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Sample records for saskatoon amelanchier alnifolia

  1. Flavonoid Profile of Saskatoon Berries (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. and Their Health Promoting Effects

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    Jiri Mlcek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are a significant group of secondary metabolites in plants. Many of these compounds are potent antioxidants, being an important part in food products derived from the plants. The current status of research on flavonoid compounds in the fruit of Saskatoon berries (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. and their health promoting effects, including recommended utilization, are reviewed. The major classes of flavonoids in the fruit are flavonols (quercetin and rutin, flavanes (proanthocyanidin compounds ranging from dimers through to heptamers and even higher polymers and finally anthocyanins. The flavonoids represented the group of polyphenols that mostly contributed to the antioxidant activity of Saskatoon berries. High content of the flavoinoids antioxidants in the fruit is responsible for the observed anti-inflammatory, antidiadiabetic and chemo-protective effects.

  2. POLYPHENOL CONTENT AND BIOACTIVITY OF SASKATOON (AMELANCHIER ALNIFOLIA NUTT.) LEAVES AND BERRIES.

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    Meczarska, Katarzyna; Cyboran-Mikolajczyk, Sylwia; Wloch, Aleksandra; Bonarska-Kujawa, Dorota; Oszmianski, Jan; Kleszczynska, Halina

    2017-03-01

    The studies were designed to determine the polyphenolic composition and biological activity of extracts from fruits (SFE) and leaves (SLE) of Saskatoon (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) in relation to erythrocyte membranes. A detailed quantitative and qualitative analysis of extracts was conducted, using the chro- matographic (UPLC-DAD, UPLC-ESI-MS) and spectrophotometric (Folin-Ciocalteu) methods. The biological activity of the extracts was investigated in relation to erythrocytes and isolated membranes of erythrocytes by using spectrophotometric, fluorimetric and microscopic methods and determined on the basis of hemolytic and antioxidant activity of the extracts and their impact on physical properties of the membrane such as: osmotic resistance, shape of erythrocytes, packing order of the polar head of lipids and fluidity of the membrane. The results showed that the tested extracts are rich sources of polyphenols, primarily from the group of flavonoids; in leaves dominating flavonols and anthocyanins in fruits. The SFE and SLE extracts to varying degree modify the physical properties of the erythrocyte membrane, causing formation of echinocytes, an increase in osmotic resistance and changes in the polar part of the membrane. Furthermore, the substances markedly protect erythrocytes and their membranes against oxidation induced by different physico-chemical factors. The findings indicate that the polyphenolic compounds contained in extracts of Saskatoon do not destroy biological membranes but effectively protect them against oxidation by way of interacting with the membrane surface. The extracts could effectively protect the organism and food products from the harmful effects of free radicals.

  3. Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Seven Saskatoon Berry (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. Genotypes Grown in Poland

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    Sabina Lachowicz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The basic chemical composition, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity of fruits of three new Polish breeding clones (No. 5/6, type S, and type N and four Canadian cultivars (cvs. (“Martin”, “Smoky”, “Pembina”, and “Honeywood” grown in Poland in 2016 were investigated. Fruits were analyzed for their contents of triterpenoids, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and polyphenolics with the ultra-performance liquid chromatography photodiode detector-quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-Q/TOF-MS method, sugar with the high-performance liquid chromatography–evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD method, and antioxidant capacity with the ability to reduce free radical (ABTS and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP method. Thirty-eight bioactive compounds, including twenty-eight polyphenolic compounds (four anthocyanins, nine phenolic acids, nine flavonols, and seven flavan-3-ols, four carotenoids, two chlorophylls, and three triterpenoids were identified in the fruits. The fruits of the tested Saskatoon berry genotypes were found to be rich in phenolic compounds (3773.94–6390.36 mg/100 g·dm, triterpenoids (66.55–91.31 mg/kg·dm, and carotenoids (478.62–561.57 mg/kg·dm, with high ABTS and FRAP capacity (10.38–34.49 and 9.66–25.34 mmol·Trolox/100 g·dm, respectively. Additionally, the berries of these genotypes seemed to be a good source of sugar (9.02–19.69 g/100 g, pectins (0.67%–1.33%, and ash (0.59%–0.67%. Some genotypes of Saskatoon berry, especially the clones type S, type N, and cvs. “Honeywood” and “Smoky”, may be selected for their potential applications in commercial cultivation to produce fruits with valuable health-promoting nutritional effects on human health. Additionally, three new genotypes that may offer new functional materials can be recommended for fruit growers.

  4. Sucrose and light effects on in vitro cultures of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), chokecherry (Prunus virginiana L.) and Saskatoon berry (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) during low temperature storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruski, K.; Kozai, T.; Lewis, T.; Astatkie, T.; Nowak, J.

    2000-01-01

    Cultures of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cv. Atlantic, chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana L.) cv. Garrington and saskatoon berry (Amelancher alnifolia Nutt.) cv. Northline grown in vitro for 3 weeks at 24/22 °C, 16-h photoperiod, 150 μmol m-2 s-1 photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) mixed

  5. Deciphering the growth pattern and phytohormonal content in Saskatoon berry (Amelanchier alnifolia) in response to in vitro cytokinin application

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moyo, M.; Aremu, A.O.; Plačková, Lenka; Plíhalová, Lucie; Pěnčík, Aleš; Novák, Ondřej; Holub, J.; Doležal, Karel; Van Staden, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 42, MAY 25 (2018), s. 85-94 ISSN 1871-6784 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Auxins * Endogenous cytokinins * Micropropagation * Organogenesis * Saskatoon berry * Topolins Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.813, year: 2016

  6. Serviceberry [Amelanchier alnifolia (Nutt.) Nutt. ex. M. Roem (Rosaceae)] leaf extract inhibits mammalian α-glucosidase activity and suppresses postprandial glycemic response in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and hyperglycemia.

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    Zhang, Albert J; Rimando, Agnes M; Fish, Wilbert; Mentreddy, Srinivasa R; Mathews, Suresh T

    2012-09-28

    Serviceberry or Saskatoon berry [Amelanchier alnifolia (Nutt.) Nutt. ex. M. Roem (Rosaceae)], native to the North Glacier forests of the Rocky Mountains in Montana, has been used by the Blackfeet Indian tribe in alleviation of diabetes. Anecdotally, tea made from twigs and leaves have been used for optimum health and diabetes management. However, such traditional knowledge of the medicinal properties of Amelanchier alnifolia has not been validated by scientific studies. The goal of this study was to identify potential antidiabetic mechanisms of serviceberry. Serviceberry plant samples consisting of leaves, twigs, and leaves with berries were extracted and fractionated. Ethyl acetate and water fractions were tested for inhibition of α-glucosidase activity in vitro. Diet-induced obese, hyperglycemic C57Bl6 mice were administered serviceberry leaf extract prior to sucrose-, starch-, or glucose-loading to test for α-glucosidase inhibition and decreased post-prandial glycemic response. In the course of screening for potential antidiabetic mechanisms, serviceberry leaf extracts and subfractions demonstrated potent inhibitory activity against mammalian intestinal α-glucosidase activity (EC 3.2.1.20). Further, in an animal model of diet-induced obesity and hyperglycemia, serviceberry leaf subfraction demonstrated significant inhibition of intestinal α-glucosidase activity, and delayed the absorption of carbohydrates, resulting in significant lowering of post-prandial blood glucose concentrations, similar to the antidiabetic drug Acarbose™. These findings indicating that serviceberry leaf extract may lower post-prandial glycemic response corroborate traditional knowledge of the Blackfeet Indians of Montana, and potentially offer a complementary approach in the treatment of diabetes. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Saskatoon serviceberry and ambient sulfur dioxide exposures: study sites re-visited, 1999

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    Krupa, S.V.; Legge, A.H.

    2001-01-01

    Field surveys for symptoms of foliar injury in a regional airshed that is influenced by a number of point sources of SO x , NO x and hydrocarbons, combined with foliar and soil sulfur analyses, confirmed earlier results that Saskatoon serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) cv. Smokey can be used as a biological indicator of chronic sulfur dioxide exposures, in the presence of other phytotoxic air pollutants such as ozone. (Author)

  8. Serviceberry [Amerlanchier alnifolia (Nutt.) Nutt. ex. M. Roem(Rosaceae)] leaf exhibits mammalian alpha glucosidase activity and suppresses postprandial glycemic response in a mouse model of diet induced obesity/hyperglycemia

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    Several plant-based remedies offer cost-effective management of diabetes, but few plant species adapted to North America have been validated for their antidiabetic properties. One such species is serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia), found in Browning, MT, which has been traditionally used by the Am...

  9. The Representatives of Amelanchier Medik. Genus in Ukraine

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    Opalko Anatoliy Ivanovich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The information on fruit and decorative value, honey and medicinal properties of the genus Amelanchier Medik. is generalized. Their biological characteristics, chemical composition and palatability traits of the fruit, the ways of consumption and processing, including drying, preparing juices, syrups, jams, candied fruit jellies, confiture, and fruit wine are specified. The environmental adaptability and effectiveness of using juneberry for phytomelioration are mentioned. Several versions of the origin of the genus Amelanchier name and interpretation of its specific epithets are described. The controversial issues of the genus Amelanchier system were discussed from the classical and molecular genetic approaches. The attention is focused on two main aspects of views on the place of the genus Amelanchier representatives of the family Rosaceae Juss. within the particular subfamily, namely the subfamily Pyroideae Burnett (Maloideae S. Weber or the subfamily Amygdaloideae Arn., which indicates the necessity for further comparative morphological and molecular genetic studies of the family Rosaceae. The directions of evolution, habitat and invasive ability of some species of the genus Amelanchier are characterised. The list of the genus Amelanchier representatives cultivated in Ukraine is given.

  10. A survey of helminth parasites of cats from Saskatoon.

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    Pomroy, W E

    1999-01-01

    In a survey of 52 cats from the Saskatoon area, Ollulanus tricuspis were found in 2 animals with burdens of 2308 and 533, respectively. Small burdens of the following helminths were also found: Physaloptera spp., Toxocara cati, Taenia spp., Dipylidium caninum, and Ancylostoma sp. PMID:10340095

  11. A survey of helminth parasites of cats from Saskatoon.

    OpenAIRE

    Pomroy, W E

    1999-01-01

    In a survey of 52 cats from the Saskatoon area, Ollulanus tricuspis were found in 2 animals with burdens of 2308 and 533, respectively. Small burdens of the following helminths were also found: Physaloptera spp., Toxocara cati, Taenia spp., Dipylidium caninum, and Ancylostoma sp.

  12. Deprivation and food access and balance in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.

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    Cushon, J; Creighton, T; Kershaw, T; Marko, J; Markham, T

    2013-06-01

    We explored food access and balance in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada in relation to material and social deprivation. We mapped the location of all large supermarkets and fast food retailers in Saskatoon. Supermarket accessibility index scores and food balance scores were compared to material and social deprivation indexes to determine significant associations. Our results indicate that the poorest access to supermarkets occurred in areas west of the South Saskatchewan River and also in suburban areas around the perimeter of the city. Areas west of the river are some of the most deprived areas in the city. Saskatoon's mean food balance ratio of 2.3 indicates that access favours fast food. However, we did not find a clear pattern or clear socio-economic gradient for most measures. This study highlights the importance of contextual studies of food access. This study also highlighted a number of other issues that should be explored in the Saskatoon context such as individual-level food consumption patterns, mobility, temporal dimensions of food access and economic access as well as interventions that could improve food access in the city.

  13. Infant nutrition in Saskatoon: barriers to infant food security.

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    Partyka, Brendine; Whiting, Susan; Grunerud, Deanna; Archibald, Karen; Quennell, Kara

    2010-01-01

    We explored infant nutrition in Saskatoon by assessing current accessibility to all forms of infant nourishment, investigating challenges in terms of access to infant nutrition, and determining the use and effectiveness of infant nutrition programs and services. We also examined recommendations to improve infant food security in Saskatoon. Semi-structured community focus groups and stakeholder interviews were conducted between June 2006 and August 2006. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes related to infant feeding practices and barriers, as well as recommendations to improve infant food security in Saskatoon. Our study showed that infant food security is a concern among lower-income families in Saskatoon. Barriers that limited breastfeeding sustainability or nourishing infants through other means included knowledge of feeding practices, lack of breastfeeding support, access and affordability of infant formula, transportation, and poverty. Infant nutrition and food security should be improved by expanding education and programming opportunities, increasing breastfeeding support, and identifying acceptable ways to provide emergency formula. If infant food security is to be addressed successfully, discussion and change must occur in social policy and family food security contexts.

  14. Staff training program of CANDU projects in Saskatoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huterer, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the training process for a nuclear project on a new site. When AECL opened a project office Saskatoon, senior management recognized the need for large scale staff training and made the necessary commitments. Two types of training programs were initiated, general and technical. The general training plan included topics related to nuclear project life cycle. Technical training was discipline and task specific. Based on the job descriptions and staff qualifications, technical training requirements were documented for the entire staff. The training strategy was developed and implemented. Detailed records were maintained to monitor the progress, draw conclusions, and plan training for future nuclear facilities. (author)

  15. Effect of drying techniques on the retention of antioxidant activities of Saskatoon berries

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    Pranabendu Mitra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to compare the retention of antioxidant activity and total anthocyanin content of Saskatoon berries dried by freeze drying, microwave-vacuum drying, thin layer hot air drying and vacuum drying. Antioxidant activity of berry samples was determined by DPPH radical scavenging and ABTS radical scavenging, and the pH differential method was used to determine total anthocyanin content of the berry samples. The results showed that the freeze dried Saskatoon berries exhibited the highest retention of anthocyanin and antioxidant activity among the dried samples, followed by microwave-vacuum dried berries, thin layer hot air dried berries and vacuum dried berries. There were significant differences between the berry samples at P<0.05.  DPPH radical scavenging and ABTS radical scavenging were correlated linearly with an R2 value of 0.99 at P<0.05 showing their effectiveness for the determination of the antioxidant activity of the Saskatoon berries. However, the DPPH radical scavenging assay was more effective than the ABTS radical scavenging assay. The results also showed that antioxidant activity of the berries was highly correlated with the total anthocyanin content of the fruit. The reduction of anthocyanin in dried berry samples was linearly correlated with the reduction of DPPH radical scavenging with an R2 value of 0.97 at P<0.05 and, also, linearly correlated with the reduction of ABTS radical scavenging with an R2 value of 0.88 at P<0.05.

  16. The Contribution of Galactic Free-Free Emission to Anistropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background Found by the Saskatoon Experiment

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    Simonetti, John H.; Dennison, Brian; Topasna, Gregory A.

    1996-02-01

    We made a sensitive, wide-field H alpha image of the north celestial polar region. Using this image, we constrain the contribution of irregularities in interstellar free-free emission to the degree-scale anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background detected in recent observations at Saskatoon by the Princeton group. The analysis of the H alpha image mimics the Saskatoon data analysis: the resulting signal is the strength of irregularities sampled with the Saskatoon beam (i.e., degree-scale) along the 85 deg declination circle. We found no such irregularities that could be attributed to H alpha emission. The implied upper bound on the rms variation in free-free brightness temperature is less than 4.6 mu K at 27.5 GHz. The observed cosmic microwave background anisotropies are much larger. Therefore, the contribution of irregularities in interstellar free-free emission to the observed anisotropies is negligible.

  17. High Frequency of Hb E-Saskatoon (HBB: c.67G > A) in Brazilians: A New Genetic Origin?

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    Wagner, Sandrine C; Lindenau, Juliana D; Castro, Simone M de; Santin, Ana Paula; Zaleski, Carina F; Azevedo, Laura A; Ribeiro Dos Santos, Ândrea K C; Dos Santos, Sidney E B; Hutz, Mara H

    2016-08-01

    Hb E-Saskatoon [β22(B4)Glu→Lys, HBB: c.67G > A] is a rare, nonpathological β-globin variant that was first described in a Canadian woman of Scottish and Dutch ancestry and has since then been detected in several populations. The aim of the present study was to identify the origin of Hb E-Saskatoon in Brazil using β-globin haplotypes and genetic ancestry in carriers of this hemoglobin (Hb) variant. Blood samples were investigated by isoelectric focusing (IEF) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using commercial kits. Hb E-Saskatoon was confirmed by amplification of the HBB gene, followed by sequence analysis. Haplotypes of the β-globin gene were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by digestion with specific restriction enzymes. Individual ancestry was estimated with 48 biallelic insertion/deletions using three 16-plex PCR amplifications. The IEF pattern was similar to Hbs C (HBB: c.19G > A) and Hb E (HBB: c.79G > A) [isoelectric point (pI): 7.59-7.65], and HPLC results showed an elution in the Hb S (HBB: c.20A > T) window [retention time (RT): 4.26-4.38]. DNA sequencing of the amplified β-globin gene showed a mutation at codon 22 (GAA>AAA) corresponding to Hb E-Saskatoon. A total of 11 cases of this variant were identified. In nine unrelated individuals, Hb E-Saskatoon was in linkage disequilibrium with haplotype 2 [+ - - - -]. All subjects showed a high degree of European contribution (mean = 0.85). Hb E-Saskatoon occurred on the β-globin gene of haplotype 2 in all Brazilian carriers. These findings suggest a different genetic origin for this Hb variant from that previously described.

  18. VARIABILIDAD MORFOLÓGICA MEDIANTE CARACTERES DE SEMILLA DE POBLACIONES DE Amelanchier denticulata (Kunth Koch, ORIGINARIAS DE GUANAJUATO, MÉXICO

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    Miguel Ángel Hernández-Martínez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El membrillo cimarrón (Amelanchier denticulata (Kunth Koch. es un arbusto frutal de la familia Rosaceae subtribu Pyrinae originario de México, del cual no existen estudios para conocer su diversidad ni su sistema reproductivo. Por estas razones y para tener un primer antecedente sobre su variabilidad morfológica, se caracterizaron seis poblaciones de A. denticulata originarias de Guanajuato, México, mediante caracteres de semilla. Todas las poblaciones presentaron alta variabilidad intra e interpoblacional. Las variables de semilla analizadas fueron discriminantes para distinguir las diferentes poblaciones, siendo las más importantes las relacionadas con las de tamaño de las semillas, seguidas de las de forma. El grado de apomixis no es claro en esta especie debido a la alta variación intrapoblacional; por lo tanto, se necesitan estudios más detallados para concluir la existencia o no de apomixis en A. denticulata.

  19. DISTRIBUCIÓN Y CARACTERIZACIÓN ECO-CLIMÁTICA DEL MEMBRILLO CIMARRÓN (Amelanchier denticulata (Kunth Koch EN MÉXICO.

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    Carlos Alberto Núñez-Colín

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El membrillo cimarrón (Amelanchier denticulata (Kunth Koch es un arbusto frutal nativo de México, del cual no existen suficientes estudios sobre su uso, distribución y diversidad. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo hacer un modelo de distribución, una caracterización eco-climática así como modelos actual y futuro de zonas adecuadas de cultivo de A. denticulata con el uso de Sistemas de Información Geográfica (SIG. El membrillo cimarrón se distribuyó principalmente en el centro de México. Se obtuvieron tres grupos climáticos, el grupo 1 presentó un clima C, el grupo 2, un clima A(C, y el grupo 3, un clima Bs. Las regiones más adecuadas de cultivo fueron Guanajuato, Querétaro e Hidalgo. Los tres diferentes grupos climáticos pueden tener germoplasma diverso, por lo que es importante colectar en cada uno de ellos. Las mejores regiones para establecer un banco de germoplasma in vivo son el noreste de Guanajuato, centro y sur de Querétaro y el sur de Hidalgo.

  20. Assessing the Consumer Food Environment in Restaurants by Neighbourhood Distress Level across Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.

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    Wang, Jin; Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2016-03-01

    To assess the consumer food environment in restaurants in Saskatoon, using the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Restaurants (NEMS-R), to examine differences by neighbourhood distress level and to reflect on the need for further refinement of the assessment of restaurant consumer food environments. Neighbourhoods were classified as low, middle, or high distress level based on the socioeconomic indicators (income, employment, and education) in the Material Deprivation Index. Differences in restaurant consumer food environments, indicated by mean NEMS-R total and sub-scores, were examined by various restaurant categories and by varying neighbourhood distress levels. Chain coffee shops and pita and sandwich restaurants had higher NEMS-R totals and "Healthy Entrées" sub-scores; however, burger and chicken restaurants and pizza restaurants had more barriers to healthful eating. Although restaurants in lower distress level neighbourhoods generally rated healthier (higher NEMS-R scores), only a few measures (such as "Facilitators" and "Barriers") significantly differed by neighbourhood distress level. The findings highlight the importance of developing interventions to improve restaurant consumer food environments, especially in neighbourhoods with higher distress levels. The results suggest that reliable measures of the consumer food environment could be developed beginning with what can be measured by NEMS-R.

  1. Validation of the Saskatoon Falls Prevention Consortium's Falls Screening and Referral Algorithm

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    Lawson, Sara Nicole; Zaluski, Neal; Petrie, Amanda; Arnold, Cathy; Basran, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the concurrent validity of the Saskatoon Falls Prevention Consortium's Falls Screening and Referral Algorithm (FSRA). Method: A total of 29 older adults (mean age 77.7 [SD 4.0] y) residing in an independent-living senior's complex who met inclusion criteria completed a demographic questionnaire and the components of the FSRA and Berg Balance Scale (BBS). The FSRA consists of the Elderly Fall Screening Test (EFST) and the Multi-factor Falls Questionnaire (MFQ); it is designed to categorize individuals into low, moderate, or high fall-risk categories to determine appropriate management pathways. A predictive model for probability of fall risk, based on previous research, was used to determine concurrent validity of the FSRI. Results: The FSRA placed 79% of participants into the low-risk category, whereas the predictive model found the probability of fall risk to range from 0.04 to 0.74, with a mean of 0.35 (SD 0.25). No statistically significant correlation was found between the FSRA and the predictive model for probability of fall risk (Spearman's ρ=0.35, p=0.06). Conclusion: The FSRA lacks concurrent validity relative to to a previously established model of fall risk and appears to over-categorize individuals into the low-risk group. Further research on the FSRA as an adequate tool to screen community-dwelling older adults for fall risk is recommended. PMID:24381379

  2. Electrochemical Determination of the Antioxidant Potential of Some Less Common Fruit Species

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    Boris Krska

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Various berries and fruit types of less common fruit species are known to contain antioxidants. Consumption of high amounts of antioxidant flavonoids, which display a variety of biological properties, including antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activity, may have a positive impact on human health, particularly for the prevention of cancer and other inflammatory diseases. In these studies, based on the hypothesis that the fruit extract with the highest content would possess significantly higher health benefits, flavonoid-rich extracts were obtained from some less common fruit species – Blue Honeysuckles (Lonicera Kamtschatica and Lonicera edulis, Turcz. ex. Freyn, Saskatoon berry (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. and Chinese Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida BUNGE – grown from germplasm held at the Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry in Brno, Czech Republic and then characterized in terms of biological value based on the results from a relative antioxidant capacity assessment. The antioxidant content evaluation was based on the total flavonoid amount, determined by liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED. A DPPH• test was applied as a reference. The antioxidant content measured in Chinese Hawthorn fruit extract identified it as a potent source of flavonoid antioxidants, with a content 9-fold higher than that seen in Amelanchier fruit. The multifunctional HPLC-ED array method coupled with a DPPH• reference appears to be the optimal analytical progress, accurately reflecting the nutritivetherapeutic properties of a fruit.

  3. Use of Liquid Chromatography with Electrochemical Detection for the Determination of Antioxidants in Less Common Fruits

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    Zbynek Gazdik

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative disorders (NDD have become the common global health burden over the last several decades. According to World Health Organization (WHO, a staggering 30 million people will be affected by Alzheimer’s disease in Europe and the USA by 2050. Effective therapies in this complex field considering the multitude of symptoms associated with NDD indications, have not been found yet. Based on the results of NDD related studies, prevention appears to be the promise alternative. Antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties are hypothesized for natural phenolics, a group of plant secondary products that may positively impact neurodegenerative diseases. In these studies, phenolic-rich extracts from less common fruit species: Blue honeysuckle (Lonicera edulis, Turcz. ex. Freyn, Saskatoon berry (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt., and Chinese hawthorn (Crateagus pinnatifida Bunge were obtained and analyzed to detect neuroprotective substances content and establish a potential therapeutic value. High performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection was optimized and further applied on analysis of the extracts of less common fruit species. It was observed that Chinese hawthorn and Blue honeysuckle extracts are potent source of neuroprotective phenolic antioxidants. In accordance the results, it appears that the fruit or formulated products may have the potential for the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. Evaluation of larvicidal activity of Acalypha alnifolia Klein ex Willd. (Euphorbiaceae) leaf extract against the malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi, dengue vector, Aedes aegypti and Bancroftian filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Vincent, Savariar

    2012-02-01

    The leaf extract of Acalypha alnifolia with different solvents - hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol - were tested for larvicidal activity against three important mosquitoes such as malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi, dengue vector, Aedes aegypti and Bancroftian filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. The medicinal plants were collected from the area around Kallar Hills near the Western Ghats, Coimbatore, India. A. alnifolia plant was washed with tap water and shade dried at room temperature. The dried leaves were powdered mechanically using commercial electrical stainless steel blender. The powder 800 g of the leaf material was extract with 2.5 litre of various each organic solvents such as hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol for 8 h using Soxhlet apparatus, and filtered. The crude plant extracts were evaporated to dryness in a rotary vacuum evaporator. The yield of extracts was hexane (8.64 g), chloroform (10.74 g), ethyl acetate (9.14 g), acetone (10.02 g), and methanol (11.43 g). One gram of the each plant residue was dissolved separately in 100 ml of acetone (stock solution) from which different concentrations, i.e., 50, 150, 250, 350 and 450 ppm, was prepared. The hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone was moderate considerable mortality; however, the highest larval mortality was methanolic extract observed in three mosquito vectors. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. No mortality was observed in the control. The early fourth-instar larvae of A. stephensi had values of LC(50) = 197.37, 178.75, 164.34, 149.90 and 125.73 ppm and LC(90) = 477.60, 459.21, 435.07, 416.20 and 395.50 ppm, respectively. The A. aegypti had values of LC(50) = 202.15, 182.58, 160.35, 146.07 and 128.55 ppm and LC(90) = 476.57, 460.83, 440.78, 415.38 and 381.67 ppm, respectively. The C. quinquefasciatus had values of LC(50) = 198.79, 172.48, 151.06, 140.69 and 127.98 ppm and LC(90) = 458.73, 430

  5. Futures Analysis of Urban Land Use and Wetland Change in Saskatoon, Canada: An Application in Strategic Environmental Assessment

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    Anton Sizo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a scenario-based approach to strategic environmental assessment (SEA for wetland trend analysis and land use and land cover (LUC modeling in an urban environment. The application is focused on the Saskatoon urban environment, a rapidly growing urban municipality in Canada’s prairie pothole region. Alternative future LUC was simulated using remote sensing data and city spatial planning documentation using a Markov Chain technique. Two alternatives were developed and compared for LUC change and threats to urban wetland sustainability: a zero alternative that simulated trends in urban development and wetland conservation under a business as usual scenario, in the absence of prescribed planning and zoning actions; and an alternative focused on implementation of current urban development plans, which simulated future LUC to account for prescribed wetland conservation strategies. Results show no improvement in future wetland conditions under the city’s planned growth and wetland conservation scenario versus the business as usual scenario. Results also indicate that a blanket wetland conservation strategy for the city may not be sufficient to overcome the historic trend of urban wetland loss; and that spatially distributed conservation rates, based on individual wetland water catchment LUC peculiarities, may be more effective in terms of wetland conservation. The paper also demonstrates the challenges to applied SEA in a rapidly changing urban planning context, where data are often sparse and inconsistent across the urban region, and provides potential solutions through LUC classification and prediction tools to help overcome data limitations to support land use planning decisions for wetland conservation.

  6. Variations in Sense of Place Across Immigrant Status and Gender in Hamilton, Ontario; Saskatoon, Saskatchewan; and, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallina, Melissa; Williams, Allison

    Past research in Hamilton, Ontario has found that age and longevity of residence are positively associated with evaluations of sense of place (SoP); further, evaluations of SoP between immigrants and Canadian-born individuals have shown no clear pattern (Williams et al. 2010; Williams and Kitchen 2012). This paper builds on this work by further examining evaluations of SoP among both immigrants and Canadian-born residents and across gender in Hamilton, while expanding the study to two other small-to-medium sized cities: Saskatoon, Saskatchewan and, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island. This paper has two objectives: (1) to establish measures of SoP across immigrant status and gender in Hamilton, Saskatoon, and Charlottetown; and, (2) to determine how SoP varies according to immigrant status, length of residence in Canada, age, income, and neighbourhood length of residence across the three city sites. Telephone survey data (n = 1,132) was used to compare evaluations of SoP across various groups and to construct an ordered logistic regression model for SoP. Results suggest that immigrants tended to rate their SoP lower than their Canadian-born counterparts. Hamilton residents were found to rate their SoP lowest, followed by Saskatoon residents and, finally, Charlottetown residents. Younger individuals, those with lower income levels, and those with shorter neighbourhood residency in the cities concerned were more likely to have lower evaluations of SoP. This research suggests that greater attention is needed to nurture immigrants' connection with their new home.

  7. Third-world realities in a first-world setting: A study of the HIV/AIDS-related conditions and risk behaviors of sex trade workers in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Bird

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission and prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV among those employed as sex trade workers (STW is a major public health concern. The present study describes the self-reported responses of 340 STW, at-risk for contracting HIV. The participants were recruited by selective targeting between 2009 and 2010 from within the Saskatoon Health Region (SHR, Saskatchewan, Canada. As of 2012, the SHR has the highest incidence rate of positive test reports for HIV in Canada, at more than three times the national average (17.0 vs. 5.9 per 100,000 people. Additionally, the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in the SHR is different from that seen elsewhere in Canada (still mostly men having sex with men and Caucasians, with its new HIV cases predominantly associated with injection drug use and Aboriginal cultural status. The purpose of this study was to (a describe the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the STW in the SHR, (b identify their significant life events, self-reported problems, knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, self-efficacy, and barriers regarding HIV, and (c determine the significant independent risk indicators for STW self-reporting a chance of greater than 50% of becoming infected with HIV/AIDS. The majority of the study participants were females, who were never married, of Aboriginal descent, without a high school diploma, and had an annual income of less than $10,000. Using multivariate regression analysis, four significant independent risk indicators were associated with STW reporting a greater that 50% chance of acquiring HIV/AIDS, including experiencing sexual assault as a child, injecting drugs in the past four weeks, being homeless, and a previous Chlamydia diagnosis. These findings provide important evidence of the essential sexual and drug-related vulnerabilities associated with the risk of HIV infection among STW and offer insight into the design and implementation of effective and culturally sensitive public

  8. Third-world realities in a first-world setting: A study of the HIV/AIDS-related conditions and risk behaviors of sex trade workers in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Yelena; Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla; Moraros, John

    2016-12-01

    The transmission and prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among those employed as sex trade workers (STW) is a major public health concern. The present study describes the self-reported responses of 340 STW, at-risk for contracting HIV. The participants were recruited by selective targeting between 2009 and 2010 from within the Saskatoon Health Region (SHR), Saskatchewan, Canada. As of 2012, the SHR has the highest incidence rate of positive test reports for HIV in Canada, at more than three times the national average (17.0 vs. 5.9 per 100,000 people). Additionally, the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in the SHR is different from that seen elsewhere in Canada (still mostly men having sex with men and Caucasians), with its new HIV cases predominantly associated with injection drug use and Aboriginal cultural status. The purpose of this study was to (a) describe the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the STW in the SHR, (b) identify their significant life events, self-reported problems, knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, self-efficacy, and barriers regarding HIV, and (c) determine the significant independent risk indicators for STW self-reporting a chance of greater than 50% of becoming infected with HIV/AIDS. The majority of the study participants were females, who were never married, of Aboriginal descent, without a high school diploma, and had an annual income of less than $10,000. Using multivariate regression analysis, four significant independent risk indicators were associated with STW reporting a greater that 50% chance of acquiring HIV/AIDS, including experiencing sexual assault as a child, injecting drugs in the past four weeks, being homeless, and a previous Chlamydia diagnosis. These findings provide important evidence of the essential sexual and drug-related vulnerabilities associated with the risk of HIV infection among STW and offer insight into the design and implementation of effective and culturally sensitive public health

  9. Phytochemical composition and metabolic performance-enhancing activity of dietary berries traditionally used by Native North Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns Kraft, Tristan F; Dey, Moul; Rogers, Randy B; Ribnicky, David M; Gipp, David M; Cefalu, William T; Raskin, Ilya; Lila, Mary Ann

    2008-02-13

    Four wild berry species, Amelanchier alnifolia, Viburnum trilobum, Prunus virginiana, and Shepherdia argentea, all integral to the traditional subsistence diet of Native American tribal communities, were evaluated to elucidate phytochemical composition and bioactive properties related to performance and human health. Biological activity was screened using a range of bioassays that assessed the potential for these little-known dietary berries to affect diabetic microvascular complications, hyperglycemia, pro-inflammatory gene expression, and metabolic syndrome symptoms. Nonpolar constituents from berries, including carotenoids, were potent inhibitors of aldose reductase (an enzyme involved in the etiology of diabetic microvascular complications), whereas the polar constituents, mainly phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins, were hypoglycemic agents and strong inhibitors of IL-1beta and COX-2 gene expression. Berry samples also showed the ability to modulate lipid metabolism and energy expenditure in a manner consistent with improving metabolic syndrome. The results demonstrate that these berries traditionally consumed by tribal cultures contain a rich array of phytochemicals that have the capacity to promote health and protect against chronic diseases, such as diabetes.

  10. Phytochemical Composition and Metabolic Performance Enhancing Activity of Dietary Berries Traditionally Used by Native North Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns Kraft, Tristan F.; Dey, Moul; Rogers, Randy B.; Ribnicky, David M.; Gipp, David M.; Cefalu, William T.; Raskin, Ilya; Lila, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    Four wild berry species, Amelanchier alnifolia, Viburnum trilobum, Prunus virginiana, and Shepherdia argentea, all integral to the traditional subsistence diet of Native American tribal communities, were evaluated to elucidate phytochemical composition and bioactive properties related to performance and human health. Biological activity was screened using a range of bioassays that assessed the potential for these little-known dietary berries to affect diabetic microvascular complications, hyperglycemia, pro-inflammatory gene expression, and metabolic syndrome symptoms. Non-polar constituents from berries, including carotenoids, were potent inhibitors of aldose reductase (an enzyme involved in the etiology of diabetic microvascular complications) whereas the polar constituents, mainly phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins, were hypoglycemic agents and strong inhibitors of IL-1β and COX-2 gene expression. Berry samples also showed the ability to modulate lipid metabolism and energy expenditure in a manner consistent with improving metabolic syndrome. The results demonstrate that these berries traditionally consumed by tribal cultures contain a rich array of phytochemicals that have the capacity to promote health and protect against chronic diseases, such as diabetes. PMID:18211018

  11. Peer bullying in seniors' subsidised apartment communities in Saskatoon, Canada: participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodridge, Donna; Heal-Salahub, Jennifer; PausJenssen, Elliot; James, George; Lidington, Joan

    2017-07-01

    Given that 'home' is the major physical-spatial environment of many older adults and that home, social and neighbourhood environments are well-recognised to impact both the ability to age in place and quality of life in this population, a better understanding of the nature of social interactions within seniors' communal living environments is critical for health promotion. This paper describes a two-phase participatory research study examining peer bullying by older adults conducted in April and May, 2016. Responding to needs expressed by tenants, the objectives of this study were to identify the nature, prevalence and consequences of peer bullying for tenants of two low-income senior apartment communities. In collaboration with the local Older Adult Abuse Task Force, a screening survey on bullying was distributed to all tenants. Findings (n = 49) indicated that 39% of tenants had witnessed peer bullying and 29% had experienced bullying by peers. An adapted version of a youth bullying survey was administered in follow-up face-to-face interviews with 13 tenants. The most common forms of peer bullying were deliberate social exclusion and hurtful comments. The majority of respondents indicated that bullying was a problem for seniors and that bullies hurt other people. Outcomes of bullying included feelings of dejection and difficulties conducting everyday activities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Equality of care between First Nations and non-First Nations patients in Saskatoon emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batta, Rachit; Carey, Robert; Sasbrink-Harkema, Martin Ashley; Oyedokun, Taofiq Olusegun; Lim, Hyun J; Stempien, James

    2018-03-28

    CLINICIAN'S CAPSULE What is known about the topic? There are concerns regarding unequal treatment towards First Nations people when engaged with health care services. What did this study ask? Whether quantitative differences in care exist between First Nations and non-First Nations patients in the ED. What did this study find? First Nations presenting with abdominal pain were found to have no difference in the time-related care parameters relative to non-First Nations patients. Why does this study matter to clinicians? Future quantitative and qualitative studies will be necessary to further understand the care inequality that has been expressed among First Nations patients.

