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Sample records for sasi toy model

  1. Quantum protocols within Spekkens' toy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disilvestro, Leonardo; Markham, Damian

    2017-05-01

    Quantum mechanics is known to provide significant improvements in information processing tasks when compared to classical models. These advantages range from computational speedups to security improvements. A key question is where these advantages come from. The toy model developed by Spekkens [R. W. Spekkens, Phys. Rev. A 75, 032110 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevA.75.032110] mimics many of the features of quantum mechanics, such as entanglement and no cloning, regarded as being important in this regard, despite being a local hidden variable theory. In this work, we study several protocols within Spekkens' toy model where we see it can also mimic the advantages and limitations shown in the quantum case. We first provide explicit proofs for the impossibility of toy bit commitment and the existence of a toy error correction protocol and consequent k -threshold secret sharing. Then, defining a toy computational model based on the quantum one-way computer, we prove the existence of blind and verified protocols. Importantly, these two last quantum protocols are known to achieve a better-than-classical security. Our results suggest that such quantum improvements need not arise from any Bell-type nonlocality or contextuality, but rather as a consequence of steering correlations.

  2. Spectroscopic AC susceptibility imaging (sASI) of magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ficko, Bradley W., E-mail: Bradley.W.Ficko@Dartmouth.edu; Nadar, Priyanka M.; Diamond, Solomon G.

    2015-02-01

    This study demonstrates a method for alternating current (AC) susceptibility imaging (ASI) of magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) using low cost instrumentation. The ASI method uses AC magnetic susceptibility measurements to create tomographic images using an array of drive coils, compensation coils and fluxgate magnetometers. Using a spectroscopic approach in conjunction with ASI, a series of tomographic images can be created for each frequency measurement set and is termed sASI. The advantage of sASI is that mNPs can be simultaneously characterized and imaged in a biological medium. System calibration was performed by fitting the in-phase and out-of-phase susceptibility measurements of an mNP sample with a hydrodynamic diameter of 100 nm to a Brownian relaxation model (R{sup 2}=0.96). Samples of mNPs with core diameters of 10 and 40 nm and a sample of 100 nm hydrodynamic diameter were prepared in 0.5 ml tubes. Three mNP samples were arranged in a randomized array and then scanned using sASI with six frequencies between 425 and 925 Hz. The sASI scans showed the location and quantity of the mNP samples (R{sup 2}=0.97). Biological compatibility of the sASI method was demonstrated by scanning mNPs that were injected into a pork sausage. The mNP response in the biological medium was found to correlate with a calibration sample (R{sup 2}=0.97, p<0.001). These results demonstrate the concept of ASI and advantages of sASI. - Highlights: • Development of an AC susceptibility imaging model. • Comparison of AC susceptibility imaging (ASI) and susceptibility magnitude imaging (SMI). • Demonstration of ASI and spectroscopic ASI (sASI) using three different magnetic nanoparticle types. • SASI scan separation of three different magnetic nanoparticles samples using 5 spectroscopic frequencies. • Demonstration of biological feasibility of sASI.

  3. On the Genealogy of Sasi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubandt, Nils Ole

    2005-01-01

      This chapter analyses a series of historical shifts of an imagined tradition known as sasi in the eastern Indonesian province of Maluku – a tradition that was invented under colonial rule but has been continuously reinvented and re-imagined since. It explores the creative and complex processes ...

  4. A toy model for monthly river flow forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xubin; Kiviat, Kira L.; Sakaguchi, Koichi; Mahmoud, Alaa M. A.

    2012-07-01

    SummaryRiver flow forecasting depends on land-atmosphere coupled processes, and is relevant to hydrological applications and land-ocean coupling. A toy model is developed here for monthly river flow forecasting using the river flow and river basin averaged precipitation in prior month. Model coefficients are calibrated for each month using historical data. The toy model is based on water balance, easy to use and reproduce, and robust to calibrate with a short period of data. For five major rivers in the world, its results agree with observations very well. Its prediction uncertainty can be quantified using the model's error statistics or using a dynamic approach, but not by the dispersion of 10,000 ensemble members with different sets of coefficients in the model. Its results are much better than those from a physically based land model even after the mean bias correction. The toy model and a standard neural network available from the MATLAB give similar results, but the latter is more sensitive to the length of calibration period. For the monthly prediction of river flow with a strong seasonal cycle, a modified Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency is introduced and is found to be more reliable in model evaluations than the original coefficient of efficiency or the correlation coefficient.

  5. Empirical correction of a toy climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgaier, Nicholas A.; Harris, Kameron D.; Danforth, Christopher M.

    2012-02-01

    Improving the accuracy of forecast models for physical systems such as the atmosphere is a crucial ongoing effort. The primary focus of recent research on these highly nonlinear systems has been errors in state estimation, but as that error has been successfully diminished, the role of model error in forecast uncertainty has duly increased. The present study is an investigation of an empirical model correction procedure involving the comparison of short forecasts with a reference “truth” system during a training period, in order to calculate systematic (1) state-independent model bias and (2) state-dependent error patterns. An estimate of the likelihood of the latter error component is computed from the current state at every time step of model integration. The effectiveness of this technique is explored in a realistic scenario, in which the model is structurally different (in dynamics, dimension, and parametrization) from the target system. Results suggest that the correction procedure is more effective for reducing error and prolonging forecast usefulness than parameter tuning. However, the cost of this increase in average forecast accuracy is the creation of substantial qualitative differences between the dynamics of the corrected model and the true system. A method to mitigate dynamical ramifications and further increase forecast accuracy is presented.

  6. Fission yield calculation using toy model based on Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubaidah, E-mail: jubaidah@student.itb.ac.id [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Division, Department of Physics, Bandung Institute of Technology. Jl. Ganesa No. 10 Bandung – West Java, Indonesia 40132 (Indonesia); Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science – State University of Medan. Jl. Willem Iskandar Pasar V Medan Estate – North Sumatera, Indonesia 20221 (Indonesia); Kurniadi, Rizal, E-mail: rijalk@fi.itb.ac.id [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Division, Department of Physics, Bandung Institute of Technology. Jl. Ganesa No. 10 Bandung – West Java, Indonesia 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Toy model is a new approximation in predicting fission yield distribution. Toy model assumes nucleus as an elastic toy consist of marbles. The number of marbles represents the number of nucleons, A. This toy nucleus is able to imitate the real nucleus properties. In this research, the toy nucleons are only influenced by central force. A heavy toy nucleus induced by a toy nucleon will be split into two fragments. These two fission fragments are called fission yield. In this research, energy entanglement is neglected. Fission process in toy model is illustrated by two Gaussian curves intersecting each other. There are five Gaussian parameters used in this research. They are scission point of the two curves (R{sub c}), mean of left curve (μ{sub L}) and mean of right curve (μ{sub R}), deviation of left curve (σ{sub L}) and deviation of right curve (σ{sub R}). The fission yields distribution is analyses based on Monte Carlo simulation. The result shows that variation in σ or µ can significanly move the average frequency of asymmetry fission yields. This also varies the range of fission yields distribution probability. In addition, variation in iteration coefficient only change the frequency of fission yields. Monte Carlo simulation for fission yield calculation using toy model successfully indicates the same tendency with experiment results, where average of light fission yield is in the range of 90

  7. The Influence of Televised Models on Toy Preference in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Long, Judith; And Others

    Six boys and six girls aged 4-6 years viewed one of three videotapes in which puppets (two Muppets: one male and one female) used culturally stereotyped arguments to assign masculinity, feminity or sex-role neutrality to a standard set of sex-neutral toys. After viewing a film, the children were observed for 10 minutes in free play with toys shown…

  8. Building toy models of proteins using coevolutionary information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ryan; Raghunathan, Mohit; Onuchic, Jose

    2015-03-01

    Recent developments in global statistical methodologies have advanced the analysis of large collections of protein sequences for coevolutionary information. Coevolution between amino acids in a protein arises from compensatory mutations that are needed to maintain the stability or function of a protein over the course of evolution. This gives rise to quantifiable correlations between amino acid positions within the multiple sequence alignment of a protein family. Here, we use Direct Coupling Analysis (DCA) to infer a Potts model Hamiltonian governing the correlated mutations in a protein family to obtain the sequence-dependent interaction energies of a toy protein model. We demonstrate that this methodology predicts residue-residue interaction energies that are consistent with experimental mutational changes in protein stabilities as well as other computational methodologies. Furthermore, we demonstrate with several examples that DCA could be used to construct a structure-based model that quantitatively agrees with experimental data on folding mechanisms. This work serves as a potential framework for generating models of proteins that are enriched by evolutionary data that can potentially be used to engineer key functional motions and interactions in protein systems. This research has been supported by the NSF INSPIRE award MCB-1241332 and by the CTBP sponsored by the NSF (Grant PHY-1427654).

  9. Modeling potential effects of reduced calories in kids' meals with toy giveaways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freij, Maysoun Y; Sell, Randall L; Bozack, Anne K; Weiss, Linda J; Garcia, Ana C

    2014-02-01

    Given the large proportion of daily calories attributable to fast food, there is growing interest in considering whether ordinances that restrict calories in kids' meals with toy giveaways could avert weight gain among children. Based upon a literature review and stakeholder feedback, a model was developed to estimate the potential number of children that could be affected by a statewide toy giveaway ordinance and the caloric savings should such a policy effectively reduce the number of calories in kids' meals with toy giveaways. Assumptions included the estimated number of children that eat fast food each day, the proportion that choose a kids' meal with a toy, the caloric savings of a kids' meal that meets nutrition standards, and the degree to which these savings could result in weight gain averted per child per year. Using New York as a case study, the model estimates that, on a typical day, 5% (163,571) of children 0-12 years of age in New York could be affected by a toy ordinance. A child who typically consumes fast food two times per week could avoid gaining approximately 2 pounds per year with an ordinance requiring kids' meals to be ≤550 calories. The amount of weight gain averted would vary according to the calorie limit set by the law and the frequency of consumption per week. Our model indicates that a reduction in calories in kids' meals with toy giveaways has the potential to positively affect weight gain in a considerable percentage of children. Limitations of the model are considered.

  10. Relating Toy Models of Quantum Computation: Comprehension, Complementarity and Dagger Mix Autonomous Categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlovic, Dusko

    2011-01-01

    Toy models have been used to separate important features of quantum computation from the rich background of the standard Hilbert space model. Category theory, on the other hand, is a general tool to separate components of mathematical structures, and analyze one layer at a time. It seems natural to

  11. Toy Model of Frame-Dragging Magnetosphere for the M87 Jet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... We make a toy model for M87 jet to interpret its parabolic structure and acceleration in the apparent speeds, according to observations in milli-arcsecond to arcsecond scales upstream of HST-1. The outermost layer of jet is driven by the frame-dragging effect in the Kerr spacetime with a slowly to moderately ...

  12. A quantum Bose-Hubbard model with evolving graph as toy model for emergent spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Hamma, Alioscia; Lloyd, Seth; Caravelli, Francesco; Severini, Simone; Markstrom, Klas

    2009-01-01

    We present a toy model for interacting matter and geometry that explores quantum dynamics in a spin system as a precursor to a quantum theory of gravity. The model has no a priori geometric properties, instead, locality is inferred from the more fundamental notion of interaction between the matter degrees of freedom. The interaction terms are themselves quantum degrees of freedom so that the structure of interactions and hence the resulting local and causal structures are dynamical. The system is a Hubbard model where the graph of the interactions is a set of quantum evolving variables. We show entanglement between spatial and matter degrees of freedom. We study numerically the quantum system and analyze its entanglement dynamics. We analyze the asymptotic behavior of the classical model. Finally, we discuss analogues of trapped surfaces and gravitational attraction in this simple model.

  13. Toy Model of Frame-Dragging Magnetosphere for the M87 Jet Lei ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    e-mail: muduri@shao.ac.cn. Abstract. We make a toy model for M87 jet to interpret its parabolic ... de-projected poloidal structure of M87 jet was found to maintain a narrow parabolic shape, i.e., z ∝ R1.73±0.05, ... where α is the lapse function and ∇ is the covariant derivative operator in abso- lute space with Kerr metric in ...

  14. Microscopic and probabilistic approach to thermal steady state based on a dice and coin toy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorato, Pasquale; Malgieri, Massimiliano; Moggio, Lorenzo; Oss, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    In this article we present an educational approach to thermal equilibrium which was tested on a group of 13 undergraduate students at the University of Trento. The approach is based on a stochastic toy model, in which bodies in thermal contact are represented by rows of squares on a cardboard table, which exchange coins placed on the squares based on the roll of two dice. The discussion of several physical principles, such as the exponential approach to equilibrium, the determination of the equilibrium temperature, and the interpretation of the equilibrium state as the most probable macrostate, proceeds through a continual comparison between the outcomes obtained with the toy model and the results of a real experiment on the thermal contact of two masses of water at different temperatures. At the end of the sequence, a re-analysis of the experimental results in view of both the Boltzmann and Clausius definitions of entropy reveals some limits of the toy model, but also allows for a critical discussion of the concepts of temperature and entropy. In order to provide the reader with a feeling of how the sequence was received by students, and how it helped them understand the topics introduced, we discuss some excerpts from their answers to a conceptual item given at the end of the sequence.

  15. Toy Story

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cole, Anne Jodon; Petersson Brooks, Eva

    2016-01-01

    a mediating device between adults and children. The question then becomes, how does a display of static toys speak to a child’s culture of play? Through interviews with toy museum curators and personal observations it was found that the exhibition was designed to have adults share and reflect stories about......Toys are considered to be children’s cultural objects, yet when placed in a toy museum context they become a collection for adult viewing. This article uses Kress and van Leeuwens’ concept of ‘semiotic landscape’ wherein the exhibit provides a specific context of communication that becomes...... the toys with children. Such activity reflects a representation of toys as collections for adults (child’s perspective) rather than the playthings of children (children’s perspectives). Material culture of children was implicitly represented through playful, sensory, and affective engagement. Key words...

  16. Toy Story

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cole, Anne Jodon; Petersson Brooks, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Toys are considered to be children’s cultural objects, yet when placed in a toy museum context they become a collection for adult viewing. This article uses Kress and van Leeuwens’ concept of ‘semiotic landscape’ wherein the exhibit provides a specific context of communication that becomes...... a mediating device between adults and children. The question then becomes, how does a display of static toys speak to a child’s culture of play? Through interviews with toy museum curators and personal observations it was found that the exhibition was designed to have adults share and reflect stories about...... the toys with children. Such activity reflects a representation of toys as collections for adults (child’s perspective) rather than the playthings of children (children’s perspectives). Material culture of children was implicitly represented through playful, sensory, and affective engagement. Key words...

