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Sample records for satb1 regulates sparc

  1. SATB1 regulates SPARC expression in K562 cell line through binding to a specific sequence in the third intron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, K.; Cai, R.; Dai, B.B.; Zhang, X.Q.; Wang, H.J.; Ge, S.F.; Xu, W.R.; Lu, J.

    2007-01-01

    Special AT-rich binding protein 1 (SATB1), a cell type-specific nuclear matrix attachment region (MAR) DNA-binding protein, tethers to a specific DNA sequence and regulates gene expression through chromatin remodeling and HDAC (histone deacetylase complex) recruitment. In this study, a SATB1 eukaryotic expression plasmid was transfected into the human erythroleukemia K562 cell line and individual clones that stably over-expressed the SATB1 protein were isolated. Microarray analysis revealed that hundreds of genes were either up- or down-regulated in the SATB1 over-expressing K562 cell lines. One of these was the extra-cellular matrix glycoprotein, SPARC (human secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine). siRNA knock-down of SATB1 also reduced SPARC expression, which was consistent with elevated SPARC levels in the SATB1 over-expressing cell line. Bioinformatics software Mat-inspector showed that a 17 bp DNA sequence in the third intron of SPARC possessed a high potential for SATB1 binding; a finding confirmed by Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with anti-SATB1 antibody. Our results show for the first time that forced-expression of SATB1 in K562 cells triggers SPARC up-regulation by binding to a 17 bp DNA sequence in the third intron

  2. Global regulator SATB1 recruits beta-catenin and regulates T(H2 differentiation in Wnt-dependent manner.

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    Dimple Notani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In vertebrates, the conserved Wnt signalling cascade promotes the stabilization and nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin, which then associates with the lymphoid enhancer factor/T cell factor proteins (LEF/TCFs to activate target genes. Wnt/beta -catenin signalling is essential for T cell development and differentiation. Here we show that special AT-rich binding protein 1 (SATB1, the T lineage-enriched chromatin organizer and global regulator, interacts with beta-catenin and recruits it to SATB1's genomic binding sites. Gene expression profiling revealed that the genes repressed by SATB1 are upregulated upon Wnt signalling. Competition between SATB1 and TCF affects the transcription of TCF-regulated genes upon beta-catenin signalling. GATA-3 is a T helper type 2 (T(H2 specific transcription factor that regulates production of T(H2 cytokines and functions as T(H2 lineage determinant. SATB1 positively regulated GATA-3 and siRNA-mediated knockdown of SATB1 downregulated GATA-3 expression in differentiating human CD4(+ T cells, suggesting that SATB1 influences T(H2 lineage commitment by reprogramming gene expression. In the presence of Dickkopf 1 (Dkk1, an inhibitor of Wnt signalling, GATA-3 is downregulated and the expression of signature T(H2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 is reduced, indicating that Wnt signalling is essential for T(H2 differentiation. Knockdown of beta-catenin also produced similar results, confirming the role of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling in T(H2 differentiation. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that SATB1 recruits beta-catenin and p300 acetyltransferase on GATA-3 promoter in differentiating T(H2 cells in a Wnt-dependent manner. SATB1 coordinates T(H2 lineage commitment by reprogramming gene expression. The SATB1:beta-catenin complex activates a number of SATB1 regulated genes, and hence this study has potential to find novel Wnt responsive genes. These results demonstrate that SATB1

  3. Multiple effects of the special AT-rich binding protein 1 (SATB1) in colon carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frömberg, Anja; Rabe, Michael; Aigner, Achim

    2014-12-01

    SATB1 (special AT-rich binding protein 1) is a global chromatin organizer regulating the expression of a large number of genes. Overexpression has been found in various solid tumors and positively correlated with prognostic and clinicopathological properties. In colorectal cancer (CRC), SATB1 overexpression and its correlation with poor differentiation, invasive depth, TNM (tumor, nodes, metastases) stage and prognosis have been demonstrated. However, more detailed studies on the SATB1 functions in CRC are warranted. In this article, we comprehensively analyze the cellular and molecular role of SATB1 in CRC cell lines with different SATB1 expression levels by using RNAi-mediated knockdown. Using siRNAs with different knockdown efficacies, we demonstrate antiproliferative, cell cycle-inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of SATB1 knockdown in a SATB1 gene dose-dependent manner. Tumor growth inhibition is confirmed in vivo in a subcutaneous tumor xenograft mouse model using stable knockdown cells. The in-depth analysis of cellular effects reveals increased activities of caspases-3, -7, -8, -9 and other mediators of apoptotic pathways. Similarly, the analysis of E- and N-cadherin, slug, twist, β-catenin and MMP7 indicates SATB1 effects on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and matrix breakdown. Our results also establish SATB1 effects on receptor tyrosine kinases and (proto-)oncogenes such as HER receptors and Pim-1. Taken together, this suggests a more complex molecular interplay between tumor-promoting and possible inhibitory effects in CRC by affecting multiple pathways and molecules involved in proliferation, cell cycle, EMT, invasion and cell survival. © 2014 UICC.

  4. SATB1 tethers multiple gene loci to reprogram expression profiledriving breast cancer metastasis

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    Han, Hye-Jung; Kohwi, Yoshinori; Kohwi-Shigematsu, Terumi

    2006-07-13

    Global changes in gene expression occur during tumor progression, as indicated by expression profiling of metastatic tumors. How this occurs is poorly understood. SATB1 functions as a genome organizer by folding chromatin via tethering multiple genomic loci and recruiting chromatin remodeling enzymes to regulate chromatin structure and expression of a large number of genes. Here we show that SATB1 is expressed at high levels in aggressive breast cancer cells, and is undetectable in non-malignant breast epithelial cells. Importantly, RNAi-mediated removal of SATB1 from highly-aggressive MDA-MB-231 cells altered the expression levels of over 1200 genes, restored breast-like acinar polarity in three-dimensional cultures, and prevented the metastastic phenotype in vivo. Conversely, overexpression of SATB1 in the less-aggressive breast cancer cell line Hs578T altered the gene expression profile and increased metastasis dramatically in vivo. Thus, SATB1 is a global regulator of gene expression in breast cancer cells, directly regulating crucial metastasis-associated genes, including ERRB2 (HER2/NEU), TGF-{beta}1, matrix metalloproteinase 3, and metastasin. The identification of SATB1 as a protein that re-programs chromatin organization and transcription profiles to promote breast cancer metastasis suggests a new model for metastasis and may provide means of therapeutic intervention.

  5. SATB1 packages densely-looped, transciptionally-active chromatinfor coordinated expression of cytokine genes

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    Cai, Shutao; Lee, Charles C.; Kohwi-Shigematsu, Terumi

    2006-05-23

    SATB1 is an important regulator of nuclear architecture that anchors specialized DNA sequences onto its cage-like network and recruits chromatin remodeling/modifying factors to control gene transcription. We studied the role of SATB1 in regulating the coordinated expression of Il5, Il4, and Il13 from the 200kb cytokine gene cluster region of mouse chromosome 11 during T-helper 2 (Th2)-cell activation. We show that upon cell activation, SATB1 is rapidly induced to form a unique transcriptionally-active chromatin structure that includes the cytokine gene region. Chromatin is folded into numerous small loops all anchored by SATB1, is histone H3 acetylated at lysine 9/14, and associated with Th2-specific factors, GATA3, STAT6, c-Maf, the chromatin-remodeling enzyme Brg-1, and RNA polymerase II across the 200kb region. Before activation, the chromatin displays some of these features, such as association with GATA3 and STAT6, but these were insufficient for cytokine gene expression. Using RNA interference (RNAi), we show that upon cell activation, SATB1 is not only required for chromatin folding into dense loops, but also for c-Maf induction and subsequently for Il4, Il5, and Il13 transcription. Our results show that SATB1 is an important determinant for chromatin architecture that constitutes a novel higher-order, transcriptionally-active chromatin structure upon Th2-cell activation.

  6. ATM suppresses SATB1-induced malignant progression in breast epithelial cells.

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    Ellen Ordinario

    Full Text Available SATB1 drives metastasis when expressed in breast tumor cells by radically reprogramming gene expression. Here, we show that SATB1 also has an oncogenic activity to transform certain non-malignant breast epithelial cell lines. We studied the non-malignant MCF10A cell line, which is used widely in the literature. We obtained aliquots from two different sources (here we refer to them as MCF10A-1 and MCF10A-2, but found them to be surprisingly dissimilar in their responses to oncogenic activity of SATB1. Ectopic expression of SATB1 in MCF10A-1 induced tumor-like morphology in three-dimensional cultures, led to tumor formation in immunocompromised mice, and when injected into tail veins, led to lung metastasis. The number of metastases correlated positively with the level of SATB1 expression. In contrast, SATB1 expression in MCF10A-2 did not lead to any of these outcomes. Yet DNA copy-number analysis revealed that MCF10A-1 is indistinguishable genetically from MCF10A-2. However, gene expression profiling analysis revealed that these cell lines have significantly divergent signatures for the expression of genes involved in oncogenesis, including cell cycle regulation and signal transduction. Above all, the early DNA damage-response kinase, ATM, was greatly reduced in MCF10A-1 cells compared to MCF10A-2 cells. We found the reason for reduction to be phenotypic drift due to long-term cultivation of MCF10A. ATM knockdown in MCF10A-2 and two other non-malignant breast epithelial cell lines, 184A1 and 184B4, enabled SATB1 to induce malignant phenotypes similar to that observed for MCF10A-1. These data indicate a novel role for ATM as a suppressor of SATB1-induced malignancy in breast epithelial cells, but also raise a cautionary note that phenotypic drift could lead to dramatically different functional outcomes.

  7. SPARC regulates extracellular matrix organization through its modulation of integrin-linked kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Thomas H; Baneyx, Gretchen; Cardó-Vila, Marina; Workman, Gail A; Weaver, Matt; Menon, Priya M; Dedhar, Shoukat; Rempel, Sandra A; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata; Vogel, Viola; Sage, E Helene

    2005-10-28

    SPARC, a 32-kDa matricellular glycoprotein, mediates interactions between cells and their extracellular matrix, and targeted deletion of Sparc results in compromised extracellular matrix in mice. Fibronectin matrix provides provisional tissue scaffolding during development and wound healing and is essential for the stabilization of mature extracellular matrix. Herein, we report that SPARC expression does not significantly affect fibronectin-induced cell spreading but enhances fibronectin-induced stress fiber formation and cell-mediated partial unfolding of fibronectin molecules, an essential process in fibronectin matrix assembly. By phage display, we identify integrin-linked kinase as a potential binding partner of SPARC and verify the interaction by co-immunoprecipitation and colocalization in vitro. Cells lacking SPARC exhibit diminished fibronectin-induced integrin-linked kinase activation and integrin-linked kinase-dependent cell-contractile signaling. Furthermore, induced expression of SPARC in SPARC-null fibroblasts restores fibronectin-induced integrin-linked kinase activation, downstream signaling, and fibronectin unfolding. These data further confirm the function of SPARC in extracellular matrix organization and identify a novel mechanism by which SPARC regulates extracellular matrix assembly.

  8. SPARC is up-regulated during skeletal muscle regeneration and inhibits myoblast differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Stine Juhl; Jørgensen, Louise Helskov; Andersen, Ditte C.

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle repair is mediated primarily by the muscle stem cell, the satellite cell. Several factors, including extracellular matrix, are known to regulate satellite cell function and regeneration. One factor, the matricellular Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC) is highly up......-regulated during skeletal muscle disease, but its function remains elusive. In the present study, we demonstrate a prominent yet transient increase in SPARC mRNA and protein content during skeletal muscle regeneration that correlates with the expression profile of specific muscle factors like MyoD, Myf5, Myf6......, Myogenin, NCAM, CD34, and M-Cadherin, all known to be implicated in satellite cell activation/proliferation following muscle damage. This up regulation was detected in more cell types. Ectopic expression of SPARC in the muscle progenitor cell line C2C12 was performed to mimic the high levels of SPARC seen...

  9. Special AT rich-binding1 protein (SATB1) in malignant T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredholm, Simon; Willerslev-Olsen, Andreas; Met, Özcan

    2018-01-01

    Deficient expression of Suppressor Special AT-rich Binding-1 (SATB1) hampers thymocyte development and results in inept T cell lineages. Recent data implicate dysregulated SATB1 expression in the pathogenesis of mycosis fungoides (MF), the most frequent variant of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL......) whereas increased SATB1 expression had the opposite effect indicating that the mir-155 target SATB1 is a repressor of IL-5 and IL-9 in malignant T cells. In accordance, inhibition of STAT5, and its upstream activator Janus Kinase-3 (Jak3), triggered increased SATB1 expression and a concomitant suppression...

  10. Overexpression of SATB1 is associated with biologic behavior in human renal cell carcinoma.

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    Chao Cheng

    Full Text Available Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein-1 (SATB1 has been reported to be aberrantly expressed in various cancers and correlated with the malignant behavior of cancer cells. However, the function of SATB1 in RCC remains unclear. With the combination of immunohistochemistry, western blotting, immunofluorescence, qRT-PCR, and cell proliferation, migration and invasion assays, we found that levels of SATB1 mRNA and protein were dramatically increased in human ccRCC tissues (P<0.001 for both, and upregulation of SATB1 was significantly associated with depth of invasion (P<0.001, lymph node status (P = 0.001 and TNM stage (P = 0.009. SATB1 knockdown inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of 786-O cells, whereas SATB1 overexpression promoted the growth and aggressive phenotype of ACHN cells in vitro. Furthermore, SATB1 expression was positively correlated with ZEB2 expression (P = 0.013, and inversely linked to levels of SATB2 and E-cadherin (P = 0.005 and P<0.001, respectively in ccRCC tissues. Our data provide a basis for the concept that overexpression of SATB1 may play a critical role in the acquisition of an aggressive phenotype for RCC cells through EMT, providing new insights into the significance of SATB1 in invasion and metastasis of ccRCC, which may contribute to fully elucidating the exact mechanism of development and progression of RCC.

  11. SPARC is up-regulated during skeletal muscle regeneration and inhibits myoblast differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Stine Juhl; Jørgensen, Louise Helskov; Andersen, Ditte C

    2013-01-01

    in muscle disease. SPARC overexpression almost completely abolished myogenic differentiation in these cultures as determined by substantially reduced levels of myogenic factors (Pax7, Myf5, Myod, Mef2B, Myogenin, and Myostatin) and a lack of multinucleated myotubes. These results demonstrate...

  12. Cellular homeoproteins, SATB1 and CDP, bind to the unique region between the human cytomegalovirus UL127 and major immediate-early genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Jialing; Klase, Zachary; Gao Xiaoqi; Caldwell, Jeremy S.; Stinski, Mark F.; Kashanchi, Fatah; Chao, S.-H.

    2007-01-01

    An AT-rich region of the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) genome between the UL127 open reading frame and the major immediate-early (MIE) enhancer is referred to as the unique region (UR). It has been shown that the UR represses activation of transcription from the UL127 promoter and functions as a boundary between the divergent UL127 and MIE genes during human CMV infection [Angulo, A., Kerry, D., Huang, H., Borst, E.M., Razinsky, A., Wu, J., Hobom, U., Messerle, M., Ghazal, P., 2000. Identification of a boundary domain adjacent to the potent human cytomegalovirus enhancer that represses transcription of the divergent UL127 promoter. J. Virol. 74 (6), 2826-2839; Lundquist, C.A., Meier, J.L., Stinski, M.F., 1999. A strong negative transcriptional regulatory region between the human cytomegalovirus UL127 gene and the major immediate-early enhancer. J. Virol. 73 (11), 9039-9052]. A putative forkhead box-like (FOX-like) site, AAATCAATATT, was identified in the UR and found to play a key role in repression of the UL127 promoter in recombinant virus-infected cells [Lashmit, P.E., Lundquist, C.A., Meier, J.L., Stinski, M.F., 2004. Cellular repressor inhibits human cytomegalovirus transcription from the UL127 promoter. J. Virol. 78 (10), 5113-5123]. However, the cellular factors which associate with the UR and FOX-like region remain to be determined. We reported previously that pancreatic-duodenal homeobox factor-1 (PDX1) bound to a 45-bp element located within the UR [Chao, S.H., Harada, J.N., Hyndman, F., Gao, X., Nelson, C.G., Chanda, S.K., Caldwell, J.S., 2004. PDX1, a Cellular Homeoprotein, Binds to and Regulates the Activity of Human Cytomegalovirus Immediate Early Promoter. J. Biol. Chem. 279 (16), 16111-16120]. Here we demonstrate that two additional cellular homeoproteins, special AT-rich sequence binding protein 1 (SATB1) and CCAAT displacement protein (CDP), bind to the human CMV UR in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, CDP is identified as a FOX-like binding protein

  13. SPARC and GluA1-Containing AMPA Receptors Promote Neuronal Health Following CNS Injury

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    Emma V. Jones

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The proper formation and maintenance of functional synapses in the central nervous system (CNS requires communication between neurons and astrocytes and the ability of astrocytes to release neuromodulatory molecules. Previously, we described a novel role for the astrocyte-secreted matricellular protein SPARC (Secreted Protein, Acidic and Rich in Cysteine in regulating α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs and plasticity at developing synapses. SPARC is highly expressed by astrocytes and microglia during CNS development but its level is reduced in adulthood. Interestingly, SPARC has been shown to be upregulated in CNS injury and disease. However, the role of SPARC upregulation in these contexts is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of chronic SPARC administration on glutamate receptors on mature hippocampal neuron cultures and following CNS injury. We found that SPARC treatment increased the number of GluA1-containing AMPARs at synapses and enhanced synaptic function. Furthermore, we determined that the increase in synaptic strength induced by SPARC could be inhibited by Philanthotoxin-433, a blocker of homomeric GluA1-containing AMPARs. We then investigated the effect of SPARC treatment on neuronal health in an injury context where SPARC expression is upregulated. We found that SPARC levels are increased in astrocytes and microglia following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO in vivo and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD in vitro. Remarkably, chronic pre-treatment with SPARC prevented OGD-induced loss of synaptic GluA1. Furthermore, SPARC treatment reduced neuronal death through Philanthotoxin-433 sensitive GluA1 receptors. Taken together, this study suggests a novel role for SPARC and GluA1 in promoting neuronal health and recovery following CNS damage.

  14. Targeting SPARC by lentivirus-mediated RNA interference inhibits cervical cancer cell growth and metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jie; Shi, Dehuan; Liu, Xiaoyan; Fang, Shuang; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yueran

    2012-01-01

    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), a calcium-binding matricellular glycoprotein, is implicated in the progressions of some cancers. However, no information has been available to date regarding the function of SPARC in cervical cancer cell growth and metastasis. In this study, we isolated and established high invasive subclones and low invasive subclones from human cervical cancer cell lines HeLa and SiHa by the limited dilution method. Real-time q-RT-PCR, Western Blot and ICC were performed to investigate SPARC mRNA and protein expressions in high invasive subclones and low invasive subclones. Then lentivirus vector with SPARC shRNA was constructed and infected the highly invasive subclones. Real-time q-RT-PCR, Western Blot and ICC were also performed to investigate the changes of SPARC expression after viral infection. In functional assays, effects of SPARC knockdown on the biological behaviors of cervical cancer cells were investigated. The mechanisms of SPARC in cervical cancer proliferation, apoptosis and invasion were also researched. SPARC was over-expressed in the highly invasive subclones compared with the low invasive subclones. Knockdown of SPARC significantly suppressed cervical cancer cell proliferation, and induced cell cycle arrest at the G1/G0 phase through the p53/p21 pathway, also caused cell apoptosis accompanied by the decreased ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, and inhibited cell invasion and metastasis accompanied by down-regulated MMP2 and MMP9 expressions and up-regulated E-cadherin expression. SPARC is related to the invasive phenotype of cervical cancer cells. Knockdown of SPARC significantly suppresses cervical cancer cell proliferation, induces cell apoptosis and inhibits cell invasion and metastasis. SPARC as a promoter improves cervical cancer cell growth and metastasis

  15. Targeting SPARC by lentivirus-mediated RNA interference inhibits cervical cancer cell growth and metastasis

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    Chen Jie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC, a calcium-binding matricellular glycoprotein, is implicated in the progressions of some cancers. However, no information has been available to date regarding the function of SPARC in cervical cancer cell growth and metastasis. Methods In this study, we isolated and established high invasive subclones and low invasive subclones from human cervical cancer cell lines HeLa and SiHa by the limited dilution method. Real-time q-RT-PCR, Western Blot and ICC were performed to investigate SPARC mRNA and protein expressions in high invasive subclones and low invasive subclones. Then lentivirus vector with SPARC shRNA was constructed and infected the highly invasive subclones. Real-time q-RT-PCR, Western Blot and ICC were also performed to investigate the changes of SPARC expression after viral infection. In functional assays, effects of SPARC knockdown on the biological behaviors of cervical cancer cells were investigated. The mechanisms of SPARC in cervical cancer proliferation, apoptosis and invasion were also researched. Results SPARC was over-expressed in the highly invasive subclones compared with the low invasive subclones. Knockdown of SPARC significantly suppressed cervical cancer cell proliferation, and induced cell cycle arrest at the G1/G0 phase through the p53/p21 pathway, also caused cell apoptosis accompanied by the decreased ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, and inhibited cell invasion and metastasis accompanied by down-regulated MMP2 and MMP9 expressions and up-regulated E-cadherin expression. Conclusion SPARC is related to the invasive phenotype of cervical cancer cells. Knockdown of SPARC significantly suppresses cervical cancer cell proliferation, induces cell apoptosis and inhibits cell invasion and metastasis. SPARC as a promoter improves cervical cancer cell growth and metastasis.

  16. Absence of SPARC results in increased cardiac rupture and dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellings, Mark W. M.; Vanhoutte, Davy; Swinnen, Melissa; Cleutjens, Jack P.; Debets, Jacques; van Leeuwen, Rick E. W.; D'hooge, Jan; van de Werf, Frans; Carmeliet, Peter; Pinto, Yigal M.; Sage, E. Helene; Heymans, Stephane

    2009-01-01

    The matricellular protein SPARC (secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine, also known as osteonectin) mediates cell-matrix interactions during wound healing and regulates the production and/or assembly of the extracellular matrix (ECM). This study investigated whether SPARC functions in infarct

  17. The SPARC initiative: a catalyst for change

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    Bas Savenije

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available SPARC was started in 1997 by a number of large research libraries in the US. Its main goal was to restore a competitive balance of the STM journals publishing market. A number of programmatic areas were initiated in order to realize this goal: SPARC Alternatives, SPARC Leading Edge, SPARC Scientific Communities, and SPARC Communication and Advocacy. Since two years SPARC puts a special emphasis on Open Access, including institutional repositories. The paper gives an overview of the activities of SPARC and its partners in these areas. The results are evaluated and compared with the measures defined in 1997. Finally, the paper describes the possibilities for libraries to contribute to the realization of SPARC's goals.

  18. SPARC Interacts with Actin in Skeletal Muscle in Vitro and in Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise H; Jepsen, Pia Lørup; Boysen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    to actin. This interaction is present in regenerating myofibers of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, polymyositis, and compartment syndrome. Analysis of the α-, β-, and γ-actin isoforms in SPARC knockout myoblasts reveals a changed expression pattern with dominance of γ-actin. In SPARC knockout......The cytoskeleton is an integral part of skeletal muscle structure, and reorganization of the cytoskeleton occurs during various modes of remodeling. We previously found that the extracellular matrix protein secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is up-regulated and expressed...... intracellularly in developing muscle, during regeneration and in myopathies, which together suggests that SPARC might serve a specific role within muscle cells. Using co-immunoprecipitation combined with mass spectrometry and verified by staining for direct protein-protein interaction, we find that SPARC binds...

  19. Downregulation of SPARC expression inhibits the invasion of human trophoblast cells in vitro.

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    Yahong Jiang

    Full Text Available Successful pregnancy depends on the precise regulation of extravilloustrophoblast (EVT invasion into the uterine decidua. SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine is a matricellular glycoprotein that plays critical roles in the pathologies associated with obesity and diabetes, as well as tumorigenesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of SPARC in the process of trophoblast invasion which shares many similarities with tumor cell invasion. By Western blot, higher expression of SPARC was observed in mouse brain, ovary and uterus compared to other mouse tissues. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed a spatio-temporal expression of SPARC in mouse uterus in the periimplantation period. At the implantation site of d8 pregnancy, SPARC mainly accumulated in the secondary decidua zone (SDZ, trophoblast cells and blastocyst. The expression of SPARC was also detected in human placental villi and trophoblast cell lines. In a Matrigel invasion assay, we found SPARC-specific RNA interference significantly reduced the invasion of human extravilloustrophoblast HTR8/SVneo cells. Microarray analysis revealed that SPARC depletion upregulated the expression of interleukin 11 (IL11, KISS1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4 (IGFBP4, collagen type I alpha 1 (COLIA1, matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9, and downregulated the expression of the alpha polypeptide of chorionic gonadotropin (CGA, MMP1, gap junction protein alpha 1 (GJA1, et al. The gene array result was further validated by qRT-PCR and Western blot. The present data indicate that SPARC may play an important role in the regulation of normal placentation by promoting the invasion of trophoblast cells into the uterine decidua.

  20. Lack of the matricellular protein SPARC (secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine attenuates liver fibrogenesis in mice.

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    Catalina Atorrasagasti

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Secreted Protein, Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC is a matricellular protein involved in many biological processes and found over-expressed in cirrhotic livers. By mean of a genetic approach we herein provide evidence from different in vivo liver disease models suggesting a profibrogenic role for SPARC. METHODS: Two in vivo models of liver fibrosis, based on TAA administration and bile duct ligation, were developed on SPARC wild-type (SPARC(+/+ and knock-out (SPARC(-/- mice. Hepatic SPARC expression was analyzed by qPCR. Fibrosis was assessed by Sirius Red staining, and the maturation state of collagen fibers was analyzed using polarized light. Necroinflammatory activity was evaluated by applying the Knodell score and liver inflammatory infiltration was characterized by immunohistochemistry. Hepatic stellate cell activation was assessed by α-SMA immunohistochemistry. In addition, pro-fibrogenic genes and inflammatory cytokines were measured by qPCR and/or ELISA. Liver gene expression profile was analyzed in SPARC(-/- and SPARC(+/+ mice using Affymetrix Mouse Gene ST 1.0 array. RESULTS: SPARC expression was found induced in fibrotic livers of mouse and human. SPARC(-/- mice showed a reduction in the degree of inflammation, mainly CD4+ cells, and fibrosis. Consistently, collagen deposits and mRNA expression levels were decreased in SPARC(-/- mice when compared to SPARC(+/+ mice; in addition, MMP-2 expression was increased in SPARC(-/- mice. A reduction in the number of activated myofibroblasts was observed. Moreover, TGF-β1 expression levels were down-regulated in the liver as well as in the serum of TAA-treated knock-out animals. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA analysis suggested several gene networks which might involve protective mechanisms of SPARC deficiency against liver fibrogenesis and a better established machinery to repair DNA and detoxify from external chemical stimuli. CONCLUSIONS: Overall our data suggest that

  1. Association between SPARC mRNA expression, prognosis and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in early breast cancer: a pooled in-silico analysis.

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    Hatem A Azim

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: SPARC is an important regulator of the extracellular matrix and has been suggested to improve delivery of albumin-bound cytotoxics. However, little is known regarding its role in breast cancer (BC. METHODS: We conducted a pooled analysis of publically available datasets, in which BC patients who received no systemic therapy or received neoadjuvant chemotherapy were eligible. Patients were assigned to molecular subtypes using PAM-50. We computed a SPARC module (SPARC7, composed of genes with an absolute correlation with SPARC >0.7. In the systemically untreated cohort, we evaluated 1 expression of SPARC/SPARC7 according to breast cancer subtype, 2 association between SPARC/SPARC7 and biological processes related to proliferation, immune and stroma, and 3 association between SPARC/SPARC7 and relapse-free survival in a Cox model in all patients and in the different molecular subtypes adjusted for tumor size, nodal status, histological grade, and age. In the neoadjuvant cohort, we evaluated the association between SPARC and pCR in a logistic regression model, adjusted for the same clinicopathologic factors. RESULTS: 948 (10 datasets, and 791 (8 datasets patients were included in the systemically untreated and neoadjuvant cohorts, respectively. High SPARC expression was associated with small tumor size, low histological grade and luminal-A tumors (all p<0.0001. There was a positive correlation between SPARC and stroma-related modules but negative correlation with proliferation modules. High SPARC expression was associated with poor prognosis in patients with basal and HER2+ breast cancer even after adjusting for clinicopathologic parameters. In the neoadjuvant cohort, a subgroup analysis suggested that high SPARC is associated with low rates of pCR in the HER2 subtype. Same results were observed on replacing SPARC by SPARC7. CONCLUSION: This analysis suggests a potential role of SPARC in determining prognosis and response to primary

  2. Opposite Expression of SPARC between the Liver and Pancreas in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

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    Kanikkai Raja Aseer

    Full Text Available Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC is a matricellular protein that regulates several cellular events, including inflammation and tissue remodelling. In this study, we investigated the tissue-specific expression of SPARC in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes, and found that SPARC was significantly up-regulated in the liver while down-regulated in the pancreas of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Chronic inflammation occurred in the diabetic pancreas accompanied by up-regulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPβ and its targets (TNFα, Il6, CRP, and Fn1 as well as myeloperoxidase (Mpo and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 2 (Cxcr2. Diabetic liver showed significant up-regulation of Tgfb1 as well as moderately less up-regulated TNFα and reduced Fn1, resulting in elevated fibrogenesis. PARP-1 was not up-regulated during CD95-mediated apoptosis, resulting in restoration of high ATP levels in the diabetic liver. On the contrary, CD95-dependent apoptosis was not observed in the diabetic pancreas due to up-regulation of PARP-1 and ATP depletion, resulting in necrosis. The cytoprotective machinery was damaged by pancreatic inflammation, whereas adequate antioxidant capacity indicates low oxidative stress in the diabetic liver. High and low cellular insulin content was found in the diabetic liver and pancreas, respectively. Furthermore, we identified six novel interacting partner proteins of SPARC by co-immunoprecipitation in the diabetic liver and pancreas, and their interactions with SPARC were predicted by bioinformatics tools. Taken together, opposite expression of SPARC in the diabetic liver and pancreas may be related to inflammation and immune cell infiltration, degrees of apoptosis and fibrosis, cytoprotective machinery, and cellular insulin levels.

  3. Opposite Expression of SPARC between the Liver and Pancreas in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseer, Kanikkai Raja; Kim, Sang Woo; Choi, Myung-Sook; Yun, Jong Won

    2015-01-01

    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a matricellular protein that regulates several cellular events, including inflammation and tissue remodelling. In this study, we investigated the tissue-specific expression of SPARC in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes, and found that SPARC was significantly up-regulated in the liver while down-regulated in the pancreas of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Chronic inflammation occurred in the diabetic pancreas accompanied by up-regulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPβ) and its targets (TNFα, Il6, CRP, and Fn1) as well as myeloperoxidase (Mpo) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 2 (Cxcr2). Diabetic liver showed significant up-regulation of Tgfb1 as well as moderately less up-regulated TNFα and reduced Fn1, resulting in elevated fibrogenesis. PARP-1 was not up-regulated during CD95-mediated apoptosis, resulting in restoration of high ATP levels in the diabetic liver. On the contrary, CD95-dependent apoptosis was not observed in the diabetic pancreas due to up-regulation of PARP-1 and ATP depletion, resulting in necrosis. The cytoprotective machinery was damaged by pancreatic inflammation, whereas adequate antioxidant capacity indicates low oxidative stress in the diabetic liver. High and low cellular insulin content was found in the diabetic liver and pancreas, respectively. Furthermore, we identified six novel interacting partner proteins of SPARC by co-immunoprecipitation in the diabetic liver and pancreas, and their interactions with SPARC were predicted by bioinformatics tools. Taken together, opposite expression of SPARC in the diabetic liver and pancreas may be related to inflammation and immune cell infiltration, degrees of apoptosis and fibrosis, cytoprotective machinery, and cellular insulin levels. PMID:26110898

  4. Status of the SPARC Project

    CERN Document Server

    Serafini, Luca; Alessandria, Franco; Bacci, Alberto; Bellaveglia, Marco; Bertolucci, Sergio; Biagini, Maria; Boni, Roberto; Boscolo, Ilario; Boscolo, Manuela; Broggi, Francesco; Castellano, Michele; Catani, Luciano; Chiadroni, Enrica; Cialdi, Simone; Cianchi, Alessandro; Ciocci, Franco; Clozza, Alberto; Dattoli, Giuseppe; De Martinis, Carlo; Di Pirro, Giampiero; Dipace, Antonio; Doria, Andrea; Dowell, David; Drago, Alessandro; Emma, Paul; Esposito, Adolfo; Ferrario, Massimo; Ficcadenti, L; Filippetto, Daniele; Flora, F; Fusco, Valeria; Gabrielli, E; Gallerano, Gian P; Gallo, Alessandro; Gatti, Giancarlo; Ghigo, Andrea; Giannessi, Luca; Giove, Dario; Giovenale, Emilio; Guiducci, Susanna; Incurvati, Maurizio; Levi, Decio; Ligi, Carlo; Limborg-Deprey, Cecile; Marcellini, Fabio; Maroli, Cesare; Mattioli, Mario; Mauri, Marco; Medici, G; Messina, Giovanni; Migliorati, Mauro; Mostacci, Andrea; Musumeci, Pietro; Nisoli, Mauro; Ottaviani, P L; Pagnutti, Simonetta; Palumbo, Luigi; Parisi, Giovanni; Pellegrino, Luigi; Pelliccia, Daniele; Petrarca, Massimo; Petrillo, Vittoria; Picardi, Luigi; Preger, Miro; Quattromini, Marcello; Renieri, Alberto; Ricci, Ruggero; Rome, Massimiliano; Ronci, G; Ronsivalle, Concetta; Rosenzweig, James E; Rosetti, Maurizio; Sabia, Elio; Sanelli, Claudio; Sassi, Mauro; Serio, Mario; Sgamma, Francesco; Spataro, Bruno; Stagira, Salvatore; Stecchi, Alessandro; Stella, Angelo; Tazzari, Sergio; Tazzioli, Franco; Thomas Palmer, Dennis; Torre, A; Vaccarezza, Cristina; Vescovi, Mario; Vicario, Carlo; Zucchini, Alberto; de Silvestri, Sandro

    2005-01-01

    The SPARC project has entered its installation phase at INFN-LNF: its main goal is the promotion of an R&D activity oriented to the development of a high brightness photoinjector to drive SASE-FEL experiments. The design of the 150 MeV photoinjector has been completed and the construction of its main components is in progress, as well as the design of the 12 m undulator. In this paper we will report on the installation and test of some major components, like the Ti:Sa laser system to drive the photo-cathode, the RF gun, the RF power system, as well as some test results on the RF deflector and 4th harmonic X-band cavity prototypes. Advancements in the control and beam diagnostics systems will also be reported, in particular on the emittance-meter device for beam emittance measurements in the drift space downstream the RF gun. Recent results on laser pulse shaping, obtained with two alternative techniques (DAZZLER and Liquid Crystal Mask), show the feasibility of producing 10 ps flat-top laser pulses in the...

  5. Change of SPARC expression after chemotherapy in gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yong-Yin; Han, Ru-Bing; Wang, Xia; Ge, Shao-Hua; Li, Hong-Li; Deng, Ting; Liu, Rui; Bai, Ming; Zhou, Li-Kun; Zhang, Xin-Yuan; Ba, Yi; Huang, Ding-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    The expression of tumor biomarkers may change after chemotherapy. However, whether secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) expression changes after chemotherapy in gastric cancer (GC) is unclear. This study investigated the influence of chemotherapy on SPARC expression in GC. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze SPARC expression in 132 GC cases (including 54 cases with preoperative chemotherapy and 78 cases without preoperative chemotherapy). SPARC expression of postoperative specimens with and without preoperative chemotherapy was assessed to analyze the influence of chemotherapy on SPARC expression. SPARC was highly expressed in GC compared with the desmoplastic stroma surrounding tumor cells and noncancerous tissues. High SPARC expression was correlated with invasion depth, lymph node, and TNM stage. After chemotherapy, a lower proportion of high SPARC expression was observed in patients with preoperative chemotherapy than in the controls. For 54 patients with preoperative chemotherapy, gross type, histology, depth of invasion, lymph node, TNM stage, and SPARC expression were related to overall survival. Further multivariate analysis showed that lymph node, histology, and SPARC expression after chemotherapy were independent prognostic factors. SPARC expression may change after chemotherapy in GC. SPARC expression should be reassessed for patients with GC after chemotherapy

  6. Inhibition of HSP27 alone or in combination with pAKT inhibition as therapeutic approaches to target SPARC-induced glioma cell survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schultz Chad R

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current treatment regimen for glioma patients is surgery, followed by radiation therapy plus temozolomide (TMZ, followed by 6 months of adjuvant TMZ. Despite this aggressive treatment regimen, the overall survival of all surgically treated GBM patients remains dismal, and additional or different therapies are required. Depending on the cancer type, SPARC has been proposed both as a therapeutic target and as a therapeutic agent. In glioma, SPARC promotes invasion via upregulation of the p38 MAPK/MAPKAPK2/HSP27 signaling pathway, and promotes tumor cell survival by upregulating pAKT. As HSP27 and AKT interact to regulate the activity of each other, we determined whether inhibition of HSP27 was better than targeting SPARC as a therapeutic approach to inhibit both SPARC-induced glioma cell invasion and survival. Results Our studies found the following. 1 SPARC increases the expression of tumor cell pro-survival and pro-death protein signaling in balance, and, as a net result, tumor cell survival remains unchanged. 2 Suppressing SPARC increases tumor cell survival, indicating it is not a good therapeutic target. 3 Suppressing HSP27 decreases tumor cell survival in all gliomas, but is more effective in SPARC-expressing tumor cells due to the removal of HSP27 inhibition of SPARC-induced pro-apoptotic signaling. 4 Suppressing total AKT1/2 paradoxically enhanced tumor cell survival, indicating that AKT1 or 2 are poor therapeutic targets. 5 However, inhibiting pAKT suppresses tumor cell survival. 6 Inhibiting both HSP27 and pAKT synergistically decreases tumor cell survival. 7 There appears to be a complex feedback system between SPARC, HSP27, and AKT. 8 This interaction is likely influenced by PTEN status. With respect to chemosensitization, we found the following. 1 SPARC enhances pro-apoptotic signaling in cells exposed to TMZ. 2 Despite this enhanced signaling, SPARC protects cells against TMZ. 3 This protection can be reduced

  7. Methylation of the SPARC gene promoter and its clinical implication in pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Shunli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC plays a pivotal role in regulating cell-matrix interactions and tumor angiogenesis, proliferation, and migration. Detection of SPARC gene methylation may be useful as a tumorigenesis marker for early detection of pancreatic cancer. Methods Methylation of the SPARC gene transcriptional regulation region (TRR was detected using bisulfite-specific (BSP PCR-based sequencing analysis in 40 cases of pancreatic cancer and the adjacent normal tissues, 6 chronic pancreatitis tissues, and 6 normal pancreatic tissues. BSP cloning-based sequencing analysis was also performed in selected cases. Clinicopathological data from the cancer patients were collected and analyzed. Results Analysis of SPARC gene TRR methylation showed two hypermethylation wave peak regions: CpG Region 1 (CpG site 1-7 and CpG Region 2 (CpG site 8-12. Pancreatic tissues have shown methylation in both regions with gradual increases from normal, chronic pancreatitis, and adjacent normal tissues to cancerous tissues. However, Methylation of CpG Region 2 was more sensitive than CpG Region 1 in pancreatic tumorigenesis. Furthermore, the methylation level of CpG Region 2 was associated with increased tumor size and exposure to the risk factors (tobacco smoke and alcohol consumption for developing pancreatic cancer. Conclusion Methylation of the SPARC gene, specifically CpG Region 2, may be an early event during pancreatic tumorigenesis and should be further evaluated as a tumorigenesis marker for early detection of pancreatic cancer.

  8. Matricellular homologs in the foreign body response: hevin suppresses inflammation, but hevin and SPARC together diminish angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Thomas H; Framson, Paul; Puolakkainen, Pauli A; Reed, May; Funk, Sarah E; Sage, E Helene

    2005-03-01

    Implanted foreign materials, used to restore or assist tissue function, elicit an initial acute inflammatory response followed by chronic fibrosis that leads to the entrapment of the biomaterial in a thick, poorly vascularized collagenous capsule. Matricellular proteins, secreted macromolecules that interact with extracellular matrix proteins but do not in themselves serve structural roles, have been identified as important mediators of the foreign body response that includes inflammation, angiogenesis, and collagen synthesis and assembly. In this report we delineate functions of hevin and SPARC, two homologs of the SPARC family of matricellular proteins, in the foreign body response. Despite their sequence similarity, hevin and SPARC mediate different aspects of this fibrotic response. Using mice with targeted gene deletions, we show that hevin is central to the progression of biomaterial-induced inflammation whereas SPARC regulates the formation of the collagenous capsule. Although vascular density within the capsule is unaltered in the absence of either protein, SPARC-hevin double-null capsules show substantially increased numbers of vessels, indicating compensatory functions for these two proteins in the inhibition of angiogenesis. These results provide important information for further development of implant technology.

  9. Validation of SPARC, a suppression pool aerosol capture model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owczarski, P.C.; Winegardner, W.K.

    1985-09-01

    A study of the potential for atmospheric release in hypothetical severe core melt accidents in BWRs with suppression pools was recently completed using a prototype of the SPARC code. The process of validating SPARC using an experimental data base is the concern of this paper

  10. The SPARC-LAB Thomson source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaccarezza, C.; Alesini, D.; Anania, M.P.; Bacci, A.; Biagioni, A.; Bisesto, F.; Bellaveglia, M.; Cardarelli, P.; Cardelli, F.; Cianchi, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Croia, M.; Curcio, A.; Delogu, P.; Giovenale, D. Di; Domenico, G. Di; Pirro, G. Di; Drebot, I.; Ferrario, M.; Filippi, F.

    2016-01-01

    The SPARC-LAB Thomson source is a compact X-ray source based on the Thomson backscattering process presently under its second phase of commissioning at the LNF. The electron beam energy ranges between 30 and 150 MeV, the electrons collide head-on with the Ti:Sapphire FLAME laser pulse the energy of which ranges between 1 and 5 J with pulse lengths in the 25 fs–10 ps range, this provides an X-ray energy tunability in the range of 20–500 keV, with the further capability to generate strongly non-linear phenomena and to drive diffusion processes due to multiple and plural scattering effects. The experimental results of the obtained X-ray radiation are presented.

  11. The SPARC-LAB Thomson source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaccarezza, C., E-mail: cristina.vaccarezza@lnf.infn.it [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi, 40 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Alesini, D.; Anania, M.P. [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi, 40 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Bacci, A. [INFN-MI, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Biagioni, A.; Bisesto, F.; Bellaveglia, M. [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi, 40 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Cardarelli, P. [University of Ferrara and INFN-FE, via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Cardelli, F. [University La Sapienza and INFN-Roma1, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2 00161 Rome (Italy); Cianchi, A. [University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Chiadroni, E.; Croia, M.; Curcio, A. [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi, 40 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Delogu, P. [University of Pisa and INFN-PI, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Giovenale, D. Di [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi, 40 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Domenico, G. Di [University of Ferrara and INFN-FE, via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Pirro, G. Di [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi, 40 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Drebot, I. [INFN-MI, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Ferrario, M. [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi, 40 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Filippi, F. [University La Sapienza and INFN-Roma1, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2 00161 Rome (Italy); and others

    2016-09-01

    The SPARC-LAB Thomson source is a compact X-ray source based on the Thomson backscattering process presently under its second phase of commissioning at the LNF. The electron beam energy ranges between 30 and 150 MeV, the electrons collide head-on with the Ti:Sapphire FLAME laser pulse the energy of which ranges between 1 and 5 J with pulse lengths in the 25 fs–10 ps range, this provides an X-ray energy tunability in the range of 20–500 keV, with the further capability to generate strongly non-linear phenomena and to drive diffusion processes due to multiple and plural scattering effects. The experimental results of the obtained X-ray radiation are presented.

  12. SPARC, FOXP3, CD8 and CD45 correlation with disease recurrence and long-term disease-free survival in colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Chew

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SPARC is a matricellular protein involved in tissue remodelling, cell migration and angiogenesis, while forkhead box P3 (FOXP3 protein functions as a transcription factor involved in immune cell regulation. Both SPARC and FOXP3 can play an anti-tumorigenic role in cancer progression. The aim was to determine if SPARC, FOXP3, CD8 and CD45RO expression levels are associated with colorectal cancer (CRC stage, disease outcome and long-term cancer-specific survival (CSS in stage II and III CRC. METHODS AND FINDINGS: SPARC expression was initially assessed in 120 paired normal and stage I-IV CRCs. Subsequently, approximately 1000 paired patient samples of stage II or III CRCs in tissue microarrays were stained for SPARC, FOXP3, CD8 or CD45RO. Proportional hazards modelling assessed correlations between these markers and clinicopathological data, including disease outcome and cancer specific survival (CSS. Both SPARC and FOXP3 expression were significantly greater in CRC than normal colon (p<0.0001. High SPARC expression correlated with good disease outcome (≥60 mths without disease recurrence, p = 0.0039 and better long-term CSS in stage II CRC (<0.0001. In stage III CRC, high SPARC expression correlated with better long-term CSS (p<0.0001 and less adjuvant chemotherapy use (p = 0.01. High FOXP3 correlated with a good disease outcome, better long-term CSS and less adjuvant chemotherapy use in stage II (p<0.0037, <0.0001 and p = 0.04 respectively, but not in stage III CRC. High CD8 and CD45RO expression correlated with better disease outcome in stage II CRC, and better CSS, but the differences were not as marked as for SPARC and FOXP3. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that high SPARC and FOXP3 are associated with better disease outcome in stage II CRC and may be prognostic indicators of CSS. Further assessment of whether these markers predict patients at high risk of recurrence with stage II CRC and functional studies of these

  13. Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC) in Human Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Louise H.; Petersson, Stine J.; Sellathurai, Jeeva; Andersen, Ditte C.; Thayssen, Susanne; Sant, Dorte J.; Jensen, Charlotte H.; Schrøder, Henrik D.

    2009-01-01

    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC)/osteonectin is expressed in different tissues during remodeling and repair, suggesting a function in regeneration. Several gene expression studies indicated that SPARC was expressed in response to muscle damage. Studies on myoblasts further indicated a function of SPARC in skeletal muscle. We therefore found it of interest to study SPARC expression in human skeletal muscle during development and in biopsies from Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy and congenital muscular dystrophy, congenital myopathy, inclusion body myositis, and polymyositis patients to analyze SPARC expression in a selected range of inherited and idiopathic muscle wasting diseases. SPARC-positive cells were observed both in fetal and neonatal muscle, and in addition, fetal myofibers were observed to express SPARC at the age of 15–16 weeks. SPARC protein was detected in the majority of analyzed muscle biopsies (23 of 24), mainly in mononuclear cells of which few were pax7 positive. Myotubes and regenerating myofibers also expressed SPARC. The expression-degree seemed to reflect the severity of the lesion. In accordance with these in vivo findings, primary human-derived satellite cells were found to express SPARC both during proliferation and differentiation in vitro. In conclusion, this study shows SPARC expression both during muscle development and in regenerating muscle. The expression is detected both in satellite cells/myoblasts and in myotubes and muscle fibers, indicating a role for SPARC in the skeletal muscle compartment. (J Histochem Cytochem 57:29–39, 2009) PMID:18796407

  14. Λ CDM is Consistent with SPARC Radial Acceleration Relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, B. W.; Wadsley, J. W., E-mail: kellerbw@mcmaster.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2017-01-20

    Recent analysis of the Spitzer Photometry and Accurate Rotation Curve (SPARC) galaxy sample found a surprisingly tight relation between the radial acceleration inferred from the rotation curves and the acceleration due to the baryonic components of the disk. It has been suggested that this relation may be evidence for new physics, beyond Λ CDM . In this Letter, we show that 32 galaxies from the MUGS2 match the SPARC acceleration relation. These cosmological simulations of star-forming, rotationally supported disks were simulated with a WMAP3 Λ CDM cosmology, and match the SPARC acceleration relation with less scatter than the observational data. These results show that this acceleration relation is a consequence of dissipative collapse of baryons, rather than being evidence for exotic dark-sector physics or new dynamical laws.

  15. Anti-angiogenic SPARC peptides inhibit progression of neuroblastoma tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yufeng

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New, more effective strategies are needed to treat highly aggressive neuroblastoma. Our laboratory has previously shown that full-length Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC and a SPARC peptide corresponding to the follistatin domain of the protein (FS-E potently block angiogenesis and inhibit the growth of neuroblastoma tumors in preclinical models. Peptide FS-E is structurally complex and difficult to produce, limiting its potential as a therapeutic in the clinic. Results In this study, we synthesized two smaller and structurally more simple SPARC peptides, FSEN and FSEC, that respectively correspond to the N-and C-terminal loops of peptide FS-E. We show that both peptides FSEN and FSEC have anti-angiogenic activity in vitro and in vivo, although FSEC is more potent. Peptide FSEC also significantly inhibited the growth of neuroblastoma xenografts. Histologic examination demonstrated characteristic features of tumor angiogenesis with structurally abnormal, tortuous blood vessels in control neuroblastoma xenografts. In contrast, the blood vessels observed in tumors, treated with SPARC peptides, were thin walled and structurally more normal. Using a novel method to quantitatively assess blood vessel abnormality we demonstrated that both SPARC peptides induced changes in blood vessel architecture that are consistent with blood vessel normalization. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that SPARC peptide FSEC has potent anti-angiogenic and anti-tumorigenic effects in neuroblastoma. Its simple structure and ease of production indicate that it may have clinical utility in the treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma and other types of pediatric and adult cancers, which depend on angiogenesis.

  16. Evaluation of CFVS Performance with SPARC Model and Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Il; Na, Young Su; Ha, Kwang Soon; Cho, Song Won [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Containment Filtered Venting System (CFVS) is one of the important safety features to reduce the amount of released fission product into the environment by depressurizing the containment. KAERI has been conducted the integrated performance verification test of CFVS as a part of a Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) project. Generally, some codes are used in the case of wet type filter, such as SPARC, BUSCA, SUPRA, etc. Especially SPARC model is included in the MELCOR to calculate the fission product removal rate through the pool scrubbing. In this study, CFVS performance is evaluated using SPARC model in MELCOR according to the steam fraction in the containment. The calculation is mainly focused on the effect of steam fraction in the containment, and the calculation result is explained with the aerosol removal model in SPARC. Previous study on the OPR 1000 is applied to the result. There were two CFVS valve opening period and it is found that the CFVS performance is different in each case. The result of the study provides the fundamental data can be used to decide the CFVS operation time, however, more calculation data is necessary to generalize the result.