  13. Trophic cascades from wolves to grizzly bears in Yellowstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripple, William J; Beschta, Robert L; Fortin, Jennifer K; Robbins, Charles T

    2014-01-01

    We explored multiple linkages among grey wolves (Canis lupus), elk (Cervus elaphus), berry-producing shrubs and grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in Yellowstone National Park. We hypothesized competition between elk and grizzly bears whereby, in the absence of wolves, increases in elk numbers would increase browsing on berry-producing shrubs and decrease fruit availability to grizzly bears. After wolves were reintroduced and with a reduced elk population, we hypothesized there would be an increase in the establishment of berry-producing shrubs, such as serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia), which is a major berry-producing plant. We also hypothesized that the percentage fruit in the grizzly bear diet would be greater after than before wolf reintroduction. We compared the frequency of fruit in grizzly bear scats to elk densities prior to wolf reintroduction during a time of increasing elk densities (1968-1987). For a period after wolf reintroduction, we calculated the percentage fruit in grizzly bear scat by month based on scats collected in 2007-2009 (n = 778 scats) and compared these results to scat data collected before wolf reintroduction. Additionally, we developed an age structure for serviceberry showing the origination year of stems in a northern range study area. We found that over a 19-year period, the percentage frequency of fruit in the grizzly diet (6231 scats) was inversely correlated (P wolves and other large carnivores on elk, a reduced and redistributed elk population, decreased herbivory and increased production of plant-based foods that may aid threatened grizzly bears. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

  14. Berry fruits: compositional elements, biochemical activities, and the impact of their intake on human health, performance, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2008-02-13

    An overwhelming body of research has now firmly established that the dietary intake of berry fruits has a positive and profound impact on human health, performance, and disease. Berry fruits, which are commercially cultivated and commonly consumed in fresh and processed forms in North America, include blackberry ( Rubus spp.), black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis), blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum), cranberry (i.e., the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, distinct from the European cranberry, V. oxycoccus), red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus) and strawberry ( Fragaria x ananassa). Other berry fruits, which are lesser known but consumed in the traditional diets of North American tribal communities, include chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana), highbush cranberry ( Viburnum trilobum), serviceberry ( Amelanchier alnifolia), and silver buffaloberry ( Shepherdia argentea). In addition, berry fruits such as arctic bramble ( Rubus articus), bilberries ( Vaccinuim myrtillus; also known as bog whortleberries), black currant ( Ribes nigrum), boysenberries ( Rubus spp.), cloudberries ( Rubus chamaemorus), crowberries ( Empetrum nigrum, E. hermaphroditum), elderberries ( Sambucus spp.), gooseberry ( Ribes uva-crispa), lingonberries ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea), loganberry ( Rubus loganobaccus), marionberries ( Rubus spp.), Rowan berries ( Sorbus spp.), and sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides), are also popularly consumed in other parts of the world. Recently, there has also been a surge in the consumption of exotic "berry-type" fruits such as the pomegranate ( Punica granatum), goji berries ( Lycium barbarum; also known as wolfberry), mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana), the Brazilian açaí berry ( Euterpe oleraceae), and the Chilean maqui berry ( Aristotelia chilensis). Given the wide consumption of berry fruits and their potential impact on human health and disease, conferences and symposia that target the latest scientific research (and, of equal importance, the dissemination of

  15. Estimating pinyon and juniper cover across Utah using NAIP imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrell B. Roundy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of Pinus L. (pinyon and Juniperus L. (juniper (P-J trees into sagebrush (Artemisia L. steppe communities can lead to negative effects on hydrology, loss of wildlife habitat, and a decrease in desirable understory vegetation. Tree reduction treatments are often implemented to mitigate these negative effects. In order to prioritize and effectively plan these treatments, rapid, accurate, and inexpensive methods are needed to estimate tree canopy cover at the landscape scale. We used object based image analysis (OBIA software (Feature AnalystTM for ArcMap 10.1®, ENVI Feature Extraction®, and Trimble eCognition Developer 8.2® to extract tree canopy cover using NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program imagery. We then compared our extractions with ground measured tree canopy cover (crown diameter and line point intercept on 309 plots across 44 sites in Utah. Extraction methods did not consistently over- or under-estimate ground measured P-J canopy cover except where tree cover was >45%. Estimates of tree canopy cover using OBIA techniques were strongly correlated with estimates using the crown diameter method (r = 0.93 for ENVI, 0.91 for Feature AnalystTM, and 0.92 for eCognition. Tree cover estimates using OBIA techniques had lower correlations with tree cover measurements using the line-point intercept method (r = 0.85 for ENVI, 0.83 for Feature AnalystTM, and 0.83 for eCognition. All software packages accurately and inexpensively extracted P-J canopy cover from NAIP imagery when the imagery was not blurred, and when P-J cover was not mixed with Amelanchier alnifolia (Utah serviceberry and Quercus gambelii (Gambel’s oak, which had similar spectral values as P-J.

  16. Impact of replacing regular chocolate milk with the reduced-sugar option on milk consumption in elementary schools in Saskatoon, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Carol; Whiting, Susan J; Finch, Sarah L; Zello, Gordon A; Vatanparast, Hassan

    2016-05-01

    Excess sugar consumption in children has led to the removal of chocolate milk from some schools. Lower-sugar formulations, if accepted, would provide the benefits of milk consumption. In a cross-over trial, milk consumption was measured in 8 schools over 6 weeks in 2 phases: phase 1 provided standard 1% chocolate milk and plain 2% milk choices for the first 3 weeks, and phase 2 provided reduced-sugar 1% chocolate milk and plain 2% milk for the next 3 weeks. Milk selection and milk wasted were measured by sex and grade (1-8). Children chose chocolate milk more often than white milk in both phases (phase 1, 8.93% ± 0.75% vs. 0.87% ± 0.11% (p chocolate milk in phase 2 (p chocolate milk over plain milk even when a reduced-sugar formula was offered; however, switching to reduced-sugar chocolate milk led to a decrease in the number of students choosing milk. Longer-duration studies are required to determine if students would purchase reduced-sugar chocolate milk at the same rate as they would purchase regular chocolate milk.

  17. Foliar epidermal characters of some Sterculiaceae species in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AWORINDE D.O

    curve and slightly curved. All the species except Cola nitida (Vent) Schott, Malachanta alnifolia (Bak) Pierre, Mansonia altissima (A.Chev) R.Capuron, Theobroma cacao Linn and Waltheria indica Linn are amphistomatic. Stomata types included ...

  18. Study of antihyperglycaemic activity of medicinal plant extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoja P Attanayake

    2013-01-01

    C onclusion: The aqueous extract of G. arborea, S. pinnata, K. zeylanica, S. caryophyllatum, S. dulcis, S. alnifolia, L. galanga and C. grandis possess potent acute antihyperglycaemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

  19. "Daughters of British Blood" or "Hordes of Men of Alien Race": The Homesteads-for-Women Campaign in Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    In May 1910 Mildred Williams, a young teacher in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, made headlines across Western Canada for her pluck and stamina as she waited for twelve days and nights on a chair on the stairs outside the door of the land office in Saskatoon to claim a homestead. She was determined to file on a half-section (320 acres) of valuable land…

  20. African Journal of Biomedical Research - Vol 14, No 1 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In-Vitro Susceptibility of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis to Extracts of Uvaria Afzelli Scott Elliot and Tetracera Alnifolia Willd · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. TO Lawal, BA Adeniyi, B Wan, SG Franzblau, GB Mahady, 17-21 ...

  1. Status and Trend of Cottonwood Forests Along the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    Rhamnus davurica), green ash, chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana ), and some Russian olive (Figure 30a). Younger cottonwood (all sapling stands, and...argentea), common chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana ), service berry (Amelanchier spp.) and rarely, red-osier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera) (Figure 32). In...sagebrush (Artemisia cana), common chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana ), and rarely, red-osier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera) (Ross and Hunter 1976, Scott

  2. Assessment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy on antenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    place of residence, race/ethnicity, cultural, social, and educational status of ... Research and Publication Committee, University of. Addis Ababa ..... Determinants of Health; (Unpublished doctoral thesis), University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon,.

  3. An Investigation on the Rate of Crime in Sokoto State Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    natural vegetation, location and socio-economic characteristics has .... between crime and socio-economic status in Ottawa and Saskatoon, the ..... Ibadan: Spectrum Books Limited. Exp (2008). ... Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University press,:.

  4. gene from soybean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-04-17

    Apr 17, 2012 ... 2Plant Biotechnology Institute, National Research Council, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 0W9, Canada. .... pusilla. RNA extraction, first-strand cDNA synthesis and quantitative .... expression in the other four chosen tissues, root, stem,.

  5. Polygonaceae da cadeia do espinhaço, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Efigênia de

    2000-01-01

    O estudo da família Polygonaceae é parte do projeto "Estudos de flora e fauna na Cadeia do Espinhaço, Bahia, Brasil". Neste trabalho a área de estudo foi ampliada, abrangendo também as espécies da Cadeia do Espinhaço do Estado de Minas Gerais. A família está representada na área por cinco gêneros, com os respectivos números de espécies: Coccoloba (14): C. acrostichoides, C. alagoensis, C. alnifolia, C. brasiliensis, C. cereifera, C. fastigiata, C. lucidula, C. ochreolata, C. pipericarpa, C. s...

  6. The Persistence of Traditional Medicine in Urban Areas: The Case of Canada's Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldram, James B.

    1990-01-01

    Among 119 low-income Canada Natives living in Saskatoon, interview survey found utilization of traditional medicine (1) did not detract from utilization of Western medical services; (2) was related to proficiency in an Indian language; and (3) was not related to difficulty in using Western medicine, age, income, or education. Contains 24…

  7. Six Concepts to Enhance School Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleave, Doug

    1984-01-01

    An action research method, consisting of data collection, diagnosis, action planning, and evaluation, was used by the Saskatoon Schools (Canada) to facilitate school self-diagnosis and problem solving. The organizational model that helped categorize research findings on school effectiveness and innovation is explored in this article. (DF)

  8. Neighborhood Poverty Impacts Children's Physical Health and Well-Being over Time: Evidence from the Early Development Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushon, Jennifer A.; Vu, Lan T. H.; Janzen, Bonnie L.; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to investigate how neighborhoods and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage impact school readiness over time. School readiness was measured using the Early Development Instrument (EDI) for 3 populations of kindergartners in 2001, 2003, and 2005 in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. EDI results…

  9. Indirect carotid- cavernous fistula — embolisation using the superior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kurt

    MD, FRCS (C). Division of Neurosurgery. Royal University Hospital. University of Saskatchewan. Saskatoon. Canada. Fig .1a. Left common carotid angiogram, AP view, showing the carotid-cavernous fistula. Note opaci- fication of the left cavernous sinus (arrow) and fill- ing of the right cavernous sinus (double arrows).

  10. 75 FR 12738 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... the retransfer of 302,188 kg of U.S.-origin natural uranium trioxide (UO3) (82.73% U), 250,000 kg of which is uranium, from Cameco in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada to Springfields Fuels Ltd. in... transferred to Springfields Fuels Ltd. for conversion to uranium hexafluoride (UF6) for ultimate end use in a...

  11. Disparity in childhood immunizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemstra, Mark; Neudorf, Cory; Opondo, Johnmark; Toye, Jennifer; Kurji, Ayisha; Kunst, Anton; Tournier, Ceal

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Incomplete immunization coverage is common in low-income families and Aboriginal children in Canada. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether child immunization coverage rates at two years of age were lower in low-income neighbourhoods of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. METHODS: Parents who were and

  12. In Vitro Screening of Three Indian Medicinal Plants for Their Phytochemicals, Anticholinesterase, Antiglucosidase, Antioxidant, and Neuroprotective Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penumala, Mohan; Zinka, Raveendra Babu; Shaik, Jeelan Basha; Amooru Gangaiah, Damu

    2017-01-01

    Cooccurrence of Diabetes Mellitus and Alzheimer's disease in elder people prompts scientists to develop multitarget agents that combat causes and symptoms of both diseases simultaneously. In line with this modern paradigm and as a follow-up to our previous studies, the present study is designed to investigate the crude methanolic extracts and subsequent CHCl 3 , n -BuOH, and H 2 O fractions of Acalypha alnifolia , Pavetta indica, and Ochna obtusata for their inhibitory activities towards specific targets involved in AD and DM, namely, acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and α -glucosidase ( α -Glc). The methanolic extract and its derived chloroform fractions exhibited remarkable inhibitory capacities with IC 50 values being found at the μ g/mL level. Further studies on most active chloroform fractions presented a prominent ability to scavenge DPPH and ABTS reactive species and highest neuroprotective effect against H 2 O 2 induced cell injury. Phytochemical analysis showed a large amount of phenolics, flavonoids, and terpenoids in active fractions. In conclusion, A. alnifolia , P. indica, and O. obtusata could be promising sources for the treatment of AD and DM since these fractions induced significant anticholinesterase, antidiabetic, antioxidant, and neuroprotection effects attributable to phenolic, flavonoid, and terpenoid contents and encourage further studies for development of multifunctional therapeutic agent for AD and DM dual therapy.

  13. Study of antihyperglycaemic activity of medicinal plant extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanayake, Anoja P; Jayatilaka, Kamani A P W; Pathirana, Chitra; Mudduwa, Lakmini K B

    2013-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus, for a long time, has been treated with plant derived medicines in Sri Lanka. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and dose response of oral antihyperglycaemic activity of eight Sri Lankan medicinal plant extracts, which are used to treat diabetes in traditional medicine in diabetic rats. Medicinal plants selected for the study on the basis of documented effectiveness and wide use among traditional Ayurveda physicians in the Southern region of Sri Lanka for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The effect of different doses of aqueous stem bark extracts of Spondias pinnata (Anacardiaceae), Kokoona zeylanica (Celastraceae), Syzygium caryophyllatum (Myrtaceae), Gmelina arborea (Verbenaceae), aerial part extracts of Scoparia dulcis (Scrophulariaceae), Sida alnifolia (Malvaceae), leaf extract of Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae) and root extract of Languas galanga (Zingiberaceae) on oral glucose tolerance test was evaluated. A single dose of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 2.00 g/kg of plant extract was administered orally to alloxan induced (150 mg/kg, ip) diabetic Wistar rats (n = 6). Glibenclamide (0.50 mg/kg) was used as the standard drug. The acute effect was evaluated over a 4 h period using area under the oral glucose tolerance curve. The results were evaluated by analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. The eight plant extracts showed statistically significant dose dependent improvement on glucose tolerance (P dulcis, S. alnifolia, L. galanga and C. grandis possess potent acute antihyperglycaemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

  14. CMB power spectrum at l=30-200 from QMASK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yongzhong; Tegmark, Max; de Oliveira-Costa, Angelica

    2002-01-01

    We measure the cosmic microwave background power spectrum on angular scales l∼30-200 (1 deg. -6 deg.) from the QMASK map, which combines the data from the QMAP and Saskatoon experiments. Since the accuracy of recent measurements leftward of the first acoustic peak is limited by sample variance, the large area of the QMASK map (648 square degrees) allows us to place among the sharpest constraints to date in this range, in good agreement with BOOMERanG and (on the largest scales) COBE-DMR. By band-pass filtering the QMAP and Saskatoon maps, we are able to spatially compare them scale by scale to check for beam- and pointing-related systematic errors

  15. 137Cs distribution in soil as a function of erosion and other processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar, H.P.

    1981-08-01

    Nuclear weapons tests have deposited upon the Saskatoon area considerable amounts of the fission product 137 Cs. The average concentration for the area was found to be 67,3 nCi/m 2 and its distribuition upon the area as a whole is quite uniform. The above figure is high enough to allow the evaluation of deviations from it, caused by erosion and deposition processes; 137 Cs losses as high as 34% were observed in knolls of cultivated fields, whereas an increase of 95% over the average for the region was found in depressions. Such results favour the use of fallout 137 Cs as a tracer in the study of physical processes in the soil of the Saskatoon region. (Author) [pt

  16. Lived experience of economic and political trends related to globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushon, Jennifer A; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Labonte, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    A multi-method case study examined how the economic and political processes of globalization have influenced the determinants of health among low-income children in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. This paper presents the results from the qualitative interview component of the case study. The purpose of the interviews was to uncover the lived experience of low-income families and their children in Saskatoon with regards to political and economic trends related to globalization, an important addition to the usual globalization and health research that relies primarily on cross-country regressions in which the personal impacts remain hidden. In-depth phenomenological interviews with 26 low-income parents of young children (aged zero to five) who were residents of Saskatoon. A combination of volunteer and criterion sampling was used. Interview questions were open-ended and based upon an analytical framework. Analysis proceeded through immersion in the data, a process of open coding, and finally through a process of selective coding. The larger case study and interviews indicate that globalization has largely not been benefiting low-income parents with young children. Low-income families with young children were struggling to survive, despite the tremendous economic growth occurring in Saskatchewan and Saskatoon at the time of the interviews. This often led to participants expressing a sense of helplessness, despair, isolation, and/or anger. Respondents' experiences suggest that globalization-related changes in social conditions and public policies and programs have great potential to negatively affect family health through either psychosocial effects in individuals and/or decreased levels of social cohesion in the community.

  17. Perspectives on past and Present Waste Disposal Practices: A community-Based Participatory Research Project in Three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Zagozewski; Ian Judd-Henrey; Suzie Nilson; Lalita Bharadwaj

    2011-01-01

    The impact of current and historical waste disposal practices on the environment and human health of Indigenous people in First Nations communities has yet to be adequately addressed. Solid waste disposal has been identified as a major environmental threat to First Nations Communities. A community-based participatory research project (CBPR) was initiated by the Saskatoon Tribal Council Health and Family Services Incorporated to investigate concerns related to waste disposal in three Saskatche...

  18. Perspectives on Past and Present Waste Disposal Practices: A Community-Based Participatory Research Project in Three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Zagozewski; Ian Judd-Henrey; Suzie Nilson; Lalita Bharadwaj

    2011-01-01

    The impact of current and historical waste disposal practices on the environment and human health of Indigenous people in First Nations communities has yet to be adequately addressed. Solid waste disposal has been identified as a major environmental threat to First Nations Communities. A community-based participatory research project (CBPR) was initiated by the Saskatoon Tribal Council Health and Family Services Incorporated to investigate concerns related to waste disposal in three Saskatche...

  19. Applications of the second-order achromat concept to the design of particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.L.; Servranckx, R.V.

    1985-05-01

    A property of the second-order achromat, whereby dipole and sextupole families may be inserted into a lattice for chromatic corrections without introducing second-order geometrical (on momentum) optical distortions, has been incorporated in several new particle accelerator designs. These include the SLC at SLAC, LEP at CERN, the EROS pulse stretcher ring at Saskatoon, the CEBAF ring at SURA, and the MIT ring

  20. Waiting for surgery from the patient perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey Carr

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Tracey Carr1, Ulrich Teucher2, Jackie Mann4, Alan G Casson31Health Sciences, 2Department of Psychology, 3Department of Surgery, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada; 4Acute Care, Saskatoon Health Region, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, CanadaAbstract: The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the impact of waiting for elective surgery from the patient perspective, with a focus on maximum tolerance, quality of life, and the nature of the waiting experience. Searches were conducted using Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and HealthSTAR. Twenty-seven original research articles were identified which included each of these three themes. The current literature suggested that first, patients tend to state longer wait times as unacceptable when they experienced severe symptoms or functional impairment. Second, the relationship between length of wait and health-related quality of life depended on the nature and severity of proposed surgical intervention at the time of booking. Third, the waiting experience was consistently described as stressful and anxiety provoking. While many patients expressed anger and frustration at communication within the system, the experience of waiting was not uniformly negative. Some patients experienced waiting as an opportunity to live full lives despite pain and disability. The relatively unexamined relationship between waiting, illness and patient experience of time represents an area for future research.Keywords: wait time, scheduled surgery, patient perspective, literature review

  1. Influence of fumes from industrial works on the seasonal development of trees and shrubs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antipov, V G

    1957-01-01

    Phenological observations were made at Leningrad in 1953 and 1954 on woody species growing near three chemical works. Controls were observed in an unpolluted park. Data on the relative incidence of the main phenological phases (flushing, flowering, fruiting, autumn coloration and leaf-fall) are tabulated separately for each works. Pollution curtailed the growing season to some degree in all species; its effect in hastening coloration and leaf-fall was more marked than in retarding the spring phases. The least susceptible species were Populus balsamifera, P. suaveolens, Alnus incana, Quercus robur, Fraxinus excelsior, Amelanchier rotundifolia and Lonicera tatarica. Species unsuited for cultivation in these conditions are Caragana arborescens, Prunus padus, Tilia cordata, Ulmus laevis, Crataegus oxyacantha, Betula pubescens and B. verrucosa.

  2. A methodology to leverage cross-sectional accelerometry to capture weather's influence in active living research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katapally, Tarun R; Rainham, Daniel; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2016-06-27

    While active living interventions focus on modifying urban design and built environment, weather variation, a phenomenon that perennially interacts with these environmental factors, is consistently underexplored. This study's objective is to develop a methodology to link weather data with existing cross-sectional accelerometry data in capturing weather variation. Saskatoon's neighbourhoods were classified into grid-pattern, fractured grid-pattern and curvilinear neighbourhoods. Thereafter, 137 Actical accelerometers were used to derive moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) data from 455 children in 25 sequential one-week cycles between April and June, 2010. This sequential deployment was necessary to overcome the difference in the ratio between the sample size and the number of accelerometers. A data linkage methodology was developed, where each accelerometry cycle was matched with localized (Saskatoon-specific) weather patterns derived from Environment Canada. Statistical analyses were conducted to depict the influence of urban design on MVPA and SB after factoring in localized weather patterns. Integration of cross-sectional accelerometry with localized weather patterns allowed the capture of weather variation during a single seasonal transition. Overall, during the transition from spring to summer in Saskatoon, MVPA increased and SB decreased during warmer days. After factoring in localized weather, a recurring observation was that children residing in fractured grid-pattern neighbourhoods accumulated significantly lower MVPA and higher SB. The proposed methodology could be utilized to link globally available cross-sectional accelerometry data with place-specific weather data to understand how built and social environmental factors interact with varying weather patterns in influencing active living.

  3. Epilepsy and homicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandya NS

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neil S Pandya,1 Mirna Vrbancic,2 Lady Diana Ladino,3,4 José F Téllez-Zenteno31Department of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada; 2Department of Clinical Health Psychology, Royal University Hospital, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada; 3Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada; 4Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, University of Antioquia, Medellin, ColombiaPurpose: We report the rare case of a patient with intractable epilepsy and escalating aggression, resulting in murder, who had complete resolution of her seizures and explosive behavior following a right temporal lobectomy.Patients and methods: We searched the available literature from 1880 to 2013 for cases of epilepsy being used as a court defense for murder and collected information regarding the final sentencing outcomes. We selected 15 papers with a total of 50 homicides.Results: We describe the case of a 47-year-old woman with drug-resistant right temporal epilepsy who developed increasing emotional lability, outbursts of anger and escalating violent behavior culminating in a violent murder. The patient was imprisoned while awaiting trial. In the interim, she underwent a successful temporal lobectomy with full resolution of seizures, interictal rage and aggressive behaviors. After the surgery, her charges were downgraded and she was transferred to a psychiatric facility.Conclusion: The aggressive behavior associated with epilepsy has been described in the literature for over a century. A link between epilepsy and aggression has been disproportionally emphasized. These patients share some common characteristics: they are usually young men with a long history of epilepsy and lower than average intelligence. The violent act is postictal, sudden-onset, more likely to occur after a cluster of seizures and is usually related with alcohol abuse.Keywords: aggression, crime, epilepsy

  4. Smart cities, healthy kids: the association between neighbourhood design and children's physical activity and time spent sedentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esliger, Dale W; Sherar, Lauren B; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2012-07-26

    To determine whether, and to what extent, a relation exists between neighbourhood design and children's physical activity and sedentary behaviours in Saskatoon. Three neighbourhood designs were assessed: 1) core neighbourhoods developed before 1930 that follow a grid pattern, 2) fractured-grid pattern neighbourhoods that were developed between the 1930s and mid-1960s, and 3) curvilinear-pattern neighbourhoods that were developed between the mid-1960s through to 1998. Children aged 10-14 years (N=455; mean age 11.7 years), grouped by the neighbourhoods they resided in, had their physical activity and sedentary behaviour objectively measured by accelerometry for 7 days. ANCOVA and MANCOVA (multivariate analysis of covariance) models were used to assess group differences (p<0.05). Group differences were apparent on weekdays but not on weekend days. When age, sex and family income had been controlled for, children living in fractured-grid neighbourhoods had, on average, 83 and 55 fewer accelerometer counts per minute on weekdays than the children in the core and curvilinear-pattern neighbourhoods, respectively. Further analyses showed that the children in the fractured-grid neighbourhoods accumulated 15 and 9 fewer minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day and had a greater time spent in sedentary behaviour (23 and 17 minutes) than those in core and curvilinear-pattern neighbourhoods, respectively. These data suggest that in Saskatoon there is a relation between neighbourhood design and children's physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Further work is needed to tease out which features of the built environments have the greatest impact on these important lifestyle behaviours. This information, offered in the context of ongoing development of neighbourhoods, as we see in Saskatoon, is critical to an evidence-informed approach to urban development and planning.

  5. HF coherent backscatter in the ionosphere: In situ measurements of SuperDARN backscatter with e-POP RRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, G. W.; James, H. G.; Hussey, G. C.; Howarth, A. D.; Yau, A. W.

    2017-12-01

    We report in situ polarimetry measurements of HF scattering obtained by the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI) during a coherent backscatter scattering event detected by the Saskatoon Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN). On April 1, 2015, e-POP conducted a 4 minute coordinated experiment with SuperDARN Saskatoon, starting at 3:38:44 UT (21:38:44 LT). Throughout the experiment, SuperDARN was transmitting at 17.5 MHz and e-POP's ground track moved in a northeastward direction, along SuperDARN's field-of-view, increasing in altitude from 331 to 352 km. RRI was tuned to 17.505 MHz, and recorded nearly 12,000 SuperDARN radar pulses during the experiment. In the first half of the experiment, radar pulses recorded by RRI were "well behaved": they retained their transmitted amplitude envelope, and their pulse-to-pulse polarization characteristics were coherent - Faraday rotation was easily measured. During the second half of the experiment the pulses showed clear signs of scattering: their amplitude envelopes became degraded and dispersed, and their pulse-to-pulse polarization characteristics became incoherent - Faraday rotation was difficult to quantify. While these pulses were being received by RRI, SuperDARN Saskatoon detected a latitudinal band of coherent backscatter at e-POP's location, indicating that the scattered pulses measured by RRI may be a signature of HF backscatter. In this presentation, we will outline the polarimetric details of the scattered pulses, and provide an analytic interpretation of RRI's measurements to give new insight into the nature of HF coherent backscatter mechanism taking place in the terrestrial ionosphere.

  6. An international comparison of risk factors between two regions with distinct differences in asthma prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, K; Vlaski, E; Rennie, D C; Sears, M; Lawson, J A

    2018-03-24

    Investigation of the geographic variation in asthma prevalence can improve our understanding of asthma etiology and management. The purpose of our investigation was to compare the prevalence of asthma and wheeze among adolescents living in two distinct international regions and to investigate reasons for observed differences. A cross-sectional survey of 13-14 year olds was completed in Saskatoon, Canada (n=1200) and Skopje, Republic of Macedonia (n=3026), as part of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase 3 study. Surveys were self-completed by students following the ISAAC protocol. Multiple logistic regression models were used to investigate associations with reports of asthma and current wheeze. A mediation analysis was then completed. Asthma prevalence was much higher in Saskatoon than Skopje (21.3% vs. 1.7%) as was the prevalence of current wheeze (28.2% vs. 8.8%). Higher paracetamol (acetaminophen) use was a consistent risk factor for asthma and wheeze in both locations and showed dose-response relationships. In both countries, paracetamol use and physical activity mediated some of the association for both asthma and wheeze. In Saskatoon, among those with current wheeze, 42.6% reported ever having a diagnosis of asthma compared to 10.2% among Skopje adolescents. The results suggest that the variation in risk factors between the two locations may explain some of the differences in the prevalence of asthma and wheeze between these two study sites. However, diagnostic labeling patterns should not be ruled out as another potential explanatory factor. Copyright © 2018 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of dynamic metal complexes and their diffusion coefficients in the presence of different humic substances by combining two analytical techniques.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Manek, A.; Niyogi, S.; Hudson, J.

    Niyogi2, Jeff Hudson2 *1National Institute of Oceanography (CSIR), India, Dona Paula, Goa, 403004, India. Phone-91-832-2450495; Fax: 91-832-2450609; E-mail: pchak@nio.org 2 Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.... Materials and methods Humic substances: Four different types of humic substances were used in this study. These include soil humic acid from Sigma Aldrich now denoted: SAHA. The well characterized Nordic aquatic humic acid (Catalogue No. 1R105H) (NAHA...

  8. The Key Lake project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Key Lake is located in the Athabasca sand stone basin, 640 kilometers north of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The three sources of ore at Key Lake contain 70 100 tonnes of uranium. Features of the Key Lake Project were described under the key headings: work force, mining, mill process, tailings storage, permanent camp, environmental features, worker health and safety, and economic benefits. Appendices covering the historical background, construction projects, comparisons of western world mines, mining statistics, Northern Saskatchewan surface lease, and Key Lake development and regulatory agencies were included

  9. Fissility of actinide nuclei induced by 60-130 MeV photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcelle, Viviane; Tavares, Odilon A.P.

    2004-06-01

    Nuclear fissilities obtained from recent photofission reaction cross section measurements carried out at Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory (Saskatoon, Canada) in the energy range 60-130 MeV for 232 Th, 233 U, 235 U, 238 U, and 237 Np nuclei have been analysed in a systematic way. To this aim, a semiempirical approach has been developed based on the quasi-deuteron nuclear photoabsorption model followed by the process of competition between neutron evaporation and fission for the excited nucleus. The study reproduces satisfactorily well the increasing trend of nuclear fissility with parameter Z 2 =A. (author)

  10. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Society 12. annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the seventeen Technical Sessions from the Twelfth Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society held in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, June 9 to 12, 1991. As in previous years, the Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society was held in conjunction with the Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association. The major topics of discussion included: reactor physics; thermal hydraulics; industrial irradiation; computer applications; fuel channel analysis; small reactors; severe accidents; fuel behaviour under accident conditions; reactor components; safety related computer software; nuclear fuel management; nuclear waste management; and, uranium mining processing

  11. U. S. Pacific Fleet. Central Pacific Force. Operation Plan Number Cen 1-43

    Science.gov (United States)

    1943-10-25

    Wareagle Snowflake Stork Beagle v Jocko Bagdad Frolic Locust Tycoon Vulture Dodger Husky Trojan Harpoon Designation or Commander A-II-2 COMM. A...Tiptop Killnrney Saskatoon Dodger Boar lake Titvdllow Beagle Huniboldt Moonglow Raiiisgate COIJ2!. A-II GOMI. A-II OPERATIONfPI^M No. Cen 1-43 ANNEX A...Daytona Decatur Delaware Denmark Del Rio Democrat DeSoto Dingbct Dodger Dogwood Dolores Ship or Unit TG 54.1 CTG 54.6 CTF 51 LST 78 Hq

  12. Response ofMeteorus leviventris, (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to mustard oils in field trapping experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivnick, K A

    1993-09-01

    Trapping experiments were carried out near Saskatoon, Canada, from May through August 1990 to assess the response of the braconid wasp,Meteorus leviventris, to four selected mustard oils or isothiocyanates (IC) at a release rate of 4 mg/day, and for allyl IC only, at 40 mg/day. Only allyl IC at 4 mg/day was significantly attractive when trap captures were compared to the captures in the control traps. The others (n-propyl IC, 2-phenylethyl IC., and ethyl IC) were not attractive, nor was allyl IC at the higher dose, although trap captures with the latter bait were the second highest.

  13. Variations in the occurrence of SuperDARN F region echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghezelbash

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of F region ionospheric echoes observed by a number of SuperDARN HF radars is analyzed statistically in order to infer solar cycle, seasonal, and diurnal trends. The major focus is on Saskatoon radar data for 1994–2012. The distribution of the echo occurrence rate is presented in terms of month of observation and magnetic local time. Clear repetitive patterns are identified during periods of solar maximum and solar minimum. For years near solar maximum, echoes are most frequent near midnight during winter. For years near solar minimum, echoes occur more frequently near noon during winter, near dusk and dawn during equinoxes and near midnight during summer. Similar features are identified for the Hankasalmi and Prince George radars in the northern hemisphere and the Bruny Island TIGER radar in the southern hemisphere. Echo occurrence for the entire SuperDARN network demonstrates patterns similar to patterns in the echo occurrence for the Saskatoon radar and for other radars considered individually. In terms of the solar cycle, the occurrence rate of nightside echoes is shown to increase by a factor of at least 3 toward solar maximum while occurrence of the near-noon echoes does not significantly change with the exception of a clear depression during the declining phase of the solar cycle.

  14. Examining food purchasing patterns from sales data at a full-service grocery store intervention in a former food desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Daniel; Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2015-01-01

    The Good Food Junction Grocery Store was opened in a former food desert in the inner city of Saskatoon, Canada. The purpose of this research was to examine, using grocery store sales data, healthy and less healthful food purchasing over a one-year period beginning eight months after opening by shoppers' neighborhood of residence. A multilevel cross sectional design was used. The sample consisted of members of the Good Food Junction with a valid address in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. All purchases made by members who reported their postal code of residence from May 15, 2013 to April 30, 2014 were analyzed. The outcome variable was the total amount spent on foods in 11 food groups. Linear random intercept models with three levels were fit to the data. Shoppers who were residents of former food desert neighborhoods spent $0.7 (95% CI: 0.2 to 1.2) more on vegetables, and $1.2 (95% CI: - 1.8 to - 0.6) less on meat, and $1.1 (95% CI: - 2.0 to - 0.3) less on prepared foods than shoppers who did not reside in those neighborhoods. When given geographical access to healthy food, people living in disadvantaged former food desert neighborhoods will take advantage of that access.

  15. Capturing the Interrelationship between Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children in the Context of Diverse Environmental Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katapally, Tarun R; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2015-09-07

    Even though physical activity and sedentary behaviour are two distinct behaviours, their interdependent relationship needs to be studied in the same environment. This study examines the influence of urban design, neighbourhood built and social environment, and household and individual factors on the interdependent relationship between objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children in the Canadian city of Saskatoon. Saskatoon's built environment was assessed by two validated observation tools. Neighbourhood socioeconomic variables were derived from 2006 Statistics Canada Census and 2010 G5 Census projections. A questionnaire was administered to 10-14 year old children to collect individual and household data, followed by accelerometry to collect physical activity and sedentary behaviour data. Multilevel logistic regression models were developed to understand the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the context of diverse environmental exposures. A complex set of factors including denser built environment, positive peer relationships and consistent parental support influenced the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour. In developing interventions to facilitate active living, it is not only imperative to delineate pathways through which diverse environmental exposures influence physical activity and sedentary behaviour, but also to account for the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

  16. Literature search on Kickers and Septa for the Amsterdam Pulse Stretcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuijt, J.; Linden, A. v.d.

