tet1/2 and low levels of DNA methyltransferases Dnmt3a/b. Moreover, naive mESCs, in which the BMP-SMAD reporter transgene was activated, showed higher resistance to differentiation. Using double Smad1;Smad5 knockout mESCs, we showed that BMP-SMAD signaling is dispensable for self-renewal in both naive and ground state. These mutant mESCs were still pluripotent, but they exhibited higher levels of DNA methylation than their wild-type counterparts and had a higher propensity to differentiate. We showed that BMP-SMAD signaling modulates lineage priming in mESCs, by transiently regulating the enzymatic machinery responsible for DNA methylation.

  14. Rho1 regulates signaling events required for proper Drosophila embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magie, Craig R; Parkhurst, Susan M

    2005-02-01

    The Rho small GTPase has been implicated in many cellular processes, including actin cytoskeletal regulation and transcriptional activation. The molecular mechanisms underlying Rho function in many of these processes are not yet clear. Here we report that in Drosophila, reduction of maternal Rho1 compromises signaling pathways consistent with defects in membrane trafficking events. These mutants fail to maintain expression of the segment polarity genes engrailed (en), wingless (wg), and hedgehog (hh), contributing to a segmentation phenotype. Formation of the Wg protein gradient involves the internalization of Wg into vesicles. The number of these Wg-containing vesicles is reduced in maternal Rho1 mutants, suggesting a defect in endocytosis. Consistent with this, stripes of cytoplasmic beta-catenin that accumulate in response to Wg signaling are narrower in these mutants relative to wild type. Additionally, the amount of extracellular Wg protein is reduced in maternal Rho1 mutants, indicating a defect in secretion. Signaling pathways downregulated by endocytosis, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Torso pathways, are hyperactivated in maternal Rho1 mutants, consistent with a general role for Rho1 in regulating signaling events governing proper patterning during Drosophila development.

  15. Dissecting Oct3/4-regulated gene networks in embryonic stem cells by expression profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Matoba

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available POU transcription factor Pou5f1 (Oct3/4 is required to maintain ES cells in an undifferentiated state. Here we show that global expression profiling of Oct3/4-manipulated ES cells delineates the downstream target genes of Oct3/4. Combined with data from genome-wide chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays, this analysis identifies not only primary downstream targets of Oct3/4, but also secondary or tertiary targets. Furthermore, the analysis also reveals that downstream target genes are regulated either positively or negatively by Oct3/4. Identification of a group of genes that show both activation and repression depending on Oct3/4 expression levels provides a possible mechanism for the requirement of appropriate Oct3/4 expression to maintain undifferentiated ES cells. As a proof-of-principle study, one of the downstream genes, Tcl1, has been analyzed in detail. We show that Oct3/4 binds to the promoter region of Tcl1 and activates its transcription. We also show that Tcl1 is involved in the regulation of proliferation, but not differentiation, in ES cells. These findings suggest that the global expression profiling of gene-manipulated ES cells can help to delineate the structure and dynamics of gene regulatory networks.

  16. Regulation of embryonic kidney branching morphogenesis and glomerular development by KISS1 receptor (Gpr54) through NFAT2- and Sp1-mediated Bmp7 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Tingfang; Tan, Kunrong; Cho, Sung-Gook; Wang, Ying; Luo, Jian; Zhang, Wenzheng; Li, Dali; Liu, Mingyao

    2010-06-04

    G-protein-coupled receptor 54 (Gpr54, KISS1 receptor) plays critical roles in puberty regulation, tumor metastasis suppression, and vasoconstriction. Bone morphogenetic protein-7 (Bmp7) is required for kidney organogenesis. However, whether Gpr54 is involved in embryonic kidney development and how Bmp7 expression is regulated in the kidney are largely unknown. Here we report that Gpr54 deletion leads to kidney branching morphogenesis and glomerular development retardation in embryonic kidneys in vivo and in explanted kidneys in vitro. Gpr54 inactivation results in a high risk of low glomerular number in adult kidneys. Gpr54 is expressed in condensed mesenchyme at E12.5 and epithelial cells of proximal and distal tubules and collecting ducts at E17.5 and P0 mouse kidney. Deletion of Gpr54 decreases Bmp7 expression and Smad1 phosphorylation in the developing kidney. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase assays, we demonstrate that Gpr54 regulates NFAT2- and Sp1-mediated Bmp7 transcription. Furthermore, we show that NFAT2 cooperates with Sp1 to promote Bmp7 transcription activation. Together, these data suggest that Gpr54 regulates Bmp7 expression through NFAT2 and Sp1 and plays an important role in embryonic kidney branching morphogenesis and glomerular development.

  17. Regulation of Embryonic Kidney Branching Morphogenesis and Glomerular Development by KISS1 Receptor (Gpr54) through NFAT2- and Sp1-mediated Bmp7 Expression*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Tingfang; Tan, Kunrong; Cho, Sung-Gook; Wang, Ying; Luo, Jian; Zhang, Wenzheng; Li, Dali; Liu, Mingyao

    2010-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptor 54 (Gpr54, KISS1 receptor) plays critical roles in puberty regulation, tumor metastasis suppression, and vasoconstriction. Bone morphogenetic protein-7 (Bmp7) is required for kidney organogenesis. However, whether Gpr54 is involved in embryonic kidney development and how Bmp7 expression is regulated in the kidney are largely unknown. Here we report that Gpr54 deletion leads to kidney branching morphogenesis and glomerular development retardation in embryonic kidneys in vivo and in explanted kidneys in vitro. Gpr54 inactivation results in a high risk of low glomerular number in adult kidneys. Gpr54 is expressed in condensed mesenchyme at E12.5 and epithelial cells of proximal and distal tubules and collecting ducts at E17.5 and P0 mouse kidney. Deletion of Gpr54 decreases Bmp7 expression and Smad1 phosphorylation in the developing kidney. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase assays, we demonstrate that Gpr54 regulates NFAT2- and Sp1-mediated Bmp7 transcription. Furthermore, we show that NFAT2 cooperates with Sp1 to promote Bmp7 transcription activation. Together, these data suggest that Gpr54 regulates Bmp7 expression through NFAT2 and Sp1 and plays an important role in embryonic kidney branching morphogenesis and glomerular development. PMID:20375015

  18. Regression hidden Markov modeling reveals heterogeneous gene expression regulation: a case study in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeonok; Ghosh, Debashis; Zhang, Yu

    2014-05-12

    Studies have shown the strong association between histone modification levels and gene expression levels. The detailed relationships between the two can vary substantially due to differential regulation, and hence a simple regression model may not be adequate. We apply a regression hidden Markov model (regHMM) to further investigate the potential multiple relationships between genes and histone methylation levels in mouse embryonic stem cells. Seven histone methylation levels are used in the study. Averaged histone modifications over non-overlapping 200 bp windows on the range transcription starting site (TSS) ± 1 Kb are used as predictors, and in total 70 explanatory variables are generated. Based on regHMM results, genes segregated into two groups, referred to as State 1 and State 2, have distinct association strengths. Genes in State 1 are better explained by histone methylation levels with R(2)=.72 while those in State 2 have weaker association strength with R(2)=.38. The regression coefficients in the two states are not very different in magnitude except in the intercept,.25 and 1.15 for State 1 and State 2, respectively. We found specific GO categories that may be attributed to the different relationships. The GO categories more frequently observed in State 2 match those of housekeeping genes, such as cytoplasm, nucleus, and protein binding. In addition, the housekeeping gene expression levels are significantly less explained by histone methylation in mouse embryonic stem cells, which is consistent with the constitutive expression patterns that would be expected. Gene expression levels are not universally affected by histone methylation levels, and the relationships between the two differ by the gene functions. The expression levels of the genes that perform the most common housekeeping genes' GO categories are less strongly associated with histone methylation levels. We suspect that additional biological factors may also be strongly associated with the gene

  19. Microfluidic Devices For Picoliter-Scale Analyses of Embryonic Gene Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, J. M.; Chang, Mi; Henriksen, E. A.; Roukes, M. L.

    1998-03-01

    We are exploring new device configurations for microchip-based electrophoresis. Our ultimate goal is single-nucleus analysis of the transcription factor proteins regulating differential gene expression during sea urchin embryogenesis. The approach involves high-affinity binding with specific DNA sequences, followed by the high sensitivity/low volume analysis that is uniquely attainable through micron-scale devices. Our current efforts in device development are focused upon: a) optimization of electofluidic control of the concentration profile of analytes injected into the microdevices, and b) development of novel approaches to direct alteration of analyte mobility through techniques involving microelectrofluidics and the modification of surface chemistry. In this talk plug formation, general operation of the chip, and preliminary results of the field-effect electroosmosis will be discussed.

  20. microRNA regulation of the embryonic hypoxic response in Caenorhabditis elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kagias, Konstantinos; Pocock, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Layered strategies to combat hypoxia provide flexibility in dynamic oxygen environments. Here we show that multiple miRNAs are required for hypoxic survival responses during C. elegans embryogenesis. Certain miRNAs promote while others antagonize the hypoxic survival response. We found that expre......Layered strategies to combat hypoxia provide flexibility in dynamic oxygen environments. Here we show that multiple miRNAs are required for hypoxic survival responses during C. elegans embryogenesis. Certain miRNAs promote while others antagonize the hypoxic survival response. We found...... of the full mRNA target repertoire of these miRNAs will reveal the miRNA-regulated network of hypoxic survival mechanisms in C. elegans....

  1. OCAM regulates embryonic spinal cord stem cell proliferation by modulating ErbB2 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleyrolle, Loïc; Sabourin, Jean-Charles; Rothhut, Bernard; Fujita, Hiroko; Guichet, Pierre-Olivier; Teigell, Marisa; Ripoll, Chantal; Chauvet, Norbert; Perrin, Florence; Mamaeva, Daria; Noda, Tetsuo; Mori, Kensaku; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro; Hugnot, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells are tightly controlled by intrinsic and extrinsic cues. Cell adhesion molecules are increasingly recognized as regulators of these processes. Here we report the expression of the olfactory cell adhesion molecule (OCAM/NCAM2/RNCAM) during mouse spinal cord development and in neural stem cells cultured as neurospheres. OCAM is also weakly expressed in the dormant adult stem cell niche around the central canal and is overexpressed after spinal cord injury. Both transmembrane (TM) and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked isoforms are present in neurospheres. Electron microscopy and internalisation experiments revealed a dynamic trafficking of OCAM between the membrane and intracellular compartments. After differentiation, OCAM remains in neurons and oligodendrocytes whereas no expression is detected in astrocytes. Using OCAM knockout (KO) mice, we found that mutant spinal cord stem cells showed an increased proliferation and self-renewal rates although no effect on differentiation was observed. This effect was reversed by lentivirus-mediated re-introduction of OCAM. Mechanistically, we identified the ErbB2/Neu/HER2 protein as being implicated in the enhanced proliferation of mutant cells. ErbB2 protein expression and phosphorylation level were significantly increased in KO cells whereas no difference was observed at the mRNA level. Overexpression of ErbB2 in wild-type and mutant cells also increased their growth while reintroduction of OCAM in mutant cells reduced the level of phosphorylated ErbB2. These results indicate that OCAM exerts a posttranscriptional control on the ErbB2 signalling in spinal cord stem cells. This study adds further support for considering cell adhesion molecules as regulators of the ErbB signalling.

  2. OCAM regulates embryonic spinal cord stem cell proliferation by modulating ErbB2 receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Deleyrolle

    Full Text Available The proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells are tightly controlled by intrinsic and extrinsic cues. Cell adhesion molecules are increasingly recognized as regulators of these processes. Here we report the expression of the olfactory cell adhesion molecule (OCAM/NCAM2/RNCAM during mouse spinal cord development and in neural stem cells cultured as neurospheres. OCAM is also weakly expressed in the dormant adult stem cell niche around the central canal and is overexpressed after spinal cord injury. Both transmembrane (TM and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI-linked isoforms are present in neurospheres. Electron microscopy and internalisation experiments revealed a dynamic trafficking of OCAM between the membrane and intracellular compartments. After differentiation, OCAM remains in neurons and oligodendrocytes whereas no expression is detected in astrocytes. Using OCAM knockout (KO mice, we found that mutant spinal cord stem cells showed an increased proliferation and self-renewal rates although no effect on differentiation was observed. This effect was reversed by lentivirus-mediated re-introduction of OCAM. Mechanistically, we identified the ErbB2/Neu/HER2 protein as being implicated in the enhanced proliferation of mutant cells. ErbB2 protein expression and phosphorylation level were significantly increased in KO cells whereas no difference was observed at the mRNA level. Overexpression of ErbB2 in wild-type and mutant cells also increased their growth while reintroduction of OCAM in mutant cells reduced the level of phosphorylated ErbB2. These results indicate that OCAM exerts a posttranscriptional control on the ErbB2 signalling in spinal cord stem cells. This study adds further support for considering cell adhesion molecules as regulators of the ErbB signalling.

  3. Inhibition of Rho kinase regulates specification of early differentiation events in P19 embryonal carcinoma stem cells.

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    Roman J Krawetz

    Full Text Available The Rho kinase pathway plays a key role in many early cell/tissue determination events that take place in embryogenesis. Rho and its downstream effector Rho kinase (ROCK play pivotal roles in cell migration, apoptosis (membrane blebbing, cell proliferation/cell cycle, cell-cell adhesion and gene regulation. We and others have previously demonstrated that inhibition of ROCK blocks endoderm differentiation in embryonal carcinoma stem cells, however, the effect of ROCK inhibition on mesoderm and ectoderm specification has not been fully examined. In this study, the role of ROCK within the specification and differentiation of all three germ layers was examined.P19 cells were treated with the specific ROCK inhibitor Y-27623, and increase in differentiation efficiency into neuro-ectodermal and mesodermal lineages was observed. However, as expected a dramatic decrease in early endodermal markers was observed when ROCK was inhibited. Interestingly, within these ROCK-inhibited RA treated cultures, increased levels of mesodermal or ectodermal markers were not observed, instead it was found that the pluripotent markers SSEA-1 and Oct-4 remained up-regulated similar to that seen in undifferentiated cultures. Using standard and widely accepted methods for reproducible P19 differentiation into all three germ layers, an enhancement of mesoderm and ectoderm differentiation with a concurrent loss of endoderm lineage specification was observed with Y-27632 treatment. Evidence would suggest that this effect is in part mediated through TGF-β and SMAD signaling as ROCK-inhibited cells displayed aberrant SMAD activation and did not return to a 'ground' state after the inhibition had been removed.Given this data and the fact that only a partial rescue of normal differentiation capacity occurred when ROCK inhibition was alleviated, the effect of ROCK inhibition on the differentiation capacity of pluripotent cell populations should be further examined to elucidate the

  4. Prep1 (pKnox1 regulates mouse embryonic HSC cycling and self-renewal affecting the Stat1-Sca1 IFN-dependent pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Modica

    Full Text Available A hypomorphic Prep1 mutation results in embryonic lethality at late gestation with a pleiotropic embryonic phenotype that includes defects in all hematopoietic lineages. Reduced functionality of the hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs compartment might be responsible for the hematopoietic phenotype observed at mid-gestation. In this paper we demonstrate that Prep1 regulates the number of HSCs in fetal livers (FLs, their clonogenic potential and their ability to de novo generate the hematopoietic system in ablated hosts. Furthermore, we show that Prep1 controls the self-renewal ability of the FL HSC compartment as demonstrated by serial transplantation experiments. The premature exhaustion of Prep1 mutant HSCs correlates with the reduced quiescent stem cell pool thus suggesting that Prep1 regulates the self-renewal ability by controlling the quiescence/proliferation balance. Finally, we show that in FL HSCs Prep1 absence induces the interferon signaling pathway leading to premature cycling and exhaustion of fetal HSCs.

  5. Mecp2 regulates tnfa during zebrafish embryonic development and acute inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vaart, M; Svoboda, O; Weijts, B G; Espín-Palazón, R; Sapp, V; Pietri, T; Bagnat, M; Muotri, A R; Traver, D

    2017-10-09

    Mutations in MECP2 cause Rett syndrome, a severe neurological disorder with autism-like features. Duplication of MECP2 also causes severe neuropathology. Both diseases display immunological abnormalities that suggest a role for MeCP2 in controlling immune and inflammatory responses. Here, we used mecp2-null zebrafish to study the potential function of Mecp2 as an immunological regulator. Mecp2-deficiency resulted in an increase in neutrophil infiltration and upregulated expression of the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines Il1b and Il10 as a secondary response to disturbances in tissue homeostasis. In contrast, expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (Tnfa) was consistently downregulated in mecp2--null animals during development, representing the earliest developmental phenotype described for MeCP2-deficiency to date. Expression of tnfa was unresponsive to inflammatory stimulation, and was partially restored by re-expression of functional mecp2 Thus, Mecp2 is required for tnfa expression during zebrafish development and inflammation. Finally, RNA sequencing of mecp2-null embryos revealed dysregulated processes predictive for Rett syndrome phenotypes. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. The housekeeping gene hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT regulates multiple developmental and metabolic pathways of murine embryonic stem cell neuronal differentiation.

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    Tae Hyuk Kang

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which mutations of the purinergic housekeeping gene hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT cause the severe neurodevelopmental Lesch Nyhan Disease (LND are poorly understood. The best recognized neural consequences of HPRT deficiency are defective basal ganglia expression of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA and aberrant DA neuronal function. We have reported that HPRT deficiency leads to dysregulated expression of multiple DA-related developmental functions and cellular signaling defects in a variety of HPRT-deficient cells, including human induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells. We now describe results of gene expression studies during neuronal differentiation of HPRT-deficient murine ESD3 embryonic stem cells and report that HPRT knockdown causes a marked switch from neuronal to glial gene expression and dysregulates expression of Sox2 and its regulator, genes vital for stem cell pluripotency and for the neuronal/glial cell fate decision. In addition, HPRT deficiency dysregulates many cellular functions controlling cell cycle and proliferation mechanisms, RNA metabolism, DNA replication and repair, replication stress, lysosome function, membrane trafficking, signaling pathway for platelet activation (SPPA multiple neurotransmission systems and sphingolipid, sulfur and glycan metabolism. We propose that the neural aberrations of HPRT deficiency result from combinatorial effects of these multi-system metabolic errors. Since some of these aberrations are also found in forms of Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease, we predict that some of these systems defects play similar neuropathogenic roles in diverse neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases in common and may therefore provide new experimental opportunities for clarifying pathogenesis and for devising new potential therapeutic targets in developmental and genetic disease.

  7. miR-200c and GATA binding protein 4 regulate human embryonic stem cell renewal and differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Ning Huang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs are functionally unique for their self-renewal ability and pluripotency, but the molecular mechanisms giving rise to these properties are not fully understood. hESCs can differentiate into embryoid bodies (EBs containing ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. In the miR-200 family, miR-200c was especially enriched in undifferentiated hESCs and significantly downregulated in EBs. The knockdown of the miR-200c in hESCs downregulated Nanog expression, upregulated GATA binding protein 4 (GATA4 expression, and induced hESC apoptosis. The knockdown of GATA4 rescued hESC apoptosis induced by downregulation of miR-200c. miR-200c directly targeted the 3′-untranslated region of GATA4. Interestingly, the downregulation of GATA4 significantly inhibited EB formation in hESCs. Overexpression of miR-200c inhibited EB formation and repressed the expression of ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm markers, which could partially be rescued by ectopic expression of GATA4. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF and activin A/nodal can sustain hESC renewal in the absence of feeder layer. Inhibition of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β/activin A/nodal signaling by SB431542 treatment downregulated the expression of miR-200c. Overexpression of miR-200c partially rescued the expression of Nanog/phospho-Smad2 that was downregulated by SB431542 treatment. Our observations have uncovered novel functions of miR-200c and GATA4 in regulating hESC renewal and differentiation.

  8. Identification of transcripts regulated by CUG-BP, Elav-like family member 1 (CELF1 in primary embryonic cardiomyocytes by RNA-seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotam Blech-Hermoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available CUG-BP, Elav-like family member 1 (CELF1 is a multi-functional RNA binding protein that regulates pre-mRNA alternative splicing in the nucleus, as well as polyadenylation status, mRNA stability, and translation in the cytoplasm [1]. Dysregulation of CELF1 has been implicated in cardiomyopathies in myotonic dystrophy type 1 and diabetes [2–5], but the targets of CELF1 regulation in the heart have not been systematically investigated. We previously demonstrated that in the developing heart CELF1 expression is restricted to the myocardium and peaks during embryogenesis [6–8]. To identify transcripts regulated by CELF1 in the embryonic myocardium, RNA-seq was used to compare the transcriptome of primary embryonic cardiomyocytes following siRNA-mediated knockdown of CELF1 to that of controls. Raw data files of the RNA-seq reads have been deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus [9] under the GEO Series accession number GSE67360. These data can be used to identify transcripts whose levels or alternative processing (i.e., alternative splicing or polyadenylation site usage are regulated by CELF1, and should provide insight into the pathways and processes modulated by this important RNA binding protein during normal heart development and during cardiac pathogenesis.

  9. Role of 14-3-3 regulated K+ channels in ABA and FC controlled embryonic root growth.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Wijngaard, P.W.J.; Roobeek, I.; Reumer, G.A.; Mol, J.N.M.; Wang, M.; de Boer, A.H.

    2005-01-01

    Germination of seeds proceeds in general in two phases, an initial imbibition phase and a subsequent growth phase. In grasses like barley, the latter phase is evident as the emergence of the embryonic root (radicle). The hormone abscisic acid (ABA) inhibits germination because it prevents the embryo

  10. Cortical Morphogenesis during Embryonic Development Is Regulated by miR-34c and miR-204

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veno, Morten T.; Veno, Susanne T.; Rehberg, Kati

    2017-01-01

    The porcine brain closely resembles the human brain in aspects such as development and morphology. Temporal miRNA profiling in the developing embryonic porcine cortex revealed a distinct set of miRNAs, including miR-34c and miR-204, which exhibited a highly specific expression profile across...

  11. Regulation and functions of the lms homeobox gene during development of embryonic lateral transverse muscles and direct flight muscles in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Müller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patterning and differentiation of developing musculatures require elaborate networks of transcriptional regulation. In Drosophila, significant progress has been made into identifying the regulators of muscle development and defining their interactive networks. One major family of transcription factors involved in these processes consists of homeodomain proteins. In flies, several members of this family serve as muscle identity genes to specify the fates of individual muscles, or groups thereof, during embryonic and/or adult muscle development. Herein, we report on the expression and function of a new Drosophila homeobox gene during both embryonic and adult muscle development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The newly described homeobox gene, termed lateral muscles scarcer (lms, which has yet uncharacterized orthologs in other invertebrates and primitive chordates but not in vertebrates, is expressed exclusively in subsets of developing muscle tissues. In embryos, lms is expressed specifically in the four lateral transverse (LT muscles and their founder cells in each hemisegment, whereas in larval wing imaginal discs, it is expressed in myoblasts that develop into direct flight muscles (DFMs, which are important for proper wing positioning. We have analyzed the regulatory inputs of various other muscle identity genes with overlapping or complementary expression patterns towards the cell type specific regulation of lms expression. Further we demonstrate that lms null mutants exhibit reduced numbers of embryonic LT muscles, and null mutant adults feature held-out-wing phenotypes. We provide a detailed description of the pattern and morphology of the direct flight muscles in the wild type and lms mutant flies by using the recently-developed ultramicroscopy and show that, in the mutants, all DFMs are present and present normal morphologies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have identified the homeobox gene lms as a new muscle identity gene

  12. A comparative study of mRNA and protein expression of the autoimmune regulator gene (Aire) in embryonic and adult murine tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, K A; Pearce, S H S; Lamb, J R; Seckl, J R; Howie, S E M

    2004-02-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1) is a rare autosomal recessive human disorder caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE) and characterized by multiple autoimmune diseases. As reports of the tissue expression pattern of the murine Aire gene are discordant, a comprehensive survey of Aire expression was undertaken in adult and embryonic tissues at the mRNA and protein levels using real-time RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. In the adult, the highest Aire mRNA expression was in the thymus. All the other tissues investigated expressed Aire mRNA at low levels, but it was barely detectable in the adrenal gland. Aire protein expression was observed in the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes. A common pattern was observed in other tissues, with staining in epithelial cells. An exception to this was the gut, where staining was seen in the mucin spaces. In embryonic tissue, Aire mRNA and protein expression was detected from E14.5 in the thymus. In the fetal liver, unlike the adult, staining was observed at E14.5 and decreased towards term. Thus, Aire is expressed in immunologically relevant tissues and in a restricted number of extra-immunological tissues in the adult. Furthermore, the presence of Aire protein is reported in extra-thymic tissues of the embryo. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Igf2-H19, an imprinted tandem gene, is an important regulator of embryonic development, a guardian of proliferation of adult pluripotent stem cells, a regulator of longevity, and a ‘passkey’ to cancerogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Z. Ratajczak

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The insulin-like growth factor-2 (Igf2-H19 locus encodes important paternally imprinted genes that govern normal embryonic development. While Igf-2 encodes IGF2, which is an autocrine/paracrine mitogen,  transcription of H19 gives rise to non-coding mRNA that is a precursor of several microRNAs (miRNAs that negatively affect cell proliferation. The proper imprinting of a differentially methylated region (DMR within this locus, with methylation of the paternal chromosome and a lack of methylation on the maternal chromosome, regulates expression of both of these genes so that Igf2 is transcribed only from the paternal chromosome and H19 only from the maternal chromosome. There is growing evidence that this ‘Yin-Yang’ locus regulates embryonic development. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates that erasure of imprinting (hypomethylation of the Igf2-H19 locus on both chromosomes, which leads to downregulation of Igf2 and upregulation of H19 expression, plays an important role in regulating quiescence of pluripotent stem cells in adult organisms, and may be involved in the regulation of lifespan. In contrast, hypermethylation of this locus on both chromosomes (loss of imprinting results in Igf2 overexpression and is observed in several malignancies. In this review, we will discuss the biological consequences of changes in Igf2-H19 expression.

  14. Regulated Expression of pdx-1 Promotes In Vitro Differentiation of Insulin-Producing Cells From Embryonic Stem Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Satsuki Miyazaki; Eiji Yamato; Jun-ichi Miyazaki

    2004-01-01

    ... Regulation Research, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan Address correspondence and reprint requests to Jun-ichi Miyazaki, MD, PhD, Division of Stem Cell Regulation Research (G6...

  15. Drosophila NAT1, a homolog of the vertebrate translational regulator NAT1/DAP5/p97, is required for embryonic germband extension and metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikane, Nami; Nakamura, Nao; Ueda, Ryu; Ueno, Naoto; Yamanaka, Shinya; Nakamura, Makoto

    2007-09-01

    Translational regulation has been to shown to play major roles in the patterning of the early Drosophila embryo. The eIF4G family member NAT1/p97/DAP5 has been identified as a novel translational repressor. To genetically dissect the in vivo function of this unconventional eIF4G-related translational regulator, Drosophila NAT1 (dNAT1) mutants were isolated using a reverse-genetics approach. Four transposon insertion mutants and a deletion mutant affecting the dNAT1 locus were analyzed. Genetic complementation tests and germline rescue using a 12 kb dNAT1 genomic DNA fragment revealed these to be loss-of-function mutants. One P-element insertion line, dNAT1(GS1.), shows severe embryonic lethality and abnormal germband extension. Abnormalities at metamorphosis were also found, including defective head eversion and salivary gland degeneration in the hypomorphic allele dNAT(ex1). A phenotypic analysis of dNAT1 mutants suggests that dNAT protein plays a specific rather than general role in translational regulation.

  16. Sirt1 Regulates DNA Methylation and Differentiation Potential of Embryonic Stem Cells by Antagonizing Dnmt3l

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbeom Heo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cell (ESC abnormalities in genome methylation hamper the utility of their therapeutic derivatives; however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we show that the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD-dependent deacetylase, Sirt1, selectively prevents abnormal DNA methylation of some developmental genes in murine ESCs by antagonizing Dnmt3l. Transcriptome and DNA methylome analyses demonstrated that Sirt1-null (Sirt1−/− ESCs repress expression of a subset of imprinted and germline genes concomitant with increased DNA methylation of regulatory elements. Dnmt3l was highly expressed in Sirt1−/− ESCs, and knockdown partially rescued abnormal DNA methylation of the Sirt1 target genes. The Sirt1 protein suppressed transcription of Dnmt3l and physically interacted with the Dnmt3l protein, deacetylating and destabilizing Dnmt3l protein. Sirt1 deficiency delayed neurogenesis and spermatogenesis. These differentiation delays were significantly or partially abolished by reintroduction of Sirt1 cDNA or Dnmt3l knockdown. This study sheds light on mechanisms that restrain DNA methylation of developmentally vital genes operating in ESCs.

  17. Epigenetic regulation of embryonic stem cell marker miR302C in human chondrosarcoma as determinant of antiproliferative activity of proline-rich polypeptide 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galoian, Karina; Qureshi, Amir; D'Ippolito, Gianluca; Schiller, Paul C; Molinari, Marco; Johnstone, Andrea L; Brothers, Shaun P; Paz, Ana C; Temple, H T

    2015-08-01

    Metastatic chondrosarcoma of mesenchymal origin is the second most common bone malignancy and does not respond either to chemotherapy or radiation; therefore, the search for new therapies is relevant and urgent. We described recently that tumor growth inhibiting cytostatic proline-rich polypeptide 1, (PRP-1) significantly upregulated tumor suppressor miRNAs, downregulated onco-miRNAs in human chondrosarcoma JJ012 cell line, compared to chondrocytes culture. In this study we hypothesized the existence and regulation of a functional marker in cancer stem cells, correlated to peptides antiproliferative activity. Experimental results indicated that among significantly downregulated miRNA after PRP-1treatment was miRNAs 302c*. This miRNA is a part of the cluster miR302‑367, which is stemness regulator in human embryonic stem cells and in certain tumors, but is not expressed in adult hMSCs and normal tissues. PRP-1 had strong inhibitory effect on viability of chondrosarcoma and multilineage induced multipotent adult cells (embryonic primitive cell type). Unlike chondrosarcoma, in glioblastoma, PRP-1 does not have any inhibitory activity on cell proliferation, because in glioblastoma miR-302-367 cluster plays an opposite role, its expression is sufficient to suppress the stemness inducing properties. The observed correlation between the antiproliferative activity of PRP-1 and its action on downregulation of miR302c explains the peptides opposite effects on the upregulation of proliferation of adult mesenchymal stem cells, and the inhibition of the proliferation of human bone giant-cell tumor stromal cells, reported earlier. PRP-1 substantially downregulated the miR302c targets, the stemness markers Nanog, c-Myc and polycomb protein Bmi-1. miR302c expression is induced by JMJD2-mediated H3K9me2 demethylase activity in its promoter region. JMJD2 was reported to be a positive regulator for Nanog. Our experimental results proved that PRP-1 strongly inhibited H3K9 activity

  18. Endogenous miRNA sponge lincRNA-RoR regulates Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2 in human embryonic stem cell self-renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Xu, Zhenyu; Jiang, Junfeng; Xu, Chen; Kang, Jiuhong; Xiao, Lei; Wu, Minjuan; Xiong, Jun; Guo, Xiaocan; Liu, Houqi

    2013-04-15

    The embryonic stem cell (ESC) transcriptional and epigenetic networks are controlled by a multilayer regulatory circuitry, including core transcription factors (TFs), posttranscriptional modifier microRNAs (miRNAs), and some other regulators. However, the role of large intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) in this regulatory circuitry and their underlying mechanism remains undefined. Here, we demonstrate that a lincRNA, linc-RoR, may function as a key competing endogenous RNA to link the network of miRNAs and core TFs, e.g., Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog. We show that linc-RoR shares miRNA-response elements with these core TFs and that linc-RoR prevents these core TFs from miRNA-mediated suppression in self-renewing human ESC. We suggest that linc-RoR forms a feedback loop with core TFs and miRNAs to regulate ESC maintenance and differentiation. These results may provide insights into the functional interactions of the components of genetic networks during development and may lead to new therapies for many diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. lncRNA Panct1 Maintains Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Identity by Regulating TOBF1 Recruitment to Oct-Sox Sequences in Early G1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debojyoti Chakraborty

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs have been implicated in diverse biological processes, including embryonic stem cell (ESC maintenance. However, their functional mechanisms remain largely undefined. Here, we show that the lncRNA Panct1 regulates the transient recruitment of a putative X-chromosome-encoded protein A830080D01Rik, hereafter referred to as transient octamer binding factor 1 (TOBF1, to genomic sites resembling the canonical Oct-Sox motif. TOBF1 physically interacts with Panct1 and exhibits a cell-cycle-specific punctate localization in ESCs. At the chromatin level, this correlates with its recruitment to promoters of pluripotency genes. Strikingly, mutating an octamer-like motif in Panct1 RNA abrogates the strength of TOBF1 localization and recruitment to its targets. Taken together, our data reveal a tightly controlled spatial and temporal pattern of lncRNA-mediated gene regulation in a cell-cycle-dependent manner and suggest that lncRNAs might function as barcodes for identifying genomic addresses for maintaining cellular states.

  20. Molecular Mechanisms of Malignant Transformation by Low Dose Cadmium in Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cartularo

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a carcinogenic metal, the mechanisms of which are not fully understood. In this study, human bronchial epithelial cells were transformed with sub-toxic doses of cadmium (0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 μM and transformed clones were characterized for gene expression changes using RNA-seq, as well as other molecular measurements. 440 genes were upregulated and 47 genes were downregulated in cadmium clones relative to control clones over 1.25-fold. Upregulated genes were associated mostly with gene ontology terms related to embryonic development, immune response, and cell movement, while downregulated genes were associated with RNA metabolism and regulation of transcription. Several embryonic genes were upregulated, including the transcription regulator SATB2. SATB2 is critical for normal skeletal development and has roles in gene expression regulation and chromatin remodeling. Small hairpin RNA knockdown of SATB2 significantly inhibited growth in soft agar, indicating its potential as a driver of metal-induced carcinogenesis. An increase in oxidative stress and autophagy was observed in cadmium clones. In addition, the DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase was depleted by transformation with cadmium. MGMT loss caused significant decrease in cell viability after treatment with the alkylating agent temozolomide, demonstrating diminished capacity to repair such damage. Results reveal various mechanisms of cadmium-induced malignant transformation in BEAS-2B cells including upregulation of SATB2, downregulation of MGMT, and increased oxidative stress.

  1. Up-regulation of the embryonic self-renewal network through reversible polyploidy in irradiated p53-mutant tumour cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmina, Kristine, E-mail: kristine@biomed.lu.lv [Latvian Biomedical Research and Study Centre, Riga, LV-1067 (Latvia); Jankevics, Eriks, E-mail: eriks@biomed.lu.lv [Latvian Biomedical Research and Study Centre, Riga, LV-1067 (Latvia); Huna, Anda, E-mail: anima-l@inbox.lv [Latvian Biomedical Research and Study Centre, Riga, LV-1067 (Latvia); Perminov, Dmitry, E-mail: perminov@biomed.lu.lv [Latvian Biomedical Research and Study Centre, Riga, LV-1067 (Latvia); Radovica, Ilze, E-mail: ilze@biomed.lu.lv [Latvian Biomedical Research and Study Centre, Riga, LV-1067 (Latvia); Klymenko, Tetyana, E-mail: TKlymenko@picr.man.ac.uk [Paterson Institute of Cancer Research, Manchester University, M20 4BX (United Kingdom); Ivanov, Andrey, E-mail: a.ivanov@beatson.gla.ac.uk [Beatson Institute, Glasgow Centre for Cancer Research, Glasgow University, G61 4LG (United Kingdom); Jascenko, Elina, E-mail: ejascenko@gmail.com [Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis, Riga, LV-1006 (Latvia); Scherthan, Harry, E-mail: harryscherthan@bundeswehr.org [Inst. fuer Radiobiologie der Bundeswehr in Verbindung mit der Univ. Ulm, Munich (Germany); Cragg, Mark, E-mail: m.s.cragg@soton.ac.uk [Cancer Sciences Division, Southampton University School of Medicine, General Hospital, Southampton SO16 6YD (United Kingdom); Erenpreisa, Jekaterina, E-mail: katrina@biomed.lu.lv [Latvian Biomedical Research and Study Centre, Riga, LV-1067 (Latvia)

    2010-08-01

    We have previously documented that transient polyploidy is a potential cell survival strategy underlying the clonogenic re-growth of tumour cells after genotoxic treatment. In an attempt to better define this mechanism, we recently documented the key role of meiotic genes in regulating the DNA repair and return of the endopolyploid tumour cells (ETC) to diploidy through reduction divisions after irradiation. Here, we studied the role of the pluripotency and self-renewal stem cell genes NANOG, OCT4 and SOX2 in this polyploidy-dependent survival mechanism. In irradiation-resistant p53-mutated lymphoma cell-lines (Namalwa and WI-L2-NS) but not sensitive p53 wild-type counterparts (TK6), low background expression of OCT4 and NANOG was up-regulated by ionising radiation with protein accumulation evident in ETC as detected by OCT4/DNA flow cytometry and immunofluorescence (IF). IF analysis also showed that the ETC generate PML bodies that appear to concentrate OCT4, NANOG and SOX2 proteins, which extend into complex nuclear networks. These polyploid tumour cells resist apoptosis, overcome cellular senescence and undergo bi- and multi-polar divisions transmitting the up-regulated OCT4, NANOG and SOX2 self-renewal cassette to their descendents. Altogether, our observations indicate that irradiation-induced ETC up-regulate key components of germ-line cells, which potentially facilitate survival and propagation of the tumour cell population.

  2. Genome-wide alterations in polycomb-regulated epigenomic modifications in embryonic osteoblasts following exposure to maternal obesity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional status during intrauterine and early postnatal life impacts the risk of chronic diseases, presumably via epigenetic mechanisms. However, evidence on the impact of gestational events on regulation of bone development is sparse. Recently we showed that bone development is inhibited in gest...

  3. B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 regulates human embryonic stem cell adhesion, stemness, and survival via control of epithelial cell adhesion molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Tae; Seo Choi, Hong; Min Lee, Hyun; Jang, Young-Joo; Ryu, Chun Jeih

    2014-10-01

    B-Cell receptor-associated protein 31 (BAP31) regulates the export of secreted membrane proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the downstream secretory pathway. Previously, we generated a monoclonal antibody 297-D4 against the surface molecule on undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Here, we found that 297-D4 antigen was localized to pluripotent hESCs and downregulated during early differentiation of hESCs and identified that the antigen target of 297-D4 was BAP31 on the hESC-surface. To investigate the functional role of BAP31 in hESCs, BAP31 expression was knocked down by small interfering RNA. BAP31 depletion impaired hESC self-renewal and pluripotency and drove hESC differentiation into multicell lineages. BAP31 depletion hindered hESC proliferation by arresting cell cycle at G0/G1 phase and inducing caspase-independent cell death. Interestingly, BAP31 depletion reduced hESC adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM). Analysis of cell surface molecules showed decreased expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) in BAP31-depleted hESCs, while ectopic expression of BAP31 elevated the expression of EpCAM. EpCAM depletion also reduced hESC adhesion to ECM, arrested cell cycle at G0/G1 phase and induced cell death, producing similar effects to those of BAP31 depletion. BAP31 and EpCAM were physically associated and colocalized at the ER and cell surface. Both BAP31 and EpCAM depletion decreased cyclin D1 and E expression and suppressed PI3K/Akt signaling, suggesting that BAP31 regulates hESC stemness and survival via control of EpCAM expression. These findings provide, for the first time, mechanistic insights into how BAP31 regulates hESC stemness and survival via control of EpCAM expression. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  4. Mdm4 (Mdmx) regulates p53-induced growth arrest and neuronal cell death during early embryonic mouse development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Migliorini, Domenico; Lazzerini Denchi, Eros; Danovi, Davide

    2002-01-01

    characterized by overall growth deficiency, anemia, improper neural tube closure, and dilation of lateral ventricles. In situ analysis demonstrated increased levels of p21(CIP1/Waf1) and lower levels of Cyclin E and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression. Consistent with lack of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine...... central nervous system of the Mdm4 mutant embryos. These findings unambiguously assign a critical role for Mdm4 as a negative regulator of p53 and suggest that Mdm4 could contribute to neoplasias retaining wild-type Trp53. Finally, we provide evidence indicating that Mdm4 plays no role on cell...

