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Sample records for sat critical reading

  1. Critical reading and critical thinking Critical reading and critical thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loni Kreis Taglieber

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of no use due to the enormous amount of it. The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of

  2. Critical reading and critical thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loni Kreis Taglieber

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of no use due to the enormous amount of it.

  3. Art Criticism and Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Edmund Burke; Woods, Don

    1981-01-01

    The authors review a body of theory and accumulating evidence which suggests that critical study of the arts facilitates the development of cognitive skills, including those essential to reading. (Author/SJL)

  4. Assessing the format of the presentation of text in developing a Reading Strategy Assessment Tool (R-SAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Sara; Magliano, Joseph P; Millis, Keith K; Levinstein, Irwin; Boonthum, Chutima

    2007-05-01

    We are constructing a new computerized test of reading comprehension called the Reading Strategy Assessment Tool (R-SAT). R-SAT elicits and analyzes verbal protocols that readers generate in response to questions as they read texts. We examined whether the amount of information available to the reader when reading and answering questions influenced the extent to which R-SAT accounts for comprehension. We found that R-SAT was most predictive of comprehension when the readers did not have access to the text as they answered questions.

  5. Science Fiction: Serious Reading, Critical Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigo, Diane; Moore, Michael T.

    2004-01-01

    Science fiction deserves a greater respect, serious and critical reading and a better place in high school literature classes. Some of the science fiction books by Isaac Asimov, Alfred Bester, Ray Bradbury and Octavia L. Butler and various activities for incorporating science fiction into the English language arts instruction classroom are…

  6. Science Fiction: Serious Reading, Critical Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigo, Diane; Moore, Michael T.

    2004-01-01

    Science fiction deserves a greater respect, serious and critical reading and a better place in high school literature classes. Some of the science fiction books by Isaac Asimov, Alfred Bester, Ray Bradbury and Octavia L. Butler and various activities for incorporating science fiction into the English language arts instruction classroom are…

  7. Developing Critical Reading Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Romy J.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the limitations of dominant notions of background knowledge (BGK) as neutral information and objective knowledge and of the reading techniques that accompany these notions. The article argues that the notion of BGK should be broadened to include awareness of the social processes of production and interpretation of text. (26 references)…

  8. A Habermasian Approach to Critical Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheu-jey

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the connection between critical reading and Jurgen Habermas's theory of communicative action. It proposes that Habermas's criteria used for evaluating validity claims in communicative action can be applied in reading texts critically. Analyses of different types of texts are presented to show how critical reading is done in a…

  9. A Habermasian Approach to Critical Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheu-jey

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the connection between critical reading and Jurgen Habermas's theory of communicative action. It proposes that Habermas's criteria used for evaluating validity claims in communicative action can be applied in reading texts critically. Analyses of different types of texts are presented to show how critical reading is done in a…

  10. The Iodine Satellite (iSat) Project Development Towards Critical Design Review (CDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.; Selby, Michael; Polzin, Kurt A.; Kamhawi, Hani; Hickman, Tyler; Byrne, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of Small Satellites in recent years, the systems flown to date have very limited propulsion capability. SmallSats are typically secondary payloads and have significant constraints for volume, mass, and power in addition to limitations on the use of hazardous propellants or stored energy (i.e. high pressure vessels). These constraints limit the options for SmallSat maneuverability. NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate approved the iodine Satellite flight project for a rapid demonstration of iodine Hall thruster technology in a 12U configuration under the Small Spacecraft Technology Program. The project formally began in FY15 as a partnership between NASA MSFC, NASA GRC, and Busek Co, Inc., with the Air Force supporting the propulsion technology maturation. The team is in final preparation of the Critical Design Review prior to initiating the fabrication and integration phase of the project. The iSat project is on schedule for a launch opportunity in November 2017.

  11. [Critical reading of clinical trials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aptel, F; Cucherat, M; Blumen-Ohana, E; Denis, P

    2011-12-01

    Clinical trials are playing an increasingly crucial role in modern evidence based medicine, allowing for rigorous scientific evaluation of treatment strategies and validation of patient care. The results of clinical trials often form the rational basis from which physicians draw information used to adapt their therapeutic practices. Critical reading and analysis of trials involves the assessment of whether the available data provide enough credible evidence that the treatment will result in a clinically significant and relevant improvement. Evaluating the quality of a clinical trial is a process that draws upon sometimes complex methodological and statistical concepts, with which the reader should nonetheless be familiar in order to come to impartial conclusions regarding the raw data presented in the clinical trials. The goal of the current article is to review the methodological and statistical concepts required for the design and interpretation of clinical trials, so as to allow for a critical analysis of publications or presentations of clinical trials. The first section describes the major methodological principles of clinical trial design required for a rigorous evaluation of the treatment benefit, as well as the various pitfalls or biases that could lead to erroneous conclusions. The second section briefly describes the main statistical tests used in clinical trials, as well as certain situations that may increase the risk of false positive findings (type 1 error), such as multiple, subgroup, intermediate and non-inferiority analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Critical Pedagogy Principles in Teaching EFL Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slamet Wahyudi Yulianto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to reveal how the use of critical pedagogy principles in teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL reading facilitates students to think critically. Additionally, it investigates and elaborates the benefits and challenges of using critical pedagogy principles in teaching EFL reading. The three critical pedagogy principles used in this study were dialogic education, democratic classroom, and reading the world and the word. Critical thinking skills and dispositions expected to be performed by the participants were analysis and evaluation skills, open-mindedness, and making reasoned decision. This is a case study design which was conducted in the form of teaching program. The teaching program which consisted of eight meetings was given to 59 EFL sophomores in the Reading in Professional Context class at a private teacher education in Bandung. Data in the form of classroom talks and activities and students‟ responses as well as their critical thinking skills self-assessment were collected by using video recordings, observation notes, interview guideline, students‟ learning journals, and questionnaires. It is revealed that the teaching program has facilitated students to think critically by providing four categories of activity. They are (1 offering problematic topics and reading materials that are linked to the students‟ lives, (2 encouraging students to read between the lines, (3 distributing classroom power, and (4 creating space for students‟ voices to be heard. Meanwhile, there are two benefits of the teaching program, namely (1 language development and (2 new knowledge as well as experience acquisition. However, there are three major challenges in conducting the teaching program that are (1 the lack of classroom-friendly authentic controversial reading materials, (2 the passive culture, and (3 the unpredictable classroom.

  13. The Relationship between SAT® Scores and Retention to the Second Year: 2008 SAT Validity Sample. Statistical Report 2012-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Krista D.; Patterson, Brian F.

    2012-01-01

    The College Board formed a research consortium with four-year colleges and universities to build a national higher education database with the primary goal of validating the revised SAT®, which consists of three sections: critical reading (SAT-CR), mathematics (SAT-M), and writing (SAT-W), for use in college admission. A study by Mattern and…

  14. [Critical reading of analytical observational studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Villar, C; Marín León, I

    2015-11-01

    Analytical observational studies provide very important information about real-life clinical practice and the natural history of diseases and can suggest causality. Furthermore, they are very common in scientific journals. The aim of this article is to review the main concepts necessary for the critical reading of articles about radiological studies with observational designs. It reviews the characteristics that case-control and cohort studies must have to ensure high quality. It explains a method of critical reading that involves checking the attributes that should be evaluated in each type of article using a structured list of specific questions. It underlines the main characteristics that confer credibility and confidence on the article evaluated. Readers are provided with tools for the critical analysis of the observational studies published in scientific journals. Copyright © 2014 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Integration of Critical Reading Pedagogy and English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李倩; 林殿芳

    2013-01-01

    Teaching English reading lessons is not an easy task if students are not motivated. To encounter the problem, critical reading pedagogy are discussed for the benefits of teachers and students. Critical reading pedagogy, as it is discussed, will improve the teaching of English reading to some extent.

  16. Designing reading tasks to foster critical thinking Designing reading tasks to foster critical thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Maria Braga Tomitch

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available What else is there besides multiple choice exercises, questions or true-false statements? What kind of readers do we EFL/ESL teachers, want to develop? Fortunately, there are alternative possibilities for designing reading activities which, besides being more interesting and fun for the students than the traditional tasks, can help develop more active and critical readers. A search in EFL/ESL reading textbooks has revealed that the most frequently encountered types of reading activities are comprehension questions, multiple-choice exercises, and true-false statements (Tomitch, in press a. These tasks have been used throughout the history of language teaching, and one must agree that they have their merits. However, there are reasons why they should not be used as the only source of activity in the classroom. What else is there besides multiple choice exercises, questions or true-false statements? What kind of readers do we EFL/ESL teachers, want to develop? Fortunately, there are alternative possibilities for designing reading activities which, besides being more interesting and fun for the students than the traditional tasks, can help develop more active and critical readers. A search in EFL/ESL reading textbooks has revealed that the most frequently encountered types of reading activities are comprehension questions, multiple-choice exercises, and true-false statements (Tomitch, in press a. These tasks have been used throughout the history of language teaching, and one must agree that they have their merits. However, there are reasons why they should not be used as the only source of activity in the classroom.

  17. Biomedical journals: keeping up and reading critically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Karen L; DiGiacomo, Ronald F; Van Hoosier, Gerald L

    2006-09-01

    By extrapolation from studies of physicians, knowledge and practice of laboratory animal medicine and science are expected to become progressively more outdated the longer practitioners are out of school. Keeping up with current literature and practice is a challenge that necessitates the use of many different sources of continuing education. Both veterinarians and physicians consistently list journals as the most beneficial source of new information. Accordingly, they must select from the veterinary and biomedical literature articles that report original studies and systematic reviews and recognize and respond to valid new knowledge to improve diagnostic and therapeutic approaches and maintain consistent clinical skills. Other objectives include selecting journals for general information and for information relevant or specific to one's field of research. Lastly, candidates for board certification need to read articles from journals that potentially provide the basis for questions on the examination. 'High-impact' journals should be identified, and articles should be reviewed critically. In a survey of recent candidates for laboratory animal medicine board examination, these journals included Contemporary Topics (now JAALAS), Comparative Medicine, ILAR Journal, and Laboratory Animals. Strategies for coping with the challenge of staying current with the literature include wise use of technology, journal clubs, and consultation with colleagues. A laboratory animal practitioner can become a better scientist and clinician by evaluating the research performed by others. Thorough, critical review of biomedical literature is paramount to these goals.

  18. Reading, writing, rebelling. Propositions for a renewed critical stance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doubinsky, Sebastien

    2017-01-01

    there instead of ending there. In other words, the instability of the reading is the only way to mirror the instability of the works, and to acknowledge their ever-changing form. Far from being innocent, critical reading therefore appears as a radical, but necessary action, a rebellion against the obvious......What is reading? What is writing? What connects the two? These questions have been the fertile ground for many literary and philosophical theories, from New Criticism to Deconstruction. This essay does not pretend answering to these two questions, but rather to question the question themselves...

  19. Using Content Reading Assignments in a Psychology Course to Teach Critical Reading Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Debbie; Van Camp, Wesley

    2013-01-01

    Liberal arts students are expected to graduate college with fully developed critical reading and writing skills. However, for a variety of reasons these skills are not always as well developed as they might be--both during and upon completion of college. This paper describes a reading assignment that was designed to increase students'…

  20. Using Reading Circles Strategy for Developing Preparatory Students' Critical Reading Skills and Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrasoul, Mohamed Mahmoud Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at developing the necessary critical reading skills and social skills of the Egyptian EFL second year preparatory school students, through a proposed program based on using reading circles strategy. The study participants were 44 students from Sohag Experimental Preparatory School in Sohag Governorate. Instruments of the…

  1. SAT Scores, 2013-14: Wake County Public School System (WCPSS). Measuring Up. D&A Report No. 14.14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleland, Kevin; Muli, Juliana

    2014-01-01

    The SAT is a national college entrance examination offered by the College Board and consists of three parts: Mathematics, Critical Reading, and Writing. The top score for each part is 800, for a total possible score of 2400. Colleges use SAT scores, in conjunction with other tools, to measure students' potential for success at the postsecondary…

  2. Nurturing a lexical legacy: reading experience is critical for the development of word reading skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Kate

    2017-01-01

    The scientific study of reading has taught us much about the beginnings of reading in childhood, with clear evidence that the gateway to reading opens when children are able to decode, or `sound out' written words. Similarly, there is a large evidence base charting the cognitive processes that characterise skilled word recognition in adults. Less understood is how children develop word reading expertise. Once basic reading skills are in place, what factors are critical for children to move from novice to expert? This paper outlines the role of reading experience in this transition. Encountering individual words in text provides opportunities for children to refine their knowledge about how spelling represents spoken language. Alongside this, however, reading experience provides much more than repeated exposure to individual words in isolation. According to the lexical legacy perspective, outlined in this paper, experiencing words in diverse and meaningful language environments is critical for the development of word reading skill. At its heart is the idea that reading provides exposure to words in many different contexts, episodes and experiences which, over time, sum to a rich and nuanced database about their lexical history within an individual's experience. These rich and diverse encounters bring about local variation at the word level: a lexical legacy that is measurable during word reading behaviour, even in skilled adults.

  3. Thermal Analysis of Iodine Satellite (iSAT) from Preliminary Design Review (PDR) to Critical Design Review (CDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The Iodine Satellite (iSAT) is a 12U cubesat with a primary mission to demonstrate the iodine fueled Hall Effect Thruster (HET) propulsion system. The spacecraft (SC) will operate throughout a one year mission in an effort to mature the propulsion system for use in future applications. The benefit of the HET is that it uses a propellant, iodine, which is easy to store and provides a high thrust-to-mass ratio. This paper will describe the thermal analysis and design of the SC between Preliminary Design Review (PDR) and Critical Design Review (CDR). The design of the satellite has undergone many changes due to a variety of challenges, both before PDR and during the time period discussed in this paper. Thermal challenges associated with the system include a high power density, small amounts of available radiative surface area, localized temperature requirements of the propulsion components, and unknown orbital parameters. The thermal control system is implemented to maintain component temperatures within their respective operational limits throughout the mission, while also maintaining propulsion components at the high temperatures needed to allow gaseous iodine propellant to flow. The design includes heaters, insulation, radiators, coatings, and thermal straps. Currently, the maximum temperatures for several components are near to their maximum operation limit, and the battery is close to its minimum operation limit. Mitigation strategies and planned work to solve these challenges will be discussed.

  4. Reading-to-write: A Practice of Critical Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanfang Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Reading-to-write, a term taken from language testing studies, puts great emphasis on a student-centered learning atmosphere, on the situational context and cooperative learning, on an authentic learning environment, on making use of various information resources, and on the process of the individuals’ meaning construction and critical thinking. The application of this model in class will shed lights on College English teaching in China, providing the English teachers with a new perception of language teaching: Reading and writing can be integrated to elicit more authentic language use, and skill training and critical thinking are not two separate stages.

  5. An Analysis of the Critical Reading Levels of Pre-Service Turkish and Literature Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltepe, Sadet

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Critical reading refers to individuals' thinking about what they read, assessing what they have read, and using their own judgment about what they have read. In order to teach critical reading skills to students, a teacher is expected to have knowledge about text selection, use of appropriate methods, preparation of functional…

  6. [Introduction to critical reading of articles: study design and biases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Villar, C

    2015-01-01

    The critical evaluation of an article enables professionals to make good use of the new information and therefore has direct repercussions for the benefit of our patients. Before undertaking a detailed critical reading of the chosen article, we need to consider whether the study used the most appropriate design for the question it aimed to answer (i.e., whether the level of evidence is adequate). To do this, we need to know how to classify studies in function of their design (descriptive or analytical; prospective or retrospective; cross-sectional or longitudinal) as well as their correlation with the levels of evidence. In critical reading it is also important to know the main systematic errors or biases that can affect a study. Biases can appear in any phase of a study; they can affect the sample, the development of the study, or the measurement of the results.

  7. Using Cooperative Learning In Teaching Critical Thinking In Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anit Pranita Devi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how cooperative learning facilitates students in learning critical thinking in reading and to find out the benefits and challenges during the implementation of cooperative learning in one vocational school in Cimahi. A case study is utilized by using instruments of classroom observations, questionnaires, semi structured interview and students’ written tests. The findings show that the implementation of cooperative learning facilitates students develop their critical thinking and enhance critical thinking dispositions in reading. Three features which contribute to the development of students’ critical thinking in reading are: the encouragement of student-student interaction; the provision of group purposes; and the provision of stimulus to the students’ development of thought and ideas. The aforementioned features promote benefits which involved higher motivation and involvement, increased opportunity for language use, and developed interpersonal relationship. Nevertheless, these benefits are constrained by the availability of time, students’ English proficiency, and students’ contribution to the groupwork. It is recommended that further researchers conduct the similar study in a longer period to make sure that the key elements of cooperative learning are well-structured.

  8. Reading what is unreadable. On the procedures of reading as basis of the literary criticism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leonardo Martínez Carrizales; Esther Martínez Luna

    2013-01-01

    ... Martínez Carrizales y Martínez Luna / Leer lo ilegible processes of critical reading authorized by the university institution of literary studies fully assume the systematic character of recognized codes in the construction of the literary text...

  9. Reading-to-write: A Practice of Critical Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Zhanfang Li; Chunhong Yang

    2014-01-01

    Reading-to-write, a term taken from language testing studies, puts great emphasis on a student-centered learning atmosphere, on the situational context and cooperative learning, on an authentic learning environment, on making use of various information resources, and on the process of the individuals’ meaning construction and critical thinking. The application of this model in class will shed lights on College English teaching in China, providing the English teachers with a new perception of ...

  10. Critical discourse analysis: towards a new perspective of efl reading Critical discourse analysis: towards a new perspective of efl reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora de Carvalho Figueiredo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers and theoreticians in the area of reading argue that to comprehend a text we need both linguistic knowledge of the language in which the text is written, and conceptual knowledge of the topic which is being addressed in the text (Carrell, 1988; Eskey & Grabe, 1988, etc.. However, another kind of knowledge can also help us in the process of text comprehension: a critical awareness of how linguistic practices and social practices are mutually supportive. Texts bear traces of the discourses and ideologies of the institutions which produce them (e.g. the media, and are also an arena for relations of social power and control. Since EFL students are exposed to texts from a different culture, their process of text comprehension can be enhanced if they are introduced to a critical perspective of reading, one that sees texts as historically, socially and culturally situated, establishing for writers and readers specific subject positions. Many researchers and theoreticians in the area of reading argue that to comprehend a text we need both linguistic knowledge of the language in which the text is written, and conceptual knowledge of the topic which is being addressed in the text (Carrell, 1988; Eskey & Grabe, 1988, etc.. However, another kind of knowledge can also help us in the process of text comprehension: a critical awareness of how linguistic practices and social practices are mutually supportive. Texts bear traces of the discourses and ideologies of the institutions which produce them (e.g. the media, and are also an arena for relations of social power and control. Since EFL students are exposed to texts from a different culture, their process of text comprehension can be enhanced if they are introduced to a critical perspective of reading, one that sees texts as historically, socially and culturally situated, establishing for writers and readers specific subject positions.

  11. Critical reading and critical thinking--study design and methodology: a personal approach on how to read the clinical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Timothy O

    2013-04-01

    The volume of medical literature grows exponentially. Yet we are faced with the necessity to make clinical decisions based on the availability and quality of scientific information. The general strength (reliability, robustness) of any interpretation that guides us in clinical decision making is dependent on how information was obtained. All information and medical studies and, consequently, all conclusions are not created equal. It is incumbent upon us to be able to assess the quality of the information that guides us in the care of our patients. Being able to assess medical literature critically requires use of critical reading and critical thinking skills. To achieve these skills, to be able to analyze medical literature critically, takes a combination of education and practice, practice, and more practice.

  12. Critical reading of a text through its electronic supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran O’Halloran

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A by-product of new social media platforms is an abundant textual record of engagements – billions of words across the world-wide-web in, for example, discussion forums, blogs and wiki discussion tabs. Many of these engagements consist of commentary on a particular text and can thus be regarded as supplements to these texts. The larger purpose of this article is to flag the utility value of this electronic supplementarity for critical reading by highlighting how it can reveal particular meanings that the text being responded to can reasonably be said to marginalise and / or repress. Given the potentially very large size of social media textual product, knowing how to explore these supplements with electronic text analysis software is essential. To illustrate the above, I focus on how the content of online discussion forums, explored through electronic text analysis software, can be used to assist critical reading of the texts which initiate them. The paper takes its theoretical orientations from the textual intervention work of Rob Pope together with themes in the work of the philosopher, Jacques Derrida.

  13. Using Read-Alouds with Critical Literacy Literature in K-3 Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, Wendy B.; Richardson, Danielle; Hatch, J. Amos

    2009-01-01

    Teacher read-alouds are planned oral readings of children's books. They are a vital part of literacy instruction in primary classrooms. Teachers can use read-alouds to develop children's background knowledge, stimulate their interest in high-quality literature, increase their comprehension skills, and foster critical thinking. While reading,…

  14. [The critical reading of scientific articles, an easy-to-use method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Johanne; Mercure, Sarah-Amélie; Côté, Françoise

    2011-11-01

    Faced with the abundance of available literature, clinicians must follow a method in order to carry out a critical reading of scientific articles. This enables them to decide how relevant the selected article is to the issues specific to their area of work and to choose whether to undertake a basic critical reading or to embark on an active reading.

  15. A Critical Review of the First Language in Second Language Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许元

    2011-01-01

    First and second language reading are different but they are interacted according to the language transfer theory in second languageacquisition. This critical review has a review of the sample article to show first language in second language reading.

  16. The Relationship between EFL Learners’ Emotional Intelligence and Critical Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Saeidi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the EFL learners’ Emotional Quotient (EQ and Critical Reading (CR ability to identify possible relationships between these two traits. The results show that there exists a significant relationship between students’ EQ and CR and there is no significant difference between females and males’ EQ and CR ability. Finally, only Intrapersonal and Stress Management subscales of EQ can be regarded as predictors of changes in CR scores. The findings of the study suggest that it is necessary to plan and take action for the management of the learners’ emotions and behaviors if pedagogy is going to develop learners’ skill in rational thinking and problem-solving which will be effective not only in instructional settings but also in daily life.

  17. Reading what is unreadable. On the procedures of reading as basis of the literary criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Martínez Carrizales

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to rethink the idea that literary text is a closed and selfsufficient system by virtue of the highly formalized systems that appear in its configuration. This notion has been sanctioned theoretically and institutionally thanks to the existence of literary studies as a university discipline. The 118 Martínez Carrizales y Martínez Luna / Leer lo ilegible processes of critical reading authorized by the university institution of literary studies fully assume the systematic character of recognized codes in the construction of the literary text. On the other hand, in these pages one wishes to propose that literary text is one more constituent of meaning that is radically integrated with other constituent classes – linguistic and non-linguistic, verbal and non-verbal, spoken and unspoken. The idea of radical integration of literary text in a complex process of human communication has developed from a base of the theoretical guidelines of the English linguist Roy Harris, and, in the opinion of this article, would oblige every critical reader to recognize the circumstantial and historical nature of the acts of communication that are integrated in the writing and in the reading of the text.

  18. Adolescents' Constructively Responsive Reading Strategy Use in a Critical Internet Reading Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byeong-Young

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine types and patterns of reading strategies that proficient adolescent readers used while reading on the Internet. Informed by research related to reading comprehension, intertextuality, and new literacies, I drew upon the model of "Constructively Responsive Reading" that had evolved from print reading to…

  19. SAT: a late NS protein of porcine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zádori, Zoltán; Szelei, József; Tijssen, Peter

    2005-10-01

    The genomes of all members of the Parvovirus genus were found to contain a small open reading frame (ORF), designated SAT, with a start codon four or seven nucleotides downstream of the VP2 initiation codon. Green fluorescent protein or FLAG fusion constructs of SAT demonstrated that these ORFs were expressed. Although the SAT proteins of the different parvoviruses are not particularly conserved, they were all predicted to contain a membrane-spanning helix, and mutations in this hydrophobic stretch affected the localization of the SAT protein. SAT colocalized with calreticulin in the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum and the nucleus. A knockout mutant (SAT(-)), with an unmodified VP sequence, showed a "slow-spreading" phenotype. These knockout mutants could be complemented with VP2(-) SAT(+) mutant. The SAT protein is a late nonstructural (NS) protein, in contrast to previously identified NS proteins, since it is expressed from the same mRNA as VP2.

  20. Critical Reading Discourse of Pre-Service English Teachers in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balikçi, Gözde; Daloglu, Aysegül

    2016-01-01

    This case study was conducted in order to observe and investigate the critical reading discourse (CRD) of 27 freshman pre-service teachers of English at the department of foreign language teaching at a state university in Turkey. In addition, the study attempts to answer the question of how the critical reading discourse of the students is shaped…

  1. Teaching and Learning Critical Reading with Transnational Texts at a Mexican University: An Emergentist Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales Escudero, Moises Damian

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation project examines the implementation of a critical reading intervention in a Mexican university, and the emergence of target critical reading processes in Mexican college-level EFL readers. It uses a Complexity Theory-inspired, qualitative methodology. Orienting the selection and design of materials is a deep view of culture that…

  2. [Role of creative discussion in the learning of critical reading of scientific articles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos-Aguilar, Héctor; Viniegra-Velázquez, Leonardo; Pérez-Cortés, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    To compare two active educational strategies on critical reading (two and three stages) for research learning in medical students. Four groups were conformed in a quasi-experimental design. The medical student group, related to three stages (critical reading guide resolution, creative discussion, group discussion) g1, n = 9 with school marks > 90 and g2, n = 19 with a learning in our students.

  3. Critical Source-text Reading in English-Chinese News Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯松

    2007-01-01

    Critical Discourse Analysis(CDA),a critical approach to discourse analytical research which combines textual analysis and social theories,has shown that English news texts are often ideologically invested.English-Chinese(E-C)new translators at work,therefore,should critically read the source text to reveal those ideologies by firstly occupy a reading position and then perform a somewhat less-systematic CDA on it.After a critical reading,three different types of translating strategies are available for the translator.They are:(1)uncritical translating;(2)neutral translating;(3)radical translating,among which neutral translating may be the more desirable.

  4. Reading and School Completion: Critical Connections and Matthew Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschly, Amy L.

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that reading interventions are a key dropout prevention strategy. A review of the literature connects reading skills and interventions with events such as grade retention, placement in special education, and high school dropout. In general, data indicate that intensive early interventions positively affect students' reading…

  5. Critical reading: integrating principles of critical discourse analysis and gender studies Critical reading: integrating principles of critical discourse analysis and gender studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Heberle

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Reading has become the most important skill in EFL teaching in Brazil, if we consider factors such as students’ needs in our globalized contemporary society, institutional support, teacher demands and learning-teaching conditions in our elementary and secondary schools. The interest in reading can be observed in the large number of different publications in the area and in the priority given to it in the new national curriculum parameters for foreign language teaching. Besides, several master’s and doctoral programs in Applied Linguistics or Language Studies in Brazil include research in reading as one of their main areas, specially since the development of the National ESP Project in Brazil (Moita Lopes, 1996. Reading has become the most important skill in EFL teaching in Brazil, if we consider factors such as students’ needs in our globalized contemporary society, institutional support, teacher demands and learning-teaching conditions in our elementary and secondary schools. The interest in reading can be observed in the large number of different publications in the area and in the priority given to it in the new national curriculum parameters for foreign language teaching. Besides, several master’s and doctoral programs in Applied Linguistics or Language Studies in Brazil include research in reading as one of their main areas, specially since the development of the National ESP Project in Brazil (Moita Lopes, 1996.

  6. Some Structural Properties of SAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘田

    2000-01-01

    The following four conjectures about structural properties of SAT are studied in this paper. (1) SAT ∈ PSPARSE∩NP; (2) SAT ∈ SRTDtt; (3) SAT ∈ PbttAPP; (4) FPSttAT = FPSATlog. It is proved that some pairs of these conjectures imply P = NP, for example, if SAT ∈ PSPARSE∩NP and SAT ∈ PbttAPP, or if SAT ∈ SRTDtt and SAT ∈ PbttAPP, then P = NP. This improves previous results in literature.

  7. Turkish Prospective Teachers’ Reading Strategies, Critical Thinking Attitudes and Metacognitive Competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri KARASAKALOĞLU

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study is to identify teachers' metacognitive reading strategies, critical thinking attitudes and motivational- cognitive and metacognitive competencies. 388 juniors and seniors who have been studying at Turkish langauage teaching undergraduate program of four different universities attended to the research, designed with survey method. Data was collected with "Metacognition Reading Strategies Scale", "Critical Thinking Attitude Scale" and "Motivational, Cognitive, and Metacognitive Competency Questionnaire". And in the form there are 4 questions about personal information. According to research findings, ability of using “pragmatic” strategies from metacognitive strategies differ according to gender and reading rate and also ability of using “analytical" skills differ based on reading rate. The scores obtained from “Metacognitive Competency Questionnaire subscales except “arrangement process“ subscale, differed according to habit of reading book. Especially the scores obtained from "Strategy Use" sub-scale scores significantly differed according to gender, attendent university and reading habits.

  8. STUDENT OPINIONS ABOUT A SOCIAL STUDIES LESSON ARRANGED BY CRITICAL READING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Utku ÖZENSOY

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In today’s society, the importance of educating individuals who can communicate effectively with others and who have a critical look at the events going around him has increased even more. On the one hand, written and visual communication tools such as books, magazines, newspapers, television, Internet make people’s life easier; on the other hand, those tools can lead people facing with unnecessary, incorrect, incomplete information. For this reason, the information must be questioned, criticized and investigated for its accuracy by the people rather than accepting the information as it is. In this process, critical reading appears as an important element. Critical reading means that a reader reaches to a conclusion through argumentation, questioning, assessment, using his own mind and taking advantages of reliable resources. It can be said that using critical reading in social studies courses is important in the acquisition of critical thinking skills. Reading of textbooks and the other written materials such as newspapers, magazines, articles, brochures, books, encyclopaedias by using of reading strategies helps students for comprehending, understanding, analyzing a text and learning information in an active way. In this research aiming to reveal the views of students about the social sciences lesson, which was arranged according to critical reading, qualitative method has been used. For the research the lesson materials were prepared by arranging namely “the bridges between the nations” unit of 7th grades according to critical reading. Seven students among the 7th grades of Ankara Atlioglu Primary School were chosen. These students were applied the lesson materials which were arranged according to critical reading. After the application the views of the students about the critical reading were searched through “focus group interview”. According to the study, from the students’ point of view learning the effectiveness of the

  9. A Student's Guide to Critical Reading Using APPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautman, Alison E.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of smart phone apps forms a mnemonic device and checklist for students who are learning critical thinking and reading skills. "Use your apps" reminds students to consider the importance of Author, Audience, Assumptions, Point of View, Perspective, and Scale when reading any text. "APPS" also lends itself to class…

  10. A Student's Guide to Critical Reading Using APPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautman, Alison E.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of smart phone apps forms a mnemonic device and checklist for students who are learning critical thinking and reading skills. "Use your apps" reminds students to consider the importance of Author, Audience, Assumptions, Point of View, Perspective, and Scale when reading any text. "APPS" also lends itself to class…

  11. The Relationship between Critical Thinking Ability and Reading Strategies Used by Iranian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Esmaeel Nour; Heidari, Farrokhlagha; Niry, Nasrin Dehghan

    2012-01-01

    The current empirical study aimed to identify those categories of reading strategies (cognitive, meta-cognitive, and compensation) that are mostly used by Iranian EFL learners, and investigate if there is any significant relationship between critical thinking ability and reading strategies used by these learners. It also pursued if there is any…

  12. Designing an EFL Reading Program to Promote Literacy Skills, Critical Thinking, and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Erica; Staley, Kendra

    2016-01-01

    This article details the design and implementation of a reading program in a university EFL setting as a strategy to encourage creativity, critical thinking, collaborative learning, and reading for enjoyment (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001; Richards & Renandya, 2002). This student-centered project challenged ELLs to address issues such as…

  13. Critically Reading for Propaganda Techniques in Grade Six.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bonnie

    This study was devised to determine whether teaching a unit on propaganda analysis to sixth graders would improve their ability to detect propaganda devices in literature and the mass media. An experimental group of students participated in a four week unit on propaganda techniques while a control group completed reading comprehension exercises. A…

  14. openlab reading clubs - fostering critical thinking and constructive communication

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    At the openlab HTCC collaboration, we have started a reading club in the context of academic articles on scientific computing to practice precisely these skills and to gain more knowledge in this field. This is especially important for the doctoral students in our collaboration, allowing them to better set their project into a greater context and compare to related works.

  15. AstroSat – Configuration and Realization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. H. Navalgund; K. Suryanarayana Sarma; Piyush Kumar Gaurav; G. Nagesh; M. Annadurai

    2017-06-01

    AstroSat is India’s first space-based observatory satellite dedicated to astronomy. It has the capability to perform multi-wavelength and simultaneous observations of cosmic bodies in a wide band of wavelengths. This paper briefly summarizes the challenges faced in the configuration of AstroSat spacecraft, accommodation and sizing of its critical subsystems, their realization and testing of payloads and the integrated satellite.

  16. A survey of SAT solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Weiwei; Zhou, Xu

    2017-06-01

    In Computer Science, the Boolean Satisfiability Problem(SAT) is the problem of determining if there exists an interpretation that satisfies a given Boolean formula. SAT is one of the first problems that was proven to be NP-complete, which is also fundamental to artificial intelligence, algorithm and hardware design. This paper reviews the main algorithms of the SAT solver in recent years, including serial SAT algorithms, parallel SAT algorithms, SAT algorithms based on GPU, and SAT algorithms based on FPGA. The development of SAT is analyzed comprehensively in this paper. Finally, several possible directions for the development of the SAT problem are proposed.

  17. Reading Poetry for Critical Reflection on Consumer Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimone, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Like many other dimensions of everyday life, people's need to satisfy themselves with stuff derives from deep impulses and responds to both obvious and subtle images. Ultimately, it isn't the commodities people buy so much as the behaviors they exhibit that are worth critical examination. What better way, then, to understand this phenomenon than…

  18. The Investigation on Critical Thinking Ability in EFL Reading Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Jiang, Yuhong; Yao, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The present mixed-method study aims to find out the status quo of critical thinking ability of university non-English majors by investigating 224 non-English majors from a university in China (105 male and 119 female students, 114 art and 110 science majors, 109 freshmen and 115 sophomores were included respectively) through questionnaires and…

  19. Reading Poetry for Critical Reflection on Consumer Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimone, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Like many other dimensions of everyday life, people's need to satisfy themselves with stuff derives from deep impulses and responds to both obvious and subtle images. Ultimately, it isn't the commodities people buy so much as the behaviors they exhibit that are worth critical examination. What better way, then, to understand this phenomenon than…

  20. Reading Cultural Representations: The Limitations of Critical Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertanees, Cherry; Thornley, Christina

    2005-01-01

    In written texts the culture of colonised subjects is often depicted as immutable and homogeneous. This is evident in the context of New Zealand where representations of Maori frequently serve to reinforce these depictions. This article investigates the potential of critical literacy approaches to challenge student teachers' commonly held beliefs…

  1. Monte Carlo Simulation of SATs in 2D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we use Monte Carlo simulation method to deal with SATs on a square lattice and a triangular lattice in two dimensions in the T→∞ limit.Besides that,the SAT model has been generalized in the coordination number q→∞ limit.The characteristics of SATs in the two limits q=3 and q→∞ have been qualitatively discussed.The obtained results reveal that the SATs have intermediate behaviors between that of SAWs and RWs.The critical exponents of SATs have intermediate behaviors between that of SAWs and RWs.The critical exponents of SATs are monotonous functions of q.With different q,SATs correspondingly belong to different universality classes.For example,on a hexagonal lattice,SATs and SAWs belong to the same universality class;in the limiting situation q→∞,SATs and RWs belong to the same universality class;when q=4 or q=6,SATs and SAWs or RWs belong to the different universality class.

  2. The Effectiveness and Critical Success Factors of Extensive Reading Lessons, Which We Have Learned during Our Three Years of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Yoshioka, Takayoshi; Itoh, Kazuaki

    Three years of extensive reading lessons have improved engineering students‧ reading and listening skills in English. The average TOEIC score has increased to 441 points, and the relative numbers of students of lower scores than 350 points have decreased to 14% in the third year when the median reading amount of easy-to-read English texts is about a half million words. The critical success factors are the reading amount and the easiness of English texts read especially in the first term. When students read extremely easy English texts with the help of pictures, they can finally avoid the translation into Japanese and grasp the meaning of the texts directly in English

  3. Empirical Neuroenchantment: From Reading Minds to Thinking Critically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina eAli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available While most experts agree on the limitations of neuroimaging, the unversed public – and indeed many a scholar – often valorizes brain imaging without heeding its shortcomings. Here we test the boundaries of this phenomenon, which we glibly term neuroenchantment. How much are individuals ready to believe when encountering improbable information through the guise of neuroscience? We introduced participants to a crudely-built mock brain scanner, explaining that the machine would measure neural activity, analyze the data, and then infer the content of complex thoughts. Using a classic magic trick, we crafted an illusion whereby the imaging technology seemed to decipher the internal thoughts of participants. We found that most students – even undergraduates with advanced standing in neuroscience and psychology, who have been taught the shortcomings of neuroimaging – deemed such unlikely technology highly plausible. Our findings highlight the influence neuro-hype wields over critical thinking.

  4. Empirical neuroenchantment: from reading minds to thinking critically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sabrina S; Lifshitz, Michael; Raz, Amir

    2014-01-01

    While most experts agree on the limitations of neuroimaging, the unversed public-and indeed many a scholar-often valorizes brain imaging without heeding its shortcomings. Here we test the boundaries of this phenomenon, which we term neuroenchantment. How much are individuals ready to believe when encountering improbable information through the guise of neuroscience? We introduced participants to a crudely-built mock brain scanner, explaining that the machine would measure neural activity, analyze the data, and then infer the content of complex thoughts. Using a classic magic trick, we crafted an illusion whereby the imaging technology seemed to decipher the internal thoughts of participants. We found that most students-even undergraduates with advanced standing in neuroscience and psychology, who have been taught the shortcomings of neuroimaging-deemed such unlikely technology highly plausible. Our findings highlight the influence neuro-hype wields over critical thinking.

  5. Transactional Reading in EFL Learning: A Path to Promote Critical Thinking through Urban Legends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Leal Hernandez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the research methodology and the findings of an action-research study conducted with a group of EFL eleventh graders’ at a public school in Bogotá. The study aimed at helping learners develop critical thinking through the implementation of the Transactional approach to reading. Individual and social transactions during the reading process of several urban legends enabled learners to discuss social conflicts that were also related to their lives, including, for instance, social irresponsibility, violence, drug consumption, and dishonesty. Data analysis from teachers’ observations, students’ opinions in an interview, and artifacts (workshops completed in a pedagogical intervention show that the students fostered critical thinking. The main findings indicate that they criticized human behaviors, generated solutions to conflicts, and planned and produced new knowledge based on previous information. An equal significant finding is that they became critical learners when they used the foreign language.

  6. Informing Our Practice: Modernist, Transactional, and Critical Perspectives on Children's Literature and Reading Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Suggests that many of the current instructional practices that use children's literature in the elementary classroom derive from "modernist" theories of meaning, readers, texts, and contexts which do not reflect the transactional nature of reading, perspectives from reader response, or various critical theories. Describes three theoretical…

  7. Teaching critical thinking to engineering students through reading profession-oriented texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivleva, N. V.

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays critical thinking is considered to be an essential learning outcome. To be able to use it in our life it is vital to obtain this skill through studying at school and university. In this paper there are some methods considered to drill this skill through reading within a translation course.

  8. Investigation of Critical Thinking Attitudes and Reading Habits of Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilet, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to define reading habits and critical thinking levels of pre-service teachers, who study at departments of classroom and physical education and sports teaching, and presenting the differences between these. The variables of the research were designed in accordance with descriptive research model. In 2016 to 17 academic year fall…

  9. SAT math prep course

    CERN Document Server

    Kolby, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive Prep for SAT Math Every year, students pay 1,000 and more to test prep companies to prepare for the math section of the new SAT. Now you can get the same preparation in a book. Features: * Comprehensive Review: Twenty-three chapters provide complete review of SAT math. * Practice: Includes 164 examples and more than 500 exercises! Arranged from easy to medium to hard to very hard. * Diagnostic Test: The diagnostic test measures your strengths and weaknesses and directs you to areas you need to study more. * Performance: If your target is a 700+ score, this is the book!

  10. SmallSat Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-05

    CubeSat. Mr. Alvarez worked with four students on the PCB layout for the solar panels and the construction of the 6U CubeSat mockup . Support for Mr...Hull and Mr. Alvarez was $49k including fringe benefits. !! Purchases: During this time period a license for MatLab software and the Princeton...Satellite ToolBox was purchased using funds from this award. This software adds tremendous capability to the SmallSat Lab by enabling students to analyze

  11. SmallSat Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropulos, Dolores; Bittner, David; Murawski, Robert; Golden, Bert

    2015-01-01

    The SmallSat has an unrealized potential in both the private industry and in the federal government. Currently over 70 companies, 50 universities and 17 governmental agencies are involved in SmallSat research and development. In 1994, the U.S. Army Missile and Defense mapped the moon using smallSat imagery. Since then Smart Phones have introduced this imagery to the people of the world as diverse industries watched this trend. The deployment cost of smallSats is also greatly reduced compared to traditional satellites due to the fact that multiple units can be deployed in a single mission. Imaging payloads have become more sophisticated, smaller and lighter. In addition, the growth of small technology obtained from private industries has led to the more widespread use of smallSats. This includes greater revisit rates in imagery, significantly lower costs, the ability to update technology more frequently and the ability to decrease vulnerability of enemy attacks. The popularity of smallSats show a changing mentality in this fast paced world of tomorrow. What impact has this created on the NASA communication networks now and in future years? In this project, we are developing the SmallSat Relational Database which can support a simulation of smallSats within the NASA SCaN Compatability Environment for Networks and Integrated Communications (SCENIC) Modeling and Simulation Lab. The NASA Space Communications and Networks (SCaN) Program can use this modeling to project required network support needs in the next 10 to 15 years. The SmallSat Rational Database could model smallSats just as the other SCaN databases model the more traditional larger satellites, with a few exceptions. One being that the smallSat Database is designed to be built-to-order. The SmallSat database holds various hardware configurations that can be used to model a smallSat. It will require significant effort to develop as the research material can only be populated by hand to obtain the unique data

  12. Recovering the Power Inside: A Qualitative Study of Critical Reading in an Iranian University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue-san Ghahremani Ghajar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental goal of critical literacy approaches is to bring a change and empower students as critical agents and subjects of decision making. Students are expected to do more than simply accumulate information; they are encouraged to challenge their ‘taken for granted’ belief structures and transform themselves as well as their immediate social environment. In this article, we present a qualitative enquiry in a university reading course based on critical literacy. We explored how learners reflected on their individual/community and word/world concerns through critical understanding of texts and how they challenged and shattered their ‘taken for granted’ beliefs and started to transform into critical agents of voice and position. The data consists of 400 concept maps, called webs, and personal journals by fifty undergraduate English literature students at an Iranian University, as well as oral and written interviews. The data was qualitatively analyzed in search of themes that could illustrate students’ early thinking structures and their empowerment and transformations into subjects of decisions. The study revealed that, through webbing words/worlds and critically challenging texts, students took the opportunity to approach the knowledge and information presented to them analytically and critically. On this basis, we discuss how students were able to gain the power of critiquing, freeing their thoughts, finding and expressing their voice and position, discovering personal meanings in texts and contexts, cooperating and participating, and understanding learning for meaning through the critical act of reading.

  13. The SAT phase transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许可; 李未

    1999-01-01

    Phase transition is an important feature of SAT problem. For random k-SAT model, it is proved that as r(ratio of clauses to variables) increases, the structure of solutions will undergo a sudden change like satisfiability phase transition when r reaches a threshold point (r=rcr). This phenomenon shows that the satisfying truth assignments suddenly shift from being relatively different from each other to being very similar to each other.##属性不符

  14. Beyond the Image Intake: A Reflection about Criticism Reading in Visual Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Castillo Morales

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to show two components in reading comic. The first one point to images with a full or partial argumentative structure; the second point is about this structure recognition as a possibility for a critical perspective. In that sense, this paper collects some results of a research process about the comic as an argumentative visual text in first semester students of a private university. As a result, the research proposed and applied materials and activities in a pedagogical framework to widen the reading conceptions in multimodal texts.

  15. How to read, understand, and write 'Discussion' sections in medical articles. An exercise in critical thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenicek, Milos

    2006-06-01

    Writing and reading 'Discussion' sections in medical articles require a procedure as exact and structured as that involved in raising questions, choosing materials and methods and producing results for a health research study. The medical article as a whole can be considered an exercise in modern argumentation and its 'Discussion' section, a systematic critical appraisal of a path from theses to conclusions. The methodology of modern critical thinking applies perfectly to article writing, reading, and understanding. Structuring the 'Discussion' section as a review of argumentation benefits more than the study and its authors. It allows the reader to grasp the real relevance and validity of the study and its usability for his or her decision-making in clinical and community care, research and health policies and program proposal, implementation, and evaluation.

  16. Coprocessor - a Standalone SAT Preprocessor

    CERN Document Server

    Manthey, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    In this work a stand-alone preprocessor for SAT is presented that is able to perform most of the known preprocessing techniques. Preprocessing a formula in SAT is important for performance since redundancy can be removed. The preprocessor is part of the SAT solver riss and is called Coprocessor. Not only riss, but also MiniSat 2.2 benefit from it, because the SatELite preprocessor of MiniSat does not implement recent techniques. By using more advanced techniques, Coprocessor is able to reduce the redundancy in a formula further and improves the overall solving performance.