    1988-01-01

    Literature search has yielded a qualitative and quantitative view on kickers. Quantitatively specifications on designs in literature have been collected. The UPDATE-kickers have been given the following specs: deflection angle 2 mrad, pulsewidth 2 μs, falltime 70 ns, available length about 2 m. Undertaken is a comparison of characteristic parameters: kick strength (energy x angle), pulse characteristics (pulsewidth/falltime) and required peak power. Realisation of the pulse characteristics will impose the greatest requirements on the UPDATE-kicker design. The comparison has shown correspondence with two ferrite kicker designs (CERN-CPS and ELSA), the Los Alamos TEM-kicker and the electrostatic kicker from Saskatoon. On account of the relative simplicity of construction and pulse forming network the Saskatoon kicker has been chosen as the starting point for a design study. Design calculations will proceed from a length of 1.6 m and a gap of 4 cm between two parallel plates at a potential difference of 50 kV. Literature search on septa resulted in an overview on septum magnets and electrostatic wire septa. 72 refs.; 14 figs.; 2 tabs

  17. Characterization of Erwinia amylovora strains from different host plants using repetitive-sequences PCR analysis, and restriction fragment length polymorphism and short-sequence DNA repeats of plasmid pEA29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barionovi, D; Giorgi, S; Stoeger, A R; Ruppitsch, W; Scortichini, M

    2006-05-01

    The three main aims of the study were the assessment of the genetic relationship between a deviating Erwinia amylovora strain isolated from Amelanchier sp. (Maloideae) grown in Canada and other strains from Maloideae and Rosoideae, the investigation of the variability of the PstI fragment of the pEA29 plasmid using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and the determination of the number of short-sequence DNA repeats (SSR) by DNA sequence analysis in representative strains. Ninety-three strains obtained from 12 plant genera and different geographical locations were examined by repetitive-sequences PCR using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus, BOX and Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic primer sets. Upon the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean analysis, a deviating strain from Amelanchier sp. was analysed using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) analysis and the sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene. This strain showed 99% similarity to other E. amylovora strains in the 16S gene and the same banding pattern with ARDRA. The RFLP analysis of pEA29 plasmid using MspI and Sau3A restriction enzymes showed a higher variability than that previously observed and no clear-cut grouping of the strains was possible. The number of SSR units reiterated two to 12 times. The strains obtained from pear orchards showing for the first time symptoms of fire blight had a low number of SSR units. The strains from Maloideae exhibit a wider genetic variability than previously thought. The RFLP analysis of a fragment of the pEA29 plasmid would not seem a reliable method for typing E. amylovora strains. A low number of SSR units was observed with first epidemics of fire blight. The current detection techniques are mainly based on the genetic similarities observed within the strains from the cultivated tree-fruit crops. For a more reliable detection of the fire blight pathogen also in wild and ornamentals Rosaceous plants the genetic

  18. Pikuni-Blackfeet traditional medicine: Neuroprotective activities of medicinal plants used to treat Parkinson's disease-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rus Jacquet, Aurélie; Tambe, Mitali Arun; Ma, Sin Ying; McCabe, George P; Vest, Jay Hansford C; Rochet, Jean-Christophe

    2017-07-12

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder affecting 5% of the population over the age of 85 years. Current treatments primarily involve dopamine replacement therapy, which leads to temporary relief of motor symptoms but fails to slow the underlying neurodegeneration. Thus, there is a need for safe PD therapies with neuroprotective activity. In this study, we analyzed contemporary herbal medicinal practices used by members of the Pikuni-Blackfeet tribe from Western Montana to treat PD-related symptoms, in an effort to identify medicinal plants that are affordable to traditional communities and accessible to larger populations. The aims of this study were to (i) identify medicinal plants used by the Pikuni-Blackfeet tribe to treat individuals with symptoms related to PD or other CNS disorders, and (ii) characterize a subset of the identified plants in terms of antioxidant and neuroprotective activities in cellular models of PD. Interviews of healers and local people were carried out on the Blackfeet Indian reservation. Plant samples were collected, and water extracts were produced for subsequent analysis. A subset of botanical extracts was tested for the ability to induce activation of the Nrf2-mediated transcriptional response and to protect against neurotoxicity elicited by the PD-related toxins rotenone and paraquat. The ethnopharmacological interviews resulted in the documentation of 26 medicinal plants used to treat various ailments and diseases, including symptoms related to PD. Seven botanical extracts (out of a total of 10 extracts tested) showed activation of Nrf2-mediated transcriptional activity in primary cortical astrocytes. Extracts prepared from Allium sativum cloves, Trifolium pratense flowers, and Amelanchier arborea berries exhibited neuroprotective activity against toxicity elicited by rotenone, whereas only the extracts prepared from Allium sativum and Amelanchier arborea alleviated PQ-induced dopaminergic cell death

  19. Links between belowground and aboveground resource-related traits reveal species growth strategies that promote invasive advantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maria S; Fridley, Jason D; Goebel, Marc; Bauerle, Taryn L

    2014-01-01

    Belowground processes are rarely considered in comparison studies of native verses invasive species. We examined relationships between belowground fine root production and lifespan, leaf phenology, and seasonal nitrogen dynamics of Lonicera japonica (non-native) versus L. sempervirens (native) and Frangula alnus (non-native) versus Rhamnus alnifolia (native), over time. First and second order fine roots were monitored from 2010 to 2012 using minirhizotron technology and rhizotron windows. 15N uptake of fine roots was measured across spring and fall seasons. Significant differences in fine root production across seasons were seen between Lonicera species, but not between Frangula and Rhamnus, with both groups having notable asynchrony in regards to the timing of leaf production. Root order and the number of root neighbors at the time of root death were the strongest predictors of root lifespan of both species pairs. Seasonal 15N uptake was higher in spring than in the fall, which did not support the need for higher root activity to correspond with extended leaf phenology. We found higher spring 15N uptake in non-native L. japonica compared to native L. sempervirens, although there was no difference in 15N uptake between Frangula and Rhamnus species. Our findings indicate the potential for fast-growing non-native Lonicera japonica and Frangula alnus to outcompete native counterparts through differences in biomass allocation, root turnover, and nitrogen uptake, however evidence that this is a general strategy of invader dominance is limited.

  20. Links between belowground and aboveground resource-related traits reveal species growth strategies that promote invasive advantages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S Smith

    Full Text Available Belowground processes are rarely considered in comparison studies of native verses invasive species. We examined relationships between belowground fine root production and lifespan, leaf phenology, and seasonal nitrogen dynamics of Lonicera japonica (non-native versus L. sempervirens (native and Frangula alnus (non-native versus Rhamnus alnifolia (native, over time. First and second order fine roots were monitored from 2010 to 2012 using minirhizotron technology and rhizotron windows. 15N uptake of fine roots was measured across spring and fall seasons. Significant differences in fine root production across seasons were seen between Lonicera species, but not between Frangula and Rhamnus, with both groups having notable asynchrony in regards to the timing of leaf production. Root order and the number of root neighbors at the time of root death were the strongest predictors of root lifespan of both species pairs. Seasonal 15N uptake was higher in spring than in the fall, which did not support the need for higher root activity to correspond with extended leaf phenology. We found higher spring 15N uptake in non-native L. japonica compared to native L. sempervirens, although there was no difference in 15N uptake between Frangula and Rhamnus species. Our findings indicate the potential for fast-growing non-native Lonicera japonica and Frangula alnus to outcompete native counterparts through differences in biomass allocation, root turnover, and nitrogen uptake, however evidence that this is a general strategy of invader dominance is limited.

  1. Polygonaceae da cadeia do espinhaço, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melo Efigênia de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da família Polygonaceae é parte do projeto "Estudos de flora e fauna na Cadeia do Espinhaço, Bahia, Brasil". Neste trabalho a área de estudo foi ampliada, abrangendo também as espécies da Cadeia do Espinhaço do Estado de Minas Gerais. A família está representada na área por cinco gêneros, com os respectivos números de espécies: Coccoloba (14: C. acrostichoides, C. alagoensis, C. alnifolia, C. brasiliensis, C. cereifera, C. fastigiata, C. lucidula, C. ochreolata, C. pipericarpa, C. salicifolia, C. scandens, C. schwackeana, C. striata e C. warmingii, Polygonum (6: P. acuminatum, P. ferrugineum, P. hispidum, P. hydropiperoides, P. meisnerianum e P. punctatum, Rumex (1: R. crispus, Ruprechtia (1: R. apetala e Triplaris (1: T. gardneriana. São apresentadas chaves para os gêneros e espécies, bem como descrições, ilustrações, comentários sobre a distribuição geográfica, fenologia e variabilidade para todos os táxons.

  2. Tree species composition affects the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) in urban forests in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamberg, Leena; Lehvävirta, Susanna; Kotze, D Johan; Heikkinen, Juha

    2015-03-15

    Recent studies have shown a considerable increase in the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) saplings in urban forests in Finland, yet the reasons for this increase are not well understood. Here we investigated whether canopy cover or tree species composition, i.e., the basal areas of different tree species in Norway spruce dominated urban forests, affects the abundances of rowan seedlings, saplings and trees. Altogether 24 urban forest patches were investigated. We sampled the number of rowan and other saplings, and calculated the basal areas of trees. We showed that rowan abundance was affected by tree species composition. The basal area of rowan trees (≥ 5 cm in diameter at breast height, dbh) decreased with increasing basal area of Norway spruce, while the cover of rowan seedlings increased with an increase in Norway spruce basal area. However, a decrease in the abundance of birch (Betula pendula) and an increase in the broad-leaved tree group (Acer platanoides, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Amelanchier spicata, Prunus padus, Quercus robur, Rhamnus frangula and Salix caprea) coincided with a decreasing number of rowans. Furthermore, rowan saplings were scarce in the vicinity of mature rowan trees. Although it seems that tree species composition has an effect on rowan, the relationship between rowan saplings and mature trees is complex, and therefore we conclude that regulating tree species composition is not an easy way to keep rowan thickets under control in urban forests in Finland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Neighbourhood ethnic diversity buffers school readiness impact in ESL children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchala, Chassidy; Vu, Lan T H; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2010-01-01

    Contextual factors, as measured by neighbourhood characteristics, shape the experiences children have and affect their "school readiness", i.e., whether they are well or poorly prepared for the transition from home to kindergarten. This study assessed the independent effects of individual and neighbourhood factors on school readiness; specifically, it examined whether and to what degree neighbourhood factors modified children's language ability and thus their school readiness in a population of children in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. The study included all children attending kindergarten in 2001, 2003 and 2005 in Saskatoon. School readiness and child characteristics were measured by the Early Development Instrument (EDI). The EDI measures child development at school commencement in five domains: physical health and well-being, social competence, emotional maturity, cognitive and language development, and communication skills and general knowledge. Data from the 2001 Census were used to characterize Saskatoon's neighbourhoods. Multilevel modeling examined the independent and buffering or exacerbating effects of individual and neighbourhood factors on the relation between English as a Second Language (ESL) status in children and EDI domain scores. ESL children had significantly lower scores on all EDI domains compared with non-ESL children. Certain factors (e.g., younger age, male, Aboriginal status, having special needs) were significantly related to lower readiness in terms of the emotional maturity, and communication skills and general knowledge domains. Importantly, children who lived in neighbourhoods that were highly transient (with a higher proportion of residents who had moved in the previous year) had lower EDI scores on both domains, and those in neighbourhoods with lower rates of employment had lower EDI scores on communication skills and general knowledge. Neighbourhood ethnic diversity mitigated the negative impact of ESL status on school readiness for both

  4. A Novel Application of Fourier Transform Spectroscopy with HEMT Amplifiers at Microwave Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, David T.; Page, Lyman

    1995-01-01

    The goal was to develop cryogenic high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) based radiometers and use them to measure the anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). In particular, a novel Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) built entirely of waveguide components would be developed. A dual-polarization Ka-band HEMT radiometer and a similar Q-band radiometer were built. In a series of measurements spanning three years made from a ground-based site in Saskatoon, SK, the amplitude, frequency spectrum, and spatial frequency spectrum of the anisotropy were measured. A prototype Ka-band FTS was built and tested, and a simplified version is proposed for the MAP satellite mission. The 1/f characteristics of HEMT amplifiers were quantified using correlation techniques.

  5. Brewer spectrophotometer measurements in the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, J. B.; Evans, W. F. J.

    1988-01-01

    In the winters of 1987 and 1988 measurements were conducted with the Brewer Spectrophotometer at Alert (82.5 N) and Resolute (74.5 N). The measurements were conducted as part of our Canadian Program to search for an Arctic Ozone Hole (CANOZE). Ozone measurements were conducted in the months of December, January and February using the moon as a light source. The total ozone measurements will be compared with ozonesonde profiles, from ECC sondes, flown once per week from Alert and Resolute. A modified Brewer Spectrophotometer was used in a special study to search for chlorine dioxide at Alert in March 1987. Ground based observations at Saskatoon in February and at Alert in March 1987 failed to detect any measureable chlorine dioxide. Interference from another absorbing gas, which we speculate may be nitrous acid, prevented the measurements at the low levels of chlorine dioxide detected in the Southern Hemisphere by Solomon et al.

  6. Key Lake Mining Corporation metallurgical complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lendrum, F.C.

    1984-02-01

    The Key Lake uranium mine is located in Saskatchewan, 550 km northeast of Saskatoon. It began operations in 1983, and is licensed and regulated by both Saskatchewan government agencies and the Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board. This report examines the metallurgical processes used at the mill and discusses the spills that occurred in the first four months the mine was in operation. It finds that all spills of an acidic nature in the mill were small amounts in the CCD or solution pretreatment sections. Contingency procedures are in place and sumps are capable of handling spills. The only major change in design contemplated will be converting the secondary crushing from the use of an impact crusher to the use of a semi-autogeneous grinding mill. The monitoring program set out by the AECB and Saskatchewan Environment is thorough. It monitors effluents and water pathways, and includes aquatic biota and sediments. Air monitoring is also required by Saskatchewan Environment

  7. Optical measurements of winds in the lower thermosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiens, R.H.; Shepherd, G.G.; Gault, W.A.; Kosteniuk, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    WAMDII, the wide-angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer, was used to measure the neutral wind in the lower thermosphere by the Doppler shift of the O I 557-nm line. Observations were made at Saskatoon (60.5 degree N invariant) around the spring equinox of 1985 with WAMDII coupled to an all-sky lens. With dopplergrams averaged over 3 to 30 min, no evidence was found for persistent highly localized winds on either of the two nights studied, one viewing only aurora and one viewing only airglow. The nocturnal variation was determined for both nights using average horizontal wind for the whole all-sky image. The pattern for the auroral case shows winds parallel to the aurora orientation in the evening but substantial crosswinds near midnight. High latitude general circulation models seem to represent this case better than local auroral generation models. The airglow case showed eastward winds in the morning sector

  8. Health Care and Aboriginal Seniors in Urban Canada: Helping a Neglected Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loleen Berdahl

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Canadian researchers and policymakers have paid limited attention to the health care needs of Aboriginal seniors. This lack of attention is problematic, as the situation of Aboriginal seniors – including both status and non-status First Nations, Métis and Inuit – is particularly bleak. Using Winnipeg, Regina and Saskatoon as examples, this paper analyses the health care challenges facing Aboriginal seniors in urban Canada. We ask, what policy approaches are needed to improve the health and wellbeing of urban Aboriginal seniors so that they can have good quality living reflective of their needs and culture? We suggest that, in thinking throughpresent and future health services for urban Aboriginal seniors, policymakers should consider four key factors: socioeconomic conditions; underutilization of urban health services; jurisdiction; and elder abuse.

  9. Longitudinal and latitudinal variations in dynamic characteristics of the MLT (70−95km): a study involving the CUJO network

    OpenAIRE

    Manson, A. H.; Meek, C. E.; Chshyolkova, T.; Avery, S. K.; Thorsen, D.; MacDougall, J. W.; Hocking, W.; Murayama, Y.; Igarashi, K.; Namboothiri, S. P.; Kishore, P.

    2004-01-01

    The newly-installed MFR (medium frequency radar) at Platteville (40°N, 105°W) has provided the opportunity and impetus to create an operational network of middle- latitude MFRs stretching from 81°W–142°E. CUJO (Canada U.S. Japan Opportunity) comprises systems at London (43°N, 81°W), Platteville (40°N, 105°W), Saskatoon (52°N, 107°W), Wakkanai (45°N, 142°E) and Yamagawa (31°N, 131°E). It offers a significant 7000km longitudinal sector in the North American-Pacific region, and...

  10. Longitudinal and latitudinal variations in dynamic characteristics of the MLT (70?95km): a study involving the CUJO network

    OpenAIRE

    Manson , A. H.; Meek , C. E.; Chshyolkova , T.; Avery , S. K.; Thorsen , D.; Macdougall , J. W.; Hocking , W.; Murayama , Y.; Igarashi , K.; Namboothiri , S. P.; Kishore , P.

    2004-01-01

    International audience; The newly-installed MFR (medium frequency radar) at Platteville (40°N, 105°W) has provided the opportunity and impetus to create an operational network of middle- latitude MFRs stretching from 81°W?142°E. CUJO (Canada U.S. Japan Opportunity) comprises systems at London (43°N, 81°W), Platteville (40°N, 105°W), Saskatoon (52°N, 107°W), Wakkanai (45°N, 142°E) and Yamagawa (31°N, 131°E). It offers a significant 7000km longitudinal sector in the North American-Pacific regio...

  11. Cosmological Parameters and Hyper-Parameters: The Hubble Constant from Boomerang and Maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Ofer

    Recently several studies have jointly analysed data from different cosmological probes with the motivation of estimating cosmological parameters. Here we generalise this procedure to allow freedom in the relative weights of various probes. This is done by including in the joint likelihood function a set of `Hyper-Parameters', which are dealt with using Bayesian considerations. The resulting algorithm, which assumes uniform priors on the log of the Hyper-Parameters, is very simple to implement. We illustrate the method by estimating the Hubble constant H0 from different sets of recent CMB experiments (including Saskatoon, Python V, MSAM1, TOCO, Boomerang and Maxima). The approach can be generalised for a combination of cosmic probes, and for other priors on the Hyper-Parameters. Reference: Lahav, Bridle, Hobson, Lasenby & Sodre, 2000, MNRAS, in press (astro-ph/9912105)

  12. Sweet clover production and agronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goplen, B P

    1980-05-01

    Sweetclover has a notorious reputation for causing "sweetclover disease" when improperly cured. In spite of this, however, sweetclover remains a useful forage legume with valuable agronomic traits. It is drought-resistant and well adapted to Western Canada. Sweetclover is the highest yielding legume forage in this region and is valuable in soil improvement, silage, hay and pasture production and a prized crop for the honey producer. It is the most saline-tolerant of the legumes and is particularly useful on saline "white alkali" soils where cereals and other crops cannot grow. Special precautions are necessary to avoid spoilage and concomitant dicoumarol formation in preserving sweetclover hay and silage. Feeding recommendations are suggested for the safe utilization of spoiled forage. Low coumarin cultivars of sweetclover are completely safe and will not result in sweetclover disease despite spoilage. The breeding program at Saskatoon is expected to produce a new low coumarin (yellow flowered) sweetclover cultivar within the next two years.

  13. The Influence of Weather Variation, Urban Design and Built Environment on Objectively Measured Sedentary Behaviour in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katapally, Tarun Reddy; Rainham, Daniel; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2016-01-01

    With emerging evidence indicating that independent of physical activity, sedentary behaviour (SB) can be detrimental to health, researchers are increasingly aiming to understand the influence of multiple contexts such as urban design and built environment on SB. However, weather variation, a factor that continuously interacts with all other environmental variables, has been consistently underexplored. This study investigated the influence of diverse environmental exposures (including weather variation, urban design and built environment) on SB in children. This cross-sectional observational study is part of an active living research initiative set in the Canadian prairie city of Saskatoon. Saskatoon's neighbourhoods were classified based on urban street design into grid-pattern, fractured grid-pattern and curvilinear types of neighbourhoods. Diverse environmental exposures were measured including, neighbourhood built environment, and neighbourhood and household socioeconomic environment. Actical accelerometers were deployed between April and June 2010 (spring-summer) to derive SB of 331 10-14 year old children in 25 one week cycles. Each cycle of accelerometry was conducted on a different cohort of children within the total sample. Accelerometer data were matched with localized weather patterns derived from Environment Canada weather data. Multilevel modeling using Hierarchical Linear and Non-linear Modeling software was conducted by factoring in weather variation to depict the influence of diverse environmental exposures on SB. Both weather variation and urban design played a significant role in SB. After factoring in weather variation, it was observed that children living in grid-pattern neighbourhoods closer to the city centre (with higher diversity of destinations) were less likely to be sedentary. This study demonstrates a methodology that could be replicated to integrate geography-specific weather patterns with existing cross-sectional accelerometry data to

  14. Phylogeographical variation of chloroplast DNA in holm oak (Quercus ilex L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumaret, R; Mir, C; Michaud, H; Raynal, V

    2002-11-01

    Variation in the lengths of restriction fragments (RFLPs) of the whole chloroplast DNA molecule was studied in 174 populations of Quercus ilex L. sampled over the entire distribution of this evergreen and mainly Mediterranean oak species. By using five endonucleases, 323 distinct fragments were obtained. From the 29 and 17 cpDNA changes identified as site and length mutations, respectively, 25 distinct chlorotypes were distinguished, mapped and treated cladistically with a parsimony analysis, using as an outgroup Q. alnifolia Poech, a closely related evergreen oak species endemic to Cyprus where Q. ilex does not grow. The predominant role of Q. ilex as maternal parent in hybridization with other species was reflected by the occurrence of a single very specific lineage of related chlorotypes, the most ancestral and recent ones being located in the southeastern and in the northwestern parts of the species' geographical distribution, respectively. The lineage was constituted of two clusters of chlorotypes observed in the 'ilex' morphotyped populations of the Balkan and Italian Peninsulas (including the contiguous French Riviera), respectively. A third cluster was divided into two subclusters identified in the 'rotundifolia' morphotyped populations of North Africa, and of Iberia and the adjacent French regions, respectively. Postglacial colonization probably started from three distinct southerly refugia located in each of the three European peninsulas, and a contact area between the Italian and the Iberian migration routes was identified in the Rhône valley (France). Chlorotypes identical or related to those of the Iberian cluster were identified in the populations from Catalonia and the French Languedoc region, which showed intermediate morphotypes, and in the French Atlantic populations which possessed the 'ilex' morphotype, suggesting the occurrence of adaptive morphological changes in the northern part of the species' distribution.

  15. Western Palaearctic Ectoedemia (Zimmermannia Hering and Ectoedemia Busck s. str. (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae: five new species and new data on distribution, hostplants and recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik van Nieukerken

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The nine western Palaearctic species of the subgenus Zimmermannia Hering, 1940 and 48 species in the subgenus Ectoedemia Busck, 1907 of the genus Ectoedemia are reviewed. One species in the subgenus Zimmermannia and four species in the subgenus Ectoedemia are described as new: Ectoedemia (Zimmermannia vivesi A. Laštůvka, Z. Laštůvka & Van Nieukerken sp. n. from southern Spain and Cyprus with unknown host plant, Ectoedemia (E. hendrikseni A. Laštůvka, Z. Laštůvka & Van Nieukerken sp. n. from southern France on Quercus suber, E. (E. heckfordi Van Nieukerken, A. Laštůvka & Z. Laštůvka sp. n. from southern England on Quercus petraea and Q. robur, E. (E. phaeolepis Van Nieukerken, A. Laštůvka & Z. Laštůvka sp. n. from Spain and Portugal probably on Quercus ilex and Q. rotundifolia and E. (E. coscoja Van Nieukerken, A. Laštůvka & Z. Laštůvka sp. n. from Spain on Quercus coccifera. The following species are redescribed: Ectoedemia (Zimmermannia hispanica Van Nieukerken, Ectoedemia (Zimmermannia reichli Z. & A. Laštůvka, 1998, Ectoedemia (E. algeriensis van Nieukerken, 1985, E. (E. pseudoilicis Z. & A. Laštůvka, 1998 and E. (E. alnifoliae van Nieukerken, 1985. Ectoedemia albiformae Puplesis & Diškus, 2003 is synonymised with E. spinosella (Joannis, 1908. Ectoedemia jacutica Puplesis, 1988, previously synonymised with E. agrimoniae (Frey, 1858, is here synonymised with E. spiraeae Gregor & Povolný, 1983. Updated keys to the subgenus Zimmermannia and the Quercus feeding Ectoedemia are provided.

  16. DNA barcoding for species identification from dried and powdered plant parts: a case study with authentication of the raw drug market samples of Sida cordifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassou, Sophie Lorraine; Kusuma, G; Parani, Madasamy

    2015-03-15

    The majority of the plant materials used in herbal medicine is procured from the markets in the form of dried or powdered plant parts. It is essential to use authentic plant materials to derive the benefits of herbal medicine. However, establishing the identity of these plant materials by conventional taxonomy is extremely difficult. Here we report a case study in which the species identification of the market samples of Sida cordifolia was done by DNA barcoding. As a prelude to species identification by DNA barcoding, 13 species of Sida were collected, and a reference DNA barcode library was developed using rbcL, matK, psbA-trnH and ITS2 markers. Based on the intra-species and inter-species divergence observed, psbA-trnH and ITS2 were found to be the best two-marker combination for species identification of the market samples. The study showed that none of the market samples belonged to the authentic species, S. cordifolia. Seventy-six per cent of the market samples belonged to other species of Sida. The predominant one was Sida acuta (36%) followed by S. spinosa (20%), S. alnifolia (12%), S. scabrida (4%) and S. ravii (4%). Such substitutions may not only fail to give the expected therapeutic effect, but may also give undesirable effects as in case of S. acuta which contains a 6-fold higher amount of ephedrine compared to the roots of S. cordifolia. The remaining 24% of the samples were from other genera such as Abutilon sp. (8%), Ixonanthes sp., Terminalia sp., Fagonia sp., and Tephrosia sp. (4% each). This observation is in contrast to the belief that medicinal plants are generally substituted or adulterated with closely related species. The current study strongly suggests that the raw drug market samples of herbal medicines need to be properly authenticated before use, and DNA barcoding has been found to be suitable for this purpose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Species-Specific Morphological and Physiological Responses of Four Korean Native Trees Species under Elevated CO2 Concentration using Open Top Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.; Byeon, S.; Lee, H.; Lee, M.; Lim, H.; Kim, H. S.

    2017-12-01

    For the last three years, studies on the morphological and physiological characteristics were carried out for four tree species (Pinus densiflora, Quercus acutissima, Sorbus alnifolia and Fraxinus rhynchophylla) which are representative native species of Korea. We used a control site and three open top chambers (con, chamber 1, 2, and 3) which were exposed to ambient and two elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2]); the concentration were the ambient (400ppm) for control and chamber 1 and 1.4 times (560ppm) and 1.8 times (720 ppm) of the atmosphere for chamber 2 and 3, respectively. Leaf mass per area (LMA), stomatal size, density and area were examined to investigate the morphological changes of the trees. Among four species, F. rhynchophylla increased their LMA with increase of CO2 concentration. In addition, F. rhynchophylla showed the decrease of stomatal density significantly (p-value=0.02), while there was no difference in stoma size. These findings resulted in 25.5% and 38.7% decrease of stomata area per unit leaf area calculated by multiplying the size and density of the stomata. On the other hand, all 4 tree species were significantly increased in height and diameter growth with the elevated CO2. However, in the case of Q. acutissima, the increase in height growth was prominent. For physiological characteristics, the maximum photosynthetic rate was faster in the chambers exposed to high [CO2] than that in the control. However the rate of carboxylation and the electron transfer rate showed no particular tendency. The measurement of hydraulic conductivity (Ks, kg/m/s/Mpa) for Crataegus pinnatifida, increased as the [CO2] in the atmosphere increased, and the 50% Loss Conductance (Mpa) tended to increase slightly with the [CO2]. The correlation analysis between hydraulic conductivity and vulnerability to cavitation showed a strong negative correlation (P <0.05), which was unlike the general tendency.

  18. Estrutura e composição florística de quatro formações vegetais de restinga no complexo lagunar Grussaí/Iquipari, São João da Barra, RJ, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assumpção Jorge

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a vegetação de restinga do complexo lagunar Grussaí/Iquipari (21°44'S; 41°02'O, que compreende a bacia das lagunas de Grussaí e Iquipari, com aproximadamente 4.800ha. Uma transecção de 25ha (2500x100m foi delimitada no sentido mar/interior e coletas botânicas realizadas entre os anos de 1995 e 1997. As quatro unidades fisionômicas ocorrentes na área foram estudadas e, através do Índice de Valor de Cobertura, foram determinadas as espécies dominantes em cada formação: 1 Formação Praial-Graminóide: Remirea maritima, Ipomoea imperati, Sporobolus virginicus e Chamaecyse thymifolia; 2 Formação Praial com Moitas: Schinus terebinthifolius, Eugenia sulcata, Pilosocereus arrabidae e Cereus fernambucensis; 3 Formação de Clusia: Pera glabrata, Eugenia sulcata, Sideroxylon obtusifolium e Scutia arenicola; 4 Formação Mata de Restinga: Maytenus obtusifolia, Pera glabrata, Protium heptaphyllum e Coccoloba alnifolia. A similaridade florística da área estudada com outras restingas nos Estados do Rio de Janeiro e Espírito Santo não ultrapassou 41%, onde a proximidade geográfica não representou aumento da similaridade. Os resultados ressaltam a variação da flora de restinga ao longo de um pequeno trecho do litoral brasileiro.

  19. Do David and Goliath Play the Same Game? Explanation of the Abundance of Rare and Frequent Invasive Alien Plants in Urban Woodlands in Warsaw, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obidziński, Artur; Mędrzycki, Piotr; Kołaczkowska, Ewa; Ciurzycki, Wojciech; Marciszewska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Invasive Alien Plants occur in numbers differing by orders of magnitude at subsequent invasion stages. Effective sampling and quantifying niches of rare invasive plants are quite problematic. The aim of this paper is an estimation of the influence of invasive plants frequency on the explanation of their local abundance. We attempted to achieve it through: (1) assessment of occurrence of self-regenerating invasive plants in urban woodlands, (2) comparison of Random Forest modelling results for frequent and rare species. We hypothesized that the abundance of frequent species would be explained better than that of rare ones and that both rare and frequent species share a common hierarchy of the most important determinants. We found 15 taxa in almost two thirds of 1040 plots with a total number of 1068 occurrences. There were recorded 6 taxa of high frequency-Prunus serotina, Quercus rubra, Acer negundo, Robinia pseudoacacia, Impatiens parviflora and Solidago spp.-and 9 taxa of low frequency: Acer saccharinum, Amelanchier spicata, Cornus spp., Fraxinus spp., Parthenocissus spp., Syringa vulgaris, Echinocystis lobata, Helianthus tuberosus, Reynoutria spp. Random Forest's models' quality grows with the number of occurrences of frequent taxa but not of the rare ones. Both frequent and rare taxa share a similar hierarchy of predictors' importance: Land use > Tree stand > Seed source and, for frequent taxa, Forest properties as well. We conclude that there is an 'explanation jump' at higher species frequencies, but rare species are surprisingly similar to frequent ones in their determinant's hierarchy, with differences conforming with their respective stages of invasion.

  20. Do David and Goliath Play the Same Game? Explanation of the Abundance of Rare and Frequent Invasive Alien Plants in Urban Woodlands in Warsaw, Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Obidziński

    Full Text Available Invasive Alien Plants occur in numbers differing by orders of magnitude at subsequent invasion stages. Effective sampling and quantifying niches of rare invasive plants are quite problematic. The aim of this paper is an estimation of the influence of invasive plants frequency on the explanation of their local abundance. We attempted to achieve it through: (1 assessment of occurrence of self-regenerating invasive plants in urban woodlands, (2 comparison of Random Forest modelling results for frequent and rare species. We hypothesized that the abundance of frequent species would be explained better than that of rare ones and that both rare and frequent species share a common hierarchy of the most important determinants. We found 15 taxa in almost two thirds of 1040 plots with a total number of 1068 occurrences. There were recorded 6 taxa of high frequency-Prunus serotina, Quercus rubra, Acer negundo, Robinia pseudoacacia, Impatiens parviflora and Solidago spp.-and 9 taxa of low frequency: Acer saccharinum, Amelanchier spicata, Cornus spp., Fraxinus spp., Parthenocissus spp., Syringa vulgaris, Echinocystis lobata, Helianthus tuberosus, Reynoutria spp. Random Forest's models' quality grows with the number of occurrences of frequent taxa but not of the rare ones. Both frequent and rare taxa share a similar hierarchy of predictors' importance: Land use > Tree stand > Seed source and, for frequent taxa, Forest properties as well. We conclude that there is an 'explanation jump' at higher species frequencies, but rare species are surprisingly similar to frequent ones in their determinant's hierarchy, with differences conforming with their respective stages of invasion.

  1. The historical distribution of Gunnison Sage-Grouse in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Clait E.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Nehring, Jennifer A.; Commons, Michelle L.; Young, Jessica R.; Potter, Kim M.

    2014-01-01

    The historical distribution of Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus) in Colorado is described based on published literature, observations, museum specimens, and the known distribution of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.). Historically, Gunnison Sage-Grouse were widely but patchily distributed in up to 22 counties in south-central and southwestern Colorado. The historical distribution of this species was south of the Colorado-Eagle river drainages primarily west of the Continental Divide. Potential contact areas with Greater Sage-Grouse (C. urophasianus) were along the Colorado-Eagle river system in Mesa, Garfield, and Eagle counties, west of the Continental Divide. Gunnison Sage-Grouse historically occupied habitats that were naturally highly fragmented by forested mountains and plateaus/mesas, intermountain basins without robust species of sagebrush, and river systems. This species adapted to use areas with more deciduous shrubs (i.e., Quercus spp., Amelanchier spp., Prunus spp.) in conjunction with sagebrush. Most areas historically occupied were small, linear, and patchily distributed within the overall landscape matrix. The exception was the large intermountain basin in Gunnison, Hinsdale, and Saguache counties. The documented distribution east of the Continental Divide within the large expanse of the San Luis Valley (Alamosa, Conejos, Costilla, and Rio Grande counties) was minimal and mostly on the eastern, northern, and southern fringes. Many formerly occupied habitat patches were vacant by the mid 1940s with extirpations continuing to the late 1990s. Counties from which populations were recently extirpated include Archuleta and Pitkin (1960s), and Eagle, Garfield, Montezuma, and Ouray (1990s).

  2. Do David and Goliath Play the Same Game? Explanation of the Abundance of Rare and Frequent Invasive Alien Plants in Urban Woodlands in Warsaw, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mędrzycki, Piotr; Kołaczkowska, Ewa; Ciurzycki, Wojciech; Marciszewska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Invasive Alien Plants occur in numbers differing by orders of magnitude at subsequent invasion stages. Effective sampling and quantifying niches of rare invasive plants are quite problematic. The aim of this paper is an estimation of the influence of invasive plants frequency on the explanation of their local abundance. We attempted to achieve it through: (1) assessment of occurrence of self-regenerating invasive plants in urban woodlands, (2) comparison of Random Forest modelling results for frequent and rare species. We hypothesized that the abundance of frequent species would be explained better than that of rare ones and that both rare and frequent species share a common hierarchy of the most important determinants. We found 15 taxa in almost two thirds of 1040 plots with a total number of 1068 occurrences. There were recorded 6 taxa of high frequency–Prunus serotina, Quercus rubra, Acer negundo, Robinia pseudoacacia, Impatiens parviflora and Solidago spp.–and 9 taxa of low frequency: Acer saccharinum, Amelanchier spicata, Cornus spp., Fraxinus spp., Parthenocissus spp., Syringa vulgaris, Echinocystis lobata, Helianthus tuberosus, Reynoutria spp. Random Forest’s models’ quality grows with the number of occurrences of frequent taxa but not of the rare ones. Both frequent and rare taxa share a similar hierarchy of predictors’ importance: Land use > Tree stand > Seed source and, for frequent taxa, Forest properties as well. We conclude that there is an ‘explanation jump’ at higher species frequencies, but rare species are surprisingly similar to frequent ones in their determinant’s hierarchy, with differences conforming with their respective stages of invasion. PMID:27992516

  3. Differences in impacts of Hurricane Sandy on freshwater swamps on the Delmarva Peninsula, Mid−Atlantic Coast, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2016-01-01

    Hurricane wind and surge may have different influences on the subsequent composition of forests. During Hurricane Sandy, while damaging winds were highest near landfall in New Jersey, inundation occurred along the entire eastern seaboard from Georgia to Maine. In this study, a comparison of damage from salinity intrusion vs. wind/surge was recorded in swamps of the Delmarva Peninsula along the Pocomoke (MD) and Nanticoke (DE) Rivers, south of the most intense wind damage. Hickory Point Cypress Swamp (Hickory) was closest to the Chesapeake Bay and may have been subjected to a salinity surge as evidenced by elevated salinity levels at a gage upstream of this swamp (storm salinity = 13.1 ppt at Nassawango Creek, Snow Hill, Maryland). After Hurricane Sandy, 8% of the standing trees died at Hickory including Acer rubrum, Amelanchier laevis, Ilex spp., and Taxodium distichum. In Plot 2 of Hickory, 25% of the standing trees were dead, and soil salinity levels were the highest recorded in the study. The most important variables related to structural tree damage were soil salinity and proximity to the Atlantic coast as based on Stepwise Regression and NMDS procedures. Wind damage was mostly restricted to broken branches although tipped−up trees were found at Hickory, Whiton and Porter (species: Liquidamabar styraciflua, Pinus taeda, Populus deltoides, Quercus pagoda and Ilex spp.). These trees fell mostly in an east or east−southeast direction (88o−107o) in keeping with the wind direction of Hurricane Sandy on the Delmarva Peninsula. Coastal restoration and management can be informed by the specific differences in hurricane damage to vegetation by salt versus wind.

