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Sample records for saskatoons amelanchier alnifolia

  1. A tissue culture technique for Amelanchier alnifolia%桤叶唐棣组培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王占龙; 黄立华; 龙忠伟

    2013-01-01

    A research on tissue culture of Amelanchier alnifolia was summarized and the optimal mediums were proposed in this paper.The medium of MS + BA 0.6 mg/L + NAA 0.12 mg/L + IBA 0.4 mg/L + sucrose 35 g/L + agar 8 g/L was optimal for inducement,the inducement rate could be up to 74% ; The medium of MS + BA 1.5 mg/L + IBA 1.0 mg/L + sucrose 35 g/L + agar 8 g/L was optimal for subculture,and the number of proliferation was 5.56 ; The medium of 1/2MS +NAA0.05 mg/L + IBA 1.0 mg/L + sucrose 35 g/L + agar 8 g/L was optimal for rooting,and the rooting rate was 91%.%对桤叶唐棣进行组织培养研究,结果表明,诱导培养基配方为MS+ BA 0.6 mg/L+ NAA 0.12 mg/L+ IBA0.4 mg/L+蔗糖35 g/L+琼脂8g/L,诱导率达到了74%;增殖培养基配方为MS+ BA 1.5 mg/L+ IBA 1.0 mg/L+蔗糖35 g/L+琼脂8 g/L,增殖倍数达到5.56倍;生根培养基配方为1/2MS+ NAA 0.05 mg/L+ IBA 1.0 mg/L+蔗糖35 g/L+琼脂8 g/L,生根率达91%.

  2. Serviceberry [Amerlanchier alnifolia (Nutt.) Nutt. ex. M. Roem(Rosaceae)] leaf exhibits mammalian alpha glucosidase activity and suppresses postprandial glycemic response in a mouse model of diet induced obesity/hyperglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several plant-based remedies offer cost-effective management of diabetes, but few plant species adapted to North America have been validated for their antidiabetic properties. One such species is serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia), found in Browning, MT, which has been traditionally used by the Am...

  3. First report of Juneberry rust caused by Gymnosporangium nelsonii on Juneberry in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelanchier alnifolia, commonly known as juneberry or Saskatoon serviceberry, was historically a prairie fruit native to the Northern Great Plains, southern Yukon and Northwest Territories. While juneberry is an important fruit crop in the prairie provinces of Canada, small commercial plantings also...

  4. Lipid composition of Evonimus japonicus L., Piracanttia coccinea L. and Amelanchier cannadensis L. seed oils

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    Zlatanov, M.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Lipid composition of Evonimus japonicus L., Piracantha coccinea L. and Amelanchier cannadensis L. seed oils. The seeds of Evonimus japonicus L., Piracantha coccinea L. and Amelanchier cannadensis L. contained 45.4%, 3.7% and 7.2% oil respectively. Oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids predominated in the triacylglycerols. The content of phospholipids in the oils, mainly phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidic acids was 1.1%, 7.5% and 2.8% respectively. The sterols amounts were found to be 0.4% in Evonimus japonicus L oil, 0.6% in Piracantha coccinea L. oil and 0.9% in Amelanchier cannadensis L. oil. β-Sitosterol was the main component in all oils. Campesterol, stigmasterol, brassicasterol, cholesterol, 7-estigmasterol, Δ7,25-estigmasterol, Δ5-avenasterol and Δ7-avenasterol were identified in small quantities too. All of the tocopherols were identified in the oils.

    El contenido en aceite de las semillas Evonimus japonicus L., Piracantha coccinea L. y Amelanchier cannadensis L. y Amelancliier cannadensis L fue del 45,4%, 3,7% y 7,2% respectivamente. Los ácidos oleico, linoleico y palmítico predominaron en los triacilgliceroles. El contenido de fosfolípidos en los aceites, principalmente fosfatidilcolina, fosfatidilinositol, fosfatidiletanolamina y ácidos fosfatídicos fue del 1,1 %, 7,5% y 2,8% respectivamente. Las cantidades de esteroles encontradas fueron del 0,4% en el aceite de Evonimus japonicus L, 0,6% en el aceite de Piracantha coccinea L y 0,9% en el aceite de Amelanchier cannadensis L. El componente principal en todos los aceites fue el β-sitosterol. Se identificaron también en pequeñas cantidades campesterol, estigmasterol, brasicasterol, colesterol, Δ7-estigmasterol, Δ7,25-estigmasterol, Δ5-avenasterol y

  5. Comparing and combining the Saskatoon, QMAP, and COBE CMB maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yongzhong; Tegmark, Max; de Oliveira-Costa, Angelica; Devlin, Mark J.; Herbig, Thomas; Miller, Amber D.; Netterfield, C. Barth; Page, Lyman

    2001-05-15

    We present a method for comparing and combining maps with different resolutions and beam shapes, and apply it to the Saskatoon, QMAP, and COBE-DMR data sets. Although the Saskatoon and QMAP maps detect signals at the 21{sigma} and 40{sigma} levels, respectively, their difference is consistent with pure noise, placing strong limits on possible systematic errors. In particular, we obtain quantitative upper limits on relative calibration and pointing errors. Splitting the combined data by frequency shows similar consistency between the Ka and Q bands, placing limits on foreground contamination. The visual agreement between the maps is equally striking. Our combined QMAP+Saskatoon map, nicknamed QMASK, is publicly available on the web together with its 6495x6495 noise covariance matrix. This thoroughly tested data set covers a large enough area (648 square degrees -- currently the largest degree-scale map available) to allow a statistical comparison with COBE-DMR, showing good agreement.

  6. Quality of Life and Perceptions of Crime in Saskatoon, Canada

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    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between crime and quality of life in Saskatoon, Canada. The city has one of the highest crime rates in the country and has been referred to as the "Crime Capital of Canada", a label that comes as a surprise to many residents and causes considerable concern among others. The aim of this research…

  7. Biolarvicidal and pupicidal activity of Acalypha alnifolia Klein ex Willd.(Family:Euphorbiaceae) leaf extract and microbial insecticide, Metarhizium anisopliae(Metsch.)against malaria fever mosquito Anopheles stephensi Liston

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    This study was made to determine the biological activity of Acalypha alnifolia leaf extract and the microbial insecticide Metarizhium anisopliae against larvae and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. Ethanolic A. alnifolia leaf extract tested against 1st through 4th instars and pupae o...

  8. Total nutritional capacity and inflammation inhibition effect of Acalypha alnifolia Klein ex wild—An unexplored wild leafy vegetable

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    Revathi Ponnusamy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the nutritional as well as trace elements of a wild leafy vegetable, Acalypha alnifolia, and evaluation of the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties of acetone and methanol leaf extracts are the main objectives of the present study. The powdered A. alnifolia leaf sample was subjected to nutritional and mineral analysis. Plant leaves were extracted (using the Soxhlet apparatus as successive solvent extractions. The extract doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg of acetone and methanol extracts were used for pharmacology study. The analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic experiments were carried out by using animal models. The obtained result proves that the plant possesses essential nutritive values and useful biological properties. The higher dose of acetone extract has significant potency when compared with methanol extract at p < 0.005. On the whole, the plant is rich in minerals and has good biological properties; hence, this plant is suggested for cultivation and regular use for nutritional supplement.

  9. Larvicidal and pupicidal properties of Acalypha alnifolia Klein ex Willd. (Euphorbiaceae) leaf extract and the microbial insecticide Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) against lymphatic filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus..

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was made to determine the mosquitocidal properties of Acalypha alnifolia leaf extract combined with the use of Metarizhium anisopliae spores for control of the lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The methanolic leaf extract showed larvicidal and pupicidal effects after 24...

  10. Larvicidal and pupicidal properties of Acalypha alnifolia Klein ex willd.(Euphorbiaceae) leaf extract and the microbial insecticide Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) against lymphatic filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Sa

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was made to determine the mosquitocidal properties of Acalypha alnifolia leaf extract combined with the use of Metarizhium anisopliae spores for control of the lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The methanolic leaf extract showed larvicidal and pupicidal effects after 24...

  11. Giant cell arteritis in a neuro-ophthalmology clinic in Saskatoon, 1998-2003.

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    Ramstead, Cory L; Patel, Anil D

    2007-04-01

    We present a retrospective review of all biopsy-positive cases of giant cell arteritis (GCA) presenting to a neuro-ophthalmology practice in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Records of 141 consecutive patients who underwent temporal artery biopsy at the Saskatoon Eye Centre from July 1998 through June 2003 were reviewed. Patients that were biopsy-positive for GCA were studied and an estimated regional incidence was calculated. Study variables included age at diagnosis, sex, ethnicity, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) level. Of 141 patients, 37 (26%) had a positive biopsy result for GCA; 11 underwent a second biopsy for a total of 152 biopsies. The average age of the biopsy-positive patients was 76.5 (SD 8.2) years, and the female-to-male ratio was 2.4:l. There were 35 patients (95%) of European descent and 2 patients (5%) of Aboriginal descent. Twenty-three patients had both ESR and CRP testing done before starting steroids. The ESR was elevated in 19 (83%) and the CRP in 22 (96%). The estimated incidence of GCA for Saskatoon and area was 9.4 per 100,000 for people over the age of 50 years. GCA occurs primarily in people of European descent; however, it can affect North American people of Aboriginal descent. Sensitivity for the detection of GCA is higher in CRP than in ESR. The estimated incidence of GCA in Saskatoon and surrounding referral area is moderate compared with other northern areas.

  12. Effect of drying techniques on the retention of antioxidant activities of Saskatoon berries

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    Pranabendu Mitra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to compare the retention of antioxidant activity and total anthocyanin content of Saskatoon berries dried by freeze drying, microwave-vacuum drying, thin layer hot air drying and vacuum drying. Antioxidant activity of berry samples was determined by DPPH radical scavenging and ABTS radical scavenging, and the pH differential method was used to determine total anthocyanin content of the berry samples. The results showed that the freeze dried Saskatoon berries exhibited the highest retention of anthocyanin and antioxidant activity among the dried samples, followed by microwave-vacuum dried berries, thin layer hot air dried berries and vacuum dried berries. There were significant differences between the berry samples at P<0.05.  DPPH radical scavenging and ABTS radical scavenging were correlated linearly with an R2 value of 0.99 at P<0.05 showing their effectiveness for the determination of the antioxidant activity of the Saskatoon berries. However, the DPPH radical scavenging assay was more effective than the ABTS radical scavenging assay. The results also showed that antioxidant activity of the berries was highly correlated with the total anthocyanin content of the fruit. The reduction of anthocyanin in dried berry samples was linearly correlated with the reduction of DPPH radical scavenging with an R2 value of 0.97 at P<0.05 and, also, linearly correlated with the reduction of ABTS radical scavenging with an R2 value of 0.88 at P<0.05.

  13. High Frequency of Hb E-Saskatoon (HBB: c.67G > A) in Brazilians: A New Genetic Origin?

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    Wagner, Sandrine C; Lindenau, Juliana D; Castro, Simone M de; Santin, Ana Paula; Zaleski, Carina F; Azevedo, Laura A; Ribeiro Dos Santos, Ândrea K C; Dos Santos, Sidney E B; Hutz, Mara H

    2016-08-01

    Hb E-Saskatoon [β22(B4)Glu→Lys, HBB: c.67G > A] is a rare, nonpathological β-globin variant that was first described in a Canadian woman of Scottish and Dutch ancestry and has since then been detected in several populations. The aim of the present study was to identify the origin of Hb E-Saskatoon in Brazil using β-globin haplotypes and genetic ancestry in carriers of this hemoglobin (Hb) variant. Blood samples were investigated by isoelectric focusing (IEF) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using commercial kits. Hb E-Saskatoon was confirmed by amplification of the HBB gene, followed by sequence analysis. Haplotypes of the β-globin gene were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by digestion with specific restriction enzymes. Individual ancestry was estimated with 48 biallelic insertion/deletions using three 16-plex PCR amplifications. The IEF pattern was similar to Hbs C (HBB: c.19G > A) and Hb E (HBB: c.79G > A) [isoelectric point (pI): 7.59-7.65], and HPLC results showed an elution in the Hb S (HBB: c.20A > T) window [retention time (RT): 4.26-4.38]. DNA sequencing of the amplified β-globin gene showed a mutation at codon 22 (GAA>AAA) corresponding to Hb E-Saskatoon. A total of 11 cases of this variant were identified. In nine unrelated individuals, Hb E-Saskatoon was in linkage disequilibrium with haplotype 2 [+ - - - -]. All subjects showed a high degree of European contribution (mean = 0.85). Hb E-Saskatoon occurred on the β-globin gene of haplotype 2 in all Brazilian carriers. These findings suggest a different genetic origin for this Hb variant from that previously described.

  14. Identifying Factors Associated with Changes in CD4+ Count in HIV-Infected Adults in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan

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    Kelsey Hunt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of clinical and social factors unique to HIV-infected adults in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, regarding the rate of CD4+ count change, and to identify factors associated with a risk of CD4+ count decline.

  15. Analysis of the Community Structure of Sorbus alnifolia in Huangshan Mountain%黄山水榆花楸群落结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱靖; 伊贤贵; 汤庚国; 陈昕; 陈林; 周志光

    2016-01-01

    Objective]The aim of this paper was to understand the structure of Sorb us alnifolia in Huangshan and to provide a basis for its protection and development.[Method]Species composition and community structure of S. alnifolia was analyzed by typical sampling plot method.[Results]①There were 132 vascular plants,which belonged to 98 genera and 87 families in the 3 200 m2 quadrats;②Important value analysis showed that Pinus taiwanensis and Sasa sinica in the tree layer and shrub layer were more dominant, with a coverage of 21.47%and 26.99%,respectively;③The genera of community flora could be divided into 11 distribution types and north temperate zone plate as the main component. The world distribution Pantropic and East asian element assume a definite proportion and the plant flora had evidently characteristics of transition;④Phanerophytes(52 species of plants)were dominant in the life- form , followed by chamaephytes and hemicryptophytes;⑤According to the analyses of Raunkiaer frequency law,species abundance pattern was vided into five grades(A﹥B﹥C﹤D﹥E). ⑥The species were uneven distribution in the community. [Conclusion]The species in Sorb us alnifolia community of Huangshan was abundant. The competition of shrub layer was fierce. If there was no sufficient regeneration seedlings, S. alnifolia would be degraded.%【目的】了解黄山水榆花楸群落特征,为其资源保护和开发利用提供依据。【方法】通过典型群落样方调查,对其物种组成、群落结构进行统计与分析。【结果】①该群落在3200 m2的样地内共有维管束植物132种,隶属于54科98属;②重要值分析表明,黄山松和华箬竹在乔木层和灌木层占有较明显的优势,分别为21.47%和26.99%;③植物群落区系中属分布类型有11种,以北温带成分为主,世界分布、泛热带和东亚成分占一定比例,表现出较为明显的过渡性质;④群落内植物生活型以

  16. Evaluation of Polyphenolic Profile and Nutritional Value of Non-Traditional Fruit Species in the Czech Republic — A Comparative Study

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    Rene Kizek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Dry matter, organic acids, ascorbic acid, minerals (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium and polyphenolic profile of a number of non-traditional fruit species and their genotypes, namely blue honeysuckle (Lonicera spp., Saskatoon berry (Amelanchier alnifolia, black mulberry (Morus nigra, Tomentosa cherry (Prunus tomentosa Thunb. and jostaberry (Ribes nigrum x Grossularia uva-crispa were investigated. The results showed that Lonicera genotypes displayed high levels of ascorbic acid and they were rich in minerals, with the cultivar ‘Amfora’ achieving the leading position in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content among all lesser known fruit species. Amelanchier cultivars represented a valuable source of ascorbic acid and calcium, ‘Tišňovský’ and ‘Smoky’ together with Morus nigra ‘Jugoslavska’ accumulated the highest level of examined polyphenolic compounds. Regular consumption of studied less common fruit species can bring health benefits so they can represent a high potential value for fruit growers and in addition they can be utilised as functional foods.

  17. Evaluation of polyphenolic profile and nutritional value of non-traditional fruit species in the Czech Republic--a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurikova, Tunde; Sochor, Jiri; Rop, Otakar; Mlček, Jiří; Balla, Stefan; Szekeres, Ladislav; Zitný, Rastislav; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2012-07-27

    Dry matter, organic acids, ascorbic acid, minerals (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium) and polyphenolic profile of a number of non-traditional fruit species and their genotypes, namely blue honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.), Saskatoon berry (Amelanchier alnifolia), black mulberry (Morus nigra), Tomentosa cherry (Prunus tomentosa Thunb.) and jostaberry (Ribes nigrum x Grossularia uva-crispa) were investigated. The results showed that Lonicera genotypes displayed high levels of ascorbic acid and they were rich in minerals, with the cultivar ‘Amfora’ achieving the leading position in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content among all lesser known fruit species. Amelanchier cultivars represented a valuable source of ascorbic acid and calcium, ‘Tišňovský’ and ‘Smoky’ together with Morus nigra ‘Jugoslavska’ accumulated the highest level of examined polyphenolic compounds. Regular consumption of studied less common fruit species can bring health benefits so they can represent a high potential value for fruit growers and in addition they can be utilised as functional foods.

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius colonizing healthy dogs in Saskatoon, Canada.

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    Priyantha, Roshan; Gaunt, Mathew C; Rubin, Joseph E

    2016-01-01

    This study reports antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius carried by healthy dogs in Saskatoon, and describes changes in antimicrobial resistance since a 2008 study. One hundred healthy dogs presenting to the wellness service at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine were screened for S. pseudintermedius by culturing rectal and pharyngeal swabs. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was identified biochemically and antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by broth microdilution. Methicillin resistance was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of the mecA gene. Of 221 S. pseudintermedius isolates from 78 dogs, 7 were methicillin resistant. No resistance to the fluoroquinolones, nitrofurantoin, tigecycline, vancomycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, or daptomycin was identified. Of the 78 positive dogs, isolates resistant to penicillin were found in 78%, to ampicillin in 61% and to tetracycline in 26%; resistance to oxacillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, trimethoprim + sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and gentamicin was found in < 10% of dogs. Compared to the 2008 study, the frequency of resistance to all drugs increased, and the frequency of colonization with pan-susceptible isolates decreased from 46% to 30%.

  19. Validation of the Saskatoon Falls Prevention Consortium's Falls Screening and Referral Algorithm

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    Lawson, Sara Nicole; Zaluski, Neal; Petrie, Amanda; Arnold, Cathy; Basran, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the concurrent validity of the Saskatoon Falls Prevention Consortium's Falls Screening and Referral Algorithm (FSRA). Method: A total of 29 older adults (mean age 77.7 [SD 4.0] y) residing in an independent-living senior's complex who met inclusion criteria completed a demographic questionnaire and the components of the FSRA and Berg Balance Scale (BBS). The FSRA consists of the Elderly Fall Screening Test (EFST) and the Multi-factor Falls Questionnaire (MFQ); it is designed to categorize individuals into low, moderate, or high fall-risk categories to determine appropriate management pathways. A predictive model for probability of fall risk, based on previous research, was used to determine concurrent validity of the FSRI. Results: The FSRA placed 79% of participants into the low-risk category, whereas the predictive model found the probability of fall risk to range from 0.04 to 0.74, with a mean of 0.35 (SD 0.25). No statistically significant correlation was found between the FSRA and the predictive model for probability of fall risk (Spearman's ρ=0.35, p=0.06). Conclusion: The FSRA lacks concurrent validity relative to to a previously established model of fall risk and appears to over-categorize individuals into the low-risk group. Further research on the FSRA as an adequate tool to screen community-dwelling older adults for fall risk is recommended. PMID:24381379

  20. Validation of the Saskatoon Falls Prevention Consortium's Falls Screening and Referral Algorithm.

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    Lawson, Sara Nicole; Zaluski, Neal; Petrie, Amanda; Arnold, Cathy; Basran, Jenny; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina

    2013-01-01

    Objectif : Étudier la validité concurrente de l'algorithme de dépistage des risques de chute et de renvoi en consultation (Falls Screening and Referral Algorithm, FSRA) du Saskatoon Falls Prevention Consortium. Méthode : Vingt-neuf personnes âgées (moyenne d'âge [ET] de 77,7 ans [4,0]) vivant dans une résidence pour personnes âgées autonomes satisfaisaient les critères d'inclusion; elles ont rempli un questionnaire démographique et ont été soumises à certaines composantes du FSRA et du test d'équilibre de l'échelle de Berg (EEB). Le FSRA comprend un test de dépistage des risques de chute (Elderly Fall Screening Test, EFST) et le questionnaire multifactoriel en matière de chutes (Multi-Factor Falls Questionnaire, MFQ). Il est conçu pour classer les individus dans trois catégories – risque de chute élevé, modéré ou faible – afin d'établir les approches de gestion appropriées. Un modèle prédictif de probabilité des risques de chute basé sur une étude antérieure a été utilisé pour établir la validité concurrente du FRSA. Résultats : Au total, 79 % des participants ont été classés dans la catégorie à faible risque du FSRA, puisque le modèle prédictif a permis d'établir la probabilité des risques de chute dans leur cas entre 0,04 et 0,74, avec une moyenne de 0,35 (ET=0,25). On n'a pu établir aucune corrélation significative sur le plan statistique entre le FSRA et le modèle prédictif de la probabilité des risques de chute (ρ de Spearman=0,35, p=0,06). Conclusion : Le FSRA manque de validité concurrente si on le compare à un modèle de risques de chute préalablement établi et semble « surclasser » les individus dans le segment à faible risque. D'autres études sur le FSRA en tant qu'outil approprié de dépistage chez les aînés résidant dans la communauté sont recommandées.

  1. Identifying factors associated with changes in CD4+ count in HIV-infected adults in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan

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    Hunt, Kelsey; Mondal, Prosanta; Konrad, Stephanie; Skinner, Stuart; Gartner, Kali; Lim, Hyun J

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of clinical and social factors unique to HIV-infected adults in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, regarding the rate of CD4+ count change, and to identify factors associated with a risk of CD4+ count decline. METHODS: A retrospective longitudinal cohort study from medical chart reviews at two clinics was conducted in Saskatoon. Univariate and multivariate linear mixed effects models were used to assess the impact of selected factors on CD4+ count change. RESULTS: Four hundred eleven HIV-infected patients were identified from January 1, 2003 to November 30, 2011. Two hundred eighteen (53%) were male, mean (± SD) age was 35.6 ±10.1 years, 257 (70.8%) were First Nations or Métis, 312 (80.2%) were hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfected and 300 (73.3%) had a history of injection drug use (IDU). In univariate models, age, ethnicity, HCV, IDU, antiretroviral therapy and social assistance were significant. Using ethnicity, HCV and IDU, three multivariate models (models 1, 2, 3) were built due to high correlation. First Nations or Métis ethnicity, HCV coinfection and a history of IDU were associated with significantly lower CD4+ counts in multivariate models. Older age and social assistance were associated with significantly lower CD4+ counts in models 1 and 3. Age was marginally significant in model 2 (P=0.055). Not prescribed antiretroviral therapy was associated with a significantly negative CD4+ count slope in all multivariate models. CONCLUSION: The unique epidemiology of this HIV-infected population may be contributing to CD4+ count change. Increased attention and resources focused on this high-risk population are needed to prevent disease progression and to improve overall health and quality of life. PMID:26361489

  2. Variations in Sense of Place Across Immigrant Status and Gender in Hamilton, Ontario; Saskatoon, Saskatchewan; and, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada.

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    Gallina, Melissa; Williams, Allison

    Past research in Hamilton, Ontario has found that age and longevity of residence are positively associated with evaluations of sense of place (SoP); further, evaluations of SoP between immigrants and Canadian-born individuals have shown no clear pattern (Williams et al. 2010; Williams and Kitchen 2012). This paper builds on this work by further examining evaluations of SoP among both immigrants and Canadian-born residents and across gender in Hamilton, while expanding the study to two other small-to-medium sized cities: Saskatoon, Saskatchewan and, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island. This paper has two objectives: (1) to establish measures of SoP across immigrant status and gender in Hamilton, Saskatoon, and Charlottetown; and, (2) to determine how SoP varies according to immigrant status, length of residence in Canada, age, income, and neighbourhood length of residence across the three city sites. Telephone survey data (n = 1,132) was used to compare evaluations of SoP across various groups and to construct an ordered logistic regression model for SoP. Results suggest that immigrants tended to rate their SoP lower than their Canadian-born counterparts. Hamilton residents were found to rate their SoP lowest, followed by Saskatoon residents and, finally, Charlottetown residents. Younger individuals, those with lower income levels, and those with shorter neighbourhood residency in the cities concerned were more likely to have lower evaluations of SoP. This research suggests that greater attention is needed to nurture immigrants' connection with their new home.

  3. HIV disease progression to CD4 count <200 cells/μL and death in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan

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    Konrad, Stephanie; Skinner, Stuart; Kazadi, Germain Bukassa; Gartner, Kali; Lim, Hyun June

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize and identify determinants of HIV disease progression among a predominantly injection drug use (IDU) HIV population in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. METHODS: The present retrospective study was based on 343 HIV patients diagnosed from 2005 to 2010 from two clinics in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Disease progression was defined as the time from diagnosis to immunological AIDS (CD4 count <200 cells/μL) and death. Uni- and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used. RESULTS: Of the 343 patients, 79% had a history of IDU, 77% were hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfected and 67% were of Aboriginal descent. The one-year and three-year immunological AIDS-free probabilities were 78% and 53%, respectively. The one-year and three-year survival probabilities were 97% and 88%, respectively. Multicollinearity among IDU, HCV and ethnicity was observed and, thus, separate models were built. HCV coinfection (HR 2.9 [95% CI 1.2 to 6.9]) was a significant predictor of progression to immunological AIDS when controlling for baseline CD4 counts, treatment, age at diagnosis and year of diagnosis. For survival, only treatment use was a significant predictor (HR 0.34 [95% CI 0.1 to 0.8]). HCV coinfection was marginally significant (P=0.067). CONCLUSION: Baseline CD4 count, HCV coinfection, year of diagnosis and treatment use were significant predictors of disease progression. This highlights the importance of early treatment and the need for targeted interventions for these particularly vulnerable populations to slow disease progression. PMID:24421810

  4. Futures Analysis of Urban Land Use and Wetland Change in Saskatoon, Canada: An Application in Strategic Environmental Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Sizo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a scenario-based approach to strategic environmental assessment (SEA for wetland trend analysis and land use and land cover (LUC modeling in an urban environment. The application is focused on the Saskatoon urban environment, a rapidly growing urban municipality in Canada’s prairie pothole region. Alternative future LUC was simulated using remote sensing data and city spatial planning documentation using a Markov Chain technique. Two alternatives were developed and compared for LUC change and threats to urban wetland sustainability: a zero alternative that simulated trends in urban development and wetland conservation under a business as usual scenario, in the absence of prescribed planning and zoning actions; and an alternative focused on implementation of current urban development plans, which simulated future LUC to account for prescribed wetland conservation strategies. Results show no improvement in future wetland conditions under the city’s planned growth and wetland conservation scenario versus the business as usual scenario. Results also indicate that a blanket wetland conservation strategy for the city may not be sufficient to overcome the historic trend of urban wetland loss; and that spatially distributed conservation rates, based on individual wetland water catchment LUC peculiarities, may be more effective in terms of wetland conservation. The paper also demonstrates the challenges to applied SEA in a rapidly changing urban planning context, where data are often sparse and inconsistent across the urban region, and provides potential solutions through LUC classification and prediction tools to help overcome data limitations to support land use planning decisions for wetland conservation.

  5. Combination of Primrose Lake (54°N, 110°W) ROCOB winds (20-60 km) and Saskatoon (52°N, 107°W) M.F. radar winds (60-110 km): 1978-1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, C. E.; Manson, A. H.

    1985-05-01

    Comparisons are made between data from the unique Saskatoon medium frequency radar set, which is continuous from mid 1978-1983 and the ROCOB data from Primrose Lake, which is only 340 km northwest of Saskatoon. Until 1981 there were 2-3 firings per week and now there are 4-5 per month. While the final agreement is satisfactory, special care was required when matching the two regions: particular problems are the low rocket sampling rate and the unexpectedly large amplitude of the diurnal tide. Combination of the two data sets is made. The Canadian zonal winds are quite similar to CIRA 72, especially in the summer months, however, the winter winds show much more systematic variability due to 12- and 6-month periods of oscillation and stratwarms. Canadian meridional winds differ significantly from existing data models.

  6. Quantifying the climate change-induced variations in Saskatoon's Intensity-Duration-Frequency curves using stochastic rainfall generators and K-nearest neighbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabul Alam, Md.; Nazemi, Alireza; Elshorbagy, Amin

    2014-05-01

    Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves are among standard design criteria for various engineering applications, such as storm water management systems. Warming climate, however, changes the extreme rainfall quantiles represented by the IDF curves. This study attempts to construct the future IDF curves under possible climate change scenarios. For this purpose, a stochastic rainfall generator is used to spatially downscale the daily projections of Global Climate Models (GCMs) from coarse grid resolution to the point scale. The stochastically downscaled daily rainfall realizations can be further disaggregated to hourly and sub-hourly rainfall series using a deterministic disaggregation scheme developed based on the K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN) method. We applied this framework for constructing the future IDF curves in the city of Saskatoon, Canada. As a model development step, the sensitivity of the K-NN disaggregation model to the number of nearest neighbors (i.e. window size) is evaluated during the baseline periods. The optimum window size is assigned based on the performance in reproducing the historical IDF curves. The optimum windows identified for 1-hour and 5-min temporal resolutions are then used to produce the future hourly and consequently, 5-min resolution rainfall based on the K-NN simulations. By using the simulated hourly and sub-hourly rainfall series and the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution future changes in IDF curves and associated uncertainties are quantified using a large ensemble of projections obtained for the CGCM3.1 and HadCM3 based on A1B, A2 and B1 emission scenarios in case of CMIP3 and RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 in case of CMIP5 datasets. The constructed IDF curves for the city of Saskatoon are then compared with corresponding historical relationships at various durations and/or return periods and are discussed based on different models, emission scenarios and/or simulation release (i.e. CMIP3 vs. CMIP5).

  7. Effect of Vitamin D3 Fortification and Saskatoon Berry Syrup Addition on the Flavor Profile, Acceptability, and Antioxidant Properties of Rooibos Tea (Aspalathus linearis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jennifer; Ryland, Donna; Isaak, Cara K; Prashar, Suvira; Siow, Yaw L; Taylor, Carla G; Aliani, Michel

    2017-03-01

    The unique characteristics and healthful reputation of caffeine-free rooibos tea (RT) make it an ideal carrier for vitamin D3 supplementation, and a potential base for the addition of Saskatoon berry syrup (SBS), a natural flavor additive. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin D3 fortification and SBS addition on the flavor profile, consumer acceptability, and antioxidant properties of RT. Six formulations (RT, RT with SBS, RT with SBS and vitamin D3 , RT with vitamin D3 , green tea [GT], and GT with SBS) were evaluated by 12 trained panelists and 114 consumers. The formulations were also assessed for antioxidant capacity, physical characteristics, and untargeted phytochemical content. Sensory results revealed that the mean intensity values for berry and sweet attributes were significantly higher (P flavor, aftertaste, and overall acceptability were also significantly higher for the RT with SBS. The addition of SBS to RT significantly increased the antioxidant capacities which may increase the related health benefits of RT. SBS contributed several polyphenols, particularly flavonoids, to the tea. Vitamin D3 added to RT formulations did not significantly affect the sensory attributes, acceptability, or antioxidant content. For the development of a functional vitamin D3 fortified iced-tea beverage that can be consumed as part of the daily diet, SBS could be a favorable flavoring additive that may provide additional health benefits. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. Ionospheric and dynamical characteristics of the mesosphere-lower thermosphere region over Platteville (40°N, 105°W) and comparisons with the region over Saskatoon (52°N, 107°W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, A. H.; Meek, C. E.; Avery, S. K.; Thorsen, D.

    2003-07-01

    The newly installed medium frequency radar (MFR) at Platteville provides unique opportunities to assess latitudinal effects in both the ionosphere and mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT) by comparisons with the long-established MFR at Saskatoon. The influence of the D region ``winter anomaly'' is evident in both ionospheres, and descending ``sporadic layers'' (110-90 km) are identified, especially at 40°N, for the first time for MF radar systems. Preliminary comparisons with the wind measurements are made, and the processes are identified as complex. Contour plots of mean winds, tides (12- and 24-hour), and planetary waves (PW) (2- and 16-day) demonstrate significant trends over 12° of latitude (1100 km). The 24-hour tide dominates at 40°N, the 12-hour tide dominates at 52°N, and PW structures demonstrate spatial and temporal intermittency. The two radars are now part of a new network, Canada U.S. Japan Opportunity (CUJO), stretching from 81°W to 141°E.