  5. Toward an animal model of cystic fibrosis: Targeted interruption of exon 10 of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene in embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koller, B.H.; Hyungsuk Kim; Latour, A.M.; Brigman, K.; Boucher, R.C. Jr.; Smithies, O. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States)); Scambler, P.; Wainwright, B. (St. Mary' s Hospital, London (England))

    1991-12-01

    A gene-targeting construct was made containing 7.8 kilobases of DNA spanning exon 10 of the mouse cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene in which part of the exon has been replaced by two neomycin-resistance (Neo) genes driven by different promoters. (This replacement introduces a chain-termination codon at amino acid position 489 in the CFTR sequence). A herpes simplex thymidine kinase gene was on each end of the construct, which was electroporated into embryonic stem (ES) cells. Colonies resistant to G418, or to G418 plus ganciclovir, were selected and screened by Southern blotting or by PCR amplification. Five pools of G418-resistant cells gave PCR products diagnostic of targeting. Four independent clones of ES cells with a disrupted CFTR gene have been isolated from these pools. The frequency of targeting was 1/2500 G418-resistant colonies. This low frequency is not the consequence of marginal expression of the Neo genes in the targeted cells. The CFTR targeting events were clustered among our experiments in a manner suggesting that some unidentified factor(s), possible passage number, influences the recovery of CFTR-targeted cells.

  6. Disease modeling using embryonic stem cells: MeCP2 regulates nuclear size and RNA synthesis in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Morteza; Deogracias, Rubén; Guy, Jacky; Poot, Raymond A; Bird, Adrian; Barde, Yves-Alain

    2012-10-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the methyl-CpG-binding protein MECP2 are the major cause of Rett syndrome, an autism spectrum disorder mainly affecting young females. MeCP2 is an abundant chromatin-associated protein, but how and when its absence begins to alter brain function is still far from clear. Using a stem cell-based system allowing the synchronous differentiation of neuronal progenitors, we found that in the absence of MeCP2, the size of neuronal nuclei fails to increase at normal rates during differentiation. This is accompanied by a marked decrease in the rate of ribonucleotide incorporation, indicating an early role of MeCP2 in regulating total gene transcription, not restricted to selected mRNAs. We also found that the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were decreased in mutant neurons, while those of the presynaptic protein synaptophysin increased at similar rates in wild-type and mutant neurons. By contrast, nuclear size, transcription rates, and BDNF levels remained unchanged in astrocytes lacking MeCP2. Re-expressing MeCP2 in mutant neurons rescued the nuclear size phenotype as well as BDNF levels. These results reveal a new role of MeCP2 in regulating overall RNA synthesis in neurons during the course of their maturation, in line with recent findings indicating a reduced nucleolar size in neurons of the developing brain of mice lacking Mecp2. Copyright © 2012 AlphaMed Press.

  7. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate blocks triethylene glycol dimethacrylate-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression by suppressing extracellular signal-regulated kinase in human dental pulp and embryonic palatal mesenchymal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wan-Hsien; Deng, Yi-Ting; Kuo, Mark Yen-Ping; Liu, Cheing-Meei; Chang, Hao-Hueng; Chang, Jenny Zwei-Chieng

    2013-11-01

    Methacrylate resin-based materials could release components into adjacent environment even after polymerization. The major components leached include triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA). TEGDMA has been shown to induce the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). However, the mechanisms are not completely understood. The aims of this study were to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying TEGDMA-induced COX-2 in 2 oral cell types, the primary culture of human dental pulp (HDP) cells and the human embryonic palatal mesenchymal (HEPM) pre-osteoblasts, and to propose potential strategy to prevent or ameliorate the TEGDMA-induced inflammation in oral tissues. TEGDMA-induced COX-2 expression and its signaling pathways were assessed by Western blot analyses in HDP and HEPM cells. The inhibition of TEGDMA-induced COX-2 protein expression using various dietary phytochemicals was investigated. COX-2 protein expression was increased after exposure to TEGDMA at concentrations as low as 5 μmol/L. TEGDMA-induced COX-2 expression was associated with reaction oxygen species, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in HDP and HEPM cells. The activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase was directly associated with reactive oxygen species. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppressed TEGDMA-induced COX-2 expression by inhibiting phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Cells exposed to low concentrations of TEGDMA may induce inflammatory responses of the adjacent tissues, and this should be taken into consideration during common dental practice. Green tea, which has a long history of safe beverage consumption, may be a useful agent for the prevention or treatment of TEGDMA-induced inflammation in oral tissues. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. IL-1β-induced, matrix metalloproteinase-3-regulated proliferation of embryonic stem cell-derived odontoblastic cells is mediated by the Wnt5 signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozeki, Nobuaki; Hase, Naoko; Hiyama, Taiki; Yamaguchi, Hideyuki; Kawai, Rie [Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8651 (Japan); Kondo, Ayami [Department of Medicinal Biochemistry, School of Pharmacy, Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya 464-8650 (Japan); Nakata, Kazuhiko [Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8651 (Japan); Mogi, Makio, E-mail: makio@dpc.agu.ac.jp [Department of Medicinal Biochemistry, School of Pharmacy, Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya 464-8650 (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    We previously established a method for differentiating induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem (ES) cells into α2 integrin-positive odontoblast-like cells. We also reported that interleukin (IL)-1β induces matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3-regulated cell proliferation and suppresses apoptosis in these cells, suggesting that MMP-3 plays a potentially unique physiological role in the regeneration of odontoblast-like cells. Here, we examined whether up-regulation of MMP-3 activity by IL-1β was mediated by Wnt signaling and led to increased proliferation of odontoblast-like cells. IL-1β increased mRNA and protein levels of Wnt5a, Wnt5b and the Wnt receptor Lrp5. Exogenous Wnt5a and Wnt5b were found to increase MMP-3 mRNA, protein and activity, and interestingly the rate of proliferation in these cells. Treatment with siRNAs against Wnt5a, Wnt5b and Lrp5 suppressed the IL-1β-induced increase in MMP-3 expression and suppressed cell proliferation, an effect rescued by application of exogenous Wnt5. These results demonstrate the sequential involvement of Wnt5, Lrp5 and MMP-3 in effecting IL-1β-induced proliferation of ES cell-derived odontoblast-like cells. - Highlights: • IL-1β induces Wnt5, Lrp5/Fzd9 and MMP-3 in ES cell-derived odontoblast-like cells. • IL-1β-induced Wnt5 expression results in increased cell proliferation. • Exogenous Wnt5 increases MMP-3 activity and cell proliferation. • Exogenous Wnt5 rescues IL-1β-driven proliferation with anti-Wnt5 siRNA suppression. • IL-1β-induced cell proliferation involves Wnt5, Lrp5, and MMP-3 sequentially.

  9. Coordinate regulation of RARgamma2, TBP, and TAFII135 by targeted proteolysis during retinoic acid-induced differentiation of F9 embryonal carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carré Lucie

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of mouse F9 embryonal carcinoma cells with all-trans retinoic acid (T-RA induces differentiation into primitive endodermal type cells. Differentiation requires the action of the receptors for all trans, and 9cis-retinoic acid (RAR and RXR, respectively and is accompanied by growth inhibition, changes in cell morphology, increased apoptosis, proteolytic degradation of the RARγ2 receptor, and induction of target genes. Results We show that the RNA polymerase II transcription factor TFIID subunits TBP and TAFII135 are selectively depleted in extracts from differentiated F9 cells. In contrast, TBP and TAFII135 are readily detected in extracts from differentiated F9 cells treated with proteasome inhibitors showing that their disappearance is due to targeted proteolysis. This regulatory pathway is not limited to F9 cells as it is also seen when C2C12 myoblasts differentiate into myotubes. Targeting of TBP and TAFII135 for proteolysis in F9 cells takes place coordinately with that previously reported for the RARγ2 receptor and is delayed or does not take place in RAR mutant F9 cells where differentiation is known to be impaired or abolished. Moreover, ectopic expression of TAFII135 delays proteolysis of the RARγ2 receptor and impairs primitive endoderm differentiation at an early stage as evidenced by cell morphology, induction of marker genes and apoptotic response. In addition, enhanced TAFII135 expression induces a novel differentiation pathway characterised by the appearance of cells with an atypical elongated morphology which are cAMP resistant. Conclusions These observations indicate that appropriately timed proteolysis of TBP and TAFII135 is required for normal F9 cell differentiation. Hence, in addition to transactivators, targeted proteolysis of basal transcription factors also plays an important role in gene regulation in response to physiological stimuli.

  10. Aberrant autolysosomal regulation is linked to the induction of embryonic senescence: differential roles of Beclin 1 and p53 in vertebrate Spns1 deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Sasaki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinster (Spin in Drosophila or Spinster homolog 1 (Spns1 in vertebrates is a putative lysosomal H+-carbohydrate transporter, which functions at a late stage of autophagy. The Spin/Spns1 defect induces aberrant autolysosome formation that leads to embryonic senescence and accelerated aging symptoms, but little is known about the mechanisms leading to the pathogenesis in vivo. Beclin 1 and p53 are two pivotal tumor suppressors that are critically involved in the autophagic process and its regulation. Using zebrafish as a genetic model, we show that Beclin 1 suppression ameliorates Spns1 loss-mediated senescence as well as autophagic impairment, whereas unexpectedly p53 deficit exacerbates both of these characteristics. We demonstrate that 'basal p53' activity plays a certain protective role(s against the Spns1 defect-induced senescence via suppressing autophagy, lysosomal biogenesis, and subsequent autolysosomal formation and maturation, and that p53 loss can counteract the effect of Beclin 1 suppression to rescue the Spns1 defect. By contrast, in response to DNA damage, 'activated p53' showed an apparent enhancement of the Spns1-deficient phenotype, by inducing both autophagy and apoptosis. Moreover, we found that a chemical and genetic blockage of lysosomal acidification and biogenesis mediated by the vacuolar-type H+-ATPase, as well as of subsequent autophagosome-lysosome fusion, prevents the appearance of the hallmarks caused by the Spns1 deficiency, irrespective of the basal p53 state. Thus, these results provide evidence that Spns1 operates during autophagy and senescence differentially with Beclin 1 and p53.

  11. Aberrant autolysosomal regulation is linked to the induction of embryonic senescence: differential roles of Beclin 1 and p53 in vertebrate Spns1 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Lian, Shanshan; Qi, Jie; Bayliss, Peter E; Carr, Christopher E; Johnson, Jennifer L; Guha, Sujay; Kobler, Patrick; Catz, Sergio D; Gill, Matthew; Jia, Kailiang; Klionsky, Daniel J; Kishi, Shuji

    2014-06-01

    Spinster (Spin) in Drosophila or Spinster homolog 1 (Spns1) in vertebrates is a putative lysosomal H+-carbohydrate transporter, which functions at a late stage of autophagy. The Spin/Spns1 defect induces aberrant autolysosome formation that leads to embryonic senescence and accelerated aging symptoms, but little is known about the mechanisms leading to the pathogenesis in vivo. Beclin 1 and p53 are two pivotal tumor suppressors that are critically involved in the autophagic process and its regulation. Using zebrafish as a genetic model, we show that Beclin 1 suppression ameliorates Spns1 loss-mediated senescence as well as autophagic impairment, whereas unexpectedly p53 deficit exacerbates both of these characteristics. We demonstrate that 'basal p53' activity plays a certain protective role(s) against the Spns1 defect-induced senescence via suppressing autophagy, lysosomal biogenesis, and subsequent autolysosomal formation and maturation, and that p53 loss can counteract the effect of Beclin 1 suppression to rescue the Spns1 defect. By contrast, in response to DNA damage, 'activated p53' showed an apparent enhancement of the Spns1-deficient phenotype, by inducing both autophagy and apoptosis. Moreover, we found that a chemical and genetic blockage of lysosomal acidification and biogenesis mediated by the vacuolar-type H+-ATPase, as well as of subsequent autophagosome-lysosome fusion, prevents the appearance of the hallmarks caused by the Spns1 deficiency, irrespective of the basal p53 state. Thus, these results provide evidence that Spns1 operates during autophagy and senescence differentially with Beclin 1 and p53.

  12. MicroRNA transcriptome analysis identifies miR-365 as a novel negative regulator of cell proliferation in Zmpste24-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Xing-dong [Institute of Aging Research, Guangdong Medical College, Xin Cheng Avenue 1#, Songshan Lake, Dongguan, Guangdong 523808 (China); Institute of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Guangdong Medical College, Zhanjiang 524023 (China); Key Laboratory for Medical Molecular Diagnostics of Guangdong Province, Dongguan 523808 (China); Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan, Guangdong 523808 (China); Jung, Hwa Jin [Departments of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Gombar, Saurabh [Departments of Systems Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Park, Jung Yoon [Departments of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Zhang, Chun-long; Zheng, Huiling [Institute of Aging Research, Guangdong Medical College, Xin Cheng Avenue 1#, Songshan Lake, Dongguan, Guangdong 523808 (China); Institute of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Guangdong Medical College, Zhanjiang 524023 (China); Key Laboratory for Medical Molecular Diagnostics of Guangdong Province, Dongguan 523808 (China); Ruan, Jie; Li, Jiang-bin [Institute of Aging Research, Guangdong Medical College, Xin Cheng Avenue 1#, Songshan Lake, Dongguan, Guangdong 523808 (China); Institute of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Guangdong Medical College, Zhanjiang 524023 (China); Key Laboratory for Medical Molecular Diagnostics of Guangdong Province, Dongguan 523808 (China); Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan, Guangdong 523808 (China); Kaeberlein, Matt [Institute of Aging Research, Guangdong Medical College, Xin Cheng Avenue 1#, Songshan Lake, Dongguan, Guangdong 523808 (China); Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); and others

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • A comprehensive miRNA transcriptome of MEFs from Zmpste24{sup −/−} and control mice. • Identification of miR-365 as a down-regulated miRNA in Zmpste24{sup −/−} MEFs. • Characterization of miR-365 as a modulator of cellular growth in part by targeting Rasd1. - Abstract: Zmpste24 is a metalloproteinase responsible for the posttranslational processing and cleavage of prelamin A into mature laminA. Zmpste24{sup −/−} mice display a range of progeroid phenotypes overlapping with mice expressing progerin, an altered version of lamin A associated with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). Increasing evidence has demonstrated that miRNAs contribute to the regulation of normal aging process, but their roles in progeroid disorders remain poorly understood. Here we report the miRNA transcriptomes of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) established from wild type (WT) and Zmpste24{sup −/−} progeroid mice using a massively parallel sequencing technology. With data from 19.5 × 10{sup 6} reads from WT MEFs and 16.5 × 10{sup 6} reads from Zmpste24{sup −/−} MEFs, we discovered a total of 306 known miRNAs expressed in MEFs with a wide dynamic range of read counts ranging from 10 to over 1 million. A total of 8 miRNAs were found to be significantly down-regulated, with only 2 miRNAs upregulated, in Zmpste24{sup −/−} MEFs as compared to WT MEFs. Functional studies revealed that miR-365, a significantly down-regulated miRNA in Zmpste24{sup −/−} MEFs, modulates cellular growth phenotypes in MEFs. Overexpression of miR-365 in Zmpste24{sup −/−} MEFs increased cellular proliferation and decreased the percentage of SA-β-gal-positive cells, while inhibition of miR-365 function led to an increase of SA-β-gal-positive cells in WT MEFs. Furthermore, we identified Rasd1, a member of the Ras superfamily of small GTPases, as a functional target of miR-365. While expression of miR-365 suppressed Rasd1 3′ UTR luciferase-reporter activity

  13. Sex-dependent effects of developmental arsenic exposure on methylation capacity and methylation regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor system in the embryonic mouse brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M. Allan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously we have shown that prenatal moderate arsenic exposure (50 ppb disrupts glucocorticoid receptor (GR programming and that these changes continue into adolescence in males. However, it was not clear what the molecular mechanisms were promoting these GR programming changes or if these changes occurred in arsenic-exposed females. In the present studies, we assessed the effects of arsenic on protein and mRNA of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (Hsd isozymes and compared the levels of methylation within the promoters of the Nr3c1 and Hsd11b1 genes in female fetal brain at embryonic days (E 14 and 18. Prenatal arsenate exposure produced sex specific effects on the glucocorticoid system. Compared to males, females were resistant to arsenic induced changes in GR, 11β-Hsd-1 and 11β-Hsd-2 protein levels despite observed elevations in Nr3c1 and Hsd11b2 mRNA. This sex-specific effect was not due to differences in the methylation of the GR promoter as methylation of the Nr3c1 gene was either unchanged (region containing the egr-1 binding site or similarly reduced (region containing the SP-1 transcription factor binding site in both males and females exposed to arsenic. Arsenic did produce sex and age-specific changes in the methylation of Hsd11b1 gene, producing increased methylation in females at E14 and decreased methylation at E18.These changes were not attributed to changes in DNMT levels. Since arsenate metabolism could interfere with the generation of methyl donor groups, we assessed glutathione (GSH, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM and As 3 methyltransferase (As3MT. Exposed males and females had similar levels of As3MT and SAM; however, females had higher levels of GSH/GSSH. It is possible that this greater anti-oxidative capacity within the females provides protection against low to moderate arsenate. Our data suggest that the GR signaling system in female offspring was not as affected by prenatal arsenic

  14. Cytokine signal transduction in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells : Regulation of Stat3-mediated transactivation occurs independently of p21ras-Erk signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Puijenbroek, AAFL; van der Saag, PT; Coffer, PJ

    1999-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) are members of a subfamily of related cytokines that share gp130 as common signal-transducing receptor component. CNTF has recently been demonstrated to induce increased survival and neuronal differentiation of P19 embryonal

  15. Comparative gene expression analysis of avian embryonic facial structures reveals new candidates for human craniofacial disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugmann, S A; Powder, K E; Young, N M; Goodnough, L H; Hahn, S M; James, A W; Helms, J A; Lovett, M

    2010-03-01

    Mammals and birds have common embryological facial structures, and appear to employ the same molecular genetic developmental toolkit. We utilized natural variation found in bird beaks to investigate what genes drive vertebrate facial morphogenesis. We employed cross-species microarrays to describe the molecular genetic signatures, developmental signaling pathways and the spectrum of transcription factor (TF) gene expression changes that differ between cranial neural crest cells in the developing beaks of ducks, quails and chickens. Surprisingly, we observed that the neural crest cells established a species-specific TF gene expression profile that predates morphological differences between the species. A total of 232 genes were differentially expressed between the three species. Twenty-two of these genes, including Fgfr2, Jagged2, Msx2, Satb2 and Tgfb3, have been previously implicated in a variety of mammalian craniofacial defects. Seventy-two of the differentially expressed genes overlap with un-cloned loci for human craniofacial disorders, suggesting that our data will provide a valuable candidate gene resource for human craniofacial genetics. The most dramatic changes between species were in the Wnt signaling pathway, including a 20-fold up-regulation of Dkk2, Fzd1 and Wnt1 in the duck compared with the other two species. We functionally validated these changes by demonstrating that spatial domains of Wnt activity differ in avian beaks, and that Wnt signals regulate Bmp pathway activity and promote regional growth in facial prominences. This study is the first of its kind, extending on previous work in Darwin's finches and provides the first large-scale insights into cross-species facial morphogenesis.

  16. Systems biology approach identifies the kinase Csnk1a1 as a regulator of the DNA damage response in embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carreras Puigvert, Jordi; von Stechow, Louise; Siddappa, Ramakrishnaiah

    2013-01-01

    screen targeting all kinases, phosphatases, and transcription factors with global transcriptomics and phosphoproteomics to map the DDR in mouse embryonic stem cells treated with the DNA cross-linker cisplatin. Networks derived from canonical pathways shared in all three data sets were implicated in DNA......In pluripotent stem cells, DNA damage triggers loss of pluripotency and apoptosis as a safeguard to exclude damaged DNA from the lineage. An intricate DNA damage response (DDR) signaling network ensures that the response is proportional to the severity of the damage. We combined an RNA interference....... Instead, this response occurred through reduced abundance of Csnk1a1 (CK1α), a kinase that inhibits β-catenin. Together, our findings reveal a balance between p53-mediated elimination of stem cells (through loss of pluripotency and apoptosis) and Wnt signaling that attenuates this response to tune...

  17. p53 and p73 Regulate Apoptosis but Not Cell-Cycle Progression in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells upon DNA Damage and Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hanbing; Wang, Cheng; Dai, Qian; Li, Fengtian; Bergholz, Johann; Li, Zhonghan; Li, Qintong; Xiao, Zhi-Xiong

    2016-12-13

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are fast proliferating cells capable of differentiating into all somatic cell types. In somatic cells, it is well documented that p53 is rapidly activated upon DNA damage to arrest the cell cycle and induce apoptosis. In mouse ESCs, p53 can also be functionally activated, but the precise biological consequences are not well characterized. Here, we demonstrated that doxorubicin treatment initially led to cell-cycle arrest at G2/M in ESCs, followed by the occurrence of massive apoptosis. Neither p53 nor its target gene p73 was required for G2/M arrest. Instead, p53 and p73 were fully responsible for apoptosis. p53 and p73 were also required for differentiation-induced apoptosis in mouse ESCs. In addition, doxorubicin treatment induced the expression of retinoblastoma protein in a p53-dependent manner. Therefore, both p53 and p73 are critical in apoptosis induced by DNA damage and differentiation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. E-cadherin acts as a regulator of transcripts associated with a wide range of cellular processes in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Soncin

    Full Text Available We have recently shown that expression of the cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin is required for LIF-dependent pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem (ES cells.In this study, we have assessed global transcript expression in E-cadherin null (Ecad-/- ES cells cultured in either the presence or absence of LIF and compared these to the parental cell line wtD3.We show that LIF has little effect on the transcript profile of Ecad-/- ES cells, with statistically significant transcript alterations observed only for Sp8 and Stat3. Comparison of Ecad-/- and wtD3 ES cells cultured in LIF demonstrated significant alterations in the transcript profile, with effects not only confined to cell adhesion and motility but also affecting, for example, primary metabolic processes, catabolism and genes associated with apoptosis. Ecad-/- ES cells share similar, although not identical, gene expression profiles to epiblast-derived pluripotent stem cells, suggesting that E-cadherin expression may inhibit inner cell mass to epiblast transition. We further show that Ecad-/- ES cells maintain a functional β-catenin pool that is able to induce β-catenin/TCF-mediated transactivation but, contrary to previous findings, do not display endogenous β-catenin/TCF-mediated transactivation. We conclude that loss of E-cadherin in mouse ES cells leads to significant transcript alterations independently of β-catenin/TCF transactivation.

  19. Human induced pluripotent stem cell lines show stress defense mechanisms and mitochondrial regulation similar to those of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Lyle; Tilgner, Katarzyna; Saretzki, Gabriele; Atkinson, Stuart P; Stojkovic, Miodrag; Moreno, Ruben; Przyborski, Stefan; Lako, Majlinda

    2010-04-01

    The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) has enormous potential for the development of patient-specific regenerative medicine. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) are able to defend their genomic integrity by maintaining low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through a combination of enhanced removal capacity and limited production of these molecules. Such limited ROS production stems partly from the small number of mitochondria present in hESC; thus, it was important to determine that human iPSC (hiPSC) generation is able to eliminate the extra mitochondria present in the parental fibroblasts (reminiscent of "bottleneck" situation after fertilization) and to show that hiPSC have antioxidant defenses similar to hESC. We were able to generate seven hiPSC lines from adult human dermal fibroblasts and have fully characterized two of those clones. Both hiPSC clones express pluripotency markers and are able to differentiate in vitro into cells belonging to all three germ layers. One of these clones is able to produce fully differentiated teratoma, whereas the other hiPSC clone is unable to silence the viral expression of OCT4 and c-MYC, produce fully differentiated teratoma, and unable to downregulate the expression of some of the pluripotency genes during the differentiation process. In spite of these differences, both clones show ROS stress defense mechanisms and mitochondrial biogenesis similar to hESC. Together our data suggest that, during the reprogramming process, certain cellular mechanisms are in place to ensure that hiPSC are provided with the same defense mechanisms against accumulation of ROS as the hESC.

  20. Multicentric osteolysis with nodulosis, arthritis, and cardiac defect syndrome: loss of MMP2 leads to increased apoptosis with alteration of apoptotic regulators and caspases and embryonic lethality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosig RA

    2014-11-01

    : MMP2, apoptosis, Fas, embryonic lethality, osteoblast

  1. Porcine embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane

    2008-01-01

    The development of porcine embryonic stem cell lines (pESC) has received renewed interest given the advances being made in the production of immunocompatible transgenic pigs. However, difficulties are evident in the production of pESCs in-vitro. This may largely be attributable to differences...

  2. Primary culture of avian embryonic heart forming region cells to study the regulation of vertebrate early heart morphogenesis by vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakstina, Inese; Riekstina, Una; Boroduskis, Martins; Nakurte, Ilva; Ancans, Janis; Zile, Maija H; Muiznieks, Indrikis

    2014-02-19

    Important knowledge about the role of vitamin A in vertebrate heart development has been obtained using the vitamin A-deficient avian in ovo model which enables the in vivo examination of very early stages of vertebrate heart morphogenesis. These studies have revealed the critical role of the vitamin A-active form, retinoic acid (RA) in the regulation of several developmental genes, including the important growth regulatory factor, transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGFβ2), involved in early events of heart morphogenesis. However, this in ovo model is not readily available for elucidating details of molecular mechanisms determining RA activity, thus limiting further examination of RA-regulated early heart morphogenesis. In order to obtain insights into RA-regulated gene expression during these early events, a reliable in vitro model is needed. Here we describe a cell culture that closely reproduces the in ovo observed regulatory effects of RA on TGFβ2 and on several developmental genes linked to TGFβ signaling during heart morphogenesis. We have developed an avian heart forming region (HFR) cell based in vitro model that displays the characteristics associated with vertebrate early heart morphogenesis, i.e. the expression of Nkx2.5 and GATA4, the cardiogenesis genes, of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A), the vasculogenesis gene and of fibronectin (FN1), an essential component in building the heart, and the expression of the multifunctional genes TGFβ2 and neogenin (NEO). Importantly, we established that the HFR cell culture is a valid model to study RA-regulated molecular events during heart morphogenesis and that the expression of TGFβ2 as well as the expression of several TGFβ2-linked developmental genes is regulated by RA. Our findings reported here offer a biologically relevant experimental in vitro system for the elucidation of RA-regulated expression of TGFβ2 and other genes involved in vertebrate early cardiovascular morphogenesis.

  3. Magnesium and Embryonic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Komiya, Yuko; Su, Li-Ting; Chen, Hsiang-Chin; Habas, Raymond; Runnels, Loren W.

    2014-01-01

    Important for energy metabolism, neurotransmission, bone stability, and other cellular functions, Mg2+ has well-established and undisputedly critical roles in adult tissues. Its contributions to early embryonic development are less clearly understood. For decades it has been known that gestational Mg2+ deficiency in rodents produces teratogenic effects. More recent studies have linked deficiency in this vital cation to birth defects in humans, including spina bifida, a neural fold closure def...

  4. Model-based investigation of the circadian clock and cell cycle coupling in mouse embryonic fibroblasts: Prediction of RevErb-α up-regulation during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynard, Pauline; Feillet, Céline; Soliman, Sylvain; Delaunay, Franck; Fages, François

    2016-11-01

    Experimental observations have put in evidence autonomous self-sustained circadian oscillators in most mammalian cells, and proved the existence of molecular links between the circadian clock and the cell cycle. Some mathematical models have also been built to assess conditions of control of the cell cycle by the circadian clock. However, recent studies in individual NIH3T3 fibroblasts have shown an unexpected acceleration of the circadian clock together with the cell cycle when the culture medium is enriched with growth factors, and the absence of such acceleration in confluent cells. In order to explain these observations, we study a possible entrainment of the circadian clock by the cell cycle through a regulation of clock genes around the mitosis phase. We develop a computational model and a formal specification of the observed behavior to investigate the conditions of entrainment in period and phase. We show that either the selective activation of RevErb-α or the selective inhibition of Bmal1 transcription during the mitosis phase, allow us to fit the experimental data on both period and phase, while a uniform inhibition of transcription during mitosis seems incompatible with the phase data. We conclude on the arguments favoring the RevErb-α up-regulation hypothesis and on some further predictions of the model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pitx2 in Embryonic and Adult Myogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia E. Aranega

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is a heterogeneous tissue that represents between 30 and 38% of the human body mass and has important functions in the organism, such as maintaining posture, locomotor impulse, or pulmonary ventilation. The genesis of skeletal muscle during embryonic development is a process controlled by an elaborate regulatory network combining the interplay of extrinsic and intrinsic regulatory mechanisms that transform myogenic precursor cells into functional muscle fibers through a finely tuned differentiation program. However, the capacity of generating muscle still remains once these fibers have matured. Adult myogenesis resembles many of the embryonic morphogenetic episodes and depends on the activation of satellite cells that have the potential to differentiate into new muscle fibers. Pitx2 is a member of the bicoid family of homeodomain transcription factors that play an important role in morphogenesis. In the last decade, Pitx2 has emerged as a key element involved in the fine-tuning mechanism that regulates skeletal-muscle development as well as the differentiation and cell fate of satellite cells in adult muscle. Here we present an integrative view of all aspects of embryonic and adult myogenesis in which Pitx2 is involved, from embryonic development to satellite-cell proliferation, fate specification, and differentiation. Those new Pitx2 functions on satellite-cell biology might open new perspectives to develop therapeutic strategies for muscular disorders.

  6. Pitx2 in Embryonic and Adult Myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Torres, Francisco; Rodríguez-Outeiriño, Lara; Franco, Diego; Aranega, Amelia E

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a heterogeneous tissue that represents between 30 and 38% of the human body mass and has important functions in the organism, such as maintaining posture, locomotor impulse, or pulmonary ventilation. The genesis of skeletal muscle during embryonic development is a process controlled by an elaborate regulatory network combining the interplay of extrinsic and intrinsic regulatory mechanisms that transform myogenic precursor cells into functional muscle fibers through a finely tuned differentiation program. However, the capacity of generating muscle still remains once these fibers have matured. Adult myogenesis resembles many of the embryonic morphogenetic episodes and depends on the activation of satellite cells that have the potential to differentiate into new muscle fibers. Pitx2 is a member of the bicoid family of homeodomain transcription factors that play an important role in morphogenesis. In the last decade, Pitx2 has emerged as a key element involved in the fine-tuning mechanism that regulates skeletal-muscle development as well as the differentiation and cell fate of satellite cells in adult muscle. Here we present an integrative view of all aspects of embryonic and adult myogenesis in which Pitx2 is involved, from embryonic development to satellite-cell proliferation, fate specification, and differentiation. Those new Pitx2 functions on satellite-cell biology might open new perspectives to develop therapeutic strategies for muscular disorders.

  7. Physiopathology of human embryonic implantation: clinical incidences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Demailly

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryo implantation consists of a series of events promoting the invasion of the endometrium and then the uterine arterial system by the extra-embryonic trophoblast. In order for this semi-heterologous implantation to succeed, the endometrium has to first undergo a number of structural and biochemical changes (decidualization. The decidua's various constituents subsequently play a role in the embryonic implantation. The third step is the transformation of the uterine vascular system and the growth of the placenta, which will provide the foetoplacental unit with nutrients. Several physiopathological aspects will be discussed: 1 the implantation window, regulated by maternal and embryonic hormonal secretions and thus influenced by any defects in the latter: dysharmonic luteal phase, 21-hydroxylase block, abnormal integrin expression, 2 the successive trophoblast invasions of uterine vessels which, when defective, lead to early embryo loss or late-onset vascular pathologies, as preeclampsia, 3 the pregnancy's immunological equilibrium, with a spontaneously tolerated semi-allogeneic implant, 4 the impact of pro-coagulant factors (thrombophilia on the pregnancy's progression, 5 the environment of the uterus, ranging from hydrosalpinx to uterine contractions. In summary, the least anatomical or physiological perturbation can interfere with human embryonic implantation - a very particular phenomenon and a true biological paradox.

  8. Low-Dose Methylmercury-Induced Genes Regulate Mitochondrial Biogenesis via miR-25 in Immortalized Human Embryonic Neural Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjin Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are essential organelles and important targets for environmental pollutants. The detection of mitochondrial biogenesis and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and p53 levels following low-dose methylmercury (MeHg exposure could expand our understanding of underlying mechanisms. Here, the sensitivity of immortalized human neural progenitor cells (ihNPCs upon exposure to MeHg was investigated. We found that MeHg altered cell viability and the number of 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU-positive cells. We also observed that low-dose MeHg exposure increased the mRNA expression of cell cycle regulators. We observed that MeHg induced ROS production in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, mRNA levels of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gammacoactivator-1α (PGC-1α, mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM and p53-controlled ribonucleotide reductase (p53R2 were significantly elevated, which were correlated with the increase of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA copy number at a concentration as low as 10 nM. Moreover, we examined the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs known as regulatory miRNAs of p53 (i.e., miR-30d, miR-1285, miR-25. We found that the expression of these miRNAs was significantly downregulated upon MeHg treatment. Furthermore, the overexpression of miR-25 resulted in significantly reducted p53 protein levels and decreased mRNA expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis regulation. Taken together, these results demonstrated that MeHg could induce developmental neurotoxicity in ihNPCs through altering mitochondrial functions and the expression of miRNA.

  9. Pharmacological and Genetic Manipulation of p53 in Brown Fat at Adult But Not Embryonic Stages Regulates Thermogenesis and Body Weight in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Massadi, Omar; Porteiro, Begoña; Kuhlow, Doreen; Köhler, Markus; Gonzalez-Rellan, María J; Garcia-Lavandeira, Montserrat; Díaz-Rodríguez, Esther; Quiñones, Mar; Senra, Ana; Alvarez, Clara V; López, Miguel; Diéguez, Carlos; Schulz, Tim J; Nogueiras, Rubén

    2016-07-01

    p53 is a well-known tumor suppressor that plays multiple biological roles, including the capacity to modulate metabolism at different levels. However, its metabolic role in brown adipose tissue (BAT) remains largely unknown. Herein we sought to investigate the physiological role of endogenous p53 in BAT and its implication on BAT thermogenic activity and energy balance. To this end, we generated and characterized global p53-null mice and mice lacking p53 specifically in BAT. Additionally we performed gain-and-loss-of-function experiments in the BAT of adult mice using virogenetic and pharmacological approaches. BAT was collected and analyzed by immunohistochemistry, thermography, real-time PCR, and Western blot. p53-deficient mice were resistant to diet-induced obesity due to increased energy expenditure and BAT activity. However, the deletion of p53 in BAT using a Myf5-Cre driven p53 knockout did not show any changes in body weight or the expression of thermogenic markers. The acute inhibition of p53 in the BAT of adult mice slightly increased body weight and inhibited BAT thermogenesis, whereas its overexpression in the BAT of diet-induced obese mice reduced body weight and increased thermogenesis. On the other hand, pharmacological activation of p53 improves body weight gain due to increased BAT thermogenesis by sympathetic nervous system in obese adult wild-type mice but not in p53(-/-) animals. These results reveal that p53 regulates BAT metabolism by coordinating body weight and thermogenesis, but these metabolic actions are tissue specific and also dependent on the developmental stage.

  10. Magnesium and embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiya, Yuko; Su, Li-Ting; Chen, Hsiang-Chin; Habas, Raymond; Runnels, Loren W

    2014-01-01

    Important for energy metabolism, neurotransmission, bone stability, and other cellular functions, Mg(2+) has well-established and undisputedly critical roles in adult tissues. Its contributions to early embryonic development are less clearly understood. For decades it has been known that gestational Mg(2+) deficiency in rodents produces teratogenic effects. More recent studies have linked deficiency in this vital cation to birth defects in humans, including spina bifida, a neural fold closure defect in humans that occurs at an average rate of 1 per 1000 pregnancies. The first suggestion that Mg(2+) may be playing a more specific role in early development arose from studies of the TRPM7 and TRPM6 ion channels. TRPM7 and TRPM6 are divalent-selective ion channels in possession of their own kinase domains that have been implicated in the control of Mg(2+) homeostasis in vertebrates. Disruption of the functions of these ion channels in mice as well as in frogs interferes with gastrulation, a pivotal process during early embryonic development that executes the emergence of the body plan and closure of the neural tube. Surprisingly, gastrulation defects produced by depletion of TRPM7 can be prevented by Mg(2+) supplementation, indicating an essential role for Mg(2+) in gastrulation and neural fold closure. The aim of this review is to summarize the data emerging from molecular genetic, biochemical and electrophysiological studies of TRPM6 and TRPM7 and provide a model of how Mg(2+), through these unique channel-kinases, may be impacting early embryonic development.

  11. A practical guide for the identification of membrane and plasma membrane proteins in human embryonic stem cells and human embryonal carcinoma cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dormeyer, W.; van Hoof, D.; Mummery, C.L.; Krijgsveld, J.; Heck, A.

    2008-01-01

    The identification of (plasma) membrane proteins in cells can provide valuable insights into the regulation of their biological processes. Pluripotent cells such as human embryonic stem cells and embryonal carcinoma cells are capable of unlimited self-renewal and share many of the biological

  12. Embryonic stem cells and property rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Anna-Karin M

    2011-06-01

    This article contributes to the current debate on human embryonic stem cell researchers' possible complicity in the destruction of human embryos and the relevance of such complicity for the issue of commodification of human embryos. I will discuss if, and to what extent, researchers who destroy human embryos, and researchers who merely use human embryos destroyed by others, have moral use rights, and/or moral property rights, in these embryos. I argue that the moral status of the human embryo, however justified, places few restrictions on the latter researchers' use of it, and property rights in it, once it is destroyed. I argue that the former researchers have no property rights in the destroyed embryo but use rights in it to the extent allowed by the legitimate owners of the destroyed embryo. I discuss the implications of this account for previous and current US federal law regulating human embryonic stem cell research.

  13. The extracellular matrix, p53 and estrogen compete to regulate cell-surface Fas/Apo-1 suicide receptor expression in proliferating embryonic cerebral cortical precursors, and reciprocally, Fas-ligand modifies estrogen control of cell-cycle proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newman Joseph M

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apoptosis is important for normal cerebral cortical development. We previously showed that the Fas suicide receptor was expressed within the developing cerebral cortex, and that in vitro Fas activation resulted in caspase-dependent death. Alterations in cell-surface Fas expression may significantly influence cortical development. Therefore, in the following studies, we sought to identify developmentally relevant cell biological processes that regulate cell-surface Fas expression and reciprocal consequences of Fas receptor activation. Results Flow-cytometric analyses identified two distinct neural sub-populations that expressed Fas on their cell surface at high (FasHi or moderate (FasMod levels. The anti-apoptotic protein FLIP further delineated a subset of Fas-expressing cells with potential apoptosis-resistance. FasMod precursors were mainly in G0, while FasHi precursors were largely apoptotic. However, birth-date analysis indicated that neuroblasts express the highest levels of cell-surface Fas at the end of S-phase, or after their final round of mitosis, suggesting that Fas expression is induced at cell cycle checkpoints or during interkinetic nuclear movements. FasHi expression was associated with loss of cell-matrix adhesion and anoikis. Activation of the transcription factor p53 was associated with induction of Fas expression, while the gonadal hormone estrogen antagonistically suppressed cell-surface Fas expression. Estrogen also induced entry into S-phase and decreased the number of Fas-expressing neuroblasts that were apoptotic. Concurrent exposure to estrogen and to soluble Fas-ligand (sFasL suppressed p21/waf-1 and PCNA. In contrast, estrogen and sFasL, individually and together, induced cyclin-A expression, suggesting activation of compensatory survival mechanisms. Conclusions Embryonic cortical neuronal precursors are intrinsically heterogeneous with respect to Fas suicide-sensitivity. Competing intrinsic (p53

  14. Embryonic mortality in buffalo cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Neglia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In buffalo species embryonic mortality is considered one of the major causes of fertility loss, especially in the animals that are not mated during their reproductive period. Embryonic loss in animals mated by artificial insemination (AI is 20-40% during seasons characterized by high number of light hours. Also in buffalo naturally mated the incidence of embryonic mortality is about 20% and a higher incidence is observed between 28- 60 days of gestation in buffaloes that conceive during increasing daylight length. A reduced capacity to secrete progesterone seems to explain in part this embryonic mortality but other as yet unidentified factors contribute between 40-50% to the embryonic losses. Treatments with hCG, GnRH agonist or progesterone on Days 5 after AI not always reduce embryonic mortality in buffalo species. Embryonic mortality in buffaloes appears to occur later (Day 25-40 than in cattle and P4 treatments should perhaps be applied later in buffaloes.