  4. Characterization of the host–guest complex of a curcumin analog with β-cyclodextrin and β-cyclodextrin–gemini surfactant and evaluation of its anticancer activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poorghorban M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Masoomeh Poorghorban,1 Umashankar Das,2 Osama Alaidi,1 Jackson M Chitanda,2 Deborah Michel,1 Jonathan Dimmock,1 Ronald Verrall,3 Pawel Grochulski,1,4 Ildiko Badea1 1Drug Discovery and Development Research Group, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, 2Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, 3Department of Chemistry, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada; 4Canadian Light Source, Saskatoon, SK, Canada Background: Curcumin analogs, including the novel compound NC 2067, are potent cytotoxic agents that suffer from poor solubility, and hence, low bioavailability. Cyclodextrin-based carriers can be used to encapsulate such agents. In order to understand the interaction between the two molecules, the physicochemical properties of the host–guest complexes of NC 2067 with β-cyclodextrin (CD or β-cyclodextrin–gemini surfactant (CDgemini surfactant were investigated for the first time. Moreover, possible supramolecular structures were examined in order to aid the development of new drug delivery systems. Furthermore, the in vitro anticancer activity of the complex of NC 2067 with CDgemini surfactant nanoparticles was demonstrated in the A375 melanoma cell line.Methods: Physicochemical properties of the complexes formed of NC 2067 with CD or CDgemini surfactant were investigated by synchrotron-based powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. Synchrotron-based small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering and size measurements were employed to assess the supramolecular morphology of the complex formed by NC 2067 with CDgemini surfactant. Lastly, the in vitro cell toxicity of the formulations toward A375 melanoma cells at various drug-to-carrier mole ratios were measured by cell viability assay.Results: Physical mixtures of NC 2067 and CD or CDgemini surfactant showed characteristics of the individual components, whereas the complex of NC 2067 and CD or CDgemini surfactant presented new

  5. Sensory Acceptability of Iron-Fortified Red Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) Dal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podder, Rajib; Khan, Shaan M; Tar'an, Bunyamin; Tyler, Robert T; Henry, Carol J; Jalal, Chowdhury; Shand, Phyllis J; Vandenberg, Albert

    2018-03-01

    Panelists in Saskatoon, Canada (n = 45) and Dhaka, Bangladesh (n = 98) participated in sensory evaluations of the sensory properties of both cooked and uncooked dehulled red lentil dal fortified with FeSO 4 ·7H 2 O, NaFeEDTA or FeSO 4 ·H 2 O at fortificant Fe concentrations of 800, 1,600 (both cooked and uncooked), or 2,800 ppm. Appearance, odor, and overall acceptability of cooked and uncooked samples were rated using a 9-point hedonic scale (1 = dislike extremely to 9 = like extremely). Taste and texture were rated for the cooked samples prepared as typical south Asian lentil meals. Significant differences in sensory quality were observed among all uncooked and cooked samples at both locations. Overall, scores for all sensory attributes and acceptability of uncooked lentil decreased with increasing concentration of Fe in the fortificant; however, Fe fortification (particularly with NaFeEDTA) had small effects on acceptability. Panelists from Saskatoon provided a wider range of scores than those from Bangladesh for all attributes of cooked lentil. Overall, sensory evaluation of Fe fortification using NaFeEDTA minimally affected consumer perception of color, taste, texture, odor, and overall acceptability of cooked lentil. Reliability estimates (Cronbach's alpha [CA]) indicated that consumer scores were generally consistent for all attributes of all lentil samples (mean CA > 0.80). NaFeEDTA was found to be the most suitable Fe fortificant for lentil based on consumer acceptability. Consumption of 45 to 50 g of NaFeEDTA-fortified lentil (fortificant Fe concentration of 1,600 ppm) per day meets the estimated average requirements (EARs) of Fe for humans (10.8 to 29.4 mg). Iron fortification of dehulled lentil dal may change organoleptic attributes that can influence consumer acceptability. Sensory evaluation by consumers helps to determine the effect on appearance, odor, taste, texture, and overall acceptability of fortified lentils. In this study, consumer

  6. Longitudinal active living research to address physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour in children in transition from preadolescence to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhajarine, Nazeem; Katapally, Tarun R; Fuller, Daniel; Stanley, Kevin G; Rainham, Daniel

    2015-05-17

    Children can be highly active and highly sedentary on the same day! For instance, a child can spend a couple of hours playing sports, and then spend the rest of the day in front of a screen. A focus on examining both physical activity and sedentary behaviour throughout the day and in all seasons in a year is necessary to generate comprehensive evidence to curb childhood obesity. To achieve this, we need to understand where within a city are children active or sedentary in all seasons. This active living study based in Saskatoon, Canada, aims to understand the role played by modifiable urban built environments in mitigating, or exacerbating, seasonal effects on children's physical activity and sedentary behaviour in a population of children in transition from preadolescence to adolescence. Designed as an observational, longitudinal investigation this study will recruit 800 Canadian children 10-14 years of age. Data will be obtained from children representing all socioeconomic categories within all types of neighbourhoods built in a range of urban designs. Built environment characteristics will be measured using previously validated neighbourhood audit and observational tools. Neighbourhood level socioeconomic variables customized to Saskatoon neighbourhoods from 2011 Statistics Canada's National Household Survey will be used to control for neighbourhood social environment. The validated Smart Cities Healthy Kids questionnaire will be administered to capture children's behaviour and perception of a range of factors that influence their activity, household (including family socioeconomic factors), parental, peer and neighbourhood influence on independent mobility. The outcome measures, different intensities of physical activity and sedentary behaviour, will be collected using global positioning system equipped accelerometers in all four seasons. Each accelerometry cycle will be matched with weather data obtained from Environment Canada. Extensive weather data will be

  7. Factoring in weather variation to capture the influence of urban design and built environment on globally recommended levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katapally, Tarun Reddy; Rainham, Daniel; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2015-11-30

    In curbing physical inactivity, as behavioural interventions directed at individuals have not produced a population-level change, an ecological perspective called active living research has gained prominence. However, active living research consistently underexplores the role played by a perennial phenomenon encompassing all other environmental exposures-variation in weather. After factoring in weather variation, this study investigated the influence of diverse environmental exposures (including urban design and built environment) on the accumulation of globally recommended moderate to vigorous physical activity levels (MVPA) in children. This cross-sectional observational study is part of an active living initiative set in the Canadian prairie city of Saskatoon. As part of this study, Saskatoon's neighbourhoods were classified based on urban street design into grid-pattern, fractured grid-pattern and curvilinear types of neighbourhoods. Moreover, diverse environmental exposures were measured including, neighbourhood built environment, and neighbourhood and household socioeconomic environment. Actical accelerometers were deployed between April and June 2010 (spring-summer) to derive MVPA of 331 10-14-year-old children in 25 1-week cycles. Each cycle of accelerometry was conducted on a different cohort of children within the total sample and matched with weather data obtained from Environment Canada. Multilevel modelling using Hierarchical Linear and Non-linear Modelling software was conducted by factoring in weather variation to depict the influence of diverse environmental exposures on the accumulation of recommended MVPA. Urban design, including diversity of destinations within neighbourhoods played a significant role in the accumulation of MVPA. After factoring in weather variation, it was observed that children living in neighbourhoods closer to the city centre (with higher diversity of destinations) were more likely to accumulate recommended MVPA. The findings

  8. The life and contribution of Dr. Ronald Gitelman: a pioneer of modern chiropractic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Howard

    2013-03-01

    The life and contribution to chiropractic science of Dr. Ronald Gitelman is reviewed. Sources for this article included review of the notes prepared by Dr. Joseph Keating in his "biography" of the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College (CMCC); review of the important articles published by Dr. Gitelman; review of the important projects undertaken by him along with various colleagues; notes from reminiscences obtained from many of these colleagues and discussions with his family. Dr. Gitelman's academic career spanned from 1963 to the late 1980's. During that time, he made foundational contributions to the development of chiropractic science including: developing the Archives (1974), the first collection of scientific articles supporting chiropractic science (which was subsequently published as the Chiropractic Archives Research Collection (CRAC)); delivering one of the few chiropractic papers at the seminal NINCDS conference (1975) and, developing the collaboration between CMCC and Dr. Kirkaldy-Willis at the University of Saskatoon (1976). He practiced in Toronto from 1961 to 2007. Dr. Gitelman was a pioneer in the development of chiropractic science. He died on October 7, 2012.

  9. Transit's leading edge : innovations in service and technology : issue paper 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-11-01

    The Canadian Urban Transit Association is committed to raising awareness of the social, environmental and economic benefits of mass transit systems. Innovation is needed to address the challenges of attracting new riders, resolving fiscal imbalances, and meeting environmental concerns. This issue paper presents examples of how Canada's transit industry has used innovation to address the issue of climate change and fight smog. It includes a brief description of some of the ways that Canadian transit suppliers and transit systems are going green: Canada's bus builders are developing hybrid buses; Grand River Transit is improving air quality with clean diesel; Montreal's Transit Society is reducing emissions with biodiesel buses; Saskatoon Transit Service is using biodiesel buses; Laval's Transit Society is listening to customer complaints in an effort to reduce response times and improve customer service; Canadian Urban Transit Association is improving customer service; Transit Windsor is promoting a smog solution; Winnipeg Transit is working with employers to boost ridership; Trapeze Software Group is providing customers with quick and accurate trip itineraries; St. John's Transportation Commission has added solar-powered, light emitting diode illumination to bus stops; the City of Ottawa has an established transit priority measures; and, Infodev EDI Inc. has supplied automated high-technology solutions for passenger counting and vehicle location tracking to several Canadian transit systems. refs., figs.

  10. Strategic Environmental Assessment Framework for Landscape-Based, Temporal Analysis of Wetland Change in Urban Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizo, Anton; Noble, Bram F; Bell, Scott

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a spatial framework for the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the context of change analysis for urban wetland environments. The proposed framework is focused on two key stages of the SEA process: scoping and environmental baseline assessment. These stages are arguably the most information-intense phases of SEA and have a significant effect on the quality of the SEA results. The study aims to meet the needs for proactive frameworks to assess and protect wetland habitat and services more efficiently, toward the goal of advancing more intelligent urban planning and development design. The proposed framework, adopting geographic information system and remote sensing tools and applications, supports the temporal evaluation of wetland change and sustainability assessment based on landscape indicator analysis. The framework was applied to a rapidly developing urban environment in the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, analyzing wetland change and land-use pressures from 1985 to 2011. The SEA spatial scale was rescaled from administrative urban planning units to an ecologically meaningful area. Landscape change assessed was based on a suite of indicators that were subsequently rolled up into a single, multi-dimensional, and easy to understand and communicate index to examine the implications of land-use change for wetland sustainability. The results show that despite the recent extremely wet period in the Canadian prairie region, land-use change contributed to increasing threats to wetland sustainability.

  11. Climate impacts on the hydrology of prairie wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Mingko; Rowsell, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    A study was carried out in the St. Denis National Wildlife Area, 45 km east of Saskatoon, to observe the hydrological processes and the temporal and spatial variability of slough responses to climate. One slough was instrumented for detailed study, showing that the high water level in spring was supported by snowmelt. In summer, rainfall was the major source of water supply, but was exceeded by losses to evaporation and groundwater recharge, leading to a decline of the water table and complete drying by June 13th. The duration that water remains in sloughs varies temporally and spatially. Ephemeral sloughs, deriving water mainly from snowmelt, tend to occupy higher ground, temporary sloughs rely on precipitation and surface runoff, and may receive groundwater discharge during wetter years. Permanent sloughs often occupy lower areas, receiving water from precipitation, lateral runoff, and groundwater discharge which buffers them from year to year fluctuations in precipitation. Tree ring analyses showed that meltwater is the major factor influencing tree growth, correlating the spatial variability of slough inundation to the temporal variability of winter snowfall. A study of slough hydrology is important to the understanding of the responses of Prairie wetlands to climatic variability and change. 17 refs., 2 figs

  12. Surface net solar radiation estimated from satellite measurements - Comparisons with tower observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanqing; Leighton, H. G.; Cess, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    A parameterization that relates the reflected solar flux at the top of the atmosphere to the net solar flux at the surface in terms of only the column water vapor amount and the solar zenith angle was tested against surface observations. Net surface fluxes deduced from coincidental collocated satellite-measured radiances and from measurements from towers in Boulder during summer and near Saskatoon in winter have mean differences of about 2 W/sq m, regardless of whether the sky is clear or cloudy. Furthermore, comparisons between the net fluxes deduced from the parameterization and from surface measurements showed equally good agreement when the data were partitioned into morning and afternoon observations. This is in contrast to results from an empirical clear-sky algorithm that is unable to account adequately for the effects of clouds and that shows, at Boulder, a distinct morning to afternoon variation. It is also demonstrated that the parameterization may be applied to irradiances at the top of the atmosphere that have been temporally averaged. The good agreement between the results of the parameterization and surface measurements suggests that the algorithm is a useful tool for a variety of climate studies.

  13. Surface Net Solar Radiation Estimated from Satellite Measurements: Comparisons with Tower Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanqing; Leighton, H. G.; Cess, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    A parameterization that relates the reflected solar flux at the top of the atmosphere to the net solar flux at the surface in terms of only the column water vapor amount and the solar zenith angle was tested against surface observations. Net surface fluxes deduced from coincidental collocated satellite-measured radiances and from measurements from towers in Boulder during summer and near Saskatoon in winter have mean differences of about 2 W/sq m, regardless of whether the sky is clear or cloudy. Furthermore, comparisons between the net fluxes deduced from the parameterization and from surface measurements showed equally good agreement when the data were partitioned into morning and afternoon observations. This is in contrast to results from an empirical clear-sky algorithm that is unable to account adequately for the effects of clouds and that shows, at Boulder, a distinct morning to afternoon variation, which is presumably due to the predominance of different cloud types throughout the day. It is also demonstrated that the parameterization may be applied to irradiances at the top of the atmosphere that have been temporally averaged by using the temporally averaged column water vapor amount and the temporally averaged cosine of the solar zenith angle. The good agreement between the results of the parameterization and surface measurements suggests that the algorithm is a useful tool for a variety of climate studies.

  14. Concentrations of neonicotinoid insecticides in honey, pollen and honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in central Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codling, Garry; Al Naggar, Yahya; Giesy, John P; Robertson, Albert J

    2016-02-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides (NIs) and their transformation products were detected in honey, pollen and honey bees, (Apis mellifera) from hives located within 30 km of the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. Clothianidin and thiamethoxam were the most frequently detected NIs, found in 68 and 75% of honey samples at mean concentrations of 8.2 and 17.2 ng g(-1) wet mass, (wm), respectively. Clothianidin was also found in >50% of samples of bees and pollen. Concentrations of clothianidin in bees exceed the LD50 in 2 of 28 samples, while for other NIs concentrations were typically 10-100-fold less than the oral LD50. Imidaclorpid was detected in ∼30% of samples of honey, but only 5% of pollen and concentrations were

  15. Capturing the Interrelationship between Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children in the Context of Diverse Environmental Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun R. Katapally

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though physical activity and sedentary behaviour are two distinct behaviours, their interdependent relationship needs to be studied in the same environment. This study examines the influence of urban design, neighbourhood built and social environment, and household and individual factors on the interdependent relationship between objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children in the Canadian city of Saskatoon. Saskatoon’s built environment was assessed by two validated observation tools. Neighbourhood socioeconomic variables were derived from 2006 Statistics Canada Census and 2010 G5 Census projections. A questionnaire was administered to 10–14 year old children to collect individual and household data, followed by accelerometry to collect physical activity and sedentary behaviour data. Multilevel logistic regression models were developed to understand the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the context of diverse environmental exposures. A complex set of factors including denser built environment, positive peer relationships and consistent parental support influenced the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour. In developing interventions to facilitate active living, it is not only imperative to delineate pathways through which diverse environmental exposures influence physical activity and sedentary behaviour, but also to account for the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

  16. Building capacity through urban agriculture: report on the askîy project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Wanda; Vold, Lindsey

    2018-01-01

    Many North American cities have a built environment that provides access to energy-dense food and little opportunity for active living. Urban agriculture contributes to a positive environment involving food plant cultivation that includes processing, storing, distributing and composting. It is a means to increase local food production and thereby improve community health. The purpose of this study was to understand how participating in urban agriculture can help to empower young adults and build capacity for growing food in the city. This was a qualitative study of seven participants (five Indigenous and two non-Indigenous) between the ages of 19 and 29 years, engaged as interns in an urban agriculture project known as "askîy" in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada in 2015. We used a case-study design and qualitative analysis to describe the participants' experience based on the sustainable livelihoods framework. A collaborative approach had a great effect on the interns' experiences, notably the connections formed as they planned, planted, tended, harvested and sold the produce. Some of the interns changed their grocery shopping habits and began purchasing more vegetables and questioning where and how the vegetables were produced. All interns were eager to continue gardening next season, and some were planning to take their knowledge and skills back to their home reserves. Urban agriculture programs build capacity by providing skills beyond growing food. Such programs can increase local food production and improve food literacy skills, social relationships, physical activity and pride in community settings.

  17. Nanodiamonds as novel nanomaterials for biomedical applications: drug delivery and imaging systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Randeep Kaur, Ildiko BadeaDrug Design and Discovery Research Group, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, CanadaAbstract: Detonation nanodiamonds (NDs are emerging as delivery vehicles for small chemical drugs and macromolecular biotechnology products due to their primary particle size of 4 to 5 nm, stable inert core, reactive surface, and ability to form hydrogels. Nanoprobe technology capitalizes on the intrinsic fluorescence, high refractive index, and unique Raman signal of the NDs, rendering them attractive for in vitro and in vivo imaging applications. This review provides a brief introduction of the various types of NDs and describes the development of procedures that have led to stable single-digit-sized ND dispersions, a crucial feature for drug delivery systems and nanoprobes. Various approaches used for functionalizing the surface of NDs are highlighted, along with a discussion of their biocompatibility status. The utilization of NDs to provide sustained release and improve the dispersion of hydrophobic molecules, of which chemotherapeutic drugs are the most investigated, is described. The prospects of improving the intracellular delivery of nucleic acids by using NDs as a platform are exemplified. The photoluminescent and optical scattering properties of NDs, together with their applications in cellular labeling, are also reviewed. Considering the progress that has been made in understanding the properties of NDs, they can be envisioned as highly efficient drug delivery and imaging biomaterials for use in animals and humans.Keywords: dispersion, surface functionalization, toxicity, carriers, fluorescence, light scattering

  18. Improvement in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Diagnosis and Management Wait Times: A Retrospective Analysis of a Home Management Pathway for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Alan Stewart

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea is a common condition within the Canadian population. The current gold standard for diagnosis and management of patients is in-laboratory (in-lab polysomnography; however, the limited availability of testing options for patients has led to long wait times and increased disease burden within the population. The Sleep Research Laboratory in Saskatoon (Saskatchewan implemented a home management program to run in parallel with the in-lab system several years ago in an effort to increase their capacity and reduce wait times. The present study was a retrospective analysis of all patients referred to the program between 2009 and 2012. The home management system has improved wait times by diagnosing and managing up to one-half of the referred patient population, reducing the wait for in-lab treatment from a median of 152 days in 2009 to 92 days in 2012 (P<0.0001. Moving forward, home management can provide a viable alternative to in-lab testing for patients who meet strict entry criteria, reducing the in-lab workload and, ultimately, reducing wait times.

  19. Investigation of the winds and electron concentration variability in the D region of the ionosphere by the partial-reflection radar technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiland, R.M.; Bowhill, S.A.

    1981-12-01

    The development and first observations of the partial-reflection drifts experiment at Urbana, Illinois (40 N) are described. The winds data from the drifts experiment are compared with electron concentration data obtained by the differential-absorption technique to study the possible meteorological causes of the winter anomaly in the mesosphere at midlatitudes. Winds data obtained by the meteor-radar experiment at Urbana are also compared with electron concentration data measured at Urban. A significant correlation is shown is both cases between southward winds and increasing electron concentration measured at the same location during winter. The possibility of stratospheric/mesospheric coupling is investigated by comparing satellite-measured 0.4 mbar geopotential data with mesospheric electron concentration data. No significant coupling was observed. The winds measured at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (52 N) are compared with the electron concentrations measured at Urban, yielding constant fixed relationship, but significant correlations for short segments of the winter. A significant coherence is observed at discrete frequencies during segments of the winter

  20. Upgrading transmission lines with aerial LiDAR technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koop, J.E. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2003-04-01

    LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) technology is described as an example of techniques used by hydro companies to increase their capacity with existing plants, and within tight budget constraints. LiDAR was chosen by Manitoba Hydro primarily because LiDAR's data collection method offers very fast turn-around time from collection to delivery, and most importantly because of LiDAR's highly accurate ability to map terrain and wire catenary shape in every span. The article describes a case study of the 'Nip and Tuck' method of wire re-tensioning based on LiDAR data, which was used by Manitoba Hydro to create a computer model of Saskatchewan Hydro's transmission line capacity on its 138 kV transmission line between Saskatoon and North Battleford. The model was needed to analyze the existing line conditions in an effort to minimize cascading failures on the 40-year old line. Using the 'Nip and Tuck' technology in combination with LiDAR, SaskPower engineers were able to complete the required modifications to raise transmission wire operating temperatures on the 135 km long line to 66 degree C in only 36 days, and at a cost that was 80 per cent less than the cost would have been using conventional techniques ($232,000 instead of the estimated $1.25 million).

  1. Selective degradation of ibuprofen and clofibric acid in two model river biofilm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, M; Lawrence, J R; Neu, T R

    2001-09-01

    A field survey indicated that the Elbe and Saale Rivers were contaminated with both clofibric acid and ibuprofen. In Elbe River water we could detect the metabolite hydroxy-ibuprofen. Analyses of the city of Saskatoon sewage effluent discharged to the South Saskatchewan river detected clofibric acid but neither ibuprofen nor any metabolite. Laboratory studies indicated that the pharmaceutical ibuprofen was readily degraded in a river biofilm reactor. Two metabolites were detected and identified as hydroxy- and carboxy-ibuprofen. Both metabolites were observed to degrade in the biofilm reactors. However, in human metabolism the metabolite carboxy-ibuprofen appears and degrades second whereas the opposite occurs in biofilm systems. In biofilms the pharmacologically inactive stereoisomere of ibuprofen is degraded predominantly. In contrast, clofibric acid was not biologically degraded during the experimental period of 21 days. Similar results were obtained using biofilms developed using waters from either the South Saskatchewan or Elbe River. In a sterile reactor no losses of ibuprofen were observed. These results suggested that abiotic losses and adsorption played only a minimal role in the fate of the pharmaceuticals in the river biofilm reactors.

  2. Gelastic seizures associated with hypothalamic hamartomas. An update in the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Tellez-Zenteno

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available José F. Tellez-Zenteno1, Cesar Serrano-Almeida2, Farzad Moien-Afshari11Division of Neurology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada; 2Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, CanadaAbstract: Gelastic seizures are epileptic events characterized by bouts of laughter. Laughter-like vocalization is usually combined with facial contraction in the form of a smile. Autonomic features such as flushing, tachycardia, and altered respiration are widely recognized. Conscious state may not be impaired, although this is often difficult to asses particularly in young children. Gelastic seizures have been associated classically to hypothalamic hamartomas, although different extrahypothalamic localizations have been described. Hypothalamic hamartomas are rare congenital lesions presenting with the classic triad of gelastic epilepsy, precocious puberty and developmental delay. The clinical course of patients with gelastic seizures associated with hypothalamic hamartomas is progressive, commencing with gelastic seizures in infancy, deteriorating into more complex seizure disorder resulting in intractable epilepsy. Electrophysiological, radiological, and pathophysiological studies have confirmed the intrinsic epileptogenicity of the hypothalamic hamartoma. Currently the most effective surgical approach is the trancallosal anterior interforniceal approach, however newer approaches including the endoscopic and other treatment such as radiosurgery and gamma knife have been used with success. This review focuses on the syndrome of gelastic seizures associated with hypothalamic hamartomas, but it also reviews other concepts such as status gelasticus and some aspects of gelastic seizures in other locations.Keywords: epilepsy, gelastic seizures, epilepsy surgery, hypothalamic hamartoma, intractable epilepsy

  3. Cosmic microwave background anisotropies in cold dark matter models with cosmological constant: The intermediate versus large angular scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stompor, Radoslaw; Gorski, Krzysztof M.

    1994-01-01

    We obtain predictions for cosmic microwave background anisotropies at angular scales near 1 deg in the context of cold dark matter models with a nonzero cosmological constant, normalized to the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) detection. The results are compared to those computed in the matter-dominated models. We show that the coherence length of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropy is almost insensitive to cosmological parameters, and the rms amplitude of the anisotropy increases moderately with decreasing total matter density, while being most sensitive to the baryon abundance. We apply these results in the statistical analysis of the published data from the UCSB South Pole (SP) experiment (Gaier et al. 1992; Schuster et al. 1993). We reject most of the Cold Dark Matter (CDM)-Lambda models at the 95% confidence level when both SP scans are simulated together (although the combined data set renders less stringent limits than the Gaier et al. data alone). However, the Schuster et al. data considered alone as well as the results of some other recent experiments (MAX, MSAM, Saskatoon), suggest that typical temperature fluctuations on degree scales may be larger than is indicated by the Gaier et al. scan. If so, CDM-Lambda models may indeed provide, from a point of view of CMB anisotropies, an acceptable alternative to flat CDM models.

  4. Bayesian `hyper-parameters' approach to joint estimation: the Hubble constant from CMB measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, O.; Bridle, S. L.; Hobson, M. P.; Lasenby, A. N.; Sodré, L.

    2000-07-01

    Recently several studies have jointly analysed data from different cosmological probes with the motivation of estimating cosmological parameters. Here we generalize this procedure to allow freedom in the relative weights of various probes. This is done by including in the joint χ2 function a set of `hyper-parameters', which are dealt with using Bayesian considerations. The resulting algorithm, which assumes uniform priors on the log of the hyper-parameters, is very simple: instead of minimizing \\sum \\chi_j2 (where \\chi_j2 is per data set j) we propose to minimize \\sum Nj (\\chi_j2) (where Nj is the number of data points per data set j). We illustrate the method by estimating the Hubble constant H0 from different sets of recent cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments (including Saskatoon, Python V, MSAM1, TOCO and Boomerang). The approach can be generalized for combinations of cosmic probes, and for other priors on the hyper-parameters.

  5. Incoming longwave radiation to melting snow: observations, sensitivity and estimation in Northern environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicart, J. E.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Essery, R. L. H.; Bewley, D.

    2006-11-01

    At high latitudes, longwave radiation can provide similar, or higher, amounts of energy to snow than shortwave radiation due to the low solar elevation (cosine effect and increased scattering due to long atmospheric path lengths). This effect is magnified in mountains due to shading and longwave emissions from the complex topography. This study examines longwave irradiance at the snow surface in the Wolf Creek Research Basin, Yukon Territory, Canada (60° 36N, 134° 57W) during the springs of 2002 and 2004. Incoming longwave radiation was estimated from standard meteorological measurements by segregating radiation sources into clear sky, clouds and surrounding terrain. A sensitivity study was conducted to detect the atmospheric and topographic conditions under which emission from adjacent terrain significantly increases the longwave irradiance. The total incoming longwave radiation is more sensitive to sky view factor than to the temperature of the emitting terrain surfaces. Brutsaert's equation correctly simulates the clear-sky irradiance for hourly time steps using temperature and humidity. Longwave emissions from clouds, which raised longwave radiation above that from clear skies by 16% on average, were best estimated using daily atmospheric shortwave transmissivity and hourly relative humidity. An independent test of the estimation procedure for a prairie site near Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, indicated that the calculations are robust in late winter and spring conditions. Copyright

  6. Microwave produced plasma in a Toroidal Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A. K.; Edwards, W. F.; Held, E. D.

    2010-11-01

    A currentless toroidal plasma device exhibits a large range of interesting basic plasma physics phenomena. Such a device is not in equilibrium in a strict magneto hydrodynamic sense. There are many sources of free energy in the form of gradients in plasma density, temperature, the background magnetic field and the curvature of the magnetic field. These free energy sources excite waves and instabilities which have been the focus of studies in several devices in last two decades. A full understanding of these simple plasmas is far from complete. At Utah State University we have recently designed and installed a microwave plasma generation system on a small tokamak borrowed from the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada. Microwaves are generated at 2.45 GHz in a pulsed dc mode using a magnetron from a commercial kitchen microwave oven. The device is equipped with horizontal and vertical magnetic fields and a transformer to impose a toroidal electric field for current drive. Plasmas can be obtained over a wide range of pressure with and without magnetic fields. We present some preliminary measurements of plasma density and potential profiles. Measurements of plasma temperature at different operating conditions are also presented.

  7. Human absorption and retention of polonium-210 from caribou meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P A; Fisenne, I; Chorney, D; Baweja, A S; Tracy, B L

    2001-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) absorption factors and the biological retention times for polonium were determined for a group of 14 volunteers--seven men and seven women--from Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. Each volunteer consumed 2.0 kg of caribou meat containing known amounts of naturally occurring 210Po. Urine and faecal samples were collected for up to 65 days after meat consumption and analysed for 210Po. The average GI absorption factor for the 14 volunteers was 56 +/- 4% (range = 31-71%), not significantly different from the ICRP value of 50%. About 3% of absorbed polonium underwent prompt excretion by the urinary pathway. The remainder was retained by the body with a half-time >100 days, compared to the ICRP value of 50 days. The effect of these findings increases the dose estimate for ingestion of 210Po in food by a factor of 1.5 to 3.5. Thus, background doses to people consuming caribou and reindeer may be higher than previously thought.

  8. Human absorption and retention of polonium-210 from caribou meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.A.; Fisenne, I.; Chorney, D.; Baweja, A.S.; Tracy, B.L.

    2001-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) absorption factors and the biological retention times for polonium were determined for a group of 14 volunteers - seven men and seven women - from Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. Each volunteer consumed 2.0 kg of caribou meat containing known amounts of naturally occurring 210 Po. Urine and faecal samples were collected for up to 65 days after meat consumption and analysed for 210 Po. The average GI absorption factor for the 14 volunteers was 56±4% (range = 31-71%), not significantly different from the ICRP value of 50%. About 3% of absorbed polonium underwent prompt excretion by the urinary pathway. The remainder was retained by the body with a half-time >100 days, compared to the ICRP value of 50 days. The effect of these findings increases the dose estimate for ingestion of 210 Po in food by a factor of 1.5 to 3.5. Thus, background doses to people consuming caribou and reindeer may be higher than previously thought. (author)

  9. Management of Canadian mineral resources: an industry viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powis, A

    1976-03-01

    Federal and provincial governments in Canada are developing strategies for a national mineral policy, the theme being to obtain optimum benefit for Canada from present and future use of minerals. The provisions of the British North America Act, the centerpiece of Canada's constitution, place ownership of natural resources under the jurisdiction of the province in which they are found, although it retains exclusive authority for the Federal government over the export and interprovincial trade of such resources. Contradiction and challenges are now being experienced between these two levels of government, resulting in excess taxation policies in the minerals industry. Mr. Powis discussed these issues at the 32nd Annual Conference of Provincial Ministers of Mines in Saskatoon on September 15, 1975. The roles of the private sector and governments, the Economic Council of Canada trade strategy report, the mineral area planning study, and the public and political perceptions are reviewed. Options for the future are summarized. Mr. Powis concludes that the atmosphere of confrontation in Canadian mineral policy leads to irrational management of Canadian resources; further, he sees a lack of communication between industry and government as complicating the issue. The Canadian mining industry also faces the other serious problems: (1) mining problems in inhospitable areas; (2) continuing difficulty in attracting and retaining trained labor forces; (3) increasing costs of exploration and transport; (4) competing with larger and more accessible deposits in other parts of the world; and (5) the impact of inflation in all areas of the industry. (MCW)

  10. Longitudinal and latitudinal variations in dynamic characteristics of the MLT (70−95km: a study involving the CUJO network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Manson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The newly-installed MFR (medium frequency radar at Platteville (40°N, 105°W has provided the opportunity and impetus to create an operational network of middle- latitude MFRs stretching from 81°W–142°E. CUJO (Canada U.S. Japan Opportunity comprises systems at London (43°N, 81°W, Platteville (40°N, 105°W, Saskatoon (52°N, 107°W, Wakkanai (45°N, 142°E and Yamagawa (31°N, 131°E. It offers a significant 7000km longitudinal sector in the North American-Pacific region, and a useful range of latitudes (12–14° at two longitudes. Annual climatologies involving both height and frequency versus time contour plots for periods from 8h to 30 days, show that the changes with longitude are very significant and distinctive, often exceeding the local latitudinal variations. Comparisons with models and the recent UARS-HRDI global analysis of tides are discussed. The fits of the horizontal wave numbers of the longer period oscillations are provided in unique frequency versus time contour plots and shown to be consistent with the expected dominant modes. Annual climatologies of planetary waves (16 day, 2 day and gravity waves reveal strong seasonal and longitudinal variations. Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides; climatology

  11. Longitudinal and latitudinal variations in dynamic characteristics of the MLT (70-95km): a study involving the CUJO network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, A.; Meek, C.; Chshyolkova, T.; Avery, S.; Thorsen, D.; MacDougall, J.; Hocking, W.; Murayama, Y.; Igarashi, K.; Namboothiri, S.; Kishore, P.

    2004-02-01

    . The newly-installed MFR (medium frequency radar) at Platteville (40N, 105W) has provided the opportunity and impetus to create an operational network of middle- latitude MFRs stretching from W-E. CUJO (Canada U.S. Japan Opportunity) comprises systems at London (N, 81W), Platteville (40N, 105W), Saskatoon (52N, 107W), Wakkanai (45N, 142E) and Yamagawa (31N, 131E). It offers a significant 7000km longitudinal sector in the North American-Pacific region, and a useful range of latitudes (12-14) at two longitudes. Annual climatologies involving both height and frequency versus time contour plots for periods from 8h to 30 days, show that the changes with longitude are very significant and distinctive, often exceeding the local latitudinal variations. Comparisons with models and the recent UARS-HRDI global analysis of tides are discussed. The fits of the horizontal wave numbers of the longer period oscillations are provided in unique frequency versus time contour plots and shown to be consistent with the expected dominant modes. Annual climatologies of planetary waves (16 day, 2 day) and gravity waves reveal strong seasonal and longitudinal variations.