  9. Third-world realities in a first-world setting: A study of the HIV/AIDS-related conditions and risk behaviors of sex trade workers in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Bird

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission and prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV among those employed as sex trade workers (STW is a major public health concern. The present study describes the self-reported responses of 340 STW, at-risk for contracting HIV. The participants were recruited by selective targeting between 2009 and 2010 from within the Saskatoon Health Region (SHR, Saskatchewan, Canada. As of 2012, the SHR has the highest incidence rate of positive test reports for HIV in Canada, at more than three times the national average (17.0 vs. 5.9 per 100,000 people. Additionally, the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in the SHR is different from that seen elsewhere in Canada (still mostly men having sex with men and Caucasians, with its new HIV cases predominantly associated with injection drug use and Aboriginal cultural status. The purpose of this study was to (a describe the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the STW in the SHR, (b identify their significant life events, self-reported problems, knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, self-efficacy, and barriers regarding HIV, and (c determine the significant independent risk indicators for STW self-reporting a chance of greater than 50% of becoming infected with HIV/AIDS. The majority of the study participants were females, who were never married, of Aboriginal descent, without a high school diploma, and had an annual income of less than $10,000. Using multivariate regression analysis, four significant independent risk indicators were associated with STW reporting a greater that 50% chance of acquiring HIV/AIDS, including experiencing sexual assault as a child, injecting drugs in the past four weeks, being homeless, and a previous Chlamydia diagnosis. These findings provide important evidence of the essential sexual and drug-related vulnerabilities associated with the risk of HIV infection among STW and offer insight into the design and implementation of effective and culturally sensitive public

  10. Third-world realities in a first-world setting: A study of the HIV/AIDS-related conditions and risk behaviors of sex trade workers in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Yelena; Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla; Moraros, John

    2016-12-01

    The transmission and prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among those employed as sex trade workers (STW) is a major public health concern. The present study describes the self-reported responses of 340 STW, at-risk for contracting HIV. The participants were recruited by selective targeting between 2009 and 2010 from within the Saskatoon Health Region (SHR), Saskatchewan, Canada. As of 2012, the SHR has the highest incidence rate of positive test reports for HIV in Canada, at more than three times the national average (17.0 vs. 5.9 per 100,000 people). Additionally, the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in the SHR is different from that seen elsewhere in Canada (still mostly men having sex with men and Caucasians), with its new HIV cases predominantly associated with injection drug use and Aboriginal cultural status. The purpose of this study was to (a) describe the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the STW in the SHR, (b) identify their significant life events, self-reported problems, knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, self-efficacy, and barriers regarding HIV, and (c) determine the significant independent risk indicators for STW self-reporting a chance of greater than 50% of becoming infected with HIV/AIDS. The majority of the study participants were females, who were never married, of Aboriginal descent, without a high school diploma, and had an annual income of less than $10,000. Using multivariate regression analysis, four significant independent risk indicators were associated with STW reporting a greater that 50% chance of acquiring HIV/AIDS, including experiencing sexual assault as a child, injecting drugs in the past four weeks, being homeless, and a previous Chlamydia diagnosis. These findings provide important evidence of the essential sexual and drug-related vulnerabilities associated with the risk of HIV infection among STW and offer insight into the design and implementation of effective and culturally sensitive public health

  11. The development and utilization prospect and approach of the characteristic economic forest of west area of Liaoning%辽宁西部地区特色经济林开发利用前景与途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王铮; 王莹; 冯望

    2014-01-01

    The species character , application prospect and development and utilization prospect and approach of the charac -teristic economic forest of Aronia melanocarpa, Ribes rubrum L., Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt., Hippophaaerhamnoidesi, Cerasus humilis ( Bunge ) Sak and Hybrid hazelnuts which were suitable to develop in Liaoxi area was elucidated .Especially laying emphasis on developing characteristic economic forest species in the degraded site of Liaoxi area for the sake of a -chieving the dual function of protecting ecology and developing economy .%本文阐述了适宜辽西地区发展的黑果腺肋花楸、红醋栗、桤叶唐棣、大果沙棘、钙果、平欧杂交榛子等特色经济林树种特性、应用前景和开发利用途径。在辽西困难立地条件下,开发利用特色经济林树种,可以达到保护生态和发展经济的双重作用。

  12. Impact of the removal of chocolate milk from school milk programs for children in Saskatoon, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Carol; Whiting, Susan J; Phillips, Theodosia; Finch, Sarah L; Zello, Gordon A; Vatanparast, Hassan

    2015-03-01

    Studies in the United States report inclusion of flavoured milk in the diets of children and youth improves nutrient intakes. No research has investigated the contribution of flavoured milk to overall milk intake or the milk preferences of Canadian children. The objective of the study was to measure milk consumption (plain milk and flavoured milk) by children in an elementary school environment and investigate factors contributing to milk choice. A mixed-method research design was applied across 6 schools for 12 weeks. Milk waste was measured in grades 1-8 for 12 weeks. Weeks 1-4 (phase 1) and 9-12 (phase 3) provided both plain milk and flavoured milk as chocolate milk while weeks 5-8 (phase 2) provided plain milk only. Beverage Frequency Questionnaires were used in each phase (in grades 5-8 only) to assess usual beverage consumption. Statistical nutrient modelling was conducted to determine the effects of removing chocolate milk during phase 2 as a milk choice. Later, focus groups were conducted with students in grades 5-8 to determine what influences them to choose/not choose to drink milk. Total milk intake decreased by 12.3% when chocolate milk was removed from the schools (26.6% ± 5.2% to 14.31% ± 1.6%, p chocolate milk is more cost-efficient and convenient at providing nutrients than alternative food/drink combinations.

  13. Estimating pinyon and juniper cover across Utah using NAIP imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrell B. Roundy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of Pinus L. (pinyon and Juniperus L. (juniper (P-J trees into sagebrush (Artemisia L. steppe communities can lead to negative effects on hydrology, loss of wildlife habitat, and a decrease in desirable understory vegetation. Tree reduction treatments are often implemented to mitigate these negative effects. In order to prioritize and effectively plan these treatments, rapid, accurate, and inexpensive methods are needed to estimate tree canopy cover at the landscape scale. We used object based image analysis (OBIA software (Feature AnalystTM for ArcMap 10.1®, ENVI Feature Extraction®, and Trimble eCognition Developer 8.2® to extract tree canopy cover using NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program imagery. We then compared our extractions with ground measured tree canopy cover (crown diameter and line point intercept on 309 plots across 44 sites in Utah. Extraction methods did not consistently over- or under-estimate ground measured P-J canopy cover except where tree cover was >45%. Estimates of tree canopy cover using OBIA techniques were strongly correlated with estimates using the crown diameter method (r = 0.93 for ENVI, 0.91 for Feature AnalystTM, and 0.92 for eCognition. Tree cover estimates using OBIA techniques had lower correlations with tree cover measurements using the line-point intercept method (r = 0.85 for ENVI, 0.83 for Feature AnalystTM, and 0.83 for eCognition. All software packages accurately and inexpensively extracted P-J canopy cover from NAIP imagery when the imagery was not blurred, and when P-J cover was not mixed with Amelanchier alnifolia (Utah serviceberry and Quercus gambelii (Gambel’s oak, which had similar spectral values as P-J.

  14. Berry fruits: compositional elements, biochemical activities, and the impact of their intake on human health, performance, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2008-02-13

    An overwhelming body of research has now firmly established that the dietary intake of berry fruits has a positive and profound impact on human health, performance, and disease. Berry fruits, which are commercially cultivated and commonly consumed in fresh and processed forms in North America, include blackberry ( Rubus spp.), black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis), blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum), cranberry (i.e., the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, distinct from the European cranberry, V. oxycoccus), red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus) and strawberry ( Fragaria x ananassa). Other berry fruits, which are lesser known but consumed in the traditional diets of North American tribal communities, include chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana), highbush cranberry ( Viburnum trilobum), serviceberry ( Amelanchier alnifolia), and silver buffaloberry ( Shepherdia argentea). In addition, berry fruits such as arctic bramble ( Rubus articus), bilberries ( Vaccinuim myrtillus; also known as bog whortleberries), black currant ( Ribes nigrum), boysenberries ( Rubus spp.), cloudberries ( Rubus chamaemorus), crowberries ( Empetrum nigrum, E. hermaphroditum), elderberries ( Sambucus spp.), gooseberry ( Ribes uva-crispa), lingonberries ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea), loganberry ( Rubus loganobaccus), marionberries ( Rubus spp.), Rowan berries ( Sorbus spp.), and sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides), are also popularly consumed in other parts of the world. Recently, there has also been a surge in the consumption of exotic "berry-type" fruits such as the pomegranate ( Punica granatum), goji berries ( Lycium barbarum; also known as wolfberry), mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana), the Brazilian açaí berry ( Euterpe oleraceae), and the Chilean maqui berry ( Aristotelia chilensis). Given the wide consumption of berry fruits and their potential impact on human health and disease, conferences and symposia that target the latest scientific research (and, of equal importance, the dissemination of

  15. Trophic cascades from wolves to grizzly bears in Yellowstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripple, William J; Beschta, Robert L; Fortin, Jennifer K; Robbins, Charles T

    2014-01-01

    We explored multiple linkages among grey wolves (Canis lupus), elk (Cervus elaphus), berry-producing shrubs and grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in Yellowstone National Park. We hypothesized competition between elk and grizzly bears whereby, in the absence of wolves, increases in elk numbers would increase browsing on berry-producing shrubs and decrease fruit availability to grizzly bears. After wolves were reintroduced and with a reduced elk population, we hypothesized there would be an increase in the establishment of berry-producing shrubs, such as serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia), which is a major berry-producing plant. We also hypothesized that the percentage fruit in the grizzly bear diet would be greater after than before wolf reintroduction. We compared the frequency of fruit in grizzly bear scats to elk densities prior to wolf reintroduction during a time of increasing elk densities (1968-1987). For a period after wolf reintroduction, we calculated the percentage fruit in grizzly bear scat by month based on scats collected in 2007-2009 (n = 778 scats) and compared these results to scat data collected before wolf reintroduction. Additionally, we developed an age structure for serviceberry showing the origination year of stems in a northern range study area. We found that over a 19-year period, the percentage frequency of fruit in the grizzly diet (6231 scats) was inversely correlated (P wolves and other large carnivores on elk, a reduced and redistributed elk population, decreased herbivory and increased production of plant-based foods that may aid threatened grizzly bears. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

  16. HIV Disease Progression to CD4 Count <200 Cells/μL and Death in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Konrad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize and identify determinants of HIV disease progression among a predominantly injection drug use (IDU HIV population in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era.

  17. Impact of replacing regular chocolate milk with the reduced-sugar option on milk consumption in elementary schools in Saskatoon, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Carol; Whiting, Susan J; Finch, Sarah L; Zello, Gordon A; Vatanparast, Hassan

    2016-05-01

    Excess sugar consumption in children has led to the removal of chocolate milk from some schools. Lower-sugar formulations, if accepted, would provide the benefits of milk consumption. In a cross-over trial, milk consumption was measured in 8 schools over 6 weeks in 2 phases: phase 1 provided standard 1% chocolate milk and plain 2% milk choices for the first 3 weeks, and phase 2 provided reduced-sugar 1% chocolate milk and plain 2% milk for the next 3 weeks. Milk selection and milk wasted were measured by sex and grade (1-8). Children chose chocolate milk more often than white milk in both phases (phase 1, 8.93% ± 0.75% vs. 0.87% ± 0.11% (p chocolate milk in phase 2 (p chocolate milk over plain milk even when a reduced-sugar formula was offered; however, switching to reduced-sugar chocolate milk led to a decrease in the number of students choosing milk. Longer-duration studies are required to determine if students would purchase reduced-sugar chocolate milk at the same rate as they would purchase regular chocolate milk.

  18. Variations in Sense of Place Across Immigrant Status and Gender in Hamilton, Ontario; Saskatoon, Saskatchewan; and, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Past research in Hamilton, Ontario has found that age and longevity of residence are positively associated with evaluations of sense of place (SoP); further, evaluations of SoP between immigrants and Canadian-born individuals have shown no clear pattern (Williams et al. 2010; Williams and Kitchen 2012). This paper builds on this work by further examining evaluations of SoP among both immigrants and Canadian-born residents and across gender in Hamilton, while expanding the study to two other s...

  19. International efforts on abandoning female genital mutilation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E. Edouard

    b Saskatoon, Canada ... Royal University Hospital, 103 Hospital Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan,. Canada. Tel. ... With poorer care outside of hospitals, the extent and .... discussion, which often results in a public declaration for a commu-.

  20. Intergeneric hybrids in Rosaceae subtribe Pyrinae (formerly subfamily Maloideae) at USDA genebank

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service maintains clonal germplasm collections representing world diversity of Pyrus, Cydonia and Mespilus at its National Clonal Germplasm Repository in Corvallis, Oregon, USA. Smaller collections of Amelanchier, Aronia, Crataegus, Sorbus and other genera in Rosaceae ...

  1. Fluorescence parameters of leaves of trees and shrubs during period of adverse weather conditions in Krasnoyarsk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavorueva, E. N.; Zavoruev, V. V.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of adverse weather conditions (AWC) on the fluorescence parameters of leaves Prinsepia sinensis, Amelanchier florida, Crataegus chlorocarca is obtained. However, significant changes in the fluorescence of the leaves of Acer negundo, Betula pendula under AWC were not observed.

  2. Study of antihyperglycaemic activity of medicinal plant extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoja P Attanayake

    2013-01-01

    C onclusion: The aqueous extract of G. arborea, S. pinnata, K. zeylanica, S. caryophyllatum, S. dulcis, S. alnifolia, L. galanga and C. grandis possess potent acute antihyperglycaemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

  3. Comparisons between primrose lake (54°N, 110°W) ROCOB winds (20-60 km) and Saskatoon (52°N, 107°W) M. F. radar winds (60-110 km): 1978-1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, A. H.; Meek, C. E.

    The development of the new CIRA will require the combination of winds from many sources, e.g. rockets (ROCOB) up to ~60 km, and radar winds ~60-110 km. Difficulties are that such rocket data have larger errors at 60-65 km, and tidal effects may become significant. Radar data for 60-80 km may also have tidal contamination, due to Primrose Lake, which is only 340 km northwest. While the agreement is satisfactory, special care is required when matching the two regions: particular problems are the low rocket sampling rate, and the unexpectedly large amplitude of the diurnal tide. Important differences from the zonal winds of CIRA-72 emerge, especially in winter months. Meridional cross-sections differ from previous data models in the extent of the summer equatorward flow.

  4. The Beguniaceae of Colombia The Beguniaceae of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Lyman B.

    1946-12-01

    Full Text Available Begonia (§ Ruizopavonia Dugandiana / Begonia (§ Ruizopavonia alnifolia / Begonia (§ Pritzelia glabra / Begonia (§ Begoniastrum guaduensis / Begonia (§ Begoniastrum Barrigae / Begonia (§ Meionanthera Holtonis / Begonia (§ Lepsia microphylla / Begonia (§ Lepsia foliosa  / Begoniella / Begoniella Whitei / Begoniella libera / Begoniella Kalbreyeri / Begoniella angustifolia.Begonia (§ Ruizopavonia Dugandiana / Begonia (§ Ruizopavonia alnifolia / Begonia (§ Pritzelia glabra / Begonia (§ Begoniastrum guaduensis / Begonia (§ Begoniastrum Barrigae / Begonia (§ Meionanthera Holtonis / Begonia (§ Lepsia microphylla / Begonia (§ Lepsia foliosa  / Begoniella / Begoniella Whitei / Begoniella libera / Begoniella Kalbreyeri / Begoniella angustifolia.

  5. CASE REPORT Bleomycin toxicity post injection into cranio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Medical Imaging, Royal University Hospital, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada ... combination of resection and radiation therapy having been the gold ... Less commonly, other sclerosing agents or isotopes.

  6. HF radar observations of a quasi-biennial oscillation in midlatitude mesospheric winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Garima; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Baker, J. B. H.; Hibbins, R. E.; McWilliams, K. A.

    2016-11-01

    The equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) is known to be an important source of interannual variability in the middle- and high-latitude stratosphere. The influence of the QBO on the stratospheric polar vortex in particular has been extensively studied. However, the impact of the QBO on the winds of the midlatitude mesosphere is much less clear. We have applied 13 years (2002-2014) of data from the Saskatoon Super Dual Auroral Radar Network HF radar to show that there is a strong QBO signature in the midlatitude mesospheric zonal winds during the late winter months. We find that the Saskatoon mesospheric winds are related to the winds of the equatorial QBO at 50 hPa such that the westerly mesospheric winds strengthen when QBO is easterly, and vice versa. We also consider the situation in the late winter Saskatoon stratosphere using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ERA-Interim reanalysis data set. We find that the Saskatoon stratospheric winds between 7 hPa and 70 hPa weaken when the equatorial QBO at 50 hPa is easterly, and vice versa. We speculate that gravity wave filtering from the QBO-modulated stratospheric winds and subsequent opposite momentum deposition in the mesosphere plays a major role in the appearance of the QBO signature in the late winter Saskatoon mesospheric winds, thereby coupling the equatorial stratosphere and the midlatitude mesosphere.

  7. A Prairie Parable: The 1933 Bates Tragedy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waiser, Bill

    2009-01-01

    It was one of the more harrowing episodes of the Great Depression. Ted and Rose Bates had failed in business in Glidden, Saskatchewan, in 1932 and again on the west coast of Canada the following year. When they were subsequently turned down for relief assistance twice, first in Vancouver and then in Saskatoon, because they did not meet the local…

  8. 75 FR 67087 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... retransfer of 514,705.9 kg of U.S.-origin natural uranium hexafluoride (68.00% U), 350,000 kg of which is uranium, from Areva Resources Canada, Inc. (Areva Resources) in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, to URENCO in Gronau, Germany. The material, which is currently located at Areva Resources, will be...

  9. 75 FR 67086 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... retransfer of 1,470,588.2 kg of U.S.-origin natural uranium hexafluoride (68.00% U), 1,000,000 kg of which is uranium, from Areva Resources Canada, Inc. (Areva Resources) in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, to Eurodif Production in Pierrelatte, France. The material, which is currently located at Areva...

  10. 78 FR 40735 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... concerns the retransfer of 591,716 kg of U.S.-origin natural uranium hexafluoride (UF6) (67.60% U), 400,000 kg of which is uranium, from Cameco Corporation (Cameco) in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, to... Power Resources Inc., Cameco Resources-Crowe Butte Operation, and White Mesa Mill pursuant to...

  11. A study of the HIV/AIDS-related conditions and risk behaviors of sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-09-11

    Sep 11, 2016 ... among STW and offer insight into the design and implementation of effective and ... commerce du sexe sont des proble`mes de santé publique majeurs. ... la région sociosanitaire de Saskatoon, en Saskatchewan, au Canada. .... data demonstrated a significant disparity with 21% of the ... Statistical analysis.

  12. Ovicidal, repellent, adulticidal and field evaluations of plant extract against dengue, malaria and filarial vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy; Thiyagarajan, Perumal; John William, Samuel

    2013-03-01

    Mosquitoes are insect vectors responsible for the transmission of parasitic and viral infections to millions of people worldwide, with substantial morbidity and mortality. Infections transmitted by mosquitoes include malaria, yellow fever, chikungunya, filariasis and other arboviruses. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The adulticidal activities of crude hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol leaf extracts of Acalypha alnifolia were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate adulticide effects; however, the highest adult mortality was found in methanol extract were observed. The LC(50) values of A. alnifolia leaf extracts against adulticidal activity of (hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol) A. aegypti, A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus were the following: A. aegypti values were 371.87, 342.97, 320.17, 300.86 and 279.75 ppm; A. stephensi values were 358.35, 336.64, 306.10, 293.01 and 274.76 ppm; C. quinquefasciatus values were 383.59, 354.13, 327.74, 314.33 and 291.71 ppm. The results of the repellent activity of hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extract of A. alnifolia plant at three different concentrations of 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 mg/cm(2) were applied on skin of forearm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. In this observation, this plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Mortality of 100

  13. Prevalence and risk indicators of smoking among on-reserve First Nations youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla; Thompson, Adam; Moraros, John; Tempier, Raymond

    2011-12-01

    To determine the current prevalence of smoking among First Nations youth living on reserve within the Saskatoon Tribal Council, and to determine the independent risk indicators associated with smoking among First Nations youth. Students in grades 5 to 8 attending school within the Saskatoon Tribal Council were asked to complete a youth health survey. Of 271 eligible students, 204 completed the consent protocol and the school survey, yielding a response rate of 75.3%; 26.5% of youth were defined as current smokers. Regression analysis indicated that older age, not having a happy home life, suicide ideation and having three or more friends who smoke cigarettes were independent risk indicators of smoking in First Nations youth. Smoking prevalence among on-reserve First Nations youth is quite high. The identification of four main risk indicators should assist with the design of youth smoking prevention and cessation programs.

  14. Kutenai Indian Subsistence and Settlement Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    the exploitation of these presented no consistent weather -related problems. But under full winter conditions, canoe travel even on the upper Columbia...peripatetic proselytizer. In 1845 de Smet (1906b:142-143, 191-192, 199-204), traveling up the Kootenai Valley, established the first stations among the...species of berries were ripening in quick succession, beg-nning with Saskatoons (serviceberries] and soapberries, followed by wild raspberries , blackcaps

  15. Lived experience of economic and political trends related to globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushon, Jennifer A; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Labonte, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    A multi-method case study examined how the economic and political processes of globalization have influenced the determinants of health among low-income children in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. This paper presents the results from the qualitative interview component of the case study. The purpose of the interviews was to uncover the lived experience of low-income families and their children in Saskatoon with regards to political and economic trends related to globalization, an important addition to the usual globalization and health research that relies primarily on cross-country regressions in which the personal impacts remain hidden. In-depth phenomenological interviews with 26 low-income parents of young children (aged zero to five) who were residents of Saskatoon. A combination of volunteer and criterion sampling was used. Interview questions were open-ended and based upon an analytical framework. Analysis proceeded through immersion in the data, a process of open coding, and finally through a process of selective coding. The larger case study and interviews indicate that globalization has largely not been benefiting low-income parents with young children. Low-income families with young children were struggling to survive, despite the tremendous economic growth occurring in Saskatchewan and Saskatoon at the time of the interviews. This often led to participants expressing a sense of helplessness, despair, isolation, and/or anger. Respondents' experiences suggest that globalization-related changes in social conditions and public policies and programs have great potential to negatively affect family health through either psychosocial effects in individuals and/or decreased levels of social cohesion in the community.

  16. TOBACCO USE AND THE CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0655711075

    ages worldwide: smoking, raised ApoB/ApoA1 ratio, history of hypertension .... Saskatoon (Canada) implemented a smoking ban in all enclosed public ... significant in men and women aged 60 and over, and men (3.5%) but not women (2.5%) aged .... Bermudez E.A., Rifai N., Buring J.E., Manson J.E., Ridker P.M. Relation ...

  17. Waiting for surgery from the patient perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey Carr

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Tracey Carr1, Ulrich Teucher2, Jackie Mann4, Alan G Casson31Health Sciences, 2Department of Psychology, 3Department of Surgery, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada; 4Acute Care, Saskatoon Health Region, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, CanadaAbstract: The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the impact of waiting for elective surgery from the patient perspective, with a focus on maximum tolerance, quality of life, and the nature of the waiting experience. Searches were conducted using Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and HealthSTAR. Twenty-seven original research articles were identified which included each of these three themes. The current literature suggested that first, patients tend to state longer wait times as unacceptable when they experienced severe symptoms or functional impairment. Second, the relationship between length of wait and health-related quality of life depended on the nature and severity of proposed surgical intervention at the time of booking. Third, the waiting experience was consistently described as stressful and anxiety provoking. While many patients expressed anger and frustration at communication within the system, the experience of waiting was not uniformly negative. Some patients experienced waiting as an opportunity to live full lives despite pain and disability. The relatively unexamined relationship between waiting, illness and patient experience of time represents an area for future research.Keywords: wait time, scheduled surgery, patient perspective, literature review

  18. Comparison of anatomical characteristics of leaves and flowers of Crataegus and some species of Rosaceae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Kiryanova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows the results of microscopy of Crataegus sanguinea Pall. leaves with flowers (Crataegi flores cum folia, which is considered as a perspective form of medicinal raw material, and the hypothetical plant adulterants – Amelanchier ovalis Medik., Prunus subgen. Cerasus (Mill. A. Gray, Pyrus communis L., Aronia melanocarpa (Michx. Elliott (Rosaceae. Parts of leaves and flowers of stated plants were subjected to anatomical investigation and comparative studies. Microscopical characteristics of leaves and flowers, which make possible to distinguish Crataegus from other species, were detected. The obtained data can be applied for the development of pharmacopoeial article “Crataegi Flores cum folia” for the XII edition of the Russian State Pharmacopoeia.

  19. Epilepsy and homicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandya NS

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neil S Pandya,1 Mirna Vrbancic,2 Lady Diana Ladino,3,4 José F Téllez-Zenteno31Department of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada; 2Department of Clinical Health Psychology, Royal University Hospital, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada; 3Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada; 4Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, University of Antioquia, Medellin, ColombiaPurpose: We report the rare case of a patient with intractable epilepsy and escalating aggression, resulting in murder, who had complete resolution of her seizures and explosive behavior following a right temporal lobectomy.Patients and methods: We searched the available literature from 1880 to 2013 for cases of epilepsy being used as a court defense for murder and collected information regarding the final sentencing outcomes. We selected 15 papers with a total of 50 homicides.Results: We describe the case of a 47-year-old woman with drug-resistant right temporal epilepsy who developed increasing emotional lability, outbursts of anger and escalating violent behavior culminating in a violent murder. The patient was imprisoned while awaiting trial. In the interim, she underwent a successful temporal lobectomy with full resolution of seizures, interictal rage and aggressive behaviors. After the surgery, her charges were downgraded and she was transferred to a psychiatric facility.Conclusion: The aggressive behavior associated with epilepsy has been described in the literature for over a century. A link between epilepsy and aggression has been disproportionally emphasized. These patients share some common characteristics: they are usually young men with a long history of epilepsy and lower than average intelligence. The violent act is postictal, sudden-onset, more likely to occur after a cluster of seizures and is usually related with alcohol abuse.Keywords: aggression, crime, epilepsy

  20. Smart cities, healthy kids: the association between neighbourhood design and children's physical activity and time spent sedentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esliger, Dale W; Sherar, Lauren B; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2012-07-26

    To determine whether, and to what extent, a relation exists between neighbourhood design and children's physical activity and sedentary behaviours in Saskatoon. Three neighbourhood designs were assessed: 1) core neighbourhoods developed before 1930 that follow a grid pattern, 2) fractured-grid pattern neighbourhoods that were developed between the 1930s and mid-1960s, and 3) curvilinear-pattern neighbourhoods that were developed between the mid-1960s through to 1998. Children aged 10-14 years (N=455; mean age 11.7 years), grouped by the neighbourhoods they resided in, had their physical activity and sedentary behaviour objectively measured by accelerometry for 7 days. ANCOVA and MANCOVA (multivariate analysis of covariance) models were used to assess group differences (p<0.05). Group differences were apparent on weekdays but not on weekend days. When age, sex and family income had been controlled for, children living in fractured-grid neighbourhoods had, on average, 83 and 55 fewer accelerometer counts per minute on weekdays than the children in the core and curvilinear-pattern neighbourhoods, respectively. Further analyses showed that the children in the fractured-grid neighbourhoods accumulated 15 and 9 fewer minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day and had a greater time spent in sedentary behaviour (23 and 17 minutes) than those in core and curvilinear-pattern neighbourhoods, respectively. These data suggest that in Saskatoon there is a relation between neighbourhood design and children's physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Further work is needed to tease out which features of the built environments have the greatest impact on these important lifestyle behaviours. This information, offered in the context of ongoing development of neighbourhoods, as we see in Saskatoon, is critical to an evidence-informed approach to urban development and planning.

  1. Impact of Clouds on the Shortwave Radiation Budget of the Surface: Atmosphere System for Snow Covered Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemesure, Seth; Cess, Robert D.; Dutton, Ellsworth G.; DeLuisi, John J.; Li, Zhanqing; Leighton, Henry G.

    1994-01-01

    Recent data from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) have raised the question as to whether or not the addition of clouds to the atmospheric column can decrease the top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) albedo over bright snow-covered surfaces. To address this issue, ERBE shortwave pixel measurements have been collocated with surface insolation measurements made at two snow-covered locations: the South Pole and Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Both collocated datasets show a negative correlation (with solar zenith angle variability removed) between TOA albedo and surface insolation. Because increased cloudiness acts to reduce surface insolation, these negative correlations demonstrate that clouds increase the TOA albedo at both snow-covered locations.

  2. Impact of clouds on the shortwave radiation budget of the surface-atmosphere system for snow-covered surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemesure, Seth; Cess, Robert D.; Dutton, Ellsworth; Deluisi, John J.; Li, Zhanqing; Leighton, Henry G.

    1994-01-01

    Recent data from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) have raised the question as to whether or not the addition of clouds to the atmospheric column can decrease the top-of-the atmosphere (TOA) albedo over bright snow-covered surface. To address this issue, ERBE shortwave pixel measurements have been collected with surface insolation measurements made at two snow-covered locations: the South Pole and Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Both collected datasets show a negative correlation (with solar zenith angle variability removed) between TOA albedo and surfaces insolation. Because increased cloudiness acts to reduce surface insolation, these negative correlations demonstrate that clouds increase the TOA albedo at both snow-covered locations.

  3. Effective governance: helping boards acquire, adapt and apply evidence to improve quality and patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    They don't spend a lot of time treating patients. And they're seldom included on grand rounds. But health services boards of directors still have a significant role to play in quality and patient safety. Their responsibilities for quality go beyond those of boards in many other settings and so, therefore, does their need for specialized education and training. As Maura Davies, chief executive officer (CEO) of Saskatoon Health Region, has pointed out, "There is increasing awareness that health services boards cannot abdicate their responsibilities for ensuring quality and safety and need to take specific actions to address these duties" (Davies 2010: 37).

  4. Nonlinear interaction between the diurnal and semidiurnal tides: Terdiurnal and diurnal secondary waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, H.; Vial, F.; Manson, A. H.; Giraldez, R.; Masseboeuf, M.

    1989-01-01

    Many years of measurements obtained using French meteor radars at Garchy (latitude 47 N) and Montpazier (latitude 44 N) are used to show the existence of an 8 hour oscillation. Some examples of the structure of this wave are displayed and compared with measurements performed at Saskatoon (latitude 52 N) and Budrio (latitude 45 N). This wave can be interpreted as the solar driven terdiurnal tide, or as the result of the nonlinear interaction between the diurnal and semidiurnal tides. Both hypotheses are tested with numerical models. Incidentally, the possible existence of a 24 hour wave resulting from this interaction is also studied.

  5. Fissility of actinide nuclei induced by 60-130 MeV photons; Fissionabilidade de nucleos actnideos induzida por fotons de energia 60-130 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morcelle, Viviane; Tavares, Odilon A.P

    2004-06-15

    Nuclear fissilities obtained from recent photofission reaction cross section measurements carried out at Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory (Saskatoon, Canada) in the energy range 60-130 MeV for {sup 232} Th, {sup 233} U, {sup 235} U, {sup 238} U, and {sup 237} Np nuclei have been analysed in a systematic way. To this aim, a semiempirical approach has been developed based on the quasi-deuteron nuclear photoabsorption model followed by the process of competition between neutron evaporation and fission for the excited nucleus. The study reproduces satisfactorily well the increasing trend of nuclear fissility with parameter Z{sup 2}=A. (author)

  6. First results of HF radio science with e-POP RRI and SuperDARN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, G. W.; James, H. G.; Gillies, R. G.; Howarth, A.; Hussey, G. C.; McWilliams, K. A.; White, A.; Yau, A. W.

    2017-01-01

    The first results from coordinated experiments between the Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI) on the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) and the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) Saskatoon high frequency (HF) radar are examined for a conjunction on 8 July 2014. e-POP, a payload on the CAScade, Smallsat and IOnospheric Polar Explorer spacecraft, was located at 380 km altitude, approximately 10° north (geographic) and 2° west of Saskatoon, Canada, moving in a southeast direction. We use a matched filter technique to extract individual received SuperDARN pulses from the RRI data stream. The pulses show characteristics of propagation through the F region ionosphere: they are heavily dispersed, they show significant pulse-to-pulse variability in magnitude, and there is clear evidence that they experienced multipath propagation. We calculate the polarization parameters of the pulses and use them to identify magnetoionic phenomena such as mode-splitting and single-mode fading. These first RRI results provide compelling insight into HF radio wave propagation and show RRI's potential to significantly advance radio science.