  17. Integrated Toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Toys play a crucial role in supporting children’s learning and creation of meaning in their everyday life. Children also play with toys out of an interest to interact with others e.g. peers and adults. Tendencies of digital technology in toys have led to greater opportunities for manipulation......). This paper suggests that a toy system integrating physical and virtual dimensions will extend the respective design specifics and will support an expansion of children’s learning opportunities. Furthermore, we suggest that such toy system should be tangible, responsive, and portable. The required technology...... changed our everyday lives. However, its contribution in development of new suitable material for play and learning has not been appropriate. We argue that play is a fruitful base for learning and training and that the design of physical and virtual artifacts advantageously should rest upon...

  18. A toy model for single field open inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaudrevange, Pascal M.; Westphal, Alexander

    2012-05-15

    Inflation in an open universe produced by Coleman-De Luccia (CDL) tunneling induces a friction term that is strong enough to allow for successful small-field inflation in models that would otherwise suffer from a severe overshoot problem. In this paper, we present a polynomial scalar potential which allows for a full analysis. This provides a simple model of single-field open inflation on a small-field inflection point after tunneling. We present numerical results and compare them with analytic approximations.

  19. Mathematical toy model inspired by the problem of the adaptive origins of the sexual orientation continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Brian

    2016-09-01

    Same-sex sexual behaviour is ubiquitous in the animal kingdom, but its adaptive origins remain a prominent puzzle. Here, I suggest the possibility that same-sex sexual behaviour arises as a consequence of the competition between an evolutionary drive for a wide diversity in traits, which improves the adaptability of a population, and a drive for sexual dichotomization of traits, which promotes opposite-sex attraction and increases the rate of reproduction. This trade-off is explored via a simple mathematical `toy model'. The model exhibits a number of interesting features and suggests a simple mathematical form for describing the sexual orientation continuum.

  20. Cosmological constant from the ghost: A toy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Federico R.; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.

    2009-09-01

    We suggest that the solution to the cosmological vacuum energy puzzle is linked to the infrared sector of the effective theory of gravity interacting with standard model fields. We propose a specific solvable two dimensional model where our proposal can be explicitly tested. We analyze the 2d Schwinger model on a 2-torus and in curved 2d space, mostly exploiting the properties of its topological susceptibility, its links with the nontrivial topology or deviations from spacetime flatness, and its relations to the real 4d world. The Kogut-Susskind ghost (which is a direct analogue of the Veneziano ghost in 4d) on a 2-torus and in curved 2d space plays a crucial role in the computation of the vacuum energy. The departure from Minkowski flatness, which is defined as the cosmological constant in our framework, is found to scale as 1/L, where L is the linear size of the torus. Therefore, in spite of the fact that the physical sector of 2d QED is represented by a single massive scalar particle, the deviation from Minkowski space is linear in L rather than exponentially suppressed as one could naïvely expect.

  1. Development and suitability of in vitro digestion models in assessing bioaccessibility of lead from toy matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen AG; Twillert K van; Hofhuis MFA; Rompelberg CJM; Versantvoort CHM; SIR; ARO

    2003-01-01

    Children can be orally exposed to compounds by chewing, sucking and ingestion of toy (parts). Only the fraction of contaminant that is released from the toy can reach the blood stream (internal exposure) and can contribute to toxicity. In present risk assessment the release of contaminants from toy

  2. Model error analyses of photochemistry mechanisms using the BEATBOX/BOXMOX data assimilation toy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knote, C. J.; Eckl, M.; Barré, J.; Emmons, L. K.

    2016-12-01

    Simplified descriptions of photochemistry in the atmosphere ('photochemical mechanisms') necessary to reduce the computational burden of a model simulation contribute significantly to the overall uncertainty of an air quality model. Understanding how the photochemical mechanism contributes to observed model errors through examination of results of the complete model system is next to impossible due to cancellation and amplification effects amongst the tightly interconnected model components. Here we present BEATBOX, a novel method to evaluate photochemical mechanisms using the underlying chemistry box model BOXMOX. With BOXMOX we can rapidly initialize various mechanisms (e.g. MOZART, RACM, CBMZ, MCM) with homogenized observations (e.g. from field campaigns) and conduct idealized 'chemistry in a jar' simulations under controlled conditions. BEATBOX is a data assimilation toy model built upon BOXMOX which allows to simulate the effects of assimilating observations (e.g., CO, NO2, O3) into these simulations. In this presentation we show how we use the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM, U Leeds) as benchmark for more simplified mechanisms like MOZART, use BEATBOX to homogenize the chemical environment and diagnose errors within the more simplified mechanisms. We present BEATBOX as a new, freely available tool that allows researchers to rapidly evaluate their chemistry mechanism against a range of others under varying chemical conditions.

  3. Symmetry Breaking and Adaptation Evidence from a Toy Model of a Virus

    CERN Document Server

    Mora, J; Waelbroeck, H

    1997-01-01

    We argue that the phenomenon of symmetry breaking in genetics can enhance the adaptability of a species to changes in the environment. In the case of a virus, the claim is that the codon bias in the neutralization epitope improves the virus' ability to generate mutants that evade the induced immune response. We support our claim with a simple ``toy model'' of a viral epitope evolving in competition with the immune system. The effective selective advantage of a higher mutability leads to a dominance of codons that favour non-synonymous mutations. The results in this paper suggest the possibility of emergence of an algorithmic language in more complicated systems.

  4. Flute-like musical instruments: a toy model investigated through numerical continuation

    CERN Document Server

    Terrien, Soizic; Fabre, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    Self-sustained musical instruments (bowed string, woodwind and brass instruments) can be modeled by nonlinear dynamical systems. Among these instruments, flutes and flue organ pipes present the particularity to be modeled as a delay dynamical system. In this paper, such a system, a toy model of flute-like instruments, is studied using numerical continuation. Equilibrium and periodic solutions are explored with respect to the blowing pressure, with focus on amplitude and frequency evolutions along the different solution branches, as well as "jumps" between periodic solution branches. The influence of a second model parameter (namely the inharmonicity) on the behaviour of the system is addressed. It is shown that harmonicity plays a key role in the presence of hysteresis or quasi-periodic regime. Throughout the paper, experimental results on a real instrument are presented to illustrate various phenomena, and allow some qualitative comparisons with numerical results.

  5. Lego bricks and the octet rule: Molecular models for biochemical pathways with plastic, interlocking toy bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Henry J; Lehoang, Jennifer; Kwan, Isabel; Baghaee, Anita; Prasad, Priya; Ha-Chen, Stephanie J; Moss, Tanesha; Woods, Jeremy D

    2017-11-06

    The 8 studs on a 2 × 4 Lego brick conveniently represent the outer shell of electrons for carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms. We used Lego bricks to model these atoms, which are then joined together to form molecules by following the Lewis octet rule. A variety of small biological molecules can be modeled in this way, such as most amino acids, fatty acids, glucose, and various intermediate metabolites. Model building with these familiar toys can be a helpful, hands-on exercise for learning-or re-learning-biochemical pathways. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  6. Mexican Seismic Alert System's SAS-I algorithm review considering strong earthquakes felt in Mexico City since 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar Martinez, A.; Espinosa Aranda, J.; Suarez, G.; Ibarrola Alvarez, G.; Ramos Perez, S.; Camarillo Barranco, L.

    2013-05-01

    The Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX) uses three algorithms for alert activation that involve the distance between the seismic sensing field station (FS) and the city to be alerted; and the forecast for earthquake early warning activation in the cities integrated to the system, for example in Mexico City, the earthquakes occurred with the highest accelerations, were originated in the Pacific Ocean coast, whose distance this seismic region and the city, favors the use of algorithm called Algorithm SAS-I. This algorithm, without significant changes since its beginning in 1991, employs the data that generate one or more FS during P wave detection until S wave detection plus a period equal to the time employed to detect these phases; that is the double S-P time, called 2*(S-P). In this interval, the algorithm performs an integration process of quadratic samples from FS which uses a triaxial accelerometer to get two parameters: amplitude and growth rate measured until 2*(S-P) time. The parameters in SAS-I are used in a Magnitude classifier model, which was made from Guerrero Coast earthquakes time series, with reference to Mb magnitude mainly. This algorithm activates a Public or Preventive Alert if the model predicts whether Strong or Moderate earthquake. The SAS-I algorithm has been operating for over 23 years in the subduction zone of the Pacific Coast of Mexico, initially in Guerrero and followed by Oaxaca; and since March 2012 in the seismic region of Pacific covering the coasts among Jalisco, Colima, Michoacan, Guerrero and Oaxaca, where this algorithm has issued 16 Public Alert and 62 Preventive Alerts to the Mexico City where its soil conditions increase damages by earthquake such as the occurred in September 1985. This work shows the review of the SAS-I algorithm and possible alerts that it could generate from major earthquakes recordings detected by FS or seismometers near the earthquakes, coming from Pacific Ocean Coast whose have been felt in Mexico

  7. Salty popcorn in a homogeneous low-dimensional toy model of holographic QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot-Ripley, Matthew

    2017-04-01

    Recently, a homogeneous ansatz has been used to study cold dense nuclear matter in the Sakai-Sugimoto model of holographic QCD. To justify this homogeneous approximation we here investigate a homogeneous ansatz within a low-dimensional toy version of Sakai-Sugimoto to study finite baryon density configurations and compare it to full numerical solutions. We find the ansatz corresponds to enforcing a dyon salt arrangement in which the soliton solutions are split into half-soliton layers. Within this ansatz we find analogues of the proposed baryonic popcorn transitions, in which solutions split into multiple layers in the holographic direction. The homogeneous results are found to qualitatively match the full numerical solutions, lending confidence to the homogeneous approximations of the full Sakai-Sugimoto model. In addition, we find exact compact solutions in the high density, flat space limit which demonstrate the existence of further popcorn transitions to three layers and beyond.

  8. SASi juht : me ei ole suutäis Lufthansale / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2003-01-01

    SAS-i juht Jörgen Lindegaard kummutas Rootsi ajalehele Dagens Industri antud intervjuus lennufirmade France Air ja KLM ühinemisteatele järgnenud spekulatsioonid SAS-i ülevõtmisest Saksa lennukompanii Lufthansa poolt. Diagramm: lennufirmade Air France/KLM, Lufthansa, British Airways ja SAS käive 2002. aastal. Vt. samas: SAS alandab hindu

  9. Is zero-point energy physical? A toy model for Casimir-like effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Hrvoje

    2017-08-01

    Zero-point energy is generally known to be unphysical. Casimir effect, however, is often presented as a counterexample, giving rise to a conceptual confusion. To resolve the confusion we study foundational aspects of Casimir effect at a qualitative level, but also at a quantitative level within a simple toy model with only 3 degrees of freedom. In particular, we point out that Casimir vacuum is not a state without photons, and not a ground state for a Hamiltonian that can describe Casimir force. Instead, Casimir vacuum can be related to the photon vacuum by a non-trivial Bogoliubov transformation, and it is a ground state only for an effective Hamiltonian describing Casimir plates at a fixed distance. At the fundamental microscopic level, Casimir force is best viewed as a manifestation of van der Waals forces.

  10. The ABC model: a non-hydrostatic toy model for use in convective-scale data assimilation investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Ruth Elizabeth; Bannister, Ross Noel; Priestley Cullen, Michael John

    2017-12-01

    In developing methods for convective-scale data assimilation (DA), it is necessary to consider the full range of motions governed by the compressible Navier-Stokes equations (including non-hydrostatic and ageostrophic flow). These equations describe motion on a wide range of timescales with non-linear coupling. For the purpose of developing new DA techniques that suit the convective-scale problem, it is helpful to use so-called toy models that are easy to run and contain the same types of motion as the full equation set. Such a model needs to permit hydrostatic and geostrophic balance at large scales but allow imbalance at small scales, and in particular, it needs to exhibit intermittent convection-like behaviour. Existing toy models are not always sufficient for investigating these issues. A simplified system of intermediate complexity derived from the Euler equations is presented, which supports dispersive gravity and acoustic modes. In this system, the separation of timescales can be greatly reduced by changing the physical parameters. Unlike in existing toy models, this allows the acoustic modes to be treated explicitly and hence inexpensively. In addition, the non-linear coupling induced by the equation of state is simplified. This means that the gravity and acoustic modes are less coupled than in conventional models. A vertical slice formulation is used which contains only dry dynamics. The model is shown to give physically reasonable results, and convective behaviour is generated by localised compressible effects. This model provides an affordable and flexible framework within which some of the complex issues of convective-scale DA can later be investigated. The model is called the ABC model after the three tunable parameters introduced: A (the pure gravity wave frequency), B (the modulation of the divergent term in the continuity equation), and C (defining the compressibility).

  11. The ABC model: a non-hydrostatic toy model for use in convective-scale data assimilation investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Petrie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In developing methods for convective-scale data assimilation (DA, it is necessary to consider the full range of motions governed by the compressible Navier–Stokes equations (including non-hydrostatic and ageostrophic flow. These equations describe motion on a wide range of timescales with non-linear coupling. For the purpose of developing new DA techniques that suit the convective-scale problem, it is helpful to use so-called toy models that are easy to run and contain the same types of motion as the full equation set. Such a model needs to permit hydrostatic and geostrophic balance at large scales but allow imbalance at small scales, and in particular, it needs to exhibit intermittent convection-like behaviour. Existing toy models are not always sufficient for investigating these issues. A simplified system of intermediate complexity derived from the Euler equations is presented, which supports dispersive gravity and acoustic modes. In this system, the separation of timescales can be greatly reduced by changing the physical parameters. Unlike in existing toy models, this allows the acoustic modes to be treated explicitly and hence inexpensively. In addition, the non-linear coupling induced by the equation of state is simplified. This means that the gravity and acoustic modes are less coupled than in conventional models. A vertical slice formulation is used which contains only dry dynamics. The model is shown to give physically reasonable results, and convective behaviour is generated by localised compressible effects. This model provides an affordable and flexible framework within which some of the complex issues of convective-scale DA can later be investigated. The model is called the ABC model after the three tunable parameters introduced: A (the pure gravity wave frequency, B (the modulation of the divergent term in the continuity equation, and C (defining the compressibility.

