WorldWideScience

Sample records for sast study area

  1. Security Assessment Simulation Toolkit (SAST) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meitzler, Wayne D.; Ouderkirk, Steven J.; Hughes, Chad O.

    2009-11-15

    The Department of Defense Technical Support Working Group (DoD TSWG) investment in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Security Assessment Simulation Toolkit (SAST) research planted a technology seed that germinated into a suite of follow-on Research and Development (R&D) projects culminating in software that is used by multiple DoD organizations. The DoD TSWG technology transfer goal for SAST is already in progress. The Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA), the Defense-wide Information Assurance Program (DIAP), the Marine Corps, Office Of Naval Research (ONR) National Center For Advanced Secure Systems Research (NCASSR) and Office Of Secretary Of Defense International Exercise Program (OSD NII) are currently investing to take SAST to the next level. PNNL currently distributes the software to over 6 government organizations and 30 DoD users. For the past five DoD wide Bulwark Defender exercises, the adoption of this new technology created an expanding role for SAST. In 2009, SAST was also used in the OSD NII International Exercise and is currently scheduled for use in 2010.

  2. Wide area monitoring study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wogman, N.A.; Holdren, G.R. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Environmental sampling can be used to complement the safeguarding of nuclear material, especially in the detection of undeclared nuclear activities. Routine monitoring of nuclear installations has provided valuable information about the fate of key signature materials within different environmental settings. The approach collates information regarding the generation of individual radiochemical signatures within different nuclear processes, the potential for release of these signatures to the environment and, the chemical form and mobility of the signatures in environmental media along which the material could migrate. Meteorological, geological and hydrological information is used to determine where to sample, what to sample, and how often to sample to provide the greatest likelihood for detection. Multiple strategies can be used to implement wide area monitoring for safeguards purposes. The most complex, and expensive of these, involves establishing extensive networks of fixed location sampling sites. The sites would be operated continuously, and would be instrumented with automated sampling, analysis, and communication equipment to relay information regarding potential anomalies to control centers in near-real time. Alternative strategies can be used to supplement fixed location monitoring equipment, especially in regions that cannot support (financially or logistically) the fixed stations. Through combinations of these various strategies, using a variety of environmental media to monitor a region, we believe that a competent network, one with a quantifiable probability for detecting undeclared nuclear activities, can be designed. While this approach cannot and should not replace other inspection and monitoring activities, it can potentially contribute valuable information to an international safeguards system. (author)

  3. PIEDRA WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Steven M.; Brown, S. Don

    1984-01-01

    The Pedra Wilderness Study Area, located approximately 30 mi northeast of Durango, Colorado, was evaluated for its mineral-resource potential. Geochemical and geophysical studies indicate little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources in this area. This conclusion is supported by the findings of the earlier study and is suggested by the absence of significant mining activity in the area.

  4. Rurality study of restricted areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rivaroli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Two main perspectives of investigation emerge from the study of a territory’s rurality: a geographical approach and a sociological approach. The research examines the sub-regional study case of ‘Nuovo circondario imolese’. The analysis shows that the combination of traditional institutional criteria with detailed informations about the territory, generates more accurate results which determine a better comprehension of the characteristics of restricted areas’ rurality. Over the period 1991-2001, the study highlights an increase in rural areas. This result could be interpreted as an effect of urban sprawl’s intensification, that increases the competition between non-farm residences and agricultural activities.

  5. 300 Area signal cable study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whattam, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    This report was prepared to discuss the alternatives available for removing the 300 Area overhead signal cable system. This system, installed in 1969, has been used for various monitoring and communication signaling needs throughout the 300 Area. Over the years this cabling system has deteriorated, has been continually reconfigured, and has been poorly documented to the point of nonreliability. The first step was to look at the systems utilizing the overhead signal cable that are still required for operation. Of the ten systems that once operated via the signal cable, only five are still required; the civil defense evacuation alarms, the public address (PA) system, the criticality alarms, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Facilities Management Control System (FMCS), and the 384 annunciator panel. Of these five, the criticality alarms and the FMCS have been dealt with under other proposals. Therefore, this study focused on the alternatives available for the remaining three systems (evacuation alarms, PA system, and 384 panel) plus the accountability aid phones. Once the systems to be discussed were determined, then three alternatives for providing the signaling pathway were examined for each system: (1) re-wire using underground communication ducts, (2) use the Integrated Voice/Data Telecommunications System (IVDTS) already installed and operated by US West, and (3) use radio control. Each alternative was developed with an estimated cost, advantages, and disadvantages. Finally, a recommendation was provided for the best alternative for each system

  6. Smēķēšanas dūmu ķīmiskā sastāva un izplatības mainības novērtējums iekštelpu vidē

    OpenAIRE

    Vesere, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Maģistra darbā „Smēķēšanas dūmu ķīmiskā sastāva un izplatības mainības novērtējums iekštelpu vidē” raksturota iekštelpu gaisa kvalitāte, “slimās ēkas sindroms”, to veicinošie faktori, smēķēšanas process un tā ietekme uz veselību. Smēķēšanas laikā radušos dūmu sastāvā ir vairāk nekā 5000 ķīmisku vielu, kuras izplatās telpā un rada piesārņojumu, kas kaitīgs ir ne tikai aktīvajam, bet arī pasīvajām smēķētājam. Pētījums veikts, lai novērtētu šo dūmu ķīmisko sastāvu un vielu noturību iekštelpu vid...

  7. The problem with areas: Asia and Area studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor T. King

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of:Goh Beng Lan (ed., Decentring & diversifying Southeast Asian Studies: Perspectives from the region. Singapore: ISEAS, 2011, xiii + 304 pp. ISBN 9789814311564, price: USD 34.90 (paperback; 9789814311571, USD 45.90 (hardback.Terence Wesley-Smith and Jon Goss (eds, Remaking Area studies: Teaching and learning across Asia and the Pacific. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 2010, xxvii + 243 pp. ISBN 9780824833213. Price: USD 45.00 (hardback.Jacob Edmond, Henry Johnson and Jacqueline Leckie (eds, Recentring Asia: Histories, encounters, identities, xv + 339 pp. Leiden/Boston: Brill, Global Oriental: 2011. ISBN 9781906876258. Price: EUR 80.00 (hardback.

  8. PUREX source Aggregate Area management study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the PUREX Plant Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE)Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past-practice investigations

  9. Bureau of Land Management Wilderness Study Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset is meant to depict Wilderness Study Areas (WSA's), within the state of New Mexico, identified by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) as having...

  10. Regional hydrogeological study in the Tono area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Nobuhisa; Ota, Kunio; Hama, Katsuhiro; Tsubota, Kouji

    1998-01-01

    Regional hydrogeological studies have been carried out since fiscal 1992 to determine the regional groundwater flow in the Tono area of Japan. The following items have been investigated: 1) Understanding the geological structure, groundwater flow and groundwater chemistry of the deep geological environment in the Tono area. 2) Constructing conceptual models of the geological structure, groundwater flow and groundwater chemistry. 3) Developing appropriate techniques to investigate the geological structure, groundwater flow and groundwater chemistry of the deep geological environment. This report presents the results of the last six years of the study in the Tono area. (author)

  11. SPANISH PEAKS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budding, Karin E.; Kluender, Steven E.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic and geochemical investigation and a survey of mines and prospects were conducted to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the Spanish Peaks Wilderness Study Area, Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, in south-central Colorado. Anomalous gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc concentrations in rocks and in stream sediments from drainage basins in the vicinity of the old mines and prospects on West Spanish Peak indicate a substantiated mineral-resource potential for base and precious metals in the area surrounding this peak; however, the mineralized veins are sparse, small in size, and generally low in grade. There is a possibility that coal may underlie the study area, but it would be at great depth and it is unlikely that it would have survived the intense igneous activity in the area. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of oil and gas because of the lack of structural traps and the igneous activity.

  12. Belledune area health study : summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    The Belledune area has been home to various industrial activities such as mining, smelting, fertilizer plants, battery-recycling plants, gypsum plants, sawmills, and a coal-fired electricity generating facility. These industries have had various types and quantities of emissions over the past 4 decades that may have impacted on the health of people in the area. This report provided details of the Belledune Health Area Study. The objective of the study was to ensure that the concerns of residents were addressed and that the historical and human health risks associated with past and current industrial activities were quantified. The current health status of residents in the area was examined with reference to environmental exposures, and recommendations for future studies and research based on the results of the study were presented. Two main components were used: the human health risk assessment (HHRA), and community health status assessment (CHSA). Best estimate calculations for residents in the core communities showed that exposures to cadmium, lead and mercury were predicted to be below toxicity reference values. In Belledune itself, child exposures to cadmium and mercury were above the toxicity reference value. Results indicated that the health status pattern for the study area was different from that found in the surrounding areas. There was a statistically significantly elevated incidence of oral, respiratory, and prostate cancer and elevated incidences of kidney and colorectal cancer. There was a higher mortality rate than expected, and there were more deaths than expected due to circulatory disease, cancer and other causes such as accidents and suicides. An expanded survey of blood lead among child residents and pregnant women was recommended. A program was launched to collect data on metal concentrations in fish from the Baie des Chaleurs and additional data on vegetables from the Greater Belledune area. Future research on some of the factors associated

  13. Belledune area health study : summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    The Belledune area has been home to various industrial activities such as mining, smelting, fertilizer plants, battery-recycling plants, gypsum plants, sawmills, and a coal-fired electricity generating facility. These industries have had various types and quantities of emissions over the past 4 decades that may have impacted on the health of people in the area. This report provided details of the Belledune Health Area Study. The objective of the study was to ensure that the concerns of residents were addressed and that the historical and human health risks associated with past and current industrial activities were quantified. The current health status of residents in the area was examined with reference to environmental exposures, and recommendations for future studies and research based on the results of the study were presented. Two main components were used: the human health risk assessment (HHRA), and community health status assessment (CHSA). Best estimate calculations for residents in the core communities showed that exposures to cadmium, lead and mercury were predicted to be below toxicity reference values. In Belledune itself, child exposures to cadmium and mercury were above the toxicity reference value. Results indicated that the health status pattern for the study area was different from that found in the surrounding areas. There was a statistically significantly elevated incidence of oral, respiratory, and prostate cancer and elevated incidences of kidney and colorectal cancer. There was a higher mortality rate than expected, and there were more deaths than expected due to circulatory disease, cancer and other causes such as accidents and suicides. An expanded survey of blood lead among child residents and pregnant women was recommended. A program was launched to collect data on metal concentrations in fish from the Baie des Chaleurs and additional data on vegetables from the Greater Belledune area. Future research on some of the factors associated

  14. Idaho Batholith Study Area Isostatic Gravity Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2 kilometer isostatic gravity grid for the Idaho batholith study area. Number of columns is 331 and number of rows is 285. The order of the data is from the lower...

  15. Idaho Batholith Study Area Bouguer Gravity Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2 kilometer Bouguer gravity anomaly grid for the Idaho batholith study area. Number of columns is 331 and number of rows is 285. The order of the data is from the...

  16. Idaho Batholith Study Area Density Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2 kilometer terrace-density grid for the Idaho batholith study area. Number of columns is 331 and number of rows is 285. The order of the data is from the lower...

  17. Radioecological studies in Goiania urban area: review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, Monica Pires do; Amaral, Eliana

    1997-01-01

    Studies on the behaviour and transport of 137 Cs in urban areas, including, resuspension and deposition experiments, 137 Cs uptake by leafy vegetables and small domestic animals that accidentally ingested contaminated soil, were performed in a house located at 57 t h Street near the main focus of contamination. The resuspension of surface soil did not contribute much to the spreading of the radionuclide in Goiania, but can lead to the local contamination of vegetables, equipment, structures and other environmental surfaces. The mechanism also presented a seasonal effect. The soil is an important medium for the uptake of 137 Cs by small domestic animals. The street dust sampling is a suitable method to assess the dispersion of 137 Cs in urban areas. After 10 years, the radionuclide activity concentration is restricted only to the initially impacted area an it is decreasing with time. (author)

  18. Hydrogeologic study of Cafam area. Melgar (Tolima)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel M, Carlos E; Perez C, Rosalbina

    1989-06-01

    The hydrogeologic study covers an area of 50 km 2 with the objectives of to determine the possibility of use of the underground waters and to locate places to carry out exploratory perforations in lands of Cafam, equally the elaboration of a hydrogeologic map of the region; for the effect it was carried out cartography geologic scale 1:10.000, inventory and sampling of water point, geoelectric prospecting and some permeability tests. In the area the exploitation of underground water is incipient, alone there are 20 points of water, of which none produce more than 1L/seg. The water has in general good physical chemistry quality for the human consumption. Geologically was recognized the groups Guadalupe and Gualanday, also some quaternary deposits; the previous ones were subdivided in 11 geological units for its composition and morphology, which are framed structurally in the E flank of the synclinal of Carmen de Apicala and displaced by traverse faults with address E-W and N-W. From the point of hydrogeologic view the units were grouped in 8 aquifer systems, of which four are considered of hydrogeologic importance for the area; the sector with better possibilities to capture these aquifer systems is the W of the area (in the terraces area) that extends to the Sumapaz River. For the Cafam sector a place was selected to build an exploratory well of 200 mts. of depth that would capture an aquifer of low transmissivity, corresponding to the Unit T3

  19. Semiworks source aggregate area management study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the Semi-Works Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) . Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations WD and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past-practice investigations. This approach is described and justified in The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Change Package. This strategy provides new concepts for: accelerating decision-malting by maximizing the use of existing data consistent with data quality objectives (DQOs); and undertaking expedited response actions (ERAS) and/or interim remedial measures (IRMs), as appropriate, to either remove threats to human health and welfare and the environment, or to reduce risk by reducing toxicity, mobility, or volume of contaminants

  20. Environment studies in the Olkiluoto area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonen, A.T.K.; Kaapu, J.; Lehtonen, K.; Mattila, J.; Raeisaenen, R.; Turkki, H.; Sauvonsaari, J.

    2003-04-01

    In the report, different aspects of environmental status of the Olkiluoto area, an island with the near-sea in the Finnish coast of the Baltic Sea, are described by five topical papers. Regarding animal-life, Olkiluoto represents a typical seashore area of southwestern Finland dominated by rocky hills and commercial forests. In the literature and interview study of local hunters, locally dominant mammal and bird species are identified. No threatened or endangered mammals species were found on the island, and only few bird species in Olkiluoto have a high conservation value. The sea area off Olkiluoto is rather shallow and the water mixing conditions are favourable. The quality and biological production of the water are affected by the general state of the Bothian Sea, the loading brought by the Eurajoki and Lapinjoki Rivers and local wastewaters. Also the cooling waters from the local nuclear power plant impact the sea environment. The bottom vegetation varies from an algae-dominant to a vascular-plantdominant community. Amount of benthic fauna and its species composition has varied considerably, due to both variations of the quality of the bottom and eutrophication. The Eurajoki River represents the second largest river system in southwestern Finland. At its upper reaches, the river is classified as clean and suitable for recreational use. Intermittently, additional waters rich in nutrients flow into the river from ditches and tributaries. Diffuse pollution and the wastewaters of riverside municipalities and industry affect on the water of the lower course, where it is only mildly contaminated, hygienically fairly good and satisfactory for recreational use. The benthic fauna of the river is composed of oligochaetes, clams, leeches and larvae. The fish reserve is versatile in places due to stocking. The Eurajoensalmi Strait, the inlet of the river, is a transitional zone between the river and further sea environments. In the offshore area facing Olkiluoto, there

  1. Epidemiological studies in high background radiation areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori

    2012-01-01

    Below the doses of 100-200 mSv of radiation exposure, no acute health effect is observed, and the late health effects such as cancer are yet unclear. The problems making the risk evaluation of low dose radiation exposure difficult are the fact that the magnitude of expected health effects are small even if the risk is assumed to increase in proportion to radiation doses. As a result, studies need to be large particular when dealing with rare disease such as cancer. In addition, the expected health effects are so small that they can easily be masked by lifestyles and environmental factors including smoking. This paper will discuss cancer risk possibly associated with low-dose and low-dose rate radiation exposure, describing epidemiological studies on the residents in the high-background radiation areas. (author)

  2. (Case Study: Ghara dagh (Arasbaran Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Vossoughi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, Tourism is more than an economic activity and as a world and social phenomenon has certain complexities which are the result of displacement of people from different cultures and their communicationse and interactions in peace time. In this regard, understanding cultural differences is an essential factor in developing a successful tourism industry. This study aimed to examine cross-cultural differences in tourism and the ways the local community encounters with them. This was a qualitative study. Research participants included twelve persons from local people in Ghara dagh (Arasbaran Area who were selected by purposeful sampling. This study indicated that determinants of tourist– local community contact, the role of culture in tourism, types of intercultural encounters, the cultural differences between tourists and local community, the cultural differences problems of tourist–local community contact, the impact of cultural differences on the local community and the style of encounter of local community with the tourists' cultural differences are seven main themes related to cross-cultural differences in tourism and 26 sideshows were infulencial factors on main issues.

  3. Area Handbook Series: Colombia: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    represented 12 percent of total exports in 1986; the Colombian For- eign Trade Institute (Instituto Colombiano de Comercio Exterior - Incomex) reported...Proexpo) and-the Colombian Petroleum Enterprise ( Empresa Colombiana de Petr6leos--Ecopetrol). Investment in Carbocol grew rapidly in its first decade, of...the Depart- mental and-Municipal Sanitary Works ( Empresa de Obras Sanitar- ias Departamentales y Municipales) and in rural areas by the National

  4. Environmental studies in the Timmins area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balsillie, D; McGovern, P C

    1973-01-01

    In 1970 the Phytotoxicology Section of the Air Management Branch initiated a pre-pollution background survey of the environmental situation in the Timmins area where Texas Gulf Sulphur was expected to construct an electrolytic zinc refinery near Hoyle (12 miles northeast of Timmins). In April 1972, the refinery began production, and during the 1972 growing season this new plant operated at a rate of 70 to 90% of the theoretical capacity. The refinery is located adjacent to the ore concentrator which has been operative since November 1966. During 1970, 1971, and 1972, Phytotoxicology personnel conducted an extensive program of environmental analysis and evaluation in the area. The information gathered to date indicates that within a 20 mile radius of the refinery, the condition of the vegetation (trees, shrubs, and ground flora) is similar to that existing in the control areas (number of species, number of plants, growth rate, crown condition etc.) which are located 50 miles from Hoyle. The lead peroxide candle survey showed that only background levels of sulfur dioxide were present in the ambient air both before and after the initiation of operations at the refinery. No SO/sub 2/ injury to vegetation has been observed in the Hoyle area. Chemical analysis of the vegetation, soil, and water samples collected at twelve established plots in 1971 shows elevated levels of metals in the soil immediately to the east and northeast of Hoyle. These same metals were elevated also in the vegetation collected at plots 1 and 2, close to the plant. Further work is planned to determine the source of this contamination. 13 tables.

  5. 100 Areas soil washing tradeoff study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belden, R.D.

    1995-11-01

    The complex nature of cost analysis and systems work demands a level of effort to ensure that decisions made support the best interests of all parties. This tradeoff study will act as a formal decision analysis method for the evaluation of many variables. The documentation of the decision rationale and system design is essential for successful planning and implementation of any system. The Hanford Site offers unique problems for economic analysis of remediation alternatives. The variations in the size of sites, geographic locations, and possible cleanup scenarios all add to the complexity of the tradeoff analysis. A thorough examination of all alternatives must be held to a level of detail appropriate to current regulatory and budgetary considerations. This study will compare the economics of two specific alternatives for remediation of soils at the Hanford Site. Remove and dispose is compared to remove, treat, and dispose. The treatment analyzed in this study is volume reduction through soil washing

  6. Area Handbook Series. India: A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Parties. New York: Facts on File, 1983. Dua , Bhagwan D. "A Study in Executive-Judicial Conflict," Asian Survey, 23, No. 4, April 1983, 463-83. Dutt...September 1977, 1-12. Sagar , Imroze. "Indo-Soviet Interest," Naval War College Re- view, 34, No. 1, January-February 1981, 13-33. Sharma, Gautam. "Defence

  7. Area Handbook Series: Indonesia: A Country Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    carry a selendang, a long stretch of cloth draped over the shoulder, which on less formal occasions was used to carry babies or objects. Urban...vols.) (The Asia Society.) New York: Scribner’s, 1988. 419 Indonesia: A Country Study Foss, Christopher F. (ed.). Jane’s Armour and Artillery, 1991-92

  8. Area Handbook Series: Jordan: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Jordan’s vulnerability increased significantly in February 1979, when Shia radicals overthrew Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi of Iran. The Iranian...give formal recognition to the PLO’s role. In an abrupt turn- about in policy, Egyptian foreign minister Ismail Fahmi respond- ed by declaring that Egypt... Fahmi , Ismail, 46 modern, 101-3, 110; government Faisal I (son of Hussein Ali Al Hashimi), spending for, 114; students studying 18, 20-23, as king of

  9. Area Handbook Series: Vietnam: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    cough, measles, poliomyelitis, chicken pox , typhoid fever, acute encepha- litis, and acute meningitis. Hanoi claimed in 1970 that alcoholic cirrhosis...Country Study the people of Van Lang grew other grains and beans and raised stock, mainly buffaloes, chickens , and pigs. Pottery-making and bamboo...152 Cuba 550-45 Malaysia 550-22 Cyprus 550-161 Mauritania 550-158 Czechoslovakia 550-79 Mexico 550-36 Dominican Republic/Haiti 550-76 Mongolia 550-52

  10. Area Handbook Series. Philippines: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    the Philippines’ own claim to Sabah, the territory in northeastern Bor- neo that had become a Malaysian state in 1963. Marcos and the Road to Martial...north, was on the risc 50 Historical Setting In 1969 the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) was or- ganized on Malaysian soil. The MNLF conducted an...particularly so where the 7enter was itself a full-scale 91 Philippines: A Country Study town, complete with restaurants, cinemas , banks, specialty

  11. Area Handbook Series. Albania: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    inadequa prenal cue, tbe proportion of preature births increse •d from 7 to 11 perent between 197 amd early 1992. Hospits lacked es- sen"h mecidmund erp...were urgently needed to deal with the multiplying number of privately owned cars. Albanian entrepreneurs also 151 Albania: A Country Study imported... entrepreneurs from the reta marketplace. At first, peasants began setting up road- side fruit and vegetables stands or carrying their produce to mar- kets in

  12. Area Handbook Series: Israel: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    kid- napping of Nazi war criminal Adolph Eichmann from Argentina. Another kidnapping, in 1986, brought to Israel for prosecution the nuclear...penalty could be imposed for treason or for conviction for Nazi war crimes but, as of 1988, 331 Israel: A Country Study Eichmann was the only person to be...See land ownership Eichmann , Adolph, 331-32 extensive threat concept, 267-68 Eisenhower, Dwight D., 58 Ezekiel, 11 Eisenstadt, S. N., 83 Ezra, II

  13. Area Handbook Series: Egypt: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    iI~torical Settinlg Sphinx and pyramids at Giza (Al jizah) THE ROOTS OF EGYPTIAN civilization go back more than 6,000 years to the beginning of...built by Snoferu, the first king of the Fourth Dynasty. His son and successor, Kheops, built the Great Pyramid at Giza (AlJizah); this, with its two... Pyramid and Sphinx at Giza , Fourth Dynasty, ca. 2540 B. C. Courtesy Boris Boguslavsky 19 Egypt: A Country Study In June 640, reinforcements for the Arab

  14. Zileņu (Vaccinium uliginosum L.), melleņu (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) un krūmelleņu (Vaccinium corymbosum) ķīmiskais sastāvs un bioloģiskā aktivitāte

    OpenAIRE

    Hūna, Agnese

    2015-01-01

    Zileņu Vaccinium uliginosum L. un melleņu Vaccinium myrtillus L. izplatība ir Eiropas ziemeļu augsto purvu un mitro mežu areālā, skuju koku un jaukto koku mežos, īpaši retainēs un izcirtumos, savukārt krūmellenes Vaccinium corymbosum tiek audzētas kā kultūraugi. Ķīmiskais sastāvs un bioloģiskā aktivitāte, kā arī dažādu vitamīnu un vielu saturs, ogās ir ļoti augsts. Zilās ogas potenciāli labvēlīgi iedarbojas uz cilvēku veselību gan kā profilakses līdzeklis, gan kā ārstniecības līdzeklis. Neska...

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF CROSS-BORDER AREAS. STUDY CASES REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela\tȘLUSARCIUC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to review study cases found in the scientific literature concerning the development of cross- border areas in European Union and its neighbourhood. The introductory part of the paper is drawing few considerations about the cross-border areas. Further we identified in the specific literature relevant study cases that provide lessons learned, tools and models that can contribute to the development of the cross-border areas. The last part of the paper is focusing on an inquiry about how this lessons, learned, tools and models may be adapted in case of cross-border areas along the Romanian border with the EU Eastern Neighbourhood.

  16. Canadian Council for Area Studies Learned Societies - 2007-2008 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CCASLS) ... for four area studies associations: the Canadian Association of African Studies (CAAS); the ... IDRC invites applications for the IDRC Doctoral Research Awards ... Canada can learn from Uganda's gender budgeting experience.

  17. 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area management study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Facility Investigations (Rlq) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations

  18. Identifying areas at risk of low birth weight using spatial epidemiology: A small area surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insaf, Tabassum Z; Talbot, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    To assess the geographic distribution of Low Birth Weight (LBW) in New York State among singleton births using a spatial regression approach in order to identify priority areas for public health actions. LBW was defined as birth weight less than 2500g. Geocoded data from 562,586 birth certificates in New York State (years 2008-2012) were merged with 2010 census data at the tract level. To provide stable estimates and maintain confidentiality, data were aggregated to yield 1268 areas of analysis. LBW prevalence among singleton births was related with area-level behavioral, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics using a Poisson mixed effects spatial error regression model. Observed low birth weight showed statistically significant auto-correlation in our study area (Moran's I 0.16 p value 0.0005). After over-dispersion correction and accounting for fixed effects for selected social determinants, spatial autocorrelation was fully accounted for (Moran's I-0.007 p value 0.241). The proportion of LBW was higher in areas with larger Hispanic or Black populations and high smoking prevalence. Smoothed maps with predicted prevalence were developed to identify areas at high risk of LBW. Spatial patterns of residual variation were analyzed to identify unique risk factors. Neighborhood racial composition contributes to disparities in LBW prevalence beyond differences in behavioral and socioeconomic factors. Small-area analyses of LBW can identify areas for targeted interventions and display unique local patterns that should be accounted for in prevention strategies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [A study of infant mortality rate in Korean rural areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y H

    1981-10-31

    This study was undertaken in an attempt to identify the level of birth and infant death in the KHDI demonstration areas. The objectives of this study were to collect available information on birth and infant death in the KHDI demonstration areas, and estimate actual levels of birth and infant mortality in these areas. Within these areas, events of birth and death are continuously recorded by the field health workers, such as the Family Folder, maternal health service card, and the infant-child health service card. Study areas included all the KHDI demonstration areas (Hongchon, Okgu, Gunee). However, 2 myons in the Okgu area were excluded from the study areas since there was no community health practitioner assigned there. The data were collected by 24 community health practitioners and 80 community health aides in the 3 demonstration areas, according to the survey format. These health workers examined and searched existing records. After filling out the survey questionnaires, these health workers made contact with village health workers, "Li" chiefs, mother's club chiefs, or Saemaul leaders at the village level in order that they might gather additional information on possible items which were omitted. Afterwards, health workers made home visits to selected households which were known to have had births or deaths during the 1 year period between January-December 1979. A review of the activities of the health workers during this study indicated that professional survey workers were needed. In addition, 8 surveyors were employed and trained by KHDI to strengthen field survey efforts; they were dispatched to Hongchon and Okgu for 17 days. A total number of 3302 live births and 120 infant deaths were recorded during 1979. All data collected were tabulated by manual counting in the KHDI office. Infant mortality was estimated to be 36.34/1000 births in the demonstration areas during 1979 (rate in Hongchon Gun was 34.5, 31.0 in Okgu Gun, and 46.2 in Gunee Gun). (author's)

  20. LiveDiverse: Case study area, Greater Kruger South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nortje, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Livelihoods and Biodiversity in Developing Countries Case study area: Greater Kruger, South Africa January 2011 Kolhapur, India Where are we? HARDSHIP LIVELIHOODS NATURE & BIODIVERSITY BELIEFS & CULTURAL PRACTISE threesansinv foursansinv onesansinv...

  1. B Plant source aggregate area management study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington state is organized into numerically designated operational areas including the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 100 Areas (Figure 1--1). The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in November 1989, included the 200 Areas of the Hanford KLSite on the National Priorities List (NPL), included the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site on the National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of Feasibility Study (FS) process for characterizing the nature and extent of contamination, assessing risks to human health and the environment, and selection of remedial actions. This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AIMS) for the B Plant Aggregate Area located in the 200 Areas. The study provides the basis for initiating RI/FS under CERCLA or under the Resource which contain reactor fuel processing and waste management Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS). This report also integrates RCRA treatment, storage or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past-practice investigations

  2. Radioecological studies in Goiania urban area: review; Estudos radioecologicos na area urbana de Goiania: revisao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, Monica Pires do; Amaral, Eliana [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    Studies on the behaviour and transport of {sup 137} Cs in urban areas, including, resuspension and deposition experiments, {sup 137} Cs uptake by leafy vegetables and small domestic animals that accidentally ingested contaminated soil, were performed in a house located at 57{sup t}h Street near the main focus of contamination. The resuspension of surface soil did not contribute much to the spreading of the radionuclide in Goiania, but can lead to the local contamination of vegetables, equipment, structures and other environmental surfaces. The mechanism also presented a seasonal effect. The soil is an important medium for the uptake of {sup 137} Cs by small domestic animals. The street dust sampling is a suitable method to assess the dispersion of {sup 137} Cs in urban areas. After 10 years, the radionuclide activity concentration is restricted only to the initially impacted area an it is decreasing with time. (author) 9 refs., 2 figs, 2 tabs.

  3. Hydrogeologic study of Cafam area. Melgar (Tolima); Estudio hidrogeologico del area Cafam - Melgar (Tolima)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel M, Carlos E; Perez C, Rosalbina

    1989-06-01

    The hydrogeologic study covers an area of 50 km{sup 2} with the objectives of to determine the possibility of use of the underground waters and to locate places to carry out exploratory perforations in lands of Cafam, equally the elaboration of a hydrogeologic map of the region; for the effect it was carried out cartography geologic scale 1:10.000, inventory and sampling of water point, geoelectric prospecting and some permeability tests. In the area the exploitation of underground water is incipient, alone there are 20 points of water, of which none produce more than 1L/seg. The water has in general good physical chemistry quality for the human consumption. Geologically was recognized the groups Guadalupe and Gualanday, also some quaternary deposits; the previous ones were subdivided in 11 geological units for its composition and morphology, which are framed structurally in the E flank of the synclinal of Carmen de Apicala and displaced by traverse faults with address E-W and N-W. From the point of hydrogeologic view the units were grouped in 8 aquifer systems, of which four are considered of hydrogeologic importance for the area; the sector with better possibilities to capture these aquifer systems is the W of the area (in the terraces area) that extends to the Sumapaz River. For the Cafam sector a place was selected to build an exploratory well of 200 mts. of depth that would capture an aquifer of low transmissivity, corresponding to the Unit T3.

  4. CENTENNIAL MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA AND IDAHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkind, Irving J.; Ridenour, James

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey conducted within the Centennial Mountains Wilderness study area in Montana and Idaho showed large areas of probable and substantiated resource potential for phosphate. Byproducts that may be derived from processing the phosphate include vanadium, chromium, uranium, silver, fluorine, and the rare earths, lanthanum and yttrium. Results of a geochemical sampling program suggest that there is little promise for the occurrence of base and precious metals in the area. Although the area contains other nonmetallic deposits, such as coal, building stone, and pumiceous ash they are not considered as mineral resources. There is a probable resource potential for oil and gas and significant amounts may underlie the area around the Peet Creek and Odell Creek anticlines.

  5. T Plant source aggregate area management study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State is organized into numerically designated operational areas including the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 1100 Areas. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in November 1989, included the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site on the National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980. Inclusion on the NPL initiates the Remedial Investigation (RI) and Feasibility Study (FS) process for characterizing the nature and extent of contamination, assessing risks to human health and the environment, and selection of remedial actions. This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the T Plant Aggregate Area located in the 200 Areas. The study provides the basis for initiating RI/FS under CERCLA or under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS). This report also integrates RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past-practice investigations

  6. Z Plant source aggregate area management study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State is or into numerically designated operational areas including the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 1100 Areas. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in November 1989, included the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site on the National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980. Inclusion on the NPL initiates the Remedial Investigation (RI) and Feasibility Study (FS) process for characterizing the nature and extent of contamination, assessing risks to human health and the environment, and selection of remedial actions. This report presents the insults of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the Z Plant Aggregate Area located m the 200 Areas. The study provides the basis for initiating RIIFS under CERCLA or under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS). This report also integrates RCRA treatment, storage, or disposed (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past-practice investigations

  7. U Plant source aggregate area management study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State is organized into numerically designated operational areas including the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 1100 Areas. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in November 1989, included the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site on the National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980. Inclusion on the NPL initiates the Remedial Investigation (RI) and Feasibility Study (FS) process for characterizing the nature and extent of contamination, assessing risks to human health and the environment, and selection of remedial actions. This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the U Plant Aggregate Area located in the 200 Areas. The study provides the basis for initiating RI/FS under CERCLA or under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS). This report also integrates RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past-practice investigations

  8. Environmental impact of industrial wastes on marine area, case study: Port Sudan coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalrahman, E. A. H.

    2004-05-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of the industrial wastes on marine environment in Port Sudan area. A very intensive study has been made to identify types of pollutions drained in seawater at study area of Red Sea coast. Samples were taken from three stations (1, 2 and 3) at study area and the following analysis were made: Temperature, salinity, hydrogen ion concentration, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, nutrient, oil and grease. The laboratory results revealed that wastes pollute the marine environment as the cooling water from studied industries which is drain into the seawater increases the degree of temperature approximately from 6 to 12 C degree above the allowed rate, the matter which was adverse effect on the environment and living marine creatures due to the sudden change of temperature degree. Also, it was found that the great amount of oil spills discharged into seawater due to many factors such as: cooling water, oil spills from ships and loading and discharging operations of crude oil ships. Accordingly these oils spills might have a deadly effect on living marine creatures, which have been mention in details through out this research. Hence, and to minimize this adverse effect of industrial wastes and others on the marine environment, may recommend to the following: Pretreatment to the industrial wastes should be taking before its draining into the Red Sea coastal area. Surveillance all ships into the port and observing loading and discharging operations as well as those ships in the regional waters and implementing the international maritime laws. Enlightenment the industrial administrators and manpower working with them about the severity which will definitely cause the marine environmental deterioration as a result of industrial wastes. To punish every one who violates the laws of environment protection. Thus, can be safeguarding the environment from pollutions and consequently develop the natural resources and proceed

  9. Hydrogeochemical studies of historical mining areas in the Humboldt River basin and adjacent areas, northern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, J. Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The study area comprises the Humboldt River Basin and adjacent areas, with emphasis on mining areas relatively close to the Humboldt River. The basin comprises about 16,840 mi2 or 10,800,000 acres. The mineral resources of the Humboldt Basin have been investigated by many scientists over the past 100 years, but only recently has our knowledge of regional geology and mine geology been applied to the understanding and evaluation of mining effects on water and environmental quality. The investigations reported here apply some of the techniques and perspectives developed in the Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative (AMLI) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a program of integrated geological-hydrological-biological-chemical studies underway in the Upper Animas River watershed in Colorado and the Boulder River watershed in, Montana. The goal of my studies of sites and districts is to determine the character of mining-related contamination that is actively or potentially a threat to water quality and to estimate the potential for natural attenuation of that contamination. These geology-based studies and recommendations differ in matters of emphasis and data collection from the biology-based assessments that are the cornerstone of environmental regulations.

  10. Elk and Deer Study, Material Disposal Area G, Technical Area 54: Source document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. K. Ferenbaugh; P. R. Fresquez; M. H. Ebinger; G. J. Gonzales; P. A. Jordan

    1999-09-01

    As nuclear research has become more prevalent, environmental contamination from the disposal of radioactive waste has become a prominent issue. At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in northern New Mexico, radioactive contamination from disposal operations has raised some very specific concerns. Material Disposal Area G (Area G) is the primary low-level radioactive waste disposal site at LANL and occupies an area adjacent to land belonging to the Native American community of the Pueblo of San Ildefonso. Analyses of soil and vegetation collected from the perimeter of Area G have shown concentrations of radionuclides greater than background concentrations established for northern New Mexico. As a result, Pueblo residents had become concerned that contaminants from Area G could enter tribal lands through various ecological pathways. The residents specifically questioned the safety of consuming meat from elk and deer that forage near Area G and then migrate onto tribal lands. Consequently, this study addresses the uptake of {sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, {sup tot}U, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 137}Cs by elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer (Odocoileus hemionus) that forage around the perimeter of Area G and the associated doses to the animals and to humans who consume these animals. Radionuclide uptake by and internal dose to animals was estimated using equations modified from National Council on Radiological Protection Report 76. The Residual Radiation computer code was used to estimate the external dose to animals and the dose to humans consuming meat. Soil and water concentrations from the perimeter of Area G and from background regions in northern New Mexico were averaged over 4 years (1993--1996) and used as input data for the models. Concentration estimates generated by the model correspond to the concentration range measured in actual tissue samples from elk and deer collected at LANL. The highest dose estimates for both animals (0.028 mrad/d) and humans

  11. Elk and Deer Study, Material Disposal Area G, Technical Area 54: Source document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferenbaugh, J.K.; Fresquez, P.R.; Ebinger, M.H.; Gonzales, G.J.; Jordan, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    As nuclear research has become more prevalent, environmental contamination from the disposal of radioactive waste has become a prominent issue. At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in northern New Mexico, radioactive contamination from disposal operations has raised some very specific concerns. Material Disposal Area G (Area G) is the primary low-level radioactive waste disposal site at LANL and occupies an area adjacent to land belonging to the Native American community of the Pueblo of San Ildefonso. Analyses of soil and vegetation collected from the perimeter of Area G have shown concentrations of radionuclides greater than background concentrations established for northern New Mexico. As a result, Pueblo residents had become concerned that contaminants from Area G could enter tribal lands through various ecological pathways. The residents specifically questioned the safety of consuming meat from elk and deer that forage near Area G and then migrate onto tribal lands. Consequently, this study addresses the uptake of 3 H, 90 Sr, tot U, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 241 Am, and 137 Cs by elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer (Odocoileus hemionus) that forage around the perimeter of Area G and the associated doses to the animals and to humans who consume these animals. Radionuclide uptake by and internal dose to animals was estimated using equations modified from National Council on Radiological Protection Report 76. The Residual Radiation computer code was used to estimate the external dose to animals and the dose to humans consuming meat. Soil and water concentrations from the perimeter of Area G and from background regions in northern New Mexico were averaged over 4 years (1993--1996) and used as input data for the models. Concentration estimates generated by the model correspond to the concentration range measured in actual tissue samples from elk and deer collected at LANL. The highest dose estimates for both animals (0.028 mrad/d) and humans (0.072 mrem/y) were well below

  12. Latin America and Beyond: The Case for Comparative Area Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Hoffmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparative Area Studies (CAS emerges as a new approach in which scholars of Latin American Studies engage systematically with scholars working on other world regions. Adopting a focus on intra-, inter- and cross area comparisons, CAS builds on the traditional strengths of area studies. At the same time it enables scholars to have a stronger impact on overarching conceptual debates and it may provide new bridges between area studies scholars and the academic communities in the regions studied. However, a comparative area studies approach requires systematic cooperation among scholars of different world regions, and adequate organizational and institutional structures to support them. Resumen: Latinoamérica y más allá: El caso de los estudios regionales comparativos Los Estudios Regionales Comparativos (Comparative Area Studies – CAS surgen como un enfoque nuevo dentro del cual académicos de Estudios Latinoamericanos colaboran sistemáticamente con académicos que investigan sobre otras regiones del mundo. Tomando como punto de partida comparaciones intrarregionales, interregionales y transregionales, los ERC se basan en los puntos fuertes tradicionales de los estudios regionales. Al mismo tiempo, este enfoque permite a los académicos tener un impacto mayor en los debates conceptuales más amplios y puede tender nuevos puentes entre los académicos de estudios regionales y las comunidades académicas de las regiones estudiadas. Sin embargo, un enfoque de estudios regionales comparativos exige una cooperación sistemática entre académicos de distintas regiones del mundo y unas estructuras organizativas e institucionales adecuadas para apoyarles.

  13. The radiological study of areas gastricae in chronic gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, D. I.; Jaun, W. K.; Lee, S. W.; Han, C. Y.

    1980-01-01

    A chronic gastritis is common and clinically significant, but specific findings were rarely described in UGIS. And the authors attempted to clarify the area gastrica of the stomach related to the chronic gastritis. The authors reviewed 'Areae gastricae' micromucosal patterns of stomach, retrospectively with double contrast barium meal study in 16 cases, histologically proven cases of chronic gastritis by endoscopic biopsy from January 1, 1980 to June 30, 1980. Here the commonest site of chronic gastritis is evident in 12 cases in pyloric gland area, and a sixe of area gastrica shows above 2.5mm in longest diameter with combinding morphology, regular to irregular, 3 to 1 and coarse barium accumulations of intervening sulci. The chronic gastritis could be suggested with this better technique of UGIS

  14. The radiological study of areas gastricae in chronic gastritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, D. I.; Jaun, W. K.; Lee, S. W.; Han, C. Y. [Inje Medical College Paik Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-12-15

    A chronic gastritis is common and clinically significant, but specific findings were rarely described in UGIS. And the authors attempted to clarify the area gastrica of the stomach related to the chronic gastritis. The authors reviewed 'Areae gastricae' micromucosal patterns of stomach, retrospectively with double contrast barium meal study in 16 cases, histologically proven cases of chronic gastritis by endoscopic biopsy from January 1, 1980 to June 30, 1980. Here the commonest site of chronic gastritis is evident in 12 cases in pyloric gland area, and a sixe of area gastrica shows above 2.5mm in longest diameter with combinding morphology, regular to irregular, 3 to 1 and coarse barium accumulations of intervening sulci. The chronic gastritis could be suggested with this better technique of UGIS.

  15. Macro Study of Spatial Development Area on Tourism Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widhianthini Widhianthini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Macro study is one approach that combines the rational method based on the results of previous studies by the authority with the empirical method utilizing the survey techniques. The purpose of this macro study is to identify and analyze the potentials, problems, and the limiting factors, and the needs of the regency; and to recommend the programs and models required by the community to achieve the sustainable development. This research uses the Participatory Rural Appraisal method, the  interview techniques (Semi Structured Interview, the technique of focused group discussion (FGD, the Rapid District Appraisal (RDA, then it is analyzed by the empirical and dynamical systems. The overview of macro studies is particularly relevant in developing the regions, especially the rural areas, based on the existing advantages, such as in Tabanan Regency. Tabanan Regency is a granary in Bali Province and the zoning of agricultural commodities in quadrant III,which is the rural farming area with combined functions between the cultivated and rural areas supported by the tourism department. The studies of the areas in the form of potential analysis, problem analysis, requirement analysis become the guidelines for preparing the development scenarios and program formats. The studies will then constitute the factors driving the realization of sustainable development of tourism villages in supporting the sustainable agriculture.

  16. Sedimentation studies at MUDA catchment area, Kedah, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarudin Samuding; Juhari Yusuf; Wan Abdul Aziz; Juhari Latiff

    2000-01-01

    A study on the sediment size distribution and determination of sediment density profile in the selected area of Muda dam catchment area, Kedah is presented. The objective of the study was to establish a base line data of the input sedimentation with regards to the effects of development within the catchment in the future. Three main sampling locations were identified namely at Sungai Teliang, Sungai Muda and Muda reservoir. Measurement of sediment thickness was performed by using nuclear gauges i.e. direct transmission and backscattering methods. Results showed that the grain size distribution of sediment ranges from gravel to clay sizes. In the reservoir and downstream of the river, most of the samples studied consisting of fine sediment i.e silt and clay sizes (<63,um). However, sediment distribution in the upstream section of Sungai Teliang mainly consist of fine to coarse sand. Sediment density profiles in the reservoir showed little changes, whereas bed sediment profiles in the river cross-sectional areas exhibit some changes. The results also showed that thickness of bedload sediment were different from one location to another, in which the thickness may achieve up to 0.75 metre in some areas. Based on the sediment distribution profile analysis, the study site could be divided into two parts comprising of dynamic area (region) covering selected locations along the river and deposited sediment in the reservoir. Basic information derived from this study may provide as one of the important inputs for the MADA reservoir management authority in monitoring, supervising y and identifying rate and source of sediment in the catchment area

  17. Radiological environmental study in area to future anthropogenic transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinnan, T.; MIller, C.R.A.

    1998-01-01

    In this work the existent relationship is identified between the data radioecologics and the geological formations to the north area Holguin with the objective to study the possible incidence that this can have in the rate environmental dose in the event of transformations anthropogenic the place

  18. Area Studies and Special Collections: Shared Challenges, Shared Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lisa R.; Whittaker, Beth M.

    2015-01-01

    Special collections and area studies librarians face similar challenges in the changing academic library environment, including the need to articulate the value of these specialized collections and to mainstream processes and practices into larger discovery, teaching, learning, and research efforts. For some institutions, these similarities have…

  19. Background radiation study of Offa industrial area of Kwara State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the external background radiation in Offa industrial area of Kwara State is hereby reported. An in-situ measurement using two Digilert radiation monitors at five different stations were carried out. A mean exposure rate of 0.0132mR/hr, which represents 20% elevation from the standard background radiation, was ...

  20. 78 FR 20796 - Data Specifications for Collecting Study Area Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ..., DC 20554, and may also be purchased from the Commission's copy contractor, BCPI, Inc., Portals II... submission. Third, the Bureau permits incumbent LECs that are price cap carriers to submit exchange-level... study area boundary data should notify the Commission in writing of their intention to do so by filing a...

  1. Wildlife Management Areas in Tanzania: A Study of Opportunities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2003 Tanzania established 16 pilot Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs), with the aim of enhancing conservation and poverty alleviation through sustainable utilization of natural resources. This study examines the opportunities and challenges of this policy initiative with reference to the proposed WMAs. Data were ...

  2. Termites of the Savanna ecosystem project study area, Nylsvley

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ferrar, P

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the termite fauna of the Savanna Ecosystem Project study area at the Nylsvley Nature Reserve, with an illustrated key for identification of species. Twenty-one species of fifteen genera and two families are recorded, and notes...

  3. Preliminary studies on the optimization of countermeasures for agricultural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Igreja, Eduardo; Barboza, Adriana E.; Silva, Diogo N.G. da; Guimaraes, Jean R.D.; Perez, Daniel V.

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of remediation measures for rural areas is more complex than that for urban ones, due to the influence of large number of variables associated with climate, diet, farming practices and the type of soil. Thus, it is not possible to perform generic studies applicable to all types of area. Specific studies and surveys should be made in the areas most likely to contamination from a nuclear accident. Preliminary studies demonstrated that the different soil types in Brazil is more relevant to the ingestion dose than the regional differences in diets. Other studies have described the prioritization of areas and products for detailed survey on soil types and remediation procedures, for an accident at the NPP in Angra dos Reis, based on radiological and economic aspects. The most relevant product was milk, due to both its relevance to the intake and the loss of income for the counties. The contribution of milk to dose depends on the season of the year when the accident occurs, mainly due to the relative contribution of other items of the diet. The timing of the application of the countermeasure has an important effect on the dose reduction that can be achieved. For I-131, protective measures must be considered within the emergency phase in order to be effective. The main action on reducing ingestion doses is the removal of food items from diet, while providing clean food to the population. (author)

  4. Preliminary studies on the optimization of countermeasures for agricultural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Igreja, Eduardo; Barboza, Adriana E., E-mail: elainerochedo@gmail.com, E-mail: eduigreja@gmail.com, E-mail: adrianaebarboza@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Diogo N.G. da; Guimaraes, Jean R.D., E-mail: diogons@gmail.com, E-mail: jeanrdg@biof.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho; Wasserman, Maria Angelica V., E-mail: mwasserman@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Perez, Daniel V. [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos (EMBRAPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The assessment of remediation measures for rural areas is more complex than that for urban ones, due to the influence of large number of variables associated with climate, diet, farming practices and the type of soil. Thus, it is not possible to perform generic studies applicable to all types of area. Specific studies and surveys should be made in the areas most likely to contamination from a nuclear accident. Preliminary studies demonstrated that the different soil types in Brazil is more relevant to the ingestion dose than the regional differences in diets. Other studies have described the prioritization of areas and products for detailed survey on soil types and remediation procedures, for an accident at the NPP in Angra dos Reis, based on radiological and economic aspects. The most relevant product was milk, due to both its relevance to the intake and the loss of income for the counties. The contribution of milk to dose depends on the season of the year when the accident occurs, mainly due to the relative contribution of other items of the diet. The timing of the application of the countermeasure has an important effect on the dose reduction that can be achieved. For I-131, protective measures must be considered within the emergency phase in order to be effective. The main action on reducing ingestion doses is the removal of food items from diet, while providing clean food to the population. (author)

  5. Study on agroforestry practices in Abak Local Government Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to assess the various agroforestry practices in Abak Local Government Area (LGA) of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaires, physical observations and oral interview were used to collect data from agroforestry farmers (respondents) in the four clans (Abak, Otoro, Midim and ...

  6. Viticulture – Challenge for Tourism Development (Znojmo Case Study Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Foret

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article, which deals with the issue whether the viticulture can be the challenge for tourism development, is based on research conducted in Znojmo case study area (the Czech Republic. It starts with general introduction of wine tourism concept based on the selected results of the previous scientific researches. The second part of the article brings description of the methods and brief characterisation of case study area. The third part pays attention to the analyses of the selected statistical data showing importance of viticulture for the case study area. The main fourth part is focused on selected activities which are connected with projects developing wine tourism (especially vineyards and vine festivals, where cooperation of different actors is necessary and continues by analysing of the potential of more intensive development of wine tourism on example of the important actor in case study area – wine producer Znovín Znojmo. The conducted research shows strong local embededness and association of company with the tourism industry. The article concludes with general recommendations, which emphasize the importance of effective partnership of the different actors by successful development of wine tourism.

  7. Asian Studies/Global Studies: Transcending Area Studies and Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The post–World War II growth of area studies, and Asian studies in particular, posed a serious challenge to the mainstream social sciences. Yet the epistemic and institutional foundations of area studies were never well articulated or justified, and the post–Cold War years brought a pervasive sense of crisis to its intellectual mission and justification. In particular, the author focuses on the tensions, if not contradictions, between social science disciplines and area studies. In advocating a more integrated human science, which depends more on mobile networks of scholars than on fixed fields of discipline-bound professors, the author suggests global studies as a fitting field of inquiry in the age of globalization.

  8. S Plant Aggregate Area Management study technical baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFord, D.H.; Carpenter, R.W.

    1995-05-01

    This document is prepared in support of an Aggregate Area Management Study of S Plant, 200 West Area, at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. It provides a technical baseline of the aggregate area and the results from an environmental investigation undertaken by the Technical Baseline Section of the Environmental Engineering Group, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This document is based on review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, drawings and photographs, supplemented with site inspections and employee interviews. This report describes the REDOX facility and its waste sites, including cribs, french drains, septic tanks and drain fields, trenches, catch tanks, settling tanks, diversion boxes, underground tank farms designed for high-level liquid wastes, and the lines and encasements that connect them

  9. Z plant aggregate area management study technical baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFord, D.H.; Carpenter, R.W.

    1995-05-01

    This document was prepared in support of the development of a Aggregate Area Management Study of Z Plant, 200 West Area, at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. It provides a technical description and operational history of the aggregate area and results from an environmental investigation undertaken by the Technical Baseline Section of the Environmental Engineering Group, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) which is currently the Waste Site and Facility Research Office, Natural Resources, Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI). It is based upon review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, drawings and photographs, supplemented with site inspections and employee interviews. No intrusive field investigations or sampling were conducted in support of this report

  10. Supporting research in area studies a guide for academic libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Pitman, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    Supporting Research in Area Studies: A Guide for Academic Libraries focuses on the study of other countries or regions of the world, crossing traditional disciplinary boundaries in the humanities and social sciences. The book provides a comprehensive guide for academic libraries supporting communities of researchers, exploring the specialist requirements of these researchers in information resources, resource discovery tools, information skills, and the challenges of working with materials in multiple languages. The book makes the case that adapting systems and procedures to meet these needs will help academic libraries be better placed to support their institutions' international agenda. Early chapters cover the academic landscape, its history, area studies, librarianship, and acquisitions. Subsequent chapters discuss collections management, digital products, and the digital humanities, and their role in academic projects, with final sections exploring information skills and the various disciplinary skills t...

  11. Modelling catchment areas for secondary care providers: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Simon; Wardlaw, Jessica; Crouch, Susan; Carolan, Michelle

    2011-09-01

    Hospitals need to understand patient flows in an increasingly competitive health economy. New initiatives like Patient Choice and the Darzi Review further increase this demand. Essential to understanding patient flows are demographic and geographic profiles of health care service providers, known as 'catchment areas' and 'catchment populations'. This information helps Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) to review how their populations are accessing services, measure inequalities and commission services; likewise it assists Secondary Care Providers (SCPs) to measure and assess potential gains in market share, redesign services, evaluate admission thresholds and plan financial budgets. Unlike PCTs, SCPs do not operate within fixed geographic boundaries. Traditionally, SCPs have used administrative boundaries or arbitrary drive times to model catchment areas. Neither approach satisfactorily represents current patient flows. Furthermore, these techniques are time-consuming and can be challenging for healthcare managers to exploit. This paper presents three different approaches to define catchment areas, each more detailed than the previous method. The first approach 'First Past the Post' defines catchment areas by allocating a dominant SCP to each Census Output Area (OA). The SCP with the highest proportion of activity within each OA is considered the dominant SCP. The second approach 'Proportional Flow' allocates activity proportionally to each OA. This approach allows for cross-boundary flows to be captured in a catchment area. The third and final approach uses a gravity model to define a catchment area, which incorporates drive or travel time into the analysis. Comparing approaches helps healthcare providers to understand whether using more traditional and simplistic approaches to define catchment areas and populations achieves the same or similar results as complex mathematical modelling. This paper has demonstrated, using a case study of Manchester, that when estimating

  12. Experimental study on generation of large area uniform electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Ying; Yi Aiping; Liu Jingru; Qian Hang; Huang Xin; Yu Li; Su Jiancang; Ding Zhenjie; Ding Yongzhong; Yu Jianguo

    2007-01-01

    In the experiment of gas laser pumped by electron beam, large area uniform electron beam is important to generate high efficiency laser output. The experimental study on generation of large area uniform electron beam with SPG-200 pulsed power generator is introduced. SPG-200 is an all-solid-state components pulsed power generator based on SOS, and its open voltage is more than 350 kV. The cathode have the area of 24 mm x 294 mm, and the anode-cathode(A-C)gap spacing is adjustable from 0 to 49 mm. The electron beam of cathode emission is transported to the laser chamber through the diode pressure foil, which sepa-rates the vacuum chamber from the laser chamber. Velvet and graphite cathodes are studied, each generates large area electron beam. The diode parameters are presented, and the uniformity of e-beam is diagnosed. The experimental results show that the diode voltage of the graphite cathode is 240-280 kV, and the diode current is 0.7-1.8 kA. The diode voltage of the velvet cathode is 200-250 kV, and the diode current is 1.5-1.7 kA. The uniformity of the velvet cathode emission is better than that of the graphite cathode. (authors)

  13. Environmental study for radionuclides at Kurun-Uro area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, S.M.N.

    1993-01-01

    This work is aimed to study the environmental distribution of the terrestrial radionuclides and the resultant dose at Nuba mountains ( Kurun-Uro area ). This area has a high background natural radioactivity. More over it contains a rockphosphate zone lying between J. Kurun and J. Uro. Field scanning of gamma ray measurements on BGS- ISL Scintillomter was carried. At the same time different environment samples ( rock, soil, air, water and food ) were collected. These samples were treated then investigated on gamma spectrometry technique to determine radionuclides activity concentrations. X-ray fluorescent technique was used for the determination of P 2 O 5 and other elements. For phosphate determination as P 2 O 5 % the Bennelt Reed chemical method was used. From gamma counts and nuclides activity concentrations in soil samples the external exposure rate and the external Annual Effective Dose Equivalent (AEDE) were estimated. While the internal exposure rate and the internal (AEDE) were estimated from nuclides concentrations in air, water and food. The external (AEDE) were found to be 3.2 mSv at Kurun and 4.15 mSv at Uro. Over J. Kurun it is 20 mSv and 32 mSv over J. Uro. The internal AEDE were found to be 8.5 mSv and 12.9 mSv at Kurun and Uro respectively. The total AEDE is 11.7 mSv for Kurun area and 17 mSv for Uro. the AEDE at this area is seven times higher than the normal areas. The average P 2 O 5 % in the rock samples results using (XRF) and wet chemical method is 25% and 19% for Kurun and Uro respectively, so this area is very promising for fertilizer production, but special care must be taken for radiation impact on the environment. (author).41 refs.,

  14. Optimizing malarial epidemiological studies in areas of low transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amerasinghe, Priyanie H; Alifrangis, Michael; van der Hoek, Wim

    2005-01-01

    risk factor in this area was the location of houses relative to confirmed vector breeding sites. At the peak of the transmission season, the results pointed in the same direction, irrespective of the diagnostic method used. However, the importance of distance from the breeding site......Malaria risk factor studies have traditionally used microscopy readings of blood slides as the measure of malaria infection in humans, although alternatives are available. There is the need for an assessment of how the use of these alternative diagnostic approaches will influence the efficiency...... and significance of epidemiological studies. In an area of Sri Lanka with known risk factors for malaria, two cross-sectional surveys were done at the start and at the peak of transmission season. Microscopy was compared with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The major...

  15. Geoelectrical Study On The Area West Of Aswan Town, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, H. A. [حمزه احمد ابراهيم; Omran, A. A.; Selim, S. A.

    1992-01-01

    A geoelectrical resistivity survey on the area west of Aswan has been conducted in order to investigate its prevailing hydrogeological and subsurface geological conditions. The study demonstrates the occurrence of a probably water-bearing bed of irregular thickness and variable depth. The change in resistivity values within the aquifer may reflect the variation in water quality and rock texture. The aquifer is mainly recharged across the dominant joint system and through fractures from the Ni...

  16. Analysis of Land Deformation on Slope Area using PS InSAR. Case Study: Malang Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudiana, Dodi; Rizkinia, Mia; Arief, Rahmat; Rokhmatuloh; Ardiansyah; Setiadi, Bambang; Bayuaji, Luhur; Sri Sumantyo, Josaphat Tetuko

    2014-01-01

    The geographical position of Indonesia located between two continents and oceans is strategic, but at large risk of experiencing various disasters. Climate change and vulnerable location (surrounded by plates and geological faults in the Earth's crust) creates an earthquake-prone region and causes land/mudslides. In this paper, PS InSAR method (Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) is implemented to Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) data to study the potential damage caused by the earthquake or volcanic eruption in Malang vicinity. By comparing the amplitude images periodically, shifting soil can be determined using precise orbital information. The analysis showed a significant decrease of land deformation on slope area in Klojen district in Malang city, reached up to −7.128 mm/year

  17. Human genetics studies in areas of high natural radiation. IV. Research in radioactive areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire-Maia, A [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas e Biologicas de Botucatu (Brazil). Departamento de Genetica

    1974-01-01

    A review is made on researches performed in areas with high levels of natural radioactivity. Some considerations are made on the importance and difficulties involved in projects of this kind. Although there is no doubt that natural radioactivity is one of the causes of the so-called spontaneous mutations, the practical demonstration of this assertion is extremely complex. Projects trying to correlate high levels of natural radioactivity with the occurrence of cancer (in general, or specific), leukemia, congenital malformations (in general or specific), neuro-vegetative disturbs, sex ratio, mortality, and physical development, as well as other characteristics. Some researches with animals are also mentioned, and references are given for plant studies. A critical analysis is made of some works relating to human populations.

  18. Human genetics studies in areas of high natural radiation.IV. Research in radioactive areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire-Maia, A.