  17. A role for SPARC in the moderation of human insulin secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna W Harries

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We have previously shown the implication of the multifunctional protein SPARC (Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine/osteonectin in insulin resistance but potential effects on beta-cell function have not been assessed. We therefore aimed to characterise the effect of SPARC on beta-cell function and features of diabetes. METHODS: We measured SPARC expression by qRT-PCR in human primary pancreatic islets, adipose tissue, liver and muscle. We then examined the relation of SPARC with glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS in primary human islets and the effect of SPARC overexpression on GSIS in beta cell lines. RESULTS: SPARC was expressed at measurable levels in human islets, adipose tissue, liver and skeletal muscle, and demonstrated reduced expression in primary islets from subjects with diabetes compared with controls (p< = 0.05. SPARC levels were positively correlated with GSIS in islets from control donors (p< = 0.01. Overexpression of SPARC in cultured beta-cells resulted in a 2.4-fold increase in insulin secretion in high glucose conditions (p< = 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that levels of SPARC are reduced in islets from donors with diabetes and that it has a role in insulin secretion, an effect which appears independent of SPARC's modulation of obesity-induced insulin resistance in adipose tissue.

  18. SPARC expression in CML is associated to imatinib treatment and to inhibition of leukemia cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giallongo, Cesarina; Palumbo, Giuseppe A; Di Raimondo, Francesco; La Cava, Piera; Tibullo, Daniele; Barbagallo, Ignazio; Parrinello, Nunziatina; Cupri, Alessandra; Stagno, Fabio; Consoli, Carla; Chiarenza, Annalisa

    2013-01-01

    SPARC is a matricellular glycoprotein with growth-inhibitory and antiangiogenic activity in some cell types. The study of this protein in hematopoietic malignancies led to conflicting reports about its role as a tumor suppressor or promoter, depending on its different functions in the tumor microenvironment. In this study we investigated the variations in SPARC production by peripheral blood cells from chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients at diagnosis and after treatment and we identified the subpopulation of cells that are the prevalent source of SPARC. We evaluated SPARC expression using real-time PCR and western blotting. SPARC serum levels were detected by ELISA assay. Finally we analyzed the interaction between exogenous SPARC and imatinib (IM), in vitro, using ATP-lite and cell cycle analysis. Our study shows that the CML cells of patients at diagnosis have a low mRNA and protein expression of SPARC. Low serum levels of this protein are also recorded in CML patients at diagnosis. However, after IM treatment we observed an increase of SPARC mRNA, protein, and serum level in the peripheral blood of these patients that had already started at 3 months and was maintained for at least the 18 months of observation. This SPARC increase was predominantly due to monocyte production. In addition, exogenous SPARC protein reduced the growth of K562 cell line and synergized in vitro with IM by inhibiting cell cycle progression from G1 to S phase. Our results suggest that low endogenous SPARC expression is a constant feature of BCR/ABL positive cells and that IM treatment induces SPARC overproduction by normal cells. This exogenous SPARC may inhibit CML cell proliferation and may synergize with IM activity against CML

  19. SPARC expression in CML is associated to imatinib treatment and to inhibition of leukemia cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giallongo Cesarina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SPARC is a matricellular glycoprotein with growth-inhibitory and antiangiogenic activity in some cell types. The study of this protein in hematopoietic malignancies led to conflicting reports about its role as a tumor suppressor or promoter, depending on its different functions in the tumor microenvironment. In this study we investigated the variations in SPARC production by peripheral blood cells from chronic myeloid leukemia (CML patients at diagnosis and after treatment and we identified the subpopulation of cells that are the prevalent source of SPARC. Methods We evaluated SPARC expression using real-time PCR and western blotting. SPARC serum levels were detected by ELISA assay. Finally we analyzed the interaction between exogenous SPARC and imatinib (IM, in vitro, using ATP-lite and cell cycle analysis. Results Our study shows that the CML cells of patients at diagnosis have a low mRNA and protein expression of SPARC. Low serum levels of this protein are also recorded in CML patients at diagnosis. However, after IM treatment we observed an increase of SPARC mRNA, protein, and serum level in the peripheral blood of these patients that had already started at 3 months and was maintained for at least the 18 months of observation. This SPARC increase was predominantly due to monocyte production. In addition, exogenous SPARC protein reduced the growth of K562 cell line and synergized in vitro with IM by inhibiting cell cycle progression from G1 to S phase. Conclusion Our results suggest that low endogenous SPARC expression is a constant feature of BCR/ABL positive cells and that IM treatment induces SPARC overproduction by normal cells. This exogenous SPARC may inhibit CML cell proliferation and may synergize with IM activity against CML.

  20. Introduction to flow visualization system in SPARC test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wooyoung; Song, Simon; Na, Young Su; Hong, Seong Wan

    2016-01-01

    The released hydrogen can be accumulated and mixed by steam and air depending on containment conditions under severe accident, which generates flammable mixture. Hydrogen explosion induced by ignition source cause severe damage to a structure or facility. Hydrogen risk regarding mixing, distribution, and combustion has been identified by several expert groups and studied actively since TMI accident. A large-scale thermal-hydraulic experimental facility is required to simulate the complex severe accident phenomena in the containment building. We have prepared the test facility, called the SPARC (Spray, Aerosol, Recombiner, Combustion), to resolve the international open issues regarding hydrogen risk. Gas mixing and stratification test using helium instead of hydrogen and estimation of a stratification surface erosion of helium owing to the vertical jet flow will be performed in SPARC. The measurement system is need to observe the gas flow in the large scale test facility such as SPARC. The PIV (particle image velocimetry) system have been installed to visualize gas flow. We are preparing the test facility, called the SPARC, for estimation the thermal-hydraulic process of hydrogen in a closed containment building and the PIV system for quantitative assessment of gas flow. In particular, we will perform gas mixing and erosion of stratification surface test using helium which is the replacement of hydrogen. It will be evaluated by measuring 2D velocity field using the PIV system. The PIV system mainly consists of camera, laser and tracer particle. Expected maximum size of FOV is 750 x 750 mm 2 limited by focal length of lens and high power laser corresponding to 425mJ/pulse at 532 wavelength is required due to large FOV

  1. Elevated plasma SPARC levels are associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and inflammation in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Recent studies suggested that secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC, a novel adipokine, is a key player in the pathology of obesity and type 2 diabetes. We aimed to determine whether concentrations of SPARC were altered in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM compared to normal glucose tolerance (NGT controls and to investigate the relationships between SPARC and metabolic parameters in pregnant women. DESIGN/METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 120 pregnant women with GDM and 60 controls with NGT, in a university hospital setting. Plasma levels of SPARC, adiponectin, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21, insulin and proinsulin were determined by ELISA. RESULTS: GDM women had higher SPARC and lower adiponectin than NGT subjects; no difference was found in FGF21. SPARC levels were the lowest in subjects in the third tertile of insulin sensitivity index (ISIOGTT and correlated positively with pre-pregnant BMI, insulin and 3 h glucose during 100-g OGTT, HOMA-IR, fasting proinsulin, hsCRP and white blood cells count, and negatively with ISIOGTT, when adjusting for gestational age. Triglyceride (TG, Apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein (a correlated with SPARC in partial Pearson correlation. Correlations between SPARC with adiponectin, systolic blood pressure and TG were marginally significant in partial Spearman correlation analysis. In multivariate regression analysis, SPARC was an independent negative indicator of ISIOGTT. CONCLUSIONS: SPARC levels are correlated significantly with inflammation and may also be correlated with dyslipidemia and represent an independent determinant of insulin resistance in late pregnancy, indicating a potential role of SPARC in the pathophysiology of GDM.

  2. Elevated plasma SPARC levels are associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and inflammation in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lu; Ping, Fan; Yin, Jinhua; Xiao, Xinhua; Xiang, Hongding; Ballantyne, Christie M; Wu, Huaizhu; Li, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggested that secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), a novel adipokine, is a key player in the pathology of obesity and type 2 diabetes. We aimed to determine whether concentrations of SPARC were altered in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared to normal glucose tolerance (NGT) controls and to investigate the relationships between SPARC and metabolic parameters in pregnant women. Cross-sectional study of 120 pregnant women with GDM and 60 controls with NGT, in a university hospital setting. Plasma levels of SPARC, adiponectin, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), insulin and proinsulin were determined by ELISA. GDM women had higher SPARC and lower adiponectin than NGT subjects; no difference was found in FGF21. SPARC levels were the lowest in subjects in the third tertile of insulin sensitivity index (ISIOGTT) and correlated positively with pre-pregnant BMI, insulin and 3 h glucose during 100-g OGTT, HOMA-IR, fasting proinsulin, hsCRP and white blood cells count, and negatively with ISIOGTT, when adjusting for gestational age. Triglyceride (TG), Apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein (a) correlated with SPARC in partial Pearson correlation. Correlations between SPARC with adiponectin, systolic blood pressure and TG were marginally significant in partial Spearman correlation analysis. In multivariate regression analysis, SPARC was an independent negative indicator of ISIOGTT. SPARC levels are correlated significantly with inflammation and may also be correlated with dyslipidemia and represent an independent determinant of insulin resistance in late pregnancy, indicating a potential role of SPARC in the pathophysiology of GDM.

  3. Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC) in Human Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise H; Petersson, Stine J; Sellathurai, Jeeva

    2009-01-01

    indicated a function of SPARC in skeletal muscle. We therefore found it of interest to study SPARC expression in human skeletal muscle during development and in biopsies from Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy and congenital muscular dystrophy, congenital myopathy, inclusion body myositis...

  4. Sparc: a sparsity-based consensus algorithm for long erroneous sequencing reads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengxi Ye

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Motivation. The third generation sequencing (3GS technology generates long sequences of thousands of bases. However, its current error rates are estimated in the range of 15–40%, significantly higher than those of the prevalent next generation sequencing (NGS technologies (less than 1%. Fundamental bioinformatics tasks such as de novo genome assembly and variant calling require high-quality sequences that need to be extracted from these long but erroneous 3GS sequences. Results. We describe a versatile and efficient linear complexity consensus algorithm Sparc to facilitate de novo genome assembly. Sparc builds a sparse k-mer graph using a collection of sequences from a targeted genomic region. The heaviest path which approximates the most likely genome sequence is searched through a sparsity-induced reweighted graph as the consensus sequence. Sparc supports using NGS and 3GS data together, which leads to significant improvements in both cost efficiency and computational efficiency. Experiments with Sparc show that our algorithm can efficiently provide high-quality consensus sequences using both PacBio and Oxford Nanopore sequencing technologies. With only 30× PacBio data, Sparc can reach a consensus with error rate <0.5%. With the more challenging Oxford Nanopore data, Sparc can also achieve similar error rate when combined with NGS data. Compared with the existing approaches, Sparc calculates the consensus with higher accuracy, and uses approximately 80% less memory and time. Availability. The source code is available for download at https://github.com/yechengxi/Sparc.

  5. Estimating the melting point, entropy of fusion, and enthalpy of fusion of organic compounds via SPARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The entropies of fusion, enthalies of fusion, and melting points of organic compounds can be estimated through three models developed using the SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) platform. The entropy of fusion is modeled through a combination of interaction ...

  6. Study of Aerosols capture process in pool for injections Gaseous Jets at High Speeds: Enhancements SPARC90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berna, C.; Escriva, A.; Munoz-Cobo, J. L.; Herranz, L. E.

    2012-01-01

    Code The different expressions found in the literature have been analyzed in a modified version of the code SPARC90, those considered most appropriate. are compared in terms of decontamination factors, the results obtained using the original and modified (SPARC90-Jet) for SGTR accident conditions SPARC code.

  7. ARM/GCSS/SPARC TWP-ICE CRM Intercomparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridlind, Ann; Ackerman, Andrew; Petch, Jon; Field, Paul; Hill, Adrian; McFarquhar, Greg; Xie, Shaocheng; Zhang, Minghua

    2010-01-01

    Specifications are provided for running a cloud-resolving model (CRM) and submitting results in a standardized format for inclusion in a n intercomparison study and archiving for public access. The simulated case study is based on measurements obtained during the 2006 Tropical Warm Pool - International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) led by the U. S. department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. The modeling intercomparison study is based on objectives developed in concert with the Stratospheric Processes And their Role in Climate (SPARC) program and the GEWEX cloud system study (GCSS) program. The Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) is a core project of the World Climate Research PRogramme (WCRP).

  8. SPARC experiments at the high-energy storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stöhlker, Thomas; Litvinov, Yuri A; Bagnoud, Vincent; Dimopoulou, Christina; Dolinskii, Alexei; Geppert, Christopher; Hagmann, Siegbert; Katayama, Takeshi; Kühl, Thomas; Nörtershäuser, Wilfried; Steck, Markus; Bechstedt, Ulf; Maier, Rudolf; Prasuhn, Dieter; Stockhorst, Hans; Schuch, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    The physics program of the SPARC collaboration at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) focuses on the study of collision phenomena in strong and even extreme electromagnetic fields and on the fundamental interactions between electrons and heavy nuclei up to bare uranium. Here we give a short overview on the challenging physics opportunities of the high-energy storage ring at FAIR for future experiments with heavy-ion beams at relativistic energies with particular emphasis on the basic beam properties to be expected. (paper)

  9. SPARC-90: A code for calculating fission product capture in suppression pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owczarski, P.C.; Burk, K.W.

    1991-10-01

    This report describes the technical bases and use of two updated versions of a computer code initially developed to serve as a tool for calculating aerosol particle retention in boiling water reactor (BWR) pressure suppression pools during severe accidents, SPARC-87 and SPARC-90. The most recent version is SPARC-90. The initial or prototype version (Owczarski, Postma, and Schreck 1985) was improved to include the following: rigorous treatment of local particle deposition velocities on the surface of oblate spherical bubbles, new correlations for hydrodynamic behavior of bubble swarms, models for aerosol particle growth, both mechanistic and empirical models for vent exit region scrubbing, specific models for hydrodynamics of bubble breakup at various vent types, and models for capture of vapor iodine species. A complete user's guide is provided for SPARC-90 (along with SPARC-87). A code description, code operating instructions, partial code listing, examples of the use of SPARC-90, and summaries of experimental data comparison studies also support the use of SPARC-90. 29 refs., 4 figs., 11 tabs

  10. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC is associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasis and poor prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hai-Yun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to analyse the expression of Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC specimens, and to evaluate its correlation with clinicopathologic features, including survival of patients with NPC Methods NPC tissue microarrays (TMAs were constructed from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center (SYSUCC, another three centers on mainland China, Singapore and Hong Kong. Using quantitative RT-PCR and Western-blotting techniques, we detected mRNA and protein expression of SPARC in NPC cell lines and immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cells (NPECs induced by Bmi-1 (NPEC2 Bmi-1. The difference of SPARC expression in the cell lines was tested using a t-test method. The relationship between the SPARC expression and clinicopathological data was assessed by chi-square. Survival analysis was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier approach with log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate analyses of clinical variables were performed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results The expression levels of SPARC mRNA and protein were markedly higher in NPC cell lines than in NPEC2 Bmi-1. Especially, the expression levels of SPARC mRNA and protein were much lower in the 6-10B than in the 5-8 F (P = 0.002, P = 0.001. SPARC immunostaining revealed cytoplasmic localization in NPC cells and no staining in the stroma and epithelium. In addition, high level of SPARC positively correlated with the status of distant metastasis (P = 0.001 and WHO histological classification (P = 0.023. NPC patients with high SPARC expression also had a significantly poorer prognosis than patients with low SPARC expression (log-rank test, P P P Conclusions SPARC expression is common in NPC patients. Our data shows that elevated SPARC expression is a potential unfavorable prognostic factor for patients with NPC.

  11. Impact of Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC) Expression on Prognosis After Surgical Resection for Biliary Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Kazuhiro; Murakami, Yoshiaki; Kondo, Naru; Uemura, Kenichiro; Nakagawa, Naoya; Takahashi, Shinya; Sueda, Taijiro

    2017-06-01

    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a matricellular protein that influences chemotherapy effectiveness and prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether SPARC expression correlates with the postoperative survival of patients treated with surgical resection for biliary carcinoma. SPARC expression in resected biliary carcinoma specimens was investigated immunohistochemically in 175 patients. The relationship between SPARC expression and prognosis after surgery was evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses. High SPARC expression in peritumoral stroma was found in 61 (35%) patients. In all patients, stromal SPARC expression was significantly associated with overall survival (OS) (P = 0.006). Multivariate analysis revealed that high stromal SPARC expression was an independent risk factor for poor OS (HR 1.81, P = 0.006). Moreover, high stromal SPARC expression was independently associated with poor prognosis in a subset of 118 patients treated with gemcitabine-based adjuvant chemotherapy (HR 2.04, P = 0.010) but not in the 57 patients who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy (P = 0.21). Stromal SPARC expression correlated with the prognosis of patients with resectable biliary carcinoma, and its significance was enhanced in patients treated with adjuvant gemcitabine-based chemotherapy.

  12. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-07-08

    like domain of SATB1. To monitor the effect of sequestration of the interaction partners on the global gene regulation by SATB1, transcripts from the induced and uninduced clones were subjected to gene expression profiling.

  13. [Effects of comprehensive therapy on serum SPARC levels in ankylosing spondylitis patients accompanied with osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing-ren; Lin, Yan; Zhang, Chun-Yan; Li, Wei-Min; Guo, Chen-Jun; Ye, Lei

    2013-04-01

    To observe the effects of comprehensive therapy on serum secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) levels in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients accompanied with osteoporosis (OP), and to explore the possible mechanisms for SPARC in AS patients accompanied with osteoporosis. Totally 48 AS patients accompanied with OP (Group A) were treated with massage, intravenous infusion of Cervus and Cucumis Polypeptide Injection, and Bushen Quhan Zhiwang Decoction (BQZD) for 3 months. At the same time, 45 normal healthy subjects were recruited as the normal control group (Group B). Serum SPARC levels were measured by ELISA in Group A before and after comprehensive therapy and in those of Group B. The levels of bone mineral density of femoral neck (FN BMD), bone mineral density of 2 -4 lumbar spine (L2-4 BMD), bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta1) were detected. Meanwhile, Bath AS disease activity index (BASDAI) and Bath AS functional index (BASFI) were detected in Group A before and after treatment. The correlations between the aforesaid indices and serum SPARC levels were analyzed. Serum SPARC levels were significantly lower in those of Group A than in those of Group B (175. 30 +/- 72.04 micro/L vs 190. 52 +/- 86. 13 microg/ L, P <0. 01). Serum SPARC levels in those of Group A were negatively correlated with TNF-alpha (r = -0.261, P <0.01), positively with L2-4 BMD, TGF-beta1, and BSAP (r =0.437,0.256, 0.385, P <0.05, P <0.01). L2-4BMD and BSAP were independently predictors of serum SPARC in patients of Group A. After comprehensive therapy, the levels of TNF-alpha, BASDAI, and BASFI obviously decreased, TGF-beta1, BSAP, L2-4 BMD, and FN BMD obviously increased (P <0. 05, P <0. 01). The serum SPARC levels also significantly increased (188.32 +/- 87.50 microg/L, P <0. 05). Comprehensive therapy could effectively improve the bone metabolism, clinical symptoms and the

  14. Age and SPARC Change the Extracellular Matrix Composition of the Left Ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandra E. de Castro Brás

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC, a collagen-binding matricellular protein, has been implicated in procollagen processing and deposition. The aim of this study was to investigate age- and SPARC-dependent changes in protein composition of the cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM. We studied 6 groups of mice (n=4/group: young (4-5 months old, middle-aged (11-12 m.o., and old (18–29 m.o. C57BL/6J wild type (WT and SPARC null. The left ventricle (LV was decellularized to enrich for ECM proteins. Protein extracts were separated by SDS-PAGE, digested in-gel, and analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Relative quantification was performed by spectral counting, and changes in specific proteins were validated by immunoblotting. We identified 321 proteins, of which 44 proteins were extracellular proteins. Of these proteins, collagen III levels were lower in the old null mice compared to WT, suggestive of a role for SPARC in collagen deposition. Additionally, fibrillin showed a significant increase in the null middle-aged group, suggestive of increased microfibril deposition in the absence of SPARC. Collagen VI increased with age in both genotypes (>3-fold, while collagen IV showed increased age-associated levels only in the WT animals (4-fold, P<0.05. These changes may explain the previously reported age-associated increases in LV stiffness. In summary, our data suggest SPARC is a possible therapeutic target for aging induced LV dysfunction.

  15. Association of serum sparc with insulin resistance in type-2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, K.; Ahmed, U.; Arif, H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association of serum SPARC with insulin resistance in type-2 diabetes. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Physiology department and CREAM lab, Army medical college, Rawalpindi, in collaboration with Military Hospital Rawalpindi, from Feb 2016 to Oct 2016. Material and Methods: Sixty individuals were recruited in this descriptive study. Thirty diagnosed cases of type- 2 DM were included, while thirty age and gender matched healthy individuals were included as controls through non-probability purposive sampling. Controls were labelled as group A, while cases were labelled as group B. Patients with type-1 DM, type-2 DM on insulin therapy, hyperglycemic states other than DM and inflammatory disorders were excluded from the study. Data were collected after informed and written consent. Blood samples were withdrawn under strict aseptic measures and serum was stored at -20 degree C. Serum insulin levels and serum SPARC levels were analyzed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Insulin resistance was determined using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and its value >1.5 was considered significant. Results: Fasting insulin levels were significantly higher in group B as compared with group A, supporting the diagnosis of type-2 DM. HOMA-IR values were greater than 1.5 in group B, thus establishing significant insulin resistance. Serum SPARC levels were significantly higher in group B than group A (17.7 ± 1.14 vs 8.7 ± 1.08 ng/ml) with p-value<0.001. Serum SPARC levels showed positive correlation with fasting insulin levels and HOMA-IR values. Conclusion: Our study showed a positive correlation between serum SPARC levels and insulin resistance, which indicates that SPARC plays an important role in the development of insulin resistance in type-2 diabetes mellitus. (author)

  16. Layer-by-layer nanoparticles as an efficient siRNA delivery vehicle for SPARC silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yang Fei; Mundargi, Raghavendra C; Chen, Min Hui Averil; Lessig, Jacqueline; Neu, Björn; Venkatraman, Subbu S; Wong, Tina T

    2014-05-14

    Efficient and safe delivery systems for siRNA therapeutics remain a challenge. Elevated secreted protein, acidic, and rich in cysteine (SPARC) protein expression is associated with tissue scarring and fibrosis. Here we investigate the feasibility of encapsulating SPARC-siRNA in the bilayers of layer-by-layer (LbL) nanoparticles (NPs) with poly(L-arginine) (ARG) and dextran (DXS) as polyelectrolytes. Cellular binding and uptake of LbL NPs as well as siRNA delivery were studied in FibroGRO cells. siGLO-siRNA and SPARC-siRNA were efficiently coated onto hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. The multilayered NPs were characterized with regard to particle size, zeta potential and surface morphology using dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The SPARC-gene silencing and mRNA levels were analyzed using ChemiDOC western blot technique and RT-PCR. The multilayer SPARC-siRNA incorporated nanoparticles are about 200 nm in diameter and are efficiently internalized into FibroGRO cells. Their intracellular fate was also followed by tagging with suitable reporter siRNA as well as with lysotracker dye; confocal microscopy clearly indicates endosomal escape of the particles. Significant (60%) SPARC-gene knock down was achieved by using 0.4 pmole siRNA/μg of LbL NPs in FibroGRO cells and the relative expression of SPARC mRNA reduced significantly (60%) against untreated cells. The cytotoxicity as evaluated by xCelligence real-time cell proliferation and MTT cell assay, indicated that the SPARC-siRNA-loaded LbL NPs are non-toxic. In conclusion, the LbL NP system described provides a promising, safe and efficient delivery platform as a non-viral vector for siRNA delivery that uses biopolymers to enhance the gene knock down efficiency for the development of siRNA therapeutics. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Research Library Issues: A Quarterly Report from ARL, CNI, and SPARC. RLI 279

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, M. Sue, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Research Library Issues" ("RLI") is a quarterly report from ARL (Association of Research Libraries), CNI (Coalition of Networked Information), and SPARC (Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition). This issue includes the following articles: (1) Digitization of Special Collections and Archives: Legal and Contractual Issues (Peter B.…

  18. Research Library Issues: A Bimonthly Report from ARL, CNI, and SPARC. RLI 268

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, G. Jaia, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Research Library Issues" ("RLI") is a bimonthly report from ARL (Association of Research Libraries), CNI (Coalition of Networked Information), and SPARC (Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition). This special issue includes the following articles: (1) Themes within the ARL Strategic Plan 2010-2012 (Charles B. Lowry); (2) ARL…

  19. Research Library Issues: A Quarterly Report from ARL, CNI, and SPARC. RLI 277

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, M. Sue, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Library Issues" ("RLI") is a quarterly report from ARL (Association of Research Libraries), CNI (Coalition of Networked Information), and SPARC (Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition). This issue includes the following articles: (1) Rebalancing the Investment in Collections (H. Thomas Hickerson); (2)…

  20. Current state of the construction of SPARC test facility for observing hydrogen′s behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Young Su; Hong, Seong-Ho; Park, Ki Han; Hong, Seong-Wan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Hydrogen combustion can make a dynamic load, which can cause severe damage to a structure or facility. Many studies on hydrogen behavior, such as distribution, combustion and mitigation, have been conducted since the TMI accident, and they were recently summarized in. A large-scaled experimental facility is required for simulating the complex severe accident phenomena in a closed containment building. We are preparing the test facility, called the SPARC (Spray, Aerosol, Recombiner, Combustion), to resolve the international open issues regarding hydrogen risk as well as the validation of the Korean PAR (Passive Auto-catalytic Recombiner). This paper summarized the previous study submitted to the NUTHOS-11, which introduced the SPARC test facility. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) is preparing a test facility, called the SPARC for an assessment of the containment integrity under a severe accident. In the SPARC test facility, the hydrogen behavior such as mixing with steam and air, distribution, and combustion will be observed under various thermal-hydraulic conditions. We will carry out the performance tests of the safety systems such as the spray, cooling fan, PAR, and igniter. The SPARC test facility consists of a pressure vessel with a 9.5 m height and 3.4 m diameter, and an operating system to control and measure the thermal hydraulic conditions. In a commissioning test, we verified the controllable thermal conditions. It took about 8,400 seconds to increase up to 5 bar. The increment rate of the atmosphere temperature is about 34° C/h from room temperature to 100° C.

  1. SPARC: Demonstrate burst-buffer-based checkpoint/restart on ATS-1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldfield, Ron A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ulmer, Craig D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Widener, Patrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ward, H. Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Recent high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as the Trinity Advanced Technology System (ATS-1) feature burst buffer resources that can have a dramatic impact on an application’s I/O performance. While these non-volatile memory (NVM) resources provide a new tier in the storage hierarchy, developers must find the right way to incorporate the technology into their applications in order to reap the benefits. Similar to other laboratories, Sandia is actively investigating ways in which these resources can be incorporated into our existing libraries and workflows without burdening our application developers with excessive, platform-specific details. This FY18Q1 milestone summaries our progress in adapting the Sandia Parallel Aerodynamics and Reentry Code (SPARC) in Sandia’s ATDM program to leverage Trinity’s burst buffers for checkpoint/restart operations. We investigated four different approaches with varying tradeoffs in this work: (1) simply updating job script to use stage-in/stage out burst buffer directives, (2) modifying SPARC to use LANL’s hierarchical I/O (HIO) library to store/retrieve checkpoints, (3) updating Sandia’s IOSS library to incorporate the burst buffer in all meshing I/O operations, and (4) modifying SPARC to use our Kelpie distributed memory library to store/retrieve checkpoints. Team members were successful in generating initial implementation for all four approaches, but were unable to obtain performance numbers in time for this report (reasons: initial problem sizes were not large enough to stress I/O, and SPARC refactor will require changes to our code). When we presented our work to the SPARC team, they expressed the most interest in the second and third approaches. The HIO work was favored because it is lightweight, unobtrusive, and should be portable to ATS-2. The IOSS work is seen as a long-term solution, and is favored because all I/O work (including checkpoints) can be deferred to a single library.

  2. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine functions in colitis via IL17A regulation in mucosal CD4+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Makoto; Takagi, Tomohisa; Naito, Yuji; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Hotta, Yuma; Toyokawa, Yuki; Ushiroda, Chihiro; Hirai, Yasuko; Aoi, Wataru; Higashimura, Yasuki; Mizushima, Katsura; Okayama, Tetsuya; Katada, Kazuhiro; Kamada, Kazuhiro; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Handa, Osamu; Itoh, Yoshito

    2018-03-01

    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a matricellular glycol that regulates cell proliferation, tissue repair, and tumorigenesis. Despite evidence linking SPARC to inflammation, the mechanisms are unclear. Accordingly, the role of SPARC in intestinal inflammation was investigated. Colitis was induced in wild-type (WT) and SPARC knockout (KO) mice using trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Colons were assessed for damage; leukocyte infiltration; Tnf, Ifng, Il17a, and Il10 mRNA expression; and histology. Cytokine profiling of colonic lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) was performed by flow cytometry. Naïve CD4 + T cells were isolated from WT and SPARC KO mouse spleens, and the effect of SPARC on Th17 cell differentiation was examined. Recombination activating gene 1 knockout (RAG1 KO) mice reconstituted with T cells from either WT or SPARC KO mice were investigated. Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid exposure significantly reduced bodyweight and increased mucosal inflammation, leukocyte infiltration, and Il17a mRNA expression in WT relative to SPARC KO mice. The percentage of IL17A-producing CD4 + T cells among LPMCs from KO mice was lower than that in WT mice when both groups were exposed to TNBS. Th17 cell differentiation was suppressed in cells from SPARC KO mice. In the T cell transfer colitis model, RAG1 KO mice receiving T cells from WT mice were more severely affected than those reconstituted with cells from SPARC KO mice. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine accelerates colonic mucosal inflammation via modulation of IL17A-producing CD4 + T cells. SPARC is a potential therapeutic target for conditions involving intestinal inflammation. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Enhancement of the SPARC90 code to pool scrubbing events under jet injection regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berna, C., E-mail: ceberes@iie.upv.es [Instituto de Ingeniería Energética, Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Escrivá, A.; Muñoz-Cobo, J.L. [Instituto de Ingeniería Energética, Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Herranz, L.E., E-mail: luisen.herranz@ciemat.es [Unit of Nuclear Safety Research Division of Nuclear Fission, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Review of the most recent literature concerning submerged jets. • Emphasize all variables and processes occurring along the jet region. • Highlight the gaps of knowledge still existing related to submerged jets. • Enhancement of SPARC90-Jet to estimate aerosol removal under jet injection regime. • Validation of the SPARC90-Jet results against pool scrubbing experimental data. - Abstract: Submerged gaseous jets may have an outstanding relevance in many industrial processes and may be of particular significance in severe nuclear accident scenarios, like in the Fukushima accident. Even though pool scrubbing has been traditionally associated with low injection velocities, there are a number of potential scenarios in which fission product trapping in aqueous ponds might also occur under jet injection regime (like SGTR meltdown sequences in PWRs and SBO ones in BWRs). The SPARC90 code was developed to determine the fission product trapping in pools during severe accidents. The code assumes that carrier gas arrives at the water ponds at low or moderate velocities and it forms a big bubble that eventually detaches from the injection pipe. However, particle laden gases may enter the water at very high velocities resulting in a submerged gas jet instead. This work presents the fundamentals, major hypotheses and changes introduced into the code in order to estimate particle removal during gas injection in pools under the jet regime (SPARC90-Jet). A simplified and reliable approach to submerged jet hydrodynamics has been implemented on the basis of updated equations for jet hydrodynamics and aerosol removal, so that gas–liquid and droplet-particles interactions are described. The code modifications have been validated as far as possible. However, no suitable hydrodynamic tests have been found in the literature, so that an indirect validation has been conducted through comparisons against data from pool scrubbing experiments. Besides, this validation

  4. Enhancement of the SPARC90 code to pool scrubbing events under jet injection regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berna, C.; Escrivá, A.; Muñoz-Cobo, J.L.; Herranz, L.E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Review of the most recent literature concerning submerged jets. • Emphasize all variables and processes occurring along the jet region. • Highlight the gaps of knowledge still existing related to submerged jets. • Enhancement of SPARC90-Jet to estimate aerosol removal under jet injection regime. • Validation of the SPARC90-Jet results against pool scrubbing experimental data. - Abstract: Submerged gaseous jets may have an outstanding relevance in many industrial processes and may be of particular significance in severe nuclear accident scenarios, like in the Fukushima accident. Even though pool scrubbing has been traditionally associated with low injection velocities, there are a number of potential scenarios in which fission product trapping in aqueous ponds might also occur under jet injection regime (like SGTR meltdown sequences in PWRs and SBO ones in BWRs). The SPARC90 code was developed to determine the fission product trapping in pools during severe accidents. The code assumes that carrier gas arrives at the water ponds at low or moderate velocities and it forms a big bubble that eventually detaches from the injection pipe. However, particle laden gases may enter the water at very high velocities resulting in a submerged gas jet instead. This work presents the fundamentals, major hypotheses and changes introduced into the code in order to estimate particle removal during gas injection in pools under the jet regime (SPARC90-Jet). A simplified and reliable approach to submerged jet hydrodynamics has been implemented on the basis of updated equations for jet hydrodynamics and aerosol removal, so that gas–liquid and droplet-particles interactions are described. The code modifications have been validated as far as possible. However, no suitable hydrodynamic tests have been found in the literature, so that an indirect validation has been conducted through comparisons against data from pool scrubbing experiments. Besides, this validation

  5. Systems reliability analysis: applications of the SPARCS System-Reliability Assessment Computer Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locks, M.O.

    1978-01-01

    SPARCS-2 (Simulation Program for Assessing the Reliabilities of Complex Systems, Version 2) is a PL/1 computer program for assessing (establishing interval estimates for) the reliability and the MTBF of a large and complex s-coherent system of any modular configuration. The system can consist of a complex logical assembly of independently failing attribute (binomial-Bernoulli) and time-to-failure (Poisson-exponential) components, without regard to their placement. Alternatively, it can be a configuration of independently failing modules, where each module has either or both attribute and time-to-failure components. SPARCS-2 also has an improved super modularity feature. Modules with minimal-cut unreliabiliy calculations can be mixed with those having minimal-path reliability calculations. All output has been standardized to system reliability or probability of success, regardless of the form in which the input data is presented, and whatever the configuration of modules or elements within modules

  6. Hybrid scheme of positron source at SPARC-LAB LNF facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdrashitov, S.V., E-mail: abdsv@tpu.ru [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Ave 30, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Lenin Ave 36, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Bogdanov, O.V. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Ave 30, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Dabagov, S.B. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati, RM (Italy); RAS PN Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskiy Prospekt 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); NRNU MEPhI, Kashirskoe Highway 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Pivovarov, Yu.L.; Tukhfatullin, T.A. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Ave 30, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    The hybrid scheme of the positron source for SPARC-LAB LNF facility (Frascati, Italy) is proposed. The comparison of the positron yield in a thin amorphous W converter of 0.1 mm thickness produced by bremsstrahlung, by axial 〈1 0 0〉 and planar (1 1 0) channeling radiations in a W crystal is performed for the positron energy range of 1 ÷ 3 MeV. It is shown that the radiation from 200 MeV electrons (parameters of SPARC-LAB LNF Frascati) in a 10 μm W crystal can produce positrons in the radiator of 0.1 mm thickness with the rate of 10–10{sup 2} s{sup −1} at planar channeling, of 10{sup 2}–10{sup 3} s{sup −1} at bremsstrahlung and of 10{sup 3}–10{sup 4} s{sup −1} at axial channeling.

  7. Plasma density characterization at SPARC-LAB through Stark broadening of Hydrogen spectral lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippi, F.; Anania, M.P.; Bellaveglia, M.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Pompili, R.; Shpakov, V.; Vaccarezza, C.; Villa, F.; Zigler, A.

    2016-01-01

    Plasma-based acceleration techniques are of great interest for future, compact accelerators due to their high accelerating gradient. Both particle-driven and laser-driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration experiments are foreseen at the SPARC-LAB Test Facility (INFN National Laboratories of Frascati, Italy), with the aim to accelerate high-brightness electron beams. In order to optimize the efficiency of the acceleration in the plasma and preserve the quality of the accelerated beam, the knowledge of the plasma electron density is mandatory. The Stark broadening of the Hydrogen spectral lines is one of the candidates used to characterize plasma density. The implementation of this diagnostic for plasma-based experiments at SPARC-LAB is presented. - Highlights: • Stark broadening of Hydrogen lines has been measured to determine plasma density. • Plasma density diagnostic tool for plasma-based experiments at SPARC-LAB is presented. • Plasma density in tapered laser triggered ablative capillary discharge was measured. • Results of plasma density measurements in ablative capillaries are shown.

  8. Commissioning of the SPARC Movable Emittance Meter and Its First Operation at PITZ

    CERN Document Server

    Catani, L; Cianchi, A

    2005-01-01

    For the SPARC Project a novel diagnostic device, called "Emittance-meter", has been conceived and constructed to perform a detailed study of the emittance compensation process in the SPARC photo-injector and to optimize the RF-gun and the accelerator working point. It consists of a movable emittance measurement system, based on the 1D pepper-pot method, installed between two long bellows with the possibility to scan a region 1.5 m long downstream the RF-gun. The construction of the device was completed in the first part of this year and a series of laboratory tests, to evaluate its performances, were carried out in Spring 2005. At the beginning of the summer the complete system was moved to DESY at Zeuthen to be installed on the Photo Injector Test Facility PITZ. After the commissioning it will used for measurements of the PITZ electron beam in the framework of a collaboration between the SPARC and PITZ Projects aiming on studies and operations with photo injectors.

  9. Plasma density characterization at SPARC-LAB through Stark broadening of Hydrogen spectral lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippi, F., E-mail: francesco.filippi@roma1.infn.it [Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per l' Ingegneria (SBAI), ‘Sapienza’ Università di Roma, Via A. Scarpa 14-16, 00161 Roma (Italy); INFN-Roma1, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2 00161 Roma (Italy); Anania, M.P.; Bellaveglia, M.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Via E. Fermi, Frascati (Italy); Cianchi, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Via E. Fermi, Frascati (Italy); Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per l' Ingegneria (SBAI), ‘Sapienza’ Università di Roma, Via A. Scarpa 14-16, 00161 Roma (Italy); INFN-Roma1, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2 00161 Roma (Italy); Pompili, R.; Shpakov, V.; Vaccarezza, C.; Villa, F. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Via E. Fermi, Frascati (Italy); Zigler, A. [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2016-09-01

    Plasma-based acceleration techniques are of great interest for future, compact accelerators due to their high accelerating gradient. Both particle-driven and laser-driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration experiments are foreseen at the SPARC-LAB Test Facility (INFN National Laboratories of Frascati, Italy), with the aim to accelerate high-brightness electron beams. In order to optimize the efficiency of the acceleration in the plasma and preserve the quality of the accelerated beam, the knowledge of the plasma electron density is mandatory. The Stark broadening of the Hydrogen spectral lines is one of the candidates used to characterize plasma density. The implementation of this diagnostic for plasma-based experiments at SPARC-LAB is presented. - Highlights: • Stark broadening of Hydrogen lines has been measured to determine plasma density. • Plasma density diagnostic tool for plasma-based experiments at SPARC-LAB is presented. • Plasma density in tapered laser triggered ablative capillary discharge was measured. • Results of plasma density measurements in ablative capillaries are shown.

  10. A holistic approach to dissecting SPARC family protein complexity reveals FSTL-1 as an inhibitor of pancreatic cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viloria, Katrina; Munasinghe, Amanda; Asher, Sharan; Bogyere, Roberto; Jones, Lucy; Hill, Natasha J

    2016-11-25

    SPARC is a matricellular protein that is involved in both pancreatic cancer and diabetes. It belongs to a wider family of proteins that share structural and functional similarities. Relatively little is known about this extended family, but evidence of regulatory interactions suggests the importance of a holistic approach to their study. We show that Hevin, SPOCKs, and SMOCs are strongly expressed within islets, ducts, and blood vessels, suggesting important roles for these proteins in the normal pancreas, while FSTL-1 expression is localised to the stromal compartment reminiscent of SPARC. In direct contrast to SPARC, however, FSTL-1 expression is reduced in pancreatic cancer. Consistent with this, FSTL-1 inhibited pancreatic cancer cell proliferation. The complexity of SPARC family proteins is further revealed by the detection of multiple cell-type specific isoforms that arise due to a combination of post-translational modification and alternative splicing. Identification of splice variants lacking a signal peptide suggests the existence of novel intracellular isoforms. This study underlines the importance of addressing the complexity of the SPARC family and provides a new framework to explain their controversial and contradictory effects. We also demonstrate for the first time that FSTL-1 suppresses pancreatic cancer cell growth.

  11. Advanced Technology and Mitigation (ATDM) SPARC Re-Entry Code Fiscal Year 2017 Progress and Accomplishments for ECP.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crozier, Paul [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Howard, Micah [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rider, William J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Freno, Brian Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bova, Steven W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carnes, Brian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The SPARC (Sandia Parallel Aerodynamics and Reentry Code) will provide nuclear weapon qualification evidence for the random vibration and thermal environments created by re-entry of a warhead into the earth’s atmosphere. SPARC incorporates the innovative approaches of ATDM projects on several fronts including: effective harnessing of heterogeneous compute nodes using Kokkos, exascale-ready parallel scalability through asynchronous multi-tasking, uncertainty quantification through Sacado integration, implementation of state-of-the-art reentry physics and multiscale models, use of advanced verification and validation methods, and enabling of improved workflows for users. SPARC is being developed primarily for the Department of Energy nuclear weapon program, with additional development and use of the code is being supported by the Department of Defense for conventional weapons programs.

  12. Astrocyte matricellular proteins that control excitatory synaptogenesis are regulated by inflammatory cytokines and correlate with paralysis severity during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pennelope K. Blakely

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The matricellular proteins, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC and SPARC-like 1 (SPARCL1, are produced by astrocytes and control excitatory synaptogenesis in the central nervous system. While SPARCL1 directly promotes excitatory synapse formation in vitro and in the developing nervous system in vivo, SPARC specifically antagonizes the synaptogenic actions of SPARCL1. We hypothesized these proteins also help maintain existing excitatory synapses in adult hosts, and that local inflammation in the spinal cord alters their production in a way that dynamically modulates motor synapses and impacts the severity of paralysis during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE in mice. Using a spontaneously remitting EAE model, paralysis severity correlated inversely with both expression of synaptic proteins and the number of synapses in direct contact with the perikarya of motor neurons in spinal grey matter. In both remitting and non-remitting EAE models, paralysis severity also correlated inversely with sparcl1:sparc transcript and SPARCL1:SPARC protein ratios directly in lumbar spinal cord tissue. In vitro, astrocyte production of both SPARCL1 and SPARC was regulated by T cell-derived cytokines, causing dynamic modulation of the SPARCL1:SPARC expression ratio. Taken together, these data support a model whereby proinflammatory cytokines inhibit SPARCL1 and/or augment SPARC expression by astrocytes in spinal grey matter that, in turn, cause either transient or sustained synaptic retraction from lumbar spinal motor neurons thereby regulating hind limb paralysis during EAE. Ongoing studies seek ways to alter this SPARCL1:SPARC expression ratio in favor of synapse reformation/maintenance and thus help to modulate neurologic deficits during times of inflammation. This could identify new astrocyte-targeted therapies for diseases such as multiple sclerosis.

  13. The SPARC_LAB femtosecond synchronization for electron and photon pulsed beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaveglia, M.; Gallo, A.; Piersanti, L.; Pompili, R.; Gatti, G.; Anania, M. P.; Petrarca, M.; Villa, F.; Chiadroni, E.; Biagioni, A.; Mostacci, A.

    2015-05-01

    The SPARC LAB complex hosts a 150 MeV electron photo-injector equipped with an undulator for FEL production (SPARC) together with a high power TW laser (FLAME). Recently the synchronization system reached the performance of < 100 fsRMS relative jitter between lasers, electron beam and RF accelerating fields. This matches the requirements for next future experiments: (i) the production of X-rays by means of Thomson scattering (first collisions achieved in 2014) and (ii) the particle driven PWFA experiment by means of multiple electron bunches. We report about the measurements taken during the machine operation using BAMs (Bunch Arrival Monitors) and EOS (Electro-Optical Sampling) system. A new R and D activity concerning the LWFA using the external injection of electron bunches in a plasma generated by the FLAME laser pulse is under design. The upgrade of the synchronization system is under way to guarantee the < 30 fs RMS jitter required specification. It foresees the transition from electrical to optical architecture that mainly affects the reference signal distribution and the time of arrival detection performances. The new system architecture is presented together with the related experimental data.

  14. ARL: A Bimonthly Report on Research Library Issues and Actions from ARL, CNI, and SPARC. Number 259

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, G. Jaia, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "ARL" is the bimonthly report on research library issues and actions from ARL (Association of Research Libraries), CNI (Coalition of Networked Information), and SPARC (Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition). "ARL" reports on current issues of interest to academic and research library administrators, staff, and users; higher…

  15. Atomic physics with highly-charged heavy ions at the GSI future facility: The scientific program of the SPARC collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoehlker, Th.; Beier, T.; Beyer, H.F.; Bosch, F.; Braeuning-Demian, A.; Gumberidze, A.; Hagmann, S.; Kozhuharov, C.; Kuehl, Th.; Liesen, D.; Mann, R.; Mokler, P.H.; Quint, W.; Schuch, R.; Warczak, A.

    2005-01-01

    In the current report a short overview about the envisioned program of the atomic physics research collaboration SPARC (Stored Particle Atomic Research Collaboration, at the new international accelerator Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI is given. In addition, a condensed description of the planned experimental areas devoted to atomic physics research at the new facility is presented

  16. Spot-Scanning Proton Arc (SPArc) Therapy: The First Robust and Delivery-Efficient Spot-Scanning Proton Arc Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Xuanfeng; Li, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, J. Michele; Kabolizadeh, Peyman; Stevens, Craig; Yan, Di

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To present a novel robust and delivery-efficient spot-scanning proton arc (SPArc) therapy technique. Methods and Materials: A SPArc optimization algorithm was developed that integrates control point resampling, energy layer redistribution, energy layer filtration, and energy layer resampling. The feasibility of such a technique was evaluated using sample patients: 1 patient with locally advanced head and neck oropharyngeal cancer with bilateral lymph node coverage, and 1 with a nonmobile lung cancer. Plan quality, robustness, and total estimated delivery time were compared with the robust optimized multifield step-and-shoot arc plan without SPArc optimization (Arc_m_u_l_t_i_-_f_i_e_l_d) and the standard robust optimized intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plan. Dose-volume histograms of target and organs at risk were analyzed, taking into account the setup and range uncertainties. Total delivery time was calculated on the basis of a 360° gantry room with 1 revolutions per minute gantry rotation speed, 2-millisecond spot switching time, 1-nA beam current, 0.01 minimum spot monitor unit, and energy layer switching time of 0.5 to 4 seconds. Results: The SPArc plan showed potential dosimetric advantages for both clinical sample cases. Compared with IMPT, SPArc delivered 8% and 14% less integral dose for oropharyngeal and lung cancer cases, respectively. Furthermore, evaluating the lung cancer plan compared with IMPT, it was evident that the maximum skin dose, the mean lung dose, and the maximum dose to ribs were reduced by 60%, 15%, and 35%, respectively, whereas the conformity index was improved from 7.6 (IMPT) to 4.0 (SPArc). The total treatment delivery time for lung and oropharyngeal cancer patients was reduced by 55% to 60% and 56% to 67%, respectively, when compared with Arc_m_u_l_t_i_-_f_i_e_l_d plans. Conclusion: The SPArc plan is the first robust and delivery-efficient proton spot-scanning arc therapy technique, which could potentially be

  17. Spot-Scanning Proton Arc (SPArc) Therapy: The First Robust and Delivery-Efficient Spot-Scanning Proton Arc Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Xuanfeng, E-mail: Xuanfeng.ding@beaumont.org; Li, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, J. Michele; Kabolizadeh, Peyman; Stevens, Craig; Yan, Di

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: To present a novel robust and delivery-efficient spot-scanning proton arc (SPArc) therapy technique. Methods and Materials: A SPArc optimization algorithm was developed that integrates control point resampling, energy layer redistribution, energy layer filtration, and energy layer resampling. The feasibility of such a technique was evaluated using sample patients: 1 patient with locally advanced head and neck oropharyngeal cancer with bilateral lymph node coverage, and 1 with a nonmobile lung cancer. Plan quality, robustness, and total estimated delivery time were compared with the robust optimized multifield step-and-shoot arc plan without SPArc optimization (Arc{sub multi-field}) and the standard robust optimized intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plan. Dose-volume histograms of target and organs at risk were analyzed, taking into account the setup and range uncertainties. Total delivery time was calculated on the basis of a 360° gantry room with 1 revolutions per minute gantry rotation speed, 2-millisecond spot switching time, 1-nA beam current, 0.01 minimum spot monitor unit, and energy layer switching time of 0.5 to 4 seconds. Results: The SPArc plan showed potential dosimetric advantages for both clinical sample cases. Compared with IMPT, SPArc delivered 8% and 14% less integral dose for oropharyngeal and lung cancer cases, respectively. Furthermore, evaluating the lung cancer plan compared with IMPT, it was evident that the maximum skin dose, the mean lung dose, and the maximum dose to ribs were reduced by 60%, 15%, and 35%, respectively, whereas the conformity index was improved from 7.6 (IMPT) to 4.0 (SPArc). The total treatment delivery time for lung and oropharyngeal cancer patients was reduced by 55% to 60% and 56% to 67%, respectively, when compared with Arc{sub multi-field} plans. Conclusion: The SPArc plan is the first robust and delivery-efficient proton spot-scanning arc therapy technique, which could potentially be implemented

  18. SPARC: MASS MODELS FOR 175 DISK GALAXIES WITH SPITZER PHOTOMETRY AND ACCURATE ROTATION CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelli, Federico; McGaugh, Stacy S. [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Schombert, James M., E-mail: federico.lelli@case.edu [Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    We introduce SPARC ( Spitzer Photometry and Accurate Rotation Curves): a sample of 175 nearby galaxies with new surface photometry at 3.6  μ m and high-quality rotation curves from previous H i/H α studies. SPARC spans a broad range of morphologies (S0 to Irr), luminosities (∼5 dex), and surface brightnesses (∼4 dex). We derive [3.6] surface photometry and study structural relations of stellar and gas disks. We find that both the stellar mass–H i mass relation and the stellar radius–H i radius relation have significant intrinsic scatter, while the H i   mass–radius relation is extremely tight. We build detailed mass models and quantify the ratio of baryonic to observed velocity ( V {sub bar}/ V {sub obs}) for different characteristic radii and values of the stellar mass-to-light ratio (ϒ{sub ⋆}) at [3.6]. Assuming ϒ{sub ⋆} ≃ 0.5 M {sub ⊙}/ L {sub ⊙} (as suggested by stellar population models), we find that (i) the gas fraction linearly correlates with total luminosity; (ii) the transition from star-dominated to gas-dominated galaxies roughly corresponds to the transition from spiral galaxies to dwarf irregulars, in line with density wave theory; and (iii)  V {sub bar}/ V {sub obs} varies with luminosity and surface brightness: high-mass, high-surface-brightness galaxies are nearly maximal, while low-mass, low-surface-brightness galaxies are submaximal. These basic properties are lost for low values of ϒ{sub ⋆} ≃ 0.2 M {sub ⊙}/ L {sub ⊙} as suggested by the DiskMass survey. The mean maximum-disk limit in bright galaxies is ϒ{sub ⋆} ≃ 0.7 M {sub ⊙}/ L {sub ⊙} at [3.6]. The SPARC data are publicly available and represent an ideal test bed for models of galaxy formation.