  12. Building on our past... building for the future. 33rd Annual Canadian Nuclear Society conference and 36th CNS/CNA student conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The 33rd Annual Canadian Nuclear Society Conference and 36th CNS/CNA Student Conference was held in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada on June 10-13, 2012. With the theme of the conference, 'Building on our Past... Building for the Future', the conference specifically noted the 50th anniversary of the first-nuclear-produced electricity in Canada by the small Nuclear Power Demonstration (NPD) plant on June 4, 1962 and the 60th anniversary of the creation of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited in April 1952. The conference brought together over 360 delegates for the technical sessions with very broad subject matter of: physics, environment and waste management, safety and licensing, life extension, fusion technology, fuel and advanced reactors, reactor materials, uranium mining, I and C process, and, thermalhydraulics. Two plenary sessions focussed on: Small Modular Reactors; and, radioisotopes primarily for medical applications. The student conference was well attended with plenary sessions focussing on: Nuclear Industry Power Developments: The Renaissance; and a panel discussion on the overview of the proposed refurbishment of the Darlington four-unit station.

  13. The Features of Naturalization of Invasive Fraction of Flora in the Voronezh Region and in Some Regions of the European Part of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimirov D.R.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is about naturalization features of invasive fraction of flora in Voronezh and some other regions of the European part of Russia. The summary table represents all invasive and potentially invasive plants of the European part of Russia with their level of naturalization (or invasive status. Invasive fraction of flora in the Voronezh region numbers 120 plants. All of them are on different stages of naturalization process in an anthropogenic areal. Invasive plants represent by agriophyts – 41 (34,1 % species, epecophyts – 75 (62,5 % species and colonophyts-epecophyts – 4 (3,4 % species. Totally there are 201 species of invasive and potentially invasive plants spread within European part of Russia (Northern-West Russia, Ivanovo, Kaluga, Tver, and Voronezh regions. They formed the “black list” of European Russia. 10 species are common to all invasive fractions. These are Acer negundo, Amelanchier x spicata, Aster x salignus, Echinocystis lobata, Elodea canadensis, Heracleum sosnowskyi, Impatiens glandulifera, Impatiens parviflora, Juncus tenuis and Lupinus polyphyllus. The analysis of the general list of invasive fractions of European Russia shows that 120 species of the list are invasive or potentially invasive in the Voronezh region (100 and 20 species in accordance, adventives naturalized species – 31, native species – 19, archaeophyts – 2, apophyts – 4. 26 species from the list were not found in the Voronezh region. Apparently, the region is a transit area for many invasive plants, which migrate from South to North, from East to West etc. Not only its natural and climatic potential, but also high level of transformation of local landscapes enabled immigrant-plants to naturalize within the bounds of the region. Furthermore, for many years the Voronezh region was the center of introduction of alien plants. Many of those became a part of invasion fraction of regional flora. In recent decades green building took place of

  14. The sampling characteristics of electivity indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechowicz, Martin J

    1982-01-01

    , are remarkably similar for all but Strauss' linear index, L. Populus grandidentata, Quercus rubra, Ostrya virginiana, and Amelanchier were the most preferred host trees in the sampled forest; Prunus serotina, Acer pensylvanicum, A. rubrum, Betula lutea, and Fraxinus americana were most avoided. The use of Vanderploeg and Scavia's E * index is recommended.

  15. Asymmetric effects of native and exotic invasive shrubs on ecology of the West Nile virus vector Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Allison M; Allan, Brian F; Frisbie, Lauren A; Muturi, Ephantus J

    2015-06-16

    Exotic invasive plants alter the structure and function of native ecosystems and may influence the distribution and abundance of arthropod disease vectors by modifying habitat quality. This study investigated how invasive plants alter the ecology of Culex pipiens, an important vector of West Nile virus (WNV) in northeastern and midwestern regions of the United States. Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that three native leaf species (Rubus allegheniensis, blackberry; Sambucus canadensis, elderberry; and Amelanchier laevis, serviceberry), and three exotic invasive leaf species (Lonicera maackii, Amur honeysuckle; Elaeagnus umbellata, autumn olive; and Rosa multiflora, multiflora rose) alter Cx. pipiens oviposition site selection, emergence rates, development time, and adult body size. The relative abundance of seven bacterial phyla in infusions of the six leaf species also was determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to test the hypothesis that variation in emergence, development, and oviposition site selection is correlated to differences in the diversity and abundance of bacteria associated with different leaf species, important determinants of nutrient quality and availability for mosquito larvae. Leaf detritus from invasive honeysuckle and autumn olive yielded significantly higher adult emergence rates compared to detritus from the remaining leaf species and honeysuckle alleviated the negative effects of intraspecific competition on adult emergence. Conversely, leaves of native blackberry acted as an ecological trap, generating high oviposition but low emergence rates. Variation in bacterial flora associated with different leaf species may explain this asymmetrical production of mosquitoes: emergence rates and oviposition rates were positively correlated to bacterial abundance and diversity, respectively. We conclude that the displacement of native understory plant species by certain invasive shrubs

  16. Antioxidant Capacity, Anthocyanins, and Total Phenols of Wild and Cultivated Berries in Chile Capacidad Antioxidante, Antocianinas y Fenoles Totales de Berries Silvestres y Cultivados en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Guerrero C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to incorporate a lot of natural antioxidants into the human organism by consuming berries which can prevent diseases generated by the action of free radicals. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals and thus protect the organism from the oxidative damage of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Berries stand out as one of the richest sources of antioxidant phytonutrients among various fruits and vegetables. The objective of this research was to determine antioxidant capacity (AC, total anthocyanins (TA, and total phenols (TP of wild and cultivated berries in different localities of La Araucanía and Los Ríos Regions in Chile. These parameters were analyzed by using the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH method, pH-differential, and Folin-Ciocalteu method. Percentages of DPPH discoloration of different berries studied were between 67.8% and 95.3% for red sarsaparilla and rosehip, respectively. Maqui berries showed a significantly higher TA content (2240.2 and 1445.3 mg L-1 cyanidin 3-glucoside than other berries, and a mean for all berries of 335.5 mg L-1. Higher phenol content levels were obtained in two cultivars of saskatoon (773.9 and 1001.9 mg L-1 gallic acid and wild rosehip (1457.0 and 1140.4 mg L-1 gallic acid. We conclude that there are significant differences in antioxidant capacity of wild and cultivated Chilean berries in this study which show a strong correlation between AC and TP content.Por medio del consumo de berries es posible incorporar al organismo una gran cantidad de antioxidantes capaces de prevenir múltiples enfermedades generadas por la acción de los radicales libres. Los antioxidantes actúan neutralizando los radicales libres y de esta forma protegen al organismo del daño oxidativo de lípidos, proteínas y ácidos nucleicos. Entre variadas frutas y hortalizas, se destacan los berries como una de las fuentes más ricas en fitonutrientes antioxidantes. El objetivo de esta investigaci

  17. Canopy structural alterations to nitrogen functions of the soil microbial community in a Quercus virginiana forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, L. D.; Van Stan, J. T., II; Rosier, C. L.; Gay, T. E.; Wu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Forest canopy structure controls the timing, amount and chemical character of precipitation supply to soils through interception and drainage along crown surfaces. Yet, few studies have examined forest canopy structural connections to soil microbial communities (SMCs), and none have measured how this affects SMC N functions. The maritime Quercus virginiana Mill. (southern live oak) forests of St Catherine's Island, GA, USA provide an ideal opportunity to examine canopy structural alterations to SMCs and their functioning, as their throughfall varies substantially across space due to dense Tillandsia usneoides L. (spanish moss) mats bestrewn throughout. To examine the impact of throughfall variability on SMC N functions, we examined points along the canopy coverage continuum: large canopy gaps (0%), bare canopy (50-60%), and canopy of heavy T. usneoides coverage (>=85%). Five sites beneath each of the canopy cover types were monitored for throughfall water/ions and soil leachates chemistry for one storm each month over the growing period (7 months, Mar-2014 to Sep-2014) to compare with soil chemistry and SMC communities sampled every two months throughout that same period (Mar, May, Jul, Sep). DGGE and QPCR analysis of the N functioning genes (NFGs) to characterize the ammonia oxidizing bacterial (AOB-amoA), archaea (AOA-amoA), and ammonification (chiA) communities were used to determine the nitrification and decomposition potential of these microbial communities. PRS™-probes (Western Ag Innovations Inc., Saskatoon, Canada) were then used to determine the availability of NO3-N and NH4+N in the soils over a 6-week period to evaluate whether the differing NFG abundance and community structures resulted in altered N cycling.

  18. Modeling Lake Storage Dynamics to support Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimal, S.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Smith, L. C.; Smith, S.; Bowling, L. C.; Pavelsky, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic and Boreal Zone (ABZ) of Canada and Alaska includes vast areas of permafrost, lakes, and wetlands. Permafrost thawing in this area is expected to increase due to the projected rise of temperature caused by climate change. Over the long term, this may reduce overall surface water area, but in the near-term, the opposite is being observed, with rising paludification (lake/wetland expansion). One element of NASA's ABoVE field experiment is observations of lake and wetland extent and surface elevations using NASA's AirSWOT airborne interferometric radar, accompanied by a high-resolution camera. One use of the WSE retrievals will be to constrain model estimates of lake storage dynamics. Here, we compare predictions using the lake dynamics algorithm within the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface scheme. The VIC lake algorithm includes representation of sub-grid topography, where the depth and area of seasonally-flooded areas are modeled as a function of topographic wetness index, basin area, and slope. The topography data used is from a new global digital elevation model, MERIT-DEM. We initially set up VIC at sites with varying permafrost conditions (i.e., no permafrost, discontinuous, continuous) in Saskatoon and Yellowknife, Canada, and Toolik Lake, Alaska. We constrained the uncalibrated model with the WSE at the time of the first ABoVE flight, and quantified the model's ability to predict WSE and ΔWSE during the time of the second flight. Finally, we evaluated the sensitivity of the VIC-lakes model and compared the three permafrost conditions. Our results quantify the sensitivity of surface water to permafrost state across the target sites. Furthermore, our evaluation of the lake modeling framework contributes to the modeling and mapping framework for lake and reservoir storage change evaluation globally as part of the SWOT mission, planned for launch in 2021.

  19. Improving health-related quality of life through an evidence-based obesity reduction program: the Healthy Weights Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemstra ME

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mark E Lemstra,1 Marla R Rogers,21Alliance Health, Moose Jaw, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada Abstract: When evaluating any health intervention, it is critical to include the impact of the intervention on health-related quality of life (HRQL. Among those who are obese, HRQL is often lower than the general population and even more when considering obesity-related comorbidities and bodily pain. The objectives of this paper were to determine the impact of a multidisciplinary, community-based obesity reduction program on HRQL and to determine the independent risk factors for lack of improvement from baseline to follow-up. HRQL was measured using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 at baseline and follow-up (24 weeks. To date, 84.5% of those who completed the program had improvements in their overall SF-36 score. Significant increases in the mean scores on eight dimensions of health were also observed. Lack of improvement was independently affected by smoking status (odds ratio 3.75; 95% confidence interval 1.44–9.78; P=0.007 and not having a buddy to attend the program (odds ratio 3.70; 95% confidence interval 1.28–10.68; P=0.015. Obesity reduction programs that target increasing exercise, improving diet, and cognitive behavioral therapy can positively impact HRQL in obese adults. Social support has a strong role to play in improving outcomes. Keywords: obesity, health-related quality of life, social- support, SF-36, Canada

  20. Restaurant inspection frequency: The RestoFreq Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medu, Olanrewaju; Turner, Hollie; Cushon, Jennifer A; Melis, Deborah; Rea, Leslie; Abdellatif, Treena; Neudorf, Cory O; Schwandt, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Foodborne illness is an important contributor to morbidity and health system costs in Canada. Using number of critical hazards as a proxy for food safety, we sought to better understand how to improve food safety in restaurants. We compared the current standard of annual inspections to twice-yearly inspections among restaurants "at risk" for food safety infractions. These were restaurants that had three or more elevated-risk inspection ratings in the preceding 36 months. We conducted a two-arm randomized controlled trial between November 2012 and October 2014. The intervention was twice-yearly routine restaurant inspection compared to standard once-yearly routine inspection. Included were all restaurants within Saskatoon Health Region that were assessed as "at risk", with 73 restaurants in the intervention arm and 78 in the control arm. Independent sample t-tests were conducted between groups to compare: i) average number of critical hazards per inspection; and ii) proportion of inspections resulting in a rating indicating an elevated hazard. Over time we noted statistically significant improvements across both study arms, in number of both critical food safety hazards (decreased by 61%) and elevated-risk inspection ratings (decreased by 45%) (p < 0.0001). We observed no significant differences between the two groups pre- or post-intervention. Results suggest increasing the number of annual routine inspections in high-risk restaurants was not associated with a significant difference in measures of compliance with food safety regulations. Findings of this study do not provide evidence supporting increased frequency of restaurant inspection from annually to twice annually.

  1. A physiotherapy triage assessment service for people with low back disorders: evaluation of short-term outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bath B

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Brenna Bath, Punam PahwaCollege of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, CanadaPurpose: To determine the short-term effects of physiotherapy triage assessments on self-reported pain, functioning, and general well-being and quality of life in people with low back-related disorders.Methods: Participants with low back–related complaints were recruited from those referred to a spinal triage assessment program delivered by physiotherapists (PTs. Before undergoing the triage assessment, the participants completed a battery of questionnaires covering a range of sociodemographic, clinical, and psychosocial features. The study used the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS, the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI, and the Medical Outcomes Survey 36-item short-form version 2 (SF-36v2 to assess self-reported pain, function, and quality of life. Baseline measures and variables were analyzed using a descriptive analysis method (ie, proportions, means, medians. Paired samples t-tests or Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-rank tests were used to analyze the overall group differences between the pretest and posttest outcome measures where appropriate.Results: A total of 108 out of 115 (93.9% participants completed the posttest survey. The Physical Component Summary of the SF36v2 was the only measure that demonstrated significant improvement (P < 0.001.Conclusion: A spinal triage assessment program delivered by PTs can be viewed as a complex intervention that may have the potential to affect a wide range of patient-related outcomes. Further research is needed to examine the long-term outcomes and explore potential mechanisms of improvement using a biopsychosocial framework.Keywords: interprofessional practice, quality of life, back pain, orthopedics

  2. The use of alternative therapies in the Saskatchewan stroke rehabilitation population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefromova Ludmilla

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients use alternative therapies. The purpose of this study was to determine the percentage of stroke rehabilitation patients in Saskatchewan using alternative therapies, whether patients found these therapies effective in alleviating stroke-related symptoms, how often those patients who used alternative therapies discuss this fact with their primary care doctor and the main reason why patients might not do so. Methods Telephone questionnaire surveys were conducted with 117 patients who had suffered a stroke and undergone inpatient or outpatient rehabilitation at Saskatoon City Hospital. Results The study revealed that 26.5% of 117 stroke rehabilitation patients visited alternative practitioners at least once or used some form of unconventional therapy. Only 16.1% of patients found that alternative therapy made them feel much better. Of those who used alternative therapy, 61.3% did not discuss this fact with their primary physician. Many of the respondents (47.3% who did not inform their physician stated that they did not see the necessity of talking about these treatments and 21.1% did not discuss the issue with their physician because they felt that he or she might disapprove of alternative therapies. Conclusion A relatively small percentage of stroke patients found alternative therapies beneficial. Doctors should be aware that a significant number of patients will try alternative treatment without discussion with their primary care physician or specialist. The current study suggests that after completing routine questioning, doctors should also ask their patients about their use of alternative therapies and, when appropriate, review issues of safety and efficacy.

  3. Annual report 1994-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Established in 1952 as a Crown corporation, AECL reports to Parliament through the Ministry of Natural Resources. Its mandate is to undertake research into nuclear energy and prepare and develop its commercial applications. AECL`s objective is to secure the maximum economic benefit for Canada from CANDU technology and the associated research and development. AECL`s accomplishments include the development of products and services which are now in use worldwide. The corporation`s world-renowned flagship product, the CANDU reactor, supplies almost one-fifth of Canada`s electricity requirements and is an important component of the energy programs in five other countries. Building upon these achievements, AECL continues to consolidate its position as a world-leading supplies of full-scope nuclear power capabilities with expectations to capture a substantial share of the emerging global nuclear power market. The immediate goals are to meet the customers` requirements in the delivery of current projects, to ensure that operating CANDU stations continue to maintain a high level of performance, to secure further CANDU sales, to garner increased revenues from further commercialization of CANDU technology, and to serve the Government of Canada`s nuclear policy initiatives. AECL currently employs 3900 people in a variety of locations, including two major research laboratories located in Ontario and Manitoba, as well as business, engineering and design offices in Ottawa, Toronto, Montreal, Saskatoon and Fredericton. AECL has two subsidiaries, AECL Technologies Inc., in Washington, DC, and AECL Technologies B.V., in the Hague, Netherlands, and maintains a significant presence in South Korea, as well as several smaller offices in other countries.

  4. Annual report 1994-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Established in 1952 as a Crown corporation, AECL reports to Parliament through the Ministry of Natural Resources. Its mandate is to undertake research into nuclear energy and prepare and develop its commercial applications. AECL's objective is to secure the maximum economic benefit for Canada from CANDU technology and the associated research and development. AECL's accomplishments include the development of products and services which are now in use worldwide. The corporation's world-renowned flagship product, the CANDU reactor, supplies almost one-fifth of Canada's electricity requirements and is an important component of the energy programs in five other countries. Building upon these achievements, AECL continues to consolidate its position as a world-leading supplies of full-scope nuclear power capabilities with expectations to capture a substantial share of the emerging global nuclear power market. The immediate goals are to meet the customers' requirements in the delivery of current projects, to ensure that operating CANDU stations continue to maintain a high level of performance, to secure further CANDU sales, to garner increased revenues from further commercialization of CANDU technology, and to serve the Government of Canada's nuclear policy initiatives. AECL currently employs 3900 people in a variety of locations, including two major research laboratories located in Ontario and Manitoba, as well as business, engineering and design offices in Ottawa, Toronto, Montreal, Saskatoon and Fredericton. AECL has two subsidiaries, AECL Technologies Inc., in Washington, DC, and AECL Technologies B.V., in the Hague, Netherlands, and maintains a significant presence in South Korea, as well as several smaller offices in other countries

  5. Risk of Hippocampal Metastases in Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients at Presentation and After Cranial Irradiation: A Safety Profile Study for Hippocampal Sparing During Prophylactic or Therapeutic Cranial Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundapur, Vijayananda; Ellchuk, Tasha; Ahmed, Shahid; Gondi, Vinai

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Neurocognitive impairment (NI) in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) after whole brain radiation treatment (WBRT) is a significant cause of morbidity. Hippocampal avoidance (HA) during WBRT may mitigate or prevent NI in such patients. However, this has not been tested in SCLC patients. The estimated risk of metastases in the HA region (HM) in patients with SCLC at diagnosis or after WBRT is unknown. Our study aimed to determine the risk of HM in patients with SCLC and to assess correlated clinical factors. Methods and Materials: Patients with SCLC who experienced brain metastases (BM) at presentation (de novo) or after WBRT treated at the Saskatoon Cancer Centre between 2005 and 2012 were studied. Relevant neuroimaging was independently reviewed by a neuroradiologist. HM was defined as metastases within 5 mm of the hippocampus. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess correlation between various clinical variables and HM. Results: Seventy eligible patients were identified. Of 59 patients presenting with de novo BM, 3 patients (5%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0%-10.7%) had HM. Collectively there were 359 (range, 1-33) de novo BM with 3 (0.8%, 95% CI: 0%-1.7%) HM deposits. Twenty patients experienced progression of metastatic disease in the brain after WBRT. Of the 20 patients, only 1 patient (5%, 95% CI: 0%-14.5%) experienced HM. On logistic regression, no factors significantly correlated with HM. Conclusion: The overall incidence of HM before or after WBRT in SCLC patients is low, providing preliminary support for the safety of HA during planned clinical trials of HA-WBRT for SCLC

  6. Risk of Hippocampal Metastases in Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients at Presentation and After Cranial Irradiation: A Safety Profile Study for Hippocampal Sparing During Prophylactic or Therapeutic Cranial Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundapur, Vijayananda, E-mail: Vijayananda.kundapur@saskcancer.ca [Saskatoon Cancer Center, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Ellchuk, Tasha [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Ahmed, Shahid [Saskatoon Cancer Center, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Gondi, Vinai [Cadence Health Brain Tumor Center and Cadence Health Proton Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Neurocognitive impairment (NI) in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) after whole brain radiation treatment (WBRT) is a significant cause of morbidity. Hippocampal avoidance (HA) during WBRT may mitigate or prevent NI in such patients. However, this has not been tested in SCLC patients. The estimated risk of metastases in the HA region (HM) in patients with SCLC at diagnosis or after WBRT is unknown. Our study aimed to determine the risk of HM in patients with SCLC and to assess correlated clinical factors. Methods and Materials: Patients with SCLC who experienced brain metastases (BM) at presentation (de novo) or after WBRT treated at the Saskatoon Cancer Centre between 2005 and 2012 were studied. Relevant neuroimaging was independently reviewed by a neuroradiologist. HM was defined as metastases within 5 mm of the hippocampus. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess correlation between various clinical variables and HM. Results: Seventy eligible patients were identified. Of 59 patients presenting with de novo BM, 3 patients (5%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0%-10.7%) had HM. Collectively there were 359 (range, 1-33) de novo BM with 3 (0.8%, 95% CI: 0%-1.7%) HM deposits. Twenty patients experienced progression of metastatic disease in the brain after WBRT. Of the 20 patients, only 1 patient (5%, 95% CI: 0%-14.5%) experienced HM. On logistic regression, no factors significantly correlated with HM. Conclusion: The overall incidence of HM before or after WBRT in SCLC patients is low, providing preliminary support for the safety of HA during planned clinical trials of HA-WBRT for SCLC.

  7. Seasonal variations of the semi-diurnal and diurnal tides in the MLT: multi-year MF radar observations from 2–70° N, modelled tides (GSWM, CMAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Manson

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available In an earlier paper (Manson et al., 1999a tidal data (1990–1997 from six Medium Frequency Radars (MFR were compared with the Global Scale Wave Model (GSWM, original 1995 version. The radars are located between the equator and high northern latitudes: Christmas Island (2° N, Hawaii (22° N, Urbana (40° N, London (43° N, Saskatoon (52° N and Tromsø (70° N. Common harmonic analysis was applied, to ensure consistency of amplitudes and phases in the 75–95 km height range. For the diurnal tide, seasonal agreements between observations and model were excellent while for the semi-diurnal tide the seasonal transitions between clear solstitial states were less well captured by the model. Here the data set is increased by the addition of two locations in the Pacific-North American sector: Yamagawa 31° N, and Wakkanai 45° N. The GSWM model has undergone two additional developments (1998, 2000 to include an improved gravity wave (GW stress parameterization, background winds from UARS systems and monthly tidal forcing for better characterization of seasonal change. The other model, the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (CMAM which is a General Circulation Model, provides internally generated forcing (due to ozone and water vapour for the tides. The two GSWM versions show distinct differences, with the 2000 version being either closer to, or further away from, the observations than the original 1995 version. CMAM provides results dependent upon the GW parameterization scheme inserted, but one of the schemes provides very useful tides, especially for the semi-diurnal component.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides

  8. Establishing Effective Environmental and Safety Performance Indicators: A Best Practice Approach in Uranium Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezansoff, D.; White, G.

    2010-01-01

    Cameco Corporation (Cameco), with headquarters in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, is the world's largest, low-cost uranium producer, currently supplying sufficient uranium to meet 20% of the world's demand. It is characterized by a diverse range of operations in Canada, the United States and Central Asia, for which Cameco is the majority owner and/or operator, including exploration, mining, milling, refining and conversion. Cameco had four business segments: Uranium; Conversion services; Nuclear energy generation; and Gold Also, in 2002, Cameco revised its vision statement to indicate, 'Cameco will be a dominant nuclear energy company producing uranium fuel and generating clean electricity'. Commensurate with this, Cameco has re-confirmed its overall measures of success as follows: A safe, healthy and rewarding workplace; A clean environment; Supportive communities; and Solid financial performance - all reflected in a growing return to shareholders. Like most organizations, Cameco recognizes the importance of conducting its operations in ways that promote continual improvement in environmental and safety performance. Demonstrating the environmental advantages of nuclear is a vital part of the overall best management practices approach. Detractors often try to point to the uranium production side of the nuclear fuel cycle in pursuit of trying to make the case that the nuclear option does not carry any special environmental advantage. These attempts are mostly based on performance from eras past, not modern performance. The uranium sector must be able to present its case in a modern context, which is largely based on sustainable development principles. This paper focuses on establishing environment and safety performance indicators for the uranium production and conversion aspects of Cameco's business, as well as in support of the environmental advantages of nuclear energy generation

  9. Is routine pathological evaluation of tissue from gynecomastia necessary? A 15-year retrospective pathological and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senger, Jenna-Lynn; Chandran, Geethan; Kanthan, Rani

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To reconsider the routine plastic surgical practice of requesting histopathological evaluation of tissue from gynecomastia. METHOD: The present study was a retrospective histopathological review (15-year period [1996 to 2012]) involving gynecomastia tissue samples received at the pathology laboratory in the Saskatoon Health Region (Saskatchewan). The Laboratory Information System (LIS) identified all specimens using the key search words “gynecomastia”, “gynaecomastia”, “gynecomazia” and “gynaecomazia”. A literature review to identify all cases of incidentally discovered malignancies in gynecomastia tissue specimens over a 15-year period (1996 to present) was undertaken. RESULTS: The 15-year LIS search detected a total of 452 patients that included two cases of pseudogynecomastia (0.4%). Patients’ age ranged from five to 92 years and 43% of the cases were bilateral (28% left sided, 29% right sided). The weight of the specimens received ranged from 0.2 g to 1147.2 g. All cases showed no significant histopathological concerns. The number of tissue blocks sampled ranged from one to 42, averaging four blocks/case (approximately $105/case), resulting in a cost of approximately $3,200/year, with a 15-year expenditure of approximately $48,000. The literature review identified a total of 15 incidental findings: ductal carcinoma in situ (12 cases), atypical ductal hyperplasia (two cases) and infiltrating ductal carcinoma (one case). CONCLUSIONS: In the context of evidence-based literature, and because no significant pathological findings were detected in this particular cohort of 452 cases with 2178 slides, the authors believe it is time to re-evaluate whether routine histopathological examination of tissue from gynecomastia remains necessary. The current climate of health care budget fiscal restraints warrants reassessment of the current policies and practices of sending tissue samples of gynecomastia incurring negative productivity costs on

  10. The Association of Vitamin D Status with Disease Activity in a Cohort of Crohn’s Disease Patients in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dania Alrefai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We determined the association between vitamin D status as 25hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] and disease activity in a cohort of 201 Crohn’s Disease (CD patients in Saskatoon, Canada over three years. The association between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and 25(OHD and several disease predictors were evaluated by the generalized estimating equation (GEE over three time-point measurements. A GEE binary logistic regression test was used to evaluate the association between vitamin D status and the Harvey-Bradshaw Index (HBI. The deficient vitamin D group (≤29 nmol/L had significantly higher mean hs-CRP levels compared with the three other categories of vitamin D status (p < 0.05. CRP was significantly lower in all of the other groups compared with the vitamin D-deficient group, which had Coef. = 12.8 units lower (95% CI −19.8, −5.8, Coef. 7.85 units (95% CI −14.9, −0.7, Coef. 9.87 units (95% CI −17.6, −2.0 for the vitamin D insufficient, adequate, and optimal groups, respectively. The vitamin D status was associated with the HBI active disease category. However, the difference in the odds ratio compared with the reference category of deficient vitamin D category was only significant in the insufficient category (odds ratio = 3.45, p = 0.03, 95% CI 1.0, 10.8. Vitamin D status was inversely associated with indicators of disease activity in Crohn’s disease, particularly with the objective measures of inflammation.

  11. Maternal depression in Syrian refugee women recently moved to Canada: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Asma; Bowen, Angela; Feng, Cindy Xin

    2017-07-24

    Refugee women are almost five times more likely to develop postpartum depression than Canadian-born women. This can be attributed to various difficulties they faced before coming to Canada as well as during resettlement. Moreover, refugee women usually face many obstacles when accessing health services, including language and cultural barriers, as well as unique help-seeking behaviors that are influenced by various cultural and practical factors. There has been a recent, rapid influx of Syrian refugees to Canada, and many of them are childbearing women. However, little is known about the experiences that these women have encountered pre- and post-resettlement, and their perceptions of mental health issues. Thus, there is an urgent need to understand refugee women's experiences of having a baby in Canada from a mental health perspective. A mixed methods research design included 12 Syrian refugee women who migrated to Saskatoon in 2015-16 and who were either pregnant or 1 year postpartum. The data were collected during a single focus group discussion and a structured questionnaire. Our results showed that more than half of participants have depressive symptoms, half of them have anxiety symptoms, and one sixth have PTSD symptoms. Three major themes emerged from the qualitative data: 1) Understanding of maternal depression; 2) Protective factors for mental health; and 3) Barriers to mental health services. Maternal depression is an important feature in Syrian refugee women recently resettled in Canada. Reuniting these women with their families and engaging them in culturally appropriate support programs may improve their mental health outcomes.

  12. Photo- and pion electroproduction in chiral effective field theory; Photo- und Elektropionproduktion in chiraler effektiver Feldtheorie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilt, Marius

    2011-12-13

    This thesis is concerned with pion photoproduction (PPP) and pion electroproduction (PEP) in the framework of manifestly Lorentz-invariant baryon chiral perturbation theory. For that purpose two different approaches are used. Firstly, a one-loop-order calculation up to chiral order O(q{sup 4}) including pions and nucleons as degrees of freedom, is performed to describe the energy dependence of the reactions over a large range. To improve the dependence on the virtuality of the photon in PEP, in a second approach vector mesons are included as explicit degrees of freedom. The latter calculation includes one-loop contributions up to chiral order O(q{sup 3}). Only three of the four physical processes of PPP and PEP can be accessed experimentally. These reactions are measured at several different facilities, e.g. Mainz, Bonn, or Saskatoon. The data obtained there are used to explore the limits of chiral perturbation theory. This thesis is the first complete manifestly Lorentz-invariant calculation up to order O(q{sup 4}) for PPP and PEP, and the first calculation ever for these processes including vector mesons explicitly. Beside the calculation of physical observables, a partial wave decomposition is performed and the most important multipoles are analyzed. They may be extracted from the calculated amplitudes and allow one to examine the nucleon and {delta} resonances. The number of diagrams one has to calculate is very large. In order to handle these expressions, several routines were developed for the computer algebra system Mathematica. For the multipole decomposition, two different programs are used. On the one hand, a modified version of the so-called {chi}MAID has been employed. On the other hand, similar routines were developed for Mathematica. In the end, the different calculations are compared with respect to their applicability to PPP and PEP.

  13. Rosette nanotubes show low acute pulmonary toxicity in vivo

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    W Shane Journeay

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available W Shane Journeay1, Sarabjeet S Suri1, Jesus G Moralez2, Hicham Fenniri2, Baljit Singh11Immunology Research Group, Toxicology Graduate Program and Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4, Canada; 2National Institute of Nanotechnology, National Research Council (NINT-NRC and Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2M9, CanadaAbstract: Nanotubes are being developed for a large variety of applications ranging from electronics to drug delivery. Common carbon nanotubes such as single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes have been studied in the greatest detail but require solubilization and removal of catalytic contaminants such as metals prior to being introduced to biological systems for medical application. The present in vivo study characterizes the degree and nature of inflammation caused by a novel class of self-assembling rosette nanotubes, which are biologically inspired, naturally water-soluble and free of metal content upon synthesis. Upon pulmonary administration of this material we examined responses at 24 h and 7d post-exposure. An acute inflammatory response is triggered at 50 and 25 μg doses by 24 h post-exposure but an inflammatory response is not triggered by a 5 μg dose. Lung inflammation observed at a 50 μg dose at 24 h was resolving by 7d. This work suggests that novel nanostructures with biological design may negate toxicity concerns for biomedical applications of nanotubes. This study also demonstrates that water-soluble rosette nanotube structures represent low pulmonary toxicity, likely due to their biologically inspired design, and their self-assembled architecture.Keywords: nanotoxicology, biocompatibility, nanomedicine, pulmonary drug delivery, lung inflammation

  14. Effects of pollination timing and distance on seed production in a dioecious weed Silene latifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jay F.; Duddu, Hema S. N.; Shirtliffe, Steven J.; Benaragama, Dilshan; Syrovy, Lena D.; Stanley, Katherine A.; Haile, Teketel A.

    2015-11-01

    Silene latifolia Poir. (white cockle or white campion) is an important invasive weed in North American agriculture. It exhibits dioecy, therefore, both male and female plants are required in order for seed production to occur. However, dioecious species being invasive is not common because of their limitations in pollination and subsequent seed production. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of pollination timing and distance on seed production of Silene latifolia. A series of experiments including pollination exclusion, timing and pollination distance were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at or around Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. For pollination exclusion, exclosures were built around the natural female plants for exclosure, sham-exclosure, and male and female combined treatments. Pollination timing was studied by applying exclosure, non-exclosure, night-exclosure, and day-exclosure treatments to individual female plants. Female plants were transplanted along a linear interval at six different distances from the pollen source to study the effect of pollination distance. S. latifolia was exclusively insect-pollinated and pollination occurred both day and night; however, in one year, pollination occurred mainly at night. Female plants that were in the range of 0-4 m from a compatible pollen source experienced no limitation to pollination. However, when the distance was increased further up to 128 m, pollination levels and subsequent seed production were declined. Moreover, there were differences in seed production between years suggesting that pollination was affected by the environmental conditions during pollination and the crop that white cockle was grown in. These experiments indicate that seed production in S. latifolia is limited by insect-pollination. Although there was pollination limitation for seed production at greater distances from a pollen source, the high fecundity rate (3000-18000 seeds per plant) resulted in a large seed output. Thus, we

  15. Thoughts of Quitting General Surgery Residency: Factors in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginther, David Nathan; Dattani, Sheev; Miller, Sarah; Hayes, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Attrition rates in general surgery training are higher than other surgical disciplines. We sought to determine the prevalence with which Canadian general surgery residents consider leaving their training and the contributing factors. An anonymous survey was administered to all general surgery residents in Canada. Responses from residents who considered leaving their training were assessed for importance of contributing factors. The study was conducted at the Royal University Hospital, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, a tertiary academic center. The response rate was approximately 34.0%. A minority (32.0%) reported very seriously or somewhat seriously considering leaving their training, whereas 35.2% casually considered doing so. Poor work-life balance in residency (38.9%) was the single-most important factor, whereas concern about future unemployment (16.7%) and poor future quality of life (15.7%) were next. Enjoyment of work (41.7%) was the most frequent mitigating factor. Harassment and intimidation were reported factors in 16.7%. On analysis, only intention to practice in a nonacademic setting approached significant association with thoughts of leaving (odds ratio = 1.92, CI = 0.99-3.74, p = 0.052). There was no association with sex, program, postgraduate year, relationship status, or subspecialty interest. There was a nonsignificant trend toward more thoughts of leaving with older age. Canadian general surgery residents appear less likely to seriously consider quitting than their American counterparts. Poor work-life balance in residency, fear of future unemployment, and anticipated poor future quality of life are significant contributors to thoughts of quitting. Efforts to educate prospective residents about the reality of the surgical lifestyle, and to assist residents in securing employment, may improve completion rates. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Perspectives on past and Present Waste Disposal Practices: A community-Based Participatory Research Project in Three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Zagozewski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of current and historical waste disposal practices on the environment and human health of Indigenous people in First Nations communities has yet to be adequately addressed. Solid waste disposal has been identified as a major environmental threat to First Nations Communities. A community-based participatory research project (CBPR was initiated by the Saskatoon Tribal Council Health and Family Services Incorporated to investigate concerns related to waste disposal in three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities. Utilizing a qualitative approach, we aimed to gain an understanding of past and present waste disposal practices and to identify any human and environmental health concerns related to these practices. One to one interviews and sharing circles were conducted with Elders. Elders were asked to share their perspectives on past and present waste disposal practices and to comment on the possible impacts these practices may have on the environment and community health. Historically waste disposal practices were similar among communities. The homeowner generated small volumes of waste, was exclusively responsible for disposal and utilized a backyard pit. Overtime waste disposal evolved to weekly pick-up of un-segregated garbage with waste disposal and open trash burning in a community dump site. Dump site locations and open trash burning were identified as significant health issues related to waste disposal practices in these communities. This research raises issues of inequity in the management of waste in First Nations Communities. It highlights the need for long-term sustainable funding to support community-based waste disposal and management strategies and the development of First Nations centered and delivered educational programs to encourage the adoption and implementation of waste reduction, reutilization and recycling activities in these communities.