    1974-01-01

    A review is made on researches performed in areas with high levels of natural radioactivity. Some considerations are made on the importance and difficulties involved in projects of this kind. Although there is no doubt that natural radioactivity is one of the causes of the so-called spontaneous mutations, the practical demonstration of this assertion is extremely complex. Projects trying to correlate high levels of natural radioactivity with the occurrence of cancer (in general, or specific), leukemia, congenital malformations (in general or specific), neuro-vegetative disturbs, sex ratio, mortality, and physical development, as well as other characteristics. Some researches with animals are also mentioned, and references are given for plant studies. A critical analysis is made of some works relating to human populations [pt

  19. Studies on characteristics of water sources around Kaiga project area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, T.R.; Krishna Bhat, D.; Thimme Gowda, B.; Sherigara, B.S.; Abdul Khadar, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    A systematic and detailed study of characteristics of ground water, Kali river water and rain water samples around Kaiga project area has been undertaken. The analysis of a large number of parameters revealed that the ground waters and Kali river water are of calcium-bicarbonate type as indicated by Romani's modified Hill Piper diagram. The ionic impurities in ground waters and Kali river water are well within the Indian Drinking Water Specifications. The results obtained would serve as base line data for future impact studies. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab

  20. Isotope study of groundwater in Beishan area, Gansu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Liu Shufen; Yang Tianxiao

    2004-01-01

    Using the isotope techniques, the groundwater origin, evolution and circulation in the potential site of China's high-level waste repository are studied. The results indicate that both shallow groundwaters are and deep groundwaters in the site area are of meteoric origin. The shallow groundwaters are mainly recharged by modern and local precipitation, and the deep groundwaters are originated from regional history period with lower temperature. Through the study we can also understand that the deep underground is a very low-permeability system where the groundwater flow-rates are very low. (author)

  1. Area Studies and Eastern Europe: How Eastern Europe Collapsed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Kasapović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part, the author outlines the development of area studies in contemporary comparative politics, and points to their importance for the development of political science. In the second part, she examines the methodology – research design and methods – of regional comparatistics, paying particular attention to the problem of defining the region as a central category in this field of comparative politics. The third and central part is focused on the emergence of Eastern Europe as a historical-political and socio-cultural region in the course of history, especially after World War II, and on its dissolution in the processes of democratic transformation of communist regimes in the last two decades. The dissolution of Eastern Europe has resulted in restoration of a tripartite political geography in the area which it used to take up, made up of Central Europe, Southeast Europe and the proper Eastern Europe.

  2. Isoprene emission inventory for the BOREAS southern study area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westberg, H.; Lamb, B.; Kempf, K.; Allwine, G.

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) was designed to measure trace gas fluxes, nutrient cycling, hydrologic budgets and other ecosystem features in order to establish relationships between ecosystem processes and various global climate change scenarios. During the 1994 BOREAS field study isoprene and terpene emissions have been measured at several sites in the Southern Study Area (SSA). Ambient measurements were also made to help establish the chemical importance of these biogenic species in boreal atmosphere. The data was used to test and improve algorithms for predicting emission rates as a function of species, environmental conditions and biomass dynamics and to provide an expanded database describing the relationship of volatile organic compounds emissions to ecosystem dynamics. The study also sought to provide the foundation for improved understanding of physical exchange processes, and define hydrocarbon reactivity in the boundary layer at high latitudes. Details of the biogenic emission rate measurements made in the SSA are also discussed, including the creation of an isoprene emission inventory for the area. The study has been helpful in eliminating major sources of uncertainty associated with estimates of carbon loss due to isoprene emission on the BOREAS SSA. 28 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  3. Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area Transportation Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area is a popular Bureau of Land Management natural area located near Las Vegas, Nevada. Red Rock Canyon experiences heavy congestion on its Scenic Drive and associated parking areas, due to high volumes of visit...

  4. Escompte Pre-modelling Studies In The Marseille Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleux, F.; Rosset, R.

    On June and July 2001, the campaign ESCOMPTE took place in the Marseille area in southern of France, with the aim of generating a detailed 3-D data base for the study of dynamics and chemistry of high pollution events so as to validate and improve air quality models. Previous to this field experiment, a pre-modelling exercise has been performed to document the dynamic interactions between sea and land breezes and orographics flows over this complex topographical area. This study was carried out using a nesting procedure at local and regional scales using the MESO-NH model (jointly developed by Laboratoire d'Aérologie and Meteofrance at Toulouse). Tracers emitted at various locations in the Marseille and Etang de Berre areas were first fol- lowed, then in a second step, full chemistry simulations have been run for two selected periods on June and July 1999, quite similar to the meteorological situations met dur- ing the IOP2a and the IOP4 in the 2001 campaign. The performance of the model has been assessed by comparing measured data with simulated data for meteorological pa- rameters and ozone. The general ability of the model to correctly simulate these two situations allows to further study ozone plume developments in more details. In par- ticular, these studies bear upon the relative roles of O3 transport versus O3 chemical production, as a function of distance within the plume to anthropogenic emissions and biogenic emissions, together with ozone daily variations and peak values observed at rural sites.

  5. Historical Development of Skiing: Case Study in Durmitor Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajko Milašinović

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is the history of skiing, while the main goal will be the historical development of skiing in the mountain Durmitor area in Montenegro. The study consists two goals. The first goal is the emergence of the first ski in the Montenegro and benefits that are brought. The second and the main goal is the occurrence and development of skiing and ski sports in the territory of mountain Durmitor. During the making of this study, the authors used descriptive method with consulting of competent literature. The previous authors’ experience in this field was also so useful. Moreover, the author used the analytic method and parallel method that is the most productive if you make some inferences about some appearance. The main outcome of this study was showing of historical progress of ski sports in the territory of mountain Durmitor from early beginnings to the modern Olympic skiing. Skis and ski sport were early appeared in the region of Mount Durmitor. The mountain and the region around it, are very rich with slopes with Olympic diameter, with plenty of snowfall and long winters. However, lack of financial investment, channeling money to other centers, led to the fact that the skiing in this area is at a low level.

  6. Fingersomatotopy in area 3b: an fMRI-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosén Birgitta

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary sensory cortex (S1 in the postcentral gyrus is comprised of four areas that each contain a body map, where the representation of the hand is located with the thumb most laterally, anteriorly and inferiorly and the little finger most medially, posteriorly and superiorly. Previous studies on somatotopy using functional MRI have either used low field strength, have included a small number of subjects or failed to attribute activations to any area within S1. In the present study we included twenty subjects, who were investigated at 3 Tesla (T. We focused specifically on Brodmann area 3b, which neurons have discrete receptive fields with a potentially more clearcut somatotopic organisation. The spatial distribution for all fingers' peak activation was determined and group as well as individual analysis was performed. Results Activation maps from 18 subjects were of adequate quality; in 17 subjects activations were present for all fingers and these data were further analysed. In the group analysis the thumb was located most laterally, anteriorly and inferiorly with the other fingers sequentially positioned more medially, posteriorly and superiorly. At the individual level this somatotopic relationship was present for the thumb and little finger, with a higher variability for the fingers in between. The Euclidian distance between the first and fifth finger was 17.2 mm, between the first and second finger 10.6 mm and between the remaining fingers on average 6.3 mm. Conclusion Results from the group analysis, that is both the location of the fingers and the Euclidian distances, are well comparable to results from previous studies using a wide range of modalities. On the subject level the spatial localisation of the fingers showed a less stringent somatotopic order so that the location of a finger in a single subject cannot be predicted from the group result.

  7. Visual aesthetics study: Gibson Dome area, Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    The Visual Aesthetics study was performed as an initial assessment of concerns regarding impacts to visual resources that might be associated with the construction of a geologic nuclear waste repository and associated rail routes in the Gibson Dome location of southeastern Utah. Potential impacts to visual resources were evaluated by predicting visibility of the facility and railway routes using the US Forest Service (USFS) computer program, VIEWIT, and by applying the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Visual Resource Management (VRM) methodology. Five proposed facility sites in the Gibson Dome area and three proposed railway routes were evaluated for visual impact. 10 references, 19 figures, 5 tables

  8. Small Glacier Area Studies: A New Approach for Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavasli, Dogukan D.; Tucker, Compton J.

    2012-01-01

    Many regions of Earth have glaciers that have been neglected for study because they are small. We report on a new approach to overcome the problem of studying small glaciers, using Turkey as an example. Prior to our study, no reliable estimates of Turkish glaciers existed because of a lack of systematic mapping, difficulty in using Landsat data collected before 1982, snowpack vs. glacier ice differentiation using existing satellite data and aerial photography, the previous high cost of Landsat images, and a lack of high-resolution imagery of small Turkish glaciers. Since 2008, a large number of area of nine smaller glaciers in Turkey. We also used five Landsat-3 Return Beam Videcon (RBV) 30 m pixel resolution images, all from 1980, for six glaciers. The total area of Turkish glaciers decreased from 23 km2 in the 1970s to 10.1 km2 in 2007-2011. By 2007-2011, six Turkish glaciers disappeared, four were < 0.3 km2, and only three were 1.0 km2 or larger. No trends in precipitation from 1970 to 2006 and cloud cover from 1980 to 2010 were found, while surface temperatures increased, with summer minimum temperatures showing the greatest increase. We conclude that increased surface temperatures during the summer were responsible for the 56% recession of Turkish glaciers from the 1970s to 2006-2011.

  9. Study of stress in nuclear area workers: silent enemy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Maria da Penha Sanches; Vanni, Silvia Regina; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de; Sabundjian, Gaiane

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear accidents occurred in Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima were influenced by human factors. The objective of this paper is to study about the factors that influence the level of stress of the nuclear area workers. The paper is based on theoretical assumptions on occupational stress and its manifestations. The methodology used is based on questionnaires and interviews, obtained from Martins' work published in 2008 about the study of human factors focused on research reactor operators IEA-R1, of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN). In that study were analyzed the accidents occurred by human failure. The results presented in this paper showed some improvements in the reactors operators' work, and health. Operational reliability and facilities safety also improved. (author)

  10. Study of stress in nuclear area workers: silent enemy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Maria da Penha Sanches; Vanni, Silvia Regina [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha (CTMSP-SP), SP (Brazil); Andrade, Delvonei Alves de; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: delvonei@ipen.b, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The nuclear accidents occurred in Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima were influenced by human factors. The objective of this paper is to study about the factors that influence the level of stress of the nuclear area workers. The paper is based on theoretical assumptions on occupational stress and its manifestations. The methodology used is based on questionnaires and interviews, obtained from Martins' work published in 2008 about the study of human factors focused on research reactor operators IEA-R1, of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN). In that study were analyzed the accidents occurred by human failure. The results presented in this paper showed some improvements in the reactors operators' work, and health. Operational reliability and facilities safety also improved. (author)

  11. Quantitative Study of Green Area for Climate Sensitive Terraced Housing Area Design in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, O T S; Saito, K; Said, I

    2014-01-01

    Neighbourhood plays a significant role in peoples' daily lives. Nowadays, terraced housing is common in Malaysia, and green areas in the neighborhood are not used to their maximum. The aim of the research is to quantify the types of green area that are most efficient for cooling the environment for thermal comfort and mitigation of Urban Heat Island. Spatial and environmental inputs are manipulated for the simulation using Geographic Information System (GIS) integrated with computational microclimate simulation. The outcome of this research is a climate sensitive housing environment model framework on the green area to solve the problem of Urban Heat Island

  12. [Entomologic study of loaiasis transmission in the Lekie area (Cameroon)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demanou, M; Pion, S D; Boussinesq, M

    2001-11-01

    A number of cases of Loa encephalopathy have been recorded after ivermectin treatment in the Lekie Division, an area of degraded forest located in central Cameroon. An entomological study was carried out in a village of this region between May 1999 and April 2000 to determine whether the high microfilarial loads of Loa found in the population, which can exceed 10,000 microfilariae per ml of blood, were related to high densities of vector populations. The Chrysops collected at 10 catching stations, using hand nets, by persons standing by a wood fire, were dissected to evaluate their level of infection with Loa. The vectorial densities were three-fold higher in the forest stations than in those located near the habitations (2307 and 725 bites per man per year, respectively). These values are lower than those reported from similar studies in Cameroon, Congo and Gabon. Measurement of Chrysops densities does not seem to be an appropriate tool to evaluate the level of endemicity of loiasis, and to delineate the areas where there is a risk of post-ivermectin Loa encephalopathies.

  13. Conceptual study of superconducting urban area power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noe, Mathias; Gold-acker, Wilfried; Bach, Robert; Prusseit, Werner; Willen, Dag; Poelchau, Juri; Linke, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Efficient transmission, distribution and usage of electricity are fundamental requirements for providing citizens, societies and economies with essential energy resources. It will be a major future challenge to integrate more sustainable generation resources, to meet growing electricity demand and to renew electricity networks. Research and development on superconducting equipment and components have an important role to play in addressing these challenges. Up to now, most studies on superconducting applications in power systems have been concentrated on the application of specific devices like for example cables and current limiters. In contrast to this, the main focus of our study is to show the consequence of a large scale integration of superconducting power equipment in distribution level urban power systems. Specific objectives are to summarize the state-of-the-art of superconducting power equipment including cooling systems and to compare the superconducting power system with respect to energy and economic efficiency with conventional solutions. Several scenarios were considered starting from the replacement of an existing distribution level sub-grid up to a full superconducting urban area distribution level power system. One major result is that a full superconducting urban area distribution level power system could be cost competitive with existing solutions in the future. In addition to that, superconducting power systems offer higher energy efficiency as well as a number of technical advantages like lower voltage drops and improved stability.

  14. Fundamental study on interfacial area transport model (I) (contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Kaichiro; Nakamura, Hideo

    2001-03-01

    Recently, improvement in the best-estimate (BE) code predictive capability is attempted by incorporating the interfacial area transport model (IATM) into a one-dimensional two-fluid model to represent gas-liquid two-phase flows in detail with less uncertainty in the flow predictions. Internationally, the nuclear regulatory commission (NRC) and Purdue University in the U.S.A. and CEA in France have promoted the renewal of their BE codes such as TRAC, RELAP5 and CATHARE, by introducing the IATM in cooperative manner. In Japan, JAERI is underway to develop a one-dimensional code based primarily on the IATM against the licensing procedures of next-generation nuclear reactors. The IATM has a possibility to correctly predict flow transient along flow path for such flows as developing flows, multi-dimensional flows, transitional flows, boiling flows, which are difficult to accurately predict by the two-fluid models employed in the current BE codes. The newly developed code with the IATM would dramatically improve the accuracy in the flow prediction. The model, however, is under development and needs great effort to overcome many difficulties with plenty of theoretical considerations based on much of data bases to be acquired further. This study attempts to measure interfacial area in air-water two-phase flows in a large-diameter tube to understand the characteristic of multi-dimensional flows that usually appear in large-diameter tube flows, and provide data bases, to contribute the development of the IATM. The results obtained by such institutes as Purdue University and CEA France were reviewed first. Clarified are the current status and problems of the IATM, basics and practical methods to measure the interfacial area using multi-sensor miniature local probes; metal needle electro-resistance probe and fiber-optic probe. It was found that the applicability of the IATM is limited mostly to a one-dimensional bubbly flow, and is far from satisfactory for multi

  15. Geotechnical parameters for three deep ocean study areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the results of geotechnical measurements made on cores taken at the three deep ocean sites that have been studied in detail as part of the international programme assessing the feasibility of deep ocean disposal of heat-generating radioactive waste. The capabilities of existing sampling methods and the adequacy of the available data for providing the geotechnical parameters needed to evaluate the technical feasibility of deep ocean disposal are discussed. It is concluded that, while it has not been possible to obtain core samples of sufficient quality and depth to provide all the parameters needed for the assessment, no fundamental differences between the sediments at the study areas and those found on land or in shallow water have been identified. (author)

  16. International Conflict Studies as a Research and Teaching Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Viktorovna Khudaykulova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes international conflict studies as a science and an educational discipline. The analysis of the subject field and professional terminology adopted in this area both in Russian and in English is provided. Formation of international conflict studies as a distinct field of study in the United States and Western Europe is described. The results of analysis of 10 leading foreign schools on international conflict studies are presented. The main factors that were taken into account in identifying the leading centers were the existence of a separate research (educational analysis units of international conflicts, the world's leading scientific journals on conflict resolution, as well as databases for the analysis of international conflicts. The role of professional associations, education consortia and international organizations (UNESCO in the study of international conflicts is described. An analysis of the leading think tanks on defense and national security (as rated by Philadelphia think tank ranking is also provided. Particular attention is given to interdisciplinary research methodology of international conflicts and the structure of educational programs at leading schools in the world in international relations. The author summarizes the recommendations of the Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs (APSIA to create educational programs of this kind.

  17. Seattle wide-area information for travelers (SWIFT) : architecture study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-19

    The SWIFT (Seattle Wide-area Information For Travelers) Field Operational Test was intended to evaluate the performance of a large-scale urban Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS) deployment in the Seattle area. The unique features of the SWIF...

  18. U Plant Aggregate Area Management study technical baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFord, D.H.; Carpenter, R.W.

    1995-05-01

    This document was prepared in support of an Aggregate Area Management Study of U Plant. It provides a technical baseline of the aggregate area and results from an environmental investigation that was undertaken by the Technical Baseline Section of the Environmental Engineering Group, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), which is currently the Waste Site and Facility Research Office, Natural Resources, Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI). It is based upon review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, drawings and photographs, supplemented with site inspections and employee interviews. U Plant refers to the 221-U Process Canyon Building, a chemical separation facility constructed during World War II. It also includes the Uranium Oxide (UO 3 ) Plant constructed at the same time as 221-U as an adjunct to the original plutonium separation process but which, like 221-U, was converted for other missions. Waste sites are associated primarily with U Plant's 1952 through 1958 Uranium Metal Recovery Program mission and the U0 3 Plant's ongoing U0 3 mission. Waste sites include cribs, reverse wells, french drains, septic tanks and drain fields, trenches, catch tanks, settling tanks, diversion boxes, a waste vault, and the lines and encasements that connect them. It also includes the U Pond and its feed ditches and an underground tank farm designed for high-level liquid wastes

  19. Physicochemical and radiological studies on some egyptian aquatic areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, S.K.; Abdel Malik, W.E.Y.; Seifin, S.M.; Abou-zeid, H.M.

    2005-01-01

    For the purpose of estimating the radiological health and safety to the Egyptian population arises from the natural background involved with coastal areas, it is necessary to make a comprehensive study to investigate the natural radionuclides activities in this environmental ecology. The locations of such areas were chosen from those in which people spend some time (e.g. the Mediterranean and Red Sea beaches, Suez Canal in addition to the River Nile Ismailia Canal and Quaroun Lake). Water and soil samples were brought from these locations and subjected to intensive physical, chemical analysis and radiological investigations. The densities of the collected soil samples were found to fall in the region of clay densities (2.30 - 2.70 g/cm 3 ). The particle size distribution analysis, of these soil samples showed values ranging from 128 Μ m to 1303 Μ according to sample site. The collected samples are mainly silicates with variable amounts of the major cations; Ca + +, Mg + +, Na + , K + with some other trace elements. For the radiological investigations 238 U , 226 R a, 232 T h and 40 K activity concentrations were resolved by spectroscopy technique. The majority of samples examined in this work showed variable activities of the naturally occurring radionuclides with fairly low levels compared with literature values reported in other countries. The analysis and discussions of the obtained data are thoroughly performed with the use of equations to estimate the radiation doses

  20. PIXE study on ancient pottery from Chinese Shanghai area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.S.; Zhang, Z.Q.; Song, J.; Gao, M.H.; Zhu, D.; Lin, J.W.; Feng, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    Shanghai is the largest city in China, and it also has a very long history. Archaeologists have found that six thousand yeas ago, there were ancient people living at Songze, Qingpu County, Shanghai. This paper reports the study of ancient potteries unearthed from the Guangfulin site located at Songjiang, Shanghai. The potteries unearthed from Guangfulin site belonged to two different culture types: the Liangzhu culture type (local culture) and a new culture, which might be derived from elsewhere. PIXE has been used to measure the chemical compositions of samples and factor analysis was used. Experimental results show that the compositions of the pottery from the two phases are different from each other. It means that the raw materials used to make the ancient pottery originate from different places. This results support the idea suggested by archaeologists that a group of ancient people migrated to the Shanghai area from some other place 4000 years ago

  1. Gulf Coast Salt Domes geologic Area Characterization Report, East Texas Study Area. Volume II. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    The East Texas Area Characterization Report (ACR) is a compilation of data gathered during the Area Characterization phase of the Department of Energy's National Waste Terminal Storage program in salt. The characterization of Gulf Coast Salt Domes as a potential site for storage of nuclear waste is an ongoing process. This report summarizes investigations covering an area of approximately 2590 km 2 (1000 mi 2 ). Data on Oakwood, Keechi, and Palestine Domes are given. Subsequent phases of the program will focus on smaller land areas and fewer specific salt domes, with progressively more detailed investigations, possibly culminating with a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The data in this report are a result of drilling and sampling, geophysical and geologic field work, and intensive literature review. The ACR contains text discussing data usage, interpretations, results and conclusions based on available geologic and hydrologic data, and figures including diagrams showing data point locations, geologic and hydrologic maps, geologic cross sections, and other geologic and hydrologic information. An appendix contains raw data gathered during this phase of the project and used in the preparation of these reports

  2. Reflection seismic studies in the Forsmark area - stage 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhlin, Christopher; Bergman Bjoern; Palm, Hans [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    2002-10-01

    Reflection seismic data were acquired in the Spring of 2002 in the Forsmark area, located about 70 km northeast of Uppsala, Sweden. The Forsmark area has been targeted by SKB as a possible storage site for high level radioactive waste. About 16 km of high resolution seismic data were acquired along five separate profiles varying in length from 2 to 5 km. Non-final source and receiver spacing was 10 m with 100 active channels when recording data from a dynamite source (15-75 g). The profiles were located within a relatively undeformed lens of bedrock that trends in the NW-SE direction. The lens is surrounded by highly deformed rock on all sides. In conjunction with the reflection component of the study, all shots were also recorded on up to eleven 3-component fixed Orion seismographs. These recordings provided long offset data from which a velocity model of the uppermost 400 m of bedrock could be derived. Results from the study show that the bedrock has been well imaged down to depths of at least 3 km. The upper 1000 m of bedrock is much more reflective in the southeastern portion of the lens compared to the northwestern part close to the Forsmark reactors. This is interpreted as the bedrock being more homogeneous in the northwest. However, a major reflective zone (the A1 reflector) is interpreted to dip to the S-SE below this homogeneous bedrock. In the southeastern portion of the lens the orientation of the reflectors is well determined where the profiles cross one another. The general strike of the major reflectors is NE-SW with dips of 20-35 degrees to the southeast.

  3. Analysis on Residents’ Travel Activity Pattern in Historic Urban Areas: A Case Study of Historic Urban Area of Yangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Travel behaviors and activity patterns in the historic urban area of a city are expected to be different from the overall situations in the city area. The primary objective of this study is to analyze the residents’ travel activity patterns in historic urban area. Based on survey data conducted in the historic urban area of Yangzhou, the travel activities of local residents in a whole day were classified into five types of patterns. The multinomial logit (MNL model was developed to evaluate the impacts of explanatory variables on the choices of activity patterns. The results showed that the choice of activity pattern was significantly impacted by five contributing factors including the gender, age, occupation, car ownership, and number of electric bikes in household. The other variables, which were the family population, preschoolers, number of conventional bikes in household, motorcycle ownership, and income, were found to be not significantly related to the choice of activities. The results of this study from historic urban area were compared to findings of previous studies from overall urban area. The comparison showed that the impacts of factors on activity pattern in the historic urban area were different from those in the overall area. Findings of this study provide important suggestions for the policy makings to improve the traffic situations in historic urban areas of cities.

  4. Concept Study: Exploration and Production in Environmentally Sensitive Arctic Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirish Patil; Rich Haut; Tom Williams; Yuri Shur; Mikhail Kanevskiy; Cathy Hanks; Michael Lilly

    2008-12-31

    The Alaska North Slope offers one of the best prospects for increasing U.S. domestic oil and gas production. However, this region faces some of the greatest environmental and logistical challenges to oil and gas production in the world. A number of studies have shown that weather patterns in this region are warming, and the number of days the tundra surface is adequately frozen for tundra travel each year has declined. Operators are not allowed to explore in undeveloped areas until the tundra is sufficiently frozen and adequate snow cover is present. Spring breakup then forces rapid evacuation of the area prior to snowmelt. Using the best available methods, exploration in remote arctic areas can take up to three years to identify a commercial discovery, and then years to build the infrastructure to develop and produce. This makes new exploration costly. It also increases the costs of maintaining field infrastructure, pipeline inspections, and environmental restoration efforts. New technologies are needed, or oil and gas resources may never be developed outside limited exploration stepouts from existing infrastructure. Industry has identified certain low-impact technologies suitable for operations, and has made improvements to reduce the footprint and impact on the environment. Additional improvements are needed for exploration and economic field development and end-of-field restoration. One operator-Anadarko Petroleum Corporation-built a prototype platform for drilling wells in the Arctic that is elevated, modular, and mobile. The system was tested while drilling one of the first hydrate exploration wells in Alaska during 2003-2004. This technology was identified as a potentially enabling technology by the ongoing Joint Industry Program (JIP) Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program. The EFD is headed by Texas A&M University and the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), and is co-funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The EFD

  5. STUDY REGARDING THE DESTABILIZATION OF STABLE EMULSIONS FROM SUPLAC AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IULIANA VERONICA GHEŢIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Emulsions from the wells in the Suplac area create great difficulties in removing water due to their specifications. A complex study was conducted in order to eliminate water from emulsions using alkaline-surfactants. The choice of surfactant was made after the chromatographic SARA analysis of emulsions and the determination of their physical properties: density, viscosity, organic acidity. The samples were taken from two wells in the Suplac area. In the case of samples from A well the variation of density is 907 - 955 kg·m-3 for crude oil and 928 - 970 kg·m-3 for emulsion, while the rheological behavior of the emulsion varies between 0.680 to 0.995 Pa·s at a temperature of 25 °C and between 0.049 to 0.328 Pa·s at a temperature of 80 °C. For samples from B well the variation of density is 855 - 905 kg·m-3 for crude oil and 939 - 970 kg·m-3 for emulsion, while the rheological behavior of the emulsion varies between 0.149 to 0.797 Pa·s at a temperature of 25 °C and between 0.014 to 0.397 Pa·s at a temperature of 80 °C. The justification for choosing R - DP surfactant like reagent was based on laboratory tests which showed a maximum efficiency at 80 °C (95.69 for B and 98.75 % for A.

  6. Computational study of variable area ejector rocket flowfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etele, Jason

    Access to space has always been a scientific priority for countries which can afford the prohibitive costs associated with launch. However, the large scale exploitation of space by the business community will require the cost of placing payloads into orbit be dramatically reduced for space to become a truly profitable commodity. To this end, this work focuses on a next generation propulsive technology called the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine in which rocket, ejector, ramjet, and scramjet cycles operate within the same engine environment. Using an in house numerical code solving the axisymmetric version of the Favre averaged Navier Stokes equations (including the Wilcox ko turbulence model with dilatational dissipation) a systematic study of various ejector designs within an RBCC engine is undertaken. It is shown that by using a central rocket placed along the axisymmetric axis in combination with an annular rocket placed along the outer wall of the ejector, one can obtain compression ratios of approximately 2.5 for the case where both the entrained air and rocket exhaust mass flows are equal. Further, it is shown that constricting the exit area, and the manner in which this constriction is performed, has a significant positive impact on the compression ratio. For a decrease in area of 25% a purely conical ejector can increase the compression ratio by an additional 23% compared to an equal length unconstricted ejector. The use of a more sharply angled conical section followed by a cylindrical section to maintain equivalent ejector lengths can further increase the compression ratio by 5--7% for a total increase of approximately 30%.

  7. Basic studies of CT in the maxillofacial areas, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shinichiro; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Higashi, Tomomitsu; Takenaka, Eiichi.

    1982-01-01

    As CT values of hard tissues would pose problems in the application of CT to the maxillofacial area, attenuation coefficients of each oral hard tissue were examined based on the existing data, and the linearity in the area of high x-ray attenuation was examined. We thought that a new contrast scale suitable for each area should be established for measurements of CT values of tissues of high x-ray attenuation such as teeth. (Chiba, N.)

  8. Offshore wind; proposed study areas; Havvind; forslag til utredningsomraader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drivenes, Arvid; Eirum, Tale; Johnson, Nils Henrik; Mindeberg, Sigrun Kavli; Lunde, Synnoeve; Undem, Linn Silje; Veggeland, Kirsti; Veie-Rosvoll, Brit; Voksoe, Astrid

    2010-10-15

    The report suggests areas that may be suitable for establishing of offshore wind power, and should be further evaluated in a strategic environmental impact assessment, as it is designed to through Proposition. No. 107 (2008-2009). The proposed areas is shown in Figure 1 Eleven of the areas suitable for fixed installations and four sites suitable for floating installations. The work of the report has been carried out by a Directorate group led by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate. (AG)

  9. Land consolidation in mountain areas. Case study from southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Jarosław; Łopacka, Magdalena; John, Ewa

    2017-12-01

    Land consolidation procedures are an attempt to comprehensively change the existing spatial structure of land in rural areas. This treatment also brings many other social and economic benefi ts, contributing to the development of consolidated areas. Land consolidation in mountain areas differs in many respects from those implemented in areas with more favorable conditions for the functioning of agriculture. The unfavorable values of land fragmentation indices, terrain conditions and lower than the average soil quality affect both the dominant forms of agricultural activity and the limited opportunities to improve the distribution of plots in space, parameters of shape, and the area as a result of land consolidation. For this reason, the effectiveness of land consolidation in mountain areas can be achieved by improving the quality of transportation network and the accessibility of the plots, arranging ownership issues and improving the quality of cadastral documentation. This article presents the evaluation of the measures of effectiveness of land consolidation realized in mountain areas on the example of Łetownia Village in the Małopolska Province, located in the southern part of Poland. Selected village is an area with unfavorable conditions for the functioning of agriculture and high values of land fragmentation indices.

  10. Land consolidation in mountain areas. Case study from southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janus Jarosław

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Land consolidation procedures are an attempt to comprehensively change the existing spatial structure of land in rural areas. This treatment also brings many other social and economic benefi ts, contributing to the development of consolidated areas. Land consolidation in mountain areas differs in many respects from those implemented in areas with more favorable conditions for the functioning of agriculture. The unfavorable values of land fragmentation indices, terrain conditions and lower than the average soil quality affect both the dominant forms of agricultural activity and the limited opportunities to improve the distribution of plots in space, parameters of shape, and the area as a result of land consolidation. For this reason, the effectiveness of land consolidation in mountain areas can be achieved by improving the quality of transportation network and the accessibility of the plots, arranging ownership issues and improving the quality of cadastral documentation. This article presents the evaluation of the measures of effectiveness of land consolidation realized in mountain areas on the example of Łetownia Village in the Małopolska Province, located in the southern part of Poland. Selected village is an area with unfavorable conditions for the functioning of agriculture and high values of land fragmentation indices.

  11. Qualitative Study Of Anopheles Species In Konduga Lake Area Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The investigation on Anopheles species in Konduga lake area, Borno State of Nigeria, was carried out to identify various Anopheles species prevalent in the area and to determine their relative population densities. Six Anopheles species were recorded, namely, A. gambiae, A. funestus, A. ziemanni, A. squamosus, ...

  12. Epidemiological study of snake bite in some local government areas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Envenomation is a common public health problem in many local government areas of Plateau state in Nigeria. Its incidence has increased over the years as reported by the outpatient departments of the General Hospitals in Shendam and Langtang local government areas. In Shendam alone, the increase was from 192 in ...

  13. Environmental studies in Khartoum area using x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Elmagid, Suliman Alamin

    1996-06-01

    In the present work an attempt has been made for the analysis of some soil, plant, sediments and fish samples of relevance to environmental pollution in Khartoum area. These samples have been collected from different places in residential areas, so as to cover industrial areas, agricultural and residential areas, as well as Tuti Island as control area. Special attention has been dedicated to the analysis of lead concentrations resulting from automobile-emissions in soils and to other toxic metals such as Cr in some industries. The samples were analysed by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique. The results obtained using XRF measurements and computer software called QXAS for data analysis. The concentrations of lead and some heavy metals such as Cr in soils from certain locations were alarming and may create pollution problems in the near future. The results obtained from different countries. The results are generally lower than the international limits. (Author)

  14. No postnatal doubling of number of neurons in human Broca's areas (Brodmann areas 44 and 45)? A stereological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uylings, H B M; Malofeeva, L I; Bogolepova, I N; Jacobsen, A M; Amunts, K; Zilles, K

    2005-01-01

    In this study we explored whether a postnatal doubling of the total number of neurons occurs in the human Brodmann areas 44 and 45 (Broca's area). We describe the most recent error prediction formulae and their application for the modern stereological estimators for volume and number of neurons. We estimated the number of neurons in 3D optical disector probes systematically random sampled throughout the entire Brodmann areas (BA) 44 and 45 in developing and young adult cases. In the relatively small number of male and female cases studied no substantial postnatal increase in total number of neurons occurred in areas 44 and 45; the volume of these areas reached adult values around 7 years. In addition, we did find indications that a shift from a right-over-left to a left-over-right asymmetry may occur in the volume of BA 45 during postnatal development. No major asymmetry in total number of neurons in BA 44 and 45 was detected.

  15. Study on trace elements in gangue in Huainan mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, F.; Liu, Z.; Lin, B.; Li, W.; Lu, Z. [Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China)

    2008-08-15

    46 samples were gathered from coal seams and rocks of various lithological types. In these samples, trace elements were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (IAP-MS)and instrumental neutron activation analysis (IAA). Hg was analyzed by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (KVASS), F by ion-selective electrode (IS) and major elements by chemical methods. Eleven trace elements (Cd, Cu, Ni, Sn, Hg, Mn, As, Cr, Pb, Zn, F) were selected for study, and five of them, Cd, Cu, Ni, Sn, Hg, were above the background soil level (B.L.) of Huainan City, China and world averages. Respectively: Cd is 40 and 7 times the B.L. of Huainan City and the world; Cu is about 2 and 1.5 times the B.L. of Huainan City and the world; Ni is 8 and 7 times the B.L. of Huainan City and the world; Sn is 3 and 2 times the B.L. of Huainan City and the world; and Hg is 3,602 and 1,381 times the B.L. of Huainan City and the world. Their hazards caused to the environment of the mining area are explored primarily. It is thought that their hazards may be cumulative. 15 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. Isotope hydrology study of Molai area in Laconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leontiadis, J.L.

    1981-04-01

    The isotopic composition of the groundwater was used in order to investigate the mechanism of recharge of the Molai plain (Laconia) and of the coastal brackish springs of the area. The results of this study have shown that the Tripolitza carbonates, northeast of the plain, do not form a unique aquifer nor contribute to the recharge of the plain which is mainly fed by the local rainwater. The brackish springs at Glyfada are fed by the Tripolitza carbonates, northeast of the Mavrovouni-Koupia fault, through an isolated from the neogene aquifer of the plain conduit. The water content of the corresponding reservoir is estimated in the range of 2318 to 3091 hm 3 . The brackish springs at Plytra are fed by the marbles of Chavallas and Skardolakka mountains through the bedrock of Assopos river and the neogene aquifer of that part of the plain. The water content of the corresponding reservoir is estimated to be more than 284 hm 3 . The brackish coastal springs between Palea Monemvasia and Hierax are fed by the Tripolitza limestones southeast of the Mavrovouni-Koupia fault. (T.A.)

  17. Electrical distribution studies for the 200 Area tank farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisler, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    This is an engineering study providing reliability numbers for various design configurations as well as computer analyses (Captor/Dapper) of the existing distribution system to the 480V side of the unit substations. The objective of the study was to assure the adequacy of the existing electrical system components from the connection at the high voltage supply point through the transformation and distribution equipment to the point where it is reduced to its useful voltage level. It also was to evaluate the reasonableness of proposed solutions of identified deficiencies and recommendations of possible alternate solutions. The electrical utilities are normally considered the most vital of the utility systems on a site because all other utility systems depend on electrical power. The system accepts electric power from the external sources, reduces it to a lower voltage, and distributes it to end-use points throughout the site. By classic definition, all utility systems extend to a point 5 feet from the facility perimeter. An exception is made to this definition for the electric utilities at this site. The electrical Utility System ends at the low voltage section of the unit substation, which reduces the voltage from 13.8 kV to 2,400, 480, 277/480 or 120/208 volts. These transformers are located at various distances from existing facilities. The adequacy of the distribution system which transports the power from the main substation to the individual area substations and other load centers is evaluated and factored into the impact of the future load forecast

  18. Electrical distribution studies for the 200 Area tank farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisler, J.B.

    1994-08-26

    This is an engineering study providing reliability numbers for various design configurations as well as computer analyses (Captor/Dapper) of the existing distribution system to the 480V side of the unit substations. The objective of the study was to assure the adequacy of the existing electrical system components from the connection at the high voltage supply point through the transformation and distribution equipment to the point where it is reduced to its useful voltage level. It also was to evaluate the reasonableness of proposed solutions of identified deficiencies and recommendations of possible alternate solutions. The electrical utilities are normally considered the most vital of the utility systems on a site because all other utility systems depend on electrical power. The system accepts electric power from the external sources, reduces it to a lower voltage, and distributes it to end-use points throughout the site. By classic definition, all utility systems extend to a point 5 feet from the facility perimeter. An exception is made to this definition for the electric utilities at this site. The electrical Utility System ends at the low voltage section of the unit substation, which reduces the voltage from 13.8 kV to 2,400, 480, 277/480 or 120/208 volts. These transformers are located at various distances from existing facilities. The adequacy of the distribution system which transports the power from the main substation to the individual area substations and other load centers is evaluated and factored into the impact of the future load forecast.

  19. Child Labor in Pakistan: A Study of the Lahore Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mian Aftab

    1991-01-01

    Child labor is exceptionally extensive in Pakistan. An interview survey in the Lahore area documented the magnitude, causes, and effects of child labor. Steps for fighting this problem are recommended. (BC)

  20. lineament studies of rocks in omifunfun area, southwestern nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    Omifunfun area is situated in the southern part of Ife-Ilesa Schist Belt of the basement complex of ... The dominant one strikes in the same direction with the same Ifewara mylonitic foliation. ... fractures (joints and faults), drainage, road network,.

  1. Mineral Resources of the Morey and Fandango Wilderness Study Areas, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, David A.; Nash, J. Thomas; Plouff, Donald; McDonnell, John R.

    1987-01-01

    The Morey (NV-060-191) and Fandango (NV-060-190) Wilderness Study Areas are located in the northern Hot Creek Range about 25 mi north of Warm Springs, Nev. At the request of the Bureau of Land Management, 46,300 acres of the Morey and Fandango Wilderness Study Areas were studied. In this report, the area studied is referred to as 'the wilderness study area', or simply 'the study area'. Geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral surveys were conducted by the USGS and the USBM in 1984 to appraise the identified mineral resources and to assess the mineral resource potential of the study areas. These studies indicate that there are small identified resources of zinc, lead, and silver at the Lead Pipe property in the Fandango Wilderness Study Area, several areas of high potential for the occurrence of gold resources in the Fandango study area, small areas of low and moderate potential for the occurrence of silver, lead, and zinc resources in the Fandango study area, areas of moderate and high potential for the occurrence of silver, lead, and zinc resources in the Morey study area, and an area of low potential for copper, molybdenum, and tin in the Morey study area. Both study areas have low resource potential for petroleum, natural gas, uranium, and geothermal energy.

  2. PUREX Plant aggregate area management study technical baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFord, D.H.; Carpenter, R.W.

    1995-05-01

    The PUREX aggregate area is made up of six operable units; 200-PO-1 through 200-PO-6 and consists of liquid and solid waste disposal sites in the vicinity of, and related to, PUREX Plant operations. This report describes PUREX and its waste sites, including cribs, french drains, septic tanks and drain fields, trenches and ditches, ponds, catch tanks, settling tanks, diversion boxes, underground tank farms, and the lines and encasements that connect them. Each waste site in the aggregate area is described separately. Close relationships between waste units, such as overflow from one to another, are also discussed. This document provides a technical baseline of the aggregate area and results from an environmental investigation. This document is based upon review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, drawings and photographs, supplemented with site inspections and employee interviews. No intrusive field investigations or sampling were conducted

  3. Uniformity studies in large area triple-GEM based detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akl, M. Abi [Science Program, Texas A& M University at Qatar, PO Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Bouhali, O., E-mail: othmane.bouhali@qatar.tamu.edu [Science Program, Texas A& M University at Qatar, PO Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Qatar Computing Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, PO Box 5825, Doha (Qatar); Castaneda, A.; Maghrbi, Y.; Mohamed, T. [Science Program, Texas A& M University at Qatar, PO Box 23874, Doha (Qatar)

    2016-10-01

    Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) based detectors have been used in many applications since their introduction in 1997. Large areas, e.g. exceeding 30×30 cm{sup 2}, of GEM detectors are foreseen in future experiments which puts stringent requirements on the uniformity of response across the detection area. We investigate the effect of small variations of several parameters that could affect the uniformity. Parameters such as the anode pitch, the gas gap, the size and the shape of the holes are investigated. Simulation results are presented and compared to previous experimental data.

  4. Identifying sensitive areas on intercultural contacts: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Ramos-Vidal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the negative influence that cultural friction areas can promote on intercultural contacts. First, we expose the critical incident method like cross-cultural training model (Arthur, 2001. Then we show the negative effects that sensitive cultural zones can exert on the formation of prejudices and stereotypes about culturally diverse groups, analyzing 77 critical incidents collected in two different formative contexts. The main cultural shock areas detected are a intercultural communication barriers, b gender roles, and c the cultural expressions statement. Strategies to improve the method validity are proposed.

  5. Study of Medical Ethics Areas of Concern in the Greater San Antonio Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    3 4 5 nosocomial infections 1 2 3 4 5 failure to provide patient education 1 2 3 4 5 failure to appropriately address patterns of substandard care 1 2...Modified Delphi Study 58 94 maternal /fetal issues at threshold of viability 95 end of life clarification to families about having directives 96 lab

  6. Radio compatibility studies for medical body area network systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chrysallos, E.

    2013-01-01

    Evolution in healthcare during the last two decades has had tremendous impact on people's lives, extending life expectancy and improving patient care. One of the reasons this happened is the introduction of Medical Body Area Network Systems (MBANSs), a technology enabling the measurement and

  7. Air quality measurements in urban green areas - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttler, W.; Strassburger, A.

    The influence of traffic-induced pollutants (e.g. CO, NO, NO 2 and O 3) on the air quality of urban areas was investigated in the city of Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), Germany. Twelve air hygiene profile measuring trips were made to analyse the trace gas distribution in the urban area with high spatial resolution and to compare the air hygiene situation of urban green areas with the overall situation of urban pollution. Seventeen measurements were made to determine the diurnal concentration courses within urban parks (summer conditions: 13 measurements, 530 30 min mean values, winter conditions: 4 measurements, 128 30 min mean values). The measurements were carried out during mainly calm wind and cloudless conditions between February 1995 and March 1996. It was possible to establish highly differentiated spatial concentration patterns within the urban area. These patterns were correlated with five general types of land use (motorway, main road, secondary road, residential area, green area) which were influenced to varying degrees by traffic emissions. Urban parks downwind from the main emission sources show the following typical temporal concentration courses: In summer rush-hour-dependent CO, NO and NO 2 maxima only occurred in the morning. A high NO 2/NO ratio was established during weather conditions with high global radiation intensities ( K>800 W m -2), which may result in a high O 3 formation potential. Some of the values measured found in one of the parks investigated (Gruga Park, Essen, area: 0.7 km 2), which were as high as 275 μg m -3 O 3 (30-min mean value) were significantly higher than the German air quality standard of 120 μg m -3 (30-min mean value, VDI Guideline 2310, 1996) which currently applies in Germany and about 20% above the maximum values measured on the same day by the network of the North Rhine-Westphalian State Environment Agency. In winter high CO and NO concentrations occur in the morning and during the afternoon rush-hour. The

  8. Ecological studies of small vertebrates in Pu-contaminated study areas of NTS and TTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, W.G.; Moor, K.S.

    1975-01-01

    Ecological studies of vertebrates in plutonium-contaminated areas of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were initiated in March 1972, and have continued to date. In September 1973, standard census methods were also employed to derive a qualitative and quantitative inventory of vertebrate biota of four Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) study areas of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). A checklist of vertebrates of NAEG study areas of NTS and TTR is presented. Data are presented on vertebrate composition, relative abundance, and seasonal status in the study areas. Concentrations of 239 Pu and 241 Am were determined in pelt or skin, GI tract, and carcass of 13 lizards and 16 mammals resident on Clean Slate 2, TTR, and Area 11, NTS. A total of 71 animals were collected for radioanalysis. However, the data were not available at the time this report was written. Pu tissue burdens were highest in lizards from Area 11 GZ. Maximum values obtained in nCi/g ash were 30.9, 42.2, and 0.43 for the pelt, GI tract, and carcass, respectively. Maximum 239 Pu values in tissues of small rodents from Area 11 (not from GZ) were 11.4, 6.49, and 0.20 nCi/g ash for pelt, GI tract, and carcass, respectively. Pu/Am ratios were relatively consistent in tissue samples of lizards and small mammals from Area 11 (approximately 6:1, Pu/Am). Pu/Am ratios were not consistent in vertebrates of Clean Slate 2, TTR, and appeared to be lower in carcass (28:1, Pu/Am in mammals) than GI tract (9:1, Pu/Am in mammals). Although this trend was more conspicuous in mammals, it was also evident in reptiles. (auth)

  9. Mine and prospect map of the Vermilion Cliffs-Paria Canyon Instant Study Area and adjacent wilderness areas, Coconino County, Arizona, and Kane County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Vermilion Cliffs-Paria Canyon Instant Study Area and adjacent wilderness areas are mostly in Coconino County Ariz., but extend into Kane County, Utah. The area studied in this report encompasses about 560 mi2 (1,450 km2). The study area includes the established Paria Canyon Primitive and Vermilion Cliffs Natural Areas between U.S. Highways 89 and 89A.

  10. The Application Study in Solar Energy Technology for Highway Service Area: A Case Study of West Lushan Highway Low-Carbon Service Area in China

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Xiaochun; Shen, Yi; Shao, Shegang

    2015-01-01

    A lot of research works have been made concerning highway service area or solar technology and acquired great achievements. However, unfortunately, few works have been made combining the two topics together of highway service areas and solar energy saving to make a systemic research on solar technology application for highway service area. In this paper, taking West Lushan highway low-carbon service area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the advantages, technical principles, and...

  11. Delineating Urban Fringe Area by Land Cover Information Entropy—An Empirical Study of Guangzhou-Foshan Metropolitan Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization has caused many environmental problems, such as the heat island effect, intensifying air pollution, pollution from runoff, loss of wildlife habitat, etc. Accurate evaluations of these problems demand an accurate delineation of the spatial extent of the urban fringe. Conceptual and analytical ambiguity of the urban fringe and a general lack of consensus among researchers have made its measurement very difficult. This study reports a compound and reliable method to delineate the urban fringe area using a case study. Based on the 'fringe effect' theory in landscape ecology, the existing land cover information entropy model for defining the urban fringe is renewed by incorporating scale theory, cartography and urban geography theory. Results show that the urban fringe area of Guangzhou and Foshan metropolitan area covers an area of 2031 km2, and it occupies over 31% of the total study area. Result evaluation by industry structure data shows satisfactory correspondence with different land cover types. This paper reports the method and outcome of an attempt to provide an objective, repeatable and generally applicable method for mapping its spatial extent from remote sensing imageries, and could be beneficial to relevant urban studies and urban fringe management projects.

  12. Area Handbook Series. Uganda: A Country Study, 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    infections, anemia , tetanus, malaria, and tuberculosis. Incidence of AIDS quite high, reaching epidemic proportivns in southern areas. Uganda had...attributed to illness. Other fatal illnesses included anemia , tetanus, and whoop- ing cough, but some people also died of malnutrition. An estimat- ed...185 Persian Gulf States 550-89 Tunisia 550-42 Peru 550-80 Turkey 550-72 Philippines 550-74 Uganda 550-162 Poland 550-97 Uruguay 550-181 Portugal 550-71

  13. B Plant aggregate area management study technical baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFord, D.H.; Carpenter, R.W.

    1995-05-01

    The B aggregate area is made up of 13 operable units; 200-BP 1 through 200-BP 1 1, 200-IU-6, and 200-SS-1 that consist of liquid and solid waste disposal sites in the vicinity of, and related to, B Plant operations. This report describes B Plant and its waste sites, including cribs, french drains, septic tanks and drain fields, trenches and ditches, ponds, catch tanks, settling tanks, diversion boxes, underground tank farms designed for high-level liquid wastes, and the lines and encasements that connect them. Each waste site in the aggregate area is described separately. Close relationships between waste units, such as overflow from one to another, are also discussed. This document provides a technical baseline of the aggregate area and results from an environmental investigation. This document is based upon review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, drawings and photographs, supplemented with site inspections and employee interviews. No intrusive field investigations or sampling were conducted

  14. Wireless multihop backhauls for rural areas: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Zainab; Lan, Kun-chan

    2017-01-01

    Rural areas have very low revenue potential. The major issue in providing low-cost broadband to rural areas is to provide reliable backhaul connections that spread over tens or even hundreds of miles, connecting villages to the nearest service provider. Along with aerial networks of Google and Facebook, there has been a considerable amount of research toward long-distance terrestrial WiFi links. As a comparison, WiFi routers are easier to be deployed and maintained by non-technical people from the local communities, whereas the aerial networks require professional support to operate. Moreover, they are still in the experimentation phase. However, the long distance WiFi links require high-gain directional antennas and very expensive tall towers for high data rates. On the other hand, multihop paths with stronger links may provide better data rates without the need of tall towers. In this paper, we evaluated the concept of using such multihop WiFi links for long backhaul connections. Our simulation results show that these networks can possibly be a cost-effective and practical solution for rural connectivity. These initial results can serve as a first step to understand the comprehensive feasibility of using multihop WiFi networks for backhaul connections in rural area. PMID:28403167

  15. Wireless multihop backhauls for rural areas: A preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Zaidi

    Full Text Available Rural areas have very low revenue potential. The major issue in providing low-cost broadband to rural areas is to provide reliable backhaul connections that spread over tens or even hundreds of miles, connecting villages to the nearest service provider. Along with aerial networks of Google and Facebook, there has been a considerable amount of research toward long-distance terrestrial WiFi links. As a comparison, WiFi routers are easier to be deployed and maintained by non-technical people from the local communities, whereas the aerial networks require professional support to operate. Moreover, they are still in the experimentation phase. However, the long distance WiFi links require high-gain directional antennas and very expensive tall towers for high data rates. On the other hand, multihop paths with stronger links may provide better data rates without the need of tall towers. In this paper, we evaluated the concept of using such multihop WiFi links for long backhaul connections. Our simulation results show that these networks can possibly be a cost-effective and practical solution for rural connectivity. These initial results can serve as a first step to understand the comprehensive feasibility of using multihop WiFi networks for backhaul connections in rural area.

  16. Wireless multihop backhauls for rural areas: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Zainab; Lan, Kun-Chan

    2017-01-01

    Rural areas have very low revenue potential. The major issue in providing low-cost broadband to rural areas is to provide reliable backhaul connections that spread over tens or even hundreds of miles, connecting villages to the nearest service provider. Along with aerial networks of Google and Facebook, there has been a considerable amount of research toward long-distance terrestrial WiFi links. As a comparison, WiFi routers are easier to be deployed and maintained by non-technical people from the local communities, whereas the aerial networks require professional support to operate. Moreover, they are still in the experimentation phase. However, the long distance WiFi links require high-gain directional antennas and very expensive tall towers for high data rates. On the other hand, multihop paths with stronger links may provide better data rates without the need of tall towers. In this paper, we evaluated the concept of using such multihop WiFi links for long backhaul connections. Our simulation results show that these networks can possibly be a cost-effective and practical solution for rural connectivity. These initial results can serve as a first step to understand the comprehensive feasibility of using multihop WiFi networks for backhaul connections in rural area.

  17. Simulation studies of a wide area health care network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, J. G.

    1994-01-01

    There is an increasing number of efforts to install wide area health care networks. Some of these networks are being built to support several applications over a wide user base consisting primarily of medical practices, hospitals, pharmacies, medical laboratories, payors, and suppliers. Although on-line, multi-media telecommunication is desirable for some purposes such as cardiac monitoring, store-and-forward messaging is adequate for many common, high-volume applications. Laboratory test results and payment claims, for example, can be distributed using electronic messaging networks. Several network prototypes have been constructed to determine the technical problems and to assess the effectiveness of electronic messaging in wide area health care networks. Our project, Health Link, developed prototype software that was able to use the public switched telephone network to exchange messages automatically, reliably and securely. The network could be configured to accommodate the many different traffic patterns and cost constraints of its users. Discrete event simulations were performed on several network models. Canonical star and mesh networks, that were composed of nodes operating at steady state under equal loads, were modeled. Both topologies were found to support the throughput of a generic wide area health care network. The mean message delivery time of the mesh network was found to be less than that of the star network. Further simulations were conducted for a realistic large-scale health care network consisting of 1,553 doctors, 26 hospitals, four medical labs, one provincial lab and one insurer. Two network topologies were investigated: one using predominantly peer-to-peer communication, the other using client-server communication.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7949966

  18. Groundwater regimes and isotopic studies, Ranger mine area, Northern Territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, M; Green, D C

    1986-12-01

    Three types of groundwater occur in the area of the Ranger mine. Type A groundwater occurs in the loose sands and gravels occupying the present day stream channels, Type B in the weathering profile and Type C occurs in relatively fresh fractured bedrock occupying open fractures and other cavities. The three types of groundwater can be distinguished both chemically and isotopically. Light stable isotope data suggest that most early rains are lost by evapotranspiration and have no imprint on the groundwater. Later in the wet season, the ground is saturated and groundwater recharge occurs on a regional scale. This younger groundwater sits on the older waters. Mixing is probably minimal as before any large scale mixing could occur, most younger waters are lost by evapotranspiration. Stable isotope data suggest that Type B groundwater in certain areas has some connection with evaporated surface water bodies. Stable isotope measurements for the pollution monitoring bores around the tailings dam do not indicate any connection with the polluted pond waters at the time of sample collection.

  19. Comfort Study of Office Buildings with Large Glazed Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Motuzienė

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the buildings with large glazed areas the biggest problem is the space overheating during the warm season. This causes increased energy demand for cooling. The survey was carried out during the warm and cold seasons in two office buildings with large glazed areas. The methodology was prepared for evaluating indoor climate parameters using objective and subjective evaluation. The measurements have shown that there are problems with lighting in workplaces of both buildings during both the warm and cold seasons. The biggest problem is too dry air during the cold period, an acceptable temperature is also not always in the building No. 2. The survey has shown that some employees are dissatisfied with the indoor climate in the workplace, the bigger dissatisfaction is in building No. 2. Assessing according to the O. Fanger methodology was obtained that the number of PPD is in the normal range during the cold period, whereas close to the limit when the building can not be operated in the warm period.

  20. A study of sinkhole hazard at area of locked colliery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotyrba, A.

    2005-01-01

    Transformations of polish industry began the process of mine closures. Among various mines being in process of abandoning, there are a large number of collieries, which exploited coal since 17. century. The depth of mining openings ranged from some to hundreds meters. The height of primary mining openings ranged from 1 to 9 m. Mining operations have left in geological basement large number of cavities, which still create a hazard to the surface stability. Post mining deformations of the surface can take continuous and discontinuous forms. The last ones are the topic of paper. Although those deformations can take various forms, they are commonly called as sinkholes. In paper, the sinkholes hazard has been analyzed in a scale of selected one mine area, in regard to various parameters. The selected 'Siemianowice' mine is located in northern part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. A database containing full set of sinkholes, recorded within area of mine in a period of 50 years, has been tested in geomechanical and statistical approaches. (author)

  1. A study of sinkhole hazard at area of locked colliery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotyrba, A. [Central Mining Institute, Gwarkow (Poland)

    2005-07-01

    Transformations of polish industry began the process of mine closures. Among various mines being in process of abandoning, there are a large number of collieries, which exploited coal since 17. century. The depth of mining openings ranged from some to hundreds meters. The height of primary mining openings ranged from 1 to 9 m. Mining operations have left in geological basement large number of cavities, which still create a hazard to the surface stability. Post mining deformations of the surface can take continuous and discontinuous forms. The last ones are the topic of paper. Although those deformations can take various forms, they are commonly called as sinkholes. In paper, the sinkholes hazard has been analyzed in a scale of selected one mine area, in regard to various parameters. The selected 'Siemianowice' mine is located in northern part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. A database containing full set of sinkholes, recorded within area of mine in a period of 50 years, has been tested in geomechanical and statistical approaches. (author)

  2. Sustainable development of rural areas: Case studies Vojvodina - Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forcan Dejana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important strategic aims of Serbian economic development is supporting of the villages sustainable development through rural economy diversification where rural tourism development has an important place. In spite of this model of tourism importance recognition as a possible way of rural areas development, Serbia is in an opening phase of. Although there are several positive examples, it is significant that recent projects haven't been established according to national and European development programs, but according to private initiatives of individuals and groups. Rural tourism is an important component of integrated and sustainable development and revitalization of villages, as well an an important factor in encouraging the development of local agricultural and non-farmer activities in rural areas and villages, and also a special incentive to employment. This work highlights the importance of rural tourism in the function of the revitalization of the village, focusing on the challenges of the environment and the possible directions of development in the context of creating a recognizable tourist product and brand of rural tourism in Vojvodina.

  3. IMAGERY: A CASE STUDY IN KAYANGAN CATCHMENT AREA, YOGYAKARTA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Fitria Putri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The differential synthetic aperture radar in terferometry (DInSAR technique is applied to the ALOS PALSAR data to observe su rface displacement in Kayangan catchment area, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Change detecti on is implemented to extract information on several landslides that occurred in the region in a time span between 2007 and 2009. The advanced DInSAR processing of im ages (2007–2009 has shown slight surface movements before the landslide events. These results are compared and validated with available GPS measurements. Our analysis reveals that Kayangan catchment area exhibits clear indication of surface displacements varying from 5.2 to 57.9 cm/year. The occurence of landslides has been analy zed in relation to the following terrain parameters; elevation, slope, distance to stream network, geology, landuse, and distance from road. Among these factors, it is found that 18% of landslides occur in elevation >100 m, 56% in slope 30–40°, 34% in <25 m distance to stream networks, 100% in kebobutak formation, 67% in mix garden of land use types, and 100% in <25 m distance from road. The landuse is the most in fluential factor, since there are only four types of landuse that can lead to lands lide occurrence, i.e., mixed garden, dryland agriculture, bush, and settlement. The analys is of land deformation is promising for assessing acceleration caused by a destabilizing anthropogenic change, and relationship between seasonal precipitation a nd deformation variability.

  4. Small area-level variation in the incidence of psychotic disorders in an urban area in France: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szoke, Andrei; Pignon, Baptiste; Baudin, Grégoire; Tortelli, Andrea; Richard, Jean-Romain; Leboyer, Marion; Schürhoff, Franck

    2016-07-01

    We sought to determine whether significant variation in the incidence of clinically relevant psychoses existed at an ecological level in an urban French setting, and to examine possible factors associated with this variation. We aimed to advance the literature by testing this hypothesis in a novel population setting and by comparing a variety of spatial models. We sought to identify all first episode cases of non-affective and affective psychotic disorders presenting in a defined urban catchment area over a 4 years period, over more than half a million person-years at-risk. Because data from geographic close neighbourhoods usually show spatial autocorrelation, we used for our analyses Bayesian modelling. We included small area neighbourhood measures of deprivation, migrants' density and social fragmentation as putative explanatory variables in the models. Incidence of broad psychotic disorders shows spatial patterning with the best fit for models that included both strong autocorrelation between neighbouring areas and weak autocorrelation between areas further apart. Affective psychotic disorders showed similar spatial patterning and were associated with the proportion of migrants/foreigners in the area (inverse correlation). In contrast, non-affective psychoses did not show spatial patterning. At ecological level, the variation in the number of cases and the factors that influence this variation are different for non-affective and affective psychotic disorders. Important differences in results-compared with previous studies in different settings-point to the importance of the context and the necessity of further studies to understand these differences.