  12. Spekkens’ toy model in all dimensions and its relationship with stabiliser quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catani, Lorenzo; E Browne, Dan

    2017-07-01

    Spekkens’ toy model is a non-contextual hidden variable model with an epistemic restriction, a constraint on what an observer can know about reality. The aim of the model, developed for continuous and discrete prime degrees of freedom, is to advocate the epistemic view of quantum theory, where quantum states are states of incomplete knowledge about a deeper underlying reality. Many aspects of quantum mechanics and protocols from quantum information can be reproduced in the model. In spite of its significance, a number of aspects of Spekkens’ model remained incomplete. Formal rules for the update of states after measurement had not been written down, and the theory had only been constructed for prime-dimensional and infinite dimensional systems. In this work, we remedy this, by deriving measurement update rules and extending the framework to derive models in all dimensions, both prime and non-prime. Stabiliser quantum mechanics (SQM) is a sub-theory of quantum mechanics with restricted states, transformations and measurements. First derived for the purpose of constructing error correcting codes, it now plays a role in many areas of quantum information theory. Previously, it had been shown that Spekkens’ model was operationally equivalent to SQM in the case of odd prime dimensions. Here, exploiting known results on Wigner functions, we extend this to show that Spekkens’ model is equivalent to SQM in all odd dimensions, prime and non-prime. This equivalence provides new technical tools for the study of technically difficult compound-dimensional SQM.

  13. A toy model for predicting the rate of amyloid formation from unfolded protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Damien; Hirota, Nami; Dobson, Christopher M

    2005-08-05

    We develop a toy model for predicting the rate of amyloid formation from an unfolded polypeptide. The model assumes irreversible amyloid growth, employs a collision encounter scheme and uses a Gaussian chain approximation to describe the polypeptide sequence. A principal feature of the model is its dependence on a number of key sequence residues whose correct placement, geometric arrangement and orientation in relation to their interacting partners define the success, or otherwise, of the amyloid formation reaction. Although not realistic at the molecular level, the model captures some essential features of the system and is therefore useful from a heuristic standpoint. For the case of amyloid formation from an unstructured state, the model suggests that the major determinants of the rate of fibril formation are the length of the sequence separating the critical amino acids promoting amyloid formation and the positional placement of the critical residues within the sequence. Our findings suggest also that the sequence distance between the key interacting amino acid residues may play a role in defining the maximum width of a fibril and that the addition of non-interacting segments of long structure-less polypeptide chain to an amyloidogenic peptide may act to inhibit fibril formation. We discuss these findings with reference to the placement of critical sequence residues within the polypeptide chain, the design of polypeptides with lower amyloid formation propensities and the development of aggregation inhibitors as potential therapeutics for protein depositional disorders.

  14. ``Models'' CAVEAT EMPTOR!!!: ``Toy Models Too-Often Yield Toy-Results''!!!: Statistics, Polls, Politics, Economics, Elections!!!: GRAPH/Network-Physics: ``Equal-Distribution for All'' TRUMP-ED BEC ``Winner-Take-All'' ``Doctor Livingston I Presume?''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preibus-Norquist, R. N. C.-Grover; Bush-Romney, G. W.-Willard-Mitt; Dimon, J. P.; Adelson-Koch, Sheldon-Charles-David-Sheldon; Krugman-Axelrod, Paul-David; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig; D. N. C./O. F. P./''47''%/50% Collaboration; R. N. C./G. O. P./''53''%/49% Collaboration; Nyt/Wp/Cnn/Msnbc/Pbs/Npr/Ft Collaboration; Ftn/Fnc/Fox/Wsj/Fbn Collaboration; Lb/Jpmc/Bs/Boa/Ml/Wamu/S&P/Fitch/Moodys/Nmis Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    ``Models''? CAVEAT EMPTOR!!!: ``Toy Models Too-Often Yield Toy-Results''!!!: Goldenfeld[``The Role of Models in Physics'', in Lects.on Phase-Transitions & R.-G.(92)-p.32-33!!!]: statistics(Silver{[NYTimes; Bensinger, ``Math-Geerks Clearly-Defeated Pundits'', LATimes, (11/9/12)])}, polls, politics, economics, elections!!!: GRAPH/network/net/...-PHYSICS Barabasi-Albert[RMP (02)] (r,t)-space VERSUS(???) [Where's the Inverse/ Dual/Integral-Transform???] (Benjamin)Franklin(1795)-Fourier(1795; 1897;1822)-Laplace(1850)-Mellin (1902) Brillouin(1922)-...(k,)-space, {Hubbard [The World According to Wavelets,Peters (96)-p.14!!!/p.246: refs.-F2!!!]},and then (2) Albert-Barabasi[]Bose-Einstein quantum-statistics(BEQS) Bose-Einstein CONDENSATION (BEC) versus Bianconi[pvt.-comm.; arXiv:cond-mat/0204506; ...] -Barabasi [???] Fermi-Dirac

  15. Thimble regularization at work: From toy models to chiral random matrix theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Renzo, F.; Eruzzi, G.

    2015-10-01

    We apply the Lefschetz thimble formulation of field theories to a couple of different problems. We first address the solution of a complex zero-dimensional ϕ4 theory. Although very simple, this toy model makes us appreciate a few key issues of the method. In particular, we will solve the model by a correct accounting of all the thimbles giving a contribution to the partition function and we will discuss a number of algorithmic solutions to simulate this (simple) model. We will then move to a chiral random matrix (CRM) theory. This is a somehow more realistic setting, giving us once again the chance to tackle the same couple of fundamental questions: How many thimbles contribute to the solution? How can we make sure that we correctly sample configurations on the thimble? Since the exact result is known for the observable we study (a condensate), we can verify that, in the region of parameters we studied, only one thimble contributes and that the algorithmic solution that we set up works well, despite its very crude nature. The deviation of results from phase quenched ones highlights that in a certain region of parameter space there is a quite important sign problem. In view of this, the success of our thimble approach is quite a significant one.

  16. Thimble regularization at work: from toy models to chiral random matrix theories

    CERN Document Server

    Di Renzo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We apply the Lefschetz thimble formulation of field theories to a couple of different problems. We first address the solution of a complex 0-dimensional phi^4 theory. Although very simple, this toy-model makes us appreciate a few key issues of the method. In particular, we will solve the model by a correct accounting of all the thimbles giving a contribution to the partition function and we will discuss a number of algorithmic solutions to simulate this (simple) model. We will then move to a chiral random matrix (CRM) theory. This is a somehow more realistic setting, giving us once again the chance to tackle the same couple of fundamental questions: how many thimbles contribute to the solution? how can we make sure that we correctly sample configurations on the thimble? Since the exact result is known for the observable we study (a condensate), we can verify that, in the region of parameters we studied, only one thimble contributes and that the algorithmic solution that we set up works well, despite its very ...

  17. The upward-driven pendulum: a (mechanical) toy model of convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, L. R. M.; Buijsman, D. J.

    2003-04-01

    A mechanical toy model of convection will be presented. It consists of a pendulum that is clamped in between two cogwheels that drive it upwards. As soon as the centre-of-mass is raised above the vertical position of the horizontal axis around which the pendulum can rotate, gravity will cause the pendulum to topple. Once the centre-of-mass is below the axial position, the rotation sense of the coghweels is changed, and the pendulum is again driven upwards. The height to which the pendulum grows depends sensitively upon the angle between gravity and pendulum (which has been checked in a certain direction as soon as its angular momentum has been drained by friction). Depending on the driving speed, this may lead to chaotic or regular behaviour of the pendulum. This behaviour mimicks that of the one-parameter, diffusionless Lorenz equations [2], itself a simplification of the Lorenz-63 equations, which govern also the dynamics of the centre-of-mass of a uniformly stratified fluid subject to differential heating [1]. This suggests an interpretation of convection in terms of the (possibly chaotic) dynamics of the centre-of-mass of a fluid. [1] Maas, LRM, 1994 Tellus 46a, 671, [2] van der Schrier G. and LRM Maas, 2000, Physica D 141,19

  18. Toys in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarquis, Jerry L.; Sarquis, Arlyne. M. Mickey

    2005-10-01

    This article describes the philosophy of using toys to engage students of all ages in chemistry. Three toys, Shrinky Dinks, Happy birds, and Hand Boilers, are featured. For each, the chemical principles behind the toy are described and suggestions for hands-on activities for students are given. There are also some suggestions of how these toys can be integrated into the curriculum

  19. 78 FR 47778 - Verizon Business Networks Services, Inc. Senior Analysts-Sales Impletmentation (SA-SI) Birmingham...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration Verizon Business Networks Services, Inc. Senior Analysts-Sales Impletmentation (SA-SI) Birmingham, Alabama; Verizon Business Networks Services, Inc. Senior Analysts-Sales Impletmentation (SA-SI) Service Program Delivery Division San Francisco, California; Verizon Business Networks...

  20. Toy Modification Note. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderheiden, Gregg C.; And Others

    Described are toy modifications which enable handicapped individuals to operate battery-powered toys. A battery interrupter is explained as a device which fits between the batteries in a toy and provides the ability to have a separate on-off switch which can be custom designed to fit a handicapped user's needs. Construction and use of three types…

  1. Proposal of a new model to improve the collection of small WEEE: a pilot project for the recovery and recycling of toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Miquel; Watson, Jenna; Puig, Rita; Fullana-i-Palmer, Pere

    2012-11-01

    A new collection model was designed and tested in Catalonia (Spain) to foster the separate collection and recycling of electrical and electronic toys, with the participation of selected primary and secondary schools, as well as waste collection points and municipalities. This project approach is very original and important because small household WEEE has low rates of collection (16-21% WEEE within the EU or 5-7% WEEE in Spain) and no research on new approaches to enhance the collection of small WEEE is found in the literature. The project was successful in achieving enhanced toys collection and recycling rates, which went up from the national Spanish average of 0.5% toys before the project to 1.9 and 6% toys during the two project years, respectively. The environmental benefits of the campaign were calculated through a life-cycle approach, accounting for the avoided impact afforded by the reuse of the toys and the recycling of the valuable materials contained therein (such as metals, batteries and circuit boards) and subtracting the additional environmental burdens associated with the establishment of the collection campaign.

  2. Investigating Flight with a Toy Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Flight fascinates people of all ages. Recent advances in battery technology have extended the capabilities of model airplanes and toy helicopters. For those who have never outgrown a childhood enthusiasm for the wonders of flight, it is possible to buy inexpensive, remotely controlled planes and helicopters. A toy helicopter offers an opportunity…

  3. From Desktop Toy to Educational Aid: Neo Magnets as an Alternative to Ball-and-Stick Models in Representing Carbon Fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Jacqueline Y.; Yang, Min-Han; Lee, Chi-Young

    2015-01-01

    Neo magnets are neodymium magnet beads that have been marketed as a desktop toy. We proposed using neo magnets as an alternative building block to traditional ball-and-stick models to construct carbon allotropes, such as fullerene and various nanocone structures. Due to the lack of predetermined physical connections, the versatility of carbon…

  4. A Piecewise Deterministic Markov Toy Model for Traffic/Maintenance and Associated Hamilton–Jacobi Integrodifferential Systems on Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goreac, Dan, E-mail: Dan.Goreac@u-pem.fr; Kobylanski, Magdalena, E-mail: Magdalena.Kobylanski@u-pem.fr; Martinez, Miguel, E-mail: Miguel.Martinez@u-pem.fr [Université Paris-Est, LAMA (UMR 8050), UPEMLV, UPEC, CNRS (France)

    2016-10-15

    We study optimal control problems in infinite horizon whxen the dynamics belong to a specific class of piecewise deterministic Markov processes constrained to star-shaped networks (corresponding to a toy traffic model). We adapt the results in Soner (SIAM J Control Optim 24(6):1110–1122, 1986) to prove the regularity of the value function and the dynamic programming principle. Extending the networks and Krylov’s “shaking the coefficients” method, we prove that the value function can be seen as the solution to a linearized optimization problem set on a convenient set of probability measures. The approach relies entirely on viscosity arguments. As a by-product, the dual formulation guarantees that the value function is the pointwise supremum over regular subsolutions of the associated Hamilton–Jacobi integrodifferential system. This ensures that the value function satisfies Perron’s preconization for the (unique) candidate to viscosity solution.

  5. MANAJEMEN KONFLIK DALAM PEMANFAATAN SUMBERDAYA ALAM DAN PELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP LEWAT PELAKSANAAN HUKUM ADAT SASI (Conflict Management in the Use of Natural Resources and Environmental Conversation through the Realization of Sasi Traditional Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lucas Kusapy

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Hukum adat Sasi ditetapkan melalui institusi adat atau Pemerintahan Tradisional di desa. Hukum tersebut mencakup pola sanksi atau hukuman yang diberikan kepada pelanggar hukum. Pola hukuman adalah dalam bentuk denda material dengan membayar barang antik atau uang, Hukuman fisik berupa kerja paksa di kebun atau lingkungan desa, sedangkan sanksi sosial berupa pengucilan dari desa. Ditemukan bahwa warga masyarakat desa sangat patuh terhadap pelaksanaan hukum adat sasi. Hal ini karena tidak saja mereka takut terhadap sanksi, tetapi juga bahwa mereka menyadari bahwa hukum adat Sasi dapat mencegah konflik antar warga.   ABSTRACT Sasi Traditional Law is determined through a traditional institution or Traditional Government in the village. It includes the patterns of sanctions or punishment which are applied to the offenders of law. The pattern of punishment is in the form of material fine using ancient, antique goods and money. The physical punishment is in the form of forced labor at the village gardens or environment, while the social sanction is in the form of punishment to eviction from the village. It is found that members of the village community are very obedient and submissive towards the realization of Sasi Traditional Law. This is because not only they are afraid of the sanctions but also they realize that the Sasi Traditional Law set them apart from conflict among the citizen.

  6. A (gravitational) toy story

    CERN Document Server

    Barreto, W; Rodriguez-Mueller, B

    2016-01-01

    Usually in computational physics, conclusions about realistic scenarios can be drawn from {\\it ab initio} idealized models. In some ways, the discovery of critical behavior in the gravitational collapse of a massless scalar field leads to the simulation of binary black holes, from its coalescence, to merging and ringdown. We have been lucky enough to have been working on a toy model to explore our way in as these events unfold. We revisited the gravitational instability of a kink problem. During that study, we confirmed a conjecture related to the mass gap, in the context of critical behavior, at the threshold of black hole formation. What is the meaning of this mass gap? Does it have physical relevance? This essay is about these issues.