  15. Embryonic epigenetic reprogramming by a pioneer transcription factor in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zeng; Shen, Lisha; Gu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yizhong; Yu, Hao; He, Yuehui

    2017-11-02

    Epigenetic modifications, including chromatin modifications and DNA methylation, have a central role in the regulation of gene expression in plants and animals. The transmission of epigenetic marks is crucial for certain genes to retain cell lineage-specific expression patterns and maintain cell fate. However, the marks that have accumulated at regulatory loci during growth and development or in response to environmental stimuli need to be deleted in gametes or embryos, particularly in organisms such as plants that do not set aside a germ line, to ensure the proper development of offspring. In Arabidopsis thaliana, prolonged exposure to cold temperatures (winter cold), in a process known as vernalization, triggers the mitotically stable epigenetic silencing of the potent floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), and renders plants competent to flower in the spring; however, this silencing is reset during each generation. Here we show that the seed-specific transcription factor LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) promotes the initial establishment of an active chromatin state at FLC and activates its expression de novo in the pro-embryo, thus reversing the silenced state inherited from gametes. This active chromatin state is passed on from the pro-embryo to post-embryonic life, and leads to transmission of the embryonic memory of FLC activation to post-embryonic stages. Our findings reveal a mechanism for the reprogramming of embryonic chromatin states in plants, and provide insights into the epigenetic memory of embryonic active gene expression in post-embryonic phases, through which an embryonic factor acts to 'control' post-embryonic development processes that are distinct from embryogenesis in plants.

  16. Embryonic Stem Cell Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Ma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cell (ESC markers are molecules specifically expressed in ES cells. Understanding of the functions of these markers is critical for characterization and elucidation for the mechanism of ESC pluripotent maintenance and self-renewal, therefore helping to accelerate the clinical application of ES cells. Unfortunately, different cell types can share single or sometimes multiple markers; thus the main obstacle in the clinical application of ESC is to purify ES cells from other types of cells, especially tumor cells. Currently, the marker-based flow cytometry (FCM technique and magnetic cell sorting (MACS are the most effective cell isolating methods, and a detailed maker list will help to initially identify, as well as isolate ESCs using these methods. In the current review, we discuss a wide range of cell surface and generic molecular markers that are indicative of the undifferentiated ESCs. Other types of molecules, such as lectins and peptides, which bind to ESC via affinity and specificity, are also summarized. In addition, we review several markers that overlap with tumor stem cells (TSCs, which suggest that uncertainty still exists regarding the benefits of using these markers alone or in various combinations when identifying and isolating cells.

  17. Are there factors preventing cancer development during embryonic life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einhorn, L. (Kungliga Karolinska Mediko-Kirurgiska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden))

    1983-01-01

    On the basis of the following literature observations, a hypothesis is advanced that the development of cancer is actively inhibited during embryonic life. Although the processes of cell differentiation and proliferation are - without comparison - most pronounced during embryonic life, cancer is rarely found in the newborn and is seldom a cause of neonatal death or spontaneous abortion. Attempts to induce cancer in early-stage animal embryos by irradiation or by transplacental chemical carcinogenesis have been unsuccessful, even when exposed animals have been observed throughout their lifetime. After the period of major organogenesis, however, the embryos become susceptible to carcinogenesis. In humans, the most common embryonic tumors arise in tissues which have an unusually late ongoing development and are still partly immature at or shortly before birth. For many human embryonic tumors the survival rates are higher, and spontaneous regression more frequent, in younger children, i.e. prognosis is age-dependent. Thus, although cancer generally appears in tissues capable of proliferation and differentiation, induction of malignancy in the developmentally most active tissues seems to be beset with difficulty. One possible explanation for this paradox could be that cancer is controlled by the regulators influencing development, regulators that are most active during embryonic life.

  18. Embryonic expression and cloning of the murine GATA-3 gene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. George; M.W. Leonard; M.E. Roth (Matthew); K.H. Lieuw (Ken); D. Kioussis; F.G. Grosveld (Frank); J.D. Engel (Douglas)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractWe describe the embryonic expression pattern as well as the cloning and initial transcriptional regulatory analysis of the murine (m) GATA-3 gene. In situ hybridization shows that mGATA-3 mRNA accumulation is temporally and spatially regulated during early development: although found

  19. Mapping the stem cell state: eight novel human embryonic stem and embryonal carcinoma cell antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, A; Andrews, N; Bardsley, K

    2011-01-01

    The antigenic profile of human embryonic stem (ES) and embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells has served as a key element of their characterization, with a common panel of surface and intracellular markers now widely used. Such markers have been used to identify cells within the 'undifferentiated state...... of reactivity for all antibodies against both ES and EC cells, suggesting that these markers will afford recognition of unique sub-states within the undifferentiated stem cell compartment....... and EC cells, and herein describe their characterization. The reactivity of these antibodies against a range of cell lines is reported, as well as their developmental regulation, basic biochemistry and reactivity in immunohistochemistry of testicular germ cell tumours. Our data reveal a range...

  20. Somatic muscle specification during embryonic and post-embryonic development in the nematode C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Michael; Liu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Myogenesis has proved to be a powerful paradigm for understanding cell fate specification and differentiation in many model organisms. Studies of somatic bodywall muscle (BWM) development in Caenorhabditis elegans allow us to define, with single cell resolution, the distinct hierarchies of transcriptional regulators needed for myogenesis throughout development. Although all 95 BWM cells appear uniform after differentiation, there are several different regulatory cascades employed embryonically and post-embryonically. These, in turn, are integrated into multiple extrinsic cell signaling events. The convergence of these different pathways on the key nodal point, that is the activation of the core muscle module, commits individual cells to myogenesis. Comparisons of myogenesis between C. elegans and other model systems provide insights into the evolution of contractile cell types, demonstrating the conservation of regulatory schemes for muscles throughout the animal kingdom. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Proteomic Analysis of Chicken Skeletal Muscle during Embryonic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjia Ouyang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic growth and development of skeletal muscle is a major determinant of muscle mass, and has a significant effect on meat production in chicken. To assess the protein expression profiles during embryonic skeletal muscle development, we performed a proteomics analysis using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ in leg muscle tissues of female Xinghua chicken at embryonic age (E 11, E16, and 1-day post hatch (D1. We identified 3,240 proteins in chicken embryonic muscle and 491 of them were differentially expressed (fold change ≥ 1.5 or ≤ 0.666 and p < 0.05. There were 19 up- and 32 down-regulated proteins in E11 vs. E16 group, 238 up- and 227 down-regulated proteins in E11 vs. D1 group, and 13 up- and 5 down-regulated proteins in E16 vs. D1 group. Protein interaction network analyses indicated that these differentially expressed proteins were mainly involved in the pathway of protein synthesis, muscle contraction, and oxidative phosphorylation. Integrative analysis of proteome and our previous transcriptome data found 189 differentially expressed proteins that correlated with their mRNA level. The interactions between these proteins were also involved in muscle contraction and oxidative phosphorylation pathways. The lncRNA-protein interaction network found four proteins DMD, MYL3, TNNI2, and TNNT3 that are all involved in muscle contraction and may be lncRNA regulated. These results provide several candidate genes for further investigation into the molecular mechanisms of chicken embryonic muscle development, and enable us to better understanding their regulation networks and biochemical pathways.

  2. Embryonic hematopoiesis under microscopic observation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaus, Anna; Robin, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are at the origin of adult hematopoiesis, providing an organism with all blood cell types needed throughout life. During embryonic development a first wave of hematopoiesis (independent of HSCs) allows the survival and growth of the embryo until birth. A second wave

  3. Embryonic mammary signature subsets are activated in Brca1-/- and basal-like breast cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cancer is often suggested to result from development gone awry. Links between normal embryonic development and cancer biology have been postulated, but no defined genetic basis has been established. We recently published the first transcriptomic analysis of embryonic mammary cell populations. Embryonic mammary epithelial cells are an immature progenitor cell population, lacking differentiation markers, which is reflected in their very distinct genetic profiles when compared with those of their postnatal descendents. Methods We defined an embryonic mammary epithelial signature that incorporates the most highly expressed genes from embryonic mammary epithelium when compared with the postnatal mammary epithelial cells. We looked for activation of the embryonic mammary epithelial signature in mouse mammary tumors that formed in mice in which Brca1 had been conditionally deleted from the mammary epithelium and in human breast cancers to determine whether any genetic links exist between embryonic mammary cells and breast cancers. Results Small subsets of the embryonic mammary epithelial signature were consistently activated in mouse Brca1-/- tumors and human basal-like breast cancers, which encoded predominantly transcriptional regulators, cell-cycle, and actin cytoskeleton components. Other embryonic gene subsets were found activated in non-basal-like tumor subtypes and repressed in basal-like tumors, including regulators of neuronal differentiation, transcription, and cell biosynthesis. Several embryonic genes showed significant upregulation in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative, and/or grade 3 breast cancers. Among them, the transcription factor, SOX11, a progenitor cell and lineage regulator of nonmammary cell types, is found highly expressed in some Brca1-/- mammary tumors. By using RNA interference to silence SOX11 expression in breast cancer cells, we found evidence that SOX11 regulates breast cancer cell

  4. Epigenetic control of embryonic stem cell fate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Nicolaj Strøyer; Helin, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from the inner cell mass of the preimplantation embryo and are pluripotent, as they are able to differentiate into all cell types of the adult organism. Once established, the pluripotent ES cells can be maintained under defined culture conditions, but can also...... be induced rapidly to differentiate. Maintaining this balance of stability versus plasticity is a challenge, and extensive studies in recent years have focused on understanding the contributions of transcription factors and epigenetic enzymes to the "stemness" properties of these cells. Identifying...... the molecular switches that regulate ES cell self-renewal versus differentiation can provide insights into the nature of the pluripotent state and enhance the potential use of these cells in therapeutic applications. Here, we review the latest models for how changes in chromatin methylation can modulate ES cell...

  5. Embryonic Heart Progenitors and Cardiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brade, Thomas; Pane, Luna S.; Moretti, Alessandra; Chien, Kenneth R.; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian heart is a highly specialized organ, comprised of many different cell types arising from distinct embryonic progenitor populations during cardiogenesis. Three precursor populations have been identified to contribute to different myocytic and nonmyocytic cell lineages of the heart: cardiogenic mesoderm cells (CMC), the proepicardium (PE), and cardiac neural crest cells (CNCCs). This review will focus on molecular cues necessary for proper induction, expansion, and lineage-specific differentiation of these progenitor populations during cardiac development in vivo. Moreover, we will briefly discuss how the knowledge gained on embryonic heart progenitor biology can be used to develop novel therapeutic strategies for the management of congenital heart disease as well as for improvement of cardiac function in ischemic heart disease. PMID:24086063

  6. Functional Role of Mst1/Mst2 in Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Li; Ying Chen; Kinglun Kingston Mak; Chun Kwok Wong; Chi Chiu Wang; Ping Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The Hippo pathway is an evolutionary conserved pathway that involves cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and organ size regulation. Mst1 and Mst2 are central components of this pathway that are essential for embryonic development, though their role in controlling embryonic stem cells (ES cells) has yet to be exploited. To further understand the Mst1/Mst2 function in ES cell pluripotency and differentiation, we derived Mst1/Mst2 double knockout (Mst-/-) ES cells to completely pertur...

  7. [Progress in the research of germ cell from human embryonic stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xin; Cai, Zhi-Ming; Gui, Yao-Ting

    2006-01-01

    As the development of spontaneous differentiation of germ cells and gametogenesis from mouse embryonic stem cells (mES) in vitro, hES (human embryonic stem cells) also have potential to differentiated into germ cells in theory. This review focuses on the stem cells niches and genes regulating the hES differentiation toward germ cells, as well as the recent advance and application on the reproductive medicine and therapy of infertility.

  8. PICKLE acts during germination to repress expression of embryonic traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Chun; Chuang, King; Henderson, James T.; Rider, Stanley Dean; Bai, Yinglin; Zhang, Heng; Fountain, Matthew; Gerber, Jacob; Ogas, Joe

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY PICKLE (PKL) codes for a CHD3 chromatin remodeling factor that plays multiple roles in Arabidopsis growth and development. Previous analysis of the expression of genes that exhibit PKL-dependent regulation suggested that PKL acts during germination to repress expression of embryonic traits. In this study, we examined the expression of PKL protein to investigate when and where PKL acts to regulate development. A PKL:eGFP translational fusion is preferentially localized in the nucleus of cells, consistent with the proposed role for PKL as a chromatin remodeling factor. A steroid-inducible version of PKL - a fusion of PKL to the glucocorticoid receptor (PKL:GR) - was used to examine when PKL acts to repress expression of embryonic traits. We found that activation of PKL:GR during germination was sufficient to repress expression of embryonic traits in the primary roots of pkl seedlings whereas activation of PKL:GR after germination had little effect. In contrast, we observed that PKL is required continuously after germination to repress expression of PHERES1, a type I MADS box gene that is normally expressed during early embryogenesis in wild-type plants. Thus PKL acts at multiple points during development to regulate patterns of gene expression in Arabidopsis. PMID:16359393

  9. SEC14 and spectrin domains 1 (Sestd1) and Dapper antagonist of catenin 1 (Dact1) scaffold proteins cooperatively regulate the Van Gogh-like 2 (Vangl2) four-pass transmembrane protein and planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway during embryonic development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, XiaoYong; Cheyette, Benjamin N R

    2013-07-12

    The planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway is a conserved non-canonical (β-catenin-independent) branch of Wnt signaling crucial to embryogenesis, during which it regulates cell polarity and polarized cell movements. Disruption of PCP components in mice, including Vangl2 and Dact1, results in defective neural tube closure and other developmental defects. Here, we show that Sestd1 is a novel binding partner of Vangl2 and Dact1. The Sestd1-Dact1 interface is formed by circumscribed regions of Sestd1 (the carboxyl-terminal region) and Dact1 (the amino-terminal region). Remarkably, we show that loss of Sestd1 precisely phenocopies loss of Dact1 during embryogenesis in mice, leading to a spectrum of birth malformations, including neural tube defects, a shortened and/or curly tail, no genital tubercle, blind-ended colons, hydronephrotic kidneys, and no bladder. Moreover, as with Dact1, a knock-out mutation at the Sestd1 locus exhibits reciprocal genetic rescue interactions during development with a semidominant mutation at the Vangl2 locus. Consistent with this, examination of Wnt pathway activities in Sestd1 mutant mouse embryonic tissue reveals disrupted PCP pathway biochemistry similar to that characterized in Dact1 mutant embryos. The Sestd1 protein is a divergent member of the Trio family of GTPase regulatory proteins that lacks a guanine nucleotide exchange factor domain. Nonetheless, in cell-based assays the Sestd1-Dact1 interaction can induce Rho GTPase activation. Together, our data indicate that Sestd1 cooperates with Dact1 in Vangl2 regulation and in the PCP pathway during mammalian embryonic development.

  10. Embryonic environment and transgenerational effects in quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Sophie; Gourichon, David; Leterrier, Christine; Labrune, Yann; Coustham, Vincent; Rivière, Sandrine; Zerjal, Tatiana; Coville, Jean-Luc; Morisson, Mireille; Minvielle, Francis; Pitel, Frédérique

    2017-01-26

    Environmental exposures, for instance to chemicals, are known to impact plant and animal phenotypes on the long term, sometimes across several generations. Such transgenerational phenotypes were shown to be promoted by epigenetic alterations such as DNA methylation, an epigenetic mark involved in the regulation of gene expression. However, it is yet unknown whether transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of altered phenotypes exists in birds. The purpose of this study was to develop an avian model to investigate whether changes to the embryonic environment had a transgenerational effect that could alter the phenotypes of third-generation offspring. Given its impact on the mammalian epigenome and the reproductive system in birds, genistein was used as an environment stressor. We compared several third-generation phenotypes of two quail "epilines", which were obtained from genistein-injected eggs (Epi+) or from untreated eggs (Epi-) from the same founders. A "mirrored" crossing strategy was used to minimize between-line genetic variability by maintaining similar ancestor contributions across generations in each line. Three generations after genistein treatment, a significant difference in the sexual maturity of the females, which, after three generations, could not be attributed to direct maternal effects, was observed between the lines, with Epi+ females starting to lay eggs later. Adult body weight was significantly affected by genistein treatment applied in a previous generation, and a significant interaction between line and sex was observed for body weight at 3 weeks. Behavioral traits, such as evaluating the birds' reaction to social isolation, were also significantly affected by genistein treatment. Yet, global methylation analyses revealed no significant difference between the epilines. These findings demonstrate that embryonic environment affects the phenotype of offspring three generations later in quail. While one cannot rule out the existence of some

  11. Microglia Modulate Wiring of the Embryonic Forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Squarzoni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dysfunction of microglia, the tissue macrophages of the brain, has been associated with the etiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders. Consistently, microglia have been shown to regulate neurogenesis and synaptic maturation at perinatal and postnatal stages. However, microglia invade the brain during mid-embryogenesis and thus could play an earlier prenatal role. Here, we show that embryonic microglia, which display a transiently uneven distribution, regulate the wiring of forebrain circuits. Using multiple mouse models, including cell-depletion approaches and cx3cr1−/−, CR3−/−, and DAP12−/− mutants, we find that perturbing microglial activity affects the outgrowth of dopaminergic axons in the forebrain and the laminar positioning of subsets of neocortical interneurons. Since defects in both dopamine innervation and cortical networks have been linked to neuropsychiatric diseases, our study provides insights into how microglial dysfunction can impact forebrain connectivity and reveals roles for immune cells during normal assembly of brain circuits.

  12. Embryonic Blood-Cerebrospinal Fluid Barrier Formation and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eBueno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During embryonic development and adult life, brain cavities and ventricles are filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. CSF has attracted interest as an active signaling medium that regulates brain development, homeostasis and disease. CSF is a complex protein-rich fluid containing growth factors and signaling molecules that regulate multiple cell functions in the central nervous system (CNS. The composition and substance concentrations of CSF are tightly controlled. In recent years, it has been demonstrated that embryonic CSF (eCSF has a key function as a fluid pathway for delivering diffusible signals to the developing brain, thus contributing to the proliferation, differentiation and survival of neural progenitor cells, and to the expansion and patterning of the brain. From fetal stages through to adult life, CSF is primarily produced by the choroid plexus. The development and functional activities of the choroid plexus and other blood–brain barrier (BBB systems in adults and fetuses have been extensively analyzed. However, eCSF production and control of its homeostasis in embryos, from the closure of the anterior neuropore when the brain cavities become physiologically sealed, to the formation of the functional fetal choroid plexus, has not been studied in as much depth and remains open to debate. This review brings together the existing literature, some of which is based on experiments conducted by our research group, concerning the formation and function of a temporary embryonic blood–CSF barrier in the context of the crucial roles played by the molecules in eCSF.

  13. Autotaxin overexpression causes embryonic lethality and vascular defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Yukiura

    Full Text Available Autotaxin (ATX is a secretory protein, which converts lysophospholipids to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, and is essential for embryonic vascular formation. ATX is abundantly detected in various biological fluids and its level is elevated in some pathophysiological conditions. However, the roles of elevated ATX levels remain to be elucidated. In this study, we generated conditional transgenic (Tg mice overexpressing ATX and examined the effects of excess LPA signalling. We found that ATX overexpression in the embryonic period caused severe vascular defects and was lethal around E9.5. ATX was conditionally overexpressed in the neonatal period using the Cre/loxP system, which resulted in a marked increase in the plasma LPA level. This resulted in retinal vascular defects including abnormal vascular plexus and increased vascular regression. Our findings indicate that the ATX level must be carefully regulated to ensure coordinated vascular formation.

  14. Autotaxin Overexpression Causes Embryonic Lethality and Vascular Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukiura, Hiroshi; Kano, Kuniyuki; Kise, Ryoji; Inoue, Asuka; Aoki, Junken

    2015-01-01

    Autotaxin (ATX) is a secretory protein, which converts lysophospholipids to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), and is essential for embryonic vascular formation. ATX is abundantly detected in various biological fluids and its level is elevated in some pathophysiological conditions. However, the roles of elevated ATX levels remain to be elucidated. In this study, we generated conditional transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing ATX and examined the effects of excess LPA signalling. We found that ATX overexpression in the embryonic period caused severe vascular defects and was lethal around E9.5. ATX was conditionally overexpressed in the neonatal period using the Cre/loxP system, which resulted in a marked increase in the plasma LPA level. This resulted in retinal vascular defects including abnormal vascular plexus and increased vascular regression. Our findings indicate that the ATX level must be carefully regulated to ensure coordinated vascular formation PMID:25992708

  15. Bacterial challenge stimulates innate immune responses in extra-embryonic tissues of tobacco hornworm eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, M J; Kankanala, P; Kanost, M R

    2004-02-01

    Innate immunity protects juvenile and adult vertebrates and invertebrates against potential pathogens; however, it is unknown when developing embryos become immune competent and just how they are guarded from infection. To address these questions, we studied the effect of immune challenge on early stage eggs of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. We detected many immune-related proteins and mRNAs in naive eggs. Upon immune challenge, antimicrobial protein genes were up-regulated, and antibacterial activity increased. Antimicrobial protein mRNAs and lysozyme were present in the extra-embryonic tissues of immune-challenged eggs; in addition, melanization in response to bacteria occurred in the yolk but not embryonic tissues. We conclude that the extra-embryonic tissues of early stage M. sexta eggs are immune competent and likely protect the developing embryo from infection. We suggest that innate immune responses of extra-embryonic tissues may be a common mechanism for protecting early embryos.

  16. Contested embryonic culture in Japan--public discussion, and human embryonic stem cell research in an aging welfare society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the reasons for the lack of a broad discussion on bioethical regulation of human embryonic stem cell research (hESR) in Japan and asks why scientists experience difficulties accessing resources for hESR despite the acclaimed indifference of dominant Japanese culture to embryo research. The article shows how various social actors express their views on the embryo and oocyte donation in terms of dominant Japanese culture, foiled against what is regarded as Western culture. Second, it shows how the lack of concern with hESR should be understood in the context of public health policies and communications and bioethics decision making in Japan. Finally, it interprets the meaning of the embryo in the context of Japan as an aging modern welfare society, explaining how policymakers have come to emphasize the urgency of infertility problems over issues around abortion and embryonic life.

  17. Cryopreservation of embryonic axes of groundnut ( Arachis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient cryopreservation protocol was developed for groundnut embryonic axes using vitrification technique. Embryonic axes obtained from seeds of four groundnut genotypes were dehydrated in Plant Vitrification Solution (PVS2) solution for different durations (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 h) before plunged into liquid nitrogen ...

  18. Utx Is Required for Proper Induction of Ectoderm and Mesoderm during Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Torres, Cristina; Laugesen, Anne; Helin, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    for the activation of lineage choice genes in response to developmental signals. To further understand the function of Utx in pluripotency and differentiation we generated Utx knockout embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Here we show that Utx is not required for the proliferation of ESCs, however, Utx contributes......Embryonic development requires chromatin remodeling for dynamic regulation of gene expression patterns to ensure silencing of pluripotent transcription factors and activation of developmental regulators. Demethylation of H3K27me3 by the histone demethylases Utx and Jmjd3 is important...

  19. Expression and localization of special AT-rich sequence binding protein 2 in murine molar development and the pulp-dentin complex of human healthy teeth and teeth with pulpitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lina; Liu, Huimei; Shi, Lei; Pan, Shuang; Yang, Xu; Zhang, Lin; Niu, Yumei

    2017-01-01

    Special AT-rich sequence binding protein 2 (SATB2) is a member of the special family of AT-rich binding transcription factors and has a critical role in osteoblast differentiation and craniofacial patterning. However, the expression and distribution of SATB2 in tooth development is largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to detect the expression and distribution of SATB2 during murine molar development and, in human healthy teeth and teeth with pulpitis using immunohistochemistry. Molars were obtained from Kunming mice at embryonic day (E) 13.5, E14.5, E16.5 and E18.5, and postnatal day (P) 1, P5 and P7. In addition, 20 human teeth (10 healthy and 10 teeth with pulpitis) were obtained from young adult patients (age, 24.90±1.65 years) who were scheduled for routine extraction. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed to detect the expression and distribution of SATB2. The present results revealed that SATB2 exhibits a spatiotemporal expression pattern in murine molar development and was expressed in odontoblasts, predentin, dental pulp cells and the blood vessels in human teeth. These findings suggested that SATB2 may have an important role in odontoblast differentiation and dentin matrix mineralization during tooth development. PMID:29042940

  20. The liberation of embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Blair

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mouse embryonic stem (ES cells are defined by their capacity to self-renew and their ability to differentiate into all adult tissues including the germ line. Along with efficient clonal propagation, these properties have made them an unparalleled tool for manipulation of the mouse genome. Traditionally, mouse ES (mES cells have been isolated and cultured in complex, poorly defined conditions that only permit efficient derivation from the 129 mouse strain; genuine ES cells have not been isolated from another species in these conditions. Recently, use of small molecule inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (Gsk3 and the Fgf-MAPK signaling cascade has permitted efficient derivation of ES cells from all tested mouse strains. Subsequently, the first verified ES cells were established from a non-mouse species, Rattus norvegicus. Here, we summarize the advances in our understanding of the signaling pathways regulating mES cell self-renewal that led to the first derivation of rat ES cells and highlight the new opportunities presented for transgenic modeling on diverse genetic backgrounds. We also comment on the implications of this work for our understanding of pluripotent stem cells across mammalian species.

  1. carboxypeptidase E-ΔN, a neuroprotein transiently expressed during development protects embryonic neurons against glutamate neurotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yan Qin

    Full Text Available Neuroprotective proteins expressed in the fetus play a critical role during early embryonic neurodevelopment, especially during maternal exposure to alcohol and drugs that cause stress, glutamate neuroexcitotoxicity, and damage to the fetal brain, if prolonged. We have identified a novel protein, carboxypeptidase E-ΔN (CPE-ΔN, which is a splice variant of CPE that has neuroprotective effects on embryonic neurons. CPE-ΔN is transiently expressed in mouse embryos from embryonic day 5.5 to postnatal day 1. It is expressed in embryonic neurons, but not in 3 week or older mouse brains, suggesting a function primarily in utero. CPE-ΔN expression was up-regulated in embryonic hippocampal neurons in response to dexamethasone treatment. CPE-ΔN transduced into rat embryonic cortical and hippocampal neurons protected them from glutamate- and H2O2-induced cell death. When transduced into embryonic cortical neurons, CPE-ΔN was found in the nucleus and enhanced the transcription of FGF2 mRNA. Embryonic cortical neurons challenged with glutamate resulted in attenuated FGF2 levels and cell death, but CPE-ΔN transduced neurons treated in the same manner showed increased FGF2 expression and normal viability. This neuroprotective effect of CPE-ΔN was mediated by secreted FGF2. Through receptor signaling, FGF2 activated the AKT and ERK signaling pathways, which in turn increased BCL-2 expression. This led to inhibition of caspase-3 activity and cell survival.

  2. Arabidopsis LEAFY COTYLEDON1 controls cell fate determination during post-embryonic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingkun eHuang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1 transcription factor is a master regulator that shapes plant embryo development and post-embryonic seedling establishment. Loss-of-function of LEC1 alters the cotyledon identity, causing the formation of ectopic trichomes, which does not occur in wild-type seedlings, implying that LEC1 might regulate embryonic cell fate determination during post-embryonic development. To test this hypothesis, we compared the expression of trichome development-related genes between the wild-type and the lec1 mutant. We observed that transcripts of GL1, GL2 and GL3, genes encoding the positive regulators in trichome development, were significantly upregulated, while the TCL2, ETC1 and ETC2 genes, encoding the negative regulators in trichome development, were downregulated in the lec1 mutant. Furthermore, overexpression of LEC1 activated the expressions of TCL2, CPC and ETC1, resulting in production of cotyledonary leaves with no or fewer trichomes during vegetative development. In addition, we demonstrated that LEC1 interacts with TCL2 in yeast and in vitro. A genetic experiment showed that loss-of-function of GL2 rescued the ectopic trichome formation in the lec1 mutant. These findings strongly support that LEC1 regulates trichome development, providing direct evidence for the role of LEC1 in cell fate determination during post-embryonic development.

  3. Endothelin-1 signalling controls early embryonic heart rate in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karppinen, S; Rapila, R; Mäkikallio, K; Hänninen, S L; Rysä, J; Vuolteenaho, O; Tavi, P

    2014-02-01

    Spontaneous activity of embryonic cardiomyocytes originates from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release during early cardiogenesis. However, the regulation of heart rate during embryonic development is still not clear. The aim of this study was to determine how endothelin-1 (ET-1) affects the heart rate of embryonic mice, as well as the pathway through which it exerts its effects. The effects of ET-1 and ET-1 receptor inhibition on cardiac contraction were studied using confocal Ca(2+) imaging of isolated mouse embryonic ventricular cardiomyocytes and ultrasonographic examination of embryonic cardiac contractions in utero. In addition, the amount of ET-1 peptide and ET receptor a (ETa) and b (ETb) mRNA levels were measured during different stages of development of the cardiac muscle. High ET-1 concentration and expression of both ETa and ETb receptors was observed in early cardiac tissue. ET-1 was found to increase the frequency of spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations in E10.5 embryonic cardiomyocytes in vitro. Non-specific inhibition of ET receptors with tezosentan caused arrhythmia and bradycardia in isolated embryonic cardiomyocytes and in whole embryonic hearts both in vitro (E10.5) and in utero (E12.5). ET-1-mediated stimulation of early heart rate was found to occur via ETb receptors and subsequent inositol trisphosphate receptor activation and increased SR Ca(2+) leak. Endothelin-1 is required to maintain a sufficient heart rate, as well as to prevent arrhythmia during early development of the mouse heart. This is achieved through ETb receptor, which stimulates Ca(2+) leak through IP3 receptors. © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Retinoic acid synthesis and functions in early embryonic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Richard Kin Ting

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Retinoic acid (RA is a morphogen derived from retinol (vitamin A that plays important roles in cell growth, differentiation, and organogenesis. The production of RA from retinol requires two consecutive enzymatic reactions catalyzed by different sets of dehydrogenases. The retinol is first oxidized into retinal, which is then oxidized into RA. The RA interacts with retinoic acid receptor (RAR and retinoic acid X receptor (RXR which then regulate the target gene expression. In this review, we have discussed the metabolism of RA and the important components of RA signaling pathway, and highlighted current understanding of the functions of RA during early embryonic development.

  5. Apoptosis during embryonic tissue remodeling is accompanied by cell senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorda-Diez, Carlos I.; Garcia-Riart, Beatriz; Montero, Juan A.; Rodriguez-León, Joaquín; Garcia-Porrero, Juan A; Hurle, Juan M.

    2015-01-01

    This study re-examined the dying process in the interdigital tissue during the formation of free digits in the developing limbs. We demonstrated that the interdigital dying process was associated with cell senescence, as deduced by induction of β-gal activity, mitotic arrest, and transcriptional up-regulation of p21 together with many components of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype. We also found overlapping domains of expression of members of the Btg/Tob gene family of antiproliferative factors in the regressing interdigits. Notably, Btg2 was up-regulated during interdigit remodeling in species with free digits but not in the webbed foot of the duck. We also demonstrate that oxidative stress promoted the expression of Btg2, and that FGF2 and IGF1 which are survival signals for embryonic limb mesenchyme inhibited Btg2 expression. Btg2 overexpression in vivo and in vitro induced all the observed changes during interdigit regression, including oxidative stress, arrest of cell cycle progression, transcriptional regulation of senescence markers, and caspase-mediated apoptosis. Consistent with the central role of p21 on cell senescence, the transcriptional effects induced by overexpression of Btg2 are attenuated by silencing p21. Our findings indicate that cell senescence and apoptosis are complementary processes in the regression of embryonic tissues and share common regulatory signals. PMID:26568417

  6. Cognitive analysis of schizophrenia risk genes that function as epigenetic regulators of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, Laura; Cosgrove, Donna; Clarkson, Christopher; Harold, Denise; Kendall, Kimberley; Richards, Alex; Mantripragada, Kiran; Owen, Michael J; O'Donovan, Michael C; Walters, James; Hartmann, Annette; Konte, Betina; Rujescu, Dan; Gill, Michael; Corvin, Aiden; Rea, Stephen; Donohoe, Gary; Morris, Derek W

    2016-12-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are an important heritable and dynamic means of regulating various genomic functions, including gene expression, to orchestrate brain development, adult neurogenesis, and synaptic plasticity. These processes when perturbed are thought to contribute to schizophrenia pathophysiology. A core feature of schizophrenia is cognitive dysfunction. For genetic disorders where cognitive impairment is more severe such as intellectual disability, there are a disproportionally high number of genes involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. Evidence now supports some shared genetic aetiology between schizophrenia and intellectual disability. GWAS have identified 108 chromosomal regions associated with schizophrenia risk that span 350 genes. This study identified genes mapping to those loci that have epigenetic functions, and tested the risk alleles defining those loci for association with cognitive deficits. We developed a list of 350 genes with epigenetic functions and cross-referenced this with the GWAS loci. This identified eight candidate genes: BCL11B, CHD7, EP300, EPC2, GATAD2A, KDM3B, RERE, SATB2. Using a dataset of Irish psychosis cases and controls (n = 1235), the schizophrenia risk SNPs at these loci were tested for effects on IQ, working memory, episodic memory, and attention. Strongest associations were for rs6984242 with both measures of IQ (P = 0.001) and episodic memory (P = 0.007). We link rs6984242 to CHD7 via a long range eQTL. These associations were not replicated in independent samples. Our study highlights that a number of genes mapping to risk loci for schizophrenia may function as epigenetic regulators of gene expression but further studies are required to establish a role for these genes in cognition. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Cleaved Slit directs embryonic muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordan, Elly; Volk, Talila

    2015-01-01

    The formation of functional musculoskeletal system relies on proper connectivity between muscles and their corresponding tendon cells. In Drosophila, larval muscles are born during early embryonic stages, and elongate toward tendons that are embedded within the ectoderm in later. The Slit/Robo signaling pathway had been implicated in the process of muscle elongation toward tendons. Here we discuss our recent findings regarding the critical contribution of Slit cleavage for immobilization and stabilization of the Slit signal on the tendon cells. Slit cleavage produces 2 polypeptides, the N-terminal Slit-N, which is extremely stable, undergoes oligomerization, and associates with the tendon cell surfaces, and the C-terminal Slit-C, which rapidly degrades. Slit cleavage leads to immobilization of Slit signaling on tendons, leading to a short-range repulsion, which eventually arrest further muscle elongation. Robo2, which is co-expressed with Slit by the tendon cells facilitates Slit cleavage. This activity does not require the cytoplasmic signaling domain of Robo2. We suggest that Robo2-dependent Slit cleavage, and the formation of Slit-N oligomers on the tendon cell surfaces direct muscle elongation, and provide a stop signal for the approaching muscle, through binding to Robo and Robo3 receptors expressed by the muscles.

  8. NANOG reporter cell lines generated by gene targeting in human embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Yvonne; Ganic, Elvira; Ameri, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Pluripotency and self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is mediated by a complex interplay between extra- and intracellular signaling pathways, which regulate the expression of pluripotency-specific transcription factors. The homeodomain transcription factor NANOG plays a central role...

  9. Activin B mediated induction of Pdx1 in human embryonic stem cell derived embryoid bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Ulrik; Pørneki, Ann Dorte Storm; Floridon, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    embryonic and fetal pancreas anlage in humans. Pdx1(+) cells are found in cell clusters also expressing Serpina1 and FABP1, suggesting activation of intestinal/liver developmental programs. Moreover, Activin B up-regulates Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) and its target Gli1, which during normal development...

  10. Photo-transfection and selective optical differentiation of embryonic stem cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mthunzi, P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available and differentiation programs are operated and regulated at the genetic level. Genetic manipulation such as delivery of exogenous gene expression or knockout with small interfering RNA (siRNA) is relatively rare in mouse embryonic (ES) cells. However, genetic species...

  11. AN EMBRYONIC CHICK PANCREAS ORGAN CULTURE MODEL: CHARACTERIZATION AND NEURAL CONTROL OF EXOCRINE RELEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    An embryonic chick (Gallus domesticus) whole-organ pancreas culture system was developed for use as an in vitro model to study cholinergic regulation of exocrine pancreatic function. The culture system was examined for characteristic exocrine function and viability by measuring e...

  12. Gene function in early mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Pearl A

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the genes that drive embryonic stem cell differentiation. However, such knowledge is necessary if we are to exploit the therapeutic potential of stem cells. To uncover the genetic determinants of mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC differentiation, we have generated and analyzed 11-point time-series of DNA microarray data for three biologically equivalent but genetically distinct mESC lines (R1, J1, and V6.5 undergoing undirected differentiation into embryoid bodies (EBs over a period of two weeks. Results We identified the initial 12 hour period as reflecting the early stages of mESC differentiation and studied probe sets showing consistent changes of gene expression in that period. Gene function analysis indicated significant up-regulation of genes related to regulation of transcription and mRNA splicing, and down-regulation of genes related to intracellular signaling. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the genes showing the largest expression changes were more likely to have originated in metazoans. The probe sets with the most consistent gene changes in the three cell lines represented 24 down-regulated and 12 up-regulated genes, all with closely related human homologues. Whereas some of these genes are known to be involved in embryonic developmental processes (e.g. Klf4, Otx2, Smn1, Socs3, Tagln, Tdgf1, our analysis points to others (such as transcription factor Phf21a, extracellular matrix related Lama1 and Cyr61, or endoplasmic reticulum related Sc4mol and Scd2 that have not been previously related to mESC function. The majority of identified functions were related to transcriptional regulation, intracellular signaling, and cytoskeleton. Genes involved in other cellular functions important in ESC differentiation such as chromatin remodeling and transmembrane receptors were not observed in this set. Conclusion Our analysis profiles for the first time gene expression at a very early stage of m

  13. Nucleosome Organization in Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puya G Yazdi

    Full Text Available The fundamental repeating unit of eukaryotic chromatin is the nucleosome. Besides being involved in packaging DNA, nucleosome organization plays an important role in transcriptional regulation and cellular identity. Currently, there is much debate about the major determinants of the nucleosome architecture of a genome and its significance with little being known about its role in stem cells. To address these questions, we performed ultra-deep sequencing of nucleosomal DNA in two human embryonic stem cell lines and integrated our data with numerous epigenomic maps. Our analyses have revealed that the genome is a determinant of nucleosome organization with transcriptionally inactive regions characterized by a "ground state" of nucleosome profiles driven by underlying DNA sequences. DNA sequence preferences are associated with heterogeneous chromatin organization around transcription start sites. Transcription, histone modifications, and DNA methylation alter this "ground state" by having distinct effects on both nucleosome positioning and occupancy. As the transcriptional rate increases, nucleosomes become better positioned. Exons transcribed and included in the final spliced mRNA have distinct nucleosome profiles in comparison to exons not included at exon-exon junctions. Genes marked by the active modification H3K4m3 are characterized by lower nucleosome occupancy before the transcription start site compared to genes marked by the inactive modification H3K27m3, while bivalent domains, genes associated with both marks, lie exactly in the middle. Combinatorial patterns of epigenetic marks (chromatin states are associated with unique nucleosome profiles. Nucleosome organization varies around transcription factor binding in enhancers versus promoters. DNA methylation is associated with increasing nucleosome occupancy and different types of methylations have distinct location preferences within the nucleosome core particle. Finally, computational

  14. Ghrelin is dispensable for embryonic pancreatic islet development and differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jonathon T.; Mastracci, Teresa L.; Vinton, Carol; Doyle, Michelle L.; Anderson, Keith R.; Loomis, Zoe L.; Schrunk, Jessica M.; Minic, Angela D.; Prabakar, Kamalaveni R.; Pugliese, Alberto; Sun, Yuxian; Smith, Roy G.; Sussel, Lori

    2009-01-01

    Ghrelin is a peptide hormone that has been implicated in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Ghrelin is predominantly produced in the stomach, but is also expressed in many other tissues where its functions are not well characterized. In the rodent and human pancreas, ghrelin levels peak at late gestation and gradually decline postnatally. Several studies have suggested that ghrelin regulates beta cell function during embryonic development and in the adult. In addition, in a number of mouse models, ghrelin cells appear to replace insulin and glucagon-producing cells in the islet. In this analysis, we investigated whether the absence or overexpression of ghrelin influenced the development and differentiation of the pancreatic islet during embryonic development. These studies revealed that ghrelin is dispensable for normal pancreas development during gestation. Conversely, we demonstrated that elevated ghrelin in the Nkx2.2 null islets is not responsible for the absence of insulin- and glucagon-producing cells. Finally, we have also determined that in absence of insulin, ghrelin cells form in their normal numbers and ghrelin is expressed at wild type levels. PMID:19268691

  15. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 functions as a negative regulator in the differentiation of myoblasts, but not as an inducer for the formations of cartilage and bone in mouse embryonic tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Erika

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vitro studies using the myogenic cell line C2C12 demonstrate that bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 converts the developmental pathway of C2C12 from a myogenic cell lineage to an osteoblastic cell lineage. Further, in vivo studies using null mutation mice demonstrate that BMPs inhibit the specification of the developmental fate of myogenic progenitor cells. However, the roles of BMPs in the phases of differentiation and maturation in skeletal muscles have yet to be determined. The present study attempts to define the function of BMP-2 in the final stage of differentiation of mouse tongue myoblast. Results Recombinant BMP-2 inhibited the expressions of markers for the differentiation of skeletal muscle cells, such as myogenin, muscle creatine kinase (MCK, and fast myosin heavy chain (fMyHC, whereas BMP-2 siRNA stimulated such markers. Neither the recombinant BMP-2 nor BMP-2 siRNA altered the expressions of markers for the formation of cartilage and bone, such as osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, collagen II, and collagen X. Further, no formation of cartilage and bone was observed in the recombinant BMP-2-treated tongues based on Alizarin red and Alcian blue stainings. Neither recombinant BMP-2 nor BMP-2 siRNA affected the expression of inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation 1 (Id1. The ratios of chondrogenic and osteogenic markers relative to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, a house keeping gene were approximately 1000-fold lower than those of myogenic markers in the cultured tongue. Conclusions BMP-2 functions as a negative regulator for the final differentiation of tongue myoblasts, but not as an inducer for the formation of cartilage and bone in cultured tongue, probably because the genes related to myogenesis are in an activation mode, while the genes related to chondrogenesis and osteogenesis are in a silencing mode.