  5. Mineral resources of the Swasey Mountain and Howell Peak Wilderness Study Areas, Millard County, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, D.A.; Zimbelman, D.R.; Campbell, D.L.; Duval, J.S.; Cook, K.L.; Podwysocki, M.H.; Brickey, D.W.; Yambrick, R.A.; Tuftin, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    The Swasey Mountain and the Howell Peak Wilderness Study Areas are underlain by an east-dipping sequence of carbonate rocks, shale, and quartzite of Cambrian age. The Sand Pass mineralized area, immediately northwest of the Swasey Mountain Wilderness Study Area, contains numerous occurrences of jasperoid, small igneous intrusions of Tertiary age, and geochemical anomalies; the mineralized area has been explored for gold. Although no identified resources of metals are known in or near the wilderness study areas, the distribution of geologic structures and stream-sediment geochemical anomalies indicates there is a moderate potential for undiscovered resources of lead, zinc, copper, molybdenum, silver, and gold. An area of moderate potential for undiscovered resources of these metals extends south and east into the Swasey Mountain Wilderness Study Area from the Sand Pass mineralized area. A second area of moderate potential for undiscovered resources of these metals extends from the southern part of the Swasey Mountain Wilderness Study Area across the western part of the Howell Peak Wilderness Study Area. Both study areas contain inferred subeconomic resources of quartzite, high-purity limestone, and sand and gravel. Both areas have moderate resource potential for high-purity limestone and dolomite. Fossils, especially trilobites, of interest to collectors are present in both areas. The potential for undiscovered resources is moderate for oil and gas and is low for geothermal energy within the study areas. There is no potential for undiscovered resources of coal.

  6. 34 CFR 657.1 - What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies... (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND AREA STUDIES... instruction is being developed, in combination with area studies, international studies, or the international...

  7. Study on Planning Standards for Urban Renewal Areas in Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The paper starts from the origin and evolution of city planning standards of Shenzhen before analyzing the new demands for the standards by the development of city renewal amid city transition,and establishes a primary framework for the planning standards and requirements.In addition,on the basis of comparing with the formulation of planning standards of Hong Kong,Shanghai,and Changsha,the paper carries out a discussion on the formulation ideas and main contents of the planning standards for the urban renewal areas in Shenzhen.Moreover,the paper also analyzes the standards for renewal objects,scope,mode,functions guidance,development control,and public facilities,all of which are quite heated issues and key elements in the process of formulation and approval of renewal planning,in order to improve the institutional structure of the City Planning Standards and Requirements of Shenzhen and meet the government’s demand in realizing a refined management.

  8. Mineral resources of the Muggins Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Yuma County, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.B.; Tosdal, R.M.; Pitkin, J.A.; Kleinkopf, M.D.; Wood, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Muggins Mountains Wilderness Study Area covers approximately 8,855 acres immediately south of the Yuma Proving Ground. This study area contains sand and gravel, and it has a moderate potential for gold in placer deposits. One small drainage basin along the southeast boundary of this study area has a moderate potential for uranium. This study area has a low potential for geothermal energy and for oil and gas resources

  9. Mineral resources of the Hawk Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Honey County, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrin, B.D.; Conrad, J.E.; Plouff, D.; King, H.D.; Swischer, C.C.; Mayerle, R.T.; Rains, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Hawk Mountain Wildeness Study Area in south-central Oregon is underlain by Miocene age basalt, welded tuff, and interbedded sedimentary rock. The western part of this study area has a low mineral resource potential for gold. There is a low mineral resource potential for small deposits of uranium in the sedimentary rocks. This entire study area has a low potential for geothermal and oil and gas resources. There are no mineral claims or identified resources in this study area

  10. Mineral resources of the Turtle Mountains Wilderness Study Area, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Keith A.; Nielson, Jane E.; Simpson, Robert W.; Hazlett, Richard W.; Alminas, Henry V.; Nakata, John K.; McDonnell, John R.

    1988-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, approximately 105,200 acres of the Turtle Mountains Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-307) were evaluated for mineral resources (known) and resource potential (undiscovered). In this report, the area studied is referred to as "the wilderness study area" or simply "the study area"; any reference to the Turtle Mountain Wilderness Study Area refers only to that part of the wilderness study area for which a mineral survey was requested by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management.The wilderness study area is in southeastern San Bernardino County, Calif. Gold, silver, copper, and lead have been mined within and adjacent to the study area. Copper-zinc-silver-gold mineral occurrences are found in the southern part and gold-silver mineral occurrences are found in the northern part of the study area; identified low- to moderate-grade gold-silver resources occur adjacent to the study area along the western boundary. Six areas in the south-central and northwestern parts of the study area have high resource potential, two broad areas have moderate resource potential, and part of the southwest corner has low resource potential for lode gold, silver, and associated copper, lead, zinc, molybdenum, and tungsten. Alluvium locally within one of these areas has moderate resource potential for placer gold and silver, and the entire area has low resource potential for placer gold and silver. There is low resource potential for perlite, ornamental stone (onyx marble and opal), manganese, uranium and thorium, pegmatite minerals, and oil and gas within the study area. Sand and gravel are abundant but are readily available outside the wilderness study area.

  11. Study of the fumigation effect on pollutants over Inshas area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, F.S.; Ramadan, Abou Bakr. A.; Abdel El-Aal, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    This work aims to investigate the effect of morning fumigation event on the ground level pollutants concentration at inshas area. Monitoring stations for mesuring the hourly continues concetration of some pollutants such sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ozone were placed near the hot lab in nuclear research center for one complete year, At the same time the hourly averages meteorological parameters were measured continuously at different levels. A fortran computer program was developed to determine the relative relative concentration Assuming accident case in two cases, nonfumigation and morning fumigation. The processing and interpretation of the meteorological data and pollutants concentration revealed that these high pollution events occur almost on daily bassis, usually several hours between sunrise and before afternoon. The maximum fumigation peaks occur earlier in the summer than other seasons owing to theearlier sunrise in addition, ozone concentrations appear to reach their maximum a few hours after intense fumigation events. Maximum hourly concentrations of sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide and ozone don't exceed threshold values that are considered to be phytotoxic. As sunset pollutant concentration is decrease due to lofting condition

  12. Study of a Greek area with enhanced indoor radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louizi, A.; Nikolopoulos, D.; Koukouliou, V.; Kehagia, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the focus is on Arnea Chalkidikis, an area in Greece with granitic geological background and indications of possible elevated radon concentration indoors. Data are reported of indoor radon measurements with etched track detectors and those used for dosimetric estimations. Moreover, data are reported on soil gas and soil radon concentrations in Arnea, as well as radon and uranium concentrations in water samples. From the measured radon concentrations in water samples the contribution to the overall dose has been calculated. For a period of 1 month, indoor radon and progeny activity has also been monitored in the dwelling that has the maximum indoor radon concentration in Greece. This dwelling is in Arnea and the dose delivered to the inhabitants has been calculated. Mean annual effective dose due to indoor radon was 4.5 mSv and about 11% of this was due to the use of water. Mean soil gas concentration and soil radon concentration were (90 ± 30) kBq m -3 (P -3 (P -1 (P<0.05). (author)

  13. Evaluation study on rationalization of coal handling in snowy area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suesada, Yasuhiko; Yamagata, Keisuke; Kuwahara, Mitsuhiro

    1987-09-25

    The adhesion of coal to the coal handling facilities in large cool-fired power plants in the snowy area was investigated for siting them in the future. The amount of water derived from melted snow in addition to that from the rain fall were measured and the statistical amounts of rain and snow falls for the past ten years were examined. Then the amount of water derived from melted snow was calculated by regression. The result indicates that the amount of rain fall in summer is larger than that from melted snow. The moisture content of coal in a coal yard reaches the moisture content at which the coal readily adheres to the facilities after snow fall and it penetrates the pile of coal to the bottom with the lapse of time. The penetrating rate of it largely depends upon the particle distribution of coal as well as the ranks of coal. The adhesion of coal to the coal handling facilities is caused mainly by the amount of dust coal and the moisture content of coal. The amount of adhered coal estimated from the shear properties qualitatively agrees with the experimental result using a model of chute. Adding the dusting inhibitor exceeding the normal value increases the amount of of adhesion of coal. (13 figs, 3 tabs)

  14. Studies on ethno medicinal plant diversity in an urban area – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Biswas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the Ethno-medicinal plants used by the local communities in Santragachhi area, under Howrah Municipal Corporation, ward no. 38, District Howrah, West Bengal, India. An ethno medicinal survey was carried out the use of medicinal plants in Santragachi region. The information was gathered from the local community people using an integrated approach botanical collections, group discussion and interview with questionnaire during 2012-2013. Among 50 informants interviewed, 10 were tribal practitioners. A total of 53 genera and 33 families are documented. In most of case, fresh parts of the plants were used for the preparation of medicine. The results further revealed that the natives of this area are not very much practiced in using the medicinal plants in the treatment of human illness. The study area is delimited by number of wetlands and the people collect the aquatic plants by their habitual knowledge as food resources. But due to expansion of city area, road construction causes loss of plant diversity and random exploitation of natural resources many valuable medicinal plants are at the stage of extinction. The present study documented ethno medicinal plants were mostly used for treatment of various diseases.

  15. Broca's area network in language function.Broca's area network in language function: A pooling-data connectivity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron eBernal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Modern neuroimaging developments have demonstrated that cognitive functions correlate with brain networks rather than specific areas. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the connectivity of Broca's area based on language tasks. Methods. A connectivity modeling study was performed by pooling data of Broca's activation in language tasks. Fifty-seven papers that included 883 subjects in 84 experiments were analyzed. Analysis of Likelihood Estimates of pooled data was utilized to generate the map; thresholds at p < 0.01 were corrected for multiple comparisons and false discovery rate. Resulting images were co-registered into MNI standard space. Results. A network consisting of 16 clusters of activation was obtained. Main clusters were located in the frontal operculum, left posterior temporal region, supplementary motor area, and the parietal lobe. Less common clusters were seen in the sub-cortical structures including the left thalamus, left putamen, secondary visual areas and the right cerebellum. Conclusions. BA44-related networks involved in language processing were demonstrated utilizing a pooling-data connectivity study. Significance, interpretation and limitations of the results are discussed.

  16. High frequency noise studies at the Hartousov mofette area (CZE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Andreas; Flores-Estrella, Hortencia; Pommerencke, Julia; Umlauft, Josefine

    2014-05-01

    Ambient noise analysis has been used as a reliable tool to investigate sub-surface structures at seismological quiet regions with none or less specific seismic events. Here, we consider the acoustic signals from a single mofette at the Hartoušov area (CZE) as a noise-like high frequency source caused by multiple near surface degassing processes in a restricted location. From this assumption we have used different array geometries for recording at least one hour of continuous noise. We installed triangular arrays with 3 component geophones: the first deployment consisted on two co-centric triangles with side length of 30 and 50 m with the mofette in the center; the second deployment consisted on two triangular arrays, both with side length of 30 m, co-directional to the mofette. Furthermore, we also installed profiles with 24 channels and vertical geophones locating them in different positions with respect to the mofette. In this work, we present preliminary results from the data analysis dependent on the geometry, to show the characteristics of the noise wave-field referring to frequency content and propagation features, such as directionality and surface wave velocity. The spectral analysis shows that the energy is concentrated in a frequency band among 10 and 40 Hz. However, in this interval there is no evidence of any exclusive fundamental frequencies. From this, man-induced influences can be identified as intermittent signal peaks in narrow frequency bands and can be separated to receive the revised mofette wave-field record. The inversion of dispersive surface waves, that were detected by interferometric methods, provides a velocity model down to 12 m with an S-wave velocity between 160 and 180 m/s on the uppermost layer. Furthermore, the interferometric signal properties indicate that it is not possible to characterize the mofette as a punctual source, but rather as a conglomerate of multiple sources with time and location variations.

  17. Studies on wide area deep geothermal resources reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-10-01

    In order to establish techniques for the exploitation of geothermal reservoirs of large extent and deep location, the Hachimandaira field was chosen as a model. Studies were carried out using the AFMT system, thermographic, remote sensing and geothermometric methods. In the AFMT study the equipment was custom manufactured. It included a five component receiver and a transmitter with an output current of 10 A. Calculations were made for the electromagnetic fields of each transmitting source using both electric and magnetic dipoles. In the thermographic study a thermo-camera was employed to survey springs in Fukushima prefecture as well as the Ofuka springs in Akita prefecture. These studies were made with the intention of deriving correlations between surface heat flow and subterranean structure.

  18. COASTAL STUDY, COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a result of a...

  19. Hanford 100-N Area Tracer Study Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretzschmar, S.P.; Bedi, G.S.; Martinez, P.; Ervin, K.

    1996-09-01

    This document provides an engineering tracer study final report for the determination of contact time for the disinfection process at Group A Nontransient Noncommunity water treatment plant for the 100- N Water Plant (located on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington). The purpose of this study is to determine the actual detention time within the plant clearwell, and the disinfection contact time at several clearwell effluent flow rates

  20. Raw data from orientation studies in crystalline rock areas of the southeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, V.

    1976-03-01

    Raw data are presented on orientation studies conducted in crystalline rock areas of the Southeast which were chosen because of published references to uranium mineralization. Preliminary data for four orientation study areas are included. These areas are Lamar County, Georgia; Oconee County, South Carolina; Brush Creek, North Carolina; and North Harper, North Carolina. Sample locality maps, tables of field data, and tables of analytical data are included for each study area

  1. Baseline non-traditional resource use in the Aurora Mine EIA local study area and the Syncrude/Suncor regional study area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    As part of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the regional and local study area of Syncrude's proposed Aurora Mine, the use of natural resources by non-aboriginal residents and non-residents in the area was documented. The objective of the study was to determine what specific resources are being used, how much, when, where and why. The topics included hunting, fishing, camping and canoeing. Public opinion regarding opportunities for resource use was also documented. The report focused on the dynamic nature of resource use, secondary economies (tourist accommodations) and quality of life. A telephone survey was conducted in which 17 respondents from recreational organizations answered a resource use questionnaire which contained 38 questions on consumptive and non-consumptive uses of wildlife, fish, berries, timber, non-resident use and resource management policies. The three environmentally significant areas of the local study area included the Muskeg River, Kearl Lake and East Jackpine Creek. The regional study are contained the Horse River Diversity area, La Saline Natural area, Schultz's Bog Diversity area, Athabasca Tar Sands Reach, Clearwater River, McClelland Lake Patterned Fens, McClelland Lake, and the Fort Hills. Agriculture in both areas is limited because of unfavourable climate and generally low-quality soil. 13 refs., 7 tabs., 6 figs

  2. Baseline non-traditional resource use in the Aurora Mine EIA local study area and the Syncrude/Suncor regional study area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    As part of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the regional and local study area of Syncrude`s proposed Aurora Mine, the use of natural resources by non-aboriginal residents and non-residents in the area was documented. The objective of the study was to determine what specific resources are being used, how much, when, where and why. The topics included hunting, fishing, camping and canoeing. Public opinion regarding opportunities for resource use was also documented. The report focused on the dynamic nature of resource use, secondary economies (tourist accommodations) and quality of life. A telephone survey was conducted in which 17 respondents from recreational organizations answered a resource use questionnaire which contained 38 questions on consumptive and non-consumptive uses of wildlife, fish, berries, timber, non-resident use and resource management policies. The three environmentally significant areas of the local study area included the Muskeg River, Kearl Lake and East Jackpine Creek. The regional study are contained the Horse River Diversity area, La Saline Natural area, Schultz`s Bog Diversity area, Athabasca Tar Sands Reach, Clearwater River, McClelland Lake Patterned Fens, McClelland Lake, and the Fort Hills. Agriculture in both areas is limited because of unfavourable climate and generally low-quality soil. 13 refs., 7 tabs., 6 figs.

  3. Plant--Pollinator Interactions: A Rich Area for Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, T. J.

    1987-01-01

    Outlines an adaptive framework for the study of plants and their pollinators in which both partners in the ecological relationship are seen as maximizing fitness through efficient use of the other as a resource. Suggests experimental projects to examine the validity of these assumptions giving an evolutionary emphasis. (Author/CW)

  4. Modern Middle Eastern Fiction: An Approach to Studying the Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Frank A., Comp.

    The annotated listing cites Middle Eastern fiction which has been translated into English and can be used in humanities or social studies classes at the secondary level. The eight works of fiction listed contain materials that can be used to investigate the following topics: 1) contrasts between urban and village styles of life in the Middle East;…

  5. Cogeneration feasibility study in the Gulf States Utilities service area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Sites in the Gulf States Utilities service are considered for cogeneration feasibility studies. The sources of steam considered for the Orange, Texas and Geismar, Lake Charles, and North Baton Rouge, Louisiana sites include oil, coal, HTGR steamers, consolidated nuclear steam system, atmospheric fluidized-bed coal combustion, and coal gasification. Concepts concerning cogeneration fuel systems were categorized by technical applicability as: current technology (pulverized coal-fired boilers and fuel oil-fired boilers), advanced technology under development (HTGR steamers and the CNSS), and advanced technology for future development (atmospheric fluidized-bed boilers and coal gasification). In addition to providing data on cogeneration plant generally useful in the US, the study determined the technical and economic feasibility of steam and electric power cogeneration using coal and nuclear fuels for localized industrial complexes. Details on site selection, plant descriptions, cost estimates, economic analysis, and plant schedule and implementation. (MCW)

  6. Time Use in Rural Areas: A Case Study in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Erkan Erdil; Ozan Eruygur; Zehra Kasnakoglu

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to analyze rural household work and leisure time and how it is allocated among various activities and by socio-economic characteristics of individuals. The analysis is based on a survey carried out in two central Anatolian villages. Three time use questionnaires are administered between May-October 2003 during two different days of the week, an ordinary weekday and the day of the local bazaar. 138 household members from these two villages have participated in the survey. It is...

  7. Area Handbook Series: East Germany: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    popularity, supported the NSDAP with funds. Meanwhile, Briining’s successor, Franz von Papen , a strong authoritarian who wished to establish a corporate...Study Papen , Franz von , 33 training, 227; Transport Police, xxiv, Parow, 229 xxv, 226, 229, 273; Water Police, 260 Pavlovskii, I.G., 350 Polish Corridor...Constitution). Franz von l’apen, chancellor May-December I132; Hitle’s National Socialists won 2:30 Reichstag seats in July 1932 elettioins and ctiecrged

  8. Area Handbook Series: Soviet Union: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    893 Bibliography Chapter 1 Auty, Robert, and Dmitry Obolensky (eds.). An Introduction to Rus- sian History, 1: Companion to Russian Studies. Cambridge...Panchenko, Chudnovskiy. Edinaia transportnaia sistema . Moscow: Transport, 1987. Guzhenko, T.B. (ed.). Morskoi transport SSSR: K 60-letiiu otrasli. Moscow...Resources (The BAM). New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1977. 952 Bibliography Shafirkin, B.I. Edinaia transportnaia sistema SSSR i vzaimodeistvie. Moscow

  9. A study of polluted eco-system around industrial areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husaini, S.N.; Khan, E.U.; Qureshi, I.E.; Malik, F.; Zaidi, J.H.; Arif, M.; Fatima, I.; Arif, M.

    2005-01-01

    Industrial pollution is one of the most serious problems in Pakistan. The uncontrolled release of untreated industrial effluents to large water bodies has deleterious effects on water quality, aquatic life and human health. The concentration of heavy metals in eco-system is reaching at alarming levels and is increasing yearly. In reality, the industries are not equipped with proper effluent treatment plants. The environmental protection law is not strictly implemented to limit the release and/or proper disposal of industrial effluents. Therefore, volume of specified industrial discharge is growing at an exponential rate without any specific safeguards. Effective measures, which can eliminate or considerably reduce hazardous factors from the human environment to minimize the associated health risks, must be identified and eradicated. In order to achieve these objectives, the study has been done to reach a balanced assessment of the risks and benefits involved. For this purpose two industrial cities of Pakistan namely, Gujranwala and Faisalabad have been selected. Four major industries existing in these cities, namely Yam, textile, paper and board and ceramics, have been studied. The specimens of the irrigated soil exposed to the industrial effluent, crops and vegetables grown on that soil have been analyzed study the hazardous effects on human health. (author)

  10. Beyond Growth: The Next Stage in Language and Area Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    offerings is also reflected in the marketplace of opportunities for college and university teaching. One further set of data illustrates how marginal...Amharic 100.0 - - 3 Lingala 100.0 - - 8 Hausa 91.0 8.6 - 23 Afrikaans 100.0 - - 2 -.. Xhosa 100.0 - - I Yoruba 100.0 - - 5 Krio 100.0 - - 2 Bambara 100.0...Paul F.; Pincus, John; and Solomon, Richard H. Foreign Lanuaze and Inter- national Studies Specialists: The Marketplace and National Policy. Prepared

  11. Ecosystem studies, endangered species survey - Gibson Dome and Elk Ridge study areas, Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This report is published as a product of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. The objective of this program is the development of terminal waste storage facilities in deep stable geologic formations for high-level nuclear wastes, including spent fuel elements from commercial power reactors and transuranic nuclear waste for which the federal government is responsible. This report is part of the location and site characterization phase and contains threatened and endangered species information for the Gibson Dome and Elk Ridge study areas of the Paradox Region. The threatened and endangered species information was obtained through site surveys designed and implemented by area experts. The site surveys were performed during the period late summer 1981 - spring 1982 in the Gibson Dome and Elk Ridge Study Areas. No threatened or endangered species were identified in either Lavender or Davis canyons. Additional studies at the borehole locations in Beef Basin did identify the nearest occurrence of a species proposed for endangered status (Astragalus monumentalis, a monument milkvetch, member of the legume family). The species was identified approximately 160 to 300 m (500 to 1000 ft) from a hydro testing drill site. Consequently, construction and operation activity should not cause any adverse impacts. This report will be used to satisfy Section 7 requirements of the Endangered Species Act (PL 93-205 as amended) and to allow the United States Fish and Wildlife Service to verify that no protected species are subject to disturbance as the result of project activities occurring in the Gibson Dome and Elk Ridge study areas

  12. Radiation protection study of radiology medical workers in radiodiagnosis area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, E.; Canizal, C.; Garcia, M.A.; Orozco, M.; Rincon, A.; Padilla, Y.; Martinez, A.

    1996-01-01

    Aspects related to radiological safety and its organization in radiodiagnosis were evaluated by means of scanning carried out in 18 hospitals of Mexico City, divided in 11 public institutions and 7 private ones. The population being studied was: hospital personnel that works in radiodiagnosis. The survey was made with 31 dichotomic variables, being obtained 132 surveys. The personnel characteristics are 83% works in public institutions, 49% works in radiodiagnosis, 3% has an academic degree, 13% is member of a hospital professional association, 13% has updated information on radiological protection, 36% was trained, 45% works for more than 2 years, 52% uses personal dosemeter, less than the 20% knows about the fundamentals of the radiological protection and 24% states to suffer from biological radiation effects, due to the exposure to x-rays. As result of the study, it was found that the main problems that the radiological protection has, are: lack of training programs in radiological protection and supervision, medical surveillance and the few number of persons that takes part in clinical meetings and professional associations. (authors). 7 refs., 3 tabs

  13. Preliminary study on hydrogeology in tectonically active areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Lappin, Allen R.; Gettemy, Glen L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Arnold, Bill Walter; James, Scott Carlton; Lee, Moo Yul; Meier, Diane A.

    2006-01-01

    This report represents the final product of a background literature review conducted for the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Internationally, research of hydrological and transport processes in the context of high level waste (HLW) repository performance, has been extensive. However, most of these studies have been conducted for sites that are within tectonically stable regions. Therefore, in support of NUMO's goal of selecting a site for a HLW repository, this literature review has been conducted to assess the applicability of the output from some of these studies to the geological environment in Japan. Specifically, this review consists of two main tasks. The first was to review the major documents of the main HLW repository programs around the world to identify the most important hydrologic and transport parameters and processes relevant in each of these programs. The review was to assess the relative importance of processes and measured parameters to site characterization by interpretation of existing sensitivity analyses and expert judgment in these documents. The second task was to convene a workshop to discuss the findings of Task 1 and to prioritize hydrologic and transport parameters in the context of the geology of Japan. This report details the results and conclusions of both of these Tasks

  14. Preliminary study on hydrogeology in tectonically active areas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Lappin, Allen R.; Gettemy, Glen L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Arnold, Bill Walter; James, Scott Carlton; Lee, Moo Yul; Meier, Diane A.

    2006-09-01

    This report represents the final product of a background literature review conducted for the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Internationally, research of hydrological and transport processes in the context of high level waste (HLW) repository performance, has been extensive. However, most of these studies have been conducted for sites that are within tectonically stable regions. Therefore, in support of NUMO's goal of selecting a site for a HLW repository, this literature review has been conducted to assess the applicability of the output from some of these studies to the geological environment in Japan. Specifically, this review consists of two main tasks. The first was to review the major documents of the main HLW repository programs around the world to identify the most important hydrologic and transport parameters and processes relevant in each of these programs. The review was to assess the relative importance of processes and measured parameters to site characterization by interpretation of existing sensitivity analyses and expert judgment in these documents. The second task was to convene a workshop to discuss the findings of Task 1 and to prioritize hydrologic and transport parameters in the context of the geology of Japan. This report details the results and conclusions of both of these Tasks.

  15. Can citizen science contribute to fish assemblages monitoring in understudied areas? The case study of Tunisian marine protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Lamine, Emna; Di Franco, Antonio; Romdhane, Mohamed Salah; Francour, Patrice

    2018-01-01

    Resource monitoring is a key issue in ecosystem management especially for marine protected areas (MPAs), where information on the composition and structure of fish assemblages is crucial to design a sound management plan. Data on fish assemblage are usually collected using Underwater Visual Censuses (UVC). However, fish assemblages monitoring in MPAs usually calls for considerable resources in terms of costs, time and technical/scientific skills. Financial resources and trained scientific divers may, however, not be available in certain geographical areas, that are thus understudied. Therefore, involving citizen volunteer divers in fish assemblage monitoring and adopting easy-to-use underwater visual census methods could be an effective way to collect crucial data. Citizen science can be used only if it can provide information that is consistent with that collected using standard scientific monitoring. Here, we aim to: 1) compare the consistency of results from a Standard scientific UVC (S-UVC) and an Easy-to-use UVC (E-UVC) method in assessing fish assemblage spatial variability, and 2) test the consistency of data collected by Scientific Divers (SD) and Scientifically-Trained Volunteer divers (STV), using E-UVC. We used, in two consecutive years, three Tunisian future Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and adjacent areas as case studies. E-UVC and S-UVC data were consistent in highlighting the same spatial patterns for the three MPAs (between MPAs and, inside and outside each one). No significant difference was recorded between data collected by SD or STV. Our results suggest that E-UVC can provide information representing simplified proxies for describing fish assemblages and can therefore be a valuable tool for fish monitoring by citizen divers in understudied areas. This evidence could foster citizen science as an effective tool to raise environmental awareness and involve stakeholders in resource management.

  16. A comparative study of noise pollution levels in some selected areas in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedepo, Olayinka S; Saadu, Abdullahi A

    2009-11-01

    The noise pollution is a major problem for the quality of life in urban areas. This study was conducted to compare the noise pollution levels at busy roads/road junctions, passengers loading parks, commercial, industrial and residential areas in Ilorin metropolis. A total number of 47-locations were selected within the metropolis. Statistical analysis shows significant difference (P noise pollution levels between industrial areas and low density residential areas, industrial areas and high density areas, industrial areas and passengers loading parks, industrial areas and commercial areas, busy roads/road junctions and low density areas, passengers loading parks and commercial areas and commercial areas and low density areas. There is no significant difference (P > 0.05) in noise pollution levels between industrial areas and busy roads/road junctions, busy roads/road junctions and high density areas, busy roads/road junctions and passengers loading parks, busy roads/road junctions and commercial areas, passengers loading parks and high density areas, passengers loading parks and commercial areas and commercial areas and high density areas. The results show that Industrial areas have the highest noise pollution levels (110.2 dB(A)) followed by busy roads/Road junctions (91.5 dB(A)), Passengers loading parks (87.8 dB(A)) and Commercial areas (84.4 dB(A)). The noise pollution levels in Ilorin metropolis exceeded the recommended level by WHO at 34 of 47 measuring points. It can be concluded that the city is environmentally noise polluted and road traffic and industrial machineries are the major sources of it. Noting the noise emission standards, technical control measures, planning and promoting the citizens awareness about the high noise risk may help to relieve the noise problem in the metropolis.

  17. Studies on allergenic algae of Delhi area: botanical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, A; Agarwal, M K; Shivpuri, D N

    1979-04-01

    To study distribution of algae in and around Delhi aerobiological surveys were undertaken for two consecutive years (September, 1972, to August, 1974). The surveys were accomplished by (a) slide exposure method and (b) culture plate exposure method. A total of 850 slides were exposed using Durham's gravity sampling device. Of these, 560 slides were exposed during 1973 (272 slides at two meter and 288 at ten meter height) and the rest (290 slides) were exposed during 1974 at ten meter height. A total of 858 culture plates were exposed (276 for one hour and 282 for two hours) during 1973 and the rest (300 culture plates) were exposed during 1974 at ten meter height for two hours duration only. Air was found to be rich in algae flora during the months of September to November. The dominant forms of algae present were all blue greens. This might be due to the relative greater resistance of blue green algae to unfavorable conditions.

  18. Human genetic studies in areas of high natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire-Maia, A.; Krieger, H.

    1978-01-01

    Data have been obtained by a genetic-epidemiological survey of a population living in the State of Espirito Santo (Brazil), and subjected to mean levels of natural radiation, per locality, ranging from 7 to 133 μrad/hr. Multiple regression models have been applied to the data, and the results showed no detectable effect of natural radiation on the sex ratio at birth, on the occurrence of congenital anomalies, and on the numbers of pregnancy terminations, stillbirths, livebirths, and post-infant mortality in the children, as well as fecundity and fertility of the couples (these observations contradict some data from the literature, based on official records and without analyses of the concomitant effects of other variables). However, nonsignificant results cannot be considered as disproving harmful effects of natural radiation on mortality and morbidity. These results may simply mean that other causes of mortality and morbidity are so important, under the conditions of the study, that the contribution of low-level, chronic natural radiation is made negligible. (author)

  19. CEP action area studies : City of Yellowknife fleet review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The City of Yellowknife maintains a fleet of vehicles and equipment used for public service. Yellowknife's Community Energy Plan (CEP) has a goal to reduce Yellowknife's fleet fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 20 per cent within 10 years. This report examined current fuel consumption for the City of Yellowknife's fleet based on available data and examined options to reduce fleet fuel consumption. It also quantified the reduction in fuel consumption, GHG emissions, as well as the financial impacts of various options. An overview of the City of Yellowknife's fleet of vehicles and equipment was first provided, as well as calculated annual values for fuel consumption, GHG emissions, and energy consumption for the City of Yellowknife's fleet. Two fleet management case studies were presented. Fuel-efficient vehicles on the market that could provide an opportunity to replace some of the City of Yellowknife's fleet of light vehicles, and bylaw vehicles with fuel-efficient vehicles were discussed. These vehicles include hybrid vehicles, smart cars, compressed natural gas vehicles, and compressed-air vehicles. Equipment maintenance for tires, preventive, synthetic oils, and driver training programs were discussed. Anti-idling campaigns and technologies were also examined. The report concluded with a discussion of renewable fuels such as biodiesel and ethanol blended gasoline. Fleet fuel consumption, GHG and financial impacts were provided for each chapter heading. It was concluded that if all of the measures identified in the report were implemented, an overall decrease in GHG emissions of approximately 15 per cent would be achieved. 15 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs

  20. Consumer nueroscience: a new area of study for biomedical engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiloni, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    In scientific literature, the most accepted definition of consumer neuroscience or neuromarketing is that it is a field of study concerning the application of neuroscience methods to analyze and understand human behavior related to markets and marketing exchanges. First, it might seem strange that marketers would be interested in using neuroscience to understand consumer's preferences. Yet in practice, the basic goal of marketers is to guide the design and presentation of products in such a way that they are highly compatible with consumer preferences. To understand consumers preferences, several standard research tools are commonly used by marketers, such as personal interviews with the consumers, scoring questionnaries gathered from consumers, and focus groups. The reason marketing researchers are interested in using brain imaging tools instead of simply asking people for their preferences in front of marketing stimuli, arises from the assumption that people cannot (or do not want to) fully explain their preference when explicitly asked. Researchers in the field hypothesize that neuroimaging tools can access information within the consumer's brain during the generation of a preference or the observation of a commercial advertisement. The question of will this information be useful in further promoting the product is still up for debate in marketing literature. From the marketing researchers point of view, there is a hope that this body of brain imaging techniques will provide an efficient tradeoff between costs and benefits of the research. Currently, neuroscience methodology includes powerful brain imaging tools based on the gathering of hemodynamic or electromagnetic signals related to the human brain activity during the performance of a relevant task for marketing objectives. These tools are briefly reviewed in this article.

  1. The Application Study in Solar Energy Technology for Highway Service Area: A Case Study of West Lushan Highway Low-Carbon Service Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of research works have been made concerning highway service area or solar technology and acquired great achievements. However, unfortunately, few works have been made combining the two topics together of highway service areas and solar energy saving to make a systemic research on solar technology application for highway service area. In this paper, taking West Lushan highway low-carbon service area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the advantages, technical principles, and application methods of solar energy technology for highway service area including solar photoelectric technology and solar water heating technology were discussed based on the analysis of characteristics of highway low-carbon service area; the system types, operation mode, and installing tilt angle of the two kinds of solar systems suitable for highway service areas were confirmed. It was proved that the reduction of the cost by electricity savings of solar system was huge. Taking the investment of the solar systems into account, the payback period of solar photoelectric systems and solar water heating systems was calculated. The economic effect of the solar systems in West Lushan highway service area during the effective operation periods was also calculated and proved very considerable.

  2. Dose per unit area - a study of elicitation of nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Louise Arup; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experimental sensitization depends upon the amount of allergen per unit skin area and is largely independent of the area size. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at testing if this also applies for elicitation of nickel allergy. PATIENTS/METHODS: 20 nickel allergic individuals were tested...... with a patch test and a repeated open application test (ROAT). Nickel was applied on small and large areas. The varying parameters were area, total dose and dose per unit area. RESULTS: In the patch test, at a low concentration [15 microg nickel (microg Ni)/cm(2)], there were significantly higher scores...... on the large area with the same dose per area as the small area. At higher concentrations of nickel, no significant differences were found. In the ROAT at low concentration (6.64 microg Ni/cm(2)), it was found that the latency period until a reaction appeared was significantly shorter on the large area...

  3. Does consideration of larger study areas yield more accurate estimates of air pollution health effects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Siroux, Valérie; Pin, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spatially-resolved air pollution models can be developed in large areas. The resulting increased exposure contrasts and population size offer opportunities to better characterize the effect of atmospheric pollutants on respiratory health. However the heterogeneity of these areas may......: Simulations indicated that adjustment for area limited the bias due to unmeasured confounders varying with area at the costs of a slight decrease in statistical power. In our cohort, rural and urban areas differed for air pollution levels and for many factors associated with respiratory health and exposure....... Area tended to modify effect measures of air pollution on respiratory health. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing the size of the study area also increases the potential for residual confounding. Our simulations suggest that adjusting for type of area is a good option to limit residual confounding due to area...

  4. Preliminary study of Songa-Wayaua geothermal prospect area using volcanostratigraphy and remote sensing analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokawaty, Ribka; Nugroho, Indra; Satriana, Joshua; Hafidz, Muhamad; Suryantini

    2017-12-01

    Songa-Wayaua geothermal prospect area is located on Bacan Island, Northern Molluca Province. Geothermal systems in this area associated with three Quartenary volcanoes, such as Mt. Pele-pele, Mt. Lansa, and Mt. Bibinoi. Based on literature study, five surface manifestations such as hot springs and alteration occurred within this area. The active manifestations indicate that Songa-Wayaua area has potential geothermal resource. This study objective is to evaluate Songa-Wayaua geothermal system on preliminary study stage by using volcanostratigraphy and remote sensing analysis to delineate the boundary of geothermal system area. The result of this study showed that Songa-Wayaua prospect area has four heat sources potential (e.g. Pele-pele Hummock, Lansa Hummock, Songa Hummock, and Bibinoi Hummock), controlled by geological structure presented by Pele-pele Normal Fault, and had three places as the recharge and discharge area which are very fulfilling as a geothermal system.

  5. Quarternary Sediment Characteristics of Floodplain area: Study Case at Kampar River, Rumbio Area and Surroundings, Riau Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniarti Yuskar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study area is located in some floodplains of meandering river environment along the Kampar River, Rumbio. Typical morphology of meandering river that found in this area can be classified as stream channel, floodplain, abandoned channel, and sand bars deposit. Meandering river system carries sediment supply by suspended and bed - load (mixed load in conjunction with low energy into a particular characteristic on sediment deposition. This study aims to determine the characteristics of the sediments, changes in vertical and lateral spread of sediment deposition on the floodplain environment. This study conducted by field survey using a hand auger of 1.5m - 4m depth and trenching which is a layer that has been exposed of 1-2 meters depth. Further analysis had been carried out using granulometri method and core data analysis to determine the characteristics and depositional facies. Sediment deposit that formed along the Kampar River is the result of the main channel migration of Kampar River. The characteristic of quaternary sediment facies is coarse to gravelly sand on the bottom followed by fine to very fine sand with pattern fining upwards and silt to clay and abundant terrestrial organic matter at the uppermost layer. Depositional facies are determined based on the characteristics of sediment facies which can be grouped into a stream channel, oblique accretion deposits, sand bars and overbank deposits.

  6. Urban density, deprivation and road safety: A small area study in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following a general paucity of small area research on road traffic injuries (RTIs), this study examined small area variations in RTIs for the eThekwini Metropolitan Area (comprising predominantly the City of Durban) in South Africa. Population density was used as an organising framework to examine variations in RTI ...

  7. Study renewable energy - sugarcane ethanol. Traditional areas. Final report; Estudo energias renovaveis - etanol de cana. Areas tradicionais. Relatorio final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This report presents the mapping of areas with potential for ethanol production in traditional areas of the Brazil. In the traditional areas, with clear emphasis in the Northeast region of Brazil, was selected ten areas in the states of Bahia, Sergipe, Alagoas, Pernambuco, Paraiba, Rio Grande do Norte and Ceara. In the Southeast region two areas, between the Norte Fluminense, Southern of the Espirito Santo and eastern of the Minas Gerais.

  8. Biogeochemical study of termite mounds: a case study from Tummalapalle area of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arveti, Nagaraju; Reginald, S; Kumar, K Sunil; Harinath, V; Sreedhar, Y

    2012-04-01

    Termite mounds are abundant components of Tummalapalle area of uranium mineralization of Cuddapah District of Andhra Pradesh, India. The systematic research has been carried out on the application of termite mound sampling to mineral exploration in this region. The distribution of chemical elements Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, Cr, Li, Rb, Sr, Ba, and U were studied both in termite soils and adjacent surface soils. Uranium accumulations were noticed in seven termite mounds ranging from 10 to 36 ppm. A biogeochemical parameter called "Biological Absorption Coefficient" of the termite mounds indicated the termite affected soils contained huge amounts of chemical elements than the adjacent soils.

  9. Modeling geomorphic changes in sedimentary rock areas. A case study in the Boso Peninsula area, Central Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanatani, Ikuo; Munakata, Masahiro; Kimura, Hideo; Sanga, Tomoji

    2011-01-01

    For the long-term safety of geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, evaluation of the radionuclide migration toward the human environment associated with groundwater flow is an issue of utmost importance. Therefore, we are carrying out a program for developing methods for assessing long-term groundwater flow in regional scales. As a part of the above program, we constructed models depicting the influences of geomorphological evolution on long-term groundwater flow. This was done by reconstructing the processes of river deepening with historical simulation of the profiles of four rivers in the Boso Peninsula. This area was selected because the sedimentary rocks are widely distributed with uncomplicated topography and geological structure which enabled the acquisition of a large amount of relevant geological information. The study resulted in the sum of erosion during the past 125,000 years which is the equivalent of one glacial to interglacial cycle. Consequently, the profiles of four rivers during the last glacial age to the present were successfully reconstructed using similar parameters. Also it was found that, in this area, the profiles were sculpted in accordance with the uplifting rates with very little influence of initial topography owing to the relatively soft and easily dissected characteristics of the geological units. However, detailed investigation revealed that the effects of geomorphological evolution differ between the rivers emptying into the inner bay and the rivers emptying into the open sea. In the case of the former two rivers, the river-bed elevation hardly changed during the 125,000 years and shows an extensive concave profile including the marine area. In the latter case, the elevation changed within the range of 20-30 m during the period and a convex profile appears in the marine area where the present water depth is over 30 m. Additionally the estimates of total amount of erosion during 125,000 years in the former group were

  10. Experimental Study on RFID Antenna Reading Areas in a Tunnel System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Kordelin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We study optimized antenna reading area mappings for a radiofrequency identification- (RFID- based access monitoring system, used in an underground nuclear waste storage facility. We shortly introduce the access monitoring system developed for the ONKALO tunnel in Finland and describe the antenna mounting points as well as the research area. Finally, we study the measurement results of the antenna reading areas and factors that affect the reading area size. Based on our results, in addition to antenna location and direction, absorption to obstacles, reflections, diffraction, scattering, and refraction affect the antenna reading area.

  11. [Object-oriented remote sensing image classification in epidemiological studies of visceral leishmaniasis in urban areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Andréa Sobral de; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Resendes, Ana Paula da Costa

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the use of object-oriented classification of remote sensing imagery in epidemiological studies of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in urban areas. To obtain temperature and environmental information, an object-oriented classification approach was applied to Landsat 5 TM scenes from the city of Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil. For 1993-1996, VL incidence rates correlated positively with census tracts covered by dense vegetation, grass/pasture, and bare soil and negatively with areas covered by water and densely populated areas. In 2001-2006, positive correlations were found with dense vegetation, grass/pasture, bare soil, and densely populated areas and negative correlations with occupied urban areas with some vegetation. Land surface temperature correlated negatively with VL incidence in both periods. Object-oriented classification can be useful to characterize landscape features associated with VL in urban areas and to help identify risk areas in order to prioritize interventions.

  12. Area Deprivation Affects Behavioral Problems of Young Adolescents in Mixed Urban and Rural Areas : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Veenstra, R.; De Winter, A.F.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; de Meer, G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Behavioral problems occur more frequently among adolescents in deprived areas, but most evidence concerns urbanized areas. Our aim was to assess the impact of area deprivation and urbanization on the occurrence and development of behavioral problems among adolescents in a mixed urban and

  13. Using Space Syntax to Assess Safety in Public Areas - Case Study of Tarbiat Pedestrian Area, Tabriz-Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihangir Çamur, Kübra; Roshani, Mehdi; Pirouzi, Sania

    2017-10-01

    In studying the urban complex issues, simulation and modelling of public space use considerably helps in determining and measuring factors such as urban safety. Depth map software for determining parameters of the spatial layout techniques; and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software for analysing and evaluating the views of the pedestrians on public safety were used in this study. Connectivity, integration, and depth of the area in the Tarbiat city blocks were measured using the Space Syntax Method, and these parameters are presented as graphical and mathematical data. The combination of the results obtained from the questionnaire and statistical analysis with the results of spatial arrangement technique represents the appropriate and inappropriate spaces for pedestrians. This method provides a useful and effective instrument for decision makers, planners, urban designers and programmers in order to evaluate public spaces in the city. Prior to physical modification of urban public spaces, space syntax simulates the pedestrian safety to be used as an analytical tool by the city management. Finally, regarding the modelled parameters and identification of different characteristics of the case, this study represents the strategies and policies in order to increase the safety of the pedestrians of Tarbiat in Tabriz.

  14. Molecular dynamics study of contact mechanics: contact area and interfacial separation from small to full contact

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, C.; Persson, B. N. J.

    2007-01-01

    We report a molecular dynamics study of the contact between a rigid solid with a randomly rough surface and an elastic block with a flat surface. We study the contact area and the interfacial separation from small contact (low load) to full contact (high load). For small load the contact area varies linearly with the load and the interfacial separation depends logarithmically on the load. For high load the contact area approaches to the nominal contact area (i.e., complete contact), and the i...

  15. Base line study on demographic and health pattern around uranium mining area at Tummalapalle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondare, Devidas; Bala Krishna, C.; Ganesh, B.; Vinod Kumar, A.

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study is to document baseline data on the socio-economic, demographic and health status of the study area with specific objective to generate household information on infrastructure, housing, agriculture, drinking water and sanitation facilities

  16. Advanced transportation system studies, technical area 3. Alternate propulsion subsystem concepts: J-2S restart study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilja, John; Levack, Daniel

    1993-04-01

    The objectives were to assess what design changes would be required to remit late production of the J-2S engine for use as a large high energy upper stage engine. The study assessed design changes required to perform per the J-2S model specification, manufacturing changes required due to obsolescence or improvements in state-of-the-practice, availability issues for supplier provided items, and provided cost and schedule estimates for this configuration. The confidence that J-2S production could be reinitiated within reasonable costs and schedules was provided. No significant technical issues were identified in either the producibility study or in the review of previous technical data. Areas of potential cost reduction were identified which could be quantified to a greater extent with further manufacturing planning. The proposed schedule can be met with no foreseeable impacts. The results of the study provided the necessary foundation for the detailed manufacturing and test plans and non-recurring and recurring cost estimates that are needed to complete the effort to reinitiate production of the J-2S engine system.

  17. Carbon savings resulting from the cooling effect of green areas: A case study in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Wenqi; Wu Tinghai; Zhang Chengguo; Yu Ting

    2011-01-01

    Green areas cool the climate of a city, reduce the energy consumption caused by the urban heat island (UHI) effect, and bring along carbon savings. However, the calculation of carbon savings due to the cooling effect of green areas is still not well understood. We have used a Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) image of Beijing, to identify the cooled areas, compute the possible energy used to maintain the temperature differences between cooled areas and their surrounding heated areas, and calculate the carbon savings owing to the avoidance of energy use. Results show that a total amount of 14315.37 tons carbon savings was achieved in the study area and the amount was related to the biomass, the size and the shape of green areas. These results demonstrate the importance of carbon savings resulting from green areas' cooling effect. - Highlights: → We provide an integral equation for the calculation of energy conservation and carbon savings. → We show that carbon savings is partly influenced by green areas' features. → A strong correlation between biomass, size and shape of green areas and carbon savings. - An integral equation for the calculation of energy conservation and carbon savings; Showing that carbon savings is partly influenced by green areas' features.

  18. Study on the regional crust stability of Beishan area, Gansu province, NW China-the preselected area for China's high level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju; Xu Guoqing; Jin Yuanxin; Chen Weiming; Guo Yonghai; Yang Tianxiao

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes the research results on the crust stability of the Beishan area, Gansu province, NW China-the preselected area for China's high level radioactive waste repository. The studies include regional tectonic structure and its evolution, regional geophysical field, crust structure, regional deep-rooted faults, regional seismological activity, regional neo-tectonics, regional modern stress field and its numerical simulation, geological interpretation of TM satellite and its application in the study of crust stability, and the evaluation on crust stability. The research in the past years indicates that the west part of Gansu province (the area we studied) can be divided into 8 parts with different crust stability: (1) Beishan stable area; (2) East Huahai stable area; (3) Huahai sub-stable area; (4) Yumenzheng sub-unstable area; (5) Yumenshi sub-unstable area; (6) Daxueshan sub-unstable area; (7) Jiayuguan unstable area; and (8) Beiqilian unstable area. Among those parts, the Beishan area possess the best conditions, its crust stability accords with the demands on candidate site for HLW repositories, which are described in the International atomic energy agency's safety series No.111-G-4.1 Guidelines. Therefore, the Beishan area is suitable region for further work. (author)

  19. Study of plutonium and americium contamination in agricultural area, radiological impact caused by consumption of vegetables of this area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, Assuncion; Aragon, Antonio; Cruz, Berta de la; Gutierrez, Jose

    2001-01-01

    The transuranide concentration has been studied for 30 years in vegetable production, crops in wide extensions and in private-owned farms, all of them situated within the Pu-contaminated area of Palomares due to an air accident in 1966. Based on these studies, a preliminary estimation of the radiological risk caused by the consumption of these products by the inhabitants was possible. The results show that most of the fruits present a surface contamination, which disappears or is significantly reduced when they are washed. The contamination present in edible parts of the vegetables, as well as the contamination of other products included in the diet, has facilitated the estimation of the effective dose for ingestion and the committed effective dose for 50 years for the inhabitants. The main conclusions are: those plants, whose cultivation period is less than a year, present a low level of contamination; the green parts of the plants have a higher contamination than the fruits; the Pu soil to plant transfer factor is very low. In general, those plants that have remained in the contaminated land for several years present a high contamination level; the ingestion of products from Palomares does not represent an important risk for the population, even in the case that the products were totally consumed by a critical group.( author)

  20. A study about the prevalence and the related factors of metabolic syndrome and fatty liver comparing the urban area to tbe industrial area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hyo Eun; Cho, Pyong Kon [Dept. of of Radiological Science, Catholic University of Daegu. Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    As the tertiary industry is being developed, many problems are introduced in an industrial area in Korea. This study aims to investigate the residents' health conditions, such as the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and fatty liver diagnosed by ultrasonography, comparing the urban with the industrial areas. The subjects were 378 adults in the urban area and 376 adults in the industrial area. Subject variables accounted for were gender, age, drinking habits, smoking habits, physical activities, waist circumferences and BMI. In blood tests, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, HDL, blood pressures, total cholesterol, AST, ALT and GGT were examined. Also, the presence and absence of fatty liver, diagnosed using ultrasonography, was investigated. As a result, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome were 43.7% in the urban area and 51.6% in the industrial area, hence it was significantly higher in the industrial area than in the urban area. Fasting blood glucose, triglyceride and waist circumference in the distribution of the individual components were 47.4, 53.7, and 16.1% in the urban area and 54.5, 61.5, and 22.9% in the industrial area respectively, so it was substantially higher in the industrial area than in the urban area. On the other hand, HDL, diastolic blood pressure, and fatty liver were 25.7, 43.4, and 44.7% in the urban area and 21.3, 19.9, and 36.7% in the industrial area respectively and thus it was much higher in the urban area than in the industrial area. In conclusion, this study shows that there were significant differences between the residents' health condition, comparing the urban area to the industrial area. Therefore, the precaution and aggressive management of metabolic syndrome may be necessary, in accordance with the characteristics of the industrial zone.

  1. A study about the prevalence and the related factors of metabolic syndrome and fatty liver comparing the urban area to tbe industrial area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyo Eun; Cho, Pyong Kon

    2016-01-01

    As the tertiary industry is being developed, many problems are introduced in an industrial area in Korea. This study aims to investigate the residents' health conditions, such as the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and fatty liver diagnosed by ultrasonography, comparing the urban with the industrial areas. The subjects were 378 adults in the urban area and 376 adults in the industrial area. Subject variables accounted for were gender, age, drinking habits, smoking habits, physical activities, waist circumferences and BMI. In blood tests, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, HDL, blood pressures, total cholesterol, AST, ALT and GGT were examined. Also, the presence and absence of fatty liver, diagnosed using ultrasonography, was investigated. As a result, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome were 43.7% in the urban area and 51.6% in the industrial area, hence it was significantly higher in the industrial area than in the urban area. Fasting blood glucose, triglyceride and waist circumference in the distribution of the individual components were 47.4, 53.7, and 16.1% in the urban area and 54.5, 61.5, and 22.9% in the industrial area respectively, so it was substantially higher in the industrial area than in the urban area. On the other hand, HDL, diastolic blood pressure, and fatty liver were 25.7, 43.4, and 44.7% in the urban area and 21.3, 19.9, and 36.7% in the industrial area respectively and thus it was much higher in the urban area than in the industrial area. In conclusion, this study shows that there were significant differences between the residents' health condition, comparing the urban area to the industrial area. Therefore, the precaution and aggressive management of metabolic syndrome may be necessary, in accordance with the characteristics of the industrial zone

  2. Groundwater and quaternary geological studies of potential peat production areas - useful tool for sustainable peat production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valpola, S.E.; Paalijaervi, M. (Geological Survey of Finland, Kokkola (Finland)), Email: samu.valpola@gtk.fi, Email: miikka.paalijarvi@gtk.fi

    2009-07-01

    Potential peat production areas in Finland are often situated in vicinity of eskers or other quaternary (glaciofluvial) formations. Frequently these formations are also important groundwater resources and it is essential for sustainable peat production to assure that these resources will not be endangered. The Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) has concluded several quaternary geological studies on potential peat production areas, which are connected to locally important groundwater areas. These studies have been made using mainly ground penetrating radar (GPR) and light drilling equipment. The main objective of these studies has been to establish the local groundwater flow directions and the quality and extent of quaternary deposits. The increasing need of peat production areas has created an evident demand of cost-effective and fast research methods which can be used for providing reliable information for planning of new production areas. (orig.)

  3. Knowledge Worker Perceptions of Telework Policy in the New York Metropolitan Area: A Qualitative Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Sandra Lorraine Hawks

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative descriptive case study, "Knowledge Worker Perceptions of Telework in the New York Metropolitan Area," was conducted to explore the perceptions of knowledge workers who commute to a physical workplace in the New York Metropolitan area (NYMA). In-depth interviews were conducted with fourteen NYMA commuters who are…

  4. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the Houston metropolitan area, Texas, 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liscum, Fred

    1986-01-01

    Hydro!ogic investigations of urban watersheds in Texas were begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1954. Studies are now in progress in the Austin and Houston areas, and have been completed in the Dallas-Fort Worth and San Antonio areas.

  5. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the Houston metropolitan area, Texas, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liscum, Fred; Bruchmiller, J.P.; Brown, D.W.; Paul, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    Hydrologic investigations of urban watersheds in Texas were begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1954. Studies are now in progress in the Austin and Houston areas, and have been completed in the Dallas-Fort Worth and San Antonio areas.

  6. Mapping Marine Resources Utilization Based on Seascapes Area: A Study on Gender Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picaulima, Simon; Teniwut, Wellem A.; Kahfi, Syahibul; M. K Teniwut, Roberto; Dewa Ayu Raka Susanti, Ida I.; Hungan, Marselus; Rahantoknam, Meyske; Hasyim, Cawalinya; Rahakbauw, Siska D.; Renjaan, M. R.; Ngabalin, Anna M.; Ngangun, Tati A.; Pentury, Frischila; Betaubun, K. D.; Ngamel, A. K.; Ohoiwutun, E. C.

    2017-10-01

    Each section of coastal area from village area to deep sea has particular fisheries and marine activities. Therefore requirements for knowledge, skill, and risk are distinct between each scape. Based on this notion we divided seascapes based on three different area, first is village area to mangrove and coconut trees before coast area, second is area from beach to shallow water and the third is deep sea. We conducted our data collection in Kei Islands, Indonesia, with purposive sampling to target fishermen and aquaculture farmers in the coastal area. Purposes of this research are to analyze the role and the contribution of male and female on each area to formulate the best way to improve and maintain the sustainability of microenterprises and coastal community welfare; we used logistic regression to analyze the data. The result demonstrated each fisheries activity in each seascape with based on gender on each area and activity. Recommendation of this study especially for the government as empirical guidance to improve the economic welfare of the coastal community in Kei Islands and small islands area in general.

  7. COMPEREHENSIVE TECHNICAL STUDIES OF FLOOD CONTROL OVER SOLO CITY AREA (CASE STUDY IN DEMANGAN BARRAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Trusharyanto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available City of Surakarta, known as Solo City is one of cities in Central Java Province traversed by Bengawan Solo River. Heavy rainfall in upstream area of Bengawan Solo River causes increase in high water level at downstream. Bengawan Solo River will be higher than water level in drainage system which may induce a backwater flow. Since Colonization era, the government has built dikes and barrages against backwater flow and inundation problem. One of the barrages was Demangan Barrage dividing river flow into Bengawan Solo River and Pepe River. It was equipped with total capacity pump of 12,3 m3/s. The inundation is not only caused by the backwater flow coming from Bengawan Solo River, but also surface runoff as the result of the excess rainfall which cannot be drained gravitationally to the main river if the gate was closed. Therefore, comprehensive study combining hydrology and hydraulics analysis is highly needed in order to achieve more effective flood control management. Hydrology analysis was done to estimate the direct runoff hydrograph from catchment area in Solo City to downstream of Pepe River. While in hydraulics case, hydraulic parameter in downstream of Pepe River influenced by Bengawan Solo River stream was analyzed. Both studies were simulated using software HEC-RAS 4.1.0 version. The simulation considered drainage channel, gate, pump system and dike in Pepe River downstream. Simulation using 10 years of return period in Solo City and average annual water level in Bengawan Solo River showed that Pepe River can flow through the gate, while the highest water level is still below the dike. Simulation considering 10 years of return period, water level hydrograph of Bengawan Solo River, existing pump, and gate operation inferred that Pepe River surpassed top of dike. Capacity of required pump should be more than 168,3 m3/s in order to pass 10 years of return period. By combining operational of existing pump and dike elevated up to +87,63 m

  8. LANDSLIDES INCIDENCE IN THE PIEDMONT OF BAIA MARE URBAN AREA (CASE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ZAHARIA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The landslides incidence in the piedmont of baia mare urbana area cae studies. The General Urban Plan (GUP of Baia Mare municipality requires the study of expected susceptibility for landslides in order to build infrastructure within sustainable development conditions. The complexity and diversity of local geographic area factors, strongly affected by the human pressure, favours the triggering and extension of slope processes in the municipality’s piedmont area. To prevent some major imbalances it is imperative to implement some adequate measures based on in-depth studies.

  9. DO POST-SOCIALIST URBAN AREAS MAINTAIN THEIR SUSTAINABLE COMPACT FORM? ROMANIAN URBAN AREAS AS CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Raluca GRĂDINARU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The compact city is regarded as an important concept in promoting sustainable development, especially within the European Union. The socialist urban planning system maintained a high compactness of the urban areas through almost exclusive predominance of the public sector in housing provision, and ideological nature of the planning strategies. After the 1990’s, the administrative decentralization allowed local authorities to adopt particular urban development strategies. However, development was directly influenced by the importance of the urban administrative centre. The aim of the paper is to determine if post-socialist urban areas maintained their compact urban form or they encountered different evolution trajectories. We determined the type of changes by calculating urban form indicators at two time moments: 1990 and 2006. Furthermore, the two-way repeated-measurement ANOVA was used to identify significant changes, and to assess the effect of the development level of the urban area on the variance of form indicators. The results show that Romanian post-socialist urban areas either shifted from the compact form, "inherited" after the collapse of socialism, to more dispersed patterns, either expanded in a compact manner. Moreover, as development level got higher, urban areas were more likely to be affected by suburbanization and periurbanization. In order to respond to these challenges, new instruments such as setting of metropolitan areas or spatial framework plans could be used. Furthermore, planning should be adapted to local circumstances and to the different development trajectories of big and mid-sized urban areas.

  10. STUDI PENGELOLAAN LINGKUNGAN BERKELANJUTAN DI WILAYAH PENGENDAPAN PASIR SISA TANBANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Sumantri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Study on Environmental Management Sustainability in the Deposition Area.Mineral mining is important sector which contributes significantly to the national and local government's revenue as well as for local community prosperity. Most mineral mining to the ore process isusing flotation process, which produces concentrate with tailing as waste products. Tailing is finely ground natural rock residue from the processing of mineralized ore which amount to approximately 96-97% of theprocessed ore and only 3-4% concentrate containing copper, gold and silver. Tailing should be managed properly to minimize environmental impact. The objective of this study is to identify the elements ofmineral mining environmental management system, to study existing environmental policy and to design sustainable model on the tailing handling. Case study was done in the Modified Ajkwa Deposition Area (Mod-ADA at the Mimika Regency, Papua. This research was using soft system methodology (SSM and policy development was using the total system intervention (TSD procedure which highlighted environmental care, complementarism and community development. The system modeling techniques used were Strategic Assumption Surfacing and Testing (SAST, Interpretative Structural Modeling (ISM and Issue Management Technology (IMT with Face validation by expert survey and FGD. Effective cost parameter and related SME business feasibility were calculated through field survey. The strategic policy model was formulated based on COMHAR sustainable development themes: satisfaction of human needs by the efficient use of resource, respect for ecological integrity and bio diversity, social equity and good decision making.This study resulted conceptual model which consists of the tailing management model (PET AS for the physical environmental aspect and the Mod-ADA land rehabilitation (RELAW for the biological aspect. The strategic policy model was developed according to environmental management and

  11. Mineral resources of the South Mccullough Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Clark County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWitt, E.; Anderson, J.L.; Barton, H.N.; Jachens, R.C.; Podwysocki, M.H.; Brickey, D.W.; Close, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a study of 19,558 acres of the South McCullough Mountains Wilderness Study Area. The study area contains no identified mineral resources and has no areas of high mineral resource potential. However, five areas that make up 20 percent of the study area have a moderate potential either for undiscovered silver, gold, lead, copper, and zinc resources in small vein deposits; for lanthanum and other rare-earth elements, uranium, thorium, and niobium in medium-size carbonatite bodies and dikes; for tungsten and copper in small- to medium-size vein deposits; or for silver and gold in small vein or breccia-pipe deposits. Six areas that makeup 24 percent of the study area have an unknown resource potential either for gold, silver, lead, and copper in small vein deposits; for gold, silver, lead, zinc, copper, and arsenic in small vein or breccia-pipe deposits; for lanthanum and other rare-earth elements, uranium, thorium, and niobium in medium-size carbonatite bodies and dikes; or for tungsten and copper in small vein deposits

  12. The Cottonwood Lake study area, a long-term wetland ecosystem monitoring site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; Euliss, Ned H.