  7. Orbitide Composition of the Flax Core Collection (FCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Peta-Gaye Gillian; Olivia, Clara Marisa; Okinyo-Owiti, Denis Paskal; Reaney, Martin John Tarsisius

    2016-06-29

    The flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) core collection (FCC) was regenerated in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan and Morden, Manitoba in 2009. Seed orbitide content and composition from successfully propagated plants of 391 accessions were analyzed using high-throughput analyses employing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with reverse-phase monolithic HPLC columns and diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Seed from plants regenerated in Morden had comparatively higher orbitide content than those grown in Saskatoon. Concentrations of orbitides encoded by contig AFSQ01016651.1 (1, 3, and 8) were higher than those encoded by AFSQ01025165.1 (6, 13, and 17) for most accessions in both locations. The cultivar 'Primus' from Poland and an unnamed accession (CN 101580 of unknown origin) exhibited the highest ratio of sum of [1,3,8] to a sum of [6,13,17]. Conversely, the lowest orbitide concentrations and ratio of [1,3,8] to [6,13,17] were observed in cultivars 'Hollandia' and 'Z 11637', both from The Netherlands. Orbitide expression did not correlate with flax morphological and other chemical traits.

  8. Detection of Transionospheric SuperDARN HF Waves by the Radio Receiver Instrument on the enhanced Polar Outflow Probe Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, R. G.; Yau, A. W.; James, H. G.; Hussey, G. C.; McWilliams, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    The enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (ePOP) Canadian small-satellite was launched in September 2013. Included in this suite of eight scientific instruments is the Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI). The RRI has been used to measure VLF and HF radio waves from various ground and spontaneous ionospheric sources. The first dedicated ground transmission that was detected by RRI was from the Saskatoon Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radar on Nov. 7, 2013 at 14 MHz. Several other passes over the Saskatoon SuperDARN radar have been recorded since then. Ground transmissions have also been observed from other radars, such as the SPEAR, HAARP, and SURA ionospheric heaters. However, the focus of this study will be on the results obtained from the SuperDARN passes. An analysis of the signal recorded by the RRI provides estimates of signal power, Doppler shift, polarization, absolute time delay, differential mode delay, and angle of arrival. By comparing these parameters to similar parameters derived from ray tracing simulations, ionospheric electron density structures may be detected and measured. Further analysis of the results from the other ground transmitters and future SuperDARN passes will be used to refine these results.

  9. Capturing the Interrelationship between Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children in the Context of Diverse Environmental Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katapally, Tarun R; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2015-09-07

    Even though physical activity and sedentary behaviour are two distinct behaviours, their interdependent relationship needs to be studied in the same environment. This study examines the influence of urban design, neighbourhood built and social environment, and household and individual factors on the interdependent relationship between objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children in the Canadian city of Saskatoon. Saskatoon's built environment was assessed by two validated observation tools. Neighbourhood socioeconomic variables were derived from 2006 Statistics Canada Census and 2010 G5 Census projections. A questionnaire was administered to 10-14 year old children to collect individual and household data, followed by accelerometry to collect physical activity and sedentary behaviour data. Multilevel logistic regression models were developed to understand the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the context of diverse environmental exposures. A complex set of factors including denser built environment, positive peer relationships and consistent parental support influenced the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour. In developing interventions to facilitate active living, it is not only imperative to delineate pathways through which diverse environmental exposures influence physical activity and sedentary behaviour, but also to account for the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

  10. Optimization of first order decay gas generation model parameters for landfills located in cold semi-arid climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Hoang Lan; Ng, Kelvin Tsun Wai; Richter, Amy

    2017-08-17

    Canada has one of the highest waste generation rates in the world. Because of high land availability, land disposal rates in the province of Saskatchewan are high compared to the rest of the country. In this study, landfill gas data was collected at semi-arid landfills in Regina and Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, and curve fitting was carried out to find optimal k and Lo or DOC values using LandGEM, Afvalzorg Simple, and IPCC first order decay models. Model parameters at each landfill were estimated and compared using default k and Lo or DOC values. Methane generation rates were substantially overestimated using default values (with percentage errors from 55 to 135%). The mean percentage errors for the optimized k and Lo or DOC values ranged from 11.60% to 19.93% at the Regina landfill, and 1.65% to 10.83% at the Saskatoon landfill. Finally, the effect of different iterative methods on the curve fitting process was examined. The residual sum of squares for each model and iterative approaches were similar, with the exception of iterative method 1 for the IPCC model. The default values in these models fail to represent landfills located in cold semi-arid climates. The use of site specific data, provided enough information is available regarding waste mass and composition, can greatly help to improve the accuracy of these first order decay models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Reasons for reoperation after epilepsy surgery: a review based on a complex clinical case with three operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F Téllez-Zenteno

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available José F Téllez-Zenteno1, Farzad Moien-Afshari1, Lizbeth Hernández-Ronquillo1, Robert Griebel2, Venkat Sadanand21Department of Medicine, Division of Neurology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada; 2Department of Surgery, Division of Neurosurgery, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, CanadaAbstract: The results of surgical treatment of epileptic seizures have gradually improved in the past decade, approaching 60% to 90% seizure-free outcome in temporal lobe epilepsy and 45% to 66% in extratemporal lobe epilepsy. Unfortunately some patients continue with seizures after epilepsy surgery and the studies have shown that approximately the 3% to 15% of patients with a previous failed surgical procedure are reoperated. Selected patients may be candidates for further surgery, potentially leading to a significant decrease in the frequency and severity of seizures. In patients with intractable partial epilepsy there are many possible factors, alone or in combination, that could be related to the failure of resection. Some of the factors could be genetic or acquired predisposition to epileptogenicity. In this article we report a case with intractable epilepsy that required three interventions to render seizure free. We analyzed our specific case in the light of previous reports on reoperation and enumerate the potential reasons or reoperation that could apply to all patients with failure of an initial procedure.Keywords: intractable epilepsy, reoperation, epilepsy surgery, surgical failure

  12. Tree species composition affects the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) in urban forests in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamberg, Leena; Lehvävirta, Susanna; Kotze, D Johan; Heikkinen, Juha

    2015-03-15

    Recent studies have shown a considerable increase in the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) saplings in urban forests in Finland, yet the reasons for this increase are not well understood. Here we investigated whether canopy cover or tree species composition, i.e., the basal areas of different tree species in Norway spruce dominated urban forests, affects the abundances of rowan seedlings, saplings and trees. Altogether 24 urban forest patches were investigated. We sampled the number of rowan and other saplings, and calculated the basal areas of trees. We showed that rowan abundance was affected by tree species composition. The basal area of rowan trees (≥ 5 cm in diameter at breast height, dbh) decreased with increasing basal area of Norway spruce, while the cover of rowan seedlings increased with an increase in Norway spruce basal area. However, a decrease in the abundance of birch (Betula pendula) and an increase in the broad-leaved tree group (Acer platanoides, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Amelanchier spicata, Prunus padus, Quercus robur, Rhamnus frangula and Salix caprea) coincided with a decreasing number of rowans. Furthermore, rowan saplings were scarce in the vicinity of mature rowan trees. Although it seems that tree species composition has an effect on rowan, the relationship between rowan saplings and mature trees is complex, and therefore we conclude that regulating tree species composition is not an easy way to keep rowan thickets under control in urban forests in Finland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Links between belowground and aboveground resource-related traits reveal species growth strategies that promote invasive advantages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S Smith

    Full Text Available Belowground processes are rarely considered in comparison studies of native verses invasive species. We examined relationships between belowground fine root production and lifespan, leaf phenology, and seasonal nitrogen dynamics of Lonicera japonica (non-native versus L. sempervirens (native and Frangula alnus (non-native versus Rhamnus alnifolia (native, over time. First and second order fine roots were monitored from 2010 to 2012 using minirhizotron technology and rhizotron windows. 15N uptake of fine roots was measured across spring and fall seasons. Significant differences in fine root production across seasons were seen between Lonicera species, but not between Frangula and Rhamnus, with both groups having notable asynchrony in regards to the timing of leaf production. Root order and the number of root neighbors at the time of root death were the strongest predictors of root lifespan of both species pairs. Seasonal 15N uptake was higher in spring than in the fall, which did not support the need for higher root activity to correspond with extended leaf phenology. We found higher spring 15N uptake in non-native L. japonica compared to native L. sempervirens, although there was no difference in 15N uptake between Frangula and Rhamnus species. Our findings indicate the potential for fast-growing non-native Lonicera japonica and Frangula alnus to outcompete native counterparts through differences in biomass allocation, root turnover, and nitrogen uptake, however evidence that this is a general strategy of invader dominance is limited.

  14. Polygonaceae da cadeia do espinhaço, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melo Efigênia de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da família Polygonaceae é parte do projeto "Estudos de flora e fauna na Cadeia do Espinhaço, Bahia, Brasil". Neste trabalho a área de estudo foi ampliada, abrangendo também as espécies da Cadeia do Espinhaço do Estado de Minas Gerais. A família está representada na área por cinco gêneros, com os respectivos números de espécies: Coccoloba (14: C. acrostichoides, C. alagoensis, C. alnifolia, C. brasiliensis, C. cereifera, C. fastigiata, C. lucidula, C. ochreolata, C. pipericarpa, C. salicifolia, C. scandens, C. schwackeana, C. striata e C. warmingii, Polygonum (6: P. acuminatum, P. ferrugineum, P. hispidum, P. hydropiperoides, P. meisnerianum e P. punctatum, Rumex (1: R. crispus, Ruprechtia (1: R. apetala e Triplaris (1: T. gardneriana. São apresentadas chaves para os gêneros e espécies, bem como descrições, ilustrações, comentários sobre a distribuição geográfica, fenologia e variabilidade para todos os táxons.

  15. Antimicrobial Activity of Lippia Species from the Brazilian Semiarid Region Traditionally Used as Antiseptic and Anti-Infective Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana da Purificação Pinto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lippia origanoides Kunth, Lippia alnifolia Schauer, and Lippia thymoides Martius and Schauer are shrubs used in the traditional Brazilian medicine as antiseptics, as well as in the treatment of infectious diseases. This study was designed to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal activities of the methanolic extracts of these species, as new potential sources of antimicrobial drugs. The antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts was investigated against resistant yeasts and bacteria by agar disk diffusion. Then, the MIC determination of the most active species and its fractions in hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and water was performed. By the agar diffusion assay, all species were active against at least two microorganisms, giving evidence to support their use in the popular medicine. L. origanoides leaves exhibited the widest antimicrobial action, inhibiting the growth of two Gram-positive bacteria and two yeasts; this activity was also confirmed by the MIC evaluation. The fractionation of L. origanoides crude extracts improved the activity in spectrum and intensity. The results obtained in this study indicate that L. origanoides may be a promising alternative in the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections and in the seeking of new antimicrobial drugs.

  16. Conservation biology of Chionodoxa lochiae and Scilla morrisii (Asparagaceae: Two priority bulbous plant species of the European Union in Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios Andreou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data regarding conservation biology of Chionodoxa lochiae and Scilla morrisii; two threatened endemic plants of Cyprus, which are included as priority species in Annex II of the Habitats Directive. The population size and geographical distribution of the species were monitored for three years. C. lochiae was recorded in ten locations and S. morrisii was recorded in five locations. C. lochiae occurs in Pinus forests with/without Quercus alnifolia understory or in forest margins and riparian vegetation with Platanus orientalis. Favorable habitat of S. morrisii is the understory of Quercus infectoria stands and the Pistacia terebinthus-Quercus coccifera-Styrax officinalis shrubs. The distribution pattern of the species seems to follow habitat availability. Fecundity and Relative Reproductive Success of C. lochiae were stable and low, while in S. morrisii were constantly high. The lack of pollinators seems to be the main cause of the low sexual reproduction of C. lochiae. The germination strategy for both species is dependent on temperature. Some of the seeds are dormant and dormancy is broken by nitrates. The investigation of certain aspects of the biology of the two species yielded the information needed to identify the critical aspects affecting their survival and to propose sound conservation measures.

  17. Comparisons between Canadian prairie MF radars, FPI (green and OH lines and UARS HRDI systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Meek

    Full Text Available Detailed comparisons have been completed between the MF radars (MFR in the Canadian prairies and three other systems: two ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPI and the UARS high resolution Doppler imager (HRDI system. The radars were at Sylvan Lake (52°N, 114°W, Robsart 
    (49°N, 109°W and the main continuing facility is at Saskatoon (52°N, 107°W. Statistical comparisons of hourly mean winds (1988-1992 for the Saskatoon MFR and FPI (557.7 nm green line using scatter plots, wind speed-ratios, and direction-difference histograms show excellent agreement for Saskatoon. No serious biases in speeds or directions occur at the height of best agreement, 98 km. If anything, the MFR speeds appear bigger. The same applies to the Sylvan Lake MFR and Calgary FPI, where the best height is 88 km. In both cases these are close to the preferred heights for the emission layers. Differences between measurements seen on individual days are likely related to the influence of gravity waves (GW upon the optical and radar systems, each of which have inherent spatial averaging (350, 50 km respectively, as well as the spatial difference between the nominal measurement locations. For HRDI, similar statistical comparisons are made, using single-overpass satellite winds and hourly means (to improve data quality from MFR. Heights of best agreement, based upon direction-difference histograms, are shown; there is a tendency, beginning near 87 km, for these MFR heights to be 2 or 3 km greater than the HRDI heights. Speeds at these heights are typically larger for the satellite (MFR/HRDI = 0.7–0.8. Reasons for the differences are investigated. It is shown that the estimated errors and short-term (90 min differences are larger for HRDI than for the MFR, indicating more noise or GW contamination. This leads to modest but significant differences in median speed-ratio (MFR/HRDI < 1. Also, comparison

  18. Septicemic listeriosis in wild hares from Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenburger, Jamie L; Bennett, Katarina R; Bryan, Lorraine; Bollinger, Trent K

    2015-04-01

    The bacterium Listeria monocytogenes causes disease in a wide variety of mammals including rabbits and hares. We describe naturally acquired metritis and septicemic listeriosis in wild female hares from Saskatchewan, Canada. Between April 2012 and July 2013, two white-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus townsendii) and a snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) were presented to the Veterinary Medical Centre at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada with nonspecific neurologic signs. The hares were euthanized and autopsied. Necrotizing fibrinosuppurative metritis was present in all. Additional findings in individual hares included fetal maceration, multifocal necrotizing myocarditis, multifocal hepatic necrosis, and nonsuppurative encephalitis. Listeria monocytogenes was cultured from multiple tissues in each hare. Although listeriosis in pregnant domestic rabbits has been studied, this is the first detailed description in wild North American hares. The epidemiology of listeriosis, including prevalence and the role of environmental sources and coprophagy in transmission among hares, requires further investigation.

  19. St. Mary's Villa carbon monoxide accumulation incident review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-05-15

    On December 26th 2010, carbon monoxide accumulation within St. Mary's Villa led to the deaths of 3 residents. This extended care facility, located in Humboldt, Saskatchewan, was constructed in 1962 and periodic additions to the building were made up to 1990. The Saskatoon Health Region, which operates the facility, hired March Consulting Associates Inc. to perform a review of the investigation reports of the incident. This review demonstrated that during the night of December 25th to December 26th, 2010, several factors, including large gaps in the make-up air unit and extreme wind, led to backdraft conditions in a boiler of the dust wing mechanical room. Exhaust gases, including carbon monoxide, then built up in the room and were blown into the dust wing by the supply air fan. The report indicates the accumulation of carbon monoxide was not caused by one factor but several.

  20. Gaussianity of the QMASK Map

    CERN Document Server

    Shandarin, S F; Xu, Y; Tegmark, M; Shandarin, Sergei F.; Feldman, Hume A.; Xu, Yongzhong; Tegmark, Max

    2001-01-01

    We test degree-scale cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy for Gaussianity by studying the \\qmask map that was obtained from combining the QMAP and Saskatoon data. We compute seven morphological functions $M_i(\\dt)$, $i=1,...,7$: six \\mf and the number of regions $N_c$ at a hundred $\\dt$ levels. We also introduce a new parameterization of the morphological functions $M_i(A)$ in terms of the total area $A$ of the excursion set. We show that the latter considerably decorrelates the morphological statistics. We compare these results with those from 1000 Gaussian Monte Carlo maps with the same power spectrum, and conclude that the \\qmask map is neither a very typical nor a very exceptional realization of a Gaussian field. Roughly 20% of the 1000 Gaussian Monte Carlo maps differ more than the \\qmask map from the mean morphological parameters of the Gaussian fields.

  1. Longitudinal and latitudinal variations in dynamic characteristics of the MLT (70−95km): a study involving the CUJO network

    OpenAIRE

    Manson, A. H.; Meek, C. E.; Chshyolkova, T.; Avery, S. K.; Thorsen, D.; MacDougall, J.W.; Hocking, W.; Murayama, Y.; Igarashi, K; Namboothiri, S. P.; P Kishore

    2004-01-01

    The newly-installed MFR (medium frequency radar) at Platteville (40°N, 105°W) has provided the opportunity and impetus to create an operational network of middle- latitude MFRs stretching from 81°W–142°E. CUJO (Canada U.S. Japan Opportunity) comprises systems at London (43°N, 81°W), Platteville (40°N, 105°W), Saskatoon (52°N, 107°W), Wakkanai (45°N, 142°E) and Yamagawa (31°N, 131°E). It offers a significant 7000km longitudinal sector in the North American-Pacific region, and...

  2. Longitudinal and latitudinal variations in dynamic characteristics of the MLT (70?95km): a study involving the CUJO network

    OpenAIRE

    Manson, A. H.; Meek, C. E.; Chshyolkova, T.; Avery, S. K.; Thorsen, D.; MacDougall, J.W.; Hocking, W.; Murayama, Y.; Igarashi, K; Namboothiri, S. P.; P Kishore

    2004-01-01

    International audience; The newly-installed MFR (medium frequency radar) at Platteville (40°N, 105°W) has provided the opportunity and impetus to create an operational network of middle- latitude MFRs stretching from 81°W?142°E. CUJO (Canada U.S. Japan Opportunity) comprises systems at London (43°N, 81°W), Platteville (40°N, 105°W), Saskatoon (52°N, 107°W), Wakkanai (45°N, 142°E) and Yamagawa (31°N, 131°E). It offers a significant 7000km longitudinal sector in the North American-Pacific regio...

  3. Dynamics of a liquid helium I SRF cryostat at the Canadian Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Chris

    2012-06-01

    The Canadian Light Source (CLS) is a third-generation synchrotron located inSaskatoon, Canada. A superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity contained in a 4.43 Kliquid helium I cryostat is used at the CLS to replenish energy loss in the electron beam. Adynamic simulation of this cryostat has been generated to examine pressure and levelfluctuations due to variations in heat loading or other system parameters. This simulatorhas led to some interesting observations in system behavior, which have been shown tooccur in the actual system as well. For example, mass rates of vaporization appear to dropas heat loading increases under certain conditions. Also, the relationship between pressureand SRF tuning characteristics is examined, and the abilities and limitations of thesimulator are presented.

  4. Sweet clover production and agronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goplen, B P

    1980-05-01

    Sweetclover has a notorious reputation for causing "sweetclover disease" when improperly cured. In spite of this, however, sweetclover remains a useful forage legume with valuable agronomic traits. It is drought-resistant and well adapted to Western Canada. Sweetclover is the highest yielding legume forage in this region and is valuable in soil improvement, silage, hay and pasture production and a prized crop for the honey producer. It is the most saline-tolerant of the legumes and is particularly useful on saline "white alkali" soils where cereals and other crops cannot grow. Special precautions are necessary to avoid spoilage and concomitant dicoumarol formation in preserving sweetclover hay and silage. Feeding recommendations are suggested for the safe utilization of spoiled forage. Low coumarin cultivars of sweetclover are completely safe and will not result in sweetclover disease despite spoilage. The breeding program at Saskatoon is expected to produce a new low coumarin (yellow flowered) sweetclover cultivar within the next two years.

  5. Expanding patient engagement in quality improvement and health system redesign: Three Canadian case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, G Ross; Fancott, Carol; Judd, Maria; O'Connor, Patricia

    2016-09-01

    Healthcare organizations face growing pressures to increase patient-centred care and to involve patients more in organizational decisions. Yet many providers worry that such involvement requires additional time and resources and do not see patients as capable of contributing meaningfully to decisions. This article discusses three efforts in four organizations to engage patients in quality improvement efforts. McGill University Health Centre, Saskatoon Health Region, and Vancouver Coastal and Fraser Health Regions all engaged patients in quality improvement and system redesign initiatives that were successful in improving care processes, outcomes, and patient experience measures. Patient involvement in redesigning care may provide a way to demonstrate the value of patients' experiences and inputs into problem-solving, building support for their involvement in other areas. Further study of these cases and a broader survey of organizational experiences with patient involvement may help elucidate the factors that support greater patient engagement. © 2016 The Canadian College of Health Leaders.

  6. Concentrations of neonicotinoid insecticides in honey, pollen and honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in central Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codling, Garry; Al Naggar, Yahya; Giesy, John P; Robertson, Albert J

    2016-02-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides (NIs) and their transformation products were detected in honey, pollen and honey bees, (Apis mellifera) from hives located within 30 km of the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. Clothianidin and thiamethoxam were the most frequently detected NIs, found in 68 and 75% of honey samples at mean concentrations of 8.2 and 17.2 ng g(-1) wet mass, (wm), respectively. Clothianidin was also found in >50% of samples of bees and pollen. Concentrations of clothianidin in bees exceed the LD50 in 2 of 28 samples, while for other NIs concentrations were typically 10-100-fold less than the oral LD50. Imidaclorpid was detected in ∼30% of samples of honey, but only 5% of pollen and concentrations were honey and pollen by bees over winter, during which worker bees live longer than in summer, suggested that, in some hives, consumption of honey and pollen during over-wintering might have adverse effects on bees.

  7. A Novel Application of Fourier Transform Spectroscopy with HEMT Amplifiers at Microwave Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, David T.; Page, Lyman

    1995-01-01

    The goal was to develop cryogenic high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) based radiometers and use them to measure the anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). In particular, a novel Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) built entirely of waveguide components would be developed. A dual-polarization Ka-band HEMT radiometer and a similar Q-band radiometer were built. In a series of measurements spanning three years made from a ground-based site in Saskatoon, SK, the amplitude, frequency spectrum, and spatial frequency spectrum of the anisotropy were measured. A prototype Ka-band FTS was built and tested, and a simplified version is proposed for the MAP satellite mission. The 1/f characteristics of HEMT amplifiers were quantified using correlation techniques.

  8. Influence of Harvest Aid Herbicides on Seed Germination, Seedling Vigor and Milling Quality Traits of Red Lentil (Lens culinaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Maya; Willenborg, Christian J; Vandenberg, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Most red lentil produced worldwide is consumed in dehulled form, and post-harvest milling and splitting qualities are major concerns in the secondary processing industry. Lentil producers in northern temperate regions usually apply pre-harvest desiccants as harvest aids to accelerate the lentil crop drying process and facilitate harvesting operations. This paper reports on field studies conducted at Scott and Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada in the 2012 and 2013 cropping seasons to evaluate whether herbicides applied as harvest aids alone or tank mixed with glyphosate affect seed germination, seedling vigor, milling, and splitting qualities. The site-year by desiccant treatment interaction for seed germination, vigor, and milling recovery yields was significant. Glyphosate applied alone or as tank mix with other herbicides (except diquat) reduced seed germination and seedling vigor at Saskatoon and Scott in 2012 only. Pyraflufen-ethyl (20 g ai ha(-1)) applied with glyphosate as well as saflufenacil (36 g ai ha(-1)) decreased dehulling efficiency, while saflufenacil and/or glufosinate with glyphosate reduced milling recovery and football recovery, although these effects were inconsistent. Application of diquat alone or in combination with glyphosate exhibited more consistent dehulling efficiency gains and increases in milling recovery yield. Significant but negative associations were observed between glyphosate residue in seeds and seed germination (r = -0.84, p seed vigor (r = -0.62, p < 0.001), dehulling efficiency (r = -0.55, p < 0.001), and milling recovery (r = -0.62, p < 0.001). These results indicate application of diquat alone or in combination with glyphosate may be a preferred option for lentil growers to improve milling recovery yield.

  9. Snatch-farrowed, porcine-colostrum-deprived (SF-pCD) pigs as a model for swine infectious disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanyun; Haines, Deborah M; Harding, John C S

    2013-04-01

    The current study tested the benefit of commercially available spray-dried bovine colostrum (The Saskatoon Colostrum Company, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan) in raising snatch-farrowed, porcine-colostrum-deprived (SF-pCD) pigs. In experiment 1, 12 SF-pCD pigs received a liquid diet composed mainly of bovine colostrum from birth to day 10; 6 remained on the same liquid diet (COL), and the other 6 were fed a diet composed mainly of milk replacer (RPL) until weaning. In experiment 2, 12 SF-pCD pigs were fed mainly bovine colostrum before weaning; after weaning, 6 were fed a starter diet containing 20% (w/w) bovine colostrum powder (STARTER-COL), and the other 6 were fed a starter diet without any bovine colostrum (STARTER-CTRL) until termination (day 42 or day 49). In experiment 1 the COL pigs had significantly fewer fever-days than did the RPL pigs. In experiment 2 diarrhea, typhlocolitis, and pancreatic degeneration developed in 4 of the STARTER-COL pigs after weaning. In both experiments all the pigs fed mainly bovine colostrum before weaning survived until termination. All pigs tested free of swine influenza virus H1N1 and H3N2, Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Porcine parvovirus. In experiment 2 all the pigs tested free of Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), but some in both groups tested positive for Torque teno virus genogroups 1 and 2. In conclusion, with the use of snatch-farrowing and bovine colostrum, pigs can be raised in the absence of porcine maternal antibodies with 100% survival and freedom from most porcine pathogens of biologic relevance. This model is potentially suitable for animal disease research.

  10. Do David and Goliath Play the Same Game? Explanation of the Abundance of Rare and Frequent Invasive Alien Plants in Urban Woodlands in Warsaw, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mędrzycki, Piotr; Kołaczkowska, Ewa; Ciurzycki, Wojciech; Marciszewska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Invasive Alien Plants occur in numbers differing by orders of magnitude at subsequent invasion stages. Effective sampling and quantifying niches of rare invasive plants are quite problematic. The aim of this paper is an estimation of the influence of invasive plants frequency on the explanation of their local abundance. We attempted to achieve it through: (1) assessment of occurrence of self-regenerating invasive plants in urban woodlands, (2) comparison of Random Forest modelling results for frequent and rare species. We hypothesized that the abundance of frequent species would be explained better than that of rare ones and that both rare and frequent species share a common hierarchy of the most important determinants. We found 15 taxa in almost two thirds of 1040 plots with a total number of 1068 occurrences. There were recorded 6 taxa of high frequency–Prunus serotina, Quercus rubra, Acer negundo, Robinia pseudoacacia, Impatiens parviflora and Solidago spp.–and 9 taxa of low frequency: Acer saccharinum, Amelanchier spicata, Cornus spp., Fraxinus spp., Parthenocissus spp., Syringa vulgaris, Echinocystis lobata, Helianthus tuberosus, Reynoutria spp. Random Forest’s models’ quality grows with the number of occurrences of frequent taxa but not of the rare ones. Both frequent and rare taxa share a similar hierarchy of predictors’ importance: Land use > Tree stand > Seed source and, for frequent taxa, Forest properties as well. We conclude that there is an ‘explanation jump’ at higher species frequencies, but rare species are surprisingly similar to frequent ones in their determinant’s hierarchy, with differences conforming with their respective stages of invasion. PMID:27992516

  11. The historical distribution of Gunnison Sage-Grouse in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Clait E.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Nehring, Jennifer A.; Commons, Michelle L.; Young, Jessica R.; Potter, Kim M.

    2014-01-01

    The historical distribution of Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus) in Colorado is described based on published literature, observations, museum specimens, and the known distribution of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.). Historically, Gunnison Sage-Grouse were widely but patchily distributed in up to 22 counties in south-central and southwestern Colorado. The historical distribution of this species was south of the Colorado-Eagle river drainages primarily west of the Continental Divide. Potential contact areas with Greater Sage-Grouse (C. urophasianus) were along the Colorado-Eagle river system in Mesa, Garfield, and Eagle counties, west of the Continental Divide. Gunnison Sage-Grouse historically occupied habitats that were naturally highly fragmented by forested mountains and plateaus/mesas, intermountain basins without robust species of sagebrush, and river systems. This species adapted to use areas with more deciduous shrubs (i.e., Quercus spp., Amelanchier spp., Prunus spp.) in conjunction with sagebrush. Most areas historically occupied were small, linear, and patchily distributed within the overall landscape matrix. The exception was the large intermountain basin in Gunnison, Hinsdale, and Saguache counties. The documented distribution east of the Continental Divide within the large expanse of the San Luis Valley (Alamosa, Conejos, Costilla, and Rio Grande counties) was minimal and mostly on the eastern, northern, and southern fringes. Many formerly occupied habitat patches were vacant by the mid 1940s with extirpations continuing to the late 1990s. Counties from which populations were recently extirpated include Archuleta and Pitkin (1960s), and Eagle, Garfield, Montezuma, and Ouray (1990s).

  12. Differences in impacts of Hurricane Sandy on freshwater swamps on the Delmarva Peninsula, Mid−Atlantic Coast, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2016-01-01

    Hurricane wind and surge may have different influences on the subsequent composition of forests. During Hurricane Sandy, while damaging winds were highest near landfall in New Jersey, inundation occurred along the entire eastern seaboard from Georgia to Maine. In this study, a comparison of damage from salinity intrusion vs. wind/surge was recorded in swamps of the Delmarva Peninsula along the Pocomoke (MD) and Nanticoke (DE) Rivers, south of the most intense wind damage. Hickory Point Cypress Swamp (Hickory) was closest to the Chesapeake Bay and may have been subjected to a salinity surge as evidenced by elevated salinity levels at a gage upstream of this swamp (storm salinity = 13.1 ppt at Nassawango Creek, Snow Hill, Maryland). After Hurricane Sandy, 8% of the standing trees died at Hickory including Acer rubrum, Amelanchier laevis, Ilex spp., and Taxodium distichum. In Plot 2 of Hickory, 25% of the standing trees were dead, and soil salinity levels were the highest recorded in the study. The most important variables related to structural tree damage were soil salinity and proximity to the Atlantic coast as based on Stepwise Regression and NMDS procedures. Wind damage was mostly restricted to broken branches although tipped−up trees were found at Hickory, Whiton and Porter (species: Liquidamabar styraciflua, Pinus taeda, Populus deltoides, Quercus pagoda and Ilex spp.). These trees fell mostly in an east or east−southeast direction (88o−107o) in keeping with the wind direction of Hurricane Sandy on the Delmarva Peninsula. Coastal restoration and management can be informed by the specific differences in hurricane damage to vegetation by salt versus wind.