  19. Design and Measurements of an X-Band Accelerating Cavity for SPARC

    CERN Document Server

    Alesini, David; Falone, Antonio; Ferrario, Massimo; Migliorati, Mauro; Mostacci, Andrea; Palpini, Federica; Palumbo, Luigi; Spataro, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the design of an X-band accelerating section for linearizing the longitudinal phase space in the Frascati Linac Coherent Light Source (SPARC). The structure, operating on the pi standing wave mode, is a 9 cells structure feeded by a central waveguide coupler and has been designed to obtain a 5 MV accelerating voltage. The 2D profile has been obtained using the e.m. codes SUPERFISH and OSCARD2D while the coupler has been designed using HFSS. Bead-pull measurement made on a copper prototype are illustrated and compared with the numerical results. Mechanical details of the realized prototype and RF properties of the structure as a function of the assembly characteristics are also discussed.

  20. Betatron radiation based diagnostics for plasma wakefield accelerated electron beams at the SPARC-LAB test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpakov, V.; Anania, M.P.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Curcio, A.; Dabagov, S.; Ferrario, M.; Filippi, F.; Marocchino, A.; Paroli, B.; Pompili, R.; Rossi, A.R.; Zigler, A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress with wake-field acceleration has shown a great potential in providing high gradient acceleration fields, while the quality of the beams remains relatively poor. Precise knowledge of the beam size at the exit from the plasma and matching conditions for the externally injected beams are the key for improvement of beam quality. Betatron radiation emitted by the beam during acceleration in the plasma is a powerful tool for the transverse beam size measurement, being also non-intercepting. In this work we report on the technical solutions chosen at SPARC-LAB for such diagnostics tool, along with expected parameters of betatron radiation. - Highlights: • The betatron radiation parameters in SPARC-LAB wakefiled experiments were studied. • The differences with betatron radiation in other wake-field experiments were highlighted. • The solution for betatron radiation detection was investigated.

  1. Betatron radiation based diagnostics for plasma wakefield accelerated electron beams at the SPARC-LAB test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpakov, V.; Anania, M.P.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Cianchi, A. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); “Tor Vergata” University, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Curcio, A. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Dabagov, S. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, Leninskiy Prospekt 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); NRNU “MEPhI”, Kashirskoe highway 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Ferrario, M.; Filippi, F. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Marocchino, A. [Dipartimento SBAI Universitá di Roma ‘La Sapienza’, via Antonio Scarpa 14/16, 00161 Rome (Italy); Paroli, B. [INFN - MI, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Pompili, R. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Rossi, A.R. [INFN - MI, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Zigler, A. [Racah Institute of Physics Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Israel)

    2016-09-01

    Recent progress with wake-field acceleration has shown a great potential in providing high gradient acceleration fields, while the quality of the beams remains relatively poor. Precise knowledge of the beam size at the exit from the plasma and matching conditions for the externally injected beams are the key for improvement of beam quality. Betatron radiation emitted by the beam during acceleration in the plasma is a powerful tool for the transverse beam size measurement, being also non-intercepting. In this work we report on the technical solutions chosen at SPARC-LAB for such diagnostics tool, along with expected parameters of betatron radiation. - Highlights: • The betatron radiation parameters in SPARC-LAB wakefiled experiments were studied. • The differences with betatron radiation in other wake-field experiments were highlighted. • The solution for betatron radiation detection was investigated.

  2. Generation and characterization of ultra-short electron beams for single spike infrared FEL radiation at SPARC_LAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, F.; Anania, M. P.; Artioli, M.; Bacci, A.; Bellaveglia, M.; Bisesto, F. G.; Biagioni, A.; Carpanese, M.; Cardelli, F.; Castorina, G.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Ciocci, F.; Croia, M.; Curcio, A.; Dattoli, G.; Gallo, A.; Di Giovenale, D.; Di Palma, E.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Filippi, F.; Giannessi, L.; Giribono, A.; Marocchino, A.; Massimo, F.; Mostacci, A.; Petralia, A.; Petrarca, M.; Petrillo, V.; Piersanti, L.; Pioli, S.; Pompili, R.; Romeo, S.; Rossi, A. R.; Scifo, J.; Shpakov, V.; Vaccarezza, C.

    2017-09-01

    The technique for producing and measuring few tens of femtosecond electron beams, and the consequent generation of few tens femtoseconds single spike FEL radiation pulses at SPARC_LAB is presented. The undulator has been used in the double role of radiation source and diagnostic tool for the characterization of the electron beam. The connection between the electron bunch length and the radiation bandwidth is analyzed.

  3. The SPARC water vapor assessment II: intercomparison of satellite and ground-based microwave measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedoluha, Gerald E.; Kiefer, Michael; Lossow, Stefan; Gomez, R. Michael; Kämpfer, Niklaus; Lainer, Martin; Forkman, Peter; Christensen, Ole Martin; Oh, Jung Jin; Hartogh, Paul; Anderson, John; Bramstedt, Klaus; Dinelli, Bianca M.; Garcia-Comas, Maya; Hervig, Mark; Murtagh, Donal; Raspollini, Piera; Read, William G.; Rosenlof, Karen; Stiller, Gabriele P.; Walker, Kaley A.

    2017-12-01

    As part of the second SPARC (Stratosphere-troposphere Processes And their Role in Climate) water vapor assessment (WAVAS-II), we present measurements taken from or coincident with seven sites from which ground-based microwave instruments measure water vapor in the middle atmosphere. Six of the ground-based instruments are part of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) and provide datasets that can be used for drift and trend assessment. We compare measurements from these ground-based instruments with satellite datasets that have provided retrievals of water vapor in the lower mesosphere over extended periods since 1996. We first compare biases between the satellite and ground-based instruments from the upper stratosphere to the upper mesosphere. We then show a number of time series comparisons at 0.46 hPa, a level that is sensitive to changes in H2O and CH4 entering the stratosphere but, because almost all CH4 has been oxidized, is relatively insensitive to dynamical variations. Interannual variations and drifts are investigated with respect to both the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS; from 2004 onwards) and each instrument's climatological mean. We find that the variation in the interannual difference in the mean H2O measured by any two instruments is typically ˜ 1%. Most of the datasets start in or after 2004 and show annual increases in H2O of 0-1 % yr-1. In particular, MLS shows a trend of between 0.5 % yr-1 and 0.7 % yr-1 at the comparison sites. However, the two longest measurement datasets used here, with measurements back to 1996, show much smaller trends of +0.1 % yr-1 (at Mauna Loa, Hawaii) and -0.1 % yr-1 (at Lauder, New Zealand).

  4. The SPARC water vapor assessment II: intercomparison of satellite and ground-based microwave measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Nedoluha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of the second SPARC (Stratosphere–troposphere Processes And their Role in Climate water vapor assessment (WAVAS-II, we present measurements taken from or coincident with seven sites from which ground-based microwave instruments measure water vapor in the middle atmosphere. Six of the ground-based instruments are part of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC and provide datasets that can be used for drift and trend assessment. We compare measurements from these ground-based instruments with satellite datasets that have provided retrievals of water vapor in the lower mesosphere over extended periods since 1996. We first compare biases between the satellite and ground-based instruments from the upper stratosphere to the upper mesosphere. We then show a number of time series comparisons at 0.46 hPa, a level that is sensitive to changes in H2O and CH4 entering the stratosphere but, because almost all CH4 has been oxidized, is relatively insensitive to dynamical variations. Interannual variations and drifts are investigated with respect to both the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS; from 2004 onwards and each instrument's climatological mean. We find that the variation in the interannual difference in the mean H2O measured by any two instruments is typically  ∼  1%. Most of the datasets start in or after 2004 and show annual increases in H2O of 0–1 % yr−1. In particular, MLS shows a trend of between 0.5 % yr−1 and 0.7 % yr−1 at the comparison sites. However, the two longest measurement datasets used here, with measurements back to 1996, show much smaller trends of +0.1 % yr−1 (at Mauna Loa, Hawaii and −0.1 % yr−1 (at Lauder, New Zealand.

  5. Monitoring the High-Energy Radiation Environment of Exoplanets Around Low-mass Stars with SPARCS (Star-Planet Activity Research CubeSat)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Ardila, David; Barman, Travis; Beasley, Matthew; Bowman, Judd D.; Gorjian, Varoujan; Jacobs, Daniel; Jewell, April; Llama, Joe; Meadows, Victoria; Nikzad, Shouleh; Scowen, Paul; Swain, Mark; Zellem, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Roughly seventy-five billion M dwarfs in our galaxy host at least one small planet in the habitable zone (HZ). The stellar ultraviolet (UV) radiation from M dwarfs is strong and highly variable, and impacts planetary atmospheric loss, composition and habitability. These effects are amplified by the extreme proximity of their HZs (0.1–0.4 AU). Knowing the UV environments of M dwarf planets will be crucial to understanding their atmospheric composition and a key parameter in discriminating between biological and abiotic sources for observed biosignatures. The Star-Planet Activity Research CubeSat (SPARCS) will be a 6U CubeSat devoted to photometric monitoring of M stars in the far-UV and near-UV, measuring the time-dependent spectral slope, intensity and evolution of M dwarf stellar UV radiation. For each target, SPARCS will observe continuously over at least one complete stellar rotation (5 - 45 days). SPARCS will also advance UV detector technology by flying high quantum efficiency, UV-optimized detectors developed at JPL. These Delta-doped detectors have a long history of deployment demonstrating greater than five times the quantum efficiency of the detectors used by GALEX. SPARCS will pave the way for their application in missions like LUVOIR or HabEx, including interim UV-capable missions. SPARCS will also be capable of ‘target-of-opportunity’ UV observations for the rocky planets in M dwarf HZs soon to be discovered by NASA’s TESS mission, providing the needed UV context for the first habitable planets that JWST will characterize.Acknowledgements: Funding for SPARCS is provided by NASA’s Astrophysics Research and Analysis program, NNH16ZDA001N.

  6. TH-CD-209-10: Scanning Proton Arc Therapy (SPArc) - The First Robust and Delivery-Efficient Spot Scanning Proton Arc Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, X; Li, X; Zhang, J; Kabolizadeh, P; Stevens, C; Yan, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a delivery-efficient proton spot-scanning arc therapy technique with robust plan quality. Methods: We developed a Scanning Proton Arc(SPArc) optimization algorithm integrated with (1)Control point re-sampling by splitting control point into adjacent sub-control points; (2)Energy layer re-distribution by assigning the original energy layers to the new sub-control points; (3)Energy layer filtration by deleting low MU weighting energy layers; (4)Energy layer re-sampling by sampling additional layers to ensure the optimal solution. A bilateral head and neck oropharynx case and a non-mobile lung target case were tested. Plan quality and total estimated delivery time were compared to original robust optimized multi-field step-and-shoot arc plan without SPArc optimization (Arcmulti-field) and standard robust optimized Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy(IMPT) plans. Dose-Volume-Histograms (DVH) of target and Organ-at-Risks (OARs) were analyzed along with all worst case scenarios. Total delivery time was calculated based on the assumption of a 360 degree gantry room with 1 RPM rotation speed, 2ms spot switching time, beam current 1nA, minimum spot weighting 0.01 MU, energy-layer-switching-time (ELST) from 0.5 to 4s. Results: Compared to IMPT, SPArc delivered less integral dose(−14% lung and −8% oropharynx). For lung case, SPArc reduced 60% of skin max dose, 35% of rib max dose and 15% of lung mean dose. Conformity Index is improved from 7.6(IMPT) to 4.0(SPArc). Compared to Arcmulti-field, SPArc reduced number of energy layers by 61%(276 layers in lung) and 80%(1008 layers in oropharynx) while kept the same robust plan quality. With ELST from 0.5s to 4s, it reduced 55%–60% of Arcmulti-field delivery time for the lung case and 56%–67% for the oropharynx case. Conclusion: SPArc is the first robust and delivery-efficient proton spot-scanning arc therapy technique which could be implemented in routine clinic. For modern proton machine with ELST close

  7. Optical tools and techniques for aligning solar payloads with the SPARCS control system. [Solar Pointing Aerobee Rocket Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N. L.; Chisel, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    The success of a rocket-borne experiment depends not only on the pointing of the attitude control system, but on the alignment of the attitude control system to the payload. To ensure proper alignment, special optical tools and alignment techniques are required. Those that were used in the SPARCS program are described and discussed herein. These tools include theodolites, autocollimators, a 38-cm diameter solar simulator, a high-performance 1-m heliostat to provide a stable solar source during the integration of the rocket payload, a portable 75-cm sun tracker for use at the launch site, and an innovation called the Solar Alignment Prism. Using the real sun as the primary reference under field conditions, the Solar Alignment Prism facilitates the coalignment of the attitude sun sensor with the payload. The alignment techniques were developed to ensure the precise alignment of the solar payloads to the SPARCS attitude sensors during payload integration and to verify the required alignment under field conditions just prior to launch.

  8. A network biology approach evaluating the anticancer effects of bortezomib identifies SPARC as a therapeutic target in adult T-cell leukemia cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Junko H Ohyashiki1, Ryoko Hamamura2, Chiaki Kobayashi2, Yu Zhang2, Kazuma Ohyashiki21Intractable Immune System Disease Research Center, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan; 2First Department of Internal Medicine, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: There is a need to identify the regulatory gene interaction of anticancer drugs on target cancer cells. Whole genome expression profiling offers promise in this regard, but can be complicated by the challenge of identifying the genes affected by hundreds to thousands of genes that induce changes in expression. A proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, could be a potential therapeutic agent in treating adult T-cell leukemia (ATL patients, however, the underlying mechanism by which bortezomib induces cell death in ATL cells via gene regulatory network has not been fully elucidated. Here we show that a Bayesian statistical framework by VoyaGene® identified a secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC gene, a tumor-invasiveness related gene, as a possible modulator of bortezomib-induced cell death in ATL cells. Functional analysis using RNAi experiments revealed that inhibition of the expression SPARC by siRNA enhanced the apoptotic effect of bortezomib on ATL cells in accordance with an increase of cleaved caspase 3. Targeting SPARC may help to treat ATL patients in combination with bortezomib. This work shows that a network biology approach can be used advantageously to identify the genetic interaction related to anticancer effects.Keywords: network biology, adult T cell leukemia, bortezomib, SPARC

  9. Status of the C-band RF System for the SPARC-LAB high brightness photo-injector

    CERN Document Server

    Boni, R.; Bellaveglia, M.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Gallo, A.; Spataro, B.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.

    2013-01-01

    The high brightness photo-injector in operation at the SPARC-LAB facility of the INFN-LNF, Italy, consists of a 150 MeV S-band electron accelerator aiming to explore the physics of low emittance high peak current electron beams and the related technology. Velocity bunching techniques, SASE and Seeded FEL experiments have been carried out successfully. To increase the beam energy so improving the performances of the experiments, it was decided to replace one S-band travelling wave accelerating cavity, with two C-band cavities that allow to reach higher energy gain per meter. The new C-band system is in advanced development phase and will be in operation early in 2013. The main technical issues of the C-band system and the R&D activities carried out till now are illustrated in detail in this paper.

  10. SPARC/osteonectin, an endogenous mechanism for targeting albumin to the blood-cerebrospinal fluid interface during brain development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liddelow, S A; Dziegielewska, K M; Møllgård, K

    2011-01-01

    Specialized populations of choroid plexus epithelial cells have previously been shown to be responsible for the transfer of individual plasma proteins from blood to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), contributing to their characteristically high concentrations in CSF of the developing brain. The mech......Specialized populations of choroid plexus epithelial cells have previously been shown to be responsible for the transfer of individual plasma proteins from blood to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), contributing to their characteristically high concentrations in CSF of the developing brain....... The mechanism of this protein transfer remains elusive. Using a marsupial, Monodelphis domestica, we demonstrate that the albumin-binding protein SPARC (osteonectin/BM-40/culture-shock protein) is present in a subset of choroid plexus epithelial cells from its first appearance, throughout development...

  11. The adaptation of the Sheffield Profile for Assessment and Referral for Care (SPARC) to the Polish clinical setting for needs assessment of advanced cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppert, Wojciech; Majkowicz, Mikolaj; Ahmedzai, Sam H

    2012-12-01

    Assessment of the needs of advanced cancer patients is a very important issue in palliative care. The aim of the study was to adapt the Sheffield Profile for Assessment and Referral for Care (SPARC) to the Polish environment and evaluate its usefulness in needs assessment of patients with advanced cancer. A forward-back translation of the SPARC to Polish was done. The SPARC was used once in 58 consecutive patients with advanced cancer during follow-up. The patients were enrolled from a palliative care unit (25 patients), home care (18 patients), and a day care center (15 patients). The reliability was evaluated by establishing the internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Content validity was analyzed in accordance with the theories of needs by Murray and Maslow as a nonstatistical method of validity assessment. Factor analysis with principal components extraction and varimax rotation of raw data was used to reduce the set of data and assess the construct validity. There were differences regarding religious and spiritual issues and independence and activity between patients in the palliative care unit (worse results) and those at the day care center (better scores). Communication and need for more information items were associated with psychological, social, spiritual, and treatment issues. Cronbach's alpha coefficients and factor analysis demonstrated, respectively, satisfactory reliability and construct validity of the tool. The study demonstrated that the Polish version of the SPARC is a valid and reliable tool recommended for the needs assessment and symptom evaluation of patients with advanced cancer. Copyright © 2012 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Consumer views on a new holistic screening tool for supportive and palliative-care needs: Sheffield Profile for Assessment and Referral for Care (SPARC): a survey of self-help support groups in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Philippa; Ahmed, Nisar; Winslow, Michelle; Walters, Stephen J; Collins, Karen; Noble, Bill

    2015-08-01

    Sheffield Profile for Assessment and Referral for Care (SPARC) was developed in response to concerns that palliative care may not be reaching all people who could benefit from it. Acceptability of the tool is an important step in developing its future use. To elicit the views of a wide variety of members of consumer and self-help support groups concerned with health care on the relevance, acceptability and the overall perception of using SPARC as an early holistic needs assessment tool in supportive and palliative care. This study was conducted in South Yorkshire and North Derbyshire (UK). Ninety-nine consumer and self-help groups were identified from information in the public domain. Thirty-eight groups participated. Packs containing study information and self-complete postal questionnaires were distributed to groups, and they were asked to circulate these to their members. Completed questionnaires were returned in pre-paid envelopes to the research team. 135 questionnaires and feedback forms were returned. The majority of respondents found SPARC easy to understand (93% (120/129; 95% Confidence Interval 87% to 96%) and complete (94% (125/133; 95% CI: 88% to 97%). A minority, 12.2% (16/131), of respondents found questions on SPARC 'too sensitive'. Overall, respondents considered SPARC an acceptable and relevant tool for clinical assessment of supportive and palliative-care needs. Whilst a small minority of people found SPARC difficult to understand (i.e. patients with cognitive impairments), most categories of service user found it relevant. Clinical studies are necessary to establish the clinical utility of SPARC. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Monitoring the High-Energy Radiation Environment of Exoplanets around Lowmass Stars with SPARCS (Star-Planet Activity Research CubeSat)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya

    Seventy-five billion M dwarfs in our galaxy host at least one small planet in the habitable zone (HZ). The stellar ultraviolet (UV) radiation from M dwarfs is strong and highly variable, and impacts planetary atmospheric loss, composition and habitability. These effects are amplified by the extreme proximity of their HZs (0.1–0.4 AU). JWST will characterize HZ M dwarf planets and attempt the first spectroscopic search for life beyond the Solar System. Knowing the UV environments of M dwarf planets will be crucial to understanding their atmospheric composition and a key parameter in discriminating between biological and abiotic sources for observed biosignatures. The UV flux emitted during the super-luminous premain sequence phase of M stars drives water loss and photochemical O2 buildup for terrestrial planets within the HZ. This phase can persist for up to a billion years for the lowest mass M stars. Afterwards, UV-driven photochemistry during the main sequence phase strongly affects a planet’s atmosphere, could limit the planet’s potential for habitability, and may confuse studies of habitability by creating false chemical biosignatures. Our proposed CubeSat observatory will be the first mission to provide the time-dependent spectral slope, intensity and evolution of M dwarf stellar UV radiation. These measurements are crucial to interpreting observations of planetary atmospheres around low-mass stars. Mission: The Star-Planet Activity Research CubeSat (SPARCS) will be a 6U CubeSat devoted to monitoring 25 M stars in two UV bands: SPARCS far-UV (S- FUV: 153–171 nm) and SPARCS near-UV (S-NUV: 260– 300 nm). For each target, SPARCS will observe continuously between one and three complete stellar rotations (4–45 days) over a mission lifetime of 2 years. A UV characterization survey of M dwarfs, the most common of planet hosts, is a perfect experiment for a CubeSat: - UV astronomy cannot be done from the ground because of Earth’s atmospheric absorption

  14. Ion optics and beam dynamics optimization at the HESR storage ring for the SPARC experiments with highly charged heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, Oleksandr

    2015-01-01

    The High-Energy Storage Ring (HESR) is a part of an upcoming International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI in Darmstadt. A key part of a scientific program, along with antiproton physics, will be physics with highly-charged heavy ions. Phase-space cooled beams together with fixed internal target will provide an excellent environment for storage ring experiments at the HESR for the SPARC collaboration. Until recently, however, the existing ion optical lattice for the HESR was designed only for the experiments with antiproton beams. The thesis presents a new ion optical mode developed specifically for the operation of the HESR with highly charged heavy ions. The presence of the errors, such as beam momentum spread, magnetic field impurities or magnets misalignments, leads to disruption of beam dynamics: exciting of resonant motion and loss of beam stability. Within the paper, these effects are investigated with the help of numerical codes for particle accelerator design and simulation MAD-X and MIRKO. A number of correction techniques are applied to minimize the nonlinear impact on the beam dynamics and improve the experimental conditions. The application of the analytical and numerical tools is demonstrated in the experiment with uranium U 90+ beam at the existing storage ring ESR, GSI.

  15. Rotation curves of high-resolution LSB and SPARC galaxies with fuzzy and multistate (ultralight boson) scalar field dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, T.; Fernández-Hernández, L. M.; Matos, T.; Rodríguez-Meza, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    Cold dark matter (CDM) has shown to be an excellent candidate for the dark matter (DM) of the Universe at large scales; however, it presents some challenges at the galactic level. The scalar field dark matter (SFDM), also called fuzzy, wave, Bose-Einstein condensate, or ultralight axion DM, is identical to CDM at cosmological scales but different at the galactic ones. SFDM forms core haloes, it has a natural cut-off in its matter power spectrum, and it predicts well-formed galaxies at high redshifts. In this work we reproduce the rotation curves of high-resolution low surface brightness (LSB) and SPARC galaxies with two SFDM profiles: (1) the soliton+NFW profile in the fuzzy DM (FDM) model, arising empirically from cosmological simulations of real, non-interacting scalar field (SF) at zero temperature, and (2) the multistate SFDM (mSFDM) profile, an exact solution to the Einstein-Klein-Gordon equations for a real, self-interacting SF, with finite temperature into the SF potential, introducing several quantum states as a realistic model for an SFDM halo. From the fits with the soliton+NFW profile, we obtained for the boson mass 0.212 motivated framework additional or alternative to the FDM profile.

  16. Ion optics and beam dynamics optimization at the HESR storage ring for the SPARC experiments with highly charged heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, Oleksandr

    2015-06-24

    The High-Energy Storage Ring (HESR) is a part of an upcoming International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI in Darmstadt. A key part of a scientific program, along with antiproton physics, will be physics with highly-charged heavy ions. Phase-space cooled beams together with fixed internal target will provide an excellent environment for storage ring experiments at the HESR for the SPARC collaboration. Until recently, however, the existing ion optical lattice for the HESR was designed only for the experiments with antiproton beams. The thesis presents a new ion optical mode developed specifically for the operation of the HESR with highly charged heavy ions. The presence of the errors, such as beam momentum spread, magnetic field impurities or magnets misalignments, leads to disruption of beam dynamics: exciting of resonant motion and loss of beam stability. Within the paper, these effects are investigated with the help of numerical codes for particle accelerator design and simulation MAD-X and MIRKO. A number of correction techniques are applied to minimize the nonlinear impact on the beam dynamics and improve the experimental conditions. The application of the analytical and numerical tools is demonstrated in the experiment with uranium U{sup 90+} beam at the existing storage ring ESR, GSI.

  17. Design, realization and test of C-band accelerating structures for the SPARC-LAB linac energy upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alesini, D.; Bellaveglia, M.; Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R.; Brönnimann, M.; Cardelli, F.; Chimenti, P.; Clementi, R.; Di Pirro, G.; Di Raddo, R.; Ferrario, M.; Ficcadenti, L.; Gallo, A.; Kalt, R.; Lollo, V.; Palumbo, L.; Piersanti, L.; Schilcher, T.

    2016-01-01

    The energy upgrade of the SPARC-LAB photo-injector at LNF-INFN (Frascati, Italy) has been originally conceived replacing one low gradient (13 MV/m) 3 m long SLAC type S-band traveling wave (TW) section with two 1.4 m long C-band accelerating sections. Due to the higher gradients reached by such structures, a higher energy beam can be obtained within the same accelerator footprint length. The use of C-band structures for electron acceleration has been adopted in a few FEL linacs in the world, among others, the Japanese Free Electron Laser at SPring-8 and the SwissFEL at Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). The C-band sections are traveling wave, constant impedance structures with symmetric input and output axial couplers. Their design has been optimized for the operation with a SLED RF pulse compressor. In this paper we briefly review their design criteria and we focus on the construction, tuning, low and high-power RF tests. We also illustrate the design and realization of the dedicated low level RF system that has been done in collaboration with PSI in the framework of the EU TIARA project. Preliminary experimental results appear to confirm the operation of such structures with accelerating gradients larger than 35 MV/m.

  18. Design, realization and test of C-band accelerating structures for the SPARC-LAB linac energy upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alesini, D.; Bellaveglia, M.; Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044, Frascati (Italy); Brönnimann, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Cardelli, F. [INFN Sezione di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Roma (Italy); Università di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Roma (Italy); Chimenti, P.; Clementi, R.; Di Pirro, G.; Di Raddo, R.; Ferrario, M. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044, Frascati (Italy); Ficcadenti, L. [INFN Sezione di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Roma (Italy); Università di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Roma (Italy); Gallo, A. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044, Frascati (Italy); Kalt, R. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Lollo, V. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044, Frascati (Italy); Palumbo, L. [INFN Sezione di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Roma (Italy); Università di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Roma (Italy); Piersanti, L., E-mail: luca.piersanti@lnf.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Roma (Italy); Università di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Roma (Italy); Schilcher, T. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2016-11-21

    The energy upgrade of the SPARC-LAB photo-injector at LNF-INFN (Frascati, Italy) has been originally conceived replacing one low gradient (13 MV/m) 3 m long SLAC type S-band traveling wave (TW) section with two 1.4 m long C-band accelerating sections. Due to the higher gradients reached by such structures, a higher energy beam can be obtained within the same accelerator footprint length. The use of C-band structures for electron acceleration has been adopted in a few FEL linacs in the world, among others, the Japanese Free Electron Laser at SPring-8 and the SwissFEL at Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). The C-band sections are traveling wave, constant impedance structures with symmetric input and output axial couplers. Their design has been optimized for the operation with a SLED RF pulse compressor. In this paper we briefly review their design criteria and we focus on the construction, tuning, low and high-power RF tests. We also illustrate the design and realization of the dedicated low level RF system that has been done in collaboration with PSI in the framework of the EU TIARA project. Preliminary experimental results appear to confirm the operation of such structures with accelerating gradients larger than 35 MV/m.

  19. Joint ARM/GCSS/SPARC TWP-ICE CRM Intercomparison Study: Description, Preliminary Results, and Invitation to Participate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridlind, A. M.; Ackerman, A. S.; Allen, G.; Beringer, J.; Comstock, J. M.; Field, P. R.; Gallagher, M.; Hacker, J. M.; Hume, T.; Jakob, C.; Liu, G.; Long, C. N.; Mather, J. H.; May, P. T.; McCoy, R. F.; McFarlane, S. A.; McFarquhar, G. M.; Minnis, P.; Petch, J. C.; Schumacher, C.; Turner, D. D.; Whiteway, J. A.; Williams, C. R.; Williams, P. I.; Xie, S.; Zhang, M.

    2008-12-01

    The 2006 Tropical Warm Pool - International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) is 'the first field program in the tropics that attempted to describe the evolution of tropical convection, including the large-scale heat, moisture, and momentum budgets at 3-hourly time resolution, while at the same time obtaining detailed observations of cloud properties and the impact of the clouds on the environment' [May et al., 2008]. A cloud- resolving model (CRM) intercomparison based on TWP-ICE is now being undertaken by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM), GEWEX Cloud Systems Study (GCSS), and Stratospheric Processes And their Role in Climate (SPARC) programs. We summarize the 16-day case study and the wealth of data being used to provide initial and boundary conditions, and evaluate some preliminary findings in the context of existing theories of moisture evolution in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). Overall, simulated cloud fields evolve realistically by many measures. Budgets indicate that simulated convective flux convergence of water vapor is always positive or near zero at TTL elevations, except locally at lower levels during the driest suppressed monsoon conditions, while simulated water vapor deposition to hydrometeors always exceeds sublimation on average at all TTL elevations over 24-hour timescales. The next largest water vapor budget term is generally the nudging required to keep domain averages consistent with observations, which is at least partly attributable to large-scale forcing terms that cannot be derived from measurements. We discuss the primary uncertainties.

  20. Longitudinal social networks impacts on weight and weight-related behaviors assessed using mobile-based ecological momentary assessments: Study Protocols for the SPARC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meg Bruening

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transition from the home to college is a phase in which emerging adults shift toward more unhealthy eating and physical activity patterns, higher body mass indices, thus increasing risk of overweight/obesity. Currently, little is understood about how changing friendship networks shape weight gain behaviors. This paper describes the recruitment, data collection, and data analytic protocols for the SPARC (Social impact of Physical Activity and nutRition in College study, a longitudinal examination of the mechanisms by which friends and friendship networks influence nutrition and physical activity behaviors and weight gain in the transition to college life. Methods The SPARC study aims to follow 1450 university freshmen from a large university over an academic year, collecting data on multiple aspects of friends and friendship networks. Integrating multiple types of data related to student lives, ecological momentary assessments (EMAs are administered via a cell phone application, devilSPARC. EMAs collected in four 1-week periods (a total of 4 EMA waves are integrated with linked data from web-based surveys and anthropometric measurements conducted at four times points (for a total of eight data collection periods including EMAs, separated by ~1 month. University databases will provide student card data, allowing integration of both time-dated data on food purchasing, use of physical activity venues, and geographical information system (GIS locations of these activities relative to other students in their social networks. Discussion Findings are intended to guide the development of more effective interventions to enhance behaviors among college students that protect against weight gain during college.

  1. Longitudinal social networks impacts on weight and weight-related behaviors assessed using mobile-based ecological momentary assessments: Study Protocols for the SPARC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Meg; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Brewis, Alexandra; Laska, Melissa; Todd, Michael; Hruschka, Daniel; Schaefer, David R; Whisner, Corrie M; Dunton, Genevieve

    2016-08-30

    The transition from the home to college is a phase in which emerging adults shift toward more unhealthy eating and physical activity patterns, higher body mass indices, thus increasing risk of overweight/obesity. Currently, little is understood about how changing friendship networks shape weight gain behaviors. This paper describes the recruitment, data collection, and data analytic protocols for the SPARC (Social impact of Physical Activity and nutRition in College) study, a longitudinal examination of the mechanisms by which friends and friendship networks influence nutrition and physical activity behaviors and weight gain in the transition to college life. The SPARC study aims to follow 1450 university freshmen from a large university over an academic year, collecting data on multiple aspects of friends and friendship networks. Integrating multiple types of data related to student lives, ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) are administered via a cell phone application, devilSPARC. EMAs collected in four 1-week periods (a total of 4 EMA waves) are integrated with linked data from web-based surveys and anthropometric measurements conducted at four times points (for a total of eight data collection periods including EMAs, separated by ~1 month). University databases will provide student card data, allowing integration of both time-dated data on food purchasing, use of physical activity venues, and geographical information system (GIS) locations of these activities relative to other students in their social networks. Findings are intended to guide the development of more effective interventions to enhance behaviors among college students that protect against weight gain during college.

  2. Climatology and interannual variability of dynamic variables in multiple reanalyses evaluated by the SPARC Reanalysis Intercomparison Project (S-RIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Craig S.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Davis, Sean; Mitchell, Daniel M.; Wright, Corwin J.

    2017-12-01

    Two of the most basic parameters generated from a reanalysis are temperature and winds. Temperatures in the reanalyses are derived from conventional (surface and balloon), aircraft, and satellite observations. Winds are observed by conventional systems, cloud tracked, and derived from height fields, which are in turn derived from the vertical temperature structure. In this paper we evaluate as part of the SPARC Reanalysis Intercomparison Project (S-RIP) the temperature and wind structure of all the recent and past reanalyses. This evaluation is mainly among the reanalyses themselves, but comparisons against independent observations, such as HIRDLS and COSMIC temperatures, are also presented. This evaluation uses monthly mean and 2.5° zonal mean data sets and spans the satellite era from 1979-2014. There is very good agreement in temperature seasonally and latitudinally among the more recent reanalyses (CFSR, MERRA, ERA-Interim, JRA-55, and MERRA-2) between the surface and 10 hPa. At lower pressures there is increased variance among these reanalyses that changes with season and latitude. This variance also changes during the time span of these reanalyses with greater variance during the TOVS period (1979-1998) and less variance afterward in the ATOVS period (1999-2014). There is a distinct change in the temperature structure in the middle and upper stratosphere during this transition from TOVS to ATOVS systems. Zonal winds are in greater agreement than temperatures and this agreement extends to lower pressures than the temperatures. Older reanalyses (NCEP/NCAR, NCEP/DOE, ERA-40, JRA-25) have larger temperature and zonal wind disagreement from the more recent reanalyses. All reanalyses to date have issues analysing the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) winds. Comparisons with Singapore QBO winds show disagreement in the amplitude of the westerly and easterly anomalies. The disagreement with Singapore winds improves with the transition from TOVS to ATOVS observations

  3. Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1999-01-01

    The different regulations relative to nuclear energy since the first of January 1999 are given here. Two points deserve to be noticed: the decree of the third august 1999 authorizing the national Agency for the radioactive waste management to install and exploit on the commune of Bures (Meuse) an underground laboratory destined to study the deep geological formations where could be stored the radioactive waste. The second point is about the uranium residues and the waste notion. The judgment of the administrative tribunal of Limoges ( 9. july 1998) forbidding the exploitation of a storage installation of depleted uranium considered as final waste and qualifying it as an industrial waste storage facility has been annulled bu the Court of Appeal. It stipulated that, according to the law number 75663 of the 15. july 1965, no criteria below can be applied to depleted uranium: production residue (possibility of an ulterior enrichment), abandonment of a personal property or simple intention to do it ( future use aimed in the authorization request made in the Prefecture). This judgment has devoted the primacy of the waste notion on this one of final waste. (N.C.)

  4. Thermal remote sensing from Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner data in the framework of the SPARC and SEN2FLEX projects: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Shen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The AHS (Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner instrument has 80 spectral bands covering the visible and near infrared (VNIR, short wave infrared (SWIR, mid infrared (MIR and thermal infrared (TIR spectral range. The instrument is operated by Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aerospacial (INTA, and it has been involved in several field campaigns since 2004.

    This paper presents an overview of the work performed with the AHS thermal imagery provided in the framework of the SPARC and SEN2FLEX campaigns, carried out respectively in 2004 and 2005 over an agricultural area in Spain. The data collected in both campaigns allowed for the first time the development and testing of algorithms for land surface temperature and emissivity retrieval as well as the estimation of evapotranspiration from AHS data. Errors were found to be around 1.5 K for land surface temperature and 1 mm/day for evapotranspiration.

  5. Design, Fabrication and High Power RF Test of a C-band Accelerating Structure for Feasibility Study of the SPARC photo-injector energy upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Alesini, D.; Di Pirro, G.; Di Raddo, R.; Ferrario, M.; Gallo, A.; Lollo, V.; Marcellini, F.; Higo, T.; Kakihara, K.; Matsumoto, S.; Campogiani, G.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Persichelli, S.; Spizzo, V.; Verdú-Andrés, S.

    2011-01-01

    The energy upgrade of the SPARC photo-injector from 160 to more than 260 MeV will be done by replacing a low gradient 3m S-Band structure with two 1.4m high gradient C-band structures. The structures are travelling wave, constant impedance sections, have symmetric waveguide input couplers and have been optimized to work with a SLED RF input pulse. A prototype with a reduced number of cells has been fabricated and tested at high power in KEK (Japan) giving very good performances in terms of breakdown rates (10^6 bpp/m) at high accelerating gradient (>50 MV/m). The paper illustrates the design criteria of the structures, the fabrication procedure and the high power RF test results.

  6. Climatology and interannual variability of dynamic variables in multiple reanalyses evaluated by the SPARC Reanalysis Intercomparison Project (S-RIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Long

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two of the most basic parameters generated from a reanalysis are temperature and winds. Temperatures in the reanalyses are derived from conventional (surface and balloon, aircraft, and satellite observations. Winds are observed by conventional systems, cloud tracked, and derived from height fields, which are in turn derived from the vertical temperature structure. In this paper we evaluate as part of the SPARC Reanalysis Intercomparison Project (S-RIP the temperature and wind structure of all the recent and past reanalyses. This evaluation is mainly among the reanalyses themselves, but comparisons against independent observations, such as HIRDLS and COSMIC temperatures, are also presented. This evaluation uses monthly mean and 2.5° zonal mean data sets and spans the satellite era from 1979–2014. There is very good agreement in temperature seasonally and latitudinally among the more recent reanalyses (CFSR, MERRA, ERA-Interim, JRA-55, and MERRA-2 between the surface and 10 hPa. At lower pressures there is increased variance among these reanalyses that changes with season and latitude. This variance also changes during the time span of these reanalyses with greater variance during the TOVS period (1979–1998 and less variance afterward in the ATOVS period (1999–2014. There is a distinct change in the temperature structure in the middle and upper stratosphere during this transition from TOVS to ATOVS systems. Zonal winds are in greater agreement than temperatures and this agreement extends to lower pressures than the temperatures. Older reanalyses (NCEP/NCAR, NCEP/DOE, ERA-40, JRA-25 have larger temperature and zonal wind disagreement from the more recent reanalyses. All reanalyses to date have issues analysing the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO winds. Comparisons with Singapore QBO winds show disagreement in the amplitude of the westerly and easterly anomalies. The disagreement with Singapore winds improves with the transition from

  7. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Kamalvishnu P Gottimukkala. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 36 Issue 3 August 2011 pp 461-469 Articles. N-terminal PDZ-like domain of chromatin organizer SATB1 contributes towards its function as transcription regulator · Dimple Notani Praveena L Ramanujam ...

  8. Pinatubo Emulation in Multiple Models (POEMs): co-ordinated experiments in the ISA-MIP model intercomparison activity component of the SPARC Stratospheric Sulphur and it's Role in Climate initiative (SSiRC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lindsay; Mann, Graham; Carslaw, Ken; Toohey, Matthew; Aquila, Valentina

    2016-04-01

    The World Climate Research Program's SPARC initiative has a new international activity "Stratospheric Sulphur and its Role in Climate" (SSiRC) to better understand changes in stratospheric aerosol and precursor gaseous sulphur species. One component of SSiRC involves an intercomparison "ISA-MIP" of composition-climate models that simulate the stratospheric aerosol layer interactively. Within PoEMS each modelling group will run a "perturbed physics ensemble" (PPE) of interactive stratospheric aerosol (ISA) simulations of the Pinatubo eruption, varying several uncertain parameters associated with the eruption's SO2 emissions and model processes. A powerful new technique to quantify and attribute sources of uncertainty in complex global models is described by Lee et al. (2011, ACP). The analysis uses Gaussian emulation to derive a probability density function (pdf) of predicted quantities, essentially interpolating the PPE results in multi-dimensional parameter space. Once trained on the ensemble, a Monte Carlo simulation with the fast Gaussian emulator enabling a full variance-based sensitivity analysis. The approach has already been used effectively by Carslaw et al., (2013, Nature) to quantify the uncertainty in the cloud albedo effect forcing from a 3D global aerosol-microphysics model allowing to compare the sensitivy of different predicted quantities to uncertainties in natural and anthropogenic emissions types, and structural parameters in the models. Within ISA-MIP, each group will carry out a PPE of runs, with the subsequent analysis with the emulator assessing the uncertainty in the volcanic forcings predicted by each model. In this poster presentation we will give an outline of the "PoEMS" analysis, describing the uncertain parameters to be varied and the relevance to further understanding differences identified in previous international stratospheric aerosol assessments.

  9. Ada Compiler Validation Summary Report: Certificate Number: 940325S1. 11352 DDC-I DACS Sun SPARC/Solaries to Pentium PM Bare Ada Cross Compiler System, Version 4.6.4 Sun SPARCclassic = Intel Pentium (Operated as Bare Machine) Based in Xpress Desktop (Intel Product Number: XBASE6E4F-B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-25

    Best Available Copy REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE _V -ONC Uft Xaf. WO -" Am u~~ ns~ 940325SI. 11352 , AVV: 94ddc5OO_3d. Compiler: DACS Sun SPARC/ aonais to...Manual for the Ada Proarammina Language, ANSI/MIL-STD-1815A, February 1983 and ISO 8652-1987. [Pro92] Ada Coupiler Validation Procedures, Version 3.1...objectives found to be irrelevant for the given Ada implementation. ISO International Organization for Standardization. LRM The Ada standard, or

  10. MicroRNA-145 is downregulated in glial tumors and regulates glioma cell migration by targeting connective tissue growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae Kyung; Bier, Ariel; Cazacu, Simona; Finniss, Susan; Xiang, Cunli; Twito, Hodaya; Poisson, Laila M; Mikkelsen, Tom; Slavin, Shimon; Jacoby, Elad; Yalon, Michal; Toren, Amos; Rempel, Sandra A; Brodie, Chaya

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastomas (GBM), the most common and aggressive type of malignant glioma, are characterized by increased invasion into the surrounding brain tissues. Despite intensive therapeutic strategies, the median survival of GBM patients has remained dismal over the last decades. In this study we examined the expression of miR-145 in glial tumors and its function in glioma cells. Using TCGA analysis and real-time PCR we found that the expression of miR-145/143 cluster was downregulated in astrocytic tumors compared to normal brain specimens and in glioma cells and glioma stem cells (GSCs) compared to normal astrocytes and neural stem cells. Moreover, the low expression of both miR-145 and miR-143 in GBM was correlated with poor patient prognosis. Transfection of glioma cells with miR-145 mimic or transduction with a lentivirus vector expressing pre-miR 145 significantly decreased the migration and invasion of glioma cells. We identified connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) as a novel target of miR-145 in glioma cells; transfection of the cells with this miRNA decreased the expression of CTGF as determined by Western blot analysis and the expression of its 3'-UTR fused to luciferase. Overexpression of a CTGF plasmid lacking the 3'-UTR and administration of recombinant CTGF protein abrogated the inhibitory effect of miR-145 on glioma cell migration. Similarly, we found that silencing of CTGF decreased the migration of glioma cells. CTGF silencing also decreased the expression of SPARC, phospho-FAK and FAK and overexpression of SPARC abrogated the inhibitory effect of CTGF silencing on cell migration. These results demonstrate that miR-145 is downregulated in glial tumors and its low expression in GBM predicts poor patient prognosis. In addition miR-145 regulates glioma cell migration by targeting CTGF which downregulates SPARC expression. Therefore, miR-145 is an attractive therapeutic target for anti-invasive treatment of astrocytic tumors.

  11. MicroRNA-145 is downregulated in glial tumors and regulates glioma cell migration by targeting connective tissue growth factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Kyung Lee

    Full Text Available Glioblastomas (GBM, the most common and aggressive type of malignant glioma, are characterized by increased invasion into the surrounding brain tissues. Despite intensive therapeutic strategies, the median survival of GBM patients has remained dismal over the last decades. In this study we examined the expression of miR-145 in glial tumors and its function in glioma cells. Using TCGA analysis and real-time PCR we found that the expression of miR-145/143 cluster was downregulated in astrocytic tumors compared to normal brain specimens and in glioma cells and glioma stem cells (GSCs compared to normal astrocytes and neural stem cells. Moreover, the low expression of both miR-145 and miR-143 in GBM was correlated with poor patient prognosis. Transfection of glioma cells with miR-145 mimic or transduction with a lentivirus vector expressing pre-miR 145 significantly decreased the migration and invasion of glioma cells. We identified connective tissue growth factor (CTGF as a novel target of miR-145 in glioma cells; transfection of the cells with this miRNA decreased the expression of CTGF as determined by Western blot analysis and the expression of its 3'-UTR fused to luciferase. Overexpression of a CTGF plasmid lacking the 3'-UTR and administration of recombinant CTGF protein abrogated the inhibitory effect of miR-145 on glioma cell migration. Similarly, we found that silencing of CTGF decreased the migration of glioma cells. CTGF silencing also decreased the expression of SPARC, phospho-FAK and FAK and overexpression of SPARC abrogated the inhibitory effect of CTGF silencing on cell migration. These results demonstrate that miR-145 is downregulated in glial tumors and its low expression in GBM predicts poor patient prognosis. In addition miR-145 regulates glioma cell migration by targeting CTGF which downregulates SPARC expression. Therefore, miR-145 is an attractive therapeutic target for anti-invasive treatment of astrocytic tumors.

  12. Regulating the Regulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-26

    The article reports on a challenge to the UK electricity regulator to defend his record by the Coalition for Fair Electricity Regulation (COFFER). The challenge centres on whether the obligation for the regional electric companies (REC) to purchase power from the cheapest source is being enforced. This is related to the wider issue of whether the REC's support of combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) is economic. COFFER considers that uneconomic gas-fired power plants are being allowed to displace economic coal-fired stations. Aspects discussed include the background to the dispute and the costs of CCGT and coal fired power generation. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. Market, Regulation, Market, Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Galland, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    barriers to trade in Europe, realized the free movement of products by organizing progressively several orders of markets and regulation. Based on historical and institutional documents, on technical publications, and on interviews, this article relates how the European Commission and the Member States had......This paper focuses on the European Regulatory system which was settled both for opening the Single Market for products and ensuring the consumers' safety. It claims that the New Approach and Standardization, and the Global Approach to conformity assessment, which suppressed the last technical...... alternatively recourse to markets and to regulations, at the three main levels of the New Approach Directives implementation. The article focuses also more specifically on the Medical Devices sector, not only because this New Approach sector has long been controversial in Europe, and has recently been concerned...

  14. Radiation regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braithwaite, J.; Grabosky, P.

    1985-01-01

    The five main areas of radiation regulation considered are radiation exposure in the mining of uranium and other minerals, exposure in the use of uranium in nuclear reactors, risks in the transport of radioactive materials and hazards associated with the disposal of used materials. In Australia these problems are regulated by mines departments, the Australian Atomic Energy Commission and radiation control branches in state health departments. Each of these instutional areas of regulation is examined

  15. Regulative environmental policy. Regulative Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerlitz, A; Voigt, R [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Neubiberg (Germany, F.R.). Fakultaet fuer Sozialwissenschaften; eds.

    1991-01-01

    Regulative policy means those governmental attempts to steer the course of things which can fall back on a certain repertoire of instruments for actions in order to warrant the causal and temporal connection between the making available and the employment of means. The fact that environmental protection needs regulative policy is substantiated by the thesis that the market has failed; consequently only government can manage the public goods 'environment' in a suitable way, and it is a matter of fact that environmental protection at present is operated preferably via regulative policy. The problems of regulative enviromental policy are manifold. Its implementation often miscarries because of limited administrative resources on the one hand - making sufficient control impossible for instance -, and because of poor quality regulative instruments on the other hand. One way out would be to increase the efficiency of regulative policy by sophisticating judicial techniques. Other ways out point to the executing level and aim at improving implementation strategies or are concerned with post-regulative law. The latter refers to a new legal quality which demonstrates itself already in corporatistical crisis regulation or in induction programs such as pollution limits. A final way out favours deregulation strategies which includes the introduction of environmental levies or the allocation of environmental licences. An interdisciplinary discourse is to find out what would happen if these ways were taken. Pointers to solutions from varying scientific disciplines resulting from this discourse are to be found in this volume. (orig./HSCH).

  16. NORM regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    The author reviews the question of regulation for naturally occuring radioactive material (NORM), and the factors that have made this a more prominent concern today. Past practices have been very relaxed, and have often involved very poor records, the involvment of contractors, and the disposition of contaminated equipment back into commercial service. The rationale behind the establishment of regulations is to provide worker protection, to exempt low risk materials, to aid in scrap recycling, to provide direction for remediation and to examine disposal options. The author reviews existing regulations at federal and state levels, impending legislation, and touches on the issue of site remediation and potential liabilities affecting the release of sites contaminated by NORM.

  17. Fisheries regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Frost, Hans Staby; Abildtrup, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Economists normally claim that a stock externality arises within fisheries because each individual fisherman does not take the effect on stock size into account when making harvest decisions. Due to the stock externality, it is commonly argued that fisheries regulation is necessary, but regulatory...... decisions are complicated by a tremendous amount of uncertainty and asymmetric information. This paper provides an overview of selected parts of the literature on the regulation of fisheries under uncertainty and asymmetric information, and possible areas for future research are identified. Specifically...