  16. Uncoupled embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues compromise blastocyst development after somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine A Degrelle

    Full Text Available Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT is the most efficient cell reprogramming technique available, especially when working with bovine species. Although SCNT blastocysts performed equally well or better than controls in the weeks following embryo transfer at Day 7, elongation and gastrulation defects were observed prior to implantation. To understand the developmental implications of embryonic/extra-embryonic interactions, the morphological and molecular features of elongating and gastrulating tissues were analysed. At Day 18, 30 SCNT conceptuses were compared to 20 controls (AI and IVP: 10 conceptuses each; one-half of the SCNT conceptuses appeared normal while the other half showed signs of atypical elongation and gastrulation. SCNT was also associated with a high incidence of discordance in embryonic and extra-embryonic patterns, as evidenced by morphological and molecular "uncoupling". Elongation appeared to be secondarily affected; only 3 of 30 conceptuses had abnormally elongated shapes and there were very few differences in gene expression when they were compared to the controls. However, some of these differences could be linked to defects in microvilli formation or extracellular matrix composition and could thus impact extra-embryonic functions. In contrast to elongation, gastrulation stages included embryonic defects that likely affected the hypoblast, the epiblast, or the early stages of their differentiation. When taking into account SCNT conceptus somatic origin, i.e. the reprogramming efficiency of each bovine ear fibroblast (Low: 0029, Med: 7711, High: 5538, we found that embryonic abnormalities or severe embryonic/extra-embryonic uncoupling were more tightly correlated to embryo loss at implantation than were elongation defects. Alternatively, extra-embryonic differences between SCNT and control conceptuses at Day 18 were related to molecular plasticity (high efficiency/high plasticity and subsequent pregnancy loss. Finally

  17. Quantitative analysis of chromatin accessibility in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Baowen; Yu, Juan; Chang, Luyuan; Lei, Jiafan; Wen, Zengqi; Liu, Cuifang; Mao, Guankun; Wang, Kehui; Shen, Jie; Xu, Xueqing

    2017-11-04

    Genomic DNA of eukaryotic cells is hierarchically packaged into chromatin by histones. The dynamic organization of chromatin fibers plays a critical role in the regulation of gene transcription and other DNA-associated biological processes. Recently, numerous approaches have been developed to map the chromatin organization by characterizing chromatin accessibilities in genome-wide. However, reliable methods to quantitatively map chromatin accessibility are not well-established, especially not on a genome-wide scale. Here, we developed a modified MNase-seq for mouse embryonic fibroblasts, wherein chromatin was partially digested at multiple digestion times using micrococcal nuclease (MNase), allowing quantitative analysis of local yet genome-wide chromatin compaction. Our results provide strong evidence that the chromatin accessibility at promoter regions are positively correlated with gene activity. In conclusion, our assay is an ideal tool for the quantitative study of gene regulation in the perspective of chromatin accessibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pyridoxine treatment alters embryonic motility in chicks: Implications for the role of proprioception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Andrew A; Bekoff, Anne

    2015-03-01

    Somatosensory feedback is important for the modulation of normal locomotion in adult animals, but we do not have a good understanding of when somatosensory information is first used to modulate motility during embryogenesis or how somatosensation is first used to regulate motor output. We used pyridoxine administration (vitamin B6 ), which is known to mostly kill proprioceptive neurons in adult mammals and embryonic chicks, to explore the role of proprioceptive feedback during early embryonic motility in the chick. Injection of pyridoxine on embryonic day 7 (E7) and E8 reduced the amplitude of leg movements recorded on E9 and the number of large, healthy neurons in the ventral-lateral portion of the DRGs. We conclude that proprioception is initially used during embryogenesis to modulate the strength of motor output, but that it is not incorporated into other aspects of pattern generation until later in development as poly-synaptic pathways develop. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Activation of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Interferes with Early Embryonic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolis Gialitakis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The transcriptional program of early embryonic development is tightly regulated by a set of well-defined transcription factors that suppress premature expression of differentiation genes and sustain the pluripotent identity. It is generally accepted that this program can be perturbed by environmental factors such as chemical pollutants; however, the precise molecular mechanisms remain unknown. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR is a widely expressed nuclear receptor that senses environmental stimuli and modulates target gene expression. Here, we have investigated the AHR interactome in embryonic stem cells by mass spectrometry and show that ectopic activation of AHR during early differentiation disrupts the differentiation program via the chromatin remodeling complex NuRD (nucleosome remodeling and deacetylation. The activated AHR/NuRD complex altered the expression of differentiation-specific genes that control the first two developmental decisions without affecting the pluripotency program. These findings identify a mechanism that allows environmental stimuli to disrupt embryonic development through AHR signaling.

  20. Embryonic Stem Cells: Isolation, Characterization and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, Michal; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph

    Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells isolated from the mammalian blastocyst. Traditionally, these cells have been derived and cultured with mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) supportive layers, which allow their continuous growth in an undifferentiated state. However, for any future industrial or clinical application hESCs should be cultured in reproducible, defined, and xeno-free culture system, where exposure to animal pathogens is prevented. From their derivation in 1998 the methods for culturing hESCs were significantly improved. This chapter wills discuss hESC characterization and the basic methods for their derivation and maintenance.

  1. Genomic and proteomic analyses of Prdm5 reveal interactions with insulator binding proteins in embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galli, Giorgio Giacomo; Carrara, Matteo; Francavilla, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    PRDM proteins belong to the SET- domain protein family involved in the regulation of gene expression. Although few PRDM members possess histone methyltransferase activity, the molecular mechanisms by which the other members exert transcriptional regulation remain to be delineated. In this study, ......-occupies genomic loci. In summary, our data indicate how Prdm5 may modulate transcription by interacting with factors involved in genome organization in mouse embryonic stem cells....... find that Prdm5 is highly expressed in mouse embryonic stem cells (mES) and exploit this cellular system to characterize molecular functions of Prdm5. By combining proteomics and next generation sequencing technologies we identify Prdm5 interaction partners and genomic occupancy. We demonstrate that......, despite Prdm5 is dispensable for mES cell maintenance, it directly targets genomic regions involved in early embryonic development and affects the expression of a subset of developmental regulators during cell differentiation. Importantly, Prdm5 interacts with Ctcf, Cohesin and TFIIIC and co...

  2. Situated bio-regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prainsack, Barbara; Wahlberg, Ayo

    2013-01-01

    Several years ago, both authors engaged in research into bioscience and biomedical regulation in Asian countries. One of us (BP) explored why the regulatory and discursive embedding of human embryonic stem cell in Israel was much more permissive than elsewhere. The other author (AW) sought to und...

  3. Embryonic modulation of maternal steroids in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paitz, Ryan T; Bowden, Rachel M; Casto, Joseph M

    2011-01-07

    In birds, maternally derived yolk steroids are a proposed mechanism by which females can adjust individual offspring phenotype to prevailing conditions. However, when interests of mother and offspring differ, parent-offspring conflict will arise and embryonic interests, not those of the mother, should drive offspring response to maternal steroids in eggs. Because of this potential conflict, we investigated the ability of developing bird embryos to process maternally derived yolk steroids. We examined how progesterone, testosterone and oestradiol levels changed in both the yolk/albumen (YA) and the embryo of European starling eggs during the first 10 days of development. Next, we injected tritiated testosterone into eggs at oviposition to characterize potential metabolic pathways during development. Ether extractions separated organic and aqueous metabolites in both the embryo and YA homogenate, after which major steroid metabolites were identified. Results indicate that the concentrations of all three steroids declined during development in the YA homogenate. Exogenous testosterone was primarily metabolized to an aqueous form of etiocholanolone that remained in the YA. These results clearly demonstrate that embryos can modulate their local steroid environment, setting up the potential for parent-offspring conflict. Embryonic regulation must be considered when addressing the evolutionary consequences of maternal steroids in eggs.

  4. EDA-Containing Fibronectin Increases Proliferation of Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losino, Noelia; Waisman, Ariel; Solari, Claudia; Luzzani, Carlos; Espinosa, Darío Fernández; Sassone, Alina; Muro, Andrés F.; Miriuka, Santiago; Sevlever, Gustavo; Barañao, Lino; Guberman, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESC) need a set of specific factors to be propagated. They can also grow in conditioned medium (CM) derived from a bovine granulosa cell line BGC (BGC-CM), a medium that not only preserves their main features but also increases ESC´s proliferation rate. The mitogenic properties of this medium were previously reported, ascribing this effect to an alternative spliced generated fibronectin isoform that contains the extra domain A (FN EDA+). Here, we investigated if the FN EDA+ isoform increased proliferation of mouse and human ES cells. We analyzed cell proliferation using conditioned media produced by different mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) lines genetically engineered to express FN constitutively including or excluding the EDA domain (FN EDA-), and in media supplemented with recombinant peptides containing or not the EDA. We found that the presence of EDA in the medium increased mouse and human ESC’s proliferation rate. Here we showed for the first time that this FN isoform enhances ESC’s proliferation. These findings suggest a possible conserved behavior for regulation of ES cells proliferation by this FN isoform and could contribute to improve their culturing conditions both for research and cell therapy. PMID:24244705

  5. Xenopus Dab2 is required for embryonic angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Sun-Cheol

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms governing the formation of the embryonic vascular system remain poorly understood. Here, we show that Disabled-2 (Dab2, a cytosolic adaptor protein, has a pivotal role in the blood vessel formation in Xenopus early embryogenesis. Results Xenopus Disabled-2 (XDab2 is spatially localized to the blood vessels including the intersomitic veins (ISV in early embryos. Both antisense morpholino oligonucleotide (MO-mediated knockdown and overexpression of XDab2 inhibit the formation of ISV, which arise from angiogenesis. In addition, we found that activin-like signaling is essential for this angiogenic event. Functional assays in Xenopus animal caps reveal that activin-like signals induce VEGF expression and this induction can be inhibited by XDab2 depletion. However, XDab2 MO has no effects on the induction of other target genes by activin-like signals. Furthermore, we show that the disruption of the sprouting ISV in XDab2-depleted embryos can be rescued by coexpression of VEGF. Conclusion Taking together, we suggest that XDab2 regulates the embryonic angiogenesis by mediating the VEGF induction by activin-like signaling in Xenopus early development.

  6. Xanthine oxidase activity regulates human embryonic brain cells growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevorkian G. A.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Involvement of Xanthine Oxidase (XO; EC1.1.3.22 in cellular proliferation and differentiation has been suggested by the numerous investigations. We have proposed that XO might have undoubtedly important role during the development, maturation as well as the death of human embryos brain cells. Methods. Human abortion material was utilized for the cultivation of brain cells (E90. XO activity was measured by the formation of uric acid in tissue. Cell death was detected by the utility of Trypan Blue dye. Results. Allopurinol suppressed the XO activity in the brain tissue (0.12 ± 0.02; 0.20 ± 0.03 resp., p < 0.05. On day 12th the number of cells in the culture treated with the Allopurinol at the early stage of development was higher in comparison with the Control (2350.1 ± 199.0 vs 2123 ± 96 and higher in comparison with the late period of treatment (1479.6 ± 103.8, p < < 0.05. In all groups, the number of the dead cells was less than in Control, indicating the protective nature of Allopurinol as an inhibitor of XO. Conclusions. Allopurinol initiates cells proliferation in case of the early treatment of the human brain derived cell culture whereas at the late stages it has an opposite effect.

  7. Embryonic Stem Cells and their Genetic Modification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 2. Embryonic Stem Cells and their Genetic Modification - The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007. Mitradas M Panicker. General Article Volume 13 Issue 2 February 2008 pp 172-180 ...

  8. Autophagy in human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien Tra

    Full Text Available Autophagy (macroautophagy is a degradative process that involves the sequestration of cytosolic material including organelles into double membrane vesicles termed autophagosomes for delivery to the lysosome. Autophagy is essential for preimplantation development of mouse embryos and cavitation of embryoid bodies. The precise roles of autophagy during early human embryonic development, remain however largely uncharacterized. Since human embryonic stem cells constitute a unique model system to study early human embryogenesis we investigated the occurrence of autophagy in human embryonic stem cells. We have, using lentiviral transduction, established multiple human embryonic stem cell lines that stably express GFP-LC3, a fluorescent marker for the autophagosome. Each cell line displays both a normal karyotype and pluripotency as indicated by the presence of cell types representative of the three germlayers in derived teratomas. GFP expression and labelling of autophagosomes is retained after differentiation. Baseline levels of autophagy detected in cultured undifferentiated hESC were increased or decreased in the presence of rapamycin and wortmannin, respectively. Interestingly, autophagy was upregulated in hESCs induced to undergo differentiation by treatment with type I TGF-beta receptor inhibitor SB431542 or removal of MEF secreted maintenance factors. In conclusion we have established hESCs capable of reporting macroautophagy and identify a novel link between autophagy and early differentiation events in hESC.

  9. Embryonic Development In Clarias gariepinus (Buchell, 1822 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The embryonic development in Clarias gariepinus was studied under laboratory conditions. The development stages of eggs starting from first cleavage to hatching were examined microscopically. The accurate timing and detailed description of each stage were recorded. Photomicrograph of important stages, segmentation ...

  10. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the cervix | Ocheke | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (sarcoma botyroides) of the cervix, which is rare, is described in a 16-yearold. The combined use of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery has markedly improved survival in those with this condition. However, our patient did not benefit from this treatment modality due to late presentation ...

  11. Transcriptome Landscapes of Mammalian Embryonic Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, B.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes research on gene expression profiles from different embryonic stages and cell types to identify genes involved in pluripotency or differentiation in bovine and porcine cells. The results are compared with data from other mammals. RNA expression profiles of morula and blastocyst

  12. From cilia hydrodynamics to zebrafish embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supatto, Willy; Vermot, Julien

    2011-01-01

    Embryonic development involves the cellular integration of chemical and physical stimuli. A key physical input is the mechanical stress generated during embryonic morphogenesis. This process necessitates tensile forces at the tissue scale such as during axis elongation and budding, as well as at the cellular scale when cells migrate and contract. Furthermore, cells can generate forces using motile cilia to produce flow. Cilia-driven flows are critical throughout embryonic development but little is known about the diversity of the forces they exert and the role of the mechanical stresses they generate. In this chapter, through an examination of zebrafish development, we highlight what is known about the role of hydrodynamics mediated by beating cilia and examine the physical features of flow fields from the modeling and experimental perspectives. We review imaging strategies to visualize and quantify beating cilia and the flow they generate in vivo. Finally, we describe the function of hydrodynamics during left-right embryonic patterning and inner ear development. Ideally, continued progress in these areas will help to address a key conceptual problem in developmental biology, which is to understand the interplay between environmental constraints and genetic control during morphogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia candidate genes derived from embryonic transcriptomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russell, Meaghan K; Longoni, Mauro; Wells, Julie

    2012-01-01

    expression profiling of developing embryonic diaphragms would help identify genes likely to be associated with diaphragm defects. We generated a time series of whole-transcriptome expression profiles from laser captured embryonic mouse diaphragms at embryonic day (E)11.5 and E12.5 when experimental...

  14. Impaired embryonic development in mice overexpressing the RNA-binding protein TIAR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacine Kharraz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: TIA-1-related (TIAR protein is a shuttling RNA-binding protein involved in several steps of RNA metabolism. While in the nucleus TIAR participates to alternative splicing events, in the cytoplasm TIAR acts as a translational repressor on specific transcripts such as those containing AU-Rich Elements (AREs. Due to its ability to assemble abortive pre-initiation complexes coalescing into cytoplasmic granules called stress granules, TIAR is also involved in the general translational arrest observed in cells exposed to environmental stress. However, the in vivo role of this protein has not been studied so far mainly due to severe embryonic lethality upon tiar invalidation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To examine potential TIAR tissue-specificity in various cellular contexts, either embryonic or adult, we constructed a TIAR transgenic allele (loxPGFPloxPTIAR allowing the conditional expression of TIAR protein upon Cre recombinase activity. Here, we report the role of TIAR during mouse embryogenesis. We observed that early TIAR overexpression led to low transgene transmission associated with embryonic lethality starting at early post-implantation stages. Interestingly, while pre-implantation steps evolved correctly in utero, in vitro cultured embryos were very sensitive to culture medium. Control and transgenic embryos developed equally well in the G2 medium, whereas culture in M16 medium led to the phosphorylation of eIF2alpha that accumulated in cytoplasmic granules precluding transgenic blastocyst hatching. Our results thus reveal a differential TIAR-mediated embryonic response following artificial or natural growth environment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study reports the importance of the tightly balanced expression of the RNA-binding protein TIAR for normal embryonic development, thereby emphasizing the role of post-transcriptional regulations in early embryonic programming.

  15. Molecular and Functional Characterization of Broccoli EMBRYONIC FLOWER 2 Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long-Fang O.; Lin, Chun-Hung; Lai, Ying-Mi; Huang, Jia-Yuan; Sung, Zinmay Renee

    2012-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins regulate major developmental processes in Arabidopsis. EMBRYONIC FLOWER 2 (EMF2), the VEFS domain-containing PcG gene, regulates diverse genetic pathways and is required for vegetative development and plant survival. Despite widespread EMF2-like sequences in plants, little is known about their function other than in Arabidopsis and rice. To study the role of EMF2 in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica cv. Elegance) development, we identified two broccoli EMF2 (BoEMF2) genes with sequence homology to and a similar gene expression pattern to that in Arabidopsis (AtEMF2). Reducing their expression in broccoli resulted in aberrant phenotypes and gene expression patterns. BoEMF2 regulates genes involved in diverse developmental and stress programs similar to AtEMF2 in Arabidopsis. However, BoEMF2 differs from AtEMF2 in the regulation of flower organ identity, cell proliferation and elongation, and death-related genes, which may explain the distinct phenotypes. The expression of BoEMF2.1 in the Arabidopsis emf2 mutant (Rescued emf2) partially rescued the mutant phenotype and restored the gene expression pattern to that of the wild type. Many EMF2-mediated molecular and developmental functions are conserved in broccoli and Arabidopsis. Furthermore, the restored gene expression pattern in Rescued emf2 provides insights into the molecular basis of PcG-mediated growth and development. PMID:22537758

  16. Dynamic heterogeneity and DNA methylation in embryonic stem cells.

    KAUST Repository

    Singer, Zakary S

    2014-07-01

    Cell populations can be strikingly heterogeneous, composed of multiple cellular states, each exhibiting stochastic noise in its gene expression. A major challenge is to disentangle these two types of variability and to understand the dynamic processes and mechanisms that control them. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) provide an ideal model system to address this issue because they exhibit heterogeneous and dynamic expression of functionally important regulatory factors. We analyzed gene expression in individual ESCs using single-molecule RNA-FISH and quantitative time-lapse movies. These data discriminated stochastic switching between two coherent (correlated) gene expression states and burst-like transcriptional noise. We further showed that the "2i" signaling pathway inhibitors modulate both types of variation. Finally, we found that DNA methylation plays a key role in maintaining these metastable states. Together, these results show how ESC gene expression states and dynamics arise from a combination of intrinsic noise, coherent cellular states, and epigenetic regulation.

  17. Embryonic cerebrospinal fluid activates neurogenesis of neural precursors within the subventricular zone of the adult mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicero, E; Alonso, M I; Carretero, R; Lamus, F; Moro, J A; de la Mano, A; Fernández, J M F; Gato, A

    2013-01-01

    There is a nondeveloped neurogenic potential in the adult mammalian brain, which could be the basis for neuroregenerative strategies. Many research efforts have been made to understand the control mechanisms which regulate the transition from a neural precursor to a neuron in the adult brain. Embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a complex fluid which has been shown to play a key role in neural precursor behavior during development, working as a powerful neurogenic inductor. We tested if the neurogenic properties of embryonic CSF are able to increase the neurogenic activity of neuronal precursors from the subventricular zone (SVZ) in the brains of adult mice. Our results show that mouse embryonic CSF significantly increases the neurogenic activity in precursor cells from adult brain SVZ. This intense neurogenic effect was specific for embryonic CSF and was not induced by adult CSF. Embryonic CSF is a powerful neurogenesis inductor in homologous neuronal precursors in the adult brain. This property of embryonic CSF could be a useful tool in neuroregeneration strategies.

  18. Optical pacing of the embryonic heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, M. W.; Duke, A. R.; Gu, S.; Doughman, Y.; Chiel, H. J.; Fujioka, H.; Watanabe, M.; Jansen, E. D.; Rollins, A. M.

    2010-09-01

    Light has been used to non-invasively alter the excitability of both neural and cardiac tissue. Recently, pulsed laser light has been shown to be capable of eliciting action potentials in peripheral nerves and in cultured cardiomyocytes. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate optical pacing of an intact heart in vivo. Pulsed 1.875-µm infrared laser light was used to lock the heart rate to the pulse frequency of the laser. A laser Doppler velocimetry signal was used to verify the pacing. At low radiant exposures, embryonic quail hearts were reliably paced in vivo without detectable damage to the tissue, indicating that optical pacing has great potential as a tool with which to study embryonic cardiac dynamics and development. In particular, optical pacing can be used to control the heart rate, thereby altering stresses and mechanically transduced signalling.

  19. Embryonic vaccines against cancer: an early history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Bradley G; Mitchell, Robert A; Harandi, Amir; Eaton, John W

    2009-06-01

    Almost 100 years have passed since the seminal observations of Schöne showing that vaccination of animals with fetal tissue would prevent the growth of transplantable tumors. Many subsequent reports have affirmed the general idea that immunologic rejection of transplantable tumors, as well as prevention of carcinogenesis, may be affected by vaccination with embryonic/fetal material. Following a decade of intense research on this phenomenon during approximately 1964-1974, interest appears to have waned. This earlier experimental work may be particularly pertinent in view of the rising interest in so-called cancer stem cells. We believe that further work - perhaps involving the use of embryonic stem cells as immunogens - is warranted and that the results reviewed herein support the concept that vaccination against the appearance of cancers of all kinds is a real possibility.

  20. Cytokine signalling in embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Kalisz, Mark; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2006-01-01

    Cytokines play a central role in maintaining self-renewal in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells through a member of the interleukin-6 type cytokine family termed leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). LIF activates the JAK-STAT3 pathway through the class I cytokine receptor gp130, which forms a trimeric...... pathways seem to converge on c-myc as a common target to promote self-renewal. Whereas LIF does not seem to stimulate self-renewal in human embryonic stem cells it cannot be excluded that other cytokines are involved. The pleiotropic actions of the increasing number of cytokines and receptors signalling...... via JAKs, STATs and SOCS exhibit considerable redundancy, compensation and plasticity in stem cells in accordance with the view that stem cells are governed by quantitative variations in strength and duration of signalling events known from other cell types rather than qualitatively different stem...

  1. Embryonic development in Arabidopsis thaliana: from the zygote division to the shoot meristem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia eBoscá

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Postembryonic organ formation of plants is fueled with cells from the stem cell niches in the shoot and root meristems. During the last two decades considerable progress has been made in identifying factors that regulate stem cell maintenance. With these factors in hand, the mechanisms establishing stem cell niches during embryo development can be addressed. Here we discuss current models of how the shoot meristem stem cell niche arises during embryonic pattern formation.

  2. Pharmacological inhibition of EZH2 as a promising differentiation therapy in embryonal RMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a pediatric soft-tissue sarcoma derived from myogenic precursors that is characterized by a good prognosis in patients with localized disease. Conversely, metastatic tumors often relapse, leading to a dismal outcome. The histone methyltransferase EZH2 epigenetically suppresses skeletal muscle differentiation by repressing the transcription of myogenic genes. Moreover, de-regulated EZH2 expression has been extensively implied in human cancers. We have previously shown that EZH2 is aberrantly over-expressed in RMS primary tumors and cell lines. Moreover, it has been recently reported that EZH2 silencing in RD cells, a recurrence-derived embryonal RMS cell line, favors myofiber-like structures formation in a pro-differentiation context. Here we evaluate whether similar effects can be obtained also in the presence of growth factor-supplemented medium (GM), that mimics a pro-proliferative microenvironment, and by pharmacological targeting of EZH2 in RD cells and in RD tumor xenografts. Methods Embryonal RMS RD cells were cultured in GM and silenced for EZH2 or treated with either the S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibitor 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep) that induces EZH2 degradation, or with a new class of catalytic EZH2 inhibitors, MC1948 and MC1945, which block the catalytic activity of EZH2. RD cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Results Here we show that EZH2 protein was abnormally expressed in 19 out of 19 (100%) embryonal RMS primary tumors and cell lines compared to their normal counterparts. Genetic down-regulation of EZH2 by silencing in GM condition reduced RD cell proliferation up-regulating p21Cip1. It also resulted in myogenic-like differentiation testified by the up-regulation of myogenic markers Myogenin, MCK and MHC. These effects were reverted by enforced over-expression of a murine Ezh2, highlighting an EZH2-specific effect. Pharmacological inhibition

  3. Embryonic mortality in buffalo naturally mated

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    G. Campanile

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the incidence of embryonic mortality in three different period of year in buffaloes naturally mated. The trial was carried out in a buffalo farm located in Caserta province between 2000-2006. In this period were registered natural insemination on 200 buffaloes. Pregnancy diagnosis was carried out on Day 30, confirmed on Day 45 and every 15th days until 90 days after natural mating. Buffaloes that were pregnant on Day 30 but not on Day 45 or Day 90 were considered to have undergone embryonic (EM or fetal mortality (FM respectively. EM and FM were 8.8% and 13.4% respectively throughout the experimental period. A high incidence (P<0.01 of FM was found in the transitional period (December-March than in other months of the year. The incidence of embryonic mortality was significantly (P<0.01 higher between 28-60 days of gestation and lower after 71 day of gestation. The higher fetal mortality found in this study could be due the lower serum levels of progesterone normally found in transitional period in buffalo cows.

  4. Clathrin assembly proteins AP180 and CALM in the embryonic rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Catherine M; Cheng, Aiwu; Mughal, Mohamed R; Mattson, Mark P; Yao, Pamela J

    2010-09-15

    Clathrin-coated vesicles are known to play diverse and pivotal roles in cells. The proper formation of clathrin-coated vesicles is dependent on, and highly regulated by, a large number of clathrin assembly proteins. These assembly proteins likely determine the functional specificity of clathrin-coated vesicles, and together they control a multitude of intracellular trafficking pathways, including those involved in embryonic development. In this study, we focus on two closely related clathrin assembly proteins, AP180 and CALM (clathrin assembly lymphoid myeloid leukemia protein), in the developing embryonic rat brain. We find that AP180 begins to be expressed at embryonic day 14 (E14), but only in postmitotic cells that have acquired a neuronal fate. CALM, on the other hand, is expressed as early as E12, by both neural stem cells and postmitotic neurons. In vitro loss-of-function studies using RNA interference (RNAi) indicate that AP180 and CALM are dispensable for some aspects of embryonic neurogenesis but are required for the growth of postmitotic neurons. These results identify the developmental stage of AP180 and CALM expression and suggest that each protein has distinct functions in neural development.

  5. Embryonic Lethality of Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier 1 Deficient Mouse Can Be Rescued by a Ketogenic Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Vanderperre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial import of pyruvate by the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC is a central step which links cytosolic and mitochondrial intermediary metabolism. To investigate the role of the MPC in mammalian physiology and development, we generated a mouse strain with complete loss of MPC1 expression. This resulted in embryonic lethality at around E13.5. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs derived from mutant mice displayed defective pyruvate-driven respiration as well as perturbed metabolic profiles, and both defects could be restored by reexpression of MPC1. Labeling experiments using 13C-labeled glucose and glutamine demonstrated that MPC deficiency causes increased glutaminolysis and reduced contribution of glucose-derived pyruvate to the TCA cycle. Morphological defects were observed in mutant embryonic brains, together with major alterations of their metabolome including lactic acidosis, diminished TCA cycle intermediates, energy deficit and a perturbed balance of neurotransmitters. Strikingly, these changes were reversed when the pregnant dams were fed a ketogenic diet, which provides acetyl-CoA directly to the TCA cycle and bypasses the need for a functional MPC. This allowed the normal gestation and development of MPC deficient pups, even though they all died within a few minutes post-delivery. This study establishes the MPC as a key player in regulating the metabolic state necessary for embryonic development, neurotransmitter balance and post-natal survival.

  6. Embryonic Lethality of Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier 1 Deficient Mouse Can Be Rescued by a Ketogenic Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krznar, Petra; Hörl, Manuel; Ammar, Zeinab; Montessuit, Sylvie; Pierredon, Sandra; Zamboni, Nicola; Martinou, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial import of pyruvate by the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) is a central step which links cytosolic and mitochondrial intermediary metabolism. To investigate the role of the MPC in mammalian physiology and development, we generated a mouse strain with complete loss of MPC1 expression. This resulted in embryonic lethality at around E13.5. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from mutant mice displayed defective pyruvate-driven respiration as well as perturbed metabolic profiles, and both defects could be restored by reexpression of MPC1. Labeling experiments using 13C-labeled glucose and glutamine demonstrated that MPC deficiency causes increased glutaminolysis and reduced contribution of glucose-derived pyruvate to the TCA cycle. Morphological defects were observed in mutant embryonic brains, together with major alterations of their metabolome including lactic acidosis, diminished TCA cycle intermediates, energy deficit and a perturbed balance of neurotransmitters. Strikingly, these changes were reversed when the pregnant dams were fed a ketogenic diet, which provides acetyl-CoA directly to the TCA cycle and bypasses the need for a functional MPC. This allowed the normal gestation and development of MPC deficient pups, even though they all died within a few minutes post-delivery. This study establishes the MPC as a key player in regulating the metabolic state necessary for embryonic development, neurotransmitter balance and post-natal survival. PMID:27176894

  7. Significance and Therapeutic Value of miRNAs in Embryonal Neural Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Shalaby

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Embryonal tumors of the nervous system are the leading cause of childhood cancer-related morbidity and mortality. Medulloblastoma, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor and neuroblastoma account for more than 20% of childhood malignancies and typify the current neural embryonal tumor model in pediatric oncology. Mechanisms driving the formation of these tumors point towards impaired differentiation of neuronal and neuron-associated cells during the development of the nervous system as an important factor. The importance of microRNAs (miRNAs for proper embryonic cell function has been confirmed and their aberrant expressions have been linked to tumor development. The role of miRNAs in controlling essential regulators of key pathways implicated in tumor development makes their use in diagnostics a powerful tool to be used for early detection of cancer, risk assessment and prognosis, as well as for the design of innovative therapeutic strategies. In this review we focus on the significance of miRNAs involved in the biology of embryonal neural tumors, delineate their clinical significance and discuss their potential as a novel therapeutic target.

  8. Pluripotency factors and Polycomb Group proteins repress aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression in murine embryonic stem cells

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    Chia-I Ko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR is a transcription factor and environmental sensor that regulates expression of genes involved in drug-metabolism and cell cycle regulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses, Ahr ablation in mice and studies with orthologous genes in invertebrates suggest that AHR may also play a significant role in embryonic development. To address this hypothesis, we studied the regulation of Ahr expression in mouse embryonic stem cells and their differentiated progeny. In ES cells, interactions between OCT3/4, NANOG, SOX2 and Polycomb Group proteins at the Ahr promoter repress AHR expression, which can also be repressed by ectopic expression of reprogramming factors in hepatoma cells. In ES cells, unproductive RNA polymerase II binds at the Ahr transcription start site and drives the synthesis of short abortive transcripts. Activation of Ahr expression during differentiation follows from reversal of repressive marks in Ahr promoter chromatin, release of pluripotency factors and PcG proteins, binding of Sp factors, establishment of histone marks of open chromatin, and engagement of active RNAPII to drive full-length RNA transcript elongation. Our results suggest that reversible Ahr repression in ES cells holds the gene poised for expression and allows for a quick switch to activation during embryonic development.

  9. Identification of let-7-regulated oncofetal genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyerinas, Benjamin; Park, Sun-Mi; Shomron, Noam

    2008-01-01

    -regulated at the end of embryonic development. Let-7 is often down-regulated early during cancer development, suggesting that let-7-regulated oncofetal genes (LOG) may become reexpressed in cancer cells. Using comparative bioinformatics, we have identified 12 conserved LOGs that include HMGA2 and IMP-1/CRD-BP. IMP-1...

  10. A vector-based system for the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells toward germ-line cells

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    Reza Ebrahimzadeh-Vesal

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: In this study, we demonstrated the in vitro generation of mouse embryonic stem cells to germ cells by using a backbone vector containing the fusion gene Stra8-EGFP. The Stra8 gene is a retinoic acid-responsive protein and is able to regulate meiotic initiation.

  11. Uncovering the post-embryonic functions of gametophytic- and embryonic-lethal genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Héctor; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Micol, José Luis

    2011-06-01

    An estimated 500-1 000 Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genes mutate to embryonic lethality. In addition, several hundred mutations have been identified that cause gametophytic lethality. Thus, a significant fraction of the ∼25,000 protein-coding genes in Arabidopsis are indispensable to the early stages of the diploid phase or to the haploid gametophytic phase. The expression patterns of many of these genes indicate that they also act later in development but, because the mutants die at such early stages, conventional methods limit the study of their roles in adult diploid plants. Here, we describe the toolset that allows researchers to assess the post-embryonic functions of plant genes for which only gametophytic- and embryonic-lethal alleles have been isolated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dual effects of fluoxetine on mouse early embryonic development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang-Woon [Department of Physiology and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju 660-751 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Changwon Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University, Changwon 630-723 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Changyong [National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, Cheonan 330-801 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun-Jin [Department of Physiology and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju 660-751 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Ik [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju 660-702 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Sook-Young [Fertility Center of CHA Gangnam Medical Center, CHA University, Seoul 135-081 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Young-Woo; Han, Sunkyu; Tak, Hyun-Min; Han, Jaehee [Department of Physiology and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju 660-751 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Dawon, E-mail: dawon@gnu.ac.kr [Department of Physiology and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju 660-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, regulates a variety of physiological processes, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis, in mammalian cells. Little is known about the role of fluoxetine in early embryonic development. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of fluoxetine during mouse early embryonic development. Late two-cell stage embryos (2-cells) were cultured in the presence of various concentrations of fluoxetine (1 to 50 μM) for different durations. When late 2-cells were incubated with 5 μM fluoxetine for 6 h, the percentage that developed into blastocysts increased compared to the control value. However, late 2-cells exposed to fluoxetine (5 μM) over 24 h showed a reduction in blastocyst formation. The addition of fluoxetine (5 μM) together with KN93 or KN62 (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors) failed to increase blastocyst formation. Fluoxetine treatment inhibited TREK-1 and TREK-2, members of the two-pore domain K{sup +} channel family expressed in mouse embryos, activities, indicating that fluoxetine-induced membrane depolarization in late 2-cells might have resulted from TREK inhibition. In addition, long-term exposure to fluoxetine altered the TREK mRNA expression levels. Furthermore, injection of siRNA targeting TREKs significantly decreased blastocyst formation by ∼ 30% compared to injection of scrambled siRNA. Long-term exposure of fluoxetine had no effect on blastocyst formation of TREK deficient embryos. These results indicate that low-dose and short-term exposures of late 2-cells to fluoxetine probably increase blastocyst formation through activation of CaMKII-dependent signal transduction pathways, whereas long-term exposure decreases mouse early embryonic development through inhibition of TREK channel gating. Highlights: ► Short-term exposure of 2-cells to fluoxetine enhances mouse blastocyst formation. ► The enhancive effect of fluoxetine is resulted from Ca

  13. Histone demethylase JMJD5 is essential for embryonic development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sangphil [Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 (United States); Janknecht, Ralf, E-mail: ralf-janknecht@ouhsc.edu [Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 (United States)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Histone demethylase JMJD5 is essential for embryogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transcription of tumor suppressor p53 is upregulated in JMJD5 knockout embryos. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer JMJD5 may antagonize p53-dependent growth inhibition and apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer JMJD5 is overexpressed in leukemias and breast cancer. -- Abstract: Histone lysine methylation is pivotal in regulating chromatin structure and thus profoundly affects the transcriptome. JMJD5 (jumonji C domain-containing 5) is a histone demethylase that specifically removes methyl moieties from dimethylated lysine 36 on histone H3 and exerts a pro-proliferative effect on breast cancer cells. Here, we generated JMJD5 knockout mice in order to study the physiological significance of this enzyme. Whereas heterozygous knockout mice displayed no overt phenotype, homozygous JMJD5 knockouts died around day 10 of embryonal development. JMJD5{sup -/-} embryos showed delayed development already at E8.5 and were actively resorbed at E10.5. While strong JMJD5 expression was observed only in the yolk sac at E8.5, JMJD5 was robustly expressed in E10.5 embryos at several sites, including the heart and eye. Lack of JMJD5 resulted in transcriptional upregulation of the tumor suppressor p53. Concurrently, the cell cycle inhibitor p21 and the pro-apoptotic molecule Noxa, both of which are prominent p53 target genes, became strongly upregulated in JMJD5{sup -/-} embryos. Collectively, our data indicate that JMJD5 is essential during embryonal development and a repressor of p53 expression. The latter suggests that JMJD5 has oncogenic activity and accordingly JMJD5 is upregulated in leukemias and breast cancer.

  14. Identification of estrogen target genes during zebrafish embryonic development through transcriptomic analysis.

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    Ruixin Hao

    Full Text Available Estrogen signaling is important for vertebrate embryonic development. Here we have used zebrafish (Danio rerio as a vertebrate model to analyze estrogen signaling during development. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to 1 µM 17β-estradiol (E2 or vehicle from 3 hours to 4 days post fertilization (dpf, harvested at 1, 2, 3 and 4 dpf, and subjected to RNA extraction for transcriptome analysis using microarrays. Differentially expressed genes by E2-treatment were analyzed with hierarchical clustering followed by biological process and tissue enrichment analysis. Markedly distinct sets of genes were up and down-regulated by E2 at the four different time points. Among these genes, only the well-known estrogenic marker vtg1 was co-regulated at all time points. Despite this, the biological functional categories targeted by E2 were relatively similar throughout zebrafish development. According to knowledge-based tissue enrichment, estrogen responsive genes were clustered mainly in the liver, pancreas and brain. This was in line with the developmental dynamics of estrogen-target tissues that were visualized using transgenic zebrafish containing estrogen responsive elements driving the expression of GFP (Tg(5xERE:GFP. Finally, the identified embryonic estrogen-responsive genes were compared to already published estrogen-responsive genes identified in male adult zebrafish (Gene Expression Omnibus database. The expressions of a few genes were co-regulated by E2 in both embryonic and adult zebrafish. These could potentially be used as estrogenic biomarkers for exposure to estrogens or estrogenic endocrine disruptors in zebrafish. In conclusion, our data suggests that estrogen effects on early embryonic zebrafish development are stage- and tissue- specific.