  17. Heading east this time: critical readings on gender in southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmento, Clara

    2006-01-01

    This essay intends to discuss some critical readings of fictional and theoretical texts on gender condition in Southeast Asian countries. Nowadays, many texts about women in Southeast Asia apply concepts of power in unusual areas. Traditional forms of gender hegemony have been replaced by other powerful, if somewhat more covert, forms. We will discuss some universal values concerning conventional female roles as well as the strategies used to recognize women in political fields...

  18. [Critical reading of reports of educational research in teachers of IMSS. Multicenter study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-González, Félix Arturo; Cacho-Salazar, Julio M; Degollado-Bardales, Lilia; Zavala-Arenas, Jesús Arturo; Angulo-Bernal, Sonia Elizabeth; Leyva-Salas, César Arturo; Orozco-Bisson, Gisele Victorine

    2011-01-01

    To determine the effect of an educational strategy promoting participation in the development of critical reading of educational research reports on professors of Educational Research and Teacher Education (CIEFD's). We performed an intervention study, multicenter professors (medical specialists) who enrolled in the courses: Diploma in teaching methodological level 1 and 2 (n = 46, n = 29, respectively) in the six CIEFD's (D.F. Siglo XXI, DF. La Raza, Nuevo León, Sonora, Puebla and Jalisco), in the period March to August 2007. A tool was built that assessed the variables critical appraisal of educational research reports, the construct validity, content and reliability was assessed by experts in education research. The educational strategy developed in the form of seminars, which were held three times a week in the Certification in teaching methodological level 1 and twice per week in the Certification Level 2 in teaching methodology duration per session: 6 h. The instrument was applied at the beginning and end of the course. In the two Graduates it was observed in the total group, an advance in the three indicators of critical reading, which was expressed with statistically significant differences; in the global score of the Diploma level 1 (final vs. initial measurement) the following mediums were observed: 36-67 (p = 0.0001); in the Diploma level 2, it was observed in its overall rating: 42-78 (p = 0.0001). This inquiry from the results observed some of theoretical approaches to mainstreaming participatory. An educational strategy promoting participation produced a breakthrough in the three indicators (to interpret, to judge and to formulate proposals) for critical reading of educational research reports.

  19. Barron's SAT math workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Leff MS, Lawrence S

    2016-01-01

    This completely revised edition reflects all of the new questions and question types that will appear on the new SAT, scheduled to be administered in Spring 2016. Includes hundreds of revised math questions and answer explanations, math strategies, test-taking tips, and much more.

  20. Owning My Thoughts Was Difficult: Encouraging Students to Read and Write Critically in a Tertiary Qualitative Research Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Janine L.; Allen, Ruth E. S.; Butler, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    This paper adds to the nascent literature on teaching research methods and what students learn from courses and assessment. Postgraduate students are often confronted with large amounts of reading, and the content of material can be intimidating. Convincing them also to engage critically with readings is even more difficult. We report on a…

  1. Aesthetic experience, poetic texts reading and critic reader’s education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Rodríguez Pérez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Imagination and poetry forge citizens' democratic attitude because they downplay core beliefs, structures and standpoints. Poetics ambiguity, fragility and mystery make poetry readers and writers take on a more active and sincere way of behaving in the world, to themselves and to others. To do this, it reflects on the primary and foundational nature of the aesthetic experience and the poetic texts while reading and writing are taking place. From then on, the links between poetic dimension, reading and critic readers’ education are outlined. Finally, it is evident why school is one of the most promising settings to make poetry readers –immersed in world textuality- be democratically committed to respect differences.

  2. How to read a paper: critical appraisal of studies for application in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makela, M; Witt, K

    2005-03-01

    Finding and using research results to support your professional decisions must be a systematic process, based on the principles of evidence-based medicine and healthcare. This article takes you through a critical appraisal exercise using a recent article from the British Medical Journal as an example. It describes how you decide whether to read and use an article that may be relevant to your decision. The reading is guided by a series of questions. First you evaluate the validity of the article: is the study conducted and reported so that you may trust the results? The second set of questions discusses the outcomes, the effect of the intervention and describes the use of confidence intervals for this. The possibility of using the research results in the reader's setting and patient population is then evaluated.

  3. Critical Reading of Science-Based News Reports: Establishing a knowledge, skills and attitudes framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClune, Billy; Jarman, Ruth

    2010-04-01

    A recognised aim of science education is to promote critical engagement with science in the media. Evidence would suggest that this is challenging for both teachers and pupils and that science education does not yet adequately prepare young people for this task. Furthermore, in the absence of clear guidance as to what this means and how this may be achieved it is difficult for teachers to develop approaches and resources that address the matter and that systematically promote such critical engagement within their teaching programmes. Twenty-six individuals with recognised expertise or interest in science in the media, drawn from a range of disciplines and areas of practice, constituted a specialist panel in this study. The question this research sought to answer was "what are the elements of knowledge, skill, and attitude which underpin critical reading of science-based news reports?" During in-depth individual interviews the panel were asked to explore what they considered to be essential elements of knowledge, skills, and attitude which people need to enable them to respond critically to news reports with a science component. Analysis of the data revealed 14 fundamental elements which together contribute to an individual's capacity to engage critically with science-based news. These are classified in five categories "knowledge of science", "knowledge of writing and language", "knowledge about news, newspapers and journalism", "skills", and "attitudes". Illustrative profiles of each category along with indicators of critical engagement are presented. The implications for curriculum planning and pedagogy are considered.

  4. Math review for the SAT

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    Maximize your math score on the new SAT with REA's Math Review for the SAT! This new edition features a comprehensive analysis of the SAT's Multiple Choice and Student Response math questions: Number and Operation Questions; Algebra and Function Questions; Geometry and Measurement Questions; and Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability Questions. Build your test skills with over 200 math drills that sharpen and focus your understanding of SAT math.DETAILS - New edition reflects all the math changes on the new SAT including Algebra II - Concentrated subject question analyses that hone test sk

  5. Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James Paul

    1992-01-01

    Explores what is meant by reading, noting that to read is to respond appropriately to a specific consensus centered on certain values and that the consensus is achieved among persons whose paths through life have come together with members of dominant discourses in society. (SLD)

  6. Achieving Science with CubeSats: Thinking Inside the Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Lal, Bhavya

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of a study conducted by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The study focused on the scientific potential and technological promise of CubeSats. We will first review the growth of the CubeSat platform from an education-focused technology toward a platform of importance for technology development, science, and commercial use, both in the United States and internationally. The use has especially exploded in recent years. For example, of the over 400 CubeSats launched since 2000, more than 80% of all science-focused ones have been launched just in the past four years. Similarly, more than 80% of peer-reviewed papers describing new science based on CubeSat data have been published in the past five years.We will then assess the technological and science promise of CubeSats across space science disciplines, and discuss a subset of priority science goals that can be achieved given the current state of CubeSat capabilities. Many of these goals address targeted science, often in coordination with other spacecraft, or by using sacrificial or high-risk orbits that lead to the demise of the satellite after critical data have been collected. Other goals relate to the use of CubeSats as constellations or swarms, deploying tens to hundreds of CubeSats that function as one distributed array of measurements.Finally, we will summarize our conclusions and recommendations from this study; especially those focused on nearterm investment that could improve the capabilities of CubeSats toward increased science and technological return and enable the science communities’ use of CubeSats.

  7. Sociology, Writing, and Reading and the Community College Learning Community: The Skills/Content Tango Principles of Sociology and Freshman English and Critical Reading and Principles of Sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, Nancy; Boes, Chris

    This document details the planning process and briefly discusses the experiences of faculty and students in two distinct paired-course learning communities at Northampton Community College in Bethlehem (Pennsylvania). One learning community paired a critical reading course with principles of sociology, while the other paired a freshmen composition…

  8. Lecturas transversales para formar receptores críticos Transverse readings: how to build critical audiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Rugenia Aguilar González

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se realiza una propuesta para el desarrollo de la recepción crítica. El método propone que, por medio del análisis de los códigos y fuentes culturales de un programa televisivo determinado (lo que se entiende como lecturas transversales, se identifiquen las intertextualidades presentes en el mismo. La finalidad es desarrollar la competencia intertextual y la visión crítica de los niños. Ello puede contribuir a que los niños adquieran elementos para que puedan fundamentar críticamente el consumo, el rechazo o la interpretación compleja de programas de televisión. The main point in this article is to discuss the development of the critical reception. The method establishes an analysis of the codes and cultural sources of a specific television show, (that analysis understood as transverse readings, to identify the intertextualities in the show. The purpose is to develop the intertextual competence and the critical vision of the children. The main goal is to make children acquire a critical capacity that enables them to criticize the consumption, the rejection or the interpretation of different television shows.

  9. The Endless Reading of Interpretation? Said, Auerbach, and the Exilic Will to Criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilan Siassi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I consider how Edward Said elaborates his concept of exile—as both a physical displacement and as a hermeneutical situation or mode of critical activity—in a transhistorical dialogue with Erich Auerbach. In his efforts to delineate the interrelation between cultural discourses and historical ‘regimes of knowledge,’ Said shows intellectual exile (which gives rise to secular criticism to be the preliminary step in a concrete act of cultural recuperation: namely the re-appropriation and mobilization of texts, through an exilic will to interpretation and synthesis. Through a close examination of Auerbach’s ‘Philology and Weltliteratur’ and Said’s ‘Secular Criticism’ I compare the writers’ consciousness of their worldly socio-political situations, their humanistic goals, and their readings of cultural history—which they evaluate in the form of literary representations and interpretations of reality. Said locates agency in the exile’s liminal situation, his ‘unhomely’ un-belonging, which affords him a unique perspective and a certain mobility of critical thought. He believes that Auerbach, in his cultural alienation as a Jew exiled to Istanbul during World War II, adopted such a threshold position and could thus exercise precisely this exilic will to criticism as he wrote his magisterial Mimesis. Through a ‘worldly self-situating’ between inside and outside and a refusal of all binding filiations or affiliations that would limit his ability to move freely between the two spaces, the secular critic following the model of Auerbach, can mediate contrapuntally between dominant and minority culture, challenge authority, and indeed, redistribute cultural capital to produce ‘non-coercive knowledge in the interests of human freedom.’ Exilic readings thus become a tool and weapon of resistance, which simultaneously enable a critical recovery of one’s lost world and a reconstitution of the cultural mythos of

  10. CRITICAL READING OF RESEARCH ARTICLES AS ORAL ACTIVATOR IN THE LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica VIVANCO

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an experience carried out with second course students of the School of Aeronautical Engineers at the Polytechnic University of Madrid in the subject class Modern Technical Language. In the previous years the problem in that class had been the scarce participation of the students in the oral practices. They seemed to be lead and exclusively represented by a few students when it came to oral participation. The students proposed tackling recent research articles in which opinions could be discussed. The reading of these articles has risen new elements that work as language activators in the language classroom: critical reading and thinking have developed participation in the oral activities and produced a noticeable influence on their scientific and humanist thinking and behavior.From this, we may extract the consequence that the experience is not only related to scientific knowledge, since it has made them better speakers or speaking-counterparts and more class-participating and collaborative, which implies that the human, scientific and linguistic factors progress at the same time through the critical experience. This way, the exposition of their critical ideas has developed both their humanism and scientific mind. These two facets which seem to belong to far away fields become a bond in our experience: the process is scientific since it tries to be a systematic study of the knowledge fleshed in written texts and it is also humanist because it fulfils the students need to grow up as persons, that is absorbing knowledge and processing it in order to produce a new personal approach to the world.

  11. CubeSat Launch Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recognizes the tremendous potential that CubeSats (very small satellites) have to inexpensively demonstrate advanced technologies, collect scientific data, and enhance student engagement in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). The CubeSat Launch Initiative (CSLI) was created to provide launch opportunities for CubeSats developed by academic institutions, non-profit entities, and NASA centers. This presentation will provide an overview of the CSLI, its benefits, and its results.

  12. The TechSAT program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shachar, M.; Lapid, P.

    1992-12-01

    The TechSAT project is described which is intended to establish a wide academic infrastructure for the development of new space technologies. A TechSAT satellite will be used for educational purposes by the academic staff and students as well as by radio amateurs. Tech SAT is a microsatellite weighing 50 kg with 45x45x45 cm dimensions. It is based on a Nadir pointing 3D stabilized platform with body mounted solar panels. The TechSAT hardware includes an autonomous attitude control system, a power supply system, and an onboard computer. Command control and telemetry systems will be based on the amateur radio communications payload.

  13. A Generalization of SAT and #SAT for Robust Policy Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-30

    unless the polynomial hierarchy collapses to ΣP2 (a corollary of Dell et al. [2012] and Karp and Lipton [1982]). Proof. Suppose #∃SAT reduces to #P . Then...Klieber, J. Marques-Silva, and E. Clarke. Solving qbf with counterexample guided refinement. In SAT, pages 114–128. Springer, 2012. R.M. Karp and R. Lipton

  14. Fodor's modularity of mind and foreign language acquisition: a critical reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Vasconcellos

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available

    In the context of psychological theories assuming an internal structure of mental representations, Fodor (1983 proposes a mandatory informationally encapsulated autonomous processing of specifically linguistic input, maintaining that cognitive skills are neurally localized. He advances the hypothesis of a vertical and modular psychological organization underlying biologically coherent behaviors. This paper offers a critical reading of Fodor's theoretical position in relation to some aspects of Foreign Language Acquisition (FLA, calling into question untenable claims as to information processing, mental representation and perceptual analysis. In view of factors other than grammatical affecting FLA, a strictly modular view of sentence understanding is disputed while a radical connectionist perspective is also found fault with. It is argued that a compromise position might better account for the complex phenomenon of foreign language acquisition.

  15. 批评语篇分析与批评性阅读教学%On Critical Discourse Analysis and Critical Reading Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任海涛

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of critical discourse analysis is to reveal the relationship between power and ideology in discourse and enhance readers’language awareness. Critical reading teaching based on the theories of critical discourse analysis can improve students’reading comprehension ability. Teachers should explain the tools which are often used in critical discourse analysis to their students in order to teach them how to analyze a text critically and cultivate their critical reading ability.%通过揭示语篇中权利和意识形态之间的关系来加强读者的语言意识,是批评语篇分析的主要目的。基于批评语篇分析理论进行批评性阅读教学可以提高学生的阅读理解能力。教师可以讲授常用的批评语篇分析工具,使学生学会对语篇进行批评性分析,从而培养学生进行批评性阅读的能力。

  16. Reflections on the Critical Reading Extended by the Traditional Reading Mode%批判性阅读——传统阅读的延伸再思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梦溪

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes the levels of reading psychology and the content of critical reading, then proposes to read critically and creatively while reading literatures or network information based upon reader' reading psychological characteristics.%分析阅读心理过程的层次和批判性阅读的内涵,解析批判性阅读主体的心理特质;通过对名著和网络资料进行批判性阅读,进而上升到创造性阅读的层次。

  17. Tech Talk for Social Studies Teachers: Evaluating Online Resources--The Importance of Critical Reading Skills in Online Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Chris

    2005-01-01

    In the past two decades, substantial changes in pedagogy, advances in technology, and new emphases on critical reading, writing, and thinking across the curriculum have swept the educational landscape of the United States. Although "many students are familiar with some technological elements (notably e-mail and Web browsing), few demonstrate the…

  18. Examining the Relationship between Middle School Students' Critical Reading Skills, Science Literacy Skills and Attitudes: A Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademir, Ersin; Ulucinar, Ufuk

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to verify the causal relationship between middle school students' critical reading skills, science literacy skills and attitudes towards science literacy with research data according to the default model. Through the structural equation modeling, path analysis has been applied in the study which was designed in…

  19. "Critical Literacy Helps Wipe Away the Dirt on Our Glasses": Towards an Understanding of Reading as Ideological Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shin-Ying

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative teacher inquiry conducted in a tertiary, English-as-a-foreign-language classroom in Taiwan. The purpose of the study was, first, to implement a poststructuralist view of critical literacy that focuses not only on texts but also on the practice of reading as constructed and contested, and second, to examine the…

  20. Relationship between Critical Thinking Levels and Attitudes towards Reading Habits among Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgurcuoglu, Ahmet Nusret

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present research is to define the critical thinking levels and reading habits of students studying at the department of physical education and sports teaching and analysing the relationship between these. The participants of the present research are 136 pre-service physical education teachers studying at Mugla Sitki Kocman…

  1. NASA Facts: SporeSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Andres; Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Tomko, David

    2013-01-01

    SporeSat is an autonomous, free-flying three-unit (3U) spacecraft that will be used to conduct scientific experiments to gain a deeper knowledge of the mechanisms of plant cell gravity sensing. SporeSat is being developed through a partnership between NASAs Ames Research Center and the Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering at Purdue University. Amani Salim and Jenna L. Rickus are the Purdue University Principal Investigators. The SporeSat mission will be flown using a 3U nanosatellite weighing approximately 12 pounds and measuring 14 inches long by 4 inches wide by 4 inches tall. SporeSat will utilize flight-proven spacecraft technologies demonstrated on prior Ames nanosatellite missions such as PharmaSat and OrganismOrganic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (OOREOS) as well as upgrades that increase the hardware integration capabilities with SporeSat science instrumentation. In addition, the SporeSat science payload will serve as a technology platform to evaluate new microsensor technologies for enabling future fundamental biology missions.

  2. The relationship of high school graduation exams to graduation rates and SAT scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. Marchant

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the effect of high school graduation exams on states' graduation rates, states' aggregated SAT scores, and individual students' SAT scores. Three data sources were used: One source identified states requiring a standardized test for graduation; the NCES provided state aggregated data on graduation rates for the class of 2002; and the College Board provided its 2001 SAT database for all test-takers. After controlling for students' demographic characteristics (e.g., race, family education and income, GPA and class rank, regression analyses revealed that states requiring graduation exams had lower graduation rates and lower SAT scores. Individually, students from states requiring a graduation exam performed more poorly on the SAT than did students from states not requiring an exam. The impact of high stakes tests' on students' motivation to stay in school and on the teaching of critical thinking skills (tested by the SAT are discussed.

  3. Are we teaching critical literacy? Reading practices in a township classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glynis Lloyd

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite improvements in educational provision in South Africa since 1994, the opportunities for learners from historically under-resourced schools to gain access to powerful English resources remain limited and unequal (Prinsloo 2012. In this article I will provide a detailed description of literacy practices in a township high school in Cape Town, specifically of the orientations to text that are made available to learners. I will draw on feminist poststructuralist theory, in which the subject is theorised as constructed and contested in language to construct difference. The analysis of classroom discourse and text-based tasks shows that the orientations to reading that were offered were characterised by a focus on the surface meaning of the texts and by an absence of critical engagement, despite the latter being required in the new Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement. The analysis reveals how the power dynamics of our racialised past and dominant ideologies about gender, class and race continue to define teaching in our classrooms in ways that limit access to the English resources that learners in under-resourced schools need for academic success.

  4. Simple Algorithm Portfolio for SAT

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolic, Mladen; Janicic, Predrag

    2011-01-01

    The importance of algorithm portfolio techniques for SAT has long been noted, and a number of very successful systems have been devised, including the most successful one --- SATzilla. However, all these systems are quite complex (to understand, reimplement, or modify). In this paper we propose a new algorithm portfolio for SAT that is extremely simple, but in the same time so efficient that it outperforms SATzilla. For a new SAT instance to be solved, our portfolio finds its k-nearest neighbors from the training set and invokes a solver that performs the best at those instances. The main distinguishing feature of our algorithm portfolio is the locality of the selection procedure --- the selection of a SAT solver is based only on few instances similar to the input one.

  5. TechEdSat Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the Technical Education Satellite (TechEdSat) is to employ a small spacecraft to evaluate, demonstrate, and validate two new technologies for...

  6. Propulsion for CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmer, Kristina

    2017-05-01

    At present, very few CubeSats have flown in space featuring propulsion systems. Of those that have, the literature is scattered, published in a variety of formats (conference proceedings, contractor websites, technical notes, and journal articles), and often not available for public release. This paper seeks to collect the relevant publically releasable information in one location. To date, only two missions have featured propulsion systems as part of the technology demonstration. The IMPACT mission from the Aerospace Corporation launched several electrospray thrusters from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and BricSAT-P from the United States Naval Academy had four micro-Cathode Arc Thrusters from George Washington University. Other than these two missions, propulsion on CubeSats has been used only for attitude control and reaction wheel desaturation via cold gas propulsion systems. As the desired capability of CubeSats increases, and more complex missions are planned, propulsion is required to accomplish the science and engineering objectives. This survey includes propulsion systems that have been designed specifically for the CubeSat platform and systems that fit within CubeSat constraints but were developed for other platforms. Throughout the survey, discussion of flight heritage and results of the mission are included where publicly released information and data have been made available. Major categories of propulsion systems that are in this survey are solar sails, cold gas propulsion, electric propulsion, and chemical propulsion systems. Only systems that have been tested in a laboratory or with some flight history are included.

  7. A Critical Review of Librarians’ Ideology of Good Reading, from Reader-response Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ting-ming Lai

    1996-01-01

    “The best reading for the largest number at the least cost” has been the most influential motto for librarians since 19th century. Under the motto, librarians intend to collect the best reading for the largest number of reader to read. However, studies have shown that librarians have no power over the creation of the best reading. The making of canons actually, is dominated by scholarly community. Also, from reader-response theory, each reader has his/her own interpretative community, how can...

  8. Improving Middle School Students’ Critical Thinking Skills Through Reading Infusion-Loaded Discovery Learning Model in the Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryakin; Riandi

    2017-02-01

    A study has been conducted to obtain a depiction of middle school students’ critical thinking skills improvement through the implementation of reading infusion-loaded discovery learning model in science instruction. A quasi-experimental study with the pretest-posttest control group design was used to engage 55 eighth-year middle school students in Tasikmalaya, which was divided into the experimental and control group respectively were 28 and 27 students. Critical thinking skills were measured using a critical thinking skills test in multiple-choice with reason format questions that administered before and after a given instruction. The test was 28 items encompassing three essential concepts, vibration, waves and auditory senses. The critical thinking skills improvement was determined by using the normalized gain score and statistically analyzed by using Mann-Whitney U test.. The findings showed that the average of students’ critical thinking skills normalized gain score of both groups were 59 and 43, respectively for experimental and control group in the medium category. There were significant differences between both group’s improvement. Thus, the implementation of reading infusion-loaded discovery learning model could further improve middle school students’ critical thinking skills than conventional learning.

  9. Reading "Salt and Pepper": Social Practices, Unfinished Narratives, and Critical Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Diane Downer

    2008-01-01

    In "Reading "Salt and Pepper"" Anderson examines a story written by three third grade girls and their insights about that story as they re-read it during its production and retrospectively, eight years later. Using a frame for understanding children's writing as social practice, the children's interviews, showing their multiple and sometimes…

  10. A Critical Review of Librarians’ Ideology of Good Reading, from Reader-response Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-ming Lai

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available “The best reading for the largest number at the least cost” has been the most influential motto for librarians since 19th century. Under the motto, librarians intend to collect the best reading for the largest number of reader to read. However, studies have shown that librarians have no power over the creation of the best reading. The making of canons actually, is dominated by scholarly community. Also, from reader-response theory, each reader has his/her own interpretative community, how can we expect him/her to esteem the elitist's best reading? The author finally, advocates that librarians should let the reader to gear his/her interpretation.[Article content in Chinese

  11. Reading "the Word and the World": The Double-Edged Sword of Teaching Critical Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John Wesley

    2009-01-01

    White acknowledges that critical literacy is central to literacy instruction today, but warns that asking those untrained in critical literacy to "teach" critical literacy could have undesirable consequences. He suggests three potentially undesirable outcomes and offers advice for preventing them.

  12. Students' Attitudes to Information in the Press: Critical Reading of a Newspaper Article with Scientific Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveras, B.; Márquez, C.; Sanmartí, N.

    2014-01-01

    This research analyses what happens when a critical reading activity based on a press article dealing with an energy-related problem is implemented with two groups of students of 13-14 years old and 16-17 years old in the same school (a total of 117 students). Specifically, the research analyses the students' profiles from the standpoint of…

  13. Students' Attitudes to Information in the Press: Critical Reading of a Newspaper Article with Scientific Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveras, B.; Márquez, C.; Sanmartí, N.

    2014-01-01

    This research analyses what happens when a critical reading activity based on a press article dealing with an energy-related problem is implemented with two groups of students of 13-14 years old and 16-17 years old in the same school (a total of 117 students). Specifically, the research analyses the students' profiles from the standpoint of…

  14. [Critical reading of clinical research reports among resident doctors at IMSS of five specialties. Exploratory national study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-González, Félix A; Viniegra-Velázquez, Leonardo; Espinosa-Huerta, Enrique; Robles-Páramo, José Arturo

    2007-01-01

    Critical reading holds an important role in methodical criticism of clinical aptitude, which contributes to its perfection, which would be indispensable in the study and consideration in the continuing formation of the medical resident. To investigate the degree of development of critical reading of information of clinical investigation, in medical residents of five specialties in the country. A cross-sectional study took place, in 3060 medical residents of five residencies (internal medicine n=474, pediatric n=358, family medicine n=1651, ER/doctor surgical n=269 and anaesthesiology n=308). In order to measure the degree of development of critical reading, an instrument with eight clinical research article summaries was elaborated, selected according to the proposed classification of types of studies by McMaster University, with subjects that could be of interest for the studied residents; constituted by 150 items that explore three indicators (to interpret, to judge and to propose); validated by five experts with educational experience, clinical-epidemiologist and in publication of works; a pilot study was made and the internal trustworthiness with the test of Kuder-Richardson was considered (KR-20), obtaining a 0.90 coefficient. The capture of data and the qualification of the instrument were made with the blinded technique. The analysis was made with parametric statistic. The residencies that received greater points were internal medicine and pediatrics (X 50.23 +/- 15.02 and X 48.84 +/- 15.76, respectively, of a theoretical qualification maxima of 150). Also, it was not observed in the points reached in the critical reading by the resident doctors, an ascending tendency per year of residency (of R1 to R4). In critical reading, residents of internal medicine as well as pediatrics obtained the highest scores in contrast with family medicine, ER, surgical and anesthesiology which obtained lower scores. Also, it seems to be that until this moment, the development

  15. CONTRASTS BETWEEN THE SPECIALIZED AND UNPROFESSIONAL LITERATURE CRITICS: THE BOOKTUBERS AND THE DISCOURSES ABOUT THE BOOK AND THE READING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Vizibeli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at describing, based on the French Discourse Analysis and Cultural History, the discursive practices of contemporary representation of the reader through some reflections on the specialized and amateur critics. It is used as corpus cut one piece of news published on the entertainment portal UOL, under the title "Literary Market: will the booktubers replace the specialized critics?", signed by Rodrigo Casarin. It seeks to list and understand the discursive formations of the general reader and the professional player, this understood as the professional literary criticism that serves as an institutionalized reading. It wonders: why is the formal literary criticism of prestige, but when you want to sell the works and move the publishing market, it is necessary, at present, to promote the amateur comment? What are the limits between the general reader and the expert critical? Why does posting a video on the Internet give social capital to the one that is called a voracious reader and bring together readers and writers? In terms of language, what is said about reading at the time of cyberculture? To account for these reflections, theoretical reflections found in the works of Orlandi (2012, Foucault (2010 and Chartier (1998, 2010 are used.

  16. Metacognition Theory and Research in Second Language Listening and Reading:A Comparative Critical Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRISTINE C.M.GOH; LIMEI ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Listening and reading are two receptive skills in language learning and language use . Although their modalities differ , listening and reading share a number of cognitive processes required for language comprehension this has resulted in some commonalities in research emphases for the two skills . One such focus is the role of metacognition in self-regulated learning and comprehension performance . In this article theory postulated for metacognition and its manifestation in listening and reading are discussed . The article also reviews selected studies conducted in two important dimensions of metacognition , namely metacognitive knowledge and strategy use , and the impact that metacognitive instruction has on listening and reading comprehension performance . Results from the review for each skill are synthesised and compared in order to draw insights into the processes of learning to listen and read in another language . Based on this comparative review , the authors offer suggestions for enhancing process-based instructional practices in the language classroom and identify possible directions for future research into the role of metacognition in listening and reading specifically as well as second language comprehension as a whole .

  17. COLD-SAT dynamic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Neil S.; Bollenbacher, Gary

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the development and underlying mathematics of a rigid-body computer model of a proposed cryogenic on-orbit liquid depot storage, acquisition, and transfer spacecraft (COLD-SAT). This model, referred to in this report as the COLD-SAT dynamic model, consists of both a trajectory model and an attitudinal model. All disturbance forces and torques expected to be significant for the actual COLD-SAT spacecraft are modeled to the required degree of accuracy. Control and experimental thrusters are modeled, as well as fluid slosh. The model also computes microgravity disturbance accelerations at any specified point in the spacecraft. The model was developed by using the Boeing EASY5 dynamic analysis package and will run on Apollo, Cray, and other computing platforms.

  18. DebriSat Project Update and Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, M.; Krisko, P. H.

    2016-01-01

    DebriSat Reporting Topics: DebriSat Fragment Analysis Calendar; Near-term Fragment Extraction Strategy; Fragment Characterization and Database; HVI (High-Velocity Impact) Considerations; Requirements Document.

  19. EMC Test Report: StangSat - CubeSat Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Lynne M.; Aragona, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the Electromagnetic Interference E M I testing performed on the StangSat; the unit under test (UUT). Testing was per the requirements of MIL STD-461F. The UUT was characterized and passed the radiated emissions (RE102 limit for Spacecraft) testing.

  20. Moving from Reader Response to Critical Reading: Developing 10-11-Year-Olds' Ability as Analytical Readers of Literary Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Lorraine

    2004-01-01

    This article presents aspects of a research study into how a group of ten- and eleven-year-old students (in 5th Grade in Sydney, Australia) were apprenticed to view a literary text from critical reading positions. These ways of reading were an alternative to their more typical reader response interpretations of texts. The article contrasts…

  1. A Critical Reading of Multiculturalism in English Language Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ning

    2008-01-01

    Multiculturalism becomes the buzzword in educational fields. The implication of multiculturalism is critically examined to appreciate its relevance to English language teaching. Critical multiculturalism is advocated whereby L2 learners need to examine how social and historical discourses construct their identities and have a critical reflection…

  2. SAT-WIND project. Final report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Astrup, Poul; Nielsen, Niels Morten;

    in cooperation with GRAS A/S in the innovative project SAT-WIND-SMV (Sagsnr. 2104-05-0084) in the years 2005 and 2006 in parallel with SAT-WIND. The results from the SAT-WIND project are presented. These include ocean wind statistics, offshore wind resource estimates and comparison results for wind-indexing....

  3. Relationship Between the Clinical Components of the Boder Test of Reading-Spelling Patterns and the Stanford Achievement Test: Validity of the Boder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Stephen R.

    1988-01-01

    Investigated the concurrent validity of the diagnostic components of the Boder Test of Reading-Spelling Patterns with the reading and spelling measures of the Stanford Achievement Reading Test (SAT) in 87 reading-disabled elementary school students. Results indicated the relationship between the reading components of the Boder and SAT were…

  4. SpinSat Mission Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    switches (ITW series 65 model 401000 over travel switch) that inhibit SpinSat from powering up until it is deployed from the Cyclops. These switches...the uplink at about 450 MHz and downlink at about 401 MHz. The transceiver cannot switch between the two frequencies due to the range of the VCO

  5. Tensor Network Contractions for #SAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biamonte, Jacob D.; Morton, Jason; Turner, Jacob

    2015-09-01

    The computational cost of counting the number of solutions satisfying a Boolean formula, which is a problem instance of #SAT, has proven subtle to quantify. Even when finding individual satisfying solutions is computationally easy (e.g. 2-SAT, which is in ), determining the number of solutions can be #-hard. Recently, computational methods simulating quantum systems experienced advancements due to the development of tensor network algorithms and associated quantum physics-inspired techniques. By these methods, we give an algorithm using an axiomatic tensor contraction language for n-variable #SAT instances with complexity where c is the number of COPY-tensors, g is the number of gates, and d is the maximal degree of any COPY-tensor. Thus, n-variable counting problems can be solved efficiently when their tensor network expression has at most COPY-tensors and polynomial fan-out. This framework also admits an intuitive proof of a variant of the Tovey conjecture (the r,1-SAT instance of the Dubois-Tovey theorem). This study increases the theory, expressiveness and application of tensor based algorithmic tools and provides an alternative insight on these problems which have a long history in statistical physics and computer science.

  6. Independent Schools and the SAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Amada

    2016-01-01

    In September 2015, when the College Board released its average SAT scores for the 2015 graduating class, two details stood out for many educators: (1) the record participation and diversity numbers (close to 1.7 million students took the test, with 50 percent being students of color); and (2) the test's lower average scores compared with previous…

  7. Understanding Interactive CD-ROM Storybooks and Their Functions in Reading Comprehension: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertem, Ihsan Seyit

    2011-01-01

    With dramatic changes and recent advances in multimedia, digital technologies through computers propose new ways for introducing kids to the literacy. Literacy educators have stated that traditional printed books are not sufficient and electronic books have the potential to change reading skills. As a valuable tool in educational settings new and…

  8. Using Critical Metaphor Analysis to Extract Parents' Cultural Models of How Their Children Learn to Read

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialostok, Steve

    2008-01-01

    This research presents an empirical study on metaphor based on numerous interviews with parents of young children. Contemporary metaphor theory is complemented by a well-articulated place for culture and the role metaphor plays in cultural understanding. I demonstrate that 1) parents understand learning to read as the acquisition of reading…

  9. The Literacy Learning Progressions and the Reading and Writing Standards: Some Critical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaney, Keith; Tunmer, William E.

    2010-01-01

    The new "Reading and Writing Standards" for years 1-8 (2009) and the "Literacy Learning Progressions" (2010) are the two documents that have been published to inform the New Zealand national standards in literacy. An earlier draft "Literacy Learning Progressions" document was circulated nationwide in 2007 to allow for submissions from interested…

  10. "Close Readings" of Internet Corporate Financial Reporting: Towards a More Critical Pedagogy on the Information Highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amernic, Joel H.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses a curriculum strategy based upon a hierarchy of four close readings of corporate financial reporting Web sites (described as (1) objective characteristics, (2) internet financial reporting as rhetoric, (3) metaphor and thought, and (4) deconstruction) that is proffered as part of a curriculum objective to encourage university business…

  11. Understanding Interactive CD-ROM Storybooks and Their Functions in Reading Comprehension: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertem, Ihsan Seyit

    2011-01-01

    With dramatic changes and recent advances in multimedia, digital technologies through computers propose new ways for introducing kids to the literacy. Literacy educators have stated that traditional printed books are not sufficient and electronic books have the potential to change reading skills. As a valuable tool in educational settings new and…

  12. The tale is the jungle: critical-ecological reading of Los cuentos de la selva by Horacio Quiroga

    OpenAIRE

    Arévalo Viveros, Diego F.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to use a critical and ecological approach to read Horacio Quiroga´s text "Los cuentos de la selva" (1918) so to think about, what I have intended to name, ecological discourse. In order to achieve this objective, I will analyze how character’s speech reveals a “jungle communication”. Animals talk but not like human beings do. They use words to talk about native life but they do not talk about important human topics such as soul, thought, and so on. Words ar...

  13. On Optimizing the Satisfiability (SAT) Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Jun; GU Qianping; DU Dingzhu

    1999-01-01

    The satisfiability(SAT) problem is abasic problem in computing theory. Presently, an active area of researchon SAT problem is to design efficient optimization algorithms forfinding a solution for a satisfiable CNF formula. A newformulation, the Universal SAT problem model, which transforms the SAT problem on Boolean space into an optimization problem on real spacehas been developed. Many optimization techniques,such as the steepest descent method, Newton's method, and thecoordinate descent method, can be used to solve the Universal SAT problem. In this paper, we prove that, when the initial solution issufficiently close to the optimal solution, the steepest descent methodhas a linear convergence ratio β<1, Newton's method has aconvergence ratio of order two, and the convergence ratio of thecoordinate descent method is approximately (1-β/m) for the Universal SAT problem with m variables. An algorithm based on the coordinate descent method for the Universal SAT problem is alsopresented in this paper.

  14. Toward a Critical Model of Teacher Learning: Lessons from the South Carolina Reading Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Ernest

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on the work of Paulo Freire, Morrell argues for critical, humanizing inquiry spaces in which literacy teachers learn with and from one another. However, he points to critical race theory and poses important questions, for example, wondering whether empowered spaces for teachers are transferred into empowerment for students.

  15. Critically Reading Texts: What Students Do and How Teachers Can Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Leigh A.; Piazza, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the results of two studies; the first of which offers insight into how three African American boys did and did not utilize a critical literacy stance to interpret texts while the second gives specific suggestions for how teachers might select and use texts in ways that foster students' critical literacy abilities. Results…

  16. A Case Study of an EFL Teacher's Critical Literacy Teaching in a Reading Class in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Mei-Yun

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study describes in detail a college teacher's experience in teaching critical literacy to English major students in Taiwan. A qualitative analysis of the data collected from classroom observation, class discussion and interviews shows that the teacher struck a balance between language skills teaching and critical literacy…

  17. A Comparison of the SOCIT and DebriSat Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausay, Erick; Blake, Brandon; Boyle, Colleen; Cornejo, Alex; Horn, Alexa; Palma, Kirsten; Pistella, Frank; Sato, Taishi; Todd, Naromi; Zimmerman, Jeffrey; Fitz-Coy, Norman; Liou, J.-C.; Sorge, Marlon; Huynh, Thomas; Opiela, John; Krisko, Paula H.; Cowardin, Heather

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the differences between, and shares the lessons learned from, two hypervelocity impact experiments critical to the update of orbital debris environment models. The procedures and processes of the fourth Satellite Orbital Debris Characterization Impact Test (SOCIT) were analyzed and related to the ongoing DebriSat experiment. SOCIT was the first hypervelocity impact test designed specifically for satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). It targeted a 1960's U.S. Navy satellite, from which data was obtained to update pre-existing NASA and DOD breakup models. DebriSat is a comprehensive update to these satellite breakup models- necessary since the material composition and design of satellites have evolved from the time of SOCIT. Specifically, DebriSat utilized carbon fiber, a composite not commonly used in satellites during the construction of the US Navy Transit satellite used in SOCIT. Although DebriSat is an ongoing activity, multiple points of difference are drawn between the two projects. Significantly, the hypervelocity tests were conducted with two distinct satellite models and test configurations, including projectile and chamber layout. While both hypervelocity tests utilized soft catch systems to minimize fragment damage to its post-impact shape, SOCIT only covered 65% of the projected area surrounding the satellite, whereas, DebriSat was completely surrounded cross-range and downrange by the foam panels to more completely collect fragments. Furthermore, utilizing lessons learned from SOCIT, DebriSat's post-impact processing varies in methodology (i.e., fragment collection, measurement, and characterization). For example, fragment sizes were manually determined during the SOCIT experiment, while DebriSat utilizes automated imaging systems for measuring fragments, maximizing repeatability while minimizing the potential for human error. In addition to exploring these variations in methodologies and processes, this paper also presents the

  18. Toward Inclusive Understandings of Marriage in an Early Childhood Classroom: Negotiating (Un)readiness, Community, and Vulnerability through a Critical Reading of "King and King"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Dana Frantz; Souto-Manning, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    This collaborative classroom research study examines the ways in which preschoolers made sense of same-sex marriage through a critical reading of the book "King and King" by De Haan and Nijland. Acknowledging the importance of community in doing critical and political work, this article details the ways in which a preschool teacher and a…

  19. Toward Inclusive Understandings of Marriage in an Early Childhood Classroom: Negotiating (Un)readiness, Community, and Vulnerability through a Critical Reading of "King and King"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Dana Frantz; Souto-Manning, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    This collaborative classroom research study examines the ways in which preschoolers made sense of same-sex marriage through a critical reading of the book "King and King" by De Haan and Nijland. Acknowledging the importance of community in doing critical and political work, this article details the ways in which a preschool teacher and a…

  20. DebriSat Laboratory Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-05

    Semiquantitative elemental composition. – Elemental mapping and line scans. • Fourier Transform Infrared ( FTIR ) spectroscopy – Identification of chemical...Transform Infrared ( FTIR ) spectroscopy – Nicolet 6700 spectrometer. – Harrick Scientific “praying mantis” diffuse reflectance accessory. • Qualitative...VIS-NIR Spectroscopy Dianna Alaan © The Aerospace Corporation 2015 DebriSat Laboratory Analyses 5 January, 2015 Paul M. Adams1, Zachary Lingley2

  1. Malaria Early Warning: The MalarSat project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, M.; Escorihuela, M. J.; Martínez, D.; Torrent, M.; Aponte, J.; Nunez, F.; Garcia, J.

    2009-04-01

    Malaria is one of the major public health challenges undermining development in the world. The aim of MalarSat Project is to provide a malaria risks infection maps at global scale using Earth Observation data to support and prevent epidemic episodes. The proposed service for creating malaria risk maps would be critically useful to improve the efficiency in insecticide programs, vaccine campaigns and the logistics epidemic treatment. Different teams have already carried out studies in order to exploit the use of Earth Observation (EO) data with epidemiology purposes. In the case of malaria risk maps, it has been shown that meteorological data is not sufficient to fulfill this objective. In particular being able to map the malaria mosquito habitat would increase the accuracy of risk maps. The malaria mosquitoes mainly reproduce in new water puddles of very reduced dimensions (about 1 meter wide). There is no instrument that could detect such small patches of water unless there are many of them spread in an area of several hundreds of meters. MalarSat aims at using the radar altimeter data from the EnviSat, RA-2, to try and build indicators of mosquitoes existence. This presentation will show the scientific objectives and principles of the MalarSat project.

  2. The AstroSat Production Line: From AstroSat 100 to AstroSat 1000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliet, E.; Pawlak, D.; Koeck, C.; Beaufumé, E.

    2008-08-01

    From the late 90s onward, Astrium Satellites has developed and improved several classes of high resolution optical Earth Observation satellites. The resulting product line ranges from micro-satellites (about 120 kg) type to the large satellites (in the range of 1 200 kg). They all make uses of state of the art technologies for optical payloads, as well as for avionics. Several classes of platforms have thus been defined and standardised: AstroSat 100 for satellites up to 150 kg, allowing affordable but fully operational missions, AstroSat 500 for satellites up to 800 kg, allowing complex high resolution missions, and AstroSat 1000 for satellites up to 1 200 kg, providing very high resolution and outstanding imaging and agility capabilities. A new class, AstroSat 250, has been developed by Astrium Satellites, and is now proposed, offering a state-of-the-art 3-axis agile platform for high- resolution missions, with a launch mass below 550 kg. The Astrosat platforms rely on a centralised architecture avionics based on an innovative AOCS hybridising of measurements from GPS, stellar sensors and inertial reference unit. Operational safety has been emphasised through thruster free safe modes. All optical payloads make use of all Silicon Carbide (SiC) telescopes. High performance and low consumption linear CCD arrays provide state of the art images. The satellites are designed for simple flight operations, large data collection capability, and large versatility of payload and missions. They are adaptable to a large range of performances. Astrium satellites have already been selected by various customers worldwide.

  3. Streamlining CubeSat Solar Panel Fabrication Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Sandberg, Ariel; Smith, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    A critical facet of CubeSat fabrication is solar panel characterization and assembly. Though capable of producing flight quality solar subsystems, traditional methods of solar panel fabrication contain intrinsic inefficiencies and inconsistencies that compromise the subsystem’s overall reliability. Taking Michigan Exploration Laboratory’s (MXL) heritage solar panel procedures as a case study, this investigation sought to streamline the solar panel fabrication process to increase its yield, co...

  4. Writing Shapes Thinking: Investigative Study of Preservice Teachers Reading, Writing to Learn, and Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Bernice; Lewis, Katie D.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher Preparation Programs must work towards not only preparing preservice teachers to have knowledge of classroom pedagogy but also must expand preservice teachers understanding of content knowledge as well as to develop higher-order thinking which includes thinking critically. This mixed methods study examined how writing shapes thinking and…

  5. Reading Results: A Critical Look at Standardized Testing and the Linguistic Minority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Joanie

    2008-01-01

    A critical look into assessing the Standardized Test and Reporting (STAR) test data among English language learners gives educators a chance to examine the cultural biases present within the standardized test movement started by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. In particular, The STAR test results seem to reflect that the test is geared…

  6. Effects of Critical Thinking Strategy Training on Male/Female EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Mansoor; Barjesteh, Hamed; Vaseghi, Reza

    2012-01-01

    The development of critical thinking (CT) skills has become a key goal for educators in first and second language contexts. There is evidence that the use of such activities has still not become widespread in a number of ELT situations. One reason for this may be lack of awareness about how levels of thinking can be conceptualized in ELT…

  7. Effects of an Elementary Language Arts Unit on Critical Thinking, Reading, and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duesbery, Luke; Justice, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Teaching young students to think critically has always been important, however, as the United States transitions to a national set of learning standards which emphasizes higher-order thinking, it becomes essential. In this quasi-experimental study we evaluate the effects of exposure to the Journeys and Destinations (J&D) unit from the William…

  8. Critical Literacy Practices in EFL Reading Classroom--An Experimental Study towards Chinese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    English as a world language is more than a way to exchange information but a means to solidify certain social hierarchy and represent certain social interests. English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers should instruct critical awareness to empower students to transform social injustice and fulfill responsibilities as global citizens. This…

  9. The Peritext Book Club: Reading to Foster Critical Thinking about STEAM Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Melissa; Latham, Don; Underhill, Jennifer; Bak, Hyerin

    2016-01-01

    An after-school book club, led by the school librarian, was held to test the efficacy of the peritextual literacy framework (PLF) in teaching skills related to critical thinking, problem solving, information literacy, and media literacy. The PLF is an extension of paratext theory developed by Gérard Genette, which provides a typology of the…

  10. A Case for Not Going SAT-Optional: Students with Discrepant SAT and HSGPA Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.; Kobrin, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Presented at the national conference for the American Educational Research Association (AERA) in 2010. This presentation describes an alternative way of presenting the unique information provided by the SAT over HSGPA, namely examining students with discrepant SAT-HSGPA performance.