  13. DNA barcoding for species identification from dried and powdered plant parts: a case study with authentication of the raw drug market samples of Sida cordifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassou, Sophie Lorraine; Kusuma, G; Parani, Madasamy

    2015-03-15

    The majority of the plant materials used in herbal medicine is procured from the markets in the form of dried or powdered plant parts. It is essential to use authentic plant materials to derive the benefits of herbal medicine. However, establishing the identity of these plant materials by conventional taxonomy is extremely difficult. Here we report a case study in which the species identification of the market samples of Sida cordifolia was done by DNA barcoding. As a prelude to species identification by DNA barcoding, 13 species of Sida were collected, and a reference DNA barcode library was developed using rbcL, matK, psbA-trnH and ITS2 markers. Based on the intra-species and inter-species divergence observed, psbA-trnH and ITS2 were found to be the best two-marker combination for species identification of the market samples. The study showed that none of the market samples belonged to the authentic species, S. cordifolia. Seventy-six per cent of the market samples belonged to other species of Sida. The predominant one was Sida acuta (36%) followed by S. spinosa (20%), S. alnifolia (12%), S. scabrida (4%) and S. ravii (4%). Such substitutions may not only fail to give the expected therapeutic effect, but may also give undesirable effects as in case of S. acuta which contains a 6-fold higher amount of ephedrine compared to the roots of S. cordifolia. The remaining 24% of the samples were from other genera such as Abutilon sp. (8%), Ixonanthes sp., Terminalia sp., Fagonia sp., and Tephrosia sp. (4% each). This observation is in contrast to the belief that medicinal plants are generally substituted or adulterated with closely related species. The current study strongly suggests that the raw drug market samples of herbal medicines need to be properly authenticated before use, and DNA barcoding has been found to be suitable for this purpose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Western Palaearctic Ectoedemia (Zimmermannia Hering and Ectoedemia Busck s. str. (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae: five new species and new data on distribution, hostplants and recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik van Nieukerken

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The nine western Palaearctic species of the subgenus Zimmermannia Hering, 1940 and 48 species in the subgenus Ectoedemia Busck, 1907 of the genus Ectoedemia are reviewed. One species in the subgenus Zimmermannia and four species in the subgenus Ectoedemia are described as new: Ectoedemia (Zimmermannia vivesi A. Laštůvka, Z. Laštůvka & Van Nieukerken sp. n. from southern Spain and Cyprus with unknown host plant, Ectoedemia (E. hendrikseni A. Laštůvka, Z. Laštůvka & Van Nieukerken sp. n. from southern France on Quercus suber, E. (E. heckfordi Van Nieukerken, A. Laštůvka & Z. Laštůvka sp. n. from southern England on Quercus petraea and Q. robur, E. (E. phaeolepis Van Nieukerken, A. Laštůvka & Z. Laštůvka sp. n. from Spain and Portugal probably on Quercus ilex and Q. rotundifolia and E. (E. coscoja Van Nieukerken, A. Laštůvka & Z. Laštůvka sp. n. from Spain on Quercus coccifera. The following species are redescribed: Ectoedemia (Zimmermannia hispanica Van Nieukerken, Ectoedemia (Zimmermannia reichli Z. & A. Laštůvka, 1998, Ectoedemia (E. algeriensis van Nieukerken, 1985, E. (E. pseudoilicis Z. & A. Laštůvka, 1998 and E. (E. alnifoliae van Nieukerken, 1985. Ectoedemia albiformae Puplesis & Diškus, 2003 is synonymised with E. spinosella (Joannis, 1908. Ectoedemia jacutica Puplesis, 1988, previously synonymised with E. agrimoniae (Frey, 1858, is here synonymised with E. spiraeae Gregor & Povolný, 1983. Updated keys to the subgenus Zimmermannia and the Quercus feeding Ectoedemia are provided.

  15. 小陇山锐齿栎原始群落林木径阶空间结构特征%Analysis of spatial structure characteristics based on diameter class of trees in primeval Quercus aliena var acuteserrata community in the forest area of Xiaolong Mountain, Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕寻; 杨双宝; 刘文桢; 郭小龙; 李安民; 袁一超

    2015-01-01

    Using the software of single tree sampling in a fixed plot and stand structure analysis,we explored the distribution pattern, isolation and size differentiation for different sizes of dominant tree species in Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata virgin forest community in the forest area of Xiaolong Mountain in Gansu Province, western China. There were more medium and small sized individuals in Q. aliena var. acuteserrata virgin forest community, stand diameter class distribution was of inverted “J” type, and the diameter class for constructive species Q. aliena var. acuteserrata population followed a normal distribution. The stand mean uniform angle index was 0. 542. The individual distribution for constructive species of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata population was slightly aggregated, for seedlings and saplings it was moderate aggregation, for medium diameter trees it was a random distribution and for large trees it was a slightly aggregated distribution. The seedling and sapling individuals of Meliosma cuneifolia var. glabriuscula and Carpinus turczaninowii var. stipulata population showed the transition state from aggregated distribution to random distribution, and their medium diameter trees aggregated distribution. Individuals of Carpinus henryana, Acer mono, Tilia oliveri and Sorbus alnifolia population in different diameter classes showed different degrees of aggregation distribution. The seedling and sapling and medium-diameter individuals of Carpinus turczaninowii population showed aggregated distribution and its large individuals showed uniform distribution. The average mingling of stand was 0. 700, belonging to transient state from the moderate to strong mixture. The mingling of C. henryana and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata population decreased with the increase of DBH, and the mingling of Acer mono, C. turczaninowii, and T. oliveri population decreased first and then increased with the increase of DBH. The mingling of S. alnifolia, M. cuneifolia and C

  16. Proton radius from electron scattering data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higinbotham, Douglas W. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Kabir, Al Amin; Lin, Vincent; Meekins, David; Norum, Blaine; Sawatzky, Brad

    2016-05-01

    Background: The proton charge radius extracted from recent muonic hydrogen Lamb shift measurements is significantly smaller than that extracted from atomic hydrogen and electron scattering measurements. The discrepancy has become known as the proton radius puzzle. Purpose: In an attempt to understand the discrepancy, we review high-precision electron scattering results from Mainz, Jefferson Lab, Saskatoon, and Stanford. Methods: We make use of stepwise regression techniques using the F test as well as the Akaike information criterion to systematically determine the predictive variables to use for a given set and range of electron scattering data as well as to provide multivariate error estimates. Results: Starting with the precision, low four-momentum transfer (Q2) data from Mainz (1980) and Saskatoon (1974), we find that a stepwise regression of the Maclaurin series using the F test as well as the Akaike information criterion justify using a linear extrapolation which yields a value for the proton radius that is consistent with the result obtained from muonic hydrogen measurements. Applying the same Maclaurin series and statistical criteria to the 2014 Rosenbluth results on GE from Mainz, we again find that the stepwise regression tends to favor a radius consistent with the muonic hydrogen radius but produces results that are extremely sensitive to the range of data included in the fit. Making use of the high-Q2 data on GE to select functions which extrapolate to high Q2, we find that a Padé (N=M=1) statistical model works remarkably well, as does a dipole function with a 0.84 fm radius, GE(Q2)=(1+Q2/0.66GeV2)−2. Conclusions: Rigorous applications of stepwise regression techniques and multivariate error estimates result in the extraction of a proton charge radius that is consistent with the muonic hydrogen result of 0.84 fm; either from linear extrapolation of the extremely-low-Q2 data or by use of the Padé approximant for extrapolation using a larger range of

  17. Characterization of the host–guest complex of a curcumin analog with β-cyclodextrin and β-cyclodextrin–gemini surfactant and evaluation of its anticancer activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poorghorban M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Masoomeh Poorghorban,1 Umashankar Das,2 Osama Alaidi,1 Jackson M Chitanda,2 Deborah Michel,1 Jonathan Dimmock,1 Ronald Verrall,3 Pawel Grochulski,1,4 Ildiko Badea1 1Drug Discovery and Development Research Group, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, 2Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, 3Department of Chemistry, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada; 4Canadian Light Source, Saskatoon, SK, Canada Background: Curcumin analogs, including the novel compound NC 2067, are potent cytotoxic agents that suffer from poor solubility, and hence, low bioavailability. Cyclodextrin-based carriers can be used to encapsulate such agents. In order to understand the interaction between the two molecules, the physicochemical properties of the host–guest complexes of NC 2067 with β-cyclodextrin (CD or β-cyclodextrin–gemini surfactant (CDgemini surfactant were investigated for the first time. Moreover, possible supramolecular structures were examined in order to aid the development of new drug delivery systems. Furthermore, the in vitro anticancer activity of the complex of NC 2067 with CDgemini surfactant nanoparticles was demonstrated in the A375 melanoma cell line.Methods: Physicochemical properties of the complexes formed of NC 2067 with CD or CDgemini surfactant were investigated by synchrotron-based powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. Synchrotron-based small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering and size measurements were employed to assess the supramolecular morphology of the complex formed by NC 2067 with CDgemini surfactant. Lastly, the in vitro cell toxicity of the formulations toward A375 melanoma cells at various drug-to-carrier mole ratios were measured by cell viability assay.Results: Physical mixtures of NC 2067 and CD or CDgemini surfactant showed characteristics of the individual components, whereas the complex of NC 2067 and CD or CDgemini surfactant presented new

  18. Asymmetric effects of native and exotic invasive shrubs on ecology of the West Nile virus vector Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Allison M; Allan, Brian F; Frisbie, Lauren A; Muturi, Ephantus J

    2015-06-16

    Exotic invasive plants alter the structure and function of native ecosystems and may influence the distribution and abundance of arthropod disease vectors by modifying habitat quality. This study investigated how invasive plants alter the ecology of Culex pipiens, an important vector of West Nile virus (WNV) in northeastern and midwestern regions of the United States. Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that three native leaf species (Rubus allegheniensis, blackberry; Sambucus canadensis, elderberry; and Amelanchier laevis, serviceberry), and three exotic invasive leaf species (Lonicera maackii, Amur honeysuckle; Elaeagnus umbellata, autumn olive; and Rosa multiflora, multiflora rose) alter Cx. pipiens oviposition site selection, emergence rates, development time, and adult body size. The relative abundance of seven bacterial phyla in infusions of the six leaf species also was determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to test the hypothesis that variation in emergence, development, and oviposition site selection is correlated to differences in the diversity and abundance of bacteria associated with different leaf species, important determinants of nutrient quality and availability for mosquito larvae. Leaf detritus from invasive honeysuckle and autumn olive yielded significantly higher adult emergence rates compared to detritus from the remaining leaf species and honeysuckle alleviated the negative effects of intraspecific competition on adult emergence. Conversely, leaves of native blackberry acted as an ecological trap, generating high oviposition but low emergence rates. Variation in bacterial flora associated with different leaf species may explain this asymmetrical production of mosquitoes: emergence rates and oviposition rates were positively correlated to bacterial abundance and diversity, respectively. We conclude that the displacement of native understory plant species by certain invasive shrubs

  19. Strategic Environmental Assessment Framework for Landscape-Based, Temporal Analysis of Wetland Change in Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizo, Anton; Noble, Bram F.; Bell, Scott

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a spatial framework for the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the context of change analysis for urban wetland environments. The proposed framework is focused on two key stages of the SEA process: scoping and environmental baseline assessment. These stages are arguably the most information-intense phases of SEA and have a significant effect on the quality of the SEA results. The study aims to meet the needs for proactive frameworks to assess and protect wetland habitat and services more efficiently, toward the goal of advancing more intelligent urban planning and development design. The proposed framework, adopting geographic information system and remote sensing tools and applications, supports the temporal evaluation of wetland change and sustainability assessment based on landscape indicator analysis. The framework was applied to a rapidly developing urban environment in the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, analyzing wetland change and land-use pressures from 1985 to 2011. The SEA spatial scale was rescaled from administrative urban planning units to an ecologically meaningful area. Landscape change assessed was based on a suite of indicators that were subsequently rolled up into a single, multi-dimensional, and easy to understand and communicate index to examine the implications of land-use change for wetland sustainability. The results show that despite the recent extremely wet period in the Canadian prairie region, land-use change contributed to increasing threats to wetland sustainability.

  20. Regional differences in outcomes of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in Saskatchewan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Michael; Smith-Windsor, Erin L; Kenyon, Chris R; Bhasin, Sanchit; Jones, Jennifer L

    2014-03-01

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) is associated with significant mortality. To examine several factors that may impact the mortality and 30-day rebleed rates of patients presenting with NVUGIB. A retrospective study of the charts of patients admitted to hospital in either the Saskatoon Health Region (SHR) or Regina Qu'Appelle Health Region (RQHR) (Saskatchewan) in 2008 and 2009 was performed. Mortality and 30-day rebleed end points were stratified according to age, sex, day of admission, patient status, health region, specialty of the endoscopist and time to endoscopy. Logistic regression modelling was performed, controlling for the Charlson comorbidity index, age and sex as covariates. The overall mortality rate observed was 12.2% (n=44), while the overall 30-day rebleed rate was 20.3% (n=80). Inpatient status at the time of the rebleeding event was associated with a significantly increased risk of both mortality and rebleed, while having endoscopy performed in the RQHR versus SHR was associated with a significantly decreased risk of rebleed. A larger proportion of endoscopies were performed both within 24 h and by a gastroenterologist in the RQHR. Saskatchewan has relatively high rates of mortality and 30-day rebleeding among patients with NVUGIB compared with published rates. The improved outcomes observed in the RQHR, when compared with the SHR, may be related to the employ of a formal call-back endoscopy team for the treatment of NVUGIB.

  1. FTIR Synchrotron Spectroscopy of the Asymmetric C-H Stretching Bands of Methyl Mercaptan (CH3SH) - a Perplexity of Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Ronald M.; Xu, Li-Hong; Reid, Elias M.; Thapaliya, Bishnu P.; Dawadi, Mahesh B.; Perry, David S.; Twagirayezu, Sylvestre; Billinghurst, Brant E.

    2016-06-01

    The infrared Fourier transform spectrum of the asymmetric C-H stretching bands of CH3SH has been recorded in the 2950-3100 cm-1 region at Doppler limited resolution using synchrotron radiation at the FIR beamline of the Canadian Light Source in Saskatoon. Assignment of numerous torsion-rotation sub-bands for the asymmetric stretches has revealed a surprising pseudo-symmetric behavior, in which each band is seen in only one of the two possible ΔK selection rules. The upper states of the two asymmetric stretching vibrational bands thus appear to behave more like l = ± 1 components of a degenerate E state of a symmetric top rather than distinct vibrational states. The two components are separated by about 1.5 cm-1 at K = 0, and then diverge linearly at higher K with torsional oscillation amplitude similar to that of the ground state of about 1.3 cm-1. The divergence is consistent with an a-type Coriolis splitting picture with an effective Coriolis constant ζ ≈ 0.075.

  2. The effect of plasma density structure on HF radio wave propagation at auroral and polar latitudes measured by e-POP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, G. W.; James, H. G.; Gillies, R.; McWilliams, K. A.; St-Maurice, J. P.; Yau, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    One of the scientific objectives of the enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI) is to study ionospheric density structure and its impact on High Frequency (HF) radio wave propagation. We present a survey of several ePOP RRI transits through isolated beams of the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) Saskatoon and Rankin Inlet radars. It reveals that the spreading of a SuperDARN beam beyond its nominal azimuthal beam width of 3.24° is a common occurrence at auroral and polar latitudes. Furthermore, on multiple occasions, lateral deviations of a beam's power peak by several beam widths was measured, indicating the presence of significant plasma density gradients along the ray path. The e-POP RRI measurements illustrate that our understanding and recognition of plasma density gradients and their influence on HF radio wave propagation is limited. We report on the results of employing HF ray tracing techniques to quantify the impact of ionospheric structuring on HF radio wave propagation, and consider the source of the gradients contributing to the spreading of the SuperDARN beams.

  3. Nanodiamonds as novel nanomaterials for biomedical applications: drug delivery and imaging systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Randeep Kaur, Ildiko BadeaDrug Design and Discovery Research Group, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, CanadaAbstract: Detonation nanodiamonds (NDs are emerging as delivery vehicles for small chemical drugs and macromolecular biotechnology products due to their primary particle size of 4 to 5 nm, stable inert core, reactive surface, and ability to form hydrogels. Nanoprobe technology capitalizes on the intrinsic fluorescence, high refractive index, and unique Raman signal of the NDs, rendering them attractive for in vitro and in vivo imaging applications. This review provides a brief introduction of the various types of NDs and describes the development of procedures that have led to stable single-digit-sized ND dispersions, a crucial feature for drug delivery systems and nanoprobes. Various approaches used for functionalizing the surface of NDs are highlighted, along with a discussion of their biocompatibility status. The utilization of NDs to provide sustained release and improve the dispersion of hydrophobic molecules, of which chemotherapeutic drugs are the most investigated, is described. The prospects of improving the intracellular delivery of nucleic acids by using NDs as a platform are exemplified. The photoluminescent and optical scattering properties of NDs, together with their applications in cellular labeling, are also reviewed. Considering the progress that has been made in understanding the properties of NDs, they can be envisioned as highly efficient drug delivery and imaging biomaterials for use in animals and humans.Keywords: dispersion, surface functionalization, toxicity, carriers, fluorescence, light scattering

  4. Longitudinal and latitudinal variations in dynamic characteristics of the MLT (70−95km: a study involving the CUJO network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Murayama

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The newly-installed MFR (medium frequency radar at Platteville (40°N, 105°W has provided the opportunity and impetus to create an operational network of middle- latitude MFRs stretching from 81°W–142°E. CUJO (Canada U.S. Japan Opportunity comprises systems at London (43°N, 81°W, Platteville (40°N, 105°W, Saskatoon (52°N, 107°W, Wakkanai (45°N, 142°E and Yamagawa (31°N, 131°E. It offers a significant 7000km longitudinal sector in the North American-Pacific region, and a useful range of latitudes (12–14° at two longitudes. Annual climatologies involving both height and frequency versus time contour plots for periods from 8h to 30 days, show that the changes with longitude are very significant and distinctive, often exceeding the local latitudinal variations. Comparisons with models and the recent UARS-HRDI global analysis of tides are discussed. The fits of the horizontal wave numbers of the longer period oscillations are provided in unique frequency versus time contour plots and shown to be consistent with the expected dominant modes. Annual climatologies of planetary waves (16 day, 2 day and gravity waves reveal strong seasonal and longitudinal variations. Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides; climatology

  5. Allergic rhinitis and genetic components: focus on Toll-like receptors (TLRs gene polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Gao

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Zhiwei Gao1, Donna C Rennie2, Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan11Department of Public Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; 2College of Nursing and Canadian Centre for Health and Agricultural Safety, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, CanadaAbstract: Allergic rhinitis represents a global health issue affecting 10% to 25% of the population worldwide. Over the years, studies have found that allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, are associated with immunological responses to antigens driven by a Th2-mediated immune response. Because Toll-like receptors (TLRs are involved in both innate and adaptive immune responses to a broad variety of antigens, the association between polymorphisms of TLRs and allergic diseases has been the focus in many animal and human studies. Although the etiology of allergic rhinitis is still unknown, extensive research over the years has confirmed that the underlying causes of allergic diseases are due to many genetic and environmental factors, along with the interactions among them, which include gene–environment, gene–gene, and environment–environment interactions. Currently, there is great inconsistency among studies mainly due to differences in genetic background and unique gene–environment interactions. This paper reviews studies focusing on the association between TLR polymorphisms and allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, which would help researchers better understand the role of TLR polymorphisms in the development of allergic rhinitis, and ultimately lead to more efficient therapeutic interventions being developed.Keywords: allergic rhinitis, allergic diseases, Toll-like receptors

  6. Visible Minority Librarians of Canada at Ontario Library Association Super Conference, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Kumaran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the panel presentation offered at the Ontario Library Association Super Conference in January 2013. Six of the ten founding members of Visible Minority Librarians of Canada (ViMLoC Network were able to attend and offer a panel presentation on the challenges faced by visible minority librarians. Topics varied from finding the right job, education, lack of financial support, upgrading skills, lack of mentorship opportunities, and socialization at work. Although Canada has always been a land of immigrants, the social makeup of immigration has shifted from Eastern Europe to the Middle East, Africa and Asia. There is an influx of immigrants to historically not so popular destinations such as Saskatoon and Winnipeg. Are there more visible minority librarians in Canada as a result? If not, will there be room for them? Based on feedback received at this presentation, ViMLoC will focus on two major projects: gathering statistics on the number of visible minority librarians working for Canadian institutions, and creating a mentorship program.

  7. Investigation of the winds and electron concentration variability in the D region of the ionosphere by the partial-reflection radar technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, R. M.; Bowhill, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    The development and first observations of the partial-reflection drifts experiment at Urbana, Illinois (40 N) are described. The winds data from the drifts experiment are compared with electron concentration data obtained by the differential-absorption technique to study the possible meteorological causes of the winter anomaly in the mesosphere at midlatitudes. winds data obtained by the meteor-radar experiment at Urbana are also compared with electron concentration data measured at Urban. A significant correlation is shown is both cases between southward winds and increasing electron concentration measured at the same location during winter. The possibility of stratospheric/mesospheric coupling is investigated by comparing satellite-measured 0.4 mbar geopotential data with mesospheric electron concentration data. No significant coupling was observed. The winds measured at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (52 N) are compared with the electron concentrations measured at Urban, yielding constant fixed relationship, but significant correlations for short segments of the winter. A significant coherence is observed at discrete frequencies during segments of the winter.

  8. Strategic Environmental Assessment Framework for Landscape-Based, Temporal Analysis of Wetland Change in Urban Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizo, Anton; Noble, Bram F; Bell, Scott

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a spatial framework for the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the context of change analysis for urban wetland environments. The proposed framework is focused on two key stages of the SEA process: scoping and environmental baseline assessment. These stages are arguably the most information-intense phases of SEA and have a significant effect on the quality of the SEA results. The study aims to meet the needs for proactive frameworks to assess and protect wetland habitat and services more efficiently, toward the goal of advancing more intelligent urban planning and development design. The proposed framework, adopting geographic information system and remote sensing tools and applications, supports the temporal evaluation of wetland change and sustainability assessment based on landscape indicator analysis. The framework was applied to a rapidly developing urban environment in the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, analyzing wetland change and land-use pressures from 1985 to 2011. The SEA spatial scale was rescaled from administrative urban planning units to an ecologically meaningful area. Landscape change assessed was based on a suite of indicators that were subsequently rolled up into a single, multi-dimensional, and easy to understand and communicate index to examine the implications of land-use change for wetland sustainability. The results show that despite the recent extremely wet period in the Canadian prairie region, land-use change contributed to increasing threats to wetland sustainability.

  9. Characterization of Canadian biomass for alternative renewable biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naik, Satyanarayan; Goud, Vaibhav V.; Rout, Prasant K.; Jacobson, Kathlene; Dalai, Ajay K. [Catalysis and Chemical Engineering Laboratories, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    Biomass represents the renewable energy source and their use reduces the consumption of fossil fuels and limits the emission of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub x}, NO{sub x} and heavy metals. They are used in pyrolysis, gasification, combustion and co-combustion. Present study aims to highlight the common biomass available in Canada such as wheat straw, barley straw, flax straw, timothy grass and pinewood. The biomass samples were collected form Saskatoon, Canada and examined for their physical and chemical characteristics using static bomb calorimeter, XRD, TGA, ICP-MS, CHNSO, FT-IR and FT-NIR. The biomass samples were subjected to three-step extraction process, i.e. hexane, alcohol and water extraction separately, after extraction the raffinate biomass was acid hydrolyzed. The acid soluble fractions, which mainly contained degraded sugars, were analysed by HPLC and the lignin content was determined using acid insoluble fraction. The hexane extract (i.e. waxes), alcohol extract and lignin were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy. Among all the biomass samples pinewood shows lower ash and lignin content, while shows higher calorific value, cellulose and hemicellulose content. The appreciable amount of hexane soluble in pinewood was due to the presence of terpene hydrocarbons. However among the agricultural biomass samples barley straw shows higher ash, wax and lignin content compared to wheat and flax straw. All these properties combined together have shown that pinewood, wheat and flax can act as the potential candidates for bio-energy production. (author)

  10. Genotype and growing environment interaction shows a positive correlation between substrates of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) biosynthesis and their accumulation in chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangola, Manu P; Khedikar, Yogendra P; Gaur, Pooran M; Båga, Monica; Chibbar, Ravindra N

    2013-05-22

    To develop genetic improvement strategies to modulate raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) concentration in chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) seeds, RFO and their precursor concentrations were analyzed in 171 chickpea genotypes from diverse geographical origins. The genotypes were grown in replicated trials over two years in the field (Patancheru, India) and in the greenhouse (Saskatoon, Canada). Analysis of variance revealed a significant impact of genotype, environment, and their interaction on RFO concentration in chickpea seeds. Total RFO concentration ranged from 1.58 to 5.31 mmol/100 g and from 2.11 to 5.83 mmol/100 g in desi and kabuli genotypes, respectively. Sucrose (0.60-3.59 g/100 g) and stachyose (0.18-2.38 g/100 g) were distinguished as the major soluble sugar and RFO, respectively. Correlation analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between substrate and product concentration in RFO biosynthesis. In chickpea seeds, raffinose, stachyose, and verbascose showed a moderate broad sense heritability (0.25-0.56), suggesting the use of a multilocation trials based approach in chickpea seed quality improvement programs.

  11. An Instrument for Investigation of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation at Intermediate Angular Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollack, E. J.; Devlin, M. J.; Jarosik, N.; Netterfield, C. B.; Page, L.; Wilkinson, D.

    1997-02-01

    We describe an off-axis microwave telescope for observations of the anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation on angular scales between 0.5d and 3°. The receiver utilizes cryogenic high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) amplifiers and detects the total power in multiple 3 GHz wide channels. Both frequency and polarization information are recorded allowing discrimination between CMB radiation and potential foreground sources and allowing checks for systematic effects. The instrumental radiometric offset is small (~1 mK). Data are taken by rapidly sampling while sweeping the beam many beamwidths across the sky. After detection, a spatio-temporal filter is formed in software that optimizes the sensitivity in a multipole band in the presence of atmospheric fluctuations. Observations were made from Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (SK), Canada, during the winter of 1993 with six channels between 27.6 and 34.0 GHz, in 1994 with 12 channels between 27.6 and 44.1 GHz, and in 1995 with six channels between 38.2 and 44.1 GHz. The performance of the instrument and assessment of the atmospheric noise at this site are discussed.

  12. Surface net solar radiation estimated from satellite measurements - Comparisons with tower observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanqing; Leighton, H. G.; Cess, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    A parameterization that relates the reflected solar flux at the top of the atmosphere to the net solar flux at the surface in terms of only the column water vapor amount and the solar zenith angle was tested against surface observations. Net surface fluxes deduced from coincidental collocated satellite-measured radiances and from measurements from towers in Boulder during summer and near Saskatoon in winter have mean differences of about 2 W/sq m, regardless of whether the sky is clear or cloudy. Furthermore, comparisons between the net fluxes deduced from the parameterization and from surface measurements showed equally good agreement when the data were partitioned into morning and afternoon observations. This is in contrast to results from an empirical clear-sky algorithm that is unable to account adequately for the effects of clouds and that shows, at Boulder, a distinct morning to afternoon variation. It is also demonstrated that the parameterization may be applied to irradiances at the top of the atmosphere that have been temporally averaged. The good agreement between the results of the parameterization and surface measurements suggests that the algorithm is a useful tool for a variety of climate studies.

  13. Gelastic seizures associated with hypothalamic hamartomas. An update in the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Tellez-Zenteno

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available José F. Tellez-Zenteno1, Cesar Serrano-Almeida2, Farzad Moien-Afshari11Division of Neurology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada; 2Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, CanadaAbstract: Gelastic seizures are epileptic events characterized by bouts of laughter. Laughter-like vocalization is usually combined with facial contraction in the form of a smile. Autonomic features such as flushing, tachycardia, and altered respiration are widely recognized. Conscious state may not be impaired, although this is often difficult to asses particularly in young children. Gelastic seizures have been associated classically to hypothalamic hamartomas, although different extrahypothalamic localizations have been described. Hypothalamic hamartomas are rare congenital lesions presenting with the classic triad of gelastic epilepsy, precocious puberty and developmental delay. The clinical course of patients with gelastic seizures associated with hypothalamic hamartomas is progressive, commencing with gelastic seizures in infancy, deteriorating into more complex seizure disorder resulting in intractable epilepsy. Electrophysiological, radiological, and pathophysiological studies have confirmed the intrinsic epileptogenicity of the hypothalamic hamartoma. Currently the most effective surgical approach is the trancallosal anterior interforniceal approach, however newer approaches including the endoscopic and other treatment such as radiosurgery and gamma knife have been used with success. This review focuses on the syndrome of gelastic seizures associated with hypothalamic hamartomas, but it also reviews other concepts such as status gelasticus and some aspects of gelastic seizures in other locations.Keywords: epilepsy, gelastic seizures, epilepsy surgery, hypothalamic hamartoma, intractable epilepsy

  14. Longitudinal and latitudinal variations in dynamic characteristics of the MLT (70-95km): a study involving the CUJO network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, A.; Meek, C.; Chshyolkova, T.; Avery, S.; Thorsen, D.; MacDougall, J.; Hocking, W.; Murayama, Y.; Igarashi, K.; Namboothiri, S.; Kishore, P.

    2004-02-01

    . The newly-installed MFR (medium frequency radar) at Platteville (40N, 105W) has provided the opportunity and impetus to create an operational network of middle- latitude MFRs stretching from W-E. CUJO (Canada U.S. Japan Opportunity) comprises systems at London (N, 81W), Platteville (40N, 105W), Saskatoon (52N, 107W), Wakkanai (45N, 142E) and Yamagawa (31N, 131E). It offers a significant 7000km longitudinal sector in the North American-Pacific region, and a useful range of latitudes (12-14) at two longitudes. Annual climatologies involving both height and frequency versus time contour plots for periods from 8h to 30 days, show that the changes with longitude are very significant and distinctive, often exceeding the local latitudinal variations. Comparisons with models and the recent UARS-HRDI global analysis of tides are discussed. The fits of the horizontal wave numbers of the longer period oscillations are provided in unique frequency versus time contour plots and shown to be consistent with the expected dominant modes. Annual climatologies of planetary waves (16 day, 2 day) and gravity waves reveal strong seasonal and longitudinal variations.

  15. Canadian macromolecular crystallography facility: a suite of fully automated beamlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochulski, Pawel; Fodje, Michel; Labiuk, Shaunivan; Gorin, James; Janzen, Kathryn; Berg, Russ

    2012-06-01

    The Canadian light source is a 2.9 GeV national synchrotron radiation facility located on the University of Saskatchewan campus in Saskatoon. The small-gap in-vacuum undulator illuminated beamline, 08ID-1, together with the bending magnet beamline, 08B1-1, constitute the Canadian Macromolecular Crystallography Facility (CMCF). The CMCF provides service to more than 50 Principal Investigators in Canada and the United States. Up to 25% of the beam time is devoted to commercial users and the general user program is guaranteed up to 55% of the useful beam time through a peer-review process. CMCF staff provides "Mail-In" crystallography service to users with the highest scored proposals. Both beamlines are equipped with very robust end-stations including on-axis visualization systems, Rayonix 300 CCD series detectors and Stanford-type robotic sample auto-mounters. MxDC, an in-house developed beamline control system, is integrated with a data processing module, AutoProcess, allowing full automation of data collection and data processing with minimal human intervention. Sample management and remote monitoring of experiments is enabled through interaction with a Laboratory Information Management System developed at the facility.

  16. Surface Net Solar Radiation Estimated from Satellite Measurements: Comparisons with Tower Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanqing; Leighton, H. G.; Cess, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    A parameterization that relates the reflected solar flux at the top of the atmosphere to the net solar flux at the surface in terms of only the column water vapor amount and the solar zenith angle was tested against surface observations. Net surface fluxes deduced from coincidental collocated satellite-measured radiances and from measurements from towers in Boulder during summer and near Saskatoon in winter have mean differences of about 2 W/sq m, regardless of whether the sky is clear or cloudy. Furthermore, comparisons between the net fluxes deduced from the parameterization and from surface measurements showed equally good agreement when the data were partitioned into morning and afternoon observations. This is in contrast to results from an empirical clear-sky algorithm that is unable to account adequately for the effects of clouds and that shows, at Boulder, a distinct morning to afternoon variation, which is presumably due to the predominance of different cloud types throughout the day. It is also demonstrated that the parameterization may be applied to irradiances at the top of the atmosphere that have been temporally averaged by using the temporally averaged column water vapor amount and the temporally averaged cosine of the solar zenith angle. The good agreement between the results of the parameterization and surface measurements suggests that the algorithm is a useful tool for a variety of climate studies.

  17. Mapping ionospheric backscatter measured by the SuperDARN HF radars – Part 1: A new empirical virtual height model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Yeoman

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurately mapping the location of ionospheric backscatter targets (density irregularities identified by the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN HF radars can be a major problem, particularly at far ranges for which the radio propagation paths are longer and more uncertain. Assessing and increasing the accuracy of the mapping of scattering locations is crucial for the measurement of two-dimensional velocity structures on the small and meso-scale, for which overlapping velocity measurements from two radars need to be combined, and for studies in which SuperDARN data are used in conjunction with measurements from other instruments. The co-ordinates of scattering locations are presently estimated using a combination of the measured range and a model virtual height, assuming a straight line virtual propagation path. By studying elevation angle of arrival information of backscatterred signals from 5 years of data (1997–2001 from the Saskatoon SuperDARN radar we have determined the actual distribution of the backscatter target locations in range-virtual height space. This has allowed the derivation of a new empirical virtual height model that allows for a more accurate mapping of the locations of backscatter targets.

  18. Improvement in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Diagnosis and Management Wait Times: A Retrospective Analysis of a Home Management Pathway for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Alan Stewart

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea is a common condition within the Canadian population. The current gold standard for diagnosis and management of patients is in-laboratory (in-lab polysomnography; however, the limited availability of testing options for patients has led to long wait times and increased disease burden within the population. The Sleep Research Laboratory in Saskatoon (Saskatchewan implemented a home management program to run in parallel with the in-lab system several years ago in an effort to increase their capacity and reduce wait times. The present study was a retrospective analysis of all patients referred to the program between 2009 and 2012. The home management system has improved wait times by diagnosing and managing up to one-half of the referred patient population, reducing the wait for in-lab treatment from a median of 152 days in 2009 to 92 days in 2012 (P<0.0001. Moving forward, home management can provide a viable alternative to in-lab testing for patients who meet strict entry criteria, reducing the in-lab workload and, ultimately, reducing wait times.