    2012-01-01

    The Cottonwood Lake study area is one of only three long-term wetland ecosystem monitoring sites in the prairie pothole region of North America; the other two are Orchid Meadows in South Dakota and St. Denis in Saskatchewan. Of the three, Cottonwood Lake has, by far, the longest continuous data-collection record. Research was initiated at the study area in 1966, and intensive investigations of the hydrology, chemistry, and biology of prairie pothole wetlands continue at the site today. This fact sheet describes the study area, provides an overview of wetland ecology research that has been conducted at the site in the past, and provides an introduction to current work being conducted at the study area by USGS scientists.

  13. LBA-ECO LC-01 Topographic Data for Intensive Study Areas, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains topographic/geomorphological data associated with the four Intensive Study Areas (ISAs) in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon (northern...

  14. LBA-ECO LC-01 Topographic Data for Intensive Study Areas, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains topographic/geomorphological data associated with the four Intensive Study Areas (ISAs) in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon (northern Oriente)...

  15. Text Previews and Three Level Study Guides for Content Area Critical Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Thomas W.; Ericson, Bonnie O.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the integration of text previews (teacher-developed synopses of the text) and three-level study guides (encouraging factual, inferential, and problem solving responses). Claims a combination of these constitutes a powerful strategy for content area reading. (RS)

  16. Washington DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study Household and Non-Household Populations (DC-MADSH-1991)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study (DCMADS) was conducted in 1991, and included special analyses of homeless and transient populations and of women delivering live...

  17. Studies on normal incidence backscattering in nodule areas using the multibeam-hydrosweep system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pathak, D.; Chakraborty, B.

    The acoustic response from areas of varying nodule abundance and number densities in the Central Indian Ocean has been studied by using the echo peak amplitudes of the normal incidence beam in the Multibeam Hydrosweep system. It is observed...

  18. Washington DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study Homeless and Transient Population (DC-MADST-1991)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study (DCMADS) was conducted in 1991, and included special analyses of homeless and transient populations and of women delivering live...

  19. Impacts of Spatial Distribution of Impervious Areas on Runoff Response of Hillslope Catchments: Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study analyzes variations in the model-projected changes in catchment runoff response after urbanization that stem from variations in the spatial distribution of impervious areas, interevent differences in temporal rainfall structure, and antecedent soil moisture (ASM). In t...

  20. Congestion relief by travel time minimization in near real time : Detroit area I-75 corridor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    "This document summarizes the activities concerning the project: Congestion Relief by : Travel Time Minimization in Near Real Time -- Detroit Area I-75 Corridor Study since : the inception of the project (Nov. 22, 2006 through September 30, 2008). : ...

  1. Study on the change law of soil in subsidence area of horizontal coal seam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfeng; Wang, Shugang; Liu, Wei

    2017-11-01

    In order to provide theoretical basis for land reclamation in subsidence area, the mining subsidence area is divided into three areas: zone I (stretching zone), zone II (compression zone) and zone III (neutral zone). On this basis, the change characteristics of the soil in the three areas of the horizontal coal seam mining subsidence area are studied. The results show that: due to stretching, soil of zone I cracks was developed, the soil continuity damage, poor integrity, serious leakage of soil Water Leakage fertilizer, the area shows the soil water holding capacity decreased, the decline of soil fertility, soil coarsening and barren trend. The soil mass in zone II is compressed and the soil structure is relatively complete, but the soil bulk density increases correspondingly, while the soil porosity decreases gradually and the permeability decreases. The main soil layer in the zone III is vertical deformation, and the soil integrity is better. But the influence of mined out area leads to the movement of water and nutrients to the lower part of the soil. This paper suggests that in the land reclamation process should adopt corresponding reclamation method based on the variation law of the three soil area of reclamation area of mining subsidence, for improving soil physicochemical properties, so as to achieve the purpose of effective reclamation.

  2. Isotopic study of the effect of Tarbela reservoir on the groundwater system in the downstream areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajjad, M.I.; Tasneem, M.A.; Hussain, S.D.; Khan, I.H.; Ali, M.; Latif, Z.

    1994-04-01

    Isotopic studies were carried out on the right side of river Indus, downstream of Tarbela dam to study the effect of Tarbela Reservoir on the groundwater system. The main objectives of the study were to determine the hydraulic connection, if any, between the Tarbela Lake and the groundwater appearing in the ponds near Gadon Amazai, see the effect of Tarbela dam on the groundwater system in the downstream areas, compute the relative contribution of different recharge sources towards groundwater system and to estimate residence time of groundwater in the area. Isotopic data reveals that the ponds near Gadoon Amazai area are being recharged by local rains and there is no contribution of Tarbela lake. The area around Gadoon Amazai, Topi and Kalabat is solely recharged by local rains while the area around Swabi, Zaida and Lahor has mixed recharge with major contribution from local canal system. Tritium data suggests that the residence time of groundwater in the study area varies from a few years to 30 years. Te groundwater in the area has low dissolved salt contents and is, generally, of good quality. (author) 19 figs

  3. Determination of fluoride source in ground water using petrographic studies in Dashtestan area, south of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaleb-Looie, Sedigheh; Moore, Farid, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    The groundwater occurs in Dashtestan area, contains a high level of fluoride. Since groundwater is vastly used for drinking and irrigation purposes, the local residents are at high risk of fluoride toxicity, as already evidenced by the occurrence of dental Fluorosis in many residents. 35 surface and groundwater samples were collected in September, 2009. The results show that in 23 samples the fluoride concentration is above the permissible level (1.5ppm). Petrographic study of lithological units in the catchment area indicates that mica minerals are the most probable source of fluoride content in the study area.

  4. The 'Ottoman-German Jihad': Lessons for the Contemporary 'Area Studies' Controversy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    The 'Arab Spring' added new fuel to the ongoing controversy over the validity of regional or area studies. None of the Middle East 'area experts' predicted the revolutionary events that led to the fall of a number of authoritarian rulers in the Arab world. As a result, scholars, the media and pol....... The article would argue that this historical dispute already reflected some of the core issues of the contemporary controversy of 'area studies' and contained some lessons for us to learn regarding the analysis of Middle Eastern economy, society and politics....

  5. Study of the wide area of a lake with remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridou, Maria A.; Karagianni, Aikaterini C.

    2016-08-01

    Water bodies are particularly important for environment and development issues. Their study requires multiple information. Remote sensing has been proven useful in the above study. This paper concerns the wide area of Lake Orestiada in the region of Western Macedonia in Greece. The area is of particular interest because Lake Orestiada is included in the Natura 2000 network and is surrounded by diverse landcovers as built up areas and agricultural land. Multispectral and thermal Landsat 5 satellite images of two time periods are being used. Their processing is being done by Erdas Imagine software. The general physiognomy of the area and the lake shore are examined after image enhancement techniques and image interpretation. Directions of the study concern geomorphological aspects, land covers, estimation of surface temperature as well as changes through time.

  6. Synthetic hydrogeological study on Beishan preselected area for high-level radioactive waste repository in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Su Rui; Ji Ruili; Wang Hailong; Liu Shufen; Zong Zihua; Dong Jiannan; Zhang Ming

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of large scale field hydrogeological investigation, synthetic hydrogeological studies related to groundwater system characteristics, permeability of rock bodies, groundwater dynamic, hydrogeochemistry, isotopic hydrology, CFC's of groundwater and groundwater flow field simulation were carried out for Beishan area, Gansu province. According to analysis on a large amount of hydrogeological data, the characteristics of groundwater circulation, groundwater hydrodynamics and hydrgeochemistry were described and the suitability of Beishan area as the potential area of high-level radioactive waste disposal was evaluated in the paper. Through this study, the hydrogeological study and evaluation methods in the siting of China's high level radioactive waste repository were set up. Furthermore, the important hydrogeological scientific evidence was provided for optimal site filtration of China's high-level radioactive waste repository in Beishan area. (authors)

  7. Vegetation assessment in a pipeline influence area: the case study of PETROBRAS ammonia pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basbaum, Marcos A.; Porciano, Patricia P.; Bonafini, Fabio L. [SEEBLA - Servicos de Engenharia Emilio Baumgart Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: mbasbaum.seebla@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: patriciapp.seebla@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: bonafini.seebla@petrobras.com.br; Guimaraes, Ricardo Z.P.; Torggler, Bianca F.; Fernandes, Renato; Vieira, Elisa D.R. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: rzaluar@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: torggler@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: renatofer@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: elisav@petrobras.com.br

    2009-12-19

    This ammonia pipeline is about 30 km long and links the Fertilizer Plant (FAFEN-BA) to the Urea Marine Terminal (TMU) at the Port of Aratu in Candeias (Bahia State, Brazil). In this study, we characterize the remnants of vegetation and quantify the Permanent Preservation Areas. Furthermore, we propose areas and techniques for their recovery and / or management. The methodology was based on the Rapid Ecological Assessment, which combines selection of areas through remote sensing image analysis, with rapid field campaigns in the selected points. This methodology, successfully applied in PETROBRAS refineries, is first applied in a pipeline influence area. During these campaigns, the main aspects of vegetation, such as phyto physiognomy and ecological succession stages, were registered in field data sheets prepared for this purpose. The most representative remnants of vegetation that could be quantified were Atlantic Forest fragments, as well as those in the Permanent Preservation Areas. (author)

  8. Study on monitoring ecological restoration in Jiuli mining area by SAR image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Na; Chen, Fu; Tang, Qian

    2011-10-01

    The ecological restoration in mining area is one of the study hot spots in the field of resources and environment at present. The vegetation biomass is used as the ecological restoration evaluation index in mining area in the paper. The synthetic aperture radar image after ecological restoration in mining area is used to classify different kinds of vegetation covers. Integrating the field data and the data of L band, the average total backward scattering coefficient which corresponds to the synthetic aperture radar image is calculated and the relation model between the average total backward scattering coefficient and vegetation biomass is established. At last the vegetation biomass is assessed in Jiuli mining area. The results show that the vegetation biomass characteristics which are assessed by using synthetic aperture radar image data and the field data of vegetation biomass characteristics have better consistency in Jiuli mining area. The effects of ecological restoration can be evaluated by using this relation model effectively and accurately.

  9. Using ecological propensity score to adjust for missing confounders in small area studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingbo; Pirani, Monica; Hansell, Anna L; Richardson, Sylvia; Blangiardo, Marta

    2017-11-09

    Small area ecological studies are commonly used in epidemiology to assess the impact of area level risk factors on health outcomes when data are only available in an aggregated form. However, the resulting estimates are often biased due to unmeasured confounders, which typically are not available from the standard administrative registries used for these studies. Extra information on confounders can be provided through external data sets such as surveys or cohorts, where the data are available at the individual level rather than at the area level; however, such data typically lack the geographical coverage of administrative registries. We develop a framework of analysis which combines ecological and individual level data from different sources to provide an adjusted estimate of area level risk factors which is less biased. Our method (i) summarizes all available individual level confounders into an area level scalar variable, which we call ecological propensity score (EPS), (ii) implements a hierarchical structured approach to impute the values of EPS whenever they are missing, and (iii) includes the estimated and imputed EPS into the ecological regression linking the risk factors to the health outcome. Through a simulation study, we show that integrating individual level data into small area analyses via EPS is a promising method to reduce the bias intrinsic in ecological studies due to unmeasured confounders; we also apply the method to a real case study to evaluate the effect of air pollution on coronary heart disease hospital admissions in Greater London. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. Detecting biodiversity hotspots by species-area relationships: a case study of Mediterranean beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattorini, Simone

    2006-08-01

    Any method of identifying hotspots should take into account the effect of area on species richness. I examined the importance of the species-area relationship in determining tenebrionid (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) hotspots on the Aegean Islands (Greece). Thirty-two islands and 170 taxa (species and subspecies) were included in this study. I tested several species-area relationship models with linear and nonlinear regressions, including power exponential, negative exponential, logistic, Gompertz, Weibull, Lomolino, and He-Legendre functions. Islands with positive residuals were identified as hotspots. I also analyzed the values of the C parameter of the power function and the simple species-area ratios. Species richness was significantly correlated with island area for all models. The power function model was the most convenient one. Most functions, however identified certain islands as hotspots. The importance of endemics in insular biotas should be evaluated carefully because they are of high conservation concern. The simple use of the species-area relationship can be problematic when areas with no endemics are included. Therefore the importance of endemics should be evaluated according to different methods, such as percentages, to take into account different levels of endemism and different kinds of "endemics" (e.g., endemic to single islands vs. endemic to the archipelago). Because the species-area relationship is a key pattern in ecology, my findings can be applied at broader scales.

  11. A Study on regeneration cases with industrial Heritage in mining areas of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seungyeoun; Ji, Sangwoo; Yim, Giljae

    2017-04-01

    The mining areas have to face urban decline problem in population and aging after its closing. Many mines were shut down due to changes in industrial structure through 20 century. Central and local governments has been trying to solve urban decline of abandoned mine areas by enacting special acts or introducing support programs for decades. In the year of 1995, South Korean government also enacted "Special act on the assistance to the development of abandoned mine areas" to promote the economy of abandoned mine areas that is depressed following the decline of the coal industry and to help balanced regional development and to improve the living standard of the residents in such abandoned mine areas. Local authorities has been trying to revitalize the regional economy by attracting tourism industry under the financial support and deregulation by this special law. With this background, this study analysis 13 regeneration cases which are utilizing the industrial heritage of the abandoned area in S. Korea. Despite the importance of mining, negative images of abandon mine have been engraved due to environmental destruction. Most of abandoned mines were left without any action since its closing. Early stage of abandoned mine area regeneration, such as Sabuk, Munkyong, are focusing on adjacent land not on abandoned mine. Abandoned mines were restored its original state and theme park including hotels, casinos and other tourist facilities were developed on adjacent land. Eco-trails on some granite caves such as Jungsun were opened to the public as natural resources not industrial heritage. The industrial heritage was very restricted to making museums about history of mining industry. However, there has been a significant change in perception toward reusing industrial heritage for urban regeneration in recent years. From the viewpoint of urban regeneration, abandon mine areas and its facilities are receiving attention as important regional assets as industrial heritage to

  12. Monitoring Quarry Area with Landsat Long Time-Series for Socioeconomic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoteng Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Quarry sites result from human activity, which includes the removal of original vegetation and the overlying soil to dig out stones for building use. Therefore, the dynamics of the quarry area provide a unique view of human mining activities. Actually, the topographic changes caused by mining activities are also a result of the development of the local economy. Thus, monitoring the quarry area can provide information about the policies of the economy and environmental protection. In this paper, we developed a combined method of machine learning classification and quarry region analysis to estimate the quarry area in a quarry region near Beijing. A temporal smoothing based on the classification results of all years was applied in post-processing to remove outliers and obtain gently changing sequences along the monitoring term. The method was applied to Landsat images to derive a quarry distribution map and quarry area time series from 1984 to 2017, revealing significant inter-annual variability. The time series revealed a five-stage development of the quarry area with different growth patterns. As the study region lies on two jurisdictions—Tianjin and Hebei—a comparison of the quarry area changes in the two jurisdictions was applied, which revealed that the different policies in the two regions could impose different impacts on the development of a quarry area. An analysis concerning the relationship between quarry area and gross regional product (GRP was performed to explore the potential application on socioeconomic studies, and we found a strong positive correlation between quarry area and GRP in Langfang City, Hebei Province. These results demonstrate the potential benefit of annual monitoring over the long-term for socioeconomic studies, which can be used for mining decision making.

  13. Focused feasibility study of engineered barriers for waste management units in the 200 areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Hanford Site in Washington State is organized into numerically designated operational areas consisting of the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 1100 Areas. In November 1989, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) included the 200 Areas (as well as the 100, 300, and 1,100 Areas) of the Hanford Site on the National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Inclusion on the NPL initiates the remedial investigation (RI) and feasibility study (FS) process to characterize the nature and extent of contamination, assess risks to human health and the environment, and select remedial actions. The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) was developed and signed by representatives from the EPA, Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and DOE in May 1989 to provide a framework to implement and integrate cleanup activities. The scope of the agreement covers CERCLA past-practice, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) past-practice, and RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) activities on the Hanford Site. The 1991 revision to the Tri-Party Agreement required that an aggregate area approach be implemented in the 200 Areas based on the Hanford Site Past-Practice Strategy (HPPS) and established a milestone (M-27-00) to complete 10 Aggregate Area Management Study (AAMS) Reports in 1992

  14. 200 Areas Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Implementation Plan - Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knepp, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    The 200 Areas Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Implementation Plan - Environmental Restoration Program (Implementation Plan) addresses approximately 700 soil waste sites (and associated structures such as pipelines) resulting from the discharge of liquids and solids from processing facilities to the ground (e.g., ponds, ditches, cribs,burial grounds) in the 200 Areas and assigned to the Environmental Restoration Program. The Implementation Plan outlines the framework for implementing assessment activities in the 200 Areas to ensure consistency in documentation, level of characterization, and decision making. The Implementation Plan also consolidates background information and other typical work plan materials, to serve as a single referenceable source for this type of information

  15. Studies on the natural radiation levels around the Caspian sea area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbari, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    We measured about 80 items from four areas of Mazandaran, randomly selected samples of food products, soil and water, around the shore of the Caspian sea area. The results showed that the natural radioactivity in beans and broad beans in some areas is much more than in others. The results were also compared with the levels of radiations from some materials from Brazil, which also contained high levels of radiations. Samples measured in this study showed higher levels of radiations than the American food products. (author). 12 refs, 8 tabs

  16. Contemporary studies on the tree-border area of Slovenia, Italy and Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Gosar

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The area wher three-borders of Austria, ltaly and Slovenia meet was centuries long a transitional rgion between the core areas of the Mediterranean and Alps. The under Austria unified area was divided among three states in 1918. Since than diverse systems in economy and politics have changed the once supportive economies. Tendencies to develop in each of the bordering states such economies which would support each other are becoming a reality. Studies, performed by universities of Ljubljana, Trieste, Udine and Klagenfurt should provide knowledge on the existing socio-geographic structure of the above named border regions.

  17. A study of radon levels in NHS premises in affected areas around the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Lewis, G.T.R.; Brennen, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    Radon gas contributes a significant fraction of the natural background radiation dose, and in some areas raised levels are found in buildings, both homes and the workplace. Different UK Action Levels apply to homes and the workplace, because of the diurnal variation of radon. This study reviews the results for a number of hospitals throughout England and Wales, and suggests that the likelihood of finding raised radon levels is similar in the workplace and homes in the same area. Radon measurements and consequent remediation of any raised levels are appropriate in all workplaces in radon Affected Areas with over 5% of houses above the UK domestic Action Level of 200 Bq m -3

  18. A sedimentation study in the Muda catchment area using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarudin Samuding; Wan Zakaria Wan Muhamad Tahir; Roslan Mohd Ali; Juhari Yusuf

    2002-01-01

    A study on the sediment size distribution and determination of sediment density profile was conducted in a selected area of the Muda Dam catchment area, Kedah. The objective of the study was to establish baseline data of the input sedimentation with regard to the effects of development within the catchment in the future. Three main sampling locations were identified, namely at Sungai Teliang, Sungai Muda and the Muda Reservoir. Results showed that the grain size distribution of sediment generally ranged from clay to gravel size. In the reservoir and downstream the river, most of the samples studied consisted of fine sediment Le, silt and clay (< 63 μm). However, sediment distribution in the upstream section of Sungai Teliang mainly consisted of fine to coarse sand. Based on the sediment distribution profile analysis, the study site could be divided into two parts comprising the dynamic area (region) covering selected locations along the river and the deposited sediment in the reservoir. Measurement of sediment thickness was performed using nuclear gauges, i.e. direct transmission and backscattering methods. The result also showed that the thickness of bed sediment varied from one location to another, whereby the thickness variation could reach up to 0.75 metre in some areas. This study could assist local authorities (AMDA) in identifying the rates and sources of accumulated sediment as well as quality and quantity of water in the study area in order to sustain distribution of good quality water to the farmers. (Author)

  19. Hydrogeological Study of Mangrove Areas Around Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gerson Cardoso da Silva Júnior;; Carlos Eduardo Braga; Ingrid de Carvalho Lage

    2003-01-01

    The study area covers part of the mangrove belt located around Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Representing a continental-marine transition, the mangrove ecosystem is very susceptible to environmental variations and impacts. The vegetation cover plays an important role in prevention of erosion and contamination processes in those areas. An ongoing extensive research effort in the Petrochemical Complex of Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, focuses on the man-induced cha...

  20. Long-term studies on the effects of nonvolatile organic compounds on porous media surface areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachikian, Crist S; Harmon, Thomas C

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the long-term behavior of porous media contaminated by nonvolatile organic compounds (NVOC) in terms of specific interfacial surface area. Specifically, a natural sand, Moffett sand (MS), was contaminated with naphthalene and the surface area was measured repeatedly over time using nitrogen adsorption-desorption techniques. A field-contaminated sand affected by lamp-black material (LB) from former manufactured gas plant operations was also studied. Lampblack is a carbonaceous skeleton containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other hydrocarbons. It is hypothesized that soils contaminated by these types of chemicals will exhibit significantly less surface area than their clean counterparts. The surface areas for the contaminated MS samples increased toward their clean-MS values during the 700-h aging period, but achieved the clean values only after pentane extraction or heating at 60 degrees C. Heating at 50 degrees C failed to achieve a similar recovery of the clean-MS surface area value. Nonspecific mass loss tracked the increase in surface area as indirect evidence that naphthalene loss was the cause of the surface area increase. For the LB samples, aging at 100 degrees C produced a slight decrease in surface area and mass while aging at 250 degrees C caused the surface area to increase roughly threefold while the mass decreased by approximately 1%. These results suggest that, under moderate heating and over the time scale of this investigation, there is a redistribution of the complex contaminant mixture on the solid matrix. Greater temperatures remove mass more efficiently and therefore exhibited the surface area increase expected in this experiment.

  1. A Detailed Study of Debris Flow Source Areas in the Northern Colorado Front Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana-Morales, A.; Baum, R. L.; Godt, J.

    2014-12-01

    Nearly continuous, heavy rainfall occurred during 9-13 September 2013 causing flooding and widespread landslides and debris flows in the northern Colorado Front Range. Whereas many recent studies have identified erosion as the most common process leading to debris flows in the mountains of Colorado, nearly all of the debris flows mapped in this event began as small, shallow landslides. We mapped the boundaries of 415 September 2013 debris flows in the Eldorado Springs and Boulder 7.5-minute quadrangles using 0.5-m-resolution satellite imagery. We characterized the landslide source areas of six debris flows in the field as part of an effort to identify what factors controlled their locations. Four were on a dip slope in sedimentary rocks in the Pinebrook Hills area, near Boulder, and the other two were in granitic rocks near Gross Reservoir. Although we observed no obvious geomorphic differences between the source areas and surrounding non-landslide areas, we noted several characteristics that the source areas all had in common. Slopes of the source areas ranged from 28° to 35° and most occurred on planar or slightly concave slopes that were vegetated with grass, small shrubs, and sparse trees. The source areas were shallow, irregularly shaped, and elongated downslope: widths ranged from 4 to 9 m, lengths from 6 to 40 m and depths ranged from 0.7 to 1.2 m. Colluvium was the source material for all of the debris flows and bedrock was exposed in the basal surface of all of the source areas. We observed no evidence for concentrated surface runoff upslope from the sources. Local curvature and roughness of bedrock and surface topography, and depth distribution and heterogeneity of the colluvium appear to have controlled the specific locations of these shallow debris-flow source areas. The observed distribution and characteristics of the source areas help guide ongoing efforts to model initiation of the debris flows.

  2. Local area unemployment, individual health and workforce exit: ONS Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Emily T; Head, Jenny; Shelton, Nicola; Hagger-Johnson, Gareth; Stansfeld, Stephen; Zaninotto, Paola; Stafford, Mai

    2016-06-01

    In many developed countries, associations have been documented between higher levels of area unemployment and workforce exit, mainly for disability pension receipt. Health of individuals is assumed to be the primary driver of this relationship, but no study has examined whether health explains or modifies this relationship. We used data from 98 756 Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study members who were aged 40-69 and working in 2001, to assess whether their odds of identifying as sick/disabled or retired in 2011 differed by local authority area unemployment in 2001, change in local area unemployment from 2001 to 2011 and individual reported health in 2001 (self-rated and limiting long-term illness). Higher local area unemployment and worse self-rated health measures in 2001 were independently related to likelihood of identifying as sick-disabled or retired, compared to being in work, 10 years later, after adjusting for socio-demographic covariates. Associations for local area unemployment were stronger for likelihood of identification as sick/disabled compared to retired in 2011. Associations for changes in local area unemployment from 2001 to 2011 were only apparent for likelihood of identifying as retired. For respondents that identified as sick/disabled in 2011, effects of local area unemployment in 2001 were stronger for respondents who had better self-rated health in 2001. Strategies to retain older workers may be most effective if targeted toward areas of high unemployment. For persons in ill health, local area unemployment interventions alone will not be as efficient in reducing their exit from the workforce. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  3. Cytogenetic studies on newborns from high level natural background radiation areas of Kerala coast, South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherian, V.D.; Kurien, C.J.; Das, Birajalaxmi

    1997-01-01

    The human population residing in the monazite bearing high level natural background radiation (HLNBR) areas of Kerala, along the South-West coast of India provides unique opportunities of assessing directly in man, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure. The per capita dose received by this population is nearly four times the normal background radiation level. While this is the average dose, the radiation levels prevailing in these HLNBR areas are in the range of 1 to over 35 mGy per year. Chromosomal aberration studies in the lymphocytes of newborns and adults from these areas have been in progress for two decades. So far, 4156 newborn babies from HLNBR and 7321 from normal background radiation (NBR) areas have been screened for the incidence of chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics and rings). The mean frequency of dicentrics and rings did not show any significant difference between the newborns in the control and the HLNBRA population. Assessment of the frequency of micronuclei in cytochalasin-B blocked binucleated lymphocytes of 49 newborns from control areas and 131 newborns from radioactive areas also showed similar values. While an age-dependent increase in chromosome aberration frequency was observed in the adult samples from control and the study areas, the regression analysis of the data indicated a marginally higher slope for the samples from HLNBRA. Karyotype anomalies recorded so far among the newborns have not revealed any significant difference in the incidence of numerical (including Down syndrome) and structural alterations between the control and the exposed populations. A noteworthy observation, herein reported for the first time from any HLNBR area is that there is no discernible increase in the incidence of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations in the peripheral lymphocytes of newborn babies hailing from HLNBR areas, where their ancestral generations have lived for several hundreds of years. (author)

  4. Study of the malaria situation in forested foothill and nearby plain areas of Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, L; Ye, H

    1991-12-01

    A longitudinal demographic-parasitological survey on malaria was conducted at 10 weekly intervals starting from September in one foothill village with the population of 1,095 and one epidemiologically comparable plain village with the population of 962 in Kyauktaga township, Bago division, 120 miles north of Yangon. The objective was to describe and analyse the current malaria situation in a forested foothill area and an adjacent plain area. Ten weekly blood film collections for malaria parasite examination, six monthly sera collections on filter paper for serological examination from the whole study population and ten weekly splenic measurements from 2-9 year children were done. The malaria parasite rate in the foothill area was invariably higher than that in the plain area in all age groups throughout the study period. Moreover, the parasite rate decreased with the increase in distance from the forested foothill area indicating that the deep forest malaria may have some influence on the foothill villages. The total age specific parasite rate in foothill villages was found to be highest in the 5-8 year age group and decreased as the age advanced which may be due to the increasing immunity. The study revealed the presence of local transmission in the foothill village. From these data it is evident that new village sites should be chosen at least 5 miles away from the forest fringe and the malaria control measures in the plain area should utilize chemoprophylaxis and effective chemotherapy focusing on the people who travel into the forest.

  5. Analysis of Environmental Vulnerability in The Landslide Areas (Case Study: Semarang Regency)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hani'ah; Firdaus, H. S.; Nugraha, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Land conversion can increase the risk of landslide disaster in Semarang Regency caused by human activity. Remote sensing and geographic information system to be used in this study to mapping the landslide areas because satellite image data can represent the object on the earth surface in wide area coverage. Satellite image Landsat 8 is used to mapping land cover that processed by supervised classification method. The parameters to mapping landslide areas are based on land cover, rainfall, slope, geological factors and soil types. Semarang Regency have the minimum value of landslide is 1.6 and the maximum value is 4.3, which is dominated by landslide prone areas about 791.27 km2. The calculation of the environmental vulnerability index in the study area is based on Perka BNPB No. 2/2012. Accumulation score of environmental vulnerability index is moderate value, that means environment condition must be considered, such as vegetation as ground cover and many others aspects. The range of NDVI value shows that density level in conservation areas (0.030 - 0.844) and conservation forest (0.045 - 0.849), which rarely until high density level. The results of this study furthermore can be assessed to reduce disaster risks from landslide as an effort of disaster preventive.

  6. Epidemiological studies in the high and normal level radiation areas of Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koya, P.K.M.

    2012-01-01

    High and normal level natural radiation areas of Kerala give unique opportunities to estimate the risk, if any, of chronic low dose exposure by direct epidemiological studies on human beings. Studies in the area are being carried out by Low Level Radiation Research Laboratory of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in collaboration with Departments of Health and Family Welfare/Social Welfare of the Government of Kerala and local post graduate colleges. To assess the role of chronic low dose exposure in the induction/transmission of chromosomal alterations across generations, hospital based cytogenetic studies on newborns was carried out to estimate and compare the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and karyotypes anomalies in the high (areas with radiation dose of more than 1.50 mGy/year) and normal (areas with radiation dose of 1.50 mR/year or less) level radiation areas. A total of 1,267,788 metaphases from 27,295 (9,64,390 cells from 17,298 newborns of high and 3,03,398 cells from 9,997 newborns of normal level radiation areas) newborns was screened

  7. Hydrogeological Study of Mangrove Areas Around Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Cardoso da Silva Júnior;

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study area covers part of the mangrove belt located around Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Representing a continental-marine transition, the mangrove ecosystem is very susceptible to environmental variations and impacts. The vegetation cover plays an important role in prevention of erosion and contamination processes in those areas. An ongoing extensive research effort in the Petrochemical Complex of Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, focuses on the man-induced changes in the physical environment (soils, groundwater flow system, type and volumes of contaminants, geochemical aspects and the consequences on the neighboring mangrove ecosystem. This article describes the importance of hydrogeological studies in mangrove areas as part of an appropriate environmental assessment, taking as an example an industrial dumping area located in that Petrochemical Complex. Field work included extensive drilling and sampling to obtain basic geological and hydrogeological parameters and data in the pilot area, such as hydraulic conductivity and piezometric heads; emphasizing the tracking of possible contamination by industrial effluents and the marine influence; validation of the conceptual model with mathematical models (numerical and analytical models was carried out. Results show the great importance of well conducted and detailed hydrogeological studies to properly address environmental problems caused by industrial plants in mangrove areas.

  8. Epidemiologic studies in the areas with a high level of natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurier, D.; Martin, J.M.; Hubert, Ph.

    2000-10-01

    Since 1970, numerous studies have been interested in high level of natural radiations areas (H.L.N.R.A.) or high background radiation areas (H.B.R.A.). An international conference stands every four years, and the last one was at Munich (Germany). The aim of this note is to make a review of epidemiologic studies made with the populations living in H.L.N.R.A. and to present a synthesis of achieved results. The cytogenetic studies are equally mentioned but not detailed. (N.C.)

  9. Mineral resources of the Desolation Canyon, Turtle Canyon, and Floy Canyon Wilderness Study Areas, Carbon Emery, and Grand counties, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashion, W.B.; Kilburn, J.E.; Barton, H.N.; Kelley, K.D.; Kulik, D.M.; McDonnell, J.R.

    1990-09-01

    This paper reports on the Desolation Canyon, Turtle Canyon, and Floy Canyon Wilderness Study Areas which include 242,000 acres, 33,690 acres, and 23,140 acres. Coal deposits underlie all three study areas. Coal zones in the Blackhawk and Nelsen formations have identified bituminous coal resources of 22 million short tons in the Desolation Canyon Study Area, 6.3 million short tons in the Turtle Canyon Study Area, and 45 million short tons in the Floy Canyon Study Area. In-place inferred oil shale resources are estimated to contain 60 million barrels in the northern part of the Desolation Canyon area. Minor occurrences of uranium have been found in the southeastern part of the Desolation Canyon area and in the western part of the Floy Canyon area. Mineral resource potential for the study areas is estimated to be for coal, high for all areas, for oil and gas, high for the northern tract of the Desolation Canyon area and moderate for all other tracts, for bituminous sandstone, high for the northern part of the Desolation Canyon area, and low for all other tracts, for oil shale, low in all areas, for uranium, moderate for the Floy Canyon area and the southeastern part of the Desolation Canyon area and low for the remainder of the areas, for metals other than uranium, bentonite, zeolites, and geothermal energy, low in all areas, and for coal-bed methane unknown in all three areas

  10. The study of grinding patterns and factors influencing the grinding areas during sleep bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jianxiang; Liu, Weicai; Wu, Junhua; Zhang, Xuying; Zhang, Yongting

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the grinding patterns and discuss the factors influencing the position relationship between intercuspal position (ICP) and grinding area during sleep bruxism. Lateral condylar inclination, inclination of lateral incisal path and freedom in long centric of thirty subjects were measured. The grinding patterns during sleep bruxism were recorded with a bruxism recording device, BruxChecker. The position relationship between ICP and the grinding area was examined. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used for correlation analysis between grinding area and free factors (grinding patterns, freedom in long centric and discrepancy between lateral condylar inclination and inclination of lateral incisal path). All 12 subjects with 0mm-freedom in long centric exhibited that ICP of both sides located within the grinding areas. 4 subjects showed that ICP of both sides located outside the grinding areas. There is a significant correlation between 0mm-freedom in long centric and ICP within the grinding areas (p grinding area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Computed tomographic (CT) study of watershed area supplied by the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Junichi; Hirose, Satoshi; Hosotani, Kazuo; Kubota, Tetsuya; Kubota, Norihiko.

    1990-01-01

    Thirteen patients with clinical and computed tomographic (CT) evidence of cerebellar infarction were examined during 1987-1989. Six patients had onset of cerebellar infarction at ages ranging from 45 to 69, and seven patients had onset at ages over 70. In thirteen cases, we observed infarction in the inferior region of the cerebellum, and we studied these cases. CT demonstrated decreased density in 4 distinct anatomic areas. These areas are listed below, with estimation of the distribution of the hemispheric arteries of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA): Group 1 - posterior medial area, probably territory of the inferior vermian branch, tonsillar branch and/or medial artery of the hemispheric artery of the PICA; Group 2 - posterior intermediate area, probably territory of the intermediate artery of the hemispheric artery of the PICA; Group 3 - area including both areas of group 1 and group 3; Group 4 - lateral area, just posterior to pyramis, probably territory of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery and/or lateral artery of the hemispheric artery of PICA. The medial and intermedial cerebellar hemispheric segments were most commonly affected but the lateral segment was not. The PICA least frequently supplied the lateral segments. While the anterior inferior cerebellar artery usually anastomoses with the lateral artery of the hemispheric artery of the PICA. These vascular territories may provide good collateral circulation to this segment. And we also estimate the distribution of the PICA by the CT findings. (author)

  12. Air pollution and decreased semen quality: A comparative study of Chongqing urban and rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Niya; Cui, Zhihong; Yang, Sanming; Han, Xue; Chen, Gangcai; Zhou, Ziyuan; Zhai, Chongzhi; Ma, Mingfu; Li, Lianbing; Cai, Min; Li, Yafei; Ao, Lin; Shu, Weiqun; Liu, Jinyi; Cao, Jia

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association and effects of air pollution level on male semen quality in urban and rural areas, this study examines the outdoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM 10 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrous dioxide (NO 2 ) and semen quality outcomes for 1346 volunteers in both urban and rural areas in Chongqing, China. We found the urban area has a higher pollution level than the rural area, contrasted with better semen quality in the rural residents, especially for sperm morphology and computer assistant semen analysis (CASA) motility parameters. A multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrates that concentrations of PM 10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 significantly and negatively are associated with normal sperm morphology percentage (P  10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 in urban ambient air may account for worse semen quality in urban males. - Highlights: • We investigate the distributions of PM 10 , SO 2 and NO 2 in urban and rural areas in Chongqing, China. • We explore the associations of air pollution and male semen quality. • The concentrations of PM 10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 are significantly higher in urban areas. • Median values of some semen quality parameters in rural male were higher than urban male. • PM 10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 were negatively associated with semen quality parameters. - Air pollution is higher in the urban area while there is better semen quality in rural males. Polluted air may thus account for worse semen quality in urban males

  13. Ethnic density and deliberate self harm; a small area study in south east London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Wilson-Jones, C; Wessely, S

    Study objective-Relative risks are frequently used to convey how strongly outcomes like mental illness and suicidal behaviour are associated with personal characteristics Like ethnic background. This study examined whether RRs for deliberate self harm (DSH) in ethnic groups vary between small areas

  14. The rat orbital and agranular insular prefrontal cortical areas: a cytoarchitectonic and chemoarchitectonic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Werd, H.J.J.M.; Uylings, H.B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Cytoarchitectonic characterization of borders is necessary for stereological studies (e.g., total cell number estimation), in which particular cortical areas have to be defined. In this study, cytoarchitectonic characteristics are described and illustrated for the rat ventral or orbital frontal

  15. Trends in marketing library services in urban areas: A case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents the findings of a study that was undertaken in Kampala City, Uganda, in nine libraries belonging to the private sector, government, academic and diplomatic- related institutions. The aim of the study was to establish trends in marketing library services in urban areas with a view to identify marketing ...

  16. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area, 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liscum, Fred; Hutchison, J.S.; Bruchmiller, J.P.; Walther, L.S.

    1983-01-01

    Hydrologic investigations of urban watersheds in Texas were begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1954. Studies are now in progress in Austin, and Houston. Studies have been completed in the Dallas-Fort Worth and San Antonio areas.

  17. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area, 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liscum, Fred

    1985-01-01

    Hydro! oqic investigations of urban watersheds in Texas were begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1954. Studies are now in progress in Austin, and Houston. Studies have been completed in the Dallas-Fort Worth and San Antonio areas.

  18. Fisheries Closed Areas Strengthen Scallop Larval Settlement and Connectivity Among Closed Areas and Across International Open Fishing Grounds: A Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kimberley T. A.; Gentleman, W. C.; DiBacco, C.; Johnson, C. L.

    2015-09-01

    This study examined whether a measured increase in average body size of adult sea scallops inside three fishery closed areas on Georges Bank (GB), United States (US), was sufficient to increase larval supply to closed areas and open fishing areas in both US and Canadian areas of the Bank. The effects of adult scallop density-at-size and fecundity-at-size on egg production were compared among open and closed fishery areas, countries, and time periods before and after the closed areas were established. Estimated egg production was then used to define spawning conditions in a coupled biological-physical larval tracking model that simulated larval development, mortality, and dispersal. Results showed that order of magnitude increases in larval settlement after closure were facilitated by increases in size-dependant egg production inside and dispersal from Closed Areas I and II, but not Nantucket Lightship Closed Area. The distributions of both egg production and larval settlement became more uniform across the Bank, causing the relative contribution of Canadian larvae to US scallop aggregations to decrease after establishment of Closed Areas I and II. Decreases in small and medium-sized scallop density in Canada and decreases in large scallops over the US-Southern Flank after closure caused local declines in egg production but were not sufficient to negatively affect larval settlement at the regional scale. Our model suggests that the establishment of fishery closed areas on GB considerably strengthened larval supply and settlement within and among several adult scallop aggregations.

  19. Metropolitan Washington Area Water Supply Study. Appendix H. Bloomington Lake Reformulation Study. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    tourism . In terms of absolute numbers, manufacturing dominates the economic base of the area. The industries are mainly concentrated in the metropolitan...A A~~0 tq 0 .0 UI 05 C ’.M Mo A U S. C *.Ob 5 . 0 S S a ~ IS 5 N U C U 556 55 6 SMM MS .. 55 -O USO .0 5 MC 0.55 S.S H ~ ~ ~ F s J." I MU~ .,C U05 5US

  20. Geologic characterization report for the Paradox Basin Study Region, Utah Study Areas. Volume 6. Salt Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    Surface landforms in the Salt Valley Area are generally a function of the Salt Valley anticline and are characterized by parallel and subparallel cuestaform ridges and hogbacks and flat valley floors. The most prominent structure in the Area is the Salt Valley anticline. Erosion resulting from the Tertiary uplift of the Colorado Plateau led to salt dissolution and subsequent collapse along the crest of the anticline. Continued erosion removed the collapse material, forming an axial valley along the crest of the anticline. Paleozoic rocks beneath the salt bearing Paradox Formation consist of limestone, dolomite, sandstone, siltstone and shale. The salt beds of the Paradox Formation occur in distinct cycles separated by an interbed sequence of anhydrite, carbonate, and clastic rocks. The Paradox Formation is overlain by Pennsylvanian limestone; Permian sandstone; and Mesozoic sandstone, mudstone, conglomerate and shale. No earthquakes have been reported in the Area during the period of the historic record and contemporary seismicity appears to be diffusely distributed, of low level and small magnitude. The upper unit includes the Permian strata and upper Honaker Trail Formation. The current data base is insufficient to estimate ground-water flow rates and directions in this unit. The middle unit includes the evaporites in the Paradox Formation and no laterally extensive flow systems are apparent. The lower unit consists of the rocks below the Paradox Formation where permeabilities vary widely, and the apparent flow direction is toward the west. 108 refs., 39 figs., 9 tabs

  1. Geologic characterization report for the Paradox Basin Study Region, Utah Study Areas. Volume 6: Salt Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    Surface landforms in the Salt Valley Area are generally a function of the Salt Valley anticline and are characterized by parallel and subparallel cuestaform ridges and hogbacks and flat valley floors. The most prominent structure in the Area is the Salt Valley anticline. Erosion resulting from the Tertiary uplift of the Colorado Plateau led to salt dissolution and subsequent collapse along the crest of the anticline. Continued erosion removed the collapse material, forming an axial valley along the crest of the anticline. Paleozoic rocks beneath the salt bearing Paradox Formation consist of limestone, dolomite, sandstone, siltstone and shale. The salt beds of the Paradox formation occur in distinct cycles separated by an interbed sequence of anhydrite, carbonate, and clastic rocks. The Paradox Formation is overlain by Pennsylvanian limestone; Permian sandstone; and Mesozoic sandstone, mudstone, conglomerate and shale. No earthquakes have been reported in the area during the period of the historic record and contemporary seismicity appears to be diffusely distributed, of low level and small magnitude. The upper unit includes the Permian strata and upper Honaker trail formation.

  2. Determination of hyperactive areas of Cortex Cerebri with using brain SPECT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepien, A.; Pawlus, J.; Wasilewska-Radwanska, M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was the assessment of the ability to apply of SPECT technique to determination of hyperactive areas of cortex cerebri. Analysis included 50 patients (mean aged 44 - 58). Brain SPECT scanning was performed after 1 hour after the intravenous injection of 740 MBq of ethylcisteinate dimmer labeled 99m Technetium (99mTc-ECD) with the use one-head gamma camera with a low-energy, ultra-high resolution collimator. Qualitative and quantitative analysis was performed using specialised software. In 20 cases normal biodistribution of the radiotracer was observed (hyperactive areas in cerebellum and occiput). In patients with psychiatric and neurological disturbances hyperactive areas were visualized in 25 cases in temporal lobes, in 4 cases in parietal lobes and in 1 patient in frontal area and basal ganglia. It is concluded that a number of factors limit the wide-scale use of SPECT, including the sophistication of imaging equipment (single-head cameras are inferior to the newer multihead units) and the experience of the physicians interpreting the scans and utilizing the data. In many diseases physicians do not know which areas of the patient's brain according disorders. Brain SPECT study can be a very useful tool to evaluation of hyperactive areas of cortex cerebri. This technique visualization of cortex cerebri completes standard analysis of disorders of brain activity

  3. Floristic study of AqDagh sanctuary in Marakan protected area: west Azarbaijan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanieh Nafisi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AqDagh sanctuary with the area 5184.7 hectares area is one of the three sanctuaries in the Marakan protected area, in west Azarbaijan province. It is located in the semi-dry to cold semi-dry climates. In this research, 227 taxa (species, subspecies and varieties belonging to 47 families and 166 genera were identified during 2008 through 2009. Among the studied plants, 205 dicots and 21 monocots and one gymnosperm were recognized. Asteraceae (with 30 species and Lamiaceae (with 26 species were the largest families followed by Brassicaceae, Caryophylaceae and Fabaceae. Astragalus (with 9 species and Gallium (with 5 species were the most diverse genera. Twenty one endemic and 6 rare taxa plus 2 monotypic genera were identified in the studied area. In addition, 11 taxa from northwest of Iran and 29 from west Azarbaijan were reported for the first time. Therophytes (with 36.57% comprised the most dominant life form, followed by hemicryptophytes (with 27.75% in this area. From the chorological point of the view, most of the flora has been influenced by the IT (31.53% and IT-ES (27.49% elements. The highest proportion of vegetation in this area belonged to bi-tri or pluriregional elements (with 59.01%.

  4. Bayesian hierarchical models for smoothing in two-phase studies, with application to small area estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michelle; Wakefield, Jon

    2015-10-01

    Two-phase study designs are appealing since they allow for the oversampling of rare sub-populations which improves efficiency. In this paper we describe a Bayesian hierarchical model for the analysis of two-phase data. Such a model is particularly appealing in a spatial setting in which random effects are introduced to model between-area variability. In such a situation, one may be interested in estimating regression coefficients or, in the context of small area estimation, in reconstructing the population totals by strata. The efficiency gains of the two-phase sampling scheme are compared to standard approaches using 2011 birth data from the research triangle area of North Carolina. We show that the proposed method can overcome small sample difficulties and improve on existing techniques. We conclude that the two-phase design is an attractive approach for small area estimation.

  5. Voltage uniformity study in large-area reactors for RF plasma deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sansonnens, L.; Pletzer, A.; Magni, D.; Howling, A.A.; Hollenstein, C. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP); Schmitt, J.P.M. [Balzers Process Systems, Palaiseau (France)

    1996-09-01

    Non-uniform voltage distribution across the electrode area results in inhomogeneous thin-film RF plasma deposition in large area reactors. In this work, a two-dimensional analytic model for the calculation of the voltage distribution across the electrode area is presented. The results of this model are in good agreement with measurements performed without plasma at 13.56 MHz and 70 MHz in a large area reactor. The principal voltage inhomogeneities are caused by logarithmic singularities in the vicinity of RF connections and not by standing waves. These singularities are only described by a two-dimensional model and cannot be intuitively predicted by analogy to a one-dimensional case. Plasma light emission measurements and thickness homogeneity studies of a-Si:H films show that the plasma reproduces these voltage inhomogeneities. Improvement of the voltage uniformity is investigated by changing the number and position of the RF connections. (author) 13 figs., 20 refs.

  6. Smart City, Metropolitan Areas and Competitiveness: the Case Study of Florence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In several urban contexts, the definition of a new development process is arising and it is focused on the use and the application of new technologies in different areas of the urban system. Such new development process is aimed at increasing life quality and local communities wellness and at promoting the creation of a more efficient and more sustainable urban system, as well as at making it more competitive. The issue of the reorganization of metropolitan areas is combined with such process, following the recent approval of the Delrio Law that establishes the Metropolitan City in Italy, as government authority of the metropolitan areas. Smart City, Metropolitan Areas and Competitiveness are the three topics of this paper, which aim is the description of the most innovative politics and initiatives adopted in the Metropolitan City of Florence that is proposed as a case study where such topics are combined.

  7. Analyze of Tourism Development Impacts on the Development of Rural Areas (Case Study: Kesselian County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Ebrahimi Koohbone

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism development in rural areas is one of the main strategies to achieve rural development. The aim of this descriptive-analytical study is to analyze the impact of rural tourism in the socio-economic development of rural areas (Kesselian County of Mazandaran province. Data collected using 190 questionnaires determined using Cochrane formula. The validity of the questionnaires were confirmed by Cronbach Alpha equal to 0.796. The results show that there is significant positive relationship between rural tourism and improve in rural household income, health, sewage and waste disposal systems as well as development of rural homes and roads. The factor analysis results show that the best important positive effects of rural tourism in rural areas are infrastructural development, economic development and development of employment; and main negative effects of rural tourism in rural areas are destruction of the business environment, increased of social abnormalities and destruction of cultural environment.

  8. Muscle area and muscle density of osteoarthritis of the knee joint studied by computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Nobuharu; Onosawa, Toshihiro; Shibata, Minoru; Yamashita, Izumi; Yoshimura, Shinichiro; Muraoka, Shunichi; Asano, Akira

    1985-01-01

    In order to investigate the etiology and pathology of osteoarthritis of the knee joints (OA), the areas and density of the muscle 10 cm above the knee were compared using computerized tomography (CT) in 26 knees from 19 normal persons, 30 knees from 17 patients with OA, and 14 knees from 7 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The areas of the quadriceps musculi of thigh were remarkably decreased and the areas of the flexor musculi were comparatively maintained in the patients with OA. Muscle density was markedly lowered in the musculi semimembranosus and biceps femoris long head. Fatty tissues were seen in the whole area of the venter on CT in some of the patients with OA. These findings are considered to be of major importance when studying the etiology of OA. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Regional summary and recommended study areas for the Texas Panhandle portion of the Permian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    This report summarizes the regional geologic and environmental characterizations that have been completed for the Permian region of study, and describes the procedure used to identify study areas for the next phase of investigation. The factors evaluated in the Permian region fall into three broad areas: health and safety, environmental and socioeconomic, and engineering and economic considerations. Health and safety considerations included salt depth and thickness, faults, seismic activity, groundwater, salt dissolution, energy and mineral resources, presence of boreholes, and interactive land uses. Salt depth and thickness was the key health and safety factor, and when mapped, provded to be a discriminator. The evaluation of environmental and socioeconomic conditions focused primarily on the presence of urban areas and on designated land uses such as parks, wildlife areas, and historic sites. Engineering and economic considerations centered primarily on salt depth, which was already evaluated in the health and safety area. The Palo Duro and Dalhart basins are recommended for future studies on the basis of geology. In these two basins, salt depth and thickness appear promising, and there is less likelihood of past or future oil and gas exploratory holes. Environmental and socioeconomic factors did not preclude any of the basins from further study. 66 references, 16 figures, 2 tables

  10. Variation of NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within 36 European study areas: Results from the ESCAPE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cyrys, J.; Eeftens, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315028300; Heinrich, J.; Ampe, C.; Armengaud, A.; Beelen, R.; Bellander, T.; Beregszaszi, T.; Birk, M.; Cesaroni, G.; Cirach, M.; de Hoogh, K.; de Nazelle, A.; de Vocht, F.; Declercq, C.; Dėdelė, A.; Dimakopoulou, K.; Eriksen, K.; Galassi, C.; Grąulevičienė, R.; Grivas, G.; Gruzieva, O.; Gustafsson, A.H.; Hoffmann, B.; Iakovides, M.; Ineichen, A.; Krämer, U.; Lanki, T.; Lozano, P.; Madsen, C.; Meliefste, K.; Modig, L.; Mölter, A.; Mosler, G.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Nonnemacher, M.; Oldenwening, M.; Peters, A.; Pontet, S.; Probst-Hensch, N.; Quass, U.; Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Ranzi, A.; Sugiri, D.; Stephanou, E.G.; Taimisto, P.; Tsai, M-Y.; Vaskövi, É.; Villani, S.; Wang, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/345480279; Brunekreef, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Hoek, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475

    2012-01-01

    The ESCAPE study (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) investigates long-term effects of exposure to air pollution on human health in Europe. This paper documents the spatial variation of measured NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within 36 ESCAPE study areas across Europe. In

  11. Urbanization and Land Use Changes in Peri-Urban Area using Spatial Analysis Methods (Case Study: Ciawi Urban Areas, Bogor Regency)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahya, D. L.; Martini, E.; Kasikoen, K. M.

    2018-02-01

    Urbanization is shown by the increasing percentage of the population in urban areas. In Indonesia, the percentage of urban population increased dramatically form 17.42% (1971) to 42.15% (2010). This resulted in increased demand for housing. Limited land in the city area push residents looking for an alternative location of his residence to the peri-urban areas. It is accompanied by a process of land conversion from green area into built-up area. Continuous land conversion in peri-urban area is becoming increasingly widespread. Bogor Regency as part of the Jakarta Metropolitan Area is experiencing rapid development. This regency has been experienced land-use change very rapidly from agricultural areas into urban built up areas. Aim of this research is to analyze the effect of urbanization on land use changes in peri-urban areas using spatial analysis methods. This research used case study of Ciawi Urban Area that experiencing rapid development. Method of this research is using descriptive quantitative approach. Data used in this research is primary data (field survey) and secondary data (maps). To analyze land use change is using Geographic Information System (GIS) as spatial analysis methods. The effect of urbanization on land use changes in Ciawi Urban Area from year 2013 to 2015 is significant. The reduction of farm land is around -4.00% and wetland is around - 2.51%. The increasing area for hotel/villa/resort is around 3.10%. Based on this research, local government (Bogor Regency) should be alert to the land use changes that does not comply with the land use plan and also consistently apply the spatial planning.

  12. Rock-geological, tectonic and geophysical studies of the area of VOXNA and the therein situated characteristic area of SVARTBOBERGET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiren, S.A.; Eriksson, L.; Henkel, H.

    1981-12-01

    The area the size of which is 500 km 2 , is situated in the district of Gaevleborg. The rock consists mainly of migmatic and gneissic granite. Greenstone and diabase are accessory constituents. The fracture zones are oriented in the direction NNW-SSE. Svartboberget is in the central part of a downfolded migmatite and forms a part of a rock which is poorly fractured. The water flow in the minor fracture zones is low and the small tension fractures are dominant in the NNE-SSW direction. Geophysical estimates give the thickness of migmatite to 500 m. (G.B.)

  13. Prevalence of hypertension in rural areas of china: a meta-analysis of published studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofang Chen

    Full Text Available Hypertension is one of the leading causes of disease burden across the world. In China, the latest nationwide survey of prevalence of hypertension was ten year ago, and data in rural areas is little known. More information about hypertension prevalence could help to improve overall antihypertensive health care. We aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of hypertension in rural areas of China.Comprehensive electronic searches of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wangfang, Weipu and SinoMed databases were conducted to identify any study in each database published from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2013, reporting the prevalence of hypertension in Chinese rural areas. Prevalence estimates were stratified by age, area, sex, publication year, and sample size. All statistical calculations were made using the Stata Version 11.0 (College Station, Texas and Statsdirect Version 2.7.9.We identified 124 studies with a total population of 3,735,534 in the present meta-analysis. Among people aged 18 years old in Chinese rural areas, the summarized prevalence is 22.81% (19.41%-26.41%. Subgroup analysis shows the following results: for male 24.46% (21.19%-27.89%, for female 22.17% (18.25%-26.35%. For 2004-2006: 18.94% (14.41%-23.94%, for 2007-2009, 21.24% (15.98%-27.01% for 2010-2013: 26.68%, (20.79%-33.02%. For Northern region 25.76% (22.36%-29.32%, for Southern region 19.30%, (15.48%-24.08%.The last decade witnessed the growth in prevalence of hypertension in rural areas of China compared with the fourth national investigation, which has climbed the same level as the urban area. Guidelines for screening and treatment of hypertension in rural areas need to be given enough attention.

  14. Geology, alteration, mineralization and geochemical study in Kalateh Taimour area, NE Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Alaminia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The area is located 20 km northwest of Kashmar and about 4 km of Kalateh Taimour in Khorasan Razavi province. The study area is part of Tertiary volcanic-plutonic belt north of Daruneh fault and its situation in tectonic inliers between two important active faults, Doruneh and Taknar. Volcanic rocks are mainly intermediate to acid pyroclastic type. They formed during early Tertiary. The volcanic rocks of the Kalateh Taimour area are predominantly andesitic basalt, andesite, latite, trachyte, dacite and rhyodacite and are observed as lava, tuff, lapilli tuff and agglomerate. Field evidences and study show several subvolcanic bodies including quartz hornblende biotite monzodiorite porphyry, quartz biotite monzodiorite porphyry, quartz diorite porphyry and microdiorite which are intruded sometime in mid-Tertiary. In this belt, new methods of image processing were used for enhancing the alteration zones to help near infra red and short wavelength infrared and bands example band ratios and principle component method. Propylitic, sericitic and argillic are the main alteration types. Minor silicification is found in some areas. Alteration is extent but mineralization is limited. Mineralization is mainly controlled by fault system. Several mineralized faults are being discovered. Open space filling features are abundant. In the study area, disseminate and stock work mineralization are abundant. The amount of sulfide minerals is very small. Ancient mining is present in the area. Stream sediment geochemical study shows a very broad and high level of gold anomaly. Rock geochemical study show very high levels of Au, Ag, Cu, Pb, Zn and Au value is correlative to Cu, Pb, Zn and Ag values. Due to alteration modeling, non uniformity in mineralization and low abundance of sulfide mineralization suggest study in low sulphidation Au-Cu deposit.

  15. Highlights of a recycling behaviour study in South Africa’s large urban areas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strydom, WF

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available behaviour study in South Africa?s large urban areas WF STRYDOM CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001 Email: wstrydom@csir.co.za ? www.csir.co.za INTRODUCTION The recently promulgated National Environmental Management... representative sample of 2 004 respondents in 11 of the larger South African urban areas, including all the metropolitan municipalities. The survey was conducted in November 2010, before the Waste Act was widely implemented. The objective of the study was...

  16. Informing Healthcare Waiting Area Design Using Transparency Attributes: A Comparative Preference Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Powers, Matthew; Allison, David; Vincent, Ellen

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to explore people's visual preference for waiting areas in general hospital environments designed with transparency attributes that fully integrate nature. Waiting can be a tedious and frustrating experience among people seeking healthcare treatments and negatively affect their perception of the quality of care. Positive distractions and supportive designs have gained increasing attraction to improve people's waiting experience. Nature, which has shown therapeutic effects according to a growing amount of evidence, could be a distinguished positive distraction in waiting areas. Additionally, the theory of transparency was operationalized to indicate a spatial continuity between the external nature and the built interiors in general healthcare waiting area design. A survey method was adopted in the study. Twenty-one images of general healthcare waiting areas depicting three design typologies were preselected following a strict procedure, including designs with (a) no window views, (b) limited window views to nature, and (c) transparent spaces with maximum natural views. Ninety-five student participants rated the images based on their visual preference using a Likert-type scale. The results showed that transparent waiting areas were significantly preferred. A significant positive relationship existed between the level of transparency and people's preference scores. The factor analysis indicated additional supportive features that may affect people's preferences, including daylight, perceived warmth, noninstitutional furniture arrangement, visual orientation, and the use of natural materials for interior design. However, these tentative results need to be furthered tested with the real patient population as the next step of this study.

  17. Investigation of potential alternate study areas in the Paradox Basin region, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, T.A.