  7. A (gravitational) toy story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, W.; de Oliveira, H. P.; Rodriguez-Mueller, B.

    Frequently in Physics, insights and conclusions can be drawn from simple, idealized models. The discovery of critical behavior in the gravitational collapse of a massless scalar field leads to the simulation of binary black holes, from its coalescence to merging and ringdown. We refined a toy model to explore black hole formation as these events unfold to revisit the instability of a gravitational kink. We confirmed a conjecture related to a mass gap for critical behavior at the threshold of black hole formation. We find a critical exponent twice the standard value. Surprisingly, this larger critical exponent is also present in the multiple critical behavior for the black hole formation from a massless scalar field in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes. What is the meaning of this mass gap? Does it have physical relevance?

  8. Analytical solution to DGLAP integro-differential equation in a simple toy-model with a fixed gauge coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Gustavo [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Concepcion Univ. (Chile). Dept. de Fisica; Cvetic, Gorazd [Univ. Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile). Dept. de Fisica; Kniehl, Bernd A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kondrashuk, Igor [Univ. del Bio-Bio, Chillan (Chile). Grupo de Matematica Aplicada; Univ. del Bio-Bio, Chillan (Chile). Grupo de Fisica de Altas Energias; Parra-Ferrada, Ivan [Talca Univ. (Chile). Inst. de Matematica y Fisica

    2016-11-15

    We consider a simple model for QCD dynamics in which DGLAP integro-differential equation may be solved analytically. This is a gauge model which possesses dominant evolution of gauge boson (gluon) distribution and in which the gauge coupling does not run. This may be N=4 supersymmetric gauge theory with softly broken supersymmetry, other finite supersymmetric gauge theory with lower level of supersymmetry, or topological Chern-Simons field theories. We maintain only one term in the splitting function of unintegrated gluon distribution and solve DGLAP analytically for this simplified splitting function. The solution is found by use of the Cauchy integral formula. The solution restricts form of the unintegrated gluon distribution as function of transfer momentum and of Bjorken x. Then we consider an almost realistic splitting function of unintegrated gluon distribution as an input to DGLAP equation and solve it by the same method which we have developed to solve DGLAP equation for the toy-model. We study a result obtained for the realistic gluon distribution and find a singular Bessel-like behaviour in the vicinity of the point x=0 and a smooth behaviour in the vicinity of the point x=1.

  9. Toying with Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galus, Pamela J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a variety of activities that support the development of an understanding of Newton's laws of motion. Activities use toy cars, mobile roads, and a seat-of-nails. Includes a scoring rubric. (DDR)

  10. Choosing Safe Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and shin guards. Look for CPSC or Snell certification on the labels. Nets should be well constructed ... of 16. Electric toys should be labeled UL, meaning they meet safety standards set by Underwriters Laboratories. ...

  11. Playing at Crusoe: Domestic Imperatives and Models of Motherhood in Robinson Crusoe-Inspired Toys and Novels for Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Carol Ryrie Brink's "Baby Island" (1998/1937) draws directly from Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe (2007/1719) but revises the prototypical castaway novel by depicting two young girls who not only ensure their own survival but also mother four babies while cast away. Preceded by Crusoe-themed toys such as tea sets and paper dolls that…

  12. Lego Bricks and the Octet Rule: Molecular Models for Biochemical Pathways with Plastic, Interlocking Toy Bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Henry J.; Lehoang, Jennifer; Kwan, Isabel; Baghaee, Anita; Prasad, Priya; Ha-Chen, Stephanie J.; Moss, Tanesha; Woods, Jeremy D.

    2018-01-01

    The 8 studs on a 2 × 4 Lego brick conveniently represent the outer shell of electrons for carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms. We used Lego bricks to model these atoms, which are then joined together to form molecules by following the Lewis octet rule. A variety of small biological molecules can be modeled in this way, such as most amino acids,…

  13. Toy Models of Universe with an Effective Varying Λ-Term in Lyra Manifold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martiros Khurshudyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the accelerated expansion of our Universe captures a lot of attention. The dark energy (DE is a way to explain it. In this paper we will consider scalar field quintessence DE with ωDE>-1 EoS, where the dynamics of the DE models related to the dynamics of the scalar field. We are interested in the study of the behavior of the Universe in the presence of interacting quintessence DE models in Lyra manifold with a varying Λt. In a considered framework we also would like to propose a new form for Λt. We found that the models correspond to the transit Universe, which will enter the accelerated expansion phase and will remain there with a constant deceleration parameter q. We found also that the Λt is a decreasing function which takes a small positive value with Ωm≠0 and ΩQ→const dominating Ωm in the old Universe. Observational constraints are applied and causality issue via CS2 is discussed as a possible way to either reject or accept the models.

  14. Quantum states for quantum processes: A toy model for ammonia inversion spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteca, Gustavo A. [Departement de Chimie et Biochimie and Biomolecular Sciences Programme, Laurentian University, Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada P3E 2C6 (Canada); Department of Physical Chemistry, Uppsala University, A ring ngstroemlaboratoriet, Box 259, S-751 05 Uppsala (Sweden); Tapia, O. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Uppsala University, A ring ngstroemlaboratoriet, Box 259, S-751 05 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-07-15

    Chemical transformations are viewed here as quantum processes modulated by external fields, that is, as shifts in reactant to product amplitudes within a quantum state represented by a linear (coherent) superposition of electronuclear basis functions; their electronic quantum numbers identify the ''chemical species.'' This basis set can be mapped from attractors built from a unique electronic configurational space that is invariant with respect to the nuclear geometry. In turn, the quantum numbers that label these basis functions and the semiclassical potentials for the electronic attractors may be used to derive reaction coordinates to monitor progress as a function of the applied field. A generalization of Feynman's three-state model for the ammonia inversion process illustrates the scheme; to enforce symmetry for the entire inversion process model and ensure invariance with respect to nuclear configurations, the three attractors and their basis functions are computed with a grid of fixed floating Gaussian functions. The external-field modulation of the effective inversion barrier is discussed within this conceptual approach. This analysis brings the descriptions of chemical processes near modern technologies that employ molecules to encode information by means of confinement and external fields.

  15. Ising Spin Network States for Loop Quantum Gravity: a Toy Model for Phase Transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Feller, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Non-perturbative approaches to quantum gravity call for a deep understanding of the emergence of geometry and locality from the quantum state of the gravitational field. Without background geometry, the notion of distance should entirely emerge from the correlations between the gravity fluctuations. In the context of loop quantum gravity, quantum states of geometry are defined as spin networks. These are graphs decorated with spin and intertwiners, which represent quantized excitations of areas and volumes of the space geometry. Here, we develop the condensed matter point of view on extracting the physical and geometrical information out of spin network states: we introduce new Ising spin network states, both in 2d on a square lattice and in 3d on a hexagonal lattice, whose correlations map onto the usual Ising model in statistical physics. We construct these states from the basic holonomy operators of loop gravity and derive a set of local Hamiltonian constraints which entirely characterize our states. We di...

  16. Helicopter Toy and Lift Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-01-01

    A $1 plastic helicopter toy (called a Wacky Whirler) can be used to demonstrate lift. Students can make basic measurements of the toy, use reasonable assumptions and, with the lift formula, estimate the lift, and verify that it is sufficient to overcome the toy's weight. (Contains 1 figure.)

  17. Digital games and toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes textual, social and design dimensions of artefacts for play and learning by giving examples from studies on relations between children, social activities, games and toys. This paper exhibits design as characteristics of artefacts intended to stage play and learning. Furthermore...

  18. Designing Gendered Toys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommes, E.W.M.; Bos, M.W.; Oude Geerdink, J.

    2011-01-01

    We have analyzed the gender scripts of the toys of three Dutch companies. We found differences between them in the extent to which their games were gender specific or gender stereotypical. We explored potential reasons for these differences in the markets (educational or retail trade) these

  19. Art Toys in the contemporary art scene

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Sernissi

    2014-01-01

    The Art Toys phenomenon, better known as Art Toy Movement, was born in China in the mid-nineties and quickly spread out to the rest of the world. The toys are an artistic production of serial sculpture, made by handcrafts or on an industrial scale. There are several types of toys, such as custom toys and canvas toys, synonyms of designer toys, although they are often defined according to the constituent material, such as vinyl toys (plastic) and plush toys (fabric). Art toys are the heirs of ...

  20. A display model for the TOU of PLATO: just a cool toy or a benchmark of opportunities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, M.; Greggio, D.; Bergomi, M.; Biondi, F.; Farinato, J.; Farisato, G.; Magrin, D.; Lessio, L.; Marafatto, L.; Munari, M.; Pagano, I.; Ragazzoni, R.; Viotto, V.; Piazza, D.

    2016-07-01

    We produced a "toy-model" of one Telescope Optical Unit of PLATO, the Medium sized mission selected by ESA to fly in 2024. This is a six lenses dioptric very wide field camera with a window in front to take care of radiation impact on the first lens whose optical glass cannot be replaced with a radiation hardened one. The main aim of this project is just to produce a "cool" model for display purposes, in which one can "explore" the details of the inside through some openings in the tube, in order to visually inspect some of the fine details of the opto-mechanics. While its didactic and advertising role is out of doubt, during its construction we realized that some interesting outcome can be of some relevance for the project itself and that some findings could be useful, in order to assess the ability of producing with the same technology some (of course of much more modest quality) optical systems. In this context, we immediately dropped the option of producing the lenses with opaque material painted with a color resembling a refractive material (like blue for instance) and decided to actually produce them with transparent plastic. Furthermore the surfaces are then finely polished in order to give them basic optical properties. Such an optical system has only very coarsely the converging properties of the original nominal design for a number of reasons: the refractive indexes are not the nominal ones, the quality of the surfaces and their nominal values are only roughly, within a few percent, the targeted one, and the way the surfaces are built up makes them prone to some diffraction effects. However, the bulk of the lens and the surface roughness will give a large magnification of the scattering effects that will be experienced, at a much lower level, on the actual flight model. We investigated through propagation of a laser beam and by digital camera the main stray light modes that this toymodel offers. In other words, the model amplifies, to a large extent, the

  1. Turning toys into microgravity machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumners, C.; Reiff, P.

    The Toys in Space program communicates the experience of being in space and ultimately living in space. In space, what would happen to a yo-yo's speed, a top's wobble, or your skill in playing soccer, throwing a boomerang or jumping rope? Discover how these toys and others have performed in microgravity and how these demonstrations can link children to the space program. On April 12, 1985 astronauts carried the first experiment package of miniature mechanical systems called toys into space. Since that time 54 toys have been demonstrated in microgravity. This summer, NASA and the Houston Museum of Natural Science have sponsored the first International Toys in Space project with sixteen toys chosen for their popularity and relevance around the world. This set of toys takes advantage of the larger Space Station by providing toys that take up more room - from two-person games of soccer, lacrosse, marbles, and hockey to a jump rope and several kinds of yoyos. Three earlier Toys in Space missions have shown that toys are ideal machines to demonstrate how gravity affects moving objects on the Earth's surface and how the motions of these objects change in microgravity. In this presentation, participants actually experiment with miniature versions of toys, predict their behavior on orbit, and watch the surprising results. Participants receive toy patterns to share with young people at home, around the world. The Toys in Space program scales for all ages. Young learners can use their observation and comparison skills while older students apply physics concepts to toy behaviors. Concepts demonstrated include all of Newton's Laws of Motion, gyroscopic stability, centripetal force, density, as well as conservation of linear and angular momentum.

  2. Measurement of noise from toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altkorn, Robert; Milkovich, Scott M.; Rider, Gene

    2005-09-01

    Noise from toys is an issue receiving increasing attention in the toy and consumer product safety communities. Concern over loud toys is motivated both by reports of increasing hearing loss among children (the U.S. CDC estimated in 2001 that 12.5% of U.S. children 6 to 19 years old have permanent or temporary noise induced threshold shift in one or both ears) and by technological advances enabling sound and noise producing toys of increased play value at lower and lower cost. Consumer watchdog groups such as PIRG routinely identify excessively loud toys in their yearly lists of most dangerous toys. In 2003 ASTM revised its toy safety standard (F963-03) to include A and C weighted sound pressure level measurements and specific play or use dependent measurement geometries. RAM Consulting measures noise from toys as part of a comprehensive product safety program. Sound measurement equipment, geometries, and procedures used at RAM for different types of toys will be discussed. Unusual problems in noise measurement will be considered, as will the appropriateness of A and C weighting for the youngest age groups.

  3. Application of in vitro digestion models to assess release of lead and phthalate from toy matrices and azo dyes from textile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen AG; Versantvoort CHM; Duits MR; Kamp E van de; Twillert K van; SIR; ARO

    2004-01-01

    Children can be orally exposed to compounds by chewing, sucking and ingestion of toy (parts). Only the fraction of contaminant that is released from the toy in the gastrointestinal tract can reach the blood stream (internal exposure) and can contribute to toxicity. Three physiologically based in

  4. Energy decay in a tapped granular column: Can a one-dimensional toy model provide insight into fully three-dimensional systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windows-Yule, C. R. K.; Blackmore, D. L.; Rosato, A. D.

    2017-10-01

    The decay of energy within particulate media subjected to an impulse is an issue of significant scientific interest, but also one with numerous important practical applications. In this paper, we study the dynamics of a granular system exposed to energetic impulses in the form of discrete taps from a solid surface. By considering a one-dimensional toy system, we develop a simple theory, which successfully describes the energy decay within the system following exposure to an impulse. We then extend this theory so as to make it applicable also to more realistic, three-dimensional granular systems, assessing the validity of the model through direct comparison with discrete particle method simulations. The theoretical form presented possesses several notable consequences; in particular, it is demonstrated that for suitably large systems, effects due to the bounding walls may be entirely neglected. We also establish the existence of a threshold system size above which a granular bed may be considered fully three dimensional.

  5. From Toys to Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giones, Ferran; Brem, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    There is undoubtedly hype around drones and their applications for private and professional users. Based on a brief overview of the development of the drone industry in recent years, this article examines the co-evolution of drone technology and the entrepreneurial activity linked to it. Our...... results highlight the industry emergence described as concept validation, including product as well as market growth with different phases of technological meaning change. We argue that further steps are needed to develop drones from nice toys to professional tools—from photography and filming...

  6. From toys to tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giones, Ferran; Brem, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    There is undoubtedly hype around drones and their applications for private and professional users. Based on a brief overview of the development of the drone industry in recent years, this article examines the co-evolution of drone technology and the entrepreneurial activity linked to it. Our...... results highlight the industry emergence described as concept validation, including product as well as market growth with different phases of technological meaning change. We argue that further steps are needed to develop drones from nice toys to professional tools—from photography and filming...