  11. Research on the Solution Space of 2-SAT and Max-2-SAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bai-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the properties of 2-SAT and Max-2-SAT problems by analyzing the node adding process on the factor graph. Two important structures, backbones and mutual-determinations are investigated, and the reduced solution graph for the expression of solution space of 2-SAT and Max-2-SAT is defined. For 2-SAT problem, a complete evolution process for the reduced graph is discussed and corresponding algorithm is obtained. For the Max-2-SAT problem, the analysis shows it’s backbone number can evolve in a much harder way by which it can increase or decrease. The research in this paper provide a new view point for understanding the solution space of 2-SAT and Max-2-SAT, which will be benefit for recognizing the complexity nature of the NP-hard problems.

  12. The evolution of critical responses to Fugard’s work, culminating in a feminist reading of The Road to Mecca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bowker

    1990-05-01

    Full Text Available An ongoing debate in South Africa today concerns the response of white writers, such as Athol Fugard, to the African/South African socio-historical context. As a major focus of this debate there is a relationship between history and literature, and selected critical responses to Fugard’s work of the past three decades are investigated in terms of their position regarding this relationship. All these responses, regardless of their political and/or Hterary affiliations were found to imply that some kind of truth, their truth can be represented in a fictional text. In response to this implied truth claim and in particular to certain critics’ demand for a “concrete” history, the founding insight of poststructuralism about the inability of language to reflect an already existing reality is used to justify the following approach to Fugard’s The Road to Mecca: history is merely one discourse among many without any privileged claim to primacy; Fugard’s texts, read as history, is therefore approached in the context of South African discourses competing in the game of power relations, thus justifying the feminist reading resulting from an analysis of the competing discourses in the text.

  13. The tale is the jungle: critical-ecological reading of Los cuentos de la selva by Horacio Quiroga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arévalo Viveros, Diego F.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to use a critical and ecological approach to read Horacio Quiroga´s text "Los cuentos de la selva" (1918 so to think about, what I have intended to name, ecological discourse. In order to achieve this objective, I will analyze how character’s speech reveals a “jungle communication”. Animals talk but not like human beings do. They use words to talk about native life but they do not talk about important human topics such as soul, thought, and so on. Words are used as an ecological system. Tigers and boas dialogues and toucan expressions have a particular interest: jungle as an event. We can affirm that Quiroga imagines jungle creating characters able to “talk the green” and to “dialogue the habitat”.

  14. New Inference Rules for Max-SAT

    CERN Document Server

    Li, C M; Planes, J; 10.1613/jair.2215

    2011-01-01

    Exact Max-SAT solvers, compared with SAT solvers, apply little inference at each node of the proof tree. Commonly used SAT inference rules like unit propagation produce a simplified formula that preserves satisfiability but, unfortunately, solving the Max-SAT problem for the simplified formula is not equivalent to solving it for the original formula. In this paper, we define a number of original inference rules that, besides being applied efficiently, transform Max-SAT instances into equivalent Max-SAT instances which are easier to solve. The soundness of the rules, that can be seen as refinements of unit resolution adapted to Max-SAT, are proved in a novel and simple way via an integer programming transformation. With the aim of finding out how powerful the inference rules are in practice, we have developed a new Max-SAT solver, called MaxSatz, which incorporates those rules, and performed an experimental investigation. The results provide empirical evidence that MaxSatz is very competitive, at least, on ran...

  15. Test anxiety and performance-avoidance goals explain gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda

    2012-11-01

    This study uses analysis of co-variance in order to determine which cognitive/learning (working memory, knowledge integration, epistemic belief of learning) or social/personality factors (test anxiety, performance-avoidance goals) might account for gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT scores. The results revealed that none of the cognitive/learning factors accounted for gender differences in SAT performance. However, the social/personality factors of test anxiety and performance-avoidance goals each separately accounted for all of the significant gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT performance. Furthermore, when the influences of both of these factors were statistically removed simultaneously, all non-significant gender differences reduced further to become trivial by Cohen's (1988) standards. Taken as a whole, these results suggest that gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT performance are a consequence of social/learning factors.

  16. An Examination of Postsecondary Faculty and the Extent of Critical Reading Taught in 100-Level Introductory Biology and American History Courses in Publicly Funded Two-Year and Four-Year Pennsylvania Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Dianna

    This research examined the responses of postsecondary faculty on a critical reading inventory. The research is quantitative, non-experimental, and incorporates a multiple regression model in the analyses. Three research questions guided this study: (1) By institution type: To what degree does institution type predict the extent to which postsecondary faculty teach critical reading as measured by the Reading Goals Inventory (Jones, 1996)? (2) By faculty status: To what degree does faculty status predict the extent to which postsecondary faculty teach critical reading as measured by the Reading Goals Inventory (Jones, 1996)? (3) By disciplinary area: To what degree does disciplinary area predict the extent to which postsecondary faculty teach critical reading as measured by the Reading Goals Inventory (Jones, 1996)? Faculty from 28 Pennsylvania postsecondary institutions participated in this study. Faculty respondents taught 100-level introductory biology or American history courses either part-time or full-time at Pennsylvania community colleges or Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education (PASSHE) universities. Fifty-four faculty respondents completed the Reading Goals Inventory (Jones, 1996). The researcher conducted multiple regression analyses using a hierarchical method. Predictor variables included Institution Type, Faculty Status, and Disciplinary Area; criterion or outcome variables included seven sub-scales of the critical reading inventory. In this study, Institution Type and Faculty Status were not significant predictors. Disciplinary Area was a consistent significant predictor of the amount of critical reading taught as measured in the Interpretation, Analysis, Evaluation, and Reflection sub-scales of the Reading Goals Inventory (Jones, 1996).

  17. Emptying Śūnyatā: a Critical Reading of Nishitani’s Religion and Nothingness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motiekaitis Ramunas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, invoking some terms of phenomenology and general principles of structural semiotics, I critically examine and reveal some aporetic aspects of Nishitani’s interpretation of Buddhist concept of sūnyatā presented in his seminal work Religion and Nothingness. My critics are directed to deeply ingrained claims among scholars of a “rejection of any form of dualism” and “non-substantial philosophy” as unique characteristics of the Kyoto school or “logic of the East”. My arguments are based on examining how linguistic differentiating articulation and narrative rendering that perform a fundamental role in human cognition are at work in definition of “emptiness” (sūnyatā too. Thus emptiness is not completely empty; being certain philosophical identity it can be articulated only by differentiation from other identities, and thus different is included in it. Nishitani needed logocentric modes of thought, as a dialectical (mother for constructing his sūnyatā ontology. Accordingly, the realms that are considered to be secondary or derivative (i.e. sensual and rational, or linguistic representations appear to be the condition for constituting the primary (suchness of things, sūnyatā. Considering universal mechanisms of the articulation of values I am also asking whether sūnyatā paradigm indeed is so fundamentally different from Western paradigms centered on idea, God, or a rational subject as Nishitani wants to think. Since we find a clear hierarchical differentiation into truth and illusion, authentic and inauthentic modes of thought and time, and initial and derivative ontological realms, features of “strong thought” (in sense of Vattimo are evident in his work. I am also suggesting, that possibly by considering not sūnyatā or “idea” but human languages as a universal “house of being”, we would be able to “empty” discourses of radical difference and uniqueness, and in this way become post

  18. Causality, criticality, and reading words: distinct sources of fractal scaling in behavioral sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscoso del Prado Martín, Fermín

    2011-07-01

    The finding of fractal scaling (FS) in behavioral sequences has raised a debate on whether FS is a pervasive property of the cognitive system or is the result of specific processes. Inferences about the origins of properties in time sequences are causal. That is, as opposed to correlational inferences reflecting instantaneous symmetrical relations, causal inferences concern asymmetric relations lagged in time. Here, I integrate Granger-causality with inferences about FS. Four simulations illustrate that causal analyses can isolate distinct FS sources, whereas correlational techniques cannot. I then analyze three simultaneous sequences of responses from a database of word-naming trials. I find that two, or perhaps three, distinct sources account for the presence of FS in these sequences, but FS is not a general property of the system. This suggests that FS arises due to the properties of a limited number of identifiable psychological and/or neural processes. Finally, I reanalyze a previously published dataset of acoustic frequency spectra using the new tools. The causality/criticality combination introduced here offers a new important perspective in the study of cognition. Copyright © 2011 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  19. Experimental Study on Strategy of Combining SAT Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕卫锋; 张玉平

    1998-01-01

    The effectiveness of many SAT algorithms is mainly reflected by their significant performances on one or several classes of specific SAT problems.Different kinds of SAT algorithms all have their own hard instances respectively.Therefore,to get the better performance on all kinds of problems,SAT solver should know how to select different algorithms according to the feature of instances.In this paper the differences of several effective SAT algorithms are analyzed and two new parameters φand δ are proposed to characterize the feature of SAT instances.Experiments are performed to study the relationship between SAT algorithms and some statistical parameters including φ,δ.Based on this analysis,a strategy is presented for designing a faster SAT tester by carefully combining some existing SAT algorithms.With this strategy,a faster SAT tester to solve many kinds of SAT problem is obtained.

  20. A Critical Reading of Ecocentrism and Its Meta-Scientific Use of Ecology: Instrumental versus Emancipatory Approaches in Environmental Education and Ecology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovardas, Tasos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to make a critical reading of ecocentrism and its meta-scientific use of ecology. First, basic assumptions of ecocentrism will be examined, which involve nature's intrinsic value, postmodern and modern positions in ecocentrism, and the subject-object dichotomy under the lenses of ecocentrism. Then, we will discuss…

  1. A Critical Reading of Ecocentrism and Its Meta-Scientific Use of Ecology: Instrumental versus Emancipatory Approaches in Environmental Education and Ecology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovardas, Tasos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to make a critical reading of ecocentrism and its meta-scientific use of ecology. First, basic assumptions of ecocentrism will be examined, which involve nature's intrinsic value, postmodern and modern positions in ecocentrism, and the subject-object dichotomy under the lenses of ecocentrism. Then, we will discuss…

  2. The Collective Memory of a Civil War as Reflected in Edutainment and Its Impact on Israeli Youth: A Critical Reading of Consensual Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat

    2012-01-01

    Following the political assassination of Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, in 1998 Israel's national theater Habimah produced the play "Civil War." The play addressed the religious/hawkish-secular/dovish rift in Israel through a critical reading of events from Jewish history and raises the potential of civil war and political violence in…

  3. Implementing an Integrated Approach to Reading To Develop Critical Thinking Skills among a Group of First Graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Retie Y.

    The practicum reported in this paper addressed the high percentage of children receiving below average grades in an average first grade reading comprehension class by implementing an integrated approach to reading. Various screening devices, a survey of kindergarten teachers, the Dolch Basic Sight Word Test, the Analytical Reading Inventory (Woods…

  4. Improved Oceanographic Measurements with CryoSat SAR Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, David; Benveniste, Jérôme; Cipollini, Paolo; Andersen, Ole; Cancet, Mathilde; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco; Nilo Garcia, Pablo; Martin, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    The ESA CryoSat mission is the first space mission to carry a radar altimeter that can operate in Synthetic Aperture Radar "SAR" (or delay-Doppler) and interferometric SAR (SARin) modes. Studies on CryoSat data have analysed and confirmed the improved ocean measuring capability offered by SAR mode altimetry, through increased resolution and precision in sea surface height and wave height measurements, and have also added significantly to our understanding of the issues around the processing and interpretation of SAR altimeter echoes. We present work in four themes, building on work initiated in the CryoSat Plus for Oceans project (CP4O), each investigating different aspects of the opportunities offered by this new technology. The first two studies address the coastal zone, a critical region for providing a link between open-ocean and shelf sea measurements with those from coastal in-situ measurements, in particular tide gauges. Although much has been achieved in recent years through the Coastal Altimetry community, (http://www.coastalt.eu/community) there is a limit to the capabilities of pulse-limited altimetry, which often leaves an un-measured "white strip" right at the coastline. Firstly, a thorough analysis was made of the performance of "SAR" altimeter data (delay-Doppler processed) in the coastal zone. This quantified the performance, confirming the significant improvement over "conventional" pulse-limited altimetry. In the second study a processing scheme was developed with CryoSat SARin mode data to enable the retrieval of valid oceanographic measurements in coastal areas with complex topography. Thanks to further development of the algorithms, a new approach was achieved that can also be applied to SAR and conventional altimetry data (e.g., Sentinel-3, Jason series, Envisat). The third part of the project developed and evaluated improvements to the SAMOSA altimeter re-tracker that is implemented in the Sentinel-3 processing chain. The modifications to the

  5. Periodically Launched, Dedicated CubeSats/SmallSats for Space Situational Awareness Through NASA Communications Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, E. M.; Shaw, H.; Estabrook, P.; Neilsen, T. L.; Gunther, J.; Swenson, C.; Fish, C. S.; Schaire, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is an area where spaceflight activities and missions can directly influence the quality of life on earth. The combination of space weather, near earth orbiting objects, atmospheric conditions at the space boundary, and other phenomena can have significant short-term and long-term implications for the inhabitants of this planet. The importance of SSA has led to increased activity in this area from both space and ground based platforms. The emerging capability of CubeSats and SmallSats provides an opportunity for these low-cost, versatile platforms to augment the SSA infrastructure. The CubeSats and SmallSats can be launched opportunistically with shorter lead times than larger missions. They can be organized both as constellations or individual sensor elements. Combining CubeSats and SmallSats with the existing NASA communications networks (TDRS Space Network, Deep Space Network and the Near Earth Network) provide a backbone structure for SSA which can be tied to a SSA portal for data distribution and management. In this poster we will describe the instruments and sensors needed for CubeSat and SmallSat SSA missions. We will describe the architecture and concept of operations for a set of opportunistic, periodically launched, SSA CubeSats and SmallSats. We will also describe the integrated communications infrastructure to support end-to-end data delivery and management to a SSA portal.

  6. Interplanetary CubeSat Navigational Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; Gustafson, Eric D.; Young, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    CubeSats are miniaturized spacecraft of small mass that comply with a form specification so they can be launched using standardized deployers. Since the launch of the first CubeSat into Earth orbit in June of 2003, hundreds have been placed into orbit. There are currently a number of proposals to launch and operate CubeSats in deep space, including MarCO, a technology demonstration that will launch two CubeSats towards Mars using the same launch vehicle as NASA's Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport (InSight) Mars lander mission. The MarCO CubeSats are designed to relay the information transmitted by the InSight UHF radio during Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) in real time to the antennas of the Deep Space Network (DSN) on Earth. Other CubeSatts proposals intend to demonstrate the operation of small probes in deep space, investigate the lunar South Pole, and visit a near Earth object, among others. Placing a CubeSat into an interplanetary trajectory makes it even more challenging to pack the necessary power, communications, and navigation capabilities into such a small spacecraft. This paper presents some of the challenges and approaches for successfully navigating CubeSats and other small spacecraft in deep space.

  7. Reading Remixed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Joyce Kasman; Stephens, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Critics claim that digital technologies are killing reading, but these teacher-librarians have observed that teens are as excited about reading as they ever were. Online communities give these readers opportunities to get to know authors, communicate with other fans, and learn more about books of interest. Publishers and authors are responding to…

  8. CloudSat Profiles Tropical Storm Andrea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    CloudSat's Cloud Profiling Radar captured a profile across Tropical Storm Andrea on Wednesday, May 9, 2007, near the South Carolina/Georgia/Florida Atlantic coast. The upper image shows an infrared view of Tropical Storm Andrea from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer instrument on NASA's Aqua satellite, with CloudSat's ground track shown as a red line. The lower image is the vertical cross section of radar reflectivity along this path, where the colors indicate the intensity of the reflected radar energy. CloudSat orbits approximately one minute behind Aqua in a satellite formation known as the A-Train.

  9. Mídia, escola e leitura crítica do mundo Media, school and critical reading of the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graça Caldas

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O texto faz uma reflexão sobre o uso da imprensa na sala de aula e sua relação com o processo de aprendizagem. Questiona a excessiva inserção de fragmentos do discurso jornalístico nos livros didáticos em detrimento de outros gêneros. Discute a qualidade da narrativa jornalística e os riscos que ela encerra se não houver uma leitura crítica da mídia. Defende a necessidade de trabalho integrado entre educadores e jornalistas para a real compreensão do processo de produção da imprensa, construção da linguagem e da linha editorial dos veículos de comunicação.This paper focuses on the classroom use of newspaper and magazine texts and its connection with the learning process. It criticizes the excessive usage of fragments of journalistic discourse in school textbooks, to the detriment of other text forms. The quality of journalistic narration is questioned and the risks incumbent on an acritical reading of the media. It advocates the necessity of cooperation between educators and journalists to foster an effective understanding of the news production process, to improve language construction, and to generate awareness of the media's editorial lines and policies.

  10. ‘Deconstructing Gao Minglu: critical reflections on contemporaneity and associated exceptionalist readings of contemporary Chinese art’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Gladston

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I shall seek to offer an ethically/politically focused critique of exceptionalist accounts of the development of contemporary Chinese art. I shall begin by giving a brief overview of thinking associated with the concept of contemporaneity. I shall then go on to analyze critically an essay by the historian and curator Gao Minglu, which asserts that contemporary Chinese art is open to localized Chinese interpretative perspectives separate from those of internationally dominant postmodernist discourses. In analyzing Gao’s essay, I shall not only argue that its exceptionalist account of the significance of contemporary Chinese art relies on highly selective readings of historical ‘fact’, but also that it is theoretically contradictory/inconsistent and therefore unsustainable as a categorical truth claim. I shall then conclude by examining the ethical/political implications of Gao’s exceptionalist account of the significance of contemporary Chinese art as well as advancing some first thoughts towards a general critique of contemporaneity.

  11. 在英语阅读课中培养学生批判性思维能力%Training students' critical thinking ability in English reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣华

    2014-01-01

    Our country's traditional teaching process does not pay attention to the cultivation of critical thinking ability, especially in English reading teaching. Due to the students' English reading the language structure and information processing requirement is higher, requires students to deep understanding of the text, therefore, students should give ful play to the subjectivity of critical reading skil s. Most of the students' critical thinking ability is not strong, so, teachers need to pay attention to in the English reading teaching to cultivate students' critical thinking ability. This paper studies the meaning and importance of critical thinking, and training students' critical thinking ability in English reading is discussed countermeasures, in order to effectively improve the students' critical thinking ability, improve the efficiency of English reading.%在我国的传统教学过程中,对批判性思维能力在教学中的运用和培养不够重视,在英语阅读教学中更是如此。由于英语阅读中对学生的语言结构和信息处理的要求比较高,需要学生对阅读文本进行深层次的理解,因此,就需要学生充分发挥出主体性批判性的阅读技能。大多数学生批判性思维能力不够强,所以,教师需要注意在英语阅读教学中培养学生的批判性思维能力。本文就批判性思维的含义和重要性进行研究,并探讨在英语阅读中培养学生批判性思维能力的对策,以便有效的提高学生的批判性思维能力,提高英语阅读效率。

  12. HaloSat - A CubeSat to Study the Hot Galactic Halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaret, Philip

    2017-08-01

    Observations of the nearby universe fail to locate about half of the normal matter (baryons) observed in the early universe. The missing baryons may be in hot galactic halos. HaloSat is a CubeSat designed to map oxygen line emission (O VII and O VIII) around the Milky Way in order to constrain the mass and spatial distribution of hot gas in the halo. HaloSat has a grasp competitive with current X-ray observatories. Its observing program will be optimized to minimize contributions from solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission that limit the accuracy of current measurements. We describe the current status of HaloSat.

  13. NASA 3D Models: CloudSat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Launched in April 2006, CloudSat monitors the state of the Earth’s atmosphere and weather with a sophisticated radar system. The instrument, jointly developed with...

  14. AgSat Areas of Interest

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The AgSat Areas of Interest map contains area polygons where satellite imagery will be collected for the Farm Service Agency (FSA) to provide imagery coverage for...

  15. AgSat Imagery Collection Footprints

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The AgSat Imagery Collection Footprints map shows the imagery footprints which have been collected under the USDA satellite blanket purchase agreement. Click on a...

  16. Enhancing SAT-Based Test Pattern Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin; XIONG You-lun

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents modeling tools based on Boolean satisfiability (SAT) to solve problems of test generation for combinational circuits. It exploits an added layer to maintain circuit-related information and value justification relations to a generic SAT algorithm. It dovetails binary decision graphs (BDD) and SAT techniques to improve the efficiency of automatic test pattern generation (ATPG). More specifically, it first exploits inexpensive reconvergent fanout analysis of circuit to gather information on the local signal correlation by using BDD learning, then uses the above learned information to restrict and focus the overall search space of SAT-based ATPG. Its learning technique is effective and lightweight. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  17. PhoneSat - The Smartphone Nanosatellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westley, Deborah; Yost, Bruce; Petro, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    PhoneSat 2.4, carried into space on November 19, 2013 aboard a Minotaur I rocket from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport at NASAs Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia, is the first of the PhoneSat family to use a two-way S-band radio to allow engineers to command the satellite from Earth. This mission also serves as a technology demonstration for a novel attitude determination and control system (ADCS) that establishes and stabilizes the satellites attitude relative to Earth. Unlike the earlier PhoneSats that used a Nexus One, PhoneSat 2.4 uses the Nexus S smartphone, which runs Googles Android operating system, and is made by Samsung Electronics Co., Suwon, So. Korea. The smartphone provides many of the functions needed by the satellite such as a central computer, data memory, ready-made interfaces for communications, navigation and power all pre-assembled in a rugged electronics package.

  18. SpinSat Mission Ground Truth Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    SpinSat Mission Ground Truth Characterization Andrew Nicholas, Ted Finne, Ivan Galysh, Anthony Mai, Jim Yen Naval Research Laboratory, Washington...mission overview, ground truth characterization and unique SSA observation opportunities of the mission. 1. MISSION CONCEPT The Naval Research...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SpinSat Mission Ground Truth Characterization 5a. CONTRACT

  19. Joint SatOPS Compatibility Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Danford

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) participation in the interagency cooperation committee, the Joint SatOps Compatibility Committee (JSCC), and the compatible Sat 2 efforts. Part of GSFC's participation in the JSCC is to work with the Goddard Mission Systems Evolution Center (GMSEC) to provides a publish/subscribe framework to enable rapid integration of commercially available satellite control products.

  20. The SAT: An Essay in Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlodinow, Leonard

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the release of the most comprehensive study of SAT exams. The headline on the Web site of the College Board, the maker of the test, was, "SAT Studies Show Test's Strength in Predicting College Success." At the same time, a headline on the Web site of the group FairTest, a 23-year-old, nonprofit watchdog…

  1. Application of Reading skills of Literary Criticism to Teaching%文学批评阅读法在教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤培成; 张华

    2011-01-01

    From the perspective of literature criticism, students' position is redefined in the teaching process. By studying reading skills of literature criticism, a new teaching model is proposed focusing on students' creative thinking, active learning and reading skills.%采用文学批评视角观照教学过程,对学生的定位进行了新的界定。从研究文学批评阅读法的特点入手,探讨教学改革新思路,同时着重就如何启发学生创造性思维进行了研究探讨。

  2. The SAT Protein of Porcine Parvovirus Accelerates Viral Spreading through Induction of Irreversible Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, István; Tóth, Renáta; Olasz, Ferenc; Tijssen, Peter; Zádori, Zoltán

    2017-08-15

    The SAT protein (SATp) of porcine parvovirus (PPV) accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and SAT deletion induces the slow-spreading phenotype. The in vitro comparison of the wild-type Kresse strain and its SAT knockout (SAT(-)) mutant revealed that prolonged cell integrity and late viral release are responsible for the slower spreading of the SAT(-) virus. During PPV infection, regardless of the presence or absence of SATp, the expression of downstream ER stress response proteins (Xbp1 and CHOP) was induced. However, in the absence of SATp, significant differences in the quantity and the localization of CHOP were detected, suggesting a role of SATp in the induction of irreversible ER stress in infected cells. The involvement of the induction of irreversible ER stress in porcine testis (PT) cell necrosis and viral egress was confirmed by treatment of infected cells by ER stress-inducing chemicals (MG132, dithiothreitol, and thapsigargin), which accelerated the egress and spreading of both the wild-type and the SAT(-) viruses. UV stress induction had no beneficial effect on PPV infection, underscoring the specificity of ER stress pathways in the process. However, induction of CHOP and its nuclear translocation cannot alone be responsible for the biological effect of SAT, since nuclear CHOP could not complement the lack of SAT in a coexpression experiment.IMPORTANCE SATp is encoded by an alternative open reading frame of the PPV genome. Earlier we showed that SATp of the attenuated PPV NADL-2 strain accumulates in the ER and accelerates virus release and spreading. Our present work revealed that slow spreading is a general feature of SAT(-) PPVs and is the consequence of prolonged cell integrity. PPV infection induced ER stress in infected cells regardless of the presence of SATp, as demonstrated by the morphological changes of the ER and expression of the stress response proteins Xbp1 and CHOP. However, the presence of SATp made the ER stress more severe

  3. Target Practice: Reader Response Theory and Teachers' Interpretations of Students' SAT 10 Scores in Data-Based Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Becky M.

    2012-01-01

    The study reported in this article examines how teachers read and respond to their students' Stanford Achievement Test 10 (SAT 10) scores with the goal of investigating the assumption that data-based teaching practice is more "objective" and less susceptible to divergent teacher interpretation. The study uses reader response theory to…

  4. English Reading Based on EFL Acquisition and Critical Literacy%基于批判性的英语阅读教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦洁

    2013-01-01

    The core task for English Reading Course is to develop students’ critical literacy and EFL acquisition. However, conventional EFL learning focused more on the latter rather than the former. Nowadays, researchers, both domestic and abroad, show more concern on critical literacy, which plays a vital part in education. The paper discusses the relationship between EFL acquisition and critical literacy. In addition, it also analyses the benefits to reading comprehension produced by critical reading. In the end, the author draws the conclusion that teachers should help students with both critical literacy and EFL acquisition.%英语阅读教学的核心任务是培养学生的批判性人文素养和英语语言应用能力。批判性人文素养是当前国内外教育研究的热点之一,是人才培养的主要目标。然而,传统教学过于侧重后者,忽视前者。以非母语环境语言学习为切入点,通过对批判性人文素养培养及批判性阅读给阅读理解带来的益处所进行的分析,可以得知英语阅读教学既要重视学生语言习得能力的培养,更要重视学生批判性人文素养的提高。

  5. Integrating BalloonSAT and Atmospheric Dynamic Concepts into the Secondary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, B. N.; Kennon, J. T.; Roberts, E.

    2016-05-01

    Arkansas BalloonSAT is an educational outreach and scientific research program that is part of Arkansas State University in Jonesboro, AR. The following is a unit of instruction to incorporate BalloonSAT measurements into secondary science classes. Students interpret graphs and identify several atmospheric trends and properties of a typical balloon flight. Students engage critical thinking skills in developing and answering their own questions relevant to the BalloonSAT program. Prerequisite concepts students should know are how to interpret graphs and unit conversions. Students should have a basic understanding of gravity, units of temperature and distance, and error in measurements. The unit is designed for one week after end-of-course exams and before the end of school. The unit may take two to five 50-minute periods, depending on how many activities are completed.

  6. Amblyopic reading is crowded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Dennis M; Song, Shuang; Pelli, Denis G

    2007-10-26

    We measure acuity, crowding, and reading in amblyopic observers to answer four questions. (1) Is reading with the amblyopic eye impaired because of larger required letter size (i.e., worse acuity) or larger required spacing (i.e., worse crowding)? The size or spacing required to read at top speed is called "critical". For each eye of seven amblyopic observers and the preferred eyes of two normal observers, we measure reading rate as a function of the center-to-center spacing of the letters in central and peripheral vision. From these results, we estimate the critical spacing for reading. We also measured traditional acuity for an isolated letter and the critical spacing for identifying a letter among other letters, which is the classic measure of crowding. For both normals and amblyopes, in both central and peripheral vision, we find that the critical spacing for reading equals the critical spacing for crowding. The identical critical spacings, and very different critical sizes, show that crowding, not acuity, limits reading. (2) Does amblyopia affect peripheral reading? No. We find that amblyopes read normally with their amblyopic eye except that abnormal crowding in the fovea prevents them from reading fine print. (3) Is the normal periphery a good model for the amblyopic fovea? No. Reading centrally, the amblyopic eye has an abnormally large critical spacing but reads all larger spacings at normal rates. This is unlike the normal periphery, in which both critical spacing and maximum reading rate are severely impaired relative to the normal fovea. (4) Can the uncrowded-span theory of reading rate explain amblyopic reading? Yes. The case of amblyopia shows that crowding limits reading solely by determining the uncrowded span: the number of characters that are not crowded. Characters are uncrowded if and only if their spacing is more than critical. The text spacing may be uniform, but the observer's critical spacing increases with distance from fixation, so the

  7. SAT vocabulary builder interactive flashcards book

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Boost your SAT vocabulary skills with a book, not a box! Welcome to flashcards in a book. There are no loose cards to lose or misplace. Always in order for easier, organized study. Filled with over 900 must-study New SAT words that are simply the best way to check your ""test readiness."" Study smarter using the unique interactive feature not found in other flashcards: Write your answer to a card's question on the front, and then compare it later to the answer on the back. Perfect for self-study, for reference, or just for a quick review!DETAILS- Handy book format keeps information organized a

  8. Thermal Analysis of Iodine Satellite (iSAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the progress of the thermal analysis and design of the Iodine Satellite (iSAT). The purpose of the iSAT spacecraft (SC) is to demonstrate the ability of the iodine Hall Thruster propulsion system throughout a one year mission in an effort to mature the system for use on future satellites. The benefit of this propulsion system is that it uses a propellant, iodine, that is easy to store and provides a high thrust-to-mass ratio. The spacecraft will also act as a bus for an earth observation payload, the Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) Camera. Four phases of the mission, determined to either be critical to achieving requirements or phases of thermal concern, are modeled. The phases are the Right Ascension of the Ascending Node (RAAN) Change, Altitude Reduction, De-Orbit, and Science Phases. Each phase was modeled in a worst case hot environment and the coldest phase, the Science Phase, was also modeled in a worst case cold environment. The thermal environments of the spacecraft are especially important to model because iSAT has a very high power density. The satellite is the size of a 12 unit cubesat, and dissipates slightly more than 75 Watts of power as heat at times. The maximum temperatures for several components are above their maximum operational limit for one or more cases. The analysis done for the first Design and Analysis Cycle (DAC1) showed that many components were above or within 5 degrees Centigrade of their maximum operation limit. The battery is a component of concern because although it is not over its operational temperature limit, efficiency greatly decreases if it operates at the currently predicted temperatures. In the second Design and Analysis Cycle (DAC2), many steps were taken to mitigate the overheating of components, including isolating several high temperature components, removal of components, and rearrangement of systems. These changes have greatly increased the thermal margin available.

  9. Developing Critical Thinking Skills in the Course of Read-ings from British and American Press%英美报刊选读课中思辨能力的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙宇

    2014-01-01

    College English education should include the develop-ment of critical thinking skills in its goals. Beginning from ana-lyzing the current situation of college English teaching, this paper explores the strategies to develop critical thinking skills in the course of Readings from British and American Press.%大学的英语教育应该将思辨能力作为培养目标之一。在分析我国高校英语教学思辨能力现状的基础上,探索在英美报刊选读课中培养学生思辨能力的策略。

  10. SAT Participation and Performance for the Class of 2014. Memorandum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Geoffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    SAT participation and performance are milestones on the path to college and career readiness. This report provides the results for SAT participation and performance in Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS) for the class of 2014. Analysis of postsecondary outcomes for MCPS graduates indicates that graduates who took the SAT were more…

  11. The Quest for Reading: A Reception and Aesthetic Response Criticism on Hypertext Fiction of Pride and Prejudice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Rochani Adi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of internet which provides hypertext information results in significant change in many aspects of life. Literature is not exceptional. The argument is therefore, since hypertext literature is presented in different mode, it must propose different kind of reading. Based on reception and reader-response or aesthetic response theories, this study finds out that there is a change in the way readers enjoy Pride and Prejudice. The process of reading become active experience because it allows the readers to take control of the narrative. The result is that hypertext Pride and Prejudice provides different meaning to the readers. The novel exists by providing not only the narratives but also informations on the narratives. The study finds out that there is a change in how the hypertext Pride and Prejudice wanted and needed. The hypertext does not come from the enjoyment in the process of reading the narratives but the satisfaction in getting the information on the narratives. It is not reading for pleasure that is traditionally offered by romantic novels but the satisfaction in the process of getting information on the text since self actualization in the readers is fulfilled.

  12. Vocabulary Knowledge Is a Critical Determinant of the Difference in Reading Comprehension Growth between First and Second Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lervag, Arne; Aukrust, Vibeke Grover

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study examines the role of decoding and vocabulary skills as longitudinal predictors of reading comprehension in young first (L1) and second (L2) language learners. Methods: Two-group latent growth models were used to assess differences in growth and predictions of growth between the 198 L1 and 90 L2 language learners. Results: L1…

  13. HaloSat - A CubeSat to Study the Hot Galactic Halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaret, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Observations of the nearby universe fail to locate about half of the baryons observed in the early universe. The missing baryons may be in hot galactic halos. HaloSat is a CubeSat designed to map oxygen line emission (O VII and O VIII) around the Milky Way in order to constrain the mass and spatial distribution of hot gas in the halo. HaloSat has a grasp competitive with current X-ray observatories. Its observing program will be optimized to minimize contributions from solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission that limit the accuracy of current measurements. We will describe the HaloSat mission concept, progress towards its implementation, and plans for archiving and distribution of the data.

  14. Exploring Our Solar System with CubeSats and NanoSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Anthony; Norton, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is NASA's lead center for robotic exploration of our solar system. We are known for our large, flagship missions, such as Voyager, which gave humanity its first close look at Jupiter and Saturn; and the Mars Rovers, which have excited millions worldwide with their daring landing exploits. Less familiar to those outside NASA may be our role in developing the Kepler mission, which has discovered more than 2000 planets around other stars; or the recently launched Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, one of many JPL Earth Science missions. A recent JPL initiative has emphasized low cost missions that use rapidly evolving technology developed for CubeSats and NanoSat s to explore our solar system. Costs are significantly lower (by one or two orders of magnitude) than for conventional JPL missions, and development time is also significantly shorter. At present 21 such CubeSat flight projects are under way at the laboratory with various partners : some in flight, some in development, some in advanced formulation. Four are planned as deep space missions. To succeed in exploring deep space CubeSat/NanoSat missions have to address several challenges: the more severe radiation environment, communications and navigation at a distance, propulsion, and packaging of instruments that can return valuable science into a compact volume/mass envelope. Instrument technologies, including cameras, magnetometers, spectrometers, radiometers, and even radars are undergoing miniaturization to fit on these smaller platforms. Other key technologies are being matured for smallsats and NanoSats in deep space, including micro -electric propulsion, compact radio (and optical) communications, and onboard data reduction. This paper will describe missions that utilize these developments including the first two deep space CubeSats (INSPIRE), planned for launch in 2017; the first pair of CubeSats to be sent to another planet (MARCO), manifested with the In

  15. Enhancing SAT Based Planning with Landmark Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elffers, J.; Konijnenberg, D.; Walraven, E.M.P.; Spaan, M.T.J.

    2013-01-01

    Several approaches exist to solve Artificial Intelligence planning problems, but little attention has been given to the combination of using landmark knowledge and satisfiability (SAT). Landmark knowledge has been exploited successfully in the heuristics of classical planning. Recently it was also s

  16. An algorithm for 3-SAT problems

    OpenAIRE

    Tsukimoto, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for 3-SAT problems. First, logical formulas are transformed into elementary algebraic formulas. Second, complex trigonometric functions are assigned to the variables in the elementary algebraic formulas, and the sums of the formulas are calculated. The algorithm outputs the number of satisfying assignments. The computational complexity of the algorithm is probably polynomial.

  17. Investigating SATS-36 for a Matriculation Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Saras; Idris, Noraini

    2015-01-01

    Students' attitudes towards statistics have been more often negative due to many factors such as initial perception of the subject, low ability in mathematics and lack of motivation to study statistics. Studies involving SATS-36 included investigation of the different factors in relation to students' attitude towards statistics. Other studies have…

  18. The RadioSat (sm) network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Gary K.

    1991-09-01

    The RadioSat network under development by radio Satellite Corporation will use mobile satellite (MSAT) technology to provide diverse personal communications, broadcast, and navigation services. The network will support these services simultaneously for integrated mobile radios throughout Canada and the United States. The RadioSat network takes advantage of several technological breakthroughs, all coming to fruition by the time the first MSAT satellite is launched in 1994. The most important of these breakthroughs is the enormous radiated power of each MSAT spacecraft - orders of magnitude greater than the radiated power of previous L-band spacecraft. Another important breakthrough is the development of advanced digital audio compression algorithms, enabling the transmission of broadcast quality music at moderate data rates. Finally, continuing dramatic increases in VLSI capabilities permit the production of complex, multi-function mobile satellite radios in very large quantities at prices little more than those of conventional car radios. In addition to performance breakthroughs and their economic implications to RadioSat, the design of the RadioSat network is reviewed.

  19. Pre- to Post- CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, J.

    2015-12-01

    CubeSats sprung from a formative picosatellite effort at a university in the heart of Silicon Valley, took root in a university-led university environment, and have grown into complex-shaped explorers in both near and soon-to-be deep space. Private citizens, businesses, government are building and launching a variety of science, technology demonstration, and service missions. A new generation of space explorers is gaining first hand experience in space missions at all educational levels. There is new life and new energy in the space program. However, space is still difficult. The environment is harsh. Funding is sparse. This talk explores this history and the future of CubeSats from the context of a university-centric laboratory that emphasizes teaching, research, and entrepreneurial impact. It will explore the following questions: What sparked the CubeSat innovation? What are longer lasting lessons of this community? Where are places we can go next? What does it take to get there? The talk will draw on lessons learned from building over six on-orbit CubeSat missions and training hundreds of space engineers.

  20. From CryoSat-2 to Sentinel-3 and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, R.

    2011-12-01

    CryoSat-2 carried into Earth orbit the first altimeter using SAR principles, although similar techniques had been used on earlier Venusian missions. Furthermore, it carries a second antenna and receive chain, and has been very carefully calibrated, allowing interferometry between these antennas. The results of the SAR mode and of the interferometer have met all expectations, with handsome margins. Even before the launch of CryoSat-2 the further development of this concept was underway with the radar for the oceanography mission Sentinel-3. While this radar, named SRAL (SAR Radar Altimeter) does not have the interferometer capability of CryoSat-2's SIRAL (SAR Interferometric Radar Altimeter), it does have a second frequency, to enable direct measurement of the delay induced by the ionospheric electron content. Sentinel-3 will have a sun-synchronous orbit, like ERS and EnviSat, and will have a similar latitudinal range: about 82° north and south, compared to CryoSat's 88°. Sentinel-3 will operate its radar altimeter in the high-resolution SAR mode over coastal oceans and inland water, and will revert to the more classical pulse-width limited mode over the open oceans. The SAR mode generates data at a high rate, so the major limiting factor is the amount of on-board storage. The power consumption is also higher, imposing less critical constraints. For sizing purposes the coastal oceans are defined as waters within 300 km of the continental shorelines. Sentinel-3 is expected to be launched in 2013 and be followed 18 months later by a second satellite of the same design. The next step in the development of this family of radar altimeters is Jason-CS, which will provide Continuity of Service to the existing Jason series of operational oceanography missions. Jason-CS has a very strong heritage from CryoSat but will fly the traditional Jason orbit, which covers latitudes up to 66° from a high altitude of 1330 km. The new radar is called Poseidon-4, to emphasise the

  1. Method of resolution of 3SAT in polynomial time

    CERN Document Server

    Salemi, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Presentation of a Method for determining whether a problem 3Sat has solution, and if yes to find one, in time max O(n11). Is thus proved (if I am not mistaken yet) that the problem 3Sat is fully resolved in polynomial time and therefore that it is in P, by the work of Cook and Levin, and can transform a SAT problem in a 3Sat in polynomial time (ref. Karp), it follows that P = NP. Open Source program is available at http://www.visainformatica.it/3sat

  2. 思辨与合作:基础英语教学与批判性思维能力培养%Critical Thinking and Cooperation:Intensive Reading Teaching and the Cultivation of Critical Thinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵朝杨

    2015-01-01

    英语专业学生思辨缺席是我国英语界十余年来关注的问题,专业技能课一直被诟病。基础英语课程是英语专业基础阶段的专业技能必修课,对英语专业学生的综合素质培养起着重要的作用。从批判性思维含义、构成要素入手,运用小组合作学习理论,设计大量培养批判性思维技能的活动,在基础英语课堂内外训练学生的语言技能的同时,培养学生批判性思维能力,改革基础英语教学效果,探索以培养批判性思维能力为导向的基础英语教学模式。%The issue of absence of critical thinking skills among English major students has aroused wide attention for more than ten years. Too many language skill courses have been accused as the main cause. This article takes one of the required language skill courses for English majors,Intensive Reading,which is quite important to the cultivation of the comprehensive qualities of English majors,as an example to explore the teaching mode of critical - thinking - skill orien-tation. This article analyzes the connotation and elements of critical thinking,and then integrates the theory of group co-operative learning with the activities of training critical thinking skills both inside and outside Intensive Reading classroom so as to culture English major students′ critical thinking capacities and language skills as well.

  3. 一份阅读试题的评估(Ⅰ)%A Critical Evaluation of a Reading Comprehension Test (Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄欣

    2004-01-01

    This paper evaluates a reading test designed as the final examination of some third year seeondary school students in Singapore. Based on the data, histogram is made to illustrate the distribution of different marks among the candidates. The paper then proceeds on to discuss the reliability and validity of the test. Problems affecting the validity of the test are pointed out and improvements are suggested.

  4. Sociocultural Knowledge and Visual Re(-)Presentations of Black Masculinity and Community: Reading "The Wire" for Critical Multicultural Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Keffrelyn D.; Kraehe, Amelia

    2011-01-01

    In this article we consider the implications of using popular visual media as a pedagogic tool for helping teachers acquire critical sociocultural knowledge to work more effectively with students of color, particularly Black males. Drawing from a textual analysis (McKee 2001, 2003; Rose 2001) conducted in the critical visual studies tradition…

  5. Using Young Adult Literature and Literacy Theory to Teach Middle School Students How to Read through Critical Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kathleen O'Connell

    2010-01-01

    Middle school students are socially conditioned through an inundation of messages conveyed by various mediums, and language arts teachers are capable of teaching them how to deconstruct messages through exercises in critical literacy. Many language arts teachers are not aware of critical theory and, if they are aware, rely solely on classic…

  6. Achievements and Future Plan of Interplanetary CubeSats and Micro-Sats in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funase, Ryu

    2016-07-01

    This paper introduces Japanese achievements and future plans of CubeSats and Micro-Sats for deep space exploration. As the first step toward deep space mission by such tiny spacecraft, University of Tokyo and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) developed the world's first deep space micro-spacecraft PROCYON (Proximate Object Close flYby with Optical Navigation). Its mission objective is to demonstrate a micro-spacecraft bus technology for deep space exploration and proximity flyby to asteroids performing optical measurements. PROCYON was launched into the Earth departure trajectory on December 3, 2014 together with Japanese asteroid sample return mission Hayabusa-2. PROCYON successfully completed the bus system demonstration mission in its interplanetary flight. Currently, Japan is not only pursuing the improvement and utilization of the demonstrated micro-sat deep space bus system with a weight of tens of kg or more for more practical scientific deep space missions, but also trying to develop smaller spacecraft with a weight of less than tens of kg, namely CubeSats, for deep space exploration. We are proposing a self-contained 6U CubeSat mission for the rideshare opportunity on the USA's SLS EM-1 mission, which will fly to a libration orbit around Earth-Moon L2 point and perform scientific observations of the Earth and the Moon. We are also seeking the possibility of CubeSats which is carried by a larger spacecraft to the destination and supports the mission by taking advantage of its low-cost and risk-tolerable feature. As an example of such style of CubeSat missions, we are studying a CubeSat for close observations of an asteroid, which will be carried to the target asteroid by a larger mother spacecraft. This CubeSat is released from the mother spacecraft to make a close flyby for scientific observations, which is difficult to be performed by the mother spacecraft if we consider the risk of the collision to the target asteroid or dust particles ejected

  7. CubeSat evolution: Analyzing CubeSat capabilities for conducting science missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poghosyan, Armen; Golkar, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, the space industry produced large and sophisticated spacecraft handcrafted by large teams of engineers and budgets within the reach of only a few large government-backed institutions. However, over the last decade, the space industry experienced an increased interest towards smaller missions and recent advances in commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technology miniaturization spurred the development of small spacecraft missions based on the CubeSat standard. CubeSats were initially envisioned primarily as educational tools or low cost technology demonstration platforms that could be developed and launched within one or two years. Recently, however, more advanced CubeSat missions have been developed and proposed, indicating that CubeSats clearly started to transition from being solely educational and technology demonstration platforms to offer opportunities for low-cost real science missions with potential high value in terms of science return and commercial revenue. Despite the significant progress made in CubeSat research and development over the last decade, some fundamental questions still habitually arise about the CubeSat capabilities, limitations, and ultimately about their scientific and commercial value. The main objective of this review is to evaluate the state of the art CubeSat capabilities with a special focus on advanced scientific missions and a goal of assessing the potential of CubeSat platforms as capable spacecraft. A total of over 1200 launched and proposed missions have been analyzed from various sources including peer-reviewed journal publications, conference proceedings, mission webpages as well as other publicly available satellite databases and about 130 relatively high performance missions were downselected and categorized into six groups based on the primary mission objectives including "Earth Science and Spaceborne Applications", "Deep Space Exploration", "Heliophysics: Space Weather", "Astrophysics", "Spaceborne In Situ

  8. Solving All-SAT Problems by P Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ping; JI Jinfang; CHEN Haizhu; LIU Ran

    2015-01-01

    — The satisfiability problem (SAT) is a well known NP-complete problem. Obtaining All of the truth assignments of SAT is called All-SAT and it has numerous applications in artificial intelligence and computer theo-ries. Many algorithms about SAT have been built, but how to solve All-SAT is still diffi cult. P system is a new distributed and parallel computation model. We use mem-brane division, which is frequently investigated to obtain an exponential working space in a linear time, to design a family of P systems to solve All-SAT in polynomial time. Our work provides a new and eff ective solution to All-SAT in a distributed and parallel manner.