    1984-03-01

    The Paradox Basin was re-evaluated to determine if any parts of the Basin that had not been identified in previous studies might be suitable for a more detailed evaluation as a nuclear waste repository site. The factors used in this re-evaluation were depth to salt and dedicated lands, because these factors directly address the engineering and environmental feasibility of a repository. Six areas (Happy Canyon, Green River, Dolores River, Expectation Mountain, Dark Canyon, and Kane Springs Canyon) were identified on this basis as potentially suitable areas for further study. These areas were assessed in more detail to review the feasibility of siting a repository. None of the six areas was recommended for further study as a repository site because the size of the areas, thickness of the salt beds, topography, and engineering factors resulting from the loading of nearby mesas generally did not allow the construction of a feasible repository. The content of this report was effective as of May 1983. 41 references, 17 figures

  18. Differential involvement of cortical and cerebellar areas using dominant and nondominant hands: An FMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Matteo; Samson, Rebecca S.; D'Angelo, Egidio; Friston, Karl J.; Toosy, Ahmed T.; Gandini Wheeler‐Kingshott, Claudia A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Motor fMRI studies, comparing dominant (DH) and nondominant (NDH) hand activations have reported mixed findings, especially for the extent of ipsilateral (IL) activations and their relationship with task complexity. To date, no study has directly compared DH and NDH activations using an event‐related visually guided dynamic power‐grip paradigm with parametric (three) forces (GF) in healthy right‐handed subjects. We implemented a hierarchical statistical approach aimed to: (i) identify the main effect networks engaged when using either hand; (ii) characterise DH/NDH responses at different GFs; (iii) assess contralateral (CL)/IL‐specific and hemisphere‐specific activations. Beyond confirming previously reported results, this study demonstrated that increasing GF has an effect on motor response that is contextualised also by the use of DH or NDH. Linear analysis revealed increased activations in sensorimotor areas, with additional increased recruitments of subcortical and cerebellar areas when using the NDH. When looking at CL/IL‐specific activations, CL sensorimotor areas and IL cerebellum were activated with both hands. When performing the task with the NDH, several areas were also recruited including the CL cerebellum. Finally, there were hand‐side‐independent activations of nonmotor‐specific areas in the right and left hemispheres, with the right hemisphere being involved more extensively in sensori‐motor integration through associative areas while the left hemisphere showing greater activation at higher GF. This study shows that the functional networks subtending DH/NDH power‐grip visuomotor functions are qualitatively and quantitatively distinct and this should be taken into consideration when performing fMRI studies, particularly when planning interventions in patients with specific impairments. Hum Brain Mapp 36:5079–5100, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26415818

  19. The effects of area contraction on the performance of UNITEN's shock tube: Numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsen, A M; Yusoff, M Z; Al-Falahi, A

    2013-01-01

    Numerical study into the effects of area contraction on shock tube performance has been reported in this paper. The shock tube is an important component of high speed fluid flow test facility was designed and built at the Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN). In the above mentioned facility, a small area contraction, in form of a bush, was placed adjacent to the diaphragm section to facilitate the diaphragm rupturing process when the pressure ratio across the diaphragm increases to a certain value. To investigate the effects of the small area contraction on facility performance, numerical simulations were conducted at different operating conditions (diaphragm pressure ratios P 4 /P 1 of 10, 15, and 20). A two-dimensional time-accurate Navier-Stokes CFD solver was used to simulate the transient flow in the facility with and without area contraction. The numerical results show that the facility performance is influenced by area contraction in the diaphragm section. For instance, when operating the facility with area contraction using diaphragm pressure ratio (P 4 /P 1 ) of 10, the shock wave strength and shock wave speed decrease by 18% and 8% respectively.

  20. Small-Area Estimation with Zero-Inflated Data – a Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krieg Sabine

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many target variables in official statistics follow a semicontinuous distribution with a mixture of zeros and continuously distributed positive values. Such variables are called zero inflated. When reliable estimates for subpopulations with small sample sizes are required, model-based small-area estimators can be used, which improve the accuracy of the estimates by borrowing information from other subpopulations. In this article, three small-area estimators are investigated. The first estimator is the EBLUP, which can be considered the most common small-area estimator and is based on a linear mixed model that assumes normal distributions. Therefore, the EBLUP is model misspecified in the case of zero-inflated variables. The other two small-area estimators are based on a model that takes zero inflation explicitly into account. Both the Bayesian and the frequentist approach are considered. These small-area estimators are compared with each other and with design-based estimation in a simulation study with zero-inflated target variables. Both a simulation with artificial data and a simulation with real data from the Dutch Household Budget Survey are carried out. It is found that the small-area estimators improve the accuracy compared to the design-based estimator. The amount of improvement strongly depends on the properties of the population and the subpopulations of interest.

  1. Petrophysical studies in heavy oil sands with early water production - Hamaca area, Orinoco Oil Belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salisch, H.A.

    1982-07-01

    This study describes the main lines of petrophysical research in the Hamaca-Pao region of the Orinoco Oil Belt. The techniques and parameters most appropriate for petrophysical studies in the area of interest are discussed. Field tests have confirmed the conclusions of this study on early water production and low oil recovery. Steam injection was shown to be a means for increasing oil mobility to such a degree that significant amounts of additional oil can be produced.

  2. Study of mineral chemistry, thermobarometry and petrogenesis of migmatitic rocks of Hamedan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Sepahi Gerow

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Hamedan region, migmatitic rocks occur with various structures. In the Simin area (South Hamedan stromatic and in the Darreh-Omar (Toyserkan area ophtalmitic structures are abundant. Migmatites have been developed in a poly-metamorphic region. At least one regional metamorphism and two contact metamorphism by mafic and felsic intrusions occurred in the area. It seems that in the Darreh-Omar area contact metamorphism of mafic body leading to migmatization, But in the Simin area previous regional metamorphism and development of shear zones followed by contact metamorphism by felsic body. Therefore, in some areas, such as the Simin area, the migmatization may have occurred in more than one stage. These are consistent with recent geochronological studies of the Alvand plutonic body and surrounding metamorphic rocks. Index minerals of metapelites such as garnet (almandine, biotite (siderophyllite, staurolite, andalusite, sillimanite, kyanite, fibrolite, cordierite, plagioclase (andesine and spinel (hercynite are existing in these rocks. Field geology, petrographic and geochemical evidences suggest that different generations of staurolite, biotite and cordierite exist in metamorphic rocks of different grades in the Hamadan area. These minerals sometimes have been formed by progressive reactions and some other times from retrogressive reactions. A number of these phases have been formed at the peak of metamorphism and some others in later time. Based on thermometric cation-exchange method of garnet-biotite pair, using different calibrations, the obtained temperature using first-generation of biotites is 655 °C and temperature range of 529 °C for second-generation biotites. Cordierite-garnet thermometry indicates a temperature of 637 °C for related migmatitic rocks. In barometry with GPBQ system, calculated pressure for first-generation biotite is estimated to be about 3.9 kbar and for the second-generation biotite around 3.6 kbar.

  3. New implementation of a shear-force microscope suitable to study topographical features over wide areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustione, A.; Cricenti, A.; Piacentini, M.; Felici, A. C.

    2006-01-01

    A new implementation of a shear-force microscope is described that uses a shear-force detection system to perform topographical imaging of large areas (∼1x1 mm 2 ). This implementation finds very interesting application in the study of archeological or artistic samples. Three dc motors are used to move a sample during a scan, allowing the probe tip to follow the surface and to face height differences of several tens of micrometers. This large-area topographical imaging mode exploits new subroutines that were added to the existing homemade software; these subroutines were created in Microsoft VISUAL BASIC 6.0 programming language. With this new feature our shear-force microscope can be used to study topographical details over large areas of archaeological samples in a nondestructive way. We show results detecting worn reliefs over a coin

  4. Baseline vegetation inventory and productivity assessment for the Syncrude Aurora Mine EIA local study area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This report presented an inventory and assessment of vegetation communities and forest covers within the proposed Aurora Mine local study area. A field inventory was conducted in the summer of 1995 to ground-truth air photo interpretations and to collect data. The inventory includes a classification of vegetation, forest covers and wetlands. It also includes the documentation of uncommon plants and the vegetation productivity estimates of tree, shrub and herbaceous plants. The study area is located east of the Athabasca River about 35 km northeast of Mildred Lake Oil Sands Plant. The area includes portions of Oil Sands Leases 10, 12, 13, 31, and 34 which includes much of the Muskeg River drainage and all of Kearl Lake. 24 refs., 7 tabs., 3 figs.

  5. Impact of intertidal area characteristics on estuarine tidal hydrodynamics: A modelling study for the Scheldt Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, J.; Smolders, S.; Meire, P.; Temmerman, S.

    2017-11-01

    effects of tidal prism decrease upstream and tidal prism increase downstream of additional storage areas, our model results indicate a reduction in tidal prism far downstream of intertidal storage areas as a result of a decreasing tidal range. This study may assist estuarine managers in assessing the impact of marsh restoration and managed shoreline realignment projects, as well as with the morphological management of estuaries through dredging and disposal of sediment on intertidal areas.

  6. A biomonitoring study: trace metals in algae and molluscs from Tyrrhenian coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, M.E.; Cecchetti, Gaetano

    2003-01-01

    Marine organisms were evaluated as possible biomonitors of heavy metal contamination in marine coastal areas. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were measured in the green algae Ulva lactuca L., the brown algae Padina pavonica (L.) Thivy, the bivalve mollusc Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, and the two gastropod molluscs Monodonta turbinata Born and Patella cerulea L. collected at six coastal stations in the area of the Gulf of Gaeta (Tyrrhenian Sea, central Italy). The coastal area of the Regional Park of Gianola and Monte di Scauri (a 'Protected Sea Park' area) was chosen as a control site. Seawater samples were also collected in each site to assess soluble and total metal concentrations and to gain additional information on both the environmental conditions of the area and possible bioaccumulation patterns. Metal concentrations detected in algae and molluscs did not show significant differences among all stations studied. Moreover, statistical analyses (ANOVA, multiple comparison tests, cluster analysis) showed that the Sea Park station was not significantly different from the others. The hypothesis that the Protected Sea Park would be cleaner than the others must therefore be reconsidered. Data from this study were also compared with those previously obtained from uncontaminated sites in the Sicilian Sea, Italy. The results show clearly differences between these two marine ecosystems. The species examined showed great accumulations of metals, with concentration factors (CFs) higher than 10,000 with respect to the concentrations (soluble fractions) in marine waters. Metal concentrations recorded in this area may be used for background levels for intraspecific comparison within the Tyrrhenian area, a body of water about which information is still very scarce

  7. The minimum area requirements (MAR) for giant panda: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Jing; Yang, Zhisong; He, Ke; Zhang, Zejun; Gu, Xiaodong; Yang, Xuyu; Zhang, Wen; Yang, Biao; Qi, Dunwu; Dai, Qiang

    2016-12-08

    Habitat fragmentation can reduce population viability, especially for area-sensitive species. The Minimum Area Requirements (MAR) of a population is the area required for the population's long-term persistence. In this study, the response of occupancy probability of giant pandas against habitat patch size was studied in five of the six mountain ranges inhabited by giant panda, which cover over 78% of the global distribution of giant panda habitat. The probability of giant panda occurrence was positively associated with habitat patch area, and the observed increase in occupancy probability with patch size was higher than that due to passive sampling alone. These results suggest that the giant panda is an area-sensitive species. The MAR for giant panda was estimated to be 114.7 km 2 based on analysis of its occupancy probability. Giant panda habitats appear more fragmented in the three southern mountain ranges, while they are large and more continuous in the other two. Establishing corridors among habitat patches can mitigate habitat fragmentation, but expanding habitat patch sizes is necessary in mountain ranges where fragmentation is most intensive.

  8. Municipal Solid Waste Composition Study of Selected Area in Gambang, Pahang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Nadiah; Ishak, Wan Faizal Wan; Suraya Romali, Noor; Fatimah Che Osmi, Siti; Armi Abu Samah, Mohd

    2013-06-01

    The amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated continue to increase in response to rapid growth in population, change in life style and accelerated urbanization and industrialization process. The study on MSW is important in order to determine the composition further seeks an immediate remedy to minimize the waste generated at the early stage. As most of the MSW goes to the landfill or dumping sites, particularly in Malaysia, closure of filled-up landfill may become an alarm clock for an immediate action of proper solid waste management. This research aims to determine the waste composition generated from selected residential area at Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang which represent Old residential area (ORA), Intermediate residential area (IRA) and New residential area (NRA). The study was conducted by segregating and weighing solid waste in the residential area into 6 main components ie., food waste, paper, plastic, glass, metal and others. In a period of four weeks, samples from the residential unit were taken and analyzed. The MSW generation rates were recorded vary from 0.217 to 0.388 kg person-1day-1. Food waste has become the major solid waste component generated daily which mounted up to 50%. From this research, the result revealed that the recyclable composition of waste generated by residents have a potential to be reuse, recycle and reduce at the point sources.

  9. Municipal Solid Waste Composition Study of Selected Area in Gambang, Pahang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtar, Nadiah; Romali, Noor Suraya; Osmi, Siti Fatimah Che; Ishak, Wan Faizal Wan; Samah, Mohd Armi Abu

    2013-01-01

    The amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated continue to increase in response to rapid growth in population, change in life style and accelerated urbanization and industrialization process. The study on MSW is important in order to determine the composition further seeks an immediate remedy to minimize the waste generated at the early stage. As most of the MSW goes to the landfill or dumping sites, particularly in Malaysia, closure of filled-up landfill may become an alarm clock for an immediate action of proper solid waste management. This research aims to determine the waste composition generated from selected residential area at Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang which represent Old residential area (ORA), Intermediate residential area (IRA) and New residential area (NRA). The study was conducted by segregating and weighing solid waste in the residential area into 6 main components ie., food waste, paper, plastic, glass, metal and others. In a period of four weeks, samples from the residential unit were taken and analyzed. The MSW generation rates were recorded vary from 0.217 to 0.388 kg person −1 day −1 . Food waste has become the major solid waste component generated daily which mounted up to 50%. From this research, the result revealed that the recyclable composition of waste generated by residents have a potential to be reuse, recycle and reduce at the point sources.

  10. Hydrogeochemical and spectroscopic studies of radioactive materials in Ayrakan and Cheshmeh Shotori areas, northeastern Isfahan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Esmaeili Vardanjani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Groundwaters hydrochemistry of Ayrakan and Cheshmeh Shotori areas and geochemistry of rare earth elements, indicate Ayrakan alkali granite as the origin of uranium and other dissolved elements in groundwaters of these areas. Geochemical and hydrogeochemical studies as well as the trend of uranium and thorium transition and mobility in aqueous environments of these areas indicate uranium adsorption by iron hydroxide (goethite as the deterrent agent against uranium transition and mobility from depth to surface. Gamma-ray spectroscopic study of sediments from Cheshmeh Shotori area by HPGe detector indicates the presence of 226Ra in high contents and as the radioactive nuclide that is the reason for high activity of these sediments. Production of 226Ra from 238U decay, shorter half-life of 226Ra compared to 238U, radium transition by groundwaters from depth to surface as well as hydrogeochemical evidences, all suggest the possibility of existence of hidden uranium deposit and uranium mineralization in depth and the distance between Ayrakan and Cheshmeh Shotori areas.

  11. Methodology of determining soil structure in important groundwater areas: case studies in Kauvonkangas, Finnish Lapland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupila, Juho

    2016-04-01

    Finland is fully self-sufficient in clean groundwater and even has a capacity of exportation. There are approx. 6000 groundwater areas with a total yield of 5.4 million m3/day. Currently only 10% of this groundwater resource is in use. For the efficient and safe exploitation of these areas in the future, detailed modeling of soil structure is an important method in groundwater surveys. 3D -models improve the general knowledge of linkage between land use planning and groundwater protection. Results can be used as a base information in water supply service development and when performing the measures needed in case of environmental accidents. Also, when creating the groundwater flow models the collected information is utilized and is usually the main data source. Geological Survey of Finland has carried out soil structure studies in co-operation with authorities, municipalities and the local water suppliers. The main objectives of these projects are to determine the geological structure of groundwater area for estimating the validity of the present exclusion area, the quantity of ground water volume and recharge capability and possible risks to the groundwater. Research areas are usually under an active water supply service. Kauvonkangas groundwater area is located in the municipality of Tervola, in Southern part of Finnish Lapland. Extent of the area is 7.9 km2 and it is an important water source for the local and nearby population centers. There are two active water supply companies in the area. Field studies in the project will include general geological and hydrological mapping, soil drilling with observation pipe installation, test pumping and water sampling. Geophysical measures will play a key-role, including ground penetrating radar (GPR) and gravimetric measurements. Studies will be carried out in spring and summer 2016. The main results will be the models of the bedrock and groundwater level and main characteristics of the soil layers in the area. Results

  12. Oil pollution in the Riverine Areas - a case study of Akwa-Ibom State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the oil production activities in the riverine area of Akwa-lbom State was carried out by the . In this regard, visits to different oil locations were made to obtain information on the consequences of oil production activities. Through these visits, the ecological situation of the environment was assessed, useful information ...

  13. Baseline study of the Mokolo and Lephalala rivers in the Waterberg area

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Klerk, A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in the Waterberg area to characterize the aquatic macro invertebrate community structure and fish assemblages in the Mokolo and Lephalala rivers prior to the onset of increased mining activities and coal fired power stations...

  14. In the Soup: Integrating and Correlating Social Studies with Other Curriculum Areas: Part Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Virginia A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Demonstrates a thematic approach, using soup as the theme, to integrate and correlate elementary social studies with other subject areas. Outlines four soup activities, presenting goals, materials, strategies, and extensions of each. Stresses how integrated curricula effectively develops skills such as observing, inferring, serial ordering, and…

  15. Recruiting Young Volunteers in an Area of Selective Education: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Jon

    2016-01-01

    This article presents findings from a small qualitative case study of a youth volunteering brokerage organisation in England, operating in an area of selective state education. Data show how brokerage workers felt grammar schools managed their students in a concerted way to improve students' chances of attending university. Conversely, workers…

  16. A comparative study on plant diversity in alder (Alnus subcordata stands of natural and plantation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEYED ALIAKBAR REZAEI TALESHI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rezaei-Taleshi SA. 2014. A comparative study on plant diversity in alder (Alnus subcordata stands of natural and plantation areas. Biodiversitas 15: 37-45. Diversity index is the useful criteria for evaluating sustainability of forest ecosystems. Current study carried out in Alder (Alnus subcordata C.A. Meyer stands that located in north forests of Iran. The aim of the study is express the plant diversity indices and positive role of the trees both natural and plantation forms. Data of Alder trees and associated species were recorded in sample plots which lay down in study area randomly. The abundance, density, percentage of frequency of each species was calculated by standard methods. The results of analysis revealed that, 47 species (21 trees and shrubs species and 26 herbaceous species were abundant in 80 sample plots both in natural and plantations Alder stands. Whilst the results showed that the number of species in natural area (44 species was more than plantation stands (37 species. Comparison of species distribution in different physiographical situation showed that some species such as Alnus subcordata, Parrotia persica, Rubus hyrcanus and Prunus sp. recorded in spread rang of physiographic variables as elevation, slopes and aspects. The biodiversity criteria as Shannon H’ and Simpsons D and 1/D indexes showed that they were more in natural stands than plantation areas.

  17. 47 CFR 36.621 - Study area total unseparated loop cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... deducting the accumulated depreciation and noncurrent deferred Federal income taxes attributable to C&WF... by the study area's authorized interstate rate of return. (2) Depreciation expense attributable to C... reported in § 36.611(d). (4) Corporate Operations Expenses, Operating Taxes and the benefits and rent...

  18. Geophysical work for the feasibility birthing study of groundwater in Florida area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, H

    1996-01-01

    Geological studies were carried out on the soil to determine the existence of groundwater as well as the type of rocks to can drill the zone. The area is conformed by granitic rocks of medium or coarse grain with different degrees of alteration.

  19. Urban forest restoration cost modeling: a Seattle natural areas case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean M. Daniels; Weston Brinkley; Michael D. Paruszkiewicz

    2016-01-01

    Cities have become more committed to ecological restoration and management activities in urban natural areas. Data about costs are needed for better planning and reporting. The objective of this study is to estimate the costs for restoration activities in urban parks and green space in Seattle, Washington. Stewardship activity data were generated from a new database...

  20. A socio-economic evaluation of a protected area - A case study: Hamadan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradpanah Haniyeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the socio-economic issues of a protected area and participation of the local stakeholders in conservation of the protected area. This study was conducted at 7 villages in Hamedan province in the midwest part of Iran. A questionnaire was used for data collection. Reliability of the data was determined by Cronbach's alpha. In order to investigate the relationship between the average incomes of different villages, a t-statistic test was used. Results indicated that at the 0.05 significance level, there were significant differences between most villages. Furthermore, the results indicated that there was no significant relationship between mean income of Jara and Saadat Abad villages. In order to investigate the interest for the preservation of different villages, a t-statistic test was used. Results indicated that at the 0.05 significance level of, there were significant differences between Shademaneh and Maloosan, Siyah Dare and Gheshlagh Najaf, Shademaneh and Taemeh, Taemeh and Gheshlagh Najaf villages. Results also showed that the Maloosan village has the highest income in the area and willingness to participate in conservation activities was highest at this village. The results of this study show a new approach to the protection of biodiversity of protected areas with connection to economic, biological and humanistic studies.

  1. A study of unstable slopes in permafrost areas : Alaskan case studies used as a training tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    This report is the companion to the PowerPoint presentation for the project A Study of Unstable Slopes in Permafrost: Alaskan Case Studies Used as a Training Tool. The objectives of this study are 1) to provide a comprehensive review of literat...

  2. Cross-border cooperation potential in fostering redevelopment of degraded border areas - a case study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre Castanho, Rui; Ramírez, Beatriz; Loures, Luis; Fernández-Pozo, Luis; Cabezas, José

    2017-04-01

    Border interactions have reached unprecedented levels in recent decades, not only due to their potential for territorial integration but also considering their role in supranational processes, such as landscape reclamation, infrastructure development and land use planning on European territory. In this scenario, successful examples related to the redevelopment of degraded areas have been showing positive impacts at several levels, such as the social, economic, environmental and aesthetic ones which have ultimately related this process, positively, to sustainability issues. However, concerning to border areas, and due to their inherent legislative and bureaucratic conflicts, the intervention in these areas is more complex. Still, and taking into account previously developed projects and strategies of cross-border cooperation (CBC) in European territory it is possible to identified that the definition of common master plans and common objectives are critical issues to achieve the desired territorial success. Additionally, recent studies have put forward some noteworthy ideas highlighting that it is possible to establish a positive correlation between CBC processes and an increasing redevelopment of degraded border areas, with special focus on the reclamation of derelict landscapes fostering soil reuse and redevelopment. The present research, throughout case study analysis at the Mediterranean level - considering case studies from Portugal, Spain, Monaco and Italy - which presents specific data on border landscape redevelopment, enables us to conclude that CBC processes have a positive influence on the potential redevelopment of degraded border areas, considering not only urban but also rural land. Furthermore, this paper presents data obtained through a public participation process which highlights that these areas present a greater potential for landscape reclamation, fostering resource sustainability and sustainable growth. Keywords: Spatial planning; Land

  3. A national study on nurses' retention in healthcare facilities in underserved areas in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Alameddine, Mohamad; Jamal, Diana; Dimassi, Hani; Dumit, Nuhad Y; McEwen, Mary K; Jaafar, Maha; Murray, Susan F

    2013-09-30

    Nursing shortages and maldistribution are priority issues for healthcare systems around the globe. Such imbalances are often aggravated in underserved areas, especially in developing countries. Despite the centrality of this issue, there is a dearth of studies that examine the retention of nurses in underserved areas in the Middle East Region. This study investigates the characteristic and the factors associated with the retention of nurses working in rural areas in Lebanon. This study uses a non-experimental cross-sectional design to survey nurses working in underserved areas of Lebanon. Underserved areas in Lebanon were identified using WHO definition. A total of 103 health facilities (hospitals and primary healthcare centers) located in these areas were identified and all nurses working at these facilities received a copy of the survey questionnaire. The questionnaire included five sections: demographic, work-life, career plan, job satisfaction, and assessment of work environment. Analysis included univariate and bivariate (chi-square, Student's t-test and ANOVA) tests to describe the respondents and examine the significance between nurses' characteristics and their intent to stay. A logistic regression model was constructed to identify factors associated with nurses' intent to stay in underserved areas. A total of 857 nurses from 63 Primary Healthcare (PHC) centers and hospitals responded to the questionnaire (75.5% response rate). Only 35.1% of nurses indicated their intent to stay in their current job over the coming one to three years. Surveyed nurses were most satisfied with relationship with co-workers and least satisfied with extrinsic rewards. Rural nurses working in PHC centers were more satisfied than their hospital counterparts on all aspects of work and had significantly higher intention to stay (62.5% compared to 31.5% in hospitals, P job satisfaction and their intent to stay. This study reveals poor retention of nurses in rural and underserved

  4. Environmental pollution study around a large industrial area near Cairo, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Halim, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis is one of the most extensively used methods for environmental studies due to its high sensitivity, precision, versatility and multielemental character. Cement factories at Helwan, south of Cairo, contribute substantially to environmental pollution. Determination of minor and trace-elements in dust particulates from the cement industrial areas has been performed to assess the air quality from an environmental and human health point of view. Soil-7 standard reference material from IAEA and SRM-1571 from NBS were used for quality assurance testing. The data obtained indicate there is an indication that the pollution could be hazardous to people living in and around the area surveyed. (author)

  5. Cytogenetic studies of marine organisms in the areas with higher contents of natural radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsytsugina, V.G.; Floru, Kh.; Polikarpov, G.G.; Chalulu, K.; Gorbenko, V.P.

    2004-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations in cells of marine crustaceans and worms have been studied at sites with a high natural radioactivity level (the Black Sea coast at the mountain Karadag in the Crimea and the Ikaria Island in the Aegean Sea, an area around the hydrothermal spa) as well as at sites with the normal natural radiation level. Higher level of chromosome mutagenesis was found in cells of Melita palmata embryos and in germ and somatic cells of Lycastopsis sp. juveniles in the area around the spa. Probably, chromosome aberrations were induced by higher concentrations of natural radionuclides and their radiation in the environment

  6. Late effects of exposure to ionizing radiation. Studies of the resident population in the Semipalatinsk area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenson, R.I.; Tchaijunusova, N.J.; Gusev, B.I.; Katoh, O.; Kimura, A.; Hoshi, M.; Kamada, N.; Satow, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The early and late radiation effects on residents of the nuclear test site in Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, were studied. In Semipalatinsk area hundreds of on-the-ground and underground nuclear tests had been conducted between 1949 and 1989. The collected biological data was investigated in terms of the following points, i.e., cancer incidence, mortality rates from malignant tumors, infant mortality and congenital anomalies, overall mortality, hemopoiesis, chromosomal aberrations in the somatic cells, immune system parameters, cardiovascular system findings, and thyroid gland disorders. The individual points were investigated according to the exposure level, resident areas, years after exposure, age, and sex. The significant findings are given and discussed. (S.Y.)

  7. Study on waste waters of metal finishing industries around Lahore metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Izhar-ul-Haq; Mahmood, F.; Tufail, S.; Naeem, M.

    2002-01-01

    Study was undertaken on the waste water samples from metal finishing industries of Lahore metropolitan area for the evaluation of metallic impurities. The metal finishing industry was classified into three categories i. e. medium scale, small scale and cottage scale industry. About 93 wastewater samples were collected from various metal finishing industries around Lahore metropolitan area. In addition to toxic elements like cadmium, nickel and zinc the other parameters such as hydrogen ion concentration (pH), Electrical conductivity (EC) and Total Dissolved Salts (TDS) were also determined. (author)

  8. Multiscale Spatial Assessment of Determinant Factors of Land Use Change: Study at Urban Area of Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo, Bowo

    2017-12-01

    Studies of land use change have been undertaken by different researchers using various methods. Among those methods, modelling is widely utilized. Modelling land use change required several components remarked as model variables. Those represent any conditions or factors which considered relevant or have some degree of correlation to the changes of land use. Variables which have significant correlation to land use change are referred as determinant factors or driving forces. Those factors as well as changes of land use are distributed across space and therefore referred as spatial determinant factors. The main objective of the research was to examine land use change and its determinant factors. Area and location of land use change were analysed based on three different years of land use maps, which are 1993, 2000 and 2007. Spatial and temporal analysis were performed which emphasize to the influence of scale to both of analysis’s. Urban area of Yogyakarta was selected as study area. Study area covered three different districts (kabupaten), involving 20 sub districts and totally consists of 74 villages. Result of this study shows that during 14 years periods (1993 to 2007), there were about 1,460 hectares of land use change had been taken place. Dominant type of land use change is agricultural to residential. The uses of different spatial and temporal scale in analysis were able to reveal different factors related to land use change. In general, factors influencing the quantities of land use change in the study area were population growth and the availability of land. The use of data with different spatial resolution can reveal the presence of various factors associated with the location of the change. Locations of land use change were influenced or determined by accessibility factors.

  9. Transformation of tourist landscapes in mountain areas: Case studies from Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Chrenka

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available After two decades of deregulated free market economy the post-socialist rural mountain areas are being unprecedently commodified. Landscapes of tourist consumption with specific behaviour patterns are produced and reproduced. The paper explores how landscapes are transformed due to massive investments into tourist infrastructure with questionable impacts on quality of life and environmental sustainability. Power relations and related production of space are analysed in three case studies in the selected mountain areas in Slovakia. First, the Oščadnica case study reflects on rural landscape rapidly transformed by massive ski resort development and deforestation. Second, the Tále golf course development case study describes commodification and gentrification processes in Central Slovakia. Third, the High Tatras case study explores how power structures push on the transformation of the oldest and most visited National Park in Slovakia.

  10. A magnetotelluric study of the sensitivity of an area to seismoelectric signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Balasis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available During recent years, efforts at better understanding the physical properties of precursory ultra-low frequency pre-seismic electric signals (SES have been intensified. Experiments show that SES cannot be observed at all points of the Earth's surface but only at certain so-called sensitive sites. Moreover, a sensitive site is capable of collecting SES from only a restricted number of seismic areas (selectivity effect. Therefore the installation of a permanent station appropriate for SES collection should necessarily be preceded by a pilot study over a broad area and for a long duration. In short, a number of temporary stations are installed and, after the occurrence of several significant earthquakes (EQs from a given seismic area, the most appropriate (if any of these temporary stations, in the sense that they happen to collect SES, can be selected as permanent. Such a long experiment constitutes a serious disadvantage in identifying a site as SES sensitive. However, the SES sensitivity of a site should be related to the geoelectric structure of the area that hosts the site as well as the regional geoelectric structure between the station and the seismic focal area. Thus, knowledge of the local and regional geoelectric structure can dramatically reduce the time involved in identifying SES sites. In this paper the magnetotelluric method is used to investigate the conductivity structure of an area where a permanent SES station is in operation. Although general conclusions cannot be drawn, the area surrounding an SES site near Ioannina, Greece is characterized by: (1 major faults in the vicinity; (2 highly resistive structure flanked by abrupt conductivity contrasts associated with large-scale geologic contacts, and (3 local inhomogeneities in conductivity structure. The above results are consistent with the fact that electric field amplitudes from remotely-generated signals should be appreciably stronger at such sites when compared to neighboring

  11. Analyzing Leadership Style and Employee Performance (Study at PT. Bank Mandiri Area Manado (Persero) Tbk.)

    OpenAIRE

    Karisoh, Gabriel Dave Janma

    2016-01-01

    : In this global era, every organization seeking to improve the quality of work of employees in order to generate productive employee. Employees play a major role in running the organization. Therefore, their productivity must be increased in order be well performed. This study aims to determine the influence of leadership style and employee performance. In this study, population where is drawn for employees of Bank Mandiri Area Manado, Data was conducted by interviews with 15 respondents. Th...

  12. Use of complex electronic equipment within radiative areas of PWR power plants: feability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fremont, P.; Carquet, M.

    1988-01-01

    EDF has undertaken a study in order to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of using complex electronic equipment within radiative areas of PWR power plants. This study lies on tests of VLSI components (Random Access Memories) under gamma rays irradiations, which aims are to evaluate the radiation dose that they can withstand and to develop a selection method. 125 rad/h and 16 rad/h tests results are given [fr

  13. Age-specific activation of cerebral areas in motor imagery - a fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Li [Chongqing University, Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College, Chongqing (China); Third Military Medical University, Department of Medical Image, College of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing (China); Qiu, Mingguo; Zhang, Jingna; Zhang, Ye; Sang, Linqiong [Third Military Medical University, Department of Medical Image, College of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing (China); Liu, Chen; Yang, Jun [Third Military Medical University, Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Chongqing (China); Yan, Rubing [Third Military Medical University, Department of Rehabilitation, Southwest Hospital, Chongqing (China); Zheng, Xiaolin [Chongqing University, Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College, Chongqing (China)

    2014-04-15

    The objectives of this study were to study the age-specific activation patterns of cerebral areas during motor execution (ME) and motor imaging (MI) of the upper extremities and to discuss the age-related neural mechanisms associated with ME or MI. The functional magnetic resonance imaging technique was used to monitor the pattern and intensity of brain activation during the ME and MI of the upper extremities in 20 elderly (>50 years) and 19 young healthy subjects (<25 years). No major differences were identified regarding the activated brain areas during ME or MI between the two groups; however, a minor difference was noted. The intensity of the activated brain area during ME was stronger in the older group than in the younger group, while the results with MI were the opposite. The posterior central gyrus and supplementary motor area during MI were more active in the younger group than in the older group. The putamen, lingual, and so on demonstrated stronger activation during dominant hand MI in the older group. The results of this study revealed that the brain structure was altered and that neuronal activity was attenuated with age, and the cerebral cortex and subcortical tissues were found to be over-activated to achieve the same level of ME and MI, indicating that the activating effects of the left hemisphere enhanced with age, whereas the inhibitory effects declined during ME, and activation of the right hemisphere became more difficult during MI. (orig.)

  14. Age-specific activation of cerebral areas in motor imagery - a fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li; Qiu, Mingguo; Zhang, Jingna; Zhang, Ye; Sang, Linqiong; Liu, Chen; Yang, Jun; Yan, Rubing; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to study the age-specific activation patterns of cerebral areas during motor execution (ME) and motor imaging (MI) of the upper extremities and to discuss the age-related neural mechanisms associated with ME or MI. The functional magnetic resonance imaging technique was used to monitor the pattern and intensity of brain activation during the ME and MI of the upper extremities in 20 elderly (>50 years) and 19 young healthy subjects (<25 years). No major differences were identified regarding the activated brain areas during ME or MI between the two groups; however, a minor difference was noted. The intensity of the activated brain area during ME was stronger in the older group than in the younger group, while the results with MI were the opposite. The posterior central gyrus and supplementary motor area during MI were more active in the younger group than in the older group. The putamen, lingual, and so on demonstrated stronger activation during dominant hand MI in the older group. The results of this study revealed that the brain structure was altered and that neuronal activity was attenuated with age, and the cerebral cortex and subcortical tissues were found to be over-activated to achieve the same level of ME and MI, indicating that the activating effects of the left hemisphere enhanced with age, whereas the inhibitory effects declined during ME, and activation of the right hemisphere became more difficult during MI. (orig.)

  15. Atmospheric transport of contaminants to remote arctic wilderness areas: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crayton, W.M.; Talbot, S.

    1993-01-01

    The Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge includes the Tuxedni Wilderness Area (WA), which is required to meet the Class 1 air quality requirements of the Clean Air Act (42 CFT 7401 et seq.). The Act specifically protects such areas from significant deterioration; however, most Class 1 Wilderness monitoring focuses on visual impairment and traditional atmospheric pollutants such as NOx. This study was designed to assess the feasibility of also measuring atmospheric transport of potentially toxic elemental and organic contaminants to remote areas as a pilot for subsequent monitoring of Service lands to be undertaken through the Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program. Located on the western shore of Cook Inlet, the Tuxedni WA lies about 80 km downwind of a major petroleum complex that the City of Anchorage. Elemental contaminants emanating from the city will be studied in two species of widely distributed alpine vegetation (Cladina rangiferina, a lichen; and Hylocomium splendens, a moss) collected from elevated windward slopes on Chisik Island, a remote site in the WA. Vegetation samples will be analyzed for a suite of potentially toxic elements by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Polycyclic aromatic compounds originating from petroleum-related and urban sources will be studied through the deployment of lipid-containing passive accumulators and analysis by gas chromatography with photoionization detection. Reference areas will also be selected and monitored

  16. Study on the path selection of sustainable development in the mountainous area of Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Malin; Zhou, Zhujun; Zhang, Huizhi; Chen, Ci; Chen, Junhong; Zhou, Zhongren

    2018-02-01

    The mountainous area of Beijing is the broad region with weak economic features, ecologically fragile and special ecological functions. The ecological conditions, sustainability and regional economic development are intercorrelated in the region. It is arduous to enhance the regional competitive advantage and improve the economic development level through the environmental protection and ecological conservation. This study elaborates the relationship between ecology and economic development from the perspectives of ecology, productivity and life style in mountainous areas of Beijing. Then this paper discusses how to increase sustainable development of mountain areas from several aspects, including key regional developments, industrial development, and ecological compensation mechanism, considering the strategic goals of accelerating economic transformation, coordinating urban and rural development, and promoting new-type urbanization.

  17. Geologic and radiometric study of the Santa Rosalia area, Arizpe Department, Sonora Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez M, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    The importance of the radiometrical anomaly, discovered in the Santa Rosalia area, Arizpe Department, Sonota, is defined in this study through topographical and geological surveying of the area by the outline and systematical survey of rocks for sampling and registration of the radioactivity. Two radioactive anomalies were defined and called IIIA and IIIB, identifying the existence of secondary uranium minerals (Torbernite) in the IIIB anomaly. According to the results of the work which was carried out we can't deduce that both localities present signs of the existence of important uranium concentrations. We can conclude that the presence of uranium minerals obliges us to realize a more detailed exploration, suggesting the opening of little excavations and ditches and stretching out of the geochemical, geological and radiometrical exploration to adjacent areas. (author)

  18. Studies of transuranic element ingestion by fistulated steers grazing Area 13 of the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blincoe, C.; Bohman, V.R.; Smith, D.D.

    1985-01-01

    Area 13 is one of several areas of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) contaminated with transuranics. Cattle were grazed on the area to study the botanical and chemical composition of the forage, the digestibility of range plants as selected by range cattle, and the intake of plutonium and americium by grazing cattle. The digestibility of dry matter ranged from 34 to 44%. Cattle generally consumed over 2 kilograms per 100 kilograms body weight of dry matter daily, which resulted in a daily intake of 3600 to 11,100 pCi of plutonium-238, 85,000 to 400,000 pCi of plutonium-239, and 11,000 to 56,000 pCi of americium-241. The soil ingested by range cattle constituted the principal and possibly only source of ingested plutonium and americium. 21 references, 1 figure, 9 tables

  19. A prospective study on congenital malformations in the high background radiation areas of Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaikrishan, G.; Sudheer, K.R.; Andrews, V.J.; Koya, P.K.M.; Cheriyan, V.D.; Seshadri, M.

    2010-01-01

    Hospital based epidemiological study on congenital anomalies carried out in the high level natural radiation (HLNR) areas of southern Kerala since 1995 to assess the hereditary effects, if any, of HLNR is reported here. Thorium, Uranium to a limited extent, and corresponding decay products in the natural deposits of monazite sand is the source of radiation. HLNR and normal level natural radiation (NLNR) areas are interwoven due to the patchy and non-uniform distribution of monazite in the region. Areas with a mean dose of more than 1.5 mGy/year were treated as HLNR areas and those with 1.5 mGy/year or less, as NLNR. High population density, limited migration, ethnic diversity, good literacy, health awareness, institutionalized births and acceptance of small family norm are some of the key features of the population. The comparison of individual malformation in HLNR and NLNR areas are presented and efforts are on to accrue sufficient sample size to enable the comparison

  20. Habitat Patch Diversity Evaluation for Sustainability: a Case Study of a Rural Area in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Mancinelli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Landscape analysis is regarded as a new tool for monitoring and judging land use patterns in terms of sustainability of human activity systems at local level. A case study of evaluation for sustainability based on habitat patch diversity in an ecoregion of Central Italy is presented. In this region, ongoing land use patterns reflect both historical adaptation to local environmental constraints and positive, social-oriented management. More protective land use patterns are mostly widespread in fragile physiographic conditions like those of the mountain areas, where woodland, shrub, and grassland patches are larger and cover more than 90% of the land. This situation is regarded as a positive outcome of the traditional public ownership regime, because public lands amount to more than 70% in the mountain areas. The hilly areas, where public property drops to 28%, presents landscape metrics showing a well balanced situation between agricultural land use and protective native woods and grasslands, which provides a finegrained and harmonious Mediterranean landscape. In the low-land areas, with anthropic pressure and more favourable conditions for crop productivity, there is much more agricultural land, even if some mitigation in terms of biodiversity maintenance is offered by the presence of hedgerow ecotones. In these areas, landscape analysis is not able to supply meaningful information about cropping system design and practices which can maintain a sustainable level of soil fertility and quality of natural resources and processes, and further analysis at cropping system level should be carried out.

  1. Study of measurement methods of ultrafine aerosols surface-area for characterizing occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bau, S.

    2008-12-01

    This work aims at improving knowledge on ultrafine aerosols surface-area measurement. Indeed, the development of nano-technologies may lead to occupational exposure to airborne nano-structured particles, which involves a new prevention issue. There is currently no consensus concerning what parameter (mass, surface-area, number) should be measured. However, surface-area could be a relevant metric, since it leads to a satisfying correlation with biological effects when nano-structured particles are inhaled. Hence, an original theoretical work was performed to position the parameter of surface-area in relation to other aerosol characteristics. To investigate measurement techniques of nano-structured aerosols surface-area, the experimental facility CAIMAN (Characterization of Instruments for the Measurement of Aerosols of Nano-particles) was designed and built. Within CAIMAN, it is possible to produce nano-structured aerosols with varying and controlled properties (size, concentration, chemical nature, morphology, state-of-charge), stable and reproducible in time. The generated aerosols were used to experimentally characterize the response of the instruments in study (NSAM and AeroTrak 9000 TSI, LQ1-DC Matter Engineering). The response functions measured with monodisperse aerosols show a good agreement with the corresponding theoretical curves in a large size range, from 15 to 520 nm. Furthermore, hypotheses have been formulated to explain the reasonable biases observed when measuring poly-disperse aerosols. (author)

  2. A longitudinal study: changes in cortical thickness and surface area during pubertal maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M Herting

    Full Text Available Sex hormones have been shown to contribute to the organization and function of the brain during puberty and adolescence. Moreover, it has been suggested that distinct hormone changes in girls versus boys may contribute to the emergence of sex differences in internalizing and externalizing behavior during adolescence. In the current longitudinal study, the influence of within-subject changes in puberty (physical and hormonal on cortical thickness and surface area was examined across a 2-year span, while controlling for age. Greater increases in Tanner Stage predicted less superior frontal thinning and decreases in precuneus surface area in both sexes. Significant Tanner Stage and sex interactions were also seen, with less right superior temporal thinning in girls but not boys, as well as greater decreases in the right bank of the superior temporal sulcus surface area in boys compared to girls. In addition, within-subject changes in testosterone over the 2-year follow-up period were found to relate to decreases in middle superior frontal surface area in boys, but increases in surface area in girls. Lastly, larger increases in estradiol in girls predicted greater middle temporal lobe thinning. These results show that within-subject physical and hormonal markers of puberty relate to region and sex-specific changes in cortical development across adolescence.

  3. A longitudinal study: changes in cortical thickness and surface area during pubertal maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herting, Megan M; Gautam, Prapti; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Dahl, Ronald E; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones have been shown to contribute to the organization and function of the brain during puberty and adolescence. Moreover, it has been suggested that distinct hormone changes in girls versus boys may contribute to the emergence of sex differences in internalizing and externalizing behavior during adolescence. In the current longitudinal study, the influence of within-subject changes in puberty (physical and hormonal) on cortical thickness and surface area was examined across a 2-year span, while controlling for age. Greater increases in Tanner Stage predicted less superior frontal thinning and decreases in precuneus surface area in both sexes. Significant Tanner Stage and sex interactions were also seen, with less right superior temporal thinning in girls but not boys, as well as greater decreases in the right bank of the superior temporal sulcus surface area in boys compared to girls. In addition, within-subject changes in testosterone over the 2-year follow-up period were found to relate to decreases in middle superior frontal surface area in boys, but increases in surface area in girls. Lastly, larger increases in estradiol in girls predicted greater middle temporal lobe thinning. These results show that within-subject physical and hormonal markers of puberty relate to region and sex-specific changes in cortical development across adolescence.

  4. Global Warming: The Instability of Desert Climate is Enhancing in the Northwest Area in China: A Case Study in the Desert Area in Northwestern China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao-Feng Chang; Shu-Juan Zhu; Fu-Gui Han; Sheng-Nnian Zhong; Qiang-Qiang Wang; Jian-Hui Zhang

    2013-01-01

    To disclose the relation between the sandstorms change and the temperature changes, a case study in the desert area in northwestern china is investigated. The results showed that: the instability of climate in Minqin desert area is enhancing in the arid desert region in northwest China. Mainly as follows: Variation the annual extreme maximum temperature increasing. Variation of extreme minimum temperature also an increasing trend. Average visibility of sandstorms significantly reduced and the...

  5. Comparison between motorcyclist’ violation behavior and accidents in urban and rural area in Indonesia: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, N.; Widyanti, A.

    2017-12-01

    Some studies stated that the main factor related to the accident was driving behavior. This study aims to explore the differences between motorcyclist” behaviour and repetitive violation behaviour in two different area, urban and rural area in Indonesia. Respondents were selected based on convenience sampling method in Bandung as a representative of urban area and Kulon Progo as a representative of rural area. They were asked to fill in a questionnaire about driving behaviour, consists of 10 dimensions or 51 questions with Likert scales ranging from 1 (very often) to 6 (never). The results of this study shows that the motorcyclists’ behavior differ significantly between rural and urban area. Motorcyclists in the urban area (Bandung) are more committed to violations than in rural area (Kulon Progo). This result is not in line with previous studies in Australia and United States which stated that motorcyclists in rural area more frequently speeding than in urban area. Implications of the result are discussed.

  6. Study on Geology and Uranium Mineralization at Mentawa Area The Central Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambang-Soetopo

    2004-01-01

    In Mentawa Area, It was found that mineralization of U is associated with tourmaline, quartz, sulfide filling in opened fracture that parallel with schistocity WNW-ESE in direction, mm to cm in thickness, the value of radiometric is in the range of 500-11.000 e/s SPP 2 NF and maximum grade of U is 9.759,25 ppm. Goal of the study mineralogy and geology is to know about character, genesis and para genesis of the U mineralization. The method of this study is microscopic observation and microscopic study from the result of obtained by previous researchers. U mineralization is uraninite associated with molybdenite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, rutile, ilmenite and tourmaline. Based on mineral association, it was indicated that U mineralization occurred as pegmatitic pneumatholitic process. Based on those relation and mineral association it was found that Mentawa Area has occurred 4 period para genesis phase. (author)

  7. Study of seismicity around Toba area based on relocation hypocenter result from BMKG catalogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramdhan, Mohamad [Indonesia' s Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG) Jl. Angkasa 1 No. 2 Kemayoran, Jakarta Pusat, 10720 (Indonesia); Nugraha, Andri Dian [Global Geophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, Indonesia, Jl. Ganesa 10, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)

    2013-09-09

    Toba area has complex tectonic setting attracting many earth scientists to study and understand tectonic and geological process or setting. The area is affected by oblique subduction zone, Renun Sumatran fault sub segment and some volcanoes that are near it. The earthquake catalogue provided by BMKG from April, 2009 to December, 2011 must be relocated firstly to get the precise hypocenter. We used catalogue data of P and S phase or P phase only and double-difference method to relocate the earthquakes. The results show hypocenter position enhancement that can be interpreted tectonically. The earthquakes after relocation relating to the Sumatran fault, subduction zone, volcanoes and seismic activities beneath Toba caldera can be mapped clearly. The relocated hypocenters in this study are very important to provide information for seismic hazard assessment and disaster mitigation study.

  8. A Study Of Protein Calorie Malnutrition Amongst Under Six Children In Slum Area Of Kanpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Saxena

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess the nutritional profile amongst under six children in slum area of Kanpur. Study Design Door to door survey by collecting relevent information from head of household on a pretested questionaire. Study UnitEach of household having any child in the age group less than 6 years. Study Area The study was conducted in Katari slum area of Kalyanpur, Kanpur. Study Variable Grades of PCM as per recommendation of nutrition sub-committee of paediatrics (ICMR-1972 Statistical analysis:- By chi-square test of significance. Results The highest percentage of PCM was observed amongst 0-1 year and boys of single families whose parents were illiterate and unemployed or labourers belonging mainly to lower socio-economic class. Conclusions:- To reduce childhood mortality with reference to PCM, die literacy status of parents especially of mothers should be increased and social reform measures to be taken for engaging them in some income generating jobs/business, agriculture etc.

  9. A Study Of Protein Calorie Malnutrition Amongst Under Six Children In Slum Area Of Kanpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Saxena

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess the nutritional profile amongst under six children in slum area of Kanpur.Study Design Door to door survey by collecting relevent information from head of household on a pretested questionaire. Study UnitEach of household having any child in the age group less than 6 years.Study Area The study was conducted in Katari slum area of Kalyanpur, Kanpur.Study Variable Grades of PCM as per recommendation of nutrition sub-committee of paediatrics (ICMR-1972 Statistical analysis:- By chi-square test of significance.Results The highest percentage of PCM was observed amongst 0-1 year and boys of single families whose parents were illiterate and unemployed or labourers belonging mainly to lower socio-economic class.Conclusions:- To reduce childhood mortality with reference to PCM, die literacy status of parents especially of mothers should be increased and social reform measures to be taken for engaging them in some income generating jobs/business, agriculture etc.

  10. Numerical model for mapping of complex hydrogeological conditions: the Chmielnik area (South Poland) case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buszta, Kamila; Szklarczyk, Tadeusz; Malina, Grzegorz

    2017-04-01

    Detailed analysis of hydrogeological conditions at a study area is the basis for characterising adjacent groundwater circulation systems. It is also an essential element during executing hydrogeological documentations. The goal of this work was to reconstruct on a numerical model natural groundwater circulation systems of the studied area located within the municipality of Chmielnik in the region of Kielce (South Poland). The area is characterized by a complex geological structure, which along with the existing hydrographic network, makes the scheme of groundwater circulation complicated and difficult to map on a numerical model. The studied area is situated at the border of three geological units: on the North - the extended portion of the Palaeozoic Swietokrzyskie Mountains (mainly Devonian and Permian), in the center - the S-W part of the Mesozoic Margin of the Swietokrzyskie Mountains, and on the South - a marginal zone of the Carpathian Foredeep. The whole area belongs to the Vistula river basin, and it includes catchments of its left tributaries: the Nida and Czarna Staszowska rivers. Based on the collected field and archival hydrogeological, hydrological and sozological data a conceptual model was built, under which a numerical model of groundwater flow was developed using the specialized software - Visual MODFLOW. The numerical model maps the five-layer groundwater circulation system in conjunction with surface watercourses. Such division reflects appropriately the variability of hydrogeological parameters within the geological structures. Two principal and exploited aquifers comprise: a fractured-porous Neogene and fractured Upper Jurassic formations. The external model borders are based primarily on surface watercourses and locally on watersheds. The modelled area of 130 km2 was divided into square grids of 50 m. The model consists of 275 rows and 277 columns. Each of five layers was simulated with the same number of active blocks. In the construction of

  11. Geological characterization in urban areas based on geophysical mapping: A case study from Horsens, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Thomsen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Geophysical mapping in urban areas. Detailed 3D geological model of the area. Mapping contaminant plume......Geophysical mapping in urban areas. Detailed 3D geological model of the area. Mapping contaminant plume...

  12. The Study of Heavy Metals on Sediment Quality of Kuala Perlis Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubir, A. A. Ahmad; Saad, F. N. Mohd; Dahalan, F. A.

    2018-03-01

    The contamination of heavy metals gives bad implications to the aquatic environment. Thus, a study was conducted to assess the sediment quality by using different contamination indices such as Enrichment Factor (EF), Geo-accumulation Index (Igeo), and Pollution Load Index (PLI). Each sediment sample was collected at the surface (0-15cm) at 5 locations based on the land use activity; jetty port (A), seaside restaurant (B), roadside area (C), power plant (D) and residential area (E). All samples were undergoes acid digestion and analyzed with AAS. Four elements identified from the sediment samples which are Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn were used to calculate the respective indices. Results show that, the highest EF value of Pb which categorized as very severe enrichment was at point E. Meanwhile minor enrichment was detected at point B for Cu while Cr and Zn at point A. Based on Igeo value the sediment quality along Kuala Perlis was in the unpolluted-moderately polluted condition (class 1). As for PLI it shows that the sediment of the coastal area is unpolluted (PLI<1). Therefore, this study revealed that, the main contributor of heavy metals in this area is Pb while the sediment quality of Kuala Perlis was in minor pollution condition.

  13. Evaluation of cropping pattern in rainfed areas based on studies of pranata mangsa and weather dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, M. K.; Furi, N. T.; Syamsiyah, Jauhari; Sumani

    2018-03-01

    Weather dynamics such as the fifth time of the rainy season and drought are becoming more frequent. These conditions pose a significant impact on the strategies of cultivation such as cropping pattern and crop yields, especially in rainfed areas. One of the steps that can be taken is to return to local wisdom, such as pranata mangsa. This study aimed at analyzing the relationship of the variability of precipitation in rainfed areas with pranata mangsa and then to evaluate cropping patterns based on the result of the analysis. The study was conducted in rainfed areas of the District of Jumantono, Karanganyar Regency; and District of Teras and District of Ampel, Boyolali Regency in June until December 2014. The research method is a descriptive exploratory survey with purposive sampling based on moderate altitude (200-700 masl). The types of data that are used are primary and secondary. Data analysis was used correlation test. The results showed that precipitation in rainfed areas has a close relationship with paranata mangsa. These results explain that pranata mangsa still relevant to be used even though it has happened weather dynamics.

  14. Study on cerebral activation areas during repetition with functional MRI in normal adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koseki, Yohju

    2009-01-01

    For cerebral activation of speech areas in functional MRI (f-MRI) study, the usefulness of an optical microphone, which made it possible to perform task repetition at real time during scanning, was examined. Subjects were 25 healthy adults (mean age, 27.1±5.6 years), who consisted of 15 right-handed and 10 left-handed or ambidextrous persons. Tasks comprised repetition of monosyllables, non-words, words and sentences. The repetition tasks were covertly performed during scanning of f-MRI by using an optical microphone. In both the right-handed and non-right-handed groups, activations in the left superior temporal gyrus (sensory speech area) were most frequently observed during all of the tasks. In the right-handed group, activations in the left inferior frontal (motor speech area) and superior temporal gyri were significantly more often observed than those in the right inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri. From an assessment of the laterality index (LI), left-side dominant activation was frequently seen in most of the cerebral regions including sensory and motor speech areas, although right-side and bilateral dominant activations were observed in a few cases. In both groups, activations in regions associated with sensory speech were significantly more often seen than those in regions associated with motor speech. The present predominant activations in regions involved in sensory speech indicate that the optical microphone is useful in f-MRI studies using task repetition. (author)

  15. Creating new path for Old Industrial Areas: A Case Study on Dalian city, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimei Yin and Zhigao Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of new industries has recently been widely studied, but little research attention has been paid to the formation of new industries in old industrial districts, especially in transitional countries such as China. Based on fieldwork and rereading historical archives, this paper uses an example of Dalian tourism cluster to contribute to understanding the emergence of new economy in old industrial areas in a transitional country. The Section 2 of this paper will provide the theoretical framework from evolutionary economics for my empirical study. In Section 3, this paper will discuss the main characteristics of the decline of old industrial areas in Northeast China and the significances of developing new economy to revitalizing old industry areas. Section 4 will introduce the transitional history of Dalian economy from a high industrial region to a new economy city and also provides descriptive information about the development process of Dalian tourism industry. In Section 5, this paper will probe into the dynamics of the Dalian tourism cluster, from viewpoints of co-evolution and co-adaptation of firm, technology and institutions. Finally, we will give some policy suggestions of how to foster and promote new industries in old industrial areas, especially for transitional countries.

  16. Mitigation of urban heat stress – a modelling case study for the area of Stuttgart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallmann, Joachim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2050 the fraction of urban global population will increase to over 69%, which means that around 6.3 billion people are expected to live in urban areas (UN 2011. Cities are the predominant habitation places for humans to live and are vulnerable to extreme weather events aggravating phenomena like heat stress. Finding mitigation strategies to sustain future development is of great importance, given expected influences on human health. In this study, the mesoscale numerical model WRF is used on a regional scale for the urban area of Stuttgart, to simulate the effect of urban planning strategies on dynamical processes affecting urban climate. After comparing two urban parameterisation schemes, a sensitivity study for different scenarios is performed; it shows that a change of the reflective properties of surfaces has the highest impact on near-surface temperatures compared to an increase of urban green areas or a decrease of building density. The Urban Heat Island (UHI describes the temperature difference between urban and rural temperatures; it characterises regional urban climate and is responsible for urban-rural circulation patterns. Applying urban planning measures may decrease the intensity of the UHI in the study area by up to 2 °C by using heat-reflective roof paints or by 1 °C through replacing impervious surfaces by natural vegetation in the urban vicinity – compared to a value of 2.5 °C for the base case. Because of its topographical location in a valley and the overall high temperatures in this region, the area of Stuttgart suffers from heat stress to a comparatively large extent.

  17. Study of hybrid power system potential to power agricultural water pump in mountain area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syuhada, Ahmad; Mubarak, Amir Zaki; Maulana, M. Ilham

    2016-01-01

    As industry and Indonesian economy grow fast, there are a lot of agricultural land has changed into housing and industrial land. This causes the agricultural land moves to mountain area. In mountainous agricultural area, farmers use the water resources of small rivers in the groove of the mountain to irrigate the farmland. Farmers use their power to lift up water from the river to their land which causes inefectivity in the work of the farmers. Farmers who have capital utilize pump to raise water to their land. The only way to use pump in mountain area is by using fuel energy as there is no electricity, and the fuel price in mountain area is very expensive. Based on those reasons it is wise to consider the exploration of renewable energy available in the area such as solar energy, wind energy and hybrid energy. This study analyses the potential of the application of hybrid power plant, which is the combination of solar and wind energy, to power agricultural pump. In this research, the data of wind speed and solar radiation are collected from the measurement of BMKG SMPK Plus Sare. Related to the solar energy, the photovoltaic output power calculation is 193 W with duration of irradiation of 5 hours/day. While for the wind energy, the output power of the wind turbine is 459.84 W with blade diameter of 3 m and blow duration of 7 hours/day. The power of the pump is 558 W with 8 hours of usage, and the water capacity is 2.520 liters/hour for farmland with the area of 15 ha. Based on the analysis result, the designed system will generate electricity of 3.210 kW/year with initial investment of US$ 14,938.

  18. Study of hybrid power system potential to power agricultural water pump in mountain area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syuhada, Ahmad, E-mail: syuhada-mech@yahoo.com; Mubarak, Amir Zaki, E-mail: amir-zaki-mubarak@yahoo.com; Maulana, M. Ilham, E-mail: mil2ana@yahoo.com [Mechanical Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Syiah Kuala University Jl. Syech Abdul Rauf No.7 Darussalam Banda Aceh 23111 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    As industry and Indonesian economy grow fast, there are a lot of agricultural land has changed into housing and industrial land. This causes the agricultural land moves to mountain area. In mountainous agricultural area, farmers use the water resources of small rivers in the groove of the mountain to irrigate the farmland. Farmers use their power to lift up water from the river to their land which causes inefectivity in the work of the farmers. Farmers who have capital utilize pump to raise water to their land. The only way to use pump in mountain area is by using fuel energy as there is no electricity, and the fuel price in mountain area is very expensive. Based on those reasons it is wise to consider the exploration of renewable energy available in the area such as solar energy, wind energy and hybrid energy. This study analyses the potential of the application of hybrid power plant, which is the combination of solar and wind energy, to power agricultural pump. In this research, the data of wind speed and solar radiation are collected from the measurement of BMKG SMPK Plus Sare. Related to the solar energy, the photovoltaic output power calculation is 193 W with duration of irradiation of 5 hours/day. While for the wind energy, the output power of the wind turbine is 459.84 W with blade diameter of 3 m and blow duration of 7 hours/day. The power of the pump is 558 W with 8 hours of usage, and the water capacity is 2.520 liters/hour for farmland with the area of 15 ha. Based on the analysis result, the designed system will generate electricity of 3.210 kW/year with initial investment of US$ 14,938.