  18. French regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1998-01-01

    In this issue are given the new French regulations relative to radiation protection of temporary personnel, the licensing to release gaseous and liquid wastes and the licensing granted to thirty two laboratories using beta and gamma decay radioisotopes. (N.C.)

  19. Regulating Internalities

    OpenAIRE

    Sunstein, Cass Robert; Allcott, Hunt

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a framework for regulating internalities. Using a simple economic model, we provide four principles for designing and evaluating behaviorally-motivated policy. We then outline rules for determining which contexts reliably reflect true preferences and discuss empirical strategies for measuring internalities. As a case study, we focus on energy efficiency policy, including Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards and appliance and lighting energy efficiency standards.

  20. Surface Plasma Arc by Radio-Frequency Control Study (SPARCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzic, David N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is to summarize the work carried out between April 2012 and April 2013 for development of an experimental device to simulate interactions of o-normal detrimental events in a tokamak and ICRF antenna. The work was mainly focused on development of a pulsed plasma source using theta pinch and coaxial plasma gun. This device, once completed, will have a possible application as a test stand for high voltage breakdown of an ICRF antenna in extreme events in a tokamak such as edge-localized modes or disruption. Currently, DEVeX does not produce plasma with high temperature enough to requirement for an ELM simulator. However, theta pinch is a good way to produce high temperature ions. The unique characteristic of plasma heating by a theta pinch is advantageous for an ELM simulator due to its effective ion heating. The objective of the proposed work, therefore, is to build a test facility using the existing theta pinch facility in addition to a coaxial plasma gun. It is expected to produce a similar pulsed-plasma heat load to the extreme events in tokamaks and to be applied for studying interactions of hot plasma and ICRF antennas

  1. Competition between bank regulators

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, Dirk; Eggert, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines competition between bank regulators in open economies. We use a model where credit demand of firms is endogenous and show any tendency for downward competition in regulation policy is limited by the effect of regulation on profits of nonfinancial firms. Moreover, perfect mobility on loans and deposit markets fully eliminates the incentives of regulators to set bank regulation at ine±cient low levels.

  2. Regulating through leverage: Civil regulation in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fürst, K.

    2016-01-01

    The overarching goal of this study is to examine the efforts of Chinese NGOs to prevent and/or control industrial pollution risks and then use the findings of this research to study the nature of civil regulation in, and beyond, China’s authoritarian setting. It first argues that 'regulation through

  3. Atomic Energy Control Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This is the consolidated text of the Atomic Energy Control Regulations of 17 March 1960, with amendments to 27 August 1992. The Regulations cover the licensing of nuclear facilities, radiation sources, including uranium mining, radiation protection questions, etc. (NEA)

  4. Environmental regulation and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulatu, A.; Florax, R.J.G.M.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The potential relationship between domestic environmental regulation and international competitiveness has evoked various speculations. The common neoclassical train of thought is that strict environmental regulation is detrimental to the competitiveness of industry, and that it induces phenomena

  5. Ocean Dumping Control Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These Regulations were made further to the Ocean Dumping Control Act which provides for restrictions in dumping operations. The Regulations contain model applications for permits to dump or load a series of materials. (NEA)

  6. Regulation of Genetic Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Genomics Research Intellectual Property Issues in Genetics Archive Online Bioethics Resources Privacy in Genomics Regulation of ... are not regulated, meaning that they go to market without any independent analysis to verify the claims ...

  7. Trout Stream Special Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer shows Minnesota trout streams that have a special regulation as described in the 2006 Minnesota Fishing Regulations. Road crossings were determined using...

  8. Culture and emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Brett Q; Mauss, Iris B

    2015-06-01

    While anthropological research has long emphasized cultural differences in whether emotions are viewed as beneficial versus harmful, psychological science has only recently begun to systematically examine those differences and their implications for emotion regulation and well-being. Underscoring the pervasive role of culture in people's emotions, we summarize research that has examined links between culture, emotion regulation, and well-being. Specifically, we focus on two questions. First, how does culture lead individuals to regulate their emotions? And second, how does culture modulate the link between emotion regulation and well-being? We finish by suggesting directions for future research to advance the study of culture and emotion regulation.

  9. Radiation Control Regulation 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This Regulation (No. 434-1993) was made in pursuance of the Radiation Control Act 1990 and replaces the Active Substances Regulations 1959 repealed by the Act. It entered into force on 1 September 1993. The Regulation specifies that the technical radiation protection definitions have the same meaning as in the 1990 recommendations. The Regulation provides for the licensing of persons to use radioactive substances and radiation apparatus. It prescribes activities which may only be carried out by an accredited radiation expert and regulates the use of radiation apparatus and radioactive substances as well as the disposal and transport of radiation apparatus and radioactive substances. (NEA)

  10. Load regulating expansion fixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located there between. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig

  11. Volume regulation in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    to amphibian skin and mammalian cortical collecting tubule of low and intermediate osmotic permeability. Crosstalk between entrance and exit mechanisms interferes with volume regulation both at aniso-osmotic and iso-osmotic volume perturbations. It has been proposed that cell volume regulation is an intrinsic...... regulation are cloned. The volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) exhibiting specific electrophysiological characteristics seems exclusive to serve cell volume regulation. This is contrary to K+ channels as well as cotransporters and exchange mechanisms that may serve both transepithelial transport and cell...... volume regulation. In the same cell, these functions may be maintained by different ion pathways that are separately regulated. RVD is often preceded by increase in cytosolic free Ca2+, probably via influx through TRP channels, but Ca2+ release from intracellular stores has also been observed. Cell...

  12. Voltage regulator for generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naoi, K

    1989-01-17

    It is an object of this invention to provide a voltage regulator for a generator charging a battery, wherein even if the ambient temperature at the voltage regulator rises abnormally high, possible thermal breakage of the semiconductor elements constituting the voltage regulator can be avoided. A feature of this invention is that the semiconductor elements can be protected from thermal breakage, even at an abnormal ambient temperature rise at the voltage regulator for the battery charging generator, by controlling a maximum conduction ratio of a power transistor in the voltage regulator in accordance with the temperature at the voltage regulator. This is achieved through a switching device connected in series to the field coil of the generator and adapted to be controlled in accordance with an output voltage of the generator and the ambient temperature at the voltage regulator. 6 figs.

  13. TOWARD MORE EFFECTIVE REGULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. GRAF

    2000-06-01

    This paper proposes a model relationship between the operator engaged in a hazardous activity, the regulator of that activity, and the general public. The roles and responsibilities of each entity are described in a way that allows effective communication flow. The role of the regulator is developed using the steam boiler as an example of a hazard subject to regulation; however, the model applies to any regulated activity. In this model the safety analyst has the extremely important role of communicating sometimes difficult technical information to the regulator in a way that the regulator can provide credible assurance to the general public as to the adequacy of the control of the hazardous activity. The conclusion asserts that acceptance of the model, understanding of the roles and responsibilities and definition of who communicates what information to whom will mitigate frustration on the part of each of the three entities.

  14. The development of regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slokan Dusic, D.; Levstek, M.F.; Stritar, A.

    2003-01-01

    In October 2002, The Act on Protection Against Ionising Radiation and Nuclear Safety which regulates all aspects of protection against ionising radiation and nuclear safety entered into force in Slovenia. The Slovenian government and its responsible ministries shall issue several governmental and ministerial regulations to support the above - mentioned act. The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) which acts within the Ministry of the Environment, Spatial Planing and Energy takes an active part in drafting the regulations which are defined in the act. Due to a very comprehensive and pretentious task, that is to be completed in a relatively short period of time, taking into consideration the involvement of stakeholders and all competent ministries, the SNSA within the Quality Management System developed a special procedure that insures the systematic approach to the preparation of regulations. The article will briefly represent the process that: defines the preparation, development, harmonisation, review, approval and issue of regulations and uniforms the format of developed regulations. (author)

  15. Regulating hedge funds.

    OpenAIRE

    Daníelsson, J.; Zigrand, JP.

    2007-01-01

    Due to the ever-increasing amounts under management and their unregulated and opaque nature, hedge funds have emerged as a key concern for policymakers. While until now, hedge funds have been left essentially unregulated, we are seeing increasing calls for regulation for both microprudential and macroprudential reasons. In our view, most calls for the regulation of hedge funds are based on a misperception of the effectiveness of financial regulations, perhaps coupled with a lack of understand...

  16. Regulating household financial advice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin F. Cummings

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews economic theory related to investment advice. This theory explains 1 why financial advisors need to be carefully regulated for the benefit of both the investment advice industry and for consumers, 2 why principles-based regulation (e.g., a fiduciary standard is more efficient than rules-based regulation, 3 why dual regulation of financial professionals providing investment or insurance advice is inefficient and inequitable policy, and 4 why the application of a universal and uniform fiduciary standard will be difficult to implement.

  17. The regulation of hunting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildtrup, Jens; Jensen, Frank

    Within hunting, wildlife populations are estimated to be too high in many countries which is assumed to be due to the market failure, that each hunter harvests too little compared to what the regulator wants. This may be due to the existing regulation which, among other things, requires knowledge...... by an individual, variable tax rate. The variable tax rate is, among other things, based on the difference in marginal value of the population between the hunter and the regulator. The paper shows that the population tax/subsidy secures a first-best optimum. Thus, the population tax is a good alternative...... to the existing regulation....

  18. Nuclear safety and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hho Jung

    2000-03-01

    This book contains 12 chapters, which are atom and radiation, nuclear reactor and kinds of nuclear power plant, safeguard actuation system and stability evaluation for rock foundation of nuclear power plant, nuclear safety and principle, safety analysis and classification of incident, probabilistic safety assessment and major incident, nuclear safety regulation, system of nuclear safety regulation, main function and subject of safety regulation in nuclear facilities, regulation of fuel cycle and a nuclear dump site, protection of radiation and, safety supervision and, safety supervision and measurement of environmental radioactivity.

  19. Peak regulation right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Z. |; Ren, Z.; Li, Z.; Zhu, R.

    2005-01-01

    A peak regulation right concept and corresponding transaction mechanism for an electricity market was presented. The market was based on a power pool and independent system operator (ISO) model. Peak regulation right (PRR) was defined as a downward regulation capacity purchase option which allowed PRR owners to buy certain quantities of peak regulation capacity (PRC) at a specific price during a specified period from suppliers. The PRR owner also had the right to decide whether or not they would buy PRC from suppliers. It was the power pool's responsibility to provide competitive and fair peak regulation trading markets to participants. The introduction of PRR allowed for unit capacity regulation. The PRR and PRC were rated by the supplier, and transactions proceeded through a bidding process. PRR suppliers obtained profits by selling PRR and PRC, and obtained downward regulation fees regardless of whether purchases are made. It was concluded that the peak regulation mechanism reduced the total cost of the generating system and increased the social surplus. 6 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  20. Soft Regulators, though judges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Geest, G.G.A.; Dari Mattiacci, G.

    Judges have a tendency to be more demanding than regulators. In the United States, a majority of the courts has adopted the rule that the unexcused violation of a statutory standard is negligence per se. However, the converse does not hold: compliance with regulation does not relieve the injurer of

  1. Mortgage market regulation: Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, M.B.; Smith, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite several European Union (EU) initiatives, there is only limited pan-European mortgage market regulation. The EU strategy can be characterised as one of parallel liberalisation and consolidation. This article highlights the key differences in regulation among European mortgage markets.

  2. Regulation as Rhetoric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen; Györy, Csaba

    This paper analyses the way regulatory agencies strategically use public ‘rhetoric’ and ‘management of appearance’ to strengthen their regulation. It reports a comparative study of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) which is the US federal securities regulator and the Danish Tax...... and Customs Administration (SKAT) which is the national tax regulator in Denmark. SEC operates in a US context where the agency fights to get trust, while SKAT operates in a context where high trust in public agencies is a basic condition. We argue, however, that despite the radically different institutional...... engage reflectively in image promotion which serves two purposes: establishing and maintaining legitimacy in a particular social and political environment and producing compliance. Further, we argue that this regulation is a form of ‘post-bureaucratic’ regulation in which compliance is achieved...

  3. Reconceptualizing Civil Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galang, Roberto Martin; Castello, Itziar

    2011-01-01

    This article re-conceptualizes the notion of civil regulation, through an analysis of 775 projects by firms located in 21 Asian countries, wherein we map the state of civil regulation initiatives in the region. We challenge two established assumptions in the Corporate Social Responsibility litera....... Finally, we argue that, in Asia, governments act as a structuration mechanism which challenges the current understanding of CSR.......This article re-conceptualizes the notion of civil regulation, through an analysis of 775 projects by firms located in 21 Asian countries, wherein we map the state of civil regulation initiatives in the region. We challenge two established assumptions in the Corporate Social Responsibility...... and environmental standards; but also that local, small and medium companies play a key role in the development of Asian civil regulation. We call this second finding the “CSR importation trap”. Our findings are supported by evidence on the limitations in the interchangeable properties of business and governments...

  4. Risk-informed regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    In assessing safety for nuclear facilities, regulators have traditionally used a deterministic approach. New techniques for assessing nuclear or radiological risks make it possible for regulators to incorporate risk insights into their regulations. By 'risk-informing' the regulatory processes, independent bodies tasked with protecting the health and safety of the public can focus on those design and operational issues most important to safety. Such an approach is a move away from prescriptive regulations that were based on conservative engineering judgments toward regulations focused on issues that contribute significantly to safety. Despite the availability of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) tools, organisations often struggle with how to best use this capability. Most international regulations are still based largely on deterministic analyses that were developed without the benefit of quantitative or measurable estimates of risk. PRA considers issues of risk in a more comprehensive manner by examining a wider spectrum of initiating events and their frequency, and considers the likelihood of events in a rigorous and comprehensive manner. In some countries, nuclear regulators are actively moving toward increasing the use of risk insights in a variety of strategic arenas, including risk-informed technical specifications (operating limits and conditions), in-service inspection and testing, programs, and assessment and enforcement actions. A risk-informed approach enhances the traditional deterministic approach by explicitly considering a broader range of safety challenges, focusing resources on the basis of risk significance, considering a broader range of counter measures to mitigate challenges, and explicitly identifying and quantifying uncertainties in analyses. (author)

  5. Epigenetic Regulation of Adipokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tho X. Pham

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue expansion in obesity leads to changes in the expression of adipokines, adipocyte-specific hormones that can regulate whole body energy metabolism. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is a mechanism by which cells can alter gene expression through the modifications of DNA and histones. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, are intimately tied to energy metabolism due to their dependence on metabolic intermediates such as S-adenosylmethionine and acetyl-CoA. Altered expression of adipokines in obesity may be due to epigenetic changes. The goal of this review is to highlight current knowledge of epigenetic regulation of adipokines.

  6. The power of regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    Slides accompanying a presentation at The Power of Change Conference in Vancouver, BC in April 1995 about regulations affecting the power industry were presented. Issues addressed included customer choice, incentive regulation changes (price-caps, revenue sharing and pricing flexibility), the reactions of Canadian industry to regulatory changes, and anticipated reactions of the financial markets to changes in regulations. The potential effects of competition and changes that will create competition were discussed. The level of readiness of Canadian financial, ownership and regulatory bodies was discussed. The needs and expectations of investors from a new regulatory regime were quesstimated. Possible alternatives to the present regulatory framework were suggested

  7. Electrical installations and regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J F

    1966-01-01

    Electrical Installations and Regulations focuses on the regulations that apply to electrical installations and the reasons for them. Topics covered range from electrical science to alternating and direct current supplies, as well as equipment for providing protection against excess current. Cables, wiring systems, and final subcircuits are also considered, along with earthing, discharge lighting, and testing and inspection.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of electrical installation work, traits of a good electrician, and the regulations governing installations. The r

  8. Legislation and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the nuclear and environmental licensing, and emergency preparedness legislation

  9. Benchmarking and Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    . The application of benchmarking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publications, leading to discussions about regulatory stability and economic feasibility of these techniques...

  10. Legislation and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the nuclear and environmental licensing, and emergency preparedness legislation.

  11. The regulation of appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Druce, M; Bloom, S R

    2006-01-01

    The worsening global obesity epidemic, particularly the increase in childhood obesity, has prompted research into the mechanisms of appetite regulation. Complex pathways modulate energy balance, involving appetite centres in the hypothalamus and brain stem, and hormonal signals of energy status released by the gut and by the periphery. Better understanding of appetite regulation improves understanding of the aetiology of obesity. Manipulation of this homoeostatic system offers potentially use...

  12. Corruption, Institutions and Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Breen; Robert Gillanders

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effects of corruption and institutional quality on the quality of business regulation. Our key findings indicate that corruption negatively aspects the quality of regulation and that general institutional quality is insignificant once corruption is controlled for. These findings hold over a number of specifications which include additional exogenous historical and geographic controls. The findings imply that policy-makers should focus on curbing corruption to improve regulat...

  13. Regulating deregulated energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.

    2002-01-01

    The North American gas and electricity markets are fast evolving, and regulators are currently faced with a host of issues such as market-based rates, unbundling, stranded costs, open access, and incentive regulation are surfacing as a result of deregulation. The regulatory environment in Ontario was reviewed by the author. Deregulated markets rule, from commodities to gas and electricity. Additionally, there is an evolution of traditional utility regulation. A look at deregulated markets revealed that there are regulations on boundary conditions on the deregulated market. Under the Ontario Energy Board (OEB), all generators, transmitters, distributors, and retailers of electricity must be licensed. The standard supply service (SSS) offered by electricity distributors and system gas which is still being sold by natural gas distributors continues to be regulated by OEB. One issue that was addressed was separation for revenues and costs of the utility's purchase and sale of gas business, at least for accounting purposes. The next issue discussed was cost of system gas and SSS, followed by timely signals and prudent incurred costs. Historical benefits were reviewed, such as historical commitments to low-cost electricity. Pooling transportation costs, transmission pricing continued, market-based rates, unbundling, stranded costs, open access, incentive regulation/ performance based regulation (PBR) were all discussed. Price cap on PBR, both partial and comprehensive were looked at. A requirement to review guidelines on cost of capital and an application to extend blanket approval provisions for gas storage were discussed, as they are amongst some of the challenges of the future. Other challenges include revised rules and practice and procedure; practice directions for cost awards, appeals, and other functions; confidentiality guidelines; and refinements to the role of and approaches to alternative dispute resolution. The future role of regulators was examined in light

  14. Interpersonal emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Jamil; Williams, W Craig

    2013-10-01

    Contemporary emotion regulation research emphasizes intrapersonal processes such as cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, but people experiencing affect commonly choose not to go it alone. Instead, individuals often turn to others for help in shaping their affective lives. How and under what circumstances does such interpersonal regulation modulate emotional experience? Although scientists have examined allied phenomena such as social sharing, empathy, social support, and prosocial behavior for decades, there have been surprisingly few attempts to integrate these data into a single conceptual framework of interpersonal regulation. Here we propose such a framework. We first map a "space" differentiating classes of interpersonal regulation according to whether an individual uses an interpersonal regulatory episode to alter their own or another person's emotion. We then identify 2 types of processes--response-dependent and response-independent--that could support interpersonal regulation. This framework classifies an array of processes through which interpersonal contact fulfills regulatory goals. More broadly, it organizes diffuse, heretofore independent data on "pieces" of interpersonal regulation, and identifies growth points for this young and exciting research domain.

  15. Federal Aviation Regulations - National Aviation Regulations of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernykh, O.; Bakiiev, M.

    2018-03-01

    Chinese Aerospace Engineering is currently developing cooperation with Russia on a wide-body airplane project that has directed the work towards better understanding of Russian airworthiness management system. The paper introduces national Aviation regulations of Russia, presents a comparison of them with worldwide recognized regulations, and highlights typical differences. They have been found to be: two general types of regulations used in Russia (Aviation Regulations and Federal Aviation Regulations), non-unified structure of regulations on Aircraft Operation management, various separate agencies responsible for regulation issuance instead of one national aviation authority, typical confusions in references. The paper also gives a list of effective Russian Regulations of both types.

  16. Nuclear regulation in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomain, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The current state of nuclear regulations in the USA is examined. Since Three Mile Island the regulation of the nuclear power industry has been undergoing a noticeable transition. It will be argued here that the transition is characterized by two indicia. First, the primary focus of state and federal regulators has been on the financial aspects of the industry: this is best seen in the context of decisions allocating the costs of nuclear plant cancellations. Second, decisionmaking power has been decentralized: although the regulatory history of nuclear power demonstrates the tradition of centralized decisionmaking power (i.e., formerly the primary decisionmaking body was the Atomic Energy Commission), now States share decisionmaking power with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In Section 1 a brief legislative history of nuclear regulation is presented to establish the assertion that nuclear regulation, both de jure and de facto, was centralized. Next, Section 2 canvasses recent United States Supreme Court opinions regarding nuclear regulation. The Court frequently acts as policymaker through the consequences of its opinions, if not by its intent. In the area of nuclear policymaking, the Court has paid allegiance recently both to the tradition of centralization and to the movement toward decentralization. This dualism is reflected in other federal court decisions as well which will be briefly mentioned. Continuing the analysis of Federal regulation, Section 3 examines the current reform efforts of the NRC. Section 4 presents an examination of State responses to nuclear plant cancellations. In this section, State administrative agency and court decisions will be examined and recent State legislation will be discussed. (author)

  17. Nuclear regulation in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomain, J.P. (Cincinnati Univ., OH, US. Coll. of Law)

    1986-01-01

    The current state of nuclear regulations in the USA is examined. Since Three Mile Island the regulation of the nuclear power industry has been undergoing a noticeable transition. It will be argued here that the transition is characterized by two indicia. First, the primary focus of state and federal regulators has been on the financial aspects of the industry: this is best seen in the context of decisions allocating the costs of nuclear plant cancellations. Second, decisionmaking power has been decentralized: although the regulatory history of nuclear power demonstrates the tradition of centralized decisionmaking power (i.e., formerly the primary decisionmaking body was the Atomic Energy Commission), now States share decisionmaking power with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In Section 1 a brief legislative history of nuclear regulation is presented to establish the assertion that nuclear regulation, both de jure and de facto, was centralized. Next, Section 2 canvasses recent United States Supreme Court opinions regarding nuclear regulation. The Court frequently acts as policymaker through the consequences of its opinions, if not by its intent. In the area of nuclear policymaking, the Court has paid allegiance recently both to the tradition of centralization and to the movement toward decentralization. This dualism is reflected in other federal court decisions as well which will be briefly mentioned. Continuing the analysis of Federal regulation, Section 3 examines the current reform efforts of the NRC. Section 4 presents an examination of State responses to nuclear plant cancellations. In this section, State administrative agency and court decisions will be examined and recent State legislation will be discussed.

  18. To regulate or not to regulate?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, G.; Wrixon, A. [IAEA, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In Hamlet famous soliloquy to be or not to be, he wrestles with the perennial human problem of choosing the right course of action in difficult circumstances. In recent years, we have witnessed a cast of thousands playing out a long-running scene that seems to echo Hamlet dilemma on a rather more prosaic level. When is it necessary to apply regulations to the control of exposure to ionizing radiation and when is regulatory control not warranted? This seemingly straightforward question has brought out the philosopher, ethician, lawyer, pragmatist, orator in simple radiation protection folk and has led to passionate debate on numerous occasions. This paper attempts an answer based on a review of recent developments. For deciding when to apply regulatory controls, several concepts have evolved over time, including exemption of practices and sources, exclusion of exposures and clearance of materials. These have different origins, purposes and characteristics. Exemption and clearance have often been associated with triviality of risk, while exclusion has been related to un-amenability of control. For each concept, criteria have been developed to assist the regulator in reaching a decision, but there has much disputation over numerical values. This paper briefly reviews and analyses recent developments and attempts to clarify the problem from first principles. The conclusion is that the underlying issue in each case is to determine when regulatory controls become unwarranted: that is, when the societal resources expended in applying them and complying with them would be disproportionate to any benefit they might bring. This is a natural extension of the principle of optimization of protection to the regulatory control of protection, in the context of exposure to radiation at very low levels. It also reflects common expectations of good governance: wise management of finite societal resources and avoidance of unwarranted controls on

  19. To regulate or not to regulate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, G.; Wrixon, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In Hamlet famous soliloquy to be or not to be, he wrestles with the perennial human problem of choosing the right course of action in difficult circumstances. In recent years, we have witnessed a cast of thousands playing out a long-running scene that seems to echo Hamlet dilemma on a rather more prosaic level. When is it necessary to apply regulations to the control of exposure to ionizing radiation and when is regulatory control not warranted? This seemingly straightforward question has brought out the philosopher, ethician, lawyer, pragmatist, orator in simple radiation protection folk and has led to passionate debate on numerous occasions. This paper attempts an answer based on a review of recent developments. For deciding when to apply regulatory controls, several concepts have evolved over time, including exemption of practices and sources, exclusion of exposures and clearance of materials. These have different origins, purposes and characteristics. Exemption and clearance have often been associated with triviality of risk, while exclusion has been related to un-amenability of control. For each concept, criteria have been developed to assist the regulator in reaching a decision, but there has much disputation over numerical values. This paper briefly reviews and analyses recent developments and attempts to clarify the problem from first principles. The conclusion is that the underlying issue in each case is to determine when regulatory controls become unwarranted: that is, when the societal resources expended in applying them and complying with them would be disproportionate to any benefit they might bring. This is a natural extension of the principle of optimization of protection to the regulatory control of protection, in the context of exposure to radiation at very low levels. It also reflects common expectations of good governance: wise management of finite societal resources and avoidance of unwarranted controls on

  20. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the ...

  1. Deciphering Transcriptional Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valen, Eivind

    The myriad of cells in the human body are all made from the same blueprint: the human genome. At the heart of this diversity lies the concept of gene regulation, the process in which it is decided which genes are used where and when. Genes do not function as on/off buttons, but more like a volume...... mostly near the start of the gene known as the promoter. This region contains patterns scattered in the DNA that the TFs can recognize and bind to. Such binding can prompt the assembly of the pre-initiation complex which ultimately leads to transcription of the gene. In order to achieve the regulation...... on what characterizes a hippocampus promoter. Pairing CAGE with TF binding site prediction we identi¿ed a likely key regulator of hippocampus. Finally, we developed a method for CAGE exploration. While the DeepCAGE library characterized a full 1.4 million transcription initiation events it did not capture...

  2. Radiation emitting devices regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    The Radiation Emitting Devices Regulations are the regulations referred to in the Radiation Emitting Devices Act and relate to the operation of devices. They include standards of design and construction, standards of functioning, warning symbol specifications in addition to information relating to the seizure and detention of machines failing to comply with the regulations. The radiation emitting devices consist of the following: television receivers, extra-oral dental x-ray equipment, microwave ovens, baggage inspection x-ray devices, demonstration--type gas discharge devices, photofluorographic x-ray equipment, laser scanners, demonstration lasers, low energy electron microscopes, high intensity mercury vapour discharge lamps, sunlamps, diagnostic x-ray equipment, ultrasound therapy devices, x-ray diffraction equipment, cabinet x-ray equipment and therapeutic x-ray equipment

  3. Natural Gas Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The regulation of Natural Gas. Natural gas Regulation clarifies and consolidates the legal and institutional framework for development of the industry through six principal elements: 1) Establishment of a vision of the industry. 2) Development of regulatory objectives. 3) Determination of relationships among industry participants. 4) Clear specification of the role of PEMEX in the industry. 5) Definition of the functions of the Regulatory authority. 6) Creation of a transition regime. In parallel with the development of the substantive legal framework, the law of the Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE) was also enacted by Congress in October 1995 to strength the institutional framework and implement the legal changes. This law defines the CRE as an agency of the Energy Ministry with technical, operational, and budgetary autonomy, and responsibility for implementing natural gas industry regulation. (Author)

  4. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume...... but are also essential for a number of physiological processes such as proliferation, controlled cell death, migration and endocrinology. The thesis have been focusing on two Channels, namely the swelling activated Cl- channel (ICl, swell) and the transient receptor potential Vanilloid (TRPV4) channel. I: Cl......- serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...

  5. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF FLUX REGULATION THROUGH HIERARCHICAL REGULATION ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eunen, Karen; Rossell, Sergio; Bouwman, Jildau; Westerhoff, Hans V.; Bakker, Barbara M.; Jameson, D; Verma, M; Westerhoff, HV

    2011-01-01

    Regulation analysis is a methodology that quantifies to what extent a change in the flux through a metabolic pathway is regulated by either gene expression or metabolism. Two extensions to regulation analysis were developed over the past years: (i) the regulation of V(max) can be dissected into the

  6. Quantitative analysis of flux regulation through hierarchical regulation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eunen, K. van; Rossell, S.; Bouwman, J.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Bakker, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Regulation analysis is a methodology that quantifies to what extent a change in the flux through a metabolic pathway is regulated by either gene expression or metabolism. Two extensions to regulation analysis were developed over the past years: (i) the regulation of Vmax can be dissected into the

  7. The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durosinmi, Brenda Braxton

    2011-01-01

    The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations Since 1974 Federal regulations have governed the use of human subjects in biomedical and social science research. The regulations are known as the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, and often referred to as the "Common Rule" because 18 Federal…

  8. Public regulators and CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The social licence to operate (SLO) concept is little developed in the academic literature so far. Deployment of the term was made by the United National (UN) Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights and the UN ‘Protect, Respect and Remedy’ Framework, which apply SLO as an argument...... for responsible business conduct, connecting to social expectations and bridging to public regulation. This UN guidance has had a significant bearing on how public regulators seek to influence business conduct beyond Human Rights to broader Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) concerns. Drawing on examples...

  9. Collaborative Tax Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This article shows a new form of regulation within a tax administration where tax administrators abate tax evasion by nudging and motivating consumers to only purchase services from tax compliant businesses. This indirectly closes or forces tax evading businesses to change their practices, because...... stakeholders, i.e. the consumers, in the regulatory craft. The study is based on a qualitative methodology and draws on a unique case of regulation in the cleaning sector. This sector is at high risk of tax evasion and human exploitation of vulnerable workers operating in the informal economy. The article has...

  10. Public regulators and CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2016-01-01

    of such public regulatory governance, this article explores and explains developments towards a juridification of CSR entailing efforts by public regulators to reach beyond jurisdictional and territorial limitations of conventional public law to address adverse effects of transnational economic activity. Through...... analysis of an expansion of law into the normative framing of what constitutes responsible business conduct, we demonstrate a process of juridification entailing a legal framing of social expectations of companies, a proliferation of law into the field of business ethics, and an increased regulation by law...

  11. Nuclear regulations and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Antonio A.

    2001-01-01

    After an historical overview of the nuclear regulation system in Argentina a description is made of the country's Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) and of its regulation and control functions. Its organic structure is also outlined. A detailed report is given of the environmental monitoring activities in the sites of the operating Argentine nuclear power plants as well as those of the nuclear research centres. A special reference is made of the monitoring of the relevant uranium mining districts in Argentina. The radon determination in houses of several regions of the country is also mentioned

  12. Nuclear regulation and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear regulation and safety are discussed from the standpoint of a hypothetical country that is in the process of introducing a nuclear power industry and setting up a regulatory system. The national policy is assumed to be in favor of nuclear power. The regulators will have responsibility for economic, reliable electric production as well as for safety. Reactor safety is divided into three parts: shut it down, keep it covered, take out the afterheat. Emergency plans also have to be provided. Ways of keeping the core covered with water are discussed

  13. Regulated underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This guidance package is designed to assist DOE Field operations by providing thorough guidance on the underground storage tank (UST) regulations. [40 CFR 280]. The guidance uses tables, flowcharts, and checklists to provide a ''roadmap'' for DOE staff who are responsible for supervising UST operations. This package is tailored to address the issues facing DOE facilities. DOE staff should use this guidance as: An overview of the regulations for UST installation and operation; a comprehensive step-by-step guidance for the process of owning and operating an UST, from installation to closure; and a quick, ready-reference guide for any specific topic concerning UST ownership or operation

  14. Ketamine and international regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yanhui; Tang, Yi-Lang; Hao, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Ketamine is an anesthetic commonly used in low-income countries and has recently been shown to be effective for treatment-resistant depression. However, the illicit manufacturing, trafficking, and nonmedical use of ketamine are increasing globally, and its illicit use poses major public health challenges in many countries. To review the nonmedical use of ketamine in selected countries and its regulatory control. We conducted a review of literature identified from searches of the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (1979-2016) and PubMed databases, supplemented by additional references identified by the authors. Special attention was given to the regulation of ketamine. Illicit manufacturing, trafficking, and use of ketamine appear to have begun on a large scale in several Asian nations, and it has subsequently spread to other regions. Regulations governing availability of ketamine vary across countries, but there is a clear trend toward tighter regulations. As nonmedical use of ketamine and its harmful consequences have worsened globally, stricter controls are necessary. Appropriate regulation of ketamine is important for international efforts to control ketamine's cross-border trafficking and its nonmedical use.

  15. Federal Gasoline Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Air Act requires EPA to regulate fuels and fuel additives for use in mobile sources if such fuel, fuel additive or any emission products causes or contributes to air or water pollution that may endanger the public health or welfare.

  16. Emotion regulation during isolation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Šolcová, Iva

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, Suppl. 1 (2012) ISSN 0020-7594. [International Congress of Psychology /30./. 22.07.2012-27.07.2012, Cape Town] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2226 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : emotion regulation * isolation * Mars500 Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  17. Legislation and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the legislative and regulatory framework, regulatory body and responsibility of the license holder

  18. Legislation and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the legislative and regulatory framework, regulatory body and responsibility of the license holder.

  19. Regulations in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    On the occasion of the twenty fifth anniversary of the Dutch Society for Radiation Protection, a symposium was held about Regulations in Radiation Protection. The program consisted of six contributions of which four are included in this publication. The posters presented are published in NVS-nieuws, 1985, vol. 11(5). (G.J.P.)

  20. Nuclear safety regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Departmental Rules and The Safety Guides were issued by the NNSA in 1998. The NNSA performed the activities of propagation and implementation of nuclear safety regulations at QTNPP in order to improve the nuclear safety culture of operating organization and construct and contract organizations

  1. Regulation under Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabel, Charles; Herrigel, Gary; Hull Kristensen, Peer

    2017-01-01

    generation of the implicated components or installations are updated accordingly. In this essay we develop these arguments and look closely at changes in the Norwegian offshore oil and gas industry and its regulator, the Petroleum Safety Authority to better understand the coevolution of vertically...

  2. Nondissipative optimum charge regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, R.; Vitebsky, J. N.

    1970-01-01

    Optimum charge regulator provides constant level charge/discharge control of storage batteries. Basic power transfer and control is performed by solar panel coupled to battery through power switching circuit. Optimum controller senses battery current and modifies duty cycle of switching circuit to maximize current available to battery.

  3. Vehicle recycling regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla

    2007-01-01

    The number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in the EU is increasing continously. Around 75 percent of an ELV are recyclable metals. The forecast growth in the number of ELVs calls for regulation that aims to minimise the environmental impact of a car. Using Denmark as an example, this article...

  4. Regulating nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    When Parliament passed the Atomic Energy Control Act in 1946, it erected the framework for nuclear safety in Canada. Under the Act, the government created the Atomic Energy Control Board and gave it the authority to make and enforce regulations governing every aspect of nuclear power production and use in this country. The Act gives the Control Board the flexibility to amend its regulations to adapt to changes in technology, health and safety standards, co-operative agreements with provincial agencies and policy regarding trade in nuclear materials. This flexibility has allowed the Control Board to successfully regulate the nuclear industry for more than 40 years. Its mission statement 'to ensure that the use of nuclear energy in Canada does not pose undue risk to health, safety, security and the environment' concisely states the Control Board's primary objective. The Atomic Energy Control Board regulates all aspects of nuclear energy in Canada to ensure there is no undue risk to health, safety, security or the environment. It does this through a multi-stage licensing process

  5. Metabolic regulation of yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiechter, A.

    1982-12-01

    Metabolic regulation which is based on endogeneous and exogeneous process variables which may act constantly or time dependently on the living cell is discussed. The observed phenomena of the regulation are the result of physical, chemical, and biological parameters. These parameters are identified. Ethanol is accumulated as an intermediate product and the synthesis of biomass is reduced. This regulatory effect of glucose is used for the aerobic production of ethanol. Very high production rates are thereby obtained. Understanding of the regulation mechanism of the glucose effect has improved. In addition to catabolite repression, several other mechanisms of enzyme regulation have been described, that are mostly governed by exogeneous factors. Glucose also affects the control of respiration in a third class of yeasts which are unable to make use of ethanol as a substrate for growth. This is due to the lack of any anaplerotic activity. As a consequence, diauxic growth behavior is reduced to a one-stage growth with a drastically reduced cell yield. The pulse chemostat technique, a systematic approach for medium design is developed and medium supplements that are essential for metabolic control are identified.

  6. Voltage regulating circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    A voltage regulating circuit comprising a rectifier (2) for receiving an AC voltage (Vmains) and for generating a rectified AC voltage (vrec), and a capacitor (3) connected in parallel with said rectified AC voltage for providing a DC voltage (VDC) over a load (5), characterized by a unidirectional

  7. Maintenance and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, R.

    1984-01-01

    Description of the main regulations concerning the processes tied with maintenance and in service supervision of the pressure vessels in classical or nuclear power plants or of their accessories (essentially in order to fix the time-table of the hydraulic test procedures and the inspection chronology [fr

  8. Allosteric Regulation of Proteins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 1. Allosteric Regulation of Proteins: A Historical Perspective on the Development of Concepts and Techniques. General Article Volume 22 Issue 1 January 2017 pp 37-50 ...

  9. Optimal Regulation of Lumpy Investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, G.; Broer, D.P.

    2012-01-01

    When a monopolist has discretion over the timing of infrastructure investments, regulation of post-investment prices interferes with incentivizing socially optimal investment timing. In a model of regulated lumpy investment under uncertainty, we study regulation when the regulator can condition

  10. Markets, religion, regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Most recent scholarship on moral economies or religious markets argues for the compatibility of economies/markets and religious practices in particular national or regional contexts. However, over the last couple of decades or so religious markets have entered a new phase characterized by new forms...... of regulation, certification and standardization on a global scale. Building on research on global kosher (a Hebrew term meaning “fit” or “proper”), halal (an Arabic word that literally means “permissible” or “lawful”) and Hindu vegetarianism this paper argues that these economies or markets to a large extent...... are conditioned by and themselves condition forms of transnational governmentality, that is, new and often overlapping practices of government and grassroots politics. I explore religious economies and markets at three interrelated levels of the social scale: state and non-state regulation, the marketplace...

  11. Environmental considerations and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Methods used to control the radiological impact of the nuclear fuel cycle are described. This control is exercised through the application of a series of federal laws and regulations that are used as the basis for licensing nuclear facilities. The control is exercised more directly by the use of radwaste treatment equipment at the nuclear facilities to limit the release of radioactive materials. Federal laws and regulations are summarized and their applications in licensing actions are discussed. Radiological doses from materials released from licensed facilities are compared with doses from natural background. A series of cost/benefit engineering surveys are being made to determine the cost and effectiveness of radwaste systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from model fuel cycle facilities and to determine the benefits in terms of reduction in dose commitment to individuals and populations in surrounding areas

  12. Transients: The regulator's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheron, B.W.; Speis, T.P.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter attempts to clarify the basis for the regulator's concerns for transient events. Transients are defined as both anticipated operational occurrences and postulated accidents. Recent operational experience, supplemented by improved probabilistic risk analysis methods, has demonstrated that non-LOCA transient events can be significant contributors to overall risk. Topics considered include lessons learned from events and issues, the regulations governing plant transients, multiple failures, different failure frequencies, operator errors, and public pressure. It is concluded that the formation of Owners Groups and Regulatory Response Groups within the owners groups are positive signs of the industry's concern for safety and responsible dealing with the issues affecting both the US NRC and the industry

  13. The regulator's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norrby, S.

    1997-01-01

    Recommendations on general safety objectives and good practices related to radioactive waste management are given by international organisations such as the OECD/NEA and the IAEA. Moreover, international conventions and other supranational legal instruments, such as EU directives, lay down requirements on the safe management of radioactive waste. The implementer of the system for waste management and disposal and the regulator will have different roles. The responsibility for the management and disposal of radioactive waste is with the implementer, who has taken over that responsibility from the generator of the waste. The regulator's responsibility is to define safety and radiation protection requirements, to issue guidance on safety assessment methodology and documentation, to review the implementer's safety assessments as a basis for licensing of waste management and disposal activities and facilities and to inspect and review construction and operation of nuclear facilities to ensure compliance with licensing conditions. (R.P.)

  14. Probiotics and Appetite Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Anne Toksvig

    resistance and blood lipid profile among others. Probiotics which are health promoting bacteria can potentially be used to affect the GM and thereby change metabolic outcomes of the host. Animal studies have shown associations between intake of probiotics and appetite regulation, but currently no human...... studies have investigated this effect. Supplementation with different probiotic strains have been shown to have an effect on blood lipid profiles in both animals and humans and the mechanisms behind have been studied in vitro and in rodents. The aim of the present thesis was to examine in an ex vivo...... intestine, in an animal study and in two human studies the effect of the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei L. casei W8 (W8) on appetite regulation, blood lipids and blood fatty acids. In addition, it was investigated if W8 had an effect on the fecal microbiota of the human...

  15. Regulation of Meiotic Recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory p. Copenhaver

    2011-11-09

    Meiotic recombination results in the heritable rearrangement of DNA, primarily through reciprocal exchange between homologous chromosome or gene conversion. In plants these events are critical for ensuring proper chromosome segregation, facilitating DNA repair and providing a basis for genetic diversity. Understanding this fundamental biological mechanism will directly facilitate trait mapping, conventional plant breeding, and development of genetic engineering techniques that will help support the responsible production and conversion of renewable resources for fuels, chemicals, and the conservation of energy (1-3). Substantial progress has been made in understanding the basal recombination machinery, much of which is conserved in organisms as diverse as yeast, plants and mammals (4, 5). Significantly less is known about the factors that regulate how often and where that basal machinery acts on higher eukaryotic chromosomes. One important mechanism for regulating the frequency and distribution of meiotic recombination is crossover interference - or the ability of one recombination event to influence nearby events. The MUS81 gene is thought to play an important role in regulating the influence of interference on crossing over. The immediate goals of this project are to use reverse genetics to identify mutants in two putative MUS81 homologs in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, characterize those mutants and initiate a novel forward genetic screen for additional regulators of meiotic recombination. The long-term goal of the project is to understand how meiotic recombination is regulated in higher eukaryotes with an emphasis on the molecular basis of crossover interference. The ability to monitor recombination in all four meiotic products (tetrad analysis) has been a powerful tool in the arsenal of yeast geneticists. Previously, the qrt mutant of Arabidopsis, which causes the four pollen products of male meiosis to remain attached, was developed as a facile system

  16. German seismic regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danisch, Ruediger

    2002-01-01

    Rules and regulations for seismic design in Germany cover the following: seismic design of conventional buildings; and seismic design of nuclear facilities. Safety criteria for NPPs, accident guidelines, and guidelines for PWRs as well as safety standards are cited. Safety standards concerned with NPPs seismic design include basic principles, soil analysis, design of building structures, design of mechanical and electrical components, seismic instrumentation, and measures to be undertaken after the earthquake

  17. Regulation and the Marketplace

    OpenAIRE

    Shyam Sunder; Michael Maier; Karim Jamal

    2004-01-01

    Under what conditions is government regulation better at protecting market participants than private, evolving, market-driven protections? An intriguing answer to that question emerges if we examine a relatively unregulated area of market participant protection: e-commerce privacy. In the United States, the privacy of participants engaged in e-commerce is largely unregulated by government; instead, many commercial websites contract with third parties to establish privacy protection codes and ...

  18. The regulation of hunting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildtrup, Jens; Jensen, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a tax/subsidy on hunters based on game population. The tax/subsidy is the difference between actual and optimal population multiplied by an individual, variable tax rate. The tax rate is, among other things, based on the difference between the marginal value of the game popula...... population to the hunter and the regulator and differences in user costs of the population. The paper shows that the population tax/subsidy secures a first-best optimum....

  19. Human telomerase activity regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Wojtyla, Aneta; Gladych, Marta; Rubis, Blazej

    2010-01-01

    Telomerase has been recognized as a relevant factor distinguishing cancer cells from normal cells. Thus, it has become a very promising target for anticancer therapy. The cell proliferative potential can be limited by replication end problem, due to telomeres shortening, which is overcome in cancer cells by telomerase activity or by alternative telomeres lengthening (ALT) mechanism. However, this multisubunit enzymatic complex can be regulated at various levels, including expression control b...

  20. Improving CS regulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesse, R.J.; Scheer, R.M.; Marasco, A.L.; Furey, R.

    1980-10-01

    President Carter issued Executive Order 12044 (3/28/78) that required all Federal agencies to distinguish between significant and insignificant regulations, and to determine whether a regulation will result in major impacts. This study gathered information on the impact of the order and the guidelines on the Office of Conservation and Solar Energy (CS) regulatory practices, investigated problems encountered by the CS staff when implementing the order and guidelines, and recommended solutions to resolve these problems. Major tasks accomplished and discussed are: (1) legislation, Executive Orders, and DOE Memoranda concerning Federal administrative procedures relevant to the development and analysis of regulations within CS reviewed; (2) relevant DOE Orders and Memoranda analyzed and key DOE and CS staff interviewed in order to accurately describe the current CS regulatory process; (3) DOE staff from the Office of the General Counsel, the Office of Policy and Evaluation, the Office of the Environment, and the Office of the Secretary interviewed to explore issues and problems encountered with current CS regulatory practices; (4) the regulatory processes at five other Federal agencies reviewed in order to see how other agencies have approached the regulatory process, dealt with specific regulatory problems, and responded to the Executive Order; and (5) based on the results of the preceding four tasks, recommendations for potential solutions to the CS regulatory problems developed. (MCW)

  1. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the m...

  2. Whither tobacco product regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Hammond, David; Gartner, Coral

    2012-03-01

    Despite decades of industry innovation and regulatory efforts, the harmfulness of conventional cigarettes has not changed. There are several pitfalls in this area, including the long time lag before health impacts of product regulatory changes become apparent, the danger of consumers deriving false reassurance of lesser harm in the interim period, the lack of relevant expertise and the lack of an internationally agreed and evidence-based strategic approach. Articles 9 and 10 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide the potential for such a global strategy, and knowledge and research has increased significantly over recent years. However, there are huge opportunity costs in implementing product disclosure and regulatory strategies: most national regulators have very limited human and financial resources, which should be focused on other evidence-based tobacco control interventions. We believe therefore that it is now time to abandon the notion of safe or safer cigarettes while moving consumers towards cleaner nicotine products as soon as possible. In parallel to this, we recommend a number of other strategies be implemented including: reducing the appeal of all tobacco products, forbidding new tobacco products or brand variants being marketed without evidence of reduced harm, appeal or addictiveness, and developing a tobacco industry resourced, but industry independent, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control global repository to assist national regulators in understanding and regulating the products on their markets.

  3. Nuclear Safety Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novosel, N.; Prah, M.

    2008-01-01

    Beside new Ordinance on the control of nuclear material and special equipment ('Official Gazette' No. 15/08), from 2006 State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) adopted Ordinance on performing nuclear activities ('Official Gazette' No. 74/06) and Ordinance on special requirements which expert organizations must fulfil in order to perform certain activities in the field of nuclear safety ('Official Gazette' No. 74/06), based on Nuclear Safety Act ('Official Gazette' No. 173/03). The Ordinance on performing nuclear activities regulates the procedure of notification of the intent to perform nuclear activities, submitting the application for the issue of a licence to perform nuclear activities, and the procedure for issuing decisions on granting a licence to perform a nuclear activity. The Ordinance also regulates the content of the forms for notification of the intent to perform nuclear activities, as well as of the application for the issue of a licence to perform the nuclear activity and the method of keeping the register of nuclear activities. According to the Nuclear Safety Act, nuclear activities are the production, processing, use, storage, disposal, transport, import, export, possession or other handling of nuclear material or specified equipment. The Ordinance on special requirements which expert organizations must fulfil in order to perform certain activities in the field of nuclear safety regulates these mentioned conditions, whereas compliance is established by a decision passed by the SONS. Special requirements which expert organizations must fulfil in order to perform certain activities in the field of nuclear safety are organizational, technical, technological conditions and established system of quality assurance. In 2007, State Office for Nuclear Safety finalized the text of new Ordinance on conditions for nuclear safety and protection with regard to the siting, design, construction, use and decommissioning of a facility in which a nuclear activity is

  4. New Nuclear Safety Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novosel, N.; Prah, M.; Cizmek, A.

    2008-01-01

    Beside new Ordinance on the control of nuclear material and special equipment (Official Gazette No. 15/08), from 2006 State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) adopted Ordinance on performing nuclear activities (Official Gazette No. 74/06) and Ordinance on special conditions for individual activities to be performed by expert organizations which perform activities in the area of nuclear safety (Official Gazette No. 74/06), based on Nuclear Safety Act (Official Gazette No. 173/03). The Ordinance on performing nuclear activities regulates the procedure of announcing the intention to perform nuclear activity, submitting an application for the issue of a license to perform nuclear activity, and the procedure for adoption a decision on issuing a nuclear activity license. The Ordinance also regulates the contents of the application form for the announcement of the intention to perform nuclear activity, as well as of the application for the issue of a nuclear activity license and the method of keeping a nuclear activity register. The Ordinance on special conditions for individual activities to be performed by expert organizations which perform activities in the area of nuclear safety regulates these mentioned conditions, whereas compliance is established by a decision passed by the SONS. Special conditions for individual activities to be performed by expert organizations which perform activities in the area of nuclear safety are organizational, technical, technological conditions and established system of quality assurance. In 2007, SONS finalized the text of new Ordinance on nuclear safety and protection conditions for location, design, construction, operation and decommissioning of facility in which nuclear activity is performed. This Ordinance regulates nuclear safety and protection conditions for location, design, construction, operation and decommissioning of facility in which nuclear activity is performed. This Ordinance defines facilities in which nuclear activity is

  5. The international radioactive transportation regulations: A model for national regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Rawl, R.R.