  9. A scalable and accurate targeted gene assembly tool (SAT-Assembler) for next-generation sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Sun, Yanni; Cole, James R

    2014-08-01

    Gene assembly, which recovers gene segments from short reads, is an important step in functional analysis of next-generation sequencing data. Lacking quality reference genomes, de novo assembly is commonly used for RNA-Seq data of non-model organisms and metagenomic data. However, heterogeneous sequence coverage caused by heterogeneous expression or species abundance, similarity between isoforms or homologous genes, and large data size all pose challenges to de novo assembly. As a result, existing assembly tools tend to output fragmented contigs or chimeric contigs, or have high memory footprint. In this work, we introduce a targeted gene assembly program SAT-Assembler, which aims to recover gene families of particular interest to biologists. It addresses the above challenges by conducting family-specific homology search, homology-guided overlap graph construction, and careful graph traversal. It can be applied to both RNA-Seq and metagenomic data. Our experimental results on an Arabidopsis RNA-Seq data set and two metagenomic data sets show that SAT-Assembler has smaller memory usage, comparable or better gene coverage, and lower chimera rate for assembling a set of genes from one or multiple pathways compared with other assembly tools. Moreover, the family-specific design and rapid homology search allow SAT-Assembler to be naturally compatible with parallel computing platforms. The source code of SAT-Assembler is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/sat-assembler/. The data sets and experimental settings can be found in supplementary material.

  10. A scalable and accurate targeted gene assembly tool (SAT-Assembler for next-generation sequencing data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Gene assembly, which recovers gene segments from short reads, is an important step in functional analysis of next-generation sequencing data. Lacking quality reference genomes, de novo assembly is commonly used for RNA-Seq data of non-model organisms and metagenomic data. However, heterogeneous sequence coverage caused by heterogeneous expression or species abundance, similarity between isoforms or homologous genes, and large data size all pose challenges to de novo assembly. As a result, existing assembly tools tend to output fragmented contigs or chimeric contigs, or have high memory footprint. In this work, we introduce a targeted gene assembly program SAT-Assembler, which aims to recover gene families of particular interest to biologists. It addresses the above challenges by conducting family-specific homology search, homology-guided overlap graph construction, and careful graph traversal. It can be applied to both RNA-Seq and metagenomic data. Our experimental results on an Arabidopsis RNA-Seq data set and two metagenomic data sets show that SAT-Assembler has smaller memory usage, comparable or better gene coverage, and lower chimera rate for assembling a set of genes from one or multiple pathways compared with other assembly tools. Moreover, the family-specific design and rapid homology search allow SAT-Assembler to be naturally compatible with parallel computing platforms. The source code of SAT-Assembler is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/sat-assembler/. The data sets and experimental settings can be found in supplementary material.

  11. Transboundary water justice: a combined reading of literature on critical transboundary water interaction and "justice", for analysis and diplomacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitoun, M.; Warner, J.F.; Mirumachi, N.; Matthews, N.; McLaughlin, K.

    2014-01-01

    By reviewing and blending two main bodies of research (critical transboundary water interaction analysis and centuries of thought on social justice) this paper seeks to improve international transboundary water interaction analysis and diplomacy. Various implications for transboundary analysis and d

  12. Some variants of SAT and their properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new model for the well-known problem, the satisfiablility problem of boolean formula (SAT), is introduced. Based on this model, some variants of SAT and their properties are presented. Denote by NP the class of all languages which can be decided by a non-deterministic polynomial Turing machine and by P the class of all languages which can be decided by a deterministic polynomial-time Turing machine. This model also allows us to give another candidate for the natural problems in ((NP-NPC)-P), denoted as NPI, under the assumption P≠NP, where NPC represents NP-complete. It is proven that this candidate is not in NPC under P≠NP. While, it is indeed in NPI under some stronger but reasonable assumption, specifically, under the Exponential-Time Hypothesis (ETH). Thus we can partially solve this long standing important open problem.

  13. DebriSat Pre Preshot Laboratory Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-27

    to be line of sight since witness plates protected by Whipple shield showed little change. LWIR spectral features from the deposited material are...Radhakrishnan Charles Griffice C. C. Wan UV -VIS-NIR Spectroscopy Dianna Alaan FIB/TEM Sample Preparation Miles Brodie © The Aerospace Corporation 2015 DebriSat...conditions responsible for the darkening. – UV -VIS-NIR-LWIR reflectance spectra were measured of post test debris for comparison with pre test

  14. Observing Compact Stars with AstroSat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dipankar Bhattacharya

    2017-09-01

    This article presents a brief description of India’s AstroSat mission which is a powerful space based observatory for compact star research. An account is given of observational constraints and spectral and timing capabilities as realised post-launch. Some preliminary results of observations of the Crab pulsar and an X-ray binary system GX 301-2 are presented to illustrate some of the capabilities of the mission.

  15. Observing Compact Stars with AstroSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Dipankar

    2017-09-01

    This article presents a brief description of India's AstroSat mission which is a powerful space based observatory for compact star research. An account is given of observational constraints and spectral and timing capabilities as realised post-launch. Some preliminary results of observations of the Crab pulsar and an X-ray binary system GX 301-2 are presented to illustrate some of the capabilities of the mission.

  16. Big Software for SmallSats: Adapting CFS to CubeSat Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudmore, Alan P.; Crum, Gary; Sheikh, Salman; Marshall, James

    2015-01-01

    Expanding capabilities and mission objectives for SmallSats and CubeSats is driving the need for reliable, reusable, and robust flight software. While missions are becoming more complicated and the scientific goals more ambitious, the level of acceptable risk has decreased. Design challenges are further compounded by budget and schedule constraints that have not kept pace. NASA's Core Flight Software System (cFS) is an open source solution which enables teams to build flagship satellite level flight software within a CubeSat schedule and budget. NASA originally developed cFS to reduce mission and schedule risk for flagship satellite missions by increasing code reuse and reliability. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, which launched in 2009, was the first of a growing list of Class B rated missions to use cFS. Large parts of cFS are now open source, which has spurred adoption outside of NASA. This paper reports on the experiences of two teams using cFS for current CubeSat missions. The performance overheads of cFS are quantified, and the reusability of code between missions is discussed. The analysis shows that cFS is well suited to use on CubeSats and demonstrates the portability and modularity of cFS code.

  17. ExoplanetSat: detecting transiting exoplanets using a low-cost CubeSat platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew W.; Seager, Sara; Pong, Christopher M.; Villaseñor, Jesus S.; Ricker, George R.; Miller, David W.; Knapp, Mary E.; Farmer, Grant T.; Jensen-Clem, Rebecca

    2010-07-01

    Nanosatellites, i.e. spacecraft that weigh between 1 and 10 kg, are drawing increasing interest as platforms for conducting on-orbit science. This trend is primarily driven by the ability to piggyback nanosatellites on the launch of large spacecraft and hence achieve orbit at greatly reduced cost. The CubeSat platform is a standardized nanosatellite configuration, consisting of one, two, or three 10 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm units (1, 2, or 3 "U"s) arranged in a row. We present a CubeSat-based concept for the discovery of transiting exoplanets around the nearest and brightest Sun-like stars. The spacecraft prototype - termed ExoplanetSat - is a 3U space telescope capable of monitoring a single target star from low Earth orbit. Given the volume limitations of the CubeSat form factor, designing a capable spacecraft requires overcoming significant challenges. This work presents the initial satellite configuration along with several subsystem-specific solutions to the aforementioned constraints. An optical design based on a modified commercial off-the-shelf camera lens is given. We also describe a novel two-stage attitude control architecture that combines 3-axis reaction wheels for coarse pointing with a piezoelectric translation stage at the focal plane for fine pointing. Modeling and simulation results are used to demonstrate feasibility by quantifying ExoplanetSat pointing precision, signal-to-noise ratio, guide star magnitude, and additional design parameters which determine system performance.

  18. Solving SAT problem by heuristic polarity decision-making algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a heuristic polarity decision-making algorithm for solving Boolean satisfiability (SAT). The algorithm inherits many features of the current state-of-the-art SAT solvers, such as fast BCP, clause recording, restarts, etc. In addition, a preconditioning step that calculates the polarities of variables according to the cover distribution of Karnaugh map is introduced into DPLL procedure, which greatly reduces the number of conflicts in the search process. The proposed approach is implemented as a SAT solver named DiffSat. Experiments show that DiffSat can solve many "real-life" instances in a reasonable time while the best existing SAT solvers, such as Zchaff and MiniSat, cannot. In particular, DiffSat can solve every instance of Bart benchmark suite in less than 0.03 s while Zchaff and MiniSat fail under a 900 s time limit. Furthermore, DiffSat even outperforms the outstanding incomplete algorithm DLM in some instances.

  19. Physics First: Impact on SAT Math Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Craig E.

    Improving science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education has become a national priority and the call to modernize secondary science has been heard. A Physics First (PF) program with the curriculum sequence of physics, chemistry, and biology (PCB) driven by inquiry- and project-based learning offers a viable alternative to the traditional curricular sequence (BCP) and methods of teaching, but requires more empirical evidence. This study determined impact of a PF program (PF-PCB) on math achievement (SAT math scores) after the first two cohorts of students completed the PF-PCB program at Matteo Ricci High School (MRHS) and provided more quantitative data to inform the PF debate and advance secondary science education. Statistical analysis (ANCOVA) determined the influence of covariates and revealed that PF-PCB program had a significant (p < .05) impact on SAT math scores in the second cohort at MRHS. Statistically adjusted, the SAT math means for PF students were 21.4 points higher than their non-PF counterparts when controlling for prior math achievement (HSTP math), socioeconomic status (SES), and ethnicity/race.

  20. Back to Basics: Solving Games with SAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QUER, S.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Games became popular, within the formal verification community, after their application to automatic synthesis of circuits from specifications, and they have been receiving more and more attention since then. This paper focuses on coding the "Sokoban" puzzle, i.e., a very complex single-player strategy game. We show how its solution can be encoded and represented as a Bounded Model Checking problem, and then solved with a SAT solver. After that, to cope with very complex instances of the game, we propose two different ad-hoc divide-and-conquer strategies. Those strategies, somehow similar to state-of-the-art abstraction-and-refinement schemes, are able to decompose deep Bounded Model Checking instances into easier subtasks, trading-off between efficiency and completeness. We analyze a vast set of difficult hard-to-solve benchmark games, trying to push forward the applicability of state-of-the-art SAT solvers in the field. Those results show that games may provide one of the next frontier for the SAT community.

  1. THE EFFECT OF READING CIRCLE TECHNIQUE ON THE CRITICAL READING SELFEFFICACY PERCEPTION OF PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS - OKUMA ÇEMBERİ TEKNİĞİNİN ÖĞRETMEN ADAYLARININ ELEŞTİREL OKUMA ÖZ YETERLİK ALGILARINA ETKİSİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ÖZBAY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reading can be described as getting meaning from written symbols in the classic sense. But today, information is changing rapidly and orienting in various ways through general networking, media, printed materials and so on. Therefore it is not enough alone to make sense of text. Today, to correctly understand what individuals read, to discuss accuracy and reliability of thoughts in the book, be able to query the information given by the work, to determine the purpose of author correctly, to explain the cause and effect relationships between events and concepts, to determine conflicting statements in the work has become a much more important. In this context, especially teachers and preservice teachers need to be higly critical reading self-efficacy perception. Because teachers and preservice teachers undertake decisive role in the relationship between students and books. To be conscious about the critical reading self-efficacy perception will provide to meet with more qualified and reliable work for students. In this context, the aim of this paper is defined as to examine the impact of the collaborative reading circle effect on preservice teachers' critical reading self efficacy perception. In this paper quasi experimental stduy method was preferred and research was designed semi-experimental pretest posttest control group design. The study was conducted on 103 Turkish preservice teachers who are receiving education in Dumlupınar University Faculty of Education. Paper's datas were collected through Critical Reading Self-Efficacy Perception Scale which has developed by Karadeniz (2014. According to the findings, collaborative reading circle technique has been effective in developing preservice teachers' critical reading self efficacy perceptions.

  2. The Effectiveness of DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency for Predicting Reading Comprehension of High- and Low-Income Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleologos, Timon M.; Brabham, Edna G.

    2011-01-01

    Correlations and sequential analyses between performance on Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills-Oral Reading Fluency (DORF) and reading achievement on the Stanford Achievement Test-Tenth Edition (SAT-10) during 2003-2004 were examined for high- and low-income children. Participants were 215 third graders, 112 above and 103 below…

  3. Voiced Reading and Rhythm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹艳萍

    2007-01-01

    Since voiced reading is an important way in learning English,rhythm is the most critical factor that enables to read beautifully.This article illustrates the relationship between rhythm and voiced reading,the importance of rhythm,and the methods to develop the sense of rhythm.

  4. Big Software for SmallSats: Adapting cFS to CubeSat Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudmore, Alan P.; Crum, Gary Alex; Sheikh, Salman; Marshall, James

    2015-01-01

    Expanding capabilities and mission objectives for SmallSats and CubeSats is driving the need for reliable, reusable, and robust flight software. While missions are becoming more complicated and the scientific goals more ambitious, the level of acceptable risk has decreased. Design challenges are further compounded by budget and schedule constraints that have not kept pace. NASA's Core Flight Software System (cFS) is an open source solution which enables teams to build flagship satellite level flight software within a CubeSat schedule and budget. NASA originally developed cFS to reduce mission and schedule risk for flagship satellite missions by increasing code reuse and reliability. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, which launched in 2009, was the first of a growing list of Class B rated missions to use cFS.

  5. Advances in Ka-Band Communication System for CubeSats and SmallSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegege, Obadiah; Wong, Yen F.; Altunc, Serhat

    2016-01-01

    A study was performed that evaluated the feasibility of Ka-band communication system to provide CubeSat/SmallSat high rate science data downlink with ground antennas ranging from the small portable 1.2m/2.4m to apertures 5.4M, 7.3M, 11M, and 18M, for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Lunar CubeSat missions. This study included link analysis to determine the data rate requirement, based on the current TRL of Ka-band flight hardware and ground support infrastructure. Recent advances in Ka-band transceivers and antennas, options of portable ground stations, and various coverage distances were included in the analysis. The link/coverage analysis results show that Cubesat/Smallsat missions communication requirements including frequencies and data rates can be met by utilizing Near Earth Network (NEN) Ka-band support with 2 W and high gain (>6 dBi) antennas.

  6. Reading the World's Classics Critically: A Keyword-Based Approach to Literary Analysis in Foreign Language Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Nuria Alonso; Caplan, Alison

    2014-01-01

    While there are a number of important critical pedagogies being proposed in the field of foreign language study, more attention should be given to providing concrete examples of how to apply these ideas in the classroom. This article offers a new approach to the textual analysis of literary classics through the keyword-based methodology originally…

  7. Reading and Creating Critically Leaderful Schools that Make a Difference: The Post-Apartheid South African Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Juliet

    2009-01-01

    My interest in critical leaderful educational practices emanated from my experiences as a researcher in a South African National Department of Education project that piloted the White Paper on "Inclusive Education Policy from 2001-2003" and in 2006 when I worked as a volunteer consultant with Twenty30, an independent, not for profit organization…

  8. Reading and Creating Critically Leaderful Schools that Make a Difference: The Post-Apartheid South African Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Juliet

    2009-01-01

    My interest in critical leaderful educational practices emanated from my experiences as a researcher in a South African National Department of Education project that piloted the White Paper on "Inclusive Education Policy from 2001-2003" and in 2006 when I worked as a volunteer consultant with Twenty30, an independent, not for profit…

  9. Science and Non-Science Undergraduate Students' Critical Thinking and Argumentation Performance in Reading a Science News Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    A scientifically literate person should be able to engage and critique science news reports about socioscientific issues from a variety of information sources. Such engagement involves critical thinking and argumentation skills to determine if claims made are justified by evidence and explained by reasonable explanations. This study explored…

  10. How Rural Schoolchildren and Teachers Read TV Dramas: A Case Study on Critical Media Literacy in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar-Vural, Ruken

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study attempts to determine favorite TV dramas of children from two rural schools and analyze children's discourse about messages and values of TV dramas. As parallel to children's views, teacher perceptions on critical media literacy were investigated in the study. This study aims to explore the content--messages/values--of…

  11. Educational interventions to improve the effectiveness in clinical competence of general practitioners: problem-based versus critical reading-based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongora-Ortega Javier

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that continuing medical education improves the clinical competence of general practitioners and the quality of health care services. Thus, we evaluated the relative impact of two educational strategies, critical reading (CR and problem based learning (PBL, on the clinical competence of general practitioners in a healthcare system characterized by excessive workload and fragmentation into small primary healthcare centers. Methods Clinical competence was evaluated in general practitioners assigned to three groups based on the educational interventions used: 1 critical reading intervention; 2 problem based learning intervention; and 3 no intervention (control group, which continued clinical practice as normal. The effect on the clinical competence of general practitioners was evaluated in three dimensions: the cognitive dimension, via a self-administered questionnaire; the habitual behavioral dimension, via information from patient’s medical records; and the affective dimension, through interviews with patients. A paired Student´s t-test was used to evaluate the changes in the mean clinical competence scores before and after the intervention, and a 3 x 2 ANOVA was used to analyze groups, times and their interaction. Results Nine general practitioners participated in the critical reading workshop, nine in the problem-based learning workshop, and ten were assigned to the control group. The participants exhibited no significant differences in clinical competence measures at baseline, or in socio-demographic or job characteristics (p > 0.05. Significant improvements in all three dimensions (cognitive, 45.67 vs 54.89; habitual behavioral, 53.78 vs 82.33; affective, 4.16 vs 4.76 were only observed in the problem-based learning group after the intervention (p > 0.017. Conclusions While no differences in post-intervention scores were observed between groups, we conclude that problem-based learning can be

  12. COVE, MARINA, and the Future of On-Board Processing (OBP) Platforms for CubeSat Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingree, P.; Bekker, D. L.; Bryk, M.; DeLucca, J.; Franklin, B.; Hancock, B.; Klesh, A. T.; Meehan, C.; Meshkaty, N.; Nichols, J.; Peay, C.; Rider, D. M.; Werne, T.; Wu, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The CubeSat On-board processing Validation Experiment (COVE), JPL's first CubeSat payload launched on October 28, 2011, features the Xilinx Virtex-5QV Single event Immune Reconfigurable FPGA (SIRF). The technology demonstration mission was to validate the SIRF device running an on-board processing (OBP) algorithm developed to reduce the data set by 2-orders of magnitude for the Multi-angle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (MSPI), an instrument under development at JPL (PI: D. Diner). COVE has a single data interface to the CubeSat flight computer that is used to transfer a static image taken from the CubeSat camera and store it to local memory where the FPGA then reads it to run the algorithm on it. In the next generation COVE design, called MARINA, developed for the GRIFEX CubeSat project, the OBP board is extended, using rigid-flex PCB technology, to provide an interface to a JPL-developed Read-Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC) hybridized to a detector developed by Raytheon. In this configuration the focal plane array (FPA) data can be streamed directly to the FPGA for data processing or for storage to local memory. The MARINA rigid-flex PCB design is integrated with a commercial camera lens to create a 1U instrument payload for integration with a CubeSat under development by the University of Michigan and planned for launch in 2014. In the GRIFEX technology demonstration, the limited on-board storage capacity is filled by high-rate FPA data in less than a second. The system is also limited by the CubeSat downlink data rate and several ground station passes are required to transmit this limited amount of data. While this system is sufficient to validate the ROIC technology on-orbit, the system cannot be operated in a way to perform continuous science observations due to the on-board storage and data downlink constraints. In order to advance the current platform to support sustained science observations, more on-board storage is needed. Radiation tolerant memory

  13. TechEdSat Nano-Satellite Series Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murbach, Marcus; Martinez, Andres; Guarneros Luna, Ali

    2014-01-01

    TechEdSat-3p is the second generation in the TechEdSat-X series. The TechEdSat Series uses the CubeSat standards established by the California Polytechnic State University Cal Poly), San Luis Obispo. With typical blocks being constructed from 1-unit (1U 10x10x10 cm) increments, the TechEdSat-3p has a 3U volume with a 30 cm length. The project uniquely pairs advanced university students with NASA researchers in a rapid design-to-flight experience lasting 1-2 semesters.The TechEdSat Nano-Satellite Series provides a rapid platform for testing technologies for future NASA Earth and planetary missions, as well as providing students with an early exposure to flight hardware development and management.

  14. AstroSat - a multi-wavelength astronomy satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, A R; Bhattacharya, D

    2016-01-01

    AstroSat is a multi-wavelength astronomy satellite, launched on 2015 September 28. It carries a suite of scientific instruments for multi-wavelength observations of astronomical sources. It is a major Indian effort in space astronomy and the context of AstroSat is examined in a historical perspective. The Performance Verification phase of AstroSat has been completed and all instruments are working flawlessly and as planned. Some brief highlights of the scientific results are also given here.

  15. Finite-Size Scaling in Random K-SAT Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Meesoon; Lee, Sang Hoon; Jeon, Chanil; Jeong, Hawoong

    2010-03-01

    We propose a comprehensive view of threshold behaviors in random K-satisfiability (K-SAT) problems, in the context of the finite-size scaling (FSS) concept of nonequilibrium absorbing phase transitions using the average SAT (ASAT) algorithm. In particular, we focus on the value of the FSS exponent to characterize the SAT/UNSAT phase transition, which is still debatable. We also discuss the role of the noise (temperature-like) parameter in stochastic local heuristic search algorithms.

  16. Validity of the SAT® for Predicting First-Year Grades: 2010 SAT Validity Sample. Statistical Report 2013-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Brian F.; Mattern, Krista D.

    2013-01-01

    The continued accumulation of validity evidence for the core uses of educational assessments is critical to ensure that proper inferences will be made for those core purposes. To that end, the College Board has continued to follow previous cohorts of college students and this report provides updated validity evidence for using the SAT to predict…

  17. Development of Novel Integrated Antennas for CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David; Fink, Patrick W.; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Development of Novel Integrated Antennas for CubeSats project is directed at the development of novel antennas for CubeSats to replace the bulky and obtrusive antennas (e.g., whip antennas) that are typically used. The integrated antennas will not require mechanical deployment and thus will allow future CubeSats to avoid potential mechanical problems and therefore improve mission reliability. Furthermore, the integrated antennas will have improved functionality and performance, such as circular polarization for improved link performance, compared with the conventional antennas currently used on CubeSats.

  18. Common Core State Standards Alignment: ReadiStep[TM], PSAT/NMSQT[R] and SAT[R]. Research Report 2010-5A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, Natasha; Carman, Elaine; Hart, Beth; Luisier, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    The College Board College Readiness Pathway is an assessment system that measures the reading, writing and mathematical knowledge and skills that students need to be on track to graduate high school college-ready. It consists of ReadiStep[TM], administered in grade eight; the PSAT/NMSQT[R], administered in grades 10-11; and the SAT[R],…

  19. Near-real-time Arctic sea ice thickness and volume from CryoSat-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilling, Rachel L.; Ridout, Andy; Shepherd, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Timely observations of sea ice thickness help us to understand the Arctic climate, and have the potential to support seasonal forecasts and operational activities in the polar regions. Although it is possible to calculate Arctic sea ice thickness using measurements acquired by CryoSat-2, the latency of the final release data set is typically 1 month due to the time required to determine precise satellite orbits. We use a new fast-delivery CryoSat-2 data set based on preliminary orbits to compute Arctic sea ice thickness in near real time (NRT), and analyse this data for one sea ice growth season from October 2014 to April 2015. We show that this NRT sea-ice-thickness product is of comparable accuracy to that produced using the final release CryoSat-2 data, with a mean thickness difference of 0.9 cm, demonstrating that the satellite orbit is not a critical factor in determining sea ice freeboard. In addition, the CryoSat-2 fast-delivery product also provides measurements of Arctic sea ice thickness within 3 days of acquisition by the satellite, and a measurement is delivered, on average, within 14, 7 and 6 km of each location in the Arctic every 2, 14 and 28 days respectively. The CryoSat-2 NRT sea-ice-thickness data set provides an additional constraint for short-term and seasonal predictions of changes in the Arctic ice cover and could support industries such as tourism and transport through assimilation in operational models.

  20. Validity of the SAT for Predicting First-Year Grades: 2008 SAT Validity Sample. Statistical Report No. 2011-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Brian F.; Mattern, Krista D.

    2011-01-01

    The findings for the 2008 sample are largely consistent with the previous reports. SAT scores were found to be correlated with FYGPA (r = 0.54), with a magnitude similar to HSGPA (r = 0.56). The best set of predictors of FYGPA remains SAT scores and HSGPA (r = 0.63), as the addition of the SAT sections to the correlation of HSGPA alone with FYGPA…

  1. WindSat Polarmetric View of Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    vation model that can describe and separate different effects in the measurements using a small number of model parameters.2 Over Greenland, it is well...known that TV and TH respond mostly to the dielectric proper- ties of the snow,2 ice and firn . WindSat data now show that TU and TF respond most...for 10.7, 18.7, and 37 GHz, and all clearly show very well-defined azimuthal dependences. The solid lines represent the empirical model expressed as

  2. OpenSatKit Enables Quick Startup for CubeSat Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, David; Melton, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    The software required to develop, integrate, and operate a spacecraft is substantial regardless of whether its a large or small satellite. Even getting started can be a monumental task. To solve this problem, NASAs Core Flight System (cFS), NASA's 42 spacecraft dynamics simulator, and Ball Aerospaces COSMOS ground system have been integrated together into a kit called OpenSatKit that provides a complete and open source software solution for starting a new satellite mission. Users can have a working system with flight software, dynamics simulation, and a ground command and control system up and running within hours.Every satellite mission requires three primary categories of software to function. The first is Flight Software (FSW) which provides the onboard control of the satellites and its payload(s). NASA's cFS provides a great platform for developing this software. Second, while developing a satellite on earth, it is necessary to simulate the satellites orbit, attitude, and actuators, to ensure that the systems that control these aspects will work correctly in the real environment. NASAs 42 simulator provides these functionalities. Finally, the ground has to be able to communicate with the satellite, monitor its performance and health, and display its data. Additionally, test scripts have to be written to verify the system on the ground. Ball Aerospace's COSMOS command and control system provides this functionality. Once the OpenSatKit is up and running, the next step is to customize the platform and get it running on the end target. Starting from a fully working system makes porting the cFS from Linux to a users platform much easier. An example Raspberry Pi target is included in the kit so users can gain experience working with a low cost hardware target. All users can benefit from OpenSatKit but the greatest impact and benefits will be to SmallSat missions with constrained budgets and small software teams. This paper describes OpenSatKits system design, the

  3. Improved Oceanographic Measurements with CryoSat SAR Altimetry: Application to the Coastal Zone and Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, David; Nilo Garcia, Pablo; Cancet, Mathilde; Andersen, Ole; Stenseng, Lars; Martin, Francisco; Cipollini, Paolo; Benveniste, Jérôme; Restano, Marco; Ambrósio, Américo

    2016-04-01

    The ESA CryoSat mission is the first space mission to carry a radar altimeter that can operate in Synthetic Aperture Radar "SAR" (or delay-Doppler) and interferometric SAR (SARin) modes. Studies on CryoSat data have analysed and confirmed the improved ocean measuring capability offered by SAR mode altimetry, through increased resolution and precision in sea surface height and wave height measurements, and have also added significantly to our understanding of the issues around the processing and interpretation of SAR altimeter echoes. We present work in four themes, building on work initiated in the CryoSat Plus for Oceans project (CP4O), each investigating different aspects of the opportunities offered by this new technology. The first two studies address the coastal zone, a critical region for providing a link between open-ocean and shelf sea measurements with those from coastal in-situ measurements, in particular tide gauges. Although much has been achieved in recent years through the Coastal Altimetry community, (http://www.coastalt.eu/community) there is a limit to the capabilities of pulse-limited altimetry which often leaves an un-measured "white strip" right at the coastline. Firstly, a thorough analysis was made of the performance of "SAR" altimeter data (delay-Doppler processed) in the coastal zone. This quantified the performance, confirming the significant improvement over "conventional" pulse-limited altimetry. In the second study a processing scheme was developed with CryoSat SARin mode data to enable the retrieval of valid oceanographic measurements in coastal areas with complex topography. Thanks to further development of the algorithms, a new approach was achieved that can also be applied to SAR and conventional altimetry data (e.g., Sentinel-3, Jason series, EnviSat). The third part of the project developed and evaluated improvements to the SAMOSA altimeter re-tracker that is implemented in the Sentinel-3 processing chain. The modifications to the

  4. CubeSat quantum communications mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oi, Daniel K.L. [University of Strathclyde, SUPA Department of Physics, Glasgow (United Kingdom); University of Strathclyde, Strathclyde Space Institute, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Ling, Alex [National University of Singapore, Centre for Quantum Technologies, Singapore (Singapore); National University of Singapore, Dept. of Physics, Singapore (Singapore); Vallone, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo [Universita degli Studi di Padova, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Padova (Italy); Greenland, Steve; Kerr, Emma [University of Strathclyde, Advanced Space Concepts Laboratory, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Macdonald, Malcolm [Technology and Innovation Centre, Scottish Centre of Excellence in Satellite Applications, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Weinfurter, Harald [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Department fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Kuiper, Hans [Delft University of Technology, Space Systems Engineering, Aerospace Engineering, Delft (Netherlands); Charbon, Edoardo [AQUA, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland); Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Ursin, Rupert [Vienna Austrian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Vienna (Austria)

    2017-12-15

    Quantum communication is a prime space technology application and offers near-term possibilities for long-distance quantum key distribution (QKD) and experimental tests of quantum entanglement. However, there exists considerable developmental risks and subsequent costs and time required to raise the technological readiness level of terrestrial quantum technologies and to adapt them for space operations. The small-space revolution is a promising route by which synergistic advances in miniaturization of both satellite systems and quantum technologies can be combined to leap-frog conventional space systems development. Here, we outline a recent proposal to perform orbit-to-ground transmission of entanglement and QKD using a CubeSat platform deployed from the International Space Station (ISS). This ambitious mission exploits advances in nanosatellite attitude determination and control systems (ADCS), miniaturised target acquisition and tracking sensors, compact and robust sources of single and entangled photons, and high-speed classical communications systems, all to be incorporated within a 10 kg 6 litre mass-volume envelope. The CubeSat Quantum Communications Mission (CQuCoM) would be a pathfinder for advanced nanosatellite payloads and operations, and would establish the basis for a constellation of low-Earth orbit trusted-nodes for QKD service provision. (orig.)

  5. 后现代主义范式下的批判性语篇阅读%Critical Reading under the Paradigm of Post-modernism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原雪; 陈天祥

    2016-01-01

    后现代主义范式不仅对全球化研究有着独到的视角和方法,对于二语或外语语境下的英语语篇解读更具独特意义。从后现代主义的多元性、异质性、差异性出发,对“批判性”、“批判性思维”、“批判性阅读”在后现代语境中的地位进行合理界定,试图找到批判性阅读的哲学根源与基础;同时为从语篇角度剖析西方文明的思想传统———普遍主义提供具体研究视角,并通过后现代主义范式中解构性和建设性同时并存的双重阅读既可以揭示语篇中潜在的权力冲突,也可以部分消解西方中心论思维,从而进一步证明后现代主义的解构性与后现代主义的建设性是交相辉映,缺一不可。这样才可以对语篇中隐藏的普遍主义进行批判性接受。同时期望对今后在二语或外语语境下研究批判性阅读及英语语言教育有所启示和帮助。%Post-modernist paradigm not only has a unique perspective and method in the study of global-ization,but also in the study of critical reading in second or foreign language context.The author begins with versatility,heterogeneity and difference in post-modernism,defines “criticality”,“critical thinking”and “critical reading”properly and their position in post-modern context.The philosophical base of criti-cal reading is made clearer,at the same time,the thinking tradition of western civilization———universalism is analyzed through the study of discourse.In order to critically examine the implicit exercise of power hid-den in the discourses and texts which can mostly come through written texts and literacy education.The spread of Western can be cleared up through “double reading”and universalism can be criticized through the deconstruction of post- modernism.All these can give some enlightenment to the study of English teaching in second or foreign language context.

  6. Resolución de los problemas MaxSAT y MinSAT mediante programación lineal entera

    OpenAIRE

    Belenguer Seuma, Andreu

    2012-01-01

    Presentación de una traducción de los problemas MaxSAT y MinSAT a un problema de programación lineal entera e implementación de un resolutor MaxSAT y MinSAT usando Python y el software de programación lineal entera CPLEX. Evaluación de los resultados comparándolos con los de la MaxSAT Evaluation 2010.

  7. Comparing State SAT Scores Using a Mixture Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YoungKoung Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Presented at the national conference for AERA (American Educational Research Association) in April 2009. The large variability of SAT taker population across states makes state-by-state comparisons of the SAT scores challenging. Using a mixture modeling approach, therefore, the current study presents a method of identifying subpopulations in terms…

  8. Airborne campaigns for CryoSat prelaunch calibration and validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skourup, Henriette; Hanson, Susanne; Hvidegaard, Sine Munk

    2011-01-01

    After the successful launch of CryoSat-2 in April 2010, the first direct validation campaign of the satellite is planned for spring 2011. DTU Space has been involved in ESA’s CryoSat Validation Experiment (CryoVEx) with airborne activities since 2003. To validate the prelaunch performance of the ...

  9. Formalization of Abstract State Transition Systems for SAT

    CERN Document Server

    Marić, Filip

    2011-01-01

    We present a formalization of modern SAT solvers and their properties in a form of abstract state transition systems. SAT solving procedures are described as transition relations over states that represent the values of the solver's global variables. Several different SAT solvers are formalized, including both the classical DPLL procedure and its state-of-the-art successors. The formalization is made within the Isabelle/HOL system and the total correctness (soundness, termination, completeness) is shown for each presented system (with respect to a simple notion of satisfiability that can be manually checked). The systems are defined in a general way and cover procedures used in a wide range of modern SAT solvers. Our formalization builds up on the previous work on state transition systems for SAT, but it gives machine-verifiable proofs, somewhat more general specifications, and weaker assumptions that ensure the key correctness properties. The presented proofs of formal correctness of the transition systems c...

  10. Phase Transition in Computing Cost of Overconstrained NP-Complete 3-SAT Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodson, Adam; O'Donnell, Thomas; Maniloff, Peter

    2002-03-01

    Many intractable, NP-Complete problems such as Traveling Salesmen (TSP) and 3-Satisfiability (3-Sat) which arise in hundreds of computer science, industrial and commercial applications, are now known to exhibit phase transitions in computational cost. While these problems appear to not have any structure which would make them amenable to attack with quantum computing, their critical behavior may allow physical insights derived from statistical mechanics and critical theory to shed light on these computationally ``hardest" of problems. While computational theory indicates that ``the intractability of the NP-Complete class resides solely in the exponential growth of the possible solutions" with the number of variables, n, the present work instead investigates the complex patterns of ``overlap" amongst 3-SAT clauses (their combined effects) when n-tuples of these act in succession to reduce the space of valid solutions. An exhaustive-search algorithm was used to eliminate `bad' states from amongst the `good' states residing within the spaces of all 2^n--possible solutions of randomly generated 3-Sat problems. No backtracking nor optimization heuristics were employed, nor was problem structure exploited (i.e., phtypical cases were generated), and the (k=3)-Sat propositional logic problems generated were in standard, conjunctive normal form (CNF). Each problem had an effectively infinite number of clauses, m (i.e., with r = m/n >= 10), to insure every problem would not be satisfiable (i.e. that each would fail), and duplicate clauses were not permitted. This process was repeated for each of several low values of n (i.e., 4 animal populations.

  11. About Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    独行墨客

    2004-01-01

    As for reading and for learning, reading rate (that is, words per minute, WPM) is important, especially for students who have to pass some reading test. How to compute your reading rate? You may know it after reading the following. Reading Rate (WPM) = Total number of words + reading time.

  12. CubeSats for Astrophysics: The Current Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, David R.; Shkolnik, Evgenya; Gorjian, Varoujan

    2017-01-01

    Cubesats are small satellites built to multiples of 1U (1000 cm3). The 2016 NRC Report “Achieving Science with CubeSats” indicates that between 2013 and 2018 NASA and NSF sponsored 104 CubeSats. Of those, only one is devoted to astrophysics: HaloSat (PI: P. Kaaret), a 6U CubeSat with an X-ray payload to study the hot galactic halo.Despite this paucity of missions, CubeSats have a lot of potential for astrophysics. To assess the science landscape that a CubeSat astrophysics mission may occupy, we consider the following parameters:1-Wavelength: CubeSats are not competitive in the visible, unless the application (e.g. high precision photometry) is difficult to do from the ground. Thermal IR science is limited by the lack of low-power miniaturized cryocoolers and by the large number of infrared astrophysical missions launched or planned. In the UV, advances in δ-doping processes result in larger sensitivity with smaller apertures. Commercial X-ray detectors also allow for competitive science.2-Survey vs. Pointed observations: All-sky surveys have been done at most wavelengths from X-rays to Far-IR and CubeSats will not be able to compete in sensitivity with them. CubeSat science should then center on specific objects or object classes. Due to poor attitude control, unresolved photometry is scientifically more promising that extended imaging.3-Single-epoch vs. time domain: CubeSat apertures cannot compete in sensitivity with big satellites when doing single-epoch observations. However, time-domain astrophysics is an area in which CubeSats can provide very valuable science return.Technologically, CubeSat astrophysics is limited by:1-Lack of large apertures: The largest aperture CubeSat launched is ~10 cm, although deployable apertures as large as 20 cm could be fitted to 6U buses.2-Poor attitude control: State-of-the-art systems have demonstrated jitter of ~10” on timescales of seconds. Jitter imposes limits on image quality and, coupled with detector errors

  13. Near Earth Network (NEN) CubeSat Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaire, Scott

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Near Earth Network (NEN) consists of globally distributed tracking stations, including NASA, commercial, and partner ground stations, that are strategically located to maximize the coverage provided to a variety of orbital and suborbital missions, including those in LEO (Low Earth Orbit), GEO (Geosynchronous Earth Orbit), HEO (Highly Elliptical Orbit), lunar and L1-L2 orbits. The NEN's future mission set includes and will continue to include CubeSat missions. The first NEN-supported CubeSat mission will be the Cubesat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD) launching into LEO in 2017. The majority of the CubeSat missions destined to fly on EM-1, launching in late 2018, many in a lunar orbit, will communicate with ground-based stations via X-band and will utilize the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)-developed IRIS (Satellite Communication for Air Traffic Management) radio. The NEN recognizes the important role CubeSats are beginning to play in carrying out NASAs mission and is therefore investigating the modifications needed to provide IRIS radio compatibility. With modification, the NEN could potentially expand support to the EM-1 (Exploration Mission-1) lunar CubeSats. The NEN could begin providing significant coverage to lunar CubeSat missions utilizing three to four of the NEN's mid-latitude sites. This coverage would supplement coverage provided by the JPL Deep Space Network (DSN). The NEN, with smaller apertures than DSN, provides the benefit of a larger beamwidth that could be beneficial in the event of uncertain ephemeris data. In order to realize these benefits the NEN would need to upgrade stations targeted based on coverage ability and current configuration ease of upgrade, to ensure compatibility with the IRIS radio. In addition, the NEN is working with CubeSat radio developers to ensure NEN compatibility with alternative CubeSat radios for Lunar and L1-L2 CubeSats. The NEN has provided NEN compatibility requirements to several radio

  14. Exploiting Dynamically Propositional Logic Structures in SAT

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jingchao

    2011-01-01

    The 32-bit hwb (hwb-n32 for short) problem is from equivalence checking that arises in combining two circuits computing the hidden weighted bit function. Since 2002, it remains still unsolvable in every SAT competition. This paper focuses on solving problems such as hwb-n32. Generally speaking, modern solvers can detect only XOR, AND, OR and ITE gates. Other non-clausal formulas (propositional logic structures) cannot be detected. To solve the hwb-n32 problem, we extract dynamically some special propositional logic structures, and then use a variant of DPLL-based solvers to solve the subproblem simplified by the extracted structure information. Using the dynamic extraction technique, we solved efficiently the hwb-n32 problem, even some of which were solved within 3000 seconds.

  15. CryoSat Data Quality Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzinac, C.; Parrinello, T.; Féménias, P.; Fornari, M.; Mannan, R.

    2011-12-01

    CryoSat data are routinely controlled by ESA-ESRIN-SPPA office with various tools and with the support of the IDEAS industrial consortium. This poster introduces to the structure of the data products, the available quality tools (Quality Checks and Monitoring Facility) and methodology, and shows the main statistical results from the data acquired since the end of the commissioning phase (January 2011). Due to some anomalies still present in the data, ESA is planning to operate a new version of the processors by the end of 2011, followed by a full reprocessing campaign in 2012. This poster presents the reprocessing schedule and the main improvements expected from the new release of the specialized processors at Level 1b and at Level 2.

  16. Integrating advanced reasoning into a SAT solver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Min; TANG Pushan; ZHOU Dian

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a SAT solver based on the combination of DPLL (Davis Putnam Logemann and Loveland) algorithm and Failed Literal Detection (FLD), one of the advanced reasoning techniques. We propose a Dynamic Filtering method that consists of two restriction rules for FLD: internal and external filtering. The method reduces the number of tested literals in FLD and its computational time while maintaining the ability to find most of the failed literals in each decision level. Unlike the pre-defined criteria, literals are removed dynamically in our approach. In this way, our FLD can adapt itself to different real-life benchmarks. Many useless tests are therefore avoided and as a consequence it makes FLD fast. Some other static restrictions are also added to further improve the efficiency of FLD. Experiments show that our optimized FLD is much more efficient than other advanced reasoning techniques.

  17. On the Application of Critical Thinking in Senior High School’s English Reading Teaching%论批判性思维在高中英语阅读教学中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金梅

    2015-01-01

    批判性思维作为一种科学的思维方式,近年来受到越来越多教育者关注。在一些国家,考核学生学业完成的标准之一就是学生能否进行批判性阅读,他们认为批判性思维在阅读中的运用可以有效地提高学生的阅读能力以及训练学生的高级思维。然而,批判性思维的培养在我国的高中英语阅读教学中往往容易被忽略。笔者将从批判性思维的概述、重要性以及如何将批判性思维融入高中英语阅读教学这三个方面进行探讨,以期培养和提高我国高中生的批判性思维能力和阅读能力。%In recent years, critical thinking as a scientific way of thinking has been received more and more concerns. Some coun⁃tries consider that applying critical thinking to reading may improve students’reading ability and train students’high-level think⁃ing. Therefore, one of the evaluation criterions of completing their studies is that students can think or read critically. However, crit⁃ical thinking has long been neglected in Chinese senior high school’s English reading teaching. The author of this thesis will have a discussion from the summary of the study of critical thinking, the importance of the application of critical thinking in senior high school’s English reading teaching and how to apply critical thinking to senior high school’s English reading teaching. I hope that my thesis can give some English teachers ideas about senior high school’s English reading teaching.

  18. On Cultivating Critical Thinking in Japanese Extensive Reading Course in Higher Vocational Education%论高职日语泛读课上学生批判性思维的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林天宝

    2011-01-01

    The paper disserts the importance of critical thinking and analyzes the content of critical thinking and the absence of related training in higher education to explore effective ways to foster critical thinking in Japanese extensive reading course.%论述了批判性思维的重要性,分析了批判性思维的内涵,然后分析目前高校批判性思维培养缺失的原因,结合高职日语泛读课程的教学实例探讨培养批判性思维的有效途径。

  19. QbX - The CubeSat Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Stephen; Armstrong, James; Person, Clark; Tietz, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) launched 2 QbX CubeSats from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on December 8, 2010 as secondary payloads aboard SpaceX’s Falcon 9 launch vehicle, leveraging the flight opportunity provided by the first COTS Demo Flight of SpaceX’s Dragon Module. This paper will describe the development of the QbX CubeSats, present measured flight data, and evaluate the overall mission performance of the QbX CubeSats.

  20. CryoSat-2 Altimetry Applications over Rivers and Lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Liguang; Schneider, Raphael; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2017-01-01

    pattern and provides new opportunities for hydrologic research. The narrow inter-track distance (7.5 km at the equator) makes it possible to monitor many lakes and rivers and SAR mode provides a finer along-track resolution, higher return power and speckle reduction through multi-looks. However, CryoSat-2...... combined with hydrologic/hydrodynamic models. Except CryoSat-2, all radar altimetry missions have been operated in conventional low resolution mode with a short repeat orbit (35 days or less). CryoSat-2, carrying a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) altimeter, has a 369-day repeat and a drifting ground track...

  1. 3D Printing the Complete CubeSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kief, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The 3D Printing the Complete CubeSat project is designed to advance the state-of-the-art in 3D printing for CubeSat applications. Printing in 3D has the potential to increase reliability, reduce design iteration time and provide greater design flexibility in the areas of radiation mitigation, communications, propulsion, and wiring, among others. This project is investigating the possibility of including propulsion systems into the design of printed CubeSat components. One such concept, an embedded micro pulsed plasma thruster (mPPT), could provide auxiliary reaction control propulsion for a spacecraft as a means to desaturate momentum wheels.