  19. Identifying optimal areas for REDD intervention: East Kalimantan, Indonesia as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Nancy L; Petrova, Silvia; Brown, Sandra; Stolle, Fred

    2008-01-01

    International discussions on reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) as a greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement strategy are ongoing under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). In the light of these discussions, it behooves countries to be able to determine the relative likelihood of deforestation over a landscape and perform a first order estimation of the potential reduction in GHGs associated with various protection scenarios. This would allow countries to plan their interventions accordingly to maximize carbon benefits, alongside other environmental and socioeconomic benefits, because forest protection programs might be chosen in places where the perceived threat of deforestation is high whereas in reality the threat is low. In this case study, we illustrate a method for creating deforestation threat maps and estimating potential reductions in GHGs from eighteen protected areas in East Kalimantan, Indonesia, that would occur if protection of these areas was well enforced. Results from our analysis indicate that a further 230 720 ha of East Kalimantan's forest area would be lost and approximately 305 million t CO 2 would be emitted from existing protected areas between 2003 and 2013 if the historical rate of deforestation continued unabated. In other words, the emission of 305 million t CO 2 into the atmosphere would be avoided during this period if protection of the existing areas was well enforced. At a price of $4 per ton of CO 2 (approximate price on the Chicago Climate Exchange in August 2008), this represents an estimated gross income stream of about $120 million per year. We also identified additional areas with high carbon stocks under high deforestation threat that would be important to protect if the carbon benefits of avoided deforestation activities are to be maximized in this region

  20. Unequal socioeconomic distribution of the primary care workforce: whole-population small area longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaria, Miqdad; Cookson, Richard; Fleetcroft, Robert; Ali, Shehzad

    2016-01-19

    To measure changes in socioeconomic inequality in the distribution of family physicians (general practitioners (GPs)) relative to need in England from 2004/2005 to 2013/2014. Whole-population small area longitudinal data linkage study. England from 2004/2005 to 2013/2014. 32,482 lower layer super output areas (neighbourhoods of 1500 people on average). Slope index of inequality (SII) between the most and least deprived small areas in annual full-time equivalent GPs (FTE GPs) per 100,000 need adjusted population. In 2004/2005, inequality in primary care supply as measured by the SII in FTE GPs was 4.2 (95% CI 3.1 to 5.3) GPs per 100,000. By 2013/2014, this SII had fallen to -0.7 (95% CI -2.5 to 1.1) GPs per 100,000. The number of FTE GPs per 100,000 serving the most deprived fifth of small areas increased over this period from 54.0 to 60.5, while increasing from 57.2 to 59.9 in the least deprived fifth, so that by the end of the study period there were more GPs per 100,000 need adjusted population in the most deprived areas than in the least deprived. The increase in GP supply in the most deprived fifth of neighbourhoods was larger in areas that received targeted investment for establishing new practices under the 'Equitable Access to Primary Medical Care'. There was a substantial reduction in socioeconomic inequality in family physician supply associated with national policy. This policy may not have completely eliminated socioeconomic inequality in family physician supply since existing need adjustment formulae do not fully capture the additional burden of multimorbidity in deprived neighbourhoods. The small area approach introduced in this study can be used routinely to monitor socioeconomic inequality of access to primary care and to indicate workforce shortages in particular neighbourhoods. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  1. Application of Remote Sensing in Geological Mapping, Case Study al Maghrabah Area - Hajjah Region, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nahmi, F.; Saddiqi, O.; Hilali, A.; Rhinane, H.; Baidder, L.; El arabi, H.; Khanbari, K.

    2017-11-01

    Remote sensing technology plays an important role today in the geological survey, mapping, analysis and interpretation, which provides a unique opportunity to investigate the geological characteristics of the remote areas of the earth's surface without the need to gain access to an area on the ground. The aim of this study is achievement a geological map of the study area. The data utilizes is Sentinel-2 imagery, the processes used in this study, the OIF Optimum Index Factor is a statistic value that can be used to select the optimum combination of three bands in a satellite image. It's based on the total variance within bands and correlation coefficient between bands, ICA Independent component analysis (3, 4, 6) is a statistical and computational technique for revealing hidden factors that underlie sets of random variables, measurements, or signals, MNF Minimum Noise Fraction (1, 2, 3) is used to determine the inherent dimensionality of image data to segregate noise in the data and to reduce the computational requirements for subsequent processing, Optimum Index Factor is a good method for choosing the best band for lithological mapping. ICA, MNF, also a practical way to extract the structural geology maps. The results in this paper indicate that, the studied area can be divided into four main geological units: Basement rocks (Meta volcanic, Meta sediments), Sedimentary rocks, Intrusive rocks, volcanic rocks. The method used in this study offers great potential for lithological mapping, by using Sentinel-2 imagery, the results were compared with existing geologic maps and were superior and could be used to update the existing maps.

  2. A study of infant deaths in tribal area of Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushashree Garikipati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of neonatal deaths and its underlying correlates in tribal area of Andhra Pradesh, India Methods We conducted a two phase cross-sectional study (N=230. Semi- structured questionnaire schedules (in the vernacular-Telugu were used in the initial qualitative phase, to obtain specific information from mothers who delivered in a one year period prior to the study. Information from the analysed qualitative data was used to construct a questionnaire-schedule for the 2nd phase which used quantitative survey techniques. Results It was observed that Infant Mortality ratio (IMR in Vizianagaram district was 239 per 1000 live births in the tribal areas under study. This was ten times higher than that reported by the district (22/1000 and 4-5 times higher than SRS data of 2011 for AP. It was observed that 28% of infants died within first day, 68% within first week (including the first day and 81% within first month. Conclusions The high IMR observed in the within first month of life in tribal areas, interventions to tackle them should be prioritized in this ‘golden period’. The health workers should be re-trained to identify and manage the early warning signs of neonatal complications.

  3. A study of infant deaths in tribal area of Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushashree Garikipati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of neonatal deaths and its underlying correlates in tribal area of Andhra Pradesh, India Methods We conducted a two phase cross-sectional study (N=230. Semi-structured questionnaire schedules (in the vernacular-Telugu were used in the initial qualitative phase, to obtain specific information from mothers who delivered in a one year period prior to the study. Information from the analysed qualitative data was used to construct a questionnaire-schedule for the 2nd phase which used quantitative survey techniques. Results It was observed that Infant Mortality ratio (IMR in Vizianagaram district was 239 per 1000 live births in the tribal areas under study. This was ten times higher than that reported by the district (22/1000 and 4-5 times higher than SRS data of 2011 for AP. It was observed that 28% of infants died within first day, 68% within first week (including the first day and 81% within first month. Conclusions The high IMR observed in the within first month of life in tribal areas, interventions to tackle them should be prioritized in this ‘golden period’. The health workers should be re-trained to identify and manage the early warning signs of neonatal complications.

  4. External gamma radiation dose studies in the proposed uranium mining areas of Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, P.; Reddy, K.; Reddy, C.; Reddy, K.

    2006-01-01

    Natural radiation sources contribute the largest component to the total effective dose received by the human population. Among these sources, natural background gamma radiation shares a noteworthy amount. The present study aims at the establishment of baseline environmental gamma radiation data in the environs of proposed uranium mining areas of Andhra Pradesh, India. To this end, a systematic study has been undertaken using Thermoluminescence (T.L.) dosimeters and G.M. (Geiger - Muller) tube based survey meter. These levels are estimated both indoors and outdoors in the study area covering about 23 villages surrounding the proposed mining sites. The estimated external gamma radiation levels (air kerma) varied from 0.605 to 4.39 mGy.y -1 . The mean indoor to outdoor radiation level ratio is found to be 1.1 ± 0.1. The estimated mean equivalent doses due to external background radiation in the villages of the study area range from 1.03 to 2.83 mSv.y -1 with a mean of 2.34 ± 0.39 mSv.y -1 . (authors)

  5. Ethnobotany Study of Seaweed Diversity and Its Utilization in Warambadi, Panguhalodo Areas of East Sumba District

    OpenAIRE

    Anggadiredja, Jana Tjahjana

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the ethnobotany study of seaweed diversity in Warambadi –Panguhalodo areas of East Sumba District, the island of Sumba. The study recorded19 genera of 54 species of seaweed, which were utilized as food or edible seaweed.The group consisted of 17 species of green algae, 17 species of red algae, and 20species of brown algae. The study also reported that 18 genera of 38 species weretraditionally utilized for medicinal purposes as herbal medicine. The herbal speciesconsisted of...

  6. Perfusion SPECT studies with mapping of Brodmann areas in differentiating Alzheimer's disease from frontotemporal degeneration syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valotassiou, Varvara; Papatriantafyllou, John; Sifakis, Nikolaos; Tzavara, Chara; Tsougos, Ioannis; Kapsalaki, Eftychia; Hadjigeorgiou, George; Georgoulias, Panagiotis

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies with mapping of Brodmann areas (BAs) in the differential diagnosis between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal degeneration (FTLD) syndromes. Thirty-nine patients with AD and 73 patients with FTLD syndromes [behavioural variant FTLD (bvFTLD); language variant FTLD (lvFTLD), including semantic dementia (SD) and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA); and corticobasal degeneration (CBD)/progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) syndromes] underwent brain perfusion SPECT. The NeuroGam software was used for the semiquantitative evaluation of perfusion in BAs of the left (L) and right (R) hemispheres. Compared with those in AD patients, BAs with statistically significant hypoperfusion were found in the prefrontal, orbitofrontal and cingulated cortices and Broca's areas of FTLD and bvFTLD patients; in the temporal and prefrontal cortices and Broca's areas of lvFTLD patients; in the left temporal gyrus of SD patients; in premotor and supplementary motor, prefrontal, orbitofrontal, temporal and anterior cingulated cortices and Broca's areas of PNFA patients; and in the prefrontal, temporal, posterior cingulated and primary and secondary visual cortices of CBD/PSP patients. BA 46R could differentiate AD patients from FTLD and bvFTLD patients; 21L and 25L were found to be independent predictors for lvFTLD in comparison with AD, and 25R, 21L and 23R could differentiate AD patients from PNFA, SD and CBD/PSP patients, respectively. Brain perfusion SPECT with BA mapping in AD and FTLD patients could improve the definition of brain areas that are specifically implicated in these disorders, resulting in a more accurate differential diagnosis.

  7. Geologic Characterization Report for the Paradox Basin Study Region Utah Study Areas, Volume V, Appendices

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of Energy

    1982-01-01

    This study is a part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Waste Terminal Storage Program (NWTS). The scope of DOE's NWTS responsibilities include providing the technology and facilities to isolate high-level radio-active wastes for as long as the wastes represent a hazard. Emplacement of waste packages in mined geologic repositories deep underground in various types of rock formations is one method being evaluated. Using a basic site selection process (Figure 1-1), regions bei...

  8. Uranium in the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative study area, southwestern Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anna B.

    2015-10-20

    Wyoming has led the nation as the producer of uranium ore since 1995 and contains the largest reserves of any state. Approximately one third of Wyoming’s total production came from deposits in, or immediately adjacent to, the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) study area in the southwestern corner of the state including all of Carbon, Lincoln, Sublette, Sweetwater, Uinta, and parts of southern Fremont Counties. Conventional open-pit and underground mining methods were employed in the study area until the early 1990s. Since the early 1990s, all uranium mining has been by in-situ recovery (also called in-situ leach). It is estimated that statewide remaining resources of 141,000 tonnes of uranium are about twice the 84,000 tonnes of uranium that the state has already produced.

  9. The Prevalence of Mathematical Anxiety in a Business School: A Comparative Study across Subject Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Howard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical anxiety is a phenomenon linked to poor attainment in mathematics and restricted development of mathematical skills among those who are afflicted by it. Unfortunately most undergraduate courses in business related areas require the further study of mathematics to enable effective business decision making and students who suffer from mathematical anxiety are placed at risk of underperformance or failure in such quantitative modules. This paper summarizes the results of a survey (n = 330 of students joining a university business school with a view to ascertaining the degree of mathematical anxiety exhibited by incoming students. Results of the survey show no significant differences in anxiety attributable to age or gender but significant differences attributable to level of study and subject area. Implications of the findings for a redesigned teaching approach are discussed drawing on suggestions from the literature surrounding mathematical anxiety.

  10. Mineral resource potential of the Piedra Wilderness Study Area, Archuleta and Hinsdale counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Alfred L.; Condon, Steven M.; Franczyk, Karen J.; Brown, S.Don

    1983-01-01

    The mineral resource potential of the Piedra Wilderness Study Area is low. No occurrences of metallic minerals, of valuable industrial rocks and minerals, or of useful concentrations of organic fuels are known in the study area. However, a noneconomic occurrence of gypsum in the Jurassic Wanakah Formation lies a few hundred feet west of the WSA boundary, is believed to extend into the WSA, and has a low resource potential. Particular attention was paid to the possible occurrence of organic fuels in the Pennsylvanian Hermosa Formation, of uranium and vanadium in the Jurassic Entrada Sandstone and Morrison Formation, and of coal in the Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone. Thin coaly beds in the Dakota have a low resource potential. Extensive sampling of stream sediments, limited sampling of rock outcrops and springs, and a number of scintillometer traverses failed to pinpoint significant anomalies that might be clues to mineral deposits.

  11. Spatial and Seasonal Studies of Sedimentological and Neoichnological Characteristics from Mangrove areas of Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Us Saher

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to appraise the physicochemical properties of mangrove sediments and their influence on neoichnological properties produced by different crab species from Korangi Creek (S1 and Sandspit backwater areas (S2 and S3, Karachi. The significant spatial, seasonal and tidal differences (p <0.05 were examined in %moisture, %porosity and sorting coefficient Φ.The significant spatial and seasonal variations were observed in total organic matter, mean Φ, skewness Φ and kurtosis Φ of sediment. Neoichnological properties (burrow number, diameter and total burrow opening area were observed with significant differences among the macrohabitat (stations and microhabitat (tidal levels. The correlation analysis indicated that the neoichnological properties are strongly linked with sedimentological properties such as water contents, total organic matter and textural parameters. This study could be employed to distinguish between different paleoenvironmental controlling factors, predicated on similar paleoichnological features made by similar fossil organisms in a mangrove environment.

  12. Natural analogue study on trace element migration in geological formation at Horonobe area, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatsuki, Teruki; Ishii, Eiichi; Mizuno, Takashi; Honda, T.

    2010-01-01

    Usefulness of natural analog to study radionuclide transport models for deep geological repositories for high-level and long lived radioactive wastes is widely recognized. As the groundwater flow in the Horonobe area, Hokkaido, Japan is known to be stationary with neutral pH value and of reductive nature for a long-term, the authors began natural analog study by observing atomic distribution of such trace elements as rare earths, uranium, and thorium in carbonate nodules and veins of uranium minerals from several selected faults (Wakkanai F., Ketoi F., etc) in the area with the use of XED, XRF, and ICP-MS. The results give important information as to the maintainability of the rocks for trace elements and help to provide confidence in the safety assessment in the long term. (S. Ohno)

  13. Phenomenological study of aerosol dry deposition in urban area: surface properties, turbulence and local meteorology influences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roupsard, P.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosol dry deposition is not much known for urban areas due to the lack of data. Knowledge on this phenomenon is necessary to understand pollutant fluxes in cities and to estimate inhabitant exposition to ionizing radiation of radioactive aerosols. A data providing could enable to enhance dry deposition models for these areas. An original experimental approach is performed to study submicron aerosol dry deposition on urban surfaces. Wind tunnel coupled to in situ experiments give results to study different physical phenomenon governing dry deposition. Dry deposition velocities are measured using aerosol tracers. These data are associated to turbulent and meteorological measured conditions. This database permits to classify the principal physical phenomenon for each experiment type. Finally, different phenomenon must be considered for chronic and acute exposition of urban surfaces to atmospheric particles. (author)

  14. Case-control study of cancer deaths in high background radiation areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Zufan; Cha Yongru; Zhou Shunyuan

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a case-control study of deaths from liver, stomach and lung cancers in the high background radiation areas (HBRA) in Yangjiang County and neighboring control areas (CA). The purpose of this study was to explore the probable relationship between the cancer deaths and the environmental mutation-related factors in the two areas, so that the role of elevated natural radiation in cancer mortality could be properly ascertained. The studied numbers of cases of liver, stomach and lung cancers were 64, 28 and 17 in HBRA, and 75, 36 and 13 in CA, respectively. The proportion of the number of cases to that of the controls was 1:1 for liver cancer and 1:2 for cancers of stomach and lung. The factors studied included pesticide, smoking, alcohol consumption, medical X-ray exposure, diet, and the socioeconomic status, such as occupation, education, economic income, living space etc. The data for this study were collected through interviewing. The data collected were analysed by methods of matched and unmatched studies. The results expressed by odds ratio (OR) show that there is no significant between most factors studied and cancer deaths, although the associations of desths from stomach cancer with drinking water of nonwell source and of lung cancer with alcohol consumption in HBRA, and the associations of liver cancer deaths with occupations involving poisonous and noxious substances, pesticide and alcohol, and of lung cancer with pesticide and lower family income in CA can be found. This study has provided some clues for explaining the difference in cancer mortalities between HBRA and CA

  15. Primary schools, markets and choice: studying polarization and the core catchment areas of schools

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, R J; Johnston, RJ

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we distinguish polarization from other conceptions of segregation by conceiving the former as a local phenomenon. To this end we argue that evidence for any school-level separation of ethnic groups must be sought and contextualised within the local markets within which schools operate. By determining the ‘core catchment’ areas of primary schools from geographical micro-data reporting where pupils reside and which school they attend within the study region of Birmingham, England,...

  16. Self-potential, geoelectric and magnetotelluric studies in Italian active volcanic areas

    OpenAIRE

    Di Mai, R.; Mauriello, P.; Patella, D.; Petrillo, Z.; Piscitelli, S.; Siniscalchi, A.; Veneruso, M.

    1997-01-01

    We present the results of self-potential, geoelectric and magnetotelluric studies in Italian active volcanic areas as essential contributions both to structural modeling and to hazard evaluation. On Mt. Etna and Mt. Somma-Vesuvius complexes structural modeling was emphasized due to a lack of global information involving the whole apparatuses, at least from the electrical point of view. Hazard investigation was, instead, investigated with high resolution techniques on the island of Vulcano, wh...

  17. Incorporating New Areas of Business into Business Language Studies: Social Media Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that social media marketing has established itself as a vital area of marketing for businesses both large and small, global and local, Business Language Studies (BLS) has yet to turn its full attention to this business activity that requires a keen sense of language, culture, and business. As BLS continues to build and articulate its theoretical and methodological grounds, social media marketing provides rich research and teaching possibilities. However, social media is a dyn...

  18. Prospective areas of the Valle Rio Santa Lucia sanstones (preliminar study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronel, N.; Spoturno, J.; Theune, C.

    1980-01-01

    This work was presented, in the second phase of sands prospecting for construction program.This project have been as purpose, to assure the supply of Montevideo with this long term material. The study was carried out in framework of the project of Geologic Collaboration Uruguayan-German. A detail cartography was made in an area of 435 km2 in the low course of the River Santa Lucia (from 20 to 50 km West of Montevideo).

  19. Collective Correlations of Brodmann Areas fMRI Study with RMT-Denoising

    OpenAIRE

    Burda, Zdzislaw; Kornelsen, Jennifer; Nowak, Maciej A.; Porebski, Bartosz; Sboto-Frankenstein, Uta; Tomanek, Boguslaw; Tyburczyk, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We study collective behavior of Brodmann regions of human cerebral cortex using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and Random Matrix Theory (RMT). The raw fMRI data is mapped onto the cortex regions corresponding to the Brodmann areas with the aid of the Talairach coordinates. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the Pearson correlation matrix for 41 different Brodmann regions is carried out to determine their collective activity in the idle state and in the active state stimulated...

  20. The Prevalence of Mathematical Anxiety in a Business School: A Comparative Study Across Subject Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, A; Warwick, J

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical anxiety is a phenomenon linked to poor attainment in mathematics and restricted development of mathematical skills among those who are afflicted by it. Unfortunately most undergraduate courses in business related areas require the further study of mathematics to enable effective business decision making and students who suffer from mathematical anxiety are placed at risk of underperformance or failure in such quantitative modules. This paper summarizes the results of ...

  1. Geomorphological criteria applied to the study of the neotectonic of the internal areas of Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Elorza, M.; Pena, J.L.; Rodriguez Vidal, J.; Simon Gomez, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Some geomorphological criteria, based on the study of erosion surfaces, glacis, terraces and slopes, after a brief discussion of the geomorphological methodology, are here applied in several internal areas of NE. Spain, specially in the Iberian Cordillera. Several episodes of neotectonic activity are recognised within this Cordillera: a more intense one at the base of Villafranchian times, a second one at the Pliocene/Pleistocene transitional levels, and a latent, more sporadic, intraquaternary activity. (author)

  2. Geological study of the landslide of the Fukenoyu thermal spring area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okami, K [Dept. of Mining and Civil Engg., Fac of Technology, Iwate Univ.; Murai, S; Karasaki, H

    1975-11-01

    The 1973 landslide at Fukenoyu thermal spring, Hachimantai National Park, Japan, was studied geologically. The subsurface structure of the area was determined to contain faulted basement rock with distinct glide planes and a predominantly clayey mineralogy, including montmorillonite. It was concluded that the landslide was caused by the influx of water from melting snow and unstable geology. Two maps, one cross section, six stratigraphic columns, two charts and one table are provided.

  3. Area and Family Effects on the Psychopathology of the Millennium Cohort Study Children and Their Older Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos; Kallis, Constantinos

    2010-01-01

    Background: To model and compare contextual (area and family) effects on the psychopathology of children nested in families nested in areas. Method: Data from the first two sweeps of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study were used. The final study sample was 9,630 children clustered in 6,052 families clustered in 1,681 Lower-layer Super Output Areas.…

  4. CT study of the performance of reciprocating and oscillatory motions in flattened root canal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cacio MOURA-NETTO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Root canal preparation is an important step in endodontic treatment. The anatomical complexity of the middle third of the root compromises the effective cleaning of this area. Thus, advances have been made in instrumentation techniques and instruments for this purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of three different instrumentation systems on the enlargement of the middle thirds of root canals in mandibular incisors. The preparation methods used were the reciprocating systems Reciproc (Group I and WaveOne (Group II and the oscillatory system Tilos (Group III. Comparisons were made by three-dimensional image reconstruction with cone-beam computed tomography before and after instrumentation. Changes in area, perimeter, centering ability, and pattern of preparation were analyzed. The results were subjected to ANOVA complemented by the Tukey’s test. Changes in area, perimeter, and tendency of transportation showed similar results among groups. The transportation index of the Tilos system was significantly lower than that of the other groups. Qualitative analysis of the preparation pattern showed that the Tilos system had a more uniform preparation, although Reciproc and WaveOne preparations appeared more rounded, incompatible with the original canal anatomy. There was similarity in the systems’ performance on flattened areas, although the Tilos system presented a better pattern of root canal preparation and a lower index of transportation.

  5. CT study of the performance of reciprocating and oscillatory motions in flattened root canal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura-Netto, Cacio; Palo, Renato Miotto; Pinto, Larissa Fernanda; Daltoe, Gisele; Mello-Moura, Anna Carolina Volpi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Root canal preparation is an important step in endodontic treatment. The anatomical complexity of the middle third of the root compromises the effective cleaning of this area. Thus, advances have been made in instrumentation techniques and instruments for this purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of three different instrumentation systems on the enlargement of the middle thirds of root canals in mandibular incisors. The preparation methods used were the reciprocating systems Reciproc (Group I) and WaveOne (Group II) and the oscillatory system Tilos (Group III). Comparisons were made by three-dimensional image reconstruction with cone-beam computed tomography before and after instrumentation. Changes in area, perimeter, centering ability, and pattern of preparation were analyzed. The results were subjected to ANOVA complemented by the Tukey’s test. Changes in area, perimeter, and tendency of transportation showed similar results among groups. The transportation index of the Tilos system was significantly lower than that of the other groups. Qualitative analysis of the preparation pattern showed that the Tilos system had a more uniform preparation, although Reciproc and WaveOne preparations appeared more rounded, incompatible with the original canal anatomy. There was similarity in the systems’ performance on flattened areas, although the Tilos system presented a better pattern of root canal preparation and a lower index of transportation. (author)

  6. 100 Area source operable unit focused feasibility study report. Draft A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    In accordance with the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy (HPPS), a focused feasibility study (FFS) is performed for those waste sites which have been identified as candidates for interim remedial measures (IRM) based on information contained in applicable work plans and limited field investigations (LFI). The FFS process for the 100 Area source operable units will be conducted in two stages. This report, hereafter referred to as the Process Document, documents the first stage of the process. In this stage, IRM alternatives are developed and analyzed on the basis of waste site groups associated with the 100 Area source operable units. The second stage, site-specific evaluation of the IRM alternatives presented in this Process Document, is documented in a series of operable unit-specific reports. The objective of the FFS (this Process Document and subsequent operable unit-specific reports) is to provide decision makers with sufficient information to allow appropriate and timely selection of IRM for sites associated with the 100 Area source operable units. Accordingly, the following information is presented: a presentation of remedial action objectives; a description of 100 Area waste site groups and associated group profiles; a description of IRM alternatives; and detailed and comparative analyses of the IRM alternatives

  7. STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF OIL EXTRACTION ON WATERS FROM TICLENI AREA, GORJ COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CĂPĂŢÎNĂ CAMELIA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface and groundwater pollution can be direct and indirect. In the extraction activity, oil and sewage are potential sources of groundwater pollution in the area. Petroleum is extracted from the deposit through methods that constitute both primary and secondary exploatation. The pollution in the areas of petroleum extraction is caused by leaks from the transport pipes. In the majority of the cases , the damages of the transport pipes are caused by the corrosive effect of salt water, which constitute the liquid impurity of the petroleum extract. A large quantity of petroleum products penetrate into the hydrosphere from industrial leaks and refineries, either directly in the sea or via the continental hydrographic network. It is estimated that via all these routes a quantity of 5-10 million tons of oilpenetrate into the ocean waters annually. In the area of Ţicleni, surface and groundwater quality indicators were monitored: pH, sulphates, chlorides, conductivity, hardness and oxygen content. The main water course draining under study in the area is the Amaradia River, a tributary of the Jiu River.Here samples were taken for analysis. Comparing the obtained results with the limits stipulated by the Order 161/2006 it is found that the groundwater samples analyzed from the section located at the confluence of Strâmba brook with Cioiana brook corresponds to the third grade in terms of salinity (chlorides, class II for sulphates and class I for the oxygen regime (chemical oxygen demand.

  8. CT study of the performance of reciprocating and oscillatory motions in flattened root canal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura-Netto, Cacio, E-mail: caciomn@usp.br [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul (UNICSUL), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia; Palo, Renato Miotto [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (ICT/UNESP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencia e Tecnologia; Pinto, Larissa Fernanda; Daltoe, Gisele; Mello-Moura, Anna Carolina Volpi [Universidade Ibirapuera (UNIB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia

    2015-03-01

    Abstract: Root canal preparation is an important step in endodontic treatment. The anatomical complexity of the middle third of the root compromises the effective cleaning of this area. Thus, advances have been made in instrumentation techniques and instruments for this purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of three different instrumentation systems on the enlargement of the middle thirds of root canals in mandibular incisors. The preparation methods used were the reciprocating systems Reciproc (Group I) and WaveOne (Group II) and the oscillatory system Tilos (Group III). Comparisons were made by three-dimensional image reconstruction with cone-beam computed tomography before and after instrumentation. Changes in area, perimeter, centering ability, and pattern of preparation were analyzed. The results were subjected to ANOVA complemented by the Tukey’s test. Changes in area, perimeter, and tendency of transportation showed similar results among groups. The transportation index of the Tilos system was significantly lower than that of the other groups. Qualitative analysis of the preparation pattern showed that the Tilos system had a more uniform preparation, although Reciproc and WaveOne preparations appeared more rounded, incompatible with the original canal anatomy. There was similarity in the systems’ performance on flattened areas, although the Tilos system presented a better pattern of root canal preparation and a lower index of transportation. (author)

  9. A Study on the Estimation Method of Risk Based Area for Jetty Safety Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeong-Wook Nam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the importance of safety-monitoring systems was highlighted by the unprecedented collision between a ship and a jetty in Yeosu. Accordingly, in this study, we introduce the concept of risk based area and develop a methodology for a jetty safety-monitoring system. By calculating the risk based areas for a ship and a jetty, the risk of collision was evaluated. To calculate the risk based areas, we employed an automatic identification system for the ship, stopping-distance equations, and the regulation velocity near the jetty. In this paper, we suggest a risk calculation method for jetty safety monitoring that can determine the collision probability in real time and predict collisions using the amount of overlap between the two calculated risk based areas. A test was conducted at a jetty control center at GS Caltex, and the effectiveness of the proposed risk calculation method was verified. The method is currently applied to the jetty-monitoring system at GS Caltex in Yeosu for the prevention of collisions.

  10. The Study of Airline Merger and Acquisition in the Great China Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Zhengyi

    2003-01-01

    The Asian financial crisis in the late 20 th century has some long lasting effect on the air transportation industry in Asia, especially in the Great China Area. Starting from 1998, airlines in both China and Taiwan suffered some serious financial losses due to the diminishing travel demand caused by the economic recession. Airlines were forced to cut price to attract passengers and hence crashed the market discipline. A number of airline mergers and acquisitions were then driven by the markets and the governments. After China and Taiwan have both entered the World Trade Organization, some mega-merging cases were finalized in late 2002 for better fitting the world's aviation competitions. This paper reviews the nine merging and acquiring cases in the Great China Area in the past 5 years. Almost all the airlines in the area were involved. The new groups of airlines and the survival airlines are introduced. Market response to the airline mergers will also be examined. A general look over the performance of the new airlines will be discussed. And the future of the market will also be analyzed. Finally, the practices and the impacts of current inter-state mergers in the Great China Area will be examined. The study has expected a highly concentrated domestic market in both China and Taiwan. Each of the market will be dominated by three major airline groups of their own. Cross-holding equity within these 6 leading aviation groups would also be possible after further deregulations.

  11. An Experimental Study of the Noise Due to Traffic in a Congested Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, M.; Sankar, P.

    2016-03-01

    Noise pollution in an urban environment is an issue of serious concern in the major cities of India. There are various factors that contribute to the increase of noise levels in urban areas. The intensity of traffic is one of the factors which contributes to a drastic increase in environmental noise. The management of noise pollution has to be considered in the decision making process. In this paper, an attempt is made to study the existing noise level due to the traffic in Velachery which is declared as a sensitive area by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MoEF). The noise level data is collected using the MS6710 digital sound meter. The Custic simulation software version 3.2 is used for finding the propagation of noise. The spatial patterns of measurement were also calculated, in the sub-urban area of Velachery, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India. A means of transmitting this data to vehicles moving in the area, through a wireless medium is simulated using NCTUns 6.0 (network simulator), to enable drivers to understand the environmental conditions. A hardware was also designed which can be used to transmit and receive the noise data using the Zigbee module. A noise transmitting station is placed at a junction, so that it can transmit this noise data to the receivers which are fitted inside the vehicles.

  12. Wastewater collection and treatment technologies for semi-urban areas of India: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaravadivel, M; Vigneswaran, S

    2001-01-01

    Sanitation and wastewater management problems in small and medium towns in India (referred to as "semi-urban areas"--SUAs) are distinctly different from those of large cities or rural villages. There is an apparent lack of choices of appropriate sanitation options for these semi-urban areas, leading them to adopt on-site sanitation technologies. A field study of four such small towns in India was conducted to evaluate the suitability of available low-cost wastewater collection and treatment technologies, in light of their current practice. Based on the field study, this paper suggests a system comprising "combined surface sewers" and "reed-bed channel" for collection and treatment of wastewater for semi-urban areas, that can utilize all the existing infrastructure to effect better sanitation at lower costs. The suggested system involves converting the existing open wastewater collection drains on the road sides, as "decentralized" networks of covered drains with simple structural modifications to collect both wastewater and stormwater; and, converting the large open drains on the outskirts of SUAs that carry wastewater to agricultural fields, as gravel media filled beds planted with local reeds. Cost estimates for the towns studied indicate this system to be over 70% cheaper compared to conventional collection and treatment systems.

  13. Geologic and radiometric study in the Picacho, Arizpe's Municipality, Sorora (Mexico) area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia y Barragan, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    This research work was aimed chiefly at studying the geology and radiometry of the El Picacho area in order to establish its uranium mineralization potential. Another purpose was to ascertain the factors favouring deposition of radioactive material in areas bordering on the Sierra del Manzanal, where the work was carried out. Detailed geological-radiometric surveys were made, both inside the El Picacho mine and at the surface. The geological surveys were carried out by means of compass bearings and stadia, while scintillometers and spectrometers were used for the radiometric studies. The work was supported by a general geological exploration of the central part of the Serra del Manzanal. To ascertain the radiometric anomalies, the distribution of the population of values was determined by statistical methods, the frequency, cumulative frequency and frequency percentage being evaluated for that purpose. The geological survey at the El Picacho mine revealed a group of fractures enclosing the following minerals: torbernite, iriginite and autunite. These fractures are no thicker than 5 cm and tend to wedge out after 3 meters. Primary uraniferous ore is likely to be found in this zone, so surveys based on (a) radon gas emanometry and (b) sediment geochemistry in the Siera del Manzanal are recommended. The basic data relating to this area could be supplemented by mineragraphic and X-ray studies, which would provide a fuller picture of the class of mineralogical species and of the paragenesis of radioactive material presnent in the zone. (author)

  14. A regional study of the radiation environment of Greenham Common, Newbury District and surrounding areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This study was commissioned by Newbury District Council and Basingstoke and Deane Borough Council in response to public concern following disclosures about events at Greenham Common in the 1950s, and the suspicion that there may have been an accident involving a nuclear weapon leading to off-site contamination at the airbase. The Greenham Common airbase is at an advanced stage of decommissioning with parts of the site already re-developed for industrial and leisure purposes and material being removed for use in construction of the Newbury by-pass. The success of such developments is critically dependent on public confidence in the quality of the environment, both near the site, and more generally throughout the area. For this reason the study was commissioned with the aims of: I. defining the radiation environment of the whole district and parts of its surrounding areas. II. examining whether there is any evidence of radioactive contamination in the vicinity of the Greenham Common airbase. III. assessing the evidence that there may have been a release of nuclear material from the site. The work involved a collaboration between scientists from the Scottish Universities Research and Reactor Centre, who conducted gamma ray surveys to define the general radiation environment of the area, and Scientists from the University of Southampton who collected an extensive range of samples for high sensitivity radiochemical analyses. This report presents their findings and main conclusions, together with a discussion of the background to the study and its implications. (Author)

  15. Music and Language Syntax Interact in Broca's Area: An fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kunert

    Full Text Available Instrumental music and language are both syntactic systems, employing complex, hierarchically-structured sequences built using implicit structural norms. This organization allows listeners to understand the role of individual words or tones in the context of an unfolding sentence or melody. Previous studies suggest that the brain mechanisms of syntactic processing may be partly shared between music and language. However, functional neuroimaging evidence for anatomical overlap of brain activity involved in linguistic and musical syntactic processing has been lacking. In the present study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in conjunction with an interference paradigm based on sung sentences. We show that the processing demands of musical syntax (harmony and language syntax interact in Broca's area in the left inferior frontal gyrus (without leading to music and language main effects. A language main effect in Broca's area only emerged in the complex music harmony condition, suggesting that (with our stimuli and tasks a language effect only becomes visible under conditions of increased demands on shared neural resources. In contrast to previous studies, our design allows us to rule out that the observed neural interaction is due to: (1 general attention mechanisms, as a psychoacoustic auditory anomaly behaved unlike the harmonic manipulation, (2 error processing, as the language and the music stimuli contained no structural errors. The current results thus suggest that two different cognitive domains-music and language-might draw on the same high level syntactic integration resources in Broca's area.

  16. A comparative study on plant diversity in alder (Alnus subcordata stands of natural and plantation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEYED ALIAKBAR REZAEI TALESHI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Diversity index is the useful criteria for evaluating sustainability of forest ecosystems. Current study carried out in Alder (Alnus subcordata C.A. Meyer stands that located in north forests of Iran. The aim of the study is express the plant diversity indices and positive role of the trees both natural and plantation forms. Data of Alder trees and associated species were recorded in sample plots which lay down in study area randomly. The abundance, density, percentage of frequency of each species was calculated by standard methods. The results of analysis revealed that, 47 species (21 trees and shrubs species and 26 herbaceous species were abundant in 80 sample plots both in natural and plantations Alder stands. Whilst the results showed that the number of species in natural area (44 species was more than plantation stands (37 species. Comparison of species distribution in different physiographical situation showed that some species such as Alnus subcordata, Parrotia persica, Rubus hyrcanus and Prunus sp. recorded in spread rang of physiographic variables as elevation, slopes and aspects. The biodiversity criteria as Shannon H’ and Simpsons D and 1/D indexes showed that they were more in natural stands than plantation areas.

  17. Alkylphenolic compounds and bisphenol A contamination within a heavily urbanized area: case study of Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cladière, Mathieu; Gasperi, Johnny; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Bonhomme, Céline; Rocher, Vincent; Tassin, Bruno

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluates the influence of a heavily urbanized area (Paris Metropolitan area), on receiving water contamination by both bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenol ethoxylate (APE) biodegradation product. The study began by investigating concentrations within urban sources. In addition to the more commonly studied wastewater treatment plant effluent, wet weather urban sources (including combined sewer overflows, urban runoff, and total atmospheric fallout) were considered. The initial results highlight a significant contamination of all urban sources (from a few nanograms per liter in atmospheric fallout to several micrograms per liter in the other sources) with clearly distinguishable distribution patterns. Secondly, concentration changes along the Seine River from upstream of the Paris Metropolitan area to downstream were investigated. While the concentrations of BPA and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NP₁EC) increase substantially due to urban sources, the 4-nonylphenol concentrations remain homogeneous along the Seine. These results suggest a broad dissemination of 4-nonylphenol at the scale of the Seine River basin. Moreover, the relationship between pollutant concentrations and Seine River flow was assessed both upstream and downstream of the Paris conurbation. Consequently, a sharp decrease in dissolved NP1EC concentrations relative to Seine River flow underscores the influence of single-point urban pollution on Seine River contamination. Conversely, dissolved 4-nonylphenol concentrations serve to reinforce the hypothesis of its widespread presence at the Seine River basin scale.

  18. Healthy behaviors among teenagers studying in schools in the urban and rural areas of Western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donata Woitas-Ślubowska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Unhealthy behaviors are related to the increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Reduction of the risk is possible, although it requires modification of the unhealthy behaviors. This change is possible in all stages of life, however it is most effective in its early phases. A well documented correlation between health-related behaviors and morbidity and mortality makes them an important aspect of public health. Aim: The aim of this study was the recognition  of health-related behaviors among boys and girls studying in the schools of the urban and rural areas of Western Poland and also pointing out a group of youth that should be targeted with specialized health education programmes. Method: This study was conducted on a group of 845 middle school students (14-16 yrs, attending randomly selected middle schools in urban and rural areas located in the Western Poland. An anonymous auditory survey was conducted. The survey consisted of 31 close-ended questions about the demographic and socioeconomic status, and health-related behaviors. In this paper in the statistical evaluation of the accumulated data concerned relationships between health-related behaviors and gender and place of study. Results: A widespread occurrence of unhealthy behaviors was observed. Many participants admitted to unhealthy nutritional habits, and, although less frequently, tobacco use, drinking alcohol and low physical activity. The area in which the students were located played an important part in the nutritional behaviors of boys and with the use of tobacco and the physical activity of girls. The group at the most risk of unhealthy behaviors were the girls studying in the urban middle schools and the boys studying in the rural middle schools. Conclusion: The unhealthy behaviors are a reason for maintaining a regular health education of the middle school students. This education should consider specific educational needs related to the sex and students

  19. Long-term airborne contamination studied by attic dust in an industrial area: Ajka, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völgyesi, P.; Jordan, G.; Szabo, Cs.

    2012-04-01

    Heavy industrial activities such as mining, metal industry, coal fired power plants have produced large amount of by-products and wide-spread pollution, particularly in the period of centrally dictated economy after WWII, in Hungary. Several studies suggest that significant amount of these pollutants have been deposited in the urban environment. Nowadays, more than half of the world's population is living in urban areas and people spend almost 80% of their lives indoors in developed countries increasing human health risk due to contamination present in urban dwellings. Attic dust sampling was applied to determine the long-term airborne contamination load in the industrial town of Ajka (Hungary). There has been a high industrial activity in Ajka since the end of the 19th century. In addition to aluminum and alumina industry, coal mining, coal fired power plant and glass industry sites, generated numerous waste heaps which act as multi-contamination sources in the area. In October 2010 the Ajka red mud tailings pond failed and caused an accidental regional contamination of international significance. The major objective of this research was to study and map the spatial distribution of heavy metal contamination in airborne attic dust samples. At 27 sampling sites 30 attic dust samples were collected. Sampling strategy followed a grid-based stratified random sampling design. In each cell a house for attic dust sample collection was selected that was located the closest to a randomly generated point in the grid cell. The project area covers a 8x8 grid of 1x1 km cells with a total area of 64 km2. In order to represent long-term industrial pollution, houses with attics kept intact for at least 30-40 years were selected for sampling. Sampling included the collection of background samples remotely placed from the industrialized urban area. The concentration of the major and toxic elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, and As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn

  20. Preliminary Checklist for Reporting Observational Studies in Sports Areas: Content Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Moscoso, Salvador; Sanduvete-Chaves, Susana; Anguera, M. Teresa; Losada, José L.; Portell, Mariona; Lozano-Lozano, José A.

    2018-01-01

    Observational studies are based on systematic observation, understood as an organized recording and quantification of behavior in its natural context. Applied to the specific area of sports, observational studies present advantages when comparing studies based on other designs, such as the flexibility for adapting to different contexts and the possibility of using non-standardized instruments as well as a high degree of development in specific software and data analysis. Although the importance and usefulness of sports-related observational studies have been widely shown, there is no checklist to report these studies. Consequently, authors do not have a guide to follow in order to include all of the important elements in an observational study in sports areas, and reviewers do not have a reference tool for assessing this type of work. To resolve these issues, this article aims to develop a checklist to measure the quality of sports-related observational studies based on a content validity study. The participants were 22 judges with at least 3 years of experience in observational studies, sports areas, and methodology. They evaluated a list of 60 items systematically selected and classified into 12 dimensions. They were asked to score four aspects of each item on 5-point Likert scales to measure the following dimensions: representativeness, relevance, utility, and feasibility. The judges also had an open-format section for comments. The Osterlind index was calculated for each item and for each of the four aspects. Items were considered appropriate when obtaining a score of at least 0.5 in the four assessed aspects. After considering these inclusion criteria and all of the open-format comments, the resultant checklist consisted of 54 items grouped into the same initial 12 dimensions. Finally, we highlight the strengths of this work. We also present its main limitation: the need to apply the resultant checklist to obtain data and, thus, increase quality indicators of

  1. Preliminary Checklist for Reporting Observational Studies in Sports Areas: Content Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Chacón-Moscoso

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies are based on systematic observation, understood as an organized recording and quantification of behavior in its natural context. Applied to the specific area of sports, observational studies present advantages when comparing studies based on other designs, such as the flexibility for adapting to different contexts and the possibility of using non-standardized instruments as well as a high degree of development in specific software and data analysis. Although the importance and usefulness of sports-related observational studies have been widely shown, there is no checklist to report these studies. Consequently, authors do not have a guide to follow in order to include all of the important elements in an observational study in sports areas, and reviewers do not have a reference tool for assessing this type of work. To resolve these issues, this article aims to develop a checklist to measure the quality of sports-related observational studies based on a content validity study. The participants were 22 judges with at least 3 years of experience in observational studies, sports areas, and methodology. They evaluated a list of 60 items systematically selected and classified into 12 dimensions. They were asked to score four aspects of each item on 5-point Likert scales to measure the following dimensions: representativeness, relevance, utility, and feasibility. The judges also had an open-format section for comments. The Osterlind index was calculated for each item and for each of the four aspects. Items were considered appropriate when obtaining a score of at least 0.5 in the four assessed aspects. After considering these inclusion criteria and all of the open-format comments, the resultant checklist consisted of 54 items grouped into the same initial 12 dimensions. Finally, we highlight the strengths of this work. We also present its main limitation: the need to apply the resultant checklist to obtain data and, thus, increase

  2. Preliminary Checklist for Reporting Observational Studies in Sports Areas: Content Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Moscoso, Salvador; Sanduvete-Chaves, Susana; Anguera, M Teresa; Losada, José L; Portell, Mariona; Lozano-Lozano, José A

    2018-01-01

    Observational studies are based on systematic observation, understood as an organized recording and quantification of behavior in its natural context. Applied to the specific area of sports, observational studies present advantages when comparing studies based on other designs, such as the flexibility for adapting to different contexts and the possibility of using non-standardized instruments as well as a high degree of development in specific software and data analysis. Although the importance and usefulness of sports-related observational studies have been widely shown, there is no checklist to report these studies. Consequently, authors do not have a guide to follow in order to include all of the important elements in an observational study in sports areas, and reviewers do not have a reference tool for assessing this type of work. To resolve these issues, this article aims to develop a checklist to measure the quality of sports-related observational studies based on a content validity study. The participants were 22 judges with at least 3 years of experience in observational studies, sports areas, and methodology. They evaluated a list of 60 items systematically selected and classified into 12 dimensions. They were asked to score four aspects of each item on 5-point Likert scales to measure the following dimensions: representativeness, relevance, utility, and feasibility. The judges also had an open-format section for comments. The Osterlind index was calculated for each item and for each of the four aspects. Items were considered appropriate when obtaining a score of at least 0.5 in the four assessed aspects. After considering these inclusion criteria and all of the open-format comments, the resultant checklist consisted of 54 items grouped into the same initial 12 dimensions. Finally, we highlight the strengths of this work. We also present its main limitation: the need to apply the resultant checklist to obtain data and, thus, increase quality indicators of

  3. Scabies among primary schoolchildren in Egypt: sociomedical environmental study in Kafr El-Sheikh administrative area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegab DS

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Doaa Salah Hegab,1 Abdullah Mahfouz Kato,1 Ibrahim Ali Kabbash,2 Ghada Maged Dabish3 1Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Public Health and Community, Faculty of Medicine, 3Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt Background/objectives: Scabies is a major global public health issue that might affect people from all socioeconomic levels. The primary contributing factors in contracting scabies seem to be poverty and overcrowded living conditions. Scabies often spreads among schoolchildren quite rapidly, owing to their close contact and overcrowding within the schools. However, limited information is available about its risk factors and the socioeconomic correlates among schoolchildren in Egypt. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of scabies and its risk factors among primary schoolchildren in Kafr El-Sheikh administrative area, Egypt. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed on primary schoolchildren in urban and rural areas of Kafr El-Sheikh administrative area. A predesigned questionnaire was used for data collection from the randomly selected 2,104 children, and clinical dermatological examination was done for them. Results: Out of 2,104 children studied, there were 92 cases of scabies with a prevalence of 4.4%. The prevalence of scabies infestation in male students was 3.9%, while it was 4.8% in females, with no statistical significance. The results showed significant variations in the risk of scabies infestation by factors such as residence, paternal education and occupation, maternal education, sleeping with others, having animals at home, dealing with animals outside the house, type of building for living, family history of itchy rash, and sharing clothes with others. Conclusion: In our community, scabies is still an important health problem affecting schoolchildren, especially in rural areas. It is characterized by a complex web of causation, particularly poor

  4. A study of rainfall in the Roman area in the years 1951-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, O.; Colacino, M.; Lavagnini, A.; Malvestuto, V.

    2006-01-01

    The daily rainfall data collected in the second half of the last century at 31 climatic stations in Lazio, Italy, have been subjected to statistical analysis in order to describe the pluviometric regime of the whole area on a multi-decadal time scale. The stations, for their geographical distribution within the region under study, are apt to represent different climatic zones, namely, a coastal, a rural, a suburban and an urban zone. The data have been treated both as time series and as geographical statistical variates with the double aim, first, to verify if in the area under study any changes in the yearly precipitation rate, frequency and its distribution over different classes of rain intensity, have occurred in the last 50 years; second, to evidence a possible correlation between the intensity of precipitation and any of some environmental variables such as altitude, distance from the coastline and distance from the urban site. As for the first issue, it can be concluded that the precipitations over the Roman area in the period 1951-2000 show no significant trend; in particular, no trend is visible in any of the single classes of rain intensity, both absolute and percentile-based, considering either their frequency or their percent contribution to the total. As for the second issue, significant correlations have been found in the spatial distribution of rainfall with any of the relevant environmental variables mentioned above. The results of the analysis also show that in the urban area a less amount of rain seem to fall than in the surroundings zones, a result that seems rather anomalous in consideration of the several known factors that favour the intensification of the rainfall in the city with respect to its surroundings. A detailed statistical characterization of all the single 31 stations over the whole period is also given via a separate study of the durations of droughts and of the statistics of rainy days, using best fits based on the Weibull

  5. Frontal Fibers Connecting the Superior Frontal Gyrus to Broca Area: A Corticocortical Evoked Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ookawa, Satoshi; Enatsu, Rei; Kanno, Aya; Ochi, Satoko; Akiyama, Yukinori; Kobayashi, Tamaki; Yamao, Yukihiro; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Riki; Kunieda, Takeharu; Mikuni, Nobuhiro

    2017-11-01

    The frontal aslant tract is a deep frontal pathway connecting the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) to Broca area. This fiber is assumed to be associated with language functions, especially speech initiation and spontaneity. The aim of this study was to electrophysiologically investigate this network using corticocortical evoked potentials (CCEPs). This study enrolled 8 patients with brain tumors or medically intractable focal epilepsies who underwent frontal craniotomy over the language-dominant side. All patients underwent CCEP recordings during tumor resection or during invasive evaluation for epilepsy surgery. Alternating 1-Hz electrical stimuli were delivered to pars opercularis (pO) and pars triangularis (pT), corresponding to Broca area, and SFG via the subdural grid electrodes with intensity of 10 mA. Electrocorticograms from SFG and pO/pT time-locked to 50 stimuli were averaged in each trial to obtain CCEP responses. In all patients, stimulation of pO/pT induced CCEP responses in SFG. CCEP responses were recorded in lateral SFG in 5 patients and in supplementary motor areas in 4 patients. Reciprocality was observed in 7 patients in the stimulation of SFG. CCEP responses were significantly faster at SFG from pO/pT than at pO/pT from SFG (Wilcoxon signed rank test, P = 0.028). The present study demonstrated a corticocortical network connecting Broca areas and SFG in a reciprocal manner. Our findings might provide new insight into language and motor integration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Synopsis of some preliminary computational studies related to unsaturated zone transport at Area G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vold, E.

    1998-03-01

    Computational transport models are described with applications in three problem areas related to unsaturated zone moisture movement beneath Area G. These studies may be used to support the ongoing maintenance of the site Performance Assessment. The three areas include: a 1-D transient analysis with average tuff hydraulic properties in the near surface region with computed results compared to field data; the influence on near surface transient moisture percolation due to realistic distributions in hydraulic properties derived statistically from the observed variance in the field data; and the west to east moisture flow in a 2-D steady geometry approximation of the Pajarito Plateau. Results indicate that a simple transient model for transport of moisture volume fraction fits field data well compared to a moisture pulse observed in the active disposal unit, pit 37. Using realistic infiltration boundary conditions for summer showers and for spring snow melt conditions, the computed moisture pulses show significant propagation to less than 10-ft depth. Next, the hydraulic properties were varied on a 2-D grid using statistical distributions based on the field data means and variances for the hydraulic parameters. Near surface transient percolation in these conditions shows a qualitatively realistic percolation with a spatially variable wave front moving into the tuff; however, the flow does not channel into preferred paths and suggests there is no formation of fast paths which could enhance transportation of contaminants. Finally, moisture transport is modeled through an unsaturated 2-D slice representing the upper stratigraphic layers beneath Area G and a west-to-east cut of several miles to examine possible lateral movement from the west where percolation is assumed to be greater than at Area G. Results show some west-to-east moisture flux consistent with the assumed profile for the percolation boundary conditions

  7. A study of ultraviolet solar radiation at Cairo urban area, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robaa, S.M. [Cairo Univ., Giza (Egypt). Dept. of Astronomy and Meterology

    2004-07-01

    The monthly mean values of global, G, and ultraviolet, UV, solar radiation incident on a horizontal surface at Cairo urban area during the two different periods (1969-1973) and (1993-1997) are presented, analyzed and compared. The effect of urbanization processes on the solar radiation components is investigated and discussed. It was found that the total radiation of the two components, G and UV received at the urban area of Cairo during the period (1969-1973) highly exceeds the radiation received during the period (1993-1997) for all months of the year. The mean relative reduction of G and UV reached 17.4% and 27.4% respectively. A significant correlation between G and UV radiation has been established and the recommended correlation equation has been stated to estimate the values of UV radiation that are difficult to measure at any site in the zone of Lower Egypt. Also, a comparative study of the two radiation components, G and UV, at urban (Cairo) and rural (Bahtim) areas during the period (1993-1997) revealed that the urban area always has values of G and UV radiation distinctly lower than that found in rural area for all months of the year. Urban-rural mean reduction of G and UV reached 7.0% and 17.9% respectively. The ratio of the ultraviolet to global radiation (UV/G) are calculated and compared with other sites in the Arabian Peninsula. The effect of atmospheric dust on the measured solar radiation components is also investigated and discussed. (author)

  8. Management of groundwater in urban centers: A case study; Greater Dammam Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abderrahman, Walid A.; Elamin, Abdalla S.; Al-Harazin, Ibrahim M.; Eqnaibi, Badie S.

    2007-01-01

    Effective management of groundwater resources in urban centers of arid regions is vital for sustainable development and groundwater protection especially with rapid growth of water demands under water stress conditions. Greater Dammam Metropolitan Area is a good example of rapid growing urban center due to comprehensive development and population growth. The water demand has increased by many times during the last three decades. Groundwater from local aquifers namely Dammam and Umm Er Radhuma, supplies more than 85% of the total water demands. The aquifers have been subjected to extensive and increasing groundwater pumping especially during last three decades. Negative impacts such as significant decline in water levels have been experienced in the area. A new groundwater management scheme in terms of improving the long-term water pumping policies is required for protection of the aquifers groundwater productivity. A special numerical simulation model of the multi-aquifer system including Dammam and Umm Er Radhuma aquifers has been developed to assess the behavior of the aquifer system under long term water stresses in Dammam Metropolitan Area. The developed numerical simulation model has been utilized to predict the responses of the aquifer system in terms of decline in terms of water level under different pumping schemes from the two aquifers during the next 30 years. The model results have postulated the importance of Umm Er Radhuma (UER) aquifer as a major water supply source to Dammam Metropolitan Area, as well as potential recharge source of more than 30% of the total water pumped from Dammam aquifer. These findings have been utilized in improving present and future groundwater management and conservation for the study area. Similar techniques can be used to improve the groundwater management in other parts of the country as well as other arid regions. (author)

  9. Breast feeding practices and newborn care in rural areas: A descriptive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Breastfeeding practices play an important role in reducing child mortality and morbidity. This study was aimed to describe the breastfeeding practices prevalent in rural areas. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to describe the breastfeeding and newborn care practices in rural areas and the secondary objective was to describe the factors affecting the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in primary health care center (PHC that is attached to a medical college in Kengeri, rural Bangalore, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Mothers with children who were 9 months old who came to the PHC for measles vaccination were included in the study and data was collected using the pre-tested questionnaire on breastfeeding and newborn practices. Results: Our study shows 97% of the mothers initiated breastfeeding, 19% used pre lacteal feeds, 90% had hospital deliveries and 10% had home deliveries, and 50% used a house knife to cut the umbilical cord among home deliveries. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the need for breastfeeding intervention programs especially for the mother during antenatal and postnatal check-ups and practices like discarding the colostrum and early/late weaning are still widely prevalent and need to be addressed.

  10. Urban land use and land cover change analysis and modeling a case study area Malatya, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Baysal, Gülendam

    2013-01-01

    Dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Geospatial Technologies. This research was conducted to analyze the land use and land cover changes and to model the changes for the case study area Malatya, Turkey. The first step of the study was acquisition of multi temporal data in order to detect the changes over the time. For this purpose satellite images (Landsat 1990-2000-2010) have been used. In order to acquire data from satel...

  11. Exploring studies of representative areas in the middle and northern Norrland during 1979 to 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlbom, K.; Henkel, H.; Scherman, S.; Tiren, S.

    1981-03-01

    The Geological Survey of Sweden has carried out an investigation of the bedrock of the districts of Gaevleborg and Kopparberg. A study of intrusive gabbros has been made in the north of Sweden. The investigation aims at a detailed knowledge of the structure of the bedrock in selected parts of Sweden and of the zones of fracture with reference to ground water flow. The study will result in a proposition of areas for further geological and hydrological investigations. A number of maps are presented. (G.B.)

  12. [Entomologic study on the transmission of onchocerciasis in a forest-savanna transition area of Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbazan, P; Escaffre, H; Mbentengam, R; Boussinesq, M

    1998-01-01

    An entomological study was conducted in the basin area of middle Sanaga (Cameroon) in order to document the pattern of onchocerciasis transmission in a region where a high prevalence of infection had been recorded in villages located 30 km from the main rivers. The main vector of O. volvulus was found to be S. squamosum s.s. No breeding site was found in the small tributaries of the Sanaga and Mbam Rivers, and the dispersal of S. damnosum s.l. in the area thus appeared to be particularly high. The highest blackfly population densities were recorded during the long rainy season, and a second peak of density occurred along the Mbam River during the short rainy season. A seasonal variation in dispersal patterns was found at three of the four transects studied. The transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the area occurred principally between January and May (i.e. at the end of the long dry season and the beginning of the short rainy season). Vector control operations might well reinforce the effect of ivermectin distributions in this onchocerciasis focus.

  13. Atmospheric deposition study in the area of Kardzhali lead-zinc plant based on moss analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristozova, G.; Marinova, S.; Strelkova, L.P.; Goryajnova, Z.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Stafilov, T.

    2015-01-01

    For the first time the moss biomonitoring technique was used to assess the environmental situation in the area affected by the lead-zinc plant as one of the most hazardous enterprises in Bulgaria. 77 Hypnum cupressiforme moss samples were collected in the Kardzhali municipality in the summer and autumn of 2011. The concentrations of a total of 47 elements were determined by means of instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA), atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Multivariate statistics was applied to characterize the sources of elements detected in the samples. Four groups of elements were found. In comparison to the data averaged for the area outside of the town, the atmospheric deposition loads for the elements of industrial origin in Kardzhali, where the smelter chimney is located, were found to be much higher. Median levels of the measured concentrations of the most toxic metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, As, Cu, In, Sb) were extremely high in this hot spot when compared to the median Bulgarian cross-country data from the 2010-2011 European moss survey. GIS technology was used to produce element distribution maps illustrating deposition patterns of element pollutants in the study area. The results obtained contribute to the Bulgarian environmental research used to study and control the manufacturing processes of the lead-zinc plant in the town of Kardzhali.

  14. Spatial distribution of psychotic disorders in an urban area of France: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignon, Baptiste; Schürhoff, Franck; Baudin, Grégoire; Ferchiou, Aziz; Richard, Jean-Romain; Saba, Ghassen; Leboyer, Marion; Kirkbride, James B; Szöke, Andrei

    2016-05-18

    Previous analyses of neighbourhood variations of non-affective psychotic disorders (NAPD) have focused mainly on incidence. However, prevalence studies provide important insights on factors associated with disease evolution as well as for healthcare resource allocation. This study aimed to investigate the distribution of prevalent NAPD cases in an urban area in France. The number of cases in each neighbourhood was modelled as a function of potential confounders and ecological variables, namely: migrant density, economic deprivation and social fragmentation. This was modelled using statistical models of increasing complexity: frequentist models (using Poisson and negative binomial regressions), and several Bayesian models. For each model, assumptions validity were checked and compared as to how this fitted to the data, in order to test for possible spatial variation in prevalence. Data showed significant overdispersion (invalidating the Poisson regression model) and residual autocorrelation (suggesting the need to use Bayesian models). The best Bayesian model was Leroux's model (i.e. a model with both strong correlation between neighbouring areas and weaker correlation between areas further apart), with economic deprivation as an explanatory variable (OR = 1.13, 95% CI [1.02-1.25]). In comparison with frequentist methods, the Bayesian model showed a better fit. The number of cases showed non-random spatial distribution and was linked to economic deprivation.

  15. The Study of Thermal Comfort in Transforming Residential Area in Bandung using ENVI-met Software. Case Study: Progo Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz Soelaiman, Tubagus M.; Soedarsono, Woerjantari K.; Donny Koerniawan, M.

    2018-05-01

    Bandung has a high potential in attracting tourists. This potential impact on building function near tourist attraction that can transform residential uses into commercial uses. Progo Street and its surrounding area used as the case study, which is close to Gedung Sate and Riau Street as tourist destinations in Bandung. Moreover, this transformation is also reinforced by the spatial planning policies in Bandung, known as RTRW and RDTR, said that this area will be fully non-residential area. This condition in some cases could affect thermal comfort. This paper provides the changes of thermal comfort phenomenon that occurs using EnviMet software. The study compares Predicted Mean Voted (PMV) as thermal comfort indicator between existing and Bandung detailed spatial plan (RDTR) condition. The result shows that the PMV value of current condition is higher than future planning, nonetheless the planned area will be changed into higher non-residential buildings and less greeneries. Some environmental factors that are used to calculate PMV such as air temperature, mean radiant temperature, humidity, and wind speed are also examined to find out what makes the plan more comfortable than the existing. Simulations using ENVI-met software could be considered in making more objective planning policy in the future.

  16. Who gets the benefits of geopark establishment? A study of Batur Geopark Area, Bali Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagala, S.; Rosyidie, A.; Sasongko, M. A.; Syahbid, M. M.