  7. Folk toys in Central Thailand: Product development for a creative economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanna Pichetpruth

    2015-11-01

    , cap gun, nungstrik gun, whistle, pong-pang, bamboo flute, wote and wihoksaipha; 2 pleasure and imaginative toys, such as kanghan, rotated kanghan, airplane, kalong, chackachan, pla-tapian, waling karian bird and flying bird; 3 games, such as kalakaokwai, wooden alligators, wooden swords and arrows; and 4 models, such as talapcap, trucks, tricycles, boats, lookfat, kites, eko, mokawmokeang, dinosaurs, buffalo, tang, motorcycles, jet planes and house models. Nowadays, toys are made as an enterprise, using more external materials, chemical colors, different styles and models. Furthermore, toy production helps to conserve central Thai identity, child growth and Thai lifestyle.

  8. Toys library: A phenomenological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şener ŞENTÜRK

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this survey, it is aimed to determine parents’ thoughts of children using a toys library opened within a public library. The concept of a “Toys Library”, which is growing in popularity, combines the perceptions of toys and library, based on the principle of lending toys out to disadvantaged children. This study is a qualitative phenomenological research in which parents’ thoughts and knowledge gathered from the literature are examined. The study group is composed of 306 children, 134 from pre-schools and 172 from primary schools, and their parents. In this research, which is based on proper sampling method, statistical data were obtained from the software prepared for the toys library and qualitative data obtained from semi-structured interviews over a 12 month period. As a result of content analysis of 48 parents interviews recorded via video, it has been concluded that the project contributed to the functioning of the public libraries, has fully met the children’s toys needs, and has positively affected the children’s character and social development. As a result of this project, it is hoped that the survey will be seen as a reference point for toy libraries planned to be opened elsewhere.

  9. Introducing Interactive Technology--"Toy Story 3"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    "To infinity and beyond!" is the catchphrase of Buzz Lightyear, Universe Protection Unit space ranger, a character in the Disney/Pixar "Toy Story" franchise. The three films in the franchise--"Toy Story," 1993; "Toy Story 2," 1999; and "Toy Story 3," 2010--incorporate an innovative blend of many different genres, having spun off video games and…

  10. Physics of Toys: The Joy of Asking Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Beverley

    2014-03-01

    Children are natural scientists. They ask questions, they observe, they try things to see what happens. Often school-based science does little to nurture the young scientist and, in fact, may do just the opposite with thick textbooks, fact heavy lessons, and too many equations. The exploration of common toys produces deep learning by emphasizing concepts and connections before formal definitions and mathematics. It also connects the classroom to the familiar world outside of school and gets students writing and talking about physics ideas. At the university level, investigating what toys do and how they do it can be a challenging application of undergraduate physics from the introductory course up through senior mechanics. Toys provide an ideal system for the kind of open-ended inquiry that introduces students to what scientists really do. They can pose their own questions, explore the behavior of the system sufficiently to create a hypothesis, use their theoretical knowledge to make a simplified model of the system and predict an outcome, design an experiment, discover that the real world is messy, think about what they haven't taken into account with their simple model and try to improve it. I have spent close to 30 years thinking about how to use toys to enhance physics education from 4th grade through college. In the process I have collected hundreds of toys the majority of which relate to mechanics, but also to sound, light, electricity and magnetism. I will discuss the pedagogical reasons for using toys in physics education and the many different ways to use them from demonstrations to laboratory experiments to discussion starters as well as how it is possible to use the same toy with many different age levels by approaching the analysis differently. I will share a number of my favorite toys, but focus particularly on those related to energy concepts.

  11. Crowd of individuals walking in opposite directions. A toy model to study the segregation of the group into lanes of individuals moving in the same direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsztein, Guillermo H.

    2017-08-01

    Consider a corridor, street or bridge crowded with pedestrians walking in both directions. The individuals do not walk in a completely straight line. They adjust their path to avoid colliding with incoming pedestrians. As a result of these adjustments, the whole group sometimes end up split into lanes of individuals moving in the same direction. While this formation of lanes facilitates the flow and benefits the whole group, it is believed that results from the actions of the individuals acting only on their behalf, without considering others. This phenomenon is an example of self-organization. We analyze a simple model. We assume that individuals move around a two-lane circular track. All of them at the same speed. Half of them in one direction and the rest in the opposite direction. Each time two individuals collide, one of them moves to the other lane. The individual changing lanes is selected randomly. The system self-organizes. Eventually each lane is occupied with individuals moving in only one direction. We show that the time required for the system to self-organize is bounded by a linear function on the number of individuals. This toy model provides an example where global self-organization occurs even though each member of the group acts without considering the rest.

  12. Skilled Toy Train Discussions about Business Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Beuthel, Marie Rosa

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we show how industrialists in an innovation workshop employ tangible material – a toy train set – to innovate their business model. In multidisciplinary teams the process of co-creating new understandings is crucial for work to progress. Based on video data form this participatory i...... encouraging group discussion of the ‘customer journey’, it keeps both hands and mind busy, it allows silent participation, and it expands the vocabulary of the discussion....... innovation session, we investigate how participants get to new concepts through analysing their skilled behaviours, movements, actions and negotiations. We observe that the final result of the workshop is indeed innovative and is co-constructed by all group members. We show why the toy train works: While...

  13. Toying with Lives: The Scandalous Plight of China's Toy Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senser, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    Notes that about half of U.S. toys are made in China, mainly by young women who work extremely long shifts, 7 days a week, "amid sickening vapors and under draconian rules." Describes corporate codes of conduct, the role consumers can play in changing extremely poor working conditions, and the impact of international trade reforms.…

  14. Sex Stereotyping in Children's Toy Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lori A.; Markham, William T.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a survey of toy catalogs and packages, which focused on stereotypes in depictions of children playing with toys. Reports that toys that were previously rated by students as strongly or moderately sex-typed were generally shown with a child of the "appropriate" sex. (KH)

  15. Children Designing a Soft Toy. An LCE model as an application of the experiential learning during the holistic craft process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja-Leena Rönkkö

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In a holistic craft process, the same person designs a visual and technical appearance, produces the design with craft materials and technologies, make necessary changes to the design during its production and finally assesses the process and the finished product. Similarly, in the educational context, students should make craft products starting with the design process. These kinds of designing and hands-on activities nurture students’ creativity and problem-solving skills and offer them an opportunity to test their ideas and see them realised. Testing and further developing pedagogical approaches to holistic craft is important from the perspective of the renewal of the national core curriculum (2016 in Finland, which emphasises holistic approaches and the integration of different content areas. This study presents an experiential learning model of combining literature education, ethic-moral education and craft. Kolb’s model of experiential learning gives a solid and systematic theoretical base for this LCE model (one combining literature, craft and ethic-moral education. The teaching experiment is implemented as a craft process supported with children’s literature and activities based on a story. It seems that children can derive benefit from literature and activities during a craft making process. In addition, referencing literature enables the teacher to combine the craft process with multiple learning targets, fostering both ethical and content skills. We present the LCE model both in the light of an experiential learning model and the pragmatic implementations it gives rise to. According to our experiments, experiential learning can be meaningfully applied to the holistic craft process and craft education. Furthermore, the LCE model helps students to commit to holistic craft by nurturing a personal attachment. Normal 0 21 false false false FI X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso

  16. Parity-Time Symmetry and the Toy Models of Gain-Loss Dynamics near the Real Kato's Exceptional Points

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Znojil, Miloslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 6 (2016), s. 52 ISSN 2073-8994 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-22945S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : parity-time symmetry * Schrodinger equation * physical Hilbert space * inner-product metric operator * real exceptional points * solvable models * quantum Big Bang * quantum Inflation period Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.457, year: 2016

  17. Art Toys in the contemporary art scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sernissi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Art Toys phenomenon, better known as Art Toy Movement, was born in China in the mid-nineties and quickly spread out to the rest of the world. The toys are an artistic production of serial sculpture, made by handcrafts or on an industrial scale. There are several types of toys, such as custom toys and canvas toys, synonyms of designer toys, although they are often defined according to the constituent material, such as vinyl toys (plastic and plush toys (fabric. Art toys are the heirs of an already pop-surrealist and neo-pop circuit, which since the eighties of the twentieth century has pervaded the Japanese-American art scene, winking to the playful spirit of the avant-garde of the early century. Some psychoanalytic, pedagogical and anthropological studies about “play theories”, may also help us to understand and identify these heterogeneous products as real works of art and not simply as collectible toys.

  18. 'Toy' laser macular burns in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoof, N; Chan, T K J; Rogers, N K; Abdullah, W; Haq, I; Kelly, S P; Quhill, F M

    2014-02-01

    Laser 'toys' can be purchased online and imported with relative ease; the variety of such devices is a potential public safety concern. We describe five children with maculopathy following exposure to laser 'toys'. Case series of maculopathy following exposure to laser 'toys'. Five children were seen in our Ophthalmic Unit with macular injuries following exposure to laser 'toys'. Clinically, three children had an acute vitelliform-like maculopathy which resolved to leave sub-foveal retinal pigment epithelium changes with reduced vision. One case was complicated by a choroidal neovascular membrane. Laser 'toys', which resemble laser pointers, are increasingly available over the internet. Such 'toys' may not meet safety standards. Retinal injury in childhood following exposure to laser 'toys' is a public safety concern.

  19. History of European and national toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnova E.O.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the role of toys in the life and development of children. It traces the developmental trajectory of shaped toys in Europe and Russia from antiquity to the present day. It also shows the role of ideological factors in shaping the image of toys as well as long lasting contradiction between the developing features of toys and their market values. The article presents the comparative analysis of the image and the playing potential of the traditional and modern popular dolls. Functions of toys as mediums and tools for the transmission of cultural norms is exemplifies by gender stereotypes: it shows how the peculiarity of toys for boys and girls, affects the nature of the game. In the conclusion the article examines the main trends and problems of development of the market of modern toys.

  20. Investigation of toy phenomenon in western psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnova E.O.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the latest foreign psychological studies of toys. It presents the thematic variety of these studies and also different levels of analysis of the problem in the question. In terms of socio-cultural approach to toy it is regarded as a text, as a secondary artifact presenting real objects and tools. Some articles in this review are devoted to the problem of choosing toys in conditions of a contemporary market-oriented society. Some articles in this review, analyzing the historical background of toys, compare those of a past age with present time toys. In some studies the role of certain kinds of toys (like construction kits or doll's houses in child's life is discussed. The review also presents children's gender preferences in choice of toys.

  1. Supply Chain Management Practices in Toy Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chee Yew; Arlbjørn, Jan Stentoft; Johansen, John

    2005-01-01

    Purpose - Innovative products usually experience highly unpredictable and variable demand. This is especially valid for the volatile and seasonal toy industry, which produces high obsolete inventory, lost sales and markdown. In such a volatile industry, what supply chain management (SCM) practices...... (traditional mass-production or push-models). These low-responsive practices in the toy supply chain are not caused only by slow knowledge diffusion. SCM know-how is not yet capable of managing such levels of volatility and seasonality. Therefore, explanations of these theoretical gaps and what new theories...

  2. Multi-technique quantitative analysis and socioeconomic considerations of lead, cadmium, and arsenic in children's toys and toy jewelry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, Margot M; Finch, Lauren E; Cerel, Alisha S; Dattelbaum, Jonathan D; Leopold, Michael C

    2014-08-01

    A wide spectrum and large number of children's toys and toy jewelry items were purchased from both bargain and retail vendors and analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, and lead metal content using multiple analytical techniques, including flame and furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy as well as X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Particularly dangerous for young children, metal concentrations in toys/toy jewelry were assessed for compliance with current Consumer Safety Product Commission (CPSC) regulations (F963-11). A conservative metric involving multiple analytical techniques was used to categorize compliance: one technique confirmation of metal in excess of CPSC limits indicated a "suspect" item while confirmation on two different techniques warranted a non-compliant designation. Sample matrix-based standard addition provided additional confirmation of non-compliant and suspect products. Results suggest that origin of purchase, rather than cost, is a significant factor in the risk assessment of these materials with 57% of toys/toy jewelry items from bargain stores non-compliant or suspect compared to only 15% from retail outlets and 13% if only low cost items from the retail stores are compared. While jewelry was found to be the most problematic product (73% of non-compliant/suspect samples), lead (45%) and arsenic (76%) were the most dominant toxins found in non-compliant/suspect samples. Using the greater Richmond area as a model, the discrepancy between bargain and retail children's products, along with growing numbers of bargain stores in low-income and urban areas, exemplifies an emerging socioeconomic public health issue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 78 FR 66840 - Revocation of Certain Requirements Pertaining to Caps Intended for Use With Toy Guns and Toy Guns...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... Guns and Toy Guns Not Intended for Use With Caps AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION...-producing toys. Existing CPSC regulations pertaining to caps intended for use with toy guns refer to... intended for use with toy guns and toy guns not intended for use with caps. The final rule is unchanged...

  4. Children's Toys Fact Sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer HJ; Veen MP van; LMB

    2002-01-01

    Mathematical models are available for the exposure assessment of compounds in consumer products. The computer program CONSEXPO is used for the calculations. Since the huge number of consumer products does not allow exposure assessment of every product separately, a limited number of main categories

  5. Swimming Performance of Toy Robotic Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petelina, Nina; Mendelson, Leah; Techet, Alexandra

    2015-11-01

    HEXBUG AquaBotsTM are a commercially available small robot fish that come in a variety of ``species''. These models have varying caudal fin shapes and randomly-varied modes of swimming including forward locomotion, diving, and turning. In this study, we assess the repeatability and performance of the HEXBUG swimming behaviors and discuss the use of these toys to develop experimental techniques and analysis methods to study live fish swimming. In order to determine whether these simple, affordable model fish can be a valid representation for live fish movement, two models, an angelfish and a shark, were studied using 2D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and 3D Synthetic Aperture PIV. In a series of experiments, the robotic fish were either allowed to swim freely or towed in one direction at a constant speed. The resultant measurements of the caudal fin wake are compared to data from previous studies of a real fish and simplified flapping propulsors.

  6. Incorporating Local Wisdom Sasi into Marine Zoning to Increase the Resilience of a Marine Protected Area Network in Raja Ampat, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwanto, P., Jr.; Mangubhai, S.; Muhajir, M.; Hidayat, N. I.; Rumetna, L.; Awaludinnoer, A.; Thebu, K.