  2. A Three-dimensional CDA-informed Critical Reading Model%基于批评话语分析的三维批判性阅读模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳护华; 熊涛

    2013-01-01

      批评话语分析(CDA)在培养批判性阅读能力方面的指导意义已经得到越来越多的认可。本文先对CDA和批判性语言教育的基本原则进行简要介绍,再从宏观层面探讨和构建一个基于话语理论的批判性阅读模式,并辅以实例。这个模式包括语篇生产模式、对话性、互文性三个批判性视角。笔者认为,批判性阅读能力在本质上是一种批判性的思维模式和态度,这种思维模式和态度是开放性的,并不能简化为具体的教条,其意义需要在具体的阅读实践中得到体现。%The significance of critical discourse analysis (CDA) in the nurturing of critical literacy has received a grow-ing recognition. This article first gives a general introduction to basic principles of CDA and critical literacy;then it discusses and constructs a critical reading model based on three critical concepts:production format, dialogism, and intertextuality. It is argued that critical reading is essentially a critical thinking model and attitude. This critical thinking model and attitude cannot be reduced to some concrete tenets, but need to be embodied in situated reading practice.

  3. Function analysis of a new type I PKS-SAT domain by SAT-EAT domain replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Y L; Wang, L H; Jiao, B H; Wang, S J; Fang, Y W; Liu, S

    2010-01-01

    The function of a new starter unit acyltransferase (SAT) domain SAT-EF080951 (GenBank accession number) encoded in a new type I polyketide synthase (PKS) gene cluster EF568935 (GenBank accession number) isolated for this study was analyzed by domain replacement with an extender unit AT (EAT) domain of avermectin PKS. It was shown that the SAT-EF080951 incorporated malonyl-CoA specifically in vivo, which contradicted the specificity that we had previously determined by substrate binding test in vitro. The result of this study indicates that type I PKS-SAT can alter its specificity in vivo and functions well in extender units and proved the feasibility of the SAT-EAT domain replacement in type I PKS. We propose that SAT-EAT replacement strategy could be a novel route for increasing the diversity of new polyketides combinatorially biosynthesized. The new type I PKS-SAT-EF080951 studied herein may be further employed for related studies on enzymology or combinatorial biosynthesis of polyketides.

  4. Cal/Val activities for DubaiSat-2 performance assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushahab, A.; Al-Mansoori, S.; Al-Suwaidi, K.; Al Matroushi, Hessa; Al-Tunaiji, E.; Al Shamsi, Meera

    2014-10-01

    Emirates Institution for Advanced Science and Technology (EIAST) was established by the Dubai Government in 2006. After three years of working together with Satrec Initiative (South Korea), EIAST was able to launch DubaiSat-1 on the 29th of July 2009. Building on the success of DubaiSat-1 and the roll out of the knowledge transfer program, UAE engineers were involved in almost 70% of the total build and design of DubaiSat-2. Targeting the commercial market, DubaiSat-2 was launched on the 21st of November 2013 for capturing 1-meter resolution images. The 1st Cal/Val phase was the most critical phase in the satellite life-time, where most of the initial measurements took place. This phase extended over the period of 25/11/2013 till 12/12/2013. Moreover, this phase included most of the relative calibration tasks, color balancing and band matching. 2nd Cal/Val phase included most of the debugging and the pointing accuracy calibration tests. This phase extended over the period of 11/02/2014 till 09/03/2014. This phase emphasized on the calibration of the pointing accuracy. The 3rd Cal/Val phase included fine tuning for the Gyro system to further increase the stability of the satellite and thus improve the pointing accuracy. Moreover, new techniques were implemented to the Pan-Sharpening and to the MTF compensation procedures to enhance the final product. This phase extended over the period of 04/05/2014 till 21/05/2014.

  5. Onboard autonomy on the Three Corner Sat Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, S.; Engelhardt, B.; Knight, R.; Rabideau, G.; Sherwood, R.

    2001-01-01

    Three Corner Sat (3CS) is a mission of three university nanosatellites scheduled for launch on September 2002. The 3CS misison will utilize significan onboard autonomy to perform onboard science data validation and replanning.

  6. CubeSat Form Factor Thermal Control Louvers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermal control of small spacecraft, including CubeSats, is a challenge for the next era of NASA spaceflight. Science objectives and components will still require...

  7. CubeSat Capabilities for Space Science Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CubeSat Capabilities for Space Science Missions combines science and engineering talent at Goddard Space Flight Center and the Wallops Flight Facility to...

  8. A SAT Encoding for Solving Games with Energy Objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Raffaella Gentilini

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a reduction from the problem of solving parity games to the satisfiability problem in propositional logic (SAT) have been proposed in [5], motivated by the success of SAT solvers in symbolic verification. With analogous motivations, we show how to exploit the notion of energy progress measure to devise a reduction from the problem of energy games to the satisfiability problem for formulas of propositional logic in conjunctive normal form.

  9. CriticalEd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellberg, Caspar Mølholt; Meredith, David

    2014-01-01

    The best text method is commonly applied among music scholars engaged in producing critical editions. In this method, a comment list is compiled, consisting of variant readings and editorial emendations. This list is maintained by inserting the comments into a document as the changes are made....... Since the comments are not input sequentially, with regard to position, but in arbitrary order, this list must be sorted by copy/pasting the rows into place—an error-prone and time-consuming process. Scholars who produce critical editions typically use off-the-shelf music notation software...... such as Sibelius or Finale. It was hypothesized that it would be possible to develop a Sibelius plug-in, written in Manuscript 6, that would improve the critical editing work flow, but it was found that the capabilities of this scripting language were insufficient. Instead, a 3-part system was designed and built...

  10. Parameterized Complexity of MaxSat Above Average

    CERN Document Server

    Crowston, Robert; Jones, Mark; Raman, Venkatesh; Saurabh, Saket

    2011-01-01

    In MaxSat, we are given a CNF formula $F$ with $n$ variables and $m$ clauses and asked to find a truth assignment satisfying the maximum number of clauses. Let $r_1,..., r_m$ be the number of literals in the clauses of $F$. Then $asat(F)=\\sum_{i=1}^m (1-2^{-r_i})$ is the expected number of clauses satisfied by a random truth assignment (the truth values to the variables are distributed uniformly and independently). It is well-known that, in polynomial time, one can find a truth assignment satisfying at least $asat(F)$ clauses. In the parameterized problem MaxSat-AA, we are to decide whether there is a truth assignment satisfying at least $asat(F)+k$ clauses, where $k$ is the parameter. We prove that MaxSat-AA is para-NP-complete and, thus, MaxSat-AA is not fixed-parameter tractable unless P$=$NP. This is in sharp contrast to MaxLin2-AA which was recently proved to be fixed-parameter tractable by Crowston et al. (arXiv:1104.1135v3). In fact, we consider a more refined version of MaxSat-AA, Max-$r(n)$-Sat-AA, w...

  11. Miniature scientific-grade magnetic sensors for CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronenko, Vira; Belyayev, Serhiy

    2016-07-01

    Micro- and nanosatellites have become more attractive due to their low development and launch cost. A class of nanosatellites defined by the CubeSat standard allows standardizing CubeSat preparation and launch, thus making the projects more affordable. Because of the complexity of sensors miniaturization to install them onboard CubeSat, the majority of CubeSat launches are aimed the technology demonstration or education missions. The scientific success of CubeSat mission depends on the sensors quality. In spite that the sensitivity of the magnetic sensors strongly depends on their size, the recent development in this branch allows us to propose tiny but sensitive both AC and DC magnetometers. The goal of the present report is to introduce the new design of miniature three-component sensors for measurement of vector magnetic fields - for quasi-stationary and slowly fluctuating - flux-gate magnetometer (FGM) - and for alternative ones - search-coil magnetometer (SCM). In order to create magnetometers with the really highest possible level of parameters, a set of scientific and technological problems, mostly aimed at the sensor construction improvement, was solved. The most important parameter characterizing magnetometer quality is its own magnetic noise level (NL). The analysis of the NL influencing factors is made and the ways to decrease it are discussed in the report. Construction details and technical specifications of miniature but sensitive FGM and SCM for the CubeSat mission are presented. This work is supported by EC Framework 7 funded project 607197.

  12. AstroSat: From Inception to Realization and Launch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P. C. Agrawal

    2017-06-01

    The origin of the idea of AstroSat multi wavelength satellite mission and how it evolved over the next 15 years from a concept to the successful development of instruments for giving concrete shape to this mission, is recounted in this article. AstroSat is the outcome of intense deliberations in the Indian astronomy community leading to a consensus for a multi wavelength Observatory having broad spectral coverage over five decades in energy covering near-UV, far-UV, soft X-ray and hard X-ray bands. The multi wavelength observation capability of AstroSat with a suite of 4 co-aligned instruments and an X-ray sky monitor on a single satellite platform, imparts a unique character to this mission. AstroSat owes its realization to the collaborative efforts of the various ISRO centres, several Indian institutions, and a few institutions abroad which developed the 5 instruments and various sub systems of the satellite. AstroSat was launched on September 28, 2015 from India in a near equatorial 650 km circular orbit. The instruments are by and large working as planned and in the past 14 months more than 200 X-ray and UV sources have been studied with it. The important characteristics of AstroSat satellite and scientific instruments will be highlighted.

  13. Taxonomies in L1 and L2 Reading Strategies: A Critical Review of Issues Surrounding Strategy-Use Definitions and Classifications in Previous Think-Aloud Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhaleefah, Tarek A.

    2016-01-01

    Considering the various classifications of L1 and L2 reading strategies in previous think-aloud studies, the present review aims to provide a comprehensive look into those various taxonomies reported in major L1 and L2 reading studies. The rationale for this review is not only to offer a comprehensive overview of the different classifications in…

  14. Reading faster

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Nation

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the visual nature of the reading process as it relates to reading speed. It points out that there is a physical limit on normal reading speed and beyond this limit the reading process will be different from normal reading where almost every word is attended to. The article describes a range of activities for developing reading fluency, and suggests how the development of fluency can become part of a reading programme.

  15. Reading faster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Nation

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the visual nature of the reading process as it relates to reading speed. It points out that there is a physical limit on normal reading speed and beyond this limit the reading process will be different from normal reading where almost every word is attended to. The article describes a range of activities for developing reading fluency, and suggests how the development of fluency can become part of a reading programme.

  16. Ka-Band Parabolic Deployable Antenna (KaPDA) Enabling High Speed Data Communication for CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauder, Jonathan F.; Chahat, Nacer; Hodges, Richard; Thomson, Mark W.; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    CubeSats are at a very exciting point as their mission capabilities and launch opportunities are increasing. But as instruments become more advanced and operational distances between CubeSats and earth increase communication data rate becomes a mission-limiting factor. Improving data rate has become critical enough for NASA to sponsor the Cube Quest Centennial Challenge when: one of the key metrics is transmitting as much data as possible from the moon and beyond Currently, many CubeSats communicate on UHF bands and those that have high data rate abilities use S-band or X-band patch antennas. The CubeSat Aneas, which was launched in September 2012, pushed the envelope with a half-meter S-band dish which could achieve 100x the data rate of patch antennas. A half-meter parabolic antenna operating at Ka-band would increase data rates by over 100x that of the AMOS antenM and 10,000 that of X-band patch antennas.

  17. A Scalable Set of ESL Reading Comprehension Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kyle

    Guttman implicational scaling techniques were used to identify a unidimensional set of English as a Second Language reading comprehension items. Data were analyzed from 202 students who sat for an institutional administration of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). The examinees who contributed to the scalable set had significantly…

  18. The Unexplained Nature of Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, James S.; Marquis, Suzanne J.; Sabatos-DeVito, Maura G.; Estes, Zachary

    2013-01-01

    The effects of properties of words on their reading aloud response times (RTs) are 1 major source of evidence about the reading process. The precision with which such RTs could potentially be predicted by word properties is critical to evaluate our understanding of reading but is often underestimated due to contamination from individual…

  19. Evaluation of the Impact of an Additive Manufacturing Enhanced CubeSat Architecture on the CubeSat Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-15

    methods are needed in the CubeSat development process to reduce the weight and volume of subsystems and decrease integration time. Research Objective and...Investigative Questions This research will quantitatively address the impact of proposed benefits of a 3D printed satellite architecture on the...subsystems of a CubeSat. The objective of this research is to bring a quantitative analysis to the discussion of whether a fully 3D printed satellite

  20. Critical Pedagogy for Critical Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutak, Fatma Aslan; Bondy, Elizabeth; Adams, Thomasenia L.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief introduction to critical pedagogy and further discussion on critical mathematics education. Critical mathematics education enables students to read the world with mathematics. Three emerging domains of mathematics education related to critical mathematics education are discussed in this manuscript: ethnomathematics,…

  1. Critical Pedagogy for Critical Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutak, Fatma Aslan; Bondy, Elizabeth; Adams, Thomasenia L.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief introduction to critical pedagogy and further discussion on critical mathematics education. Critical mathematics education enables students to read the world with mathematics. Three emerging domains of mathematics education related to critical mathematics education are discussed in this manuscript: ethnomathematics,…

  2. Application of Critical Discourse Analysis in English Reading Teaching%浅析批评话语分析法在英语阅读教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜丽娜

    2012-01-01

    随着语言学的发展,批评话语分析作为一种新的学术理论也取得了进步。目前,批评话语分析正在被广泛地应用到英语阅读教学当中。批评话语分析主要运用系统功能语法中及物性、情态、转换三种方法分析英语语篇,通过分析来揭示英语语篇所表达的隐含意义及其意识形态。在教学过程中使用该方法,教师能够更好的帮助学生理解语篇含义,提高学生阅读理解能力。%With the development of linguistics, critical discourse progress. At present, critical discourse analysis is widely used in analysis (CDA) as a new theory has made a great English reading teaching. Critical discourse analysis mainly adopts transitivity, modality and transformation of systemic - functional to uncover the implied meaning in the discourse. Using this method in English grammar to analyze discourse in order reading teaching, the teacher can help students better understand the discourse and promote students' reading ability.

  3. Reading Attitude as a Mediator between Contextual Factors and Reading Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyo Jin; Bong, Mimi; Woo, Yeon-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Background: Among the factors known to influence reading development and performance, attitude toward reading is shown to be particularly critical for developing learners. Reading attitude (McKenna, 1994; McKenna et al., 1995) enhances independent reading, levels of engagement in classroom reading activities, and the amount and variety of topics…

  4. Assisted Reading: A Flexible Approach to L2 Reading Fluency Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Etsuo; Melhem, Linley; Kawaguchi, Toshiko

    2016-01-01

    Reading fluency is a critical component of reading proficiency in both the L1 and L2. It lays a foundation on which readers build their reading skills to become strategic and versatile in using a variety of cognitive and metacognitive strategies of reading. In this paper we propose Assisted Reading as a flexible method for developing reading…

  5. Building reading resilience : re-thinking reading for the literary studies classroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, Kate; Barnett, Tully; Poletti, Anna; Seaboyer, Judith; Kennedy, Rosanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of ‘reading resilience’: students’ ability to read and interpret complex and demanding literary texts by drawing on advanced, engaged, critical reading skills. Reading resilience is a means for rethinking the place and pedagogies of close reading in the contemporary

  6. Building reading resilience : re-thinking reading for the literary studies classroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, Kate; Barnett, Tully; Poletti, Anna; Seaboyer, Judith; Kennedy, Rosanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of ‘reading resilience’: students’ ability to read and interpret complex and demanding literary texts by drawing on advanced, engaged, critical reading skills. Reading resilience is a means for rethinking the place and pedagogies of close reading in the contemporary

  7. Building Reading Resilience: Re-Thinking Reading for the Literary Studies Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Kate; Barnett, Tully; Poletti, Anna; Seaboyer, Judith; Kennedy, Rosanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of "reading resilience": students' ability to read and interpret complex and demanding literary texts by drawing on advanced, engaged, critical reading skills. Reading resilience is a means for rethinking the place and pedagogies of close reading in the contemporary literary studies classroom. Our…

  8. Solar neutron observations with ChubuSat-2 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Kazutaka

    2016-07-01

    Solar neutron observation is a key in understanding of ion accerelation mechanism in the Sun surface since neutrons are hardly affected by magnetic field around the Sun and intersteller mediums unlike charged particles. However, there was only a few tenth detections so far since its discovery in 1982. Actually SEDA-AP Fiber detector (FIB) onboard the International Space Station (ISS) was suffered from a high neutron background produced by the ISS itself. ChubuSat is a series of 50-kg class microsatellite jointly depeloped by universities (Nagoya university and Daido university) and aerospace companies at the Chubu area of central Japan. The ChubuSat-2 is the second ChubuSat following the ChubuSat-1 which was launched by Russian DNEPR rocket on November 6, 2014. It was selected as one of four piggyback payloads of the X-ray astronomy satellite ASTRO-H in 2014 summer, and will be launched by the H-IIA launch vehcles from from JAXA Tanegashima Space Center (TNSC) in February 2016. The ChubuSat-2 carries a mission instrument, radiation detector (RD). The main mission of ChubuSat-2 is devoted for monitoring neutrons and gamma-rays which can be background source for ASTRO-H celestrial observations with the RD. The mission also involves a function of solar neutron observations which were originally proposed by graduate students who join the leadership development program for space exploration and research, program for leading graduate schools at Nagoya University. The RD has a similar detection area and efficiency to those of the SEDA-AP FIB, but is expected to have lower backgrounthan the ISS thanks to much smaller mass of the micro-satellite. In this paper, we will describe details of ChubuSat-2 satellite and RD, and in-orbit performance of RD.

  9. Systematic review: Comparison of Xpert MTB/RIF, LAMP and SAT methods for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liping; Xiao, Heping; Zhang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Technological advances in nucleic acid amplification have led to breakthroughs in the early detection of PTB compared to traditional sputum smear tests. The sensitivity and specificity of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), simultaneous amplification testing (SAT), and Xpert MTB/RIF for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis were evaluated. A critical review of previous studies of LAMP, SAT, and Xpert MTB/RIF for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis that used laboratory culturing as the reference method was carried out together with a meta-analysis. In 25 previous studies, the pooled sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of tuberculosis were 93% and 94% for LAMP, 96% and 88% for SAT, and 89% and 98% for Xpert MTB/RIF. The I(2) values for the pooled data were >80%, indicating significant heterogeneity. In the smear-positive subgroup analysis of LAMP, the sensitivity increased from 93% to 98% (I(2) = 2.6%), and specificity was 68% (I(2) = 38.4%). In the HIV-infected subgroup analysis of Xpert MTB/RIF, the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 79% (I(2) = 72.9%) and 99% (I(2) = 64.4%). In the HIV-negative subgroup analysis for Xpert MTB/RIF, the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 72% (I(2) = 49.6%) and 99% (I(2) = 64.5%). LAMP, SAT and Xpert MTB/RIF had comparably high levels of sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of three methods were similar, with LAMP being highly sensitive for the diagnosis of smear-positive PTB. The cost effectiveness of LAMP and SAT make them particularly suitable tests for diagnosing PTB in developing countries.

  10. Leitura de imagens e cultura visual: desenredando conceitos para a prática educativa Image reading and critical understanding of the visual culture: unraveling concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Emilia Sardelich

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Quase tudo do pouco que conhecemos, em relação ao conhecimento produzido, nos chega pelos meios de informação e comunicação. Estes, por sua vez, também constroem imagens do mundo. Imagens para deleitar, entreter, vender, com mensagens sobre o que devemos vestir, comer, aparentar, pensar. Em nossa sociedade contemporânea discute-se a necessidade de uma alfabetização visual que se expressa em várias designações como: leitura de imagens e compreensão crítica da cultura visual. Freqüentes mudanças de expressões e conceitos dificultam o entendimento dessas propostas para o currículo escolar, a definição do/a professor/a responsável por tal conhecimento e o referencial teórico do mesmo. Este artigo apresenta os conceitos que fundamentam as propostas da leitura de imagens e cultura visual, sinalizando suas proximidades e distâncias. Contrasta alguns referenciais teóricos da antropologia, arte, educação, história, sociologia, e sugere linhas de trabalho em ambientes de aprendizagem com o intuito de refletir sobre nossa permanente formação como docentes.Almost everything from the little we know relating to manufactured knowledge comes to us by means of information and communication. This in turn also build images of the world. Images for pleasure, entertainment, trade, telling us what to wear, to eat, to think, how to look. In our contemporary society there is a debate about the need of a visual education that expresses itself in different denominations such as image reading and critical understanding of the visual culture. Frequent changes in expressions and concepts cause more difficulties in understanding these propositions in the national curriculum, the definition of the teachers responsible for this knowledge and the theoretical reference of it. This article intends to unravel the concepts that establish these different propositions, pointing out their similarities and differences. It contrasts theoretical references

  11. Optical Profiling of the Atmospheric Limb CubeSat Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, M.; Taylor, M. J.; Swenson, C.; Marchant, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Earth's lower thermosphere is an important interface region between the neutral atmosphere and the "space weather" environment. While the high-latitude region of the thermosphere responds promptly to energy inputs, relatively little is known about the global/regional response to these energy inputs. Global temperatures are predicted to respond within 3-6 hours, but the details of the thermal response of the atmosphere as energy transports away from high-latitude source regions is not well understood. The Optical Profiling of the Atmospheric Limb (OPAL) mission aims to characterize this thermal response through observation of the temperature structure of the lower thermosphere at mid- and low-latitudes. The OPAL instrument is designed to map global thermospheric temperature variability over the critical "thermospheric gap" region (~100-140 km altitude) by spectroscopic analysis of molecular oxygen A-band emission (758 - 768 nm). The OPAL instrument is a grating-based imaging spectrometer with refractive optics and a high-efficiency volume holographic grating (VHG). The scene is sampled by 7 parallel slits that form non-overlapping spectral profiles at the focal plane with resolution of 0.5 nm (spectral), 1.5 km (limb profiling), and 60 km (horizontal sampling). A CCD camera at the instrument focal plane delivers low noise and high sensitivity. The instrument is designed to strongly reject stray light from daylight regions of the earth. The OPAL mission is funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) CubeSat-based Science Missions for Geospace and Atmospheric Research program. The OPAL instrument and mission will be designed, built and executed by a team comprised of students and professors from Utah State University, Dixie State University and the University of Maryland Eastern Shore, with support from professional scientists and engineers from the Space Dynamics Laboratory and Hawk Institute for Space Science.

  12. Extravehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool (EVAS_SAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cheryl B.; Conger, Bruce C.; Miranda, Bruno M.; Bue, Grant C.; Rouen, Michael N.

    2007-01-01

    An effort was initiated by NASA/JSC in 2001 to develop an Extravehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool (EVAS_SAT) for the sizing of Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) architecture and studies. Its intent was to support space suit development efforts and to aid in conceptual designs for future human exploration missions. Its basis was the Life Support Options Performance Program (LSOPP), a spacesuit and portable life support system (PLSS) sizing program developed for NASA/JSC circa 1990. EVAS_SAT estimates the mass, power, and volume characteristics for user-defined EVAS architectures, including Suit Systems, Airlock Systems, Tools and Translation Aids, and Vehicle Support equipment. The tool has undergone annual changes and has been updated as new data have become available. Certain sizing algorithms have been developed based on industry standards, while others are based on the LSOPP sizing routines. The sizing algorithms used by EVAS_SAT are preliminary. Because EVAS_SAT was designed for use by members of the EVA community, subsystem familiarity on the part of the intended user group and in the analysis of results is assumed. The current EVAS_SAT is operated within Microsoft Excel 2003 using a Visual Basic interface system.

  13. Forecasting Evaluation of WindSat in the Coastal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Thomas F.; Bettenhausen, Mike H.; Hawkins, Jeffrey D.; Richardson, Kim; Jedlovec, Gary; Smith, Matt

    2012-01-01

    WindSat has demonstrated that measurements from polarimetric space-based microwave radiometers can be used to retrieve global ocean surface vector winds. Since the date of launch in 2003, substantial incremental improvements have been made to WindSat data processing, calibration, and retrieval algorithms. The retrievals now have higher resolution, improved wind vector ambiguity removal, and enhanced capability to represent high winds. Utilization of WindSat retrievals (wind vectors, total precipitable water, rainrate and sea surface temperature) will be demonstrated in the context of operational weather forecasting applications, especially the monitoring of topographically-forced winds. Examples will be presented from various parts of the world, including inland seas, midlatitude oceans, the tropics, and the United States. We will illustrate retrievals in extreme high- and extreme low-wind regimes, both of which can be problematic. Rain contamination will be addressed. We will include a comparison of WindSat vector maps to corresponding maps from the QuikScat scatterometer. We will discuss how near-realtime data from WindSat is being transitioned to specific offices within the National Weather Service.

  14. A novel solid-angle tomosynthesis (SAT) scanning scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jin; Yu, Cedric [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 22 S. Greene Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21201 and Xcision Medical System, LLC, 12707 Chapel Chase Drive, Clarksville, Maryland 21209 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) recently gained extensive research interests in both diagnostic and radiation therapy fields. Conventional DTS images are generated by scanning an x-ray source and flat-panel detector pair on opposite sides of an object, with the scanning trajectory on a one-dimensional curve. A novel tomosynthesis method named solid-angle tomosynthesis (SAT) is proposed, where the x-ray source scans on an arbitrary shaped two-dimensional surface. Methods: An iterative algorithm in the form of total variation regulated expectation maximization is developed for SAT image reconstruction. The feasibility and effectiveness of SAT is corroborated by computer simulation studies using three-dimensional (3D) numerical phantoms including a 3D Shepp-Logan phantom and a volumetric CT image set of a human breast. Results: SAT is able to cover more space in Fourier domain more uniformly than conventional DTS. Greater coverage and more isotropy in the frequency domain translate to fewer artifacts and more accurately restored features in the in-plane reconstruction. Conclusions: Comparing with conventional DTS, SAT allows cone-shaped x-ray beams to project from more solid angles, thus provides more coverage in the spatial-frequency domain, resulting in better quality of reconstructed image.

  15. CryoSat-2 Altimetry Applications over Rivers and Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguang Jiang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the variation of rivers and lakes is of great importance. Satellite radar altimetry is a promising technology to do this on a regional to global scale. Satellite radar altimetry data has been used successfully to observe water levels in lakes and (large rivers, and has also been combined with hydrologic/hydrodynamic models. Except CryoSat-2, all radar altimetry missions have been operated in conventional low resolution mode with a short repeat orbit (35 days or less. CryoSat-2, carrying a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR altimeter, has a 369-day repeat and a drifting ground track pattern and provides new opportunities for hydrologic research. The narrow inter-track distance (7.5 km at the equator makes it possible to monitor many lakes and rivers and SAR mode provides a finer along-track resolution, higher return power and speckle reduction through multi-looks. However, CryoSat-2 challenges conventional ways of dealing with satellite inland water altimetry data because virtual station time series cannot be directly derived for rivers. We review the CryoSat-2 mission characteristics, data products, and its use and perspectives for inland water applications. We discuss all the important steps in the workflow for hydrologic analysis with CryoSat-2, and conclude with a discussion of promising future research directions.

  16. 英语专业学生批判性阅读能力的复合型档案袋评价模式构建%Model building of complex portfolio assessment for English majors' critical reading skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温军超

    2011-01-01

    评估学生批判性思维能力既要对其输出结果即写作与口语表达效果进行研究,也需对其输入层面即阅读特别是批判性阅读现状进行研究。批判性阅读是培养学生批判性思维的重要途径。通过实证方法初步探讨了复合型档案袋评价在批判性阅读能力中的构建即实现评价功能的复合、评价材料结构的复合、评价主体的复合及评价标准的复合。%To evaluate the situation of critical thinking for English majors relies on the study not only from the input aspect,namely speaking and writing,but also from the output aspect,mainly the critical reading part.The critical reading forms the main approach to students' critical thinking.Based on the quantitative study,the model of complex portfolio assessment meant to be built is namely the one which combines the complex assessment functions,complex assessment material structure,complex assessment subjects and complex assessment standards.

  17. On the Cultivation of Critical Thinking of English Maj ors in Reading Class%英语专业阅读课教学中学生思辨能力培养探究*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦森

    2013-01-01

    The cultivation of English maj ors'critical thinking plays an essential role in the field of foreign language education.Therefore,the teachers should aim to develop students'critical thinking in the teaching process in which they should improve teaching methods and take advantage of cooperative learning to realize the integration of basic skills of English,which in turn can improve students'critical thinking.This paper has a tentative study on how to cultivate English majors'critical thinking in read-ing class in particular.%英语专业在进行教学的时候要特别注重对学生思辨能力的培养,尽量将这种发展学生思辨能力的教学形式作为教学目标,在英语阅读教学的过程中从多方面改革教学方法和教学手段,利用合作项目来进行学习,实行英语语言基础技能的一体化教学,以此来达到对学生思辨能力的培养。

  18. On Critical Thinking Ability of Reading from the Perspective of Grammatical Metaphor%从语法隐喻看阅读中思辨能力的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄兴国; 王慧颖; 白延平

    2016-01-01

    Reading is a cognitive process of thinking ,and English reading has a close relationship with grammatical metaphor .The grammatical metaphors in English discourse will cause the reading barrier .In English reading ,helping students to construct grammatical metaphor schemata will help them to identify these grammatical metaphor phenomena ,to cultivate their English thinking ability ,and to cultivate and enhance students' critical thinking ability through discourse analysis and comprehension.%阅读是一个思辨的认知过程,语法隐喻与英语阅读有很大的关系.英语语篇中的语法隐喻现象会构成阅读障碍.在英语阅读中帮助学生构建语法隐喻图式,有助于他们识别这些语法隐喻现象 、 培养英语思维 、 进而培养和增强学生语篇分析 、 理解等思辨能力.

  19. Space Weather Mission of SmartSat Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akioka, M.; Miyake, W.; Nagatsuma, T.; Ohtaka, K.; Kimura, S.; Goka, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Koshiishi, H.

    2009-06-01

    The SmartSat Program is a collaborative program of government agency (NICT,JAXA) and private sector (MHI) in Japan to develop small satellite about 200 Kg. The space weather experiment of the SmartSat consists of Wide Field CME Imager (WCI), Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment (SEDA), and mission processor (MP). Both of the instruments will be principal components of the L5 mission. WCI is a imager to track CME as far as earth orbit. CME brightness near earth orbit is expected 1E-15 solar brightness or 1/200 of zodiacal light brightness. To observe such a extreme faint target, we are developing wide field of view camera with very high sensitivity and large dynamic range. These highly challenging experiment and demonstration will be implemented in SmartSat program.

  20. SATzilla: Portfolio-based Algorithm Selection for SAT

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Lin; Hoos, Holger H; Leyton-Brown, Kevin; 10.1613/jair.2490

    2011-01-01

    It has been widely observed that there is no single "dominant" SAT solver; instead, different solvers perform best on different instances. Rather than following the traditional approach of choosing the best solver for a given class of instances, we advocate making this decision online on a per-instance basis. Building on previous work, we describe SATzilla, an automated approach for constructing per-instance algorithm portfolios for SAT that use so-called empirical hardness models to choose among their constituent solvers. This approach takes as input a distribution of problem instances and a set of component solvers, and constructs a portfolio optimizing a given objective function (such as mean runtime, percent of instances solved, or score in a competition). The excellent performance of SATzilla was independently verified in the 2007 SAT Competition, where our SATzilla07 solvers won three gold, one silver and one bronze medal. In this article, we go well beyond SATzilla07 by making the portfolio constructio...

  1. Performing High-Quality Science on CubeSats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    H. Zurbuchen, Thomas; von Steiger, Rudolf; Bartalev, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    January 2016 the International Space Science Institute in Berne, Switzerland,hosted a two-day Forum to focus on the rapid evolution of CubeSats as an enabling technology platform, with special emphasis on their promise to perform high-quality science.The Forum was initiated in coordination...... in this area of research. Our discussions focused on four themes characteristic of CubeSats and their evolution: 1) identification of appropriate science in avariety of research disciplines, 2) technology development, 3) international vs. national approaches, and 4) educational benefits. These discussions...... with a then ongoing, and recently published study performed by the US National Academies onthe same topic (goo.gl/osCSQ3), and was focused on the international context of CubeSats-enabled science. This report summarizes the conclusions from this Forum to inform the growing international community of the activities...

  2. COLD-SAT orbital experiment configured for Atlas launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, J. R.; Bennett, F. O.; Wachter, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    The design and requirements for the proposed cryogenic on-orbit liquid depot storage, acquisition, and transfer (COLD-SAT) satellite experiment, which is to be launched by Atlas I, are examined. The COLD-SAT experiments are categorized as class I and II; class I involves technology related to space transportation missions and class II represents alternative fluid management operations and data. The hardware for the COLD-SAT experiments consists of three hydrogen tanks contained in the experimental module; the experimental module is connected to a three-axis-controlled spacecraft bus, and thrusters are positioned on the forward and aft ends of the spacecraft and on the cylindrical portion of the experimental module. The components and systems of the experiment module and the types of experiments that can be conducted in each tank are described. Diagrams of the spacecraft configuration are provided.

  3. Experimental infection of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) with SAT-1 and SAT-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosloo, W; Swanepoel, S P; Bauman, M; Botha, B; Esterhuysen, J J; Boshoff, C I; Keet, D F; Dekker, A

    2011-04-01

    The potential role of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) in the epidemiology and spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) SAT types was investigated by experimental infection and detection of virus in excretions using virus isolation on primary pig kidney cell cultures. In two experiments separated by a period of 24 months, groups of four animals were needle infected with a SAT-1 or SAT-2 virus, respectively and two in-contact controls were kept with each group. Viraemia was detected 3-9 days post-infection and virus isolated from mouth washes and faeces only occasionally up to day 13. The SAT-1 virus was transmitted to only one in-contact control animal, probably via saliva that contained virus from vesicles in the mouth of a needle-infected animal. None of the animals infected with the SAT-2 virus had any vesicles in the mouth, and there was no evidence of transmission to the in-contact controls. No virus was detected in probang samples for the duration of the experiments (60 days post-infection), indicating that persistent infection probably did not establish with either of these isolates. Giraffe most likely do not play an important role in FMD dissemination. Transmission of infection would possibly occur only during close contact with other animals when mouth vesicles are evident.

  4. Davies, Florence (1995. Introducing Reading. Davies, Florence (1995. Introducing Reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Gomes Ferreira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Arising at a time of unprecedented growth of interest in fostering critical thinking, Introducing Reading offers a clear introduction and thorough account of contemporary developments in the field of reading. While overtly focusing on the special demands of social and human aspects of the reading practice, the issues raised have crucial resonance in the sphere of critical reading. Explicitly addressed to teachers of mother tongue and foreign language contexts, the book claims to elaborate on aspects of reading which have received meager attention to date: individual readers engaged in different real-world reading tasks, the social contexts where such readers engage and interact with texts, and the nature and variety of texts, here regarded as “participants” in the interaction between reader and writer. To this extent, the book successfully reaches the ambitious aim of “socializing and humanizing reading and the teaching of reading” (p. xi. Arising at a time of unprecedented growth of interest in fostering critical thinking, Introducing Reading offers a clear introduction and thorough account of contemporary developments in the field of reading. While overtly focusing on the special demands of social and human aspects of the reading practice, the issues raised have crucial resonance in the sphere of critical reading. Explicitly addressed to teachers of mother tongue and foreign language contexts, the book claims to elaborate on aspects of reading which have received meager attention to date: individual readers engaged in different real-world reading tasks, the social contexts where such readers engage and interact with texts, and the nature and variety of texts, here regarded as “participants” in the interaction between reader and writer. To this extent, the book successfully reaches the ambitious aim of “socializing and humanizing reading and the teaching of reading” (p. xi.

  5. Reading Comics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Many adults, even librarians who willingly add comics to their collections, often dismiss the importance of comics. Compared to reading "real" books, reading comics appears to be a simple task and compared to reading no books, reading comics might be preferable. After all, comics do have words, but the plentiful pictures seem to carry most of the…

  6. Reading Comics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Many adults, even librarians who willingly add comics to their collections, often dismiss the importance of comics. Compared to reading "real" books, reading comics appears to be a simple task and compared to reading no books, reading comics might be preferable. After all, comics do have words, but the plentiful pictures seem to carry most of the…

  7. A reading list for Bill Gates--and you. A conversation with literary critic Harold Bloom. Interview by Diane L. Coutu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, H

    2001-05-01

    In today's technology-driven world, who has time to pick up a 400-page novel? Most executives don't--they have urgent e-mails to answer, training seminars to attend, meetings to lead, and trade publications to scan. But according to Harold Bloom, one of America's most influential scholars, they should make time in their hectic schedules to read great works. In a wide-ranging conversation with HBR senior editor Diane Coutu, Bloom discusses the importance of literature: every individual--regardless of profession--needs to stretch his or her mind and reflect now and again on the human condition. "By reading great imaginative literature, you can prepare yourself for surprise and even get a kind of strength that welcomes and exploits the unexpected," he says. Because there are so many great works and there is so little time, Bloom presents a reading list for busy executives. Shakespeare's King Lear can teach businesspeople about change. Ralph Waldo Emerson's essays capture the ethos of the American spirit--individualism and inventiveness. Bloom says Sigmund Freud's conceptions "form the only Western mythology that contemporary intellectuals have in common." And people will never fully understand some aspects of themselves until they read Miguel de Cervantes's Don Quixote. In short, Bloom believes the humanities have much to offer businesspeople: great books broaden their awareness and their range of sensibility, he says. But reading literature will not make businesspeople more moral, he cautions. Bloom also discusses other topics such as how to read well, the state of popular fiction, the role of irony, and the subject of change.

  8. Radiation Tolerant, FPGA-Based SmallSat Computer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMeres, Brock J.; Crum, Gary A.; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Radiation Tolerant, FPGA-based SmallSat Computer System (RadSat) computing platform exploits a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) with real-time partial reconfiguration to provide increased performance, power efficiency and radiation tolerance at a fraction of the cost of existing radiation hardened computing solutions. This technology is ideal for small spacecraft that require state-of-the-art on-board processing in harsh radiation environments but where using radiation hardened processors is cost prohibitive.

  9. Integrated Solar-Panel Antenna Array for CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baktur, Reyhan

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the Integrated Solar-Panel Antenna Array for CubeSats (ISAAC) project is to design and demonstrate an effective and efficien toptically transparent, high-gain, lightweight, conformal X-band antenna array that is integrated with the solar panels of a CubeSat. The targeted demonstration is for a Near Earth Network (NEN)radio at X-band, but the design can be easilyscaled to other network radios for higher frequencies. ISAAC is a less expensive and more flexible design for communication systemscompared to a deployed dish antenna or the existing integrated solar panel antenna design.

  10. AIRS-CloudSat cloud mask, radar reflectivities, and cloud classification matchups V3.2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is AIRS-CloudSat collocated subset, in NetCDF 4 format. These data contain collocated: AIRS Level 1b radiances spectra, CloudSat radar reflectivities, and MODIS...

  11. Integrated CubeSat ADACS with Reaction Wheels and Star Tracker Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MAI-400SS Space Sextant is a precision attitude determination and control system for CubeSats and Nanosats. The MAI-400SS enables future CubeSat missions with...

  12. CubeSat Power Management Controller and Solar Array Articulation System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CubeSat platform represents a valuable architecture from which to develop satellite capabilities, payloads and technologies. However, CubeSat spacecraft must be...

  13. Solar Electric Propulsion CubeSat Bus for Deep Space Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As electronics continue to shrink in size, the capabilities of CubeSats continues to expand. CubeSats can now perform a wide range of sensing and telecommunications...

  14. 后现代批判视野下的报刊英语跨文化阅读%Cross-cultural Reading of English Newspaper and Magazines in the View of Post-modern Criticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭金秀

    2013-01-01

    英语报刊阅读是英语学习者提高英语阅读能力、了解英美国家主要信息和文化的重要手段。在进行英语报刊跨文化阅读的过程中,学习者不可避免地会感受到中西方文化间的碰撞。在当前国际社会畅行后现代批判教育的背景下,教师需要积极调动策略,帮助学习者批判地理解中西方文化的差异,化解其感受到的语言和文化冲突,提高跨文化批判阅读理解能力,从而提升英语综合素质。%Reading of English newspaper and Magazines is an important way of improving the learners' reading proficiency and their cul-tural cognition. And during the cross-cultural reading, learners inevitably feel the cultural conflicts between China and the west. Thus in-structors must flexibly use various strategies in helping learners critically study the linguistic difference as well as cultural discrimination against the current background of post-modern critical education. So that the learners' cross-cultural reading proficiency and overall qualities may be greatly heightened.

  15. A new assay for determining ganglioside sialyltransferase activities lactosylceramide-2,3-sialyltransferase (SAT I and monosialylganglioside-2,3-sialyltransferase (SAT IV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Q Sun

    Full Text Available A new assay for the determination of lactosylceramide-2,3-sialyltransferase (SAT I, EC 2.4.99.9 and monosialoganglioside sialyltransferase (SAT IV, EC 2.4.99.2 is described. The assay utilised the commercially available fluorophore labelled sphingolipids, boron dipyrromethene difluoride (BODIPY lactosylceramide (LacCer, and BODIPY-monosialotetrahexosylganglioside (GM1 as the acceptor substrates, for SAT I and SAT IV, respectively. HPLC coupled with fluorescence detection was used to analyse product formation. The analysis was performed in a quick and automated fashion. The assay showed good linearity for both BODIPY sphingolipids with a quantitative detection limit of 0.05 pmol. The high sensitivity enabled the detection of SAT I and SAT IV activities as low as 0.001 μU, at least 200 fold lower than that of most radiometric assays. This new assay was applied to the screening of SAT I and SAT IV activities in ovine and bovine organs (liver, heart, kidney, and spleen. The results provided evidence that young animals, such as calves, start to produce ganglioside sialyltransferases as early as 7 days after parturition and that levels change during maturation. Among the organs tested from a bovine source, spleen had the highest specific ganglioside sialyltransferase activity. Due to the organ size, the greatest total ganglioside sialyltransferase activities (SAT I and SAT IV were detected in the liver of both bovine and ovine origin.

  16. A new assay for determining ganglioside sialyltransferase activities lactosylceramide-2,3-sialyltransferase (SAT I) and monosialylganglioside-2,3-sialyltransferase (SAT IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cynthia Q; Hubl, Ulrike; Hoefakker, Petra; Vasudevamurthy, Madhusudan K; Johnson, Keryn D

    2014-01-01

    A new assay for the determination of lactosylceramide-2,3-sialyltransferase (SAT I, EC 2.4.99.9) and monosialoganglioside sialyltransferase (SAT IV, EC 2.4.99.2) is described. The assay utilised the commercially available fluorophore labelled sphingolipids, boron dipyrromethene difluoride (BODIPY) lactosylceramide (LacCer), and BODIPY-monosialotetrahexosylganglioside (GM1) as the acceptor substrates, for SAT I and SAT IV, respectively. HPLC coupled with fluorescence detection was used to analyse product formation. The analysis was performed in a quick and automated fashion. The assay showed good linearity for both BODIPY sphingolipids with a quantitative detection limit of 0.05 pmol. The high sensitivity enabled the detection of SAT I and SAT IV activities as low as 0.001 μU, at least 200 fold lower than that of most radiometric assays. This new assay was applied to the screening of SAT I and SAT IV activities in ovine and bovine organs (liver, heart, kidney, and spleen). The results provided evidence that young animals, such as calves, start to produce ganglioside sialyltransferases as early as 7 days after parturition and that levels change during maturation. Among the organs tested from a bovine source, spleen had the highest specific ganglioside sialyltransferase activity. Due to the organ size, the greatest total ganglioside sialyltransferase activities (SAT I and SAT IV) were detected in the liver of both bovine and ovine origin.

  17. A CubeSat for Calibrating Ground-Based and Sub-Orbital Millimeter-Wave Polarimeters (CalSat)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bradley R.; Vourch, Clement J.; Drysdale, Timothy D.; Kalman, Andrew; Fujikawa, Steve; Keating, Brian; Kaufman, Jon

    2015-10-01

    We describe a low-cost, open-access, CubeSat-based calibration instrument that is designed to support ground-based and sub-orbital experiments searching for various polarization signals in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). All modern CMB polarization experiments require a robust calibration program that will allow the effects of instrument-induced signals to be mitigated during data analysis. A bright, compact and linearly polarized astrophysical source with polarization properties known to adequate precision does not exist. Therefore, we designed a space-based millimeter-wave calibration instrument, called CalSat, to serve as an open-access calibrator, and this paper describes the results of our design study. The calibration source on board CalSat is composed of five “tones” with one each at 47.1, 80.0, 140, 249 and 309GHz. The five tones we chose are well matched to (i) the observation windows in the atmospheric transmittance spectra, (ii) the spectral bands commonly used in polarimeters by the CMB community and (iii) the Amateur Satellite Service bands in the Table of Frequency Allocations used by the Federal Communications Commission. CalSat would be placed in a polar orbit allowing visibility from observatories in the Northern Hemisphere, such as Mauna Kea in Hawaii and Summit Station in Greenland, and the Southern Hemisphere, such as the Atacama Desert in Chile and the South Pole. CalSat also would be observable by balloon-borne instruments launched from a range of locations around the world. This global visibility makes CalSat the only source that can be observed by all terrestrial and sub-orbital observatories, thereby providing a universal standard that permits comparison between experiments using appreciably different measurement approaches.

  18. 高校英语教师批判式阅读教学的态度与意识调查研究%A Survey and Research of the College English Teachers’ Attitude and Consciousness of Critical Reading Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩; 田秀峰

    2014-01-01

    批判式阅读是一种以培养学生综合语言能力为核心的教学方法。通过对河北省5所高校100余名英语教师的问卷调查和访谈发现:高校英语教师对批判式阅读教学理论和教学策略的认知有待进一步深化;在教学实践过程中仍需要进一步转变教学观念,在拓展学生语言知识的同时兼顾学生批判性思维能力及评析能力的培养。%Critical Reading Teaching is to Cultivate the students' comprehensive language ability as the core of the teaching method. By conducting a survey and an interview of nearly 100 college English teachers from five universities in Hebei Providence, It is shown that college English teach-ers’ cognition of the teaching theory and teaching strategies of critical reading need to be deepened; Furthermore,during the teaching process,college English teachers’ teaching con-cept needs to be altered,and on the basis of the expansion of students language knowledge,they should focus on the cultivation of students’ critical thinking ability as well as their analysis capability.