    2018-05-01

    As an important contributor to the improvement of economic and social aspects within communities, tourism is a sector whose development must be paid careful attention to. Tourist attractions, especially for nature based tourism, have been proven to provide employment and a significant contribution to both the GDP and GNP of Indonesia. Various areas in Indonesia have natural tourist attractions. A recent popular type of natural tourism attraction in Indonesia are geoparks, which involve protection and utilization of wide geological heritage areas. One of the geoparks that have been recognized by UNESCO within its Global Geopark Network (GGN) is Batur Geopark, in the province of Bali, Indonesia. The development of a geopark should consider the local economic development within its surrounding area. In addition, the further development of a geopark area that is included within the Global Geopark Network must meet the criteria for social and economic aspects prepared by UNESCO. The establishment of these criteria is intended to ensure that the management of the geopark is also beneficiary for the development of local communities as well as contribute positively to their sustainable development. Indonesia has a number of initiatives to promote the establishment of new geoparks, such as Geopark Merangin, Geopark Ciletuh and Geopark Sewu. The most recent one to be considered is Toba Lake Area. Therefore, taking lessons learned from an existing geopark regarding its economic impacts is important. This study explored the positive and negative impacts of Batur Geopark on the local economic development of its surrounding area after its inclusion in the Global Geopark Network of UNESCO. Further recommendations are and formulated in order to enhance the mutual linkage between tourism development and economic benefits to the communities. Prior to the analyses, a literature review on best practices of geoparks was done. Qualitative analyses were conducted by interviewing 41

  17. STUDY OF THE SITUATION OF MASS MOVEMENTS IN THE URBAN AREA OF VIÇOSA (MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lucci Resende de Souza

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the relief goes by something larger than the observation at the way, understanding several other factors as climate, soil types and vegetable covering. However, the forms of the relief interfere as one of the main components of the atmosphere,being necessary its knowledge for the understanding of the dynamics of the area research object.The agreement of the relief passes for something more important that the comment of its form, understanding several other factors as climate, soil types and vegetal covering. However, the forms of the relief are inserting as the one of the main components of theenvironment, being necessary its knowledge for the agreement of the dynamic of the area research object.This knowledge is indispensable, because it is impossible to repress the occupation expansion of the spaces and much less to restraint environmental impacts caused by the men and the nature is not capable to regenerate all of the damaged spaces in a short space of time.Many of the inhabited spaces are fruits of segregation, which would be consequence of the exclusion that the effective economical system imposes to the people and spaces. On the other hand, the environmental problems are not correlated only with outlying neighborhoods, but they come very visible in places where constructions of high purchasing power prevail. But, one thing we can do is to prevent, the areas that are not busy, because it is viable naturally,environmentally and less expensive economically speaking. It is in this context, which the study of the mass movements can be of vital importance. The present work seeks to characterize the mass movements that happen in the urban area of Viçosa, with the objective to relate and to compare the rising done in the urban area of the municipal district at the scale 1: 5000 for Vieira in the year of 2000, in order to verify the evolution of the areas studied by the referred author, being analyzed these progressed or some

  18. A Feasibility Study on the Worn Area Estimation by Measuring a Contact Resistance (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young-Ho; Kim, Hyung-Kyu

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the fretting wear resistance of the nuclear fuel rod with considering the effect of the contacting spring shape, it is necessary to examine the formation procedure of the worn area during the fretting wear experiments with including its shape, size and the debris removal path. This is because the wear volume and the maximum wear depth are dominantly affected by the worn area and the wear resistance of the nuclear fuel rod was dominantly affected by the spring shape rather than the test environment and the contact mode (i.e. impact, sliding, rubbing, etc.). Unfortunately, it is almost impossible to archive the size and shape of the worn area on real-time basis because the contact surfaces are always hidden. If we could measure the worn area properties during fretting wear tests, it enables us to promptly estimate the wear resistance or behavior with various contacting spring shapes. Generally, fretting wear degradation is generated by the localized plastic deformation, fracture and finally detachment of wear debris. Generally, wear debris easily oxidized by frictional heat, test environment, etc. From the previous studies, most of the wear debris was detached from the worn surface in the distilled water condition while the wear debris in the dry condition remained on or adhered to the worn surface. At this time, it is reasonable that the accumulated wear debris on the worn surface is existed in the form of oxide. If small amount of electric current was applied between the contacting surfaces, wear debris could be an obstacle to flow the electric current. This means that the variation of the contact resistance under constant electric current during the fretting wear tests has much information on the formation of the worn area even though the applying current could accelerate the oxidation of the generated wear debris. So, in this study, fretting wear tests have been performed with applying an electric current in room temperature air in order to

  19. Automated selection of areas of interest in dynamic studies and camera-cinematograpy of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitter, F.; Adam, W.E.; Kampmann, H.; Meyer, G.; Weller, R.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported in heart investigations using the first transit principle and the steady-state procedure for radionuclide scanning. Progress in the first transit principle relies on automated selection of areas of interest. A procedure has been developed which automatically performs the evaluation of the areas corresponding to the right heart, the lungs, and the left heart. A different procedure has been built up for dynamic lung studies with Xe-133 (Radiospirometry), which principally can be applied to any other organ investigation. R-wave time averaged procedures of the heart in steady state can be performed in direct or indirect manner. A direct procedure is described that leads eventually to a cinematographic presentation of the heart kinetics on the computer display. The analysis yields an exact outline of heart ventricles and auricles as prerequisite for determination of ejection fractions and clinically relevant data of the heart function

  20. Study on designing a complete pilot plant for processing sandstone ores in Palua-Parong area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Quang Thai; Tran Van Son; Tran The Dinh; Trinh Nguyen Quynh; Vu Khac Tuan

    2015-01-01

    Design work is the first step of the construction and operation of pilot plant. Thus, the project Study on designing a complete pilot plant for processing sandstone ores in Palua - Parong area was conducted to design a pilot plant for testing entire technological process to obtain yellowcake. Based on a literature review of uranium ore processing technology in the world, information of ore and previous research results of uranium ore in PaLua - PaRong area at the Institute for Technology of Radioactive and Rare Elements, a suitable technological flowsheet for processing this ore has been selected. The size, location of the pilot plant and planed experiments has been selected during the implementation of this project, in which basic parameters, designed system of equipment, buildings, ect. were also calculated. (author)

  1. Experimental and analytical study of interfacial area transport phenomena in a vertical two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Byung-Gil; Euh, Dong-Jin; Yun, Byong-Jo; Youn, Young-Jung; Yoon, Han-Yeong; Song, Chul-Hwa

    2005-03-01

    The number density transport equations for various bubble groups are used to predict the void fraction and the interfacial area concentration. As the closure relations for number density transport equation, the coalescence due to random collisions and the breakup due to the impact of turbulent eddies is modified based on the previous studies and the bubble expansion term due to the pressure reduction is considered. Also, the coalescence due to a wake entrainment is modeled newly to apply to the number density transport equation. In order to predict the local experimental data, the code is developed that the two-fluid model is coupled systematically with the number density transport equation for each bubble group. As for the results of the numerical analysis, the void fraction and interfacial area concentration are predicted well by the developed code and models although some deviations exist in the values between the prediction and experiment, especially, for the high void fraction conditions

  2. Hydrodynamic patterns favouring sea urchin recruitment in coastal areas: A Mediterranean study case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, S; Quattrocchi, G; Guala, I; Cucco, A

    2018-05-11

    In invertebrate fisheries, sea urchin harvesting continues to grow with dramatic consequences for benthic ecosystems. The identification of areas with a marked natural recruitment and the mechanisms regulating it is crucial for the conservation of benthic communities and for planning the sustainable harvesting. This study evaluates the spatial distribution and density of recruits of the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus along the Sinis + Peninsula (Sardinia) and explores its significant relationships with the local oceanographic features. Our results reveal that recruitment is favoured in areas with slow currents and high levels of confinement and trapping of the water masses. Analysis of the residual circulation indicates that the presence of local standing circulation structures promotes the sea urchin recruitment process. Our findings emphasize the importance of managing local sea urchin harvesting as a system of populations with their demographic influence mainly dependent on the most important ecological driver that is the recruitment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tables of co-located geothermal-resource sites and BLM Wilderness Study Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, D.; Dorscher, M.

    1982-11-01

    Matched pairs of known geothermal wells and springs with BLM proposed Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs) were identified by inspection of WSA and Geothermal resource maps for the states of Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Wyoming. A total of 3952 matches, for geothermal sites within 25 miles of a WSA, were identified. Of these, only 71 (1.8%) of the geothermal sites are within one mile of a WSA, and only an additional 100 (2.5%) are within one to three miles. Approximately three-fourths of the matches are at distances greater than ten miles. Only 12 of the geothermal sites within one mile of a WSA have surface temperatures reported above 50/sup 0/C. It thus appears that the geothermal potential of WSAs overall is minimal, but that evaluation of geothermal resources should be considered in more detail for some areas prior to their designation as Wilderness.

  4. WATER RESOURCES IN THE CONTEXT OF REGIONAL PLANNING. CASE STUDY: CLUJ-NAPOCA METROPOLITAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULA OLIVIA CIMPOIEŞ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The issue of water resources is controversial because it reveals the complex needs of the population on a certain territory, depending on the analysis scale. Public utilities or water surfaces in the surrounding rural areas of a city are rarely paid much attention to in comparison to the urban centre, though they could provide comfort attributes, aesthetic value and leisure activities. Is it a matter of social fairness, political orientation or funding accessibility for a community to benefit from the water resources in the vicinity? The present study propos ed to analyse the metropolitan area of Cluj and explain why the distribution of resources varies according to physical conditions, distance or localities’ economic statute.

  5. Environmental Studies of Natural Radioactivity at Nugrus -Sikait Area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sroor, A.; EI-Shershaby, A.; EI- Bahi, S.; Ali, N.; Ibrahim, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty seven representative samples were collected from two locations; Wadi Nugrus and Wadi Sikait, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. The area is characterized by abnormal radioactivity and has several archaeological sites (Sikait Temple). Emerald mining is a wide spread activity since Pharonic times at Sikait - Nugrus area. The concentration of the natural radionuclides ( 238 U-series, 232 Th-series and 40 K) are measured in all the rock samples by two techniques (HpGe detector and NaI(TI) detector). The Ra e q, and H e x for all samples are also determined. A comparative study between NaI and HpGe- detectors were carried out. The present work indicated that the equilibrium/disequilibrium ratios by using HpGe detector are more precise than that of Nal detectors. The radioactivity at Wadi Nugrus is higher than Wadi Sikait and also higher than the permissible level

  6. Study on fractal characteristics of remote sensing image in the typical volcanic uranium metallogenic areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Wei; Ni Guoqiang; Li Hanbo

    2010-01-01

    Computing Methods of fractal dimension and multifractal spectrum about the remote sensing image are briefly introduced. The fractal method is used to study the characteristics of remote sensing images in Xiangshan and Yuhuashan volcanic uranium metallogenic areas in southern China. The research results indicate that the Xiangshan basin in which lots of volcanic uranium deposits occur,is of bigger fractal dimension based on remote sensing image texture than that of the Yuhuashan basin in which two uranium ore occurrences exist, and the multifractal spectrum in the Xiangshan basin obviously leans to less singularity index than in the Yuhuashan basin. The relation of the fractal dimension and multifractal singularity of remote sensing image to uranium metallogeny are discussed. The fractal dimension and multifractal singularity index of remote sensing image may be used to predict the volcanic uranium metallogenic areas. (authors)

  7. Experimental and analytical study of interfacial area transport phenomena in a vertical two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Byung-Gil; Euh, Dong-Jin; Yun, Byong-Jo; Youn, Young-Jung; Yoon, Han-Yeong; Song, Chul-Hwa

    2005-03-01

    The number density transport equations for various bubble groups are used to predict the void fraction and the interfacial area concentration. As the closure relations for number density transport equation, the coalescence due to random collisions and the breakup due to the impact of turbulent eddies is modified based on the previous studies and the bubble expansion term due to the pressure reduction is considered. Also, the coalescence due to a wake entrainment is modeled newly to apply to the number density transport equation. In order to predict the local experimental data, the code is developed that the two-fluid model is coupled systematically with the number density transport equation for each bubble group. As for the results of the numerical analysis, the void fraction and interfacial area concentration are predicted well by the developed code and models although some deviations exist in the values between the prediction and experiment, especially, for the high void fraction conditions.

  8. Ethnomathematics study: uncovering units of length, area, and volume in Kampung Naga Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septianawati, T.; Turmudi; Puspita, E.

    2017-02-01

    During this time, mathematics is considered as something neutral and not associated with culture. It can be seen from mathematics learning in the school which adopt many of foreign mathematics learning are considered more advanced (western). In fact, Indonesia is a rich country in cultural diversity. In the cultural activities, there are mathematical ideas that were considered a important thing in the mathematics learning. A study that examines the idea or mathematical practices in a variety of cultural activities are known as ethnomathematics. In Indonesia, there are some ethnic maintain their ancestral traditions, one of them is Kampung Naga. Therefore, this study was conducted in Kampung Naga. This study aims to uncover units of length, area, and volume used by Kampung Naga society. This study used a qualitative approach and ethnography methods. In this research, data collection is done through the principles of ethnography such as observation, interviews, documentation, and field notes. The results of this study are units of length, area, and volume used by Kampung Naga society and its conversion into standard units. This research is expected to give information to the public that mathematics has a relationship with culture and become recommendation to mathematics curriculum in Indonesia.

  9. Parametric study of the dispersion aspects in a street-canyon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koutsourakis, N.; Neofytou, P.; Venetsanos, A.G.; Bartzis, J.G. [NCSR Demokritos (Greece). Environmental Research Lab.

    2004-07-01

    Continuously increasing vehicles' fleet is still considered to be the main emission factor in urban environments, despite the enormous progress of modern catalytic technology. Under that perspective, calculation of transportation induced pollutant dispersion is of augmented importance, especially within street canyons, where poor ventilation can result in awkward concentration levels. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) studies have been conducted in the past by Neofytou, P. et al, so as to define appropriate locations for measuring-instrument placement by numerically simulating the flow and pollution dispersion fields in the vicinity of the measuring site taking into account the wind rose of the area and selecting locations of high pollution concentrations so that non-zero indications are assured. Vardoulakis, S. et al, provides a general overview of the street-canyon studies concerning both modelling and experimental investigations and offers plenty of references on air quality within street canyons. Besides air-quality, street canyon CFD studies have also been performed to evaluate accident consequences and hydrogen safety, Venetsanos A. et al. The current study examines a real street canyon in Thessaloniki, Greece. It was performed in order to examine dispersion patterns for different parameters' scenarios and help deciding where to place actual pollutant measurement instruments to better capture traffic pollution data. Various wind directions and speeds are examined and height influence on concentration levels is investigated. Complex area geometry is a key factor of the whole study. (orig.)

  10. Study of protein calorie malnutrition amongst under six children In a slum area of kanpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Saxena

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Rresearch Problem: What is the prevalence of PCM amongst under six children in slum area of Kanpur? Objectives: 1 To study the prevalence of PCM.2 To apply health educational interventions. Study Design: Cross - sectional study. Setting: All the households in the study area having under six children. Participants: Under - six children showing signs of PCM. Sample Size: 1260 children in the age group ofO - 6 years. Study Variables: Age - group, sex, education of mother, occupation of father, social class, type of family. Outcome Variables: Children with signs of PCM. Statistical Analysis: By chi - square test. Result: The occurrence of PCM was the highest in the 0 - 1 year age group. Boys suffered from overall PCM and grade I PCM more than the girls in whom grade III PCM was more common. Overall as well as grade I and II PCM was seen more in children of illiterate mothers and unemployed fathers. Majority of the children belonged to social class IV and were from unitary families. Conclusion: Mother's education plays an important role in the health and nutrition of children.

  11. Helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic geophysical survey data, Swedeburg and Sprague study areas, eastern Nebraska, May 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B.D.; Abraham, J.D.; Cannia, J.C.; Minsley, B.J.; Ball, L.B.; Steele, G.V.; Deszcz-Pan, M.

    2011-01-01

    This report is a release of digital data from a helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic survey conducted by Fugro Airborne Surveys in areas of eastern Nebraska as part of a joint hydrologic study by the Lower Platte North and Lower Platte South Natural Resources Districts, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The survey flight lines covered 1,418.6 line km (882 line mile). The survey was flown from April 22 to May 2, 2009. The objective of the contracted survey was to improve the understanding of the relation between surface water and groundwater systems critical to developing groundwater models used in management programs for water resources. The electromagnetic equipment consisted of six different coil-pair orientations that measured resistivity at separate frequencies from about 400 hertz to about 140,000 hertz. The electromagnetic data were converted to georeferenced electrical resistivity grids and maps for each frequency that represent different approximate depths of investigation for each survey area. The electrical resistivity data were input into a numerical inversion to estimate resistivity variations with depth. In addition to the electromagnetic data, total field magnetic data and digital elevation data were collected. Data released in this report consist of flight line data, digital grids, digital databases of the inverted electrical resistivity with depth, and digital maps of the apparent resistivity and total magnetic field. The range of subsurface investigation is comparable to the depth of shallow aquifers. The survey areas, Swedeburg and Sprague, were chosen based on results from test flights in 2007 in eastern Nebraska and needs of local water managers. The geophysical and hydrologic information from U.S. Geological Survey studies are being used by resource managers to develop groundwater resource plans for the area.

  12. The GRASP project - a multidisciplinary study of hydrology and biogeochemistry in a periglacial catchment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Emma; Lindborg, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    The Arctic region is sensitive to global warming, and permafrost thaw and release of old carbon are examples of processes that may have a positive feedback effect to the global climate system. Quantification and assumptions on future change are often based on model predictions. Such models require cross-disciplinary data of high quality that often is lacking. Biogeochemical processes in the landscape are highly influenced by the hydrology, which in turn is intimately related to permafrost processes. Thus, a multidisciplinary approach is needed when collecting data and setting up field experiments aiming at increase the understanding of these processes. Here we summarize and present data collected in the GRASP, Greenland Analogue Surface Project. GRASP is a catchment-scale field study of the periglacial area in the Kangerlussuaq region, West Greenland, focusing on hydrological and biogeochemical processes in the landscape. The site investigations were initiated in 2010 and have since then resulted in three separate data sets published in ESSD (Earth system and Science Data) each one focusing on i) meteorological data and hydrology, ii) biogeochemistry and iii) geometries of sediments and the active layer. The three data-sets, which are freely available via the PANGAEA data base, enable conceptual and coupled numerical modeling of hydrological and biogeochemical processes. An important strength with the GRASP data is that all data is collected within the same, relatively small, catchment area. This implies that measurements are more easily linked to the right source area or process. Despite the small catchment area it includes the major units of the periglacial hydrological system; a lake, a talik, a supra- and subpermafrost aquifer and, consequently, biogeochemical processes in each of these units may be studied. The new data from GRASP is both used with the aim to increase the knowledge of present day periglacial hydrology and biogeochemistry but also in order to

  13. Biological studies in the sea area surrounding the Loviisa nuclear power plant in the year 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilus, Erkki

    1980-03-01

    Observations of rise in water temperature caused by the plant's cooling water were made in a large area of Haestholmsfjaerden. The mean temperatures during the growth period and summer months were on average of the same magnitude as those in the 1970s, except very close to the outlet, where the mean temperatures were clearly increased by the cooling water. The salinity of the water increased to exceptionally high values in September in the whole study area. Salinities even exceeding 0.6% were measured in the surface water of Haestholmsfjaerden. The concentrations of total phosphorus and total nitrogen were clearly above the level found earlier in the area, but the increase in the nutrient level was similar at all stations (including the reference station at Pernajanlahti). The amount of oxygen in the bottom water of the deep part of Haestholmsfjaerden in late summer was lower than in previous years (1.2 ml/l, 14% of the saturation level). The phytoplankton biomass spring maximum was greater at all stations than in 1974-76. Differences in species composition were small compared with earlier years. The amounts of chlorophyll a during the spring maximum were higher in 1977 than in 1975-76. The level of phytoplankton primary production in the whole study area was lower in 1977 than in the 1970s on average. The annual production at station nearest the outlet, was about 10% greater than at station situated in the middle of Haestholmsfjaerden, owing to higher production in the middle of summer. No important differences in 'in vitro' primary production were observed between sampling places near the water intake and the outlet and the values were of the same magnitude as in 1976. (T.V.)

  14. Application of isotopic techniques for study of ground water from karstic areas. 1. Origin of waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feurdean, Victor; Feurdean, Lucia

    2000-01-01

    Environmental stable isotope method was used for study of ground water from karst of NE Dobrogea. Study area is in the vicinity of Danube Delta (declared in 1990 by UNESCO the Reserve of Biosphere) and presents scientific and ecological interest. Measurements of deuterium content of ground water show that waters are meteoric in origin, but at the same time the results showed that the water from two sampling points could not originate from local ground water and have their recharge area at high altitude and a considerable distance. According to the δD values the following categories of waters were established: - waters depleted in deuterium (δD 0 / 00 ) relative to δD values of surface and ground water in the geographic area from which they were collected. They represent most probably the intrusion of isotopically light water from high altitude sites (higher than 1000 m) through network of highly permeable karst channels. The discharge of this component of aquifer occurs both by conduct flow and by diffuse flow; - Waters tributaries to the Danube River (δD > -75 0 / 00 ) that have a small time variability of δD values; - Local infiltration waters, situated in the West side of the investigated area towards the continental platform of the Dobrogea (δD > -70 0 / 00 ). They present high time variability of δD values, due to distinct seasonal effects; - Waters originated in mixing processes between the waters with different isotopic content. The endmember one is heavier isotopic water that belongs to local recharged waters (local infiltration waters and waters tributary to Danube river) while the other endmember is the isotopically light water. (authors)

  15. Cervical gland area as an ultrasound marker for prediction of preterm delivery: A cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajiheh Marsoosi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preterm labor is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality and it might be predicted by assessing the cervical change. Objective: To assess the association between absence of cervical gland area (CGA and spontaneous preterm labor (SPTL. Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was performed on 200 singleton pregnant women with a history of SPTL, second-trimester abortion in the previous pregnancy or lower abdominal pain in current pregnancy. Each patient underwent one transvaginal ultrasound examination between 14-28 wk of gestation. Cervical length was measured and CGA was identified and their relationship with SPTL before 35 and 37 wk gestation was evaluated using STATA software version 10. Results: The mean of cervical length was 36.5 mm (SD=8.4, the shortest measurement was 9 mm, and the longest one was 61 mm. Short cervical length (≤18mm was significantly associated with SPTL before 35 and 37 wk gestation. Cervical gland area (the hypoechogenic or echogenic area around the cervical canal was present in 189 (94.5% patients. Absent of CGA had a significant relationship with SPTL before 35 and 37 wk gestation (p=0.01 and p<0.001, respectively. Cervical length was shorter in women with absent CGA in comparison with subjects with present CGA: 37±10 mm in CGA present group and 23±9 mm in CGA absent group (p<0.001. Conclusion: Our study showed that cervical gland area might be an important predictor of SPTL which should be confirmed with further researches.

  16. Content Area Reading Instruction for Secondary Teacher Candidates: A Case Study of a State-Required Online Content Area Reading Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Brad

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation examined in a state-required, online preservice teacher course in content area reading instruction (CARI) at a large land-grant university in Minnesota. Few studies have been published to date on revitalized literacy teacher preparation efforts in CARI (See Vagle, Dillon, Davison-Jenkins, & LaDuca, 2005; Dillon, O'Brien,…

  17. Study of Sexual Behaviour of Bar-girls Residing in an Urban Slum Area of Mumbai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirgude, Abhay; Solanki, Mridula J; Shinde, Ratnendra R; Naik, Poonam

    2011-01-01

    Background: Bar girls are unorganized, difficult to reach high-risk group, and an urban phenomenon. Objectives: To study the demographic profile and sexual behavior of bar girls. Materials and Methods: Study setting is an urban slum area situated in the northwest part of Mumbai. Study design is a community-based cross-sectional study. Study duration was from January 2003 to January 2005. Phase I: Identification of key informants was done. Phase II: Mapping of bar girls in the study area was done with the help of key informants. Sampling: Out of the estimated 800-1200 bar girls, 120 bar girls who were willing to participate in the study were included in the study after obtaining informed consent. Confidentiality of names and locations was assured to both key informants and study subjects. Information was gathered about demographic profile, educational status, and their sexual behavior by conducting one to one interview with the use of predesigned, pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Most of the bar girls were in the age group of 21–25 years 52 (43.3%). None of them were educated above secondary level. Most of the subjects belong to West Bengal state 58 (48.4%). Majority of the subjects 88 (73.3%) reported that they have ever practiced commercial sex, and money was the criteria of selection of customers 53 (60.22%). Condom usage was reported less with regular customer as compared with that of nonregular customers (χ2 = 6.02, P < 0.02). Conclusions: Need to emphasize condom use with each and every sexual act irrespective of type of customers. PMID:21687378

  18. EC multicentre study on small area variations in air quality and health (SAVIAH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebret, E [National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands); Elliott, P [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (United Kingdom); Briggs, D [Huddersfield Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Environmental and Policy Analysis; Gorynski, P [National Inst. of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland); Kriz, B [National Inst. of Public Health, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    SAVIAH is an EC-funded methodological study coordinated by Dr. Paul Elliott at the LSHTM (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine). The project aims to apply, test and evaluate new and emerging methodologies in the fields of epidemiology, geography, air pollution modelling and small area health statistics, and to bring the data together in a consistent geographic framework. The study was carried out in the U.K., The Netherlands, Poland and the Czech Republic, using the example of childhood wheeze and outdoor air pollution. Specific aims of the study were, in each centre, (1) to carry out a questionnaire survey among parents of guardians of around 4000 to 5000 children aged between 7 and 11, (2) to carry out a series of air pollution surveys for NO{sub 2} as a proxy for the complex of traffic-related pollutants, and SO{sub 2} (PL), using a dense network of passive samplers, (3) to build up a detailed Geographical Information System (GIS) for each of the study areas; (4) to construct an air pollution `map` based on the NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} measurements and a health `map` based on `map smoothing` techniques and (5) to explore methods to examine relationships between health, pollution, socio-economic and other data. (author)

  19. EC multicentre study on small area variations in air quality and health (SAVIAH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebret, E. [National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands); Elliott, P. [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (United Kingdom); Briggs, D. [Huddersfield Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Environmental and Policy Analysis; Gorynski, P. [National Inst. of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland); Kriz, B. [National Inst. of Public Health, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1995-12-31

    SAVIAH is an EC-funded methodological study coordinated by Dr. Paul Elliott at the LSHTM (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine). The project aims to apply, test and evaluate new and emerging methodologies in the fields of epidemiology, geography, air pollution modelling and small area health statistics, and to bring the data together in a consistent geographic framework. The study was carried out in the U.K., The Netherlands, Poland and the Czech Republic, using the example of childhood wheeze and outdoor air pollution. Specific aims of the study were, in each centre, (1) to carry out a questionnaire survey among parents of guardians of around 4000 to 5000 children aged between 7 and 11, (2) to carry out a series of air pollution surveys for NO{sub 2} as a proxy for the complex of traffic-related pollutants, and SO{sub 2} (PL), using a dense network of passive samplers, (3) to build up a detailed Geographical Information System (GIS) for each of the study areas; (4) to construct an air pollution `map` based on the NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} measurements and a health `map` based on `map smoothing` techniques and (5) to explore methods to examine relationships between health, pollution, socio-economic and other data. (author)

  20. Ende Diabetes Study: diabetes and its characteristics in rural area of East Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwono Waspadji

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are only few studies about diabetes in rural area in Indonesia. Epidemiological study are needed to formulate health policy of disease management in specific area. The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of diabetes and knowledge of diabetes among the community in Nangapanda Village, Ende District, East Nusa Tenggara.Methods: A cross-sectional study “Ende Diabetes Study” was conducted in Nangapanda Village. This study use cluster random sampling method to a total number of 19756 residents in Nangapanda village. From the sampling frame of 1800 adult subjects who underwent screening with glucometer in 2008 and 2009, 125 subjects have been diagnosed as diabetes or impaired fasting glucose (IFG. All of the subjects who were diagnosed as diabetes or IFG from the previous screening and 218 subjects from control (normal subjects in the 2008 and 2009 screening were included in the present study. Each subject underwent general anamnesis, nutritional interview, complete physical examinations, and laboratory test (blood and urine. The data were analyzed using SPSS 13.0.Ressult: There were 343 subjects in this study. The prevalence of diabetes in Nangapanda using blood glucose criteria (using fasting and post-glucose load values was 2%; using post glucose load criteria, the prevalence of DM was 1.56%; while with HbA1c criteria, the prevalence was 2.83%. The prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT was 2.2%, and IFG was 6.2%. A number of 71.1% Nangapanda residents have sufficient knowledge about diabetes.Conclusion: Prevalence of diabetes in Nangapanda (using fasting and post-glucose load criteria was 2% and 1.56% (using post-glucose load values. As much as 71.1% of Nangapanda residents have sufficient knowledge about diabetes. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:30-8Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Ende Diabetes Study, prevalence, rural Indonesia

  1. A study on landscape and the historical geography of two areas - Oskarshamn and Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, Ulf; Berg, Johan; Bjoerklund, Annika

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this project is to investigate the land-use; the settlement and the way people have used and affected the landscape in two areas, Forsmark and Simpevarp. This preliminary report aim mainly at describing the sources and methods used in the project. Some analyses are undertaken, but a more complete interpretation will take place in the final report of Phase two. This is a project that forms a part of the environmental impact assessment work that is done for examining potential locations for a plant for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. Both areas are located on the East Coast of Sweden. A number of scientific studies are carried out in this project. Fields that are included studies for the EIA and the safety assessment include geology, quaternary geology, limnology, biology and other natural sciences that focus on vegetation and the terrestrial as well as the aquatic environment.The study that is carried out at the Department of Human geography at Stockholm university is basically a study of the historical land-use, the changes in settlement and how people have been working and using the landscape over the last centuries.The methods used include historical maps, cadastral material and in a later phase interviews and fieldwork. In the first phase that ends the summer 2004 the bulk of the historical material is probed and analysed. A big effort is put into the creation of GIS-data sets that can be used for further analyses. The work during spring 2004 resulted in this preliminary report that deal with historical land-use, population, settlement from medieval times to the present and both detailed and general descriptions and investigations of the historical geography of the areas.Both the investigated areas are located by the Baltic, but are very different both physically, especially with the land upheaval in the north, and historically with a different land-use system, ownership structure and distribution of settlement. The results of this study

  2. A study on landscape and the historical geography of two areas - Oskarshamn and Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Ulf; Berg, Johan; Bjoerklund, Annika [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Human Geography

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this project is to investigate the land-use; the settlement and the way people have used and affected the landscape in two areas, Forsmark and Simpevarp. This preliminary report aim mainly at describing the sources and methods used in the project. Some analyses are undertaken, but a more complete interpretation will take place in the final report of Phase two. This is a project that forms a part of the environmental impact assessment work that is done for examining potential locations for a plant for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. Both areas are located on the East Coast of Sweden. A number of scientific studies are carried out in this project. Fields that are included studies for the EIA and the safety assessment include geology, quaternary geology, limnology, biology and other natural sciences that focus on vegetation and the terrestrial as well as the aquatic environment.The study that is carried out at the Department of Human geography at Stockholm university is basically a study of the historical land-use, the changes in settlement and how people have been working and using the landscape over the last centuries.The methods used include historical maps, cadastral material and in a later phase interviews and fieldwork. In the first phase that ends the summer 2004 the bulk of the historical material is probed and analysed. A big effort is put into the creation of GIS-data sets that can be used for further analyses. The work during spring 2004 resulted in this preliminary report that deal with historical land-use, population, settlement from medieval times to the present and both detailed and general descriptions and investigations of the historical geography of the areas.Both the investigated areas are located by the Baltic, but are very different both physically, especially with the land upheaval in the north, and historically with a different land-use system, ownership structure and distribution of settlement. The results of this study

  3. Invasive flora within urban railway areas: a case study from Lublin (Poland and Lviv (Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous and disturbed habitats within railway areas create an ideal environment for establishment of invasive plant species. In this study, we compared the invasive species composition and abundance within railway areas of two cities, Lublin, SE Poland and Lviv, W Ukraine. In total, 70 invasive species were recorded. The invasive species list was similar for the two cities, with the most invasive species occurring at both (81.4%, 8.5% occurring only in Lublin and 10% only in Lviv. The proportion of invasive species in the total flora was almost 1.5-fold higher at Lviv compared to Lublin. Invasive species have originated mainly from continental America (45.7%, followed by Asia and Eurasia. The participation of invasive plants derived from Asia and Eurasia at Lviv is higher than at Lublin. The invasive flora includes a wide range of taxonomic groups, with a predominance of Asteraceae and Poaceae. The ecological attributes of invasive species on railway areas are: mainly annual therophytes, mostly wind- and insect pollination modes, a predominance of generative reproduction, anthropochorous and anemochorous dispersal and short-term persistent, long-term persistent or transient seed banks.

  4. Some geophysical and geological studies of the Tanzawa Mountains. [Nakagawa Hot Spring area, Hokizawa, and Higashizawa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minakami, T; Matsuda, T; Hiraga, S; Horai, K I; Sugita, M

    1964-11-01

    Joints and zeolite-veins in both metamorphic rocks and quartz diorite exposed along the Nakagawa River were studied. Fractures with zeolite-veins are most developed in three areas, the Nakagawa hot spring area, Hokizawa, and Higashizawa. They follow two prevailing directions: N--S with minor right-lateral displacement and N60/sup 0/E with minor left-lateral displacement. The two fractures should represent a conjugate set that was produced by stress with maximum principal axis of N30/sup 0/E-S30/sup 0/W. Distribution and prevailing directions of fractures are illustrated. Geothermal gradients are measured in two newly opened boreholes, at the Nakagawa hot spring area and Higashizawa. The geothermal gradients are 12.60 +- 0.48/sup 0/C/100m at the Nakagawa hot spring and 5.55 +- 0.24/sup 0/C/100m at Higashizawa. Temperature-depth relationships in the two boreholes are given. Seismic observation was made at the Higashizawa. In five days 43 shocks were recorded, of which 20 are thought to have occurred 2 to 20km from the observation station, that is, in and very near the Tanzawa mountains. None have shallower hypocenters than 2 km in depth.

  5. Study on geochronology and uranium source of sandstone-type uranium deposit in Dongsheng area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haibin; Xia Yuliang; Tian Shifeng

    2007-01-01

    This paper studied the geochronology of sandstone-type uranium deposit in the Dongsheng area of Ordos Basin. In eastern segment, ages of mineralization at the wing of the ore-roll are found to be 120 ± 5 Ma and 80 ± 5 Ma, and at the front of the ore-roll are 20 ± 2 Ma and 8 ± 1 Ma; While in middle segment, ages of mineralization are 124 ± 6 Ma and 80 ± 5 Ma. This means that the main mineralization in Dongsheng area were formed at early Jurassic and late Cretaceous, and correspondent to the time of structure uplift. Mineralization of roll-front (rich ore) which formed in Miocene and Pliocene may related to tectonic-thermal event taken place at that time and reformed the early mineralization in this area. The isochron line age of sample with uranium grade 0 ) in the sandbody is 24.64 x 10 -6 also shows the uranium pre-concentration in the strata. The even value of ΔU of rocks in Zhiluo formation is -70.2%, this shows that non-mineralized rocks have migrated uranium and acted as important metallogenic uranium sources. (authors)

  6. [A study of Boletus bicolor from different areas using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zai-Jin; Liu, Gang; Ren, Xian-Pei

    2010-04-01

    It is hard to differentiate the same species of wild growing mushrooms from different areas by macromorphological features. In this paper, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis was used to identify 58 samples of boletus bicolor from five different areas. Based on the fingerprint infrared spectrum of boletus bicolor samples, principal component analysis was conducted on 58 boletus bicolor spectra in the range of 1 350-750 cm(-1) using the statistical software SPSS 13.0. According to the result, the accumulated contributing ratio of the first three principal components accounts for 88.87%. They included almost all the information of samples. The two-dimensional projection plot using first and second principal component is a satisfactory clustering effect for the classification and discrimination of boletus bicolor. All boletus bicolor samples were divided into five groups with a classification accuracy of 98.3%. The study demonstrated that wild growing boletus bicolor at species level from different areas can be identified by FTIR spectra combined with principal components analysis.

  7. Recent trends in rural Geography studies. Theoretical developments and research areas in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Ávila Sánchez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is made a tour through the various theoretical and methodological routes that support the Rural Geography, in its current forms. The article is part of a wider investigation into the trends and state of the art of rurality between the years 1990 and 2010, with emphasis on rural geography perspective and particularly on the contributions that establish French geography and Anglo-Saxon geography. It highlights how these influences have transcended national geographical schools in some countries of Latin America. At the beginning of the discipline in the early twentieth century, emphasizing the identification and description of landscapes, influenced by the importance of regionalist discourse. Subsequently, rural geographical studies developed under the influence of economic geography, mainly describing large areas of agricultural specialization worldwide (cereal production areas, or Mediterranean agriculture, etc.. Later, from the decade of the eighties, analyze the depth of the territorial changes that occur in rural areas, due to changes in the Fordist and post-Fordist production paradigm, and the arrangements resulting from globalization.

  8. Comparative Study of the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Low Socioeconomic Areas from South Chennai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevitha Dhanabal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites cause one of the most important health problems through their effects in causing undernourishment morbidity and incapacitation due to their behavior particularly in children compared to adults. This study was intended to state the prevalence of intestinal parasites between the slum dwellers of different areas in south Chennai. Among the total of 256 samples collected between the ages of 0–50 yrs, 194 samples were positive. Standard laboratory techniques for parasitological diagnosis were carried out for each sample. Entamoeba coli (23%, Cyclospora sp. (22.2%, Entamoeba histolytica (21.8%, Giardia intestinalis (14.4%, Ascaris lumbricoides (6.2%, Trichuris trichiura (1.1%, and Hymenolepis nana (2.7% were found in the dwellers of low socioeconomic areas. The data on the prevalence of parasites with respect to sex and age showed that the females harbored more numbers of parasites when compared to males. Further, with respect to age, children and teenagers had surplus parasites compared to old age groups. The percentage of educational status showed a reduction in the number of parasites in the higher education dwellers. These parasites could be prevented by possible grouping of better ecological design and hygiene. Conclusively, the examination of personal hygiene as well as routine medical examination and treatment is strongly recommended in the low socio-economic areas.

  9. Analysis of flood vulnerability in urban area; a case study in deli watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrawan, I.; Siregar, R. I.

    2018-03-01

    Based on the National Disaster Management Agency of Indonesia, the distribution of disasters and victims died until the year 2016 is the largest flood disaster. Deli River is a river that has the greatest flood potential through Medan City. In Deli Watershed, flow discharge affected by the discharge from its tributaries, the high rainfall intensity and human activity. We should anticipate reducing and preventing the occurrence of losses due to flood damage. One of the ways to anticipate flood disaster is to predict which part of urban area is would flood. The objective of this study is to analyze the flood inundation areas due to overflow of Deli River through Medan city. Two-dimensional modeling by HEC-RAS 5.0.3 is a widely used hydraulic software tool developed by the U.S Army Corps of Engineers, which combined with the HEC-HMS for hydrological modeling. The result shows flood vulnerability in Medan by a map to present the spot that vulnerable about flood. The flooded area due to the overflowing of Deli River consists of seven sub districts, namely Medan Johor, Medan Selayang, Medan Kota, Medan Petisah, Medan Maimun, Medan Perjuangan and Medan Barat.

  10. Field Implementation Plan for the In-Situ Bioremediation Treatability Study at the Technical Area-V Groundwater Area of Concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-31

    This Field Implementation Plan (FIP) was prepared by Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) and provides instruction on conducting a series of in-situ bioremediation (ISB) tests as described in the Revised Treatability Study Work Plan for In-Situ Bioremediation at the Technical Area-V Groundwater Area of Concern, referred to as the Revised Work Plan in this FIP. The Treatability Study is designed to gravity inject an electron-donor substrate and bioaugmentation bacteria into groundwater via three injection wells to perform bioremediation of the constituents of concern (COCs), nitrate and trichloroethene (TCE), in the regions with the highest concentrations at the Technical Area-V Groundwater (TAVG) Area of Concern (AOC). The Treatability Study will evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation solution delivery and COC treatment over time. This FIP is designed for SNL/NM work planning and management. It is not intended to be submitted for regulator’s approval. The technical details presented in this FIP are subject to change based on field conditions, availability of equipment and materials, feasibility, and inputs from Sandia personnel and Aboveground Injection System contractor.

  11. Field Implementation Plan for the In-Situ Bioremediation Treatability Study at the Technical Area-V Groundwater Area of Concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This Field Implementation Plan (FIP) was prepared by Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) and provides instruction on conducting a series of in-situ bioremediation (ISB) tests as described in the Revised Treatability Study Work Plan for In-Situ Bioremediation at the Technical Area-V Groundwater Area of Concern, referred to as the Revised Work Plan in this FIP. The Treatability Study is designed to gravity inject an electron-donor substrate and bioaugmentation bacteria into groundwater via three injection wells to perform bioremediation of the constituents of concern (COCs), nitrate and trichloroethene (TCE), in the regions with the highest concentrations at the Technical Area-V Groundwater (TAVG) Area of Concern (AOC). The Treatability Study will evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation solution delivery and COC treatment over time. This FIP is designed for SNL/NM work planning and management. It is not intended to be submitted for regulator's approval. The technical details presented in this FIP are subject to change based on field conditions, availability of equipment and materials, feasibility, and inputs from Sandia personnel and Aboveground Injection System contractor.

  12. Focused feasibility study for surface soil at the main pits and pushout area, J-field toxic burning pits area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, T.; Benioff, P.; Biang, C.; Butler, J. [and others

    1996-06-01

    The Environmental Management Division of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). J-Field is located within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning/open detonation. Portions of J-Field continue to be used for the detonation and disposal of unexploded ordnance (UXO) by open burning/open detonation under authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  13. Cancer mortality rates and spillover effects among different areas: A case study in Campania (southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agovino, Massimiliano; Aprile, Maria Carmela; Garofalo, Antonio; Mariani, Angela

    2018-05-01

    The present study analyses the spatial distribution of cancer mortality rates in Campania (an Italian region with the highest population density), in which residents in several areas are exposed to major environmental health hazards. The paper has the methodological aims of verifying the existence, or otherwise, of a spatial correlation between mortality from different types of cancer and the occurrence of some specific area characteristics, using both Bayesian statistics and spatial econometrics. We show that the use of the Spatial Empirical Bayes Smoothed Rate, instead of the more commonly used Raw Rate, allows a more comprehensive analysis of the mortality rate, highlighting the existence of different cluster sizes throughout the region, according to the type of cancer mortality rate analysed. By using a Spatial Durbin model we verify that cancer mortality rates are related to the environmental characteristics of specific areas with spatial spillover effects. Our results validate the hypothesis that living along the coast by Mt Vesuvius and, to a lesser extent, along the Domitio-Flegreo coast NW of Naples and in more urbanised municipalities, increases the risk of dying of cancer. By contrast, living in less urbanised municipalities, with the presence of natural and historical attractions, has a positive effect on the residents' health, reducing their risk of disease. In both cases significant spillover effects (negative and positive) are found in municipalities close to the areas in question. Despite a number of reasonable limitations, our findings may provide useful information support for policy makers to foster knowledge, awareness and informed participation of citizens. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Vaccination coverage and timeliness in three South African areas: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanders David

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Timely vaccination is important to induce adequate protective immunity. We measured vaccination timeliness and vaccination coverage in three geographical areas in South Africa. Methods This study used vaccination information from a community-based cluster-randomized trial promoting exclusive breastfeeding in three South African sites (Paarl in the Western Cape Province, and Umlazi and Rietvlei in KwaZulu-Natal between 2006 and 2008. Five interview visits were carried out between birth and up to 2 years of age (median follow-up time 18 months, and 1137 children were included in the analysis. We used Kaplan-Meier time-to-event analysis to describe vaccination coverage and timeliness in line with the Expanded Program on Immunization for the first eight vaccines. This included Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG, four oral polio vaccines and 3 doses of the pentavalent vaccine which protects against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type B. Results The proportion receiving all these eight recommended vaccines were 94% in Paarl (95% confidence interval [CI] 91-96, 62% in Rietvlei (95%CI 54-68 and 88% in Umlazi (95%CI 84-91. Slightly fewer children received all vaccines within the recommended time periods. The situation was worst for the last pentavalent- and oral polio vaccines. The hazard ratio for incomplete vaccination was 7.2 (95%CI 4.7-11 for Rietvlei compared to Paarl. Conclusions There were large differences between the different South African sites in terms of vaccination coverage and timeliness, with the poorer areas of Rietvlei performing worse than the better-off areas in Paarl. The vaccination coverage was lower for the vaccines given at an older age. There is a need for continued efforts to improve vaccination coverage and timeliness, in particular in rural areas. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00397150

  15. fMRI-adaptation studies of viewpoint tuning in the extrastriate and fusiform body areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John C; Wiggett, Alison J; Downing, Paul E

    2010-03-01

    People are easily able to perceive the human body across different viewpoints, but the neural mechanisms underpinning this ability are currently unclear. In three experiments, we used functional MRI (fMRI) adaptation to study the view-invariance of representations in two cortical regions that have previously been shown to be sensitive to visual depictions of the human body--the extrastriate and fusiform body areas (EBA and FBA). The BOLD response to sequentially presented pairs of bodies was treated as an index of view invariance. Specifically, we compared trials in which the bodies in each image held identical poses (seen from different views) to trials containing different poses. EBA and FBA adapted to identical views of the same pose, and both showed a progressive rebound from adaptation as a function of the angular difference between views, up to approximately 30 degrees. However, these adaptation effects were eliminated when the body stimuli were followed by a pattern mask. Delaying the mask onset increased the response (but not the adaptation effect) in EBA, leaving FBA unaffected. We interpret these masking effects as evidence that view-dependent fMRI adaptation is driven by later waves of neuronal responses in the regions of interest. Finally, in a whole brain analysis, we identified an anterior region of the left inferior temporal sulcus (l-aITS) that responded linearly to stimulus rotation, but showed no selectivity for bodies. Our results show that body-selective cortical areas exhibit a similar degree of view-invariance as other object selective areas--such as the lateral occipitotemporal area (LO) and posterior fusiform gyrus (pFs).

  16. [Two compartment model of body composition and abdominal fat area in postmenopausal women - pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewska, Magdalena; Mioduszewska, Milena; Pańczyk, Mariusz; Kucharska, Alicja; Sińska, Beata; Dąbrowska-Bender, Marta; Michota-Katulska, Ewa; Zegan, Magdalena; Szabla, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Both menopausal period and aging have influence on body composition, increase of total body fat and visceral fat in particular. We should be aware that changes in body composition, mainly fat translocation to abdominal region, can occur without significant changes in body weight. Therefore quantitative abdominal fat assessment should be our aim. Body composition analysis based on two compartment model and abdominal fat area assessment in cross section. Subjects in postmenopausal period (41 women) were recruited for this study and divided into 2 groups: group 1 - women aged 45-56 years and group 2 - women aged 57-79 years. Body composition analysis and abdominal fat area assessment were conducted by using bioelectrical impedance method with BioScan 920 (Maltron int.) accordingly with standardized procedure. Women in early postmenopausal stage (Group 1) had statistically significant lower total body fat percentage in comparison with women in late postmenopausal period (Group 2) (41.09 ± 7.72% vs. 50.7 ± 9.88%, p=0.0021). Also women in group 1 were characterized by significant lower visceral fat area (VAT) as well as subcutaneous fat area (SAT) in comparison with group 2 (respectively VAT 119.25 ± 30.09 cm2 vs. 199.36 ± 87.38 cm2, p=0.0011; SAT 175.19 ±57.67 cm2 vs. 223.4±74.29 cm2, p=0.0336). According to VAT criteria (>120 cm2), 44% of women in group 1 and 80% in group 2 had excess of visceral fat. Both total body fat and intra-abdominal fat increased with age, independently of weight changes.

  17. Broca's area, sentence comprehension, and working memory: an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corianne Rogalsky

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of Broca's area in sentence processing remains controversial. According to one view, Broca's area is involved in processing a subcomponent of syntactic processing. Another view holds that it contributes to sentence processing via verbal working memory. Sub-regions of Broca's area have been identified that are more active during the processing of complex (object-relative clause sentences compared to simple (subject-relative clause sentences. The present study aimed to determine if this complexity effect can be accounted for in terms of the articulatory rehearsal component of verbal working memory.  In a behavioral experiment, subjects were asked to comprehend sentences during concurrent speech articulation which minimizes articulatory rehearsal as a resource for sentence comprehension. A finger-tapping task was used as a control concurrent task. Only the object-relative clause sentences were more difficult to comprehend during speech articulation than during the manual task, showing that articulatory rehearsal does contribute to sentence processing.  A second experiment used fMRI to document the brain regions underlying this effect.  Subjects judged the plausibility of sentences during speech articulation, a finger-tapping task, or without a concurrent task. In the absence of a secondary task, Broca's area (pars triangularis and pars opercularis demonstrated an increase in activity as a function of syntactic complexity. However, during concurrent speech articulation (but not finger-tapping this complexity effect was eliminated in the pars opercularis suggesting that this region supports sentence comprehension via its role in articulatory rehearsal.  Activity in the pars triangularis was modulated by the finger-tapping task, but not the speech articulation task.

  18. Identifying desertification risk areas using fuzzy membership and geospatial technique - A case study, Kota District, Rajasthan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Arunima; Sastry, K. L. N.; Dhinwa, P. S.; Rathore, V. S.; Nathawat, M. S.

    2013-08-01

    Desertification risk assessment is important in order to take proper measures for its prevention. Present research intends to identify the areas under risk of desertification along with their severity in terms of degradation in natural parameters. An integrated model with fuzzy membership analysis, fuzzy rule-based inference system and geospatial techniques was adopted, including five specific natural parameters namely slope, soil pH, soil depth, soil texture and NDVI. Individual parameters were classified according to their deviation from mean. Membership of each individual values to be in a certain class was derived using the normal probability density function of that class. Thus if a single class of a single parameter is with mean μ and standard deviation σ, the values falling beyond μ + 2 σ and μ - 2 σ are not representing that class, but a transitional zone between two subsequent classes. These are the most important areas in terms of degradation, as they have the lowest probability to be in a certain class, hence highest probability to be extended or narrowed down in next or previous class respectively. Eventually, these are the values which can be easily altered, under extrogenic influences, hence are identified as risk areas. The overall desertification risk is derived by incorporating the different risk severity of each parameter using fuzzy rule-based interference system in GIS environment. Multicriteria based geo-statistics are applied to locate the areas under different severity of desertification risk. The study revealed that in Kota, various anthropogenic pressures are accelerating land deterioration, coupled with natural erosive forces. Four major sources of desertification in Kota are, namely Gully and Ravine erosion, inappropriate mining practices, growing urbanization and random deforestation.

  19. Comparing Methods for Prioritising Protected Areas for Investment: A Case Study Using Madagascar's Dry Forest Reptiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie J Gardner

    Full Text Available There are insufficient resources available to manage the world's existing protected area portfolio effectively, so the most important sites should be prioritised in investment decision-making. Sophisticated conservation planning and assessment tools developed to identify locations for new protected areas can provide an evidence base for such prioritisations, yet decision-makers in many countries lack the institutional support and necessary capacity to use the associated software. As such, simple heuristic approaches such as species richness or number of threatened species are generally adopted to inform prioritisation decisions. However, their performance has never been tested. Using the reptile fauna of Madagascar's dry forests as a case study, we evaluate the performance of four site prioritisation protocols used to rank the conservation value of 22 established and candidate protected areas. We compare the results to a benchmark produced by the widely-used systematic conservation planning software Zonation. The four indices scored sites on the basis of: i species richness; ii an index based on species' Red List status; iii irreplaceability (a key metric in systematic conservation planning; and, iv a novel Conservation Value Index (CVI, which incorporates species-level information on endemism, representation in the protected area system, tolerance of habitat degradation and hunting/collection pressure. Rankings produced by the four protocols were positively correlated to the results of Zonation, particularly amongst high-scoring sites, but CVI and Irreplaceability performed better than Species Richness and the Red List Index. Given the technological capacity constraints experienced by decision-makers in the developing world, our findings suggest that heuristic metrics can represent a useful alternative to more sophisticated analyses, especially when they integrate species-specific information related to extinction risk. However, this can

  20. Comparing Methods for Prioritising Protected Areas for Investment: A Case Study Using Madagascar's Dry Forest Reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Charlie J; Raxworthy, Christopher J; Metcalfe, Kristian; Raselimanana, Achille P; Smith, Robert J; Davies, Zoe G

    2015-01-01

    There are insufficient resources available to manage the world's existing protected area portfolio effectively, so the most important sites should be prioritised in investment decision-making. Sophisticated conservation planning and assessment tools developed to identify locations for new protected areas can provide an evidence base for such prioritisations, yet decision-makers in many countries lack the institutional support and necessary capacity to use the associated software. As such, simple heuristic approaches such as species richness or number of threatened species are generally adopted to inform prioritisation decisions. However, their performance has never been tested. Using the reptile fauna of Madagascar's dry forests as a case study, we evaluate the performance of four site prioritisation protocols used to rank the conservation value of 22 established and candidate protected areas. We compare the results to a benchmark produced by the widely-used systematic conservation planning software Zonation. The four indices scored sites on the basis of: i) species richness; ii) an index based on species' Red List status; iii) irreplaceability (a key metric in systematic conservation planning); and, iv) a novel Conservation Value Index (CVI), which incorporates species-level information on endemism, representation in the protected area system, tolerance of habitat degradation and hunting/collection pressure. Rankings produced by the four protocols were positively correlated to the results of Zonation, particularly amongst high-scoring sites, but CVI and Irreplaceability performed better than Species Richness and the Red List Index. Given the technological capacity constraints experienced by decision-makers in the developing world, our findings suggest that heuristic metrics can represent a useful alternative to more sophisticated analyses, especially when they integrate species-specific information related to extinction risk. However, this can require access to

  1. Hydrogeochemistry and Stable Isotope Studies of Groundwater in the Ga West Municipal Area, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saka, David

    2011-07-01

    This study assesses groundwater in the Ga West Municipal Area of Ghana using hydrogeochemistry and stable isotope approaches. High salinity groundwaters are obtained in the municipality which poses problems for current and future domestic water supply exploitation. The increase in salinity is related to the dissolution of minerals in the host rocks and the evaporative concentration of solutes. The dominant groundwater composition in both shallow and deep wells sampled is Na-Cl, with concentration increasing substantially with well depths. The mixing process between freshwater and saline water was observed in the shift from CaHCO3 facies to Ca-Cl facies. Schoeller diagrams showed that groundwater movement in the study area is mostly vertical, moving from the shallow groundwaters towards the deep groundwaters. There were however few exceptions where no relationship was established between the shallow and the deep groundwaters. The oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions in the groundwater samples suggest that groundwater recharge is of meteoric origin, with few samples showing evidence of evaporation. An average deuterium excess of rainfall of 14.2‰ was observed, which indicates the significance of kinetic evaporation due to low humidity conditions prevalent in the study area. The d-excess also indicates modern recharge along the Akwapim-Togo Ranges. Groundwater analysis for trace metals indicates that 93% of the groundwaters have Iron concentration above recommended limits. However, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Cr have values within the acceptable limits. Generally, about 40% of the groundwaters sampled are not suitable for drinking and domestic purposes based on comparison with international standards for drinking water. (au)

  2. UNMET NEED OF SEX EDUCATION AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN URBAN SLUM AREA: AN INTERVENTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamboli Kshitij S, Avachat Subhada S, Tamboli Suchit S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Adolescents comprise one-fifth of India’s total population. There is widespread ignorance associated with unprotected sex, contraceptives, among young people. As majority adolescents in slum areas have illiterate and ignorant family backgrounds; they are misguided by the myths. Hence providing sex education for them is the need of the hour. Aims: 1 To assess the knowledge and awareness of adolescents in an urban slum area regarding some aspects of reproductive health. 2 To assess the need of sex education among them. 3 To study the impact of sex education on their knowledge Material and Methods: An interventional study was done on 132 adolescents of urban slum area, selected by simple random sampling. Informed consent was obtained from the participants. Data was collected with the help of structured questionnaire prepared by literature search. Response of adolescents was recorded through questionnaires. A sensitization workshop was organized as intervention. The same questionnaire was given to them and the effect of intervention was assessed. Statistical analysis of data was done using percentage, proportion and appropriate tests of significance. Result and Conclusions: Only 31.06% adolescents had discussed the topic of reproductive health with some or other person and out of them friends were the major sources (39.2% of information. Only 38.63% knew the hazards of teenage pregnancy which significantly rose to 89.4% after intervention workshop. The study concludes that the slum adolescents profoundly lack adequate knowledge of sexuality related matters. Even before intervention workshop, unmet need of reproductive health education was 59.1% and 93.93% was the felt need in the post test.

  3. Use of alternative sources of energy: design study of photovoltaic based parking area lighting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perraki, V.; Loucas, G.

    2000-01-01

    This study proposes the lighting of the parking area and the surrounding streets of the north west part of the University Campus of Patras, using an alternative source of energy, the photovoltaic energy. The sizing of the proposed system results to a reliable, autonomous system which covers the total of the energy needs without any maintenance. Although the energy produced is more expensive compared to the grid electricity nowadays, such solutions seem necessary and well promising for the future as the fuel reserves are limited. (authors)

  4. Correcting for catchment area nonresidency in studies based on tumor-registry data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sposto, R.; Preston, D.L.

    1993-05-01

    We discuss the effect of catchment area nonresidency on estimates of cancer incidence from a tumor-registry-based cohort study and demonstrate that a relatively simple correction is possible in the context of Poisson regression analysis if individual residency histories or the probabilities of residency are known. A comparison of a complete data maximum likelihood analysis with several Poisson regression analyses demonstrates the adequacy of the simple correction in a large simulated data set. We compare analyses of stomach-cancer incidence from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation tumor registry with and without the correction. We also discuss some implications of including cases identified only on the basis of death certificates. (author)

  5. OPPORTUNITIES AND RISKS OF GLOBALIZATION IN RURAL AREAS. CASE STUDY: BOTOSANI COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Simona Cuciureanu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The global economy plays an important role in the development of a region or a county/district as it promotes the exploitation of resources and space in a logical and rational manner. The trend of global economic uniformity allows opportunities and risks to Botoșani County since globalization involves economic development and rising living standards, but loss of cultural values, traditions and customs. The area of study currently confronts with socio-economic and demographic changes that may be addressed by globalization, but at the same time spatial development according to global standards will cause the loss of Botoșani County’s authenticity.

  6. Primary studies of trace quantities of green vegetation in Mono Lake area using 1990 AVIRIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Kang; Elvidge, Chris D.; Groeneveld, David P.

    1992-01-01

    Our primary results in Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve indicate that high spectral resolution Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data may provide a substantial advantage in vegetation, based on the chlorophyll red edge feature from 700-780 nm. The chlorophyll red edge was detected for green vegetation cover as low as 4.8 percent. The objective of our studies in Mono Lake area is to continue the experiments performed in Jasper Ridge and to examine the persistence of red edge feature of trace quantities of green vegetation for different plant communities with non-uniform soil backgrounds.

  7. Study on the performance of large area MRPC with high position resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue Qian, E-mail: yueq@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education (China); Wu Yucheng; Li Yuanjing; Ye Jin; Cheng Jianping; Wang Yi; Li Jin [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education (China)

    2012-01-01

    Multi-gap resistive plate chamber (MRPC), which is mostly developed in high energy physics domain with excellent time resolution, is also highlighted in imaging applications. A set of 50 cm Multiplication-Sign 50 cm large area MRPC with high position resolution was successfully developed by our group and different experiments have been done to test its performances. Cosmic ray muons were used to do the test and proper high voltage and working gas were chosen. Data analysis indicates its good detection efficiency and good position resolution, which encourages further study of its application in RPC-PET and muon tomography.

  8. Modelling hydrological connectivity in burned areas. A case study from South of Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Murillo, Juan F.; López-Vicente, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Overland flow connectivity depends on the spatio-temporal interactions of hydrological and geomorphic processes as well as on the human footprint on the landscape. This study deals with the modelling of hydrological connectivity in a burned area with different levels of fire severity. Namely, the objectives are to: i) characterize and ii) modelling the pre- (PreF) and post-fire (PostF) scenarios, as well as iii) evaluate the effect of the vegetation changes due to the fire and the initial ...

  9. Self-potential, geoelectric and magnetotelluric studies in Italian active volcanic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Siniscalchi

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of self-potential, geoelectric and magnetotelluric studies in Italian active volcanic areas as essential contributions both to structural modeling and to hazard evaluation. On Mt. Etna and Mt. Somma-Vesuvius complexes structural modeling was emphasized due to a lack of global information involving the whole apparatuses, at least from the electrical point of view. Hazard investigation was, instead, investigated with high resolution techniques on the island of Vulcano, where intense unrest phenomena have long been recorded.