  15. The Lin28/Let-7 System in Early Human Embryonic Tissue and Ectopic Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffani, Liliana; Martínez, Sebastián; Monterde, Mercedes; Ferri, Blanca; Núñez, Maria Jose; AinhoaRomero-Espinós; Zamora, Omar; Gurrea, Marta; Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Vega, Olivia; Simón, Carlos; Pellicer, Antonio; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the expression of the elements of the Lin28/Let-7 system, and related microRNAs (miRNAs), in early stages of human placentation and ectopic pregnancy, as a means to assess the potential role of this molecular hub in the pathogenesis of ectopic gestation. Seventeen patients suffering from tubal ectopic pregnancy (cases) and forty-three women with normal on-going gestation that desired voluntary termination of pregnancy (VTOP; controls) were recruited for the study. Embryonic tissues were subjected to RNA extraction and quantitative PCR analyses for LIN28B, Let-7a, miR-132, miR-145 and mir-323-3p were performed. Our results demonstrate that the expression of LIN28B mRNA was barely detectable in embryonic tissue from early stages of gestation and sharply increased thereafter to plateau between gestational weeks 7–9. In contrast, expression levels of Let-7, mir-132 and mir-145 were high in embryonic tissue from early gestations (≤6-weeks) and abruptly declined thereafter, especially for Let-7. Opposite trends were detected for mir-323-3p. Embryonic expression of LIN28B mRNA was higher in early stages (≤6-weeks) of ectopic pregnancy than in normal gestation. In contrast, Let-7a expression was significantly lower in early ectopic pregnancies, while miR-132 and miR-145 levels were not altered. Expression of mir-323-3p was also suppressed in ectopic embryonic tissue. We are the first to document reciprocal changes in the expression profiles of the gene encoding the RNA-binding protein, LIN28B, and the related miRNAs, Let-7a, mir-132 and mir-145, in early stages of human placentation. This finding suggests the potential involvement of LIN28B/Let-7 (de)regulated pathways in the pathophysiology of ectopic pregnancy in humans. PMID:24498170

  16. Pluripotent State Induction in Mouse Embryonic Fibroblast Using mRNAs of Reprogramming Factors

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    Ahmed Kamel El-Sayed

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Reprogramming of somatic cells has great potential to provide therapeutic treatments for a number of diseases as well as provide insight into mechanisms underlying early embryonic development. Improvement of induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs generation through mRNA-based methods is currently an area of intense research. This approach provides a number of advantages over previously used methods such as DNA integration and insertional mutagenesis. Using transfection of specifically synthesized mRNAs of various pluripotency factors, we generated iPSCs from mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF cells. The genetic, epigenetic and functional properties of the iPSCs were evaluated at different times during the reprogramming process. We successfully introduced synthesized mRNAs, which localized correctly inside the cells and exhibited efficient and stable translation into proteins. Our work demonstrated a robust up-regulation and a gradual promoter de-methylation of the pluripotency markers, including non-transfected factors such as Nanog, SSEA-1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 and Rex-1 (ZFP-42, zinc finger protein 42. Using embryonic stem cells (ESCs conditions to culture the iPS cells resulted in formation of ES-like colonies after approximately 12 days with only five daily repeated transfections. The colonies were positive for alkaline phosphatase and pluripotency-specific markers associated with ESCs. This study revealed the ability of pluripotency induction and generation of mouse mRNA induced pluripotent stem cells (mRNA iPSCs using transfection of specifically synthesized mRNAs of various pluripotency factors into mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF cells. These generated iPSCs exhibited molecular and functional properties similar to ESCs, which indicate that this method is an efficient and viable alternative to ESCs and can be used for further biological, developmental and therapeutic investigations.

  17. Transcriptome coexpression map of human embryonic stem cells

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    Mattson Mark P

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human embryonic stem (ES cells hold great promise for medicine and science. The transcriptome of human ES cells has been studied in detail in recent years. However, no systematic analysis has yet addressed whether gene expression in human ES cells may be regulated in chromosomal domains, and no chromosomal domains of coexpression have been identified. Results We report the first transcriptome coexpression map of the human ES cell and the earliest stage of ES differentiation, the embryoid body (EB, for the analysis of how transcriptional regulation interacts with genomic structure during ES self-renewal and differentiation. We determined the gene expression profiles from multiple ES and EB samples and identified chromosomal domains showing coexpression of adjacent genes on the genome. The coexpression domains were not random, with significant enrichment in chromosomes 8, 11, 16, 17, 19, and Y in the ES state, and 6, 11, 17, 19 and 20 in the EB state. The domains were significantly associated with Giemsa-negative bands in EB, yet showed little correlation with known cytogenetic structures in ES cells. Different patterns of coexpression were revealed by comparative transcriptome mapping between ES and EB. Conclusion The findings and methods reported in this investigation advance our understanding of how genome organization affects gene expression in human ES cells and help to identify new mechanisms and pathways controlling ES self-renewal or differentiation.

  18. A Novel Role of CDX1 in Embryonic Epicardial Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Shen, Ting; Yang, Yanqin; Sun, Yun; Tang, Nannan; Ni, Ting; Zhu, Jun; Mailman, Richard B.; Wang, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanism that regulates epicardial development has yet to be understood. In this study, we explored the function of CDX1, a Caudal-related family member, in epicardial epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and in the migration and the differentiation of epicardium-derived progenitors into vascular smooth muscle cells. We detected a transient expression of CDX1 in murine embryonic hearts at 11.5 days post coitum (dpc). Using a doxycycline-inducible CDX1 mouse model, primary epicardium, and ex vivo heart culture, we further demonstrated that ectopic expression of CDX1 promoted epicardial EMT. In addition, a low-dose CDX1 induction led to enhanced migration and differentiation of epicardium-derived cells into α-SMA+ vascular smooth muscles. In contrast, either continued high-level induction of CDX1 or CDX1 deficiency attenuated the ability of epicardium-derived cells to migrate and to mature into smooth muscles induced by TGF-β1. Further RNA-seq analyses showed that CDX1 induction altered the transcript levels of genes involved in neuronal development, angiogenesis, and cell adhesions required for EMT. Our data have revealed a previously undefined role of CDX1 during epicardial development, and suggest that transient expression of CDX1 promotes epicardial EMT, whereas subsequent down-regulation of CDX1 after 11.5 dpc in mice is necessary for further subepicardial invasion of EPDCs and contribution to coronary vascular endothelium or smooth muscle cells. PMID:25068460

  19. A novel role of CDX1 in embryonic epicardial development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Chu

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanism that regulates epicardial development has yet to be understood. In this study, we explored the function of CDX1, a Caudal-related family member, in epicardial epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT and in the migration and the differentiation of epicardium-derived progenitors into vascular smooth muscle cells. We detected a transient expression of CDX1 in murine embryonic hearts at 11.5 days post coitum (dpc. Using a doxycycline-inducible CDX1 mouse model, primary epicardium, and ex vivo heart culture, we further demonstrated that ectopic expression of CDX1 promoted epicardial EMT. In addition, a low-dose CDX1 induction led to enhanced migration and differentiation of epicardium-derived cells into α-SMA+ vascular smooth muscles. In contrast, either continued high-level induction of CDX1 or CDX1 deficiency attenuated the ability of epicardium-derived cells to migrate and to mature into smooth muscles induced by TGF-β1. Further RNA-seq analyses showed that CDX1 induction altered the transcript levels of genes involved in neuronal development, angiogenesis, and cell adhesions required for EMT. Our data have revealed a previously undefined role of CDX1 during epicardial development, and suggest that transient expression of CDX1 promotes epicardial EMT, whereas subsequent down-regulation of CDX1 after 11.5 dpc in mice is necessary for further subepicardial invasion of EPDCs and contribution to coronary vascular endothelium or smooth muscle cells.

  20. Role of zebrafish lbx2 in embryonic lateral line development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The zebrafish ladybird homeobox homologous gene 2 (lbx2 has been suggested to play a key role in the regulation of hypaxial myogenic precursor cell migration. Unlike their lbx counterparts in mammals, the function of teleost lbx genes beyond myogenesis during embryonic development remains unexplored. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Abrogation of lbx2 function using a specific independent morpholino oligonucleotide (MO or truncated lbx2 mRNA with an engrailed domain deletion (lbx2(eh- resulted in defective formation of the zebrafish posterior lateral line (PLL. Migration of the PLL primordium was altered and accompanied by increased cell death in the primordium of lbx2-MO-injected embryos. A decreased number of muscle pioneer cells and impaired expression pattern of sdf1a in the horizontal myoseptum was observed in lbx2 morphants. SIGNIFICANCE: Injection of lbx2 MO or lbx2(eh- mRNA resulted in defective PPL formation and altered sdf1a expression, confirming an important function for lbx2 in sdf1a-dependent migration. In addition, the disassociation of PPL nerve extension with PLL primordial migration in some lbx2 morphants suggests that pathfinding of the PLL primordium and the lateral line nerve may be regulated independently.

  1. Dynamic Proteomic Profiling of Extra-Embryonic Endoderm Differentiation in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Claire M; Schröter, Christian; Gatto, Laurent; Dikicioglu, Duygu; Fidaner, Isik Baris; Christoforou, Andy; Deery, Michael J; Cho, Lily T Y; Niakan, Kathy K; Martinez-Arias, Alfonso; Lilley, Kathryn S

    2015-09-01

    During mammalian preimplantation development, the cells of the blastocyst's inner cell mass differentiate into the epiblast and primitive endoderm lineages, which give rise to the fetus and extra-embryonic tissues, respectively. Extra-embryonic endoderm (XEN) differentiation can be modeled in vitro by induced expression of GATA transcription factors in mouse embryonic stem cells. Here, we use this GATA-inducible system to quantitatively monitor the dynamics of global proteomic changes during the early stages of this differentiation event and also investigate the fully differentiated phenotype, as represented by embryo-derived XEN cells. Using mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomic profiling with multivariate data analysis tools, we reproducibly quantified 2,336 proteins across three biological replicates and have identified clusters of proteins characterized by distinct, dynamic temporal abundance profiles. We first used this approach to highlight novel marker candidates of the pluripotent state and XEN differentiation. Through functional annotation enrichment analysis, we have shown that the downregulation of chromatin-modifying enzymes, the reorganization of membrane trafficking machinery, and the breakdown of cell-cell adhesion are successive steps of the extra-embryonic differentiation process. Thus, applying a range of sophisticated clustering approaches to a time-resolved proteomic dataset has allowed the elucidation of complex biological processes which characterize stem cell differentiation and could establish a general paradigm for the investigation of these processes. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  2. Epigenetically reprogramming metastatic tumor cells with an embryonic microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fabricio F; Seftor, Elisabeth A; Bischof, Jared M; Kirschmann, Dawn A; Strizzi, Luigi; Arndt, Kelly; de Fatima Bonaldo, Maria; Soares, Marcelo B; Hendrix, Mary JC

    2010-01-01

    We have previously shown that the microenvironment of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is able to change and reprogram aggressive cancer cells to a less aggressive state. Some mechanisms implicated in the phenotypic changes observed after this exposure are mainly associated with the Nodal signaling pathway, which plays a key role in tumor cell plasticity. However, several other molecular mechanisms might be related directly and/or indirectly to these changes, including microRNA (miRNA) regulation and DNA methylation. Aim: To further explore the epigenetic mechanisms potentially underlying the phenotypic changes that occur after exposing metastatic melanoma cells to a hESC microenvironment. Materials & Methods: A total of 365 miRNAs were screened using the TaqMan® Low Density Arrays. We also evaluated whether DNA methylation could be one of the factors regulating the expression of the inhibitor of Nodal, Lefty, in hESCs (where it is highly expressed) vs melanoma cells (where it is not expressed). Results: Using these experimental approaches, we identified miRNAs that are up- and down-regulated in melanoma cells exposed to a hESC microenvironment, such as miR-302a and miR-27b, respectively. We also demonstrate that Notch4 is one of the targets of miR-302a, which is upstream of Nodal. Additionally, one of the mechanisms that might explain the absence of the inhibitor of Nodal, Lefty, in cancer cells is silencing by DNA methylation, which provides new insights into the unregulated expression of Nodal in melanoma. Conclusion: These findings suggest that epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation and regulation by microRNAs might play a significant role in tumor cell plasticity and the metastatic phenotype. PMID:20495621

  3. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist prevents embryonic implantation by a direct effect on the endometrial epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simón, C; Valbuena, D; Krüssel, J; Bernal, A; Murphy, C R; Shaw, T; Pellicer, A; Polan, M L

    1998-11-01

    To investigate the embryonic and/or endometrial molecular mechanisms underlying the antiimplantation effect of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra). Controlled experiment. Animal facilities at Stanford University and laboratories of the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad and the University of Sydney. Twelve-week-old B6C3F-1 female mice. Intraperitoneal injections of recombinant human IL-1ra during the periimplantation period. Implantation sites, embryonic morphology, and viability. Polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry for integrins and extracellular matrices and transmission electron microscopy of endometrium in IL-1ra-treated versus control animals. Pregnancy rates in control and IL-1ra-injected animals were 60% and 13%, respectively. At day 8 of pregnancy, flushing of uteri obtained from the treated group resulted in 32 blastocysts. Six pseudopregnant animals received IL-1ra-treated blastocysts (left horn) and control blastocysts (right horn), resulting in one pregnancy, with two embryos and one embryo in the left and right horns, respectively. At day 4 of pregnancy, IL- 1ra down-regulated alpha4 mRNA with use of the polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry showed a decrease of alpha4, alpha v, and beta3, and transmission electron microscopy revealed inhibition of transformation of the plasma membrane. Impairment of embryonic adhesion with IL-1ra is mediated through a direct effect on transformation of the epithelial plasma membrane at the time of implantation as a result of down-regulation of alpha4, alpha v, and beta3.

  4. Forkhead box transcription factors in embryonic heart development and congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic heart development is a very complicated process regulated precisely by a network composed of many genes and signaling pathways in time and space. Forkhead box (Fox, FOX) proteins are a family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of an evolutionary conserved "forkhead"or "winged-helix" DNA-binding domain and able to organize temporal and spatial gene expression during development. They are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes, such as cell cycle progression, proliferation, differentiation, migration, metabolism and DNA damage response. An abundance of studies in model organisms and systems has established that Foxa2, Foxc1/c2, Foxh1 and Foxm1, Foxos and Foxps are important components of the signaling pathways that instruct cardiogenesis and embryonic heart development, playing paramount roles in heart development. The previous studies also have demonstrated that mutations in some of the forkhead box genes and the aberrant expression of forkhead box gene are heavily implicated in the congenital heart disease (CHD) of humans. This review primarily focuses on the current understanding of heart development regulated by forkhead box transcription factors and molecular genetic mechanisms by which forkhead box factors modulate heart development during embryogenesis and organogenesis. This review also summarizes human CHD related mutations in forkhead box genes as well as the abnormal expression of forkhead box gene, and discusses additional possible regulatory mechanisms of the forkhead box genes during embryonic heart development that warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Endocrine control of embryonic diapause in the Australian sharpnose shark Rhizoprionodon taylori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Waltrick

    Full Text Available The reproductive cycle of the Australian sharpnose shark, Rhizoprionodon taylori, includes a temporary suspension of development at the commencement of embryogenesis termed embryonic diapause. This study investigated levels of 17β-estradiol (E2, testosterone (T and progesterone (P4 in plasma samples of mature wild female R. taylori captured throughout the reproductive cycle and correlated them with internal morphological changes. Levels of T were elevated through most of the embryonic diapause period, suggesting a role of this hormone in the maintenance of this condition. Increasing plasma T concentrations from late diapause to early active development were associated with a possible role of androgens in the termination of embryonic diapause. As in other elasmobranchs, a concomitant increase of E2 with ovarian follicle size indicated a direct role of this hormone in regulating vitellogenesis, while a peak in P4 suggested this hormone is associated with preovulation and ovulation. Additionally, significant correlations between photoperiod or water temperature and maximum follicular diameter and hepatosomatic index suggest that these abiotic factors may also play a role triggering and regulating the synchrony and timing of reproductive events.

  6. Metastable primordial germ cell-like state induced from mouse embryonic stem cells by Akt activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamano, Noriko [Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kimura, Tohru, E-mail: tkimura@patho.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Pathology, Medical School, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Watanabe-Kushima, Shoko [Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Shinohara, Takashi [Department of Molecular Genetics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Nakano, Toru, E-mail: tnakano@patho.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Pathology, Medical School, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2010-02-12

    Specification to primordial germ cells (PGCs) is mediated by mesoderm-induction signals during gastrulation. We found that Akt activation during in vitro mesodermal differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) generated self-renewing spheres with differentiation states between those of ESCs and PGCs. Essential regulators for PGC specification and their downstream germ cell-specific genes were expressed in the spheres, indicating that the sphere cells had commenced differentiation to the germ lineage. However, the spheres did not proceed to spermatogenesis after transplantation into testes. Sphere cell transfer to the original feeder-free ESC cultures resulted in chaotic differentiation. In contrast, when the spheres were cultured on mouse embryonic fibroblasts or in the presence of ERK-cascade and GSK3 inhibitors, reversion to the ESC-like state was observed. These results indicate that Akt signaling promotes a novel metastable and pluripotent state that is intermediate to those of ESCs and PGCs.

  7. Chromosomal Aneuploidies and Early Embryonic Developmental Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Maurer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Selecting the best embryo for transfer, with the highest chance of achieving a vital pregnancy, is a major goal in current in vitro fertilization (IVF technology. The high rate of embryonic developmental arrest during IVF treatment is one of the limitations in achieving this goal. Chromosomal abnormalities are possibly linked with chromosomal arrest and selection against abnormal fertilization products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in preimplantation embryos with developmental arrest. Materials and Methods: This cohort study included blastomeres of embryos with early developmental arrest that were biopsied and analyzed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH with probes for chromosomes 13, 16, 18, 21 and 22. Forty-five couples undergoing IVF treatment were included, and 119 arrested embryos were biopsied. All probes were obtained from the Kinderwunsch Zentrum, Linz, Austria, between August 2009 and August 2011. Results: Of these embryos, 31.6% were normal for all chromosomes tested, and 68.4% were abnormal. Eleven embryos were uniformly aneuploid, 20 were polyploid, 3 were haploid, 11 displayed mosaicism and 22 embryos exhibited chaotic chromosomal complement. Conclusion: Nearly 70% of arrested embryos exhibit chromosomal errors, making chromosomal abnormalities a major cause of embryonic arrest and may be a further explanation for the high developmental failure rates during culture of the embryos in the IVF setting.

  8. Partial loss-of-function alleles reveal a role for GNOM in auxin transport-related, post-embryonic development of Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geldner, Niko; Richter, Sandra; Vieten, Anne

    2004-01-01

    The Arabidopsis GNOM gene encodes an ARF GDP/GTP exchange factor involved in embryonic axis formation and polar localisation of the auxin efflux regulator PIN1. To examine whether GNOM also plays a role in post-embryonic development and to clarify its involvement in auxin transport, we have...... characterised newly isolated weak gnom alleles as well as trans-heterozygotes of complementing strong alleles. These genotypes form a phenotypic series of GNOM activity in post-embryonic development, with auxin-related defects, especially in the maintenance of primary root meristem activity...... and in the initiation and organisation of lateral root primordia. Our results suggest a model for GNOM action mediating auxin transport in both embryogenesis and post-embryonic organ development....

  9. Area-specific development of distinct projection neuron subclasses is regulated by postnatal epigenetic modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Kawssar; Magrinelli, Elia; Nicolas, Céline S; Lukianets, Nikita; Frangeul, Laura; Pietri, Mariel; Sun, Tao; Sandoz, Guillaume; Grammont, Franck; Jabaudon, Denis; Studer, Michele; Alfano, Christian

    2016-01-27

    During cortical development, the identity of major classes of long-distance projection neurons is established by the expression of molecular determinants, which become gradually restricted and mutually exclusive. However, the mechanisms by which projection neurons acquire their final properties during postnatal stages are still poorly understood. In this study, we show that the number of neurons co-expressing Ctip2 and Satb2, respectively involved in the early specification of subcerebral and callosal projection neurons, progressively increases after birth in the somatosensory cortex. Ctip2/Satb2 postnatal co-localization defines two distinct neuronal subclasses projecting either to the contralateral cortex or to the brainstem suggesting that Ctip2/Satb2 co-expression may refine their properties rather than determine their identity. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches reveal that the transcriptional adaptor Lmo4 drives this maturation program through modulation of epigenetic mechanisms in a time- and area-specific manner, thereby indicating that a previously unknown genetic program postnatally promotes the acquisition of final subtype-specific features.

  10. Cyclin‑dependent kinase inhibitor p21 does not impact embryonic endochondral ossification in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinzei, Nobuaki; Hayashi, Shinya; Hashimoto, Shingo; Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Iwasa, Kenjiro; Sakata, Shuhei; Kihara, Shinsuke; Fujishiro, Takaaki; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2015-03-01

    Endochondral ossification at the growth plate is regulated by a number of factors and hormones. The cyclin‑dependent kinase inhibitor p21 has been identified as a cell cycle regulator and its expression has been reported to be essential for endochondral ossification in vitro. However, to the best of our knowledge, the function of p21 in endochondral ossification has not been evaluated in vivo. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the function of p21 in embryonic endochondral ossification in vivo. Wild‑type (WT) and p21 knockout (KO) pregnant heterozygous mice were sacrificed on embryonic days E13.5, E15.5 and E18.5. Sagittal histological sections of the forearms of the embryos were collected and stained with Safranin O and 5‑bromo‑2'‑deoxyuridine (BrdU). Additionally, the expression levels of cyclin D1, type II collagen, type X collagen, Sox9, and p16 were examined using immunohistochemistry, and the expression levels of p27 were examined using immunofluorescence. Safranin O staining revealed no structural change between the cartilage tissues of the WT and p21KO mice at any time point. Type II collagen was expressed ubiquitously, while type X collagen was only expressed in the hypertrophic zone of the cartilage tissues. No differences in the levels of Sox9 expression were observed between the two groups at any time point. The levels of cyclin D1 expression and BrdU uptake were higher in the E13.5 cartilage tissue compared with those observed in the embryonic cartilage tissue at subsequent time points. Expression of p16 and p27 was ubiquitous throughout the tissue sections. These results indicate that p21 may not be essential for embryonic endochondral ossification in articular cartilage of mice and that other signaling networks may compensate for p21 deletion.

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  12. Pathways in pluripotency and differentiation of embryonic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    du Puy, L.

    2010-01-01

    Pluripotency - the potential to differentiate into derivatives of the three embryonic germ layers endoderm, ectoderm and mesoderm - is the main characteristic of embryonic stem (ES) cells. ES cells are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of a pre-implantation blastocyst and can self-renew

  13. Spontaneous cyclic embryonic movements in humans and guinea pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felt, R.H.; Mulder, E.J.; Lüchinger, A.M.; van Kan, C.M.; Taverne, M.A.; de Vries, J.I.P.

    2012-01-01

    Motility assessment before birth can be used to evaluate the integrity of the nervous system. Sideways bending (SB) of head and/or rump, the earliest embryonic motility in both humans and guinea pigs, can be visualized sonographically. We know from other species that early embryonic motility is

  14. Cryopreservation of embryonic axes of maize ( Zea mays L.) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A storage protocol at cryogenic temperature was established for embryonic axes of maize using a basic vitrification protocol with direct immersion in liquid nitrogen (-196ºC). The response of isolated embryonic axes of five maize genotypes to plant vitrification solution (PVS2) at different concentrations was studied. Recovery ...

  15. Sox2 in Embryonic Stem Cells and Lung Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G. Pardo (Cristina Gontan)

    2009-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Sox2 is a fascinating transcription factor with multiple roles during embryonic development. In early embryonic development, Sox2 is one of the key transcription factors in the maintenance of the pluripotent status of the cells of the inner cell mass (ICM). Sox2 is

  16. Embryonic adaptations and nutrition in the viviparous teleost Clinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Embryos of Clinus dorsalis absorb nutrients from the embiyotrophe, secreted by the follicular epithelium. Autoradiographic studies revealed that the principal areas of nutrient absorption are the embryonic gut and epidermis. A histological and electron microscopic study of embryonic structure revealed an extensively ...

  17. Embryonic stem cells: testing the germ-cell theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochedlinger, Konrad

    2011-10-25

    The exact cellular origin of embryonic stem cells remains elusive. Now a new study provides compelling evidence that embryonic stem cells, established under conventional culture conditions, originate from a transient germ-cell state. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Blastocyst elongation, trophoblastic differentiation, and embryonic pattern formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, Leann; Hashizume, Kazuyoshi; Viebahn, Christoph

    2008-02-01

    The molecular basis of ungulate and non-rodent conceptus elongation and gastrulation remains poorly understood; however, use of state-of-the-art genomic technologies is beginning to elucidate the mechanisms regulating these complicated processes. For instance, transcriptome analysis of elongating porcine concepti indicates that protein synthesis and trafficking, cell growth and proliferation, and cellular morphology are major regulated processes. Furthermore, potential autocrine roles of estrogen and interleukin-1-beta in regulating porcine conceptus growth and remodeling and metabolism have become evident. The importance of estrogen in pig is emphasized by the altered expression of essential steroidogenic and trophoblast factors in lagging ovoid concepti. In ruminants, the characteristic mononucleate trophoblast cells differentiate into a second lineage important for implantation, the binucleate trophoblast, and transcriptome profiling of bovine concepti has revealed a gene cluster associated with rapid trophoblast proliferation and differentiation. Gene cluster analysis has also provided evidence of correlated spatiotemporal expression and emphasized the significance of the bovine trophoblast cell lineage and the regulatory mechanism of trophoblast function. As a part of the gastrulation process in the mammalian conceptus, specification of the germ layers and hence definitive body axes occur in advance of primitive streak formation. Processing of the transforming growth factor-beta-signaling molecules nodal and BMP4 by specific proteases is emerging as a decisive step in the initial patterning of the pre-gastrulation embryo. The topography of expression of these and other secreted molecules with reference to embryonic and extraembryonic tissues determines their local interaction potential. Their ensuing signaling leads to the specification of axial epiblast and hypoblast compartments through cellular migration and differentiation and, in particular, the

  19. 4D embryonic cardiography using gated optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, M. W.; Rothenberg, F.; Roy, D.; Nikolski, V. P.; Hu, Z.; Watanabe, M.; Wilson, D. L.; Efimov, I. R.; Rollins, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous imaging of very early embryonic heart structure and function has technical limitations of spatial and temporal resolution. We have developed a gated technique using optical coherence tomography (OCT) that can rapidly image beating embryonic hearts in four-dimensions (4D), at high spatial resolution (10-15 μm), and with a depth penetration of 1.5 - 2.0 mm that is suitable for the study of early embryonic hearts. We acquired data from paced, excised, embryonic chicken and mouse hearts using gated sampling and employed image processing techniques to visualize the hearts in 4D and measure physiologic parameters such as cardiac volume, ejection fraction, and wall thickness. This technique is being developed to longitudinally investigate the physiology of intact embryonic hearts and events that lead to congenital heart defects.

  20. Will embryonic stem cells change health policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, William M

    2010-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells are actively debated in political and public policy arenas. However, the connections between stem cell innovation and overall health care policy are seldom elucidated. As with many controversial aspects of medical care, the stem cell debate bridges to a variety of social conversations beyond abortion. Some issues, such as translational medicine, commercialization, patient and public safety, health care spending, physician practice, and access to insurance and health care services, are core health policy concerns. Other issues, such as economic development, technologic progress, fiscal politics, and tort reform, are only indirectly related to the health care system but are frequently seen through a health care lens. These connections will help determine whether the stem cell debate reaches a resolution, and what that resolution might be.

  1. Human embryonic stem cells and patent protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Sanja M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of biotechnological research in modern diagnostics and therapeutics, on the one hand, and stimulative function of a patent, on the other hand, this work deals with the question of the possibility of pa-tent protection of human embryonic stem cells. Taking into account that this is a biotechnological invention, the key question that this paper highlights is the interpretation of the provisions of their patentability. Namely, thanks to the advanced methods of isolation, purification and preparation for implementation, modern patent systems do not exclude a priori living organisms from patent protection. Therefore, the analysis of representative administrative decisions or court rulings sought to define the criteria that would be applied in order to give patent protection to a certain biotechnological invention (stem cells while others do not.

  2. Embryonic stem cells in pig and cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maddox-Hyttel, Poul; Wolf, Xenia Asbæk; Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech

    2007-01-01

    Porcine and bovine cell lines derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) or epiblasts of blastocysts have been maintained over extended periods of time and characterized by morphology, identification of some stem cell markers and, in few cases, by production of chimaeric offspring. However, germ line...... transmission in chimaeras has never been obtained. Due to this incomplete characterization of the cell lines, the expression embryonic stem (ES)-like cells is presently used in pig and cattle. The ICM or epiblast can be isolated from the blastocyst by whole blastocyst culture, mechanical isolation......, or immunosurgery, and they are generally cultured on feeder cells. The resulting ES-like cells may be differentiated in vivo by chimaera and teratoma formation or in vitro by embryoid body formation and monolayer induction. It is likely that more well characterized and stable porcine and bovine ES cell lines...

  3. Human embryonic stem cells: preclinical perspectives

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    Sarda Kanchan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs have been extensively discussed in public and scientific communities for their potential in treating diseases and injuries. However, not much has been achieved in turning them into safe therapeutic agents. The hurdles in transforming hESCs to therapies start right with the way these cells are derived and maintained in the laboratory, and goes up-to clinical complications related to need for patient specific cell lines, gender specific aspects, age of the cells, and several post transplantation uncertainties. The different types of cells derived through directed differentiation of hESC and used successfully in animal disease and injury models are described briefly. This review gives a brief outlook on the present and the future of hESC based therapies, and talks about the technological advances required for a safe transition from laboratory to clinic.

  4. LIF signal in mouse embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Nakai-Futatsugi, Yoko; Niwa, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Since the establishment of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) in the 1980s, a number of important notions on the self-renewal of pluripotent stem cells in vitro have been found. In serum containing conventional culture, an exogenous cytokine, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), is absolutely essential for the maintenance of pluripotency. In contrast, in serum-free culture with simultaneous inhibition of Map-kinase and Gsk3 (so called 2i-culture), LIF is no longer required. However, recent findings also suggest that LIF may have a role not covered by the 2i for the maintenance of naïve pluripotency. These suggest that LIF functions for the maintenance of naïve pluripotency in a context dependent manner. We summarize how LIF-signal pathway is converged to maintain the naïve state of pluripotency. PMID:27127728

  5. DNA methylation signature of long noncoding RNA genes during human pre-implantation embryonic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoli; Han, Shubiao; Ye, Hong; Huang, Guoning

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation have crucial roles in regulating the expression of developmental genes during mammalian pre-implantation embryonic development (PED). However, the DNA methylation dynamic pattern of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) genes, one type of epigenetic regulators, in human PED have not yet been demonstrated. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of lncRNA genes in human PED based on public reduced representation bisulphite sequencing (RRBS) data. We observed that both lncRNA and protein-coding genes complete the major demethylation wave at the 2-cell stage, whereas the promoters of lncRNA genes show higher methylation level than protein-coding genes during PED. Similar methylation distribution was observed across the transcription start sites (TSS) of lncRNA and protein-coding genes, contrary to previous observations in tissues. Besides, not only the gamete-specific differentially methylated regions (G-DMRs) but also the embryonic developmental-specific DMRs (D-DMRs) showed more paternal bias, especially in promoter regions in lncRNA genes. Moreover, coding-non-coding gene co-expression network analysis of genes containing D-DMRs suggested that lncRNA genes involved in PED are associated with gene expression regulation through several means, such as mRNA splicing, translational regulation and mRNA catabolic. This firstly provides study provides the methylation profiles of lncRNA genes in human PED and improves the understanding of lncRNA genes involvement in human PED. PMID:28915634

  6. Human embryonic stem cells and microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu İskender

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs possess a great potential in the field of regenerative medicine by their virtue of pluripotent potential with indefinite proliferation capabilities. They can self renew themselves and differentiate into three embryonic germ layers. Although they are conventionally grown on mitotically inactivated mouse feeder cells, there are in vitro culture systems utilizing feeder cells of human origin in order to prevent cross-species contamination. Recently established in vitro culture systems suggested that direct interaction with feeder cells is not necessary but rather attachment to a substrate is required to ensure long-term, efficient hESC culture in vitro. This substrate is usually composed of a mixture of extracellular matrix components representing in vivo natural niche. In hESC biology, the mechanism of interaction of hESCs with extracellular matrix molecules remained insufficiently explored area of research due to their transient nature of interaction with the in vivo niche. However, an in vitro culture system established using extracellular matrix molecules may provide a safer alternative to culture systems with feeder cells while paving the way to Good Manufacturing Practice-GMP production of hESCs for therapeutic purposes. Therefore, it is essential to study the interaction of extracellular matrix molecules with hESCs in order to standardize in vitro culture systems for large-scale production of hESCs in a less labor-intensive way. This would not only provide valuable information regarding the mechanisms that control pluripotency but also serve to dissect the molecular signaling pathways of directed differentiation for prospective therapeutic applications in the future. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (3: 486-495

  7. Intestinal lineage commitment of embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li; Gibson, Jason D; Miyamoto, Shingo; Sail, Vibhavari; Verma, Rajeev; Rosenberg, Daniel W; Nelson, Craig E; Giardina, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Generating lineage-committed intestinal stem cells from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) could provide a tractable experimental system for understanding intestinal differentiation pathways and may ultimately provide cells for regenerating damaged intestinal tissue. We tested a two-step differentiation procedure in which ESCs were first cultured with activin A to favor formation of definitive endoderm, and then treated with fibroblast-conditioned medium with or without Wnt3A. The definitive endoderm expressed a number of genes associated with gut-tube development through mouse embryonic day 8.5 (Sox17, Foxa2, and Gata4 expressed and Id2 silent). The intestinal stem cell marker Lgr5 gene was also activated in the endodermal cells, whereas the Msi1, Ephb2, and Dcamkl1 intestinal stem cell markers were not. Exposure of the endoderm to fibroblast-conditioned medium with Wnt3A resulted in the activation of Id2, the remaining intestinal stem cell markers and the later gut markers Cdx2, Fabp2, and Muc2. Interestingly, genes associated with distal gut-associated mesoderm (Foxf2, Hlx, and Hoxd8) were also simulated by Wnt3A. The two-step differentiation protocol generated gut bodies with crypt-like structures that included regions of Lgr5-expressing proliferating cells and regions of cell differentiation. These gut bodies also had a smooth muscle component and some underwent peristaltic movement. The ability of the definitive endoderm to differentiate into intestinal epithelium was supported by the vivo engraftment of these cells into mouse colonic mucosa. These findings demonstrate that definitive endoderm derived from ESCs can carry out intestinal cell differentiation pathways and may provide cells to restore damaged intestinal tissue. Copyright © 2010 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. No shortcuts to pig embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevini, T A L; Pennarossa, G; Gandolfi, F

    2010-09-01

    The establishment of embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines in domestic species could have great impact in the agricultural as well as in the biomedical field. In particular, derivation of pig ESC would find important applications aimed at improving health and production traits of this species through genetic engineering. Similarly, the immunological, morphological, physiological, and functional similarities to the human make the pig a very effective and suitable animal model for biomedical studies and pre-clinical trials. While proven blastocyst-derived mouse and human ESC lines have been established, no validated porcine ESC (pESC) lines are available. In the present manuscript we briefly discuss some of the factors that make the establishment of ESC lines in the pig, and in animal species other than mouse and human, a very slow process. The paucity of information related to morphology, pluripotency markers, differentiation capability hampers a thorough evaluation of the validity of putative lines. These difficulties are further increased by the lack of reliable antibodies, reagents, and in vitro culture systems that could ensure reliable results in the pig and allow for the screening and long-term maintenance of pESC. Data from the literature suggest that similar regulatory pathways are likely to exist among different species. Coupling of these pathways with their distinct expression patterns, the relative concentrations of pluripotency-related molecules, and timing of embryo development, along with supportive micro-environmental conditions, would appear to vary in a species-specific manner. We feel that the understanding of these subtle but meaningful diversities may provide beneficial information about the isolation of genuine porcine embryonic stem cells. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Energy and nutrient utilisation by embryonic reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael B; Speake, Brian K

    2002-11-01

    Most reptiles are oviparous, with the developing embryos relying on the contents of the yolk to sustain development until hatching (lecithotrophy). The yolk is composed primarily of lipid and protein, which act as an energy source and the essential components to build embryonic tissue. Nevertheless, yolk and the resulting embryos contain many other nutrients, including inorganic ions, vitamins, carotenoids, water and hormones. Apart from water and oxygen, which may be taken up by eggs, and some inorganic ions that can come from the eggshell or even from outside the egg, everything required by the embryo must be in the egg when it is laid. Approximately 20% of squamate reptiles are viviparous, exhibiting a variety of placental complexities. Species with complex placentae have reduced yolk volumes, with the mother augmenting embryonic nutrition by provision across the placenta (placentotrophy). Despite assumed advantages of placentotrophy, only 5 out of approximately 100 lineages of viviparous squamates exhibit substantial placentotrophy. This paper reviews available and recent information on the yolk contents of a variety of squamate reptiles to ask the question, how are nutrients transported from the yolk to the embryo or across the placenta? Although, current available data suggest that, in broad terms, yolk is taken up by embryos without discrimination of the nutrients, there are some apparent exceptions, including the very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. In addition, fundamental differences in the patterns of energy utilisation in lizards and snakes suggest fundamental differences in lipid profiles in these taxa, which appear to reflect the differences between placentotrophic and lecithotrophic viviparous lizards.

  10. Human embryonic stem cells and embryonal carcinoma cells have overlapping and distinct metabolic signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed Abu Dawud

    Full Text Available While human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and human embryonal carcinoma cells (hECCs have been studied extensively at the levels of the genome, transcriptome, proteome and epigenome our knowledge of their corresponding metabolomes is limited. Here, we present the metabolic signatures of hESCs and hESCs obtained by untargeted gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Whilst some metabolites are common to both cell types, representing the self-renewal and house-keeping signatures, others were either higher (e.g., octadecenoic acid, glycerol-3-phosphate, 4-hydroxyproline or lower (e.g., glutamic acid, mannitol, malic acid, GABA in hESCs (H9 compared to hECCs (NTERA2, these represent cell type specific signatures. Further, our combined results of GC-MS and microarray based gene expression profiling of undifferentiated and OCT4-depleted hESCs are consistent with the Warburg effect which is increased glycolysis in embryonic cells and tumor cells in the presence of O(2 while oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS is impaired or even shut down. RNAi-based OCT4 knock down mediated differentiation resulted in the activation of the poised OXPHOS machinery by expressing missing key proteins such as NDUFC1, UQCRB and COX, increase in TCA cycle activity and decreased lactate metabolism. These results shed light on the metabolite layer of pluripotent stem cells and could potentially establish novel metabolic markers of self renewal and pluripotency.

  11. CITED1 Expression in Wilms' Tumor and Embryonic Kidney

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    Harold N. Lovvorn, III

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Wilms' tumors, or nephroblastomas, are thought to arise from abnormal postnatal retention and dysregulated differentiation of nephrogenic progenitor cells that originate as a condensed metanephric mesenchyme within embryonic kidneys. We have previously shown that the transcriptional regulator CITED1 (CBP/p300-interacting transactivators with glutamic acid [E]/aspartic acid [D]-rich C-terminal domain is expressed exclusively in these nephrogenic progenitor cells and is downregulated as they differentiate to form nephronic epithelia. In the current study, we show that CITED1 expression persists in blastemal cell populations of both experimental rat nephroblastomas and human Wilms' tumors, and that primary human Wilms' tumors presenting with disseminated disease show the highest level of CITED1 expression. Unlike the predominantly cytoplasmic subcellular localization of CITED1 in the normal developing kidney, CITED1 is clearly detectable in the nuclear compartment of Wilms' tumor blastema. These findings indicate that CITED1 is a marker of primitive blastema in Wilms' tumors and suggest that persistent expression and/or altered subcellular localization of CITED1 in the condensed metanephric mesenchyme could play a role in Wilms' tumor initiation and pathogenesis.

  12. Mini-review: hyaluronidases in early embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, C D

    1984-09-01

    The foregoing discussion indicates that hyaluronidases probably play an important part in the control of development. In morphogenesis, they may be involved in epithelial-mesenchymal inductive interactions, in non-malignant invasion when one tissue displaces another in normal development, in controlling cell movements, in modulating changes of shape of cells and sheets of cells, in controlling the permeability of tissues and regulating the ionic environment within the embryo. There is also evidence indicating that hyaluronidases are involved in the initiation of cytodifferentiation pathways, perhaps via direct or indirect effects upon the cell division cycle and histone-DNA interactions. The evidence presented indicates that hyaluronidases are important repeatedly at different stages of embryonic development and differentiation, where periods of high activity follow others of reduced activity in localized regions of the embryo. Some new results were also presented, showing the presence of different hyaluronidase activities at early stages of chick embryo development. The highest levels of hyaluronidase activity were found in the primitive streak and mesoderm.