  19. 超越自我 追求卓越——美国"新SAT"(nSAT)介述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐滢

    2005-01-01

    美国将在2005年3月举行第一次"新SAT" (nSAT)考试,引起了公众关注。此次SAT的改革主要以内容改 革为切入点,并新增加了写作技能测试。SAT的本次改革旨在完 善自我,强化SAT的评价功能、选拔功能和教育导向功能。

  20. The Rise and Demise of the SAT: The University of California Generates Change for College Admissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Susan J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few months, news about the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) has made national headlines and not in a good way: "Large SAT Score Decline Shows Failure of No Child Left Behind and State High-Stakes Testing Strategy" (FairTest 2011); "Eshaghoff, Emory University Student, Allegedly Took SAT For Other Students"…

  1. An Alternative Presentation of Incremental Validity: Discrepant SAT and HSGPA Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.; Kobrin, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined discrepant high school grade point average (HSGPA) and SAT performance as measured by the difference between a student's standardized SAT composite score and standardized HSGPA. The SAT-HSGPA discrepancy measure was used to examine whether certain students are more likely to exhibit discrepant performance and in what direction.…

  2. 美国高考SAT-Ⅱ及其数学考试简析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奋平

    2008-01-01

    在文[6]、[7]中介绍过美国高校入学考试主要有SAT(Scholastic Assessment Test)和 ACT(American College Testing Assessment)两种.SAT又分SAT-Ⅰ和SAT-Ⅱ两种,大家通常所说的SAT指SAT-Ⅰ.

  3. The Effect of Personality Preferences on the 2005 Version of the SAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrs, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Some researchers suggest the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) is biased toward certain personality types. Extant literature lacked examination of personality constructs and their relationship with SAT scores of the newly revised SAT. The purpose of this study was two-fold. First, this study examined the relationship between the Sensing and Intuition…

  4. SmartSat Experiment for the L5 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatsuma, T.; Akioka, M.; Ohtaka, K.; Miyake, W.; Goka, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Koshiishi, H.

    2004-12-01

    We have planned the L5 mission for space weather research and operational forecasting experiment. In this mission, a spacecraft will be deployed at the L5 point of the Sun - Earth system for remote sensing of the Sun and the interplanetary space, and for in-situ measurements of the solar wind plasma and high energy particles. For this mission, NICT and JAXA develop wide field imager for tracking CME propagation from the Sun to the Earth and advanced high-energy particle sensor for monitoring of solar particle events, respectively. Before proceeding the L5 mission, we are planning orbital demonstration in GTO using a platform of small satellite, called "SmartSat". The SmartSat program is a collaborative program of government agencies (NICT and JAXA), and a private company (Mitsubishi Heavy Industry) in Japan. The wide field coronal imager (WCI) and space environment data acquisition experiment (SEDA) will be tested by this program as the space weather experiment, since both of the instruments will be principal components of the L5 mission. The SmartSat is planned to be launched by 2007, about 1 year after the launch of STEREO spacecrafts. Therefore, we are expecting the coordinated observation with STEREO mission. In this paper, we will report an overview of the space weather experiment in SmartSat program.

  5. CloudSat Reflectivity Data Visualization Inside Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Wright, John R.; Falcon, Pedro C.

    2011-01-01

    We have presented methods to rapidly produce visualization and outreach products from CloudSat data for science and the media These methods combine data from several sources in the product generation process In general, the process can be completely automatic, producing products and notifying potential users

  6. Data Mining the University: College GPA Predictions from SAT Scores

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, Stephen D H

    2010-01-01

    We analyze a data set comprised of academic records of undergraduates at the University of Oregon from 2000-2004. We find correlations of roughly 0.35 to 0.5 between SAT scores and upper division, in-major GPA (henceforth, GPA). Interestingly, low SAT scores do not preclude high performance in most majors. That is, the distribution of SAT scores after conditioning on high GPA (e.g., 3.5 or even 4.0) typically extends below 1000 (the average among test takers). We hypothesize that "overachievers" overcome cognitive deficits through hard work, and discuss to what extent they can be identified from high school records. Only a few majors seem to exhibit a "cognitive threshold" -- such that high GPA (mastery of the subject matter) is very unlikely below a certain SAT threshold (i.e., no matter how dedicated or hard working the student). Our results suggest that almost any student admitted to university can achieve academic success, if they work hard enough. In addition to our primary result, we find that the best ...

  7. The CarbonSat End-to-End Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramstedt, Klaus; Noel, Stefan; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Reuter, Max; Burrows, John P.; Jurado Lozano, Pedro Jose; Meijer, Yasjka; Loescher, Armin; Acarreta, Juan R.; Sturm, Philipp; Tesmer, Volker; Sanchez Monero, Ana Maria; Atapuerca Rodreiguez de Dios, Francisco Javier; Toledano Sanchez, Daniel; Boesch, Hartmut

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the CarbonSat mission is to improve our knowledge on natural and anthropogenic sources and sinks of CO2 and CH4. CarbonSat was one of the two candidate missions selected for definition studies for becoming Earth Explorer 8 (EE8).The CarbonSat End-to-End Simulator (CSE2ES) simulates the full data flow of the mission with a set of modules embedded in ESA's generic simulation framework OpenSF. A Geometry Module (GM) defines the orbital geometry and related parameters. A Scene Generation Module (SGM) provides simulated radiances and irradiances for the selected scenes. The Level 1 Module (L1M) compromises the instrument simulator and the Level 1b processor, and provide as main output calibrated spectra. The L1M is implemented in two versions, reflecting the instrument concepts from the two competing industrial system studies. The Level 2 Retrieval Module (L2M) performs the retrieval from the input level 1b spectra to the atmospheric parameters (CO2 and CH4).In this paper, we show sensitivity studies with respect to atmospheric parameters, simulations along the orbit and a case study for the detection of a point source emitting carbon dioxide. In summary, the end-to-end simulation with CSE2ES proves the capability of the CarbonSat concept to reach its requirements.

  8. The autonomous vision system on TeamSat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Riis, Troels

    1999-01-01

    The second qualification flight of Ariane 5 blasted off-the European Space Port in French Guiana on October 30, 1997, carrying on board a small technology demonstration satellite called TeamSat. Several experiments were proposed by various universities and research institutions in Europe and five...

  9. Solving SAT by Algorithm Transform of Wu‘s Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺思敏; 张钹

    1999-01-01

    Recently algorithms for solving propositional satisfiability problem, or SAT,have aroused great interest,and more attention has been paid to transformation problem solving.The commonly used transformation is representation transform,but since its intermediate computing procedure is a black box from the viewpoint of the original problem,this approach has many limitations.In this paper,a new approach called algorithm transform is proposed and applied to solving SAT by Wu's method,a general algorithm for solving polynomial equations.B y establishing the correspondence between the primitive operation in Wu's method and clause resolution is SAT,it is shown that Wu's method,when used for solving SAT,,is primarily a restricted clause resolution procedure.While Wu's method introduces entirely new concepts.e.g.characteristic set of clauses,to resolution procedure,the complexity result of resolution procedure suggests an exponential lower bound to Wu's method for solving general polynomial equations.Moreover,this algorithm transform can help achieve a more efficient implementation of Wu's method since it can avoid the complex manipulation of polynomials and can make the best use of domain specific knowledge.

  10. A Taxonomy of Exact Methods for Partial Max-SAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed El Bachir Menai; Tasniem Nasser Al-Yahya

    2013-01-01

    Partial Maximum Boolean Satisfiability (Partial Max-SAT or PMSAT) is an optimization variant of Boolean satisfiability (SAT) problem,in which a variable assignment is required to satisfy all hard clauses and a maximum number of soft clauses in a Boolean formula.PMSAT is considered as an interesting encoding domain to many real-life problems for which a solution is acceptable even if some constraints are violated.Amongst the problems that can be formulated as such are planning and scheduling.New insights into the study of PMSAT problem have been gained since the introduction of the Max-SAT evaluations in 2006.Indeed,several PMSAT exact solvers have been developed based mainly on the DavisPutnam-Logemann-Loveland (DPLL) procedure and Branch and Bound (B&B) algorithms.In this paper,we investigate and analyze a number of exact methods for PMSAT.We propose a taxonomy of the main exact methods within a general framework that integrates their various techniques into a unified perspective.We show its effectiveness by using it to classify PMSAT exact solvers which participated in the 2007~2011 Max-SAT evaluations,emphasizing on the most promising research directions.

  11. Revalidation of the Sat-Chit-Ananda Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kamlesh; Khanna, Pulkit; Khosla, Meenakshi; Rapelly, Mounica; Soni, Akarsh

    2016-11-18

    Sat-Chit-Ananda is an indigenous construct that refers to absolute bliss and consciousness. The present study aimed to strengthen the psychometric properties of the newly developed Sat-Chit-Ananda scale (Singh et al. in Int J Vedic Found Manag 1(2):54-74, 2014). A total of 398 students aged 17-36 years (mean age = 21.33 years, SD = 2.2, 70% males) participated in this study. An exploratory as well as confirmatory factor analysis was computed for the 17-item scale. Its' concurrent validity was established by assessing its correlation with other well-being measures, namely Flourishing (Diener et al. in Soc Indic Res 97:143-156 2010) and Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (Diener et al. 2010). Satisfactory results were obtained from both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Sat-Chit-Ananda and its factors were found to be significantly positively correlated with Flourishing and Positive Experiences and were negatively correlated with Negative Experiences. Thus, the validity of the Sat-Chit-Ananda (Singh et al. 2014) scale stands further substantiated-offering this scale as a promising new assessment tool.

  12. Analysis of WindSat Data over Arctic Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The radiation of the 3rd and 4th Stokes components emitted by Arctic sea ice and observed by the spaceborne fully polarimetric radiometer WindSat is investigated. Two types of analysis are carried out, spatial (maps of different quadrants of azimuth look angles) and temporal (time series of daily av...

  13. Comparison of CloudSat and TRMM radar reflectivities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K D Sindhu; G S Bhat

    2013-08-01

    Comparison of reflectivity data of radars onboard CloudSat and TRMM is performed using coincident overpasses. The contoured frequency by altitude diagrams (CFADs) are constructed for two cases: (a) only include collocated vertical profiles that are most likely to be raining and (b) include all collocated profiles along with cloudy pixels falling within a distance of about 50 km from the centre point of coincidence. Our analysis shows that for both cases, CloudSat underestimates the radar reflectivity by about 10 dBZ compared to that of TRMM radar below 15 km altitude. The difference is well outside the uncertainty value of ∼2 dBZ of each radar. Further, CloudSat reflectivity shows a decreasing trend while that of TRMM radar an increasing trend below 4 km height. Basically W-band radar that CloudSat flies suffers strong attenuation in precipitating clouds and its reflectivity value rarely exceeds 20 dBZ though its technical specification indicates the upper measurement limit to be 40 dBZ. TRMM radar, on the other hand, cannot measure values below 17 dBZ. In fact combining data from these two radars seems to give a better overall spatial structure of convective clouds.

  14. The COLD-SAT experiment for cryogenic fluid management technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, J. R.; Wachter, J. P.; Vento, D. M.

    1990-01-01

    The COLD-SAT spacecraft design experiments are described. COLD-SAT will be placed into an initial 1300 km circular orbit by an Atlas commercial launch vehicle. Electric power, experiment control and data management, attitude control, and propulsive accelarations for the experiments will be provided by the three-axis-controlled spacecraft bus. To provide data on the effects that low gravity levels might have on the heat and mass transfer processes involved, low levels of accelaration will be created. The COLD-SAT experiment will be configured into a module. The spacecraft experiment module will include three liquid hydrogen tanks; fluid transfer, pressurization and venting equipment; and instrumentation. Since the largest tank has helium-purged MLI to prevent ingress and freezing of air on the launchpad, it will contain all the liquid hydrogen at the point of launching. The hydrogen tanking system used for the Centaur upper stage of the Atlas will load and top off this tank. Atlas, with its liquid hydrogen upper stage, large payload fairing, and large launch margin, simplifies COLD-SAT design and integration.

  15. On belief propagation guided decimation for random k-SAT

    CERN Document Server

    Coja-Oghlan, Amin

    2010-01-01

    Let F be a uniformly distributed random k-SAT formula with n variables and m clauses. Non-constructive arguments show that F is satisfiable for clause/variable ratios m/nc.r(k)/k, for a constant c>0 (independent of k).

  16. Campaign for vicarious calibration of SumbandilaSat in Argentina

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vhengani, LM

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available to estimate Top-Of-Atmosphere (TOA) spectral radiance. A vicarious calibration field campaign was executed in Argentina to support monitoring of the radiometric response of the multispectral imager aboard SumbandilaSat. Results obtained using two Radiative...

  17. Validation Experiments supporting the CryoSat-2 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, R.; Davidson, M.; Wingham, D.

    2009-12-01

    The primary goals of CryoSat are to derive improved estimates of the rates of change concerning land ice elevation and sea ice thickness and freeboard of the Earth’s land and marine ice fields. Validating such retrievals derived from a phase coherent pulse-width limited polar observing radar altimeter such as SIRAL, the primary payload of CryoSat, is not a simple one. In order to understand all the respective error co-variances it is necessary to acquire many different types of in-situ measurements (GPR, neutron probe density profiles, drilled and electromagnetic derived sea-ice thicknesses, for example) in highly inhospitable regions of the cryosphere at times of the year to detect relevant signals. In order to correlate retrievals from CryoSat with the in-situ data it was decided early in the CryoSat development that an aircraft borne radar altimeter with similar functionality to SIRAL would provide the necessary link, albeit on the smaller scale, and provide pre-launch incite into expected performances. In 2001 ESA commenced the development of its own prototype radar altimeter that mimics the functionality of SIRAL to be operated along-side an airborne laser scanner. Similar to SIRAL, but with subtle functional differences, the airborne SAR/Interferometric Radar Altimeter System (ASIRAS) has now been the centre piece instrument for a number of large scale land and sea ice field campaigns in the Arctic during spring and autumn 2004 and 2006 and 2008. Additional smaller science/test campaigns have taken place in March 2003 (Svalbard), March 2005 (Bay of Bothnia), March 2006 (Western Greenland) and April 2007 (CryoVEx 2007 in Svalbard). It is a credit to all parties that constitute the CryoSat Validation and Retrieval Team (CVRT) for the coordination, planning, acquisition of in-situ and airborne measurements and the subsequent processing and distributing of its data for analysis. CVRT has a robust infrastructure in place for validating and providing measures of

  18. Exploration on the Vocational Development of Foreign Language Teachers Based on Critical Reading Teaching%基于批判式阅读教学的外语教师职业发展路径探索*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚敏; 田秀峰

    2013-01-01

    The ability of critical thinking is the key to the cultivation of creative talents.Critical reading teaching is not only an important approach to cultivate students’critical thinking and innovation capabili-ty,but also an effective channel for college English teachers to improve their profession qualities and per-fect their vocational development.The improvement of critical teaching awareness of college English teach-ers should be combined with the cultivation of students’critical thinking capability in order to establish a new vocational development for the teachers.%批判式思维能力是创新人才培养的关键,开展批判式阅读教学不仅是培养学生批判性思维和能力的重要方法,也是高校英语教师提高自身职业素养,完善自身职业发展的有效途径。高校英语教师应将批判式阅读教学意识的培养与学生批判性思维能力的提升相结合,探索职业发展的新路径。

  19. Accuracy of the DIBELS oral reading fluency measure for predicting third grade reading comprehension outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrig, Alysia D; Petscher, Yaacov; Nettles, Stephen M; Hudson, Roxanne F; Torgesen, Joseph K

    2008-06-01

    We evaluated the validity of DIBELS (Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills) ORF (Oral Reading Fluency) for predicting performance on the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT-SSS) and Stanford Achievement Test (SAT-10) reading comprehension measures. The usefulness of previously established ORF risk-level cutoffs [Good, R.H., Simmons, D.C., and Kame'enui, E.J. (2001). The importance and decision-making utility of a continuum of fluency-based indicators of foundational reading skills for third-grade high-stakes outcomes. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5, 257-288.] for third grade students were evaluated on calibration (n(S1)=16,539) and cross-validation (n(S2)=16,908) samples representative of Florida's Reading First population. The strongest correlations were the third (February/March) administration of ORF with both FCAT-SSS and SAT-10 (r(S)=.70-.71), when the three tests were administered concurrently. Recalibrated ORF risk-level cut scores derived from ROC (receiver-operating characteristic) curve analyses produced more accurate identification of true positives than previously established benchmarks. The recalibrated risk-level cut scores predict performance on the FCAT-SSS equally well for students from different socio-economic, language, and race/ethnicity categories.

  20. Interpreting force concept inventory scores: Normalized gain and SAT scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent P. Coletta

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G on the force concept inventory (FCI were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335 and one university (N=292, and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations (r=0.57 and r=0.46, respectively. These correlations are likely due to the importance of cognitive skills and abstract reasoning in learning physics. The larger correlation coefficient for the high school population may be a result of the much shorter time interval between taking the SAT and studying mechanics, because the SAT may provide a more current measure of abilities when high school students begin the study of mechanics than it does for college students, who begin mechanics years after the test is taken. In prior research a strong correlation between FCI G and scores on Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning for students from the same two schools was observed. Our results suggest that, when interpreting class average normalized FCI gains and comparing different classes, it is important to take into account the variation of students’ cognitive skills, as measured either by the SAT or by Lawson’s test. While Lawson’s test is not commonly given to students in most introductory mechanics courses, SAT scores provide a readily available alternative means of taking account of students’ reasoning abilities. Knowing the students’ cognitive level before instruction also allows one to alter instruction or to use an intervention designed to improve students’ cognitive level.

  1. Shields-1, A SmallSat Radiation Shielding Technology Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, D. Laurence, III; Kim, Wousik; Cutler, James W.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center Shields CubeSat initiative is to develop a configurable platform that would allow lower cost access to Space for materials durability experiments, and to foster a pathway for both emerging and commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) radiation shielding technologies to gain spaceflight heritage in a relevant environment. The Shields-1 will be Langleys' first CubeSat platform to carry out this mission. Radiation shielding tests on Shields-1 are planned for the expected severe radiation environment in a geotransfer orbit (GTO), where advertised commercial rideshare opportunities and CubeSat missions exist, such as Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1). To meet this objective, atomic number (Z) graded radiation shields (Zshields) have been developed. The Z-shield properties have been estimated, using the Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS) radiation shielding computational modeling, to have 30% increased shielding effectiveness of electrons, at half the thickness of a corresponding single layer of aluminum. The Shields-1 research payload will be made with the Z-graded radiation shields of varying thicknesses to create dose-depth curves to be compared with baseline materials. Additionally, Shields-1 demonstrates an engineered Z-grade radiation shielding vault protecting the systems' electronic boards. The radiation shielding materials' performances will be characterized using total ionizing dose sensors. Completion of these experiments is expected to raise the technology readiness levels (TRLs) of the tested atomic number (Z) graded materials. The most significant contribution of the Z-shields for the SmallSat community will be that it enables cost effective shielding for small satellite systems, with significant volume constraints, while increasing the operational lifetime of ionizing radiation sensitive components. These results are anticipated to increase the development of CubeSat hardware design for increased mission lifetimes, and enable

  2. CloudSat Education Network: Partnerships for Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    TeBockhorst, D.

    2014-12-01

    CloudSat Education Network (CEN): Partnerships to improve the understanding of clouds in formal and informal settings. Since The CloudSat satellite launched in 2006 the Formal and Informal education programs for the mission have been focused on bringing an understanding about the mission science and the importance of clouds, climate & weather science. This has been done by creating and strengthening partnership and collaboration within scientific and educational communities around the country and the world. Because CloudSat was formally recognized as a Earth System Science Pathfinder campaign with the GLOBE program, the CEN developed a set of field protocols for student observations that augmented the GLOBE atmosphere protocols when there was a satellite overpass. This shared process between GLOBE & CloudSat resulted in the training & creation of CEN schools that are both GLOBE schools and CloudSat schools, and also produced three GLOBE partnerships that specialize in cloud science education and outreach. In addition, the CEN has developed productive relationships with other NASA missions and EPO teams. Specifically, in collaboration with the NASA CERES mission projects S'Cool and MyNASAData, we have co-presented at NSTA conferences and with schools participating in a NASA EPOESS-funded formal education project. This collaborative work has been a very real benefit to a wide variety of audiences needing to strengthen their understanding of clouds and their roles in the earth system, and we hope will serve as a model to future missions looking to involve the public in mission science.

  3. Interpreting force concept inventory scores: Normalized gain and SAT scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J. Steinert

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G on the force concept inventory (FCI were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335 and one university (N=292 , and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations ( r=0.57 and r=0.46 , respectively. These correlations are likely due to the importance of cognitive skills and abstract reasoning in learning physics. The larger correlation coefficient for the high school population may be a result of the much shorter time interval between taking the SAT and studying mechanics, because the SAT may provide a more current measure of abilities when high school students begin the study of mechanics than it does for college students, who begin mechanics years after the test is taken. In prior research a strong correlation between FCI G and scores on Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning for students from the same two schools was observed. Our results suggest that, when interpreting class average normalized FCI gains and comparing different classes, it is important to take into account the variation of students’ cognitive skills, as measured either by the SAT or by Lawson’s test. While Lawson’s test is not commonly given to students in most introductory mechanics courses, SAT scores provide a readily available alternative means of taking account of students’ reasoning abilities. Knowing the students’ cognitive level before instruction also allows one to alter instruction or to use an intervention designed to improve students’ cognitive level.

  4. Fostering the Development of Critical Thinking Skills, and Reading Comprehension of Undergraduates Using a Web 2.0 Tool Coupled with a Learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Anne; Johnson, Tristan E.

    2010-01-01

    A social annotation model learning system (SAM-LS) was created using multiple instructional strategies thereby supporting the student in improving in critical thinking, critical writing and related literacy. There are four mechanisms in which the SAM-LS methodology is believed to improve learning and performance. These mechanisms include providing…

  5. Fostering the Development of Critical Thinking Skills, and Reading Comprehension of Undergraduates Using a Web 2.0 Tool Coupled with a Learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Anne; Johnson, Tristan E.

    2010-01-01

    A social annotation model learning system (SAM-LS) was created using multiple instructional strategies thereby supporting the student in improving in critical thinking, critical writing and related literacy. There are four mechanisms in which the SAM-LS methodology is believed to improve learning and performance. These mechanisms include providing…

  6. Celluloid Marginalization: Pedagogical Strategies for Increasing Students' Critical Thought through the Multiple (Re)Readings of Trans* Subjectivities in Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolazzo, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Critically analyzing films allows for the interrogation of how such binaries as normal/abnormal, good/bad, and moral/immoral are culturally (re)inscribed, who sets the boundaries of what is deemed socially legible, and who gets to decide where these boundaries are set. This article utilizes critical discourse analysis to explore the transgender…

  7. Evaluation of the Impact of an Additive Manufacturing Enhanced CubeSat Architecture on the CubeSat Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-15

    fabrication method ideally suited to low- quantity, highly customized builds, leading to interest in the application of AM techniques to satellite...x List of Acronyms and Definitions ...................................................................................... xi...of Acronyms and Definitions 1U 10 cm x 10 cm x 10cm, unit volume size for CubeSats 3D Three-Dimensional ABS Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene ABS-M20

  8. 基于英语阅读理解的高职学生思辨能力培养%The Study on the Critical Thinking Skills Training of the Vocational College Students on Comprehensive Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张居设

    2014-01-01

    文章在简析目前国内外思辨能力培养现状的基础上,分析了英语阅读理解对培养高职学生思辨能力的重要性,并提出了通过改变英语阅读理解目标设置,教学模式,评价与反馈模式的方式来培养高职学生的思辨能力。%Base on the brief analysis of the training status of the critical thinking skills for the vocational college students, this article analyzes the importance of the training of the critical thinking skills for the vo-cational college students, and puts forward to the ways to train it through changing the target, the teaching methods, the evaluation and feedback ways of the comprehensive reading.

  9. Atividades de leitura em livros didáticos de inglês: PCN, letramento crítico e o panorama atual Reading Tasks in EFL Coursebooks: PCN, Critical Literacy and the Current Panorama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Tilio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available No componente curricular língua estrangeira, uma das orientações mais controversas nos PCN EFII é o incentivo ao foco no ensino de leitura. Passados mais de dez anos da publicação dos PCN, este trabalho analisa um livro didático de uma das duas únicas coleções didáticas aprovadas pelo PNLD 2011 para o ensino de inglês no segundo segmento do Ensino Fundamental, buscando entender como este livro aborda o ensino de leitura. Antes da análise proposta, é preciso não apenas discutir o discurso dos PCN e das leituras que deles vêm sendo feitas, mas também o conceito de letramento crítico, e os critérios do PNLD 2011 para a abordagem de leitura. Como a análise será feita com vistas ao letramento crítico, serão consideradas como categorias os tópicos abordados pelos textos, o trabalho com gêneros discursivos e a natureza das atividades propostas. A análise buscará discutir como os textos e atividades de leitura dialogam com os pressupostos teóricos dos PCN e do PNLD 2011.Concerning the teaching of a foreign language, one of the most controversial guidelines on the PCN EFII has been the focus on the teaching of reading. Considering that over ten years have passed since the PCN have been published, this article analyses a coursebook from one of the two only English series approved by the PNLD 2011 for the teaching of English in the second part of Ensino Fundamental, trying to understand how this book approaches the teaching of reading. Before the analysis, it is necessary to discuss not only the PCN discourse and its readings, but also the concept of critical literacy, and the PNLD 2011 criteria to teaching reading. Since the analysis aims at critical literacy, the article takes as analytical categories the topics of the texts, the work with discourse genres and the nature of the proposed activities. The analysis intends to discuss how the texts and reading activities establish a dialogue with the theoretical principles of the

  10. Examining the Effectiveness of Pre-Reading Strategies on Saudi EFL College Students' Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rasheed, Hana S. S.

    2014-01-01

    Reading comprehension is a key issue in learning English as a foreign language, and it is critical that teachers utilize pre-reading strategies in reading classes in order to help students enhance their comprehension. The present study investigates the effectiveness of two pre-reading strategies on EFL students' performance in reading…

  11. Toward the New Literacy: Changes in College Students' Reading Comprehension Strategies Following Reading/Writing Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk-Ross, Francine C.

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes students enrolled in a college developmental reading class and their use of critical literacy techniques to improve reading and writing skills. Considers three areas of students' progress: reading and writing connections, language and vocabulary, and purposes for reading. Stresses the importance of introduction and mastery of these areas…

  12. Multicultural Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltze, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Multicultural reading advocates believe in the power of literature to transform and to change people's lives. They take seriously the arguments that racism and prejudice can be lessened through multicultural reading, and also that children from undervalued societal groups who read books that depict people like themselves in a positive light will…

  13. SAT predicts GPA better for high ability subjects: Implications for Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Thomas; Snyder, Anissa; Pillow, David; Kochunov, Peter

    2011-04-01

    This research examined the predictive validity of the SAT (formerly, the Scholastic Aptitude Test) for high and low ability groups. SAT scores and college GPAs were obtained from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Subjects were classified as high or low ability by g factor scores from the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery. SAT correlations with GPA were higher for high than low ability subjects. SAT g loadings (i.e., SAT correlations with g) were equivalent for both groups. This is the first study to show that the predictive validity of the SAT varies for ability groups that differ in g. The results contradict a presumption, based on Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns, that a test's predictive validity should be lower for high ability subjects. Further research is needed to identify factors that contribute to the predictive validity of the SAT for groups that differ in g.

  14. The relationship between children's reading motivation and reading competence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白晴雪

    2016-01-01

    It has been found that motivation is very important to children's reading competence. This paper intended to study intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and find their relationship with children's reading competence. In order to do so, previous investigations about intrinsic and extrinsic motivation were critically reviewed, and their results were discussed in this paper.

  15. The Revised SAT Score and Its Potential Benefits for the Admission of Minority Students to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santelices, Maria Veronica; Wilson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the predictive validity of the Revised SAT (R-SAT) score, proposed by Freedle (2003) as an alternative to compensate minority students for the potential harm caused by the relationship between item difficulty and ethnic DIF observed in the SAT. The R-SAT score is the score minority students would have received if only the…

  16. Secreted autotransporter toxin (Sat) triggers autophagy in epithelial cells that relies on cell detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa; Comenge, Yannick; Ruby, Vincent; Amsellem, Raymonde; Nicolas, Valérie; Servin, Alain L

    2011-07-01

    The secreted autotransporter toxin, Sat, which belongs to the subfamily of serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae, acts as a virulence factor in extraintestinal and intestinal pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli. We observed that HeLa cells exposed to the cell-free culture supernatant of recombinant strain AAEC185p(Sat-IH11128) producing the Sat toxin (CFCS(Sat) ), displayed dramatic disorganization of the F-actin cytoskeleton before loosening cell-to-cell junctions and detachment. Examination of the effect of Sat on GFP-microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) HeLa cells revealed that CFCS(Sat) -induced autophagy follows CFCS(Sat) -induced F-actin cytoskeleton rearrangement. The induced autophagy shows an acceleration of the autophagy flux soon after Sat treatment, followed later by a blockade of the flux leading to the accumulation of large GFP-LC3-positive vacuoles in the cell cytoplasm. CFCS(Sat) did not induce cell detachment in autophagy-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts in contrast with wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The CFCS(Sat) -induced large GFP-LC3 dots do not display the characteristics of autophagolysosomes including expression of cathepsin D and Lamp-1 and 2 proteins, and Lysotracker Red- and DQ-BSA-positive labelling. We provide evidences that CFCS(Sat) -induced autophagy is not a cell response intended to get rid of the intracellular toxin. By a pharmacological blockers approach, we found that the blockade of Erk1/2 and p38 MAPKs, but not JNK, inhibited the CFCS(Sat) -induced autophagy and cell detachment whereas phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase blockers inhibiting canonical autophagy were inactive. When attached CFCS(Sat) -treated cells start to detach they showed caspase-independent cell death and rearrangements of the focal adhesion-associated vinculin and paxillin. Collectively, our results support that Sat triggers autophagy in epithelial cells that relies on its cell-detachment effect. © 2011 Blackwell

  17. New Criticism and Poetry Interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洁成

    2012-01-01

      New Criticism is a dominant trend in literary criticism of the mid twentieth century. New Criticism, focusing on the text and emphasizing close reading, finds its excellence in poetry interpretation. This essay introduces the theoretical basis, the approach—close reading, and terms of New Criticism. The essay analyzes the metaphysical poem“Virtue”written by George Herbert by the use of New Criticism.

  18. The cold reading technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, D L

    1988-04-15

    For many people, belief in the paranormal derives from personal experience of face-to-face interviews with astrologers, palm readers, aura and Tarot readers, and spirit mediums. These encounters typically involve cold reading, a process in which a reader makes calculated guesses about a client's background and problems and, depending on the reaction, elaborates a reading which seems to the client so uniquely appropriate that it carries with it the illusion of having been produced by paranormal means. The cold reading process is shown to depend initially on the Barnum effect, the tendency for people to embrace generalized personality descriptions as idiosyncratically their own. Psychological research into the Barnum effect is critically reviewed, and uses of the effect by a professional magician are described. This is followed by detailed analysis of the cold reading performances of a spirit medium. Future research should investigate the degree to which cold readers may have convinced themselves that they actually possess psychic or paranormal abilities.

  19. Reading Fluency and College Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasinski, Timothy V.; Chang, Shu-Ching; Edmondson, Elizabeth; Nageldinger, James; Nigh, Jennifer; Remark, Linda; Kenney, Kristen Srsen; Walsh-Moorman, Elizabeth; Yildirim, Kasim; Nichols, William Dee; Paige, David D.; Rupley, William H.

    2017-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards suggest that an appropriate goal for secondary education is college and career readiness. Previous research has identified reading fluency as a critical component for proficient reading. One component of fluency is word recognition accuracy and automaticity. The present study attempted to determine the word…

  20. Critical proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers how written language frames visual objects. Drawing on Michel Foucault’s response to Raymond Roussel’s obsessive description, the essay proposes a model of criticism where description might press up against its objects. This critical closeness is then mapped across the conceptual art practice and art criticism of Ian Burn. Burn attends to the differences between seeing and reading, and considers the conditions which frame how we look at images, including how we look at, and through words. The essay goes on to consider Meaghan Morris’s writing on Lynn Silverman’s photographs. Both Morris and Burn offer an alternative to a parasitic model of criticism and enact a patient way of looking across and through visual landscapes.

  1. Critical Proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Simon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers how written language frames visual objects. Drawing on Michel Foucault’s response to Raymond Roussel’s obsessive description, the essay proposes a model of criticism where description might press up against its objects. This critical closeness is then mapped across the conceptual art practice and art criticism of Ian Burn. Burn attends to the differences between seeing and reading, and considers the conditions which frame how we look at images, including how we look at, and through words. The essay goes on to consider Meaghan Morris’s writing on Lynn Silverman’s photographs. Both Morris and Burn offer an alternative to a parasitic model of criticism and enact a patient way of looking across and through visual landscapes.

  2. Science Case for Planetary Exploration with Planetary CubeSats and SmallSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Raymond, Carol; Jaumann, Ralf; Vane, Gregg; Baker, John

    2016-07-01

    Nano-spacecraft and especially CubeSats are emerging as viable low cost platforms for planetary exploration. Increasing miniaturization of instruments and processing performance enable smart and small packages capable of performing full investigations. While these platforms are limited in terms of payload and lifetime, their form factor and agility enable novel mission architectures and a refreshed relationship to risk. Leveraging a ride with a mothership to access far away destinations can significantly augment the mission science return at relatively low cost. Depending on resources, the mothership may carry several platforms and act as telecom relay for a distributed network or other forms of fractionated architectures. In Summer 2014 an international group of scientists, engineers, and technologists started a study to define investigations to be carried out by nano-spacecrafts. These applications flow down from key science priorities of interest across space agencies: understanding the origin and organization of the Solar system; characterization of planetary processes; assessment of the astrobiological significance of planetary bodies across the Solar system; and retirement of strategic knowledge gaps (SKGs) for Human exploration. This presentation will highlight applications that make the most of the novel architectures introduced by nano-spacecraft. Examples include the low cost reconnaissance of NEOs for science, planetary defense, resource assessment, and SKGs; in situ chemistry measurements (e.g., airless bodies and planetary atmospheres), geophysical network (e.g., magnetic field measurements), coordinated physical and chemical characterization of multiple icy satellites in a giant planet system; and scouting, i.e., risk assessment and site reconnaissance to prepare for close proximity observations of a mothership (e.g., prior to sampling). Acknowledgements: This study is sponsored by the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA). Part of this work is

  3. In-orbit performance of AstroSat CZTI

    CERN Document Server

    Vadawale, Santosh V; Bhattacharya, Dipankar; Bhalerao, Varun B; Dewangan, Gulab Chand; Vibute, Ajay M; S., Mithun N P; Chattopadhyay, Tanmoy; Sreekumar, S

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride Imager (CZTI) is one of the fi?ve payloads on-board recently launched Indian astronomy satellite AstroSat. CZTI is primarily designed for simultaneous hard X-ray imaging and spectroscopy of celestial X-ray sources. It employs the technique of coded mask imaging for measuring spectra in the energy range of 20 - 150 keV. It was the ?first scientifi?c payload of AstroSat to be switched on after one week of the launch and was made operational during the subsequent week. Here we present preliminary results from the performance verification phase observations and discuss the in-orbit performance of CZTI.

  4. CloudSat Image of Tropical Thunderstorms Over Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 CloudSat image of a horizontal cross-section of tropical clouds and thunderstorms over east Africa. The red colors are indicative of highly reflective particles such as water (rain) or ice crystals, which the blue indicates thinner clouds (such as cirrus). The flat green/blue lines across the bottom represent the ground signal. The vertical scale on the CloudS at Cloud Profiling Radar image is approximately 30 kilometers (19 miles). The brown line below the image indicates the relative elevation of the land surface. The inset image shows the CloudSat track relative to a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) visible image taken at nearly the same time.

  5. Verification of Authentication Protocols for Epistemic Goals via SAT Compilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai-Le Su; Qing-Liang Chen; Abdul Sattar; Wei-Ya Yue; Guan-Feng Lv; Xi-Zhong Zheng

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces a new methodology that uses knowledge structures, a specific form of Kripke semantics for epistemic logic, to analyze communication protocols over hostile networks. The paper particularly focuses on automatic verification of authentication protocols. Our approach is based on the actual definitions of a protocol, not on some difficultto-establish justifications. The proposed methodology is different from many previous approaches to automatic verification of security protocols in that it is justification-oriented instead of falsification-oriented, i.e., finding bugs in a protocol. The main idea is based on observations: separating a principal executing a run of protocol from the role in the protocol, and inferring a principal's knowledge from the local observations of the principal. And we show analytically and empirically that this model can be easily reduced to Satisfiability (SAT) problem and efficiently implemented by a modern SAT solver.

  6. A linear time quantum algorithm for 3SAT

    CERN Document Server

    Walters, Zachary B

    2015-01-01

    A quantum algorithm for the NP complete problem of satisfying boolean formulas with three variables per clause (3SAT) is presented. Departing from traditional models of quantum computation, this algorithm makes extensive use of irreversible operations to incoherently transfer population from states which do not solve some problem of interest to states which do. Provided that a solution exists, the algorithm yields exponential decay of nonsolution probability, at a rate controlled by the user.

  7. Dellingr- A Path to Compelling Science with CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M.; Bonalsky, T.; Chornay, D.; Clagett, C.; Cudmore, A.; Ericsson, A.; Hesh, S.; Jones, S.; Kepko, L.; Rodriguez, J.; Sittler, E.; Starin, S.; Santos, L.; Sheikh, S.; Uribe, P.; Zesta, E.

    2015-10-01

    Advancements in the capabilities of miniaturized systems are dramatically increasing interest in achieving science from CubeSats. The Dellingr project targets this interest. It will realize compelling science from a 6U spacecraft while developing human and spacecraft systems required to cost-efficiently deliver small satellites capable of reliably achieving mission objectives in divers environments—from low earth orbit to challenging radiation and thermal environments associated with lunar and planetary missions.

  8. Critical Theory of Communication: New Readings of Lukács, Adorno, Marcuse, Honneth and Habermas in the Age of the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Christian

    2016-01-01

    "This book contributes to the foundations of a critical theory of communication as shaped by the forces of digital capitalism. One of the world's leading theorists of digital media Professor Christian Fuchs explores how the thought of some of the Frankfurt School’s key thinkers can be deployed for critically understanding media in the age of the Internet. Five essays that form the heart of this book review aspects of the works of Georg Lukács, Theodor W. Adorno, Herbert Marcuse, Axel Honneth ...

  9. The Relationship between SAT Scores and Retention to the Second Year: 2007 SAT Validity Sample. Statistical Report No. 2011-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Krista D.; Patterson, Brian F.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the findings from a replication of the analyses from the report, "Is Performance on the SAT Related to College Retention?" (Mattern & Patterson, 2009). The tables presented herein are based on the 2007 sample and the findings are largely the same as those presented in the original report, and show SAT scores are…

  10. The Relationship between SAT Scores and Retention to the Second Year: Replication with 2009 SAT Validity Sample. Statistical Report 2011-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Krista D.; Patterson, Brian F.

    2012-01-01

    The College Board formed a research consortium with four-year colleges and universities to build a national higher education database with the primary goal of validating the revised SAT for use in college admission. A study by Mattern and Patterson (2009) examined the relationship between SAT scores and retention to the second year of college. The…

  11. SAT Performance: Understanding the Contributions of Cognitive/Learning and Social/Personality Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda; McNaughton-Cassill, Mary

    2011-07-01

    This study identifies a number of sources of individual differences in SAT performance by examining the simultaneous contributions of factors from two otherwise disparate research areas, namely cognition/learning and social/personality. Preliminary analysis revealed that just the cognitive/learning measures accounted for 37.8, 41.4 and 21.9% of the variance in SAT, V-SAT and Q-SAT performance, respectively while just the social/personality measures accounted for 21.4, 18.2 and 17.3% of the variance. When combined, cognitive/learning and social/personality factors accounted for even larger amounts of variance in performance; specifically 43.4, 44.6 and 28% for the SAT, V-SAT and Q-SAT, respectively. Finally, the results revealed that three measures consistently predicted performance on the SAT, V-SAT and Q-SAT; two measures were the learning/cognitive factors of working memory and integration of new text-based information with information from long-term memory and one measure was the social/personality factor, test anxiety.

  12. I read, you read, we read: the history of reading in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Dular

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose: The aim of the article is to research reading habits in Slovenia in the period between 16th and 19th century and to find similarities with Austria and other European countries of that time.Methodology/approach: For the purpose of the analysis different resources were used – study books, catechisms, prayer books and manuals. We were focused on introductions in which readers are advised how to read, explaining to whom the work is intended and emphasizing the importance of meditation on the texts.Results: Historically the laud reading was prefered, as to continue the folk tradition. However, the 16th century texts were transmitted by women while the folk tradition was narrated by males. In the 18th century the higher level of literacy and greater book production and availability caused that the books were not a privilege of a few. At that time more texts were intended for silent, individual reading. Interestingly, the authors emphasized the importance of meditation on the texts, too. It was also advised when to read – it wasrecommedend to read in leisure time on Sundays, and on holidays. The role of books was also to breakaway with the reality and to forget everyday problems. Due to the overproduction of books in the 17th centrury it was concerned that books are misleading the crowds. The church considered the reading of books as inappropriate, and criticized fiction, novels and adventure stories mostly read by women.Research limitation: The study is based on Slovenian texts only, although the foreign literature, especially in German, was generally available, too.Originality/practical implications: The study is fullfiling the gap in the history of reading in Slovenia.

  13. Cryogenic on-orbit liquid depot storage acquisition and transfer (COLD-SAT) experiment subsystem instrumentation and wire harness design report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lawrence G.

    1994-01-01

    Subcritical cryogens such as liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LO2) are required for space based transportation propellant, reactant, and life support systems. Future long-duration space missions will require on-orbit systems capable of long-term cryogen storage and efficient fluid transfer capabilities. COLD-SAT, which stands for cryogenic orbiting liquid depot-storage acquisition and transfer, is a free-flying liquid hydrogen management flight experiment. Experiments to determine optimum methods of fluid storage and transfer will be performed on the COLD-SAT mission. The success of the mission is directly related to the type and accuracy of measurements made. The instrumentation and measurement techniques used are therefore critical to the success of the mission. This paper presents the results of the COLD-SAT experiment subsystem instrumentation and wire harness design effort. Candidate transducers capable of fulfilling the COLD-SAT experiment measurement requirements are identified. Signal conditioning techniques, data acquisition requirements, and measurement uncertainty analysis are presented. Electrical harnessing materials and wiring techniques for the instrumentation designed to minimize heat conduction to the cryogenic tanks and provide optimum measurement accuracy are listed.

  14. Florida Assessments for Instruction in Reading, Aligned to the Language Arts Florida Standards, FAIR-FS, Grades 3 through 12. Technical Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foorman, Barbara R.; Petscher, Yaacov; Schatschneider, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The FAIR-FS consists of computer-adaptive reading comprehension and oral language screening tasks that provide measures to track growth over time, as well as a Probability of Literacy Success (PLS) linked to grade-level performance (i.e., the 40th percentile) on the reading comprehension subtest of the Stanford Achievement Test (SAT-10) in the…

  15. Reading Research: Notable Findings and Urgent Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nila Banton

    This paper discusses some of the findings and needs of reading research. The areas of research study mentioned include word boundaries, letter names, preschool reading, teacher questioning, critical reading and Negro dialects. Researchers cited include Dolores Durkin, Frank Guszak, Jay Samuels, Guy Bond, A. Sterl Artley, Edward Fry, and Robert…

  16. A CubeSat for Calibrating Ground-Based and Sub-Orbital Millimeter-Wave Polarimeters (CalSat)

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Bradley R; Drysdale, Timothy D; Kalman, Andrew; Fujikawa, Steve; Keating, Brian; Kaufman, Jon

    2015-01-01

    We describe a low-cost, open-access, CubeSat-based calibration instrument that is designed to support ground-based and sub-orbital experiments searching for various polarization signals in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). All modern CMB polarization experiments require a robust calibration program that will allow the effects of instrument-induced signals to be mitigated during data analysis. A bright, compact, and linearly polarized astrophysical source with polarization properties known to adequate precision does not exist. Therefore, we designed a space-based millimeter-wave calibration instrument, called CalSat, to serve as an open-access calibrator, and this paper describes the results of our design study. The calibration source on board CalSat is composed of five "tones" with one each at 47.1, 80.0, 140, 249 and 309 GHz. The five tones we chose are well matched to (i) the observation windows in the atmospheric transmittance spectra, (ii) the spectral bands commonly used in polarimeters by the CMB c...

  17. A review of planetary and space science projects presented at iCubeSat, the Interplanetary CubeSat Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael

    2015-04-01

    iCubeSat, the Interplanetary CubeSat Workshop, is an annual technical workshop for researchers working on an exciting new standardised platform and opportunity for planetary and space scientists. The first workshop was held in 2012 at MIT, 2013 at Cornell, 2014 at Caltech with the 2015 workshop scheduled to take place on the 26-27th May 2015 at Imperial College London. Mission concepts and flight projects presented since 2012 have included orbiters and landers targeting asteroids, the moon, Mars, Venus, Saturn and their satellites to perform science traditionally reserved for flagship missions at a fraction of their cost. Some of the first missions proposed are currently being readied for flight in Europe, taking advantage of multiple ride share launch opportunities and technology providers. A review of these and other interplanetary CubeSat projects will be presented, covering details of their science objectives, instrument capabilities, technology, team composition, budget, funding sources, and the other programattic elements required to implement this potentially revolutionary new class of mission.