  10. Project B-589, 300 Area transuranic waste interim storage project engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1985-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to look at various alternatives of taking newly generated, remote-handled transuranic waste (caisson waste) in the 300 Area, performing necessary transloading operations and preparing the waste for storage. The prepared waste would then be retrieved when the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant becomes operational and transshipped to the repository in New Mexico with a minimum of inspection and packaging. The scope of this study consisted of evaluating options for the transloading of the TRU wastes for shipment to a 200 Area storage site. Preconceptual design information furnished as part of the engineering study is listed below: produce a design for a clean, sealed waste canister; hot cell loadout system for the waste; in-cell loading or handling equipment; determine transshipment cask options; determine assay system requirements (optional); design or specify transport equipment required; provide a SARP cost estimate; determine operator training requirements; determine waste compaction equipment needs if desirable; develop a cost estimate and approximate schedule for a workable system option; and update the results presented in WHC Document TC-2025

  11. The stable isotopes in the hydrology studies at Raureni-Valcea area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costinel, D.; Vremera, R.; Faurescu, I.; Grecu, V. V.; Cuna, S.

    2009-01-01

    At present the hydrology and the climate studies are will continue to be joined to human activities. Observing differences of the stable isotopic concentration ratios informs us about certain geochemical or hydrological processes that took place. The isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen in rainwater varies with latitude, altitude, climate and time of the year. This methodology is an important tool in studying groundwater movement or freshwater origin. This study demonstrated the utility of the Continuous Flow - Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry method for measuring natural variation of the occurring isotopes of hydrogen ( 2 H) and oxygen ( 18 O) in meteoric waters. We continue until now (September 2009) the last work in which we measured the variation of δ 18 O and δ 2 D values from precipitation fallen in Raureni-Valcea area between May-December 2007 and September 2008-March, together with the δ 18 O and δ 2 D values from the Bistrita river. For this area the local Meteoric Water Line was reported and the variation of δ 18 O and δ 2 D values was correlated with the temperature and humidity in the same period. (authors)

  12. Preliminary report of biological intrusion studies at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory subsurface disposal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, T.D.; Arthur, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    As part of a larger study on the effects of biological intrusion of plants and animals into the soil cover placed over low-level radioactive wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA), research was initiated in the summer of 1982 to determine the burrow characteristics and movement patterns of several small mammal species, and the rooting depths of various plants. The depth, length, and volume of burrows were determined for four small mammal species: deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii), montane vole (Microtus montanus), and Townsend's ground squirrel (Spermophilis townsendii). The latter species excavated the greatest mean burrow depth (39 cm), length (404 cm), and volume (14.8 1). Movement patterns of three species were determined by radiotelemetry. The mean area of use for P. maniculatus, D. ordii, and M. montanus was 2.3, 1.5, and 1.2 ha respectively. Limited data on rooting depths of various native and introduced plant species at the SDA were obtained by literature review and excavation. During FY-83, experiments will be conducted, using the information obtained from the first year of this study, to evaluate the impact of burrowing mammals and root intrusion on the integrity of the soil cover currently existing at the SDA. Details of these experimental studies are presented

  13. Bird-plant interaction networks: a study on frugivory in Brazilian urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Silva Freitas Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, few studies compare the consumption of native and exotic fruits, especially in an urban environment. The Network Theory may be useful in such studies, because it allows evaluating many bird and plant species involved in interactions. The goals of this study were: evaluate a bird frugivory interaction network in an urban environment; checking the role played by native and exotic plants in the network and comparing the consumer assemblies of these two plant groups. A literature review on bird frugivory in Brazilian urban areas was conducted, as well as an analysis to create an interaction network on a regional scale. The analysis included 15 papers with 70 bird species eating fruits from 15 plant species (6 exotic and 9 native. The exotic and native fruit consumers did not form different groups and the interaction network was significantly nested (NODF = 0.30; p < 0.01 and not modular (M = 0.36; p = 0.16. Two exotic plant species are in the generalist core of the frugivory network (Ficus microcarpa and Michelia champaca. The results point out that a relatively diversified bird group eats fruits in Brazilian urban areas in an opportunistic way, with no preference for native or exotic plants.

  14. A Rock Physics Feasibility Study of the Geothermal Gassum Reservoir, Copenhagen Area, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredesen, Kenneth; Dalgaard, Esben Borch; Mathiesen, Anders

    The subsurface of Denmark stores significant amounts of renewable geothermal energy which may contribute to domestic heating for centuries. However, establishing a successful geothermal plant with robust production capacity require reservoirs with sufficient high porosity and permeability. Modern...... quantitative seismic interpretation is a good approach to de-risk prospects and gain reservoir insight, but is so far not widely used for geothermal applications. In this study we perform a rock physics feasibility study as a pre-step towards quantitative seismic interpretation of geothermal reservoirs......, primarily in areas around Copenhagen. The results argue that it may be possible to use AVO and seismic inversion data to distinguish geothermal sandstone reservoirs from surrounding shales and to estimate porosity and permeability. Moreover, this study may represent new possibilities for future rock physics...

  15. USING GIS TO IDENTIFY POTENTIAL AREAS SUSCEPTIBLE TO FLOOD. CASE STUDY: SOLONEŢ RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. TIPLEA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Using GIS to Identify Potential Areas Susceptible to Flood. Case Study: Soloneţ River. In this study, we aim to analyze the impact of different peak flows in territory and also a better understanding of the dynamic of a river flow. The methodology used for flood zone delimitation is based on a quantitative analysis model which requires the use of mathematical, physical and statistical operations in order to emphasize the relations between the different variables that were implied (discharges, grain size, terrain morphology, soil saturation, vegetation etc.. The results cannot be expected to be completely accurate but can provide a good representation of the process. Validation of results will inevitably be difficult and should be measured in the field. The information resulting from this study could be useful for raising awareness about both hazards and possible mitigation measure, a key component of disaster risk reduction planning.

  16. Study on comprehensive planning of rocky desertification in karst area of Chongqing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Yajun

    2017-11-01

    Chongqing is a key area for comprehensive treatment of rocky desertification in karst areas of china. Strengthening the comprehensive management of karst rocky desertification area, for the maintenance of ecological safety of Three Gorges Reservoir area, expanding the karst rocky desertification area people survival and development space, and improving the regional ecological conditions, have important practical significance to the construction of ecological civilization and building a harmonious society. Based on the investigation, analysis and arrangement of the data in the rocky desertification area, the paper puts forward the corresponding measures and phased targets for the treatment of the Rocky Desertification in the karst areas of Chongqing.

  17. Ordination Study of Vegetation Analysis Around Wetland Area: A Case Study of Mangla Dam, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urooj, R.; Ahmad, S. S.; Ahmad, M. N.; Ahmad, H.; Nawaz, M.

    2016-01-01

    Present study was conducted at Mangla Dam for vegetation ordinal classification by applying multivariate analysis in order to find relationship between vegetation and their edaphic factors. Samples of soil and herbaceous vegetation were randomly collected by using 1*1 square meter quadrats. Total 37 plant species belonging to 17 families were identified. Canonical Correspondence Analysis as direct ordination technique was applied by using CANOCO software. Results of analytical tests revealed that concentration of micro and macro nutrients along electrical conductivity and pH in different soil samples were varying to a greater level in study area while Cynodon dactylon showed higher abundance over broad range of all edaphic factors concentration. (author)

  18. Management and valuation of an environmentally sensitive area: Norfolk Broadland, England, case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R. Kerry; Brooke, Jan

    1988-03-01

    Wetlands, like any other environmentally sensitive resource, require very careful evaluation. While it is accepted that all wetlands may be equally valuable in terms of maintaining global life-support systems, individual areas may be ranked according to their uniqueness or the irreplaceability of the resource should the wetland be developed. The various techniques available for evaluating the wetland resource in the development versus conservation conflict situation are critically assessed. Indirect appraisal via the opportunity cost method can generate valuable data which have contributed to the mitigation of such conflict situations. The Broadland, in Norfolk, England, recently designated an environmentally sensitive area (ESA), provides a case study example of wetland management. The search for an “acceptable” flood alleviation strategy for the ESA is examined in detail. The economic and environmental asset structure of the study area is examined at two levels. A basic “screening” system is applied to each of the identified flood protection planning units to enable the rank ordering of the units. A more detailed appraisal is then made of the value of selected units so that the cost-effectiveness of any planned expenditure on flood protection works can be assessed. Specific management issues and their likely effect on the environment, in terms of land use for example, are also addressed. The 1986 Agriculture Act marks a potential watershed in British conservation policy. The ESA policy encompasses a dual management strategy that attempts to stimulate compatible agricultural and conservation practices and activities. Other countries that still retain significant unspoiled wetland resources may find that preemptive regulatory government intervention in favor of conservation would help to avoid the worst aspects of the British experience.

  19. Epidemiological Study on Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in an Endemic Area, of Qom Province, Central Iran

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    Abedin Saghafipour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is one of the most important health problems in many areas of Iran. There are two forms of the disease in Iran, anthroponotic and zoonotic CL. This study conducted to assess the epi­demiological situation of CL in an endemic area of Qom Province, central Iran from Apr to Nov 2015.Methods: The sticky paper traps and aspirating tubes were used for collecting adult sand flies. Sherman traps and small insect nets were used to capture rodents and small mammals. Giemsa staining was used for preparing the ex­panded smear and followed by PCR for identifying the causative agent in human, vectors, and reservoirs. In this study, relative frequency of CL was also calculated.Results: Fourteen species of Phlebotomine sand flies were collected. Phlebotomus papatasi (61.74% was the pre­dominant species through the period of activity. Overall, 62 Meriones libycus, 8 Nesokia indica, 4 Mus musculus, 16 Allactaga elater and 2 Hemiechinus auritis were caught. PCR technique showed 6 out of 150 P. papatasi (2%, two out of 62 M. libycus (3.23% and all of suspected human's skin tissue samples (100% were infected with Leishmania major. The relative frequency of CL was 0.30%. Conclusion: This is the first detection of L. major within P. papatasi, M. libycus and human in Kahak District in Qom Province of Iran. Zoonotic cycle of CL exists in this area, L. major is the causative agent, P. papatasi is the main vector and M. libycus is the main reservoir of the disease. 

  20. Ecoclimatic indicators to study climate suitability of areas for the cultivation of specific crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caubel, J.; Garcia de Cortazar Atauri, I.; Cufi, J.; Huard, F.; Launay, M.; Ripoche, D.; Graux, A.; deNoblet, N.

    2013-12-01

    Climatic conditions play a fundamental role in the suitability of geographical areas for cropping. In the context of climate change, we could expect changes in overall climatic conditions and so, on the suitability for cropping. Therefore, assessing the future climate suitability of areas for cropping is decisive for anticipating agriculture in a given area. Moreover, it is crucial to have access to the split up information concerning the effect of climate on the achievement of the main ecophysiological processes and cultural practices taking place during the crop cycle. In this way, stakeholders can envisage land use adaptations under climate change conditions, such as changes in cultural practices or development of new varieties for example. We proposed an aggregation tool of ecoclimatic indicators to design evaluation trees of climate suitability of areas for cropping, GETARI (Generic Evaluation Tool of Ecoclimatic Indicators). It calculates an overall climate suitability index at the annual scale, from a designed evaluation tree. This aggregation tool allows to characterize climate suitability according to crop ecophysiology, grain/fruit quality or crop management. GETARI proposes the major ecophysiological processes and cultural practices taking place during phenological periods, together with the climatic effects that are known to affect their achievement. The climatic effects on the ecophysiological processes (or cultural practices) during phenological periods are captured by the ecoclimatic indicators, which are agroclimatic indicators calculated over phenological periods. They give information about crop response to climate through ecophysiological or agronomic thresholds. Those indices of suitability are normalized and aggregated according to aggregation rules in order to compute an overall climate index. In order to illustrate how GETARI can be used, we designed evaluation trees in order to study the climate suitability for maize cropping regarding

  1. Geochemical study of urban soils in public areas of an industrialized town (Ajka, western Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacháry, D.; Jordán, Gy.; Szabó, Cs.

    2012-04-01

    Soil is one of the most essential parts of urban ecosystem contributing to the biogeochemical cycles along the rock-soil-plant-animal and human pathway. Soil plays a fundamental role in plant nutrient uptake and groundwater filtration, too. Urban soils differ from non-urban soils in many aspects, including their origin, and they may also concentrate contaminants in large quantities due to intensive human activities. The pollution sources are industry, traffic, fertilizer, tailing and waste. In addition to the increasing rate of urban areas, urban soils are under growing interest and their pollution have received significant attention in the past few decades. This work focuses on the toxic element (As, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni) content of soils and their spatial distribution in order to find a link between contamination sources and the receiving urban soils at sensitive receptor locations such as children's playgrounds and parks. Ajka town is located in western Hungary. It has an old-established industrial history with multiple contamination sources of heavy alumina industry and coal-based power plants supplied by the nearby bauxite and coal mines. At 44 locations 46 soil samples have been collected at a depth of 0-10 cm along a 1x1 km grid. The whole grid covers an area of 48 km2. In each grid cell a sampling site was selected at public areas. Sample preparation included drying at 40 C°, thorough homogenization and sieving to 2 mm fine earth before chemical analysis. Grain size distribution and soil pH were also determined. Samples were analyzed with ICP-OES and SEM methods. The As, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd and Ni concentrations range from 2.07 ppm to 9.48 ppm, 0.02 ppm to 2.84 ppm, 5.08 ppm to 35.74 ppm, 2.55 ppm to 47.78 ppm, 17.00 ppm to 91.00 ppm, 0.07 ppm to 0.61 ppm and 5.57 ppm to 32.09 ppm, respectively. The results revealed the contaminated areas associated with past industrial sites. This study also identified locations with considerable contamination at

  2. Comorbid mental disorders in substance users from a single catchment area - a clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malt Ulrik F

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimal treatment of patients with substance use disorders (SUDs requires an awareness of their comorbid mental disorders and vice versa. The prevalence of comorbidity in first-time-admitted SUD patients has been insufficiently studied. Diagnosing comorbidity in substance users is complicated by symptom overlap, symptom fluctuations, and the limitations of the assessment methods. The aim of this study was to diagnose all mental disorders in substance users living in a single catchment area, without any history of treatment for addiction or psychiatric disorders, admitted consecutively to the specialist health services. The prevalence of substance-induced versus substance-independent disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV, in SUD patients will be described. Methods First-time consecutively admitted patients from a single catchment area, aged 16 years or older, admitted to addiction clinics or departments of psychiatry as outpatients or inpatients will be screened for substance-related problems using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and the Drug Use Disorder Identification Test. All patients with scores above the cutoff value will be asked to participate in the study. The patients included will be diagnosed for SUD and other axis I disorders by a psychiatrist using the Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders. This interview was designed for the diagnosis of primary and substance-induced disorders in substance users. Personality disorders will be assessed according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV axis II disorders. The Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms, the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale, the Young Mania Rating Scale, and the Angst Hypomania Check List will be used for additional diagnostic assessments. The sociodemographic data will be recorded with the Stanley

  3. Prevalence and correlates of childhood obesity in suburban area of Odisha: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghamitra Pati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In India obesity and overweight is increasing among urban adolescents. Both under and over nutrition is grappling the country at faster rate. Present study was an attempt to explore obesity and overweight prevalence among school going children in suburban areas of Cuttack city, Odisha, India and their correlates.Methodology: A cross-sectional study was done among school children in suburban area of Cuttack city, Odisha. A predesigned and pretested questionnaire was used to interview the study participants to elicit information about their age, number of siblings, birth order of the child, working status of parents, television screen viewing time, mode of transport to school and dietary habit of the students. A total of 550 children studying in class five to ten participated in our study.Result: Out of 550 children screened, nearly (14 2.5% students were thin or severely thin, whereas (6712.1% students were overweight or obese. Univariate analysis revealed that girls were almost five times at higher risk of being overweight/obesity compared to boys (OR: 4.78 95%CI: 1.35-16.93. Children who used motorized vehicles for going to school had an unadjusted Odds ratio of 10.08 [95%CI: 2.08-48.77] of being overweight or obese compared to those who walked to school. Having more than one child at home (OR= 0.15, 95%CI: 0.039-0.6 and doing physical activity for more than 30min per day (0.105, 95%CI: 0.015-0.72 were found to be protective against overweight and obesity.Conclusion: Bearing in mind the burden of overweight and obesity among school children there is a need for periodic screening, awareness at school and parent counselling.

  4. Inclusive business model in tapioca starch industry in Lake Toba area: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampubolon, S.; Manik, Y.

    2018-04-01

    The notion of inclusive business calls for additional focus and innovation in the way companies do business which seeks to contribute to poverty alleviation by including Bottom of the Pyramids (BoP) communities within its value chain while not losing sight of the ultimate goal of business. Lake Toba Area has potentials in providing chances for doing businesses. On the other hand, the growth of market size is rather slow and demographically still dominated by BoP. This is a case study which seeks to investigate to what extent the Inclusive Business Model (IBM) is adopted in the strategic planning and applied in the operational management of companies that operate in Lake Toba Area. The study was conducted in qualitative basis. The observation was conducted by gathering data and information through a series of interviews with the top management and desk study of the business plan in a tapioca starch industry in Toba Samosir Regency. The collected data and information were then analyzed qualitatively by comparing them with criteria and parameters of IBM suggested in a vast body of literature. The reference by which the IBM is referred in this study is a series of criteria which is synthesized from a literature review on a vast body of literature about IBM. From data analysis, it is evident that IBM has been incorporated in the strategic plan and applied in the operational activities of the object of this study. However, we also found some rooms for improvement such as expanding the involvement of BoP in their value chain as consumers, by which some innovation in the product diversification is required.

  5. International student Arctic Field School on Permafrost and urban areas study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, L.; Tolmanov, V. A.; Grebenets, V. I.; Streletskiy, D. A.; Shiklomanov, N. I.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic regions are experiencing drastic climatic and environmental changes. These changes are exacerbated in the Russian Arctic, where active resource development resulted in further land cover transformations, especially near large settlements. There is a growing need in multidisciplinary studies of climate and human- induced changes in the Arctic cities. In order to fill this gap, International Arctic Field Course on Permafrostand Northern Studies was organized in July 2017 to the Russian Arctic. The course was organized under the umbrella of the Arctic PIRE project in cooperation between the George Washington University, Moscow State University, and the Russian Center for Arctic Development. The course attracted twenty undergraduate and graduate students from Russia, USA, and EU countries and involved instructors specializing in Arctic system science, geocryology, permafrost engineering, and urban sustainability. The field course was focused on studying typical natural Arctic landscapes of tundra and forest tundra; transformations of natural landscapes in urban and industrial areas around Vorkuta and Salekhard; construction and planning on permafrost and field methods and techniques, including permafrost and soil temperature monitoring, active layer thickness (ALT) measurements, studying of cryogenic processes, stratigraphic and soil investigations, vegetation and microclimate studies. The students were also engaged in a discussion of climatic change and historical development of urban areas on permafrost,and were exposed to examples of both active and passive construction principles while conducting a field survey of permafrost related building deformations. During the course, students collected more than 800 ALT and soil temperature measurements in typical landscapes around Vorkuta and Salekhard to determine effects of soil and vegetation factors on ground thermal regime; surveyed several hundreds of buildings to determine locations with most deformation

  6. A study on training needs of female health workers in tribal area of Telangana, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapolu Ramakrishna Murty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available IMR and MMR in tribal areas of Telangana are still worrisome. Often two main reasons attributed to this problem were; low number of institutional deliveries and deliveries in the absence of skilled health provider. This study intended to know how skilled are the skilled health providers and it attempted to measure the knowledge and skills of Female Health Workers in maternal care, labour/child birth and neonatal care including communication skills. The participants’ perceived training needs were also considered as important and included in this study. Out of 700 notified scheduled villages, the participants were covered approximately in 1:2 ratio (n=350. Nearly 80% (mean=281.5 of the participants obtained scores below 50% and nearly 50% (mean=168.5 of the participants have scored below 30%. The scores of 40% of the participants reflected poor communication skills. Scores in all the areas found to be poor. Scores on skills in maternal care were better than skills in childbirth and scores on skills in child birth were better than neonatal care. On the scale of perceived training needs, skills in Labour/Child birth was given top priority by participants followed by Neonatal care, Communication skills and Maternal care respectively.

  7. The study of ore minerals parageneses in Ponorogo area, East Java

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    Wiwik Dyah Hastuti Endang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken in the Southern Mountain Range of East Jawa, Ponorogo District. Tectonically, the region extends along the Magmatic Sunda-Banda Arc, which comprises predominantly volcanic rocks of Mandalika Formation, sedimentary rock units of Arjosari Formation, and intrusive sequences such as dacite, andesite and diorite. Structurally, the region is controlled by faults striking NE-SW, NW-SE and N-S. Mandalika Formation and Arjosari Formation have an interfingering relation and are Oligo-Miocene. Results of the field observation and analyses of petrography and mineragraphy on outcrops reveal that the region has commonly undergone alteration and mineralisation. The principle ore minerals occurring in the Ponorogo area are pyrite and sphalerite with abundant mineral assemblages of chalcopyrite, magnetite, hematite, galena, covelite, bornite, and limonite. Mineralisation occurs in argillic zone and subprophyllitic zone. Based on textures, structures and ore mineral assemblages, mineralisation in the study area can be devided at least into two stages. The earlier stage was present in relation to hypogene processes, and resulted in pyrite–sphalerite–chalcopyrite–magnetite– galena. The subsequent stage took place due to supergene enrichment processes, and yielded pyrite– sphalerite–covelite–bournite–limonite. Such mineral assemblages suggest that they are formed at temperatures of about 100–360° C.

  8. Hip fractures and area level socioeconomic conditions: a population-based study

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    Rapp Kilian

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only a limited number of studies have analyzed the association between hip fracture incidence and socioeconomic conditions. Most, but not all found an association, and results are in part conflicting. The aim of our study was to evaluate the association between hip fractures and socioeconomic conditions in Germany, from 1995 to 2004, on a census tract area level. Methods We used data from the national hospital discharge diagnosis register and data on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of 131 census tracts from official statistics. Associations between the hip fracture incidence and socioeconomic conditions were analyzed by multiple Poisson regression models, taking overdispersion into account. Results The risk of hip fracture decreased by 4% with a 7% increase (about one interquartile range of non-German nationals. It decreased by 10% with a 6% increased rate of unemployment, increased by 7% with a 2% increase of the proportion of welfare recipients, and also increased by 3% with an increase of the proportion of single parent families of 1.9%. Conclusion Our results showed weak associations between indicators of socioeconomic conditions at area level and hip fracture risk; the varied by type of indicator. We conclude that hip fracture incidence might be influenced by the socioeconomic context of a region, but further analysis using more specific markers for deprivation on a smaller scale and individual-level data are needed.

  9. Geochemical study of acid mine drainage of the Big Lick Tunnel area, Williamstown, PA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tollin, S.

    1993-01-01

    Acid mine drainage in the anthracite region of Pennsylvania continues to be a significant environmental problem. This study examines the acid mine outflow from the Big Lick Tunnel, north of Williamstown, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania. The tunnel drains abandoned mines on the north side of the Big Lick Mountain. Mining ceased in the area circa 1940, and the tunnel has been in operation since that time. The water, soil and stream bed sediment geochemistry has been studied to determine their changes in chemistry over distance. The pH, TDS and metal concentrations were the primary focus. Metal concentrations were determined using an ICP unit. Data indicates the pH of the outflow to range between 6.7 and 7.3 Fe and Mn concentrations are as high as 9.7 ppb. Extensive metal precipitation (''yellow boy'') occurs within the tunnel and for several hundred meters from the mouth of the tunnel. The combination of near neutral pH and high metal concentration suggest that the drainage is in contact with highly alkaline materials prior to discharge from the tunnel. The geology of the area does not suggest bedrock as the possible source of alkaline material. One hypothesis is that the acidic water is reacting with the concrete tunnel and being neutralized. Data also suggests that the Fe precipitates much quicker than the Mn, resulting in a zonation between Fe-rich and Mn-rich sediments along the length of the drainage

  10. Wide-Area Landslide Deformation Mapping with Multi-Path ALOS PALSAR Data Stacks: A Case Study of Three Gorges Area, China

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    Xuguo Shi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, satellite synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR has been adopted as a spaceborne geodetic tool to successfully measure surface deformation of a few well-known landslides in the Three Gorges area. In consideration of the fact that most events of slope failure happened at places other than those famous landslides since the reservoir impoundment in 2003, focusing on a limited number of slopes is insufficient to meet the requirements of regional-scale landslide disaster prevention and early warning. As a result, it has become a vital task to evaluate the overall stability of slopes across the vast area of Three Gorges using wide-coverage InSAR datasets. In this study, we explored the approach of carrying out joint analysis of multi-path InSAR data stacks for wide-area landslide deformation mapping. As an example, three ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite PALSAR (Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar data stacks of neighboring ascending paths covering the area along the Yangtze River from Fengjie to Zigui were analyzed. A key problem to be solved is the separation of the tropospheric signal from the interferometric phase, for which we employed a hybrid description model of the atmospheric phase screen (APS to improve APS estimation from time series interferograms. The estimated atmospheric phase was largely correlated with the seasonal rainfall in the temporal dimension. The experimental results show that about 30 slopes covering total areas of 48 km2 were identified to be landslides in active deformation and should be kept under routine surveillance. Analyses of time series displacement measurements revealed that most landslides in the mountainous area far away from Yangtze River suffered from linear deformation, whereas landslides located on the river bank were destabilized predominantly by the influences of reservoir water level fluctuation and rainfall.

  11. An ethnozoological study in the adjoining areas of Mount Abu wildlife sanctuary, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahawar Madan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that human beings are familiar with use of animals for food, cloth, medicine, etc. since ancient times. Enormous work has been done on ethnobotany and traditional medicine. Like plants, animal and their products are also possessing medicinal properties that can be exploited for the benefit of human beings. In India, many ethnic communities are dispersed all over the country and these people are still totally depended on local traditional medicinal system for their health care. India is gifted with faunal and floral biodiversity, Mount Abu wildlife sanctuary is also one of them, and thus the aim of this work was to take an ethnozoological field survey among Garasiya people (main tribal group of this area in the adjoining areas of this sanctuary. Method In order to document the ethnozoological information about animal and their products prevalent among these people in the adjoining area of Mount Abu wildlife sanctuary, a study was carried out from January, 2008 to April, 2008. Data were collected through semi-structured questionnaire and open interview with 25 (16 male and 9 female selected Garasiya people. The name of animal and other ethnozoological information were documented. Photographs and discussion were also recorded with the help of camera and voice recorder. Result A total of 24 animal species were used in 35 different medicinal purposes including asthma, weakness, tuberculosis, cough, paralysis and blister and for other religious purposes. It has been find out that animal used by Garasiya, consist of fourteen mammals, five birds, three reptiles, one arthropods and one amphibian. The meat of Cynopterus sphinx used to relieved fever and cough has the highest FL (96% although flesh of Sus scrofa and tooth of Elephas maximus have the lowest FL (12%. Some protected species such as Elephas maximus (elephant, Semnopithecus priam (monkey, Cervus unicolor (sambhar were also mentioned as important medicinal

  12. An ethnozoological study in the adjoining areas of Mount Abu wildlife sanctuary, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroli, D P; Mahawar, Madan Mohan; Vyas, Nitin

    2010-02-10

    There is evidence that human beings are familiar with use of animals for food, cloth, medicine, etc. since ancient times. Enormous work has been done on ethnobotany and traditional medicine. Like plants, animal and their products are also possessing medicinal properties that can be exploited for the benefit of human beings. In India, many ethnic communities are dispersed all over the country and these people are still totally depended on local traditional medicinal system for their health care. India is gifted with faunal and floral biodiversity, Mount Abu wildlife sanctuary is also one of them, and thus the aim of this work was to take an ethnozoological field survey among Garasiya people (main tribal group of this area) in the adjoining areas of this sanctuary. In order to document the ethnozoological information about animal and their products prevalent among these people in the adjoining area of Mount Abu wildlife sanctuary, a study was carried out from January, 2008 to April, 2008. Data were collected through semi-structured questionnaire and open interview with 25 (16 male and 9 female) selected Garasiya people. The name of animal and other ethnozoological information were documented. Photographs and discussion were also recorded with the help of camera and voice recorder. A total of 24 animal species were used in 35 different medicinal purposes including asthma, weakness, tuberculosis, cough, paralysis and blister and for other religious purposes. It has been find out that animal used by Garasiya, consist of fourteen mammals, five birds, three reptiles, one arthropods and one amphibian. The meat of Cynopterus sphinx used to relieved fever and cough has the highest FL (96%) although flesh of Sus scrofa and tooth of Elephas maximus have the lowest FL (12%). Some protected species such as Elephas maximus (elephant), Semnopithecus priam (monkey), Cervus unicolor (sambhar) were also mentioned as important medicinal resources. We also found that cough, asthma and

  13. A simulation study of moisture movement in proposed barriers for the subsurface disposal area, INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnuson, S.O.

    1993-09-01

    This document presents a simulation study that was conducted to investigate moisture movement within two engineered barriers, which are proposed for use in eventual closure of the Subsurface Disposal Area. The results of the study are intended to guide the design and implementation of field test plots that will be constructed to test the barrier designs. Discussed are the sensitivity of barrier performance to changes in the conceptual model, which was used to simulate the barriers, and to changes in hydrologic parameters, which were used to describe the materials composing the barriers. In addition, estimates are presented concerning the time required for the moisture profile within the barriers to come into equilibrium with the meteorological conditions at the surface. In addition, the performance of the barriers under conditions of supplemental precipitation and ponding is presented

  14. A case study on determining air monitoring requirements in a radioactive materials handling area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, G.J.; Bechtold, W.E.; Hoover, M.D.; Ghanbari, F.; Herring, P.S.; Jow, Hong-Nian

    1993-01-01

    A technical, defensible basis for the number and placement of air sampling instruments in a radioactive materials handling facility was developed. Historical air sampling data, process and physicochemical knowledge, qualitative smoke dispersion studies with video documentation, and quantitative trace gas dispersion studies were used to develop a strategy for number and placement of air samplers. These approaches can be used in other facilities to provide a basis for operational decisions. The requirements for retrospective sampling, personal sampling, and real-time monitoring are included. Other relevant operational decisions include selecting the numbers, placement, and appropriate sampling rates for instruments, identifying areas of stagnation or recirculation, and determining the adequacy and efficiency of any sampling transport lines. Justification is presented for using a graded approach to characterizing the workplace and determining air sampling and monitoring needs

  15. Uranium and base metal dispersion studies in the Maquire Lake area, Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopuck, V.J.; Lehto, D.A.W.; Alley, D.W.

    1980-03-01

    The objective of this study was to study uranium and base metal dispersion in various sample media occurring in the Maguire Lake area of Saskatchewan: bedrock, overburden, lake water, and lake sediments. Factors controlling partitioning of metals among various sample media were investigated, and lake sediment data were interpreted in terms of the factors to determine the significance of lake sediment data in indicating local mineralization. The association between organic matter contents and metal contents was found to vary between lake-center and nearshore sediments. Nickel, cobalt and zinc in lake sediments are strongly controlled by hydroxide precipitation and are less dependent on bedrock type. The concentration of Fe in center-lake sediments appears to reflect only the physicochemical parameters in the lake. Uranium and copper are strongly controlled by and preferentially concentrated in the organic matter; however, in center-lake sediments with >12 percent organic matter, U and Cu strongly reflect rock type

  16. A study of Sr and Nd isotopic geology during anatexis in the area No.8411

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying Junlong

    1993-01-01

    An isotopic geology study in the area No.8411 indicates that the J 1-2 sandstone is lacustrine facies sediments mainly originated from Proterozoic old continental crust. Therefore, the magmatic rocks are derived from partial melting or remelting-contamination of Proterozoic old continents in the lower crust. The initial concentration of uranium is related with the magma contamination caused by anatexis in the old sialic crust. The isotopic compositions of both uranium minerals and magmatic rocks are relatively concordant. According to the results of this study, combined with petrology, mineralogy, isotopic evolution and REE contents, it is considered that uranium is derived from the deep source and uranium source rocks are Proterozoic old continents

  17. GEOMORPHOLOGICAL MAPPING AND GEODIVERSITY: STUDY AT THE MINAS DO CAMAQUÃ GEOSITE PROTECTION AREA (BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Mendes Von Ahn

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphological mapping allows the evaluation of geoheritage and subsidizes geoconservation efforts. This work aimed at identifying and analyzing the landforms at the Minas do Camaquã Geosite Protection Area (MCGPA – Rio Grande do Sul state – Brazil, emphasizing the anthropogenic morphologies to subsidize the conservation of the studied area’s geomorphological heritage. A geomorphological map (2015 of the MCGPA was made (1:25.000 to recognize and identify the natural and anthropogenic landforms. Based on this map, four sectors were identified according to the representativeness of the landforms: (1 Mineral extraction sector; (2 Tailings deposition sector; (3 Structural features sector; and (4 Boundary sector. The mining activities were the main reason for the geomorphological alterations and the creation of anthropogenic morphologies in the site. Despite the significant disturbance caused by the mining activity, there are still features of geologic-geomorphological interest fairly preserved. The identified and analyzed anthropogenic morphologies can describe the history of the mining activities that took place in the area and which formed a set of landforms currently present in the MCGPA. Although the surface features are not originated from natural morphogenesis, they belong to the area’s geodiversity. Furthermore, considering these features as geoheritage would create the need for management aiming at avoiding the collapse and degradation of these forms. Nowadays, the mining activities have remained inactive, and this set of anthropogenic morphologies need to be understood under a geomorphological point of view which will allow future exploitation of its potential touristic, scientific, pedagogical and cultural uses. The best way to promote and develop strategies of geoconservation for this place is to create and foment geotourism in this area.

  18. Research highlights : study of the noise generated by heat pumps in residential areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, J.

    2000-01-01

    Rising energy costs and aggressive marketing played a major role in the substantial increase in the number of domestic heat pumps installed. As a rule, heat pumps are connected to the heating and ventilation systems on the outside of the house. Whether the heat pump is equipped with an integrated compressor or not, it creates noise. The noise is generated by the powerful fan designed to cool all the coils, and also by the compressor itself and the circulation of the refrigerant gas. Some municipalities received so many complaints on this topic that they are considering adopting noise bylaws. The first objective of the research undertaken by Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation on heat pumps in residential areas was to analyze the noise pollution mode of commonly used heat pumps. A study of a simple noise reduction device was performed, and the extent to which it should be used. Finally, there had to be no reduction of the thermal capacities of the pumps. Phase 1 of the study took place between May and August 1990, in the area of Quebec City. A total of 125 heat pumps were identified. The four major manufacturers were Trane, Carrier, York, and Lennox. Initial sound pressure levels measurements were made at one metre from the unit, for 80 such units, respecting the ratio by brands in the sample of 125. A detailed global noise measurement determined the sound power of each pump. A detailed muffler feasibility study was then conducted, using a Trane heat pump. The results of the study indicated that heat pumps were a major source of continuous noise in low and mid-density areas. It was discovered that a noise attenuation device could always be built around heat pumps, which needed to be installed as close as possible to the casing of the heat pump. It is not possible to design a device to fit each and every heat pump, the design is specific to the dimensions and characteristics of each model of heat pump. The thermal performance of the pumps will not be affected by

  19. Study on mutual perception between the people living in the area around a nuclear power plant and in a power-consuming area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Yoshitaka; Sakai, Yukimi; Kita, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    At first we conducted an interview survey of the urban residents, in order to gather various opinions about the area around a nuclear power plant. Then we conducted a questionnaires survey of the urban area to investigate how many people had the same opinions as we had extracted from the interview survey. We also compared these results with the site residents opinion which had been reported in other research. These results show that the urban residents tend to overestimate the risk perception of the local area and the local residents' anxiety about the nuclear power plant, and to underestimate the relationship between the electric company operating nuclear power plant and the local residents. These results also show that the local residents tend to underestimate the urban residents' knowledge of a nuclear power plant, and to take a pessimistic view of the urban residents' perception about the local residents. In order to reduce the sense of unfairness and dissatisfaction and to promote public acceptance of nuclear energy, it is desirable to reduce these misunderstanding and misconception. To this end, this study suggests that it is necessary to make them notice the misconception and grow mutual understanding by exchanging information of the opinions and the situations in each area. (author)

  20. Plutonium concentrations and Pu/Am ratios in small vertebrates from NAEG Intensive Study Areas of NTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, W.G.; Moor, K.S.; Naegle, S.R.

    1977-01-01

    Radioecological studies of small vertebrates in Pu-contaminated areas of NTS began in spring 1972 and have continued to date. Species conposition, relative abundance, and other pertinent ecological data have been presented in previous reports. In addition, data analysis of Pu and Am concentrations in selected rodent and lizard species has been presented for all NAEG Intensive Study Areas. This report provides further analysis of Pu concentration in small vertebrates of Areas 5 and 11, NTS

  1. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, North Ramp area of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, J.P.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Gillies, D.C. [eds.

    1999-03-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being investigated by the US Department of Energy as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of surface-based geologic, pneumatic, hydrologic, and geochemical studies conducted during 1992 to 1996 by the US Geological Survey in the vicinity of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) that are pertinent to understanding multiphase fluid flow within the deep unsaturated zone. Detailed stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the study area provided the hydrogeologic framework for these investigations. Shallow infiltration is not discussed in detail in this report because the focus in on three major aspects of the deep unsaturated-zone system: geologic framework, the gaseous-phase system, and the aqueous-phase system. However, because the relation between shallow infiltration and deep percolation is important to an overall understanding of the unsaturated-zone flow system, a summary of infiltration studies conducted to date at Yucca Mountain is provided in the section titled Shallow Infiltration. This report describes results of several Site Characterization Plan studies that were ongoing at the time excavation of the ESF North Ramp began and that continued as excavation proceeded.

  2. Capturing heterogeneity: The role of a study area's extent for estimating mean throughfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Alexander; Voss, Sebastian; Metzger, Johanna Clara; Hildebrandt, Anke; Zimmermann, Beate

    2016-11-01

    The selection of an appropriate spatial extent of a sampling plot is one among several important decisions involved in planning a throughfall sampling scheme. In fact, the choice of the extent may determine whether or not a study can adequately characterize the hydrological fluxes of the studied ecosystem. Previous attempts to optimize throughfall sampling schemes focused on the selection of an appropriate sample size, support, and sampling design, while comparatively little attention has been given to the role of the extent. In this contribution, we investigated the influence of the extent on the representativeness of mean throughfall estimates for three forest ecosystems of varying stand structure. Our study is based on virtual sampling of simulated throughfall fields. We derived these fields from throughfall data sampled in a simply structured forest (young tropical forest) and two heterogeneous forests (old tropical forest, unmanaged mixed European beech forest). We then sampled the simulated throughfall fields with three common extents and various sample sizes for a range of events and for accumulated data. Our findings suggest that the size of the study area should be carefully adapted to the complexity of the system under study and to the required temporal resolution of the throughfall data (i.e. event-based versus accumulated). Generally, event-based sampling in complex structured forests (conditions that favor comparatively long autocorrelations in throughfall) requires the largest extents. For event-based sampling, the choice of an appropriate extent can be as important as using an adequate sample size.

  3. Pesticide impact study in the peri-urban horticultural area of Gran La Plata, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Loughlin, Tomás M; Peluso, Leticia; Marino, Damián J G

    2017-11-15

    Vegetable production systems are characterized by intense pesticide use, yet the effects on the surrounding environment are largely unknown and need to be studied. Given this knowledge gap, the objective of this work is to determine the impact of horticulture on a representative watercourse by conducting an integrated study of the occurrence and concentration of pesticides in bottom sediments and their relation to lethal and sublethal effects on benthic fauna. Two sampling campaigns were conducted during seasons of low and high pesticide application in five sites along the Carnaval creek, located in the peri-urban area of La Plata City (Buenos Aires, Argentina). The samples were tested for 36 pesticide compounds by GC-MS and LC-MS, and whole-sediment laboratory toxicity tests were performed using the native amphipod Hyalella curvispina. The results showed a general but variable distribution in the concentrations detected along the stream. For each sampling campaign (first/second), the total pesticide loads, measured as the sum of herbicides, insecticides and fungicides, were 1080/2329, 3715/88, and 367/5ngg -1 dw, respectively. Lethal and sublethal effects were observed in both sampling campaigns. In order to correlate both sets of results, data were assessed by multivariate analysis, including principal component analysis. The observed toxicity was considered to be mainly due to insecticides; thus, horticultural practices have an impact on nearby watercourses and can potentially endanger the benthic fauna. This is the first study in Argentina to assess the impact of pesticides on aquatic environments close to horticultural production areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Case Study on the Walking Speed of Pedestrian at the Bus Terminal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ali Mohd Firdaus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Walking speed is one of the factors in understanding the pedestrian walking behaviours. Every pedestrian has different level of walking speed that are regulated by some factors such as gender and age. This study was conducted at a bus terminal area with two objectives in which the first one was to determine the average walking speed of pedestrian by considering the factors of age, gender, people with and without carrying baggage; and the second one was to make a comparison of the average walking speed that considered age as the factor of comparison between pedestrian at the bus terminal area and crosswalk. Demographic factor of pedestrian walking speed in this study are gender and age consist of male, female, and 7 groups of age categories that are children, adult men and women, senior adult men and women, over 70 and disabled person. Data of experiment was obtained by making a video recording of the movement of people that were walking and roaming around at the main lobby for 45 minutes by using a camcorder. Hence, data analysis was done by using software named Human Behaviour Simulator (HBS for analysing the data extracted from the video. The result of this study was male pedestrian walked faster than female with the average of walking speed 1.13m/s and 1.07m/s respectively. Averagely, pedestrian that walked without carrying baggage had higher walking speed compared to pedestrian that were carrying baggage with the speed of 1.02m/s and 0.70m/s respectively. Male pedestrian walks faster than female because they have higher level of stamina and they are mostly taller than female pedestrian. Furthermore, pedestrian with baggage walks slower because baggage will cause distractions such as pedestrian will have more weight to carry and people tend to walk slower.

  5. A Case Study on the Walking Speed of Pedestrian at the Bus Terminal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus Mohamad Ali, Mohd; Salleh Abustan, Muhamad; Hidayah Abu Talib, Siti; Abustan, Ismail; Rahman, Noorhazlinda Abd; Gotoh, Hitoshi

    2018-03-01

    Walking speed is one of the factors in understanding the pedestrian walking behaviours. Every pedestrian has different level of walking speed that are regulated by some factors such as gender and age. This study was conducted at a bus terminal area with two objectives in which the first one was to determine the average walking speed of pedestrian by considering the factors of age, gender, people with and without carrying baggage; and the second one was to make a comparison of the average walking speed that considered age as the factor of comparison between pedestrian at the bus terminal area and crosswalk. Demographic factor of pedestrian walking speed in this study are gender and age consist of male, female, and 7 groups of age categories that are children, adult men and women, senior adult men and women, over 70 and disabled person. Data of experiment was obtained by making a video recording of the movement of people that were walking and roaming around at the main lobby for 45 minutes by using a camcorder. Hence, data analysis was done by using software named Human Behaviour Simulator (HBS) for analysing the data extracted from the video. The result of this study was male pedestrian walked faster than female with the average of walking speed 1.13m/s and 1.07m/s respectively. Averagely, pedestrian that walked without carrying baggage had higher walking speed compared to pedestrian that were carrying baggage with the speed of 1.02m/s and 0.70m/s respectively. Male pedestrian walks faster than female because they have higher level of stamina and they are mostly taller than female pedestrian. Furthermore, pedestrian with baggage walks slower because baggage will cause distractions such as pedestrian will have more weight to carry and people tend to walk slower.

  6. AFM-based tribological study of nanopatterned surfaces: the influence of contact area instabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, A; Serpini, E; Gazzadi, G C; Valeri, S

    2016-04-06

    Although the importance of morphology on the tribological properties of surfaces has long been proved, an exhaustive understanding of nanopatterning effects is still lacking due to the difficulty in both fabricating 'really nano-' structures and detecting their tribological properties. In the present work we show how the probe-surface contact area can be a critical parameter due to its remarkable local variability, making a correct interpretation of the data very difficult in the case of extremely small nanofeatures. Regular arrays of parallel 1D straight nanoprotrusions were fabricated by means of a low-dose focused ion beam, taking advantage of the amorphization-related swelling effect. The tribological properties of the patterns were detected in the presence of air and in vacuum (dry ambient) by atomic force microscopy. We have introduced a novel procedure and data analysis to reduce the uncertainties related to contact instabilities. The real time estimation of the radius of curvature of the contacting asperity enables us to study the dependence of the tribological properties of the patterns from their geometrical characteristics. The effect of the patterns on both adhesion and the coefficient of friction strongly depends on the contact area, which is linked to the local radius of curvature of the probe. However, a detectable hydrophobic character induced on the hydrophilic native SiO2 has been observed as well. The results suggest a scenario for capillary formation on the patterns.

  7. A Study Of 370 Live Births In A Rural Area Of Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Surinder

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in12 Anganwadi areas of ferozepur District in Punjab to know about the various aspects of reproduction of the population. A total of 13, 782 population was covered. The sex ratio of the surveyed population was 900.7 females to 1000 males. The crude Birth rate of the area came to be 26.83 per 1000 population. In 94.87% of the births, the delivery occurred at the completion of 36 weeks of Gestation period & majority of the births (91.63% occurred to the mothers in the age group of 20 to 35 years . 24.86% of the children were born to the mothers with parity of five and above. 46.75% of the births took place between the months of July and October. 96.22% of the deliveries were conducted at home and majority (93.79% of the mothers utilized the services of indigenous dais( 73.52% of trained dais and 20.27% of untrained dais for the conduction of delivery.

  8. Evaluation of MEDALUS model for desertification hazard zonation using GIS; study area: Iyzad Khast plain, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Manuchehr; Egbal, Mahbobeh Nik

    2007-08-15

    In this study, the MEDALUS model along with GIS mapping techniques are used to determine desertification hazards for a province of Iran to determine the desertification hazard. After creating a desertification database including 20 parameters, the first steps consisted of developing maps of four indices for the MEDALUS model including climate, soil, vegetation and land use were prepared. Since these parameters have mostly been presented for the Mediterranean region in the past, the next step included the addition of other indicators such as ground water and wind erosion. Then all of the layers weighted by environmental conditions present in the area were used (following the same MEDALUS framework) before a desertification map was prepared. The comparison of two maps based on the original and modified MEDALUS models indicates that the addition of more regionally-specific parameters into the model allows for a more accurate representation of desertification processes across the Iyzad Khast plain. The major factors affecting desertification in the area are climate, wind erosion and low land quality management, vegetation degradation and the salinization of soil and water resources.

  9. AFM-based tribological study of nanopatterned surfaces: the influence of contact area instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rota, A; Serpini, E; Gazzadi, G C; Valeri, S

    2016-01-01

    Although the importance of morphology on the tribological properties of surfaces has long been proved, an exhaustive understanding of nanopatterning effects is still lacking due to the difficulty in both fabricating ‘really nano-’ structures and detecting their tribological properties. In the present work we show how the probe–surface contact area can be a critical parameter due to its remarkable local variability, making a correct interpretation of the data very difficult in the case of extremely small nanofeatures. Regular arrays of parallel 1D straight nanoprotrusions were fabricated by means of a low-dose focused ion beam, taking advantage of the amorphization-related swelling effect. The tribological properties of the patterns were detected in the presence of air and in vacuum (dry ambient) by atomic force microscopy. We have introduced a novel procedure and data analysis to reduce the uncertainties related to contact instabilities. The real time estimation of the radius of curvature of the contacting asperity enables us to study the dependence of the tribological properties of the patterns from their geometrical characteristics. The effect of the patterns on both adhesion and the coefficient of friction strongly depends on the contact area, which is linked to the local radius of curvature of the probe. However, a detectable hydrophobic character induced on the hydrophilic native SiO 2 has been observed as well. The results suggest a scenario for capillary formation on the patterns. (paper)

  10. Comparative study of urban development and groundwater condition in coastal areas of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Capítulo, Leandro; Carretero, Silvina C.; Kruse, Eduardo E.

    2017-08-01

    The geomorphological evolution of a sand-dune barrier in Buenos Aires, Argentina, is analyzed as a factor regulating the fresh groundwater reserves available. The impact of geomorphological evolution and the consequences for the social and economic development of two coastal areas are assessed. This is one of the most important tourist destinations in the country; for study purposes, it was divided into a northern sector and a southern sector. In the southern sector, the exploitable groundwater is associated with the Holocene and upper Pleistocene geomorphological evolution, which generated three interrelated aquifer units, constituting a system whose useful thickness reaches at least 45 m. In contrast, the northern sector is restricted to two Holocene aquifer units, whose total thickness is on the order of 12 m. The morphological characteristics and the occurrence of the largest fresh groundwater reserves in the southern sector are indicators of better conditions for economic growth, which is mainly reflected on the expansion of real estate ventures. The relationships of transmissivity vs area of real estate ventures (Arev), and total water consumption vs Arev, are indicators for the sustainable management of the water resources. The approach chosen may be used by decision makers in other regions to assess the feasibility of future tourism projects on the basis of the availability of water resources associated with geomorphological features.

  11. WEF nexus indicators: A study on the development of indicators for urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, M. H.; Lo, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    Energy shortages and resources constraints have both emerged as one of the greatest challenges facing mankind this century.By 2030, humans will require 30% more water, 45% more energy and 50 % more food. The Food- Energy -Water (FEW) nexus is extensive and few areas are now untouched by it. Competition for energy and resources is increasing , especially in urban areas. To explore ways of meeting the challenges and seizing new opportunities, indicators could provide valuable information on complex issues in a relatively accessible way. In this paper, we develop a framework for selection of indicators, to assess the comprehensive sustainable status and trends to the FEW system .We identify indicators based on related ecosystem services to examine the status of FEW sustainability. We test the framework on two case studies in Taipei and Canberra. Several criteria were used to evaluate the usefulness of the selected indicators, including scalability and sensitivity . This paper identifies the need to establish indicators that entirely and largely reveal the potential of an ecosystem services support by FEW sustainability.

  12. Study of structural change in volcanic and geothermal areas using seismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhana, Najwa; Foulger, Gillian; Julian, Bruce; peirce, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Long Valley caldera is a large silicic volcano. It has been in a state of volcanic and seismic unrest since 1978. Farther escalation of this unrest could pose a threat to the 5,000 residents and the tens of thousands of tourists who visit the area. We have studied the crustal structure beneath 28 km X 16 km area using seismic tomography. We performed tomographic inversions for the years 2009 and 2010 with a view to differencing it with the 1997 result to look for structural changes with time and whether repeat tomography is a capable of determining the changes in structure in volcanic and geothermal reservoirs. Thus, it might provide a useful tool to monitoring physical changes in volcanoes and exploited geothermal reservoirs. Up to 600 earthquakes, selected from the best-quality events, were used for the inversion. The inversions were performed using program simulps12 [Thurber, 1983]. Our initial results show that changes in both V p and V s were consistent with the migration of CO2 into the upper 2 km or so. Our ongoing work will also invert pairs of years simultaneously using a new program, tomo4d [Julian and Foulger, 2010]. This program inverts for the differences in structure between two epochs so it can provide a more reliable measure of structural change than simply differencing the results of individual years.

  13. A study on groundwater infiltration in the Horonobe area, northern Hokkaido, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Hideharu; Yamamoto, Yoichi; Maekawa, Keisuke; Hara, Minoru

    2011-01-01

    In the Horonobe area of northern Hokkaido, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been carrying out various hydrological observations to estimate the recharge rate. Subsurface earth temperature and soil moisture content have been observed at HGW-1 site (GL-0.7m to GL-2.3m, since 2005) and Hokushin Meteorological Station (GL-0.1m to GL-1.1m, since 2008). The results have revealed groundwater infiltration and recharge occurring throughout year, the shallow groundwater-infiltration velocity depending on the depth and the position of the Zero Flux Plane. For the estimation of boundary conditions in groundwater flow simulation, in this study, the shallow groundwater-flow system has been examined qualitatively on the basis of the variation of the subsurface earth temperature and the soil moisture content. In the future, it is necessary to quantitatively assess the shallow groundwater infiltration and recharge rate, the intermediate runoff, and the evapotranspiration based on the observed data of the weighing lysimeter, and the other measurement stations in the area. (author)

  14. Particulate Matter Air Pollution in an Urban Area : a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Holnicki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many European agglomerations suffer from high concentrations of particulate matter (PM, which is now one of the most detrimental pollutants characterizing the urban atmospheric environment. This paper addresses the problem of PM10 pollution in the Warsaw metropolitan area, including very harmful fine fractions (PM2.5, and also some heavy metals. The analysis of air quality in the Warsaw agglomeration discussed in this study is based on results from computer modeling presented elsewhere, and refers to emission and meteorological data for the year 2012. The range of emissions considered in this analysis includes the main sectors of municipal activity: energy generation, industry, urban transport, residential sector. The trans-boundary inflow of the main pollutants coming from distant sources is also taken into account. The regional scale computer model CALPUFF was used to assess the annual mean concentrations of major pollutants in the urban area. The results show the regions where the air quality limits are exceeded and indicate the dominant sources of emission which are responsible for these violations (source apportionment. These are the key data required to implement efficient regulatory actions. (original abstract

  15. Mineralogical study of uraniferous graphitic ore from Deogpyeong, Mogso and southern part of Daejeon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D J; Nam, S K [Korean Inst. of Energy and Resources, Seoul (Republic of Korea)

    1981-11-01

    Uranium minerals of torbernite, metatorbernite, metatyuyamunite and autunite have been identified from the uraniferous ores in graphitic beds of Ogcheon Group in Deogpyeong, Mogso and southern part of Daejeon area. Polarizing and ore microscopic studies, and chemical and X-ray powder diffraction analyses were carried out on the uraniferous graphite and associated materials. Main component minerals of uraniferous samples are graphite and quartz. Minor minerals are calcite, muscovite, sericite, andalusite, barite, kaolinite, hyaline opal, uranium minerals, sulfides such as pyrite, chalcopyrite, zincblende, and pyrrhotite, limonite, zeolite minerals such as laumontite and heulandite. Metatyuyamunite, torbernite, metatorbernite and autunite generally occur together with secondary minerals such as kaolinite, hyaline opal, calcite and limonite. They were found along the minor fissures or on the surface. Secondary uranium minerals described above were formed by supergenetic origin from primary uranium mineral. Uraniferous phosphatic nodule from Deogpyeong area are mainly composed of graphite and fluorapatite. And minor minerals are barite, quartz, muscovite and pyrite. Autoradiograph from uraniferous nodule shows that uranium enrichment in outer part of nodules is much higher than in inner part. This feature coincides with chemical analyses data of this uraniferous nodule.

  16. Study on Geotechnique and Geohydrology in Failure Areas, P2PLR-BATAN, Serpong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heri-Syaeful; Suharji; Sartapa; Suparjo-AS

    2004-01-01

    Failures in reverse side of 50 and 52 building, first en occurred in early 2002, temporary treatment on slope failure which conducted in the middle of the year 2002 has not solved the problem, because it did not consider the aspect of geo technique and geohydrology that causing the failure. Geo technique and geohydrology study in failure area covered field work, laboratory work and geo technic/geohydrology analysis. Field works includes topographic mapping, core drilling, hand auger, groundwater level monitoring, standard penetration test and undisturbed sampling. Laboratory work includes index properties and engineering properties test. Studio works covered geotechnical analysis for the calculation of safety factor, while geohydrology analysis to understand the groundwater system. Slope stability analysis resulting the small number of safety factor, between 0,305-1,637 on normal condition, 0,293-1,597 on saturated condition and 0,205-1,075 on earthquake condition. From the geohydrology analysis, concluded that water clogging still occurs in several areas of slope, causing the excess of pore water pressure and decreasing the value of soil shear strength. (author)

  17. WATERSHED BASED WEB GIS: CASE STUDY OF PALOPO WATERSHED AREA SOUTH SULAWESI, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalaluddin Rumi PRASAD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Data and land resource information complete, accurate, and current is an input in management planning, evaluation, and monitoring Watershed. Implementation of this research is conducted with optimum utilization of secondary data that is supported by direct field measurement data, digitalizing the maps associated, Geographic Information Systems modeling, and model calibration. This research has resulted in a Geographic Information System Management of potential Watershed GIS Web-based or abbreviated WEB GIS MPPDAS using Palopo watershed area, South Sulawesi as a case study sites for the development of a prototype that consists of three applications the main website ie Web Portal, Web GIS, and Web Tutorial. The system is built to show online (and offline maps watershed in the administrative area of Palopo along with the location of its potential accumulated in the four (4 groups of layers, including groups of main layer (2 layer, a group of base layer (14 layers, groups of thematic layers (12 layers, a group of policy layer (8 layer. In addition to display a map, use the WEB application of GIS MPPDAS can also use tools or controls in the application to perform analyzes in its monitoring and evaluation, including: Geocoding, Add layer, Digitizing, Selection, Measurements, Graph, Filtering, Geolocation, Overlay cartographic, and etc.

  18. Social Impacts of Solar Home Systems in Rural Areas: A Case Study in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsanul Kabir

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As an alternative source of off-grid electric power, solar home systems (SHS stand out above all other options (e.g., wind, hydro, geo-thermal, tidal systems because of their wide-scale potential at latitudes less than 45° north or south of the Equator where daily solar irradiance is more constant throughout the year and where the bulk of the Third World’s population live. A questionnaire-based survey study was carried out in a rural area of Bangladesh to ascertain the impacts of SHSs on the lives of the rural population. The installation of an SHS was found to improve the comfort and living standard of rural dwellers. Easier access to TV, radio, cellphone, and the Internet helped the rural population become part of a more global culture. More attractive down-payment and installment package options will allow poor target groups to adopt this system. The standard of SHS components and after-sales service should be improved to ensure sustainably and popularity among the mass population for at least 10 years at minimal cost to the consumer. Our findings can also help policymakers adopt more SHS-friendly policies to further the interests of inhabitants of rural areas that are not connected to the grid.

  19. KARAKTERISTIK PERILAKU MALSUAI SISWA PENGHUNI AREA PROSTITUSI (Studi Kasus Siswa SMPN2 Limpung Batang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maskur *

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study is on the negative behavior of the students that appear to hamper their adjustment ability. Deviant behavior arises from ineffective behavior to deviant behavior inappropriate performed by them, both from the social regulations and religious norms. Self reporting, self-disclosure, and interviews were used to obtain the data. Observations were also carried out to observe the physiological reactions, action subject spontaneity that occurred outside the control of the subject, due to mental stress or feeling, as a subject of psychological phenomena. Descriptive-interpretative analysis, as teoritized by Milles and Huberman, was used to analyze the data. This research found that 51 of the 83 students who lived in the area of prostitution still had a positive self-adjustment capability, although residing around or near the area of prostitution. While the rest (32 students had various problem to adjust their behavior to the school code of conduct, social norms and religious norms. Their deviant behavior appeared in truant behavior. becoming a helper on a truck until cross the province, smoking, rough with friends and teachers, consumption of liquor and dextro pills, like dealing with spirits, search pander prostitutes, to do free sex . The factors that affected the appearance of their deviant behavior was their parents' behavior that was often out of control, as well as family members. Environment and school friends and networks outside the school also became a strong factor influencing the emergence deviant behavior.

  20. Evaluation of seismic reflection data in the Davis and Lavender Canyons study area, Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitcho, C.A.; Wong, I.G.; Turcotte, F.T.

    1986-08-01

    Seismic reflection data purchased from petroleum industry brokers and acquired through group speculative surveys were interpreted for information on the regional subsurface geologic structure and stratigraphy within and surrounding the Davis and Lavender Canyons study area in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah. Structures of interest were faults, folds, joints, and collapse structures related to salt dissolution. The seismic reflection data were used to interpret stratigraphy by identifying continuous and discontinuous reflectors on the seismic profiles. Thickening and thinning of strata and possible areas of salt flowage or dissolution could be identified from the seismic data. Identifiable reflectors included the tops of the Precambrian and Mississippian, a distinctive interbed close to the middle of the Pennsylvanian Paradox salt formation (probably the interval between Salt Cycles 10 and 13), and near the top of the Paradox salt. Of the 56 faults identified from the seismic reflection interpretation, 33 trend northwest, west-northwest, or west, and most affect only the deeper part of the stratigraphic section. These faults are part of the deep structural system found throughout the Paradox Basin, including the fold and fault belt in the northeast part of the basin. The faults bound basement Precambrian blocks that experienced minor activity during Mississippian and early Pennsylvanian deposition, and showed major displacement during early Paradox salt deposition as the Paradox Basin subsided. Based on the seismic data, most of these faults appear to have an upward terminus between the top of the Mississippian and the salt interbed reflector