  13. Live imaging of mitosis in the developing mouse embryonic cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilaz, Louis-Jan; Silver, Debra L

    2014-06-04

    Although of short duration, mitosis is a complex and dynamic multi-step process fundamental for development of organs including the brain. In the developing cerebral cortex, abnormal mitosis of neural progenitors can cause defects in brain size and function. Hence, there is a critical need for tools to understand the mechanisms of neural progenitor mitosis. Cortical development in rodents is an outstanding model for studying this process. Neural progenitor mitosis is commonly examined in fixed brain sections. This protocol will describe in detail an approach for live imaging of mitosis in ex vivo embryonic brain slices. We will describe the critical steps for this procedure, which include: brain extraction, brain embedding, vibratome sectioning of brain slices, staining and culturing of slices, and time-lapse imaging. We will then demonstrate and describe in detail how to perform post-acquisition analysis of mitosis. We include representative results from this assay using the vital dye Syto11, transgenic mice (histone H2B-EGFP and centrin-EGFP), and in utero electroporation (mCherry-α-tubulin). We will discuss how this procedure can be best optimized and how it can be modified for study of genetic regulation of mitosis. Live imaging of mitosis in brain slices is a flexible approach to assess the impact of age, anatomy, and genetic perturbation in a controlled environment, and to generate a large amount of data with high temporal and spatial resolution. Hence this protocol will complement existing tools for analysis of neural progenitor mitosis.

  14. Epigenetic stability, adaptability, and reversibility in human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Joshua D; Hall, Christine; Chen, Vincent Chang-yi; Li, Arthur Xuejun; Wu, Xiwei; Hsu, David; Couture, Larry A; Riggs, Arthur D

    2012-07-31

    The stability of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is of critical importance for both experimental and clinical applications. We find that as an initial response to altered culture conditions, hESCs change their transcription profile for hundreds of genes and their DNA methylation profiles for several genes outside the core pluripotency network. After adaption to conditions of feeder-free defined and/or xeno-free culture systems, expression and DNA methylation profiles are quite stable for additional passaging. However, upon reversion to the original feeder-based culture conditions, numerous transcription changes are not reversible. Similarly, although the majority of DNA methylation changes are reversible, highlighting the plasticity of DNA methylation, a few are persistent. Collectively, this indicates these cells harbor a memory of culture history. For culture-induced DNA methylation changes, we also note an intriguing correlation: hypomethylation of regions 500-2440 bp upstream of promoters correlates with decreased expression, opposite to that commonly seen at promoter-proximal regions. Lastly, changes in regulation of G-coupled protein receptor pathways provide a partial explanation for many of the unique transcriptional changes observed during hESC adaptation and reverse adaptation.

  15. Genetic Deletion of Nrf2 Promotes Immortalization and Decreases Life Span of Murine Embryonic Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jódar, Laura; Mercken, Evi M.; Ariza, Julia; Younts, Caitlin; González-Reyes, José A.; Alcaín, Francisco J.; Burón, Isabel; de Cabo, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear factor E2–related factor-2 (Nrf2) transcription factor is one of the main regulators of intracellular redox balance and a sensor of oxidative and electrophilic stress. Low Nrf2 activity is usually associated with carcinogenesis, but Nrf2 is also considered as an oncogene because it increases survival of transformed cells. Because intracellular redox balance alterations are involved in both senescence and tumorigenesis, we investigated the impact of Nrf2 genetic deletion on cellular immortalization and life span of murine embryonic fibroblasts. We report that Nrf2 genetic deletion promotes immortalization due to an early loss of p53-dependent gene expression. However, compared with control cells, immortalized Nrf2−/− murine embryonic fibroblasts exhibited decreased growth, lower cyclin E levels, and impaired expression of NQO1 and cytochrome b5 reductase. Moreover, SirT1 was also significantly reduced in immortalized Nrf2−/− murine embryonic fibroblasts, and these cells exhibited shorter life span. Our results underscore the dual role of Nrf2 in protection against carcinogenesis and in the delay of cellular aging. PMID:20974733

  16. Gastrin: a distinct fate of neurogenin3 positive progenitor cells in the embryonic pancreas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaron Suissa

    Full Text Available Neurogenin3(+ (Ngn3(+ progenitor cells in the developing pancreas give rise to five endocrine cell types secreting insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide and ghrelin. Gastrin is a hormone produced primarily by G-cells in the stomach, where it functions to stimulate acid secretion by gastric parietal cells. Gastrin is expressed in the embryonic pancreas and is common in islet cell tumors, but the lineage and regulators of pancreatic gastrin(+ cells are not known. We report that gastrin is abundantly expressed in the embryonic pancreas and disappears soon after birth. Some gastrin(+ cells in the developing pancreas co-express glucagon, ghrelin or pancreatic polypeptide, but many gastrin(+ cells do not express any other islet hormone. Pancreatic gastrin(+ cells express the transcription factors Nkx6.1, Nkx2.2 and low levels of Pdx1, and derive from Ngn3(+ endocrine progenitor cells as shown by genetic lineage tracing. Using mice deficient for key transcription factors we show that gastrin expression depends on Ngn3, Nkx2.2, NeuroD1 and Arx, but not Pax4 or Pax6. Finally, gastrin expression is induced upon differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to pancreatic endocrine cells expressing insulin. Thus, gastrin(+ cells are a distinct endocrine cell type in the pancreas and an alternative fate of Ngn3+ cells.

  17. Digestive enzyme activity and mRNA level of trypsin in embryonic redclaw crayfish, Cherax quadricarnatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wen; Zhao, Yunlong; Zhou, Zhongliang; An, Chuanguang; Ma, Qiang

    2008-02-01

    The digestive enzyme activity and mRNA level of trypsin during the embryonic development of Cherax quadricarinatus were analyzed using biochemical and Fluorogenic Quantitative PCR (FQ—PCR) methods. The results show that the activities of trypsin and chymotrypsin had two different change patterns. Trypsin specific activity increased rapidly in the early stages of development and still remained high in preparation for the hatch stage. However, chymotrypsin activity peaked in stage 4 of embryonic development and decreased significantly in the last stage. The mRNA level of trypsin was elevated in all stages and two peak values were observed in stages 2 and 5 respectively. The results indicate that trypsin is very important for the utilization of the yolk during embryonic development and for the assimilation of dietary protein for larvae. The gene of trypsin is probably regulated at transcriptional level. The mRNA levels of trypsin can reflect not only trypsin activity, but also the regulatory mechanism for expression of trypsin gene to a certain degree.

  18. Gastrin: a distinct fate of neurogenin3 positive progenitor cells in the embryonic pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suissa, Yaron; Magenheim, Judith; Stolovich-Rain, Miri; Hija, Ayat; Collombat, Patrick; Mansouri, Ahmed; Sussel, Lori; Sosa-Pineda, Beatriz; McCracken, Kyle; Wells, James M; Heller, R Scott; Dor, Yuval; Glaser, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Neurogenin3(+) (Ngn3(+)) progenitor cells in the developing pancreas give rise to five endocrine cell types secreting insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide and ghrelin. Gastrin is a hormone produced primarily by G-cells in the stomach, where it functions to stimulate acid secretion by gastric parietal cells. Gastrin is expressed in the embryonic pancreas and is common in islet cell tumors, but the lineage and regulators of pancreatic gastrin(+) cells are not known. We report that gastrin is abundantly expressed in the embryonic pancreas and disappears soon after birth. Some gastrin(+) cells in the developing pancreas co-express glucagon, ghrelin or pancreatic polypeptide, but many gastrin(+) cells do not express any other islet hormone. Pancreatic gastrin(+) cells express the transcription factors Nkx6.1, Nkx2.2 and low levels of Pdx1, and derive from Ngn3(+) endocrine progenitor cells as shown by genetic lineage tracing. Using mice deficient for key transcription factors we show that gastrin expression depends on Ngn3, Nkx2.2, NeuroD1 and Arx, but not Pax4 or Pax6. Finally, gastrin expression is induced upon differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to pancreatic endocrine cells expressing insulin. Thus, gastrin(+) cells are a distinct endocrine cell type in the pancreas and an alternative fate of Ngn3+ cells.

  19. Paf receptor expression in the marsupial embryo and endometrium during embryonic diapause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenelon, Jane C; Shaw, Geoff; O'Neill, Chris; Frankenberg, Stephen; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2014-01-01

    The control of reactivation from embryonic diapause in the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) involves sequential activation of the corpus luteum, secretion of progesterone that stimulates endometrial secretion and subsequent changes in the uterine environment that activate the embryo. However, the precise signals between the endometrium and the blastocyst are currently unknown. In eutherians, both the phospholipid Paf and its receptor, platelet-activating factor receptor (PTAFR), are present in the embryo and the endometrium. In the tammar, endometrial Paf release in vitro increases around the time of the early progesterone pulse that occurs around the time of reactivation, but whether Paf can reactivate the blastocyst is unknown. We cloned and characterised the expression of PTAFR in the tammar embryo and endometrium at entry into embryonic diapause, during its maintenance and after reactivation. Tammar PTAFR sequence and protein were highly conserved with mammalian orthologues. In the endometrium, PTAFR was expressed at a constant level in the glandular epithelium across all stages and in the luminal epithelium during both diapause and reactivation. Thus, the presence of the receptor appears not to be a limiting factor for Paf actions in the endometrium. However, the low levels of PTAFR in the embryo during diapause, together with its up-regulation and subsequent internalisation at reactivation, supports earlier results suggesting that endometrial Paf could be involved in reactivation of the tammar blastocyst from embryonic diapause.

  20. Stepwise development of hematopoietic stem cells from embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Matsumoto

    Full Text Available The cellular ontogeny of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs remains poorly understood because their isolation from and their identification in early developing small embryos are difficult. We attempted to dissect early developmental stages of HSCs using an in vitro mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC differentiation system combined with inducible HOXB4 expression. Here we report the identification of pre-HSCs and an embryonic type of HSCs (embryonic HSCs as intermediate cells between ESCs and HSCs. Both pre-HSCs and embryonic HSCs were isolated by their c-Kit(+CD41(+CD45(- phenotype. Pre-HSCs did not engraft in irradiated adult mice. After co-culture with OP9 stromal cells and conditional expression of HOXB4, pre-HSCs gave rise to embryonic HSCs capable of engraftment and long-term reconstitution in irradiated adult mice. Blast colony assays revealed that most hemangioblast activity was detected apart from the pre-HSC population, implying the early divergence of pre-HSCs from hemangioblasts. Gene expression profiling suggests that a particular set of transcripts closely associated with adult HSCs is involved in the transition of pre-HSC to embryonic HSCs. We propose an HSC developmental model in which pre-HSCs and embryonic HSCs sequentially give rise to adult types of HSCs in a stepwise manner.

  1. YAP/TAZ enhance mammalian embryonic neural stem cell characteristics in a Tead-dependent manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dasol; Byun, Sung-Hyun; Park, Soojeong; Kim, Juwan; Kim, Inhee; Ha, Soobong; Kwon, Mookwang; Yoon, Keejung, E-mail: keejung@skku.edu

    2015-02-27

    Mammalian brain development is regulated by multiple signaling pathways controlling cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Here we show that YAP/TAZ enhance embryonic neural stem cell characteristics in a cell autonomous fashion using diverse experimental approaches. Introduction of retroviral vectors expressing YAP or TAZ into the mouse embryonic brain induced cell localization in the ventricular zone (VZ), which is the embryonic neural stem cell niche. This change in cell distribution in the cortical layer is due to the increased stemness of infected cells; YAP-expressing cells were colabeled with Sox2, a neural stem cell marker, and YAP/TAZ increased the frequency and size of neurospheres, indicating enhanced self-renewal- and proliferative ability of neural stem cells. These effects appear to be TEA domain family transcription factor (Tead)–dependent; a Tead binding-defective YAP mutant lost the ability to promote neural stem cell characteristics. Consistently, in utero gene transfer of a constitutively active form of Tead2 (Tead2-VP16) recapitulated all the features of YAP/TAZ overexpression, and dominant negative Tead2-EnR resulted in marked cell exit from the VZ toward outer cortical layers. Taken together, these results indicate that the Tead-dependent YAP/TAZ signaling pathway plays important roles in neural stem cell maintenance by enhancing stemness of neural stem cells during mammalian brain development. - Highlights: • Roles of YAP and Tead in vivo during mammalian brain development are clarified. • Expression of YAP promotes embryonic neural stem cell characteristics in vivo in a cell autonomous fashion. • Enhancement of neural stem cell characteristics by YAP depends on Tead. • Transcriptionally active form of Tead alone can recapitulate the effects of YAP. • Transcriptionally repressive form of Tead severely reduces stem cell characteristics.

  2. Influx mechanisms in the embryonic and adult rat choroid plexus: a transcriptome study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Norman R.; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M.; Møllgård, Kjeld; Habgood, Mark D.; Wakefield, Matthew J.; Lindsay, Helen; Stratzielle, Nathalie; Ghersi-Egea, Jean-Francois; Liddelow, Shane A.

    2015-01-01

    The transcriptome of embryonic and adult rat lateral ventricular choroid plexus, using a combination of RNA-Sequencing and microarray data, was analyzed by functional groups of influx transporters, particularly solute carrier (SLC) transporters. RNA-Seq was performed at embryonic day (E) 15 and adult with additional data obtained at intermediate ages from microarray analysis. The largest represented functional group in the embryo was amino acid transporters (twelve) with expression levels 2–98 times greater than in the adult. In contrast, in the adult only six amino acid transporters were up-regulated compared to the embryo and at more modest enrichment levels (plexus five glucose transporters, in particular Glut-1, and only one monocarboxylate transporter were enriched compared to the adult, whereas only two glucose transporters but six monocarboxylate transporters in the adult plexus were expressed at higher levels than in embryos. These results are compared with earlier published physiological studies of amino acid and monocarboxylate transport in developing rodents. This comparison shows correlation of high expression of some transporters in the developing brain with higher amino acid transport activity reported previously. Data for divalent metal transporters are also considered. Immunohistochemistry of several transporters (e.g., Slc16a10, a thyroid hormone transporter) gene products was carried out to confirm translational activity and to define cellular distribution of the proteins. Overall the results show that there is substantial expression of numerous influx transporters in the embryonic choroid plexus, many at higher levels than in the adult. This, together with immunohistochemical evidence and data from published physiological transport studies suggests that the choroid plexus in embryonic brain plays a major role in supplying the developing brain with essential nutrients. PMID:25972776

  3. Influx mechanisms in the embryonic and adult rat choroid plexus: a transcriptome study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Ruthven Saunders

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The transcriptome of embryonic and adult rat lateral ventricular choroid plexus, using a combination of RNA-Sequencing and microarray data, was analysed by functional groups of influx transporters, particularly solute carrier (SLC transporters. RNA-Seq was performed at embryonic day (E 15 and adult with additional data obtained at intermediate ages from microarray analysis. The largest represented functional group in the embryo was amino acid transporters (twelve with expression levels 2-98 times greater than in the adult. In contrast, in the adult only six amino acid transporters were up-regulated compared to the embryo and at more modest enrichment levels (<5-fold enrichment above E15. In E15 plexus five glucose transporters, in particular Glut-1, and only one monocarboxylate transporter were enriched compared to the adult, whereas only two glucose transporters but six monocarboxylate transporters in the adult plexus were expressed at higher levels than in embryos. These results are compared with earlier published physiological studies of amino acid and monocarboxylate transport in developing rodents. This comparison shows correlation of high expression of some transporters in the developing brain with higher amino acid transport activity reported previously. Data for divalent metal transporters are also considered. Immunohistochemistry of several transporters (e.g. Slc16a10, a thyroid hormone transporter gene products was carried out to confirm translational activity and to define cellular distribution of the proteins. Overall the results show that there is substantial expression of numerous influx transporters in the embryonic choroid plexus, many at higher levels than in the adult. This, together with immunohistochemical evidence and data from published physiological transport studies suggests that the choroid plexus in embryonic brain plays a major role in supplying the developing brain with essential nutrients.

  4. Low oxygen levels slow embryonic development of Limulus polyphemus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funch, Peter; Wang, Tobias; Pertoldi, Cino

    2016-01-01

    The American horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus typically spawns in the upper intertidal zone, where the developing embryos are exposed to large variations in abiotic factors such as temperature, humidity, salinity, and oxygen, which affect the rate of development. It has been shown that embryonic...... development is slowed at both high and low salinities and temperatures, and that late embryos close to hatching tolerate periodic hypoxia. In this study we investigated the influence of hypoxia on both early and late embryonic development in L. polyphemus under controlled laboratory conditions. Embryos were...... pronounced hypoxia in later embryonic developmental stages, but also in earlier, previously unexplored, developmental stages....

  5. Fator de crescimento derivado das plaquetas, retinol e insulina na regulação da maturação nuclear de oócitos bovinos e suas conseqüências no desenvolvimento embrionário Platelet-derived growth factor, retinol and insulin in the regulation of bovine oocyte nuclear maturation and their consequent effect in the embryonic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B. Bortolotto

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar as ações do fator de crescimento derivado das plaquetas (PDGF; P, da insulina (I, do retinol (R e de suas associações (PI, PIR, IR e PR na maturação nuclear (MN de oócitos bovinos e suas conseqüências no desenvolvimento embrionário (DE. O meio básico para maturação dos oócitos nos diferentes tratamentos foi o TCM-199 modificado acrescido de PVA (controle. No DE, foram utilizados os grupos R, PIR, IR, um controle negativo (PVA e um controle positivo, contendo soro fetal bovino e gonadotrofinas (SFBHOR. Os fatores P, I, R e suas associações não aceleraram a MN em 7h mas sim após 18h (PThe aim of the present study was to determine the effect of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF; P, insulin (I retinol, (R and their interactions (PI, PIR, IR and PR on oocyte nuclear maturation (NM and, consequent, embryonic development (ED. The basic medium for oocyte maturation in the treatments was the modified TCM-199, supplemented with PVA (control. To study the embryonic development, the oocytes were divided in three treatments, R, PIR e IR, a negative (PVA and a positive control group (containing calf fetal serum and gonadotrophic hormones; FCSHOR. The PDGF, insulin, retinol and their interactions did not change the kinetic of the NM, in seven hours of culture (P=0.4492 but it changed after 18 hours of maturation (P<0.001 except in the treatments R and PR (P<0.001, in which the percentages of metaphase II were, respectively, 4.7% and 8.3%. These results were similar to the control group (0.0%. Considering a significant level of P<0.0001 in comparison to the control group, the higher rates of metaphase II were obtained in the presence of IR (19.0% and PIR (21.3%. The higher rates of MII were observed when the oocytes were matured in the presence of insulin and retinol. In the embryonic development, R (18.3%, PIR (13.9% and IR (10.6% increased the rate of cleavage when compared to PVA group (0.0%; P<0

  6. Complex interactions between GSK3 and aPKC in Drosophila embryonic epithelial morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A Kaplan

    Full Text Available Generally, epithelial cells must organize in three dimensions to form functional tissue sheets. Here we investigate one such sheet, the Drosophila embryonic epidermis, and the morphogenetic processes organizing cells within it. We report that epidermal morphogenesis requires the proper distribution of the apical polarity determinant aPKC. Specifically, we find roles for the kinases GSK3 and aPKC in cellular alignment, asymmetric protein distribution, and adhesion during the development of this polarized tissue. Finally, we propose a model explaining how regulation of aPKC protein levels can reorganize both adhesion and the cytoskeleton.

  7. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from Odin deficient mice display a hyperproliiferative phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Troels Zaccharias Glahn; Nielsen, Mogens Møller; Blagoev, Blagoy

    2004-01-01

    as a KIAA clone (KIAA 0229) from the Kazusa DNA Research Institute which maintains the HUGE protein database--a database devoted to the analysis of long cDNA clones encoding large proteins (>50 kDa). Odin has been demonstrated to cause downregulation of c-Fos promoter activity and to inhibit PDGF...... of the kidney, lung and liver does not show any major abnormalities as compared to wild-type controls. However, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) generated from Odin-deficient mice exhibit a hyperproliferative phenotype compared to wild-type-derived MEFs, consistent with its role as a negative regulator...

  8. Derivation of the clinical grade human embryonic stem cell line RCe013-A (RC-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCe013-A (RC-9 was derived under quality assured compliance with UK regulation, European Union Directives and International guidance for tissue procurement, processing and storage according to Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP standards. The cell line was derived from a failed to fertilise oocyte voluntarily donated as unsuitable and surplus to fertility requirements following informed consent. RCe013-A (RC-9 shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to the three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. It has a normal 46XY male karyotype and microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data are available.

  9. Derivation of the clinical grade human embryonic stem cell line RCe016-A (RC-12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCe016-A (RC-12 was derived under quality assured compliance with UK regulations, EU Directives and International guidance for tissue procurement, processing and storage according to good manufacturing practice (GMP standards. The cell line was derived from a cryopreserved blastocyst stage embryo voluntarily donated as surplus to fertility requirements following informed consent. RCe016-A (RC-12 shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to three germ layers in vitro. Karyology revealed a mixed male karyotype at early passage (P15, which resolved as normal 46XY by passage 33. Microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data is available.

  10. Derivation of the clinical grade human embryonic stem cell line RCe019-A (RC-15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCe019-A (RC-15 was derived under quality assured compliance with UK regulation, European Union Directives and International guidance for tissue procurement, processing and storage according to Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP standards. The cell line was derived from a cleavage stage embryo voluntarily donated as unsuitable or surplus to fertility requirements following informed consent. RCe019-A (RC-15 shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to the three germ layers in vitro. It has a mixed 46XX/47XX, +8 female karyotype and microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data is available.

  11. Derivation of the clinical grade human embryonic stem cell line RCe018-A (RC-14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCe018-A (RC-14 was derived under quality assured compliance with UK regulation, European Union Directives and International guidance for tissue procurement, processing and storage according to Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP standards. The cell line was derived from a blastocyst stage embryo voluntarily donated as unsuitable or surplus to fertility requirements following informed consent. RCe018-A (RC-14 shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to the three germ layers in vitro. It has a male karyotype with an extra copy of chromosome 8 (47XY, +8. Microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data are available.

  12. Derivation of the clinical grade human embryonic stem cell line RCe015-A (RC-11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCe015-A (RC-11 was derived under quality assured compliance with UK regulation, European Union Directives and International guidance for tissue procurement, processing and storage according to Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP standards. The cell line was derived from a fragmented cleavage stage embryo voluntarily donated as unsuitable or surplus to fertility requirements following informed consent. RCe015-A (RC-11 shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to the three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. It has a normal 46XX female karyotype and microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data are available.

  13. Derivation of the clinical grade human embryonic stem cell line RCe017-A (RC-13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCe017-A (RC-13 was derived under quality assured compliance with UK regulation, European Union Directives and International guidance for tissue procurement, processing and storage according to Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP standards. The cell line was derived from a frozen and thawed blastocyst stage embryo voluntarily donated as unsuitable or surplus to fertility requirements following informed consent. RCe017-A (RC-13 shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to the three germ layers in vitro. It has a mixed 47XY, +12/48XY, +1, +12 male karyotype and microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data are available.

  14. Derivation of the clinical grade human embryonic stem cell line RCe020-a (RC-16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCe020-A (RC-16 was derived under quality assured compliance with UK regulation, European Union Directives and International guidance for tissue procurement, processing and storage according to Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP standards. The cell line was derived from a failed to fertilise oocyte voluntarily donated as unsuitable or surplus to fertility requirements following informed consent. RCe020-A (RC-16 shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiates to mesoderm and potentially ectoderm in vitro. It has an abnormal 47XX, +14, i(20(q10 female karyotype and microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data is available.

  15. Derivation of the clinical grade human embryonic stem cell line RCe021-A (RC-17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCe021-A (RC-17 was derived under quality assured compliance with UK regulation, European Union Directives and International guidance for tissue procurement, processing and storage according to Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP standards. The cell line was derived from a day 3 embryo voluntarily donated as unsuitable or surplus to fertility requirements following informed consent. RCe021-A (RC-17 shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to the three germ layers in vitro. It has a normal 46XX female karyotype and microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data are available.

  16. Evolution of embryonic development in nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulze Jens

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nematodes can be subdivided into basal Enoplea (clades 1 and 2 and more derived Chromadorea (clades 3 to 12. Embryogenesis of Caenorhabditis elegans (clade 9 has been analyzed in most detail. Their establishment of polarity and asymmetric cleavage requires the differential localization of PAR proteins. Earlier studies on selected other nematodes revealed that embryonic development of nematodes is more diverse than the essentially invariant development of C. elegans and the classic study object Ascaris had suggested. To obtain a more detailed picture of variations and evolutionary trends we compared embryonic cell lineages and pattern formation in embryos of all 12 nematode clades. Methods The study was conducted using 4-D microscopy and 3-D modeling of developing embryos. Results We found dramatic differences compared to C. elegans in Enoplea but also considerable variations among Chromadorea. We discovered 'Polarity Organizing Centers' (POCs that orient cleavage spindles along the anterior-posterior axis in distinct cells over consecutive cell generations. The resulting lineally arranged blastomeres represent a starting point for the establishment of bilateral symmetry within individual lineages. We can discern six different early cleavage types and suggest that these variations are due to modifications in the activity of the POCs in conjunction with changes in the distribution of PAR proteins. In addition, our studies indicate that lineage complexity advanced considerably during evolution, that is we observe trends towards an increase of somatic founder cells, from monoclonal to polyclonal lineages and from a variable (position-dependent to an invariable (lineage-dependent way of cell fate specification. In contrast to the early phase of embryogenesis, the second half ('morphogenesis' appears similar in all studied nematodes. Comparison of early cleavage between the basal nematode Tobrilus stefanskii and the tardigrade

  17. Role of ALKBH1 in the Core Transcriptional Network of Embryonic Stem Cells

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    Rune Ougland

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: ALKBH1, an AlkB homologue in the 2-oxoglutarate and Fe2+ dependent hydroxylase family, is a histone dioxygenase that removes methyl groups from histone H2A. Studies of transgenic mice lacking Alkbh1 reveal that most Alkbh1-/- embryos die during embryonic development. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs derived from these mice have prolonged expression of pluripotency markers and delayed induction of genes involved in neural differentiation, indicating that ALKBH1 is involved in regulation of pluripotency and differentiation. The aim of this study was to further investigate the role ALKBH1 in early development. Methods: Double-filter methods for nitrocellulose-filter binding, dot blot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, immonocytochemistry, cell culture and differentiation of mouse ESCs, Co-IP and miRNA analysis. Results: We found that SOX2 and NANOG bind the ALKBH1 promoter, and we identified protein-protein interactions between ALKBH1 and these core transcription factors of the pluripotency network. Furthermore, lack of ALKBH1 affected the expression of developmentally important miRNAs, which are involved in the regulation of NANOG, SOX2 and neural differentiation. Conclusion: Our results suggest that ALKBH1 interacts with the core transcriptional pluripotency network of ESCs and is involved in regulation of pluripotency and differentiation.

  18. STELLA facilitates differentiation of germ cell and endodermal lineages of human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patompon Wongtrakoongate

    Full Text Available Stella is a developmentally regulated gene highly expressed in mouse embryonic stem (ES cells and in primordial germ cells (PGCs. In human, the gene encoding the STELLA homologue lies on chromosome 12p, which is frequently amplified in long-term cultured human ES cells. However, the role played by STELLA in human ES cells has not been reported. In the present study, we show that during retinoic acid (RA-induced differentiation of human ES cells, expression of STELLA follows that of VASA, a marker of germline differentiation. By contrast, human embryonal carcinoma cells express STELLA at a higher level compared with both karyotypically normal and abnormal human ES cell lines. We found that over-expression of STELLA does not interfere with maintenance of the stem cell state of human ES cells, but following retinoic acid induction it leads to up-regulation of germline- and endodermal-associated genes, whereas neural markers PAX6 and NEUROD1 are down-regulated. Further, STELLA over-expression facilitates the differentiation of human ES cells into BE12-positive cells, in which the expression of germline- and endodermal-associated genes is enriched, and suppresses differentiation of the neural lineage. Taken together, this finding suggests a role for STELLA in facilitating germline and endodermal differentiation of human ES cells.

  19. Cell cycle control in the early embryonic development of aquatic animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefert, Joseph C; Clowdus, Emily A; Sansam, Christopher L

    2015-12-01

    The cell cycle is integrated with many aspects of embryonic development. Not only is proper control over the pace of cell proliferation important, but also the timing of cell cycle progression is coordinated with transcription, cell migration, and cell differentiation. Due to the ease with which the embryos of aquatic organisms can be observed and manipulated, they have been a popular choice for embryologists throughout history. In the cell cycle field, aquatic organisms have been extremely important because they have played a major role in the discovery and analysis of key regulators of the cell cycle. In particular, the frog Xenopus laevis has been instrumental for understanding how the basic embryonic cell cycle is regulated. More recently, the zebrafish has been used to understand how the cell cycle is remodeled during vertebrate development and how it is regulated during morphogenesis. This review describes how some of the unique strengths of aquatic species have been leveraged for cell cycle research and suggests how species such as Xenopus and zebrafish will continue to reveal the roles of the cell cycle in human biology and disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Regulatory RNA Key Player in p53-Mediated Apoptosis in Embryonic Stem Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) must maintain the integrity of their genomes or risk passing potentially deleterious mutations on to numerous tissues. Thus, ESCs have a unique genome surveillance system and easily undergo apoptosis or differentiation when DNA damage is detected. The protein p53 is known to promote differentiation in mouse ESCs (mESCs), but its role in DNA damage-induced apoptosis (DIA) is unclear. p53 may have a pro-apoptotic function since it can regulate apoptotic genes in embryonal cells. Given that ESCs have a distinct transcriptional program, Jing Huang, Ph.D., of CCR’s Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Genetics, and his colleagues wondered whether p53 might regulate DIA in ESCs by utilizing the ESC-specific expression program.

  1. Characterizing the distribution of steroid sulfatase during embryonic development: when and where might metabolites of maternal steroids be reactivated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paitz, Ryan T; Duffield, Kristin R; Bowden, Rachel M

    2017-12-15

    All vertebrate embryos are exposed to maternally derived steroids during development. In placental vertebrates, metabolism of maternal steroids by the placenta modulates embryonic exposure, but how exposure is regulated in oviparous vertebrates is less clear. Recent work in oviparous vertebrates has demonstrated that steroids are not static molecules, as they can be converted to more polar steroid sulfates by sulfotransferase enzymes. Importantly, these steroid sulfates can be converted back to the parent compound by the enzyme steroid sulfatase (STS). We investigated when and where STS was present during embryonic development in the red-eared slider turtle, Trachemys scripta We report that STS is present during all stages of development and in all tissues we examined. We conclude that STS activity may be particularly important for regulating maternal steroid exposure in oviparous vertebrates. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Comprehensive quantitative comparison of the membrane proteome, phosphoproteome, and sialiome of human embryonic and neural stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo-Braga, Marcella Nunes; Schulz, Melanie; Liu, Qiuyue

    2014-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can differentiate into neural stem cells (NSCs), which can further be differentiated into neurons and glia cells. Therefore, these cells have huge potential as source for treatment of neurological diseases. Membrane-associated proteins are very important...... in cellular signaling and recognition, and their function and activity are frequently regulated by post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and glycosylation. To obtain information about membrane-associated proteins and their modified amino acids potentially involved in changes of h...... in which 78% of phosphopeptides were identified with ≥99% confidence in site assignment and 1810 unique formerly sialylated N-linked glycopeptides. Several proteins were identified as significantly regulated in hESCs and NSC, including proteins involved in the early embryonic and neural development...

  3. Growth inhibition of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells on the feeders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) can be propagated in vitro on the feeders of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. In this study, we found growth inhibition of mESCs cultured on embryonic fibroblast feeders derived from different livestock animals. Under the same condition, mESCs derived from mouse embryonic fibroblast ...

  4. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research Debates: A Confucian Argument

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D. F.-C. Tsai

    2005-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cell research can bring about major biomedical breakthroughs and thus contribute enormously to human welfare, yet it raises serious moral problems because it involves using human...

  5. Embryonic adaptations and nutrition in the viviparous teleost Clinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perciformes: Clinidae) ... extensive embryonic adaptations for the uptake of nutrients secreted by the follicular epithelium. Specialized ..... Cellular surface projections in C. dorsalis are virtually confined to the pericardial region of the embryo and ...

  6. Graphene for enhanced embryonic stem cell photo-transfection efficiency

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mthunzi, P

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to their pluripotency properties, embryonic stem (ES) cells possess great potential in regenerative therapy. Since reported a promising tissue engineering scaffold material, here, graphene is demonstrated to significantly improve the ES cell...

  7. Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma in a Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banco, B; Ferrari, R; Stefanello, D; Groppetti, D; Pecile, A; Faverzani, S; Longo, M; Zani, D D; Ravasio, G; Caniatti, M; Grieco, V

    2017-11-01

    A 17-month-old female doberman pinscher was referred for an abdominal mass and ascites. Exploratory laparotomy revealed the presence of a large neoplastic mass replacing the right ovary and associated with multiple mesovarian, mesometrial and peritoneal nodules. An ovariohysterectomy was performed. Grossly, the tumour was soft and multilocular with large areas of haemorrhage and necrosis. Microscopically, it was infiltrative and composed of round and polygonal cells arranged respectively in solid sheets or forming distorted tubular structures separated by thick fibrovascular septae. Tubules contained necrotic debris, proteinaceous fluid or small endoluminal papillary structures. Marked cellular atypia, multiple neoplastic emboli and high mitotic count were observed. Immunohistochemically, the round cells uniformly expressed placental alkaline phosphatase, while the polygonal cells arranged in tubules and papillae expressed cytokeratin (CK) AE1/AE3 and CK7. A final diagnosis of metastasizing ovarian embryonal carcinoma (EC), a primitive germ cell tumour characterized by rudimentary epithelial differentiation was made. Canine ovarian EC should be considered as a differential diagnosis for undifferentiated aggressive ovarian tumours in young dogs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Embryonic miRNA Profiles of Normal and Ectopic Pregnancies

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez, Francisco; Moreno-Moya, Juan Manuel; Lozoya, Teresa; Romero, Ainhoa; Martínez, Sebastian; Monterde, Mercedes; Gurrea, Marta; Ferri, Blanca; Núñez, Maria Jose; Simón, Carlos; Pellicer, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate the miRNA profile of embryonic tissues in ectopic pregnancies (EPs) and controlled abortions (voluntary termination of pregnancy; VTOP). Twenty-three patients suffering from tubal EP and twenty-nine patients with a normal ongoing pregnancy scheduled for a VTOP were recruited. Embryonic tissue samples were analyzed by miRNA microarray and further validated by real time PCR. Microarray studies showed that four miRNAs were differentially downregulated (hsa-mir-19...

  9. A Focused Microarray for Screening Rat Embryonic Stem Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, James; He, Hong; Bui, Phuoc; Ryba-White, Ben; Rumi, Mohammad A.K.; Soares, Michael J.; Dutta, Debasree; Paul, Soumen; Kawamata, Masaki; Ochiya, Takahiro; Ying, Qi-Long; Rajanahalli, Pavan; Mark L. Weiss

    2012-01-01

    Here, we describe a focused microarray for screening rat embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and provide validation data that this array can distinguish undifferentiated rat ESCs from rat trophoblast stem (TS) cells, rat extraembryonic endoderm cells, mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder cells, and differentiated rat ESCs. Using this tool, genuine rat ESC lines, which have been expanded in a conventional rat ESC medium containing two inhibitors (2i), for example, glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) and mi...

  10. Glycogen and glucose metabolism are essential for early embryonic development of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Amanda; Ribeiro, Lupis; Lobato, Mariana; Santos, Vitória; Silva, José Roberto; Gomes, Helga; da Cunha Moraes, Jorge Luiz; de Souza Menezes, Jackson; de Oliveira, Carlos Jorge Logullo; Campos, Eldo; da Fonseca, Rodrigo Nunes

    2013-01-01

    Control of energy metabolism is an essential process for life. In insects, egg formation (oogenesis) and embryogenesis is dependent on stored molecules deposited by the mother or transcribed later by the zygote. In oviparous insects the egg becomes an isolated system after egg laying with all energy conversion taking place during embryogenesis. Previous studies in a few vector species showed a strong correlation of key morphogenetic events and changes in glucose metabolism. Here, we investigate glycogen and glucose metabolism in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, an insect amenable to functional genomic studies. To examine the role of the key enzymes on glycogen and glucose regulation we cloned and analyzed the function of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) and hexokinase (HexA) genes during T. castaneum embryogenesis. Expression analysis via in situ hybridization shows that both genes are expressed only in the embryonic tissue, suggesting that embryonic and extra-embryonic cells display different metabolic activities. dsRNA adult female injection (parental RNAi) of both genes lead a reduction in egg laying and to embryonic lethality. Morphological analysis via DAPI stainings indicates that early development is impaired in Tc-GSK-3 and Tc-HexA1 RNAi embryos. Importantly, glycogen levels are upregulated after Tc-GSK-3 RNAi and glucose levels are upregulated after Tc-HexA1 RNAi, indicating that both genes control metabolism during embryogenesis and oogenesis, respectively. Altogether our results show that T. castaneum embryogenesis depends on the proper control of glucose and glycogen.

  11. Cerebellar Vermis and Midbrain Hypoplasia Upon Conditional Deletion of Chd7 from the Embryonic Mid-Hindbrain Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex P. A. Donovan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Reduced fibroblast growth factor (FGF signaling from the mid-hindbrain or isthmus organizer (IsO during early embryonic development results in hypoplasia of the midbrain and cerebellar vermis. We previously reported evidence for reduced Fgf8 expression and FGF signaling in the mid-hindbrain region of embryos heterozygous for Chd7, the gene mutated in CHARGE (Coloboma, Heart defects, choanal Atresia, Retarded growth and development, Genitourinary anomalies and Ear defects syndrome. However, Chd7+/− animals only exhibit mild cerebellar vermis anomalies. As homozygous deletion of Chd7 is embryonic lethal, we conditionally deleted Chd7 from the early embryonic mid-hindbrain region to identify the function of CHD7 in mid-hindbrain development. Using a combination of high resolution structural MRI and histology, we report striking midbrain and cerebellar vermis hypoplasia in the homozygous conditional mutants. We show that cerebellar vermis hypoplasia is associated with reduced embryonic Fgf8 expression and an expanded roof plate in rhombomere 1 (r1. These findings identify an essential role for Chd7 in regulating mid-hindbrain development via Fgf8.

  12. High expression of hTERT and stemness genes in BORIS/CTCFL positive cells isolated from embryonic cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Alberti

    Full Text Available BORIS/CTCFL is a member of cancer testis antigen family normally expressed in germ cells. In tumors, it is aberrantly expressed although its functions are not completely well-defined. To better understand the functions of BORIS in cancer, we selected the embryonic cancer cells as a model. Using a molecular beacon, which specifically targets BORIS mRNA, we demonstrated that BORIS positive cells are a small subpopulation of tumor cells (3-5% of total. The BORIS-positive cells isolated using BORIS-molecular beacon, expressed higher telomerase hTERT, stem cell (NANOG, OCT4, SOX2 and cancer stem cell marker genes (CD44 and ALDH1 compared to the BORIS-negative tumor cells. In order to define the functional role of BORIS, stable BORIS-depleted embryonic cancer cells were generated. BORIS silencing strongly down-regulated the expression of hTERT, stem cell and cancer stem cell marker genes. Moreover, the BORIS knockdown increased cellular senescence in embryonic cancer cells, revealing a putative role of BORIS in the senescence biological program. Our data indicate an association of BORIS expressing cells subpopulation with the expression of stemness genes, highlighting the critical role played by BORIS in embryonic neoplastic disease.

  13. Alternatively spliced tissue factor is not sufficient for embryonic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna H M Sluka

    Full Text Available Tissue factor (TF triggers blood coagulation and is translated from two mRNA splice isoforms, encoding membrane-anchored full-length TF (flTF and soluble alternatively-spliced TF (asTF. The complete knockout of TF in mice causes embryonic lethality associated with failure of the yolk sac vasculature. Although asTF plays roles in postnatal angiogenesis, it is unknown whether it activates coagulation sufficiently or makes previously unrecognized contributions to sustaining integrity of embryonic yolk sac vessels. Using gene knock-in into the mouse TF locus, homozygous asTF knock-in (asTFKI mice, which express murine asTF in the absence of flTF, exhibited embryonic lethality between day 9.5 and 10.5. Day 9.5 homozygous asTFKI embryos expressed asTF protein, but no procoagulant activity was detectable in a plasma clotting assay. Although the α-smooth-muscle-actin positive mesodermal layer as well as blood islands developed similarly in day 8.5 wild-type or homozygous asTFKI embryos, erythrocytes were progressively lost from disintegrating yolk sac vessels of asTFKI embryos by day 10.5. These data show that in the absence of flTF, asTF expressed during embryonic development has no measurable procoagulant activity, does not support embryonic vessel stability by non-coagulant mechanisms, and fails to maintain a functional vasculature and embryonic survival.