  18. Understanding Reading A Psycholinguistic Analysis of Reading and Learning to Read

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Understanding Reading revolutionized reading research and theory when the first edition appeared in 1971 and continues to be a leader in the field. In the sixth edition of this classic text Smith's purpose remains the same: to shed light on fundamental aspects of the complex human act of reading -- linguistic, physiological, psychological, and social -- and of what is involved in learning to read. The text critically examines current theories, instructional practices, and controversies, covering a wide range of disciplines but always remains accessible. Careful attention is given to the ideolo

  19. Promoting preschool reading

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The thesis titled Promoting preschool reading consists of a theoretiral and an empirical part. In the theoretical part I wrote about reading, the importance of reading, types of reading, about reading motivation, promoting reading motivation, internal and external motivation, influence of reading motivation on the child's reading activity, reading and familial literacy, the role of adults in promotion reading literacy, reading to a child and promoting reading in pre-school years, where I ...

  20. How Reading Volume Affects both Reading Fluency and Reading Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L. ALLINGTON

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Long overlooked, reading volume is actually central to the development of reading proficiencies, especially in the development of fluent reading proficiency. Generally no one in schools monitors the actual volume of reading that children engage in. We know that the commonly used commercial core reading programs provide only material that requires about 15 minutes of reading activity daily. The remaining 75 minute of reading lessons is filled with many other activities such as completing workbook pages or responding to low-level literal questions about what has been read. Studies designed to enhance the volume of reading that children do during their reading lessons demonstrate one way to enhance reading development. Repeated readings have been widely used in fostering reading fluency but wide reading options seem to work faster and more broadly in developing reading proficiencies, including oral reading fluency.

  1. Force Limited Vibration Testing and Subsequent Redesign of the Naval Postgraduate School CubeSat Launcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    piezoelectric JPL Jet Propulsion Laboratory LV launch vehicle MPE maximum predicted environment xvi NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration...in San Luis Obispo [1]. Each P-POD can carry anywhere from one to three CubeSats, depending on the CubeSat size, giving NPSCuL the capability of...University, San Luis Obispo, CA, 2007. [2] S. Lee, A. Hutputanasin, A. Toorian, W. Lan and R. Munakata, “CubeSat design specification (revision 12

  2. Cable y satélite: equipamiento del hogar y consumo televisivo

    OpenAIRE

    Lic. Emilio Fernández Peña

    2000-01-01

    Los servicios de difusión de canales de televisión de pago por satélite (Canal Satélite Digital y Vía Digital) y cable son ya una realidad con importante presencia en el sistema televisivo español. Un millón cuatrocientos mil hogares reciben estos servicios con una preponderancia clara de los transmitidos por satélite respecto a los que usan el cable (1,2 millones).

  3. A Cold Gas Micro-Propulsion System for CubeSats

    OpenAIRE

    Cardin, Joseph; Coste, Keith; Williamson, Dave; Gloyer, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Potential civilian and government users have expressed a strong interest in CubeSat class satellites for military, scientific and commercial purposes. The U.S. Air Force Research Laboratories (AFRL), using DARPA funding, have contracted with The Aerospace Corporation in El Segundo, California to develop a CubeSat class spacecraft called the MEMS PicoSat Inspector (MEPSI). In turn, AFRL and Aerospace Corporation selected VACCO to provide a Micro-Propulsion System (MiPS) for MEPSI. This paper d...

  4. A Hopeful CNF—SAT Algorithm—Its High Efficiency,Industrial Application and Limitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文奇; 李未

    1998-01-01

    From the SAT physical model,a physical hypothesis named PHHY is proposed.By PHY,it is proved that there is a universally efficient algorithm for solving SAT problem.Then,by square packing problem,the authors show that thre are interesting industrial NP-complete problems which can be solved through SAT algorithms,but each way of solving like this will be much worse than that of a certain direct solving.

  5. Teaching Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Mary

    1980-01-01

    Described are five approaches to teaching reading: Language Experience, Modified Alphabet, Linguistic, Programmed, and Basal. It is suggested that a good teacher, well trained, certified in his or her profession, an active participant in professional organizations, can teach reading successfully using almost any approach. (KC)

  6. Reading Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, W. T.

    1978-01-01

    The Canadian Institute for Research in Behavioral and Social Sciences of Calgary was awarded a contract by the Provincial Government of Alberta to assess student skills and knowledge in reading and written composition. Here evaluation is defined and the use of standardized and criterion referenced tests for evaluating reading performance are…

  7. Reading Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    In our everyday life we constantly encounter a diversity of reading matters, including display types on traffic signage, printed text in novels, newspaper headlines, or our own writing on a computer screen. All these conditions place different demands on the typefaces applied. The book discusses ...... these aspects by drawing on typography history, designers’ ideas, and available scientific data concerning the reading process....

  8. The CubeSat Imaging X-ray Solar Spectrometer (CubIXSS) Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Amir; Shih, Albert Y.; Warren, Harry; DeForest, Craig; Laurent, Glenn Thomas; Schwartz, Richard A.; Woods, Thomas N.; Mason, James; Palo, Scott; Steslicki, Marek; Sylwester, Janusz; Gburek, Szymon; Mrozek, Tomasz; Kowalinski, Miroslaw; Torre, Gabriele; Crowley, Geoffrey; Schattenburg, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Solar soft X-ray (SXR) observations provide important diagnostics of plasma heating, during solar flares and quiescent times. Spectrally- and temporally-resolved measurements are crucial for understanding the dynamics, origins, and evolution of these energetic processes, providing probes both into the temperature distributions and elemental compositions of hot plasmas; spatially-resolved measurements are critical for understanding energy transport and mass flow. A better understanding of the thermal plasma improves our understanding of the relationships between particle acceleration, plasma heating, and the underlying release of magnetic energy during reconnection. We introduce a new proposed small satellite mission, the CubeSat Imaging X-ray Solar Spectrometer (CubIXSS), to measure spectrally- and spatially-resolved SXRs from the quiescent and flaring Sun from a 6U CubeSat platform in low-Earth orbit during a nominal 1-year mission. CubIXSS includes the Amptek X123-FastSDD silicon drift detector, a low-noise, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) instrument enabling solar SXR spectroscopy from ~0.5 to ~30 keV with ~0.15 keV FWHM spectral resolution with low power, mass, and volume requirements. Multiple detectors and tailored apertures provide sensitivity to a wide range of solar conditions, optimized for a launch during solar minimum. The precise spectra from these instruments will provide detailed measurements of the coronal temperature distribution and elemental abundances from the quiet Sun to active regions and flares. CubIXSS also includes a novel spectro-spatial imager -- the first ever solar imager on a CubeSat -- utilizing a custom pinhole camera and Chandra-heritage X-ray transmission diffraction grating to provide spatially- resolved, full-Sun imaging spectroscopy from ~0.1 to ~10 keV, with ~25 arcsec and ~0.1 Å FWHM spatial and spectral resolutions, respectively. MOXSI’s unique capabilities enable SXR spectroscopy and temperature diagnostics of individual

  9. The CarbonSat candidate mission: imaging greenhouse gas concentrations from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierk, Bernd; Caron, Jerôme; Löscher, Armin; Meijer, Yasjka; Bézy, Jean-Loup; Buchwitz, Michael; Bovensmann, H.

    2014-09-01

    CarbonSat is a proposed Earth observation mission, which was selected in 2010 as one of two candidates for becoming the European Space Agency's (ESA) eighth Earth Explorer (EE8). It is currently undergoing parallel feasibility studies (phase A) performed by two industrial consortia. CarbonSat aims at a better understanding of the natural and anthropogenic sources and sinks of the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4, which will contribute to a better understanding of climate feedback and forcing mechanisms. To achieve these objectives the instrument will quantify and monitor the spatial distribution of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). It will deliver global data sets of dry air column-averaged mixing ratios of these gases with high precision (1 - 3 ppm for CO2 and 6 - 12 ppb for CH4) and accuracy (0.5 ppm for CO2 and 5 ppb for CH4). The measurements will provide global coverage every 12 days above 40 degrees latitude at a spatial resolution of 2 x 3 km2. The retrieval products are inferred from observations of Earth radiance and solar irradiance at high to medium spectral resolution (0.1-0.55 nm) in the Near Infrared (747-773 nm) and Short Wave Infrared (1590- 1675 nm and 1925-2095 nm) spectral regions. The combination of high spatial resolution and global coverage requires a swath width larger than 180 km for three spatially co-aligned push-broom imaging spectrometers. The targeted product accuracy translates into stringent radiometric, spectral and geometric requirements for the instrument. This paper presents the system requirements derived from the demanding mission objectives and reports preliminary results of the feasibility studies. It highlights the key components of the instrument, focusing on the optical conceptual design, and addresses the identified critical performance aspects.

  10. The Optical Profiling of the Atmospheric Limb (OPAL) CubeSat Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, M.; Miller, J.; Cox, W.; Taylor, M. J.; Swenson, C.; Neilsen, T. L.; Fish, C. S.; Scherliess, L.; Christensen, A. B.; Cleave, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth's lower thermosphere is an important interface region between the neutral atmosphere and the "space weather" environment. While the high-latitude region of the thermosphere responds promptly to energy inputs, relatively little is known about the global/regional response to these energy inputs. Global temperatures are predicted to respond within 3-6 hours, but the details of the thermal response of the atmosphere as energy transports away from high-latitude source regions is not well understood. The Optical Profiling of the Atmospheric Limb (OPAL) mission aims to characterize this thermal response through observation of the temperature structure of the lower thermosphere at mid- and low-latitudes. The OPAL instrument is designed to map global thermospheric temperature variability over the critical "thermospheric gap" region (~100-140 km altitude) by spectroscopic analysis of molecular oxygen A-band emission (758 - 768 nm). The OPAL instrument is a grating-based imaging spectrometer with refractive optics and a high-efficiency volume holographic grating (VHG). The scene is sampled by 7 parallel slits that form non-overlapping spectral profiles at the focal plane with resolution of 0.5 nm (spectral), 1.5 km (limb profiling), and 60 km (horizontal sampling). A CCD camera at the instrument focal plane delivers low noise and high sensitivity. The instrument is designed to strongly reject stray light from daylight regions of the earth. The OPAL mission is funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) CubeSat-based Science Missions for Geospace and Atmospheric Research program. The OPAL instrument, CubeSat bus and mission are being designed, built and executed by a team comprised of students and professors from Utah State University, Dixie State University and the University of Maryland Eastern Shore, with support from professional scientists and engineers from the Space Dynamics Laboratory and Hawk Institute for Space Science.

  11. 建構教室層級批判識能課程的實踐策略:連結學童批判觀點於閱讀 To Construct the Practical Strategies for Critical Literacy Curriculum at the Classroom Level: Connecting the Students’ Critical Perspectives to Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    簡良平 Liang-Ping Jian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available 本文目的在建構教室層級實施批判識能課程,規劃納入弱勢學童的閱讀課程及實踐策略。本文從三個面向論述:一、課程目標在學童發展批判識能,包括高層次的語文識能及批判能力、能瞭解自我與發展社會識能。二、批判識能教學的原則:引導摘取文本意義、討論文本文化與自身生活經驗的差異、延伸文本世界的社會議題及發展社會意識。核心教學策略在連結學童批判觀點於閱讀:形成學 童批判觀點分析文本生活世界、以批判立場透視文本社會的意識型態、利用言說分析策略重新詮釋文本世界的意義等。三、教師營造能啟發學童批判意識的教室言說環境:教師教學語言取徑開放與批判的言說;形塑學童學習語言及養成學童多元文化與民主的社會意識。此課程實踐極仰賴教師轉變,包括教師相信學童潛能、採取鷹架教學策略、能反省教室言說內容、支持學童發展批判識能等條件的落實。 The purpose of the paper was to argue that school teachers could make a critical literacy curriculum for all the students including the disadvantaged students at the classroom level. There were three dimensions discussed in the paper. The first one was to define the category of critical literacy and to form the goals of the curriculum which were to develop the students’ high level literacy, including critical literacy, and to enlighten their critical consciousness to understand themselves and construct their social consciousness. The second dimension was to discuss the strategies of critical literacy instruction and it suggested to hold three principles: the teachers could guide the students to engage in reading and make text meanings out, to guide them to discuss the cultural difference with their life experience, and to discuss the social issues of text and to have social awareness. The core strategy of

  12. NASA Near Earth Network (NEN), Deep Space Network (DSN) and Space Network (SN) Support of CubeSat Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaire, Scott H.; Altunc, Serhat; Bussey, George; Shaw, Harry; Horne, Bill; Schier, Jim

    2015-01-01

    industry. The presentation will review concepts on how the SN multiple access capability could help locate CubeSats and provide a low-latency early warning system. The presentation will also present how the DSN is evolving to maximize use of its assets for interplanetary CubeSats. The critical spectrum-related topics of available and appropriate frequency bands, licensing, and coordination will be reviewed. Other key considerations, such as standardization of radio frequency interfaces and flight and ground communications hardware systems, will be addressed as such standardization may reduce the amount of time and cost required to obtain frequency authorization and perform compatibility and end-to-end testing. Examples of standardization that exist today are the NASA NEN, DSN and SN systems which have published users guides and defined frequency bands for high data rate communication, as well as conformance to CCSDS standards. The workshop session will also seek input from the workshop participants to better understand the needs of small satellite systems and to identify key development activities and operational approaches necessary to enhance communication and navigation support using NASA's NEN, DSN and SN.

  13. The decimation process in random k-SAT

    CERN Document Server

    Coja-Oghlan, Amin

    2011-01-01

    Let F be a uniformly distributed random k-SAT formula with n variables and m clauses. Non-rigorous statistical mechanics ideas have inspired a message passing algorithm called Belief Propagation Guided Decimation for finding satisfying assignments of F. This algorithm can be viewed as an attempt at implementing a certain thought experiment that we call the Decimation Process. In this paper we identify a variety of phase transitions in the decimation process and link these phase transitions to the performance of the algorithm.

  14. Multi-sensor Observations of the SpinSat Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-18

    rate, the sphere’s exterior features a reflectance pattern much like that of a beach- ball , a distributed sequence of retro-reflectors, as well as an...been delivered by a SpaceX Dragon supply ship. The launch and deployment of SpinSat were supported by the DoD Space Test program. Figure 1 shows a...reflectance pattern much like that of a beach- ball , a distributed sequence of retro-reflectors, as well as a set of eight light- emitting diodes (LEDs

  15. Band-monitoring Payload for a CubeSat Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vagner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During changing sun activity, the ionosphere is responding accordingly and therefore it is interesting to observe the propagation behavior of shortwave bands. For the above mentioned purpose we have designed a band-monitoring payload for an experimental CubeSat satellite. The payload consists of a receiver, which is able to receive SSB modulated narrowband signals in 28 MHz uplink band, and a transmitter with FM modulation in UHF downlink band. The receiver frequency is selected to be at the center of radio amateur activity with low data rate digital modulations.

  16. A CubeSat deployable solar panel system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Thomas; Hirsch, Michael; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    The power usage of CubeSat's onboard systems has increased with the complexity of the systems included. This paper presents a deployment system design which creates a plane of solar panels to collect energy. This allows more panels to be in direct normal sunlight at any given point (in conjunction with the onboard attitude determination and control system), facilitating increased power generation. The deployable system is comprised of a printed circuit board (holding the solar cells) which is attached to an aluminum hinge. The efficacy of this approach for power generation and its simplicity, as compared to other prospective approaches, are assessed herein.

  17. Tunable Microwave Component Technologies for SatCom-Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maune, Holger; Jost, Matthias; Wiens, Alex; Weickhmann, Christian; Reese, Roland; Nikfalazar, Mohammad; Schuster, Christian; Franke, Tobias; Hu, Wenjuan; Nickel, Matthias; Kienemund, Daniel; Prasetiadi, Ananto Eka; Jakoby, Rolf

    2017-03-01

    Modern communication platforms require a huge amount of switched RF component banks especially made of different filters and antennas to cover all operating frequencies and bandwidth for the targeted services and application scenarios. In contrast, reconfigurable devices made of tunable components lead to a considerable reduction in complexity, size, weight, power consumption, and cost. This paper gives an overview of suitable technologies for tunable microwave components especially for SatCom applications. Special attention is given to tunable components based on functional materials such as barium strontium titanate (BST) and liquid crystal (LC).

  18. Emancipation Through Communicative Action: The Habermas's Critical Reading Of Dialética do Esclarecimento And The Exhaustion Of The Emancipatory Program Of Horkheimer And Adorno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Lubenow

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to expose the critical Jurgen Habermas's point of view regarding to Dialética do Esclarecimento and the exhaustion of the emancipatory program of Horkheimer and Adorno. It intends to make clear as the Dialética do Esclarecimento leads to an impasse of an selfpointed critique of the Reason (I. In following it shows how much this selfpointed critique dues to Nietzsche and what ways Niestzsche and Horkheimer & Adorno propose to go out of this impasse (II, and the Habermas's critique of Horkheimer & Adorno point of view (III. The main texts used are O discurso filosófico da modernidade (cap. 5: “O entrosamento entre o mito e o iluminismo: Horkheimer e Adorno” and Teoria de la acción comunicativa (cap. 4: “De Lukács a Adorno: racionalização como reificação”.

  19. READING STATISTICS AND RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Yavuz Akbulut

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The book demonstrates the best and most conservative ways to decipher and critique research reports particularly for social science researchers. In addition, new editions of the book are always better organized, effectively structured and meticulously updated in line with the developments in the field of research statistics. Even the most trivial issues are revisited and updated in new editions. For instance, purchaser of the previous editions might check the interpretation of skewness and kurtosis indices in the third edition (p. 34 and in the fifth edition (p.29 to see how the author revisits every single detail. Theory and practice always go hand in hand in all editions of the book. Re-reading previous editions (e.g. third edition before reading the fifth edition gives the impression that the author never stops ameliorating his instructional text writing methods. In brief, “Reading Statistics and Research” is among the best sources showing research consumers how to understand and critically assess the statistical information and research results contained in technical research reports. In this respect, the review written by Mirko Savić in Panoeconomicus (2008, 2, pp. 249-252 will help the readers to get a more detailed overview of each chapters. I cordially urge the beginning researchers to pick a highlighter to conduct a detailed reading with the book. A thorough reading of the source will make the researchers quite selective in appreciating the harmony between the data analysis, results and discussion sections of typical journal articles. If interested, beginning researchers might begin with this book to grasp the basics of research statistics, and prop up their critical research reading skills with some statistics package applications through the help of Dr. Andy Field’s book, Discovering Statistics using SPSS (second edition published by Sage in 2005.

  20. 生态批评视野下的《乌拉尼亚》%An Eco-critical Reading of Ourania

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡波莲

    2011-01-01

    《乌拉尼亚》具有丰富的生态思想,可以被纳入生态文学领域。它不仅展示了现代社会的自然生态危机,同时也对精神生态危机表示了深重的忧虑。作家对生态困境的审美解答是:通过向我们描绘一个生态的乌托邦———乌拉尼亚,告诫人们应以生态为中心,与自然和谐相处;批判科学理性,反思西方文化,提倡多种文化共存。%Ourania can be incorporated into the ecological literature because of its rich ecological ideology.It not only showed us the natural ecological crisis of the modern society,but also expressed grave concern on psychic ecological crisis.The aesthetic solution of the ecological crisis given by writer involved two aspects: describing a ecological utopian to us——Ourania,people are warned to take the ecology as the center and live with nature harmoniously;criticizing scientific reason,reflecting on the western culture and advocating the coexistence of different cultures.

  1. Constitutionalizing secularism, alternative secularisms or liberal-democratic constitutionalism?A critical reading of some Turkish, ECtHR and Indian Supreme Court cases on ‘secularism’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veit Bader

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent debates on the constitutional status of 'secularism' we can discern three positions. The first tries to overcome the absence of 'secularism' in most liberal-democratic constitutions by developing a more robust theory of constitutional secularism. The second develops theories of 'alternative secularisms'. The third, defended in this article, argues that we should drop secularism as a 'cacophonous' concept from our constitutional and legal language and replace it by liberal-democratic constitutionalism. I develop an analytical taxonomy of twelve different meanings of 'secularism' based on a comparative study of Turkish and Indian Supreme Court cases on secularism, and demonstrate that they are incompatible with each other and with the hard core of liberal-democratic constitutions. Next, I criticize the respective rulings in the Turkish and Indian context. Particularly in 'militant democracies', the appeal to a principle of 'secularism' turns out to be inimical to the liberal and to the democratic 'constitutional essentials'. I end with some normative recommendations on the role of constitutional review and judicial activism.

  2. Reading Heidegger after Derrida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Strawser

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay attempts to broach the complex difference between Martin Heidegger and Jacques Derrida, It focuses on the fundamental assumptions involved in the reading of Heidegger's Being and Time and Derrida's early "noted" attention to this text. Is Heidegger's early work essentially tainted by "the metaphysics of presence," as Derrida wishes to suggest? After sketching Derrida's interpretation, the author attempts to show how readers of Being and Time need not succumb to Derrida's criticism.

  3. Reading on the Internet: Realizing and Constructing Potential Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byeong-Young; Afflerbach, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Successful Internet reading requires making strategic decisions about what texts to read and a sequence for reading them, all in accordance with readers' goals. In this paper, we describe the process of realizing and constructing potential texts as an important and critical part of successful Internet reading and use verbal report data to…

  4. Validation of cryoSat-2 based lake levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina; Stenseng, Lars; Andersen, Ole Baltazar;

    In this study, which is part of the FP7 project Land and Ocean take up from Sentinel-3 (LOTUS), we demonstrate the potential SAR altimetry. We consider lakes at various sizes and evaluate the CryoSat-2 derived lake levels in terms of along-track precision and agreement with in-situ data. As a ref......In this study, which is part of the FP7 project Land and Ocean take up from Sentinel-3 (LOTUS), we demonstrate the potential SAR altimetry. We consider lakes at various sizes and evaluate the CryoSat-2 derived lake levels in terms of along-track precision and agreement with in-situ data....... To derive lake level time series we apply a state-space model with a robust handling of erroneous data. Instead of attempting to identify and remove the polluted observations we use a mixture distribution to describe the observation noise, which prevents the polluted observations from biasing our final...

  5. Řídicí jednotka pro CubeSat

    OpenAIRE

    Horký, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Cílem práce je návrh univerzální řídicí jednotky pro CubeSat založené na obvodu FPGA. Taková jednotka doposud nebyla komerčně dostupná a navržená jednotka má tak dobrý potenciál zaplnit příslušné místo na trhu komponent pro CubeSat. Celá jednotka je navržena z komerčně dostupných komponent. Návrh jednotky je proveden tak, aby umožnil její funkci ve vesmírném prostředí. Stav konfigurace FPGA je pravidelně kontrolován a v případě zjištěné chyby dochází automaticky k rekonfiguraci FPGA a návratu...

  6. Validation of cryoSat-2 based lake levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina; Stenseng, Lars; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    In this study, which is part of the FP7 project Land and Ocean take up from Sentinel-3 (LOTUS), we demonstrate the potential SAR altimetry. We consider lakes at various sizes and evaluate the CryoSat-2 derived lake levels in terms of along-track precision and agreement with in-situ data. As a ref......In this study, which is part of the FP7 project Land and Ocean take up from Sentinel-3 (LOTUS), we demonstrate the potential SAR altimetry. We consider lakes at various sizes and evaluate the CryoSat-2 derived lake levels in terms of along-track precision and agreement with in-situ data....... To derive lake level time series we apply a state-space model with a robust handling of erroneous data. Instead of attempting to identify and remove the polluted observations we use a mixture distribution to describe the observation noise, which prevents the polluted observations from biasing our final...

  7. Learn with SAT to Minimize Büchi Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Barth

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a minimization procedure for nondeterministic Büchi automata (NBA. For an automaton A another automaton A_min with the minimal number of states is learned with the help of a SAT-solver. This is done by successively computing automata A' that approximate A in the sense that they accept a given finite set of positive examples and reject a given finite set of negative examples. In the course of the procedure these example sets are successively increased. Thus, our method can be seen as an instance of a generic learning algorithm based on a "minimally adequate teacher'' in the sense of Angluin. We use a SAT solver to find an NBA for given sets of positive and negative examples. We use complementation via construction of deterministic parity automata to check candidates computed in this manner for equivalence with A. Failure of equivalence yields new positive or negative examples. Our method proved successful on complete samplings of small automata and of quite some examples of bigger automata. We successfully ran the minimization on over ten thousand automata with mostly up to ten states, including the complements of all possible automata with two states and alphabet size three and discuss results and runtimes; single examples had over 100 states.

  8. WEIGHTS STAGNATION IN DYNAMIC LOCAL SEARCH FOR SAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelraouf Ishtaiwi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 1991, tries were made to enhance the stochastic local search techniques (SLS. Some researchers turned their focus on studying the structure of the propositional satisfiability problems (SAT to better understand their complexity in order to come up with better algorithms. Other researchers focused in investigating new ways to develop heuristics that alter the search space based on some information gathered prior to or during the search process. Thus, many heuristics, enhancements and developments were introduced to improve SLS techniques performance during the last three decades. As a result a group of heuristics were introduced namely Dynamic Local Search (DLS that could outperform the systematic search techniques. Interestingly, a common characteristic of DLS heuristics is that they all depend on the use of weights during searching for satisfiable formulas. In our study we experimentally investigated the weights behaviors and movements during searching for satisfiability using DLS techniques, for simplicity, DDFW DLS heuristic is chosen. As a results of our studies we discovered that while solving hard SAT problems such as blocks world and graph coloring problems, weights stagnation occur in many areas within the search space. We conclude that weights stagnation occurrence is highly related to the level of the problem density, complexity and connectivity.

  9. COLD-SAT - An orbital cryogenic hydrogen technology experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, J. R.; Wachter, Joseph P.; Powers, Albert G.

    1989-01-01

    The COLD-SAT spacecraft will perform subcritical liquid hydrogen storage and transfer experiments under low-gravity conditions to provide engineering data for future space transportation missions. Consisting of an experiment module mated to a spacecraft bus, COLD-SAT will be placed in an initial 460 km circular orbit by an Atlas I commercial launch vehicle. After deployment, the three-axis-controlled spacecraft bus will provide electric power, experiment control and data management, communications, and attitude control along with propulsive acceleration levels ranging from 10 (-6) to 10(-4) g. These accelerations are an important aspect of some of the experiments, as it is desired to know the effects that low gravity levels might have on the heat and mass transfer processes involved. The experiment module will contain the three liquid hydrogen tanks, valves, pressurization equipment, and instrumentation. At launch all the hydrogen will be in the largest tank, which has helium-purged MLI and is loaded and topped off by the hydrogen tanking system used for the Centaur upper stage of the Atlas. The two smaller tanks will be utilized in orbit for performing some of the experiments. The experiments are grouped into two classes on the basis of their priority, and include six regarded as enabling technology and nine regarded as enhancing technology.

  10. COLD-SAT: An orbital cryogenic hydrogen technology experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, J. R.; Wachter, Joseph P.; Powers, Albert G.

    1989-01-01

    The COLD-SAT spacecraft will perform subcritical liquid hydrogen storage and transfer experiments under low-gravity conditions to provide engineering data for future space transportation missions. Consisting of an experiment module mated to a spacecraft bus, COLD-SAT will be placed in an initial 460 km circular orbit by an Atlas I commercial launch vehicle. After deployment, the three-axis-controlled spacecraft bus will provide electric power, experiment control and data management, communications, and attitude control along with propulsive acceleration levels ranging from 10(-6) to 10(-4)g. These accelerations are an important aspect of some of the experiments, as it is desired to know the effects that low gravity levels might have on the heat and mass transfer processes involved. The experiment module will contain the three liquid hydrogen tanks, valves, pressurization equipment, and instrumentation. At launch all the hydrogen will be in the largest tank, which has helium-purged MLI and is loaded and topped off by the hydrogen tanking system used for the Centaur upper stage of the Atlas. The two smaller tanks will be utilized in orbit for performing some of the experiments. The experiments are grouped into two classes on the basis of their priority, and include six regarded as enabling technology and nine regarded as enhancing technology.

  11. Characterization of Debris from the DebriSat Hypervelocity Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, M.; Kleespies, J.; Patankar, K.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Liou, J.-C.; Sorge, M.; Huynh, T.; Opiela, J.; Krisko, P.; Cowardin, H.

    2015-01-01

    The DebriSat project is an effort by NASA and the DoD to update the standard break-up model for objects in orbit. The DebriSat object, a 56 kg representative LEO satellite, was subjected to a hypervelocity impact in April 2014. For the hypervelocity test, the representative satellite was suspended within a "soft-catch" arena formed by polyurethane foam panels to minimize the interactions between the debris generated from the hypervelocity impact and the metallic walls of the test chamber. After the impact, the foam panels and debris not caught by the panels were collected and shipped to the University of Florida where the project has now advanced to the debris characterization stage. The characterization effort has been divided into debris collection, measurement, and cataloguing. Debris collection and cataloguing involves the retrieval of debris from the foam panels and cataloguing the debris in a database. Debris collection is a three-step process: removal of loose debris fragments from the surface of the foam panels; X-ray imaging to identify/locate debris fragments embedded within the foam panel; extraction of the embedded debris fragments identified during the X-ray imaging process. As debris fragments are collected, they are catalogued into a database specifically designed for this project. Measurement involves determination of size, mass, shape, material, and other physical properties and well as images of the fragment. Cataloguing involves a assigning a unique identifier for each fragment along with the characterization information.

  12. Developing Reading Fluency and Comprehension Using Repeated Reading: Evidence from Longitudinal Student Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsuch, Greta; Taguchi, Etsuo

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, interest in reading fluency development in first language, and second and foreign language (L2/FL) settings has increased. Reading fluency, in which readers decode and comprehend at the same time, is critical to successful reading. Fluent readers are accurate and fast in their ability to recognize words, and in their use of…

  13. The Rainbow Project: Enhancing the SAT through Assessments of Analytical, Practical, and Creative Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the formulation and execution of the Rainbow Project, Phase I, funded by the College Board. Past data suggest that the SAT is a good predictor of performance in college. But in terms of the amount of variance explained by the SAT, there is room for improvement, as there would be for virtually any single test battery. Phase I…

  14. Non-"g" Residuals of the SAT and ACT Predict Specific Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Thomas R.; Purcell, Jason M.; Snyder, Anissa C.; Kochunov, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This research examined whether non-"g" residuals of the SAT and ACT subtests, obtained after removing g, predicted specific abilities. Non-"g" residuals of the verbal and math subtests of the SAT and ACT were correlated with academic (verbal and math) and non-academic abilities (speed and shop), both based on the Armed Services…

  15. From thin-air to flat-sat in 12 months: the Twentesat student project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, van Sven Kevin; Bentum, Mark; Vries, de Rowan; Grootjans, Robert; Grootjans, Roelof; Brethouwer, Martijn F.

    2014-01-01

    TwenteSat aims to build a twin-satellite interferometer in space, a research satellite system in preparation of the OLFAR project. The project will be completely done by students that work on a voluntary basis. The target is to have a flat-sat of at least one of the satellites ready in a short timef

  16. PowerCube: Integrated Power, Propulsion, and Pointing for CubeSats Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The PowerCube is a 1U CubeSat module that provides integrated propulsion, power, and precision pointing to enable the low-cost CubeSat platform to be used to conduct...

  17. Non-"g" Residuals of the SAT and ACT Predict Specific Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Thomas R.; Purcell, Jason M.; Snyder, Anissa C.; Kochunov, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This research examined whether non-"g" residuals of the SAT and ACT subtests, obtained after removing g, predicted specific abilities. Non-"g" residuals of the verbal and math subtests of the SAT and ACT were correlated with academic (verbal and math) and non-academic abilities (speed and shop), both based on the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude…

  18. The SAT® and SAT Subject Tests™: Discrepant Scores and Incremental Validity. Research Report 2012-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobrin, Jennifer L.; Patterson, Brian F.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines student performance on the SAT and SAT Subject Tests in order to identify groups of students who score differently on these two tests, and to determine whether certain demographic groups score higher on one test compared to the other. Discrepancy scores were created to capture individuals' performance differences on the…

  19. The Relationship between SAT Scores and Retention to the Third Year: 2006 Cohort. Statistical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Krista D.; Patterson, Brian F.

    2010-01-01

    Results show that SAT performance is related to third year retention rates. Even after controlling for student and institutional characteristics, returners had higher SAT total scores than non-returners, and the performance gap is not due to differences in the demographic makeup of the two groups. Furthermore, while differences in retention can be…

  20. Non-"g" Residuals of the SAT and ACT Predict Specific Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Thomas R.; Purcell, Jason M.; Snyder, Anissa C.; Kochunov, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This research examined whether non-"g" residuals of the SAT and ACT subtests, obtained after removing g, predicted specific abilities. Non-"g" residuals of the verbal and math subtests of the SAT and ACT were correlated with academic (verbal and math) and non-academic abilities (speed and shop), both based on the Armed Services…

  1. Literary Theory and the Reading Process: A Meeting of Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, W. John

    1987-01-01

    Examines the relationship between current concepts of reading processes and contemporary theories of literary response. Argues that text-based reading theories are isomorphic with the New Criticism, and that reader-based theories of reading are isomorphic with reader-response criticism. Maintains that literary theory ignores interactive…

  2. NASAs EDSN Aims to Overcome the Operational Challenges of CubeSat Constellations and Demonstrate an Economical Swarm of 8 CubeSats Useful for Space Science Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Harrison Brodsky; Hu, Steven Hung Kee; Cockrell, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Operators of a constellation of CubeSats have to confront a number of daunting challenges that can be cost prohibitive, or operationally prohibitive, to missions that could otherwise be enabled by a satellite constellation. Challenges including operations complexity, intersatellite communication, intersatellite navigation, and time sharing tasks between satellites are all complicated by operating with the usual CubeSat size, power, and budget constraints. EDSN pioneers innovative solutions to these problems as they are presented on the nano-scale satellite platform.

  3. AIRS-AMSU variables-CloudSat cloud mask, radar reflectivities, and cloud classification matchups V3.2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is AIRS-CloudSat collocated subset, in NetCDF 4 format. These data contain collocated: AIRS/AMSU retrievals at AMSU footprints, CloudSat radar reflectivities,...

  4. Claves para reconocer los niveles de lectura crítica audiovisual en el niño Keys to Recognizing the Levels of Critical Audiovisual Reading in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Sánchez Carrero

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Diversos estudios con niños y adolescentes han demostrado que a mayor conocimiento del mundo de la producción y transmisión de mensajes audiovisuales, mayor capacidad adquieren para formarse un criterio propio ante la pantalla. En este artículo se aúnan tres experiencias de educación mediática realizadas en Venezuela, Colombia y España, desde el enfoque de la recepción crítica. Se proporcionan los indicadores que llevan a determinar los niveles de lectura crítica audiovisual en niños de entre 8 y 12 años, construidos a partir de procesos de intervención mediante talleres de alfabetización mediática. Los grupos han sido instruidos acerca del universo audiovisual, dándoles a conocer cómo se gestan los contenidos audiovisuales y el modo de analizarlos, desestructurarlos y recrearlos. Primero, se hace referencia al concepto en evolución de educación mediática. Después, se describen las experiencias comunes en los tres países para luego incidir en los indicadores que permiten medir el nivel de lectura crítica. Por último, se reflexiona sobre la necesidad de la educación mediática en la era de la multialfabetización. No es muy frecuente encontrar estudios que revelen las claves para reconocer qué grado de criticidad tiene un niño cuando visiona los contenidos de los distintos medios digitales. Es un tema fundamental pues permite saber con qué nivel de comprensión cuenta y cuál adquiere después de un proceso de formación en educación mediática.Based on the results of several projects carried out with children and adolescents, we can state that knowledge of production and broadcasting aids the acquisition of critical media skills. This article combines three media education experiences in Venezuela, Colombia and Spain driven by a critical reception approach. It presents leading indicators for determining the level of critical audiovisual reading in children aged 8-12 extracted from intervention processes through

  5. READING COMPREHENSION. NOTION OF READING AND USE OF MACRORREGLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Montes-Salas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the NMS has been relevant to investigate the notion of reading and how reading comprehension skills are developed as they are the basis of learning. According to Frida Diaz Barriga and Hernandez (2002 critical and reflective understanding of the composition of texts written are nodal activities in the construction of meanings. We now know that the skills of reading and typesetting apprentices develop in subjects strategically and self-regulated, thanks to this research. Promote the development of communication skills contributes to the foundation of the curriculum consists of educating for students to acquire skills that allow them to face problems collaboratively and competently.

  6. High Data Rates for AubieSat-2 A & B, Two CubeSats Performing High Energy Science in the Upper Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, William H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper will discuss a proposed CubeSat size (3 Units / 6 Units) telemetry system concept being developed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in cooperation with Auburn University. The telemetry system incorporates efficient, high-bandwidth communications by developing flight-ready, low-cost, PROTOFLIGHT software defined radio (SDR) payload for use on CubeSats. The current telemetry system is slightly larger in dimension of footprint than required to fit within a 0.75 Unit CubeSat volume. Extensible and modular communications for CubeSat technologies will provide high data rates for science experiments performed by two CubeSats flying in formation in Low Earth Orbit. The project is a collaboration between the University of Alabama in Huntsville and Auburn University to study high energy phenomena in the upper atmosphere. Higher bandwidth capacity will enable high-volume, low error-rate data transfer to and from the CubeSats, while also providing additional bandwidth and error correction margin to accommodate more complex encryption algorithms and higher user volume.

  7. SmallSats, Iodine Propulsion Technology, Applications to Low-Cost Lunar Missions, and the Iodine Satellite (iSAT) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Closing Remarks: ?(1) SmallSats hold significant potential for future low cost high value missions; (2) Propulsion remains a key limiting capability for SmallSats that Iodine can address: High ISP * Density for volume constrained spacecraft; Indefinite quiescence, unpressurized and non-hazardous as a secondary payload; (3) Iodine enables MicroSat and SmallSat maneuverability: Enables transfer into high value orbits, constellation deployment and deorbit; (4) Iodine may enable a new class of planetary and exploration class missions: Enables GTO launched secondary spacecraft to transit to the moon, asteroids, and other interplanetary destinations for approximately 150 million dollars full life cycle cost including the launch; (5) ESPA based OTVs are also volume constrained and a shift from xenon to iodine can significantly increase the transfer vehicle change in volume capability including transfers from GTO to a range of Lunar Orbits; (6) The iSAT project is a fast pace high value iodine Hall technology demonstration mission: Partnership with NASA GRC and NASA MSFC with industry partner - Busek; (7) The iSAT mission is an approved project with PDR in November of 2014 and is targeting a flight opportunity in FY17.

  8. SAT1, a glutamine transporter, is preferentially expressed in GABAergic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Tallak Solbu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Subsets of GABAergic neurons are able to maintain high frequency discharge patterns, which requires efficient replenishment of the releasable pool of GABA. Although glutamine is considered a preferred precursor of GABA, the identity of transporters involved in glutamine uptake by GABAergic neurons remains elusive. Molecular analyses revealed that SAT1 (Slc38a1 features system A characteristics with a preferential affinity for glutamine, and that SAT1 mRNA expression is associated with GABAergic neurons. By generating specific antibodies against SAT1 we show that this glutamine carrier is particularly enriched in GABAergic neurons. Cellular SAT1 distribution resembles that of GAD67, an essential GABA synthesis enzyme, suggesting that SAT1 can be involved in translocating glutamine into GABAergic neurons to facilitate inhibitory neurotransmitter generation.

  9. Design of a terminal node controller hardware for CubeSat tracking applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Y. A.; Nazim, N. J.; Yuhaniz, S. S.

    2016-10-01

    CubeSats enable low-cost experiment and missions to be performed by universities and research institution in space. CubeSats for research use UHF and VHF communication for its tracking and telemetry applications. The current practice of a CubeSat communication is to modify radio amateur's Terminal Node Controller (TNC) to enable data to be received in the ground station. The objective of this research is to design a hardware specifically for use as a TNC for CubeSat tracking applications. A TNC is developed as an interface to the terminal and to serve as data packetization platform. The modem is integrated with a microcontroller unit (MCU) and an audio amplifier to enable the audio signals to be smoothened, amplified and interfaced with the radio. The modem, MCU and audio amplifier circuitry are designed and integrated to form a TNC platform suitable for CubeSat communication.

  10. Power generation and solar panels for an MSU CubeSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Soundouss

    This thesis is a power generation study of a proposed CubeSat at Mississippi State University (MSU). CubeSats are miniaturized satellites of 10 x 10 x 10 cm in dimension. Their power source once in orbit is the sun during daylight and the batteries during eclipse. MSU CubeSat is equipped with solar panels. This effort will discuss two types of cells: Gallium Arsenide and Silicon; and which one will suit MSU CubeSat best. Once the cell type is chosen, another decision regarding the electrical power subsystem will be made. Solar array design can only be done once the choice of the electrical power subsystem and the solar cells is made. Then the power calculation for different mission durations will start along with the sizing of the solar arrays. In the last part the batteries are introduced and discussed in order to choose one type of batteries for MSU CubeSat.

  11. Effects of a hyperbaric environment on subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-top).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Reinhard; Horejsi, Renate; Tafeit, Erwin; Fraidl, Michaela; Dietmaier, Gabriele; Anegg, Udo; Klemen, Huberta; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra

    2010-12-01

    The physiological reactions of the body in scuba diving situation can be simulated in a pressure chamber by increasing the ambient pressure. In this study the influence of a hyperbaric environment of 6 bar on the changes of the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) thicknesses on different body sites in 68 voluntary men with undersea diving experience was investigated. Measurements of SAT-topography (SAT-Top) were performed with the optical device Lipometer before and after hyperbaric exposure. We observed a significant increase of the SAT-layers of the upper body zones, upper abdomen (+24.5%), lower abdomen (+21%) and front chest (+19%) after hyperbaric exposure. This increase of volume can be assumed to the nitrogen accumulation in fat cells at increased ambient pressures. In conclusion we describe for the first time in detail the influence of a hyperbaric environment on quantitative and topographic changes of SAT.

  12. How Reading Volume Affects Both Reading Fluency and Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allington, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Long overlooked, reading volume is actually central to the development of reading proficiencies, especially in the development of fluent reading proficiency. Generally no one in schools monitors the actual volume of reading that children engage in. We know that the commonly used commercial core reading programs provide only material that requires…

  13. [Beeckman's medical learning by reading].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Eio

    2008-01-01

    Isaac Beeckman (1588-1637) is a self-learning man. He learned medicine by his reading medical books (contemporary and classic). In this paper I study how Beeckman read and understood them. He did not merely memorize them. But he gave some supplementary explanations to their (he thought) insufficient passages, sometimes criticized them and gave mechanical explanation that was based on atomism with hydrostatics. We can find similar ways of reading in the works of Lucretius and Cardano which young Beeckman read repeatedly. Beeckman learned the way of explaining natural phenomena with atomism from Lucretius' De rerum natura, and the way of explaining mechanics with natural philosophy and of demonstrating the principles of natural philosophy with machines from Cardano's De subtilitate. Beeckman's interactive reading is a good style of self-learning, but to avoid some bad effects of self-learning, he had to talk actually to a good respondent such as young Descartes.

  14. Structural Stability Assessment of the High Frequency Antenna for Use on the Buccaneer CubeSat in Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Structural Stability Assessment of the High Frequency Antenna for Use on the Buccaneer CubeSat in Low Earth...DSTO-TN-1295 ABSTRACT The Buccaneer CubeSat will be fitted with a high frequency antenna made from spring steel measuring tape. The geometry...High Frequency Antenna for Use on the Buccaneer CubeSat in Low Earth Orbit Executive Summary The Buccaneer CubeSat will be fitted with a

  15. Propulsion System and Orbit Maneuver Integration in CubeSats: Trajectory Control Strategies Using Micro Ion Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jennifer; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Propulsion System and Orbit Maneuver Integration in CubeSats project aims to solve the challenges of integrating a micro electric propulsion system on a CubeSat in order to perform orbital maneuvers and control attitude. This represents a fundamentally new capability for CubeSats, which typically do not contain propulsion systems and cannot maneuver far beyond their initial orbits.