  19. Antioxidant Capacity, Anthocyanins, and Total Phenols of Wild and Cultivated Berries in Chile Capacidad Antioxidante, Antocianinas y Fenoles Totales de Berries Silvestres y Cultivados en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Guerrero C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to incorporate a lot of natural antioxidants into the human organism by consuming berries which can prevent diseases generated by the action of free radicals. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals and thus protect the organism from the oxidative damage of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Berries stand out as one of the richest sources of antioxidant phytonutrients among various fruits and vegetables. The objective of this research was to determine antioxidant capacity (AC, total anthocyanins (TA, and total phenols (TP of wild and cultivated berries in different localities of La Araucanía and Los Ríos Regions in Chile. These parameters were analyzed by using the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH method, pH-differential, and Folin-Ciocalteu method. Percentages of DPPH discoloration of different berries studied were between 67.8% and 95.3% for red sarsaparilla and rosehip, respectively. Maqui berries showed a significantly higher TA content (2240.2 and 1445.3 mg L-1 cyanidin 3-glucoside than other berries, and a mean for all berries of 335.5 mg L-1. Higher phenol content levels were obtained in two cultivars of saskatoon (773.9 and 1001.9 mg L-1 gallic acid and wild rosehip (1457.0 and 1140.4 mg L-1 gallic acid. We conclude that there are significant differences in antioxidant capacity of wild and cultivated Chilean berries in this study which show a strong correlation between AC and TP content.Por medio del consumo de berries es posible incorporar al organismo una gran cantidad de antioxidantes capaces de prevenir múltiples enfermedades generadas por la acción de los radicales libres. Los antioxidantes actúan neutralizando los radicales libres y de esta forma protegen al organismo del daño oxidativo de lípidos, proteínas y ácidos nucleicos. Entre variadas frutas y hortalizas, se destacan los berries como una de las fuentes más ricas en fitonutrientes antioxidantes. El objetivo de esta investigaci

  20. Mega-science; Enormous lamp will cast light on industrial problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, G.

    2000-07-03

    A monster scientific instrument called a synchrotron is under construction at the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon. The instrument makes beams of electrons go one billion kilometres in a huge ring and cast light 10,000 times brighter than the sun. Scientists will be able to carry out up to 50 experiments simultaneously, working at up to 15 work stations. The intense light will make it possible to ascertain not only what chemicals are present in a material but also the forms they take in a material. As for its uses in the petroleum industry, a similar instrument at Madison, Wisconsin, was used to formulate additives to motor oil that made it possible to double the life expectancy of automobile engines. Materials with multi-billion dollar markets ranging from semiconductors to injection-moulded synthetics for jogging shoes, car bodies, bumpers and furniture foam have also benefited from this instrument. In the upstream oil industry the most obvious immediate use would be removing contaminants and unwanted byproducts from petroleum. By knowing the form in which the pollutant is present would simplify the selection of the right type of catalyst to remove or to control it. Plans are underway to make industry access to the synchrotron part of the 'Alberta advantage'. An Alberta Synchrotron Institute is being established at the University of Calgary to build partnership between academics and the business community. The plan calls for a $10 million investment in capability to use the synchrotron. The new instrument is expected to enable the industry to grow 'new economy' dimensions such as using biotechnology, and super-miniaturized computer components.

  1. Feeding by flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae; Phyllotreta spp.) is decreased on canola (Brassica napus) seedlings with increased trichome density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroka, Juliana J; Holowachuk, Jennifer M; Gruber, Margaret Y; Grenkow, Larry F

    2011-02-01

    Laboratory and field studies were undertaken to determine the effects of increased numbers of trichomes on seedling stems, petioles, and first true leaves of Brassica napus L., canola, on the feeding and behavior of the crucifer flea beetle Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Seedlings of 'Westar' canola with genes inserted from Arabidopsis thaliana L. for increased trichome production, called Hairyl, were tested against Westar seedlings in no-choice and choice laboratory tests, and against parental plants and other cultivars grown from seed with and without insecticide in field trials at Saskatoon and Lethbridge, Canada. Analyses ofprefeeding and feeding behavior in no-choice tests of first true leaves found that flea beetles interacted with their host while off Hairyl leaves more so than beetles presented with leaves of Westar. Beetles required twice as much time to reach satiation when feeding on leaves with increased pubescence than on Westar leaves. In laboratory choice tests, flea beetles fed more on cotyledons and second true leaves of Westar than on comparable tissues of the transgenic line. In field trials, variations in feeding patterns were seen over time on cotyledons of the line with elevated trichomes. However, all four young true leaves of Hairyl seedlings were fed upon less than were the parental lines. Feeding on Hairyl plants frequently occurred at levels equal to or less than on cultivars grown from insecticide-treated seed. This study highlights the first host plant resistance trait developed in canola, dense pubescence, with a strong potential to deter feeding by crucifer flea beetles.

  2. A physiotherapy triage assessment service for people with low back disorders: evaluation of short-term outcomes

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    Bath B

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Brenna Bath, Punam PahwaCollege of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, CanadaPurpose: To determine the short-term effects of physiotherapy triage assessments on self-reported pain, functioning, and general well-being and quality of life in people with low back-related disorders.Methods: Participants with low back–related complaints were recruited from those referred to a spinal triage assessment program delivered by physiotherapists (PTs. Before undergoing the triage assessment, the participants completed a battery of questionnaires covering a range of sociodemographic, clinical, and psychosocial features. The study used the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS, the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI, and the Medical Outcomes Survey 36-item short-form version 2 (SF-36v2 to assess self-reported pain, function, and quality of life. Baseline measures and variables were analyzed using a descriptive analysis method (ie, proportions, means, medians. Paired samples t-tests or Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-rank tests were used to analyze the overall group differences between the pretest and posttest outcome measures where appropriate.Results: A total of 108 out of 115 (93.9% participants completed the posttest survey. The Physical Component Summary of the SF36v2 was the only measure that demonstrated significant improvement (P < 0.001.Conclusion: A spinal triage assessment program delivered by PTs can be viewed as a complex intervention that may have the potential to affect a wide range of patient-related outcomes. Further research is needed to examine the long-term outcomes and explore potential mechanisms of improvement using a biopsychosocial framework.Keywords: interprofessional practice, quality of life, back pain, orthopedics

  3. An internist's role in perioperative medicine: a survey of surgeons' opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    PausJenssen, Lisa; Ward, Heather A; Card, Sharon E

    2008-01-01

    Background Literature exists regarding the perioperative role of internists. Internists rely on this literature assuming it meets the needs of surgeons without actually knowing their perspective. We sought to understand why surgeons ask for preoperative consultations and their view on the internist's role in perioperative medicine. Methods Survey of surgeons in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada regarding an internist's potential role in perioperative care. Results Fifty-nine percent responded. The majority request a preoperative consultation for a difficult case (83%) or specific problem (81%). While almost half feel that a preoperative consultation is to "clear" a patient for surgery, 33% disagree with this statement. The majority believe the internist should discuss risk with the patient. Aspects of the preoperative consultation deemed most important are cardiac medication optimization (93%), cardiac risk stratification (83%), addition of β-blockers (76%), and diabetes management (74%). Conclusion Surgeons perceive the most important roles for the internist as cardiac risk stratification and medication management. Areas of controversy identified amongst the surgeons included who should inform the patient of their operative risk, and whether the internist should follow the patient daily postoperatively. Unclear expectations have the potential to impact on patient safety and informed consent unless acknowledged and acted on by all. We recommend that internists performing perioperative consults communicate directly with the consulting physician to ensure that all parties are in accordance as to each others duties. We also recommend that the teaching of perioperative consults emphasizes the interdisciplinary communication needed to ensure that patient needs are not neglected when one specialty assumes the other will perform a function. PMID:18208614

  4. Photo- and pion electroproduction in chiral effective field theory; Photo- und Elektropionproduktion in chiraler effektiver Feldtheorie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilt, Marius

    2011-12-13

    This thesis is concerned with pion photoproduction (PPP) and pion electroproduction (PEP) in the framework of manifestly Lorentz-invariant baryon chiral perturbation theory. For that purpose two different approaches are used. Firstly, a one-loop-order calculation up to chiral order O(q{sup 4}) including pions and nucleons as degrees of freedom, is performed to describe the energy dependence of the reactions over a large range. To improve the dependence on the virtuality of the photon in PEP, in a second approach vector mesons are included as explicit degrees of freedom. The latter calculation includes one-loop contributions up to chiral order O(q{sup 3}). Only three of the four physical processes of PPP and PEP can be accessed experimentally. These reactions are measured at several different facilities, e.g. Mainz, Bonn, or Saskatoon. The data obtained there are used to explore the limits of chiral perturbation theory. This thesis is the first complete manifestly Lorentz-invariant calculation up to order O(q{sup 4}) for PPP and PEP, and the first calculation ever for these processes including vector mesons explicitly. Beside the calculation of physical observables, a partial wave decomposition is performed and the most important multipoles are analyzed. They may be extracted from the calculated amplitudes and allow one to examine the nucleon and {delta} resonances. The number of diagrams one has to calculate is very large. In order to handle these expressions, several routines were developed for the computer algebra system Mathematica. For the multipole decomposition, two different programs are used. On the one hand, a modified version of the so-called {chi}MAID has been employed. On the other hand, similar routines were developed for Mathematica. In the end, the different calculations are compared with respect to their applicability to PPP and PEP.

  5. Effects of pollination timing and distance on seed production in a dioecious weed Silene latifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jay F.; Duddu, Hema S. N.; Shirtliffe, Steven J.; Benaragama, Dilshan; Syrovy, Lena D.; Stanley, Katherine A.; Haile, Teketel A.

    2015-11-01

    Silene latifolia Poir. (white cockle or white campion) is an important invasive weed in North American agriculture. It exhibits dioecy, therefore, both male and female plants are required in order for seed production to occur. However, dioecious species being invasive is not common because of their limitations in pollination and subsequent seed production. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of pollination timing and distance on seed production of Silene latifolia. A series of experiments including pollination exclusion, timing and pollination distance were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at or around Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. For pollination exclusion, exclosures were built around the natural female plants for exclosure, sham-exclosure, and male and female combined treatments. Pollination timing was studied by applying exclosure, non-exclosure, night-exclosure, and day-exclosure treatments to individual female plants. Female plants were transplanted along a linear interval at six different distances from the pollen source to study the effect of pollination distance. S. latifolia was exclusively insect-pollinated and pollination occurred both day and night; however, in one year, pollination occurred mainly at night. Female plants that were in the range of 0-4 m from a compatible pollen source experienced no limitation to pollination. However, when the distance was increased further up to 128 m, pollination levels and subsequent seed production were declined. Moreover, there were differences in seed production between years suggesting that pollination was affected by the environmental conditions during pollination and the crop that white cockle was grown in. These experiments indicate that seed production in S. latifolia is limited by insect-pollination. Although there was pollination limitation for seed production at greater distances from a pollen source, the high fecundity rate (3000-18000 seeds per plant) resulted in a large seed output. Thus, we

  6. Long-term outcomes of the Bankart and Latarjet repairs: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rollick NC

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Natalie C Rollick,1 Yohei Ono,1,2 Hafeez M Kurji,3 Atiba A Nelson,1 Richard S Boorman,1 Gail M Thornton,1,4 Ian KY Lo1 1Department of Surgery, Section of Orthopaedic Surgery, McCaig Institute for Bone and Joint Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan; 3College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, 4Department of Orthopaedics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada Abstract: The most common surgical techniques for the treatment of recurrent anterior shoulder instability include the arthroscopic Bankart repair, the open Bankart repair and the open Latarjet procedure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the long-term outcomes following these procedures. A systematic review of modern procedures with a minimum follow-up of 5 years was completed. The objective outcome measures evaluated were post-operative dislocation and instability rate, the Rowe score, radiographic arthritis and complications. Twenty-eight studies with a total of 1652 repairs were analyzed. The estimated re-dislocation rate was 15.1% following arthroscopic Bankart repair, 7.7% following open Bankart repair and 2.7% following Latarjet repair, with the comparison between arthroscopic Bankart and open Latarjet reaching statistical significance (p<0.001. The rates of subjective instability and radiographic arthritis were consistently high across groups, with no statistical difference between groups. Estimated complication rates were statistically higher in the open Latarjet repair (9.4% than in the arthroscopic Bankart (0%; p=0.002. The open Latarjet procedure yields the most reliable method of stabilization but the highest complication rate. There are uniformly high rates of post-operative subjective instability symptoms and radiographic arthritis at 5 years regardless of procedure choice. Keywords: Bankart, Latarjet, long

  7. The Influence of Weather Variation, Urban Design and Built Environment on Objectively Measured Sedentary Behaviour in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Reddy Katapally

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With emerging evidence indicating that independent of physical activity, sedentary behaviour (SB can be detrimental to health, researchers are increasingly aiming to understand the influence of multiple contexts such as urban design and built environment on SB. However, weather variation, a factor that continuously interacts with all other environmental variables, has been consistently underexplored. This study investigated the influence of diverse environmental exposures (including weather variation, urban design and built environment on SB in children. This cross-sectional observational study is part of an active living research initiative set in the Canadian prairie city of Saskatoon. Saskatoon’s neighbourhoods were classified based on urban street design into grid-pattern, fractured grid-pattern and curvilinear types of neighbourhoods. Diverse environmental exposures were measured including, neighbourhood built environment, and neighbourhood and household socioeconomic environment. Actical accelerometers were deployed between April and June 2010 (spring-summer to derive SB of 331 10–14 year old children in 25 one week cycles. Each cycle of accelerometry was conducted on a different cohort of children within the total sample. Accelerometer data were matched with localized weather patterns derived from Environment Canada weather data. Multilevel modeling using Hierarchical Linear and Non-linear Modeling software was conducted by factoring in weather variation to depict the influence of diverse environmental exposures on SB. Both weather variation and urban design played a significant role in SB. After factoring in weather variation, it was observed that children living in grid-pattern neighbourhoods closer to the city centre (with higher diversity of destinations were less likely to be sedentary. This study demonstrates a methodology that could be replicated to integrate geography-specific weather patterns with existing cross

  8. Geochemistry and Microbial Communities in Iron- and Manganese-Enriched Cold Groundwater Biofiltration Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, W.; Dangeti, S.; Roshani, B.; McBeth, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Exploring how to enhance the microbially mediated oxidization of iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) in natural and engineered environments in cold climates requires an understanding of the interactive relationships between the geochemistry of cold groundwater and Fe- and Mn-oxidizing bacteria. This study precisely measured geochemical and microbial communities in a scaled-up biofiltration system using synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy (XANES) analyses coupled with next-generation sequencing (Illumina Miseq). Two pilot-scale biofiltration columns for Fe (Filter 1) and Mn (Filter 2) were connected in series and installed at the Langham Water Treatment Plant in Saskatoon, Canada. The groundwater temperature ranged from 4 to 8 °C. The pilot-scale study showed that successful treatment (99% removal) of both Fe and Mn was achieved in the biofilters. However, the Mn removal was significantly retarded for four months, likely due to the slow growth of Mn-oxidizing bacteria (MnOB) in Filter 2. The removal of Mn was accelerated once the redox potential in Filter 2 exceeded +300 mV. At that point, the XANES analyses showed that the oxidization states of Mn in Filter 2 were mainly +3 and +4, confirming that Mn oxidization had occurred. Geochemical analyses (PHREEQCi) also indicated changed geochemical conditions that favoured the formation of Mn-oxides during biofiltration. Next-generation sequencing analyses indicated the enrichment of iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB), including Gallionella sp. and Sideroxydans sp., in Filter 1. There were high read numbers for MnOB relatives, including Pseudomonas sp., Hydrogenophaga sp., Bdellovibrio sp., and Leptothrix sp., in Filter 2. Furthermore, the addition of anthracite (coal-based filter media) positively affected the growth MnOB and enhanced Mn oxidization. The evidence obtained in this study provides insight into how Mn oxidization can be accelerated in cold groundwater treatment systems.

  9. Proportion and risk indicators of nonadherence to antihypertensive therapy: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemstra M

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mark Lemstra, M Wasem Alsabbagh Academic Family Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada Purpose: The World Health Organization (WHO concluded that poor adherence to treatment is the most important cause of uncontrolled high blood pressure, with approximately 75% of patients not achieving optimum blood pressure control. The WHO estimates that between 20% and 80% of patients receiving treatment for hypertension are adherent. As such, the first objective of our study was to quantify the proportion of nonadherence to antihypertensive therapy in real-world observational study settings. The second objective was to provide estimates of independent risk indicators associated with nonadherence to antihypertensive therapy. Materials and methods: We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of all studies published between database inception and December 31, 2011 that reviewed adherence, and risk indicators associated with nonadherence, to antihypertensive medications. Results: In the end, 26 studies met our inclusion and exclusion criteria and passed our methodological quality evaluation. Of the 26 studies, 48.5% (95% confidence interval 47.7%–49.2% of patients were adherent to antihypertensive medications at 1 year of follow-up. The associations between 114 variables and nonadherence to antihypertensive medications were reviewed. After meta-analysis, nine variables were associated with nonadherence to antihypertensive medications: diuretics in comparison to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs and calcium channel blockers (CCBs, ACE inhibitors in comparison to ARBs, CCBs in comparison to ARBs, those with depression or using antidepressants, not having diabetes, lower income status, and minority cultural status. Conclusion: This study clarifies the extent of adherence along with determining nine independent risk indicators associated with

  10. Troglitazone reverses the multiple drug resistance phenotype in cancer cells

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    Gerald F Davies

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Gerald F Davies1, Bernhard HJ Juurlink2, Troy AA Harkness11Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada; 2College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: A major problem in treating cancer is the development of drug resistance. We previously demonstrated doxorubicin (DOX resistance in K562 human leukemia cells that was associated with upregulation of glyoxalase 1 (GLO-1 and histone H3 expression. The thiazolidinedione troglitazone (TRG downregulated GLO-1 expression and further upregulated histone H3 expression and post-translational modifications in these cells, leading to a regained sensitivity to DOX. Given the pleiotropic effects of epigenetic changes in cancer development, we hypothesized that TRG may downregulate the multiple drug resistance (MDR phenotype in a variety of cancer cells. To test this, MCF7 human breast cancer cells and K562 cells were cultured in the presence of low-dose DOX to establish DOX-resistant cell lines (K562/DOX and MCF7/DOX. The MDR phenotype was confirmed by Western blot analysis of the 170 kDa P-glycoprotein (Pgp drug efflux pump multiple drug resistance protein 1 (MDR-1, and the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP. TRG markedly decreased expression of both MDR-1 and BCRP in these cells, resulting in sensitivity to DOX. Silencing of MDR-1 expression also sensitized MCF7/DOX cells to DOX. Use of the specific and irreversible peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ inhibitor GW9662 in the nanomolar range not only demonstrated that the action of TRG on MCF/DOX was PPARγ-independent, but indicated that PPARγ may play a role in the MDR phenotype, which is antagonized by TRG. We conclude that TRG is potentially a useful adjunct therapy in chemoresistant cancers. Keywords: chemotherapy, doxorubicin, breast cancer resistance protein-1, multiple drug resistance, multiple drug resistance protein 1

  11. Thoughts of Quitting General Surgery Residency: Factors in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginther, David Nathan; Dattani, Sheev; Miller, Sarah; Hayes, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Attrition rates in general surgery training are higher than other surgical disciplines. We sought to determine the prevalence with which Canadian general surgery residents consider leaving their training and the contributing factors. An anonymous survey was administered to all general surgery residents in Canada. Responses from residents who considered leaving their training were assessed for importance of contributing factors. The study was conducted at the Royal University Hospital, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, a tertiary academic center. The response rate was approximately 34.0%. A minority (32.0%) reported very seriously or somewhat seriously considering leaving their training, whereas 35.2% casually considered doing so. Poor work-life balance in residency (38.9%) was the single-most important factor, whereas concern about future unemployment (16.7%) and poor future quality of life (15.7%) were next. Enjoyment of work (41.7%) was the most frequent mitigating factor. Harassment and intimidation were reported factors in 16.7%. On analysis, only intention to practice in a nonacademic setting approached significant association with thoughts of leaving (odds ratio = 1.92, CI = 0.99-3.74, p = 0.052). There was no association with sex, program, postgraduate year, relationship status, or subspecialty interest. There was a nonsignificant trend toward more thoughts of leaving with older age. Canadian general surgery residents appear less likely to seriously consider quitting than their American counterparts. Poor work-life balance in residency, fear of future unemployment, and anticipated poor future quality of life are significant contributors to thoughts of quitting. Efforts to educate prospective residents about the reality of the surgical lifestyle, and to assist residents in securing employment, may improve completion rates. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Rosette nanotubes show low acute pulmonary toxicity in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Shane Journeay

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available W Shane Journeay1, Sarabjeet S Suri1, Jesus G Moralez2, Hicham Fenniri2, Baljit Singh11Immunology Research Group, Toxicology Graduate Program and Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4, Canada; 2National Institute of Nanotechnology, National Research Council (NINT-NRC and Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2M9, CanadaAbstract: Nanotubes are being developed for a large variety of applications ranging from electronics to drug delivery. Common carbon nanotubes such as single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes have been studied in the greatest detail but require solubilization and removal of catalytic contaminants such as metals prior to being introduced to biological systems for medical application. The present in vivo study characterizes the degree and nature of inflammation caused by a novel class of self-assembling rosette nanotubes, which are biologically inspired, naturally water-soluble and free of metal content upon synthesis. Upon pulmonary administration of this material we examined responses at 24 h and 7d post-exposure. An acute inflammatory response is triggered at 50 and 25 μg doses by 24 h post-exposure but an inflammatory response is not triggered by a 5 μg dose. Lung inflammation observed at a 50 μg dose at 24 h was resolving by 7d. This work suggests that novel nanostructures with biological design may negate toxicity concerns for biomedical applications of nanotubes. This study also demonstrates that water-soluble rosette nanotube structures represent low pulmonary toxicity, likely due to their biologically inspired design, and their self-assembled architecture.Keywords: nanotoxicology, biocompatibility, nanomedicine, pulmonary drug delivery, lung inflammation

  13. Perspectives on Past and Present Waste Disposal Practices: A Community-Based Participatory Research Project in Three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagozewski, Rebecca; Judd-Henrey, Ian; Nilson, Suzie; Bharadwaj, Lalita

    2011-01-01

    The impact of current and historical waste disposal practices on the environment and human health of Indigenous people in First Nations communities has yet to be adequately addressed. Solid waste disposal has been identified as a major environmental threat to First Nations Communities. A community-based participatory research project (CBPR) was initiated by the Saskatoon Tribal Council Health and Family Services Incorporated to investigate concerns related to waste disposal in three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities. Utilizing a qualitative approach, we aimed to gain an understanding of past and present waste disposal practices and to identify any human and environmental health concerns related to these practices. One to one interviews and sharing circles were conducted with Elders. Elders were asked to share their perspectives on past and present waste disposal practices and to comment on the possible impacts these practices may have on the environment and community health. Historically waste disposal practices were similar among communities. The homeowner generated small volumes of waste, was exclusively responsible for disposal and utilized a backyard pit. Overtime waste disposal evolved to weekly pick-up of un-segregated garbage with waste disposal and open trash burning in a community dump site. Dump site locations and open trash burning were identified as significant health issues related to waste disposal practices in these communities. This research raises issues of inequity in the management of waste in First Nations Communities. It highlights the need for long-term sustainable funding to support community-based waste disposal and management strategies and the development of First Nations centered and delivered educational programs to encourage the adoption and implementation of waste reduction, reutilization and recycling activities in these communities. PMID:21573032

  14. Advances in the treatment of relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis: the role of pegylated interferon β-1a

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    Furber KL

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Kendra L Furber,1–3 Marina Van Agten,1–3 Charity Evans,2,4 Azita Haddadi,2 J Ronald Doucette,3–5,† Adil J Nazarali1–4 1Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, 2College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, 3Neuroscience Research Cluster, University of Saskatchewan, 4Cameco Multiple Sclerosis Neuroscience Research Center, City Hospital, 5Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada †Dr. J Ronald Doucette passed away on May 15, 2016 Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease with unpredictable phases of relapse and remission. The cause of MS is unknown, but the pathology is characterized by infiltration of auto-reactive immune cells into the central nervous system (CNS resulting in widespread neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Immunomodulatory-based therapies emerged in the 1990s and have been a cornerstone of disease management ever since. Interferon β (IFNβ was the first biologic approved after demonstrating decreased relapse rates, disease activity and progression of disability in clinical trials. However, frequent dosing schedules have limited patient acceptance for long-term therapy. Pegylation, the process by which molecules of polyethylene glycol are covalently linked to a compound, has been utilized to increase the half-life of IFNβ and decrease the frequency of administration required. To date, there has been one clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of pegylated IFN. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the role of IFN in the treatment of MS and evaluate the available evidence for pegylated IFN therapy in MS. Keywords: interferon, pegylation, multiple sclerosis, relapsing–remitting, disease-modifying therapy

  15. Evaluation of a Community Pharmacy-Based Screening Questionnaire to Identify Patients at Risk for Drug Therapy Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pammett, Robert T; Blackburn, David; Taylor, Jeff; Mansell, Kerry; Kwan, Debbie; Papoushek, Christine; Jorgenson, Derek

    2015-09-01

    To determine if a short screening questionnaire can identify patients at risk for drug therapy problems (DTPs) in a community pharmacy setting. Self-administered questionnaire. Three community pharmacies in Saskatoon, Canada. Forty-nine adults who were picking up a refill prescription for a medication that had remained stable over the past 6 months (i.e., no changes to drug, dose, or regimen) during 4 consecutive weeks at each of the three pharmacies between November 2013 and February 2014. All patients completed a self-administered screening questionnaire and underwent a blinded comprehensive medication assessment with a clinical pharmacist. Agreement between the screening questionnaire responses and responses based on information from the medication assessment were assessed with Cohen's κ coefficient. The DTPs identified during the medication assessments were categorized in one of the eight standard DTP categories: unnecessary drug therapy, inappropriate drug, subtherapeutic dose, supratherapeutic dose, drug therapy required, adverse drug reaction, noncompliance, and other or unsure. The DTPs were also assigned a severity-mild, moderate, or severe-using adapted Schneider criteria. The number and severity of DTPs identified were compared among patients categorized as high versus low risk for DTPs as determined by the questionnaire responses. Of the 49 patients who completed the study, 18 (37%) were high risk and 31 (63%) low risk. The agreement between risk categorization based on the screening questionnaire and medication assessment was very good (κ = 0.91, pidentified as high risk on the screening questionnaire had a mean of 3.7 (prisk patients. Seventeen (94%) of the 18 high-risk patients had at least one moderate or severe DTP compared with 15 (48%) of the 31 low-risk patients. The screening questionnaire was a reliable method for identifying patients in community pharmacies who have a large number of DTPs. © 2015 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  16. Mineralogical control of soil organic carbon persistence at the multidecadal time scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutfalla, Suzanne; Barré, Pierre; Bernard, Sylvain; Le Guillou, Corentin; Chenu, Claire

    2015-04-01

    One of the current challenges in understanding the long term persistence of organic carbon in soils is to assess how mineral surfaces, especially at small scale, can stabilize soil organic carbon (SOC). The question we address in this work is whether different mineral species stabilize different types of SOC. Here we used the unique opportunity offered by long term bare fallows to study in situ C dynamics in several fine fractions of a silty loam soil. Indeed, with no vegetation i.e. no external input of fresh C, the plant-free soil of the Versailles 42 Plots (INRA, France) has been progressively enriched in persistent SOC during the 80 years of bare fallow. To separate mineral phases of the clay size fraction we performed a size fractionation on samples taken from 4 different plots at 5 different dates (0, 10, 22, 52, and 79 years after the beginning of the BF) and analyzed the SOC in the different fractions thus obtained. First, the clay fraction (STXM at the carbon K edge of 280 eV, CLS Saskatoon, Canada) was used to get information on the distribution and the chemical speciation of the SOC in fractions with contrasted mineralogies. Data analysis is still ongoing and full results will be presented at EGU. First results show that the dynamics and quality of the SOC differ in the different clay fractions. SOC decay was greater in coarse clays compared to intermediate clays, SOC in the coarse clay fraction displaying more diversity than in the other fractions. SOC persistence at the multidecadal timescale also seems to be mineral dependent: smectite being more efficient at protecting carbon compared to illite.

  17. The use of alternative therapies in the Saskatchewan stroke rehabilitation population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefromova Ludmilla

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients use alternative therapies. The purpose of this study was to determine the percentage of stroke rehabilitation patients in Saskatchewan using alternative therapies, whether patients found these therapies effective in alleviating stroke-related symptoms, how often those patients who used alternative therapies discuss this fact with their primary care doctor and the main reason why patients might not do so. Methods Telephone questionnaire surveys were conducted with 117 patients who had suffered a stroke and undergone inpatient or outpatient rehabilitation at Saskatoon City Hospital. Results The study revealed that 26.5% of 117 stroke rehabilitation patients visited alternative practitioners at least once or used some form of unconventional therapy. Only 16.1% of patients found that alternative therapy made them feel much better. Of those who used alternative therapy, 61.3% did not discuss this fact with their primary physician. Many of the respondents (47.3% who did not inform their physician stated that they did not see the necessity of talking about these treatments and 21.1% did not discuss the issue with their physician because they felt that he or she might disapprove of alternative therapies. Conclusion A relatively small percentage of stroke patients found alternative therapies beneficial. Doctors should be aware that a significant number of patients will try alternative treatment without discussion with their primary care physician or specialist. The current study suggests that after completing routine questioning, doctors should also ask their patients about their use of alternative therapies and, when appropriate, review issues of safety and efficacy.

  18. Risk of Hippocampal Metastases in Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients at Presentation and After Cranial Irradiation: A Safety Profile Study for Hippocampal Sparing During Prophylactic or Therapeutic Cranial Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundapur, Vijayananda, E-mail: Vijayananda.kundapur@saskcancer.ca [Saskatoon Cancer Center, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Ellchuk, Tasha [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Ahmed, Shahid [Saskatoon Cancer Center, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Gondi, Vinai [Cadence Health Brain Tumor Center and Cadence Health Proton Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Neurocognitive impairment (NI) in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) after whole brain radiation treatment (WBRT) is a significant cause of morbidity. Hippocampal avoidance (HA) during WBRT may mitigate or prevent NI in such patients. However, this has not been tested in SCLC patients. The estimated risk of metastases in the HA region (HM) in patients with SCLC at diagnosis or after WBRT is unknown. Our study aimed to determine the risk of HM in patients with SCLC and to assess correlated clinical factors. Methods and Materials: Patients with SCLC who experienced brain metastases (BM) at presentation (de novo) or after WBRT treated at the Saskatoon Cancer Centre between 2005 and 2012 were studied. Relevant neuroimaging was independently reviewed by a neuroradiologist. HM was defined as metastases within 5 mm of the hippocampus. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess correlation between various clinical variables and HM. Results: Seventy eligible patients were identified. Of 59 patients presenting with de novo BM, 3 patients (5%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0%-10.7%) had HM. Collectively there were 359 (range, 1-33) de novo BM with 3 (0.8%, 95% CI: 0%-1.7%) HM deposits. Twenty patients experienced progression of metastatic disease in the brain after WBRT. Of the 20 patients, only 1 patient (5%, 95% CI: 0%-14.5%) experienced HM. On logistic regression, no factors significantly correlated with HM. Conclusion: The overall incidence of HM before or after WBRT in SCLC patients is low, providing preliminary support for the safety of HA during planned clinical trials of HA-WBRT for SCLC.