    2016-02-01

    The Raja Ampat government and local communities established 6 Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in 2007 to protect the unique marine biodiversity and ensure sustainable fisheries in West Papua, Indonesia. Increasing human populations resulting in overfishing and the use of destructive fishing practices are the main threats and challenges the region faces. Biophysical, socioeconomic and climate change criteria and factors were developed for zoning the Raja Ampat MPA network. Resilience principles such as replication, habitat representation, protection of critical habitat and connectivity were applied to the final zoning design. Reef resilience data using global monitoring protocols were collected to provide insights into the resilience of different reefs to further guide zoning. Resilience rankings showed that fishing pressure on reef fish communities especially on piscivores, herbivores and excavators was the main factor lowering resilience in MPAs. In addition data were collected on `sasi' areas throughout the MPAs. Sasi is a type of traditional resource management practice used by local communities to open and close areas to fishing single or multiple fisheries species. Once the fishery recovers local communities then harvest the species for food or sale. Raja Ampat MPAs network managed as multi-objective zoning system. The current zoning system explicitly recognizes community sasi within Traditional Use Zones, which often are adjacent or close to No-Take Zones. The explicit inclusion of sasi areas within zoning plans for the MPAs will likely lead to good compliance by local communities, and the increase fish biomass. Improving the management of fisheries through the incorporation of traditional fisheries management will therefore increase the overall resilience of coral reefs in the Raja Ampat MPA network.

  7. War and Peace: Toys, Teachers, and Tots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Arleen; And Others

    War play is play with a toy that initiates violence or play that involves the imitation of war. War play can involve: (1) the use of toys based on television cartoon shows to imitate the action in the cartoons; (2) play with replicas of war paraphernalia or manipulatives shaped into guns; and (3) dramatic play. The negative effects on children…

  8. Toy Libraries in Sweden in 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Marianne; And Others

    Public and private organizations have developed toy libraries in Sweden for children with disabilities and children in need of special support for their development. Toy libraries have become places where parents can acquire advice with regard to play, meet a pedagogue with experience with children with handicaps, and meet other parents with the…

  9. Analytical Chemical Control of Phthalates in Toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, S. C.; Worsøe, I. M.

    The content of phthalates in toys and other articles for children up to 3 years of age is regulated by the Statutory Order of Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy, No. 151 of 15th March 1999. In the present investigation, 20 products (toys and other articles for children up to 3 years of age...

  10. Analytical Chemical Control of Phthalates in Toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, S. C.; Jensen, G. H.; Worsøe, I. M.

    The content of phthalates in toys and other articles for children up to 3 years of age is regulated by the Statutory Order of Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy, No. 151 of 15th March 1999. In the present investigation, 35 products (toys and other articles for children up to 3 years of age...

  11. SASI MASJID DAN ADAT: Praktik Konservasi Lingkungan Masyarakat Minoritas Muslim Raja Ampat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Suardi Wekke

    2015-08-01

    . Aturan-aturan yang diberlakukan masyarakat untuk memandu para penduduk dalam memanen produksi lingkungan. Beberapa ide yang diterapkan dijadikan sebagai pedoman bagi setiap orang sepanjang waktu. Regulasi politik juga menjadi bagian dari dukungan terhadap praktik ini dengan diberlakukannya peraturan daerah. Peraturan tersebut diadopsi dari praktik dan kebiasaan masyarakat yang sudah berlangsung sejak dulu. Artikel ini menunjukkan bahwa Islam merupakan spirit untuk mendukung keberlangsungan kebiasaan masyarakat. Kekuatan agama menjadi dasar dalam mengatur keperluan dan pada saat yang sama mengakselerasi ide-ide baru yang diterima. Kajian ini mengkonstruksi bahwa ada beberapa kondisi setempat secara khusus membentuk pemahaman masyarakat dalam proses menjaga lingkungan. Akhirnya, artikel ini menyimpulkan bahwa agama menjadi aturan yang disinergikan dengan kebutuhan masyarakat. Penelitian ini dapat menjadi dasar bagi penelitian selanjutnya tentang ekspresi keagamaan dan penjagaan lingkungan. Keywords: sasi, masjid, adat, minoritas Muslim

  12. Trick, treat, or toy: children are just as likely to choose toys as candy on halloween.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Marlene B; Chen, Eunice Y; Brownell, Kelly D

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated whether children would choose toys over candy when offered both on Halloween. Seven households gave trick-or-treaters a choice between comparably sized toys and candies. The subjects (N = 284) were between 3 and 14 years of age. Children were just as likely to choose toys as candy. There were no gender differences. The implication of this study is that children will not be disappointed by toy treats on Halloween. In practice, nutrition professionals should encourage adults to create holiday traditions that do not rely on unhealthful foods.

  13. Assessment of toxic metals and phthalates in children's toys and clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korfali, Samira I; Sabra, Rayan; Jurdi, Mey; Taleb, Robin I

    2013-10-01

    Toxic metals and phthalates are introduced in the manufacturing of plastic toys and modeling clays. In Lebanon, inexpensive plastic toys and modeling clays (sold in dollar stores) are affordable and popular, and there is no legislation to monitor or regulate such toys. This study aimed to assess the quality of inexpensive plastic toys and modeling clays imported in Lebanon. Metal concentrations in toys, namely, zinc [not detectable (ND) to 3,708 μg/g], copper (ND to 140), chromium (ND to 75 μg/g), tin (ND to 39 μg/g), and cadmium (Cd) (ND to 20 μg/g), were lower than the European Union (EU) Directive limits, whereas lead (ND to 258 μg/g) in 10% of samples and antimony (Sb) (ND to 195 μg/g) in 5% of samples were greater than the EU limits. In modeling clays, most of the metals were lower than the EU Directive limits except for Cd and arsenic (As). Cd was detected in 83% of samples, with a mean level of 9.1 μg/g, which is far greater than the EU Directive limit (1.9 μg/g). The As mean level of 4.5 μg/g was greater than the EU limit (4.0 μg/g) and was detected in 9% of samples. Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were found in 60% of children's toys and 77% of modeling clays. Phthalic acid butyl ester had the highest-level PAE encountered and was ≤59.1 % in one type of clay. However, among children's toys, di(4-octyl) ester terephthalic acid was the highest encountered phthalate at a concentration of 25.7%. The community survey indicated that 82% of households purchase their toys from inexpensive shops and that only 17% of parents were aware of the health hazard of such toys. Consequently, an intervention plan was proposed for the provision of safe toys to children.

  14. Improved Aerosol Optical Thickness, Columnar Water Vapor, and Surface Reflectance Retrieval from Combined CASI and SASI Airborne Hyperspectral Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Yang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An increasingly common requirement in remote sensing is the integration of hyperspectral data collected simultaneously from different sensors (and fore-optics operating across different wavelength ranges. Data from one module are often relied on to correct information in the other, such as aerosol optical thickness (AOT and columnar water vapor (CWV. This paper describes problems associated with this process and recommends an improved strategy for processing remote sensing data, collected from both visible to near-infrared and shortwave infrared modules, to retrieve accurate AOT, CWV, and surface reflectance values. This strategy includes a workflow for radiometric and spatial cross-calibration and a method to retrieve atmospheric parameters and surface reflectance based on a radiative transfer function. This method was tested using data collected with the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI and SWIR Airborne Spectrographic Imager (SASI from a site in Huailai County, Hebei Province, China. Various methods for retrieving AOT and CWV specific to this region were assessed. The results showed that retrieving AOT from the remote sensing data required establishing empirical relationships between 465.6 nm/659 nm and 2105 nm, augmented by ground-based reflectance validation data, and minimizing the merit function based on AOT@550 nm optimization. The paper also extends the second-order difference algorithm (SODA method using Powell’s methods to optimize CWV retrieval. The resulting CWV image has fewer residual surface features compared with the standard methods. The derived remote sensing surface reflectance correlated significantly with the ground spectra of comparable vegetation, cement road and soil targets. Therefore, the method proposed in this paper is reliable enough for integrated atmospheric correction and surface reflectance retrieval from hyperspectral remote sensing data. This study provides a good reference for surface

  15. Children's Gender-Typed Toy Interests: Does Propulsion Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinella, Lisa M; Weisgram, Erica S; Fulcher, Megan

    2017-07-01

    Children's toy play is at the foundation of child development. However, gender differentiation in early play experiences may result in gender differences in cognitive abilities, social interactions, and vocational choices. We investigated gender-typing of toys and toys' propulsive properties (e.g., wheels, forward motion) as possible factors impacting children's toy interests, perceptions of other children's interests, and children's actual toy choices during free play. In Studies 1 and 2, 82 preschool children (42 boys, 40 girls; mean age = 4.90 years) were asked to report their interest and perceptions of other children's interests in toys. In Study 1, masculine, feminine, and neutral toys with and without propulsive properties were presented. Children reported greater interest in gender-typed toys and neutral toys compared to cross-gender-typed toys. In Study 2, unfamiliar, neutral toys with and without propulsive properties were presented. Propulsive properties did not affect children's interest across both studies. Study 3 was an observational study that assessed toy preferences among 42 preschool children (21 males, 21 females, mean age = 4.49 years) during a play session with masculine, feminine, and neutral toys with and without propulsive properties. Gender-typed toy preferences were less apparent than expected, with children showing high interest in neutral toys, and girls playing with a wide variety of masculine, feminine, and neutral toys. Gender differences in interest for toys with propulsion properties were not evident. Overall, gender differences in children's interest in toys as a function of propulsion properties were not found in the three experiments within this study.

  16. TOY SAFETY SURVEILLANCE FROM ONLINE REVIEWS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Matt; Abrahams, Alan S; Gruss, Richard; Ehsani, Johnathan P

    2016-10-01

    Toy-related injuries account for a significant number of childhood injuries and the prevention of these injuries remains a goal for regulatory agencies and manufacturers. Text-mining is an increasingly prevalent method for uncovering the significance of words using big data. This research sets out to determine the effectiveness of text-mining in uncovering potentially dangerous children's toys. We develop a danger word list, also known as a 'smoke word' list, from injury and recall text narratives. We then use the smoke word lists to score over one million Amazon reviews, with the top scores denoting potential safety concerns. We compare the smoke word list to conventional sentiment analysis techniques, in terms of both word overlap and effectiveness. We find that smoke word lists are highly distinct from conventional sentiment dictionaries and provide a statistically significant method for identifying safety concerns in children's toy reviews. Our findings indicate that text-mining is, in fact, an effective method for the surveillance of safety concerns in children's toys and could be a gateway to effective prevention of toy-product-related injuries.

  17. Tips for Teachers Selecting Toys to Facilitate Social Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Cynthia O.; Elmore, Shannon Renee

    2011-01-01

    Toy selection is an important role for early childhood teachers. This research-to-practice article describes what research tells us about how toys can affect the social interactions and communication of young children including those with developmental delays.

  18. TOY SAFETY SURVEILLANCE FROM ONLINE REVIEWS

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, Matt; Abrahams, Alan S.; Gruss, Richard; Ehsani, Johnathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Toy-related injuries account for a significant number of childhood injuries and the prevention of these injuries remains a goal for regulatory agencies and manufacturers. Text-mining is an increasingly prevalent method for uncovering the significance of words using big data. This research sets out to determine the effectiveness of text-mining in uncovering potentially dangerous children’s toys. We develop a danger word list, also known as a ‘smoke word’ list, from injury and recall text narra...

  19. The potential of artificial intelligence toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Zheng

    2008-01-01

    value for existing resources. It combines AI programs and common sensors to realize the function of intelligence input and output. Designers can use technology-based criteria to design and need to consider the possible issues in this new field. All of these aspects can be referenced from electronic game......Artificial intelligence is moving to a next step of development and application areas. From electronic games to human-like robots, AI toy is a good choice for next step during this process. Technology-based design is fit to the development of AI toy. It can exert the advantages and explore more...

  20. Effects of Ordinary and Adaptive Toys on Pre-School Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hsieh-Chun

    2008-01-01

    Toys help children in mastering developmental tasks. This study investigated toy effect on children with developmental disabilities as they engage in using ordinary and adaptive toys. A single-subject design was used to identify the effects on their toy play abilities. Differences in toy effects between playing ordinary and adaptive toys were…

  1. Safety Hazards of Toy Guns. Hearing on H.R. 3433 and H.R. 4732: Bills To Require Manufacturers of Toy Firearms to Distinctively Mark Them as "Toys," To Ban Realistic Toy Guns from Commerce, and for Other Purposes, before the Subcommittee on Commerce, Consumer Protection, and Competitiveness of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    A hearing was held to review problems posed by realistic toy guns and consider a bill to require manufacturers of toy firearms to distinctively mark the toy firearms as toys and a bill to ban realistic toy guns from commerce. A consumer advocate compared real and toy versions of several guns to demonstrate the difficulty of distinguishing one from…

  2. Superhero Toys and Boys' Physically Active and Imaginative Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Amy; Howe, Nina

    2006-01-01

    The influence of superhero versus nonsuperhero toys on boys' physically active and imaginative play was studied in 29 dyads (n = 58 middle-class preschool boys; M age = 54.95 mos, SD = 5.28 mos). Each dyad participated in two play sessions: 1) superhero toys (media related) and 2) nonsuperhero (nonmedia related) toys. Dyads were observed for the…

  3. Toy Truck Project Teaches Woodworking and Manufacturing Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Harry M.

    2005-01-01

    Toys often work well for project activities. They appeal directly to youngsters, and older students like to make things that they can give to a younger sibling or relative. This article describes how to construct a toy truck. This project takes advantage of common 2 x 4 lumber stock to produce an economical toy. Of course, one could substitute…

  4. Familiarizing with Toy Food: Preliminary Research and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A qualitative content analysis of children and parents interacting with toy food in their homes in view of recommendations for developing healthful food preferences. Methods: YouTube videos (n = 101) of children and parents interacting in toy kitchen settings were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Toy food was categorized…

  5. 77 FR 37834 - Revocation of Certain Requirements Pertaining to Caps Intended for Use With Toy Guns and Toy Guns...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... exemptions from the classification of a banned toy under 16 CFR 1500.18(a)(5) for toy caps with a sound level... believe that the provisions of ASTM F 963, with respect to paper or plastic caps intended for use with toy...