    1990-06-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Series No. 6 (herein after denoted as the ''International Regulations'') serve as the model for the regulations for individual countries and international modal organizations controlling the packaging and transportation of radioactive materials. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background and history of the International Regulations, the general principles behind the requirements of the International Regulations, the structure and general contents of the latest edition of the International Regulations, and the roles of various international bodies in the development and implementation of the International Regulations and the current status of regulatory and supportive document development at both the international and domestic level. This review will provide a basis for users and potential users to better understand the source and application of the International Regulations. 1 tab

  6. Molecular identification of differentially regulated genes in the hydrothermal-vent species Bathymodiolus thermophilus and Paralvinella pandorae in response to temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shillito Bruce

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydrothermal vents and cold seeps represent oases of life in the deep-sea environment, but are also characterized by challenging physical and chemical conditions. The effect of temperature fluctuations on vent organisms in their habitat has not been well explored, in particular at a molecular level, most gene expression studies being conducted on coastal marine species. In order to better understand the response of hydrothermal organisms to different temperature regimes, differentially expressed genes (obtained by a subtractive suppression hybridization approach were identified in the mussel Bathymodiolus thermophilus and the annelid Paralvinella pandorae irlandei to characterize the physiological processes involved when animals are subjected to long term exposure (2 days at two contrasting temperatures (10° versus 20°C, while maintained at in situ pressures. To avoid a potential effect of pressure, the experimental animals were initially thermally acclimated for 24 hours in a pressurized vessel. Results For each species, we produced two subtractive cDNA libraries (forward and reverse from sets of deep-sea mussels and annelids exposed together to a thermal challenge under pressure. RNA extracted from the gills, adductor muscle, mantle and foot tissue were used for B. thermophilus. For the annelid model, whole animals (small individuals were used. For each of the four libraries, we sequenced 200 clones, resulting in 78 and 83 unique sequences in mussels and annelids (about 20% of the sequencing effort, respectively, with only half of them corresponding to known genes. Real-time PCR was used to validate differentially expressed genes identified in the corresponding libraries. Strong expression variations have been observed for some specific genes such as the intracellular hemoglobin, the nidogen protein, and Rab7 in P. pandorae, and the SPARC protein, cyclophilin, foot protein and adhesive plaque protein in B. thermophilus

  7. Regulations for ionizing radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    General regulations and principles of radiation protection and safety are presented. In addition, the regulations for licensing and occupational and medical exposure as well as for safe transport of radioactive materials and wastes are given

  8. [Regulation of terpene metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes accomplishments over the past year on understanding of terpene synthesis in mint plants and sage. Specifically reported are the fractionation of 4-S-limonene synthetase, the enzyme responsible for the first committed step to monoterpene synthesis, along with isolation of the corresponding RNA and DNA cloning of its gene; the localization of the enzyme within the oil glands, regulation of transcription and translation of the synthetase, the pathway to camphor biosynthesis,a nd studies on the early stages and branch points of the isoprenoid pathway.

  9. Wiring regulations in brief

    CERN Document Server

    Tricker, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Tired of trawling through the Wiring Regs?Perplexed by Part P?Confused by cables, conductors and circuits?Then look no further! This handy guide provides an on-the-job reference source for Electricians, Designers, Service Engineers, Inspectors, Builders, Students, DIY enthusiastsTopic-based chapters link areas of working practice - such as cables, installations, testing and inspection, special locations - with the specifics of the Regulations themselves. This allows quick and easy identification of the official requirements relating to the situati

  10. Regulated functions and integrability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Gunčaga

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Properties of functions defined on a bounded closed interval, weaker than continuity, have been considered by many mathematicians. Functions having both sides limits at each point are called regulated and were considered by J. Dieudonné [2], D. Fraňková [3] and others (see for example S. Banach [1], S. Saks [8]. The main class of functions we deal with consists of piece-wise constant ones. These functions play a fundamental role in the integration theory which had been developed by Igor Kluvanek (see Š. Tkacik [9]. We present an outline of this theory.

  11. Nanomaterials: Regulation and Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Grieger, Khara Deanne; Baun, Anders

    2013-01-01

    , the Water Framework Directive, pharmaceuticals regulation, and the Novel Foods Regulation. Current regulation of nanomaterials entail three overall challenges: 1) limitations in regard to terminology and definitions of key terms such as a “substance,” “novel food,” etc.; 2) safety assessment requirements...

  12. Nuclear regulation - the Canadian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennekens, J.

    1981-09-01

    Although the Atomic Energy Control Board was established 35 years ago the basic philosophy of nuclear regulation in Canada and the underlying principles of the regulatory process remain essentially unchanged. This paper outlines the Canadian approach to nuclear regulation and explains in practical terms how the principles of regulation are applied. (author)

  13. The Regulation of Street Foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forkour, John Boulard; Samuelsen, Helle; Yeboah, Eric Henry

    2017-01-01

    the challenges and negotiating strategies of regulators of street-vended foods in Ghana and analyses the implication for their relationship with street food vendors. The paper reveals that regulators operate in a context of limited resources, leading to a general feeling of neglect. In coping, regulators adopt...

  14. A novel micromechanical flow regulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Toor, M.W.; van Toor, M.W.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Monsma, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    A new concept for a micromechanical flow regulator is presented. Regulation of the flow is achieved using variation of channel length instead of channel diameter. Several design concepts together with their application in fluidic systems are presented. A regulator for biomedical use, as a part of a

  15. Regulations and Procedures Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Lydia J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-07-25

    The purpose of the Regulations and Procedures Manual (RPM) is to provide LBNL personnel with a reference to University and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL or Laboratory) policies and regulations by outlining normal practices and answering most policy questions that arise in the day-to-day operations of Laboratory organizations. Much of the information in this manual has been condensed from detail provided in LBNL procedure manuals, Department of Energy (DOE) directives, and Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231. This manual is not intended, however, to replace any of those documents. RPM sections on personnel apply only to employees who are not represented by unions. Personnel policies pertaining to employees represented by unions may be found in their labor agreements. Questions concerning policy interpretation should be directed to the LBNL organization responsible for the particular policy. A link to the Managers Responsible for RPM Sections is available on the RPM home page. If it is not clear which organization is responsible for a policy, please contact Requirements Manager Lydia Young or the RPM Editor.

  16. Regulations and Procedures Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Lydia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-09-30

    The purpose of the Regulations and Procedures Manual (RPM) is to provide Laboratory personnel with a reference to University and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory policies and regulations by outlining the normal practices and answering most policy questions that arise in the day-to-day operations of Laboratory departments. Much of the information in this manual has been condensed from detail provided in Laboratory procedure manuals, Department of Energy (DOE) directives, and Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231. This manual is not intended, however, to replace any of those documents. The sections on personnel apply only to employees who are not represented by unions. Personnel policies pertaining to employees represented by unions may be found in their labor agreements. Questions concerning policy interpretation should be directed to the department responsible for the particular policy. A link to the Managers Responsible for RPM Sections is available on the RPM home page. If it is not clear which department should be called, please contact the Associate Laboratory Director of Operations.

  17. Strategisk compliance og regulering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühn Pedersen, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    Denne artikel introducerer strategisk compliance og påpeger dens samspil med klassiske og nyere former for reguleringer i digital værdiskabelse. Konteksten er den digitale økonomi, som vokser frem imellem den materielle økonomis bærepiller: Virksomheder og markeder, men består af en helt ny...... materialitet, som er det digitale univers og dets modsvarighed i nye krav til compliance. Den nye materialitet stiller nye krav, hvad angår digitale processer og transaktioner. Klassisk regulering, som aktører ikke selv kan ændre, støder på egenregulering, hvor aktørerne selv opsætter regler for at skabe...... digital værdi. Dette kalder på strategisk compliance. Med digitalisering er strategisk compliance sat på dagsordnen i reguleringsdebatten. Vi hævder, at regulering og egenregulering kan komme til at virke komplementært i det post-industrielle, digitaliserede samfund....

  18. [Regulation of terpene metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.

    1991-01-01

    During the last grant period, we have completed studies on the key pathways of monoterpene biosynthesis and catabolism in sage and peppermint, and have, by several lines of evidence, deciphered the rate-limiting step of each pathway. We have at least partially purified and characterized the relevant enzymes of each pathway. We have made a strong case, based on analytical, in vivo, and in vitro studies, that terpene accumulation depends upon the balance between biosynthesis and catabolism, and provided supporting evidence that these processes are developmentally-regulated and very closely associated with senescence of the oil glands. Oil gland ontogeny has been characterized at the ultrastructural level. We have exploited foliar-applied bioregulators to delay gland senescence, and have developed tissue explant and cell culture systems to study several elusive aspects of catabolism. We have isolated pure gland cell clusters and localized monoterpene biosynthesis and catabolism within these structures, and have used these preparations as starting materials for the purification to homogeneity of target regulatory'' enzymes. We have thus developed the necessary background knowledge, based on a firm understanding of enzymology, as well as the necessary experimental tools for studying the regulation of monoterpene metabolism at the molecular level. Furthermore, we are now in a position to extend our systematic approach to other terpenoid classes (C[sub 15]-C[sub 30]) produced by oil glands.

  19. Circadian rhythms regulate amelogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li; Seon, Yoon Ji; Mourão, Marcio A; Schnell, Santiago; Kim, Doohak; Harada, Hidemitsu; Papagerakis, Silvana; Papagerakis, Petros

    2013-07-01

    Ameloblasts, the cells responsible for making enamel, modify their morphological features in response to specialized functions necessary for synchronized ameloblast differentiation and enamel formation. Secretory and maturation ameloblasts are characterized by the expression of stage-specific genes which follows strictly controlled repetitive patterns. Circadian rhythms are recognized as key regulators of the development and diseases of many tissues including bone. Our aim was to gain novel insights on the role of clock genes in enamel formation and to explore the potential links between circadian rhythms and amelogenesis. Our data shows definitive evidence that the main clock genes (Bmal1, Clock, Per1 and Per2) oscillate in ameloblasts at regular circadian (24 h) intervals both at RNA and protein levels. This study also reveals that the two markers of ameloblast differentiation i.e. amelogenin (Amelx; a marker of secretory stage ameloblasts) and kallikrein-related peptidase 4 (Klk4, a marker of maturation stage ameloblasts) are downstream targets of clock genes. Both, Amelx and Klk4 show 24h oscillatory expression patterns and their expression levels are up-regulated after Bmal1 over-expression in HAT-7 ameloblast cells. Taken together, these data suggest that both the secretory and the maturation stages of amelogenesis might be under circadian control. Changes in clock gene expression patterns might result in significant alterations of enamel apposition and mineralization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Regulation of ATM induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.A.; Fang, Z.M.; Kearsley, J.H.; Lee, C.S.; Sarris, M.; De Murrell, D.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: ATM, the tumour suppressor protein mutated in ataxia-telangiectasia, is of pivotal importance in controlling the cells primary response to ionising radiation (IR) induced DNA damage. Mutations in ATM which reduce the level of the ATM protein and/or compromise ATM functions are known to give rise to radiosensitivity and defective cell cycle checkpoint control. In response to DNA damage ATM kinase is rapidly activated and initiates downstream signalling to cell cycle control molecules including p53. To investigate additional mechanisms of ATM control we have employed ATM antisense expression in cultured cells, western analyses and immunohistochemistry in situ. We report that ATM can be up-regulated up to 10-fold following exposure to low levels of ionising radiation. ATM radiation-induction was radiation dose dependent while the rapidity of the response indicates a post translational pathway. The concurrent time frames for the radiation-induction of ATM levels and the activation of ATM kinase activity appear to be complimentary in boosting ATM's protective response to IR induced DNA damage, especially in ATM 'low expressing' systems. We also provide the first report of ATM misregulation in 2 cancer patients, indicating that ATM is not only radio-protective but has possible implications in cancer, particularly breast cancer. These results have particular importance in defining the regulation of the ATM protein as an: adaptive radio-response; radio-prognostic market in tumours and normal tissue, and breast cancer marker

  1. Is self-regulation possible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkenbus, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's increasingly prescriptive regulation of the nuclear industry can have deleterious effects, perhaps the most serious being the shift in responsibility for safety from the utility to the NRC. Several factors account for this type of regulation including the nature and structure of the nuclear industry, public opinion and bureaucratic incentives, and the nature of the technology itself. The opportunities to create heightened industry self-regulation (performance-based regulation) deserve further examination. The key to self-regulation is to structure incentives so that it is clearly within the nuclear utilities' interests to build and operate nuclear power facilities in the safest manner possible. 27 references

  2. Regulation as delegation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Bar-Gill

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to consider the conception of reverse delegation when the government acts a principal and an individual ndash an agent from the point of view of behavioral PrincipalAgent Theory. Methods statistical method sociological polling. Results In diverse areas ndash from retirement savings to consumer credit to prescription drug use to fuel economy and energy efficiency rules to tobacco consumption to food and beverage consumption ndash government makes decisions for us or endeavors to help us make better decisions thus serving as our agent. From the point of view of PrincipalAgent Theory and behavioral PrincipalAgent Theory a great deal of modern regulation can be helpfully evaluated as a hypothetical delegation. Shifting from personal decisions to public goods problems the authors view the idea of reverse delegation with the government as principal and the individuals as agents. They show that the essence of delegation changes depending on the context. The article describes conditions under which various approaches will make sense. Scientific novelty the paper is devoted to the foreign experience of regulation through delegation by the example of a country with developed market economy the USA. It shows the prospects of such approach in solving both the public and the private tasks. Application of PrincipalAgent Theory and behavioral PrincipalAgent Theory is viewed to distinguish between such types of hypothetical delegation as information default rules incentives precommitments mandates and prohibitions. The article considers the benefits and costs of delegation and circumstances in which one or another approach makes sense. Practical significance PrincipalAgent Theory is widely used in economics and political science and can serve as a convenient tool to consider the optimal scale and essence of the assistance rendered to us by the government as our agent. The paper is of interest for the Russian legal science as the institution of

  3. Current environmental regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martz, M.K.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of the Federal environmental statutes and implementation regulations is provided, including the National Environmental Policy Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, the Toxic Substances Control Act, the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, and the Endangered Species Act. Recent developments which may have a direct impact on waste repository siting and management activities include: final promulgation of National Emission Standards for hazardous Air Pollutants for radionuclides, the DOE-EPA memorandum of understanding which brings mixed radioactive and chemical waste under the requirements of RCRA, and the proposed designation of additional sole source aquifers

  4. Meat and Appetite Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Ursula Nana

    effects of new formulations of pork products. Different strategies can be applied to potentially enhance the satiating properties of pork. Processed meat products such as meatballs can serve as a matrix for the addition of fiber ingredients. Based on their high protein and fiber contents, high......-fibre meatballs could provide a dual mechanistic action that would lead to greater satiety. For whole muscles, cooking is known to induce structural, physical and chemical changes of the meat proteins, which in turn may affect protein digestibility and potentially affect satiety. The overall aim of this Ph......D thesis was to investigate the effects of fiber addition to meatballs and the effects of cooking methods of pork on appetite regulation. The PhD thesis is based on three human meal test studies and one analytical study related to the characteristics of fiber meat products. In paper I, the objective...

  5. From research to regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flury-Herard, A.

    2000-01-01

    from the beginning of nuclear energy utilization, the necessity arose to take into account the knowledge progress in order to give the best scientific base possible to the regulation protecting workers and the public against the potentially injurious effects of ionizing radiations. These next years, the experts should make their benefit of numerous new results with the conjunction of ultra precise experimental irradiation techniques and to global approach of the genome. The United Nations scientific committee on effect of atomic radiation (U.N.S.C.E.A.R.) plays an essential part in the analysis and the synthesis of the most recent researches to evaluate more precisely, these effects, especially for low radiations doses. (N.C.)

  6. Higher regulators, algebraic

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Spencer J

    2000-01-01

    This book is the long-awaited publication of the famous Irvine lectures. Delivered in 1978 at the University of California at Irvine, these lectures turned out to be an entry point to several intimately-connected new branches of arithmetic algebraic geometry, such as regulators and special values of L-functions of algebraic varieties, explicit formulas for them in terms of polylogarithms, the theory of algebraic cycles, and eventually the general theory of mixed motives which unifies and underlies all of the above (and much more). In the 20 years since, the importance of Bloch's lectures has not diminished. A lucky group of people working in the above areas had the good fortune to possess a copy of old typewritten notes of these lectures. Now everyone can have their own copy of this classic work.

  7. NRC's license renewal regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akstulewicz, Francis

    1991-01-01

    In order to provide for the continuity of the current generation of nuclear power plant operating licenses and at the same time ensure the health and safety of the public, and the quality of the environment, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established a goal of developing and issuing regulations and regulatory guidance for license renewal in the early 1990s. This paper will discuss some of those activities underway to achieve this goal. More specifically, this paper will discuss the Commission's regulatory philosophy for license renewal and the two major license renewal rule makings currently underway. The first is the development of a new Part 54 to address procedural and technical requirements for license renewal; the second is a revision to existing Part 51 to exclude environmental issues and impacts from consideration during the license renewal process. (author)

  8. NCAM regulates cell motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prag, Søren; Lepekhin, Eugene A; Kolkova, Kateryna

    2002-01-01

    Cell migration is required during development of the nervous system. The regulatory mechanisms for this process, however, are poorly elucidated. We show here that expression of or exposure to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) strongly affected the motile behaviour of glioma cells...... independently of homophilic NCAM interactions. Expression of the transmembrane 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (NCAM-140) caused a significant reduction in cellular motility, probably through interference with factors regulating cellular attachment, as NCAM-140-expressing cells exhibited a decreased attachment...... to a fibronectin substratum compared with NCAM-negative cells. Ectopic expression of the cytoplasmic part of NCAM-140 also inhibited cell motility, presumably via the non-receptor tyrosine kinase p59(fyn) with which NCAM-140 interacts. Furthermore, we showed that the extracellular part of NCAM acted as a paracrine...

  9. [Regulation of terpene metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.

    1989-11-09

    Terpenoid oils, resins, and waxes from plants are important renewable resources. The objective of this project is to understand the regulation of terpenoid metabolism using the monoterpenes (C[sub 10]) as a model. The pathways of monoterpene biosynthesis and catabolism have been established, and the relevant enzymes characterized. Developmental studies relating enzyme levels to terpene accumulation within the oil gland sites of synthesis, and work with bioregulators, indicate that monoterpene production is controlled by terpene cyclases, the enzymes catalyzing the first step of the monoterpene pathway. As the leaf oil glands mature, cyclase levels decline and monoterpene biosynthesis ceases. Yield then decreases as the monoterpenes undergo catabolism by a process involving conversion to a glycoside and transport from the leaf glands to the root. At this site, the terpenoid is oxidatively degraded to acetate that is recycled into other lipid metabolites. During the transition from terpene biosynthesis to catabolism, the oil glands undergo dramatic ultrastructural modification. Degradation of the producing cells results in mixing of previously compartmentized monoterpenes with the catabolic enzymes, ultimately leading to yield decline. This regulatory model is being applied to the formation of other terpenoid classes (C[sub 15] C[sub 20], C[sub 30], C[sub 40]) within the oil glands. Preliminary investigations on the formation of sesquiterpenes (C[sub 15]) suggest that the corresponding cyclases may play a lesser role in determining yield of these products, but that compartmentation effects are important. From these studies, a comprehensive scheme for the regulation of terpene metabolism is being constructed. Results from this project wail have important consequences for the yield and composition of terpenoid natural products that can be made available for industrial exploitation.

  10. Branded prescription drug fee. Final regulations, temporary regulations, and removal of temporary regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-28

    This document contains final regulations that provide guidance on the annual fee imposed on covered entities engaged in the business of manufacturing or importing branded prescription drugs. This fee was enacted by section 9008 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by section 1404 of the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010. This document also withdraws the Branded Prescription Drug Fee temporary regulations and contains new temporary regulations regarding the definition of controlled group that apply beginning on January 1, 2015. The final regulations and the new temporary regulations affect persons engaged in the business of manufacturing or importing certain branded prescription drugs. The text of the temporary regulations in this document also serves as the text of proposed regulations set forth in a notice of proposed rulemaking (REG-123286-14) on this subject in the Proposed Rules section in this issue of the Federal Register.

  11. Regulation of the power sector

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of the Power Sector is a unified, consistent and comprehensive treatment of the theories and practicalities of regulation in modern power-supply systems. The need for generation to occur at the time of use occasioned by the impracticality of large-scale electricity storage coupled with constant and often unpredictable changes in demand make electricity-supply systems large, dynamic and complex and their regulation a daunting task. Conceptually arranged in four parts, this book addresses both traditional regulatory frameworks and also liberalized and re-regulated environments. First, an introduction gives a full characterization of power supply including engineering, economic and regulatory viewpoints. The second part presents the fundamentals of regulation and the third looks at the regulation of particular components of the power sector in detail. Advanced topics and subjects still open or subject to dispute form the content of the fourth part. In a sector where regulatory design is the key driver...

  12. Age discrimination: the new Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Sprack, John

    2006-01-01

    A summary of the principal changes introduced by the Employment Equality (Age) Regulations 2006 as they came into effect in England and Wales. Extracts from the Regulations follow the commentary. Article by John Sprack (Barrister, part-time Chairman of Employment Tribunals and author of Tottel's Guide to the Age Discrimination Regulations 2006) published in Amicus Curiae – Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by ...

  13. Regulations for RA reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    Regulations for RA reactor operation are written in accordance with the legal regulations defined by the Law about radiation protection and related legal acts, as well as technical standards according to the IAEA recommendations. The contents of this book include: fundamental data about the reactor; legal regulations for reactor operation; organizational scheme for reactor operation; general and detailed instructions for operation, behaviour in the reactor building, performing experiments; operating rules for operation under steady state and accidental conditions [sr

  14. Banking regulation and market making

    OpenAIRE

    Cimon, David A.; Garriott, Corey

    2017-01-01

    We present a model of market makers subject to recent banking regulations: liquidity and capital constraints in the style of Basel III and a position limit in the style of the Volcker Rule. Regulation causes market makers to reduce their intermediation by refusing principal positions. However, it can improve the bid-ask spread because it induces new market makers to enter. Since market makers intermediate less, asset prices exhibit a liquidity premium. Costs of regulation can be assessed by m...

  15. Financial Private Regulation and Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    MILLER, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    This paper has been delivered within the context of the research project "Transnational Private Regulatory Regimes: Constitutional foundations and governance design". This paper considers the topic of private regulation and enforcement for internationally active financial services firms. The paper documents the following types of regulation and enforcement that involve significant private input: house rules, contracts, internal compliance, management-based regulation, private standard-sett...

  16. Thermal flow regulator of refrigerant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinskij, S.I.; Savchenko, A.G.; Suplin, V.Z.

    1988-01-01

    A thermal flow regulator of refrigerant for helium flow-type temperature-controlled cryostats based on controlling the channel hydraulic resistance due to variation of the flow density and viscosity during liquid helium transformation into the gaseous state. Behind the regulator both two-phase flow and a heated gas can be produced. The regulator resolution is (7-15)x10 -4 l/mW of liquid helium

  17. Electricity regulation and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, M. Teresa (Maria Teresa), 1951-; Garcia-Quevedo, Jose; Trujillo-Baute, Elisa

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to analyse the effect of electricity regulation on economic growth. Although the relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth has been extensively analysed in the empirical literature, this framework has not been used to estimate the effect of electricity regulation on economic growth. Understanding this effect is essential for the assessment of regulatory policy. Specifically, we assess the effects of two major areas of regulation, rene...

  18. Epigenetic regulation in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Elaine M; Gibney, Eileen R

    2013-07-01

    Research suggests that 65% of variation in obesity is genetic. However, much of the known genetic associations have little known function and their effect size small, thus the gene-environment interaction, including epigenetic influences on gene expression, is suggested to be an important factor in the susceptibilty to obesity. This review will explore the potential of epigenetic markers to influence expression of genes associated with obesity. Epigenetic changes in utero are known to have direct implications on the phenotype of the offspring. More recently work has focused on how such epigenetic changes continue to regulate risk of obesity from infancy through to adulthood. Work has shown that, for example, hypomethylation of the MC4 gene causes an increase in expression, and has a direct impact on appetite and intake, and thus influences risk of obesity. Similar influences are also seen in other aspects of obesity including inflammation and adiposity. Maternal diet during foetal development has many epigenetic implications, which affect the offspring's risk factors for obesity during childhood and adulthood, and even in subsequent generations. Genes associated with risk of obesity, are susceptible to epigenetic mutations, which have subsequent effects on disease mechanisms, such as appetite and impaired glucose and insulin tolerance.

  19. Challenges in Regulating Ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiippana, P.

    2016-01-01

    Finland has recent experience in regulating design, construction, commissioning and operation of nuclear facilities. Also decommissioning is topical as the research reactor will enter a decommissioning phase in the near future. From regulator’s point of view, the paper discusses potential challenges related to ageing management at the Finnish nuclear facilities throughout their lifetime. Based on the experience the most important decisions to ensure adequate provisions against adverse effects of various ageing phenomena and mechanisms are made much earlier than operation starts, namely during design, construction and manufacturing of systems, structures and components (SSC). Early consideration of ageing management resulting in good engineering including ageing-proof manufacturing and construction practices is of particular importance for new reactors. Elongated design lifetime of new reactors underlines the need of all available means to minimize progress of ageing beforehand and to create prerequisites for well-established condition monitoring and maintenance up to decommissioning. Furthermore, continuous research and development in order to understand various types of ageing and to detect degradation before SSC’s failure is expected as soon as a facility has been put in service. All these activities have to be supported by proper information and knowledge management in each phase of the facility’s life span. (author)

  20. [Ghrelin: beyond hunger regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milke García, Maria del Pilar

    2005-01-01

    Man ingests food to mitigate hunger (mediated by physiological and biochemical signals), satisfy appetite (subjective sensation) and because of psychosocial reasons. Satiation biomarkers (stop feeding) are gastric distention and hormones (CCK, GLP-1) and satiety biomarkers (induce feeding) are food-induced thermogenesis, body temperature, glycaemia and also hormones (insulin, leptin and ghrelin). Oxidative metabolism/body composition, tryptophan/serotonin and proinflammatory cytokines are also implicated on hunger physiology. At the present time, ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic with potential on hunger/body weight regulation. It is a neuropeptide (endogenous ligand for the GH secretagogue) recently isolated from the oxyntic mucosa and synthesized mainly in the stomach. Its blood concentration depends on diet, hyperglucemia and adiposity/leptin. It is secreted 1-2 hours preprandially and its concentration decreases drastically during the postprandium. Ghrelin acts on the lateral hypothalamus and theoretically inhibits proinflammatory cytokine secretion and antagonizes leptin. Ghrelin physiologically increases food intake and stimulates adipogenesis, gastrointestinal motility and gastric acid secretion, and has other hormonal and cardiovascular functions. Ghrelin blood concentration is reduced in massive obesity, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, polycystic ovary syndrome, acromegaly, hypogonadism, ageing, short bowel syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis; and increased in primary or secondary anorexia, starvation, chronic liver disease and celiac disease. Cerebral and peritoneal ghrelin administration (rats) and systemic administration (rats and healthy volunteers, cancer patients or patients on peritoneal dialysis) promotes food consumption and increases adiposity, of utmost importance in the treatment of patients with anorexia.

  1. Regulating the sharing economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Erickson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this introductory essay, we explore definitions of the ‘sharing economy’, a concept indicating both social (relational, communitarian and economic (allocative, profit-seeking aspects which appear to be in tension. We suggest combining the social and economic logics of the sharing economy to focus on the central features of network enabled, aggregated membership in a pool of offers and demands (for goods, services, creative expressions. This definition of the sharing economy distinguishes it from other related peer-to-peer and collaborative forms of production. Understanding the social and economic motivations for and implications of participating in the sharing economy is important to its regulation. Each of the papers in this special issue contributes to knowledge by linking the social and economic aspects of sharing economy practices to regulatory norms and mechanisms. We conclude this essay by suggesting future research to further clarify and render intelligible the sharing economy, not as a contradiction in terms but as an empirically observable realm of socio-economic activity.

  2. Between regulation and independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladoucette, Ph. de

    2007-01-01

    This article stresses, first, on the differences between electricity and gas in terms of storability and place of production before introducing the gas sector and its reorganization and re-structuration in the framework of energy markets deregulation. Then, it presents the actions carried out by the commission of energy regulation (CRE) intended to improve the operation of the gas market: improvement of transparency, incitation to invest in transportation infrastructures, organisation of the downstream market and development of regional gas markets. Since July 1, 2007, the opening of gas market is juridically and technically complete. The role of CRE is also to inform the consumers and to warrant a non-discriminatory access to infrastructures in a context of sound competition. On this point, the new situation is satisfactory but improvements are needed to increase the offer. The future objectives of CRE is to maintain a climate favorable to investments, to implement stable and efficient conditions of access to infrastructures and, finally, to regularly work at the European scale for the building up of a domestic gas market synonymous of security of supplies, sustainable development and competitiveness. (J.S.)

  3. Power-MOSFET Voltage Regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W. N.; Gray, O. E.

    1982-01-01

    Ninety-six parallel MOSFET devices with two-stage feedback circuit form a high-current dc voltage regulator that also acts as fully-on solid-state switch when fuel-cell out-put falls below regulated voltage. Ripple voltage is less than 20 mV, transient recovery time is less than 50 ms. Parallel MOSFET's act as high-current dc regulator and switch. Regulator can be used wherever large direct currents must be controlled. Can be applied to inverters, industrial furnaces photovoltaic solar generators, dc motors, and electric autos.

  4. Personality and Emotion Regulation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esti Hayu Purnamaningsih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The emotions has many important functions in our life such as in relation of interpersonal communication, and health. In interpersonal communicative function aimed to signal to other information about internal state. Emotions manifests in specific cognitive, behavioural, and physiological reactions, thus closely related to health. There is wide variety of ways for individuals to regulate their emotion. In this regard, there are two kinds of emotion regulation strategy; first Antecedent-focused emotion regulation consisting of situation selection, situation modification, attentional deployment, cognitive change and second, Response-focused emotion regulation consisting of suppression. The purpose of this research is to investigate personality factors relate with emotion regulation strategies. 339 students from Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Gadjah Mada were participating in this study and given The Big Five Personality Factors (Ramdhani, 2012, adaptation, and the modified version of the Emotion Regulation Scale was used, Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (John & Gross, 2004 which measure personality and emotion regulation respectively. Using multiple regression analysis, the study indicated that personality predicts emotion regulation strategies.

  5. Utility regulation and competition policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Colin

    2002-03-01

    Contents: 1. The New Electricity Trading Arrangements in England and Wales: A Review - David Currie, 2. A Critique of Rail Regulation - Dieter Helm, 3. Moving to a Competitive Market in Water - Colin Robinson, 4. The New Gas Trading Arrangements - George Yarrow, 5. A Review of Privatization and Regulation Experience in Britain - Irwin M. Stelzer, 6. Converging Communications: Implications for Regulation - Mark Armstrong, 7. Opening European Electricity and Gas Markets - Graham Shuttleworth, 8. Concurrency or Convergence? Competition and Regulation Under the Competition Act 1998 - Tom Sharpe QC, 9. Ten Years of European Merger Control - Paul Seabright. (Author)

  6. Drinking Water Contaminants -- Standards and Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Research Centers Contact Us Share Drinking Water Contaminants – Standards and Regulations EPA identifies contaminants to regulate ... other partners to implement these SDWA provisions. Regulated Contaminants National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWRs) - table of ...

  7. Choosing to regulate: does choice enhance craving regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobasser, Arian; Zeithamova, Dagmar; Pfeifer, Jennifer H

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Goal-directed behavior and lifelong well-being often depend on the ability to control appetitive motivations, such as cravings. Cognitive reappraisal is an effective way to modulate emotional states, including cravings, but is often studied under explicit instruction to regulate. Despite the strong prediction from Self-Determination Theory that choice should enhance task engagement and regulation success, little is known empirically about whether and how regulation is different when participants choose (vs are told) to exert control. To investigate how choice affects neural activity and regulation success, participants reappraised their responses to images of personally-craved foods while undergoing functional neuroimaging. Participants were either instructed to view or reappraise (‘no-choice’) or chose freely to view or reappraise (‘yes-choice’). Choice increased activity in the frontoparietal control network. We expected this activity would be associated with increased task engagement, resulting in better regulation success. However, contrary to this prediction, choice slightly reduced regulation success. Follow-up multivariate functional neuroimaging analyses indicated that choice likely disrupted allocation of limited cognitive resources during reappraisal. While unexpected, these results highlight the importance of studying upstream processes such as regulation choice, as they may affect the ability to regulate cravings and other emotional states. PMID:29462475

  8. Post-translational regulation enables robust p53 regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Jun; Chen, Kai-Yuan; Sayed, Ali H; Hencey, Brandon; Shen, Xiling

    2013-08-30

    The tumor suppressor protein p53 plays important roles in DNA damage repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Due to its critical functions, the level of p53 is tightly regulated by a negative feedback mechanism to increase its tolerance towards fluctuations and disturbances. Interestingly, the p53 level is controlled by post-translational regulation rather than transcriptional regulation in this feedback mechanism. We analyzed the dynamics of this feedback to understand whether post-translational regulation provides any advantages over transcriptional regulation in regard to disturbance rejection. When a disturbance happens, even though negative feedback reduces the steady-state error, it can cause a system to become less stable and transiently overshoots, which may erroneously trigger downstream reactions. Therefore, the system needs to balance the trade-off between steady-state and transient errors. Feedback control and adaptive estimation theories revealed that post-translational regulation achieves a better trade-off than transcriptional regulation, contributing to a more steady level of p53 under the influence of noise and disturbances. Furthermore, post-translational regulation enables cells to respond more promptly to stress conditions with consistent amplitude. However, for better disturbance rejection, the p53- Mdm2 negative feedback has to pay a price of higher stochastic noise. Our analyses suggest that the p53-Mdm2 feedback favors regulatory mechanisms that provide the optimal trade-offs for dynamic control.

  9. Constructing regulation and regulating for energy efficient construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shove, Elizabeth [Lancaster University (United Kingdom). Centre for the Study of Environmental Change

    1998-07-01

    This project considers the process of formulating energy-related building regulation in the light of the revisions to Part L (Conservation of Fuel and Power) of the Building Regulations for England and Wales. Details are given of the main objectives of the research, namely, the examination of the roles of the UK government, local government and pressure groups in shaping energy efficiency standards, the impacts of environmental regulations, the limits of energy-related regulation, environmental regulation of the building sector, and the features of energy related building control. This control is compared with current practice in other European countries. The methodology of the project involving the review of governmental documents and interviews is described. (UK)

  10. Regulation of electricity prices?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihok, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper author deals with the regulation of electricity prices in the Slovak Republic. Author contests the social policy of the government through doped prices of electricity. Two thirds of electricity is generated in nuclear power plants in Slovakia. Hence, it is necessary to focus on the solution of problem of nuclear waste. In 2004 Ministry of Economy stated, that the deficit in nuclear fund, from which the country have to fully cover the costs of liquidation and final disposal of nuclear waste, is estimated in the amount of around 89 billion Slovak crowns (≅ 3.7 billion $). From it, so called historical deficit, which originated because of late foundation of fund, represents officially 15 billion Slovak crowns (≅ 0.62 billion $). In Slovakia exists the real risk, that by maintenance of present state by creation and draw of the fund, it will be possible to ensure only 39 per cent of financial sources necessary for full financial handling of the back part of nuclear energetic. Even though the Ministry of Economy in connection with privatisation of Slovenske elektrarne designed to decrease the transfers of operators of nuclear power plants into nuclear fund. In 2006 the Parliament decreased by the law the level of gains of the fund from sale of nuclear electricity (the second from two components of the gains of the fund) from 6.8 to 5.95 per cent from annual revenues. So the tax of forced reduction of the price of nuclear electricity will be represented by loading of the further generations

  11. Deceptive Business Practices: Federal Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    Federal regulations to prevent deceptive advertising seek to balance the advertiser's freedom of speech with protection of the consumer. This paper discusses what the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has done to regulate advertising and evaluates the adequacy of its controls. The commission uses cease-and-desist orders, affirmative disclosure,…

  12. The evolution of nuclear regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.

    1997-01-01

    The already not so young history of nuclear regulations shows patterns and specific causes that have characterized and influenced its own evolution as well as the industry itself. Today's regulation is facing relevant challenges with potential significant effects. The quest for higher regulatory efficiency brings up the increasing need to base future actions on firmly established strategies. (Author) 7 refs

  13. Gravity and body mass regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, L. E.; Horwitz, B. A.; Fuller, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of altered gravity on body mass, food intake, energy expenditure, and body composition are examined. Metabolic adjustments are reviewed in maintenance of energy balance, neural regulation, and humoral regulation are discussed. Experiments with rats indicate that genetically obese rats respond differently to hypergravity than lean rats.

  14. Forhastet regulering af de store

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Christiansborg gennemfører sandsynligvis en markant skærpet regulering af de store finansielle virksomheder. Det vil virke kontraktivt og medvirke til erhvervslivets kredittørke.......Christiansborg gennemfører sandsynligvis en markant skærpet regulering af de store finansielle virksomheder. Det vil virke kontraktivt og medvirke til erhvervslivets kredittørke....

  15. The Organization of Regulated Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jos; Jeon, Doh-Shin; Menicucci, Domenico

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the choice between vertical separation (VS) and vertical integration (VI) when two regulated firms produce complementary inputs with correlated costs and are protected by ex post break-even constraints. First, in the absence of collusion the regulator prefers VI (VS) for negative...

  16. Environmental regulation and international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulatu, A.; Florax, R.J.G.M.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    We empirically investigate the responsiveness of international trade to the stringency of environmental regulation. Stringent environmental regulation may impair the export competitiveness of ´dirty´ domestic industries, and as a result, ´pollution havens´ emerge in countries where environmental

  17. Regulating Pornography: A Public Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margaret E.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines attitudes toward sex and pornography by means of a telephone survey of Dane County, Wisconsin, adults. Describes survey questions about sexual attitudes, perceived effects of pornography, and pornography regulation. Concludes that adults who feel more strongly that pornography has negative effects are more opposed to its regulation. (SG)

  18. RNA-guided transcriptional regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, George M.; Mali, Prashant G.; Esvelt, Kevin M.

    2016-02-23

    Methods of modulating expression of a target nucleic acid in a cell are provided including introducing into the cell a first foreign nucleic acid encoding one or more RNAs complementary to DNA, wherein the DNA includes the target nucleic acid, introducing into the cell a second foreign nucleic acid encoding a nuclease-null Cas9 protein that binds to the DNA and is guided by the one or more RNAs, introducing into the cell a third foreign nucleic acid encoding a transcriptional regulator protein or domain, wherein the one or more RNAs, the nuclease-null Cas9 protein, and the transcriptional regulator protein or domain are expressed, wherein the one or more RNAs, the nuclease-null Cas9 protein and the transcriptional regulator protein or domain co-localize to the DNA and wherein the transcriptional regulator protein or domain regulates expression of the target nucleic acid.

  19. REGULATION OF NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Muravyeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks into the diverse aspects of qualifications system regulation, designed for balancing the supply and demand in the labor and educational service markets. Both the objects and mechanisms of such regulation are described. Special attention is given to institutions, involved in regulation of qualifications, and their jurisdiction. Another emphasis is on the industry-related regulation of qualifications which proved to be effective both on the national and European level. Such structures were first established on the national levels to regulate the qualifications and ensure their comparability and compatibility, given the economic globalization and growing labor and academic mobility. The author points out the role of the ministries of education and labor in maintaining a steady qualifications system, and outlines the positive experience of Great Britain using the industry councils for continuing development of qualifications system.

  20. Regulation of gas infrastructure expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Joode, J.

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this dissertation is the regulation of gas infrastructure expansion in the European Union (EU). While the gas market has been liberalised, the gas infrastructure has largely remained in the regulated domain. However, not necessarily all gas infrastructure facilities - such as gas storage facilities, LNG import terminals and certain gas transmission pipelines - need to be regulated, as there may be scope for competition. In practice, the choice of regulation of gas infrastructure expansion varies among different types of gas infrastructure facilities and across EU Member States. Based on a review of economic literature and on a series of in-depth case studies, this study explains these differences in choices of regulation from differences in policy objectives, differences in local circumstances and differences in the intrinsic characteristics of the infrastructure projects. An important conclusion is that there is potential for a larger role for competition in gas infrastructure expansion.

  1. Designing Next Generation Telecom Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Samarajiva, Rohan

    – ICT convergence regulation and multisector utility regulation. Whatever structure of next generation telecom regulation is adopted, all countries will need to pay much greater attention to the need for increased coordination of policy directions and regulatory activities both across the industries......Continuously expanding applications of information and communication technologies (ICT) are transforming local, national, regional and international economies into network economies, the foundation for information societies. They are being built upon expanded and upgraded national telecom networks...... to creating an environment to foster a massive expansion in the coverage and capabilities of the information infrastructure networks, with national telecom regulators as the key implementers of the policies of reform. The first phase of reform has focused on industry specific telecom policy and regulation...

  2. Regulation of GMOs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yinliang

    2008-12-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are created by biotechnology to serve people with much benefit while may impose risks to ecological environment and human health and therefore need careful regulation. During the past two decades, GMOs have been well developed in China and so has their corresponding regulation. This paper reviews and comments the multiple aspects of mainly the agricultural GMOs, including their safety assessment, control measures, trade activities, import, labels, and GM food, which have been prescribed by the corresponding laws, regulations and administrative measures. It is held that till present a framework for regulation of agricultural GMOs and GM food has been established basically in China, while a more comprehensive system for regulation of all kinds of GMOs and all kinds of related activities is still needed at present and in the future.

  3. PPARγ regulates exocrine pancreas lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danino, Hila; Naor, Ronny Peri-; Fogel, Chen; Ben-Harosh, Yael; Kadir, Rotem; Salem, Hagit; Birk, Ruth

    2016-12-01

    Pancreatic lipase (triacylglycerol lipase EC 3.1.1.3) is an essential enzyme in hydrolysis of dietary fat. Dietary fat, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), regulate pancreatic lipase (PNLIP); however, the molecular mechanism underlying this regulation is mostly unknown. As PUFA are known to regulate expression of proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and as we identified in-silico putative PPARγ binding sites within the putative PNLIP promoter sequence, we hypothesized that PUFA regulation of PNLIP might be mediated by PPARγ. We used in silico bioinformatics tools, reporter luciferase assay, PPARγ agonists and antagonists, PPARγ overexpression in exocrine pancreas AR42J and primary cells to study PPARγ regulation of PNLIP. Using in silico bioinformatics tools we mapped PPARγ binding sites (PPRE) to the putative promoter region of PNLIP. Reporter luciferase assay in AR42J rat exocrine pancreas acinar cells transfected with various constructs of the putative PNLIP promoter showed that PNLIP transcription is significantly enhanced by PPARγ dose-dependently, reaching maximal levels with multi PPRE sites. This effect was significantly augmented in the presence of PPARγ agonists and reduced by PPARγ antagonists or mutagenesis abrogating PPRE sites. Over-expression of PPARγ significantly elevated PNLIP transcript and protein levels in AR42J cells and in primary pancreas cells. Moreover, PNLIP expression was up-regulated by PPARγ agonists (pioglitazone and 15dPGJ2) and significantly down-regulated by PPARγ antagonists in non-transfected rat exocrine pancreas AR42J cell line cells. PPARγ transcriptionally regulates PNLIP gene expression. This transcript regulation resolves part of the missing link between dietary PUFA direct regulation of PNLIP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The regulator's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sendin, P.

    2004-01-01

    Spanish experience holds a relatively important position in the field of the decommissioning of nuclear and radioactive facilities. Nuclear facilities are subject to a system of prior authorization by the competent authorities before they come into service and to subsequent regulation and control during their operating life. Nuclear and radioactive facilities that stop operating, for technical or financial reasons or because they are compelled to, remain subject to this regulatory control system as long as the competent authorities consider that their residual radioactivity represents a potential source of radiological hazard to the individuals affected or entails an unacceptable environmental risk. The decommissioning of nuclear facilities is contemplated in Spain a further or an additional step of their life cycle in which, in principle, the whole regulatory framework in force during the previous stages - sitting, construction, commissioning, operation, etc. - remains applicable. The term decommissioning is used to delineate the final stage of the life of a definitely non-operational facility and also to introduce a new licensing regime and a new regulatory control scheme. In the regulatory context, the decommissioning of a facility is understood as a set of administrative and technical actions and processes whose purpose, once a facility has been withdrawn from service, is to release it from regulatory control and so to relieve the former licensee of its previous responsibilities relating to the facility's safety. With the increasing age of nuclear and radioactive facilities in service, and as the number of facilities reaching the end of their operating life rises, the administrative process required in order to decommissioning them safely has become a real challenge in all countries, especially in those like Spain with an old nuclear power programme. Let me first give you a quick overview of the Spanish regulatory decommissioning framework. Then I will try to

  5. Regulating chemicals: law, science, and the unbearable burdens of regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbergeld, Ellen K; Mandrioli, Daniele; Cranor, Carl F

    2015-03-18

    The challenges of regulating industrial chemicals remain unresolved in the United States. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 1976 was the first legislation to extend coverage to the regulation of industrial chemicals, both existing and newly registered. However, decisions related to both law and science that were made in passing this law inevitably rendered it ineffectual. Attempts to fix these shortcomings have not been successful. In light of the European Union's passage of innovative principles and requirements for chemical regulation, it is no longer possible to deny the opportunity and need for reform in US law and practice.

  6. Ionising radiation: a guide to the Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Donald.

    1986-01-01

    The author explains the basic requirements on health and safety personnel in relation to the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985. The outline paper is presented under the following headings: Dose assessment, Interpretation and general regulations 1-5, Dose limitation regulations 6 and 7, Regulation of work - regulations 8-12, Dosimetry and medical surveillance - regulations 13-17, summary of records to be kept, entry to controlled areas, Control of radioactive substances -regulations 18-23, Monitoring of radiation regulation 24, Assessments and notifications - regulations 25-31, Safety of articles and equipment - regulations 32-34, Other guidance. (U.K.)

  7. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetovic, Alexander, E-mail: alexander@galetovic.cl [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile. Av. San Carlos de Apoquindo 2200, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Munoz, Cristian M., E-mail: cmunozm@aes.com [AES Gener and Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile)

    2011-10-15

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: > We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. > Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. > Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. > Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. > We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  8. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galetovic, Alexander; Munoz, Cristian M.

    2011-01-01

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: → We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. → Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. → Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. → Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. → We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  9. Grandfather regulations, new source bias, and state air toxics regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinson, Arik

    1999-01-01

    This paper uses plant-level data from the Census of Manufactures and the variation in toxic air pollution regulations across states to measure the effects of laws that are more stringent for new sources of pollution than for existing sources (so-called 'grandfather' regulations). Of particular interest is the resulting 'new source bias' and its effects on capital vintage and investment. Two industries are examined: commercial printing, which has a local product market; and paint manufacturing, which has a more national market. In general, there seem to be no statistically significant differences in capital vintage or investment between plants in states that grandfather new sources of pollution, plants in states that have no air toxics regulations, and plants in states that regulate both new and existing sources

  10. Hygienic regulation of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saurov, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Modern state of the problem on hygienic regulation of ionizing radiations is considered. Concepts and principles of the regulation based on risk concept are presented according to ICRP 26 and 27. Two types of risk are designated: ''absolute'' and ''relative'' ones. The concept of acceptable risk on the basis of cost - benefit ratio is substantiated. Special attention is paid to the principle of accounting the complex of health signs, when determining radiation hazard. To determine the level of permissible risk and permissible dose to population the concept of ''inadmissibility of s-tatistically significant risk'' has been developed. Standards, regulating population doses in the USSR, which are valid nowadays, are considered

  11. Introduction to international radio regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radicella, S M [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    2003-12-15

    These lecture notes contain an overview of basic problems of the International Radio Regulations. Access to the existing information infrastructure, and to that of the future Information Society, depends critically on radio, especially in poor, remote and sparsely populated regions with under-developed telecommunication infrastructure. How the spectrum of radio frequencies is regulated has profound impact on the society, its security, prosperity, and culture. The radio regulations represent a very important framework for an adequate use of radio and should be known by all of those working in the field.

  12. Introduction to international radio regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radicella, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    These lecture notes contain an overview of basic problems of the International Radio Regulations. Access to the existing information infrastructure, and to that of the future Information Society, depends critically on radio, especially in poor, remote and sparsely populated regions with under-developed telecommunication infrastructure. How the spectrum of radio frequencies is regulated has profound impact on the society, its security, prosperity, and culture. The radio regulations represent a very important framework for an adequate use of radio and should be known by all of those working in the field

  13. Nanometrology - challenges for health regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailton Carreteiro Damasceno

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between metrology, nanotechnology and nanoscience and sanitary regulation is discussed from the point of view of its importance and the interrelationship between the themes for the development of products and services involving nanotech-nology. The discussion involves the main techniques for measuring dimensional, chemical and biological properties of materials, and presents some of the challenges for the future. Issues such as processes of standardization and regulation in Europe, U.S. and Brazil are also addressed, providing an overview of how these processes are related to sanitary regulation.

  14. Designing Next Generation Telecom Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Samarajiva, Rohan; Melody, William H.

    2003-01-01

    This article critically examines the multiple rationales for telecom, IT, media convergence regulation, on the one hand, and multisector utility regulation, on the other, and the practical questions of implementation they pose, with a view to contributing to informed policy and regulatory decisions...... to the regulatory process such as scarcity of regulatory resources and safeguards for regulatory independence, are examined. It is concluded that ICT and media convergence issues are primarily about improving the efficiency of market economies, and how changes in regulation can facilitate this process. Multi...

  15. Molecular Regulation of Histamine Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Huang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Histamine is a critical mediator of IgE/mast cell-mediated anaphylaxis, a neurotransmitter and a regulator of gastric acid secretion. Histamine is a monoamine synthesized from the amino acid histidine through a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme histidine decarboxylase (HDC, which removes carboxyl group from histidine. Despite the importance of histamine, transcriptional regulation of HDC gene expression in mammals is still poorly understood. In this review, we focus on discussing advances in the understanding of molecular regulation of mammalian histamine synthesis.

  16. Towards trust in regulation. Moving to a public value regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Catherine; Woodman, Bridget [Energy Policy Group, University of Exeter Cornwall Campus, Treliever Road, Penryn, TR10 9EZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    The UK Government has committed itself to reducing its carbon dioxide emissions. The challenge of successfully achieving a transition to a sustainable energy system, in the context of the UK's largely privately owned energy industry, rests on the ability of policy makers to encourage and enable the necessary changes or innovation at all levels of the energy system. This paper argues that the UK's current, dominant political paradigm or framework (the regulatory state paradigm (RSP)) and within it, the role of the economic regulator, Ofgem acts as a fundamental block to this challenge. The current economic regulatory system is based on trust in the market, or on predicted (albeit theoretical) known outcomes. To expand our regulatory system to one which can deliver a sustainable energy system requires innovation in a certain direction (as opposed to any innovation). That is the antithesis of the current process of regulation. Trust is required that Ofgem, the economic regulator, will develop rules and incentives which deliver an agreed sustainable energy goal, which is 'trusted' to be the 'right' goal. This requires Ofgem moving away from ex-ante regulation to a type of regulation where all costs, benefits and outcomes cannot be known beforehand and where they cannot necessarily be quantifiable. This has, very provisionally, been called Public Value Regulation (PVR). (author)

  17. Attachment and Dyadic Regulation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Nickola C; Simpson, Jeffry A

    2015-02-01

    Insecurely attached people have relatively unhappy and unstable romantic relationships, but the quality of their relationships depends on how their partners regulate them. Some partners find ways to regulate the emotional and behavioral reactions of insecurely attached individuals, which promotes greater relationship satisfaction and security. We discuss attachment theory and interdependence dilemmas, and then explain how and why certain responses by partners assuage the cardinal concerns of insecure individuals in key interdependent situations. We then review recent studies illustrating how partners can successfully regulate the reactions of anxiously and avoidantly attached individuals, yielding more constructive interactions. We finish by considering how these regulation processes can create a more secure dyadic environment, which helps to improve relationships and attachment security across time.