  19. Medicinal plants from the genus Acalypha (Euphorbiaceae)--a review of their ethnopharmacology and phytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebaluck, R; Gurib-Fakim, A; Mahomoodally, F

    2015-01-15

    , Acalypha alnifolia and Acalypha fruticosa are used as insecticides and sand fly repellent respectively. Only 2 species (Acalypha fruticosa and Acalypha indica) are used in ethnoveterinary practice and have similar human and veterinary applications. In zoopharmacognosy, only Acalypha ornata has been mentioned. Natives from Africa, Central America, North America, Southern China, India, Bangladesh, Papua New Guinea and Mascarenes islands utilize Acalypha species as ethnomedicine. Traditionally used Acalypha species have been reported to possess at least one of the following biological activities: antimicrobial, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, larvidal, pupicidal, hepatoprotective, anticancer, leishmanicidal, antihyperglycemic, antihypertensive, anti-venom, analgesic, anthelmintic, antiemetic, laxative, expectorant, diuretic, post-coital antifertility effects and wound healing. A total of 167 compounds have been identified from 19 species, with 16 from eight species were reported to be bioactive. The present review represents 32.3% of species from the Acalypha genus and can be considered as the first compilation of ethnopharmacologically useful plants from this genus. There is a great potential to discover new biologically active phytochemicals from the Acalypha genus because only few species have been studied comprehensively. Therefore, the clinical evaluation of species from this genus is warranted in future studies to confirm the ethnomedicinal claims and for the safety approval of therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Interprofessional education for internationally educated health professionals: an environmental scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arain M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mubashir Arain,1 Esther Suter,1 Sara Mallinson,1 Shelanne L Hepp,1 Siegrid Deutschlander,1 Shyama Dilani Nanayakkara,2 Elizabeth Louise Harrison,3 Grace Mickelson,4 Lesley Bainbridge,5 Ruby E Grymonpre2 1Workforce Research & Evaluation, Alberta Health Services, Edmonton, AB, 2College of Pharmacy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, 3School of Physical Therapy, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, 4Provincial Health Services Authority, Vancouver, BC, 5Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada Objective: The objective of this environmental scan was to identify Western Canadian interprofessional education (IPE resources that currently exist for internationally educated health professionals (IEHPs. Methodology: A web-based search was conducted to identify learning resources meeting defined inclusion criteria with a particular focus on the resources available in the Western Canadian provinces. Information was extracted using a standardized template, and we contacted IEHP programs for additional information if necessary. Members of the research team reviewed preliminary findings, identified missing information from their respective provinces, and contacted organizations to fill in any gaps. Results: The scan identified 26 learning resources for IEHPs in Western Canadian provinces and 15 in other provinces focused on support for IEHPs to meet their profession-specific licensing requirements and to acquire knowledge and competencies relevant to working in the Canadian health care system. Most learning resources, such as those found in bridging programs for IEHPs, included an orientation to the Canadian health care system, components of cultural competence, and at least one aspect of interprofessional competence (eg, communication skills. None of the 41 learning resources provided comprehensive training for IEHPs to cover the six interprofessional competency

  1. Progress in the Rotational Analysis of the Ground and Low-Lying Vibrationally Excited States of Malonaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudreau, E. S.; Tokaryk, Dennis W.; Ross, Stephen Cary; Billinghurst, Brant E.

    2016-06-01

    Despite being an important prototype molecule for intramolecular proton tunnelling, the far-IR spectrum of the internally hydrogen-bonded species malonaldehyde (C_3O_2H_4) is not yet well understood. In the talk I gave at the ISMS meeting in 2015 I discussed the high-resolution spectra we obtained at the Canadian Light Source synchrotron in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. These spectra include a number of fundamental vibrational bands in the 100-2000 cm-1 region. In our efforts to analyze these bands we have noticed that our ground state combination differences show a large drift (up to an order of magnitude larger than our experimental error) away from those calculated using constants established by Baba et al., particularly in regions of high J (above 30) and low Ka (below 5). An examination of the previous microwave and far-IR studies reveals that this region of J-Ka space was not represented in the lines that Baba et al. used to generate the values for their fitting parameters. By including our own measurements in the fitting, we were able to improve the characterization of the ground state so that it is now consistent with all of the existing data. This characterization now covers a much larger range of J-Ka space and has enabled us to make significant progress in analyzing our far-IR synchrotron spectra. These include an excited vibrational state at 241 cm-1 as well as several states split by the tunnelling effect at higher wavenumber. T. Baba, T. Tanaka, I. Morino, K. M. T. Yamada, K. Tanaka. Detection of the tunneling-rotation transitions of malonaldehyde in the submillimeter-wave region. J. Chem. Phys., 110. 4131-4133 (1999) P. Turner, S. L. Baughcum, S. L. Coy, Z. Smith. Microwave Spectroscopic Study of Malonaldehyde. 4. Vibration-Rotation Interaction in Parent Species. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 106. 2265-2267 (1984) D. W. Firth, K. Beyer, M. A. Dvorak, S. W. Reeve, A. Grushow, K. R. Leopold. Tunable far-infrared spectroscopy of malonaldehyde. J. Chem. Phys., 94. 1812

  2. The Healthy Weights Initiative: the first 1,000 participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemstra M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mark Lemstra,1,2 Jeff Fox,3 Randy Klassen,4 Dean Dodge5 1Alliance Health Medical Clinic, Moose Jaw, 2Alliance Health Medical Clinic, Regina, 3YMCA of Moose Jaw, 4YMCA of Regina, 5YMCA of Saskatoon, SK, Canada Background: According to Statistics Canada, the number of adults who are overweight or obese rises every year in Canada. As such, it is obvious that various public policies are not working. After extensive community consultation, the Healthy Weights Initiative (HWI started in Moose Jaw and expanded to Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. Objectives: This study aimed to determine adherence, factors affecting adherence and their impact on various health outcomes. Methods: From January 2014 to March 2015, 229 participants started the comprehensive 6-month HWI program. It was determined that having a “buddy” and signing a social support contract with three additional family members or friends were important to program adherence. As such, both policies went from being recommended to becoming mandatory. From April 2015 to August 2016, 771 additional participants started the program, allowing evaluation of the two new policies. Moreover, HWI participant adherence was compared to that of 100 new YMCA members. Results: Among the first 229 HWI participants, 79.9% completed the 6-month program. After the two new policy changes among the 771 participants, 96.1% completed the HWI program (risk ratio =1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01–1.49. In comparison, among the new YMCA regular members without supervision or assistance, 14.0% were still fully adhering to their fitness program after 6 months (RR =6.85; 95% CI: 3.88–12.10. After logistic regression, the only variable with an independent effect for not completing the HWI program was not having a spouse/partner supporting the program (odds ratio =2.31; 95% CI: 1.13–3.67. Although weight loss reductions were obtained (mean: 4.3 kg, the more significant benefits observed were health outcomes

  3. Coordinated investigation of summer time mid-latitude descending E layer (Es) perturbations using Na lidar, ionosonde, and meteor wind radar observations over Logan, Utah (41.7°N, 111.8°W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tao; Fish, C.; Sojka, J.; Rice, D.; Taylor, M. J.; Mitchell, N. J.

    2013-02-01

    It is well known that there is a strong correlation between the formation of a descending sporadic E layer (Es) and the occurrence of large upper atmospheric zonal wind shears, most likely driven by solar thermal tides and/or gravity waves. We present new results of Es perturbation events captured between 13 and 17 July 2011 (UT days 194-198) as part of a coordinated campaign using a wind/temperature Na lidar at Utah State University [41.7ºN, 111.8°W], and a Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde (CADI; Scientific Instrumentation Ltd., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada) and SkiYMet meteor wind radar, both located at nearby Bear Lake Observatory [41.9°N, 111.4°W]. During this period, the CADI detected strong descending Es on 2 days (195 and 197) when large modulations of the top-side mesospheric Na layer occurred in synchronism with strong oscillations in the ionosonde E region echoes. A weakening in the descending E layer echoes was observed on the other 2 days (196 and 198) coincident with a large reduction in the zonal diurnal and semidiurnal amplitudes above 95 km. Both tidal components were found to have comparable contributions to the total zonal wind shear that was critical for Es formation and its downward propagation. Further investigation indicates that the weakening tidal amplitudes and the occurrence of the Es events were also influenced by a strong quasi-two-day period modulation, suggesting significant quasi-two-day wave (QTDW) interactions with the tides. Indeed, a nonlinear, wave-wave interaction-induced 16-hour period child wave was also detected, with amplitude comparable to that of the prevailing tides. These interaction processes and their associated effects are consistent with earlier Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model studies of nonlinear interactions between the migrating tidal waves and the QTDW and were probably responsible for the observed damping of the tidal amplitudes resulting in the disruption

  4. Wave activity (planetary, tidal throughout the middle atmosphere (20-100km over the CUJO network: Satellite (TOMS and Medium Frequency (MF radar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Manson

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Planetary and tidal wave activity in the tropopause-lower stratosphere and mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT is studied using combinations of ground-based (GB and satellite instruments (2000-2002. The relatively new MFR (medium frequency radar at Platteville (40° N, 105° W has provided the opportunity to create an operational network of middle-latitude MFRs, stretching from 81° W-142° E, which provides winds and tides 70-100km. CUJO (Canada U.S. Japan Opportunity comprises systems at London (43° N, 81° W, Platteville (40° N, 105° W, Saskatoon (52° N, 107° W, Wakkanai (45° N, 142° E and Yamagawa (31° N, 131° E. It offers a significant 7000-km longitudinal sector in the North American-Pacific region, and a useful range of latitudes (12-14° at two longitudes. Satellite data mainly involve the daily values of the total ozone column measured by the Earth Probe (EP TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer and provide a measure of tropopause-lower stratospheric planetary wave activity, as well as ozone variability.

    Climatologies of ozone and winds/tides involving frequency versus time (wavelet contour plots for periods from 2-d to 30-d and the interval from mid 2000 to 2002, show that the changes with altitude, longitude and latitude are very significant and distinctive. Geometric-mean wavelets for the region of the 40° N MFRs demonstrate occasions during the autumn, winter and spring months when there are similarities in the spectral features of the lower atmosphere and at mesopause (85km heights. Both direct planetary wave (PW propagation into the MLT, nonlinear PW-tide interactions, and disturbances in MLT tides associated with fluctuations in the ozone forcing are considered to be possible coupling processes. The complex horizontal wave numbers of the longer period oscillations are provided in frequency contour plots for the TOMS satellite data to demonstrate the differences between lower atmospheric

  5. Fatigue in patients with COPD participating in a pulmonary rehabilitation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy J Wong

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cindy J Wong1, Donna Goodridge1, Darcy D Marciniuk2, Donna Rennie1,31College of Nursing, 2College of Medicine, 3Canadian Centre for Health and Safety in Agriculture, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, CanadaBackground: Fatigue is a distressing, complex, multidimensional sensation common in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. While fatigue negatively impacts functional performance and quality of life, there has been little study of the fatigue that affects participants in pulmonary rehabilitation programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the emotional, behavioral, cognitive, and physical dimensions of fatigue and their relationships to dyspnea, mental health, sleep, and physiologic factors.Patients and methods: A convenience sample of 42 pulmonary rehabilitation participants with COPD completed self-report questionnaires which measured dimensions of fatigue using the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Data on other clinical variables were abstracted from pulmonary rehabilitation program health records.Results: Almost all (95.3% participants experienced high levels of physical fatigue. High levels of fatigue were also reported for the dimensions of reduced activity (88.1%, reduced motivation (83.3%, mental fatigue (69.9%, and general fatigue (54.5%. Close to half (42.9% of participants reported symptoms of anxiety, while almost one quarter (21.4% reported depressive symptoms. Age was related to the fatigue dimensions of reduced activity (ρ = 0.43, P < 0.01 and reduced motivation (ρ = 0.31, P < 0.05. Anxiety was related to reduced motivation (ρ = -0.47, P < 0.01. Fatigue was not associated with symptoms of depression, sleep quality, gender, supplemental oxygen use, smoking status, or Medical Research Council dyspnea scores.Conclusions: Fatigue (particularly the physical and

  6. Recent Developments in the Management of Cameco Corporation's Fuel Services Division Waste - 13144

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Thomas P. [Cameco Corporation, Port Hope, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Cameco Corporation is a world leader in uranium production. Headquartered in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan our operations provide 16% of the world uranium mine production and we have approximately 435 million pounds of proven and probable uranium reserves. Cameco mining operations are located in Saskatchewan, Wyoming, Nebraska and Kazakhstan. Cameco is also a major supplier of uranium processing services required to produce fuel for the generation of clean energy. These operations are based in Blind River, Cobourg and Port Hope, Ontario and are collectively referred to as the Fuel Services Division. The Fuel Services Division produces uranium trioxide from uranium ore concentrate at the Blind River Refinery. Cameco produces uranium hexafluoride and uranium dioxide at the Port Hope Conversion Facility. Cameco operates a fuel manufacturing facility in Port Hope, Ontario and a metal fabrication facility located in Cobourg, Ontario. The company manufactures fuel bundles utilized in the Candu reactors. Cameco's Fuel Services Division produces several types of low-level radioactively contaminated wastes. Internal processing capabilities at both the Blind River Refinery and Port Hope Conversion Facility are extensive and allow for the recycling of several types of waste. Notwithstanding these capabilities there are certain wastes that are not amenable to the internal processing capabilities and must be disposed of appropriately. Disposal options for low-level radioactively contaminated wastes in Canada are limited primarily due to cost considerations. In recent years, Cameco has started to ship marginally contaminated wastes (<500 ppm uranium) to the United States for disposal in an appropriate landfill. The landfill is owned by US Ecology Incorporated and is located near Grand View, Idaho 70 miles southeast of Boise in the Owyhee Desert. The facility treats and disposes hazardous waste, non-hazardous industrial waste and low-activity radioactive material. The site

  7. Quasi 16-day oscillation in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, J. M.; Hagan, M. E.; Miyahara, S.; Vial, F.; Manson, A. H.; Meek, C. E.; Portnyagin, Y. I.

    1995-05-01

    A quasi-16-day wave in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere is investigated through analyses of radar data during January/February 1979 and through numerical simulations for various background wind conditions. Previous workers have examined about 19 days of tropospheric and stratospheric data during January 10-28, 1979, and present conflicting evidence as to whether a large westward propagating wavenumber 1 oscillation observed during this period can be identified in terms of the second symmetric Rossby normal mode of zonal wavenumber 1, commonly referred to as the ``16-day wave.'' In the present work we have applied spectral analysis techniques to meridional and zonal winds near 95 km altitude obtained from radar measurements over Obninsk, Russia (54°N, 38°E) and Saskatoon, Canada (52°N, 107°W). These data reveal oscillations of the order of +/-10 m s-1 with a period near 16 days as well as waves with periods near 5 and 10 days. These periodicities all correspond to expected resonant frequencies of atmospheric disturbances associated with westward propagating free Rossby modes of zonal wavenumber 1. Numerical simulations are performed which demonstrate that the 95-km measurements of the 16-day wave are consistent with upward extension of the oscillation determined from the tropospheric and stratospheric data. Noteworthy features of the model in terms of its applicability in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere regime are explicit inclusion of eddy and molecular diffusion of heat and momentum and realistic distributions of mean winds, especially between 80 and 100 km. The latter include a westerly wind regime above the summer easterly mesospheric jet, thus providing a ducting channel enabling interhemispheric penetration of the winter planetary wave disturbance. This serves to explain the appearance of a quasi-16-day wave recently reported in the high-latitude summer mesopause (Williams and Avery, 1992). However, the efficiency of this interhemispheric coupling

  8. Do physiological measures predict selected CrossFit® benchmark performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butcher SJ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Scotty J Butcher,1,2 Tyler J Neyedly,3 Karla J Horvey,1 Chad R Benko2,41Physical Therapy, University of Saskatchewan, 2BOSS Strength Institute, 3Physiology, University of Saskatchewan, 4Synergy Strength and Conditioning, Saskatoon, SK, CanadaPurpose: CrossFit® is a new but extremely popular method of exercise training and competition that involves constantly varied functional movements performed at high intensity. Despite the popularity of this training method, the physiological determinants of CrossFit performance have not yet been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine whether physiological and/or muscle strength measures could predict performance on three common CrossFit "Workouts of the Day" (WODs.Materials and methods: Fourteen CrossFit Open or Regional athletes completed, on separate days, the WODs "Grace" (30 clean and jerks for time, "Fran" (three rounds of thrusters and pull-ups for 21, 15, and nine repetitions, and "Cindy" (20 minutes of rounds of five pull-ups, ten push-ups, and 15 bodyweight squats, as well as the "CrossFit Total" (1 repetition max [1RM] back squat, overhead press, and deadlift, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, and Wingate anaerobic power/capacity testing.Results: Performance of Grace and Fran was related to whole-body strength (CrossFit Total (r=-0.88 and -0.65, respectively and anaerobic threshold (r=-0.61 and -0.53, respectively; however, whole-body strength was the only variable to survive the prediction regression for both of these WODs (R2=0.77 and 0.42, respectively. There were no significant associations or predictors for Cindy.Conclusion: CrossFit benchmark WOD performance cannot be predicted by VO2max, Wingate power/capacity, or either respiratory compensation or anaerobic thresholds. Of the data measured, only whole-body strength can partially explain performance on Grace and Fran, although anaerobic threshold also exhibited association with performance. Along with their typical training

  9. Lysine-functionalized nanodiamonds: synthesis, physiochemical characterization, and nucleic acid binding studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Randeep Kaur,1 Jackson M Chitanda,2 Deborah Michel,1 Jason Maley,3 Ferenc Borondics,2,4 Peng Yang,5 Ronald E Verrall,2 Ildiko Badea11Drug Design and Discovery Research Group, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, 2Department of Chemistry, University of Saskatchewan, 3Saskatchewan Structural Sciences Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 4Canadian Light Source, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada; 5Department of Organic Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, People's Republic of ChinaPurpose: Detonation nanodiamonds (NDs are carbon-based nanomaterials that, because of their size (4–5 nm, stable inert core, alterable surface chemistry, fluorescence, and biocompatibility, are emerging as bioimaging agents and promising tools for the delivery of biochemical molecules into cellular systems. However, diamond particles possess a strong propensity to aggregate in liquid formulation media, restricting their applicability in biomedical sciences. Here, the authors describe the covalent functionalization of NDs with lysine in an attempt to develop nanoparticles able to act as suitable nonviral vectors for transferring genetic materials across cellular membranes.Methods: NDs were oxidized and functionalized by binding lysine moieties attached to a three-carbon-length linker (1,3-diaminopropane to their surfaces through amide bonds. Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, zeta potential measurement, dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopic imaging, and thermogravimetric analysis were used to characterize the lysine-functionalized NDs. Finally, the ability of the functionalized diamonds to bind plasmid DNA and small interfering RNA was investigated by gel electrophoresis assay and through size and zeta potential measurements.Results: NDs were successfully functionalized with the lysine linker, producing surface loading of 1.7 mmol g-1 of ND

  10. Relationship between variability of the semidiurnal tide in the Northern Hemisphere mesosphere and quasi-stationary planetary waves throughout the global middle atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Xu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available To investigate possible couplings between planetary waves and the semidiurnal tide (SDT, this work examines the statistical correlations between the SDT amplitudes observed in the Northern Hemisphere (NH mesosphere and stationary planetary wave (SPW with wavenumber S=1 (SPW1 amplitudes throughout the global stratosphere and mesosphere. The latter are derived from the Aura-MLS temperature measurements. During NH summer-fall (July–October, the mesospheric SDT amplitudes observed at Svalbard (78° N and Eureka (80° N usually do not show persistent correlations with the SPW1 amplitudes in the opposite hemisphere. Although the SDT amplitudes observed at lower latitudes (~50–70° N, especially at Saskatoon (52° N, are often shown to be highly and positively correlated with the SPW1 amplitudes in high southern latitudes, these correlations cannot be sufficiently explained as evidence for a direct physical link between the Southern Hemisphere (SH winter-early spring SPW and NH summer-early fall mesospheric SDT. This is because the migrating tide's contribution is usually dominant in the mid-high latitude (~50–70° N NH mesosphere during the local late summer-early fall (July–September. The numerical correlation is dominated by similar low-frequency variability or trends between the amplitudes of the NH SDT and SH SPW1 during the respective equinoctial transitions. In contradistinction, during NH winter (November–February, the mesospheric SDT amplitudes at northern mid-high latitudes (~50–80° N are observed to be significantly and positively correlated with the SPW1 amplitudes in the same hemisphere in most cases. Because both the SPW and migrating SDT are large in the NH during the local winter, a non-linear interaction between SPW and migrating SDT probably occurs, thus providing a global non-migrating SDT. This is consistent with observations of SDT in Antarctica that are large in summer than in winter. It is suggested that

  11. Breakdown of Clays by Ectomycorrhizal Fungi Through Changes in Oxidation State of Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arocena, J. M.; Velde, B.

    2012-04-01

    Organisms are known to play a significant role in the transformation of clay minerals in soils. In our earlier work on canola, barley and alfalfa, we reported that Glomus, an arbuscular mycorrhizae, selectively transformed biotite into 2:1 expanding clays through the oxidation of Fe (II) in biotite to Fe(III). In this presentation, we will share similar results on clay transformations mediated by ectomycorrhizal fungi colonizing the roots of coniferous trees. Clay samples were isolated from rhizosphere soils of sub-alpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) in northern British Columbia (Canada). Chemical and mineralogical properties of these soils had been reported in our earlier paper. In this study, we subjected the clay samples to iron X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (Fe-XANES) at the Canadian Light Source synchrotron facility in Saskatoon (Canada). Our initial results showed relatively higher amounts of Fe (III) than Fe(II) in clays collected from rhizosphere of Piloderma (an ectomycorrhizal fungus) compared to soils influenced by non-Piloderma species and Control (non-rhizosphere soil). Coupled with the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, there seems to be a positive relationship between the relative amounts of Fe(III) and the 2:1 expanding clays. This relationship is consistent with our results on agricultural plants in laboratory experiments on biotites where we suggested that oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III) results in the formation of 2:1 expanding clays. In a related data set on chlorite alteration we observed that after dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB) treatment, the d-spacing of a slight portion of chloritic expanding clays shifted to higher angles indicating decreased d-spacing towards micaceous clays. The reductive process initiated through the action of the DCB treatment seems to indicate the collapsed of expandable clays upon the reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II). Initial results from the Fe-XANES and XRD analysis of DCB

  12. Calibration of a non-invasive cosmic-ray probe for wide area snow water equivalent measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigouin, Mark J. P.; Si, Bing C.

    2016-06-01

    Measuring snow water equivalent (SWE) is important for many hydrological purposes such as modelling and flood forecasting. Measurements of SWE are also crucial for agricultural production in areas where snowmelt runoff dominates spring soil water recharge. Typical methods for measuring SWE include point measurements (snow tubes) and large-scale measurements (remote sensing). We explored the potential of using the cosmic-ray soil moisture probe (CRP) to measure average SWE at a spatial scale between those provided by snow tubes and remote sensing. The CRP measures above-ground moderated neutron intensity within a radius of approximately 300 m. Using snow tubes, surveys were performed over two winters (2013/2014 and 2014/2015) in an area surrounding a CRP in an agricultural field in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The raw moderated neutron intensity counts were corrected for atmospheric pressure, water vapour, and temporal variability of incoming cosmic-ray flux. The mean SWE from manually measured snow surveys was adjusted for differences in soil water storage before snowfall between both winters because the CRP reading appeared to be affected by soil water below the snowpack. The SWE from the snow surveys was negatively correlated with the CRP-measured moderated neutron intensity, giving Pearson correlation coefficients of -0.90 (2013/2014) and -0.87 (2014/2015). A linear regression performed on the manually measured SWE and moderated neutron intensity counts for 2013/2014 yielded an r2 of 0.81. Linear regression lines from the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 manually measured SWE and moderated neutron counts were similar; thus differences in antecedent soil water storage did not appear to affect the slope of the SWE vs. neutron relationship. The regression equation obtained from 2013/2014 was used to model SWE using the moderated neutron intensity data for 2014/2015. The CRP-estimated SWE for 2014/2015 was similar to that of the snow survey, with an root

  13. Wave Activity (Planetary, Tidal) throughout the Middle Atmoshere (25-100 km) over the CUJO Network: Satellite and Medium Frequency (MF) Radar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, A.; Meek, C.; Chshyolkova, T.; Avery, S.; Thorsen, D.; MacDougall, J.; Hocking, W.; Murayama, Y.; Igarashi, K.

    Planetary and tidal wave activity in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT), and assessment of wave activity sources in the lower atmosphere, are studied using combinations of ground based (GB) and satellite instruments (2000-2002). CUJO (Canada U.S. Japan Opportunity) comprises MF radar (MFR) systems at London (43°N, 81°W), Platteville (40°N, 105°W), Saskatoon (52°N, 107°W), Wakkanai (45°N, 142°E) and Yamagawa (31°N, 131°E). It offers a significant mid-latitude 7,000 km longitudinal sector in the North American-Pacific region, and a useful range of latitudes (12-14°) at two longitudes. CUJO provides winds and tides 70-100km. Satellite data include the daily values of the total ozone column measured by the Earth Probe (EP) TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) and provides a measure of tropopause-lower stratospheric planetary wave activity as well as ozone variability. The so-called UKMO data (an assimilation system) are used for correlative purposes with the TOMS data. Climatologies of ozone and winds/tides involving frequency versus time (wavelet) contour plots for periods from 2-d to 30-d and the interval from mid 2000 to 2002, show that the changes with altitude, longitude and latitude are very significant and distinctive. Geometric-mean wavelets for the region of the 40°N MFRs demonstrate occasions during the autumn, winter and spring months when there are similarities in the spectral features of the lower atmosphere and at mesopause (85km) heights. Both direct planetary wave (PW) propagation into the MLT, non-linear PW-tide interactions, and disturbances in MLT tides associated with fluctuations in the ozone forcing are considered to be possible coupling processes. The complex horizontal wave numbers of the longer period oscillations are provided in frequency contour plots for the TOMS and UKMO data to demonstrate the differences between lower atmospheric and MLT wave motions and their directions of propagation.

  14. Wave activity (planetary, tidal) throughout the middle atmosphere (20-100km) over the CUJO network: Satellite (TOMS) and Medium Frequency (MF) radar observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, A. H.; Meek, C. E.; Chshyolkova, T.; Avery, S. K.; Thorsen, D.; MacDougall, J. W.; Hocking, W.; Murayama, Y.; Igarashi, K.

    2005-02-01

    Planetary and tidal wave activity in the tropopause-lower stratosphere and mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT) is studied using combinations of ground-based (GB) and satellite instruments (2000-2002). The relatively new MFR (medium frequency radar) at Platteville (40° N, 105° W) has provided the opportunity to create an operational network of middle-latitude MFRs, stretching from 81° W-142° E, which provides winds and tides 70-100km. CUJO (Canada U.S. Japan Opportunity) comprises systems at London (43° N, 81° W), Platteville (40° N, 105° W), Saskatoon (52° N, 107° W), Wakkanai (45° N, 142° E) and Yamagawa (31° N, 131° E). It offers a significant 7000-km longitudinal sector in the North American-Pacific region, and a useful range of latitudes (12-14°) at two longitudes. Satellite data mainly involve the daily values of the total ozone column measured by the Earth Probe (EP) TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) and provide a measure of tropopause-lower stratospheric planetary wave activity, as well as ozone variability. Climatologies of ozone and winds/tides involving frequency versus time (wavelet) contour plots for periods from 2-d to 30-d and the interval from mid 2000 to 2002, show that the changes with altitude, longitude and latitude are very significant and distinctive. Geometric-mean wavelets for the region of the 40° N MFRs demonstrate occasions during the autumn, winter and spring months when there are similarities in the spectral features of the lower atmosphere and at mesopause (85km) heights. Both direct planetary wave (PW) propagation into the MLT, nonlinear PW-tide interactions, and disturbances in MLT tides associated with fluctuations in the ozone forcing are considered to be possible coupling processes. The complex horizontal wave numbers of the longer period oscillations are provided in frequency contour plots for the TOMS satellite data to demonstrate the differences between lower atmospheric and MLT wave motions and their

  15. Biopsychosocial predictors of short-term success among people with low back pain referred to a physiotherapy spinal triage service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bath B

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Brenna Bath, Stacey Lovo Grona School of Physical Therapy, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada Background: A spinal triage assessment service may impact a wide range of patient outcomes. Investigating potential predictors of success or improvement may reveal why some people improve and some do not, as well as help to begin to explain potential mechanisms for improvements. The objective of this study was to determine which factors were associated with improved short-term self-reported pain, function, general health status, and satisfaction in people undergoing a spinal triage assessment performed by physiotherapists. Methods: Participants with low back-related complaints were recruited from people referred to a spinal triage assessment program (N=115. Participants completed baseline questionnaires covering a range of sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological features. Self-reported measures of pain, function, quality of life, and satisfaction were completed at 4 weeks following the assessment. Determination of “success” was based on minimal important change scores of select outcome measures. Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore potential predictors of success for each outcome. Results: Despite the complex and chronic presentation of most participants, some reported improvements in outcomes at 4 weeks post assessment with the highest proportion of participants demonstrating improvement (according to the minimal important change scores in the Medical Outcomes Survey 36-item short-form version 2 physical component summary score (48.6% and the lowest proportion of participants having improvements in the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (11.5%. A variety of different sociodemographic, psychological, clinical, and other variables were associated with success or improvement in each respective outcome. Conclusion: There may be a potential mechanism of reassurance that occurs during the spinal triage

  16. Modern approaches to understanding stress and disease susceptibility: A review with special emphasis on respiratory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palok Aich

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Palok Aich, Andrew A Potter, Philip J GriebelVaccine and Infectious Disease Organization, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, CanadaAbstract: Studies in animals and humans link both physical and psychological stress with an increased incidence and severity of respiratory infections. For this manuscript we define stress as the physiological responses an individual undergoes while adjusting to a continually changing environment. It is known that stressors of various types (psychological/physical can alter the physiological levels of certain hormones, chemokines and cytokines. These alterations send information to the central nervous system to take necessary action which then sends messages to appropriate organs/tissues/cells to respond. These messages can either activate or suppress the immune system as needed and failure to compensate for this by the body can lead to serious health-related problems. Little is known how stress affects disease susceptibility, yet understanding this mechanism is important for developing effective treatments, and for improving health and food quality. The current review focuses on (a the effects of psychological stressors in humans and animals, (b various methodologies employed to understand stress responses and their outcomes, and (c the current status of the attempts to correlate stress and disease with respiratory disease as model system. The methodologies included in this review span traditional epidemiological, behavioral and immunological studies to current high throughput genomic, proteomic, metabolomic/metabonomic approaches. With the advent of various newer omics and bioinformatics methodologies we postulate that it will become feasible to understand the mechanisms through which stress can influence disease onset. Although the literature in this area is limited because of the infancy of this research area, the objective of this review is to illustrate the power of new approaches to address complex

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging arthrography following type II superior labrum from anterior to posterior repair: interobserver and intraobserver reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurji HM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hafeez M Kurji,1 Yohei Ono,2,3 Atiba A Nelson,2 Kristie D More,2 Ben Wong,4 Corinne Dyke,4 Richard S Boorman,2 Gail M Thornton,2,5 Ian KY Lo2 1College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada; 2Department of Surgery, Section of Orthopaedic Surgery, McCaig Institute for Bone and Joint Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 3Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan; 4Department of Radiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 5Department of Orthopaedics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada Background: Arthroscopic repair of type II superior labrum from anterior to posterior (SLAP lesions is a common surgical procedure. However, anatomic healing following repair has rarely been investigated. The intraobserver and interobserver reliability of magnetic resonance imaging arthrography (MRA following type II SLAP repair has not previously been investigated. This is of particular interest due to recent reports of poor clinical results following type II SLAP lesion repair. Purpose: To evaluate the MRA findings following arthroscopic type II SLAP lesion repair and determine its intraobserver and interobserver reliability. Study design: Cohort study (diagnosis, Level of Evidence, 2. Methods: Twenty-five patients with an isolated type II SLAP lesion (confirmed via diagnostic arthroscopy underwent standard suture anchor-based repair. At a mean of 25.2 months postoperatively, patients underwent a standardized MRA protocol to investigate the integrity of the repair. MRAs were independently reviewed by two radiologists and a fellowship trained shoulder surgeon. The outcomes were classified as healed SLAP repair or re-torn SLAP repair. Results: On average, 54% of MRAs were interpreted as healed SLAP repairs while 46% of MRAs were interpreted as having a re-torn SLAP repair. Overall, only 43% of the studies had 100% agreement across all

  18. Patient and referring health care provider satisfaction with a physiotherapy spinal triage assessment service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bath B

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Brenna Bath1, Bonnie Janzen21School of Physical Therapy, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 2Community Health and Epidemiology, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, CanadaPurpose: To evaluate participant and referring care provider satisfaction associated with a spinal triage assessment service delivered by physiotherapists in collaboration with orthopedic surgeons.Methods: People with low back-related complaints were recruited from those referred to a spinal triage assessment program delivered by physiotherapists. Measures of patient and provider satisfaction were completed at approximately 4 weeks after the assessment. The satisfaction surveys were analyzed quantitatively with descriptive statistics and qualitatively with an inductive thematic approach of open and axial coding.Results: A total of 108/115 participants completed the posttest satisfaction survey. Sixty-six percent of participants were “very satisfied” with the service and 55% were “very satisfied” with the recommendations that were made. Only 18% of referring care providers completed the satisfaction survey and 90.5% of those were “very satisfied” with the recommendations. Sixty-one participants and 14 care providers provided comments which revealed a diverse range of themes which were coded into positive (ie, understanding the problem, communication, customer service, efficiency, and management direction, negative (ie, lack of detail, time to follow-up, cost and neutral related to the triage service, and an “other” category unrelated to the service (ie, chronic symptoms, comorbidities, and limited access to health care.Conclusion: The quantitative results of the participant survey demonstrated very high levels of satisfaction with the service and slightly less satisfaction with the recommendations that were made. Satisfaction of referring care providers with the recommendations and report was also high, but given

  19. MBM fuel feeding system design and evaluation for FBG pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, William A; Fonstad, Terry; Pugsley, Todd; Gerspacher, Regan

    2012-06-01

    A biomass fuel feeding system has been designed, constructed and evaluated for a fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) pilot plant at the University of Saskatchewan (Saskatoon, SK, Canada). The system was designed for meat and bone meal (MBM) to be injected into the gasifier at a mass flow-rate range of 1-5 g/s. The designed system consists of two stages of screw conveyors, including a metering stage which controlled the flow-rate of fuel, a rotary airlock and an injection conveyor stage, which delivered that fuel at a consistent rate to the FBG. The rotary airlock which was placed between these conveyors, proved unable to maintain a pressure seal, thus the entire conveying system was sealed and pressurized. A pneumatic injection nozzle was also fabricated, tested and fitted to the end of the injection conveyor for direct injection and dispersal into the fluidized bed. The 150 mm metering screw conveyor was shown to effectively control the mass output rate of the system, across a fuel output range of 1-25 g/s, while the addition of the 50mm injection screw conveyor reduced the irregularity (error) of the system output rate from 47% to 15%. Although material plugging was found to be an issue in the inlet hopper to the injection conveyor, the addition of air sparging ports and a system to pulse air into those ports was found to successfully eliminate this issue. The addition of the pneumatic injection nozzle reduced the output irregularity further to 13%, with an air supply of 50 slpm as the minimum air supply to drive this injector. After commissioning of this final system to the FBG reactor, the injection nozzle was found to plug with char however, and was subsequently removed from the system. Final operation of the reactor continues satisfactorily with the two screw conveyors operating at matching pressure with the fluidized bed, with the output rate of the system estimated based on system characteristic equations, and confirmed by static weight measurements made before

  20. 山东蒙山6种造林树种40余年成林效果评价%An evaluation of the afforestation outcome of six tree species in more than 40 years in Mengshan Mountain, Shandong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高远; 朱孔山; 郝加琛; 徐连升

    2013-01-01

    )、君迁子(Cerasus serrulata)、山合欢(Albizia kalkora)和鹅耳枥(Carpinus turczaninowii);B1类(建群种)2种:栓皮栎和麻栎(Quercus acutissima),B2类(伴生种)6种:水榆花楸(Sorbus alnifolia)、槲树(Quercus dentata)、山樱花(Diospyros lotus)、小叶朴(Celtis bungeana)、大叶朴(Celtis koraiensis)和三桠乌药(Lindera obtusiloba).