  17. Perspectives on past and present waste disposal practices: a community-based participatory research project in three Saskatchewan first nations communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagozewski, Rebecca; Judd-Henrey, Ian; Nilson, Suzie; Bharadwaj, Lalita

    2011-04-28

    The impact of current and historical waste disposal practices on the environment and human health of Indigenous people in First Nations communities has yet to be adequately addressed. Solid waste disposal has been identified as a major environmental threat to First Nations Communities. A community-based participatory research project (CBPR) was initiated by the Saskatoon Tribal Council Health and Family Services Incorporated to investigate concerns related to waste disposal in three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities. Utilizing a qualitative approach, we aimed to gain an understanding of past and present waste disposal practices and to identify any human and environmental health concerns related to these practices. One to one interviews and sharing circles were conducted with Elders. Elders were asked to share their perspectives on past and present waste disposal practices and to comment on the possible impacts these practices may have on the environment and community health. Historically waste disposal practices were similar among communities. The homeowner generated small volumes of waste, was exclusively responsible for disposal and utilized a backyard pit. Overtime waste disposal evolved to weekly pick-up of un-segregated garbage with waste disposal and open trash burning in a community dump site. Dump site locations and open trash burning were identified as significant health issues related to waste disposal practices in these communities. This research raises issues of inequity in the management of waste in First Nations Communities. It highlights the need for long-term sustainable funding to support community-based waste disposal and management strategies and the development of First Nations centered and delivered educational programs to encourage the adoption and implementation of waste reduction, reutilization and recycling activities in these communities.

  18. An analysis of the inheritance pattern of an adult-onset hearing loss in Border Collie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, Sheila M

    2014-01-01

    During routine diagnostic BAER testing of dogs of various breeds for private owners at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine in Saskatoon, it became evident that some individual dogs developed hearing loss as adults. Although inherited congenital deafness has been widely reported in dogs, this type of deafness had not. Special clinics were set up to screen working Border Collies at herding competitions. To determine the typical age that geriatric deafness might be expected, retired dogs were also recruited. Five of the 10 Border Collies 12 years of age or older had hearing loss (1 bilaterally deaf and 4 had reduced hearing). The adult onset deafness which exhibited in three families, did not usually occur until 5 years of age, too young to be geriatric deafness. This adult onset deafness fits an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Several of these dogs had been BAER tested at younger ages with no sign of deafness. The deaf dogs were not associated with either gender. A survey was developed which was completed by the dog owners, that indicated that the hearing loss was gradual, not sudden. In addition, some family studies were conducted. Dogs at 5 years of age were often in the prime of their herding careers and then did not respond appropriately to distant commands. This type of deafness is important to dog owners but is also a potential medical model for some forms of hearing loss in humans. This report also suggests that geriatric hearing loss is common in dogs older than 12 years.

  19. Medicinal plants from the genus Acalypha (Euphorbiaceae)--a review of their ethnopharmacology and phytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebaluck, R; Gurib-Fakim, A; Mahomoodally, F

    2015-01-15

    , Acalypha alnifolia and Acalypha fruticosa are used as insecticides and sand fly repellent respectively. Only 2 species (Acalypha fruticosa and Acalypha indica) are used in ethnoveterinary practice and have similar human and veterinary applications. In zoopharmacognosy, only Acalypha ornata has been mentioned. Natives from Africa, Central America, North America, Southern China, India, Bangladesh, Papua New Guinea and Mascarenes islands utilize Acalypha species as ethnomedicine. Traditionally used Acalypha species have been reported to possess at least one of the following biological activities: antimicrobial, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, larvidal, pupicidal, hepatoprotective, anticancer, leishmanicidal, antihyperglycemic, antihypertensive, anti-venom, analgesic, anthelmintic, antiemetic, laxative, expectorant, diuretic, post-coital antifertility effects and wound healing. A total of 167 compounds have been identified from 19 species, with 16 from eight species were reported to be bioactive. The present review represents 32.3% of species from the Acalypha genus and can be considered as the first compilation of ethnopharmacologically useful plants from this genus. There is a great potential to discover new biologically active phytochemicals from the Acalypha genus because only few species have been studied comprehensively. Therefore, the clinical evaluation of species from this genus is warranted in future studies to confirm the ethnomedicinal claims and for the safety approval of therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of sputum smear-positive but culture-negative results among newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mnyambwa NP

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nicholaus Peter Mnyambwa,1,2 Esther S Ngadaya,2 Godfather Kimaro,2 Dong-Jin Kim,1 Rudovick Kazwala,3 Pammla Petrucka,1,4 Sayoki G Mfinanga2 1School of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Arusha, Tanzania; 2National Institute for Medical Research, Muhimbili Medical Research Center, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 3Department of Veterinary Medicine, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania; 4College of Nursing, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada Abstract: Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB in technology-limited countries is widely achieved by smear microscopy, which has limited sensitivity and specificity. The frequency and clinical implication of smear-positive but culture-negative among presumptive TB patients remains unclear. A cross-sectional substudy was conducted which aimed to identify the proportion of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM infections among 94 “smear-positive culture-negative” patients diagnosed between January 2013 and June 2016 in selected health facilities in Tanzania. Out of 94 sputa, 25 (26.60% were GeneXpert® mycobacteria TB positive and 11/94 (11.70% repeat-culture positive; 5 were Capilia TB-Neo positive and confirmed by GenoType MTBC to be Mycobacterium tuberculosis/Mycobacterium canettii. The remaining 6 Capilia TB-Neo negative samples were genotyped by GenoType® CM/AS, identifying 3 (3.19% NTM, 2 Gram positive bacteria, and 1 isolate testing negative, together, making a total of 6/94 (6.38% confirmed false smear-positives. Twenty-eight (29.79% were confirmed TB cases, while 60 (63.83% remained unconfirmed cases. Out of 6 (6.38% patients who were HIV positive, 2 patients were possibly coinfected with mycobacteria. The isolation of NTM and other bacteria among smear-positive culture-negative samples and the presence of over two third of unconfirmed TB cases emphasize the need of both advanced differential TB diagnostic techniques and

  1. Fatigue in patients with COPD participating in a pulmonary rehabilitation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy J Wong

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cindy J Wong1, Donna Goodridge1, Darcy D Marciniuk2, Donna Rennie1,31College of Nursing, 2College of Medicine, 3Canadian Centre for Health and Safety in Agriculture, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, CanadaBackground: Fatigue is a distressing, complex, multidimensional sensation common in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. While fatigue negatively impacts functional performance and quality of life, there has been little study of the fatigue that affects participants in pulmonary rehabilitation programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the emotional, behavioral, cognitive, and physical dimensions of fatigue and their relationships to dyspnea, mental health, sleep, and physiologic factors.Patients and methods: A convenience sample of 42 pulmonary rehabilitation participants with COPD completed self-report questionnaires which measured dimensions of fatigue using the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Data on other clinical variables were abstracted from pulmonary rehabilitation program health records.Results: Almost all (95.3% participants experienced high levels of physical fatigue. High levels of fatigue were also reported for the dimensions of reduced activity (88.1%, reduced motivation (83.3%, mental fatigue (69.9%, and general fatigue (54.5%. Close to half (42.9% of participants reported symptoms of anxiety, while almost one quarter (21.4% reported depressive symptoms. Age was related to the fatigue dimensions of reduced activity (ρ = 0.43, P < 0.01 and reduced motivation (ρ = 0.31, P < 0.05. Anxiety was related to reduced motivation (ρ = -0.47, P < 0.01. Fatigue was not associated with symptoms of depression, sleep quality, gender, supplemental oxygen use, smoking status, or Medical Research Council dyspnea scores.Conclusions: Fatigue (particularly the physical and

  2. Prevalence and predictors of anemia among children under 5 years of age in Arusha District, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejo D

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dyness Kejo,1 Pammla M Petrucka,1,2 Haikel Martin,1 Martin E Kimanya,1 Theobald CE Mosha3 1Department of Food Biotechnology and Nutritional Sciences, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology (NM-AIST, Arusha, Tanzania; 2College of Nursing, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada; 3Department of Food Technology, Nutrition and Consumer Sciences, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania Abstract: Anemia is a global health problem affecting most developing countries. We examined the prevalence of anemia and its predictors among children under 5 years of age in Arusha District, Tanzania. Random sampling technique was used to identify 436 children aged 6–59 months. Anemia status was assessed by measuring hemoglobin concentration from blood sample obtained from a finger prick and HemoCue® Hb 201+ photometer. Demographic information and dietary intake data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Anemia cut-off points were defined according to World Health Organization standards for children aged 6–59 months. Logistic regression using backward procedure was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs at 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Prevalence rate of anemia among under-fives was found to be 84.6% (n=369. Multivariable logistic regression identified the following predictors of anemia; low birth weight (adjusted OR (AOR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1–3.8, not consuming meat (AOR: 6.4, 95% CI: 3.2–12.9, not consuming vegetables (AOR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1–4.1, drinking milk (AOR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.1–5.2, and drinking tea (AOR: 4.5, 95% CI: 1.5–13.7. It was concluded that low birth weight and dietary factors (ie, low or nonconsumption of iron-rich foods like meat, vegetables, and fruits were predictors of anemia among under-five children living in this rural setting. Community education on exclusive breastfeeding and introduction of complementary foods should be improved. Mothers and caretakers should be educated about

  3. Environmental assessment, continual improvement and adaptive management within the AREVA sustainable development framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosaasen, A.; Frostad, S.

    2006-01-01

    COGEMA Resources Inc. (which is part of the AREVA Group) is a Canadian company with its head office in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. It owns and operates mining and milling facilities in northern Saskatchewan, which produce uranium concentrate. The McClean Lake Operation commenced production in 1999 and its environmental management system represents an integrated approach to environmental assessment, continual improvement and adaptive management based on operational results. In Canada, sustainable development is promoted through the application of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA). Environmental Assessment (EA) is a planning tool, which incorporates environmental considerations before irrevocable decisions are taken. The basic tenet of the Act is the determination of whether the potential environmental effects of a project are adverse, significant and likely, taking into consideration mitigation measures. Thus, project planning and design entails an iterative process that incorporates mitigation measures to minimize potentially significant adverse effects. As part of the EA process conservative approaches are taken to predict potential effects. Several important elements are generated through the EA process including: a set of environmental effects predictions, a compliance and environmental effects monitoring program, a follow-up program to address uncertainties in the prediction of environmental effects, and the identification of contingency measures that could be implemented should non-conservative assumptions be identified in the original assessment framework. The challenge is to integrate each of these elements into the environmental management framework of the operating facility and develop an iterative mechanism to evaluate operational performance relative to what was originally predicted. In Saskatchewan, a requirement of operational licenses is the periodic evaluation of the 'Status of the Environment' surrounding operational facilities. These

  4. Patient and referring health care provider satisfaction with a physiotherapy spinal triage assessment service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bath B

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Brenna Bath1, Bonnie Janzen21School of Physical Therapy, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 2Community Health and Epidemiology, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, CanadaPurpose: To evaluate participant and referring care provider satisfaction associated with a spinal triage assessment service delivered by physiotherapists in collaboration with orthopedic surgeons.Methods: People with low back-related complaints were recruited from those referred to a spinal triage assessment program delivered by physiotherapists. Measures of patient and provider satisfaction were completed at approximately 4 weeks after the assessment. The satisfaction surveys were analyzed quantitatively with descriptive statistics and qualitatively with an inductive thematic approach of open and axial coding.Results: A total of 108/115 participants completed the posttest satisfaction survey. Sixty-six percent of participants were “very satisfied” with the service and 55% were “very satisfied” with the recommendations that were made. Only 18% of referring care providers completed the satisfaction survey and 90.5% of those were “very satisfied” with the recommendations. Sixty-one participants and 14 care providers provided comments which revealed a diverse range of themes which were coded into positive (ie, understanding the problem, communication, customer service, efficiency, and management direction, negative (ie, lack of detail, time to follow-up, cost and neutral related to the triage service, and an “other” category unrelated to the service (ie, chronic symptoms, comorbidities, and limited access to health care.Conclusion: The quantitative results of the participant survey demonstrated very high levels of satisfaction with the service and slightly less satisfaction with the recommendations that were made. Satisfaction of referring care providers with the recommendations and report was also high, but given

  5. Safety diagnosis: are we doing a good job?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Peter Y; Sahaji, Rajib

    2013-03-01

    Collision diagnosis is the second step in the six-step road safety management process described in the AASHTO Highway Safety Manual (HSM). Diagnosis is designed to identify a dominant or abnormally high proportion of particular collision configurations (e.g., rear end, right angle, etc.) at a target location. The primary diagnosis method suggested in the HSM is descriptive data analysis. This type of analysis relies on, for example, pie charts, histograms, and/or collision diagrams. Using location specific collision data (e.g., collision frequency per collision configuration for a target location), safety engineers identify (the most) frequent collision configurations. Safety countermeasures are then likely to concentrate on preventing the selected collision configurations. Although its real-world application in engineering practice is limited, an additional collision diagnosis method, known as the beta-binomial (BB) test, is also presented as the secondary diagnosis tool in the HSM. The BB test compares the proportion of a particular collision configuration observed at one location with the proportion of the same collision configuration found at other reference locations which are similar to the target location in terms of selected traffic and roadway characteristics (e.g., traffic volume, traffic control, and number of lanes). This study compared the outcomes obtained from descriptive data analysis and the BB test, and investigates two questions: (1) Do descriptive data analysis and the BB tests produce the same results (i.e., do they select the same collision configurations at the same locations)? and (2) If the tests produce different results, which result should be adopted in engineering practice? This study's analysis was based on a sample of the most recent five years (2005-2009) of collision and roadway configuration data for 143 signalized intersections in the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. The study results show that the BB test's role in diagnosing

  6. Recent Developments in the Management of Cameco Corporation's Fuel Services Division Waste - 13144

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Thomas P. [Cameco Corporation, Port Hope, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Cameco Corporation is a world leader in uranium production. Headquartered in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan our operations provide 16% of the world uranium mine production and we have approximately 435 million pounds of proven and probable uranium reserves. Cameco mining operations are located in Saskatchewan, Wyoming, Nebraska and Kazakhstan. Cameco is also a major supplier of uranium processing services required to produce fuel for the generation of clean energy. These operations are based in Blind River, Cobourg and Port Hope, Ontario and are collectively referred to as the Fuel Services Division. The Fuel Services Division produces uranium trioxide from uranium ore concentrate at the Blind River Refinery. Cameco produces uranium hexafluoride and uranium dioxide at the Port Hope Conversion Facility. Cameco operates a fuel manufacturing facility in Port Hope, Ontario and a metal fabrication facility located in Cobourg, Ontario. The company manufactures fuel bundles utilized in the Candu reactors. Cameco's Fuel Services Division produces several types of low-level radioactively contaminated wastes. Internal processing capabilities at both the Blind River Refinery and Port Hope Conversion Facility are extensive and allow for the recycling of several types of waste. Notwithstanding these capabilities there are certain wastes that are not amenable to the internal processing capabilities and must be disposed of appropriately. Disposal options for low-level radioactively contaminated wastes in Canada are limited primarily due to cost considerations. In recent years, Cameco has started to ship marginally contaminated wastes (<500 ppm uranium) to the United States for disposal in an appropriate landfill. The landfill is owned by US Ecology Incorporated and is located near Grand View, Idaho 70 miles southeast of Boise in the Owyhee Desert. The facility treats and disposes hazardous waste, non-hazardous industrial waste and low-activity radioactive material. The site

  7. Evaluation of Qatari and Canadian Pharmacy Students Learning Together about Cultural Competency using Videoconference Educational Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Jorgenson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pharmacists are under pressure to provide patient centered care within increasingly culturally diverse settings. Pharmacy schools play an important role in educating learners regarding culture and its impact on patient care. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine if a novel cultural competency learning activity, which involved students from two culturally and ethnically different pharmacy schools learning together using videoconference education activities, improved: (1 student knowledge and confidence pertaining to cultural competency concepts, (2 attitudes and perceptions towards being a culturally competent pharmacist, and (3 academic performance related to cultural competency case studies. Methods: Pharmacy students from Qatar University in Doha, Qatar (n=25 and the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon, Canada (n=85 participated in a cultural competency activity comprised of small group work on a patient case study, followed by tutorial discussions. Some Canadian students (n=31/85 worked collaboratively (via video conference with the students from Qatar. The evaluation used a convergent mixed methods design comprised of: (1 a pre and post session survey measuring student knowledge and confidence; (2 pre and post session student self-reflections; and, (3 student academic performance on care plans and an observed structured clinical exam (OSCE. Results: The survey identified small but statistically significant (p<0.05 improvements in knowledge and confidence with respect to 11 of the 12 questionnaire items in the students from Canada and 2 of the 12 items in the students from Qatar. The self-reflections found that 44.4% (n=36/81 of students who completed the pre and post reflective questions reported a change in knowledge and attitudes regarding cultural competency, but a reason for the change was not evident. Student grades on the cultural competency care plans and the OSCE were not different between the

  8. Relationship between variability of the semidiurnal tide in the Northern Hemisphere mesosphere and quasi-stationary planetary waves throughout the global middle atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Xu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available To investigate possible couplings between planetary waves and the semidiurnal tide (SDT, this work examines the statistical correlations between the SDT amplitudes observed in the Northern Hemisphere (NH mesosphere and stationary planetary wave (SPW with wavenumber S=1 (SPW1 amplitudes throughout the global stratosphere and mesosphere. The latter are derived from the Aura-MLS temperature measurements. During NH summer-fall (July–October, the mesospheric SDT amplitudes observed at Svalbard (78° N and Eureka (80° N usually do not show persistent correlations with the SPW1 amplitudes in the opposite hemisphere. Although the SDT amplitudes observed at lower latitudes (~50–70° N, especially at Saskatoon (52° N, are often shown to be highly and positively correlated with the SPW1 amplitudes in high southern latitudes, these correlations cannot be sufficiently explained as evidence for a direct physical link between the Southern Hemisphere (SH winter-early spring SPW and NH summer-early fall mesospheric SDT. This is because the migrating tide's contribution is usually dominant in the mid-high latitude (~50–70° N NH mesosphere during the local late summer-early fall (July–September. The numerical correlation is dominated by similar low-frequency variability or trends between the amplitudes of the NH SDT and SH SPW1 during the respective equinoctial transitions. In contradistinction, during NH winter (November–February, the mesospheric SDT amplitudes at northern mid-high latitudes (~50–80° N are observed to be significantly and positively correlated with the SPW1 amplitudes in the same hemisphere in most cases. Because both the SPW and migrating SDT are large in the NH during the local winter, a non-linear interaction between SPW and migrating SDT probably occurs, thus providing a global non-migrating SDT. This is consistent with observations of SDT in Antarctica that are large in summer than in winter. It is suggested that

  9. Do physiological measures predict selected CrossFit® benchmark performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butcher SJ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Scotty J Butcher,1,2 Tyler J Neyedly,3 Karla J Horvey,1 Chad R Benko2,41Physical Therapy, University of Saskatchewan, 2BOSS Strength Institute, 3Physiology, University of Saskatchewan, 4Synergy Strength and Conditioning, Saskatoon, SK, CanadaPurpose: CrossFit® is a new but extremely popular method of exercise training and competition that involves constantly varied functional movements performed at high intensity. Despite the popularity of this training method, the physiological determinants of CrossFit performance have not yet been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine whether physiological and/or muscle strength measures could predict performance on three common CrossFit "Workouts of the Day" (WODs.Materials and methods: Fourteen CrossFit Open or Regional athletes completed, on separate days, the WODs "Grace" (30 clean and jerks for time, "Fran" (three rounds of thrusters and pull-ups for 21, 15, and nine repetitions, and "Cindy" (20 minutes of rounds of five pull-ups, ten push-ups, and 15 bodyweight squats, as well as the "CrossFit Total" (1 repetition max [1RM] back squat, overhead press, and deadlift, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, and Wingate anaerobic power/capacity testing.Results: Performance of Grace and Fran was related to whole-body strength (CrossFit Total (r=-0.88 and -0.65, respectively and anaerobic threshold (r=-0.61 and -0.53, respectively; however, whole-body strength was the only variable to survive the prediction regression for both of these WODs (R2=0.77 and 0.42, respectively. There were no significant associations or predictors for Cindy.Conclusion: CrossFit benchmark WOD performance cannot be predicted by VO2max, Wingate power/capacity, or either respiratory compensation or anaerobic thresholds. Of the data measured, only whole-body strength can partially explain performance on Grace and Fran, although anaerobic threshold also exhibited association with performance. Along with their typical training

  10. McClean Lake. Site Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-09-01

    Located over 700 kilometers northeast of Saskatoon, Areva's McClean Lake site is comprised of several uranium mines and one of the most technologically advanced uranium mills in the world - the only mill designed to process high-grade uranium ore without dilution. Areva has operated several open-pit uranium mines at the McClean Lake site, and is evaluating future mines at and near the site. The McClean Lake mill has recently undergone a multimillion-dollar upgrade and expansion, which has doubled its annual production capacity of uranium concentrate to 24 million pounds. It is the only facility in the world capable of processing high-grade uranium ore without diluting it. The mill processes the ore from the Cigar Lake mine, the world's second largest and highest-grade uranium mine. The McClean Lake site operates 365 days a year on a week-in/week-out rotation schedule for workers, over 50% of whom reside in northern Saskatchewan communities. Tailings are waste products resulting from milling uranium ore. This waste is made up of leach residue solids, waste solutions and chemical precipitates that are carefully engineered for long-term disposal. The TMF serves as the repository for all resulting tailings. This facility allows proper waste management, which minimizes potential adverse environmental effects. Mining projections indicate that the McClean Lake mill will produce tailings in excess of the existing capacity of the TMF. After evaluating a number of options, Areva has decided to pursue an expansion of this facility. Areva is developing the Surface Access Borehole Resource Extraction (SABRE) mining method, which uses a high-pressure water jet placed at the bottom of the drill hole to extract ore. Areva has conducted a series of tests with this method and is evaluating its potential for future mining operations. McClean Lake maintains its certification in ISO 14001 standards for environmental management and OHSAS 18001 standards for occupational health

  11. Recent Developments in the Management of Cameco Corporation's Fuel Services Division Waste - 13144

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    Cameco Corporation is a world leader in uranium production. Headquartered in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan our operations provide 16% of the world uranium mine production and we have approximately 435 million pounds of proven and probable uranium reserves. Cameco mining operations are located in Saskatchewan, Wyoming, Nebraska and Kazakhstan. Cameco is also a major supplier of uranium processing services required to produce fuel for the generation of clean energy. These operations are based in Blind River, Cobourg and Port Hope, Ontario and are collectively referred to as the Fuel Services Division. The Fuel Services Division produces uranium trioxide from uranium ore concentrate at the Blind River Refinery. Cameco produces uranium hexafluoride and uranium dioxide at the Port Hope Conversion Facility. Cameco operates a fuel manufacturing facility in Port Hope, Ontario and a metal fabrication facility located in Cobourg, Ontario. The company manufactures fuel bundles utilized in the Candu reactors. Cameco's Fuel Services Division produces several types of low-level radioactively contaminated wastes. Internal processing capabilities at both the Blind River Refinery and Port Hope Conversion Facility are extensive and allow for the recycling of several types of waste. Notwithstanding these capabilities there are certain wastes that are not amenable to the internal processing capabilities and must be disposed of appropriately. Disposal options for low-level radioactively contaminated wastes in Canada are limited primarily due to cost considerations. In recent years, Cameco has started to ship marginally contaminated wastes (<500 ppm uranium) to the United States for disposal in an appropriate landfill. The landfill is owned by US Ecology Incorporated and is located near Grand View, Idaho 70 miles southeast of Boise in the Owyhee Desert. The facility treats and disposes hazardous waste, non-hazardous industrial waste and low-activity radioactive material. The site's arid

  12. The Healthy Weights Initiative: the first 1,000 participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemstra M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mark Lemstra,1,2 Jeff Fox,3 Randy Klassen,4 Dean Dodge5 1Alliance Health Medical Clinic, Moose Jaw, 2Alliance Health Medical Clinic, Regina, 3YMCA of Moose Jaw, 4YMCA of Regina, 5YMCA of Saskatoon, SK, Canada Background: According to Statistics Canada, the number of adults who are overweight or obese rises every year in Canada. As such, it is obvious that various public policies are not working. After extensive community consultation, the Healthy Weights Initiative (HWI started in Moose Jaw and expanded to Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. Objectives: This study aimed to determine adherence, factors affecting adherence and their impact on various health outcomes. Methods: From January 2014 to March 2015, 229 participants started the comprehensive 6-month HWI program. It was determined that having a “buddy” and signing a social support contract with three additional family members or friends were important to program adherence. As such, both policies went from being recommended to becoming mandatory. From April 2015 to August 2016, 771 additional participants started the program, allowing evaluation of the two new policies. Moreover, HWI participant adherence was compared to that of 100 new YMCA members. Results: Among the first 229 HWI participants, 79.9% completed the 6-month program. After the two new policy changes among the 771 participants, 96.1% completed the HWI program (risk ratio =1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01–1.49. In comparison, among the new YMCA regular members without supervision or assistance, 14.0% were still fully adhering to their fitness program after 6 months (RR =6.85; 95% CI: 3.88–12.10. After logistic regression, the only variable with an independent effect for not completing the HWI program was not having a spouse/partner supporting the program (odds ratio =2.31; 95% CI: 1.13–3.67. Although weight loss reductions were obtained (mean: 4.3 kg, the more significant benefits observed were health outcomes

  13. Tailings management best practice: a case study of the McClean Lake JEB Tailings Management Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremblay, M.A.J.; Rowson, J.

    2005-01-01

    COGEMA Resources Inc. (which is part of the Areva Group) is a Canadian company with its head office in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. It owns and operates mining and milling facilities in Northern Saskatchewan, which produce uranium concentrate. McClean Lake Operation commenced production in 1999 and its tailings management facility represents the state of the art for tailings management in the uranium industry in Canada. Tailings disposal has the potential to cause effects in the surrounding receiving environment primarily through migration of soluble constituents from the facility to surface water receptors. In-pit disposal or mill tailings has become the standard in the uranium mining industry in Northern Saskatchewan. This method or tailings management demonstrates advances in terms of worker radiation protection and containment of soluble constituents both during operations and into the long term. Sub-aqueous deposition of tailings protects personnel from exposure to radiation and airborne emissions and prevents freezing of tailings, which can hinder consolidation. The continuous inflow of groundwater to the facility is achieved during operations, through control of water levels within the facility. This ensures hydrodynamic containment, which prevents migration of soluble radionuclides and heavy metals into the surrounding aquifer during operations. The environmental performance of the decommissioned facility depends upon the rate of release of contaminants to the receiving environment. The rate of constituent loading to the receiving environment will ultimately be governed by the concentrations of soluble constituents within the tailings mass, the mechanisms for release from the tailings to the surrounding groundwater system, and transport of constituents within the groundwater pathway to the receiving environment. The tailings preparation process was designed to convert arsenic into a stable form to reduce soluble concentrations within the tailings mass. The

  14. Sulfur Speciation in Peat: a Time-zero Signature for the " Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climate and Environmental Change" Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, O.; Toner, B. M.; Sebestyen, S. D.; Kolka, R. K.; Nater, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    As part of the "Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climate and Environmental Change" (SPRUCE) experiment, we made initial measurements of sulfur speciation in peat. These observations represent a "time-zero" relative to the intended soil warming experiment which begins in 2015. Total sulfur and sulfur speciation were measured in peat cores (solid phase) from nine plots (hollows and hummocks) to a depth of 2 m. Peat samples were packed under nitrogen and frozen in the field immediately after collection. All subsequent sample storage, handling, and processing were conducted under inert gas. Sulfur speciation was measured using bulk sulfur 1s X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy at the SXRMB instrument at the Canadian Light Source, Saskatoon, SK, Canada and at the 9-BM instrument, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, IL, USA. Total sulfur concentrations ranged from 968 to 4077 mg sulfur / kg dry peat. Sulfur content increased with depth from 2 g sulfur / m2 in the 0-10 cm increment to a maximum value of 38 g sulfur / m2 in the 50-60 cm increment. These sulfur loadings produced high quality XANES spectra. The nine cores exhibited reproducible trends with depth in both total sulfur and specific sulfur species; however, variability in sulfur speciation was greatest in the top 40 cm. All sulfur detected within the peat solids was in an organic form. The most abundant sulfur species group was composed of organic mono-sulfide and thiol forms, representing approximately half of the total sulfur at all depths. Sulfonate and ester-sulfate species were 10-15 mol% of sulfur and exhibited low variability with depth. A subsurface maximum in organic di-sulfide was observed in the 20-30 cm depth increment, which is the transition zone between transiently oxidized acrotelm and permanently saturated anaerobic catotelm. Quantification of major sulfur pools is important for the SPRUCE experiment as they are likely to be indicators of changes in the

  15. RGD-tagged helical rosette nanotubes aggravate acute lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suri SS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sarabjeet Singh Suri1, Steven Mills1, Gurpreet Kaur Aulakh1, Felaniaina Rakotondradany2, Hicham Fenniri2, Baljit Singh11Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon; 2National Institute for Nanotechnology and Department of Chemistry, Edmonton, CanadaAbstract: Rosette nanotubes (RNT are a novel class of self-assembled biocompatible nanotubes that offer a built-in strategy for engineering structure and function through covalent tagging of synthetic self-assembling modules (G∧C motif. In this report, the G∧C motif was tagged with peptide Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Lys (RGDSK-G∧C and amino acid Lys (K-G∧C which, upon co-assembly, generate RNTs featuring RGDSK and K on their surface in predefined molar ratios. These hybrid RNTs, referred to as Kx/RGDSKy-RNT, where x and y refer to the molar ratios of K-G∧C and RGDSK–G∧C, were designed to target neutrophil integrins. A mouse model was used to investigate the effects of intravenous Kx/RGDSKy-RNT on acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced lung inflammation. Healthy male C57BL/6 mice were treated intranasally with Escherichia coli LPS 80 µg and/or intravenously with K90/RGDSK10-RNT. Here we provide the first evidence that intravenous administration of K90/RGDSK10-RNT aggravates the proinflammatory effect of LPS in the mouse. LPS and K90/RGDSK10-RNT treatment groups showed significantly increased infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at all time points compared with the saline control. The combined effect of LPS and K90/RGDSK10-RNT was more pronounced than LPS alone, as shown by a significant increase in the expression of interleukin-1ß, MCP-1, MIP-1, and KC-1 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and myeloperoxidase activity in the lung tissues. We conclude that K90/RGDSK10-RNT promotes acute lung inflammation, and when used along with LPS, leads to exaggerated immune response in the lung.Keywords: RGD peptide, helical rosette

  16. Interprofessional education for internationally educated health professionals: an environmental scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arain M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mubashir Arain,1 Esther Suter,1 Sara Mallinson,1 Shelanne L Hepp,1 Siegrid Deutschlander,1 Shyama Dilani Nanayakkara,2 Elizabeth Louise Harrison,3 Grace Mickelson,4 Lesley Bainbridge,5 Ruby E Grymonpre2 1Workforce Research & Evaluation, Alberta Health Services, Edmonton, AB, 2College of Pharmacy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, 3School of Physical Therapy, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, 4Provincial Health Services Authority, Vancouver, BC, 5Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada Objective: The objective of this environmental scan was to identify Western Canadian interprofessional education (IPE resources that currently exist for internationally educated health professionals (IEHPs. Methodology: A web-based search was conducted to identify learning resources meeting defined inclusion criteria with a particular focus on the resources available in the Western Canadian provinces. Information was extracted using a standardized template, and we contacted IEHP programs for additional information if necessary. Members of the research team reviewed preliminary findings, identified missing information from their respective provinces, and contacted organizations to fill in any gaps. Results: The scan identified 26 learning resources for IEHPs in Western Canadian provinces and 15 in other provinces focused on support for IEHPs to meet their profession-specific licensing requirements and to acquire knowledge and competencies relevant to working in the Canadian health care system. Most learning resources, such as those found in bridging programs for IEHPs, included an orientation to the Canadian health care system, components of cultural competence, and at least one aspect of interprofessional competence (eg, communication skills. None of the 41 learning resources provided comprehensive training for IEHPs to cover the six interprofessional competency

  17. Seasonal variations of the semi-diurnal and diurnal tides in the MLT: multi-year MF radar observations from 2 to 70°N, and the GSWM tidal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, A.; Meek, C.; Hagan, M.; Hall, C.; Hocking, W.; MacDougall, J.; Franke, S.; Riggin, D.; Fritts, D.; Vincent, R.; Burrage, M.

    1999-07-01

    Continuous observations of the wind field have been made by six Medium Frequency Radars (MFRs), located between the equator and high northern latitudes: Christmas Islands (2°N), Hawaii (22°N), Urbana (40°N), London (43°N), Saskatoon (52°N) and Tromsø (70°N). Data have been sought for the time interval 1990-1997, and typically 5 years of data have become available from each station, to demonstrate the level of annual consistency and variability. Common harmonic analysis is applied so that the monthly amplitudes and phases of the semi-diurnal (SD) and diurnal (D) wind oscillations are available in the height range of (typically) 75-95 km in the upper Middle Atmosphere. Comparisons are made with tides from the Global Scale Wave Model (GSWM), which are available for 3-month seasons. The emphasis is upon the monthly climatologies at each location based upon comparisons of profiles, and also latitudinal plots of amplitudes and phases at particular heights. For the diurnal tide, the agreement between observations and model is now quite excellent with modelled values frequently lying within the range of yearly values. Both observations and model demonstrate strong seasonal changes. This result is a striking improvement over the comparisons of 1989 (JATP, Special issue). In particular, the phases and phase-gradients for the non-winter months at mid- to high-latitudes are now in excellent agreement. Some of the low latitude discrepancies are attributed to the existence of non-migrating tidal components associated with tropospheric latent heat release. For the semi-diurnal tide, the observed strong transitions between clear solstitial states are less well captured by the model. There is little evidence for improvement over the promising comparisons of 1989. In particular, the late-summer/autumnal tidal maximum of mid-latitudes is observed to be larger, and with strong monthly variability. Also the summer modelled tide has unobserved short (20 km) wavelengths at high

  18. Wave activity (planetary, tidal throughout the middle atmosphere (20-100km over the CUJO network: Satellite (TOMS and Medium Frequency (MF radar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Manson

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Planetary and tidal wave activity in the tropopause-lower stratosphere and mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT is studied using combinations of ground-based (GB and satellite instruments (2000-2002. The relatively new MFR (medium frequency radar at Platteville (40° N, 105° W has provided the opportunity to create an operational network of middle-latitude MFRs, stretching from 81° W-142° E, which provides winds and tides 70-100km. CUJO (Canada U.S. Japan Opportunity comprises systems at London (43° N, 81° W, Platteville (40° N, 105° W, Saskatoon (52° N, 107° W, Wakkanai (45° N, 142° E and Yamagawa (31° N, 131° E. It offers a significant 7000-km longitudinal sector in the North American-Pacific region, and a useful range of latitudes (12-14° at two longitudes. Satellite data mainly involve the daily values of the total ozone column measured by the Earth Probe (EP TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer and provide a measure of tropopause-lower stratospheric planetary wave activity, as well as ozone variability. Climatologies of ozone and winds/tides involving frequency versus time (wavelet contour plots for periods from 2-d to 30-d and the interval from mid 2000 to 2002, show that the changes with altitude, longitude and latitude are very significant and distinctive. Geometric-mean wavelets for the region of the 40° N MFRs demonstrate occasions during the autumn, winter and spring months when there are similarities in the spectral features of the lower atmosphere and at mesopause (85km heights. Both direct planetary wave (PW propagation into the MLT, nonlinear PW-tide interactions, and disturbances in MLT tides associated with fluctuations in the ozone forcing are considered to be possible coupling processes. The complex horizontal wave numbers of the longer period oscillations are provided in frequency contour plots for the TOMS satellite data to demonstrate the differences between lower atmospheric and MLT wave motions and their

  19. Wave activity (planetary, tidal) throughout the middle atmosphere (20-100km) over the CUJO network: Satellite (TOMS) and Medium Frequency (MF) radar observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, A. H.; Meek, C. E.; Chshyolkova, T.; Avery, S. K.; Thorsen, D.; MacDougall, J. W.; Hocking, W.; Murayama, Y.; Igarashi, K.