  18. Network Regulation and Support Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Jacobsen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    -in tariffs to market-based quota systems, and network regulation approaches, comprising rate-of-return and incentive regulation. National regulation and the vertical structure of the electricity sector shape the incentives of market agents, notably of distributed generators and network operators......At present, there exists no explicit European policy framework on distributed generation. Various Directives encompass distributed generation; inherently, their implementation is to the discretion of the Member States. The latter have adopted different kinds of support schemes, ranging from feed....... This article seeks to investigate the interactions between the policy dimensions of support schemes and network regulation and how they affect the deployment of distributed generation. Firstly, a conceptual analysis examines how the incentives of the different market agents are affected. In particular...

  19. Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — The Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (e-CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the executive...

  20. Comparison of some European regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyriadis, K [Germanisher Lloyd, Hamburg (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    Fatigue calculations are an essential part in certification of a wind turbine. Manufacturers have to fulfill recommendations of several different regulations throughout Europe with the result that the design has often to be altered to satisfy them. In general three national (D/GL, NL, DK), and two international (GL, IEC) regulations are in use, with the IEC standard getting more importance with wind energy deploying to more in regions with no yet clearly defined national standards (India, Spain). The Germanischer Lloyd made calculations for wind turbines they are certifying and in one case we compared the resulting damages for different regulations and classes on a 600 kW, three bladed, stall regulated wind turbine. (EG) 18 refs.

  1. How should Bitcoin be regulated ?

    OpenAIRE

    SHCHERBAK, Sergii

    2014-01-01

    The lack of clarity about Bitcoin’s legal framework has meant that none of the regulators across the EU have yet achieved sufficient clarity in the legal treatment of Bitcoin and its stakeholders. This uncertainty poses a number of substantial risks to Bitcoin stakeholders and creates challenges for regulatory authorities. Therefore, there is a need for a clear strategy for Bitcoin’s regulation aiming to ensure the maximum possible balance between the interests of Bitcoin stakeholders longing...

  2. Money Laundering and its Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto E. Chong; Florencio López-de-Silanes

    2007-01-01

    The recent wave of terrorist attacks has increased the attention paid to money laundering activities. Using several methodologies, this paper investigates empirically the determinants of money laundering and its regulation in over 80 countries by assembling a cross-country dataset on proxies for money laundering and the prevalence of feeding activities. The paper additionally constructs specific money laundering regulation indices based on available information on laws and their mechanisms of...

  3. The Legal Regulation of Cybersecurity

    OpenAIRE

    Darius Štitilis

    2013-01-01

    Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with offences such as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Cybersecurity is the central category to fight cybercrime in cyberspace. Therefore, the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity is one of the most relevant problems in EU, including Lithuania. So far cybersecurity legal regul...

  4. Regulation on control systems tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, J.; Navarro, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Requirements under regulation applicable to the testing of control systems and controlled equipments in the case of USA nuclear projects are examined. They are reviewed, in particular, the following standards and criteria: 10 Code of Federal Regulations 50, Appendix A, General Design Criteria 20 and 21; IEEE Standards 279 and 308; IEEE Standard 338; US Regulatory Guides 1.22 and 1.118.(J.E.de C.)

  5. Liquidity regulation and bank behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Bonner, C.

    2014-01-01

    In response to the 2007-08 financial crisis, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision proposed two liquidity standards to reinforce banks’ resilience to liquidity risks. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the impact of liquidity regulation on bank behavior. The first of four main chapters analyzes the development of global liquidity standards, their objectives as well as their interaction with capital standards. The analysis suggests that regulating capital is associated with declinin...

  6. Civilsamfundets ABC: R for Regulering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Gitte; Lund, Anker Brink

    2016-01-01

    Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til R for Regulering.......Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til R for Regulering....

  7. 7 CFR 987.48 - Container regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container regulation. 987.48 Section 987.48... IN RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Container Regulation § 987.48 Container regulation. Whenever the Committee deems it advisable to establish a container regulation for any variety of...

  8. Two new pollution regulations introduced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    A newly proposed regulation in Ontario will require the mandatory tracking of 358 airborne pollutants by the electricity sector as well as by other large industrial facilities such as iron and steel manufacturers and petroleum refiners. If passed, the regulation would make Ontario the first jurisdiction in the world to require monitoring and reporting of a full suite of major greenhouse gases, including smog and acid-rain causing emissions. The proposed regulation also provides for immediate public access to any reported information. Ontario residents can comment on the proposed regulation through the Environmental Bill of Rights registry. A new, more severe hazardous waste regulation will also take effect on March 31, 2001, whereby testing for 88 contaminants will be done according to a new standard called the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). This new regulation also introduces a new 'derived from' rule which requires that a listed hazardous waste keep its classification until it can be demonstrated otherwise. Ontario's list of hazardous wastes has been updated to include 129 new chemicals and industrial processes. The Ontario Ministry has also adopted the Canada-wide Standards for Particulate Matter and Ozone, as well as the Canada-wide Standards for mercury emissions from base metal smelters as well as from incineration of sewage sludge and municipal, medical, hazardous waste

  9. Regulation Development for Drinking Water Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    To explain what process and information underlies regulations including how the Safe Drinking Water Act applies to regulation development i.e. how does the drinking water law translate into regulations.

  10. To Regulate or Not to Regulate? Views on Electronic Cigarette Regulations and Beliefs about the Reasons for and against Regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Sanders-Jackson

    Full Text Available Policies designed to restrict marketing, access to, and public use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are increasingly under debate in various jurisdictions in the US. Little is known about public perceptions of these policies and factors that predict their support or opposition.Using a sample of US adults from Amazon Mechanical Turk in May 2015, this paper identifies beliefs about the benefits and costs of regulating e-cigarettes and identifies which of these beliefs predict support for e-cigarette restricting policies.A higher proportion of respondents agreed with 8 different reasons to regulate e-cigarettes (48.5% to 83.3% agreement versus 7 reasons not to regulate e-cigarettes (11.5% to 18.9%. The majority of participants agreed with 7 out of 8 reasons for regulation. When all reasons to regulate or not were included in a final multivariable model, beliefs about protecting people from secondhand vapor and protecting youth from trying e-cigarettes significantly predicted stronger support for e-cigarette restricting policies, whereas concern about government intrusion into individual choices was associated with reduced support.This research identifies key beliefs that may underlie public support or opposition to policies designed to regulate the marketing and use of e-cigarettes. Advocates on both sides of the issue may find this research valuable in developing strategic campaigns related to the issue.Specific beliefs of potential benefits and costs of e-cigarette regulation (protecting youth, preventing exposure to secondhand vapor, and government intrusion into individual choices may be effectively deployed by policy makers or health advocates in communicating with the public.

  11. To Regulate or Not to Regulate? Views on Electronic Cigarette Regulations and Beliefs about the Reasons for and against Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders-Jackson, Ashley; Tan, Andy S L; Bigman, Cabral A; Mello, Susan; Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Policies designed to restrict marketing, access to, and public use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are increasingly under debate in various jurisdictions in the US. Little is known about public perceptions of these policies and factors that predict their support or opposition. Using a sample of US adults from Amazon Mechanical Turk in May 2015, this paper identifies beliefs about the benefits and costs of regulating e-cigarettes and identifies which of these beliefs predict support for e-cigarette restricting policies. A higher proportion of respondents agreed with 8 different reasons to regulate e-cigarettes (48.5% to 83.3% agreement) versus 7 reasons not to regulate e-cigarettes (11.5% to 18.9%). The majority of participants agreed with 7 out of 8 reasons for regulation. When all reasons to regulate or not were included in a final multivariable model, beliefs about protecting people from secondhand vapor and protecting youth from trying e-cigarettes significantly predicted stronger support for e-cigarette restricting policies, whereas concern about government intrusion into individual choices was associated with reduced support. This research identifies key beliefs that may underlie public support or opposition to policies designed to regulate the marketing and use of e-cigarettes. Advocates on both sides of the issue may find this research valuable in developing strategic campaigns related to the issue. Specific beliefs of potential benefits and costs of e-cigarette regulation (protecting youth, preventing exposure to secondhand vapor, and government intrusion into individual choices) may be effectively deployed by policy makers or health advocates in communicating with the public.

  12. Balancing Public and Private Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Scheltema

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS might develop into a viable alternative to public regulation. However, it turns on the (regulatory circumstances whether that holds true in practice. If public regulation on CSR topics is lacking, governments are unable to agree upon certain topics on a global level or diverging public regulation exists, VSS can be helpful to set global standards. Obviously, private standards will especially be helpful if they are commensurate with local public legislation (and e.g. treaties and/or are accepted by local governments. If one neglects this, numerous domestic structures might exist that frustrate VSS. Furthermore, governments have to remain vigilant as to whether these private regimes do not result in market disruption, consumer detriment or hamper trade. VSS might also compete with public arrangements which might limit the uptake of VSS. However, if public regulation exists VSS might be a viable alternative if compliance with not too compelling public norms by market participants is rather poor and the public policymaker is aiming to incentivize the better performing part of the market to embark on higher standards and thus only desires to regulate the less performing part of the market. However, of paramount importance is the effectiveness of VSS in order to be a viable alternative to public regulation. The effectiveness of VSS should be assessed using an integrated multi-disciplinary (comparative approach entailing legal, impact-assessment, legitimacy, governance and behavioural aspects. Only effective VSS in the aforementioned sense are a true alternative to public regulation.Beyond that, the legal perspective in connection with (the effectiveness of VSS is discussed, featuring FSC and UTZ Certified as an example. It is important from this perspective that VSS have a clear and sufficiently selective objective and sufficiently specific norms, are regularly evaluated, entail ‘conflict of law rules’ and

  13. Parallel I/O measurements on a SparcCenter and a MEIKO CS2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzer-Steindel, B.

    1994-01-01

    CERN is participating in a European ESPRIT project (GPMIMD2) to investigate the benefits and future prospects of parallel processing to HEP computing. One of the focal points at CERN is the parallelization of the Monte-Carlo program from the NA48 experiment. This experiment aims to measure the CP-Violation parameters in the neutral kaon system to a very high precision starting in 1996. The Monte-Carlo program (NMC) from the NA48 collaboration consists of 102 subroutines with 17500 lines of FORTRAN code. It simulates the decay of neutral kaons into charged/neutral pions in their detector setup. Their main detector is a liquid krypton calorimeter with about 13000 channels. As the shower simulation of photons and pions in this detector take a long time per event (GEANT), the NMC uses a lookup table (showerlibrary) of previously generated showers

  14. Atmel's New Rad-Hard Sparc V8 Processor 200Mhz & Low Power System on Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganry, Nicolas; Mantelet, Guy; Parkes, Steve; McClements, Chris

    2014-08-01

    The AT6981 is a new generation of processor designed for critical spaceflight applications, which combines a high-performance SPARC® V8 radiation hard processor, with enough on-chip memory for many aerospace applications and state-of-the-art SpaceWire networking technology from STAR- Dundee. The AT6981 is implemented in Atmel 90nm rad-hard technology, enabling 200 MHz operating speed for the processor with power consumption levels around 1W. This advanced technology allows strong system integration in a SoC with embedded peripherals like CAN, 1553, Ethernet, DDR and embedded memory with 1Mbytes SRAM. The device is ITAR- free and is developed in France by Atmel Aerospace having more than of 30years space experience. This paper describes this new SoC architecture and technical options considered to insure the best performances, the minimum power consumption and high reliability. This device will be available on the market in H2 2014 for evaluation with first flight models targeted end 2015.

  15. Reduction of Under-Determined Linear Systems by Sparce Block Matrix Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp-Johansen, Niels Jacob; Poulsen, Peter Noe; Damkilde, Lars

    1996-01-01

    numerical stability of the aforementioned reduction. Moreover the coefficient matrix for the equilibrium equations is typically very sparse. The objective is to deal efficiently with the full pivoting reduction of sparse rectangular matrices using a dynamic storage scheme based on the block matrix concept.......Under-determined linear equation systems occur in different engineering applications. In structural engineering they typically appear when applying the force method. As an example one could mention limit load analysis based on The Lower Bound Theorem. In this application there is a set of under......-determined equilibrium equation restrictions in an LP-problem. A significant reduction of computer time spent on solving the LP-problem is achieved if the equilib rium equations are reduced before going into the optimization procedure. Experience has shown that for some structures one must apply full pivoting to ensure...

  16. Olkiluoto hydrogeochemistry. A 3-D modelling approach for sparce data set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luukkonen, A.; Partamies, S.; Pitkaenen, P.

    2003-07-01

    Olkiluoto at Eurajoki has been selected as a candidate site for final disposal repository for the used nuclear waste produced in Finland. In the long term safety assessment, one of the principal evaluation tools of safe disposal is hydrogeochemistry. For assessment purposes Posiva Oy excavates in the Olkiluoto bedrock an underground research laboratory (ONKALO). The complexity of the groundwater chemistry is characteristic to the Olkiluoto site and causes a demand to examine and visualise these hydrogeochemical features in 3-D together with the structural model. The need to study the hydrogeochemical features is not inevitable only in the stable undisturbed (pre-excavational) conditions but also in the disturbed system caused by the construction activities and open-tunnel conditions of the ONKALO. The present 3-D approach is based on integrating the independently and separately developed structural model and the results from the geochemical mixing calculations of the groundwater samples. For spatial geochemical regression purposes the study area is divided into four primary sectors on the basis of the occurrence of the samples. The geochemical information within the four primary sector are summed up in the four sector centroids that sum-up the depth distributions of the different water types within each primary sector area. The geographic locations of the centroids are used for secondary division of the study area into secondary sectors. With the aid of secondary sectors spatial regressions between the centroids can be calculated and interpolation of water type fractions within the centroid volume becomes possible. Similarly, extrapolations outside the centroid volume are possible as well. The mixing proportions of the five detected water types in an arbitrary point in the modelling volume can be estimated by applying the four centroids and by using lateral linear regression. This study utilises two separate data sets: the older data set and the newer data set. The older data is used for the model implementation. The model is used for estimate calculations for the newer data. In the view of newer data, the observed and the estimated water fractions mostly correlate well with each other, but also differences occur with all the 5 water types. Couple major deviations between the results originate from a disturbed groundwater composition evolution between the sampling periods. While in certain cases the discrepancies indicate inadequacies in the model. It is believed that the increase of geochemical input will improve the reliability and accuracy of the studied 3-D -method. (orig.)

  17. Re-Framing Biotechnology Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Alison

    Biotechnology is about to spill the banks of federal regulation. New genetic engineering techniques like CRISPR-Cas9 promise revolutionary breakthroughs in medicine, agriculture, and public health—but those techniques would not be regulated under the terms of the Coordinated Framework for Regulation of Biotechnology. This revolutionary moment in biotechnology offers an opportunity to correct the flaws in the framework, which was hastily patched together at the advent of the technology. The framework has never captured all relevant technologies, has never satisfied the public that risk is being effectively managed, and has never been accessible to small companies and publicly-funded labs that increasingly are positioned to make radical, life-saving innovations. This Article offers a proposal for new legislation that would reshape biotechnology regulation to better meet these goals. Key reforms include tying regulation to risk rather than technology category; consolidating agency review; capturing distinct regulatory expertise through inter-agency consultations; creating a clearinghouse to help guide applicants and disseminate information; setting up more comprehensive monitoring of environmental effects; and providing federal leadership to fill key data gaps and address socio-economic impacts.

  18. Progress toward risk informed regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, K.C.

    1997-01-01

    For the last several years, the NRC, with encouragement from the industry, has been moving in the direction of risk informed regulation. This is consistent with the regulatory principle of efficiency, formally adopted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 1991, which requires that regulatory activities be consistent with the degree of risk reduction they achieve. Probabilistic risk analysis has become the tool of choice for selecting the best of several alternatives. Closely related to risk informed regulation is the development of performance based rules. Such rules focus on the end result to be achieved. They do not specify the process, but instead establish the goals to be reached and how the achievement of those goals is to be judged. The inspection and enforcement activity is based on whether or not the goals have been met. The author goes on to offer comments on the history of the development of this process and its probable development in the future. He also addresses some issues which must be resolved or at least acknowledged. The success of risk informed regulation ultimately depends on having sufficiently reliable data to allow quantification of regulatory alternatives in terms of relative risk. Perhaps the area of human reliability and organizational performance has the greatest potential for improvement in reactor safety. The ability to model human performance is significantly less developed that the ability to model mechanical or electrical systems. The move toward risk informed, performance based regulation provides an unusual, perhaps unique, opportunity to establish a more rational, more effective basis for regulation

  19. Regulation of Autophagy by Kinases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridharan, Savitha; Jain, Kirti; Basu, Alakananda

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy is a process of self-degradation that maintains cellular viability during periods of metabolic stress. Although autophagy is considered a survival mechanism when faced with cellular stress, extensive autophagy can also lead to cell death. Aberrations in autophagy are associated with several diseases, including cancer. Therapeutic exploitation of this process requires a clear understanding of its regulation. Although the core molecular components involved in the execution of autophagy are well studied there is limited information on how cellular signaling pathways, particularly kinases, regulate this complex process. Protein kinases are integral to the autophagy process. Atg1, the first autophagy-related protein identified, is a serine/threonine kinase and it is regulated by another serine/threonine kinase mTOR. Emerging studies suggest the participation of many different kinases in regulating various components/steps of this catabolic process. This review focuses on the regulation of autophagy by several kinases with particular emphasis on serine/threonine protein kinases such as mTOR, AMP-activated protein kinase, Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK, p38 and JNK) and protein kinase C that are often deregulated in cancer and are important therapeutic targets

  20. Regulation of Autophagy by Kinases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Savitha; Jain, Kirti; Basu, Alakananda, E-mail: alakananda.basu@unthsc.edu [Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology, Institute for Cancer Research, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX 76107 (United States)

    2011-06-09

    Autophagy is a process of self-degradation that maintains cellular viability during periods of metabolic stress. Although autophagy is considered a survival mechanism when faced with cellular stress, extensive autophagy can also lead to cell death. Aberrations in autophagy are associated with several diseases, including cancer. Therapeutic exploitation of this process requires a clear understanding of its regulation. Although the core molecular components involved in the execution of autophagy are well studied there is limited information on how cellular signaling pathways, particularly kinases, regulate this complex process. Protein kinases are integral to the autophagy process. Atg1, the first autophagy-related protein identified, is a serine/threonine kinase and it is regulated by another serine/threonine kinase mTOR. Emerging studies suggest the participation of many different kinases in regulating various components/steps of this catabolic process. This review focuses on the regulation of autophagy by several kinases with particular emphasis on serine/threonine protein kinases such as mTOR, AMP-activated protein kinase, Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK, p38 and JNK) and protein kinase C that are often deregulated in cancer and are important therapeutic targets.

  1. Regulation of Autophagy by Kinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Savitha; Jain, Kirti; Basu, Alakananda

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy is a process of self-degradation that maintains cellular viability during periods of metabolic stress. Although autophagy is considered a survival mechanism when faced with cellular stress, extensive autophagy can also lead to cell death. Aberrations in autophagy are associated with several diseases, including cancer. Therapeutic exploitation of this process requires a clear understanding of its regulation. Although the core molecular components involved in the execution of autophagy are well studied there is limited information on how cellular signaling pathways, particularly kinases, regulate this complex process. Protein kinases are integral to the autophagy process. Atg1, the first autophagy-related protein identified, is a serine/threonine kinase and it is regulated by another serine/threonine kinase mTOR. Emerging studies suggest the participation of many different kinases in regulating various components/steps of this catabolic process. This review focuses on the regulation of autophagy by several kinases with particular emphasis on serine/threonine protein kinases such as mTOR, AMP-activated protein kinase, Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK, p38 and JNK) and protein kinase C that are often deregulated in cancer and are important therapeutic targets. PMID:24212825

  2. Regulation of Autophagy by Kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitha Sridharan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a process of self-degradation that maintains cellular viability during periods of metabolic stress. Although autophagy is considered a survival mechanism when faced with cellular stress, extensive autophagy can also lead to cell death. Aberrations in autophagy are associated with several diseases, including cancer. Therapeutic exploitation of this process requires a clear understanding of its regulation. Although the core molecular components involved in the execution of autophagy are well studied there is limited information on how cellular signaling pathways, particularly kinases, regulate this complex process. Protein kinases are integral to the autophagy process. Atg1, the first autophagy-related protein identified, is a serine/threonine kinase and it is regulated by another serine/threonine kinase mTOR. Emerging studies suggest the participation of many different kinases in regulating various components/steps of this catabolic process. This review focuses on the regulation of autophagy by several kinases with particular emphasis on serine/threonine protein kinases such as mTOR, AMP-activated kinase, Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK, p38 and JNK and protein kinase C that are often deregulated in cancer and are important therapeutic targets.

  3. Cosmetic Regulations: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhag, Jyoti; Dureja, Harish

    2015-01-01

    The regulatory framework, compliance requirement, efficacy, safety, and marketing of cosmetic products are considered the most important factors for growth of the cosmetic industry. There are different regulatory bodies across the globe that have their own insights for regulation; moreover, governments such as the United States, European Union, and Japan follow a stringent regulatory framework, whereas cosmetics are not so much strictly regulated in countries such as India, Brazil, and China. The alignment of a regulatory framework will play a significant role in the removal of barriers to trade, growth of market at an international level, innovation in the development and presentation of new products, and most importantly safety and efficacy of the marketed products. The present contribution gives insight into the important cosmetic regulations in areas of premarket approval, ingredient control, and labeling and warnings, with a special focus on the cosmetic regulatory environments in the United States, European Union, Japan, and India. Most importantly, the authors highlight the dark side of cosmetics associated with allergic reactions and even skin cancer. The importance of cosmetic regulations has been highlighted by dint of which the society can be healthier, accomplished by more stringent and harmonized regulations.

  4. 7 CFR 301.89-5 - Movement of regulated articles from regulated areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of regulated articles from regulated areas. 301.89-5 Section 301.89-5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL... § 301.89-5 Movement of regulated articles from regulated areas. (a) Any regulated article may be moved...

  5. Decisions to regulate genotoxic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengtsson, G

    1988-07-01

    Decisions to regulate genotoxic substances involve trade-offs between various incomparable factors such as risks to human health and other environmental risks, public perceptions, costs and uncertainties. Two different approaches towards these trade-offs are discussed. In one approach, all relevant factors are defined and trade-offs are considered using a general and very elaborate analysis. Cost-benefit analysis is an exponent of this approach. An illustration is given for the regulation of transboundary releases of radioactive materials. The other approach considers what is politically feasible for the time being and seeks a decision with much room for later corrections. Incrementalism is a philosophy in this vein. It is illustrated by reference to the regulation of transboundary air pollution. Weaknesses and strengths of the two approaches are discussed. (author)

  6. Digital Convergence and Content Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael John Starks

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Broadcasting, Press and Internet journalism systems of distribution are converging: the same infrastructure can deliver all three historically separate services. Reception devices mirror this: the Connected TV, the tablet and the smart phone overlap in their functionality. Service overlaps are evident too, with broadcasters providing online and on-demand services and newspapers developing electronic versions. Does this mean that media regulation policies must converge too?My argument is that they should, though only where historically different communications are now fulfilling a similar function, e.g. broadcaster online services and electronic versions of newspapers. Convergence requires a degree of harmonisation and, to this end, I advocate a review of UK broadcasting's 'due impartiality' requirement and of the UK's application of the public service concept. I also argue for independent self-regulation (rather than state-based regulation of non-public-service broadcasting journalism.

  7. Environmental Regulation and International Trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulatu, A. [London School of Economics, London (United Kingdom); Florax, R.J.G.M.; Withagen, C.A. [Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    We empirically investigate the responsiveness of international trade to the stringency of environmental regulation. Stringent environmental regulation may impair the export competitiveness of 'dirty' domestic industries, and as a result, 'pollution havens' emerge in countries where environmental regulation is 'over-lax.' We examine the impact of pollution abatement and control costs on net exports in order to grasp this phenomenon. Theoretically, our analysis is related to a general equilibrium model of trade and pollution nesting the pollution haven motive for trade with the factor endowment motive. We analyze data on two-digit ISIC manufacturing industries during the period 1977-1992 in Germany, the Netherlands and the US, and show that trade patterns in 'dirty' commodities are jointly determined by relative factor endowments and environmental stringency differentials.

  8. Decisions to regulate genotoxic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, G.

    1988-01-01

    Decisions to regulate genotoxic substances involve trade-offs between various incomparable factors such as risks to human health and other environmental risks, public perceptions, costs and uncertainties. Two different approaches towards these trade-offs are discussed. In one approach, all relevant factors are defined and trade-offs are considered using a general and very elaborate analysis. Cost-benefit analysis is an exponent of this approach. An illustration is given for the regulation of transboundary releases of radioactive materials. The other approach considers what is politically feasible for the time being and seeks a decision with much room for later corrections. Incrementalism is a philosophy in this vein. It is illustrated by reference to the regulation of transboundary air pollution. Weaknesses and strengths of the two approaches are discussed. (author)

  9. Guidelines on Building Regulations 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thse guidelines clarify and intepret the provisions of the Building Regulations of 2008 (BR08). The Guidelines, which match BR08 in terms of organisation into Parts, are accompanied by the full text of the regulations and the explanatory notes issued by the Danish Enterprise and Construction...... Authority. The Guidelines refer the reader to sources such as relevant standards, instructions and other background material which provides more detailed information. The Guidelines cover the same ground as BR08, including building control regulations, layout, fitting out, structures, fire safety, indoor...... climate, energy consumotion and services. The Guidelines are aimed at all professionals involved in building projects, particularly building design consultants, contractors and municipal application officers....

  10. Regulation of beta cell replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Ying C; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2008-01-01

    Beta cell mass, at any given time, is governed by cell differentiation, neogenesis, increased or decreased cell size (cell hypertrophy or atrophy), cell death (apoptosis), and beta cell proliferation. Nutrients, hormones and growth factors coupled with their signalling intermediates have been...... suggested to play a role in beta cell mass regulation. In addition, genetic mouse model studies have indicated that cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases that determine cell cycle progression are involved in beta cell replication, and more recently, menin in association with cyclin-dependent kinase...... inhibitors has been demonstrated to be important in beta cell growth. In this review, we consider and highlight some aspects of cell cycle regulation in relation to beta cell replication. The role of cell cycle regulation in beta cell replication is mostly from studies in rodent models, but whether...

  11. Retooling for new environmental regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, W.W.

    1997-01-01

    The petroleum industry is subject to regulations which require better management of emissions. This presentation discussed those regulations that dealt specifically with gasoline and diesel fuels and how they impact on vehicle emissions. The review showed that since 1975 the average fuel economy and improvements in tailpipe emissions for a light duty vehicle has increased significantly. Nitrogen oxide emissions were reduced by 94 per cent, carbon monoxide emissions were reduced by 96 per cent, and hydrocarbon emissions from tailpipes were reduced by 98 per cent. The phase-out of lead in fuel formulations, the controversy over the octane enhancing fuel additive MMT and a major study underway investigating the reduction of sulphur in gasoline, were also discussed. Future developments in regulations are likely to include capture of vapour emissions, mandatory inspection and maintenance programs, remote sensing of tailpipe emissions, and scrapping of old high emitting vehicles.5 figs

  12. Planned and proposed pipeline regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Leon, C.

    1992-01-01

    The Research and Special Programs Administration administers the Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968 (NGPSA) and the Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Act of 1979 (HLPSA). The RSPA issues and enforces design, construction, operation and maintenance regulations for natural gas pipelines and hazardous liquid pipelines. This paper discusses a number of proposed and pending safety regulations and legislative initiatives currently being considered by the RSPA and the US Congress. Some new regulations have been enacted. The next few years will see a great deal of regulatory activity regarding natural gas and hazardous liquid pipelines, much of it resulting from legislative requirements. The office of Pipeline Safety is currently conducting a study to streamline its operations. This study is analyzing the office's business, social and technical operations with the goal of improving overall efficiency, effectiveness, productivity and job satisfaction to meet the challenges of the future

  13. Air pollution control regulation. [Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sogabe, K

    1975-05-01

    The Basic Law for Environmental Pollution Control is reviewed. The fundamental ideology of pollution control, range of pollution control, environmental standards, and national policy concerning pollution control are discussed. The content of the Air Pollution Control Law is summarized. The purpose of the Air Pollution Control Law, a list of substances regulated by the law, the type of facilities regulated by the law, control standards, type of control means, and emission standards for flue gas (sulfur oxides, particulate matters, and toxic substances) are described. The environmental standard for each pollutant and the target date for achieving the environmental standard are also given. The list of cities where the 7-rank K value control regulation for SOx is enforced is given. The procedure for registration in compliance with the law is also described.

  14. Assessing self-regulation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vet, Emely; de Ridder, Denise T. D.; Stok, Marijn

    2014-01-01

    intake and background characteristics. In study 3, the TESQ-E was administered twice within four weeks to evaluate test-retest reliability (n = 140). Study 4 was a cross-sectional survey (n = 93) that assessed the TESQ-E and related psychological constructs (e.g., motivation, autonomy, self-control). All...... general self-regulation and motivation measures. Conclusions: The TESQ-E provides a reliable and valid measure to assess six theory-based self-regulation strategies that adolescents may use to ensure their healthy eating....

  15. Supersymmetric regulators and supercurrent anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, P.; Poggio, E.C.; Schnitzer, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    The supercurrent anomalies of the supercurrent deltasub(μ) of the supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in Wess-Zumino gauge are computed using the supersymmetric dimensional regulator of Siegel. It is shown that γsub(μ)deltasup(μ) = 0 and deltasub(μ)deltasup(μ) unequal 0 in agreement with an earlier calculation based on the Adler-Rosenberg method. The problem of exhibiting the chiral anomaly and a regulator for local supersymmetry suggests that the interpretation of dimensional reduction in component language is incomplete. (orig.)

  16. Introduction to international radio regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struzak, R

    2003-12-15

    These notes introduce the ITU Radio Regulations and related UN and WTO agreements that specify how terrestrial and satellite radio should be used in all countries over the planet. Access to the existing information infrastructure, and to that of the future Information Society, depends critically on these regulations. The paper also discusses few problems related to the use of the radio frequencies and satellite orbits. The notes are extracted from a book under preparation, in which these issues are discussed in more detail. (author)

  17. Introduction to international radio regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struzak, R.

    2003-01-01

    These notes introduce the ITU Radio Regulations and related UN and WTO agreements that specify how terrestrial and satellite radio should be used in all countries over the planet. Access to the existing information infrastructure, and to that of the future Information Society, depends critically on these regulations. The paper also discusses few problems related to the use of the radio frequencies and satellite orbits. The notes are extracted from a book under preparation, in which these issues are discussed in more detail. (author)

  18. Government regulation of gambling business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepasyuk S.A.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available the article deals with the problems of modern gambling business in the Russian Federation, political and legal, civil and economic aspects of state politics development in the field of activities regulation. The Federal Law regulating the activity of gambling business has been analyzed. The author has offered some developments of gambling business in the Russian Federation in order to increase the revenues to the budgets of the regions; to increase the attractiveness of the Russian resorts; to create more job opportunities and to eradicate unemployment.

  19. Gas distribution regulations (Nova Scotia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-03

    A consolidation of Nova Scotia`s gas distribution regulations made under subsection 42(1) of the Gas Distribution Act S.N.S. 1997, c4 - O.I.C. 1998-576 (November 10, 1998), N.S. Reg. 86/98 are presented. The consolidation is issued for reference purposes only, and while it has no official sanction, it is considered useful in providing an interpretation of the regulation, explaining franchise evaluation, the granting of franchises, and exemptions from application requirements. 1 tab.

  20. Explaining (Missing) Regulator Paradigm Shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigger, Angela; Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The global financial and economic crisis has prompted some scholars to suggest that a fundamental regulatory shift away from neoliberalism will take place – both in general and in the field of EU competition regulation. This paper shows that so far no radical break with the neoliberal type...... regulation after the crisis in the 1970s, the paper argues that the preconditions for a fundamental shift in this issue area are not present this time around. Several reasons account for this: the current crisis has been construed by economic and political elites as a crisis within and not of neoliberal...

  1. Minsky and dynamic macroprudential regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kregel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of current debates about the proper form of prudential regulation and proposals for the imposition of liquidity and capital ratios, the paper examines Hyman Minsky’s work as a consultant to government agencies exploring financial regulatory reform in the 1960s. As the author explains, this often-overlooked early work, a precursor to Minsky’s “financial instability hypothesis”, serves as yet another useful guide to explaining why regulation and supervision in the lead-up to the 2008 financial crisis were flawed, and why the approach to reregulation after the crisis has been incomplete.

  2. Development of waste management regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnour, E.G.

    2012-04-01

    Radioactive wastes are generated during nuclear fuel cycle operation, production and application of radioisotope in medicine, industry, research, and agriculture, and as a by product of natural resource exploitation, which includes mining and processing of ores. To ensure the protection of human health and the environment from the hazard of these wastes, a planned integrated radioactive waste management practice should be applied. The purpose of this study is to develop regulations for radioactive waste management for low and intermediate radioactive level waste (LILW), and other purpose of regulations is to establish requirements with which all organizations must comply in Sudan from LILW in particular disused/spent sources, not including radioactive waste for milling and mining practices. The national regulations regarding the radioactive waste management, should prescribe the allocation of responsibilities and roles of the Country, the regulatory body, user/owner, waste management organization, including regulations on transport packaging of waste and applied a quality assurance programme, to ensure that radioactive waste management is done safely and securely. (author)

  3. Regulating and Combating Underground Banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgers, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    In combating and regulating underground banking, a choice can be made of roughly two models, the risk model and the assimilation model. The risk model comes down to a complete prohibition of underground banking combined with an active investigation and prosecution policy. In the assimilation model,

  4. Transcriptional regulation of hepatic lipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhui; Viscarra, Jose; Kim, Sun-Joong; Sul, Hei Sook

    2015-11-01

    Fatty acid and fat synthesis in the liver is a highly regulated metabolic pathway that is important for very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) production and thus energy distribution to other tissues. Having common features at their promoter regions, lipogenic genes are coordinately regulated at the transcriptional level. Transcription factors, such as upstream stimulatory factors (USFs), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1C (SREBP1C), liver X receptors (LXRs) and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) have crucial roles in this process. Recently, insights have been gained into the signalling pathways that regulate these transcription factors. After feeding, high blood glucose and insulin levels activate lipogenic genes through several pathways, including the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) and AKT-mTOR pathways. These pathways control the post-translational modifications of transcription factors and co-regulators, such as phosphorylation, acetylation or ubiquitylation, that affect their function, stability and/or localization. Dysregulation of lipogenesis can contribute to hepatosteatosis, which is associated with obesity and insulin resistance.

  5. Technical regulation of nondestructive inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    It starts with the explanation of definition of nondestructive inspection and qualifications for a inspection. It lists the technical regulations of nondestructive inspections which are radiographic testing, ultrasonic flaw detecting test, liquid penetrant test, magnetic particle inspection, eddy current test visual inspection and leakage test.

  6. Immune regulation by microbiome metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang H

    2018-03-22

    Commensal microbes and the host immune system have been co-evolved for mutual regulation. Microbes regulate the host immune system, in part, by producing metabolites. A mounting body of evidence indicates that diverse microbial metabolites profoundly regulate the immune system via host receptors and other target molecules. Immune cells express metabolite-specific receptors such as P2X 7 , GPR41, GPR43, GPR109A, aryl hydrocarbon receptor precursor (AhR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), farnesoid X receptor (FXR), TGR5 and other molecular targets. Microbial metabolites and their receptors form an extensive array of signals to respond to changes in nutrition, health and immunological status. As a consequence, microbial metabolite signals contribute to nutrient harvest from diet, and regulate host metabolism and the immune system. Importantly, microbial metabolites bidirectionally function to promote both tolerance and immunity to effectively fight infection without developing inflammatory diseases. In pathogenic conditions, adverse effects of microbial metabolites have been observed as well. Key immune-regulatory functions of the metabolites, generated from carbohydrates, proteins and bile acids, are reviewed in this article. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Deceptive Business Practices: State Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    Although much has been done at the federal level to control deceptive advertising practices, many states have no criminal laws designed to regulate advertising, and several states recently repealed such laws. This paper examines states' efforts to balance the advertiser's freedom of speech with the consumer's need for information about products by…

  8. Lasp-1 regulates podosome function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Stölting

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic cells form a variety of adhesive structures to connect with their environment and to regulate cell motility. In contrast to classical focal adhesions, podosomes, highly dynamic structures of different cell types, are actively engaged in matrix remodelling and degradation. Podosomes are composed of an actin-rich core region surrounded by a ring-like structure containing signalling molecules, motor proteins as well as cytoskeleton-associated proteins. Lasp-1 is a ubiquitously expressed, actin-binding protein that is known to regulate cytoskeleton architecture and cell migration. This multidomain protein is predominantely present at focal adhesions, however, a second pool of Lasp-1 molecules is also found at lamellipodia and vesicle-like microdomains in the cytosol.In this report, we show that Lasp-1 is a novel component and regulator of podosomes. Immunofluorescence studies reveal a localization of Lasp-1 in the podosome ring structure, where it colocalizes with zyxin and vinculin. Life cell imaging experiments demonstrate that Lasp-1 is recruited in early steps of podosome assembly. A siRNA-mediated Lasp-1 knockdown in human macrophages affects podosome dynamics as well as their matrix degradation capacity. In summary, our data indicate that Lasp-1 is a novel component of podosomes and is involved in the regulation of podosomal function.

  9. Entry: direct control or regulation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.; Vorage, M.

    2009-01-01

    We model a setting in which citizens form coalitions to seek preferential entry to a given market. The lower entry the higher firm profits and political contributions, but the lower social welfare. Politicians choose to either control entry directly and be illegally bribed, or regulate entry using a

  10. Hard work in soft regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohnen, Pernille; Hasle, Peter; Helbo Jespersen, Anne

    Certified occupational health and safety management (OHSM) systems have become a global instrument in the regulation of work environment. However, their actual impact on occupational health and safety – in particular on ‘softer’ psychosocial areas of the working environment – has been questioned...

  11. Epigenetic regulation of macrophage function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a lipid-driven chronic inflammatory disorder with a key role for macrophages in all disease stages. Macrophages are involved as scavengers of lipids, regulate inflammation, attract other immune cells and contribute to the resolution of inflammation, fibrosis and plaque stability.

  12. Incentives and regulation in banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martynova, N.

    2015-01-01

    The financial crisis of 2007-2008 has unveiled the hidden flaws in the regulatory framework of the financial sector. The rules of the game established by regulators were not stringent enough and provided bankers with wrong incentives to gamble with depositors’ money. There are two major challenges

  13. Wave Dragon Buoyancy Regulation Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jens; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    Wave Dragon is a wave energy converter, which was deployed offshore at Nissum Bredning in Denmark in 2003. The experience gained from operating Wave Dragon during 2003 and 2004 has shown that the buoyancy regulation system can be improved in a number of ways. This study describes the current...

  14. Some regulation aspects in dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niel, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    In the French regulation framework, operations linked to dismantling are controlled by an overall technical and legislative system applied to all the different stages of the facility (commissioning, etc.). Government control on facilities under dismantling is aimed at dismantling operation safety and security, and dismantling waste processing in order to ensure public and environmental protection

  15. Compliance with air quality regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, D.V.; Tackett, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Due to the probable passage of Clean Air Act Amendments in 1990, electric utilities throughout the United States are faced with numerous choices to comply with the new acid rain regulations, expected in 1991. The choice of a compliance plan is not a simple task. Every compliance option will be costly. At Ohio Edison, deliberations are quite naturally influenced by past compliance with air quality regulations. This paper discusses compliance with air quality regulations in the 1970's, clean coal technologies and advanced scrubbers, and compliance with air quality regulations in 1995 - 2000. The choice of a compliance strategy for many utilities will involve serving customer loads through some combination of scrubbers, clean coal technologies, fuel switching, fuel blending, redispatch of units, and emissions trading. Whatever the final choice, it must be economic while providing sufficient flexibility to accommodate the critical uncertainties of load growth, state regulatory treatment, markets for emission allowances, advancements in control technologies, additional federal requirements for air emissions, equipment outages and fuel supply disruptions.s

  16. Transport regulation for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Vinh Phuong.

    1986-01-01

    Taking into account the specific dangers associated with the transport of radioactive materials (contamination, irradiation, heat, criticality), IAEA regulations concerning technical specifications and administrative procedures to ward off these dangers are presented. The international agreements related to the land transport, maritime transport and air transport of radioactive materials are also briefly reviewed

  17. Liquidity regulation and bank behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonner, C.

    2014-01-01

    In response to the 2007-08 financial crisis, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision proposed two liquidity standards to reinforce banks’ resilience to liquidity risks. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the impact of liquidity regulation on bank behavior. The first of four main chapters

  18. Capital regulation and tail risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.; Ratnovski, L.; Vlahu, R.

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies risk mitigation associated with capital regulation, in a context when banks may choose tail risk assets. We show that this undermines the traditional result that higher capital reduces excess risk-taking driven by limited liability. When capital raising is costly, poorly

  19. Capital regulation and tail risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.; Ratnovski, L.; Vlahu, R.

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies risk mitigation associated with capital regulation, in a context where banks may choose tail risk assets. We show that this undermines the traditional result that higher capital reduces excess risk taking driven by limited liability. Moreover, higher capital may have an unintended

  20. The New Brussels I Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnt Nielsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The most important amendments to the Brussels I Regulation adopted on 12 December 2012 are presented and discussed. The amendments concern: 1) arbitration, 2) external situations, 3) choice-of-court agreements, and 4) abolition of exequatur. Compared to the Commission's ambitions, only modest...

  1. 7 CFR 3.87 - Agency regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency regulations. 3.87 Section 3.87 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Offset § 3.87 Agency regulations. USDA agencies may issue regulations or policies not inconsistent with OPM regulations (5 CFR part 550...

  2. 76 FR 62630 - Information Security Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY 32 CFR Part 1902 Information Security Regulations AGENCY: Central... information security regulations which have become outdated. The Executive Order upon which the regulations... CFR Part 1902 Information security regulations. PART 1902 [REMOVED AND RESERVED] Sec. 1902.13 [Removed...

  3. The Legal Regulation of Cybersecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Štitilis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with offences such as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Cybersecurity is the central category to fight cybercrime in cyberspace. Therefore, the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity is one of the most relevant problems in EU, including Lithuania. So far cybersecurity legal regulation analysis in scientific literature has been rather limited. The European Commission, together with the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, has published a cybersecurity strategy alongside a Commission proposed directive on network and information security (NIS. The cybersecurity strategy – “An Open, Safe and Secure Cyberspace” - represents the EU’s comprehensive vision on how best to prevent and respond to cyber disruptions and attacks. The purpose of its is to further European values of freedom and democracy and ensure the digital economy can safely grow. Specific actions are aimed at enhancing cyber resilience of information systems, reducing cybercrime and strengthening EU international cyber-security policy and cyber defence. The main goal of the paper is to analyze and compare the EU cybersecurity strategy and experience of several foreign countries with the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity in Lithuania. The article consists of four parts. The first part dealt with the EU cybersecurity strategy. The second part of the article examines the comparative aspect of foreign cybersecurity strategic legal regulation. The third part deals with attempts in Lithuania to draft cybersecurity law and the holistic approach of cybersecurity legal regulation. The fourth part examines Lithuanian cybersecurity strategy and comments on the main probleas related with the strategy. Several different approaches

  4. Self-regulation in securities markets

    OpenAIRE

    Carson, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper canvasses the trends in self-regulation and the role of self-regulation in securities markets in different parts of the world. The paper also describes the conditions in which self-regulation might be an effective element of securities markets regulation, particularly in emerging markets. Use of self-regulation and self-regulatory organizations is often recommended in emerging m...

  5. Connections or conflicts between nuclear regulations and other regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapar, H.K.

    1976-01-01

    The potential for conflicts between nuclear and other regulations stems in large part from overlapping jurisdictional lines which reflect not only the basic governmental structure but the political realities as well. A completely logical pattern - with a clear differentiation of responsibilities assigned to the various departments and agencies involved - is assuredly a worthy goal, but one not often, if ever, achieved. Fortunately, innovative means for obviating or mitigating the conflicts can be and have been found. (Auth) [fr

  6. Targeted genome regulation via synthetic programmable transcriptional regulators

    KAUST Repository

    Piatek, Agnieszka Anna

    2016-04-19

    Regulation of gene transcription controls cellular functions and coordinates responses to developmental, physiological and environmental cues. Precise and efficient molecular tools are needed to characterize the functions of single and multiple genes in linear and interacting pathways in a native context. Modular DNA-binding domains from zinc fingers (ZFs) and transcriptional activator-like proteins (TALE) are amenable to bioengineering to bind DNA target sequences of interest. As a result, ZF and TALE proteins were used to develop synthetic programmable transcription factors. However, these systems are limited by the requirement to re-engineer proteins for each new target sequence. The clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR associated 9 (Cas9) genome editing tool was recently repurposed for targeted transcriptional regulation by inactivation of the nuclease activity of Cas9. Due to the facile engineering, simplicity, precision and amenability to library construction, the CRISPR/Cas9 system is poised to revolutionize the functional genomics field across diverse eukaryotic species. In this review, we discuss the development of synthetic customizable transcriptional regulators and provide insights into their current and potential applications, with special emphasis on plant systems, in characterization of gene functions, elucidation of molecular mechanisms and their biotechnological applications. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

  7. Regulating danger on the highways: hours of service regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Daniel; Kryger, Meir

    2015-12-01

    Current hours of service regulations governing commercial truck drivers in place in the United States, Canada, Australia, and the European Union are summarized and compared to facilitate the assessment of the effectiveness of such provisions in preventing fatigue and drowsiness among truck drivers. Current hours of service provisions governing commercial truck drivers were derived from governmental sources. The commercial truck driver hours of service provisions in the United States, Canada, and the European Union permit drivers to work 14 hours and those of Australia permit drivers to work 12 hours a day on a regular basis. The regulations do not state what a driver may do with time off. They are consistent with a driver being able to drive after 24 hours without sleep. They do not take into account circadian rhythm by linking driving or rest to time of day. Current hours of service regulations governing commercial truck drivers leave gaps--permitting drivers to work long hours on a regular basis, permitting driving after no sleep for 24 hours, and failing to take into account the importance of circadian rhythm, endangering the public safety and the truck drivers themselves. Copyright © 2015 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Incentive regulation of nuclear power plants by state regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.L.; Baker, K.; Olson, J.

    1991-02-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) monitors incentive programs established by state regulators in order to obtain current information and to consider the potential safety effects of the incentive programs as applied to nuclear units. The current report is an update of NUREG/CR-5509, Incentive Regulation of Nuclear Power Plants by State Public Utility Commissions, published in December 1989. The information in this report was obtained from interviews conducted with each state regulator and each utility with a minimum entitlement of 10%. The agreements, orders, and settlements from which each incentive program was implemented were reviewed as required. The interviews and supporting documentation form the basis for the individual state reports describing the structure and financial impact of each incentive program. The programs currently in effect represent the adoption of an existing nuclear performance incentive program proposal and one new program. In addition, since 1989 a number of nuclear units have been included in one existing program; while one program was discontinued and another one concluded. 6 refs., 27 tabs

  9. Study on the Regulating Performance of Sliding Regulation-Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Peng, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Yuan; Zheng, Yulan; Zhu, Fangyao

    2018-01-01

    Using a proven reliable method of CFD to study the regulating performance of a sliding regulation valve with a conical spool and rugby body. The numerical simulation results indicate that no matter where the spool is located, the flow field always has a vortex at the center of the valve body; When the spool is at the origin, the vortex and resistance coefficient of the valve are the minimum; When the spool moves from the origin to the right (the opening of the valve becomes smaller) to reach a certain position later, vortex currents also begin to appear around the tube wall behind the orifice. In addition, the vortex increases as the throttling port decreases whereas the resistance coefficient of the valve ascends slowly with the increase of the deviation of the spool and the rise in series; This type of regulating valve has S type (slow at both ends, sensitive at the center) flow characteristics at the stroke, and is not affected by the size of Re.

  10. Dealing with duplicate regulations and conflicting jurisdictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aamodt, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    There are a number of situations where mixed wastes are regulated by dual regulations and regulators. This presentation attempts to show where such duplication exists and how it evolved historically through legislative actions. The presentation includes a discussion of strategies that have been used to deal with the problems that result from duplicate regulations and jurisdictional conflicts. The RCRA and AEA regulations are really more similar than dissimilar. There are significant issues that must be worked through with the regulators. It is most important to work with your regulators early in process. The following are suggestions for dealing with the regulators. (1) Know the regulations in advance of discussions. (2) Begin dialogue with the regulator(s) as early as possible and get to know the people you will be dealing with -- and let them know you. (3) Explain the technical/regulatory issues/problems that you face at your facility in sufficient detail that they are clearly understood, and work with the regulator(s) to reasonably address them in the language/requirements of the permit. (4) Always attempt to comply with the regulations first before going in with a variance request -- document your efforts, and be honest with your assessment of issues. (5) Don't be adversarial -- remember that the regulator has the same objectives as you do. 1 tab

  11. Frontiers of environmental regulation: environmental management systems: a regulator`s perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M.J. [South Australian Dept. of Mines and Energy, Adelaide, SA (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Leading edge companies throughout the world have embraced management systems to achieve optimal sustainable performance in the ever changing business environment of the 1990s. Given that the natural environment and environmental performance have become major issues affecting organizations, the need for integrating environmental management with all the other components of an organization`s overall management approach is now widely recognized. This paper is organized in five parts. The first explores recently released environmental standards, the interim environmental management systems (EMS) general guidelines standard AS/NZS ISO 14004 (Int) and identifies how this has dealt with the regulator/community/company interface. The second identifies company requirements for addressing environmental issues. The third, considers regulatory theory to identify current requirements for an effective regulatory system and how this can interface with a company`s EMS. These form the basis in the fourth section for identifying some opportunities which occur at the company/ regulator interface. The fifth and final section draws a number of conclusions about the current frontiers of environmental regulation. The coincidence of the requirements of a regulatory framework with the areas of interface between what is referred to in the draft International Standard for EMS as `Interested Parties`, the regulators and community, are identified. (author). 1 tab., 2 figs., 20 refs.