  14. Establishment of embryonic shoot–root axis is involved in auxin and cytokinin response during Arabidopsis somatic embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Hua eSu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Auxin and cytokinin signaling participates in regulating a large spectrum of developmental and physiological processes in plants. The shoots and roots of plants have specific and sometimes even contrary responses to these hormones. Recent studies have clearly shown that establishing the spatiotemporal distribution of auxin and cytokinin response signals is central for the control of shoot apical meristem (SAM induction in cultured tissues. However, little is known about the role of these hormones in root apical meristem (RAM initiation. Here, we found that the expression patterns of several regulatory genes critical for RAM formation were correlated with the establishment of the embryonic root meristem during somatic embryogenesis in Arabidopsis. Interestingly, the early expression of the WUS-RELATED HOMEOBOX 5 (WOX5 and WUSCHEL (WUS genes was induced and was nearly overlapped within the embryonic callus when somatic embryos (SEs could not be identified morphologically. Their correct expression was essential for RAM and SAM initiation and embryonic shoot–root axis establishment. Furthermore, we analyzed the auxin and cytokinin response during SE initiation. Notably, cytokinin response signals were detected in specific regions that were correlated with induced WOX5 expression and subsequent SE formation. Overexpression of the ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATOR genes ARR7 and ARR15 (feedback repressors of cytokinin signaling, disturbed RAM initiation and SE induction. These results provide new information on auxin and cytokinin-regulated apical–basal polarity formation of shoot–root axis during somatic embryogenesis.

  15. Stem cell technologies: regulation, patents and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Then, Shih-Ning

    2004-11-01

    Human embryonic stem cell research promises to deliver in the future a whole range of therapeutic treatments, but currently governments in different jurisdictions must try to regulate this burgeoning area. Part of the problem has been, and continues to be, polarised community opinion on the use of human embryonic stem cells for research. This article compares the approaches of the Australian, United Kingdom and United States governments in regulating human embryonic stem cell research. To date, these governments have approached the issue through implementing legislation or policy to control research. Similarly, the three jurisdictions have viewed the patentability of human embryonic stem cell technologies in their own ways with different policies being adopted by the three patent offices. This article examines these different approaches and discusses the inevitable concerns that have been raised due to the lack of a universal approach in relation to the regulation of research; the patenting of stem cell technologies; and the effects patents granted are having on further human embryonic stem cell research.

  16. Molecular characterization of the insect immune protein hemolin and its high induction during embryonic diapause in the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.-Y. Lee; F. M. Horodyski; A. P. Valaitis; D. L. Denlinger

    2002-01-01

    During the embryonic (pharate first instar) diapause of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, a 55 kDa protein is highly up-regulated in the gut. We now identify that protein as hemolin, an immune protein in the immunoglobulin superfamily. We isolated a gypsy moth hemolin cDNA and demonstrated a high degree of similarity with hemolins from three other...

  17. Downregulation of histone methyltransferase genes SUV39H1 and SUV39H2 increases telomere length in embryonic stem-like cells and embryonic fibroblasts in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang-Nguyen, Thanh Quang; Haraguchi, Seiki; Furusawa, Tadashi; Somfai, Tamas; Kaneda, Masahiro; Watanabe, Shinya; Akagi, Satoshi; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro; Tajima, Atsushi; Nagai, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Telomere is a nucleoprotein structure at the ends of chromosomes that helps to protect the ends of chromosomes from being fused with other chromosomes. Knockout of histone methyltransferases Suv39h1 and Suv39h2 increases the telomere length in murine cells, whereas downregulation of SUV39H1 and SUV39H2 genes decreases the telomere length in human cells, suggesting that telomere biology is different among mammalian species. However, epigenetic regulation of the telomere has not been studied in mammals other than the human and mouse. In the present study, the effect of knockdown of SUV39H1 and SUV39H2 genes on telomere length was examined in porcine embryonic stem-like cells (pESLCs) and porcine embryonic fibroblasts (PEFs). The telomeres in SUV39H1 and SUV39H2 knockdown (SUV39KD) pESLCs (37.1 ± 0.9 kb) were longer (Ptelomeres (22.1 ± 0.4 kb; Ptelomere elongation in SUV39KD pESLCs and SUV39KD PEFs. Relative levels of trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 9 and expressions of DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B were decreased in SUV39KD cells, suggesting that telomere lengthening in SUV39KD pESLCs and SUV39KD PEFs might be not only related to the loss of histone modification marks but also linked to the decrease in DNA methyltransferase in pigs.

  18. Embryonic and genetic manipulation in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Z Y; Sun, Y H

    2000-03-01

    Fishes, the biggest and most diverse community in vertebrates are good experimental models for studies of cell and developmental biology by many favorable characteristics. Nuclear transplantation in fish has been thoroughly studied in China since 1960s. Fish nuclei of embryonic cells from different genera were transplanted into enucleated eggs generating nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrids of adults. Most importantly, nuclei of cultured goldfish kidney cells had been reprogrammed in enucleated eggs to support embryogenesis and ontogenesis of a fertile fish. This was the first case of cloned fish with somatic cells. Based on the technique of microinjection, recombinant MThGH gene has been transferred into fish eggs and the first batch of transgenic fish were produced in 1984. The behavior of foreign gene was characterized and the onset of the foreign gene replication occurred between the blastula to gastrula stages and random integration mainly occurred at later stages of embryogenesis. This eventually led to the transgenic mosaicism. The MThGH-transferred common carp enhanced growth rate by 2-4 times in the founder juveniles and doubled the body weight in the adults. The transgenic common carp were more efficient in utilizing dietary protein than the controls. An "all-fish" gene construct CAgcGH has been made by splicing the common carp beta-actin gene (CA) promoter onto the grass carp growth hormone gene (gcGH) coding sequence. The CAgcGH-transferred Yellow River Carp have also shown significantly fast-growth trait. Combination of techniques of fish cell culture, gene transformation with cultured cells and nuclear transplantation should be able to generate homogeneous strain of valuable transgenic fish to fulfil human requirement in 21st century.

  19. Immunostaining of dissected zebrafish embryonic heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingchun; Xu, Xiaolei

    2012-01-10

    Zebrafish embryo becomes a popular in vivo vertebrate model for studying cardiac development and human heart diseases due to its advantageous embryology and genetics. About 100-200 embryos are readily available every week from a single pair of adult fish. The transparent embryos that develop ex utero make them ideal for assessing cardiac defects. The expression of any gene can be manipulated via morpholino technology or RNA injection. Moreover, forward genetic screens have already generated a list of mutants that affect different perspectives of cardiogenesis. Whole mount immunostaining is an important technique in this animal model to reveal the expression pattern of the targeted protein to a particular tissue. However, high resolution images that can reveal cellular or subcellular structures have been difficult, mainly due to the physical location of the heart and the poor penetration of the antibodies. Here, we present a method to address these bottlenecks by dissecting heart first and then conducting the staining process on the surface of a microscope slide. To prevent the loss of small heart samples and to facilitate solution handling, we restricted the heart samples within a circle on the surface of the microscope slides drawn by an immEdge pen. After the staining, the fluorescence signals can be directly observed by a compound microscope. Our new method significantly improves the penetration for antibodies, since a heart from an embryonic fish only consists of few cell layers. High quality images from intact hearts can be obtained within a much reduced procession time for zebrafish embryos aged from day 2 to day 6. Our method can be potentially extended to stain other organs dissected from either zebrafish or other small animals. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Visualized Experiments

  20. Wnt-3a is critical for caudal embryonic development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camper, S.A.; Greco, T.L.; Newhouse, M.M. [Univ. of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Skeletal and neural tube defects represent an important class of birth defects. The majority of mouse mutants with neural tube defects also have malformations of the tail. Vestigial tail (vt) is an autosomal recessive mouse mutation characterized by reduction or absence of the tail, vertebral abnormalities, and reduced fertility. The phenotype has been described as the result of failure of cell migration through the primitive streak, causing abnormalities in the development of the neural tube and a reduction in the ventral ectodermal ridge. Wnt3a is an excellent candidate gene for vt because Wnt3a is expressed in the primitive streak and in the embryonic mesoderm, and it is thought to be involved in cell-to-cell communication and formation of the dorsal-ventral axis in the CNS. A lack of Wnt3a might be expected to result in overdorsalization of the neural tube and reduction of the ventral ectodermal ridge characteristic of vt/vt embryos. In a high resolution backcross segregating vt, we observed no recombination between vt and Wnt3a in 363 individuals analyzed. In vt/vt mice, Southern blot analysis revealed no abnormalities in the Wnt3a gene, and the Wnt3a cDNA sequence does not encode any amino acid changes. Whole mount in situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that Wnt3a expression is severely reduced in the developing tailbud of day 9.5 vt/vt embryos, suggestive of a lesion in the regulation on Wnt3a expression. An alleleism test, carried out by mating vt/vt males with Wnt3a +/Wnt3a- females, demonstrated that vt and Wnt3a are noncomplementing alleles. All of the compound heterozygotes exhibited severe tail defects, including occasional examples of hind limb parlaysis and spina bifida. The vertebral defects are intermediate between those of vt and Wnt3a homozygotes, suggesting that the concentration of Wnt3a correlates with the severity of the defect.

  1. Meteorin regulates mesendoderm development by enhancing nodal expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Young Kim

    Full Text Available During gastrulation, distinct lineage specification into three germ layers, the mesoderm, endoderm and ectoderm, occurs through an elaborate harmony between signaling molecules along the embryonic proximo-distal and anterior-posterior axes, and Nodal signaling plays a key role in the early embryonic development governing embryonic axis formation, mesoderm and endoderm specification, and left-right asymmetry determination. However, the mechanism by which Nodal expression is regulated is largely unknown. Here, we show that Meteorin regulates Nodal expression and is required for mesendoderm development. It is highly expressed in the inner cell mass of blastocysts and further in the epiblast and extra-embryonic ectoderm during gastrulation. Genetic ablation of the Meteorin gene resulted in early embryonic lethality, presumably due to impaired lineage allocation and subsequent cell accumulation. Embryoid body culture using Meteorin-null embryonic stem (ES cells showed reduced Nodal expression and concomitant impairment of mesendoderm specification. Meteorin-null embryos displayed reduced levels of Nodal transcripts before the gastrulation stage, and impaired expression of Goosecoid, a definitive endoderm marker, during gastrulation, while the proximo-distal and anterior-posterior axes and primitive streak formation were preserved. Our results show that Meteorin is a novel regulator of Nodal transcription and is required to maintain sufficient Nodal levels for endoderm formation, thereby providing new insights in the regulation of mesendoderm allocation.

  2. Changes in glycosaminoglycan structure on differentiation of human embryonic stem cells towards mesoderm and endoderm lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasimli, Leyla; Hickey, Anne Marie; Yang, Bo; Li, Guoyun; dela Rosa, Mitche; Nairn, Alison V; Kulik, Michael J; Dordick, Jonathan S; Moremen, Kelley W; Dalton, Stephen; Linhardt, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    Proteoglycans are found on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix, and serve as prime sites for interaction with signaling molecules. Proteoglycans help regulate pathways that control stem cell fate, and therefore represent an excellent tool to manipulate these pathways. Despite their importance, there is a dearth of data linking glycosaminoglycan structure within proteoglycans with stem cell differentiation. Human embryonic stem cell line WA09 (H9) was differentiated into early mesoderm and endoderm lineages, and the glycosaminoglycanomic changes accompanying these transitions were studied using transcript analysis, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence and disaccharide analysis. Pluripotent H9 cell lumican had no glycosaminoglycan chains whereas in splanchnic mesoderm lumican was glycosaminoglycanated. H9 cells have primarily non-sulfated heparan sulfate chains. On differentiation towards splanchnic mesoderm and hepatic lineages N-sulfo group content increases. Differences in transcript expression of NDST1, HS6ST2 and HS6ST3, three heparan sulfate biosynthetic enzymes, within splanchnic mesoderm cells compared to H9 cells correlate to changes in glycosaminoglycan structure. Differentiation of embryonic stem cells markedly changes the proteoglycanome. The glycosaminoglycan biosynthetic pathway is complex and highly regulated, and therefore, understanding the details of this pathway should enable better control with the aim of directing stem cell differentiation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ozz-E3 ubiquitin ligase targets sarcomeric embryonic myosin heavy chain during muscle development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvan Campos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Muscle contractile proteins are expressed as a series of developmental isoforms that are in constant dynamic remodeling during embryogenesis, but how obsolete molecules are recognized and removed is not known. Ozz is a developmentally regulated protein that functions as the adaptor component of a RING-type ubiquitin ligase complex specific to striated muscle. Ozz(-/- mutants exhibit defects in myofibrillogenesis and myofiber differentiation. Here we show that Ozz targets the rod portion of embryonic myosin heavy chain and preferentially recognizes the sarcomeric rather than the soluble pool of myosin. We present evidence that Ozz binding to the embryonic myosin isoform within sarcomeric thick filaments marks it for ubiquitination and proteolytic degradation, allowing its replacement with neonatal or adult isoforms. This unique function positions Ozz within a system that facilitates sarcomeric myosin remodeling during muscle maturation and regeneration. Our findings identify Ozz-E3 as the ubiquitin ligase complex that interacts with and regulates myosin within its fully assembled cytoskeletal structure.

  4. Stat3/Cdc25a-dependent cell proliferation promotes embryonic axis extension during zebrafish gastrulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinzi Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cell proliferation has generally been considered dispensable for anteroposterior extension of embryonic axis during vertebrate gastrulation. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3, a conserved controller of cell proliferation, survival and regeneration, is associated with human scoliosis, cancer and Hyper IgE Syndrome. Zebrafish Stat3 was proposed to govern convergence and extension gastrulation movements in part by promoting Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity (PCP signaling, a conserved regulator of mediolaterally polarized cell behaviors. Here, using zebrafish stat3 null mutants and pharmacological tools, we demonstrate that cell proliferation contributes to anteroposterior embryonic axis extension. Zebrafish embryos lacking maternal and zygotic Stat3 expression exhibit normal convergence movements and planar cell polarity signaling, but transient axis elongation defect due to insufficient number of cells resulting largely from reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. Pharmacologic inhibition of cell proliferation during gastrulation phenocopied axis elongation defects. Stat3 regulates cell proliferation and axis extension in part via upregulation of Cdc25a expression during oogenesis. Accordingly, restoring Cdc25a expression in stat3 mutants partially suppressed cell proliferation and gastrulation defects. During later development, stat3 mutant zebrafish exhibit stunted growth, scoliosis, excessive inflammation, and fail to thrive, affording a genetic tool to study Stat3 function in vertebrate development, regeneration, and disease.

  5. Rat embryonic fibroblasts immortalized by MRPS18-2 protein are target for NK-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Muhammad; Pangigadde, Pradeepa N; Darekar, Suhas; Dissen, Erik; Kashuba, Elena

    2017-09-12

    Overexpression of the human mitochondrial ribosomal protein MRPS18-2 (S18-2) led to immortalization of primary rat embryonic fibroblasts (REFs). The derived cells (18IM) expressed embryonic stem cell markers. Noteworthy, genes encoding the COX family proteins were up-regulated significantly. It is known that the COX family proteins are involved in the regulation of immune response. In the present work we demonstrate that 18IM cells behave like stem cells when subjected to directed differentiation in vitro. However, unlike stem cells, 18IM cells do not develop tumors in vivo, in SCID mice. This phenomenon is observed due to the strong natural killer (NK) cell immunogenicity. 18IM cells were better recognized by NK cells, compared with primary REFs, as was shown by a standard NK killing assay. Our data explain asymmetry in behavior of stem-like cells in vivo and in vitro, and this support the notion that stem and/or cancer-initiating cells are preferred targets for NK-cells. Concluding, the S18-2 protein is a putative target for cancer vaccines.

  6. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from Odin deficient mice display a hyperproliiferative phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Troels Zaccharias Glahn; Nielsen, Mogens Møller; Blagoev, Blagoy

    2004-01-01

    -induced mitogenesis in cell lines. To further investigate the role of Odin in growth factor receptor signaling and to elucidate its biological function in vivo, we have generated mice deficient in Odin by gene targeting. Odin-deficient mice do not display any obvious phenotype, and histological examination...... of the kidney, lung and liver does not show any major abnormalities as compared to wild-type controls. However, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) generated from Odin-deficient mice exhibit a hyperproliferative phenotype compared to wild-type-derived MEFs, consistent with its role as a negative regulator...... of growth factor receptor signaling. Our results confirm that although Odin expression in mice is not essential for any major developmental pathway, it could play a significant functional role to negatively regulate growth factor receptor signaling pathways....

  7. Transcription factor network in embryonic stem cells: heterogeneity under the stringency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai-Futatsugi, Yoko; Niwa, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) signaling regulates transcription factors to maintain the self-renewability and pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) cells. Recently, we have proposed a network model that consists of transcription factors such as, Klf4, Sox2, Tbx3, Nanog, and Oct3/4, which form a parallel pathway downstream from LIF signaling (Nature, 460, 2009, Niwa et al.). In this parallel pathway, the transcription factors maintain the pluripotency of ES cells through mutual balance with some degree of redundancy and compensation. While self-renewability and pluripotency are maintained well under such seemingly stringent regulation, studies of single cells revealed heterogeneity among individual ES cells. This heterogeneity may underlie the mechanism that allows ES cells to exit self-renewal and enter into differentiation to exert pluripotency. Here we focus on recent studies on the heterogeneity of ES cells and discuss their inherent metastability.

  8. Embryonic retinal cells and support to mature retinal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanke, Jennifer J; Fischer, Andy J

    2010-04-01

    Purpose. There is a paucity of neuron replacement studies for retinal ganglion cells. Given the complex phenotype of these neurons, replacement of ganglion cells may be impossible. However, transplanted embryonic cells could provide factors that promote the survival of these neurons. The authors sought to determine whether transplanted embryonic retinal cells from various stages of development influence the survival of mature ganglion cells Methods. Acutely dissociated retinal cells, obtained from chick embryos, were transplanted into the vitreous chamber of posthatch chicken eyes after the ganglion cells were selectively damaged. Eight days after transplantation, numbers of ganglion cells were determined Results. Embryonic retinal cells from embryonic day (E)7, E10, and E11 promoted the survival of ganglion cells, whereas cells from earlier or later stages of development or from other tissue sources did not. The environment provided by the posthatch eye did not support the proliferation of the embryo-derived cells, unlike the environment provided by culture conditions. Furthermore, cells that migrated into the retina failed to express neuronal or glial markers; those that remained in the vitreous formed aggregates of neuronal and glial cells Conclusions. The environment provided within the mature retina does not support the differentiation and proliferation of retinal progenitors. Furthermore, embryo-derived cells likely produce secreted factors that promote the survival of damaged ganglion cells. Therefore, embryonic retinal cells could be applied as a cell-based survival therapy to treat neurodegenerative diseases of the retina.

  9. The ethics of patenting human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Audrey R

    2009-09-01

    Just as human embryonic stem cell research has generated controversy about the uses of human embryos for research and therapeutic applications, human embryonic stem cell patents raise fundamental ethical issues. The United States Patent and Trademark Office has granted foundational patents, including a composition of matter (or product) patent to the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF), the University of Wisconsin-Madison's intellectual property office. In contrast, the European Patent Office rejected the same WARF patent application for ethical reasons. This article assesses the appropriateness of these patents placing the discussion in the context of the deontological and consequentialist ethical issues related to human embryonic stem cell patenting. It advocates for a patent system that explicitly takes ethical factors into account and explores options for new types of intellectual property arrangements consistent with ethical concerns.

  10. Impact of nutritional stress on early embryonic survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanta Mondal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low reproductive efficiency is the most critical problem faced by the livestock industry across the globe. Early embryonic loss is one the major cause of poor reproductive efficiency resulting in delayed pregnancy, fewer calves born, reduced milk production, slower genetic progress and substantial financial loss to the beef or dairy industry. The establishment of pregnancy results from the interaction between the embryo and the dam and is the culmination of a series of events initiated with development of the follicle and gametes. Among numerous internal and external factors nutrition has the potency to alter the micro-environment of the oocyte and the embryo, making it more hostile to optimal fertilization and pre-implantation embryonic growth. Understanding the impact of nutritional stress on oocyte function, embryo development and reciprocal signaling networks between the embryo and uterus will lead to alleviation of the problems of early embryonic mortality.

  11. Ultrasonographic appearance of early embryonic mortality in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Catone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic mortality is one of the main causes responsible of the decline in fertility that occurs in buffaloes during periods of increasing daylight length (out sexual breeding season. Transrectal ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis offers some advantages over palpation per rectum: earlier diagnosis of pregnancy/non-pregnancy, determination of embryo/fetus viability, reduction of misdiagnosis, and reduction of .potential. iatrogenic embryo/fetal attrition. Non pregnant buffaloes on Day 25 after AI showed higher Resistive Index (RI (P<0.05 and Pulsatility Index (P=0.07 values, registered on CL on Days 10 after AI, compared to pregnant buffaloes. RI values were significantly higher (P=0.02 in non pregnant buffaloes also on Day 45 after AI. Colour Doppler sonography could be used to gain specific information relating to the ovarian blood flow in predicting early embryonic loss and to describe the ultrasonographic features of early embryonic death in buffaloes.

  12. Vestibular dysfunction in a child with embryonic exposure to accutane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerman, S T; Gilbert, L M; Schondel, L

    1994-05-01

    Children with a history of embryonic exposure to Accutane (isotretinoin) are at great risk for major physical malformations, brain malformations, and decreased intelligence. A case is presented of a 4-year 7-month-old black male with a history of embryonic exposure to Accutane who was born with embryopathy that includes bilateral major ear deformities. The child has a significant bilateral conductive hearing loss, and, in addition, a left sided sensorineural loss. Vestibular function testing revealed evidence of peripheral and central vestibular dysfunction. A course of diphenhydramine hydrochloride and Donnatal (phenobarbital, hyoscyamine sulfate, atropine sulfate, and scopolamine hydrobromide) significantly alleviated the symptoms of vestibular dysfunction. Otologic management of these children should include clinical documentation of the external deformities, evaluation of cochlear function, and early auditory habilitation. Vestibular function should also be evaluated in all children with a history of embryonic exposure to isotretinoin.

  13. Sertad1 encodes a novel transcriptional co-activator of SMAD1 in mouse embryonic hearts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Yin [Department of Genetics, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Zhao, Shaomin [Department of Genetics, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069 (China); Song, Langying [Department of Genetics, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Wang, Manyuan [School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069 (China); Jiao, Kai, E-mail: kjiao@uab.edu [Department of Genetics, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •SERTAD1 interacts with SMAD1. •Sertad1 is expressed in mouse embryonic hearts. •SERTAD1 is localized in both cytoplasm and nucleus of cardiomyocytes. •SERTAD1 enhances expression of BMP target cardiogenic genes as a SMAD1 co-activator. -- Abstract: Despite considerable advances in surgical repairing procedures, congenital heart diseases (CHDs) remain the leading noninfectious cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Understanding the molecular/genetic mechanisms underlying normal cardiogenesis will provide essential information for the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies against CHDs. BMP signaling plays complex roles in multiple cardiogenic processes in mammals. SMAD1 is a canonical nuclear mediator of BMP signaling, the activity of which is critically regulated through its interaction partners. We screened a mouse embryonic heart yeast two-hybrid library using Smad1 as bait and identified SERTAD1 as a novel interaction partner of SMAD1. SERTAD1 contains multiple potential functional domains, including two partially overlapping transactivation domains at the C terminus. The SERTAD1-SMAD1 interaction in vitro and in mammalian cells was further confirmed through biochemical assays. The expression of Sertad1 in developing hearts was demonstrated using RT-PCR, western blotting and in situ hybridization analyses. We also showed that SERTAD1 was localized in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of immortalized cardiomyocytes and primary embryonic cardiomyocyte cultures. The overexpression of SERTAD1 in cardiomyocytes not only enhanced the activity of two BMP reporters in a dose-dependent manner but also increased the expression of several known BMP/SMAD regulatory targets. Therefore, these data suggest that SERTAD1 acts as a SMAD1 transcriptional co-activator to promote the expression of BMP target genes during mouse cardiogenesis.

  14. Inhibition of polyamine synthesis causes entry of the mouse blastocyst into embryonic diapause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenelon, Jane C; Murphy, Bruce D

    2017-07-01

    Embryonic diapause is a common reproductive strategy amongst mammals, requiring an intimate cross-talk between the endometrium and the blastocyst. To date, the precise molecular signals responsible are unknown in the mouse or any other mammal. Previous studies in the mink implicate polyamines as major regulators of the control of diapause. In the mouse, inhibiting the rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine synthesis, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1) during early pregnancy largely prevents implantation, but the fate of the nonimplanted embryos is unknown. To determine whether polyamines control mouse embryonic diapause, we treated pregnant mice with an ODC1 inhibitor from d3.5 to d6.5 postcoitum. At d7.5, 72% of females had no signs of implantation whilst the remaining females exhibited disrupted placental formation and degenerate embryos. In the females with no implantation, we obtained viable blastocysts that had attenuated cell proliferation, indicating a state of diapause. When cultured in vitro, these exhibited trophoblast outgrowth, indicative of reactivation of embryogenesis. In contrast, direct culture of d3.5 blastocysts with an ODC1 inhibitor failed to cause entry into diapause. Examination of the polyamine pathway enzymes and a number of implantation factors indicated inhibition of ODC1 resulted in a uterine phenotype that resembled diapause, with some compensatory increases in crucial genes. Thus, we conclude that an absence or paucity of polyamines induces the uterine quiescence that causes entry of the blastocyst into embryonic diapause. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The impact of caffeine on connexin expression in the embryonic chick cardiomyocyte micromass culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahir, Bhavesh K; Pratten, Margaret K

    2016-07-01

    Cardiomyocytes are electrically coupled by gap junctions, defined as clusters of low-resistance multisubunit transmembrane channels composed of connexins (Cxs). The expression of Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45, which are present in cardiomyocytes, is known to be developmentally regulated. This study investigates the premise that alterations in gap junction proteins are one of the mechanisms by which teratogens may act. Specifically, those molecules known to be teratogenic in humans could cause their effects via disruption of cell-to-cell communication pathways, resulting in an inability to co-ordinate tissue development. Caffeine significantly inhibited contractile activity at concentrations above and including 1500 μm (P cell viability and total protein, in the embryonic chick cardiomyocyte micromass culture system. The effects of caffeine on key cardiac gap junction protein (Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45) expression were analysed using immunocytochemistry and in-cell Western blotting. The results indicated that caffeine altered the expression pattern of Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45 at non-cytotoxic concentrations (≥2000 μm), i.e., at concentrations that did not affect total cell protein and cell viability. In addition the effects of caffeine on cardiomyocyte formation and function (contractile activity score) were correlated with modulation of Cxs (Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45) expression, at above and including 2000 μm caffeine concentrations (P < 0.05). These experiments provide evidence that embryonic chick cardiomyocyte micromass culture may be a useful in vitro method for mechanistic studies of perturbation of embryonic heart development. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes: diagnostic tools update and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccom, Johnatan; Bourdeaut, Franck; Loukh, Najat; Rigau, Valerie; Milin, Serge; Takin, Romulus; Richer, Wilfrid; Uro-Coste, Emmanuelle; Couturier, Jerome; Bertozzi, Anne Isabelle; Delattre, Olivier; Delisle, Marie Bernadette

    2014-01-01

    Embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes (ETMR), including embryonal tumor with abundant neuropil and true rosettes (ETANTR), and ependymoblastoma (EBL) constitute a distinct entity of the primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) family. The presence of a focal amplification at chromosome region 19q13.42 associated with an up-regulation of the oncogenic miRNA cluster C19MC suggests that they may represent a histological spectrum of a single biological entity. Their histopathological spectrum is wide, including medulloepithelioma, their location may be supra- or infra-tentorial, their prognosis is poor. Recent data on molecular subgroups of PNETs have led to new insights on diagnosis and treatment of these tumors. Subsequently, LIN28A immunoexpression was identified as a highly specific marker for ETMR. In this study, we report 4 cases diagnosed initially as ETANTR with CGH-array data, including 19q13.42 gain with absence of other amplicons, particularly of the MYC gene family, and inconstant gain of whole chromosome 2. Immunohistochemical positive expression of LIN28A and absence of Olig2 expression were observed. We summarize the literature on ETMR, pointing out on the nosological evolution of this entity and the findings on genetic hallmarks of this particular tumor. Our results emphasize the usefulness of immunohistochemistry as a highly sensitive and fast diagnostic tool for ETMR and for genetic data, especially for 19q13.42 locus. Biological features may offer new therapeutic options for these embryonal tumors that do not usually respond to conventional treatments of PNETs.

  17. Ovarian cycle and embryonic development in Gammarus fossarum: application for reproductive toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffard, Olivier; Xuereb, Benoit; Chaumot, Arnaud; Geffard, Alain; Biagianti, Sylvie; Noël, Claire; Abbaci, Khedidja; Garric, Jeanne; Charmantier, Guy; Charmantier-Daures, Mireille

    2010-10-01

    Among freshwater invertebrates, Gammarus fossarum is an important test organism and is currently used in ecotoxicology for acute and chronic assays; nevertheless, reproductive toxicity test methods are not yet available for these species. In the present study, the reproductive cycle in Gammarus fossarum was characterized in order to propose a reproductive toxicity test encompassing molting, follicle growth, and embryonic development that will provide a better understanding of the mode of action of chemicals disrupting these hormone-regulated processes. A detailed description of the reproductive cycle in Gammarus fossarum was obtained. As in some amphipods, molt and reproductive cycles of G. fossarum females occur concurrently, lasting 30 d at 12°C. Each molt stage is characterized by a specific marsupial embryonic development stage and the size of developing follicles visible on the ovarian membrane. Based on these results, a 21-d reproductive toxicity test is proposed for this species. This new bioassay was applied to identify the specific impact of different stressors: cadmium, methomyl, nonylphenol, and a starvation diet. Good reproducibility was obtained for different endpoints under control conditions and throughout the experiments. Preliminary robust reference values or benchmarks were proposed for these endpoints. Cadmium was found to specially inhibit secondary vitellogenesis. Nonylphenol had a specific concentration-dependent effect on embryonic development, with an increase in the percent abnormality from a concentration of 0.05 µg/L. A restricted food diet led to a significant delay in the molt cycle, which in turn induced inhibition of secondary vitellogenesis. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:2249-2259. © 2010 SETAC.

  18. Phenotypic defects in newborn Gammarus fossarum (Amphipoda) following embryonic exposure to fenoxycarb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arambourou, Hélène; Chaumot, Arnaud; Vulliet, Emmanuelle; Daniele, Gaëlle; Delorme, Nicolas; Abbaci, Khédidja; Debat, Vincent

    2017-10-01

    During morphogenesis numerous morphogenetic factors ensure the production of a target phenotype. By disrupting these processes, a toxic exposure during this period could cause an increase of phenotypic defects. In the present study, embryos of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus fossarum were exposed throughout the embryogenesis to increasing concentrations of fenoxycarb (0, 0.5µgL -1 , 5µgL -1 and 50µgL -1 ), a growth regulator insecticide analog of the insect juvenile hormone. In addition, to identify morphogenesis' sensitive period, embryos were exposed during either early or late embryonic development to 5µgL -1 of fenoxycarb. In newborn individuals from exposed embryos, three phenotypes were investigated: i) eye pigmentation, ii) length of the antenna and gnathopod of both left and right sides and iii) midgut tissue state. Developmental homeostasis was assessed by measuring fluctuating asymmetry and inter-individual variance of both the antenna and gnathopod. Exposure to 5µgL -1 and 50µgL -1 fenoxycarb throughout the embryonic development induced a delayed hatching and altered appendages size. Moreover, exposure to 5µgL -1 throughout the embryogenesis and during the gastrulation phase impaired eye pigmentation, while exposure to 50µgL -1 resulted in increased tissue damages of the midgut. No significant increase of fluctuating asymmetry was observed in exposed individuals, neither for the antenna nor for the gnathopod. These results demonstrate that fenoxycarb can alter embryonic development of G. fossarum without disrupting developmental homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Differentiation of Adipocytes in Monolayer from Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuaranta-Monroy, Ixchelt; Simandi, Zoltan; Nagy, Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and its comorbidity incidence have increased worldwide during the past 10 years. In consequence, researchers have drawn their attention to the understanding of adipocyte differentiation. Several cellular model systems have been established; however no efficient protocol could be developed so far to differentiate the pluripotent embryonic stem cells to adipocytes. In this chapter, we describe a detailed protocol that is optimized for mouse embryonic stem cells. The result of this differentiation is a homogenous adipocyte monolayer culture that can be used for several applications including developmental and pharmacological research.

  20. Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells into Ventral Foregut Precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothová, Michaela; Hölzenspies, Jurriaan J; Livigni, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Anterior definitive endoderm (ADE), the ventral foregut precursor, is both an important embryonic signaling center and a unique multipotent precursor of liver, pancreas, and other organs. Here, a method is described for the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to definitive...... endoderm with pronounced anterior character. ADE-containing cultures can be produced in vitro by suspension (embryoid body) culture or in a serum-free adherent monolayer culture. ESC-derived ADE cells are committed to endodermal fates and can undergo further differentiation in vitro towards ventral foregut...

  1. Gene-regulatory interactions in embryonic stem cells represent cell-type specific gene regulatory programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Misook; Hong, Soondo

    2017-10-13

    Pluripotency, the ability of embryonic stem cells to differentiate into specialized cell types, is determined by ESC-specific gene regulators such as transcription factors and chromatin modification factors. It is not well understood how ESCs are poised for differentiation, however, and methods are needed for prognosis of the molecular changes in the differentiation of ESCs into specific organs. We describe a new approach to infer cell-type specific gene regulatory programs based on gene regulatory interactions in ESCs. Our method infers the molecular logic of gene regulatory mechanisms by mapping the position-specific combinatory patterns of numerous regulators in ESCs into cell-type specific gene regulations. We validate the proposed approach by recapitulating the RNA-seq and microarray data of neuronal progenitor cells, adult liver cells, and ESCs from the integrated patterns of diverse gene regulators in ESCs. We find that the collective functions of diverse gene regulators in ESCs represent distinct gene regulatory programs in specialized cell types. Our new approach expands our understanding of the differential gene regulatory information in developments encoded in regulatory networks of ESCs. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. Somatic donor cell type correlates with embryonic, but not extra-embryonic, gene expression in postimplantation cloned embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryutaro Hirasawa

    Full Text Available The great majority of embryos generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT display defined abnormal phenotypes after implantation, such as an increased likelihood of death and abnormal placentation. To gain better insight into the underlying mechanisms, we analyzed genome-wide gene expression profiles of day 6.5 postimplantation mouse embryos cloned from three different cell types (cumulus cells, neonatal Sertoli cells and fibroblasts. The embryos retrieved from the uteri were separated into embryonic (epiblast and extraembryonic (extraembryonic ectoderm and ectoplacental cone tissues and were subjected to gene microarray analysis. Genotype- and sex-matched embryos produced by in vitro fertilization were used as controls. Principal component analysis revealed that whereas the gene expression patterns in the embryonic tissues varied according to the donor cell type, those in extraembryonic tissues were relatively consistent across all groups. Within each group, the embryonic tissues had more differentially expressed genes (DEGs (>2-fold vs. controls than did the extraembryonic tissues (P<1.0 × 10(-26. In the embryonic tissues, one of the common abnormalities was upregulation of Dlk1, a paternally imprinted gene. This might be a potential cause of the occasional placenta-only conceptuses seen in SCNT-generated mouse embryos (1-5% per embryos transferred in our laboratory, because dysregulation of the same gene is known to cause developmental failure of embryos derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. There were also some DEGs in the extraembryonic tissues, which might explain the poor development of SCNT-derived placentas at early stages. These findings suggest that SCNT affects the embryonic and extraembryonic development differentially and might cause further deterioration in the embryonic lineage in a donor cell-specific manner. This could explain donor cell-dependent variations in cloning efficiency using SCNT.

  3. Canonical Wnt signaling promotes early hematopoietic progenitor formation and erythroid specification during embryonic stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafdar, Anuradha; Dobbin, Edwina; Corrigan, Pamela; Freeburn, Robin; Wheadon, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The generation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during development is a complex process linked to morphogenic signals. Understanding this process is important for regenerative medicine applications that require in vitro production of HSC. In this study we investigated the effects of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling during early embryonic differentiation and hematopoietic specification using an embryonic stem cell system. Our data clearly demonstrates that following early differentiation induction, canonical Wnt signaling induces a strong mesodermal program whilst maintaining a degree of stemness potential. This involved a complex interplay between β-catenin/TCF/LEF/Brachyury/Nanog. β-catenin mediated up-regulation of TCF/LEF resulted in enhanced brachyury levels, which in-turn lead to Nanog up-regulation. During differentiation, active canonical Wnt signaling also up-regulated key transcription factors and cell specific markers essential for hematopoietic specification, in particular genes involved in establishing primitive erythropoiesis. This led to a significant increase in primitive erythroid colony formation. β-catenin signaling also augmented early hematopoietic and multipotent progenitor (MPP) formation. Following culture in a MPP specific cytokine cocktail, activation of β-catenin suppressed differentiation of the early hematopoietic progenitor population, with cells displaying a higher replating capacity and a propensity to form megakaryocytic erythroid progenitors. This bias towards erythroid lineage commitment was also observed when hematopoietic progenitors were directed to undergo myeloid colony formation. Overall this study underscores the importance of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling in mesodermal specification, primitive erythropoiesis and early hematopietic progenitor formation during hematopoietic induction.

  4. Canonical Wnt signaling promotes early hematopoietic progenitor formation and erythroid specification during embryonic stem cell differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Tarafdar

    Full Text Available The generation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs during development is a complex process linked to morphogenic signals. Understanding this process is important for regenerative medicine applications that require in vitro production of HSC. In this study we investigated the effects of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling during early embryonic differentiation and hematopoietic specification using an embryonic stem cell system. Our data clearly demonstrates that following early differentiation induction, canonical Wnt signaling induces a strong mesodermal program whilst maintaining a degree of stemness potential. This involved a complex interplay between β-catenin/TCF/LEF/Brachyury/Nanog. β-catenin mediated up-regulation of TCF/LEF resulted in enhanced brachyury levels, which in-turn lead to Nanog up-regulation. During differentiation, active canonical Wnt signaling also up-regulated key transcription factors and cell specific markers essential for hematopoietic specification, in particular genes involved in establishing primitive erythropoiesis. This led to a significant increase in primitive erythroid colony formation. β-catenin signaling also augmented early hematopoietic and multipotent progenitor (MPP formation. Following culture in a MPP specific cytokine cocktail, activation of β-catenin suppressed differentiation of the early hematopoietic progenitor population, with cells displaying a higher replating capacity and a propensity to form megakaryocytic erythroid progenitors. This bias towards erythroid lineage commitment was also observed when hematopoietic progenitors were directed to undergo myeloid colony formation. Overall this study underscores the importance of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling in mesodermal specification, primitive erythropoiesis and early hematopietic progenitor formation during hematopoietic induction.

  5. Mechanosensitivity of Embryonic Neurites Promotes Their Directional Extension and Schwann Cells Progenitors Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Rosso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Migration of Schwann cells (SCs progenitors and neurite outgrowth from embryonic dorsal root ganglions (DRGs are two central events during the development of the peripheral nervous system (PNS. How these two enthralling events preceding myelination are promoted is of great relevance from basic research and clinical aspects alike. Recent evidence demonstrates that biophysical cues (extracellular matrix stiffness and biochemical signaling act in concert to regulate PNS myelination. Microenvironment stiffness of SCs progenitors and embryonic neurites dynamically changes during development. Methods: DRG explants were isolated from day 12.5 to 13.5 mice embryos and plated on laminin-coated substrates with varied stiffness values. After 4 days in culture and immunostaining with specific markers, neurite outgrowth pattern, SCs progenitors migration, and growth cone shape and advance were analyzed with confocal fluorescence microscopy. Results: We found out that growing substrate stiffness promotes directional neurite outgrowth, SCs progenitors migration, growth cone advance and presumably axons fasciculation. Conclusions: DRG explants are in vitro models for the research of PNS development, myelination and regeneration. Consequently, we conclude the following: Our observations point out the importance of mechanosensitivity for the PNS. At the same time, they prompt the investigation of the important yet unclear links between PNS biomechanics and inherited neuropathies with myelination disorders such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies. Finally, they encourage the consideration of mechanosensitivity in bioengineering of scaffolds to aid nerve regeneration after injury.

  6. Deciphering the Epigenetic Code in Embryonic and Dental Pulp Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayarsaihan, Dashzeveg

    2016-12-01

    A close cooperation between chromatin states, transcriptional modulation, and epigenetic modifications is required for establishing appropriate regulatory circuits underlying self-renewal and differentiation of adult and embryonic stem cells. A growing body of research has established that the epigenome topology provides a structural framework for engaging genes in the non-random chromosomal interactions to orchestrate complex processes such as cell-matrix interactions, cell adhesion and cell migration during lineage commitment. Over the past few years, the functional dissection of the epigenetic landscape has become increasingly important for understanding gene expression dynamics in stem cells naturally found in most tissues. Adult stem cells of the human dental pulp hold great promise for tissue engineering, particularly in the skeletal and tooth regenerative medicine. It is therefore likely that progress towards pulp regeneration will have a substantial impact on the clinical research. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding epigenetic cues that have evolved to regulate the pluripotent differentiation potential of embryonic stem cells and the lineage determination of developing dental pulp progenitors.