  6. Polynesian Folklore: An Alternative to Plastic Toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sharon; Wright, Thomas; Erickson, Lynnette

    2001-01-01

    Argues that folklore goes beyond plastic toys and popular media symbols to share the humanness of a people. Suggest ways to use Polynesian folklore (nature fables, tales, and legends) to deepen children's understanding of Polynesian culture. Reviews specific stories, references juvenile collections, and offers classroom activities. (SR)

  7. Toy Lending Library: Linking Home and School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, R. Eleanore; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes the development of a preschool toy-lending library which makes materials available for center children's home use on weekends. Planning, physical organization, procedures, policy and recordkeeping aspects are described in detail, and the significance of the library in terms of parent-child, parent-teacher and teacher-child interaction is…

  8. Bibliography of Children's Play and Toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilitch, H. Robert

    This bibliography of 237 titles on children's toys and play includes materials published from 1893 to 1970. Citations were gleaned from library catalogs, "Psychological Abstracts,""Child Development Abstracts,""Education Index" and "Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature." The bibliography is arranged alphabetically by author; where no author is…

  9. Smart Toys Designed for Detecting Developmental Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Diego; García, Antonio; Alarcos, Bernardo; Velasco, Juan R; Ortega, José Eugenio; Martínez-Yelmo, Isaías

    2016-11-20

    In this paper, we describe the design considerations and implementation of a smart toy system, a technology for supporting the automatic recording and analysis for detecting developmental delays recognition when children play using the smart toy. To achieve this goal, we take advantage of the current commercial sensor features (reliability, low consumption, easy integration, etc.) to develop a series of sensor-based low-cost devices. Specifically, our prototype system consists of a tower of cubes augmented with wireless sensing capabilities and a mobile computing platform that collect the information sent from the cubes allowing the later analysis by childhood development professionals in order to verify a normal behaviour or to detect a potential disorder. This paper presents the requirements of the toy and discusses our choices in toy design, technology used, selected sensors, process to gather data from the sensors and generate information that will help in the decision-making and communication of the information to the collector system. In addition, we also describe the play activities the system supports.

  10. Smart Toys Designed for Detecting Developmental Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rivera

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the design considerations and implementation of a smart toy system, a technology for supporting the automatic recording and analysis for detecting developmental delays recognition when children play using the smart toy. To achieve this goal, we take advantage of the current commercial sensor features (reliability, low consumption, easy integration, etc. to develop a series of sensor-based low-cost devices. Specifically, our prototype system consists of a tower of cubes augmented with wireless sensing capabilities and a mobile computing platform that collect the information sent from the cubes allowing the later analysis by childhood development professionals in order to verify a normal behaviour or to detect a potential disorder. This paper presents the requirements of the toy and discusses our choices in toy design, technology used, selected sensors, process to gather data from the sensors and generate information that will help in the decision-making and communication of the information to the collector system. In addition, we also describe the play activities the system supports.

  11. The Use of Toys with Hospitalized Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberger, Joy

    1984-01-01

    Discusses factors to consider in selecting toys for hospital use and for meeting individual needs (considering age, emotional needs, separation anxiety, fear, and language barriers). Also discusses cultural differences, the special role of medical play (and medical play materials), and reactions to medical events. (JN)

  12. Toy' laser macular burns in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoof, N; Chan, T K J; Rogers, N K; Abdullah, W; Haq, I; Kelly, S P; Quhill, F M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Laser ‘toys' can be purchased online and imported with relative ease; the variety of such devices is a potential public safety concern. We describe five children with maculopathy following exposure to laser ‘toys'. Methods Case series of maculopathy following exposure to laser ‘toys'. Results Five children were seen in our Ophthalmic Unit with macular injuries following exposure to laser ‘toys'. Clinically, three children had an acute vitelliform-like maculopathy which resolved to leave sub-foveal retinal pigment epithelium changes with reduced vision. One case was complicated by a choroidal neovascular membrane. Conclusion Laser ‘toys', which resemble laser pointers, are increasingly available over the internet. Such ‘toys' may not meet safety standards. Retinal injury in childhood following exposure to laser ‘toys' is a public safety concern. PMID:24434663

  13. Current Trends in providing the Toys Security and Consumer Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiela Magdalena Csorba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goods and services market is not in equilibrium. This affects continuously the consumers under multiple aspects: economic, educational, health insurance and security, and so on. Not even the toys market outlets or the toys trading market aren’t trouble free. Because publications in the toys consumer protection field are seldom (legislation is the starting point in analyzing this area, the checks carried out at national level which showed the marketed toys insecurity and the abuses of the economic agents in this sector determined us to analyze the degree in which people knows the toy-related injuries and the danger to which they expose their own children when purchasing dangerous toys. That’s why a quantitative research was conducted, using the method of questionnaire, distributed through the Romanian consumers, with the aim to check the empirically awareness and the seriousness with which they relate the risks concerning the toys consume.

  14. A Toy-World That Satisfies Some Principles of ``El Naschie's E-Infinity Theory''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Hanns

    2006-06-01

    The classical view of our external world is revised and its tacit a priori assumptions are confronted with consequences from Mohammed S. El Naschie's E-infinity theory. The far-reaching investigations of El Naschie have demonstrated the necessity of a new unconventional thinking in physics. First we motivate the a priori assumptions of classical mechanics with the requirements of the mathematical formalisms. We explain the difficulties to construct models for a reality which shows the phenomenon of contextualism, like for example quantum mechanics. In a second step we use the principles of Husserl's phenomenology to deduce a toy world from a contextual understanding of empirical data. In such a toy world one can illustrate the fundamental phenomena from quantum mechanics and ideas from E-infinity theory. We will use this toy world to demonstrate that the classical a priori assumptions are not necessary and that alternative ways of thinking are possible in physics.

  15. Robota: Clever Toy and Educational Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Billard, A.

    2003-01-01

    Therapeutic and educational applications of robots have created a demand for robots showing a number of social skills. These skills include the capacity to imitate, to learn from demonstration, to interpret gestures and to recognize speech. Robot toys are an ideal platform to investigate the potential and limitations of human-robot social interactions. This paper presents Robota, a mini- humanoid doll-shaped robot. Robota is used in an introductory robotics class at the undergraduate l...

  16. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Kulahci

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloons flame. 80 person was injured from flying toy ballons flame in a meeting in 2002. Although this potential risks of acetylene, helium have not any of some risk. But helium was provided from other countries and have more price. The injuries which caused from acetylene burns like 1st -2nd degree burns. Consequently that was known helium is more avaliable for using in toy sector, and never cause burn injuries like this. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 291-296

  17. A Toy Clinic Shop: Innovation Management in a Shin-Tai Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jon-Chao; Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Liang, Hwey-Wen; Chang, Hsin-Wu

    2008-01-01

    In Taiwan there is a declining birth rate and a dramatic increase in the elderly population. There is also the trend of using school space that would otherwise be left unused. The experimental project "Toy Clinic Shop in Elementary School" offers an innovative management model for elementary schools to address these developments. The…

  18. Multimodal Design for Enactive Toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Goetzen, Amalia; Mion, Luca; Avanzini, Federico

    2008-01-01

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 4th International Computer Music Modeling and Retrieval Symposium, CMMR 2007, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2007 jointly with the International Computer Music Conference 2007, ICMC 2007. The 33 revised full ...

  19. Noise Measurement and Frequency Analysis of Commercially Available Noisy Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Jalaie

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Noise measurement and frequency analysis of commercially available noisy toys were the main purposes of the study. Materials and Methods: 181 noisy toys commonly found in toy stores in different zones of Tehran were selected and categorized into 10 groups. Noise measurement were done at 2, 25, and 50 cm from toys in dBA. The noisiest toy of each group was frequency analyzed in octave bands. Results: The highest and the lowest intensity levels belonged to the gun (mean=112 dBA and range of 100-127 dBA and to the rattle-box (mean=84 dBA and range of 74-95 dBA, respectively. Noise intensity levels significantly decreased with increasing distance except for two toys. Noise frequency analysis indicated energy in effective hearing frequencies. Most of the toys energies were in the middle and high frequency region. Conclusion: As intensity level of the toys is considerable, mostly more than 90 dBA, and also their energy exist in the middle and high frequency region, toys should be considered as a cause of the hearing impairment.

  20. Advertising Violent Toys in Weekly Circulars of Popular Retailers in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey H. Basch

    2015-10-01

    with fists out and aggressive faces (26%. Conclusion: Parents should be mindful of toy retailer’s marketing of violent toys, especially toward boys, and the potential for those toys to desensitize their children to violence.

  1. Institutions Offering 3 in 1 Exquisite Mixture of Reading Habits (Game-Toy-Book Toy Libraries in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdinç Alaca

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A toy library is a place that brings together the concepts of game-toy-book under the same roof. These three concepts are thought to be a strategic tool that attracts the interest and attention of adults, especially children, and will create awareness of books and libraries in themselves. The history of toy libraries emerged with the aim of encouraging children and parents to use the library through games and toys and the ability to read books continuously throughout life. The history of toy libraries goes back to 2004 in Turkey, among those, Ankara Toy Library (AOK was opened in 2012. In this study, the establishment and promotion of toy libraries in Turkey and in particular the AOK are mentioned. At the same time, the importance of encouraging children to read books and acquiring and developing reading habits through these institutions is mentioned. The AOK being prominent in this area, with its volunteer groups, aims and activities, is a colorful and animated formation, that incorporates the trilogy of games, toys and books and continues to work effectively in Turkey since 2012.. It is thought that it is necessary to increase the recognition of these and similar formations throughout Turkey and to spread the activities in a wider geographical area and this is perceived as fulfilling an important responsibility for toy libraries and AOK in Turkey.

  2. Respiratory viral RNA on toys in pediatric office waiting rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Diane E; Hendley, J Owen; Schwartz, Richard H

    2010-02-01

    Toys in pediatric office waiting rooms may be fomites for transmission of viruses. Eighteen samples were taken from office objects on 3 occasions. Samples were tested for presence of picornavirus (either rhinovirus or enterovirus) on all 3 sample days; in addition, January samples were tested for respiratory syncytial virus and March samples were tested for influenza A and B. In addition, 15 samples were obtained from the sick waiting room before and after cleaning. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect picornavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and influenza A or B virus. Finally, 20 samples were obtained from the fingers of a researcher after handling different toys in the sick waiting room, and samples were then obtained from all the same toys; all samples were tested for picornavirus by polymerase chain reaction. Viral RNA was detected on 11 of 52 (21%) of toys sampled. Ten of the positives were picornavirus; 1 was influenza B virus. Three (30%) of 10 toys from the new toy bag, 6 of 30 (20%) in the sick child waiting room, and 2 of 12 (17%) in the well child waiting room were positive. Six (40%) of 15 toys in the sick waiting room were positive for picornaviral RNA before cleaning; after cleaning, 4 (27%) of 15 were positive in spite of the fact that RNA was removed from 4 of 6 of the original positives. Three (15%) of 20 toys in the sick waiting room were positive for picornaviral RNA, but RNA was not transferred to the fingers of the investigator who handled these toys. About 20% of the objects in a pediatric office may be contaminated with respiratory viral RNA, most commonly picornavirus RNA. Cleaning with a disinfectant cloth was only modestly effective in removing the viral RNA from the surfaces of toys, but transfer of picornaviral RNA from toys to fingers was inefficient.

  3. PLAY ACTIVITY WITH MILITARY TOYS AT PRESCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Nikolaevna Aleshina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes various attitudes to military toys, both positive and negative, existing in Russia and abroad. Toy weapons are viewed as a separate type of military toy. The study looks at the impact of military toys on children’s emotions and personality. The study looks at how children play games on their own and the way they organize them. We have conducted an experiment where three types of toys were used – military toys, soft toys and objects that act as toy substitutes. The study of games and the roles children took showed their poor playing skills. The research has detected existing connection between imagination and thinking ability and the children’s play activity. None of the children took the role of ‘the defender of the weak’ or ‘Patria’s defender’, which contradicts the results of an opinion survey of children’s parents who think that military toys help to develop ‘patriotism’, ‘courage’, and ‘teach to protect the weak’.Repeated observation of the way the same children play with military toys has shown that they take the role of defenders of the motherland or the weak only after watching TV-programmes or fiction films which show male characters defending their motherland or the weak using weapons, which shows that children’s games have social character.The experiment’s results detected what activity adults, who are concerned with the young generation’s attitude to weapons and violence, should perform. It is vital to strengthen children’s moral, ethical and cognitive spheres first, and only in second place fight against sales of military toys both in Russia and abroad.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-53

  4. A toy model of black hole complementarity

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Souvik; Papadodimas, Kyriakos; Raju, Suvrat

    2016-01-01

    We consider the algebra of simple operators defined in a time band in a CFT with a holographic dual. When the band is smaller than the light crossing time of AdS, an entire causal diamond in the center of AdS is separated from the band by a horizon. We show that this algebra obeys a version of the Reeh-Schlieder theorem: the action of the algebra on the CFT vacuum can approximate any low energy state in the CFT arbitrarily well, but no operator within the algebra can exactly annihilate the vacuum. We show how to relate local excitations in the complement of the central diamond to simple operators in the band. Local excitations within the diamond are invisible to the algebra of simple operators in the band by causality, but can be related to complicated operators called "precursors". We use the Reeh-Schlieder theorem to write down a simple and explicit formula for these precursors on the boundary. We comment on the implications of our results for black hole complementarity and the emergence of bulk locality fr...

  5. Toy model of a fake inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novello, M.; Huguet, E.; Queva, J.

    2006-06-01

    Discontinuities in nonlinear field theories propagate through null geodesics in an effective metric that depends on its dynamics and on the background geometry. Once information of the geometry of the universe comes mostly from photons, one should carefully analyze the effects of possible nonlinearities on electrodynamics in the cosmic geometry. Such a phenomenon of induced metric is rather general and may occur for any nonlinear theory independently of its spin properties. We limit our analysis here to the simplest case of nonlinear scalar field. We show that a class of theories that have been analyzed in the literature, having regular configuration in the Minkowski space-time background, is such that the field propagates like free waves in an effective de Sitter geometry. The observation of these waves would lead us to infer, erroneously, that we live in a de Sitter universe.