    2005-02-01

    Planetary and tidal wave activity in the tropopause-lower stratosphere and mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT) is studied using combinations of ground-based (GB) and satellite instruments (2000-2002). The relatively new MFR (medium frequency radar) at Platteville (40° N, 105° W) has provided the opportunity to create an operational network of middle-latitude MFRs, stretching from 81° W-142° E, which provides winds and tides 70-100km. CUJO (Canada U.S. Japan Opportunity) comprises systems at London (43° N, 81° W), Platteville (40° N, 105° W), Saskatoon (52° N, 107° W), Wakkanai (45° N, 142° E) and Yamagawa (31° N, 131° E). It offers a significant 7000-km longitudinal sector in the North American-Pacific region, and a useful range of latitudes (12-14°) at two longitudes. Satellite data mainly involve the daily values of the total ozone column measured by the Earth Probe (EP) TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) and provide a measure of tropopause-lower stratospheric planetary wave activity, as well as ozone variability. Climatologies of ozone and winds/tides involving frequency versus time (wavelet) contour plots for periods from 2-d to 30-d and the interval from mid 2000 to 2002, show that the changes with altitude, longitude and latitude are very significant and distinctive. Geometric-mean wavelets for the region of the 40° N MFRs demonstrate occasions during the autumn, winter and spring months when there are similarities in the spectral features of the lower atmosphere and at mesopause (85km) heights. Both direct planetary wave (PW) propagation into the MLT, nonlinear PW-tide interactions, and disturbances in MLT tides associated with fluctuations in the ozone forcing are considered to be possible coupling processes. The complex horizontal wave numbers of the longer period oscillations are provided in frequency contour plots for the TOMS satellite data to demonstrate the differences between lower atmospheric and MLT wave motions and their

  20. Wave Activity (Planetary, Tidal) throughout the Middle Atmoshere (25-100 km) over the CUJO Network: Satellite and Medium Frequency (MF) Radar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, A.; Meek, C.; Chshyolkova, T.; Avery, S.; Thorsen, D.; MacDougall, J.; Hocking, W.; Murayama, Y.; Igarashi, K.

    Planetary and tidal wave activity in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT), and assessment of wave activity sources in the lower atmosphere, are studied using combinations of ground based (GB) and satellite instruments (2000-2002). CUJO (Canada U.S. Japan Opportunity) comprises MF radar (MFR) systems at London (43°N, 81°W), Platteville (40°N, 105°W), Saskatoon (52°N, 107°W), Wakkanai (45°N, 142°E) and Yamagawa (31°N, 131°E). It offers a significant mid-latitude 7,000 km longitudinal sector in the North American-Pacific region, and a useful range of latitudes (12-14°) at two longitudes. CUJO provides winds and tides 70-100km. Satellite data include the daily values of the total ozone column measured by the Earth Probe (EP) TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) and provides a measure of tropopause-lower stratospheric planetary wave activity as well as ozone variability. The so-called UKMO data (an assimilation system) are used for correlative purposes with the TOMS data. Climatologies of ozone and winds/tides involving frequency versus time (wavelet) contour plots for periods from 2-d to 30-d and the interval from mid 2000 to 2002, show that the changes with altitude, longitude and latitude are very significant and distinctive. Geometric-mean wavelets for the region of the 40°N MFRs demonstrate occasions during the autumn, winter and spring months when there are similarities in the spectral features of the lower atmosphere and at mesopause (85km) heights. Both direct planetary wave (PW) propagation into the MLT, non-linear PW-tide interactions, and disturbances in MLT tides associated with fluctuations in the ozone forcing are considered to be possible coupling processes. The complex horizontal wave numbers of the longer period oscillations are provided in frequency contour plots for the TOMS and UKMO data to demonstrate the differences between lower atmospheric and MLT wave motions and their directions of propagation.

  1. Wave activity (planetary, tidal throughout the middle atmosphere (20-100km over the CUJO network: Satellite (TOMS and Medium Frequency (MF radar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Manson

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Planetary and tidal wave activity in the tropopause-lower stratosphere and mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT is studied using combinations of ground-based (GB and satellite instruments (2000-2002. The relatively new MFR (medium frequency radar at Platteville (40° N, 105° W has provided the opportunity to create an operational network of middle-latitude MFRs, stretching from 81° W-142° E, which provides winds and tides 70-100km. CUJO (Canada U.S. Japan Opportunity comprises systems at London (43° N, 81° W, Platteville (40° N, 105° W, Saskatoon (52° N, 107° W, Wakkanai (45° N, 142° E and Yamagawa (31° N, 131° E. It offers a significant 7000-km longitudinal sector in the North American-Pacific region, and a useful range of latitudes (12-14° at two longitudes. Satellite data mainly involve the daily values of the total ozone column measured by the Earth Probe (EP TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer and provide a measure of tropopause-lower stratospheric planetary wave activity, as well as ozone variability.

    Climatologies of ozone and winds/tides involving frequency versus time (wavelet contour plots for periods from 2-d to 30-d and the interval from mid 2000 to 2002, show that the changes with altitude, longitude and latitude are very significant and distinctive. Geometric-mean wavelets for the region of the 40° N MFRs demonstrate occasions during the autumn, winter and spring months when there are similarities in the spectral features of the lower atmosphere and at mesopause (85km heights. Both direct planetary wave (PW propagation into the MLT, nonlinear PW-tide interactions, and disturbances in MLT tides associated with fluctuations in the ozone forcing are considered to be possible coupling processes. The complex horizontal wave numbers of the longer period oscillations are provided in frequency contour plots for the TOMS satellite data to demonstrate the differences between lower atmospheric

  2. Lysine-functionalized nanodiamonds: synthesis, physiochemical characterization, and nucleic acid binding studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Randeep Kaur,1 Jackson M Chitanda,2 Deborah Michel,1 Jason Maley,3 Ferenc Borondics,2,4 Peng Yang,5 Ronald E Verrall,2 Ildiko Badea11Drug Design and Discovery Research Group, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, 2Department of Chemistry, University of Saskatchewan, 3Saskatchewan Structural Sciences Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 4Canadian Light Source, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada; 5Department of Organic Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, People's Republic of ChinaPurpose: Detonation nanodiamonds (NDs are carbon-based nanomaterials that, because of their size (4–5 nm, stable inert core, alterable surface chemistry, fluorescence, and biocompatibility, are emerging as bioimaging agents and promising tools for the delivery of biochemical molecules into cellular systems. However, diamond particles possess a strong propensity to aggregate in liquid formulation media, restricting their applicability in biomedical sciences. Here, the authors describe the covalent functionalization of NDs with lysine in an attempt to develop nanoparticles able to act as suitable nonviral vectors for transferring genetic materials across cellular membranes.Methods: NDs were oxidized and functionalized by binding lysine moieties attached to a three-carbon-length linker (1,3-diaminopropane to their surfaces through amide bonds. Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, zeta potential measurement, dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopic imaging, and thermogravimetric analysis were used to characterize the lysine-functionalized NDs. Finally, the ability of the functionalized diamonds to bind plasmid DNA and small interfering RNA was investigated by gel electrophoresis assay and through size and zeta potential measurements.Results: NDs were successfully functionalized with the lysine linker, producing surface loading of 1.7 mmol g-1 of ND

  3. Pulmonary effects of active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure among adolescent students in Juárez, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bird Y

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Yelena Bird,1 Hugo Staines-Orozco2 1School of Public Health, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada; 2Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Anillo Envolvente del PRONAF y Calle Estocolmo, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico Background: Youth smoking trends among Latin American countries, including Mexico, are on the rise. Notably, although the high prevalence of smoking in teens has been well documented in the literature, few studies have evaluated the impact of smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS exposure on their respiratory system.  Objective: To investigate the effects of smoking and SHS exposure on the respiratory health and lung function among eighth-grade students in Juárez, Mexico. Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken on a sample of convenience. The study outcomes centered on evaluating 300 students’ lung function by spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio [FEV1/FVC], and forced mid-expiratory flow rate [FEF25%–75%] and their respiratory health (smoking behavior and SHS exposure by their self-reported responses to a standardized respiratory questionnaire. The study outcomes were compared among three distinct groups: 1 nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS; 2 nonsmokers/exposed to SHS; and 3 smokers. Results: The majority of the study participants were 14 years old (85%, females (54%, who attended eighth grade in a public school setting (56%. Approximately, half reported being of low socioeconomic status (49% and nonsmokers/exposed to SHS (49%. The lung function parameters of smokers were found to be lower (FEV1 =62.88±10.25; FEV1/FVC =83.50±14.15; and FEF25%–75% =66.35±12.55 than those recorded for the nonsmokers/exposed to SHS (FEV1 =69.41±11.35; FEV1/FVC =88.75±15.75; and FEF25%–75% =78.90±14.65 and significantly reduced when compared to the nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS (FEV1 =79.14±13

  4. The importance of community consultation and social support in adhering to an obesity reduction program: results from the Healthy Weights Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemstra M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mark Lemstra,1 Marla R Rogers2 1Alliance Wellness and Rehabilitation, Moose Jaw, 2College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada Background: Few community-based obesity reduction programs have been evaluated. After 153 community consultations, the City of Moose Jaw, SK, Canada, decided to initiate a free comprehensive program. The initiative included 71 letters of support from the Mayor, every family physician, cardiologist, and internist in the city, and every relevant community group including the Heart and Stroke Foundation, the Canadian Cancer Society, and the Public Health Agency of Canada.Objective: To promote strong adherence while positively influencing a wide range of physical and mental health variables measured through objective assessment or validated surveys.Methods: The only inclusion criterion was that the individuals must be obese adults (body mass index >30 kg/m2. Participants were requested to sign up with a “buddy” who was also obese and identify three family members or friends to sign a social support contract. During the initial 12 weeks, each individual received 60 group exercise sessions, 12 group cognitive behavioral therapy sessions, and 12 group dietary sessions with licensed professionals. During the second 12-week period, maintenance therapy included 12 group exercise sessions (24 weeks in total.Results: To date, 243 people have been referred with 229 starting. Among those who started, 183 completed the program (79.9%, while 15 quit for medical reasons and 31 quit for personal reasons. Mean objective reductions included the following: 31.0 lbs of body fat, 3.9% body fat, 2.9 in from the waist, 2.3 in from the hip, blood cholesterol by 0.5 mmol/L, systolic blood pressure by 5.9 mmHg, and diastolic blood pressure by 3.2 mmHg (all P<0.000. There were no changes in blood sugar levels. There was also statistically significant differences in aerobic fitness, self-report health, quality of

  5. 10 μm High-resolution spectrum of trans -acrolein: Rotational analysis of the ν 11 , ν 16 , ν 14 and ν 16 + ν 18 - ν 18 bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Hong; Jiang, Xingjie; Shi, Hongyu; Lees, R. M.; McKellar, A. R. W.; Tokaryk, D. W.; Appadoo, D. R. T.

    2011-07-01

    High-resolution Fourier transform spectra of trans-acrolein, H 2C dbnd C(H) sbnd C(H) dbnd O, have been recorded in the 10 μm region at both room and cooled temperatures on the modified Bomem DA3.002 at the National Research Council of Canada and the Bruker IFS 125HR spectrometer at the far infrared beam line of the Canadian Light Source in Saskatoon. Vibrational fundamentals analyzed so far include the ν11, ν16 and ν14 bands centered at 911.3, 958.7 and 992.7 cm -1 corresponding respectively to the A' in-plane dbnd CH 2-rocking mode, the A″ out-of-plane dbnd CH 2-wagging mode, and the A″ wagging mode highly mixed between the ⩾C sbnd H vinyl and ⩾C sbnd H formyl groups [Vibrational mode descriptions are based on Y.N. Panchenko, P. Pulay, F. Török, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 34 (1976) 283-289.] As well, the ν16 + ν18 - ν18 hot band centred at 957.6 cm -1 has been analyzed, where ν18 is the low-frequency (157.9 cm -1) A″ ⩾C sbnd C ⪕ torsional mode. The ν11 band is a/ b type while the ν16, ν14 and ν16 + ν18 - ν18 bands are c-type. The assigned transitions of each band have been fitted to a Watson asymmetric rotor Hamiltonian, with ground state parameters fixed to values obtained from rotational analyses in the literature. As well, a combined 3-state fit for ν11, ν16 and ν14 was carried out including Coriolis and Z1 constants which account for J and Δ K interactions. Transition dipole moments have been calculated for each of the fundamentals using the ab initio B3LYP method and 6-311++G ∗∗ basis set. For the A' vibrational modes, we have also evaluated transition dipole a- and b-components in the principal axis system from vibrational displacements and dipole moment derivatives. Our ab initio results predict that the ν11 in-plane dbnd CH 2 rocking mode has an a-type transition strength about three times greater than the b-type, which is consistent with our observations. Our ab initio force field analysis gives vibrational mode

  6. X-Ray Microscopy Conference 2016 (XRM 2016)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    enjoyable and rewarding. We look forward to seeing you all at XRM2018 in Saskatoon, Canada. Christoph Rau Editor XRM2016 proceedings Chair XRM2016 conference (paper)

  7. History of Pain Research and Management in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Merskey

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Scattered accounts of the treatment of pain by aboriginal Canadians are found in the journals of the early explorers and missionaries. French and English settlers brought with them the remedies of their home countries. The growth of medicine through the 18th and 19th centuries, particularly in Europe, was mirrored in the practice and treatment methods of Canadians and Americans. In the 19th century, while Americans learned about causalgia and the pain of wounds, Canadian insurrections were much less devastating than the United States Civil War. By the end of that century, a Canadian professor working in the United States, Sir William Osler, was responsible for a standard textbook of medicine with a variety of treatments for painful illnesses. Yet pain did not figure in the index of that book. The modern period in pain research and management can probably be dated to the 20 years before the founding of the International Association for the Study of Pain. Pride of place belongs to The management of pain by John Bonica, published in Philadelphia in 1953 and based upon his work in Tacoma and Seattle. Ideas about pain were evolving in Canada in the 1950s with Donald Hebb, Professor of Psychology at McGill University in Montreal, corresponding with the leading American neurophysiologist, George H Bishop. Hebb's pupil Ronald Melzack engaged in studies of early experiences in relation to pain and, joining with Patrick Wall at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, published the 1965 paper in Science that revolutionized thinking. Partly because of this early start with prominent figures and partly because of its social system in the organization of medicine, Canada became a centre for a number of aspects of pain research and management, ranging from pain clinics in Halifax, Kingston and Saskatoon - which were among the earliest to advance treatment of pain - to studying the effects of implanted electrodes for neurosurgery. Work in Toronto by Moldofsky

  8. Best Practice in Environmental Management of Uranium Mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    generation as an integral part of the strategy of many countries to mitigate their impacts on climate change. The existing uranium mining industry has raised environmental standards through the introduction and development of best practices. One concern is that some of the newer, junior, mining companies and producer nations entering the market in the present expansion phase may not be aware of these best practices and current international standards. Failure to maintain the current high levels of environmental management may see the uranium mining industry's development hampered through the poor performance of a few new, but inexperienced companies, which would result in adverse reactions from the pubic and regulating authorities. This could be especially damaging to the straightforward development of the new resources demanded by the market. As part of a strategy to assist in the maintenance of standards in uranium mining and to assist in the dissemination of information on best practices, the IAEA assisted in the organization of a Technical Meeting on Best Practices in Environmental Management of Uranium Production Facilities, in Saskatoon, Canada, from 22 to 25 June 2004. This report contains the papers presented at that meeting, and the conclusions reached in discussions, together with an overall guide to what is best practice in modern uranium mining

  9. Lysine-functionalized nanodiamonds as gene carriers: development of stable colloidal dispersion for in vitro cellular uptake studies and siRNA delivery application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwani S

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Saniya Alwani,1 Randeep Kaur,1 Deborah Michel,1 Jackson M Chitanda,2 Ronald E Verrall,3 Chithra Karunakaran,4 Ildiko Badea1 1Drug Design and Discovery Research Group, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, 2Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, 3Department of Chemistry, University of Saskatchewan, 4Canadian Light Source, Saskatoon, SK, Canada Purpose: Nanodiamonds (NDs are emerging as an attractive tool for gene therapeutics. To reach their full potential for biological application, NDs should maintain their colloidal stability in biological milieu. This study describes the behavior of lysine-functionalized ND (lys-ND in various dispersion media, with an aim to limit aggregation and improve the colloidal stability of ND-gene complexes called diamoplexes. Furthermore, cellular and macromolecular interactions of lys-NDs are also analyzed in vitro to establish the understanding of ND-mediated gene transfer in cells. Methods: lys-NDs were synthesized earlier through covalent conjugation of lysine amino acid to carboxylated NDs surface generated through re-oxidation in strong oxidizing acids. In this study, dispersions of lys-NDs were prepared in various media, and the degree of sedimentation was monitored for 72 hours. Particle size distributions and zeta potential measurements were performed for a period of 25 days to characterize the physicochemical stability of lys-NDs in the medium. The interaction profile of lys-NDs with fetal bovine serum showed formation of a protein corona, which was evaluated by size and charge distribution measurements. Uptake of lys-NDs in cervical cancer cells was analyzed by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy, flow cytometry, and confocal microscopy. Cellular uptake of diamoplexes (complex of lys-NDs with small interfering RNA was also analyzed using flow cytometry. Results: Aqueous dispersion of lys-NDs showed minimum sedimentation and remained stable over a period of 25 days. Size distributions showed

  10. Updated ultrasound criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome: reliable thresholds for elevated follicle population and ovarian volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Marla E; Jarrett, Brittany Y; Brooks, Eric D; Reines, Jonathan K; Peppin, Andrew K; Muhn, Narry; Haider, Ehsan; Pierson, Roger A; Chizen, Donna R

    2013-05-01

    (Saskatoon, SK, Canada) and in the Division of Nutritional Sciences' Human Metabolic Research Unit, Cornell University (Ithaca, NY, USA). Diagnostic potential for PCOS was highest for FNPO (0.969), followed by FNPS (0.880) and OV (0.873) as judged by the area under the ROC curve. An FNPO threshold of 26 follicles had the best compromise between sensitivity (85%) and specificity (94%) when discriminating between controls and PCOS. Similarly, an FNPS threshold of nine follicles had a 69% sensitivity and 90% specificity, and an OV of 10 cm(3) had a 81% sensitivity and 84% specificity. Levels of intra-observer reliability were 0.81, 0.80 and 0.86 when assessing FNPO, FNPS and OV, respectively. Inter-observer reliability was 0.71, 0.72 and 0.82, respectively. Thresholds proposed by this study should be limited to use in women aged between 18 and 35 years. Polycystic ovarian morphology has excellent diagnostic potential for detecting PCOS. FNPO have better diagnostic potential and yield greater diagnostic confidence compared with assessments of FNPS or OV. Whenever possible, images throughout the entire ovary should be collected for the ultrasonographic evaluation of PCOS. This study was funded by Cornell University and fellowship awards from the Saskatchewan Health Research Foundation and Canadian Institutes of Health Research. The authors have no conflict of interests to disclose.

  11. The SMART Study, a Mobile Health and Citizen Science Methodological Platform for Active Living Surveillance, Integrated Knowledge Translation, and Policy Interventions: Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katapally, Tarun Reddy; Bhawra, Jasmin; Leatherdale, Scott T; Ferguson, Leah; Longo, Justin; Rainham, Daniel; Larouche, Richard; Osgood, Nathaniel

    2018-03-27

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, costing approximately US $67.5 billion per year to health care systems. To curb the physical inactivity pandemic, it is time to move beyond traditional approaches and engage citizens by repurposing sedentary behavior (SB)-enabling ubiquitous tools (eg, smartphones). The primary objective of the Saskatchewan, let's move and map our activity (SMART) Study was to develop a mobile and citizen science methodological platform for active living surveillance, knowledge translation, and policy interventions. This methodology paper enumerates the SMART Study platform's conceptualization, design, implementation, data collection procedures, analytical strategies, and potential for informing policy interventions. This longitudinal investigation was designed to engage participants (ie, citizen scientists) in Regina and Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, in four different seasons across 3 years. In spring 2017, pilot data collection was conducted, where 317 adult citizen scientists (≥18 years) were recruited in person and online. Citizen scientists used a custom-built smartphone app, Ethica (Ethica Data Services Inc), for 8 consecutive days to provide a complex series of objective and subjective data. Citizen scientists answered a succession of validated surveys that were assigned different smartphone triggering mechanisms (eg, user-triggered and schedule-triggered). The validated surveys captured physical activity (PA), SB, motivation, perception of outdoor and indoor environment, and eudaimonic well-being. Ecological momentary assessments were employed on each day to capture not only PA but also physical and social contexts along with barriers and facilitators of PA, as relayed by citizen scientists using geo-coded pictures and audio files. To obtain a comprehensive objective picture of participant location, motion, and compliance, 6 types of sensor-based (eg, global positioning system and accelerometer) data

  12. The SMART Study, a Mobile Health and Citizen Science Methodological Platform for Active Living Surveillance, Integrated Knowledge Translation, and Policy Interventions: Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawra, Jasmin; Leatherdale, Scott T; Ferguson, Leah; Longo, Justin; Rainham, Daniel; Larouche, Richard; Osgood, Nathaniel

    2018-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, costing approximately US $67.5 billion per year to health care systems. To curb the physical inactivity pandemic, it is time to move beyond traditional approaches and engage citizens by repurposing sedentary behavior (SB)–enabling ubiquitous tools (eg, smartphones). Objective The primary objective of the Saskatchewan, let’s move and map our activity (SMART) Study was to develop a mobile and citizen science methodological platform for active living surveillance, knowledge translation, and policy interventions. This methodology paper enumerates the SMART Study platform’s conceptualization, design, implementation, data collection procedures, analytical strategies, and potential for informing policy interventions. Methods This longitudinal investigation was designed to engage participants (ie, citizen scientists) in Regina and Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, in four different seasons across 3 years. In spring 2017, pilot data collection was conducted, where 317 adult citizen scientists (≥18 years) were recruited in person and online. Citizen scientists used a custom-built smartphone app, Ethica (Ethica Data Services Inc), for 8 consecutive days to provide a complex series of objective and subjective data. Citizen scientists answered a succession of validated surveys that were assigned different smartphone triggering mechanisms (eg, user-triggered and schedule-triggered). The validated surveys captured physical activity (PA), SB, motivation, perception of outdoor and indoor environment, and eudaimonic well-being. Ecological momentary assessments were employed on each day to capture not only PA but also physical and social contexts along with barriers and facilitators of PA, as relayed by citizen scientists using geo-coded pictures and audio files. To obtain a comprehensive objective picture of participant location, motion, and compliance, 6 types of sensor-based (eg, global

  13. Obituary: John Leroy Climenhaga, 1916-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarfe, Colin

    2009-01-01

    John Leroy Climenhaga was born on 7 November 1916 on a farm some 10 km from Delisle, a small town on the Canadian prairies, located about 50 km south-west of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, and died at his home in Victoria, British Columbia, on 27 May 2008. His parents, Reuben and Elizabeth (nee Bert) Climenhaga, were farming folk, and he carried their honest and open attitude to the world throughout his life. John was the seventh born, and last to die, of their ten children. His father also served as an ordained minister of the Brethren in Christ. In early adulthood, John worked on his father's farm, but then attended the University of Saskatchewan, obtaining a B.A. with Honors in Mathematics and Physics and an M.A. in Physics, in 1945 and 1949 respectively. Between these events he worked as a Physics Instructor at Regina College from 1946 to 1948. In 1949 Climenhaga joined the faculty of Victoria College, as one of only two physicists in a small institution that was then part of the University of British Columbia. He remained in Victoria for the rest of his career, playing a major role in the College's growth into a full-fledged university, complete with thriving graduate programs in physics and astronomy as well as in many other fields. He served as Head of the Physics Department during the 1960s, a period which saw the College become the University of Victoria, with a full undergraduate program in Physics, and campaigned successfully for the establishment of a program in Astronomy, which began in 1965. From 1969 until 1972 he held the position of Dean of Arts and Science, and championed the university's participation in the Tri-University Meson Facility, whose high-current medium-energy beam was ideal for the production and study of mesons and their physics. That period was a turbulent one in the university's history, but John's integrity and his balanced and fair-minded approach to conflicts were of immeasurable importance in steering the young institution through it

  14. Barriers to Research and Evidence (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Brettle

    2013-06-01

    are a number of changes within our editorial team. Wayne Jones has left to take up new interests and I would like to thank Denise Koufogiannakis for covering in the interim period. Lorie Kloda is moving to Associate Editor (Articles and she will be joined by Derek Rodriguez from University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill as a second Associate Editor (Articles to help with our increasing workload. Heather Pretty is moving to Associate Editor (Evidence Summaries and Michelle Dunaway is our new Production Editor. We have a new Editorial Intern, Archana Deshmukh from the University of Brighton and Richard Hayman will be our new lead Copy Editor.Finally if you are going to be attending EBLIP7 in Saskatoon in July, I look forward to meeting you there and providing further updates about the EBLIP journal.

  15. Bilimsel Toplantı Duyuruları

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adli Tıp Uzmanları Derneği ATUD

    1999-04-01

    ocuk Cerrahisi Derneği, Doç. Dr. Ergun Erdoğan, İ.Ü.Cerrahpaşa Tıp Fakültesi Çocuk Cerrahisi AD.-İstanbul Tel:0-212-633 46 24 16\t2. Acil Tıp Sempozyumu: Acil Olgularda Tanı ve Tedavi, Acil Tıp Sistemi, Afet Organizasyonu Pediatrik Aciller 30 Eylül - 3 Ekim 1999, Kültür Park-İzmir İletişim: Acil Tıp Derneği, Dr. Ülkümen Rodoplu Mimar Sinan Cad. No.3/6 Kahramanlar-İzmir Tel:0-232-421 38 11 17\t5-İzmir Güncel Tıp Günleri 21\tEkim 1999, Dokuz Eylül Üniv.Tıp Fakültesi Derslikler Grubu Konferans Salonu- İZMİR İletişim: Prof. Dr. M.'erafettin Canda, Dokuz Eylül Üniv. Tıp Fakültesi Patoloji AD- Ekopatoloji Dergisi. İnciraltı-İZMİR Tel: 0-232-259 59 59-3402 18\tThe First International Conference and Exhibition on Forensic Human Identification 24-\t26 October 1999 Information: Claire Futers, Millenium Conference Office, Forensic Science Service, Priory House, Gooch Street North, Birmingham B5 6QQ, UK Tel: + 44 (0 121 607 6855 Fax:+ 44 (0 121 622 2051 19\tV. Pratisyen Hekimlik Kongresi 28-31 Ekim 1999, Conrad Otel-İstanbul İletişim: Sultan Çiçen, Türk Tabipleri Birliği Pratisyen Hekimlik Derneği, Mithatpaşa Cad. No.62/18 Kızılay-ANKARA Tel: 425 25 57 20\tCustody and Caring, International Conference on the Nurse’s Role in the Criminal Justice System 30 September- 1 October 1999 Information: Containing Nursing Education, University of Saskatchewan, Box 60000 RPO University, Saskatoon, SK S7N 4J8, Canada. Fax: + 1 306 966 7673 21\t2000’li Yıllara Girerken XVI. Milli Türk Ortopedi ve Travmatoloji Kongresi 3-\t7 Kasım 1999, Antalya Dedeman Oteli İletişim:Türk Ortopedi ve Travmatoloji Birliği Derneği P.K.29 Emek-ANKARA Tel:285 02 02 - 285 03 03 22\t46th Annual General Meeting, Canadian Society of Forensic Science 16-\t21 November 1999, Ottawa, Canada Information: Society Office, Suite 215, Southvale Plaza, 2660 Southvale Crescent, Ottawa, ON K1B 4W5, Canada Tel: + 1 613 738 0001 23\tSağlık Çalışanlarının Sağlığı 1