  1. Downscaling of Extreme Precipitation: Proposing a New Statistical Approach and Investigating a Taken-for-Granted Assumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshorbagy, Amin; Alam, Shahabul

    2015-04-01

    (AMPs) is presented. For constructing IDF-curves, only AMPs of different durations are needed. Strong correlation between the AMPs at the coarse-grid scale as output from GCMs and AMPs at the local finer scale is observed in many locations worldwide even though such a correlation may not exist between the corresponding time series of continuous precipitation records. The use of the GP technique, in particular its genetic symbolic regression variant, for downscaling the annual maximum precipitation is further expanded in two ways. First, the exploration and feature extraction capabilities of GP are utilized to develop both GCM-variant and GCM-invariant downscaling models/mathematical expressions. Second, the developed models as well as clustering methods and statistical tests are used to investigate a fundamental assumption of all statistical downscaling methods; that is the validity of the downscaling relationship developed based on a historical time period (e.g., 1960-1990) for the same task during future periods (e.g., up to year 2100). The proposed approach is applied to the case of constructing IDF curves for the City of Saskatoon, Canada. This study reveals that developing a downscaling relationship that is generic and GCM-invariant might lead to more reliable downscaling of future projections, even though the higher reliability comes at the cost of accuracy.

  2. Exercise prescription for hospitalized people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and comorbidities: a synthesis of systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid WD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available W Darlene Reid,1,2 Cristiane Yamabayashi,1 Donna Goodridge,3 Frank Chung,4 Michael A Hunt,1 Darcy D Marciniuk,5 Dina Brooks,6 Yi-Wen Chen,1 Alison Hoens,1,7 Pat Camp1,21Department of Physical Therapy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 2Institute of Heart and Lung Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 3College of Nursing, University of Saskatchewan, 4Physiotherapy, Burnaby Hospital, Fraser Health, British Columbia, 5Division of Respirology, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, 6Department of Physical Therapy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, 7Providence Health Care, Vancouver, BC, CanadaIntroduction: The prescription of physical activity for hospitalized patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD can be complicated by the presence of comorbidities. The current research aimed to synthesize the relevant literature on the benefits of exercise for people with multimorbidities who experience an AECOPD, and ask: What are the parameters and outcomes of exercise in AECOPD and in conditions that are common comorbidities as reported by systematic reviews (SRs?Methods: An SR was performed using the Cochrane Collaboration protocol. Nine electronic databases were searched up to July 2011. Articles were included if they (1 described participants with AECOPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, or one of eleven common comorbidities, (2 were an SR, (3 examined aerobic training (AT, resistance training (RT, balance training (BT, or a combination thereof, (4 included at least one outcome of fitness, and (5 compared exercise training versus control/sham.Results: This synthesis examined 58 SRs of exercise training in people with AECOPD, COPD, or eleven chronic conditions commonly associated with COPD. Meta-analyses of endurance (aerobic or exercise capacity, 6-minute walk distance – 6MWD were shown to significantly improve in most conditions

  3. History of Pain Research and Management in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Merskey

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Scattered accounts of the treatment of pain by aboriginal Canadians are found in the journals of the early explorers and missionaries. French and English settlers brought with them the remedies of their home countries. The growth of medicine through the 18th and 19th centuries, particularly in Europe, was mirrored in the practice and treatment methods of Canadians and Americans. In the 19th century, while Americans learned about causalgia and the pain of wounds, Canadian insurrections were much less devastating than the United States Civil War. By the end of that century, a Canadian professor working in the United States, Sir William Osler, was responsible for a standard textbook of medicine with a variety of treatments for painful illnesses. Yet pain did not figure in the index of that book. The modern period in pain research and management can probably be dated to the 20 years before the founding of the International Association for the Study of Pain. Pride of place belongs to The management of pain by John Bonica, published in Philadelphia in 1953 and based upon his work in Tacoma and Seattle. Ideas about pain were evolving in Canada in the 1950s with Donald Hebb, Professor of Psychology at McGill University in Montreal, corresponding with the leading American neurophysiologist, George H Bishop. Hebb's pupil Ronald Melzack engaged in studies of early experiences in relation to pain and, joining with Patrick Wall at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, published the 1965 paper in Science that revolutionized thinking. Partly because of this early start with prominent figures and partly because of its social system in the organization of medicine, Canada became a centre for a number of aspects of pain research and management, ranging from pain clinics in Halifax, Kingston and Saskatoon - which were among the earliest to advance treatment of pain - to studying the effects of implanted electrodes for neurosurgery. Work in Toronto by Moldofsky

  4. The importance of community consultation and social support in adhering to an obesity reduction program: results from the Healthy Weights Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemstra M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mark Lemstra,1 Marla R Rogers2 1Alliance Wellness and Rehabilitation, Moose Jaw, 2College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada Background: Few community-based obesity reduction programs have been evaluated. After 153 community consultations, the City of Moose Jaw, SK, Canada, decided to initiate a free comprehensive program. The initiative included 71 letters of support from the Mayor, every family physician, cardiologist, and internist in the city, and every relevant community group including the Heart and Stroke Foundation, the Canadian Cancer Society, and the Public Health Agency of Canada.Objective: To promote strong adherence while positively influencing a wide range of physical and mental health variables measured through objective assessment or validated surveys.Methods: The only inclusion criterion was that the individuals must be obese adults (body mass index >30 kg/m2. Participants were requested to sign up with a “buddy” who was also obese and identify three family members or friends to sign a social support contract. During the initial 12 weeks, each individual received 60 group exercise sessions, 12 group cognitive behavioral therapy sessions, and 12 group dietary sessions with licensed professionals. During the second 12-week period, maintenance therapy included 12 group exercise sessions (24 weeks in total.Results: To date, 243 people have been referred with 229 starting. Among those who started, 183 completed the program (79.9%, while 15 quit for medical reasons and 31 quit for personal reasons. Mean objective reductions included the following: 31.0 lbs of body fat, 3.9% body fat, 2.9 in from the waist, 2.3 in from the hip, blood cholesterol by 0.5 mmol/L, systolic blood pressure by 5.9 mmHg, and diastolic blood pressure by 3.2 mmHg (all P<0.000. There were no changes in blood sugar levels. There was also statistically significant differences in aerobic fitness, self-report health, quality of

  5. Future Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adli Tıp Uzmanları Derneği ATUD

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available 1\tThe First International Conference and Exhibition on Forensic Human Identification 24-26 October 1999 Information: Claire Futers, Millenium Conference Office, Forensic Science Service, Priory House, Gooch Street North, Birmingham B5 6QQ, UK Tel: + 44 (0 121 607 6855 Fax:+ 44 (0 121 622 2051 2\tCustody and Caring, International Conference on the Nurse’s Role in the Criminal Justice System 30 September- 1 October 1999 Information: Continuing Nursing Education, University of Saskatchewan, Box 60000 RPO University, Saskatoon, SK S7N 4J8, Canada. Fax: + 1 306 966 7673 3\t46th Annual General Meeting, Canadian Society of Forensic Science 16-21 November 1999, Ottawa, Canada Information: Society Office, Suite 215, Southvale Plaza, 2660 Southvale Crescent, Ottawa, ON K1B 4W5, Canada Tel: + 1 613 738 0001 4\tCezaevleri Sempozyumu 19 Aralık 1999, Adana İletişim: Türk Tabipleri Birliği Merkez Konseyi Dr. Ümit Erkol, TTB Merkez Konseyi Mithatpaşa Cad. No.62/18 Kızılay-ANKARA Tel:4l8 31 56 5\t15th Annual International Symposium on the Forensic Science 5-\t10 March 2000 Queensland, Australia Information: Michael Holohan, Australian and New Zealand Forensic Science Society, Queensland Branch 6\tInternational Conference on Forensic Science 2,\t5 May 2000, Dublin, Ireland Chairperson: Mr. Liam Fleury Tel: +353-1-6662936 Secretary: Dr. Tom Hannigan Tel: +353-1-6662950 FAX: +353-1-6662929 7\tThe Third Joint Meeting of the California Association of Criminalists and the Forensic Science Society (CAC/FSS May 8 - 12, 2000, Napa, CA. Telephone 510-223-7374. FAX 510-222-8887. Email:seri@serological.com. Web site:www.serological.com 8\tIV. Adli Bilimler Kongresi 10-\t13 Mayıs 2000, İstanbul İ.Ü. İstanbul Tıp Fakültesi Adli Tıp AD ve Adli Tıp Uzmanları Derneği (ATUD İletişim: Dr. Eren Karpuzoğlu, İ.Ü. İstanbul Tıp Fakültesi Adli Tıp AD 34390, Çapa, İstanbul Tel:0-212-6351179 13\tDNA Forensics May 31-June 2, 2000, Cambridge Healthtech

  6. 10 μm High-resolution spectrum of trans -acrolein: Rotational analysis of the ν 11 , ν 16 , ν 14 and ν 16 + ν 18 - ν 18 bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Hong; Jiang, Xingjie; Shi, Hongyu; Lees, R. M.; McKellar, A. R. W.; Tokaryk, D. W.; Appadoo, D. R. T.

    2011-07-01

    High-resolution Fourier transform spectra of trans-acrolein, H 2C dbnd C(H) sbnd C(H) dbnd O, have been recorded in the 10 μm region at both room and cooled temperatures on the modified Bomem DA3.002 at the National Research Council of Canada and the Bruker IFS 125HR spectrometer at the far infrared beam line of the Canadian Light Source in Saskatoon. Vibrational fundamentals analyzed so far include the ν11, ν16 and ν14 bands centered at 911.3, 958.7 and 992.7 cm -1 corresponding respectively to the A' in-plane dbnd CH 2-rocking mode, the A″ out-of-plane dbnd CH 2-wagging mode, and the A″ wagging mode highly mixed between the ⩾C sbnd H vinyl and ⩾C sbnd H formyl groups [Vibrational mode descriptions are based on Y.N. Panchenko, P. Pulay, F. Török, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 34 (1976) 283-289.] As well, the ν16 + ν18 - ν18 hot band centred at 957.6 cm -1 has been analyzed, where ν18 is the low-frequency (157.9 cm -1) A″ ⩾C sbnd C ⪕ torsional mode. The ν11 band is a/ b type while the ν16, ν14 and ν16 + ν18 - ν18 bands are c-type. The assigned transitions of each band have been fitted to a Watson asymmetric rotor Hamiltonian, with ground state parameters fixed to values obtained from rotational analyses in the literature. As well, a combined 3-state fit for ν11, ν16 and ν14 was carried out including Coriolis and Z1 constants which account for J and Δ K interactions. Transition dipole moments have been calculated for each of the fundamentals using the ab initio B3LYP method and 6-311++G ∗∗ basis set. For the A' vibrational modes, we have also evaluated transition dipole a- and b-components in the principal axis system from vibrational displacements and dipole moment derivatives. Our ab initio results predict that the ν11 in-plane dbnd CH 2 rocking mode has an a-type transition strength about three times greater than the b-type, which is consistent with our observations. Our ab initio force field analysis gives vibrational mode

  7. MBM fuel feeding system design and evaluation for FBG pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, William A., E-mail: bill.campbell@usask.ca [Fluidization Laboratory of Saskatchewan (FLASK) (Canada) and Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Saskatchewan (Canada); Fonstad, Terry [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Saskatchewan (Canada); Pugsley, Todd [Suncor Energy Inc., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Gerspacher, Regan [Fluidization Laboratory of Saskatchewan (FLASK) (Canada); Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A 1-5 g/s fuel feeding system for pilot scale FBG was designed, built and tested. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiple conveying stages improve pressure balancing, flow control and stability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary conveyor stage reduced output irregularity from 47% to 15%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pneumatic air sparging effective in dealing with poor flow ability of MBM powder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pneumatic injection port plugs with char at gasification temperature of 850 Degree-Sign C. - Abstract: A biomass fuel feeding system has been designed, constructed and evaluated for a fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) pilot plant at the University of Saskatchewan (Saskatoon, SK, Canada). The system was designed for meat and bone meal (MBM) to be injected into the gasifier at a mass flow-rate range of 1-5 g/s. The designed system consists of two stages of screw conveyors, including a metering stage which controlled the flow-rate of fuel, a rotary airlock and an injection conveyor stage, which delivered that fuel at a consistent rate to the FBG. The rotary airlock which was placed between these conveyors, proved unable to maintain a pressure seal, thus the entire conveying system was sealed and pressurized. A pneumatic injection nozzle was also fabricated, tested and fitted to the end of the injection conveyor for direct injection and dispersal into the fluidized bed. The 150 mm metering screw conveyor was shown to effectively control the mass output rate of the system, across a fuel output range of 1-25 g/s, while the addition of the 50 mm injection screw conveyor reduced the irregularity (error) of the system output rate from 47% to 15%. Although material plugging was found to be an issue in the inlet hopper to the injection conveyor, the addition of air sparging ports and a system to pulse air into those ports was found to successfully eliminate this issue. The addition of the pneumatic injection nozzle

  8. Pulmonary effects of active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure among adolescent students in Juárez, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bird Y

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Yelena Bird,1 Hugo Staines-Orozco2 1School of Public Health, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada; 2Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Anillo Envolvente del PRONAF y Calle Estocolmo, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico Background: Youth smoking trends among Latin American countries, including Mexico, are on the rise. Notably, although the high prevalence of smoking in teens has been well documented in the literature, few studies have evaluated the impact of smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS exposure on their respiratory system.  Objective: To investigate the effects of smoking and SHS exposure on the respiratory health and lung function among eighth-grade students in Juárez, Mexico. Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken on a sample of convenience. The study outcomes centered on evaluating 300 students’ lung function by spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio [FEV1/FVC], and forced mid-expiratory flow rate [FEF25%–75%] and their respiratory health (smoking behavior and SHS exposure by their self-reported responses to a standardized respiratory questionnaire. The study outcomes were compared among three distinct groups: 1 nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS; 2 nonsmokers/exposed to SHS; and 3 smokers. Results: The majority of the study participants were 14 years old (85%, females (54%, who attended eighth grade in a public school setting (56%. Approximately, half reported being of low socioeconomic status (49% and nonsmokers/exposed to SHS (49%. The lung function parameters of smokers were found to be lower (FEV1 =62.88±10.25; FEV1/FVC =83.50±14.15; and FEF25%–75% =66.35±12.55 than those recorded for the nonsmokers/exposed to SHS (FEV1 =69.41±11.35; FEV1/FVC =88.75±15.75; and FEF25%–75% =78.90±14.65 and significantly reduced when compared to the nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS (FEV1 =79.14±13

  9. Obituary: John Leroy Climenhaga, 1916-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarfe, Colin

    2009-01-01

    John Leroy Climenhaga was born on 7 November 1916 on a farm some 10 km from Delisle, a small town on the Canadian prairies, located about 50 km south-west of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, and died at his home in Victoria, British Columbia, on 27 May 2008. His parents, Reuben and Elizabeth (nee Bert) Climenhaga, were farming folk, and he carried their honest and open attitude to the world throughout his life. John was the seventh born, and last to die, of their ten children. His father also served as an ordained minister of the Brethren in Christ. In early adulthood, John worked on his father's farm, but then attended the University of Saskatchewan, obtaining a B.A. with Honors in Mathematics and Physics and an M.A. in Physics, in 1945 and 1949 respectively. Between these events he worked as a Physics Instructor at Regina College from 1946 to 1948. In 1949 Climenhaga joined the faculty of Victoria College, as one of only two physicists in a small institution that was then part of the University of British Columbia. He remained in Victoria for the rest of his career, playing a major role in the College's growth into a full-fledged university, complete with thriving graduate programs in physics and astronomy as well as in many other fields. He served as Head of the Physics Department during the 1960s, a period which saw the College become the University of Victoria, with a full undergraduate program in Physics, and campaigned successfully for the establishment of a program in Astronomy, which began in 1965. From 1969 until 1972 he held the position of Dean of Arts and Science, and championed the university's participation in the Tri-University Meson Facility, whose high-current medium-energy beam was ideal for the production and study of mesons and their physics. That period was a turbulent one in the university's history, but John's integrity and his balanced and fair-minded approach to conflicts were of immeasurable importance in steering the young institution through it