  16. CubeSat Cloud: A framework for distributed storage, processing and communication of remote sensing data on cubesat clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challa, Obulapathi Nayudu

    CubeSat Cloud is a novel vision for a space based remote sensing network that includes a collection of small satellites (including CubeSats), ground stations, and a server, where a CubeSat is a miniaturized satellite with a volume of a 10x10x10 cm cube and has a weight of approximately 1 kg. The small form factor of CubeSats limits the processing and communication capabilities. Implemented and deployed CubeSats have demonstrated about 1 GHz processing speed and 9.6 kbps communication speed. A CubeSat in its current state can take hours to process a 100 MB image and more than a day to downlink the same, which prohibits remote sensing, considering the limitations in ground station access time for a CubeSat. This dissertation designs an architecture and supporting networking protocols to create CubeSat Cloud, a distributed processing, storage and communication framework that will enable faster execution of remote sensing missions on CubeSat clusters. The core components of CubeSat Cloud are CubeSat Distributed File System, CubeSat MapMerge, and CubeSat Torrent. The CubeSat Distributed File System has been created for distributing of large amounts of data among the satellites in the cluster. Once the data is distributed, CubeSat MapReduce has been created to process the data in parallel, thereby reducing the processing load for each CubeSat. Finally, CubeSat Torrent has been created to downlink the data at each CubeSat to a distributed set of ground stations, enabling faster asynchronous downloads. Ground stations send the downlinked data to the server to reconstruct the original image and store it for later retrieval. Analysis of the proposed CubeSat Cloud architecture was performed using a custom-designed simulator, called CubeNet and an emulation test bed using Raspberry Pi devices. Results show that for cluster sizes ranging from 5 to 25 small satellites, faster download speeds up to 4 to 22 times faster - can be achieved when using CubeSat Cloud, compared to a

  17. Lunar and Lagrangian Point L1 L2 CubeSat Communication and Navigation Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaire, Scott; Wong, Yen F.; Altunc, Serhat; Bussey, George; Shelton, Marta; Folta, Dave; Gramling, Cheryl; Celeste, Peter; Anderson, Mile; Perrotto, Trish; hide

    2017-01-01

    CubeSats have grown in sophistication to the point that relatively low-cost mission solutions could be undertaken for planetary exploration. There are unique considerations for lunar and L1/L2 CubeSat communication and navigation compared with low earth orbit CubeSats. This paper explores those considerations as they relate to the Lunar IceCube Mission. The Lunar IceCube is a CubeSat mission led by Morehead State University with participation from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Busek Company and Vermont Tech. It will search for surface water ice and other resources from a high inclination lunar orbit. Lunar IceCube is one of a select group of CubeSats designed to explore beyond low-earth orbit that will fly on NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) as secondary payloads for Exploration Mission (EM) 1. Lunar IceCube and the EM-1 CubeSats will lay the groundwork for future lunar and L1/L2 CubeSat missions. This paper discusses communication and navigation needs for the Lunar IceCube mission and navigation and radiation tolerance requirements related to lunar and L1/L2 orbits. Potential CubeSat radios and antennas for such missions are investigated and compared. Ground station coverage, link analysis, and ground station solutions are also discussed. This paper will describe modifications in process for the Morehead ground station, as well as further enhancements of the Morehead ground station and NASA Near Earth Network (NEN) that are being considered. The potential NEN enhancements include upgrading current NEN Cortex receiver with Forward Error Correction (FEC) Turbo Code, providing X-band uplink capability, and adding ranging options. The benefits of ground station enhancements for CubeSats flown on NASA Exploration Missions (EM) are presented. This paper also describes how the NEN may support lunar and L1/L2 CubeSats without any enhancements. In addition, NEN is studying other initiatives to better support the CubeSat community

  18. Reading Columns

    OpenAIRE

    Coutts, Marion

    2008-01-01

    Reading Columns are twin permanent public sculptures commissioned as part of a £245m scheme for the redevelopment of the Chatham Place area in Reading. Dimensions: 3.5m high x 1.3m diameter each Field of knowledge: The work consists of twin bespoke columns of stainless steel and glass over digital colour transparencies. The piece revisits and reworks the idea of the Morris Column, a 19th C feature characteristic of major European metropolitan centres. A wraparound image on each of ...

  19. On the Forbidden Pleasures and Hidden Dangers of Covert Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvio, Paula M.

    1995-01-01

    Explains how female preservice teachers describe their covert reading histories in assigned autobiographical narratives. Uses textual devices borrowed from Bertolt Brecht to show how preservice teachers can critically analyze the assumptions underlying their understanding of their early reading experiences. (TB)

  20. Analyzing the Feasibility of Teaching Critical Reading Strategies with the Abbreviated Version of English Literary Work%批判性阅读策略教学的可行性分析--以英文名著简写本为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董美珍

    2015-01-01

    批判性阅读作为英语教学中培养学生批判性思维的重要途径,得到了国内外学者的关注。本文以英文名著简写本为阅读材料,以高中生为教学对象,探讨适用于小说体裁的批判性阅读策略,以期帮助学生开展批判性阅读,改善批判性思维。%Critical Reading, the important approach of developing students’ critical thinking in English teaching, has gained wide atten-tion from the scholars at home and abroad. This article aims at selecting the appropriate Critical Reading strategies which can be applied in the fictions chosen from the abbreviated version of English literary work and are suitable for High school students in English lesson. The strategies can help the students read critically and improve the students’ critical thinking.

  1. Maximum likelihood model based on minor allele frequencies and weighted Max-SAT formulation for haplotype assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Sayyed R; Khodadadi, Ilnaz; Falsafain, Hossein; Nadimi, Reza; Ghadiri, Nasser

    2014-06-07

    Human haplotypes include essential information about SNPs, which in turn provide valuable information for such studies as finding relationships between some diseases and their potential genetic causes, e.g., for Genome Wide Association Studies. Due to expensiveness of directly determining haplotypes and recent progress in high throughput sequencing, there has been an increasing motivation for haplotype assembly, which is the problem of finding a pair of haplotypes from a set of aligned fragments. Although the problem has been extensively studied and a number of algorithms have already been proposed for the problem, more accurate methods are still beneficial because of high importance of the haplotypes information. In this paper, first, we develop a probabilistic model, that incorporates the Minor Allele Frequency (MAF) of SNP sites, which is missed in the existing maximum likelihood models. Then, we show that the probabilistic model will reduce to the Minimum Error Correction (MEC) model when the information of MAF is omitted and some approximations are made. This result provides a novel theoretical support for the MEC, despite some criticisms against it in the recent literature. Next, under the same approximations, we simplify the model to an extension of the MEC in which the information of MAF is used. Finally, we extend the haplotype assembly algorithm HapSAT by developing a weighted Max-SAT formulation for the simplified model, which is evaluated empirically with positive results.

  2. The Cadmium Zinc Telluride Imager on AstroSat

    CERN Document Server

    Bhalerao, V; Vibhute, A; Pawar, P; Rao, A R; Hingar, M K; Khanna, Rakesh; Kutty, A P K; Malkar, J P; Patil, M H; Arora, Y K; Sinha, S; Priya, P; Samuel, Essy; Sreekumar, S; Vinod, P; Mithun, N P S; Vadawale, S V; Vagshette, N; Navalgund, K H; Sarma, K S; Pandiyan, R; Seetha, S; Subbarao, K

    2016-01-01

    The Cadmium Zinc Telluride Imager (CZTI) is a high energy, wide-field imaging instrument on AstroSat. CZT's namesake Cadmium Zinc Telluride detectors cover an energy range from 20 keV to > 200 keV, with 11% energy resolution at 60 keV. The coded aperture mask attains an angular resolution of 17' over a 4.6 deg x 4.6 deg (FWHM) field of view. CZTI functions as an open detector above 100 keV, continuously sensitive to GRBs and other transients in about 30% of the sky. The pixellated detectors are sensitive to polarisation above ~100 keV, with exciting possibilities for polarisation studies of transients and bright persistent sources. In this paper, we provide details of the complete CZTI instrument, detectors, coded aperture mask, mechanical and electronic configuration, as well as data and products.

  3. Charged Particle Monitor on the AstroSat mission

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, A R; Bhargava, Yash; Khanna, Rakesh; Hingar, M K; Kutty, A P K; Malkar, J P; Basak, Rupal; Sreekumar, S; Samuel, Essy; Priya, P; Vinod, P; Bhattacharya, D; Bhalerao, V; Vadawale, S V; Mithun, N P S; Pandiyan, R; Subbarao, K; Seetha, S; Sarma, K Suryanarayana

    2016-01-01

    Charged Particle Monitor (CPM) on-board the AstroSat satellite is an instrument designed to detect the flux of charged particles at the satellite location. A Cesium Iodide Thallium (CsI(Tl)) crystal is used with a Kapton window to detect protons with energies greater than 1 MeV. The ground calibration of CPM was done using gamma-rays from radioactive sources and protons from particle accelerators. Based on the ground calibration results, energy deposition above 1 MeV are accepted and particle counts are recorded. It is found that CPM counts are steady and the signal for the onset and exit of South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region are generated in a very reliable and stable manner.

  4. The Cadmium Zinc Telluride Imager on AstroSat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V. Bhalerao; D. Bhattacharya; A. Vibhute; P. Pawar; A. R. Rao; M. K. Hingar; Rakesh Khanna; A. P. K. Kutty; J. P. Malkar; M. H. Patil; Y. K. Arora; S. Sinha; P. Priya; Essy Samuel; S. Sreekumar; P. Vinod; N. P. S. Mithun; S. V. Vadawale; N. Vagshette; K. H. Navalgund; K. S. Sarma; R. Pandiyan; S. Seetha; K. Subbarao

    2017-06-01

    The Cadmium Zinc Telluride Imager (CZTI) is a high energy, wide-field imaging instrument on AstroSat. CZTI’s namesake Cadmium Zinc Telluride detectors cover an energy range from 20 keV to >200 keV, with 11% energy resolution at 60 keV. The coded aperture mask attains an angular resolution of 17′ over a 4.6∘× 4.6∘ (FWHM) field-of-view. CZTI functions as an open detector above 100 keV, continuously sensitive to GRBs and other transients in about 30% of the sky. The pixellated detectors are sensitive to polarization above ∼100 keV, with exciting possibilities for polarization studies of transients and bright persistent sources. In this paper, we provide details of the complete CZTI instrument, detectors, coded aperture mask, mechanical and electronic configuration, as well as data and products.

  5. IP-Sat: Impact-Parameter dependent Saturation model; revised

    CERN Document Server

    Rezaeian, Amir H; Van de Klundert, Merijn; Venugopalan, Raju

    2013-01-01

    In this talk, we present a global analysis of available small-x data on inclusive DIS and exclusive diffractive processes, including the latest data from the combined HERA analysis on reduced cross sections within the Impact-Parameter dependent Saturation (IP-Sat) Model. The impact-parameter dependence of dipole amplitude is crucial in order to have a unified description of both inclusive and exclusive diffractive processes. With the parameters of model fixed via a fit to the high-precision reduced cross-section, we compare model predictions to data for the structure functions, the longitudinal structure function, the charm structure function, exclusive vector mesons production and Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS). Excellent agreement is obtained for the processes considered at small x in a wide range of Q^2.

  6. Does Extensive Reading Promote Reading Speed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mu

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also in a wide range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. However, few research studies have examined reading speed. The existing literature on reading speed focused on students' reading speed without…

  7. Oral Reading Fluency in Second Language Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eun Hee

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the role of oral reading fluency in second language reading. Two hundred and fifty-five high school students in South Korea were assessed on three oral reading fluency (ORF) variables and six other reading predictors. The relationship between ORF and other reading predictors was examined through an exploratory factor…

  8. Does Extensive Reading Promote Reading Speed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mu

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also in a wide range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. However, few research studies have examined reading speed. The existing literature on reading speed focused on students' reading speed…

  9. WHAT IS READING?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Reading is enjoying,entertaining and ent ightening Reading is listening,speaking and writingReading is talking and discussing,with yourself with the author and with the others Reading is exploring,investigating and guessing. Reading is traveling backward and forward,historically and geographically. Reading is thinking in your own language,and/or in the other language. Reading is encoding and decoding. Reading is civilizing,rationalizing and intellectualizing. Reading is assimilating,associating,accumula...

  10. SAT, a flexible and optimized Web application for SSR marker development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Jean-François

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs, or microsatellites, are among the most powerful genetic markers known. A common method for the development of SSR markers is the construction of genomic DNA libraries enriched for SSR sequences, followed by DNA sequencing. However, designing optimal SSR markers from bulk sequence data is a laborious and time-consuming process. Results SAT (SSR Analysis Tool is a user-friendly Web application developed to minimize tedious manual operations and reduce errors. This tool facilitates the integration, analysis and display of sequence data from SSR-enriched libraries. SAT is designed to successively perform base calling and quality evaluation of chromatograms, eliminate cloning vector, adaptors and low quality sequences, detect chimera or partially digested sequences, search for SSR motifs, cluster and assemble the redundant sequences, and design SSR primer pairs. An additional virtual PCR step establishes primer specificity. Users may modify the different parameters of each step of the SAT analysis. Although certain steps are compulsory, such as SSR motifs search and sequence assembly, users do not have to run the entire pipeline, and they can choose selectively which steps to perform. A database allows users to store and query results, and to redo individual steps of the workflow. Conclusion The SAT Web application is available at http://sat.cirad.fr/sat, and a standalone command-line version is also freely downloadable. Users must send an email to the SAT administrator tropgene@cirad.fr to request a login and password.

  11. CpSAT-1, a transcribed satellite sequence from the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Věchtová, Pavlína; Dalíková, Martina; Sýkorová, Miroslava; Žurovcová, Martina; Füssy, Zoltán; Zrzavá, Magda

    2016-08-01

    Satellite DNA (satDNA) is a non-coding component of eukaryotic genomes, located mainly in heterochromatic regions. Relevance of satDNA began to emerge with accumulating evidence of its potential yet hardly comprehensible role that it can play in the genome of many organisms. We isolated the first satDNA of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella, Tortricidae, Lepidoptera), a species with holokinetic chromosomes and a single large heterochromatic element, the W chromosome in females. The satDNA, called CpSAT-1, is located on all chromosomes of the complement, although in different amounts. Surprisingly, the satellite is almost missing in the heterochromatic W chromosome. Additionally, we isolated mRNA from all developmental stages (1st-5th instar larva, pupa, adult), both sexes (adult male and female) and several tissues (Malpighian tubules, gut, heart, testes, and ovaries) of the codling moth and showed the CpSAT-1 sequence was transcribed in all tested samples. Using CpSAT-1 specific primers we amplified, cloned and sequenced 40 monomers from cDNA and gDNA, respectively. The sequence analysis revealed a high mutation rate and the presence of potentially functional motifs, mainly in non-conserved regions of the monomers. Both the chromosomal distribution and the sequence analysis suggest that CPSAT-1 has no function in the C. pomonella genome.

  12. Survey on the implementation and reliability of CubeSat electrical bus interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwmeester, Jasper; Langer, Martin; Gill, Eberhard

    2017-06-01

    This paper provides results and conclusions on a survey on the implementation and reliability aspects of CubeSat bus interfaces, with an emphasis on the data bus and power distribution. It provides recommendations for a future CubeSat bus standard. The survey is based on a literature study and a questionnaire representing 60 launched CubeSats and 44 to be launched CubeSats. It is found that the bus interfaces are not the main driver for mission failures. However, it is concluded that the Inter Integrated Circuit (I2C) data bus, as implemented in a great majority of the CubeSats, caused some catastrophic satellite failures and a vast amount of bus lockups. The power distribution may lead to catastrophic failures if the power lines are not protected against overcurrent. A connector and wiring standard widely implemented in CubeSats is based on the PC/104 standard. Most participants find the 104 pin connector of this standard too large. For a future CubeSat bus interface standard, it is recommended to implement a reliable data bus, a power distribution with overcurrent protection and a wiring harness with smaller connectors compared with PC/104.

  13. Reading Hygiene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿一铭

    2006-01-01

    Here are some good points for good eye health that everyone can follow: 1.Rest your eyes before they get tired. Just close your eyes from time to time or look offat some distant object. 2.Do not read in either too dark a light or

  14. 阅读课堂提问的认知特征与思辨能力培养%The Cognitive Features of Reading Classroom Questioning and Critical Thinking Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨莉芳

    2015-01-01

    Based on data from 18 hours of reading classes to English majors by 3 teachers, the present paper analyzes teachers’questions by adopting Bloom’s taxonomy, describes the cognitive levels of questions, identifies patterns of cognitive development in questions, and discusses how they are related to critical thinking development. The ifndings reveal that the overall distribution of the cognitive levels of questions is appropriate for the training of critical thinking, but it differs with the stages of teaching. Of the different patterns of cognitive development in questions,the wavy pattern is most efifcient in fostering critical thinking ability, but it also requires teachers’careful design and efifcient practice of classroom questioning.%本研究基于三位英语专业阅读课教师共18课时自然状态下的课堂数据,使用Bloom认知能力分类模型对课堂提问进行分析,描述阅读课堂提问的认知层级分布情况,揭示课堂提问认知层级的发展轨迹,探讨课堂提问对思辨能力发展的作用。研究结果表明,课堂提问认知层级的分布总体符合思辨能力培养的要求,但阅读教学的不同阶段对思辨能力培养目标的实现存在较大差异。在提问认知层级的不同发展轨迹中,波形发展的提问方式更有利于思辨能力培养,但也对教师课堂提问的设计和实践提出了较高要求。

  15. Pi-Sat: A Low Cost Small Satellite and Distributed Spacecraft Mission System Test Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudmore, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Current technology and budget trends indicate a shift in satellite architectures from large, expensive single satellite missions, to small, low cost distributed spacecraft missions. At the center of this shift is the SmallSatCubesat architecture. The primary goal of the Pi-Sat project is to create a low cost, and easy to use Distributed Spacecraft Mission (DSM) test bed to facilitate the research and development of next-generation DSM technologies and concepts. This test bed also serves as a realistic software development platform for Small Satellite and Cubesat architectures. The Pi-Sat is based on the popular $35 Raspberry Pi single board computer featuring a 700Mhz ARM processor, 512MB of RAM, a flash memory card, and a wealth of IO options. The Raspberry Pi runs the Linux operating system and can easily run Code 582s Core Flight System flight software architecture. The low cost and high availability of the Raspberry Pi make it an ideal platform for a Distributed Spacecraft Mission and Cubesat software development. The Pi-Sat models currently include a Pi-Sat 1U Cube, a Pi-Sat Wireless Node, and a Pi-Sat Cubesat processor card.The Pi-Sat project takes advantage of many popular trends in the Maker community including low cost electronics, 3d printing, and rapid prototyping in order to provide a realistic platform for flight software testing, training, and technology development. The Pi-Sat has also provided fantastic hands on training opportunities for NASA summer interns and Pathways students.

  16. How CubeSats contribute to Science and Technology in Astronomy and Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoy, Kerri Lynn; Douglas, Ewan; Carlton, Ashley; Clark, James; Haughwout, Christian

    2017-01-01

    CubeSats are nanosatellites, spacecraft typically the size of a shoebox or backpack. CubeSats are made up of one or more 10 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm units weighing 1.33 kg (each cube is called a “U”). CubeSats benefit from relatively easy and inexpensive access to space because they are designed to slide into fully enclosed spring-loaded deployer pods before being attached as an auxiliary payload to a larger vehicle, without adding risk to the vehicle or its primary payload(s). Even though CubeSats have inherent resource and aperture limitations due to their small size, over the past fifteen years, researchers and engineers have miniaturized components and subsystems, greatly increasing the capabilities of CubeSats. We discuss how state of the art CubeSats can address both science objectives and technology objectives in Astronomy and Astrophysics. CubeSats can contribute toward science objectives such as cosmic dawn, galactic evolution, stellar evolution, extrasolar planets and interstellar exploration.CubeSats can contribute to understanding how key technologies for larger missions, like detectors, microelectromechanical systems, and integrated optical elements, can not only survive launch and operational environments (which can often be simulated on the ground), but also meet performance specifications over long periods of time in environments that are harder to simulate properly, such as ionizing radiation, the plasma environment, spacecraft charging, and microgravity. CubeSats can also contribute to both science and technology advancements as multi-element space-based platforms that coordinate distributed measurements and use formation flying and large separation baselines to counter their restricted individual apertures.

  17. Teaching Argument for Critical Thinking and Writing: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillocks, George, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    When it comes to writing, the most advanced secondary textbooks for English and most state rubrics for judging writing do not deal with what is involved in critical thinking in writing. Rather, they opt for vague discussions of "persuasive writing." Those who know the needs of college writers and who are familiar with the new ACT and SAT writing…

  18. Teaching Argument for Critical Thinking and Writing: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillocks, George, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    When it comes to writing, the most advanced secondary textbooks for English and most state rubrics for judging writing do not deal with what is involved in critical thinking in writing. Rather, they opt for vague discussions of "persuasive writing." Those who know the needs of college writers and who are familiar with the new ACT and SAT writing…

  19. NASA Near Earth Network (NEN) Support for Lunar and L1/L2 CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaire, Scott; Altunc, Serhat; Wong, Yen; Shelton, Marta; Celeste, Peter; Anderson, Michael; Perrotto, Trish

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Near Earth Network (NEN) consists of globally distributed tracking stations, including NASA, commercial, and partner ground stations, that are strategically located to maximize the coverage provided to a variety of orbital and suborbital missions, including those in LEO, GEO, HEO, lunar and L1/L2 orbits. The NENs future mission set includes and will continue to include CubeSat missions. The majority of the CubeSat missions destined to fly on EM-1, launching in late 2018, many in a lunar orbit, will communicate with ground based stations via X-band and will utilize the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) developed IRIS radio. The NEN recognizes the important role CubeSats are beginning to play in carrying out NASAs mission and is therefore investigating the modifications needed to provide IRIS radio compatibility. With modification, the NEN could potentially expand support to the EM-1 lunar CubeSats.The NEN could begin providing significant coverage to lunar CubeSat missions utilizing three to four of the NENs mid-latitude sites. This coverage would supplement coverage provided by the JPL Deep Space Network (DSN). The NEN, with smaller apertures than DSN, provides the benefit of a larger beamwidth that could be beneficial in the event of uncertain ephemeris data. In order to realize these benefits the NEN would need to upgrade stations targeted based on coverage ability and current configuration/ease of upgrade, to ensure compatibility with the IRIS radio. In addition, the NEN is working with CubeSat radio developers to ensure NEN compatibility with alternative CubeSat radios for Lunar and L1/L2 CubeSats. The NEN has provided NEN compatibility requirements to several radio developers who are developing radios that offer lower cost and, in some cases, more capabilities with fewer constraints. The NEN is ready to begin supporting CubeSat missions. The NEN is considering network upgrades to broaden the types of CubeSat missions that can be supported and is

  20. Improved Oceanographic Measurements with CryoSat SAR Altimetry: Applications to the Coastal Zone and Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, D.; Garcia, P. N.; Cancet, M.; Andersen, O.; Stenseng, L.; Martin, F.; Cipollini, P.; Calafat, F. M.; Passaro, M.; Restano, M.; Ambrozio, A.; Benveniste, J.

    2016-08-01

    The ESA CryoSat-2 mission is the first space mission to carry a radar altimeter that can operate in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode. Although the prime objective of the CryoSat-2 mission is dedicated to monitoring land and marine ice, the SAR mode capability of the CryoSat-2 SIRAL altimeter also presents significant potential benefits for ocean applications including improved range precision and finer along track spatial resolution.The "CryoSat Plus for Oceans" (CP4O) project, supported by the ESA Support to Science Element (STSE) Programme and by CNES, was dedicated to the exploitation of CryoSat-2 data over the open and coastal ocean. The general objectives of the CP4O project were: to build a sound scientific basis for new oceanographic applications of CryoSat-2 data; to generate and evaluate new methods and products that will enable the full exploitation of the capabilities of the CryoSat-2 SIRAL altimeter, and to ensure that the scientific return of the CryoSat-2 mission is maximised. Cotton et al, (2015) is the final report on this work.However, whilst the results from CP4O were highly promising and confirmed the potential of SAR altimetry to support new scientific and operational oceanographic applications, it was also apparent that further work was needed in some key areas to fully realise the original project objectives. Thus additional work in four areas has been supported by ESA under a Contract Change Notice:• Developments in SARin data processing for Coastal Altimetry (isardSAT).• Implementation of a Regional Tidal Atlas for the Arctic Ocean (Noveltis and DTU Space).• Improvements to the SAMOSA re-tracker: Implementation and Evaluation- Optimised Thermal Noise Estimation. (Starlab and SatOC).• Extended evaluation of CryoSat-2 SAR data for Coastal Applications (NOC).This work was managed by SatOC. The results of this work are summarized here. Detailed information regarding the CP4O project can be found at: http://www.satoc.eu/projects/CP4O/

  1. Cable y satélite: equipamiento del hogar y consumo televisivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Emilio Fernández Peña

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Los servicios de difusión de canales de televisión de pago por satélite (Canal Satélite Digital y Vía Digital y cable son ya una realidad con importante presencia en el sistema televisivo español. Un millón cuatrocientos mil hogares reciben estos servicios con una preponderancia clara de los transmitidos por satélite respecto a los que usan el cable (1,2 millones.

  2. Airborne campaigns for CryoSat pre-launch calibration and validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidegaard, Sine Munk; Forsberg, René; Skourup, Henriette

    2010-01-01

    in the Arctic Ocean. The main goal of the airborne surveys was to acquire coincident scanning laser and CryoSat type radar elevation measurements of the surface; either sea ice or land ice. Selected lines have been surveyed along with detailed mapping of validation sites coordinated with insitu field work......From 2003 to 2008 DTU Space together with ESA and several international partners carried out airborne and ground field campaigns in preparation for CryoSat validation; called CryoVEx: CryoSat Validation Experiments covering the main ice caps in Greenland, Canada and Svalbard and sea ice...

  3. Beyond Cognition: Reading Motivation and Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Wigfield, Allan; Gladstone, Jessica; Turci, Lara

    2016-01-01

    The authors review research on children’s reading motivation and its relation to their reading comprehension. They begin by discussing work on the development of school motivation in general and reading motivation in particular, reviewing work showing that many children’s reading motivation declines over the school years. Girls tend to have more positive motivation for reading than do boys, and there are ethnic differences in children’s reading motivation. Over the last 15 years researchers h...

  4. "Reading" Mixed Methods Research: Contexts for Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshwater, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    Health and social care researchers, in their haste to "belong" to academia, have adopted the system of mixed methodology research, overestimating its ability to reveal the truth and occasionally imprisoning their thought in one system. In this article, some of the assumptions underpinning mixed methodology research and its discourse are subjected…

  5. A Critical Reading of the Disillusionment Novel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, Joe E, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Contends that "disillusionment novels" are characterized by a circumscribed vision of the world which itself is a function of limits set upon the authors by the historical situation of their position in society. Analyzes two Nigerian classic examples of the genre, Chinua Achebe's "A Man of the People" and Wole Soyinka's…

  6. "Reading" Mixed Methods Research: Contexts for Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshwater, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    Health and social care researchers, in their haste to "belong" to academia, have adopted the system of mixed methodology research, overestimating its ability to reveal the truth and occasionally imprisoning their thought in one system. In this article, some of the assumptions underpinning mixed methodology research and its discourse are subjected…

  7. A Critical Reading of the Disillusionment Novel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, Joe E, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Contends that "disillusionment novels" are characterized by a circumscribed vision of the world which itself is a function of limits set upon the authors by the historical situation of their position in society. Analyzes two Nigerian classic examples of the genre, Chinua Achebe's "A Man of the People" and Wole Soyinka's "The Interpreters." (FMW)

  8. Critical Empiricism: Reading Data with Social Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo, Zeus

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews "Theory and Educational Research" and concludes that given some misgivings, the collection arrives at a nonfetishized appreciation for the role of theory in empirical research in education. Jean Anyon and her colleagues give theory its due, not more but also not less. In the same move, they recognize…

  9. Critical Empiricism: Reading Data with Social Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo, Zeus

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews "Theory and Educational Research" and concludes that given some misgivings, the collection arrives at a nonfetishized appreciation for the role of theory in empirical research in education. Jean Anyon and her colleagues give theory its due, not more but also not less. In the same move, they recognize…

  10. Automatic Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡迪

    2007-01-01

    <正>Reading is the key to school success and,like any skill,it takes practice.A child learns to walk by practising until he no longer has to think about how to put one foot in front of the other.The great athlete practises until he can play quickly,accurately and without thinking.Ed- ucators call it automaticity.

  11. Reading vocabulary knowledge and deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, P

    1996-01-01

    With respect to reading vocabulary knowledge and deafness, this article addresses two broad questions: (1) Why is vocabulary knowledge related to reading comprehension ability? (2) How is reading vocabulary (i.e., word meanings) acquired? The article argues that the answers to these questions are best addressed by a vocabulary acquisition model labeled the knowledge model. In essence, this model asserts that both breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge are critical. It is necessary to teach vocabulary, especially to poor readers, who are not likely to derive many word meanings from the use of context during natural or deliberate reading situations. On the basis of theoretical and research syntheses, the article offers implications for vocabulary instruction for deaf children and adolescents.

  12. Kindling a Love for Reading and Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankiewicz, Mary Ann

    1993-01-01

    Describes the Junior Great Books program used by many Catholic schools to improve reading and critical thinking skills, as well as stir students' interest in reading. Explains the shared inquiry method of learning utilized to stimulate discussion about excellent literature. Offers examples of the ways in which the program operates at six different…

  13. Mobile Reading as Social and Embodied Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellermann, John; Thorne, Steven L.; Fodor, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Literacy, and particularly reading, is critical to success in schooling and full participation in contemporary societies. As one of the primary skills needed to develop proficiency in a language, the study of reading in additional languages has attracted significant research attention. Focusing on behaviourally visible and locally occasioned…

  14. Plug-and-Play Compatibility for CubeSat Attitude Determination and Control Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The development of Plug-and-play Compatibility for CubeSat Attitude Determination and Control Systems (ADACS) is proposed. Existing Maryland Aerospace (MAI) ADACS...

  15. Deep Space CubeSat Prototype Platform Design and Testing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and test a proof of concept prototype for a standard CubeSat form factor platform, designed for missions to deep space targets, as opposed to...

  16. CubeSat Ambipolar Thruster for LEO and Deep Space Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aether Industries proposes the development of a novel, primary plasma propulsion system that is well suited for small spacecraft. This technology, called the CubeSat...

  17. Integrated Propulsion and Primary Structure Module for Small Satellite and CubeSat Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Over the last decade, the CubeSat platform has emerged as a viable alternative for both innovative technology development and scientific investigation. However, to...

  18. 1U CubeSat Lasercom Terminal for Deep Space Communication Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this NASA SBIR-select Phase 1 program Fibertek, Inc., proposes the design, optimization, and analysis of a 1U CubeSat Lasercom Optical Terminal, optimized for...

  19. Flight Technical Error Analysis of the SATS Higher Volume Operations Simulation and Flight Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Daniel M.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Adams, Catherine H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of Flight Technical Error (FTE) from recent SATS experiments, called the Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Simulation and Flight experiments, which NASA conducted to determine pilot acceptability of the HVO concept for normal operating conditions. Reported are FTE results from simulation and flight experiment data indicating the SATS HVO concept is viable and acceptable to low-time instrument rated pilots when compared with today s system (baseline). Described is the comparative FTE analysis of lateral, vertical, and airspeed deviations from the baseline and SATS HVO experimental flight procedures. Based on FTE analysis, all evaluation subjects, low-time instrument-rated pilots, flew the HVO procedures safely and proficiently in comparison to today s system. In all cases, the results of the flight experiment validated the results of the simulation experiment and confirm the utility of the simulation platform for comparative Human in the Loop (HITL) studies of SATS HVO and Baseline operations.

  20. A Green, Safe, Dual-pulse Solid Motor for CubeSat Orbit Changing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Small satellites such as CubeSats are in need of responsive propulsion, but are limited due to their size. Though single pulse, AP/HTPB fueled solid rocket motors...

  1. Deriving all minimal consistency-based diagnosis sets using SAT solvers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangfu Zhao; Liming Zhang; Dantong Ouyang; Yu Jiao

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,a novel method is proposed for judging whether a component set is a consistency-based diagnostic set,using SAT solvers.Firstly,the model of the system to be diagnosed and all the observations are described with conjunctive normal forms (CNF).Then,all the related clauses in the CNF files to the components other than the considered ones are extracted,to be used for satisfiability checking by SAT solvers.Next,all the minimal consistency-based diagnostic sets are derived by the CSSE-tree or by other similar algorithms.We have implemented four related algorithms,by calling the gold medal SAT solver in SAT07 competition - RSAT.Experimental results show that all the minimal consistency-based diagnostic sets can be quickly computed.Especially our CSSE-tree has the best efficiency for the single-or double-fault diagnosis.

  2. PowerCube: Integrated Power, Propulsion, and Pointing for CubeSats Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Tethers Unlimited, Inc. proposes to develop the PowerCube, an integrated power, propulsion, and pointing solution for CubeSats. The PowerCube combines three...

  3. Modeling and solving semiring constraint satisfaction problems by transformation to weighted semiring Max-SAT

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Leenen, L

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a variant of the Weighted Maximum Satisfiability Problem (Weighted Max-SAT), which is a modeling of the Semiring Constraint Satisfaction framework. They show how to encode a Semiring Constraint Satisfaction Problem (SCSP...

  4. A polynomial-time algorithm for reducing the number of variables in MAX SAT problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马绍汉; 梁东敏

    1997-01-01

    Maximum satisfiability (MAX SAT) problem is an optimization version of the satisfiability (SAT) problem. This problem arises in certain applications in expert systems and knowledge base revision. MAX SAT problem is NP-hard Some algorithms can solve this problem, but they are not adapted to the special cases where the number of variables is larger than the number of clauses. Usually, the number of variables has great impact on the efficiency of these algorithms. Thus, a polynomial-time algorithm is proposed to reduce the number of variables. Let T be any instance of the MAX SAT problem. The algorithm transforms T into another instance P of which the number of variables is smaller than the number of clauses of T. Using other algorithms, the optimal solution to P can be found, and it can be used to construct the optimal solution of T. Therefore, this algorithm is an efficient preprocessing step.

  5. River flood events in Thailand and Bangladesh observed by CryoSat-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Karina; Villadsen, Heidi; Andersen, Ole; Stenseng, Lars; Knudsen, Per

    2015-04-01

    The high along track resolution of the SIRAL altimeter carried on-board CryoSat-2 offers a wide range of unique opportunities for satellite monitoring. This study focuses on the ability of CryoSat-2 to detect the effects of flood events such as increased river levels and inundation of land. Here we study two flood events; the Bangladesh flood event of June 2012 and the flooding in Thailand that lasted between July 2011 and January 2012. The flooding in these areas was caused by abnormal monsoonal rainfall and affected millions of people. We process CryoSat-2 level 1b SAR mode data to derive water levels for the areas and compare these levels before, during and after the flooding events. Other parameters such as the backscatter coefficient and pulse peakiness are also considered. To verify the extent of the flooding observed by CryoSat-2 we compare with independent sources such as Landsat images.

  6. Modular NanoSat Launcher Design for Lowest Mission Cost Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As minimum cost will be required for a dedicated NanoSat Launch Vehicle, a series and parallel staged, highly modular vehicle architecture is proposed for design...

  7. Combining Envisat and CryoSat-2 altimetry to inform hydrodynamic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Raphael; Nygaard Godiksen, Peter; Ridler, Marc-Etienne

    Remote sensing provides valuable data for parameterization and updating of hydrological models, for example water level measurements of inland water bodies from satellite radar altimeters. Many studies have used satellite altimetry data from repeat-orbit missions such as Envisat, ERS or Jason......, or synthetic wide-swath altimetry data as expected from the SWOT mission. This study is one of the first hydrologic applications of altimetry data from a drifting orbit satellite mission, namely CryoSat-2. CryoSat-2 is equipped with the SIRAL instrument, a new type of radar altimeter similar to SRAL...... fitted to the CryoSat-2 data: In a first step, the average simulated water levels along the river were calibrated to the CryoSat-2 data by adapting the hydrodynamic cross section datums. Subsequently the simulated water level amplitudes were fitted to those obtained from Envisat virtual station time...

  8. SAT-1 -1415T/C polymorphism and susceptibility to schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudo-Soriano, Carlos Riaza; Vaquero-Lorenzo, Concepcion; Diaz-Hernandez, Montserrat; Perez-Rodriguez, M Mercedes; Fernandez-Piqueras, Jose; Saiz-Ruiz, Jeronimo; Baca-Garcia, Enrique

    2009-03-17

    Patients suffering from psychosis show increased blood and fibroblast total polyamine levels. Spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT-1) and its coding gene (SAT-1) are the main factors regulating polyamine catabolism. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between the SAT-1 -1415T/C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and schizophrenia. A case-control design was used in order to compare the genotypes for the SNP between schizophrenia patients (n=180, 83 females and 97 males), other non-psychotic psychiatric patients (n=413, 256 females and 157 males), and healthy controls (n=251, 101 females and 150 males). No significant differences in the distribution of the genotypes of the SAT-1 -1415T/C SNP were found groups among groups. We failed to demonstrate a significant association between the SAT-1 -1415T/C SNP and schizophrenia, but a mild association between allele C and psychopathology was found in the female group.

  9. Integrated CubeSat ADACS with Reaction Wheels and Star Tracker Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A high performance ADACS (Attitude Determination and Control System) for CubeSats incorporating Miniature Star Trackers is proposed. The proposed program will focus...

  10. Personality predictors of academic outcomes: big five correlates of GPA and SAT scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noftle, Erik E; Robins, Richard W

    2007-07-01

    The authors examined relations between the Big Five personality traits and academic outcomes, specifically SAT scores and grade-point average (GPA). Openness was the strongest predictor of SAT verbal scores, and Conscientiousness was the strongest predictor of both high school and college GPA. These relations replicated across 4 independent samples and across 4 different personality inventories. Further analyses showed that Conscientiousness predicted college GPA, even after controlling for high school GPA and SAT scores, and that the relation between Conscientiousness and college GPA was mediated, both concurrently and longitudinally, by increased academic effort and higher levels of perceived academic ability. The relation between Openness and SAT verbal scores was independent of academic achievement and was mediated, both concurrently and longitudinally, by perceived verbal intelligence. Together, these findings show that personality traits have independent and incremental effects on academic outcomes, even after controlling for traditional predictors of those outcomes. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Impact of CryoSat-2 for marine gravity field - globally and in the Arctic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Stenseng, Lars; Knudsen, Per

    days repeat offered by CryoSat-2 provides denser coverage than older geodetic mission data set like ERS-1. Thirdly, the 92 degree inclination of CryoSat-2 is designed to map more of the Arctic Ocean than previous altimetric satellites. Finally, CryoSat-2 is able to operate in two new modes (SAR and SAR...... GDR data, NOAA LRM data, but also Level1b (LRM, SAR and SAR-in waveforms) data have been analyzed. A suite of eight different empirical retrackers have been developed and investigated for their ability to predict marine gravity in the Arctic Ocean. The impact of the various improvement offered by Cryo......Sat-2 in comparison with conventional satellite altimetry have been studied and quantified both globally but particularly for the Arctic Ocean using a large number of marine and airborne surveys providing “ground truth” marine gravity....

  12. The achievement gap: Should we rely on SAT scores to tell us anything about it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Whittington

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of students taking the SAT have declined to identify their race/ethnicity. I examined the impact of non-respondents on the validity of reported racial/ethnic differences and year-to-year changes in test performance. Using an analysis reported by Wainer (1988 and SAT data from 1996 to 2003, I confirmed Wainer’s findings that non-respondents prevent accurate estimations of group differences based on SAT data. I then explored the impact of College Board press release information on news reports about the achievement gap. I found frequent reports of racial/ethnic differences in SAT scores and year-to-year changes in scores but negligible consideration of non-respondents. Press releases and media reports should include information about non-respondents and their impact on accuracy of reported differences based on race/ethnicity.

  13. Ka Band Parabolic Deployable Antenna (KaPDA) for Interplanetary CubeSat Communications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ka Band Parabolic Deployable Antenna (KaPDA) for Interplanetary CubeSat Communications allowing moving up from UHF, S or X to get higher gain for a given diameter.

  14. Annual cycle in lakes and rivers from CryoSat-2 altimetry — The Brahmaputra river

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Heidi; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Stenseng, Lars

    2014-01-01

    A key concern of the CryoSat-2 orbit has been its long repeat period of 369 days, which is usually undesirable for river and lake monitoring. However, the results of this study show that CryoSat-2 data can indeed be used for such monitoring by utilizing the high spatial coverage and the sub......-cycle period of 30 days. The performance of CryoSat-2/SIRAL altimetry for river level monitoring is investigated by studying river levels retrieved from Ganges and Brahmaputra. An evaluation of CryoSat-2 river levels from LRM, SAR and SARIn data is performed by comparing with Envisat data from the period...... data to continue river level archives from satellite radar altimetry....

  15. The coastal mean dynamic topography in Norway observed by CryoSat-2 and GOCE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idžanović, Martina; Ophaug, Vegard; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2017-01-01

    highly reliant on the geoid. Using new regional geoid models as well as CryoSat-2 data, we determine three geodetic coastal MDT models in Norway and validate them against independent tide-gauge observations and the operational coastal ocean model NorKyst800. The CryoSat-2 MDTs agree on the ∼3–5 cm level...... with both tide-gauge geodetic and ocean MDTs along the Norwegian coast. In addition, we compute geostrophic surface currents to help identifying errors in the geoid models. We find that even though the regional geoid models are all based on the latest satellite gravity data as provided by GOCE...... terrestrial gravity information provided by aregional geoid model. We also find that the border of the geographical mode mask of CryoSat-2 coincides with the Norwegian Coastal Current, making it challenging to distinguish between artifacts in the CryoSat-2observations during mode switch and ocean signal....

  16. Modelagem markoviana de comunicação em redes de satélites

    OpenAIRE

    Heitor Angelo Moraes Júnior

    2008-01-01

    Um dos objetivos de sistemas de satélites de comunicação é conectar pessoas distantes geograficamente, permitindo a transmissão de dados, sinais de radio e televisão, telefonia móvel e internet, entre outros. Neste trabalho modela-se um sistema de satélites de comunicação por um processo markoviano. Inicialmente, considera-se uma constelação de seis satélites geoestacionários em uma única órbita. Posteriormente, considera-se que os satélites se movem em relação à Terra e, assim, os sinais, qu...

  17. Crowding, reading, and developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Marialuisa; Di Filippo, Gloria; Spinelli, Donatella; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi

    2009-04-17

    We tested the hypothesis that crowding effects are responsible for the reading slowness characteristic of developmental dyslexia. A total of twenty-nine Italian dyslexics and thirty-three age-matched controls participated in various parts of the study. In Experiment 1, we measured contrast thresholds for identifying letters and words as a function of stimulus duration. Thresholds were higher in dyslexics than controls for words (at a limited time exposure) but not for single letters. Adding noise to the stimuli produced comparable effects in dyslexics and controls. At the long time exposure thresholds were comparable in the two groups. In Experiment 2, we measured the spacing between a target letter and two flankers at a fixed level of performance as a function of eccentricity and size. With eccentricity, the critical spacing (CS) scaled in the control group with 0.62 proportionality (a value of b close to Bouma's law, 0.50) and with a greater proportionality (0.95) in the dyslexic group. CS was independent of size in both groups. In Experiment 3, we examined the critical print size (CPS), that is, the increase in reading rate up to a critical character size (S. T. Chung, J. S. Mansfield, & G. E. Legge, 1998). CPS of dyslexic children was greater than that of controls. Individual maximal reading speed was predicted by individual bs (from Experiment 2). The maximal reading rate achieved by dyslexics at CPS (and also for larger print sizes) was below the values observed in controls. We conclude that word analysis in dyslexics is slowed because of greater crowding effects, which limit letter identification in multi-letter arrays across the visual field. We propose that the peripheral reading of normal readers might constitute a model for dyslexic reading. The periphery model accounts for 60% of dyslexics' slowness. After compensating for crowding, the dyslexics' reading rate remains slower than that of proficient readers. This failure is discussed in terms of a

  18. Preliminary Characterization Results from the DebriSat Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, M.; Shiotani, B.; Kleespies, J.; Toledo-Burdett, R.; Moraguez, M.; Carrasquila, M.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Liou, J.-C.; Sorge, M.; Huynh, T.

    2016-01-01

    The DebriSat project is a continuing effort sponsored by NASA and DoD to update existing break-up models using data obtained from two separate hypervelocity impact tests used to simulate on-orbit collisions. To protect the fragments resulting from the impact tests, "soft-catch" arenas made of polyurethane foam panels were utilized. After each impact test, the test chamber was cleaned and debris resulting from the catastrophic demise of the test article were collected and shipped to the University of Florida for post-impact processing. The post-impact processing activities include collecting, characterizing, and cataloging of the fragments. Since the impact tests, a team of students has been working to characterize the fragments in terms of their mass, size, shape, color and material content. The focus of the 20 months since the impact tests has been on the collection of 2 millimeters- and larger fragments resulting from impact test on the 56 kilogram-representative LEO (Low Earth Orbit) satellite referred to as DebriSat. To date we have recovered in excess of 115,000 fragments, 30,000 more than the prediction of 85,000 fragments from the existing model. We continue to collect fragments but have transitioned to the characterization phase of the post-impact activities. Since the start of the characterization phase, the focus has been to utilize automation to (i) expedite fragment characterization process and (ii) minimize human-in-the- loop. We have developed and implemented such automated processes; e.g., we have automated the data entry process to reduce operator errors during transcription of the measurement data. However, at all steps of the process, there is human oversight to ensure the integrity of the data. Additionally, we have developed and implemented repeatability and reproducibility tests to ensure that the instrumentation used in the characterization process is accurate and properly calibrated. In this paper, the implemented processes are described and

  19. Subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top) development in children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafeit, Erwin; Möller, Reinhard; Jurimae, Toivo; Sudi, Karl; Wallner, Sandra Johanna

    2007-06-01

    The importance of body composition measurements to elucidate the dynamics of related diseases in pediatrics is gaining recognition. The methods used should not expose subjects to high doses of radiation and require substantial cooperation. The Lipometer is a new optical device that enables the non-invasive, quick and safe determination of the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) layers (in mm) at any site of the human body. The topographic specification of 15 evenly distributed body sites, which makes it possible to precisely measure subcutaneous body fat distribution, is called subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top). SAT-Top was determined in more than 1000 children and young adults between the ages of 7 and 21. In this paper we describe the SAT-Top development of these subjects through different age groups and the differences between male and female SAT-Top development in each age group. SAT layer profiles (medians of the 15 body sites) for boys and girls in age group 1 (7-9 yrs) show a very similar pattern for both sexes, followed by slightly decreasing SAT layer thicknesses in boys and increasing values in girls in the subsequent age groups. Between age group 3 (11-13 yrs) and age group 7 (19-21 yrs) male and female SAT-Top is significantly different. The discriminating power between male and female SAT-Top was investigated by stepwise discriminant analysis, which provided no significant results for age group 1 (7-9 yrs), about 73% correct classification for age group 2 (9-11 yrs) and 3 (11-13 yrs), 83% for age group 4 (13-15 yrs), and about 91-93% for the following age groups (15-21 yrs). It is known that SAT development is the same in both sexes until puberty, when girls gain relatively more fat mass than boys to reach a higher body-fat percentage as adults. This paper presents a precise description of SAT development in boys and girls from childhood to adolescence, which provides a basis for further investigations.

  20. Reading faces and Facing words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Julia Emma; Lindegaard, Martin Weis; Delfi, Tzvetelina Shentova

    performed within normal range on at least one test of visual categorisation, strongly suggesting that their abnormal performance with words and faces does not represent a generalised visuo-perceptual deficit. Our results suggest that posterior areas in both hemispheres may be critical for both reading...