  16. Main Parameters of Soil Quality and it's Management Under Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Reviewing Paper Introduction: Malcolm summarised the topic of soil quality and it's management in a well synthetized form in 2000. So, the soils are fundamental to the well-being and productivity of agricultural and natural ecosystems. Soil quality is a concept being developed to characterize the usefulness and health of soils. Soil quality includes soil fertility, potential productivity, contaminant levels and their effects, resource sustainability and environmental quality. A general definition of soil quality is the degree of fitness of a soil for a specific use. The existence of multiple definitions suggests that the soil quality concept continues to evolve (Kádár, 1992; Várallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton, 2005; Márton et al. 2007). Recent attention has focused on the sustainability of human uses of soil, based on concerns that soil quality may be declining (Boehn and Anderson, 1997). We use sustainable to mean that a use or management of soil will sustain human well-being over time. Lal (1995) described the land resources of the world (of which soil is one component) as "finite, fragile, and nonrenewable," and reported that only about 22% (3.26 billion ha) of the total land area on the globe is suitable for cultivation and at present, only about 3% (450 million ha) has a high agricultural production capacity. Because soil is in large but finite supply, and some soil components cannot be renewed within a human time frame, the condition of soils in agriculture and the environment is an issue of global concern (Howard, 1993; FAO, 1997). Concerns include soil losses from erosion, maintaining agricultural productivity and system sustainability, protecting natural areas, and adverse effects of soil contamination on human health (Haberern, 1992; Howard, 1993; Sims et al., 1997). Parr et al. (1992) state, "...soil degradation is the single most destructive force diminishing the world's soil resource base." Soil quality guidelines are intended to protect the ability of ecosystems to function properly (Kádár, 1992; Várallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton, 2005; Márton et al. 2007). The Hungarian Ministry of Environment and Water (HMEW, 2004) suggests that the Hungarian Regions should adopt a national policy "...that seeks to conserve and enhance soil quality...". Useful evaluation of soil quality requires agreement about why soil quality is important, how it is defined, how it should be measured, and how to respond to measurements with management, restoration, or conservation practices. Because determining soil quality requires one or more value judgments and because we have much to learn about soil, these issues are not easily addressed (Várallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000). Definitions of soil quality have been based both on human uses of soil and on the functions of soil within natural and agricultural ecosystems. For purposes of this work, we are showing soil quality within the context of managed agricultural ecosystems. To many in agriculture and agricultural research, productivity is analogous to soil quality. Maintaining soil quality is also a human health concern because air, groundwater and surface water consumed by humans can be adversely affected by mismanaged and contaminated soils, and because humans may be exposed to contaminated soils in residential areas (Kádár, 1992; Várallyay, 2005; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton et al. 2007). Contamination may include heavy metals, toxic elements, excess nutrients, volatile and nonvolatile organics, explosives, radioactive isotopes and inhalable fibers (Sheppard et al., 1992; Cook and Hendershot, 1996). Soil quality is not determined by any single conserving or degrading process or property, and soil has both dynamic and relatively static properties that also vary spatially (Carter et al., 1997). Gregorich et al. (1994) state that "soil quality is a composite measure of both a soil's ability to function and how well it functions, relative to a specific use." Increasingly, contemporary discussion of soil quality includes the environmental cost of production and the potential for reclamation of degraded soils (Várallyay, 2005). Reasons for assessing soil quality in an agricultural or managed system may be somewhat different than reasons for assessing soil quality in a natural ecosystem. In an agricultural context, soil quality may be managed, to maximize production without adverse environmental effect, while in a natural ecosystem, soil quality may be observed, as a baseline value or set of values against which future changes in the system may be compared (Várallyay, 1994; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton et al. 2007). Soil quality has historically been equated with agricultural productivity, and thus is not a new idea. Soil conservation practices to maintain soil productivity are as old as agriculture itself, with documentation dating to the Roman Empire (Jenny, 1961). The Storie Index (Storie, 1932) and USDA Land Capability Classification (Klingebiel and Montgomery, 1973) were developed to separate soils into different quality classes. Soil quality is implied in many decisions farmers make about land purchases and management, and in the economic value rural assessors place on agricultural land for purposes of taxation. Beginning in the 1930s, soil productivity ratings were developed in the United States and elsewhere to help farmers select crops and management practices that would maximize production and minimize erosion or other adverse environmental effects (Huddleston, 1984). These rating systems are important predecessors of recent attempts to quantitatively assess soil quality. In the 1970s, attempts were made to identify and protect soils of the highest productive capacity by defining "prime agricultural lands" (Miller, 1979). An idea related to soil quality is "carrying capacity". Carrying capacity is the number of individuals that can be supported in a given area (Budd, 1992). Soils with high productivity have high carrying capacity, and are considered to be high quality. Sustainability implies that a system does not exceed its carrying capacity over time. Recent attempts to define soil quality and develop indices to measure it have many of the properties of the earlier soil productivity ratings (Doran and Jones, 1996; Snakin et al., 1996; Seybold et al., 1997). Cox (1995) calls for national goals for soil quality that "... recognize the inherent links between soil, water and air quality." Haberern (1992) suggests that the decade of the 1990s is the time to study the soil as we have recognized and studied air quality and water quality in the preceding two decades. Air and water quality standards are generally based on maximum allowable concentrations of materials hazardous to human health. They are specified and enforced by regulators according to public uses of these resources. The result is that changes in air and water quality are now monitored to protect human health. With few exceptions, soil quality standards have not been set, nor have regulations been created regarding maintenance of soil quality (Várallyay, 2005; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton et al. 2007). To the extent that soil has been the disposal site of hazardous wastes, as well as a pathway by which contamination or other applied chemicals may present a human health risk, sporadic 40 regulations of soil quality (in terms of contamination) does exist in the 27 European Union (EU) countries for not just new ones but an estimated 30 000 existing chemicals, today. These regulations are in the form of laws regulating hazardous waste, toxic substances, and pesticides. However, these standards are often contradictory, inconsistent with each other and with current methods of assessing risk. For example, in the United States, federal regulations supporting CERCLA (40 CFR) is a list of "hazardous substances" and the levels in various media (e.g., soil, water) to which the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must respond with a cleanup effort. However, EPA has fielded considerable controversy about contaminant levels and chemical forms that legitimately constitute a human health risk. Target cleanup levels have also been subject to debate and legislation. Soil quality assessment requires definition of a "clean" soil (Sims et al., 1997). From this point of view, good quality soil has been defined as posing "...no harm to any normal use by humans, plants or animals; not adversely affecting natural cycles or functions; and not contaminating other components of the environment" (Moen, 1988). The parallel to air and water quality is easy to draw on a conceptual level, but designation of soil quality standards is significantly complicated by soil variability and heterogeneity (Smith et al., 1993). Among the authors (Merker, 1956; Odell et al. 1984; Johnston et al., 1986; Reganold et al., 1990; Granatstein and Bezdicek, 1992; Kádár, 1992; Beke et al., 1994; Jenkinson et al., 1994; Schjenning et al., 1994; Murata et al., 1995; Biederbeck et al., 1996; Lindert et al., 1996; Romig et al., 1995; Warkentin, 1995; Carter et al., 1997; Gerzabeck et al., 1997; Seybold et al., 1997; Malcolm, 2000; Várallyay, 2005) and organizations defining soil quality are Larson and Pierce (1991), Karlen et al. (1997). The next section reviews some of the definitions and soil characteristics used to define soil quality. The reader should understand that the definition of soil quality and selection of soil characteristics needed to quantify soil quality are continuing to evolve. For example, Bouma (1989) recognized that an essential problem with definitions that produce carefully limited suitability classes is that empirical decisions must be made to separate the classes along what is essentially a continuum. That is, if soil organic matter is part of a soil quality definition, where on the continuum of soil organic matter content does one draw the line between a high quality and low quality soil? Does high organic matter content always indicate high soil quality? These are non-trivial questions under discussion by the soil science community. Carter et al. (1997) suggest a framework for evaluating soil quality that includes: 1. describing each soil function on which quality is to be based, 2. selecting soil characteristics or properties that influence the capacity of the soil to provide each function, 3. choosing indicators of characteristics that can be measured, and 4. using methods that provide accurate measurement of those indicators. The following soil functions appear frequently in the soil science literature: 1. soil maintains biological activity/productivity (Karlen et al., 1997), serves as medium for plant/crop growth (Arshad and Coen, 1992), supports plant productivity/yield (Arshad and Coen, 1992), supports human/animal health (Karlen et al., 1997); 2. partitions and regulates water/ solute flow through environment (Larson and Pierce, 1991; Arshad and Coen, 1992); 3. serves as an environmental buffer/filter (Larson and Pierce, 1991), maintains environmental quality (Arshad and Ccen, 1992); 4. cycles nutrients, water, energy and other elements through the biosphere (Anderson and Gregorich, 1984). Clearly, these functions are interrelated. Later in this chapter, discussion focuses on the first and third functions (productivity and environmental buffering) as encompassing those aspects of soil quality most debated in the literature. Larson and Pierce (1991) defined soil quality as "the capacity of a soil to function within the ecosystem boundaries and interact positively with the environment external to that ecosystem." Three soil functions are considered essential: provide a medium for plant growth, regulate and partition waterllow through the environment, and serve as an effective environmental filter. Arshad and Coen (1992) define soil quality as "the sustaining capability of a soil to accept, store and recycle water, minerals and energy for production of crops at optimum levels while preserving a healthy environment." They discuss terrain, climate and hydrology as site factors that contribute to soil quality and suggest that socioeconomic factors such as land use, operator and management should be included in a soil quality analysis. This approach is consistent with the FAO approach to land quality analysis (FAO, 1997). Karlen et al. (1992) define soil quality as "the ability of the soil to serve as a natural medium for the growth of plants that sustain human and animal life." Their definition is based on the role of soil quality in the long-term productivity of soil and maintenance of environmental quality. Doran and Parkin (1994) defined soil quality as "the capacity of a soil to function within ecosystem boundaries to sustain biological productivity, maintain environmental quality, and promote plant and animal health." Gregorich et al. (1994) define soil quality as "a composite measure of both a soil's ability to function and how well it functions relative to a specific use" or "the degree of fitness of a soil for a specific use." The Soil Science Society of America Ad Hoc Committee on Soil Health proposed that soil quality is "the capacity of a specific kind of soil to function, within natural or managed ecosystem boundaries, to sustain plant and animal productivity, maintain or enhance water and air quality, and support human health and habitation" (Karlen et al., 1997). This definition requires that five functions must be evaluated to describe soil quality: 1. sustaining biological activity, diversity, and productivity; 2. regulating and partitioning water and solute flow; 3. filtering, buffering, degrading, immobilizing and detoxifying organic and inorganic materials, including industrial and municipal byproducts and atmospheric deposition; 4. storing and cycling nutrients and other elements within the earth's biosphere; and 5. providing support of socioeconomic structures and protection for archeological treasures associated with human habitation. No soil is likely to successfully provide all of these functions, some of which occur in natural ecosystems and some of which are the result of human modification. We can summarize by saying that soil quality depends on the extent to which soil functions to benefit humans. Thus, for food production or mediation of contamination, soil quality means the extent to which a soil fulfills the role we have defined for it. Within agriculture, high quality equates to maintenance of high productivity without significant soil or environmental degradation. The Glossary of Soil Science terms produced by the Soil Science Society of America (1996) states that soil quality is an inherent attribute of a soil that is inferred from soil characteristics or indirect observations. To proceed from a dictionary definition to a measure of soil quality, a minimum dataset (MDS) of soil characteristics that represents soil quality must be selected and quantified (Papendick et al., 1995). The MDS may include biological, chemical or physical soil characteristics [Organic matter (OM), Aggregation (A), Bulk density (BD), Depth to hardpan (DH), Electrical conductivity (EC), Fertility (F), Respiration (R), pH, Soil test (ST), Yield (Y), Infiltration (I), Mineralizable nitrogen potential (MNP), Water holding capacity (WHC)]. For agriculture, the measurement of properties should lead to a relatively simple and accurate way to rank soils based on potential plant production without soil degradation. Unfortunately, commonly identified soil quality parameters may not correlate well with yield (Reganold, 1988). In the next section, we consider these four points concerning the selection and quantification of soil characteristics: 1. soil characteristics may be desirable or undesirable, 2. soil renewability involves judgment of the extent to which soil characteristics can be controlled or managed, 3. rates of change in soil characteristics vary, and 4. there may be significant temporal or spatial variation in soil characteristics. Components of soil quality definitions may include desirable and undesirable characteristics. Desirable soil characteristics may either be the presence of a property that benefits soil productivity and/or other important soil functions, or the absence of a property that is detrimental to these functions. A soil characteristic may include a range of values that contributes positively to quality and a range that contributes negatively. Soil pH, for example, may be a positive or negative characteristic depending on its value. Larson and Pierce (1991) suggest that ranges of property values can be defined as optimal, suboptimal or superoptimal. A pH range of 6 to 7.5 is optimal for production of most crops. Outside of this range, pH is suboptimal and soil quality is lower than at the optimal pH range. The complexity of the soil quality concept is illustrated by the fact that the choice of optimal pH range is crop or use dependent. Letey (1985) suggested that identification of a range of water content that is nonlimiting to plant productivity might be a good way of assessing the collective effect of soil physical characteristics that contribute to crop productivity. For soils of decreasing quality, the width of the nonlimiting water range decreases. Undesirable soil characteristics may be either the presence of contaminants or a range of values of soil characteristics that contribute negatively to soil quality. The presence of chemicals that inhibit plant root growth or the absence of nutrients that result in low yields or poor crop quality are examples of undesirable soil characteristics that lower soil quality. The extent to which soil is viewed as a renewable resource shapes our approach to soil quality. "Soil" in this context is the natural, three-dimensional, horizonated individual, not something created by earth moving machinery. For the purpose of assessing human impact on sustainability of soil quality, it may be appropriate to use only those soil properties that are slowly or nonrenewable. Shorter term assessments may be based on those properties that change rapidly and are subject to easy management. Willis and Evans (1977) argued that soil is not renewable over the short term based on studies that suggest that 30 to more than 1,000 years are required to develop 25 mm of surface soil from parent material by natural processes. Jenny (1980) also argued that soil is not renewable over the time scale to which humans relate. Howard (1993) suggests defining soil quality based on undisturbed natural soils and to set quality standards based on changes in soils which cannot be reversed naturally or by ecological approaches. The renewability of soil depends on the soil property considered. For example, once soil depth is reduced by wind or water erosion so that it is too shallow to support crops, it is not renewable within a human or management time frame. Some important soil characteristics are slowly renewable. Organic matter, most nutrients and some physical properties may be renewed through careful long-term management. Certain chemical properties (pH, salinity, N, P, K content) may be altered to a more satisfactory range for agriculture within a growing season or two, while removal of unwanted chemicals may take much longer. No soil property is permanent, but rates and frequency of change vary widely among properties. Soil properties also vary with ecosystem, arguably depending most on climate. In rangelands, for example, temporal variability is high and relatively unpredictable due to the strong dependence of soil properties on soil wetness (Herrick and Whitford, 1995). Variability in soil wetness is not restricted to rangelands and may be an especially important determinant of microbial community structure and function in both irrigated and rainfed agricultural systems. Arnold et al. (1990) suggest that changes in soil properties can be nonsystematic, periodic, or trend. Nonsystematic changes are short term and unpredictable. Periodic are predictable and trend changes tend to be in one direction over time. Carter et al. (1997) distinguish between dynamic soil properties that are most subject to change through human use and are strongly influenced by agronomic practices, and intrinsic or static properties that are not subject to rapid change or management. Examples of dynamic soil characteristics are the size, membership, distribution, and activity of a soil's microbiological community; the soil solution composition, pH, and nutrient ion concentrations, and the exchangeable cation population. Soils respond quickly to changes in conditions such as water content. As a result, the optimal frequency and distribution of soil measurements vary with the property being measured. Soil mineralogy, particle size distribution and soil depth are static soil quality indicators. Although changes occur continuously, they are slow under natural conditions. Organic matter content may be a dynamic variable, but the chemical properties of organic matter may change only over periods on the order of 100 to 1,500 years depending on texture. Soil properties that change quickly present a problem because many measurements are needed to know the average value and to determine if changes in the average indicate improvement or degradation of soil quality. Conversely, properties that change very slowly are insensitive measures of short-term changes in soil quality. Papendick et al. (1995) argue that the MDS required for soil quality analysis includes a mix of "dynamic" and relatively "static" properties. A soil quality assessment must specify area. One could use the pedon (the three-dimensional soil individual) as the unit of measure, or a soil map unit, a landscape, a field or an entire watershed. The choice will depend to some degree on what property is of interest and the spatial variability of the property. Karlen et al. (1997) propose that soil quality can be evaluated at scales ranging from points to regional, national and international. They suggest that the more detailed scales provide an opportunity to "understand" soil quality while larger scale approaches provide interdisciplinary monitoring of soil quality and changes in soil quality. Pennock et al. (1994) discuss scaling up data from discrete sampling points to landscape and regional scales. Soil physical characteristics [Aeration (A), Aggregate stability (AS), Bulk density (BD), Clay mineralogy (CM), Color (C), Consistence (dry (CD), moist (CM), wet (CW)), Depth to root limiting layer (DRLL), Hydraulic conductivity (HC), Oxygen diffusion rate (ODR), Particle size distribution (PSD), Penetration resistence (PR), Pore connectivity (PC), Pore size distribution (PSD), Soil strength (SS), Soil tilth (ST), Structure type (STY), Temperature (T), Total porosity (TP), Water-holding capacity (WHC)] are a necessary part of soil quality assessment because they often cannot be easily improved (Wagenet and Hutson, 1997). Larson and Pierce (1991) summarize the physical indicators of soil quality as those properties that influence crop production by determining: 1. whether a soil can accommodate unobstructed root growth and provide pore space of sufficient size and continuity for root penetration and expansion, 2. the extent to which the soil matrix will resist deformation, and 3. the capacity of soil for water supply and aeration. Factors such as effective rooting depth, porosity or pore size distribution, bulk density, hydraulic conductivity, soil strength and particle size distribution capture these soil functions (Malcolm, 2000; Várallyay, 2005). Reganold and Palmer (1995) use texture, color, dry and moist consistence, structure type, a structure index, bulk density of the 0-5 cm zone, penetration resistance of 0 to 20 and 20 to 40 cm zones and topsoil thickness as physical determinants of soil quality. Letey (1994) suggests that structure, texture, bulk density, and profile characteristics affect management practices in agriculture but are not directly related to plant productivity. He proposes that water potential, oxygen diffusion rate, temperature, and mechanical resistance directly affect plant growth, and thus are the best indicators of the physical quality of a soil for production. Soil tilth, a poorly defined term that describes the physical condition of soil, also may be an indicator of a soil's ability to support crops. Farmers may assess soil tilth by kicking a soil clod. More formal measurements to describe soil ti]th include bulk density, porosity, structure, roughness and aggregate characteristics (Karlen et al., 1992). Many of the processes that contribute to soil structure, aggregate stability, bulk density and porosity are not well understood, making soil tilth a difficult parameter to quantify. Soil depth is an easily measured and independent property that provides direct information about a soil's ability to support plants. Effective soil depth is the depth available for roots to explore for water and nutrients. Layers that restrict root growth or water movement include hard rock, naturally dense soil layers such as fragipans, petrocalcic and, petroferric horizons, duripans, and human-induced layers of high bulk density such as plow pans and traffic pans. Effective soil depth is a problem for agricultural use of over 50% of soils in Africa (Eswaran et al., 1997). Soil depth requirements vary with crop or species. Many vegetable crops, for example, are notably shallow rooted while grain crops and some legumes like alfalfa are deep rooted. Variation will be even greater in unmanaged, natural systems. Wheat yield in Colorado was shown to decrease from 2,700 to 1,150 kg ha' over a 60-yr period of cultivation primarily due to decrease in soil depth (Bowman et al., 1990). Assessment of soil quality based on soil chemistry, whether the property is a contaminant or part of a healthy system, requires a sampling protocol, a method of chemical analysis, an understanding of how its chemistry affects biological systems and interacts with mineral forms, methods for location of possible contamination, and standards for soil characterization (Várallyay, 2005; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000). Some soil chemical properties suggested as soil quality indicators are: Base saturation percentage (BSP), Cation exchange capacity (CEC), Contaminant availability (CA), Contaminant concentration (CC), Contaminant mobility (CM), Contaminant presence (CP), Electrical conductivity (EC), ESP, Nutrient cycling rates (NCR), Ph, Plant nutrient availability (PNA), Plant nutrient content (PNC) and SAR. Nutrient availability depends on soil physical and chemical processes, such as weathering and buffering, and properties such as organic matter content, CEC and pH (Kádár, 1992; Várallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton, 2005; Márton et al. 2007). At low and high pH, for example, some nutrients become unavailable to plants and some toxic elements become more available. Larson and Pierce (1991) chose those chemical properties that either inhibit root growth or that affect nutrient supply due to the quantity present or the availability. Reganold and Palmer (1995) used chemical parameters related to nutrient availability as measures of soil quality, including CEC, total N and P, pH and extractable P, S, Ca, Mg and K. Karlen et al. (1992) suggest that total and available plant nutrients, and nutrient cycling rates, should be included in soil quality assessments. Soil properties may be severely compromised by intended or unintended human additions of chemical compounds and soil productivity reduced if unwanted chemicals exceed safe thresholds. Data are required to determine whether or not a site is significantly polluted and if it requires clean-up (Sims et al., 1997). International standard methods have been created to maintain the quality of measurements (Hortensius and Welling, 1996). A difficult determination is the level of each chemical that is considered an ecological risk. Beck et al. (1995) provide a list of levels for organic chemicals adopted by The Netherlands and Canada. EPA uses similar lists for compounds considered hazardous (e.g., 40 CFR). Sims et al. (1997) argue that clean and unclean are two extremes of a continuum and that it is more appropriate to define the physical, chemical and biological state of the soil as acceptable or unacceptable. In The Netherlands, soil quality reference values have been created for heavy metals and organic chemicals based on a linear relationship with soil clay and organic matter content. The Dutch Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment has used the maximum of a range of reference values for a given substance as a provisional reference value for good soil quality (Howard, 1993). The focus of many soil quality definitions is soil biology [Organic carbon (OC), Microbial biomass (MB), C and N, Total bacterial biomass (TBB), Total fungal biomass (TFB), Potentially mineralizable N (PMN), Soil respiration (SR), Enzymes (Dehydrogenase, Phosphatase, Arlysulfatase), Biomass C/total organic carbon, Respiration/biomass, Microbial community fingerprinting (MCF), Substrate utilization (SU), Fatty acid analysis (FAA), Nucleic acid analysis (NAA)]. Soil supports a diverse population of organisms, ranging in size from viruses to large mammals, that usually interacts positively with plants and other system components (Paul and Clark, 1996). However, some soil organisms such as nematodes, bacterial and fungal pathogens reduce plant productivity. Many proposed soil quality definitions focus on the presence of beneficial rather than absence of detrimental organisms, although both are critically important. Various measures of microbial community viability have been suggested as measures or indices of soil quality. Community level studies consider species diversity and frequency of occurrence of species. Visser and Parkinson (1992) found that diverse soil microbiological criteria may be used to indicate deteriorating or improving soil quality. They suggested testing the biological criteria for soil quality at three levels: population, community and ecosystem. Microorganisms and microbial communities are dynamic and diverse, making them sensitive to changes in soil conditions (Kennedy and Papendick, 1995). Their populations include fungi, bacteria including actinomycetes, protozoa, and algae. Soil microorganisms form crucial symbiotic relationships with plants, including mycorrhizal infection for P and N acquisition and bacterial infection for fixation of atmospheric N. Authors emphasizing use of biological factors as indicators of soil quality often equate soil quality with relatively dynamic properties such as microbial biomass, microbial respiration, organic matter mineralization and denitrification, and organic matter content (Yakovchenko et al., 1996; Franzluebbers and Arshad, 1997), or soil microbial C, phospholipid analyses and soil enzymes (Gregorich et al., 1997), or total organic C and N (Franco-Vizcaino, 1997). Visser and Parkinson (1992) question the suitability of enzyme assays for microbial activity and soil quality assessments. Waksman (1927), who studied measurements of soil microorganisms that could indicate soil fertility, found that physical and chemical factors as well as soil biology were needed to predict soil fertility. Meso- and macrofauna populations have also been considered as part of soil quality definitions (Berry, 1994). One could choose to use presence or absence of a particular species or population of a particular species as a measure of soil quality. Stork and Eggleton (1992) discuss species richness as a powerful indicator of invertebrate community and soil quality, although determining the number of species is a problem. They suggest that keystone species, taxonomic diversity at the group level, and species richness of several dominant groups of invertebrates can be used as part of a soil quality definition. Measuring soil fauna populations involves decisions about which organisms to measure and how to measure them. An example is the earthworm population, the size of which is frequently mentioned as an important measure of soil quality. Measurement choices include numbers of organisms per volume or weight of soil, number of species, or a combination of numbers of organisms and species. Reganold and Palmer (1995) use total earthworms per square meter, total earthworm weight (g m-') and average individual earthworm weight as biological indicators of soil quality. Measurement of one or more components of the N cycle including ammonification, nitrification and nitrogen fixation, may be used to assess soil fertility and soil quality (Visser and Parkinson, 1992). Presumably, high rates of N turnover may infer a dynamic and healthy soil biological community. In contrast, low soil quality or poor soil health may be inferred from lack of N turnover. The interpretation of N turnover rates is highly dependent on the kinds of substrates added to soils and climate variables such as soil temperature and moisture. One needs to be careful when comparing N turnover rates within soils and among different soils to be sure that the cause of differences is a soil quality parameter and not natural variability. Presence of pesticide residues, for example, may reduce N turnover rate. In such an instance, both the presence of the pesticide and the N turnover rate would be needed to determine that the soil quality had been impaired. Production incorporates use of and need for functioning soil resources in agriculture, and environmental buffering incorporates the direct and indirect effects of human use on ecosystem function and human health (Kádár, 1992; Várallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton, 2005; Márton et al. 2007). Worldwide agriculture is the most extensive human land use, and soil characteristics are a critical determinant of agricultural productivity. Agriculture includes irrigated and rainfed cultivated cropland, permanent crops such as orchards and vineyards, irrigated pasture, range, and forestry. Each cropping system has distinct soil and soil management conditions for optimal production. It has been suggested that soil productivity is the net resultant of soil degradation processes and soil conservation practices (Parr et al., 1990). An appropriate definition of soil quality and the criteria necessary to evaluate and monitor soil quality is a step toward "the development of systematic criteria of sustainability". Issues to be considered when discussing soil quality for agriculture include: 1. How are productivity and sustainability related? 2. Is the cropping system in question cultivated or non-cultivated? 3. Is the cropping system in question an irrigated or dryland system? Sustainability of agricultural systems is critical to human welfare and is an a subject of research and debate (Letey, 1994). High productivity and sustainability must be converging goals if the growing human population is to be fed without destroying the resources necessary to produce food. Sustainability implies that a system is at a desirable steady state. Thermodynamically, soil is an open system through which matter and energy flow and a steady state is characterized by a minimum production of entropy (Andiscott, 1995). Ellert et al. (1997) review related literature on ways of assessing soil function on an ecosystem scale, commenting that the complexity and organization of living systems, which seem to defy the second law of thermodynamics (increasing disorder/entropy), may provide a means to broadly assess ecosystem function. The purpose of agriculture is to provide products for human sustenance and by definition is not sustainable unless the nutrients removed in the products are returned to the soil. Many of the arguments about the sustainability of agricultural systems relate to the form in which nutrients are most sustainably returned. No agricultural system will be sustainable in the long run without management that considers nutrient cycling and energy budgets. The more intense the agricultural system, the more energy and resources must be expended to maintain the system. The relative quality of a soil for agriculture can depend on the resources available to farmers. In the United States, resources may be readily available for management of dynamic soil properties such as nutrient or water status. In other countries, farmers may be resource poor, and agricultural systems are generally low input, meaning that large-scale irrigation is absent, use of fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides is minimal, and high energy, mechanized equipment is not available (Eswaran et a1.,1997). This means, for example, that soil quality for agriculture will be more dependent on climate than if the same soils were part of a highly managed, irrigated system. Similarly, sustainability is more dependent on maintenance of dynamic soil properties because resources may not exist to remedy losses (Várallyay, 2005; Malcolm, 2000; Márton et al. 2007). It is difficult to overstate the importance of irrigation to food production. One-third of the total global harvest of food comes from the 17% (250 million ha) of the world's cropland that is irrigated (Hoffman et al., 1990); three-quarters of which are in developing countries (Tribe, 1994). India, China, the former Soviet Union, the United States and Pakistan have the greatest area of irrigated land. Should soil quality criteria be the same for irrigated and dryland agriculture? Sojka (1996) suggests that the arid and semi-arid soils that support most irrigated agriculture have thin erodible surfaces, characteristics that would classify such soils as having poor quality. Yet under irrigation, they feed much of the world. Without irrigation, for example, in many African soils, moisture stress becomes a significant factor limiting production, and the water-holding capacity of a soil becomes crucial (Eswaran et al., 1997). This suggests that a standard set of criteria based on potential productivity is not a sufficient definition of soil quality. Soils that are not cultivated are a much larger component of agriculture, broadly defined, than those that are cultivated. About 65% of the land in the United States is forest (284 million ha) or range land (312 million ha), with only about 284 million hacultivated (NRC,1994). Herrick and Whitford (1995) suggest that range land soils, which often serve multiple uses, present unique challenges and opportunities for assessing soil quality because spatial and temporal variability are higher than in cropped systems. On range lands and forest lands, food, fiber, timber production, biomass for fuel, wildlife, biodiversity, recreation, and water supply are all potential uses that may have diverse criteria for quality soils. Herrick and Whitford (1995) give the example of a thick O horizon that may be an indicator of good timber production but has no predictive value of soil quality for the rancher. The National Research Council (NRC, 1994) recommends that range land health be determined using three criteria: degree of soil stability and watershed function, integrity of nutrient cycles and energy flows, and presence of functioning recovery mechanisms. Soil erosion by wind and water and infiltration or capture of precipitation were selected as processes that could be used as indicators of soil stability and watershed function. Specific indicators or properties need to be related to these two broad processes. The amount of nutrients available, the speed with which nutrients cycle, and measures of the integrity of energy flow through the system were considered fundamental components of range land health. Finally, the capacity of range land ecosystems to react to change depends on recovery mechanisms that result in capture and cycling of nutrients, capture of energy, conservation of nutrients, energy and water, and resilience to change. Specific indicators include status of vegetation, age class and distribution (Kádár, 1992; Várallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton et al. 2007). The evaluation of land quality for forestry is a well-known practice. Indices range from quantitative through semi-quantitative to qualitative. Quantitative evaluations, such as site index, use regression equations to predict tree height at a predetermined tree age based on soil and climate data. Qualitative evaluations assign land to classes based on soil and climate properties. In soil science, the term "buffer" refers collectively to processes that constrain shifts in the dissolved concentration of any ion when it is added to or removed from the soil system (Singer and Munns, 1996). Soils "buffer" nutrients as well as contaminants and other solutes, via sorption to or incorporation into clay and organic materials. The extent to which a soil immobilizes or chemically alters substances that are toxic, thus effectively detoxifying them, reflects "quality" in the sense that humans or other biological components of the system are protected from harm. This is the basis for the European concept of soil quality (Moen, 1988; Siegrist, 1989; Denneman and Robberse, 1990). Lack of soil function in this category is reflected as direct toxicity or as contamination of air or water. Identifying substances that qualify as "contaminants" can be challenging because some, such as nitrates and phosphates, are important plant nutrients as well as potential water pollutants. An example is agricultural runoff containing N03 or soluble P (Yli-Halla et al., 1995). This chapter does not attempt a comprehensive review of research in this area, which is covered in an earlier chapter, but instead presents a few sample articles pertinent to this aspect of soil quality. Holden and Firestone (1997) define soil quality in this context as "the degree to which the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the soil serve to attenuate environmental pollution." Howard (1993) defines the ecological risk of a chemical in the environment as "the probability that a random species in a large community is exposed to a concentration of the chemical greater than its no-effect level." The extent to which a soil is capable of reducing the probability of exposure is a measure of its quality. A well-studied example of a common soil contaminant is Pb (McBride et al., 1997). Although legislated limits may be on a concentration basis in soil (e.g., 500 ftg kg-'), risk assessment techniques have attempted to account for the chemical form of Pb present, as well as the observed relative relationship between the amount of Pb present in soil and blood levels in local residents (Bowers and Gauthier, 1994). Critics have questioned analytical techniques used to determine bioavailable levels of Pb in soil, as well as the degree to which toxicity data account for its chemical fate and ecologically damaging properties (Cook and Hendershot, 1996). Natural variability of soils and variation within a soil series make average values or average background values inadequate for soil quality assessments. In addition, bioaccumulation and toxicity need to be considered when establishing levels of toxicants that may not be exceeded in a "high quality" soil for a given use (Traas et al. 1996). Another example is the effect of heavy metals such as Cr(VI) on soil biological properties. Based on a study of three New Zealand soils of contrasting texture, organic matter content, and CEC, Speir et al. (1995) propose an "ecological dose value" that represents the inhibitory effects of a heavy metal (in this case, Cr(VI)) on the kinetics of soil biological properties, and serves as a generic index for determination of permissible concentration levels for heavy metals in soils. A single soil characteristic is of limited use in evaluating differences in soil quality (Reganold and Palmer, 1995). Using more than one quantitative variable requires some system for combining the measurements into a useful index (Halvorson et al., 1996). The region, crop, or general soil use for which an index was created will likely limit its effectiveness outside the scope of its intended application. Even an index designed only to rate productivity is not likely to be useful for all crops and soils, leading Gersmehl and Brown (1990) to advocate regionally targeted systems. Rice is a good example of a crop requiring significantly different soil properties than other crops. It is a food staple for a large proportion of the world population. Approximately 146 million ha were in rice production in 1989 (FAO, 1989) mainly (90%) in Asia. High quality soils for paddy rice may be poor quality for most other irrigated and dryland crops because they may be saline or sodic, and high in clay with slow infiltration and permeability. These physical and chemical properties often constrain production of other crops. Although they are not reviewed here, various land suitability classifications specifically for rice have been developed since the turn of the century (Dent, 1978). Examples of several soil quality indexing systems are presented in the following sections. To some extent, recent attempts to enumerate the factors of soil quality resemble Jenny's (1941) introduction of the interrelated factors of soil formation. An index is categorized here as nonquantitative if it does not combine evaluated parameters into a numerical index that rates soils along a continuous scale. Examples are the USDA Land Capability Classification and the US Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) Irrigation Suitability. The purpose of the Land Capability Classification (LCC) was to place arable soils into groups based on their ability to sustain common cultivated crops that do not require specialized site conditioning or treatment (Klingebiel and Montgomery, 1973). Nonarable soils, unsuitable for long-term, sustained cultivation, are grouped according to their ability to support permanent vegetation, and according to the risk of soil damage if mismanaged. The LCC combines three rating values at different levels of abstraction: capability class, subclass, and unit. At the most general level, soils are placed in eight classes according to whether they (a) are capable of producing adapted plants under good management (classes I to N), (b) are capable of producing specialized crops under highly intensive management involving "elaborate practices for soil and water conservation" (classes V to VII), or (c) do not return on-site benefits as a result of management inputs for crops, grasses or trees without major reclamation (Klingebiel and Montgomery, 1973). The four possible limitations/hazards under the subclass rating are erosion hazard, wetness, rooting zone limitations and climate. The capability unit groups soils that have about the same responses to systems of management and have longtime estimated yields that do not vary by more than 25% under comparable management. The issue of critical limits is a difficult one in soils because of the range of potential uses and the interactions among variables (Arshad and Ccen, 1992). Several studies have shown that lands of higher LCC have higher productivity than lands of lower LCC (Patterson and Mackintosh, 1976; van Vliet et al., 1979; Reganold and Singer, 1984). In a study of 744 alfalfa, corn, cotton, sugar beet and wheat growing fields in the San Joaquin Valley of California, those with LCC ratings between 1 and 3 had significantly lower input/output ratios than fields with ratings between 3.01 and 6 (Reganold and Singer, 1984). This suggests that use of the LCC system provides an economically meaningful assessment of soil quality for agriculture. This was a frequently used system of land evaluation for irrigation in the Western US during the period of rapid expansion of water delivery systems (McRae and Burnham, 1981). It combines social and economic evaluations of the land with soil and other ecological variables to determine if the land has the productive capacity, once irrigated, to repay the investment necessary to bring water to an area. It recognizes the unique importance of irrigation to agriculture and the special qualities of soils that make them irrigable. Quantitative systems result in a numerical index, typically with the highest number being assigned to the best quality soils. Systems may be additive, multiplicative or more complex functions. They have two important advantages over nonquantitative systems: 1. they are easier to use with GIS and other automated data retrieval and display systems, and 2. they typically provide a continuous scale of assessment. No single national system is presently in use but several state or regional systems exist. Although he considered the productivity of the land to be dependent on 32 soil, climate and vegetative properties [Surface conditions: Physiographic position, Slope, Microrelief, Erosion deposition, External drainage, runoff. Soil physical conditions: Soil color, Soil depth, Soil density and porosity, Soil permeability, Soil texture, Stoniness, Soil structure, Soil workability-consistence, Internal drainage, Water-holding capacity, Plant-available water. Soil chemical conditions: Organic matter, Nitrogen, Reaction, Calcium carbonate, bases, Exchange capacity, Salts: Cl, SO Na, Toxicities, e.g., B, Available P, Available K, Minor elements, e.g., Zn, Fe, Fertility. Mineralogical conditions: Mineralogy. Climate: Precipitation Temperature Growing season Winds. Vegetativé cover: Natural vegetation], only nine properties were used in the SIR, because incorporating a greater number of factors made the system unwieldy. The nine factors are soil morphology (A), surface texture (B), slope (C), and six variables (X.) that rate drainage class, sodicity, acidity, erosion, microrelief and fertility; rated from 1% to 100%. These are converted to their decimal value and multiplied together (Storie, 1964). Values for each factor were derived from Storie's experience mapping and evaluating soils in California, and in soil productivity studies in cooperation with the California Agricultural Experiment Station cost-efficiency projects relating to orchard crops, grapes and cotton. In describing the SIR (SIR= [AxBxCxIIXi]x100), Storie (1932, 1964) explicitly mentioned "soil quality". Soils that were deep, had no restricting subsoil horizons, and held water well had the greatest potential for the widest range of crops. The usefulness of the SIR as a soil quality index would be greatest if there was a statistically significant relationship between SIR values and an economic indicator of land value. Reganold and Singer (1984) found that area-weighted average SIR values between 60 and 100 for 744 fields in the San Joaquin Valley of California had lower but statistically insignificant input/output ratios than fields with indices measurable indicators of each variable and the interactions among these diverse variables is a daunting task. Moreover, the mathematical method of combining these factors, as well as the resulting value that would indicate a high quality soil, is not specified. The inclusion of variables BD, FQ and MI make this a land quality index as suggested by FAO (1997). Larson and Pierce (1991) defined soil quality (Q) as the state of existence of soil relative to a standard or in terms of a degree of excellence. They argue that defining Q in terms of productivity is too limiting and does not serve us well. Rather, Q is defined as the sum of individual soil qualities q. and expressed as Equation: Q=f(qi ...qn). These authors do not identify the best subset of properties or their functional and quantitative relationship, but do suggest that a MDS should be selected from those soil characteristics in which changes are measurable and relatively rapid (i.e., "dynamic" properties), arguing that it is more important to know about changes in soil quality (dQ) than the magnitude of Q (Larson and Pierce, 1991). Changes in soil quality are a function of changes in soil characteristics (q) over time (t): dQ = f[(qi.t - qit0 )... (qn.t-qnt0)]. If dQ/dt is ≥0, the soil or ecosystem is improving relative to the standard at time to. If dQ/dt measurement is qualitative. The authors do not address how large a change in pH, soil depth, bulk density or organic C represents serious soil degradation, or the values that define soil as high or low quality. Karlen et al. (1994) developed QI based on a 10-year crop residue management study. QI is based on four soil functions: (1) accommodating water entry, (2) retaining and supplying water to plants, (3) resisting degradation, and (4) supporting plant growth. Numerous properties were measured and values normalized based on standard scoring functions. One function is based on the concept that more of a property is better, one that less is better and the third that an optimum is better. Lower threshold values receive a score of zero, upper threshold values receive a score of one, and baseline values receive a score of one-half. Priorities are then assigned to each value. For example, aggregate stability was given the highest weight among factors important in water entry. After normalizing, each value is then multiplied by its weighting factor (wt) and products are summed Equation: QI=qwe (wt) + qwt (wt)+qrd (wt) + qspg (wt). Subscripts refer to the four main functions described earlier. It should also be noted that resisting degradation (rd) and sustaining plant growth (spg) are assigned secondary and tertiary levels of properties that themselves are normalized and weighted before a final value is calculated and incorporated into Equation. The resulting index resulted in values between zero and one. Of the three systems in the study, the one with the highest rate of organic matter return to the soil had the highest index value, and the soil with the lowest had the lowest value. The authors suggest that this demonstrates the usefulness of the index for monitoring the status and change in status of a soil as a function of management. They also suggest that the index and the soil characteristics that go into the index may change as the index is refined (Karlen et al. 1994). Snakin et al. (1996) developed an index of soil degradation that assigns three separate values from one to five reflecting the degree to which a soil's physical, chemical, and biological properties are degraded, as well as the rate of degradation. The Canadian soil capability classification system is similar to the older US systems and is quantitative. In a study in southwestern Ontario, Patterson and Mackintosh (1976) found that high gross returns per ha were three times as likely if the productivity index of land, based on the soil capability classification, was between 90 and 100 than if it fell between 80 and 89. Smith et al. (1993) and Halvorson et al. (1996) propose a multiple-variable indicator transform procedure to combine values or ranges of values that represent the best estimate of soil quality. Their system converts measured data values into a single value according to specified criteria. They do not attempt to define soil quality or specify what soil characteristics are to be used. They combine this procedure with kriging to develop maps that indicate the probabilities of meeting a soil quality criterion on a landscape level. Critical threshold values must be known, assumed, or determined in order to separate different soil qualities. Numerous additive productivity rating systems have been developed for specific states, as reviewed by Huddleston (1984). In these systems, soil properties are assigned numerical values according to their expected impact on plant growth. The index is usually calculated as the sum of the values assigned to each property with 100 the maximum value. Huddleston (1984) notes advantages and disadvantages to such a system which are similar to those for many of the soil quality indices previously discussed. Additive systems become complex as the number of factors, cropping systems, and soil and climatic conditions increases. A unique problem of subtractive systems (one in which 100 is the starting point and values are deducted for problem conditions) is that negative values result when multiple factors are less than satisfactory. Soil quality is a concept being developed to characterize the usefulness and health of soils, because soils are fundamental to the well-being and productivity of agricultural and natural ecosystems. It is a compound characteristic that cannot be directly measured. Many definitions of soil quality can be found in the literature and no set of soil characteristics has been universally adopted to quantify definitions. Soil quality is often equated with agricultural productivity and sustainability. An approach toward developing soil quality definitions is one that assesses soil quality in the context of a soil's potential to perform given functions in a system; e.g., maintains productivity, partitions and regulates water and solute flow through an ecosystem, serves as an environmental buffer, and cycles nutrients, water, and energy through the biosphere. Air and water quality standards are usually based on maximum allowable concentrations of materials hazardous to human health. A definition of soil quality based on this concept would encompass only a fraction of the important roles soils play in agriculture and the environment but could be essential to soil remediation. To proceed from a definition to a measure of soil quality, a minimum dataset of soil characteristics that represent soil quality must be selected and quantified. Many soil physical, chemical and biological properties have been suggested to separate soils of different quality. These include desirable and undesirable properties. Desirable soil characteristics may either be the presence of a property that benefits crop productivity and environmental buffering and/or other important soil functions, or the absence of a property that is detrimental to these functions. In particular, absence of contaminants is an important soil quality characteristic. In selecting characteristics, it is necessary to recognize that some soil properties are static, in the sense that they change slowly over time and others are dynamic. In addition, spatial and temporal variability of soil properties must be considered when selecting the properties used to assess soil quality. A single soil property is of limited use in evaluating soil quality. Qualitative and quantitative soil quality indices have been suggested that combine quantitative values of soil properties. Quantitative systems may be additive, multiplicative or more complex functions. 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