  7. Silica Nanoparticles Target a Wnt Signal Transducer for Degradation and Impair Embryonic Development in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hongyang; Wang, Zhuyao; Li, Xiaojiao; Yin, Min; Wang, Lihua; Aldalbahi, Ali; El-Sayed, Nahed Nasser; Wang, Hui; Chen, Nan; Fan, Chunhai; Song, Haiyun

    2016-01-01

    Many types of biocompatible nanomaterials have proven of low cytotoxicity and hold great promise for various applications in nanomedicine. Whereas they generally do not cause apparent organ toxicity or tissue damage in adult animals, it is yet to determine their biological consequences in more general contexts. In this study, we investigate how silica nanoparticles (NPs) affect cellular activities and functions under several physiological or pathological conditions. Although silica NPs are generally regarded as "inert" nanocarriers and widely employed in biomedical studies, we find that they actively affect Wnt signaling in various types of cell lines, diminishing its anti-adipogenic effect in preadipocytes and pro-invasive effect in breast cancer cells, and more significantly, impair Wnt-regulated embryonic development in Zebrafish. We further demonstrate that intracellular silica NPs block Wnt signal transduction in a way resembling signaling molecules. Specifically, silica NPs target the Dvl protein, a key component of Wnt signaling cascade, for lysosomal degradation. As Wnt signaling play significant roles in embryonic development and adipogenesis, the observed physiological effects beyond toxicity imply potential risk of obesity, or developmental defects in somitogenesis and osteogenesis upon exposure to silica NPs. In addition, given the clinical implications of Wnt signaling in tumorigenesis and cancer metastasis, our work also establishes for the first time a molecular link between nanomaterials and the Wnt signaling pathway, which opens new door for novel applications of unmodified silica NPs in targeted therapy for cancers and other critical illness.

  8. Semaphorin-1a is required for Aedes aegypti embryonic nerve cord development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Haugen

    Full Text Available Although mosquito genome projects have uncovered orthologues of many known developmental regulatory genes, extremely little is known about mosquito development. In this study, the role of semaphorin-1a (sema1a was investigated during vector mosquito embryonic ventral nerve cord development. Expression of sema1a and the plexin A (plexA receptor are detected in the embryonic ventral nerve cords of Aedes aegypti (dengue vector and Anopheles gambiae (malaria vector, suggesting that Sema1a signaling may regulate mosquito nervous system development. Analysis of sema1a function was investigated through siRNA-mediated knockdown in A. aegypti embryos. Knockdown of sema1a during A. aegypti development results in a number of nerve cord phenotypes, including thinning, breakage, and occasional fusion of the longitudinal connectives, thin or absent commissures, and general distortion of the nerve cord. Although analysis of Drosophila melanogaster sema1a loss-of-function mutants uncovered many similar phenotypes, aspects of the longitudinal phenotypes differed between D. melanogaster and A. aegypti. The results of this investigation suggest that Sema1a is required for development of the insect ventral nerve cord, but that the developmental roles of this guidance molecule have diverged in dipteran insects.

  9. Bivalent Chromatin Marks Developmental Regulatory Genes in the Mouse Embryonic Germline In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Sachs

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Developmental regulatory genes have both activating (H3K4me3 and repressive (H3K27me3 histone modifications in embryonic stem cells (ESCs. This bivalent configuration is thought to maintain lineage commitment programs in a poised state. However, establishing physiological relevance has been complicated by the high number of cells required for chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP. We developed a low-cell-number chromatin immunoprecipitation (low-cell ChIP protocol to investigate the chromatin of mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs. Genome-wide analysis of embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5 PGCs revealed H3K4me3/H3K27me3 bivalent domains highly enriched at developmental regulatory genes in a manner remarkably similar to ESCs. Developmental regulators remain bivalent and transcriptionally silent through the initiation of sexual differentiation at E13.5. We also identified >2,500 “orphan” bivalent domains that are distal to known genes and expressed in a tissue-specific manner but silent in PGCs. Our results demonstrate the existence of bivalent domains in the germline and raise the possibility that the somatic program is continuously maintained as bivalent, potentially imparting transgenerational epigenetic inheritance.

  10. Progesterone increases dopamine neurone number in differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, N F; Díaz-Martínez, N E; Velasco, I; Camacho-Arroyo, I

    2009-08-01

    Progesterone participates in the regulation of several functions in mammals, including brain differentiation and dopaminergic transmission, but the role of progesterone in dopaminergic cell differentiation is unknown. We investigated the effects of progesterone on dopaminergic differentiation of embryonic stem cells using a five-stage protocol. Cells were incubated with different progesterone concentrations during the proliferation (stage 4) or differentiation (stage 5) phases. Progesterone added at 1, 10 and 100 nm during stage 4 increased the number of dopamine neurones at stage 5 by 72%, 80% and 62%, respectively, compared to the control group. The administration of progesterone at stage 5 did not induce significant changes in the number of dopamine neurones. These actions were not mediated by the activation of intracellular progesterone receptors because RU 486 did not block the positive effects of progesterone on differentiation to dopaminergic neurones. The results obtained suggest that progesterone should prove useful with respect to producing higher proportions of dopamine neurones from embryonic stem cells in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  11. From pluripotency to forebrain patterning: an in vitro journey astride embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Giuseppe; Bertacchi, Michele; Carucci, Nicoletta; Augusti-Tocco, Gabriella; Biagioni, Stefano; Cremisi, Federico

    2014-08-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have been used extensively as in vitro models of neural development and disease, with special efforts towards their conversion into forebrain progenitors and neurons. The forebrain is the most complex brain region, giving rise to several fundamental structures, such as the cerebral cortex, the hypothalamus, and the retina. Due to the multiplicity of signaling pathways playing different roles at distinct times of embryonic development, the specification and patterning of forebrain has been difficult to study in vivo. Research performed on ESCs in vitro has provided a large body of evidence to complement work in model organisms, but these studies have often been focused more on cell type production than on cell fate regulation. In this review, we systematically reassess the current literature in the field of forebrain development in mouse and human ESCs with a focus on the molecular mechanisms of early cell fate decisions, taking into consideration the specific culture conditions, exogenous and endogenous molecular cues as described in the original studies. The resulting model of early forebrain induction and patterning provides a useful framework for further studies aimed at reconstructing forebrain development in vitro for basic research or therapy.

  12. Functional Role of Mst1/Mst2 in Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Chen, Ying; Mak, Kinglun Kingston; Wong, Chun Kwok; Wang, Chi Chiu; Yuan, Ping

    2013-01-01

    The Hippo pathway is an evolutionary conserved pathway that involves cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and organ size regulation. Mst1 and Mst2 are central components of this pathway that are essential for embryonic development, though their role in controlling embryonic stem cells (ES cells) has yet to be exploited. To further understand the Mst1/Mst2 function in ES cell pluripotency and differentiation, we derived Mst1/Mst2 double knockout (Mst-/-) ES cells to completely perturb Hippo signaling. We found that Mst-/- ES cells express higher level of Nanog than wild type ES cells and show differentiation resistance after LIF withdrawal. They also proliferate faster than wild type ES cells. Although Mst-/- ES cells can form embryoid bodies (EBs), their differentiation into tissues of three germ layers is distorted. Intriguingly, Mst-/- ES cells are unable to form teratoma. Mst-/- ES cells can differentiate into mesoderm lineage, but further differentiation to cardiac lineage cells is significantly affected. Microarray analysis revealed that ligands of non-canonical Wnt signaling, which is critical for cardiac progenitor specification, are significantly repressed in Mst-/- EBs. Taken together our results showed that Mst1/Mst2 are required for proper cardiac lineage cell development and teratoma formation. PMID:24224013

  13. Dual Function of Wnt Signaling during Neuronal Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanjun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation of Wnt signaling enhances self-renewal of mouse embryonic and neural stem/progenitor cells. In contrast, undifferentiated ES cells show a very low level of endogenous Wnt signaling, and ectopic activation of Wnt signaling has been shown to block neuronal differentiation. Therefore, it remains unclear whether or not endogenous Wnt/β-catenin signaling is necessary for self-renewal or neuronal differentiation of ES cells. To investigate this, we examined the expression profiles of Wnt signaling components. Expression levels of Wnts known to induce β-catenin were very low in undifferentiated ES cells. Stable ES cell lines which can monitor endogenous activity of Wnt/β-catenin signaling suggest that Wnt signaling was very low in undifferentiated ES cells, whereas it increased during embryonic body formation or neuronal differentiation. Interestingly, application of small molecules which can positively (BIO, GSK3β inhibitor or negatively (IWR-1-endo, Axin stabilizer control Wnt/β-catenin signaling suggests that activation of that signaling at different time periods had differential effects on neuronal differentiation of 46C ES cells. Further, ChIP analysis suggested that β-catenin/TCF1 complex directly regulated the expression of Sox1 during neuronal differentiation. Overall, our data suggest that Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays differential roles at different time points of neuronal differentiation.

  14. Loss of p53 Ser18 and Atm results in embryonic lethality without cooperation in tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L Armata

    Full Text Available Phosphorylation at murine Serine 18 (human Serine 15 is a critical regulatory process for the tumor suppressor function of p53. p53Ser18 residue is a substrate for ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM and ATM-related (ATR protein kinases. Studies of mice with a germ-line mutation that replaces Ser18 with Ala (p53(S18A mice have demonstrated that loss of phosphorylation of p53Ser18 leads to the development of tumors, including lymphomas, fibrosarcomas, leukemia and leiomyosarcomas. The predominant lymphoma is B-cell lymphoma, which is in contrast to the lymphomas observed in Atm(-/- animals. This observation and the fact that multiple kinases phosphorylate p53Ser18 suggest Atm-independent tumor suppressive functions of p53Ser18. Therefore, in order to examine p53Ser18 function in relationship to ATM, we analyzed the lifespan and tumorigenesis of mice with combined mutations in p53Ser18 and Atm. Surprisingly, we observed no cooperation in survival and tumorigenesis in compound p53(S18A and Atm(-/- animals. However, we observed embryonic lethality in the compound mutant animals. In addition, the homozygous p53Ser18 mutant allele impacted the weight of Atm(-/- animals. These studies examine the genetic interaction of p53Ser18 and Atm in vivo. Furthermore, these studies demonstrate a role of p53Ser18 in regulating embryonic survival and motor coordination.

  15. Tankyrase 1 and tankyrase 2 are essential but redundant for mouse embryonic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Jeffrey Chiang

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Tankyrases are proteins with poly(ADP-ribose polymerase activity. Human tankyrases post-translationally modify multiple proteins involved in processes including maintenance of telomere length, sister telomere association, and trafficking of glut4-containing vesicles. To date, however, little is known about in vivo functions for tankyrases. We recently reported that body size was significantly reduced in mice deficient for tankyrase 2, but that these mice otherwise appeared developmentally normal. In the present study, we report generation of tankyrase 1-deficient and tankyrase 1 and 2 double-deficient mice, and use of these mutant strains to systematically assess candidate functions of tankyrase 1 and tankyrase 2 in vivo. No defects were observed in development, telomere length maintenance, or cell cycle regulation in tankyrase 1 or tankyrase 2 knockout mice. In contrast to viability and normal development of mice singly deficient in either tankyrase, deficiency in both tankyrase 1 and tankyrase 2 results in embryonic lethality by day 10, indicating that there is substantial redundancy between tankyrase 1 and tankyrase 2, but that tankyrase function is essential for embryonic development.

  16. Wnt pathway reprogramming during human embryonal carcinoma differentiation and potential for therapeutic targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bee Thomas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs are classified as seminonas or non-seminomas of which a major subset is embryonal carcinoma (EC that can differentiate into diverse tissues. The pluripotent nature of human ECs resembles that of embryonic stem (ES cells. Many Wnt signalling species are regulated during differentiation of TGCT-derived EC cells. This study comprehensively investigated expression profiles of Wnt signalling components regulated during induced differentiation of EC cells and explored the role of key components in maintaining pluripotency. Methods Human embryonal carcinoma cells were stably infected with a lentiviral construct carrying a canonical Wnt responsive reporter to assess Wnt signalling activity following induced differentiation. Cells were differentiated with all-trans retinoic acid (RA or by targeted repression of pluripotency factor, POU5F1. A Wnt pathway real-time-PCR array was used to evaluate changes in gene expression as cells differentiated. Highlighted Wnt pathway genes were then specifically repressed using siRNA or stable shRNA and transfected EC cells were assessed for proliferation, differentiation status and levels of core pluripotency genes. Results Canonical Wnt signalling activity was low basally in undifferentiated EC cells, but substantially increased with induced differentiation. Wnt pathway gene expression levels were compared during induced differentiation and many components were altered including ligands (WNT2B, receptors (FZD5, FZD6, FZD10, secreted inhibitors (SFRP4, SFRP1, and other effectors of Wnt signalling (FRAT2, DAAM1, PITX2, Porcupine. Independent repression of FZD5, FZD7 and WNT5A using transient as well as stable methods of RNA interference (RNAi inhibited cell growth of pluripotent NT2/D1 human EC cells, but did not appreciably induce differentiation or repress key pluripotency genes. Silencing of FZD7 gave the greatest growth suppression in all human EC cell lines

  17. In vitro differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into functional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into functional hepatocytes by sodium butyrate, hepatocyte growth factor and dexamethasone under ... under chemically defined conditions, which might be useful as an in vitro system for hepatocyte transplantation therapy and toxicity screening in drug discovery.

  18. Embryonic development and hatchlings of Illex argentinus derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The embryonic and early post-hatching development of artificially fertilized eggs of Illex argentinus was observed at several temperatures from 8.5 to 23.2°C. During the fertilization procedure, oviducal gland jelly was added to eggs (about 1.0 mm long). Chorion expansion began 20 minutes after fertilization and continued ...

  19. Dynamics of nuclear matrix proteome during embryonic development

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-07-08

    Jul 8, 2011 ... Embryonic development is a complex and dynamic process that involves spatiotemporal expression of genes in a highly coordinated manner. Multiple levels of nuclear architecture maintain the fidelity of gene expression programme. One of the components of nuclear architecture, which is believed to play ...

  20. In vitro differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into functional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... Studies have shown that embryonic stem (ES) cells can be successfully differentiated into liver cells, which offer the potential unlimited cell source for a variety of end-stage liver disease. In our study, in order to induce mouse ES cells to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells under chemically defined.

  1. Innovative virtual reality measurements for embryonic growth and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Verwoerd-Dikkeboom (Christine); A.H.J. Koning (Anton); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); N. Exalto (Niek); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground Innovative imaging techniques, using up-to-date ultrasonic equipment, necessitate specific biometry. The aim of our study was to test the possibility of detailed human embryonic biometry using a virtual reality (VR) technique. Methods In a longitudinal study, three-dimensional

  2. Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells, II: conditional technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genome modification via transgenesis has allowed researchers to link genotype and phenotype as an alternative approach to the characterization of random mutations through evolution. The synergy of technologies from the fields of embryonic stem (ES) cells, gene knockouts, and protein-mediated recombi...

  3. Cuticle morphogenesis in crustacean embryonic and postembryonic stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrak, Polona; Bogataj, Urban; Štrus, Jasna; Žnidaršič, Nada

    2017-01-01

    The crustacean cuticle is a chitin-based extracellular matrix, produced in general by epidermal cells and ectodermally derived epithelial cells of the digestive tract. Cuticle morphogenesis is an integrative part of embryonic and postembryonic development and it was studied in several groups of crustaceans, but mainly with a focus on one selected aspect of morphogenesis. Early studies were focused mainly on in vivo or histological observations of embryonic or larval molt cycles and more recently, some ultrastructural studies of the cuticle differentiation during development were performed. The aim of this paper is to review data on exoskeletal and gut cuticle formation during embryonic and postembryonic development in crustaceans, obtained in different developmental stages of different species and to bring together and discuss different aspects of cuticle morphogenesis, namely data on the morphology, ultrastructure, composition, connections to muscles and molt cycles in relation to cuticle differentiation. Based on the comparative evaluation of microscopic analyses of cuticle in crustacean embryonic and postembryonic stages, common principles of cuticle morphogenesis during development are discussed. Additional studies are suggested to further clarify this topic and to connect the new knowledge to related fields. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Growth inhibition of embryonic tissues transplanted to syngeneic newborn recipients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinzar, S N; Karmanova NVa; Svet-Moldavskiĭ, G I

    1976-01-01

    Skin grafts of embryos and teratomas formed after the transplantation of ground tissues of embryos (18-20 day and 12-14-day) to neonatal syngeneic recipients were studied; it appeared that their growth was considerably delayed in comparison with analogous transplants in adult recipients. It is supposed that the organism of embryos and neonates has factors controlling the growth of embryonic tissues.

  5. Twenty years of embryonic stem cell research in farm animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notable distinctions between an embryonic stem cell (ESC) and somatic cell are that the ESC can maintain an undifferentiated state indefinitely, self renew, and is pluripotent, meaning that the ESC can potentially generate cells representing all the three primordial germ layers and contribute to the...

  6. Got root? Initiation of the embryonic root meristem.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademacher, E.H.; Weijers, D.

    2007-01-01

    Plant development relies on the activity of meristems, small groups of undifferentiated cells that produce all organs. The first meristems are formed in the embryo, and all subsequent development depends on their proper establishment, making embryonic meristem initiation a key step in plant life.

  7. Can embryonic skipper frogs (Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis) learn to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Surprisingly,larval E. cyanophlyctis could learn to recognise kairomones through association during embryonic stages evenbefore the development of a nervous system. Although larval E. cyanophlyctis lack the innate ability to recognise kairomones,they were able to recognise conspecific alarm cues on the first encounter, ...

  8. Phosphorylation dynamics during early differentiation of human embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hoof, Dennis; Muñoz, Javier; Braam, Stefan R

    2009-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells self-renew indefinitely and possess characteristic protein-protein networks that remodel during differentiation. How this occurs is poorly understood. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we analyzed the (phospho)proteome of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) during...

  9. Endothelial cells derived from human embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenberg, Shulamit; Golub, Justin S.; Amit, Michal; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph; Langer, Robert

    2002-04-01

    Human embryonic stem cells have the potential to differentiate into various cell types and, thus, may be useful as a source of cells for transplantation or tissue engineering. We describe here the differentiation steps of human embryonic stem cells into endothelial cells forming vascular-like structures. The human embryonic-derived endothelial cells were isolated by using platelet endothelial cell-adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM1) antibodies, their behavior was characterized in vitro and in vivo, and their potential in tissue engineering was examined. We show that the isolated embryonic PECAM1+ cells, grown in culture, display characteristics similar to vessel endothelium. The cells express endothelial cell markers in a pattern similar to human umbilical vein endothelial cells, their junctions are correctly organized, and they have high metabolism of acetylated low-density lipoprotein. In addition, the cells are able to differentiate and form tube-like structures when cultured on matrigel. In vivo, when transplanted into SCID mice, the cells appeared to form microvessels containing mouse blood cells. With further studies, these cells could provide a source of human endothelial cells that could be beneficial for potential applications such as engineering new blood vessels, endothelial cell transplantation into the heart for myocardial regeneration, and induction of angiogenesis for treatment of regional ischemia.

  10. Embryonic development is a continuous process and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    2002-11-01

    Nov 1, 2002 ... In the first embryological study on chokka squid. Loligo vulgaris reynaudii eggs established by Blackburn et al. (1998), 14 developmental stages were identified using a morphological scheme. By comparison, Arnold. (1965) had used 30 stages to describe embryonic devel- opment for Loligo pealei.

  11. Phosphorylation dynamics during early differentiation of human embryonic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, D.; Munoz, J.; Braam, S.R.; Pinkse, M.W.H.; Linding, R.; Heck, A.J.R.; Mummery, C.L.; Krijgsveld, J.

    2009-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells self-renew indefinitely and possess characteristic protein-protein networks that remodel during differentiation. How this occurs is poorly understood. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we analyzed the (phospho)proteome of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) during

  12. Improved genetic manipulation of human embryonic stem cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, S.R.; Denning, C.; van den Brink, S.; Kats, P.; Hochstenbach, R.; Passier, R.; Mummery, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    Low efficiency of transfection limits the ability to genetically manipulate human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and differences in cell derivation and culture methods require optimization of transfection protocols. We transiently transferred multiple independent hESC lines with different growth

  13. Impact of 2-bromopropane on mouse embryonic stem cells and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study shows that 2-BP (5 to 10 μM) induces apoptotic processes in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC-B5), but exerts no effects at treatment dosages below 5 μM. In ESC-B5 cells, 2-BP directly increased the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS), significantly increased the cytoplasmic free calcium and nitric oxide ...

  14. Directional differentiation of chicken embryonic stem cells into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chicken embryonic stem (ES) cells are useful for producing transgenic chickens and preserving genetic material in avian species. In this study, the differentiation potential of chicken ES cells was investigated in vitro. Chicken ES cells were differentiated into osteoblasts cultured for 15 to 21 days in the induction media ...

  15. In vitro pancreas organogenesis from dispersed mouse embryonic progenitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greggio, Chiara; De Franceschi, Filippo; Figueiredo-Larsen, Evan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    the efficient expansion of dissociated mouse embryonic pancreatic progenitors. By manipulating the composition of the culture medium it is possible to generate either hollow spheres, mainly composed of pancreatic progenitors expanding in their initial state, or, complex organoids which progress to more mature...

  16. Alterations to embryonic serotonin change aggression and fearfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenatal environment, including maternal hormones, affects the development of the serotonin (5-HT) system, with long-lasting effects on mood and behavioral exhibition in children and adults. The chicken provides a unique animal model to study the effects of embryonic development on childhood and ado...

  17. Cryopreservation of embryonic axes of maize (Zea mays L.) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-12-21

    Dec 21, 2010 ... Cryopreservation of embryonic axes of maize (Zea mays L.) by vitrification protocol. I. S. Usman* and M. M. Abdulmalik. Department of Plant Science, Ahmadu Bello University,PMB 1044, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Accepted 27 April, 2010. A storage protocol at cryogenic temperature was established for ...

  18. Human embryonic stem cell transplantation to repair the infarcted myocardium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leor, Jonathan; Gerecht, Sharon; Cohen, Smadar; Miller, Liron; Holbova, Radka; Ziskind, Anna; Shachar, Michal; Feinberg, Micha S; Guetta, Esther; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can be guided to form new myocardium by transplantation into the normal or infarcted heart, and to assess the influence of hESC-derived cardiomyocytes (hESCMs...

  19. Early Embryonic Heart Rate in Normal Pregnancies In Memory of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the appearance and development of embryonic heart rate a total of n = 317 Nigerian pregnant women were studied in the very early pregnancy from 23 – 56 days from the onset of last menstrual period (LMP). All pregnancies had a subsequent successful outcome. Transvaginal ultrasonography was ...

  20. Cell surface carbohydrate changes during embryonic and fetal skin development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik; Holbrook, K; Clausen, H

    1986-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to four type 2 chain carbohydrate antigens were used for immunohistochemical studies of embryonic and fetal skin. The antibodies detected N-acetyllactosamine and 3 fucosyl substitutes of this, blood group antigen H, Lex, and Ley. Periderm consistently stained for N...

  1. In vitro differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into functional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... Key words: Embryonic stem cells, hepatic-like cells, in vitro differentiation, sodium butyrate, hepatocyte growth factor, dexamethason. INTRODUCTION. The liver is the major organ that provides multiple metabolic functions critical for the maintenance of homeostasis. One of the major causes of morbidity and.

  2. H3K9 and H3K14 acetylation co-occur at many gene regulatory elements, while H3K14ac marks a subset of inactive inducible promoters in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Karmodiya Krishanpal; Krebs Arnaud R; Oulad-Abdelghani Mustapha; Kimura Hiroshi; Tora Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Transcription regulation in pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells is a complex process that involves multitude of regulatory layers, one of which is post-translational modification of histones. Acetylation of specific lysine residues of histones plays a key role in regulating gene expression. Results Here we have investigated the genome-wide occurrence of two histone marks, acetylation of histone H3K9 and K14 (H3K9ac and H3K14ac), in mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells. Genom...

  3. The Role of Tricho-Rhino-Phalangeal Syndrome (TRPS 1 in Apoptosis during Embryonic Development and Tumor Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Shimokado

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available TRPS1 is a GATA-type transcription factor that is closely related to human tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome (TRPS types I and III, variants of an autosomal dominant skeletal disorder. During embryonic development, Trps1 represses Sox9 expression and regulates Wnt signaling pathways that determine the number of hair follicles and their normal morphogenesis. In the growth plate, Trps1 regulates chondrocytes condensation, proliferation, and maturation and phalangeal joint formation by functioning downstream of Gdf5 signaling and by targeting at Pthrp, Stat3 and Runx2. Also, Trps1 protein directly interacts with an activated form of Gli3. In embryonic kidneys, Trps1 functions downstream of BMP7 promoting the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition, and facilitating tubule morphogenesis and ureteric bud branching. Moreover, Trps1 has been found to be closely related to tumorigenesis, invasion, and metastasis in prostate and breast cancers. It is interesting to note that during the development of hair follicles, bones, and kidneys, mutations in Trps1 cause, either directly or through crosstalk with other regulators, a notable change in cell proliferation and cell death. In this review, we will summarize the most recent studies on Trps1 and seek to elucidate the role for Trps1 in apoptotic regulation.

  4. RAB-5 controls the cortical organization and dynamics of PAR proteins to maintain C. elegans early embryonic polarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Hyenne

    Full Text Available In all organisms, cell polarity is fundamental for most aspects of cell physiology. In many species and cell types, it is controlled by the evolutionarily conserved PAR-3, PAR-6 and aPKC proteins, which are asymmetrically localized at the cell cortex where they define specific domains. While PAR proteins define the antero-posterior axis of the early C. elegans embryo, the mechanism controlling their asymmetric localization is not fully understood. Here we studied the role of endocytic regulators in embryonic polarization and asymmetric division. We found that depleting the early endosome regulator RAB-5 results in polarity-related phenotypes in the early embryo. Using Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF microscopy, we observed that PAR-6 is localized at the cell cortex in highly dynamic puncta and depleting RAB-5 decreased PAR-6 cortical dynamics during the polarity maintenance phase. Depletion of RAB-5 also increased PAR-6 association with clathrin heavy chain (CHC-1 and this increase depended on the presence of the GTPase dynamin, an upstream regulator of endocytosis. Interestingly, further analysis indicated that loss of RAB-5 leads to a disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and that this occurs independently of dynamin activity. Our results indicate that RAB-5 promotes C. elegans embryonic polarity in both dynamin-dependent and -independent manners, by controlling PAR-6 localization and cortical dynamics through the regulation of its association with the cell cortex and the organization of the actin cytoskeleton.

  5. File list: ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: InP.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: DNS.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: His.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_kidney [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: Oth.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_kidney [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_kidney [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: His.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_kidney [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: Oth.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_kidney [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: Oth.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_kidney [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: ALL.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_kidney [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_kidney [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_kidney mm9 All antigens Embryo Embryonic kidney SRX13186...172944,SRX172947,SRX172942,SRX1318630,SRX335561,SRX564562,SRX564563,SRX564564,SRX564561 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_kidney.bed ...

  16. File list: His.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_kidney [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_kidney mm9 Histone Embryo Embryonic kidney SRX1318628,SR...X1318629 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_kidney.bed ...

  17. File list: Oth.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_kidney [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: His.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_kidney [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_kidney mm9 Histone Embryo Embryonic kidney SRX1318628,SR...X1318629 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_kidney.bed ...

  19. File list: ALL.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_kidney [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: InP.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_flank [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_flank mm9 Input control Embryo Embryonic flank SRX804059... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_flank.bed ...

  1. File list: Pol.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_limb [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_limb mm9 RNA polymerase Embryo Embryonic limb SRX326429,...SRX112945,SRX143800,SRX378836 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_limb.bed ...

  2. File list: His.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_gonad [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_gonad mm9 Histone Embryo Embryonic gonad SRX149181,SRX80...4051,SRX804052,SRX149179,SRX149182 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_gonad.bed ...

  3. File list: His.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk mm9 Histone Embryo Embryonic trunk SRX093317,SRX09...3316 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk.bed ...

  4. File list: Oth.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_nose [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: His.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_limb [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: Oth.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_nose [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: ALL.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_nose [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: Unc.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_nose [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_nose [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: ALL.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: Unc.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_nose [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: InP.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_heart [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: NoD.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_heart [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: InP.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_heart [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: NoD.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_heart [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: Unc.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_heart [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: Pol.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_heart [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: ALL.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_heart [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_heart [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Pol.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_heart [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: Pol.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_heart [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_heart mm9 RNA polymerase Embryo Embryonic heart SRX11293...9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_heart.bed ...

  3. File list: InP.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_heart [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_heart mm9 Input control Embryo Embryonic heart SRX967652...RX967654,SRX377683,SRX185886,SRX698167,SRX244285,SRX377687,SRX377685 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_heart.bed ...

  4. File list: Unc.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_heart [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_heart mm9 Unclassified Embryo Embryonic heart SRX248279,...SRX190172,SRX112936,SRX022494 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_heart.bed ...

  5. File list: ALL.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_heart [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_heart mm9 All antigens Embryo Embryonic heart SRX967652,...4,SRX1437348,SRX377683,SRX377685,SRX377687,SRX190172,SRX244285,SRX1100405,SRX337963 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_heart.bed ...

  6. File list: NoD.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_heart [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_heart mm9 No description Embryo Embryonic heart SRX11004...02,SRX1100404,SRX1100405 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_heart.bed ...

  7. File list: Pol.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_heart [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_heart mm9 RNA polymerase Embryo Embryonic heart SRX11293...9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_heart.bed ...

  8. File list: NoD.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_heart [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_heart mm9 No description Embryo Embryonic heart SRX11004...02,SRX1100404,SRX1100405 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_heart.bed ...

  9. File list: InP.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_heart [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_heart mm9 Input control Embryo Embryonic heart SRX143735...RX377685,SRX377687,SRX967654,SRX077933,SRX377683,SRX967652,SRX244285 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_heart.bed ...

  10. File list: ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_heart [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_heart mm9 All antigens Embryo Embryonic heart SRX112938,...7,SRX967654,SRX967653,SRX1100404,SRX244285,SRX112936,SRX1100405,SRX022494,SRX337963 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_heart.bed ...

  11. File list: InP.Emb.50.AllAg.embryonic_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.50.AllAg.embryonic_skin mm9 Input control Embryo embryonic skin SRX1062967,...SRX1062972 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Emb.50.AllAg.embryonic_skin.bed ...

  12. File list: Oth.Emb.50.AllAg.embryonic_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Emb.50.AllAg.embryonic_skin mm9 TFs and others Embryo embryonic skin SRX1062971...,SRX1062970 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Emb.50.AllAg.embryonic_skin.bed ...

  13. File list: InP.Emb.20.AllAg.embryonic_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.20.AllAg.embryonic_skin mm9 Input control Embryo embryonic skin SRX1062967,...SRX1062972 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Emb.20.AllAg.embryonic_skin.bed ...

  14. File list: His.Emb.50.AllAg.embryonic_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Emb.50.AllAg.embryonic_skin mm9 Histone Embryo embryonic skin SRX1062969,SRX106...2968,SRX1062966,SRX1062965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Emb.50.AllAg.embryonic_skin.bed ...

  15. File list: ALL.Emb.10.AllAg.embryonic_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.10.AllAg.embryonic_skin mm9 All antigens Embryo embryonic skin SRX1062972,S...RX1062971,SRX1062966,SRX1062969,SRX1062968,SRX1062965,SRX1062967,SRX1062970 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Emb.10.AllAg.embryonic_skin.bed ...

  16. File list: InP.Emb.10.AllAg.embryonic_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.10.AllAg.embryonic_skin mm9 Input control Embryo embryonic skin SRX1062972,...SRX1062967 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Emb.10.AllAg.embryonic_skin.bed ...

  17. File list: ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.embryonic_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.embryonic_skin mm9 All antigens Embryo embryonic skin SRX1062969,S...RX1062968,SRX1062966,SRX1062971,SRX1062967,SRX1062972,SRX1062965,SRX1062970 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.embryonic_skin.bed ...

  18. File list: Oth.Emb.05.AllAg.embryonic_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Emb.05.AllAg.embryonic_skin mm9 TFs and others Embryo embryonic skin SRX1062971...,SRX1062970 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Emb.05.AllAg.embryonic_skin.bed ...

  19. File list: His.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes mm9 Histone Embryo Embryonic megakaryocyt...es SRX153181,SRX153167,SRX153165,SRX153163,SRX153180 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes.bed ...

  20. File list: Oth.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes mm9 TFs and others Embryo Embryonic megak...aryocytes SRX145066,SRX181746,SRX181747 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes.bed ...

  1. File list: DNS.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes mm9 DNase-seq Embryo Embryonic megakaryoc...ytes http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes.bed ...

  2. File list: InP.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes mm9 Input control Embryo Embryonic megaka...ryocytes SRX153179,SRX145063 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes.bed ...

  3. File list: InP.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes mm9 Input control Embryo Embryonic megaka...ryocytes SRX145063,SRX153179 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes.bed ...

  4. File list: Pol.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes mm9 RNA polymerase Embryo Embryonic megak...aryocytes http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes.bed ...

  5. File list: His.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes mm9 Histone Embryo Embryonic megakaryocyt...es SRX153181,SRX153165,SRX153163,SRX153167,SRX153180 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes.bed ...

  6. File list: DNS.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes mm9 DNase-seq Embryo Embryonic megakaryoc...ytes http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes.bed ...

  7. File list: InP.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes mm9 Input control Embryo Embryonic megaka...ryocytes SRX145063,SRX153179 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes.bed ...

  8. File list: Oth.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes mm9 TFs and others Embryo Embryonic megak...aryocytes SRX181747,SRX181746,SRX145066 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes.bed ...

  9. File list: NoD.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes mm9 No description Embryo Embryonic megak...aryocytes http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes.bed ...

  10. File list: NoD.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes mm9 No description Embryo Embryonic megak...aryocytes http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes.bed ...

  11. File list: InP.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes mm9 Input control Embryo Embryonic megaka...ryocytes SRX145063,SRX153179 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes.bed ...

  12. File list: Pol.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes mm9 RNA polymerase Embryo Embryonic megak...aryocytes http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes.bed ...

  13. File list: His.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes mm9 Histone Embryo Embryonic megakaryocyt...es SRX153167,SRX153163,SRX153181,SRX153180,SRX153165 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes.bed ...

  14. File list: Pol.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes mm9 RNA polymerase Embryo Embryonic megak...aryocytes http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes.bed ...

  15. File list: NoD.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes mm9 No description Embryo Embryonic megak...aryocytes http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes.bed ...

  16. File list: DNS.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes mm9 DNase-seq Embryo Embryonic megakaryoc...ytes http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes.bed ...

  17. File list: NoD.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes mm9 No description Embryo Embryonic megak...aryocytes http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes.bed ...

  18. File list: Pol.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes mm9 RNA polymerase Embryo Embryonic megak...aryocytes http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes.bed ...

  19. File list: His.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes mm9 Histone Embryo Embryonic megakaryocyt...es SRX153165,SRX153163,SRX153167,SRX153180,SRX153181 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes.bed ...

  20. File list: Oth.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes mm9 TFs and others Embryo Embryonic megak...aryocytes SRX145066,SRX181747,SRX181746 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes.bed ...

  1. File list: DNS.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes mm9 DNase-seq Embryo Embryonic megakaryoc...ytes http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_megakaryocytes.bed ...

  2. File list: DNS.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_testis mm9 DNase-seq Embryo Embryonic testis SRX1156635 ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_testis.bed ...

  3. File list: His.Emb.20.AllAg.embryonic_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Emb.20.AllAg.embryonic_skin mm9 Histone Embryo embryonic skin SRX1062969,SRX106...2968,SRX1062966,SRX1062965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Emb.20.AllAg.embryonic_skin.bed ...

  4. File list: His.Emb.05.AllAg.embryonic_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Emb.05.AllAg.embryonic_skin mm9 Histone Embryo embryonic skin SRX1062965,SRX106...2966,SRX1062968,SRX1062969 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Emb.05.AllAg.embryonic_skin.bed ...

  5. File list: Oth.Emb.10.AllAg.embryonic_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Emb.10.AllAg.embryonic_skin mm9 TFs and others Embryo embryonic skin SRX1062971...,SRX1062970 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Emb.10.AllAg.embryonic_skin.bed ...

  6. File list: ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.embryonic_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.embryonic_skin mm9 All antigens Embryo embryonic skin SRX1062969,S...RX1062968,SRX1062966,SRX1062967,SRX1062972,SRX1062971,SRX1062970,SRX1062965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.embryonic_skin.bed ...

  7. File list: Oth.Emb.20.AllAg.embryonic_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Emb.20.AllAg.embryonic_skin mm9 TFs and others Embryo embryonic skin SRX1062971...,SRX1062970 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Emb.20.AllAg.embryonic_skin.bed ...

  8. File list: ALL.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_eye [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_eye mm9 All antigens Embryo Embryonic eye SRX804056,SRX8...04054,SRX1038028,SRX804057,SRX804055,SRX745813,SRX1038027 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_eye.bed ...

  9. File list: ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_eye [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_eye mm9 All antigens Embryo Embryonic eye SRX804056,SRX8...04054,SRX745813,SRX804057,SRX804055,SRX1038028,SRX1038027 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_eye.bed ...

  10. File list: His.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_eye [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_eye mm9 Histone Embryo Embryonic eye SRX1038028,SRX80405...6,SRX804054,SRX1038027 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_eye.bed ...

  11. File list: His.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_eye [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_eye mm9 Histone Embryo Embryonic eye SRX804056,SRX804054...,SRX1038028,SRX1038027 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_eye.bed ...

  12. File list: InP.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_eye [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_eye mm9 Input control Embryo Embryonic eye SRX804057,SRX...804055 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_eye.bed ...

  13. File list: His.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_eye [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_eye mm9 Histone Embryo Embryonic eye SRX804056,SRX804054...,SRX1038028,SRX1038027 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_eye.bed ...

  14. File list: ALL.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_eye [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_eye mm9 All antigens Embryo Embryonic eye SRX804055,SRX1...038028,SRX804056,SRX804054,SRX745813,SRX804057,SRX1038027 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_eye.bed ...

  15. File list: InP.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_eye [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_eye mm9 Input control Embryo Embryonic eye SRX804055,SRX...804057 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_eye.bed ...

  16. File list: InP.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_eye [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_eye mm9 Input control Embryo Embryonic eye SRX804057,SRX...804055 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_eye.bed ...

  17. File list: InP.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_eye [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_eye mm9 Input control Embryo Embryonic eye SRX804057,SRX...804055 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_eye.bed ...

  18. File list: ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_eye [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_eye mm9 All antigens Embryo Embryonic eye SRX804054,SRX8...04056,SRX745813,SRX1038028,SRX804057,SRX804055,SRX1038027 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_eye.bed ...

  19. File list: His.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_eye [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_eye mm9 Histone Embryo Embryonic eye SRX804054,SRX804056...,SRX1038028,SRX1038027 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_eye.bed ...

  20. Role of adiponectin in delayed embryonic development of the short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha; Krishna, Amitabh

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of adiponectin in the delayed embryonic development of Cynopterus sphinx. Adiponectin receptor (ADIPOR1) abundance was first observed to be lower during the delayed versus non-delayed periods of utero-embryonic unit development. The effects of adiponectin treatment on embryonic development were then evaluated during the period of delayed development. Exogenous treatment increased the in vivo rate of embryonic development, as indicated by an increase in weight, ADIPOR1 levels in the utero-embryonic unit, and histological changes in embryonic development. Treatment with adiponectin during embryonic diapause showed a significant increase in circulating progesterone and estradiol concentrations, and in production of their receptors in the utero-embryonic unit. The adiponectin-induced increase in estradiol synthesis was correlated with increased cell survival (BCL2 protein levels) and cell proliferation (PCNA protein levels) in the utero-embryonic unit, suggesting an indirect effect of adiponectin via estradiol synthesis by the ovary. An in vitro study further confirmed the in vivo findings that adiponectin treatment increases PCNA levels together with increased uptake of glucose by increasing the abundance of glucose transporter 8 (GLUT8) in the utero-embryonic unit. The in vitro study also revealed that adiponectin, together with estradiol but not alone, significantly increased ADIPOR1 protein levels. Thus, adiponectin works in concert with estradiol to increase glucose transport to the utero-embryonic unit and promote cell proliferation, which together accelerate embryonic development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.