  12. 75 FR 10997 - Cuban Assets Control Regulations; Sudanese Sanctions Regulations; Iranian Transactions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... specific license, or otherwise exempt, the exportation of such services and software from the United States... services and software. Paragraph (c) of each of these two sections provides that specific licenses may be... Iranian Transactions Regulations to authorize the exportation of certain services and software incident to...

  13. Information, Interests, and Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Søren; May, Peter J.

    2002-01-01

    This study contributes to the understanding of informational approaches to bringing about compliance with environmental regulations with particular attention to differences in the influence of information provided by different information sources. Based on theorizing from a combination of informa......This study contributes to the understanding of informational approaches to bringing about compliance with environmental regulations with particular attention to differences in the influence of information provided by different information sources. Based on theorizing from a combination...... of information processing and interest group literatures, we develop hypotheses about regulatees' reliance upon and the influence of different sources of information. We test these hypotheses for Danish farmers’ compliance with agro-environmental rules. Our findings show that information plays a role in bringing...

  14. Ligand-regulated peptide aptamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Russell A

    2009-01-01

    The peptide aptamer approach employs high-throughput selection to identify members of a randomized peptide library displayed from a scaffold protein by virtue of their interaction with a target molecule. Extending this approach, we have developed a peptide aptamer scaffold protein that can impart small-molecule control over the aptamer-target interaction. This ligand-regulated peptide (LiRP) scaffold, consisting of the protein domains FKBP12, FRB, and GST, binds to the cell-permeable small-molecule rapamycin and the binding of this molecule can prevent the interaction of the randomizable linker region connecting FKBP12 with FRB. Here we present a detailed protocol for the creation of a peptide aptamer plasmid library, selection of peptide aptamers using the LiRP scaffold in a yeast two-hybrid system, and the screening of those peptide aptamers for a ligand-regulated interaction.

  15. Electric Power Regulation in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landa, J V [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The history of the electrical power sector in Mexico, the prominent role that government plays in the generation, transformation, distribution and supply of electrical power, and the implications of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) for this sector were summarized. The slow pace of the Mexican electricity sector in achieving cost efficiency through pricing policy was criticized, and the issue of regulation versus deregulation of the electricity sector was examined in the context of NAFTA, emphasizing the contradiction between the idea of international trade and a highly regulated industry. Revisions of the original constitutional article to exclude electrical power generation from governmental control and to allow market mechanisms and competition to lower costs and increase efficiency was recommended.It was considered a pre-condition to a stable balance between competition and energy efficient environmentally friendly practices.

  16. Decentralized method for utility regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeb, M. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh); Magat, W.A.

    1979-10-01

    A new institutional arrangement for regulating utilities is suggested that minimizes the costs of natural monopolies. A mixture of regulation and franchising, the plan draws on the advantages of each and eliminates many of the problems. The proposal allows utilities to set their own price on the basis of demand and marginal-cost projections. Subsidies are provided by the regulatory agency if there is a consumer surplus. The system encourages the utility to select a competitive price and to produce only the amount of service needed. Operating efficiency is encouraged by rewarding cost reductions and discouraging cost overstatement at the rate review. The regulatory agency would not need to take action to bring price and marginal costs into equality. The franchise sale can be made by competitive bidding, in which the bidders would capitalize part or all of the subsidy or the regulatory agency could recover the subsidy in a lump-sum tax on the utility.

  17. Regulating health: transcending disciplinary boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Toby

    2013-03-01

    Health and health care problems can be addressed from multiple disciplinary perspectives. This raises challenges for how to do cross-disciplinary scholarship in ways that are still robust, rigorous and coherent. This paper sets out one particular approach to cross-cutting research--regulation--which has proved extremely fertile for scholars working in diverse fields, from coal mine safety to tax compliance. The first part of the paper considers how regulatory ideas might be applied to health and health care research in general. The second part goes on to sketch out how a regulation perspective on one specific area, illicit drug policy, can open up new directions for research. In conclusion, a future research agenda is outlined for regulatory scholarship on health and health care.

  18. Culture, emotion regulation, and adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, David; Yoo, Seung Hee; Nakagawa, Sanae

    2008-06-01

    This article reports differences across 23 countries on 2 processes of emotion regulation--reappraisal and suppression. Cultural dimensions were correlated with country means on both and the relationship between them. Cultures that emphasized the maintenance of social order--that is, those that were long-term oriented and valued embeddedness and hierarchy--tended to have higher scores on suppression, and reappraisal and suppression tended to be positively correlated. In contrast, cultures that minimized the maintenance of social order and valued individual Affective Autonomy and Egalitarianism tended to have lower scores on Suppression, and Reappraisal and Suppression tended to be negatively correlated. Moreover, country-level emotion regulation was significantly correlated with country-level indices of both positive and negative adjustment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Public regulation of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtheret, M.; Cormis, de

    1980-01-01

    The construction and operation of nuclear plants are subject to a complex system of governmental administration. The authors list the various governmental authorisations and rules applicable to these plants. In the first part, they describe the national regulations which relate specifically to nuclear plants, and emphasize the provisions which are intended to ensure the safety of the installations and the protection of the public against ionizing radiation. However, while the safety of nuclear plants is a major concern of the authorities, other interests are also protected. This is accomplished by various laws or regulations which apply to nuclear plants as well as other industrial installations. The duties which these texts, and the administrative practice based thereon, impose on Electricite de France are covered in the second part [fr

  20. Epigenetic microRNA Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, Erik Digman

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that negatively regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by binding to complementary sequences in the 3’UTR of target mRNAs in the cytoplasm. However, recent evidence suggests that certain miRNAs are enriched in the nucleus, and their t......MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that negatively regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by binding to complementary sequences in the 3’UTR of target mRNAs in the cytoplasm. However, recent evidence suggests that certain miRNAs are enriched in the nucleus...

  1. Molecular Mechanisms of Appetite Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hee Yu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity has been rapidly increasing worldwide over the last several decades and has become a major health problem in developed countries. The brain, especially the hypothalamus, plays a key role in the control of food intake by sensing metabolic signals from peripheral organs and modulating feeding behaviors. To accomplish these important roles, the hypothalamus communicates with other brain areas such as the brainstem and reward-related limbic pathways. The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin and pancreatic β-cell-derived insulin inform adiposity to the hypothalamus. Gut hormones such as cholecystokinin, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, and oxyntomodulin transfer satiety signals to the brain and ghrelin relays hunger signals. The endocannabinoid system and nutrients are also involved in the physiological regulation of food intake. In this article, we briefly review physiological mechanisms of appetite regulation.

  2. Regulating Power from Supermarket Refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Madsen, Henrik; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    the Danfoss refrigeration test centre. The complexities of modelling demand response are demonstrated through simulation. Simulations are conducted by placing the identified model in a direct-control demand response architecture, with power reference tracking using model predictive control. The energylimited......This paper presents an analysis of the demand response capabilities of a supermarket refrigeration system, with a particular focus on the suitability for participation in the regulating power market. An ARMAX model of a supermarket refrigeration system is identified using experimental data from...... nature of demand response from refrigeration is identified as the key consideration when considering participation in the regulating power market. It is demonstrated that by restricting the operating regions of the supermarket refrigeration system, a simple relationship can be found between the available...

  3. Epigenetic regulation of photoperiodic flowering

    OpenAIRE

    Takeno, Kiyotoshi

    2010-01-01

    The cytidine analogue 5-azacytidine, which causes DNA demethylation, induced flowering in the non-vernalization-requiring plants Perilla frutescens var. crispa, Silene armeria and Pharbitis nil (synonym Ipomoea nil) under non-inductive photoperiodic conditions, suggesting that the expression of photoperiodic flowering-related genes is regulated epigenetically by DNA methylation. The flowering state induced by DNA demethylation was not heritable. Changes in the genome-wide methylation state we...

  4. Insurance: Accounting, Regulation, Actuarial Science

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Tosetti; Thomas Behar; Michel Fromenteau; Stéphane Ménart

    2001-01-01

    We shall be examining the following topics: (i) basic frameworks for accounting and for statutory insurance rules; and (ii) actuarial principles of insurance; for both life and nonlife (i.e. casualty and property) insurance.Section 1 introduces insurance terminology, regarding what an operation must include in order to be an insurance operation (the legal, statistical, financial or economic aspects), and introduces the accounting and regulation frameworks and the two actuarial models of insur...

  5. Radiation Safety (Qualifications) Regulations 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    These Regulations, promulgated pursuant to the provisions of the Radiation Safety Act, 1975-1979, require persons engaged in activities involving radiation to pass a radiation safety examination or to possess an approved qualification in radiation. The National Health and Medical Research Council is authorised to exempt persons from compliance with these requirements or, conversely, to impose such requirements on persons other than those designated. (NEA) [fr

  6. Illiquidity, insolvency, and banking regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Jin

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a compact framework for banking regulation analysis in the presence of uncertainty between systemic liquidity and solvency shocks. Extending the work by Cao & Illing (2009a, b), it is shown that systemic liquidity shortage arises endogenously as part of the inferior mixed strategy equilibrium. The paper compares dierent traditional regulatory policies which intend to fix the ineciencies, and argues that the co-existence of illiquidity and insolvency problems adds extra ...

  7. Radioactive waste management and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willrich, M.

    1976-12-01

    The following conclusions are reached: (1) safe management of post-fission radioactive waste is already a present necessity and an irreversible long-term commitment; (2) basic goals of U.S. radioactive waste policy are unclear; (3) the existing organization for radioactive waste management is likely to be unworkable if left unchanged; and (4) the existing framework for radioactive waste regulation is likely to be ineffective if left unchanged

  8. Regulators of Tfh cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajendra Motiram Jogdand

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The follicular helper T (Tfh cells help is critical for activation of B cells, antibody class switching and germinal center formation. The Tfh cells are characterized by the expression of CXCR5, ICOS, PD-1, Bcl-6, and IL-21. They are involved in clearing infections and are adversely linked with autoimmune diseases and also have a role in viral replication as well as clearance. Tfh cells are generated from naïve CD4 T cells with sequential steps involving cytokine signaling (IL-21, IL-6, IL-12, activin A, migration and positioning in the germinal center by CXCR5, surface receptors (ICOS/ICOSL, SAP/SLAM as well as transcription factor (Bcl-6, c-Maf, STAT3 signaling and repressor miR155. On the other hand Tfh generation is negatively regulated at specific steps of Tfh generation by specific cytokine (IL-2, IL-7, surface receptor (PD-1, CTLA-4, transcription factors Blimp-1, STAT5, T-bet, KLF-2 signaling and repressor miR 146a. Interestingly, miR 17-92 and FOXO1 acts as a positive as well as a negative regulator of Tfh differentiation depending on the time of expression and disease specificity. Tfh cells are also generated from the conversion of other effector T cells as exemplified by Th1 cells converting into Tfh during viral infection. The mechanistic details of effector T cells conversion into Tfh are yet to be clear. To manipulate Tfh cells for therapeutic implication and or for effective vaccination strategies, it is important to know positive and negative regulators of Tfh generation. Hence, in this review we have highlighted and interlinked molecular signaling from cytokines, surface receptors, transcription factors, ubiquitin Ligase and miRNA as positive and negative regulators for Tfh differentiation.

  9. Regulation of eucaryotic gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent, R.; Ptashne, M.S

    1989-05-23

    This patent describes a method of regulating the expression of a gene in a eucaryotic cell. The method consists of: providing in the eucaryotic cell, a peptide, derived from or substantially similar to a peptide of a procaryotic cell able to bind to DNA upstream from or within the gene, the amount of the peptide being sufficient to bind to the gene and thereby control expression of the gene.

  10. On self regulation and laughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

      Abstract: The paper addresses the new premises for being a professional in the increasing virtual reality of universities. The new premises are being exemplified with the expansion of the professional duties of the university scholar to extend beyond merely acting as a disseminator of knowledge...... that video streaming increases self regulation and laughter. The discussions are based on empirical material in relation to both video streamed teaching sessions and online discussions....

  11. Self-regulation: the need to succeed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, G.C.

    1985-01-01

    The nuclear industry has long complained that it is over-regulated. Others - including the regulator - are now beginning to accept this complaint and acknowledge that perhaps the industry is over regulated and something should be done to provide relief. It is clear that regulation will not simply go away. The industry is perceived by some as one that cannot be trusted and must be closely regulated or serious health and safety consequences will result. Headlines claiming coverup of design deficiencies, allegations concerning construction problems, cheating on exams, mismanagement, intimidation of QA/QC personnel, etc., do little to dispel these concerns for the layman. This paper looks at two areas that must be considered in attempting to decrease the amount of regulator-imposed activities and increase self-regulation: 1) establish greater trust and confidence in the industry's ability to do a good job and be responsible for self-regulation; and 2) establish industry initiatives to regulate itself

  12. Circadian Regulation of Glutamate Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donají Chi-Castañeda

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available L-glutamate is the major excitatory amino acid in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS. This neurotransmitter is essential for higher brain functions such as learning, cognition and memory. A tight regulation of extra-synaptic glutamate levels is needed to prevent a neurotoxic insult. Glutamate removal from the synaptic cleft is carried out by a family of sodium-dependent high-affinity transporters, collectively known as excitatory amino acid transporters. Dysfunction of glutamate transporters is generally involved in acute neuronal injury and neurodegenerative diseases, so characterizing and understanding the mechanisms that lead to the development of these disorders is an important goal in the design of novel treatments for the neurodegenerative diseases. Increasing evidence indicates glutamate transporters are controlled by the circadian system in direct and indirect manners, so in this contribution we focus on the mechanisms of circadian regulation (transcriptional, translational, post-translational and post-transcriptional regulation of glutamate transport in neuronal and glial cells, and their consequence in brain function.

  13. Redox regulation of plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considine, Michael J; Foyer, Christine H

    2014-09-20

    We provide a conceptual framework for the interactions between the cellular redox signaling hub and the phytohormone signaling network that controls plant growth and development to maximize plant productivity under stress-free situations, while limiting growth and altering development on exposure to stress. Enhanced cellular oxidation plays a key role in the regulation of plant growth and stress responses. Oxidative signals or cycles of oxidation and reduction are crucial for the alleviation of dormancy and quiescence, activating the cell cycle and triggering genetic and epigenetic control that underpin growth and differentiation responses to changing environmental conditions. The redox signaling hub interfaces directly with the phytohormone network in the synergistic control of growth and its modulation in response to environmental stress, but a few components have been identified. Accumulating evidence points to a complex interplay of phytohormone and redox controls that operate at multiple levels. For simplicity, we focus here on redox-dependent processes that control root growth and development and bud burst. The multiple roles of reactive oxygen species in the control of plant growth and development have been identified, but increasing emphasis should now be placed on the functions of redox-regulated proteins, along with the central roles of reductants such as NAD(P)H, thioredoxins, glutathione, glutaredoxins, peroxiredoxins, ascorbate, and reduced ferredoxin in the regulation of the genetic and epigenetic factors that modulate the growth and vigor of crop plants, particularly within an agricultural context.

  14. Neuroendocrine Regulation of Maternal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The expression of maternal behavior in mammals is regulated by the developmental and experiential events over a female’s lifetime. In this review the relationships between the endocrine and neural systems that play key roles in these developmental and experiential that affect both the establishment and maintenance of maternal care are presented. The involvement of the hormones estrogen, progesterone, and lactogens are discussed in the context of ligand, receptor, and gene activity in rodents and to a lesser extent in higher mammals. The roles of neuroendocrine factors, including oxytocin, vasopressin, classical neurotransmitters, and other neural gene products that regulate aspects of maternal care are set forth, and the interactions of hormones with central nervous system mediators of maternal behavior are discussed. The impact of prior developmental factors, including epigenetic events, and maternal experience on subsequent maternal care are assessed over the course of the female’s lifespan. It is proposed that common neuroendocrine mechanisms underlie the regulation of maternal care in mammals. PMID:25500107

  15. Hate crimes and normative regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Milica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is primarily devoted to issues related to the normative regulation of hate crimes, with special reference to the regulations of the Republic of Serbia, which are indirectly related to this matter. This kind of crimes are characterized by prejudices that perpetrators have towards injured parties, as members of certain, mostly, minority groups, due to which many hate crimes could be also called crimes of prejudice. In comparative law there are two different basic directions when it comes to regulating hate crimes: separation of hate crimes in a separate category on the one hand, and punishment of perpetrators of criminal acts with the detriment of minority groups through the usual charges of a given criminal justice system, on the other. The author finds that, regardless of the formal response forms, real life suggests that hate crimes can be essentially suppressed only by promoting values such as equality, respect for diversity and tolerance, and by continuous education of public about the danger of hate crimes.

  16. NRC - regulator of nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was formed in 1975 to regulate the various commercial and institutional uses of nuclear energy, including nuclear power plants. The agency succeeded the Atomic Energy Commission, which previously had responsibility for both developing and regulating nuclear activities. Federal research and development work for all energy sources, as well as nuclear weapons production, is now conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy. Under its responsibility to protect public health and safety, the NRC has three principal regulatory functions: (1) establish standards and regulations, (2) issue licenses for nuclear facilities and users of nuclear materials, and (3) inspect facilities and users of nuclear materials to ensure compliance with the requirements. These regulatory functions relate to both nuclear power plants and to other uses of nuclear materials - like nuclear medicine programs at hospitals, academic activities at educational institutions, research work, and such industrial applications as gauges and testing equipment. The NRC places a high priority on keeping the public informed of its work. The agency recognizes the interest of citizens in what it does through such activities as maintaining public document rooms across the country and holding public hearings, public meetings in local areas, and discussions with individuals and organizations

  17. Regulation of cell wall biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ruiqin; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2007-12-01

    Plant cell walls differ in their amount and composition among various cell types and even in different microdomains of the wall of a given cell. Plants must have evolved regulatory mechanisms controlling biosynthesis, targeted secretion, and assembly of wall components to achieve the heterogeneity in cell walls. A number of factors, including hormones, the cytoskeleton, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins, phosphoinositides, and sugar nucleotide supply, have been implicated in the regulation of cell wall biosynthesis or deposition. In the past two years, there have been important discoveries in transcriptional regulation of secondary wall biosynthesis. Several transcription factors in the NAC and MYB families have been shown to be the key switches for activation of secondary wall biosynthesis. These studies suggest a transcriptional network comprised of a hierarchy of transcription factors is involved in regulating secondary wall biosynthesis. Further investigation and integration of the regulatory players participating in the making of cell walls will certainly lead to our understanding of how wall amounts and composition are controlled in a given cell type. This may eventually allow custom design of plant cell walls on the basis of our needs.

  18. Rethinking regulations for disposal criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.; Doering, T.

    1997-01-01

    This paper provides the basis for the position that the current U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) criticality regulation is in need of revision to address problems in implementing it for the postclosure period in a geologic high-level waste repository. The authors believe that the applicant for such a facility should be able to demonstrate that postulated postclosure criticality events will not cause unacceptable risk of deleterious effects on public health and safety. In addition, the applicant should be expected to take practical and feasible measures to reduce the probability of a criticality occurring, even if (as expected) the consequences of such a criticality for repository performance and public health and safety would be negligible. This approach, while recognizing the probabilistic nature of analyses of events and conditions in the distant future, is also arguably consistent with the defense in depth concept that has been successfully applied to nuclear reactor regulation. The authors believe regulations for postclosure criticality control should support this dual approach, rather than require a deterministic prohibition of criticality as does the current rule. The existing rule seems appropriate for the preclosure period, as long as it is clearly specified to apply only to that period

  19. Deregulation, a challenge for regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Augustin

    2001-01-01

    Deregulation and competitiveness in the electricity market invites the plant owner/operator to reduce operating cost with a potential reduction in maintenance, degradation of investment in safety, reduction of operating staff and a downgrading in research and development. On the other side, deregulation and competitiveness brings the social and industrial benefit of reducing the electricity cost. Regulatory organisations have to watch that the safety level of the plant does not go beyond the established level, while recognising the benefits of the new situation; therefore they have the moral responsibility of regulating nuclear energy effectively and efficiently and in eliminating unnecessary regulatory burdens. Regulation has evolved with time and in accordance with the knowledge gained from research and the analysis of operating experience. The knowledge gained has made it possible to follow the path of other modern advanced technologies, where risk is quantified and the system approved when the risk becomes lower than an accepted level. The regulatory use of this advanced tool is being now developed by the most advanced regulatory organisations, under the name of risk informed regulation, where the reference level is the expected frequency of core damage. Deregulation and competitiveness will not change the basis of the already well established procedure to verify compliance. Nevertheless, the contents of Safety Analysis Reports and other regulatory documents, such as Technical Specifications for Operation, offer room for improvement in the sense of being more to the roots of the matter and becoming more efficient tools in the verification process. The contents of these documents have been evolving along the time and they have become unnecessary voluminous and rather burdensome. Much work has been done to improve the efficiency of regulatory inspections by concentrating on basic aspects. As a partial application of the already mentioned risk-informed regulation

  20. Regulation, control, tele-management; Regulation, commande, telegestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In 1998, the French public authorities have started an ambitious energy mastery policy under the auspices of the Agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe). One aspect of this policy concerns the R and D, industrial development and applications of automation and computerized control to the energy systems of buildings. This RCT 2000 seminar takes stock of the recent advances in this domain 7 years after the previous RCT issue. The first day of the seminar was devoted to new developments in regulation and control (ergonomics aspects, lighting systems, air conditioning in accommodations, solar systems etc..). Stress was put on the revolution expected with the introduction of domestic computer applications and Internet. This first day ended with a precise status of the standardization and future regulatory aspects. The second day was dealing with tele-management and technical management systems for buildings with an analysis of the impact of Internet and of the sensors and actuators capacity in information processing. The consequences and new requirements of the thermal regulation 2000 and the factors of success of a new start-up of the tele-management market in local authorities and social accommodations were analyzed too. (J.S.)

  1. Feedback regulation between autophagy and PKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Quiroz, Francisco; Filteau, Marie; Landry, Christian R

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) controls diverse cellular processes and homeostasis in eukaryotic cells. Many processes and substrates of PKA have been described and among them are direct regulators of autophagy. The mechanisms of PKA regulation and how they relate to autophagy remain to be fully understood. We constructed a reporter of PKA activity in yeast to identify genes affecting PKA regulation. The assay systematically measures relative protein-protein interactions between the regulatory and catalytic subunits of the PKA complex in a systematic set of genetic backgrounds. The candidate PKA regulators we identified span multiple processes and molecular functions (autophagy, methionine biosynthesis, TORC signaling, protein acetylation, and DNA repair), which themselves include processes regulated by PKA. These observations suggest the presence of many feedback loops acting through this key regulator. Many of the candidate regulators include genes involved in autophagy, suggesting that not only does PKA regulate autophagy but that autophagy also sends signals back to PKA.

  2. 77 FR 4885 - Patent Compensation Board Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... existing regulations and the promulgation of new regulations, section 3(a) of E.O.12988, ``Civil Justice... constitutional and statutory authority supporting any action that would limit the policymaking discretion of the...

  3. The financial regulations of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    On 8 June 1999, the Board of Governors adopted certain amendments to the IAEA Financial Regulations to take effect from 1 January 2002. A consolidated text of the Financial Regulations, as revised, will be issued in 2001

  4. New regulation of radioactive materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, M.

    1993-01-01

    In this text we give the modifications bringed to the French regulation to take into account the IAEA recommendations of 1990 and the regulations of the European agreements RID and ADR. 3 figs., 6 refs

  5. 75 FR 10567 - Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... regulations, Federal acquisition regulations, Government procurement, Government contracts, Procurement, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. 48 CFR Part 1302 Definitions, Government procurement, Terms. 48 CFR Part 1303 Antitrust, Conflict of interests, Ethical conduct, Government procurement, Reporting and...

  6. Emotion regulation strategies in Patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Lisette; van't Wout, Mascha; Aleman, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients might experience difficulties in applying two widely used emotion regulation strategies, reappraisal and suppression. We investigated the relationships among emotion regulation strategies, alexithymia (i.e. inability to identify and verbalize feelings) and the role of

  7. A Consumer Protection Model for Regulating Lawyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfie, Deborah M.

    1992-01-01

    Describes and critiques the "discipline model" of lawyer regulation from a consumer point of view and outlines an alternative model for regulating lawyers that is grounded in consumer protection principles. (JOW)

  8. Working without limits – reconsidering regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langå

    2001-01-01

    In the light ofthe development of industry and working conditions present challenges to regulation is presented.......In the light ofthe development of industry and working conditions present challenges to regulation is presented....

  9. Contract & agency labour: beyond self-regulation?

    OpenAIRE

    Cotton, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    A paper about the regulation of contract labour. Academic and legal aspects as well as case studies of global union federation work to organise and regulate contract labour in Thailand, Pakistan, Colombia, South Korea and at international level.

  10. Securities regulation and implicit penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghua Chen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The extant literature offers extensive support for the significant role played by institutions in financial markets, but implicit regulation and monitoring have yet to be examined. This study fills this void in the literature by employing unique Chinese datasets to explore the implicit regulation and penalties imposed by the Chinese government in regulating the initial public offering (IPO market. Of particular interest are the economic consequences of underwriting IPO deals for client firms that violate regulatory rules in China’s capital market. We provide evidence to show that the associated underwriters’ reputations are impaired and their market share declines. We further explore whether such negative consequences result from a market disciplinary mechanism or a penalty imposed by the government. To analyze the possibility of a market disciplinary mechanism at work, we investigate (1 the market reaction to other client firms whose IPO deals were underwritten by underwriters associated with a violation at the time the violation was publicly disclosed and (2 the under-pricing of IPO deals undertaken by these underwriters after such disclosure. To analyze whether the government imposes an implicit penalty, we examine the application processing time for future IPO deals underwritten by the associated underwriters and find it to be significantly longer than for IPO deals underwritten by other underwriters. Overall, there is little evidence to suggest that the market penalizes underwriters for the rule-violating behavior of their client firms in China. Instead, the Chinese government implicitly penalizes them by imposing more stringent criteria on and lengthening the processing time of the IPO deals they subsequently underwrite.

  11. Regulation of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This bulletin contains information about activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). In this leaflet the regulation of radioactive waste management of the UJD are presented. Radioactive waste (RAW) is the gaseous, liquid or solid material that contains or is contaminated with radionuclides at concentrations or activities greater than clearance levels and for which no use is foreseen. The classification of radioactive waste on the basis of type and activity level is: - transition waste; - short lived low and intermediate level waste (LlLW-SL); - long lived low and intermediate level waste (LlLW-LL); - high level waste. Waste management (in accordance with Act 130/98 Coll.) involves collection, sorting, treatment, conditioning, transport and disposal of radioactive waste originated by nuclear facilities and conditioning, transport to repository and disposal of other radioactive waste (originated during medical, research and industrial use of radioactive sources). The final goal of radioactive waste management is RAW isolation using a system of engineered and natural barriers to protect population and environment. Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic regulates radioactive waste management in accordance with Act 130/98 Coll. Inspectors regularly inspect and evaluate how the requirements for nuclear safety at nuclear facilities are fulfilled. On the basis of safety documentation evaluation, UJD issued permission for operation of four radioactive waste management facilities. Nuclear facility 'Technologies for treatment and conditioning contains bituminization plants and Bohunice conditioning centre with sorting, fragmentation, evaporation, incineration, supercompaction and cementation. Final product is waste package (Fibre reinforced container with solidified waste) acceptable for near surface repository in Mochovce. Republic repository in Mochovce is built for disposal of short lived low and intermediate level waste. Next

  12. Regulated polyploidy in halophilic archaea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Breuert

    Full Text Available Polyploidy is common in higher eukaryotes, especially in plants, but it is generally assumed that most prokaryotes contain a single copy of a circular chromosome and are therefore monoploid. We have used two independent methods to determine the genome copy number in halophilic archaea, 1 cell lysis in agarose blocks and Southern blot analysis, and 2 Real-Time quantitative PCR. Fast growing H. salinarum cells contain on average about 25 copies of the chromosome in exponential phase, and their ploidy is downregulated to 15 copies in early stationary phase. The chromosome copy number is identical in cultures with a twofold lower growth rate, in contrast to the results reported for several other prokaryotic species. Of three additional replicons of H. salinarum, two have a low copy number that is not growth-phase regulated, while one replicon even shows a higher degree of growth phase-dependent regulation than the main replicon. The genome copy number of H. volcanii is similarly high during exponential phase (on average 18 copies/cell, and it is also downregulated (to 10 copies as the cells enter stationary phase. The variation of genome copy numbers in the population was addressed by fluorescence microscopy and by FACS analysis. These methods allowed us to verify the growth phase-dependent regulation of ploidy in H. salinarum, and they revealed that there is a wide variation in genome copy numbers in individual cells that is much larger in exponential than in stationary phase. Our results indicate that polyploidy might be more widespread in archaea (or even prokaryotes in general than previously assumed. Moreover, the presence of so many genome copies in a prokaryote raises questions about the evolutionary significance of this strategy.

  13. Autonomic Regulation of Splanchnic Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A Fraser

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the autonomic nervous system in circulatory regulation of the splanchnic organs (stomach, small intestine, colon, liver, pancreas and spleen is reviewed. In general, the sympathetic nervous system is primarily involved in vasoconstriction, while the parasympathetic contributes to vasodilation. Vasoconstriction in the splanchnic circulation appears to be mediated by alpha-2 receptors and vasodilation by activation of primary afferent nerves with subsequent release of vasodilatory peptides, or by stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors. As well, an important function of the autonomic nervous system is to provide a mechanism by which splanchnic vascular reserve can be mobilized during stress to maintain overall cardiovascular homeostasis.

  14. Regulation on radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A national calculator control system for the metropolitan radioactive waste banks was developed in 1999. The NNSA reviewed by the regulations the feasibility of some rectification projects for uranium ore decommissioning and conducted field inspections on waste treating systems and radioactive waste banks at the 821 plant. The NNSA realized in 1999 the calculator control for the disposal sites of low and medium radioactive waste. 3 routine inspections were organized on the reinforced concrete structures for disposal units and their pouring of concrete at waste disposal site and specific requirements were put forth

  15. Pricing regulations in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicoletti, G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the structure and functions of Great Britain's essential electric power regulatory authority institutionalized by the 1989 British Electricity Act, i.e., the Office of Electricity Regulation, OFFER, and the responsibilities and tasks of the head of OFFER -the Director General of Electricity Supply (DGES). In particular, with regard to the latter, the paper describes how the DGES works together with regional electricity commissions to ensure the respect, by the various utilities, of consumer price caps and compliance with overall quality of service standards, as well as, to oversee 'pooling' activities by producers and distributors

  16. Pricing regulations in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicoletti, G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the structure and functions of Great Britain's essential electric power regulatory authority institutionalized by the 1989 British Electricity Act, i.e., the Office of Electricity Regulation, OFFER, and the responsibilities and tasks of the head of OFFER - the Director General of Electricity Supply (DGES). In particular, with regard to the latter, the paper describes how the DGES works together with regional electricity commissions to ensure the respect, by the various utilities, of consumer price caps and compliance with overall quality of service standards, as well as, to oversee 'pooling' activities by producers and distributors

  17. Gene regulation by growth factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, R.; Gorham, J.; Siegfried, Z.; Leonard, D.; Gizang-Ginsberg, E.; Thompson, M.A.; Lawe, D.; Kouzarides, T.; Vosatka, R.; MacGregor, D.; Jamal, S.; Greenberg, M.E.; Ziff, E.B.

    1988-01-01

    To coordinate the proliferation and differentiation of diverse cell types, cells of higher eukaryotes communicate through the release of growth factors. These peptides interact with specific transmembrane receptors of other cells and thereby generate intracellular messengers. The many changes in cellular physiology and activity that can be induced by growth factors imply that growth factor-induced signals can reach the nucleus and control gene activity. Moreover, current evidence also suggests that unregulated signaling along such pathways can induce aberrant proliferation and the formation of tumors. This paper reviews investigations of growth factor regulation of gene expression conducted by the authors' laboratory

  18. QB1 - Stochastic Gene Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munsky, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-23

    Summaries of this presentation are: (1) Stochastic fluctuations or 'noise' is present in the cell - Random motion and competition between reactants, Low copy, quantization of reactants, Upstream processes; (2) Fluctuations may be very important - Cell-to-cell variability, Cell fate decisions (switches), Signal amplification or damping, stochastic resonances; and (3) Some tools are available to mode these - Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations (SSA and variants), Moment approximation methods, Finite State Projection. We will see how modeling these reactions can tell us more about the underlying processes of gene regulation.

  19. International aspect of waste regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nercy, B. de.

    1981-01-01

    The international agreements respecting the immersion of waste in the sea, the transportation of radioactive waste and the civil liability of the operators are examined. The specialized international organizations (IAEA, NEA, EEC) have, for many years now, been making a significant effort to bring together and unify the technical rules and legal standards. Finally, an endeavour is made to single out the broad lines of the foreign regulations relating to the long term control of radioactive waste which is beginning to come to light in various countries [fr

  20. Nuclear safety: risks and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, W.C.

    1983-01-01

    Taking a fresh look at nuclear safety regulations, this study finds that the mandate and organization of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) militate against its making sound decisions. The author criticizes failures to make hard decisions on societal risk, to clarify responsibility, and to implement cost-effective safety measures. Among his recommendations are reorganization of the NRC under a single authoritative administrator, separation of technical issues from social ones, and reform of the Price-Anderson Act. The author concludes that the worst eventuality would be to continue the current state of indecision. 161 references, 6 figures, 4 tables

  1. Power electronics converters and regulators

    CERN Document Server

    Dokić, Branko L

    2015-01-01

    This book is the result of the extensive experience the authors gained through their year-long occupation at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering at the University of Banja Luka. Starting at the fundamental basics of electrical engineering, the book guides the reader into this field and covers all the relevant types of converters and regulators. Understanding is enhanced by the given examples, exercises and solutions. Thus this book can be used as a textbook for students, for self-study or as a reference book for professionals.

  2. Model of accounting regulation in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Rudžionienė, Kristina; Gipienė, Gailutė

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the regulation of accounting system in Lithuania. There are different approaches to accounting regulation. For example, the "free market" approach is against any regulation; it says that each process in the market will be in equilibrium itself. Mostly it is clear that regulation is important and useful, especially in financial accounting. It makes information in financial reports understandable and comparable in one country or different countries. There are three theories ...

  3. Analysis of the Portuguese building regulation system

    OpenAIRE

    Costa Branco De Oliveira Pedro, J.A.; Meijer, F.M.; Visscher, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    The Portuguese building regulation system has undergone significant changes in the last 20 years. Almost all building regulations presently in force were approved during that period. Some of those building regulations resulted from the transposition of European Directives. Other building regulations were changed due to improvements in the scientific knowledge. The changes in the building control system were mainly driven by an adaptation to more pressing circumstances of practice. The lack...

  4. Regulating a Monopoly Offering Priority Service

    OpenAIRE

    Matsukawa, Isamu

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of alternative forms of regulation on the market penetration and capacity, which are determined by a profit-maximizing monopolist providing priority service to consumers. For continuous priority service, a minimum reliability standard, price cap and rate of return regulation lead to larger capacity than in the absence of regulation. A minimum reliability standard reduces the market penetration while price cap and rate of return regulation increase it. T...

  5. Regulations and instructions; Propisi i uputstva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-07-01

    Regulations and instructions for operating the RA reactor consist of the following chapters: general regulations with the fundamental RA reactor characteristics, operating regulations and instructions for the personnel on duty, regulations for accidental conditions, training program for the staff of the Laboratory for reactor operation. Propisi i uputstva za rad reaktora RA sadrze sledeca poglavlja: opsti deo sa kratkim opisom karakteristika reaktora RA, propisi za rad dezurnog osoblja, propisi za slucaj udesa, program obuke osoblja Laboratorije za eksploataciju reaktora RA.

  6. Market reaction to bank liquidity regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, Brunella; Onali, Enrico; Schaeck, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    We measure market reactions to announcements concerning liquidity regulation, a key innovation in the Basel framework. Our initial results show that liquidity regulation attracts negative abnormal returns. However, the price responses are less pronounced when coinciding announcements concerning capital regulation are backed out, suggesting that markets do not consider liquidity regulation to be binding. Bank- and country-specific characteristics also matter. Liquid balance sheets and high cha...

  7. Emotional Intelligence of Self Regulated Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Ami

    2018-01-01

    The study was conducted on self regulated learners of senior secondary school. The main objectives of the study were to find out significant dimensions of emotional intelligence held by self regulated learners. To compare the emotional intelligence dimensions of self regulated learners, in terms of subject and gender. To find out the relationship…

  8. 50 CFR 216.86 - Local regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.86 Local regulations. Local regulations will be published from time... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Local regulations. 216.86 Section 216.86 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION...

  9. Good Practice Standards – a Regulation Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Marie Jull

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify the considerations weighed in regulation with good practice standards. In this article, potential due process problems with regulation via legal standards are identified and compared to other considerations, which this regulation technique meets....

  10. The financial regulations of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    On 14 September 1994, the Board of Governors approved revised Financial Regulations of the Agency, with implementation of these Regulations beginning 1 January 1995. The Financial Regulations, as revised, are reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States

  11. Understanding Regulation of Metabolism through Feasibility Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikerel, I.E.; Berkhout, J.; Hu, F.; Teusink, B.; Reinders, M.J.T.; De Ridder, D.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding cellular regulation of metabolism is a major challenge in systems biology. Thus far, the main assumption was that enzyme levels are key regulators in metabolic networks. However, regulation analysis recently showed that metabolism is rarely controlled via enzyme levels only, but

  12. Business Models and Regulation | Distributed Generation Interconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaborative | NREL Business Models and Regulation Business Models and Regulation Subscribe to new business models and approaches. The growing role of distributed resources in the electricity system is leading to a shift in business models and regulation for electric utilities. These

  13. The theory of regulation : a review article

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uche, C.U.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the various theoretical issues in regulation with a view to enhancing understanding of the regulation arena. Special emphasis has been placed on the banking industry. The paper shows how regulation serves different purposes for different interest groups on different occasions. It

  14. Identification of let-7-regulated oncofetal genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyerinas, Benjamin; Park, Sun-Mi; Shomron, Noam

    2008-01-01

    -regulated at the end of embryonic development. Let-7 is often down-regulated early during cancer development, suggesting that let-7-regulated oncofetal genes (LOG) may become reexpressed in cancer cells. Using comparative bioinformatics, we have identified 12 conserved LOGs that include HMGA2 and IMP-1/CRD-BP. IMP-1...

  15. No. 434 - Radiation Control Regulation 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This Regulation, made under the Radiation Control Act 1990, replaces the Radioactive Substances Regulation 1959, repealed by the 1990 Act. It deals with licensing of the use of radioactive substances and radiation apparatus, regulates their use, disposal and transport. It also provides for radiation monitoring and emergency planning. (NEA)

  16. Definitional Issues in Emotion Regulation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Lisa J.; Denham, Susanne A.; Ganiban, Jody M.

    2004-01-01

    Operational definitions of emotion regulation are frequently unclear, as are links between emotion regulation measures and underlying theoretical constructs. This is of concern because measurement decisions can have both intentional and unintentional implications for underlying conceptualizations of emotion regulation. This report examines the…

  17. 78 FR 15869 - Repeal of Disclosure Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ...) with respect to the entities regulated by OFHEO and by the Finance Board. The regulations being repealed govern public financial disclosures made by the entities with respect to certain federal... Government to regulate and oversee the Federal National Mortgage Association, the Federal Home Loan Mortgage...

  18. 76 FR 79529 - Community Reinvestment Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... ``agencies'') are amending their Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) regulations to adjust the asset-size... ``intermediate small savings association.'' As required by the CRA regulations, the adjustment to the threshold... Description of the Joint Final Rule The agencies' CRA regulations establish CRA performance standards for...

  19. 25 CFR 275.4 - Implementing regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implementing regulations. 275.4 Section 275.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT PROGRAM STAFFING § 275.4 Implementing regulations. Regulations to implement section 105 of the Act...

  20. Self-Regulation in Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Moon-Heum; Shen, Demei

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of goal orientation and academic self-efficacy in student achievement mediated by effort regulation, metacognitive regulation, and interaction regulation in an online course. The results show that intrinsic goal orientation and academic self-efficacy predicted students' metacognitive…

  1. 76 FR 9988 - Improving EPA Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... suggestions do you have for how the Agency could change the regulations to be more flexible? 6. Benefits and... public input on the design of a plan to use for periodic retrospective review of its regulations. DATES... At this time, EPA seeks help in designing the plan it will use for periodic review of regulations...

  2. Self-regulation through Goal Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    self-control problems. We show how goals permit self-regulation, but also that they are painful self-disciplining devices. Greater self-control problems therefore lead to stronger self-regulation through goals only up to a certain point. For severely present-biased preferences, the required goal...... for self-regulation is too painful and the individual rather gives up....

  3. [Consideration of Mobile Medical Device Regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Liang; Yang, Pengfei; He, Weigang

    2015-07-01

    The regulation of mobile medical devices is one of the hot topics in the industry now. The definition, regulation scope and requirements, potential risks of mobile medical devices were analyzed and discussed based on mobile computing techniques and the FDA guidance of mobile medical applications. The regulation work of mobile medical devices in China needs to adopt the risk-based method.

  4. Reducing Ripple In A Switching Voltage Regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulkovich, John; Rodriguez, G. Ernest

    1994-01-01

    Ripple voltage in output of switching voltage regulator reduced substantially by simple additional circuitry adding little to overall weight and size of regulator. Heretofore, additional filtering circuitry needed to obtain comparable reductions in ripple typically as large and heavy as original regulator. Current opposing ripple current injected into filter capacitor.

  5. NRC regulation of DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhl, A.R.; Edgar, G.; Silverman, D.; Murley, T.

    1997-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), its contractors, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) are in for major changes if the DOE follows through on its intentions announced December 20, 1996. The DOE is seeking legislation to establish the NRC as the regulatory agency with jurisdiction over nuclear health, safety, and security at a wide range of DOE facilities. At this stage, it appears that as many as 200 (though not all) DOE facilities would be affected. On March 28, 1997, the NRC officially endorsed taking over the responsibility for regulatory oversight of DOE nuclear facilities as the DOE had proposed, contingent upon adequate funding, staffing resources, and a clear delineation of NRC authority. This article first contrasts the ways in which the NRC and the DOE carry out their basic regulatory functions. Next, it describes the NRC's current authority over DOE facilities and the status of the DOE's initiative to expand that authority. Then, it discusses the basic changes and impacts that can be expected in the regulation of DOE facilities. The article next describes key lessons learned from the recent transition of the GDPs from DOE oversight to NRC regulation and the major regulatory issues that arose in that transition. Finally, some general strategies are suggested for resolving issues likely to arise as the NRC assumes regulatory authority over DOE facilities

  6. New technologies to meet regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, C.; Harmon, L.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management has set the ambitious goal of having all of its facilities cleaned up and in compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations by the year 2019. This goal is ambitious both because of the magnitude of the effort required and because, in many cases, the means for attaining the goal do not now exist. The DOE's strategy for reaching its goal is based on applied research and development, education, and cooperation with regulators. The Office of Technology Development (OTD) within the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management has instituted a program to assess the magnitude of the cleanup effort and to evaluate the potential technologies to be used. The OTD has program responsibility for providing new and more effective technologies for meeting DOE's goal for compliance and cleanup. Included are research and development of new technologies; demonstration, testing, and evaluation of technologies developed elsewhere; transportation; and educational programs to produce the scientists and engineers needed to maintain the momentum of research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation (RDDT and E) until the job is complete

  7. [Drug regulation: theory and practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara Yahni, C; Segú Tolsa, L; Font Pous, M; Rovira, J

    1998-01-01

    Regulation of drugs from the public administration is an activity which is produced in different countries independently from the sanitary model they own. In the field of public financing of drugs there have been several measures to improve the efficiency of their use. However, the analysis of the impact of these measures is complex and this may justify the shortage of objectivable results, especially at long term. The objective of this study is to perform a systematic review of such measures due to the need to have information about the different alternatives before making a decision. The introduction of an isolated measure is in many cases compensated by other changes in other regulating or aiding fields which suggests the creation of an integral strategy which affects different fields (supply/demand of drugs and prescribers). It seems necessary to suggest a social debate taking as a basis the scientific information available at the moment and promote the taking of decisions which lead to a rational use of the available pharmacological resources.

  8. Strategic regulation of gas transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nese, Gjermund; Straume, Odd Rune

    2005-01-01

    The basis of the article has been the steadily increasing focus particularly from EU, on increased competition in the natural gas markets. This could influence the profit distribution between the gas producing and consuming counties which is an important problem situation for Norway as a gas producer. The gas market value chain consist of three parts (production, transport and distribution). How the countries may use strategic regulation of the transport tariff for the transport and distribution systems in order to move as much as possible of the total profit to the part of the value chain in control is studied. The focus has been on how increased competition influences the incentives of the authorities through low or high transport tariff and to what extent increased competition influences the welfare level in the producer and consumer counties when strategic regulations of the transport occur. The analysis is based on a theoretical model developed in 2005. Some central mechanisms related to the natural gas market are mapped and Norway may counteract some negative effects of liberalisation of the European gas market through strategic adaptation of the transport tariff to the Norwegian gas transport systems

  9. Corticostriatal Regulation of Acute Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Martinez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms for acute pain regulation in the brain are not well understood. The prefrontal cortex (PFC provides top-down control of emotional processes, and it projects to the nucleus accumbens (NAc. This corticostriatal projection forms an important regulatory pathway within the brain’s reward system. Recently, this projection has been suggested to control both sensory and affective phenotypes specifically associated with chronic pain. As this projection is also known to play a role in the transition from acute to chronic pain, we hypothesized that this corticostriatal circuit can also exert a modulatory function in the acute pain state. Here, we used optogenetics to specifically target the projection from the PFC to the NAc. We tested sensory pain behaviors with Hargreaves’ test and mechanical allodynia, and aversive pain behaviors with conditioned place preference (CPP test. We found that the activation of this corticostriatal circuit gave rise to bilateral relief from peripheral nociceptive inputs. Activation of this circuit also provided important control for the aversive response to transient noxious stimulations. Hence, our results support a novel role for corticostriatal circuitry in acute pain regulation.

  10. Substation Reactive Power Regulation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junfeng; Zhang, Chunwang; Ma, Daqing

    2018-01-01

    With the increasing requirements on the power supply quality and reliability of distribution network, voltage and reactive power regulation of substations has become one of the indispensable ways to ensure voltage quality and reactive power balance and to improve the economy and reliability of distribution network. Therefore, it is a general concern of the current power workers and operators that what kind of flexible and effective control method should be used to adjust the on-load tap-changer (OLTC) transformer and shunt compensation capacitor in a substation to achieve reactive power balance in situ, improve voltage pass rate, increase power factor and reduce active power loss. In this paper, based on the traditional nine-zone diagram and combining with the characteristics of substation, a fuzzy variable-center nine-zone diagram control method is proposed and used to make a comprehensive regulation of substation voltage and reactive power. Through the calculation and simulation of the example, this method is proved to have satisfactorily reconciled the contradiction between reactive power and voltage in real-time control and achieved the basic goal of real-time control of the substation, providing a reference value to the practical application of the substation real-time control method.

  11. Transcriptional regulation by Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) in pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxell, Bryan; Hassan, Hosni M

    2013-01-01

    In the ancient anaerobic environment, ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) was one of the first metal cofactors. Oxygenation of the ancient world challenged bacteria to acquire the insoluble ferric iron (Fe(3+)) and later to defend against reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the Fenton chemistry. To acquire Fe(3+), bacteria produce low-molecular weight compounds, known as siderophores, which have extremely high affinity for Fe(3+). However, during infection the host restricts iron from pathogens by producing iron- and siderophore-chelating proteins, by exporting iron from intracellular pathogen-containing compartments, and by limiting absorption of dietary iron. Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) is a transcription factor which utilizes Fe(2+) as a corepressor and represses siderophore synthesis in pathogens. Fur, directly or indirectly, controls expression of enzymes that protect against ROS damage. Thus, the challenges of iron homeostasis and defense against ROS are addressed via Fur. Although the role of Fur as a repressor is well-documented, emerging evidence demonstrates that Fur can function as an activator. Fur activation can occur through three distinct mechanisms (1) indirectly via small RNAs, (2) binding at cis regulatory elements that enhance recruitment of the RNA polymerase holoenzyme (RNAP), and (3) functioning as an antirepressor by removing or blocking DNA binding of a repressor of transcription. In addition, Fur homologs control defense against peroxide stress (PerR) and control uptake of other metals such as zinc (Zur) and manganese (Mur) in pathogenic bacteria. Fur family members are important for virulence within bacterial pathogens since mutants of fur, perR, or zur exhibit reduced virulence within numerous animal and plant models of infection. This review focuses on the breadth of Fur regulation in pathogenic bacteria.

  12. The undertow of de-regulation : re-regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Alberta, Ontario and New Brunswick each initiated steps to deregulate their electric power industries in order to remain competitive with lower electricity rates in certain American states where the industry was also moving towards deregulation. This paper considers how the original sweep of deregulation policy goals succumbed to electricity re regulation policies. The decision by British Columbia to re-examine its deregulation plans in light of the experience in Canada's 3 other province's was also examined. The paper describes the electric power industry from 1900 to 1960s, before the deregulation wave hit the industry and then proceeds to the 1970s which was marked by the oil embargo. The 1980s saw a new era of policy shifts towards deregulation and privatization activity which was intended to introduce competition into regulated industries. Technological advances were taking place in the electricity sector, improving the viability of small gas turbines and making cogeneration possible. In the 1990s, Alberta was the first Canadian province to introduce competition to its electricity industry in an effort to remain competitive with neighbouring U.S. jurisdictions. By the 1990s Ontario's vertically integrated electricity industry was in trouble and recommendations were made to dissolve Ontario's Hydro One monopoly, particularly in power generation. In 1999, New Brunswick restructured its electricity industry to remain competitive with New England's electricity industry. The paper describes the gradual pull back from deregulation by all three provinces and the measures taken to impose price controls. Both industry and consumers paid a price for major policy changes. Complete competition in New Brunswick never materialized. It was suggested that controlled competition will likely move the electricity industry in the future. 40 refs

  13. Corruption and optimal regulation under common agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Hemsley

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available I show that it is optimal to separate non-benevolent regulators when regulated projects are large. Separation prevents regulators from coordinating to appropriate all of the agent's informational rent when they know the type of the latter; therefore, there is a trade-off between saving on informational rent and efficiency, since the game between the regulators induced by separation causes further distortions when compared to the allocation under one regulator. When the informational rent at stake is large due to the size of the project, separation is the optimal institutional answer.