  10. Main Parameters of Soil Quality and it's Management Under Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Reviewing Paper Introduction: Malcolm summarised the topic of soil quality and it's management in a well synthetized form in 2000. So, the soils are fundamental to the well-being and productivity of agricultural and natural ecosystems. Soil quality is a concept being developed to characterize the usefulness and health of soils. Soil quality includes soil fertility, potential productivity, contaminant levels and their effects, resource sustainability and environmental quality. A general definition of soil quality is the degree of fitness of a soil for a specific use. The existence of multiple definitions suggests that the soil quality concept continues to evolve (Kádár, 1992; Várallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton, 2005; Márton et al. 2007). Recent attention has focused on the sustainability of human uses of soil, based on concerns that soil quality may be declining (Boehn and Anderson, 1997). We use sustainable to mean that a use or management of soil will sustain human well-being over time. Lal (1995) described the land resources of the world (of which soil is one component) as "finite, fragile, and nonrenewable," and reported that only about 22% (3.26 billion ha) of the total land area on the globe is suitable for cultivation and at present, only about 3% (450 million ha) has a high agricultural production capacity. Because soil is in large but finite supply, and some soil components cannot be renewed within a human time frame, the condition of soils in agriculture and the environment is an issue of global concern (Howard, 1993; FAO, 1997). Concerns include soil losses from erosion, maintaining agricultural productivity and system sustainability, protecting natural areas, and adverse effects of soil contamination on human health (Haberern, 1992; Howard, 1993; Sims et al., 1997). Parr et al. (1992) state, "...soil degradation is the single most destructive force diminishing the world's soil resource base." Soil quality guidelines are intended to protect the ability of ecosystems to function properly (Kádár, 1992; Várallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton, 2005; Márton et al. 2007). The Hungarian Ministry of Environment and Water (HMEW, 2004) suggests that the Hungarian Regions should adopt a national policy "...that seeks to conserve and enhance soil quality...". Useful evaluation of soil quality requires agreement about why soil quality is important, how it is defined, how it should be measured, and how to respond to measurements with management, restoration, or conservation practices. Because determining soil quality requires one or more value judgments and because we have much to learn about soil, these issues are not easily addressed (Várallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000). Definitions of soil quality have been based both on human uses of soil and on the functions of soil within natural and agricultural ecosystems. For purposes of this work, we are showing soil quality within the context of managed agricultural ecosystems. To many in agriculture and agricultural research, productivity is analogous to soil quality. Maintaining soil quality is also a human health concern because air, groundwater and surface water consumed by humans can be adversely affected by mismanaged and contaminated soils, and because humans may be exposed to contaminated soils in residential areas (Kádár, 1992; Várallyay, 2005; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton et al. 2007). Contamination may include heavy metals, toxic elements, excess nutrients, volatile and nonvolatile organics, explosives, radioactive isotopes and inhalable fibers (Sheppard et al., 1992; Cook and Hendershot, 1996). Soil quality is not determined by any single conserving or degrading process or property, and soil has both dynamic and relatively static properties that also vary spatially (Carter et al., 1997). Gregorich et al. (1994) state that "soil quality is a composite measure of both a soil's ability to function and how well it functions, relative to a specific use." Increasingly, contemporary discussion of soil quality includes the environmental cost of production and the potential for reclamation of degraded soils (Várallyay, 2005). Reasons for assessing soil quality in an agricultural or managed system may be somewhat different than reasons for assessing soil quality in a natural ecosystem. In an agricultural context, soil quality may be managed, to maximize production without adverse environmental effect, while in a natural ecosystem, soil quality may be observed, as a baseline value or set of values against which future changes in the system may be compared (Várallyay, 1994; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton et al. 2007). Soil quality has historically been equated with agricultural productivity, and thus is not a new idea. Soil conservation practices to maintain soil productivity are as old as agriculture itself, with documentation dating to the Roman Empire (Jenny, 1961). The Storie Index (Storie, 1932) and USDA Land Capability Classification (Klingebiel and Montgomery, 1973) were developed to separate soils into different quality classes. Soil quality is implied in many decisions farmers make about land purchases and management, and in the economic value rural assessors place on agricultural land for purposes of taxation. Beginning in the 1930s, soil productivity ratings were developed in the United States and elsewhere to help farmers select crops and management practices that would maximize production and minimize erosion or other adverse environmental effects (Huddleston, 1984). These rating systems are important predecessors of recent attempts to quantitatively assess soil quality. In the 1970s, attempts were made to identify and protect soils of the highest productive capacity by defining "prime agricultural lands" (Miller, 1979). An idea related to soil quality is "carrying capacity". Carrying capacity is the number of individuals that can be supported in a given area (Budd, 1992). Soils with high productivity have high carrying capacity, and are considered to be high quality. Sustainability implies that a system does not exceed its carrying capacity over time. Recent attempts to define soil quality and develop indices to measure it have many of the properties of the earlier soil productivity ratings (Doran and Jones, 1996; Snakin et al., 1996; Seybold et al., 1997). Cox (1995) calls for national goals for soil quality that "... recognize the inherent links between soil, water and air quality." Haberern (1992) suggests that the decade of the 1990s is the time to study the soil as we have recognized and studied air quality and water quality in the preceding two decades. Air and water quality standards are generally based on maximum allowable concentrations of materials hazardous to human health. They are specified and enforced by regulators according to public uses of these resources. The result is that changes in air and water quality are now monitored to protect human health. With few exceptions, soil quality standards have not been set, nor have regulations been created regarding maintenance of soil quality (Várallyay, 2005; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton et al. 2007). To the extent that soil has been the disposal site of hazardous wastes, as well as a pathway by which contamination or other applied chemicals may present a human health risk, sporadic 40 regulations of soil quality (in terms of contamination) does exist in the 27 European Union (EU) countries for not just new ones but an estimated 30 000 existing chemicals, today. These regulations are in the form of laws regulating hazardous waste, toxic substances, and pesticides. However, these standards are often contradictory, inconsistent with each other and with current methods of assessing risk. For example, in the United States, federal regulations supporting CERCLA (40 CFR) is a list of "hazardous substances" and the levels in various media (e.g., soil, water) to which the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must respond with a cleanup effort. However, EPA has fielded considerable controversy about contaminant levels and chemical forms that legitimately constitute a human health risk. Target cleanup levels have also been subject to debate and legislation. Soil quality assessment requires definition of a "clean" soil (Sims et al., 1997). From this point of view, good quality soil has been defined as posing "...no harm to any normal use by humans, plants or animals; not adversely affecting natural cycles or functions; and not contaminating other components of the environment" (Moen, 1988). The parallel to air and water quality is easy to draw on a conceptual level, but designation of soil quality standards is significantly complicated by soil variability and heterogeneity (Smith et al., 1993). Among the authors (Merker, 1956; Odell et al. 1984; Johnston et al., 1986; Reganold et al., 1990; Granatstein and Bezdicek, 1992; Kádár, 1992; Beke et al., 1994; Jenkinson et al., 1994; Schjenning et al., 1994; Murata et al., 1995; Biederbeck et al., 1996; Lindert et al., 1996; Romig et al., 1995; Warkentin, 1995; Carter et al., 1997; Gerzabeck et al., 1997; Seybold et al., 1997; Malcolm, 2000; Várallyay, 2005) and organizations defining soil quality are Larson and Pierce (1991), Karlen et al. (1997). The next section reviews some of the definitions and soil characteristics used to define soil quality. The reader should understand that the definition of soil quality and selection of soil characteristics needed to quantify soil quality are continuing to evolve. For example, Bouma (1989) recognized that an essential problem with definitions that produce carefully limited suitability classes is that empirical decisions must be made to separate the classes along what is essentially a continuum. That is, if soil organic matter is part of a soil quality definition, where on the continuum of soil organic matter content does one draw the line between a high quality and low quality soil? Does high organic matter content always indicate high soil quality? These are non-trivial questions under discussion by the soil science community. Carter et al. (1997) suggest a framework for evaluating soil quality that includes: 1. describing each soil function on which quality is to be based, 2. selecting soil characteristics or properties that influence the capacity of the soil to provide each function, 3. choosing indicators of characteristics that can be measured, and 4. using methods that provide accurate measurement of those indicators. The following soil functions appear frequently in the soil science literature: 1. soil maintains biological activity/productivity (Karlen et al., 1997), serves as medium for plant/crop growth (Arshad and Coen, 1992), supports plant productivity/yield (Arshad and Coen, 1992), supports human/animal health (Karlen et al., 1997); 2. partitions and regulates water/ solute flow through environment (Larson and Pierce, 1991; Arshad and Coen, 1992); 3. serves as an environmental buffer/filter (Larson and Pierce, 1991), maintains environmental quality (Arshad and Ccen, 1992); 4. cycles nutrients, water, energy and other elements through the biosphere (Anderson and Gregorich, 1984). Clearly, these functions are interrelated. Later in this chapter, discussion focuses on the first and third functions (productivity and environmental buffering) as encompassing those aspects of soil quality most debated in the literature. Larson and Pierce (1991) defined soil quality as "the capacity of a soil to function within the ecosystem boundaries and interact positively with the environment external to that ecosystem." Three soil functions are considered essential: provide a medium for plant growth, regulate and partition waterllow through the environment, and serve as an effective environmental filter. Arshad and Coen (1992) define soil quality as "the sustaining capability of a soil to accept, store and recycle water, minerals and energy for production of crops at optimum levels while preserving a healthy environment." They discuss terrain, climate and hydrology as site factors that contribute to soil quality and suggest that socioeconomic factors such as land use, operator and management should be included in a soil quality analysis. This approach is consistent with the FAO approach to land quality analysis (FAO, 1997). Karlen et al. (1992) define soil quality as "the ability of the soil to serve as a natural medium for the growth of plants that sustain human and animal life." Their definition is based on the role of soil quality in the long-term productivity of soil and maintenance of environmental quality. Doran and Parkin (1994) defined soil quality as "the capacity of a soil to function within ecosystem boundaries to sustain biological productivity, maintain environmental quality, and promote plant and animal health." Gregorich et al. (1994) define soil quality as "a composite measure of both a soil's ability to function and how well it functions relative to a specific use" or "the degree of fitness of a soil for a specific use." The Soil Science Society of America Ad Hoc Committee on Soil Health proposed that soil quality is "the capacity of a specific kind of soil to function, within natural or managed ecosystem boundaries, to sustain plant and animal productivity, maintain or enhance water and air quality, and support human health and habitation" (Karlen et al., 1997). This definition requires that five functions must be evaluated to describe soil quality: 1. sustaining biological activity, diversity, and productivity; 2. regulating and partitioning water and solute flow; 3. filtering, buffering, degrading, immobilizing and detoxifying organic and inorganic materials, including industrial and municipal byproducts and atmospheric deposition; 4. storing and cycling nutrients and other elements within the earth's biosphere; and 5. providing support of socioeconomic structures and protection for archeological treasures associated with human habitation. No soil is likely to successfully provide all of these functions, some of which occur in natural ecosystems and some of which are the result of human modification. We can summarize by saying that soil quality depends on the extent to which soil functions to benefit humans. Thus, for food production or mediation of contamination, soil quality means the extent to which a soil fulfills the role we have defined for it. Within agriculture, high quality equates to maintenance of high productivity without significant soil or environmental degradation. The Glossary of Soil Science terms produced by the Soil Science Society of America (1996) states that soil quality is an inherent attribute of a soil that is inferred from soil characteristics or indirect observations. To proceed from a dictionary definition to a measure of soil quality, a minimum dataset (MDS) of soil characteristics that represents soil quality must be selected and quantified (Papendick et al., 1995). The MDS may include biological, chemical or physical soil characteristics [Organic matter (OM), Aggregation (A), Bulk density (BD), Depth to hardpan (DH), Electrical conductivity (EC), Fertility (F), Respiration (R), pH, Soil test (ST), Yield (Y), Infiltration (I), Mineralizable nitrogen potential (MNP), Water holding capacity (WHC)]. For agriculture, the measurement of properties should lead to a relatively simple and accurate way to rank soils based on potential plant production without soil degradation. Unfortunately, commonly identified soil quality parameters may not correlate well with yield (Reganold, 1988). In the next section, we consider these four points concerning the selection and quantification of soil characteristics: 1. soil characteristics may be desirable or undesirable, 2. soil renewability involves judgment of the extent to which soil characteristics can be controlled or managed, 3. rates of change in soil characteristics vary, and 4. there may be significant temporal or spatial variation in soil characteristics. Components of soil quality definitions may include desirable and undesirable characteristics. Desirable soil characteristics may either be the presence of a property that benefits soil productivity and/or other important soil functions, or the absence of a property that is detrimental to these functions. A soil characteristic may include a range of values that contributes positively to quality and a range that contributes negatively. Soil pH, for example, may be a positive or negative characteristic depending on its value. Larson and Pierce (1991) suggest that ranges of property values can be defined as optimal, suboptimal or superoptimal. A pH range of 6 to 7.5 is optimal for production of most crops. Outside of this range, pH is suboptimal and soil quality is lower than at the optimal pH range. The complexity of the soil quality concept is illustrated by the fact that the choice of optimal pH range is crop or use dependent. Letey (1985) suggested that identification of a range of water content that is nonlimiting to plant productivity might be a good way of assessing the collective effect of soil physical characteristics that contribute to crop productivity. For soils of decreasing quality, the width of the nonlimiting water range decreases. Undesirable soil characteristics may be either the presence of contaminants or a range of values of soil characteristics that contribute negatively to soil quality. The presence of chemicals that inhibit plant root growth or the absence of nutrients that result in low yields or poor crop quality are examples of undesirable soil characteristics that lower soil quality. The extent to which soil is viewed as a renewable resource shapes our approach to soil quality. "Soil" in this context is the natural, three-dimensional, horizonated individual, not something created by earth moving machinery. For the purpose of assessing human impact on sustainability of soil quality, it may be appropriate to use only those soil properties that are slowly or nonrenewable. Shorter term assessments may be based on those properties that change rapidly and are subject to easy management. Willis and Evans (1977) argued that soil is not renewable over the short term based on studies that suggest that 30 to more than 1,000 years are required to develop 25 mm of surface soil from parent material by natural processes. Jenny (1980) also argued that soil is not renewable over the time scale to which humans relate. Howard (1993) suggests defining soil quality based on undisturbed natural soils and to set quality standards based on changes in soils which cannot be reversed naturally or by ecological approaches. The renewability of soil depends on the soil property considered. For example, once soil depth is reduced by wind or water erosion so that it is too shallow to support crops, it is not renewable within a human or management time frame. Some important soil characteristics are slowly renewable. Organic matter, most nutrients and some physical properties may be renewed through careful long-term management. Certain chemical properties (pH, salinity, N, P, K content) may be altered to a more satisfactory range for agriculture within a growing season or two, while removal of unwanted chemicals may take much longer. No soil property is permanent, but rates and frequency of change vary widely among properties. Soil properties also vary with ecosystem, arguably depending most on climate. In rangelands, for example, temporal variability is high and relatively unpredictable due to the strong dependence of soil properties on soil wetness (Herrick and Whitford, 1995). Variability in soil wetness is not restricted to rangelands and may be an especially important determinant of microbial community structure and function in both irrigated and rainfed agricultural systems. Arnold et al. (1990) suggest that changes in soil properties can be nonsystematic, periodic, or trend. Nonsystematic changes are short term and unpredictable. Periodic are predictable and trend changes tend to be in one direction over time. Carter et al. (1997) distinguish between dynamic soil properties that are most subject to change through human use and are strongly influenced by agronomic practices, and intrinsic or static properties that are not subject to rapid change or management. Examples of dynamic soil characteristics are the size, membership, distribution, and activity of a soil's microbiological community; the soil solution composition, pH, and nutrient ion concentrations, and the exchangeable cation population. Soils respond quickly to changes in conditions such as water content. As a result, the optimal frequency and distribution of soil measurements vary with the property being measured. Soil mineralogy, particle size distribution and soil depth are static soil quality indicators. Although changes occur continuously, they are slow under natural conditions. Organic matter content may be a dynamic variable, but the chemical properties of organic matter may change only over periods on the order of 100 to 1,500 years depending on texture. Soil properties that change quickly present a problem because many measurements are needed to know the average value and to determine if changes in the average indicate improvement or degradation of soil quality. Conversely, properties that change very slowly are insensitive measures of short-term changes in soil quality. Papendick et al. (1995) argue that the MDS required for soil quality analysis includes a mix of "dynamic" and relatively "static" properties. A soil quality assessment must specify area. One could use the pedon (the three-dimensional soil individual) as the unit of measure, or a soil map unit, a landscape, a field or an entire watershed. The choice will depend to some degree on what property is of interest and the spatial variability of the property. Karlen et al. (1997) propose that soil quality can be evaluated at scales ranging from points to regional, national and international. They suggest that the more detailed scales provide an opportunity to "understand" soil quality while larger scale approaches provide interdisciplinary monitoring of soil quality and changes in soil quality. Pennock et al. (1994) discuss scaling up data from discrete sampling points to landscape and regional scales. Soil physical characteristics [Aeration (A), Aggregate stability (AS), Bulk density (BD), Clay mineralogy (CM), Color (C), Consistence (dry (CD), moist (CM), wet (CW)), Depth to root limiting layer (DRLL), Hydraulic conductivity (HC), Oxygen diffusion rate (ODR), Particle size distribution (PSD), Penetration resistence (PR), Pore connectivity (PC), Pore size distribution (PSD), Soil strength (SS), Soil tilth (ST), Structure type (STY), Temperature (T), Total porosity (TP), Water-holding capacity (WHC)] are a necessary part of soil quality assessment because they often cannot be easily improved (Wagenet and Hutson, 1997). Larson and Pierce (1991) summarize the physical indicators of soil quality as those properties that influence crop production by determining: 1. whether a soil can accommodate unobstructed root growth and provide pore space of sufficient size and continuity for root penetration and expansion, 2. the extent to which the soil matrix will resist deformation, and 3. the capacity of soil for water supply and aeration. Factors such as effective rooting depth, porosity or pore size distribution, bulk density, hydraulic conductivity, soil strength and particle size distribution capture these soil functions (Malcolm, 2000; Várallyay, 2005). Reganold and Palmer (1995) use texture, color, dry and moist consistence, structure type, a structure index, bulk density of the 0-5 cm zone, penetration resistance of 0 to 20 and 20 to 40 cm zones and topsoil thickness as physical determinants of soil quality. Letey (1994) suggests that structure, texture, bulk density, and profile characteristics affect management practices in agriculture but are not directly related to plant productivity. He proposes that water potential, oxygen diffusion rate, temperature, and mechanical resistance directly affect plant growth, and thus are the best indicators of the physical quality of a soil for production. Soil tilth, a poorly defined term that describes the physical condition of soil, also may be an indicator of a soil's ability to support crops. Farmers may assess soil tilth by kicking a soil clod. More formal measurements to describe soil ti]th include bulk density, porosity, structure, roughness and aggregate characteristics (Karlen et al., 1992). Many of the processes that contribute to soil structure, aggregate stability, bulk density and porosity are not well understood, making soil tilth a difficult parameter to quantify. Soil depth is an easily measured and independent property that provides direct information about a soil's ability to support plants. Effective soil depth is the depth available for roots to explore for water and nutrients. Layers that restrict root growth or water movement include hard rock, naturally dense soil layers such as fragipans, petrocalcic and, petroferric horizons, duripans, and human-induced layers of high bulk density such as plow pans and traffic pans. Effective soil depth is a problem for agricultural use of over 50% of soils in Africa (Eswaran et al., 1997). Soil depth requirements vary with crop or species. Many vegetable crops, for example, are notably shallow rooted while grain crops and some legumes like alfalfa are deep rooted. Variation will be even greater in unmanaged, natural systems. Wheat yield in Colorado was shown to decrease from 2,700 to 1,150 kg ha' over a 60-yr period of cultivation primarily due to decrease in soil depth (Bowman et al., 1990). Assessment of soil quality based on soil chemistry, whether the property is a contaminant or part of a healthy system, requires a sampling protocol, a method of chemical analysis, an understanding of how its chemistry affects biological systems and interacts with mineral forms, methods for location of possible contamination, and standards for soil characterization (Várallyay, 2005; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000). Some soil chemical properties suggested as soil quality indicators are: Base saturation percentage (BSP), Cation exchange capacity (CEC), Contaminant availability (CA), Contaminant concentration (CC), Contaminant mobility (CM), Contaminant presence (CP), Electrical conductivity (EC), ESP, Nutrient cycling rates (NCR), Ph, Plant nutrient availability (PNA), Plant nutrient content (PNC) and SAR. Nutrient availability depends on soil physical and chemical processes, such as weathering and buffering, and properties such as organic matter content, CEC and pH (Kádár, 1992; Várallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton, 2005; Márton et al. 2007). At low and high pH, for example, some nutrients become unavailable to plants and some toxic elements become more available. Larson and Pierce (1991) chose those chemical properties that either inhibit root growth or that affect nutrient supply due to the quantity present or the availability. Reganold and Palmer (1995) used chemical parameters related to nutrient availability as measures of soil quality, including CEC, total N and P, pH and extractable P, S, Ca, Mg and K. Karlen et al. (1992) suggest that total and available plant nutrients, and nutrient cycling rates, should be included in soil quality assessments. Soil properties may be severely compromised by intended or unintended human additions of chemical compounds and soil productivity reduced if unwanted chemicals exceed safe thresholds. Data are required to determine whether or not a site is significantly polluted and if it requires clean-up (Sims et al., 1997). International standard methods have been created to maintain the quality of measurements (Hortensius and Welling, 1996). A difficult determination is the level of each chemical that is considered an ecological risk. Beck et al. (1995) provide a list of levels for organic chemicals adopted by The Netherlands and Canada. EPA uses similar lists for compounds considered hazardous (e.g., 40 CFR). Sims et al. (1997) argue that clean and unclean are two extremes of a continuum and that it is more appropriate to define the physical, chemical and biological state of the soil as acceptable or unacceptable. In The Netherlands, soil quality reference values have been created for heavy metals and organic chemicals based on a linear relationship with soil clay and organic matter content. The Dutch Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment has used the maximum of a range of reference values for a given substance as a provisional reference value for good soil quality (Howard, 1993). The focus of many soil quality definitions is soil biology [Organic carbon (OC), Microbial biomass (MB), C and N, Total bacterial biomass (TBB), Total fungal biomass (TFB), Potentially mineralizable N (PMN), Soil respiration (SR), Enzymes (Dehydrogenase, Phosphatase, Arlysulfatase), Biomass C/total organic carbon, Respiration/biomass, Microbial community fingerprinting (MCF), Substrate utilization (SU), Fatty acid analysis (FAA), Nucleic acid analysis (NAA)]. Soil supports a diverse population of organisms, ranging in size from viruses to large mammals, that usually interacts positively with plants and other system components (Paul and Clark, 1996). However, some soil organisms such as nematodes, bacterial and fungal pathogens reduce plant productivity. Many proposed soil quality definitions focus on the presence of beneficial rather than absence of detrimental organisms, although both are critically important. Various measures of microbial community viability have been suggested as measures or indices of soil quality. Community level studies consider species diversity and frequency of occurrence of species. Visser and Parkinson (1992) found that diverse soil microbiological criteria may be used to indicate deteriorating or improving soil quality. They suggested testing the biological criteria for soil quality at three levels: population, community and ecosystem. Microorganisms and microbial communities are dynamic and diverse, making them sensitive to changes in soil conditions (Kennedy and Papendick, 1995). Their populations include fungi, bacteria including actinomycetes, protozoa, and algae. Soil microorganisms form crucial symbiotic relationships with plants, including mycorrhizal infection for P and N acquisition and bacterial infection for fixation of atmospheric N. Authors emphasizing use of biological factors as indicators of soil quality often equate soil quality with relatively dynamic properties such as microbial biomass, microbial respiration, organic matter mineralization and denitrification, and organic matter content (Yakovchenko et al., 1996; Franzluebbers and Arshad, 1997), or soil microbial C, phospholipid analyses and soil enzymes (Gregorich et al., 1997), or total organic C and N (Franco-Vizcaino, 1997). Visser and Parkinson (1992) question the suitability of enzyme assays for microbial activity and soil quality assessments. Waksman (1927), who studied measurements of soil microorganisms that could indicate soil fertility, found that physical and chemical factors as well as soil biology were needed to predict soil fertility. Meso- and macrofauna populations have also been considered as part of soil quality definitions (Berry, 1994). One could choose to use presence or absence of a particular species or population of a particular species as a measure of soil quality. Stork and Eggleton (1992) discuss species richness as a powerful indicator of invertebrate community and soil quality, although determining the number of species is a problem. They suggest that keystone species, taxonomic diversity at the group level, and species richness of several dominant groups of invertebrates can be used as part of a soil quality definition. Measuring soil fauna populations involves decisions about which organisms to measure and how to measure them. An example is the earthworm population, the size of which is frequently mentioned as an important measure of soil quality. Measurement choices include numbers of organisms per volume or weight of soil, number of species, or a combination of numbers of organisms and species. Reganold and Palmer (1995) use total earthworms per square meter, total earthworm weight (g m-') and average individual earthworm weight as biological indicators of soil quality. Measurement of one or more components of the N cycle including ammonification, nitrification and nitrogen fixation, may be used to assess soil fertility and soil quality (Visser and Parkinson, 1992). Presumably, high rates of N turnover may infer a dynamic and healthy soil biological community. In contrast, low soil quality or poor soil health may be inferred from lack of N turnover. The interpretation of N turnover rates is highly dependent on the kinds of substrates added to soils and climate variables such as soil temperature and moisture. One needs to be careful when comparing N turnover rates within soils and among different soils to be sure that the cause of differences is a soil quality parameter and not natural variability. Presence of pesticide residues, for example, may reduce N turnover rate. In such an instance, both the presence of the pesticide and the N turnover rate would be needed to determine that the soil quality had been impaired. Production incorporates use of and need for functioning soil resources in agriculture, and environmental buffering incorporates the direct and indirect effects of human use on ecosystem function and human health (Kádár, 1992; Várallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton, 2005; Márton et al. 2007). Worldwide agriculture is the most extensive human land use, and soil characteristics are a critical determinant of agricultural productivity. Agriculture includes irrigated and rainfed cultivated cropland, permanent crops such as orchards and vineyards, irrigated pasture, range, and forestry. Each cropping system has distinct soil and soil management conditions for optimal production. It has been suggested that soil productivity is the net resultant of soil degradation processes and soil conservation practices (Parr et al., 1990). An appropriate definition of soil quality and the criteria necessary to evaluate and monitor soil quality is a step toward "the development of systematic criteria of sustainability". Issues to be considered when discussing soil quality for agriculture include: 1. How are productivity and sustainability related? 2. Is the cropping system in question cultivated or non-cultivated? 3. Is the cropping system in question an irrigated or dryland system? Sustainability of agricultural systems is critical to human welfare and is an a subject of research and debate (Letey, 1994). High productivity and sustainability must be converging goals if the growing human population is to be fed without destroying the resources necessary to produce food. Sustainability implies that a system is at a desirable steady state. Thermodynamically, soil is an open system through which matter and energy flow and a steady state is characterized by a minimum production of entropy (Andiscott, 1995). Ellert et al. (1997) review related literature on ways of assessing soil function on an ecosystem scale, commenting that the complexity and organization of living systems, which seem to defy the second law of thermodynamics (increasing disorder/entropy), may provide a means to broadly assess ecosystem function. The purpose of agriculture is to provide products for human sustenance and by definition is not sustainable unless the nutrients removed in the products are returned to the soil. Many of the arguments about the sustainability of agricultural systems relate to the form in which nutrients are most sustainably returned. No agricultural system will be sustainable in the long run without management that considers nutrient cycling and energy budgets. The more intense the agricultural system, the more energy and resources must be expended to maintain the system. The relative quality of a soil for agriculture can depend on the resources available to farmers. In the United States, resources may be readily available for management of dynamic soil properties such as nutrient or water status. In other countries, farmers may be resource poor, and agricultural systems are generally low input, meaning that large-scale irrigation is absent, use of fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides is minimal, and high energy, mechanized equipment is not available (Eswaran et a1.,1997). This means, for example, that soil quality for agriculture will be more dependent on climate than if the same soils were part of a highly managed, irrigated system. Similarly, sustainability is more dependent on maintenance of dynamic soil properties because resources may not exist to remedy losses (Várallyay, 2005; Malcolm, 2000; Márton et al. 2007). It is difficult to overstate the importance of irrigation to food production. One-third of the total global harvest of food comes from the 17% (250 million ha) of the world's cropland that is irrigated (Hoffman et al., 1990); three-quarters of which are in developing countries (Tribe, 1994). India, China, the former Soviet Union, the United States and Pakistan have the greatest area of irrigated land. Should soil quality criteria be the same for irrigated and dryland agriculture? Sojka (1996) suggests that the arid and semi-arid soils that support most irrigated agriculture have thin erodible surfaces, characteristics that would classify such soils as having poor quality. Yet under irrigation, they feed much of the world. Without irrigation, for example, in many African soils, moisture stress becomes a significant factor limiting production, and the water-holding capacity of a soil becomes crucial (Eswaran et al., 1997). This suggests that a standard set of criteria based on potential productivity is not a sufficient definition of soil quality. Soils that are not cultivated are a much larger component of agriculture, broadly defined, than those that are cultivated. About 65% of the land in the United States is forest (284 million ha) or range land (312 million ha), with only about 284 million hacultivated (NRC,1994). Herrick and Whitford (1995) suggest that range land soils, which often serve multiple uses, present unique challenges and opportunities for assessing soil quality because spatial and temporal variability are higher than in cropped systems. On range lands and forest lands, food, fiber, timber production, biomass for fuel, wildlife, biodiversity, recreation, and water supply are all potential uses that may have diverse criteria for quality soils. Herrick and Whitford (1995) give the example of a thick O horizon that may be an indicator of good timber production but has no predictive value of soil quality for the rancher. The National Research Council (NRC, 1994) recommends that range land health be determined using three criteria: degree of soil stability and watershed function, integrity of nutrient cycles and energy flows, and presence of functioning recovery mechanisms. Soil erosion by wind and water and infiltration or capture of precipitation were selected as processes that could be used as indicators of soil stability and watershed function. Specific indicators or properties need to be related to these two broad processes. The amount of nutrients available, the speed with which nutrients cycle, and measures of the integrity of energy flow through the system were considered fundamental components of range land health. Finally, the capacity of range land ecosystems to react to change depends on recovery mechanisms that result in capture and cycling of nutrients, capture of energy, conservation of nutrients, energy and water, and resilience to change. Specific indicators include status of vegetation, age class and distribution (Kádár, 1992; Várallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton et al. 2007). The evaluation of land quality for forestry is a well-known practice. Indices range from quantitative through semi-quantitative to qualitative. Quantitative evaluations, such as site index, use regression equations to predict tree height at a predetermined tree age based on soil and climate data. Qualitative evaluations assign land to classes based on soil and climate properties. In soil science, the term "buffer" refers collectively to processes that constrain shifts in the dissolved concentration of any ion when it is added to or removed from the soil system (Singer and Munns, 1996). Soils "buffer" nutrients as well as contaminants and other solutes, via sorption to or incorporation into clay and organic materials. The extent to which a soil immobilizes or chemically alters substances that are toxic, thus effectively detoxifying them, reflects "quality" in the sense that humans or other biological components of the system are protected from harm. This is the basis for the European concept of soil quality (Moen, 1988; Siegrist, 1989; Denneman and Robberse, 1990). Lack of soil function in this category is reflected as direct toxicity or as contamination of air or water. Identifying substances that qualify as "contaminants" can be challenging because some, such as nitrates and phosphates, are important plant nutrients as well as potential water pollutants. An example is agricultural runoff containing N03 or soluble P (Yli-Halla et al., 1995). This chapter does not attempt a comprehensive review of research in this area, which is covered in an earlier chapter, but instead presents a few sample articles pertinent to this aspect of soil quality. Holden and Firestone (1997) define soil quality in this context as "the degree to which the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the soil serve to attenuate environmental pollution." Howard (1993) defines the ecological risk of a chemical in the environment as "the probability that a random species in a large community is exposed to a concentration of the chemical greater than its no-effect level." The extent to which a soil is capable of reducing the probability of exposure is a measure of its quality. A well-studied example of a common soil contaminant is Pb (McBride et al., 1997). Although legislated limits may be on a concentration basis in soil (e.g., 500 ftg kg-'), risk assessment techniques have attempted to account for the chemical form of Pb present, as well as the observed relative relationship between the amount of Pb present in soil and blood levels in local residents (Bowers and Gauthier, 1994). Critics have questioned analytical techniques used to determine bioavailable levels of Pb in soil, as well as the degree to which toxicity data account for its chemical fate and ecologically damaging properties (Cook and Hendershot, 1996). Natural variability of soils and variation within a soil series make average values or average background values inadequate for soil quality assessments. In addition, bioaccumulation and toxicity need to be considered when establishing levels of toxicants that may not be exceeded in a "high quality" soil for a given use (Traas et al. 1996). Another example is the effect of heavy metals such as Cr(VI) on soil biological properties. Based on a study of three New Zealand soils of contrasting texture, organic matter content, and CEC, Speir et al. (1995) propose an "ecological dose value" that represents the inhibitory effects of a heavy metal (in this case, Cr(VI)) on the kinetics of soil biological properties, and serves as a generic index for determination of permissible concentration levels for heavy metals in soils. A single soil characteristic is of limited use in evaluating differences in soil quality (Reganold and Palmer, 1995). Using more than one quantitative variable requires some system for combining the measurements into a useful index (Halvorson et al., 1996). The region, crop, or general soil use for which an index was created will likely limit its effectiveness outside the scope of its intended application. Even an index designed only to rate productivity is not likely to be useful for all crops and soils, leading Gersmehl and Brown (1990) to advocate regionally targeted systems. Rice is a good example of a crop requiring significantly different soil properties than other crops. It is a food staple for a large proportion of the world population. Approximately 146 million ha were in rice production in 1989 (FAO, 1989) mainly (90%) in Asia. High quality soils for paddy rice may be poor quality for most other irrigated and dryland crops because they may be saline or sodic, and high in clay with slow infiltration and permeability. These physical and chemical properties often constrain production of other crops. Although they are not reviewed here, various land suitability classifications specifically for rice have been developed since the turn of the century (Dent, 1978). Examples of several soil quality indexing systems are presented in the following sections. To some extent, recent attempts to enumerate the factors of soil quality resemble Jenny's (1941) introduction of the interrelated factors of soil formation. An index is categorized here as nonquantitative if it does not combine evaluated parameters into a numerical index that rates soils along a continuous scale. Examples are the USDA Land Capability Classification and the US Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) Irrigation Suitability. The purpose of the Land Capability Classification (LCC) was to place arable soils into groups based on their ability to sustain common cultivated crops that do not require specialized site conditioning or treatment (Klingebiel and Montgomery, 1973). Nonarable soils, unsuitable for long-term, sustained cultivation, are grouped according to their ability to support permanent vegetation, and according to the risk of soil damage if mismanaged. The LCC combines three rating values at different levels of abstraction: capability class, subclass, and unit. At the most general level, soils are placed in eight classes according to whether they (a) are capable of producing adapted plants under good management (classes I to N), (b) are capable of producing specialized crops under highly intensive management involving "elaborate practices for soil and water conservation" (classes V to VII), or (c) do not return on-site benefits as a result of management inputs for crops, grasses or trees without major reclamation (Klingebiel and Montgomery, 1973). The four possible limitations/hazards under the subclass rating are erosion hazard, wetness, rooting zone limitations and climate. The capability unit groups soils that have about the same responses to systems of management and have longtime estimated yields that do not vary by more than 25% under comparable management. The issue of critical limits is a difficult one in soils because of the range of potential uses and the interactions among variables (Arshad and Ccen, 1992). Several studies have shown that lands of higher LCC have higher productivity than lands of lower LCC (Patterson and Mackintosh, 1976; van Vliet et al., 1979; Reganold and Singer, 1984). In a study of 744 alfalfa, corn, cotton, sugar beet and wheat growing fields in the San Joaquin Valley of California, those with LCC ratings between 1 and 3 had significantly lower input/output ratios than fields with ratings between 3.01 and 6 (Reganold and Singer, 1984). This suggests that use of the LCC system provides an economically meaningful assessment of soil quality for agriculture. This was a frequently used system of land evaluation for irrigation in the Western US during the period of rapid expansion of water delivery systems (McRae and Burnham, 1981). It combines social and economic evaluations of the land with soil and other ecological variables to determine if the land has the productive capacity, once irrigated, to repay the investment necessary to bring water to an area. It recognizes the unique importance of irrigation to agriculture and the special qualities of soils that make them irrigable. Quantitative systems result in a numerical index, typically with the highest number being assigned to the best quality soils. Systems may be additive, multiplicative or more complex functions. They have two important advantages over nonquantitative systems: 1. they are easier to use with GIS and other automated data retrieval and display systems, and 2. they typically provide a continuous scale of assessment. No single national system is presently in use but several state or regional systems exist. Although he considered the productivity of the land to be dependent on 32 soil, climate and vegetative properties [Surface conditions: Physiographic position, Slope, Microrelief, Erosion deposition, External drainage, runoff. Soil physical conditions: Soil color, Soil depth, Soil density and porosity, Soil permeability, Soil texture, Stoniness, Soil structure, Soil workability-consistence, Internal drainage, Water-holding capacity, Plant-available water. Soil chemical conditions: Organic matter, Nitrogen, Reaction, Calcium carbonate, bases, Exchange capacity, Salts: Cl, SO Na, Toxicities, e.g., B, Available P, Available K, Minor elements, e.g., Zn, Fe, Fertility. Mineralogical conditions: Mineralogy. Climate: Precipitation Temperature Growing season Winds. Vegetativé cover: Natural vegetation], only nine properties were used in the SIR, because incorporating a greater number of factors made the system unwieldy. The nine factors are soil morphology (A), surface texture (B), slope (C), and six variables (X.) that rate drainage class, sodicity, acidity, erosion, microrelief and fertility; rated from 1% to 100%. These are converted to their decimal value and multiplied together (Storie, 1964). Values for each factor were derived from Storie's experience mapping and evaluating soils in California, and in soil productivity studies in cooperation with the California Agricultural Experiment Station cost-efficiency projects relating to orchard crops, grapes and cotton. In describing the SIR (SIR= [AxBxCxIIXi]x100), Storie (1932, 1964) explicitly mentioned "soil quality". Soils that were deep, had no restricting subsoil horizons, and held water well had the greatest potential for the widest range of crops. The usefulness of the SIR as a soil quality index would be greatest if there was a statistically significant relationship between SIR values and an economic indicator of land value. Reganold and Singer (1984) found that area-weighted average SIR values between 60 and 100 for 744 fields in the San Joaquin Valley of California had lower but statistically insignificant input/output ratios than fields with indices < 60. The lack of statistical significance does not mean that better quality lands could not be farmed at economically lower cost or at higher cost and higher output than the lower quality lands. We productivity index model (PI) was developed to evaluate soil productivity in the top 100 cm, especially with reference to potential productivity loss due to soil erosion (Neill, 1979; Kiniry et al., 1983). The PI model rates soils on the sufficiency for root growth based on potential available water storage capacity, bulk density, aeration, pH, and electrical conductivity. A value from zero to one is assigned to each property describing the importance of that parameter for root development. The product of these five index values is used to describe the fractional sufficiency of any soil layer for root development. Pierce et al. (1983) modified the PI to include the assumption that nutrients were not limiting and that climate, management and plant differences are constant. A number of authors found that it is useful to various degrees (Gantzer and McCarty, 1987; Lindstrom et al., 1992). Parr et al. (1992) suggest that a SQI could take the form of Equation: SQI = f (SP, P, E, H, ER, BD, FQ, MI) where SQI is a function of soil properties (SP), potential productivity (P), environmental factors (E), human and animal health (H), erodibility (ER), biological diversity (BD), food quality and safety (FQ) and management inputs (MI). Determination of the specific measurable indicators of each variable and the interactions among these diverse variables is a daunting task. Moreover, the mathematical method of combining these factors, as well as the resulting value that would indicate a high quality soil, is not specified. The inclusion of variables BD, FQ and MI make this a land quality index as suggested by FAO (1997). Larson and Pierce (1991) defined soil quality (Q) as the state of existence of soil relative to a standard or in terms of a degree of excellence. They argue that defining Q in terms of productivity is too limiting and does not serve us well. Rather, Q is defined as the sum of individual soil qualities q. and expressed as Equation: Q=f(qi ...qn). These authors do not identify the best subset of properties or their functional and quantitative relationship, but do suggest that a MDS should be selected from those soil characteristics in which changes are measurable and relatively rapid (i.e., "dynamic" properties), arguing that it is more important to know about changes in soil quality (dQ) than the magnitude of Q (Larson and Pierce, 1991). Changes in soil quality are a function of changes in soil characteristics (q) over time (t): dQ = f[(qi.t - qit0 )... (qn.t-qnt0)]. If dQ/dt is ≥0, the soil or ecosystem is improving relative to the standard at time to. If dQ/dt <0, soil degradation is occurring. Time zero can be selected to meet management needs or goals. If there is a drastic change in management, time zero can be defined as prior to the change. If a longer time period of comparison is considered more appropriate, properties of an uncultivated or pristine soil could be used. The MDS recommended by Larson and Pierce (1991) includes N mineralization potential or P buffering capacity, total organic C, labile organic C, texture, plant-available water capacity, structure (bulk density is recommended as a surrogate variable), strength, maximum rooting depth, pH and EC. In instances when data are unavailable, pedotransfer functions (Bouma, 1989) can be used to estimate values of soil characteristics. These estimates can then be used as part of the minimum dataset to estimate soil quality or changes in soil quality brought about by management. Although this is a quantitative system, some qualitative judgments are needed to make decisions about changes in soil quality. In particular, interpretation of the meaning of magnitude of changes in a characteristic or the number of characteristics to change from time zero to the time of the measurement is qualitative. The authors do not address how large a change in pH, soil depth, bulk density or organic C represents serious soil degradation, or the values that define soil as high or low quality. Karlen et al. (1994) developed QI based on a 10-year crop residue management study. QI is based on four soil functions: (1) accommodating water entry, (2) retaining and supplying water to plants, (3) resisting degradation, and (4) supporting plant growth. Numerous properties were measured and values normalized based on standard scoring functions. One function is based on the concept that more of a property is better, one that less is better and the third that an optimum is better. Lower threshold values receive a score of zero, upper threshold values receive a score of one, and baseline values receive a score of one-half. Priorities are then assigned to each value. For example, aggregate stability was given the highest weight among factors important in water entry. After normalizing, each value is then multiplied by its weighting factor (wt) and products are summed Equation: QI=qwe (wt) + qwt (wt)+qrd (wt) + qspg (wt). Subscripts refer to the four main functions described earlier. It should also be noted that resisting degradation (rd) and sustaining plant growth (spg) are assigned secondary and tertiary levels of properties that themselves are normalized and weighted before a final value is calculated and incorporated into Equation. The resulting index resulted in values between zero and one. Of the three systems in the study, the one with the highest rate of organic matter return to the soil had the highest index value, and the soil with the lowest had the lowest value. The authors suggest that this demonstrates the usefulness of the index for monitoring the status and change in status of a soil as a function of management. They also suggest that the index and the soil characteristics that go into the index may change as the index is refined (Karlen et al. 1994). Snakin et al. (1996) developed an index of soil degradation that assigns three separate values from one to five reflecting the degree to which a soil's physical, chemical, and biological properties are degraded, as well as the rate of degradation. The Canadian soil capability classification system is similar to the older US systems and is quantitative. In a study in southwestern Ontario, Patterson and Mackintosh (1976) found that high gross returns per ha were three times as likely if the productivity index of land, based on the soil capability classification, was between 90 and 100 than if it fell between 80 and 89. Smith et al. (1993) and Halvorson et al. (1996) propose a multiple-variable indicator transform procedure to combine values or ranges of values that represent the best estimate of soil quality. Their system converts measured data values into a single value according to specified criteria. They do not attempt to define soil quality or specify what soil characteristics are to be used. They combine this procedure with kriging to develop maps that indicate the probabilities of meeting a soil quality criterion on a landscape level. Critical threshold values must be known, assumed, or determined in order to separate different soil qualities. Numerous additive productivity rating systems have been developed for specific states, as reviewed by Huddleston (1984). In these systems, soil properties are assigned numerical values according to their expected impact on plant growth. The index is usually calculated as the sum of the values assigned to each property with 100 the maximum value. Huddleston (1984) notes advantages and disadvantages to such a system which are similar to those for many of the soil quality indices previously discussed. Additive systems become complex as the number of factors, cropping systems, and soil and climatic conditions increases. A unique problem of subtractive systems (one in which 100 is the starting point and values are deducted for problem conditions) is that negative values result when multiple factors are less than satisfactory. Soil quality is a concept being developed to characterize the usefulness and health of soils, because soils are fundamental to the well-being and productivity of agricultural and natural ecosystems. It is a compound characteristic that cannot be directly measured. Many definitions of soil quality can be found in the literature and no set of soil characteristics has been universally adopted to quantify definitions. Soil quality is often equated with agricultural productivity and sustainability. An approach toward developing soil quality definitions is one that assesses soil quality in the context of a soil's potential to perform given functions in a system; e.g., maintains productivity, partitions and regulates water and solute flow through an ecosystem, serves as an environmental buffer, and cycles nutrients, water, and energy through the biosphere. Air and water quality standards are usually based on maximum allowable concentrations of materials hazardous to human health. A definition of soil quality based on this concept would encompass only a fraction of the important roles soils play in agriculture and the environment but could be essential to soil remediation. To proceed from a definition to a measure of soil quality, a minimum dataset of soil characteristics that represent soil quality must be selected and quantified. Many soil physical, chemical and biological properties have been suggested to separate soils of different quality. These include desirable and undesirable properties. Desirable soil characteristics may either be the presence of a property that benefits crop productivity and environmental buffering and/or other important soil functions, or the absence of a property that is detrimental to these functions. In particular, absence of contaminants is an important soil quality characteristic. 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