  14. Public and private regulation of reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, C

    1995-01-01

    Human reproduction is interrelated with privacy. However, in most countries where new reproductive technologies are used public regulations have been passed to provide a legal framework for such technologies. This interference in private life can be justified by the need to control medical intervention in the human reproductive process. But in order to find a balance between public regulations and other social regulations, this article analyses the impact private regulation may have on issues raised by reproductive technologies. It also addresses the issue of the influence of private bodies on the drafting of public regulations.

  15. Phosphorylation regulates SIRT1 function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Sasaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SIR2 is an NAD(+-dependent deacetylase [1]-[3] implicated in the regulation of lifespan in species as diverse as yeast [4], worms [5], and flies [6]. We previously reported that the level of SIRT1, the mammalian homologue of SIR2 [7], [8], is coupled to the level of mitotic activity in cells both in vitro and in vivo[9]. Cells from long-lived mice maintained SIRT1 levels of young mice in tissues that undergo continuous cell replacement by proliferating stem cells. Changes in SIRT1 protein level were not associated with changes in mRNA level, suggesting that SIRT1 could be regulated post-transcriptionally. However, other than a recent report on sumoylation [10] and identification of SIRT1 as a nuclear phospho-protein by mass spectrometry [11], post-translational modifications of this important protein have not been reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified 13 residues in SIRT1 that are phosphorylated in vivo using mass spectrometry. Dephosphorylation by phosphatases in vitro resulted in decreased NAD(+-dependent deacetylase activity. We identified cyclinB/Cdk1 as a cell cycle-dependent kinase that forms a complex with and phosphorylates SIRT1. Mutation of two residues phosphorylated by Cyclin B/Cdk1 (threonine 530 and serine 540 disturbs normal cell cycle progression and fails to rescue proliferation defects in SIRT1-deficient cells [12], [13]. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Pharmacological manipulation of SIRT1 activity is currently being tested as a means of extending lifespan in mammals. Treatment of obese mice with resveratrol, a pharmacological activator of SIRT1, modestly but significantly improved longevity and, perhaps more importantly, offered some protection against the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome [14]-[16]. Understanding the endogenous mechanisms that regulate the level and activity of SIRT1, therefore, has obvious relevance to human health and disease. Our results identify

  16. 75 FR 75904 - Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist Organizations Sanctions... Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') of the U.S. Department of the Treasury is amending the Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations (``GTSR'') and the Terrorism Sanctions Regulations (``TSR'') to expand the scope of...

  17. Private regulation in EU better regulation : Past performance and future promises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbruggen, Paul

    The promotion of private regulation is frequently part of better regulation programmes. Also the Better Regulation programme of the European Union (EU) initiated in 2002 advocated forms of private regulation as important means to improve EU law-making activities. However, for various reasons the

  18. 78 FR 31551 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Commerce Patent Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ...; Submission for OMB Review; Commerce Patent Regulations AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD), General... collection requirement concerning Department of Commerce patent regulations. A notice was published in...- 0095, Commerce Patent Regulations, by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov : http://www...

  19. The challenge of legitimizing spatially differentiated regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsøe, Martin Hvarregaard; Graversgaard, Morten; Noe, Egon

    2017-01-01

    Differentiating regulation is a promising approach to agri-environmental regulation that may potentially reduce the environmental impact of agriculture at the lowest possible costs for the farmers and society, but also possesses a number of challenges. In this article, we explore the challenges...... to the legitimacy of agri-environmental regulation that occurs when the regulatory regime changes from general regulation to differentiated regulation. The analysis is based on a case study of the implementation of the Buffer zone act in Denmark – a regulation that prevents agricultural production in a 10 (later 9......) meter fringe around selected waterbodies. We distinguish between two different ways of legitimizing: Producing knowledge and participation. We conclude that to harvest some of the obvious benefits of differentiated regulation a number of challenges must be resolved, 1) ensuring legitimacy...

  20. Fire safety regulations and licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    Experience of the past tow decades of nuclear power plant operation and results obtained from modern analytical techniques confirm that fires may be a real threat to nuclear safety and should receive adequate attention from the design phase throughout the life of the plant. Fire events, in particular influence significantly plant safety due to the fact that fires have the potential to simultaneously damage components of redundant safety-related equipment. Hence, the importance of fire protection for the overall safety of a nuclear power plant has to be reflected by the fire safety regulations and to be checked during the licensing process of a plant as well as during the continuous supervision of the operating plant

  1. SOCIAL BONDING: REGULATION BY NEUROPEPTIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eLieberwirth

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Affiliative social relationships (e.g., among spouses, family members, and friends play an essential role in human society. These relationships affect psychological, physiological, and behavioral functions. As positive and enduring bonds are critical for the overall well-being of humans, it is not surprising that considerable effort has been made to study the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie social bonding behaviors. The present review details the involvement of the nonapeptides, oxytocin (OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP, in the regulation of social bonding in mammals including humans. In particular, we will discuss the role of OT and AVP in the formation of social bonds between partners of a mating pair as well as between parents and their offspring. Furthermore, the role of OT and AVP in the formation of interpersonal bonding involving trust is also discussed.

  2. Hard work in soft regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohnen, Pernille; Hasle, Peter; Helbo Jespersen, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Certified occupational health and safety management (OHSM) systems have become a global instrument in the regulation of work environment (Frick and Wren 2000; Gallagher et al. 2001, Rocha 2010; Robson et al 2007). However, their actual impact on occupational health and safety – in particular...... on ‘softer’ psychosocial areas of the working environment – has been questioned (Hohnen & Hasle 2011; Walters and Frick 2000; Hasle & Zwetsloot 2011). This has resulted in recent British attempts to develop new publically available guidelines (PAS 1010) to be used together with OHSAS 18001 focusing...... specifically on psychosocial risk management attempting to guide and control not only management systems and related procedures but also the concrete work domain in which psychosocial risks are produced, experienced and monitored (Leka 2011). Based on an analysis of OHSAS 18001 and PAS 1010 the present paper...

  3. Neuroepigenetic Regulation of Pathogenic Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillivan, Stephanie E; Vaissière, Thomas; Miller, Courtney A

    2015-01-01

    Our unique collection of memories determines our individuality and shapes our future interactions with the world. Remarkable advances into the neurobiological basis of memory have identified key epigenetic mechanisms that support the stability of memory. Various forms of epigenetic regulation at the levels of DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) can modulate transcriptional and translational events required for memory processes. By changing the cellular profile in the brain's emotional, reward, and memory circuits, these epigenetic modifications have also been linked to perseverant, pathogenic memories. In this review, we will delve into the relevance of epigenetic dysregulation to pathogenic memory mechanisms by focusing on two neuropsychiatric disorders perpetuated by aberrant memory associations: substance use disorder (SUD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). As our understanding improves, neuroepigenetic mechanisms may someday be harnessed to develop novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of these chronic, relapsing disorders.

  4. Neuroepigenetic regulation of pathogenic memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie E. Sillivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our unique collection of memories determines our individuality and shapes our future interactions with the world. Remarkable advances into the neurobiological basis of memory have identified key epigenetic mechanisms that support the stability of memory. Various forms of epigenetic regulation at the levels of DNA methylation, histone modification, and noncoding RNAs can modulate transcriptional and translational events required for memory processes. By changing the cellular profile in the brain’s emotional, reward, and memory circuits, these epigenetic modifications have also been linked to perseverant, pathogenic memories. In this review, we will delve into the relevance of epigenetic dysregulation to pathogenic memory mechanisms by focusing on 2 neuropsychiatric disorders perpetuated by aberrant memory associations: substance use disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. As our understanding improves, neuroepigenetic mechanisms may someday be harnessed to develop novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of these chronic, relapsing disorders.

  5. Epigenetic regulation of female puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomniczi, Alejandro; Wright, Hollis; Ojeda, Sergio R

    2015-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in recent years toward deciphering the molecular and genetic underpinnings of the pubertal process. The availability of powerful new methods to interrogate the human genome has led to the identification of genes that are essential for puberty to occur. Evidence has also emerged suggesting that the initiation of puberty requires the coordinated activity of gene sets organized into functional networks. At a cellular level, it is currently thought that loss of transsynaptic inhibition, accompanied by an increase in excitatory inputs, results in the pubertal activation of GnRH release. This concept notwithstanding, a mechanism of epigenetic repression targeting genes required for the pubertal activation of GnRH neurons was recently identified as a core component of the molecular machinery underlying the central restraint of puberty. In this chapter we will discuss the potential contribution of various mechanisms of epigenetic regulation to the hypothalamic control of female puberty. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cell swelling and volume regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay

    1992-01-01

    The extracellular space in the brain is typically 20% of the tissue volume and is reduced to at least half its size under conditions of neural insult. Whether there is a minimum size to the extracellular space was discussed. A general model for cell volume regulation was presented, followed...... by a discussion on how many of the generally involved mechanisms are identified in neural cells and (or) in astrocytes. There seems to be clear evidence suggesting that parallel K+ and Cl- channels mediate regulatory volume decrease in primary cultures of astrocytes, and a stretch-activated cation channel has...... been reported. The role of the different channels was discussed. A taurine leak pathway is clearly activated after cell swelling both in astrocytes and in neurones. The relations between the effect of glutamate and cell swelling were discussed. Discussion on the clearance of potassium from...

  7. Cyberspace regulation: cesurist and traditionalists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Santos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the amazing Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace, Professor L. Lessig writes "that something fundamental has changed" with cyberspace with regard to the state's ability to enforce the law. On the one hand, the structure and characteristics of cyberspace pose some difficulties related to jurisdiction and the choice of applicable law. On the other, it raises questions about the very concept of sovereignty as we know it. This paper examines the arguments of those who advocate a regulation of cyberspace on the edges of state sovereignty or within a new concept of sovereignty and capacity to enforce the law, and the arguments of those who reject this exceptional treatment of cyberspace.

  8. Large-scale river regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petts, G.

    1994-01-01

    Recent concern over human impacts on the environment has tended to focus on climatic change, desertification, destruction of tropical rain forests, and pollution. Yet large-scale water projects such as dams, reservoirs, and inter-basin transfers are among the most dramatic and extensive ways in which our environment has been, and continues to be, transformed by human action. Water running to the sea is perceived as a lost resource, floods are viewed as major hazards, and wetlands are seen as wastelands. River regulation, involving the redistribution of water in time and space, is a key concept in socio-economic development. To achieve water and food security, to develop drylands, and to prevent desertification and drought are primary aims for many countries. A second key concept is ecological sustainability. Yet the ecology of rivers and their floodplains is dependent on the natural hydrological regime, and its related biochemical and geomorphological dynamics. (Author)

  9. Implementing CITES regulations for timber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, Arthur G

    2007-03-01

    Foresters are currently confronted with a new challenge. For the first time a commonly traded timber species has been listed on the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). At the 12th Conference of the Parties in November 2002, countries voted 68 to 30 to place the premier timber species of Latin America, big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King [Meliaceae]), on CITES Appendix II. Under Appendix II regulations, trade in mahogany requires that exporting countries verify that each shipment was legally obtained and that its harvest was non-detrimental to the survival of the species. Unfortunately, implementation has been weak, in part because countries have yet to develop a common, pragmatic, cost-effective system to make the legal and non-detriment findings. This paper recommends what such a system might include.

  10. Redox Regulation of Mitochondrial Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Diane E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Redox-dependent processes influence most cellular functions, such as differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Mitochondria are at the center of these processes, as mitochondria both generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that drive redox-sensitive events and respond to ROS-mediated changes in the cellular redox state. In this review, we examine the regulation of cellular ROS, their modes of production and removal, and the redox-sensitive targets that are modified by their flux. In particular, we focus on the actions of redox-sensitive targets that alter mitochondrial function and the role of these redox modifications on metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis, receptor-mediated signaling, and apoptotic pathways. We also consider the role of mitochondria in modulating these pathways, and discuss how redox-dependent events may contribute to pathobiology by altering mitochondrial function. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16, 1323–1367. PMID:22146081

  11. Histaminergic regulation of prolactin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, U P

    1990-01-01

    Histamine (HA), which acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, participates in the neuroendocrine regulation of prolactin (PRL) secretion. HA has a predominant stimulatory effect which is mediated via H2-receptors following central administration and via H1-receptors following...... systemic infusion of the amine. In addition, HA seems to exert a minor inhibitory effect on PRL secretion, an effect unmasked only during blockade of the receptor mediating the stimulatory effect. Following central administration the inhibitory effect is mediated via H1-receptors, while following systemic...... administration this effect is mediated via H2-receptors. In accordance with these findings, the H2-receptor antagonist cimetidine (CIM) has an inhibitory (following central administration) or stimulatory (following systemic administration) effect on PRL secretion. However, high doses of CIM possess an additional...

  12. Environmental regulation and technological innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, A.E. [Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center, Pittsburg, PA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Government policies are a major factor in the determination of structural conditions of competition. The innovative activity comprises the following: invention, adoption, and diffusion. Invention involves research and development activities such as patenting, research and development budgets. The adoption phase is concerned with deployment. As for the diffusion phase, it involves commercialization, and scale-economies. The process of introducing new technologies that are adopted by small numbers of customers in a niche market was explained. Once costs are lowered through experience gained in designing, manufacturing and servicing the new technology, mew applications generally lead to larger markets. Environmental technologies have no early adopters, implying that governments have an important role to play. However, commercial processes are not normally as well known to government as it is to the private sector. The electoral cycle also interferes with long term research and development efforts for technological clusters. A look at sulphur dioxide control at United States power plants illustrated the problem. The author then explained the reasons behind low allowance prices. Low-sulphur western coal was rendered economic in large areas of the United States by rail deregulation. Electricity restructuring was also a factor. The author indicated that binding government regulation must come before adoption and diffusion of emission controls. A summary of recent research was provided, in which the author stated that no single policy instrument was likely to properly stimulate innovative activity. In those cases where both supply and demand are stimulated by government, the technological innovation is greatest. Stringent regulations induce innovation, as do greater flexibility and greater regulatory certainty. Knowledge transfer within the industry is vital. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Microbial Regulation in Gorgonian Corals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura D. Mydlarz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gorgonian corals possess many novel natural products that could potentially mediate coral-bacterial interactions. Since many bacteria use quorum sensing (QS signals to facilitate colonization of host organisms, regulation of prokaryotic cell-to-cell communication may represent an important bacterial control mechanism. In the present study, we examined extracts of twelve species of Caribbean gorgonian corals, for mechanisms that regulate microbial colonization, such as antibacterial activity and QS regulatory activity. Ethanol extracts of gorgonians collected from Puerto Rico and the Florida Keys showed a range of both antibacterial and QS activities using a specific Pseudomonas aeruginosa QS reporter, sensitive to long chain AHLs and a short chain N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHL biosensor, Chromobacterium violaceium. Overall, the gorgonian corals had higher antimicrobial activity against non-marine strains when compared to marine strains. Pseudopterogorgia americana, Pseusopterogorgia acerosa, and Pseudoplexuara flexuosa had the highest QS inhibitory effect. Interestingly, Pseudoplexuara porosa extracts stimulated QS activity with a striking 17-fold increase in signal. The stimulation of QS by P. porosa or other elements of the holobiont may encourage colonization or recruitment of specific microbial species. Overall, these results suggest the presence of novel stimulatory QS, inhibitory QS and bactericidal compounds in gorgonian corals. A better understanding of these compounds may reveal insight into coral-microbial ecology and whether a therapeutic potential exists.

  14. Conformational Regulation of the Essential Epigenetic Regulator UHRF1

    KAUST Repository

    Pantoja Angles, Aaron

    2018-05-01

    UHRF1 is an essential epigenetic regulator implicated in the maintenance of DNA methylation. While its functional state has been suggested to be allosterically regulated by phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate and dependent on purification conditions and tags coupled to the protein, the expression system might have a broader impact on UHRF1s interaction properties. We hypothesized that the translation kinetics defined by the expression host has an impact on the folding process of the protein, which ultimately affects its structure and function. To test this idea, the cDNA of UHRF1 was recoded in order to generate optimized and harmonized sequences that were expected to alter the overall translation speed. Both proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli BL21-DE3 and their interaction profiles with H3K9me3 and unmodified H3 peptides were determined by microscale thermophoresis assays. The dissociation constants were compared by ttests in order to evaluate a possible change in the interaction properties of the optimized and harmonized proteins, compared to non-optimized UHRF1 expressed in E. coli BL21-DE3. While no difference was found for the interaction of optimized UHRF1 with the H3K9me3 peptide, a significant difference was found for its interaction with the unmodified H3 peptide. Moreover, both the interactions of harmonized UHRF1 with H3K9me3 and unmodified H3 peptides were determined to change. For this reason, we concluded that translation kinetics dependent on the expression system impacts the functional state of UHRF1. To further study this phenomenon, we expressed the consensus sequence of UHRF1 in Escherichia coli BL21-Codon Plus-(DE3)-RIL, a bacterial strain that is enriched with arginine, isoleucine, and leucine tRNA isoacceptors. Differences in its interaction profile with histone peptides were found when compared with UHRF1 expressed in Escherichia coli BL21-DE3. Since the major difference between these strains is the abundance of tRNAs, we obtained

  15. Global approaches to regulating electronic cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Awopegba, Ayodeji; De León, Elaine; Cohen, Joanna E

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Classify and describe the policy approaches used by countries to regulate e-cigarettes. Methods National policies regulating e-cigarettes were identified by (1) conducting web searches on Ministry of Health websites, and (2) broad web searches. The mechanisms used to regulate e-cigarettes were classified as new/amended laws, or existing laws. The policy domains identified include restrictions or prohibitions on product: sale, manufacturing, importation, distribution, use, product design including e-liquid ingredients, advertising/promotion/sponsorship, trademarks, and regulation requiring: taxation, health warning labels and child-safety standards. The classification of the policy was reviewed by a country expert. Results The search identified 68 countries that regulate e-cigarettes: 22 countries regulate e-cigarettes using existing regulations; 25 countries enacted new policies to regulate e-cigarettes; 7 countries made amendments to existing legislation; 14 countries use a combination of new/amended and existing regulation. Common policies include a minimum-age-of-purchase, indoor-use (vape-free public places) bans and marketing restrictions. Few countries are applying a tax to e-cigarettes. Conclusions A range of regulatory approaches are being applied to e-cigarettes globally; many countries regulate e-cigarettes using legislation not written for e-cigarettes. PMID:27903958

  16. HIPPA privacy regulations: practical information for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, E B; Lee-Huber, T

    2001-07-01

    After much debate and controversy, the Bush administration announced on April 12, 2001, that it would implement the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) privacy regulations issued by the Clinton administration in December of 2000. The privacy regulations became effective on April 14, 2001. Although the regulations are considered final, the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services has the power to modify the regulations at any time during the first year of implementation. These regulations affect how a patient's health information is used and disclosed, as well as how patients are informed of their privacy rights. As "covered entities," physicians have until April 14, 2003, to comply fully with the HIPAA privacy regulations, which are more than 1,500 pages in length. This article presents a basic overview of the new and complex regulations and highlights practical information about physicians' compliance with the regulations. However, this summary of the HIPAA privacy regulations should not be construed as legal advice or an opinion on specific situations. Please consult an attorney concerning your compliance with HIPAA and the regulations promulgated thereunder.

  17. Environmental regulations and their effects on the nuclear regulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McManus, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental regulations are discussed from the point of view of the Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The AECB's mission includes the environment, namely 'to ensure that the use of nuclear energy in Canada does not pose any undue risk to health, safety, security or the environment'. The regulatory process was governed by the Atomic Energy Control Act, which at the time of the conference was outdated and due for replacement by a new version, and by the Environmental Assessment and Review Process Guidelines Order, which was due to be replaced by the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, still not in force at the time of the conference. Through court decisions, the Guidelines Order had effectively acquired statutory authority. Public hearings and review can result in some considerable delay to the approval of a project, yet the AECB has no choice but to ensure that the requirements of the Guidelines Order are fulfilled. Collaboration between the federal and provincial governments is very evident in Saskatchewan. Of six mining projects being considered by the AECB, five were being reviewed by a joint federal provincial panel. For the future, it was hoped that the new Atomic Energy Control Act would increase fines and the powers of inspectors, require financial guarantees for decommissioning, regularize cooperation with the provinces, and empower the AECB to hold hearings that could effectively substitute for those prescribed by the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act

  18. Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have made a major advance in explaining how a special class of black holes may shut off the high-speed jets they produce. These results suggest that these black holes have a mechanism for regulating the rate at which they grow. Black holes come in many sizes: the supermassive ones, including those in quasars, which weigh in at millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun, and the much smaller stellar-mass black holes which have measured masses in the range of about 7 to 25 times the Sun's mass. Some stellar-mass black holes launch powerful jets of particles and radiation, like seen in quasars, and are called "micro-quasars". The new study looks at a famous micro-quasar in our own Galaxy, and regions close to its event horizon, or point of no return. This system, GRS 1915+105 (GRS 1915 for short), contains a black hole about 14 times the mass of the Sun that is feeding off material from a nearby companion star. As the material swirls toward the black hole, an accretion disk forms. This system shows remarkably unpredictable and complicated variability ranging from timescales of seconds to months, including 14 different patterns of variation. These variations are caused by a poorly understood connection between the disk and the radio jet seen in GRS 1915. Chandra, with its spectrograph, has observed GRS 1915 eleven times since its launch in 1999. These studies reveal that the jet in GRS 1915 may be periodically choked off when a hot wind, seen in X-rays, is driven off the accretion disk around the black hole. The wind is believed to shut down the jet by depriving it of matter that would have otherwise fueled it. Conversely, once the wind dies down, the jet can re-emerge. "We think the jet and wind around this black hole are in a sort of tug of war," said Joseph Neilsen, Harvard graduate student and lead author of the paper appearing in the journal Nature. "Sometimes one is winning and then, for reasons we don

  19. Regulation at nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This bulletin contains information about activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). In this leaflet the role of the UJD in regulation at nuclear fuel cycle is presented. The Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) is a complex of activities linked with production of nuclear fuel for nuclear reactors as a source of energy used for production of electricity and heat, and of activities linked with spent nuclear fuel handling. Activities linked with nuclear fuel (NF) production, known as the Front-End of Nuclear Fuel Cycle, include (production of nuclear fuel from uranium as the most frequently used element). After discharging spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from nuclear reactor the activities follow linked with its storage, reprocessing and disposal known as the Back-End of Nuclear Fuel Cycle. Individual activity, which penetrates throughout the NFC, is transport of nuclear materials various forms during NF production and transport of NF and SNF. Nuclear reactors are installed in the Slovak Republic only in commercial nuclear power plants and the NFC is of the open type is imported from abroad and SNF is long-term supposed without reprocessing. The main mission of the area of NFC is supervision over: - assurance of nuclear safety throughout all NFC activities; - observance of provisions of the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons during nuclear material handling; with an aim to prevent leakage of radioactive substances into environment (including deliberated danage of NFC sensitive facilities and misuse of nuclear materials to production of nuclear weapons. The UJD carries out this mission through: - assessment of safety documentation submitted by operators of nuclear installations at which nuclear material, NF and SNF is handled; - inspections concentrated on assurance of compliance of real conditions in NFC, i.e. storage and transport of NF and SNF; storage, transport and disposal of wastes from processing of SNF; with assumptions of the safety

  20. Synthetic risks, risk potency, and carcinogen regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscusi, W K; Hakes, J K

    1998-01-01

    This article analyzes a comprehensive sample of over 350 chemicals tested for carcinogenicity to assess the determinants of the probability of regulation. Controlling for differences in the risk potency and noncancer risks, synthetic chemicals have a significantly higher probability of regulation overall: this is due to the greater likelihood of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation. Measures of risk potency increase the probability of regulation by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), have a somewhat weaker positive effect on regulation by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and decrease the likelihood of regulation by the FDA. The overall regulatory pattern is one in which the FDA targets synthetic chemicals and chemicals that pose relatively minor cancer risk. The EPA particularly performed more sensibly than many critics have suggested.

  1. Endogenous vs. exogenous regulations in the commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abatayo, Anna Lou; Lynham, John

    2016-01-01

    It is widely believed that there is strong experimental evidence to support the idea that exogenously imposed regulations crowd out the intrinsic motivations of common pool resource (CPR) users to refrain from over-harvesting. We introduce a novel experimental design that attempts to disentangle...... potential confounds in previous experiments. A key feature of our experimental design is to have the exact same regulations chosen endogenously as those that are imposed exogenously. When we compare the same regulations chosen endogenously to those externally imposed, we observe no differences in extraction...... endogenous regulations with communication and exogenous regulations without communication. Our results suggest that externally imposed regulations do not crowd out intrinsic motivations in the lab and they confirm that communication facilitates cooperation to reduce extraction....

  2. Cap and trade offsets regulation - consultation paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Due to increasing concerns about the environment, British Columbia has committed to reducing its 2007 greenhouse gas emissions levels by 33% in 2020 and 80% in 2050. To reach those objectives, emissions trading and offset regulations are being developed by the Climate Action Secretariat. The aim of this document is to present a first draft of the regulations to the various stakeholders, including First Nations and the general public, together with the proposed offset eligibility criteria and related process, and to get their feedback. This document is itself part of the 5-phase process of developing the regulations. Following the 45 days during which comments on the proposed regulation were sought, the climate action secretariat will complete legal drafting of the regulations, drawing on help from this stakeholder input, and the regulation will subsequently be implemented. An accompanying response form was attached to this consultation paper.

  3. The regulations of the Nuclear Technology Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzer, W.

    1984-01-01

    The work of the Nuclear Technology Committee (NTC) is characterised by the key words 'safety related regulations' and 'nuclear technology'. The rationalisation effect desired from regulations and the not unlimited number of experts qualified for working out regulations, make it necessary to establish priorities. The NTC has almost exclusively worked out regulations for nuclear powerstations and mainly for light water reactors. The program defined at present seems to cover the most important areas. Future developments can be foreseen in the execution of the part of the program not yet concluded, the maintenance of the regulations and, depending on the development of nuclear technology, the greater inclusion of the HTR and possibly the expansion of the regulations to fast breeder reactors and plant of the fuel circuit. (orig./HSCH) [de

  4. Self-regulation in the mining industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinding, Knud; Peck, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Many industries have established their own systems for self-regulation. They often do so when companies involved in the industry operate in countries where financial, technical, environmental and social regulation is weak and when the industry is challenged by legitimacy issues related to behaviour...... in one of these areas. One industry that has progressed unevenly down the road of self-regulation in these areas is mining. Developing self-regulation for mines and mining companies involves difficult questions of scope, rules, membership, assessment criteria and performance evaluation. While self-regulation...... may bring benefits to members, they are likely to take a long time coming; but when they do arrive they may be substantial. Using a range of theoretical and empirical results from research on self-regulation, performance rating and corporate strategy, this paper analyses the strategic and operational...

  5. Recent changes in federal PCB regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, H.

    1995-01-01

    An overview of the federal regulations dealing with PCBs, the draft PCB Transformer Decontamination Standards and Protocols, and the Practice of Ballast Splitting was given. Answers were provided to practical questions concerning the regulations, specifically, responsibility for storage, labelling requirements, waste export regulations, treatment and destruction standards, transformer decontamination, decontamination standards, and the practice of ballast splitting into PCB and non-PCB materials. Details of sampling procedures and sample handling were also described

  6. Global approaches to regulating electronic cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Awopegba, Ayodeji; De Le?n, Elaine; Cohen, Joanna E

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Classify and describe the policy approaches used by countries to regulate e-cigarettes. Methods National policies regulating e-cigarettes were identified by (1) conducting web searches on Ministry of Health websites, and (2) broad web searches. The mechanisms used to regulate e-cigarettes were classified as new/amended laws, or existing laws. The policy domains identified include restrictions or prohibitions on product: sale, manufacturing, importation, distribution, use, product d...

  7. Circuit Regulates Speed Of dc Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Charles; Padden, Robin; Brown, Floyd A., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Driving circuit regulates speed of small dc permanent-magnet motor in tape recorder. Two nested feedback loops maintain speed within 1 percent of constant value. Inner loop provides coarse regulation, while outer loop removes most of variation in speed that remains in the presence of regulation by the inner loop. Compares speed of motor with commanded speed and adjusts current supplied to motor accordingly.

  8. New storm water regulations impact industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemar, C.

    1991-01-01

    In November 1990, new Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations aimed at governing the discharge of storm water from industrial facilities became effective. Because some industrial runoff contains toxics and other pollutants, the EPA considers storm water a major source of water contamination. The new regulations will have a profound impact on the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit requirements for industry. This paper summarizes the new storm water regulations, focusing on the requirements for industrial facilities. It also presents suggestions for compliance

  9. The staff regulations of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Following the first comprehensive review of the Provisional Staff Regulations conducted by the Secretariat, the Board of Governors approved on 12 June 2002 amendments to the Provisional Staff Regulations including the removal of the attribute 'provisional' from their title. The revised Staff Regulations of the Agency are set forth in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. There is a subject index at the end of the document

  10. Medical devices regulations, standards and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ramakrishna, Seeram; Wang, Charlene

    2015-01-01

    Medical Devices and Regulations: Standards and Practices will shed light on the importance of regulations and standards among all stakeholders, bioengineering designers, biomaterial scientists and researchers to enable development of future medical devices. Based on the authors' practical experience, this book provides a concise, practical guide on key issues and processes in developing new medical devices to meet international regulatory requirements and standards. Provides readers with a global perspective on medical device regulationsConcise and comprehensive information on how to desig

  11. Legal regulation of treatment of wild animals

    OpenAIRE

    Kolečkářová, Eliška

    2014-01-01

    The diploma thesis deals with the legal regulation of the treatment with wild animals. It compares different terms used in legal regulation of protection of animals. It specified differences between concept of an animal in private law and public law. The diploma thesis is focused on possibilities of gaining ownership to the wild animals, proving origin of animals bred in human care. It concerns with legal regulation of treatment with handicap animals. The diploma thesis analyzes preparation a...

  12. Radioactive waste management and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willrich, M.; Lester, R.K.; Greenberg, S.C.; Mitchell, H.C.; Walker, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Purpose of this book is to assist in developing public policy and institutions for the safe management of radioactive waste, currently and long term. Both high-level waste and low-level waste containing transuranium elements are covered. The following conclusions are drawn: the safe management of post-fission radioactive waste is already a present necessity and an irreversible long-term commitment; the basic goals of U.S. radioactive waste policy are unclear; the existing organization for radioactive waste management is likely to be unworkable if left unchanged; and the existing framework for radioactive waste regulation is likely to be ineffective if left unchanged. The following recommendations are made: a national Radioactive Waste Authority should be established as a federally chartered public corporation; with NRC as the primary agency, a comprehensive regulatory framework should be established to assure the safety of all radioactive waste management operations under U.S. jurisdiction or control; ERDA should continue to have primary government responsibility for R and D and demonstration of radioactive waste technology; and the U.S. government should propose that an international Radioactive Waste Commission be established under the IAEA

  13. Regulation of pulpal blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.

    1985-01-01

    The regulation of blood flow of the dental pulp was investigated in dogs and rats anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital. Pulpal blood flow was altered by variations of local and systemic hemodynamics. Macrocirculatory blood flow (ml/min/100 g) in the dental pulp was measured with both the 133 Xe washout and the 15-microns radioisotope-labeled microsphere injection methods on the canine teeth of dogs, to provide a comparison of the two methods in the same tooth. Microcirculatory studies were conducted in the rat incisor tooth with microscopic determination of the vascular pattern, RBC velocity, and intravascular volumetric flow distribution. Pulpal resistance vessels have alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors. Activation of alpha-receptors by intra-arterial injection of norepinephrine (NE) caused both a reduction in macrocirculatory Qp in dogs and decreases in arteriolar and venular diameters and intravascular volumetric flow (Qi) in rats. These responses were blocked by the alpha-antagonist PBZ. Activation of beta-receptors by intra-arterial injection of isoproterenal (ISO) caused a paradoxical reduction of Qp in dogs. In rats, ISO caused a transient increase in arteriolar Qi followed by a flow reduction; arteriolar dilation was accompanied by venular constriction. These macrocirculatory and microcirculatory responses to ISO were blocked by the alpha-antagonist propranolol

  14. Kyoto : implications for utility regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunsky, P.

    2003-01-01

    The author provided a historical perspective of energy use and the role of carbon in the western hemisphere by displaying a series of graphs showing carbon intensity of energy, carbon emissions from energy, and the long path to green power. The 1990s represented a decade of progress. Almost three times as much wind capacity as nuclear capacity was added worldwide in 2001. The main challenge for the 21st century will be to bring under-developed countries into the fold while perpetuating the economic and human progress of the twentieth century. It was emphasized that environmental damage caused by utilities must be reversed. The contemporary context for the Kyoto Protocol was reviewed. Canada's commitment under the Kyoto Protocol is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 6 per cent below 1990 levels. The challenge for utility regulators to meet this commitment was examined. The costs are not entirely excessive. Some of the regulatory issues were discussed, namely revising a broad rate making framework, cost recovery and others. The Kyoto compliance plan was also reviewed with reference to internal options, external options, identification of regulatory barriers, and consideration of greenhouse gas credit markets. figs

  15. Regulating tritium in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluke, R.

    1994-01-01

    This article incorporates an article by E. Koehl from an internal Ontario Hydro publication, and a letter from the Joint Committee of Health and Safety of the Royal Society of Canada and the Canadian Academy of Engineering, submitted to the Ontario Minister of the Environment and Energy. The Advisory Committee on Environmental Standards had recommended that the limit for tritium in Ontario drinking water be reduced from 40,000 to 100 Bq/L, with a further reduction to 20 in five years. Some facts and figures are adduced to show that the effect of tritium in drinking water in Ontario is negligible compared to the effect of background radiation. The risk from tritium to the people of Ontario is undetectably small, and the attempt to estimate this risk by linear extrapolation is extremely dubious. Regulation entails social and economic costs, and the government ought to ensure that the benefits exceed the costs. The costs translate into nothing less than wasted opportunity to save lives in other ways. 3 refs

  16. Regulation of microgeneration and microgrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moises Costa, Paulo; Matos, Manuel A.; Pecas Lopes, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The concept of microgrid (μGrid) has been emerging as a way to integrate microgeneration (μG) in low-voltage (LV) networks and simultaneously improve its potential benefits. Technical requirements to connect μgrids to LV networks have been studied in order to make this concept technologically feasible and safe to operate. However, the regulatory framework for economic integration of μG and μGrids on distribution systems, despite being crucial, is still an open issue. The main purpose of this paper is to contribute for the development of an appropriate economic regulation framework that removes the barriers to μG and μGrid development. To do so, the relevant costs and benefits resulting from the establishment of μG and μGrid are identified and a methodology for sharing those costs and benefits among the involved economic agents is presented. The only pre-requisite of such a methodology is the existence of a net benefit to all economic agents

  17. Good radiopharmacy practice and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremer, O.

    1998-01-01

    Production, control, distribution and clinical application of radiopharmaceuticals have not been subject to the same regulations and legislation developed for conventional pharmaceutical products. Generally the production of radiopharmaceuticals have started up at national nuclear energy research centres, where the products have been regarded more as radioactive tracers than pharmaceutical products. Gradually pharmaceutical philosophy and requirements have been introduced in the field and necessary changes in legislation have been introduced. The registration process to obtain official market authorisation for a radiopharmaceutical have been introduced in most countries. This process of registration is constantly changing with regards to the amount and the type of documentation required by the health authorities. Correspondingly the general requirements for the systems applied in pharmacy for the production, control, quality assurance and medical application have also become an integral part of the field of radiopharmacy. Is the present situation generally satisfactory? The ever increasing demands leads to increasing costs and thereby higher prices on the products for the end users. Do the present requirements generally ensure that the radiopharmaceuticals applied are safe and effective for the patient? (author)

  18. Regulation of microgeneration and microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moises Costa, Paulo [Escola Superior Tecnologia Viseu, Instituto Politecnico Viseu, Campus Politecnico Repeses, 3504-510 Viseu (Portugal)], E-mail: paulomoises@elect.estv.ipv.pt; Matos, Manuel A.; Pecas Lopes, J.A. [INESC Porto, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal)

    2008-10-15

    The concept of microgrid ({mu}Grid) has been emerging as a way to integrate microgeneration ({mu}G) in low-voltage (LV) networks and simultaneously improve its potential benefits. Technical requirements to connect {mu}grids to LV networks have been studied in order to make this concept technologically feasible and safe to operate. However, the regulatory framework for economic integration of {mu}G and {mu}Grids on distribution systems, despite being crucial, is still an open issue. The main purpose of this paper is to contribute for the development of an appropriate economic regulation framework that removes the barriers to {mu}G and {mu}Grid development. To do so, the relevant costs and benefits resulting from the establishment of {mu}G and {mu}Grid are identified and a methodology for sharing those costs and benefits among the involved economic agents is presented. The only pre-requisite of such a methodology is the existence of a net benefit to all economic agents.

  19. Regulation of microgeneration and microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Paulo Moises [Escola Superior Tecnologia Viseu, Instituto Politecnico Viseu, Campus Politecnico Repeses, 3504-510 Viseu (Portugal); Matos, Manuel A.; Pecas Lopes, J.A. [INESC Porto, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal)

    2008-10-15

    The concept of microgrid ({mu}Grid) has been emerging as a way to integrate microgeneration ({mu}G) in low-voltage (LV) networks and simultaneously improve its potential benefits. Technical requirements to connect {mu}grids to LV networks have been studied in order to make this concept technologically feasible and safe to operate. However, the regulatory framework for economic integration of {mu}G and {mu}Grids on distribution systems, despite being crucial, is still an open issue. The main purpose of this paper is to contribute for the development of an appropriate economic regulation framework that removes the barriers to {mu}G and {mu}Grid development. To do so, the relevant costs and benefits resulting from the establishment of {mu}G and {mu}Grid are identified and a methodology for sharing those costs and benefits among the involved economic agents is presented. The only pre-requisite of such a methodology is the existence of a net benefit to all economic agents. (author)

  20. The Regulation of Energy Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosovich, Judy; Esq

    This paper describes the laws and regulations that affect the practice of energy medicine. State law often has more impact on a health care practice than federal law, but federal law provides a common denominator among states. Device law is emphasized here because practitioners of energy medicine are more likely to use devices than drugs. For purposes of this paper, energy medicine is defined as practices that measure or benefit energy flow and overall energy in the body. This broad definition encompasses things as diverse as certain forms of exercise, measurement of meridian resistance, the use of electrical current or magnetic pulses to relieve pain, and the use of light, sound, scent, touch, position, or movement to stimulate the body's own electrical systems. What is of greatest importance in determining legal implications of a practice is whether there are any health-related claims. Two federal entities are pivotal. The Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") is authorized to protect health and safety and the Federal Trade Commission ("FTC") is authorized to protect consumers from false or misleading advertising. There are 5 things that FDA looks at: 1) intended use, 2) claims made in advertising and in labeling, 3) substantial equivalence to a predicate, 4) safety, and 5) effectiveness. A concern regarding any one of these can be the basis for denying clearance to market a device. The FTC looks at whether statements are true and substantiated and whether they might be misleading. The FTC often consults with the FDA on the interpretation of technical information.

  1. Exporting licensing regulations affecting US geothermal firms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-08-01

    This document presents a brief introduction and overview of the Department of Commerce's Export Administration Regulations which might affect potential US geothermal goods exporters. It is intended to make US geothermal firms officials aware of the existence of such regulations and to provide them with references, contacts and phone numbers where they can obtain specific and detailed information and assistance. It must be stressed however, that the ultimate responsibility for complying with the above mentioned regulations lies with the exporter who must consult the complete version of the regulations.

  2. Legislation on and regulation of nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    This work is a compilation of legislative texts and regulations published by the Atomic Energy Commission's Legal Affairs Department (CEA). It provides a comprehensive source of knowledge and information on nuclear energy law. Legislative texts published over the last forty years, are collected and analytically indexed. The publication covers both French regulations and regulations of international organisations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and Euratom. It is divided into eight different chapters, dealing with regulations relevant to international and national institutions, nuclear installations, third party liability, protection of persons and the environment, etc. A chronological table of the texts of international and national laws is also included in this work. (NEA) [fr

  3. Ultra-Low-Dropout Linear Regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Trevor; Lepkowski, William; Wilk, Seth

    2011-01-01

    A radiation-tolerant, ultra-low-dropout linear regulator can operate between -150 and 150 C. Prototype components were demonstrated to be performing well after a total ionizing dose of 1 Mrad (Si). Unlike existing components, the linear regulator developed during this activity is unconditionally stable over all operating regimes without the need for an external compensation capacitor. The absence of an external capacitor reduces overall system mass/volume, increases reliability, and lowers cost. Linear regulators generate a precisely controlled voltage for electronic circuits regardless of fluctuations in the load current that the circuit draws from the regulator.

  4. Histamine and the regulation of body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Emilie A; Knigge, Ulrich; Warberg, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Energy intake and expenditure is regulated by a complex interplay between peripheral and central factors. An exhaustive list of peptides and neurotransmitters taking part in this complex regulation of body weight exists. Among these is histamine, which acts as a central neurotransmitter. In the p......Energy intake and expenditure is regulated by a complex interplay between peripheral and central factors. An exhaustive list of peptides and neurotransmitters taking part in this complex regulation of body weight exists. Among these is histamine, which acts as a central neurotransmitter...

  5. Reflection amplifiers in self-regulated learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verpoorten, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Verpoorten, D. (2012). Reflection amplifiers in self-regulated learning. Doctoral thesis. November, 9, 2012, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open Universiteit (CELSTEC). Datawyse / Universitaire Pers Maastricht.

  6. Intermediate filaments and gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, P

    1995-01-01

    The biological role of intermediate filaments (IFs) of eukaryotic cells is still a matter of conjecture. On the basis of immunofluorescence and electron microscopic observations, they appear to play a cytoskeletal role in that they stabilize cellular structure and organize the distribution and interactions of intracellular organelles and components. The expression of a large number of cell type-specific and developmentally regulated subunit proteins is believed to provide multicellular organisms with different IF systems capable of differential interactions with the various substructures and components of their multiple, differentiated cells. However, the destruction of distinct IF systems by manipulation of cultured cells or by knock-out mutation of IF subunit proteins in transgenic mice exerts relatively little influence on cellular morphology and physiology and on development of mutant animals. In order to rationalize this dilemma, the cytoskeletal concept of IF function has been extended to purport that cytoplasmic (c) IFs and their subunit proteins also play fundamental roles in gene regulation. It is based on the in vitro capacity of cIF(protein)s to interact with guanine-rich, single-stranded DNA, supercoiled DNA and histones, as well as on their close structural relatedness to gene-regulatory DNA-binding and nuclear matrix proteins. Since cIF proteins do not possess classical nuclear localization signals, it is proposed that cIFs directly penetrate the double nuclear membrane, exploiting the amphiphilic, membrane-active character of their subunit proteins. Since they can establish metastable multisite contacts with nuclear matrix structures and/or chromatin areas containing highly repetitive DNA sequence elements at the nuclear periphery, they are supposed to participate in chromosome distribution and chromatin organization in interphase nuclei of differentiated cells. Owing to their different DNA-binding specificities, the various cIF systems may in this

  7. Harnessing science for environmental regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    An introductory chapter by Graham frames the issues to be discussed; then the following three chapters describe the formation and character of three organizations. These chapters are written by authors who have each had an active management role in the organization they are writing about: Terry F. Yosie, now at the American Petroleum Institute, who staffed the SAB (Science Advisory Board) while he was at EPA; Robert A. Neal, who headed CIIT (Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology) before leaving for a position at Vanderbilt University; and Thomas P. Grumbly, former executive director of HEI (Health Effects Institute) now president of Clean Sites, Inc. While these chapters are well written and make a vital contribution to the overall development of the book's themes, the most valuable and enjoyable parts of the book are the succeeding five chapters, which present case studies dealing with EPA's regulatory efforts on unleaded gasoline, perchloroethylene, formaldehyde, nitrates in drinking water, and carbon monoxide. Each of these case studies, nominally historical accounts of how one or more of these (three) organizations participated in the regulatory controversy, offer insight into the broader issues of dealing with, and incorporating into regulations scientific information that has high uncertainty. One of the richest aspects of the five case studies is the extensive use of referenced interviews with identified participants from all aspects of the regulatory process. This material illuminates the motivation, emotions, and goals of the different players, helping the reader to understand their positions and other issues, such as why industry pursues, and EPA and the environmental movement appear to resist, good science; what underlies EPA's preferences for one regulatory option over another; and why scientists are histant to give yes-or-no answers in accord with the real time needs of the regulatory agency

  8. Unity power factor switching regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A single or multiphase boost chopper regulator operating with unity power factor, for use such as to charge a battery is comprised of a power section for converting single or multiphase line energy into recharge energy including a rectifier (10), one inductor (L.sub.1) and one chopper (Q.sub.1) for each chopper phase for presenting a load (battery) with a current output, and duty cycle control means (16) for each chopper to control the average inductor current over each period of the chopper, and a sensing and control section including means (20) for sensing at least one load parameter, means (22) for producing a current command signal as a function of said parameter, means (26) for producing a feedback signal as a function of said current command signal and the average rectifier voltage output over each period of the chopper, means (28) for sensing current through said inductor, means (18) for comparing said feedback signal with said sensed current to produce, in response to a difference, a control signal applied to the duty cycle control means, whereby the average inductor current is proportionate to the average rectifier voltage output over each period of the chopper, and instantaneous line current is thereby maintained proportionate to the instantaneous line voltage, thus achieving a unity power factor. The boost chopper is comprised of a plurality of converters connected in parallel and operated in staggered phase. For optimal harmonic suppression, the duty cycles of the switching converters are evenly spaced, and by negative coupling between pairs 180.degree. out-of-phase, peak currents through the switches can be reduced while reducing the inductor size and mass.

  9. Hazardous materials package performance regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, N.A.; Glass, R.E.; McClure, J.D.; Finley, N.C.

    1992-01-01

    The hazardous materials (hazmat) packaging development and certification process is currently defined by two different regulatory philosophies, one based on specification packagings and the other based on performance standards. With specification packagings, a packaging is constructed according to an agreed set of design specifications. In contrast, performance standards do not specify the packaging design; they specify performance standards that a packaging design must be able to pass before it can be certified for transport. The packaging can be designed according to individual needs as long as it meets these performance standards. Performance standards have been used nationally and internationally for about 40 years to certify radioactive materials (RAM) packagings. It is reasonable to state that for RAM transport, performance specifications have maintained transport safety. A committee of United Nation's experts recommended the performance standard philosophy as the preferred regulation method for hazmat packaging. Performance standards for hazmat packagings smaller than 118 gallons have been adopted in 49CFR178. Packagings for materials that are classified as toxic-by-inhalation must comply with the performance standards by October 1, 1993, and packagings for all other classes of hazardous materials covered must comply by October 1, 1996. For packages containing bulk (in excess of 188 gallons) quantities of materials that are extremely toxic by inhalation, there currently are no performance requirements. This paper discusses a Hazmat Packaging Performance Evaluation (HPPE) project to look at the subset of bulk packagings that are larger than 2000 gallons. The objectives of this project are the evaluate current hazmat specification packagings and develop supporting documentation for determining performance requirements for packagings in excess of 2000 gallons that transport hazardous materials that have been classified as extremely toxic by inhalation (METBI)

  10. International Regulation of Central Arctic Ocean Fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, E.J.

    Due in particular to the impacts of climate change, the adequacy of the international regulation of Central Arctic Ocean fisheries has come under increasing scrutiny in recent years. As shown in this article, however, international regulation of Central Arctic Ocean fisheries is by no means entirely

  11. Parent-Child Attachment and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumariu, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    Given the centrality of both parent-child attachment and emotion regulation in children's development and adjustment, it is important to evaluate the relations between these constructs. This article discusses conceptual and empirical links between attachment and emotion regulation in middle childhood, highlights progress and challenges in the…

  12. Simulation of Darlington shutdown and regulation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    This report describes the development of a simulation of the Darlington Nuclear Generating Station shutdown and regulating systems, DARSIM. The DARSIM program simulates the spatial neutron dynamics, the regulation of the reactor power, and Shutdown System 1, SDS1, and Shutdown System 2, SDS2, software. The DARSIM program operates in the interactive simulation (INSIM) program environment

  13. Labour and employment regulation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Jens (ed.); Knudsen, Herman Lyhne (ed.); Jørgensen, Henning (ed.)

    The main focus iof the book is on labour interests, conditions and developments in trade union organisation and  political  regulation of the labour market.......The main focus iof the book is on labour interests, conditions and developments in trade union organisation and  political  regulation of the labour market....

  14. Essays on financial fragility and regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, K.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates various issues in regulation, with three chapters on financial fragility and banking regulation, and one chapter on competition policy. Chapter 2 studies banks’ herding driven by their need for market liquidity, highlighting a trade-off between systemic risk and liquidity

  15. Mechanism of economic regulation of land relations

    OpenAIRE

    Mykhaylo Stupen'; Svitlana Rogach; Ivan Riy

    2015-01-01

    In the article the mechanism of economic regulation of land relations is revealed. The main functions of the economic evaluation of land resources are: registration of land resources and environment; choices of resources and conditions usage. The author proves that the proper economic regulation needs governmental support which is to preserve the land as a natural resource.

  16. Industrial Innovation and Environmental Regulation: Developing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    What role should governments play in protecting the environment and controlling the environmental impacts of industry? Do regulations benefit the environment, and how do they affect industrial innovation? Since the modern era of environmental management began in the early 1970s, regulations have been used with ...

  17. Regulations and instructions for RA reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This regulatory guide consists of following 4 chapters: Description of the RA reactor, organization scheme, regulations for performing experiments; Regulations for staff on duty; Instructions for operating the vacuum systems, heavy water and helium systems; and evacuation in case of accident [sr

  18. Fostering Self-Regulation in Distributed Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Krista P.; Doolittle, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Although much has been written about fostering self-regulated learning in traditional classroom settings, there has been little that addresses how to facilitate self-regulated learning skills in distributed and online environments. This article will examine some such strategies by specifically focusing on time management. Specific principles for…

  19. AECB Cost Recovery Fees Regulations, amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The amendments to the AECB Cost Recovery Fees Regulations have been made with a view to simplifying the registration procedure for obtaining such a certificate or approval under the above Transport Regulations. In effect there will no longer be a need for a separate fee system for registered users of certified package designs. (NEA)

  20. Knightian uncertainty and insurance regulation decision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, A.; Su, X.

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to insurance companies, regulatory authorities or regulators can obtain only limited information about the companies' value. It hence leads to some effects on the regulation design, which is however often overlooked in the literature. This paper characterizes the limited/imperfect