  6. A toy model of black hole complementarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Souvik; Bryan, Jan-Willem [Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG (Netherlands); Papadodimas, Kyriakos [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG (Netherlands); Raju, Suvrat [International Centre for Theoretical Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research,Shivakote, Bengaluru 560089 (India)

    2016-05-02

    We consider the algebra of simple operators defined in a time band in a CFT with a holographic dual. When the band is smaller than the light crossing time of AdS, an entire causal diamond in the center of AdS is separated from the band by a horizon. We show that this algebra obeys a version of the Reeh-Schlieder theorem: the action of the algebra on the CFT vacuum can approximate any low energy state in the CFT arbitrarily well, but no operator within the algebra can exactly annihilate the vacuum. We show how to relate local excitations in the complement of the central diamond to simple operators in the band. Local excitations within the diamond are invisible to the algebra of simple operators in the band by causality, but can be related to complicated operators called “precursors”. We use the Reeh-Schlieder theorem to write down a simple and explicit formula for these precursors on the boundary. We comment on the implications of our results for black hole complementarity and the emergence of bulk locality from the boundary.

  7. Social behaviors increase in children with autism in the presence of animals compared to toys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite E O'Haire

    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated the capacity of animal presence to stimulate social interaction among humans. The purpose of this study was to examine the interactions of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD with an adult and their typically-developing peers in the presence of animals (two guinea pigs compared to toys.Ninety-nine children from 15 classrooms in 4 schools met the inclusion criteria and participated in groups of three (1 child with ASD and 2 typically-developing peers. Each group was video-recorded during three 10-minute, free-play sessions with toys and three 10-minute, free-play sessions with two guinea pigs. Two blinded observers coded the behavior of children with ASD and their peers. To account for the nested study design, data were analyzed using hierarchical generalized linear modeling.Participants with ASD demonstrated more social approach behaviors (including talking, looking at faces, and making tactile contact and received more social approaches from their peers in the presence of animals compared to toys. They also displayed more prosocial behaviors and positive affect (i.e., smiling and laughing as well as less self-focused behaviors and negative affect (i.e., frowning, crying, and whining in the presence of animals compared to toys.These results suggest that the presence of an animal can significantly increase positive social behaviors among children with ASD.

  8. Imagination, Playfulness, and Creativity in Children's Play with Different Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo????ller, Signe?? Juhl?

    2015-01-01

    Based on a four-month experimental study of preschool children's play with creative-construction and social-fantasy toys, the author examines the in?uence of both types of toys on the play of preschool children. Her comparative analysis considers the impact of transformative play on the development of imagination during play activities and…

  9. Serious Fun: Using Toys to Demonstrate Fluid Mechanics Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saviz, Camilla M.; Shakerin, Said

    2014-01-01

    Many students have owned or seen fluids toys in which two immiscible fluids within a closed container can be tilted to generate waves. These types of inexpensive and readily available toys are fun to play with, but they are also useful for provoking student learning about fluid properties or complex fluid behavior, including drop formation and…

  10. Robotic Toys as a Catalyst for Mathematical Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highfield, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Robotic toys present unique opportunities for teachers of young children to integrate mathematics learning with engaging problem-solving tasks. This article describes a series of tasks using Bee-bots and Pro-bots, developed as part a larger project examining young children's use of robotic toys as tools in developing mathematical and metacognitive…

  11. Pediatric Audiometry: The Relative Success of Toy and Video Reinforcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, Sheryl; Gans, Donald P.; Stein, Ramona

    2000-01-01

    An operate conditional technique was used to determine the relative success of toys and video shows as reinforcers for testing the hearing of 28 younger (30-month-old) and 28 older (45-month old) children. Animated toys and video shows for children were equally effective as reinforcers for both age groups. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  12. Analysis of sound pressure levels emitted by children's toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleifer, Pricila; Gonçalves, Maiara Santos; Tomasi, Marinês; Gomes, Erissandra

    2013-06-01

    To verify the levels of sound pressure emitted by non-certified children's toys. Cross-sectional study of sound toys available at popular retail stores of the so-called informal sector. Electronic, mechanical, and musical toys were analyzed. The measurement of each product was carried out by an acoustic engineer in an acoustically isolated booth, by a decibel meter. To obtain the sound parameters of intensity and frequency, the toys were set to produce sounds at a distance of 10 and 50cm from the researcher's ear. The intensity of sound pressure [dB(A)] and the frequency in hertz (Hz) were measured. 48 toys were evaluated. The mean sound pressure 10cm from the ear was 102±10 dB(A), and at 50cm, 94±8 dB(A), with psound pressure emitted by the majority of toys was above 85dB(A). The frequency ranged from 413 to 6,635Hz, with 56.3% of toys emitting frequency higher than 2,000Hz. The majority of toys assessed in this research emitted a high level of sound pressure.

  13. Using Toys to Support Infant-Toddler Learning and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Choosing toys and activities that are suitable for infants and toddlers can challenge even the most experienced teacher. By being mindful of the basic principles of child development and the role of play, teachers can intentionally select toys to meet young children's unique needs and interests, supporting learning. It is also important to be…

  14. Indonesian Traditional Toys and the Development of Batik Motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Indrayana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a wide array of traditional toys in Indonesia. In the past, traditional toys played an important role for skill and creativity development of children. Today, the position of traditional toys in the society is displaced by toys from large-scale manufacturers. Given the critical role of traditional toys for children’s motoric and social development, there is a need to develop media that can be used to promote these traditional products and strengthen their position in the public. We propose to use Batik as a way to effectively disseminate and promote traditional toys to the general public. Apart from this, using traditional toys to create new Batik motifs can have an economic value for the producers of Batik, promote Indonesian products and enrich the Indonesian Batik. This study aims to explore the variety of traditional toys, mainly from Klaten and Magelang, in the Central Java province of Indonesia, and use them as the basis for the development of Batik motif creation. This study used Trilogi Keseimbangan (or Harmony Trilogy aesthetic theory analytical approach that explains the creation of craft consists of the following phases: exploration, design, and materialization. The creation method in this study adopts Tiga Tahap Enam Langkah (Three Phases, Six Steps method offered in the theory. The finding in the field found that the traditional toys material used in Klaten and Magelang, mostly made from waste wood, plywood, and zinc. The manufacturing process is done manually by two or three craftsmen using a simple technology. The traditional toys are designed by the artisans mostly, although there may be designs from the clients. In addition, we also found that the traditional toys have never been used as a Batik motif. The traditional toys Batik motif presented in this work is researcher’s design. For the purposes of this study, we first research the variety of traditional toys available in the market today in Indonesia. We look

  15. INFLUENCE OF MARKETING ENVIRONMENT ON THE TOY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta A. ANDREIANA (Mihaescu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Along with the passage of time, parents have manifested a different attitude towards their children, trying to offer them everything they wanted in what concerns the toys. Therefore, the toy market is constantly expending, and the tough competition leads to the quality improvement of the toys and enforces certain standards on the market. The originality and topicality of the theme consist in the change in the toy consumers’ and users’ preferences which required greater attention to be paid to the influence manifested by the marketing environment on this market. The case study identifies the occurred problems and the toy influence factors by an analysis over the marketing environment components, i.e.: marketing internal environment, micro-environment and macro-environment. The study ends with the recommendation of several solutions for the improvement of the current situation.

  16. A toy story: Association between young children's knowledge of fast food toy premiums and their fast food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; Titus, Linda J; Cleveland, Lauren P; Langeloh, Gail; Hendricks, Kristy; Dalton, Madeline A

    2016-01-01

    Fast food restaurants spend millions of dollars annually on child-targeted marketing, a substantial portion of which is allocated to toy premiums for kids' meals. The objectives of this study were to describe fast food toy premiums, and examine whether young children's knowledge of fast food toy premiums was associated with their fast food consumption. Parents of 3- to 5-year old children were recruited from pediatric and WIC clinics in Southern New Hampshire, and completed a cross-sectional survey between April 2013-March 2014. Parents reported whether their children usually knew what toys were being offered at fast food restaurants, and whether children had eaten at any of four restaurants that offer toy premiums with kids' meals (McDonald's, Burger King, Subway, Wendy's) during the 7 days preceding the survey. Seventy-one percent of eligible parents participated (N = 583); 48.4% did not receive any education beyond high school, and 27.1% of children were non-white. Half (49.7%) the children had eaten at one or more of the four fast food restaurants in the past week; one-third (33.9%) had eaten at McDonald's. The four restaurants released 49 unique toy premiums during the survey period; McDonald's released half of these. Even after controlling for parent fast food consumption and sociodemographics, children were 1.38 (95% CI = 1.04, 1.82) times more likely to have consumed McDonald's if they usually knew what toys were offered by fast food restaurants. We did not detect a relationship between children's toy knowledge and their intake of fast food from the other restaurants. In this community-based sample, young children's knowledge of fast food toys was associated with a greater frequency of eating at McDonald's, providing evidence in support of regulating child-directed marketing of unhealthy foods using toys. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Market Analysis, Opportunity Recognition and Strategy Diagnosis in Toy Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajeheian, Datis

    2017-01-01

    According to many market researches and industrial reports Iran is one of the biggest toy markets in the Middle East and North Africa region. The Iranian toy market has been identified as a niche market with lots of unexploited opportunities. Nonetheless, the Iranian toy industry has shown ineffi...... design and marketing channels. The research further suggests that the industry establish relationships with universities and educational centres to train toy experts because the industry suffer from their absence. The research also offers some practical implications.......According to many market researches and industrial reports Iran is one of the biggest toy markets in the Middle East and North Africa region. The Iranian toy market has been identified as a niche market with lots of unexploited opportunities. Nonetheless, the Iranian toy industry has shown...... inefficiency in exploiting those opportunities and to meet market demands. This exploratory research aims at understanding the reasons of such poor performance. The research made use of two phases of survey with samples from customers, influencers and in-depth interview with industry practitioners. The survey...

  18. Is Witsenhausen's counterexample a relevant toy?

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Pulkit

    2010-01-01

    This paper answers a question raised by Doyle on the relevance of the Witsenhausen counterexample as a toy decentralized control problem. The question has two sides, the first of which focuses on the lack of an external channel in the counterexample. Using existing results, we argue that the core difficulty in the counterexample is retained even in the presence of such a channel. The second side questions the LQG formulation of the counterexample. We consider alternative formulations and show that the understanding developed for the LQG case guides the investigation for these other cases as well. Specifically, we consider 1) a variation on the original counterexample with general, but bounded, noise distributions, and 2) an adversarial extension with bounded disturbance and quadratic costs. For each of these formulations, we show that quantization-based nonlinear strategies outperform linear strategies by an arbitrarily large factor. Further, these nonlinear strategies also perform within a constant factor of...

  19. Asbestos in toys: an exemplary case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Stefano; Di Benedetto, Francesco; Raffaell, Corrado; Veraldi, Angela

    2016-01-01

    DAS was an artificial clay which, once molded, hardened at room temperature. It was largely used as a toy between 1963 and 1975 in Italy, Netherlands, Germany, UK and Norway. This case report describes and reports the presence of asbestos in DAS. We investigated the presence of asbestos in DAS using light and electron microscopy on samples of the original material. We searched administrative documents at the State Archive of Turin and conducted interviews with past employees on annual production, suppliers, and purchasers. The analytical tests confirmed the presence of asbestos fibers in DAS: about 30% of its composition. The documents found at the State Archive confirmed the annual purchase of hundreds tons of raw asbestos from the Amiantifera di Balangero, the Italian asbestos mine. DAS was found to be used also within craftsmanship. Asbestos fibers in DAS may have caused exposure to production workers and a variety of users, including artists, teachers, and children. Over 13 years, about 55 million packs of DAS were produced and sold. The number of users is difficult to estimate but may have been in the order of millions. In Italy, a specific question on the use of DAS has been included in a routinely used mesothelioma questionnaire. As DAS was exported to other countries, our findings suggest that mesothelioma patients should be asked about their past use of DAS, in particular individuals not reporting a clear past asbestos exposure. Additionally, this discovery shows the incompleteness of records on asbestos uses and suggests to test items, including toys, imported from countries where asbestos is not forbidden.

  20. Effects of Toy Guns and Airplanes on Children's Antisocial Free Play Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Charles W.; Goldsmith, Diane

    1976-01-01

    To assess the effects of toy guns and toy airplanes on children's antisocial behavior, 4- and 5-year-olds (ten in Study I and 13 in Study II) were observed during 15-16 free play sessions. During experimental sessions children played either with (novel, aggressive) toy guns or with (novel, nonaggressive) toy airplanes in addition to their usual…

  1. Toy Action Guide [and] Media Violence and Children: A Call to Action! 2000-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TRUCE: Teachers Resisting Unhealthy Children's Entertainment, West Somerville, MA.

    Play is essential to children's healthy development and learning, and toys are the tools of children's play. Noting that parents are constantly faced with decisions about what toys to buy and what toys to avoid, this guide is intended to help parents promote their children's creative and constructive play by making informed choices about toys, and…

  2. The Influence of Older Siblings on the Sex-Typed Toy Play of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Alison; Fraleigh, Kimberly

    To examine the influence of older siblings on the sex-typed toy play of younger siblings, a study was undertaken of 60 children, 2 to 5 years old, with equal numbers of boys and girls with older brothers, older sisters, and no older siblings. Children's toy collections were inventoried and classified into conventionally male toys, or toys of the…

  3. Food marketing to children through toys: response of restaurants to the first U.S. toy ordinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Jennifer J; Hekler, Eric B; Krukowski, Rebecca A; Buman, Matthew P; Saelens, Brian E; Gardner, Christopher D; King, Abby C

    2012-01-01

    On August 9, 2010, Santa Clara County CA became the first U.S. jurisdiction to implement an ordinance that prohibits the distribution of toys and other incentives to children in conjunction with meals, foods, or beverages that do not meet minimal nutritional criteria. Restaurants had many different options for complying with this ordinance, such as introducing more healthful menu options, reformulating current menu items, or changing marketing or toy distribution practices. To assess how ordinance-affected restaurants changed their child menus, marketing, and toy distribution practices relative to non-affected restaurants. Children's menu items and child-directed marketing and toy distribution practices were examined before and at two time points after ordinance implementation (from July through November 2010) at ordinance-affected fast-food restaurants compared with demographically matched unaffected same-chain restaurants using the Children's Menu Assessment tool. Affected restaurants showed a 2.8- to 3.4-fold improvement in Children's Menu Assessment scores from pre- to post-ordinance with minimal changes at unaffected restaurants. Response to the ordinance varied by restaurant. Improvements were seen in on-site nutritional guidance; promotion of healthy meals, beverages, and side items; and toy marketing and distribution activities. The ordinance appears to have positively influenced marketing of healthful menu items and toys as well as toy distribution practices at ordinance-affected restaurants, but did not affect the number of healthful food items offered. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Modern Toys: Risks and Dangers (Materials from the Workshop at the MSUPE Center for Play and Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnova E.O.,

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the seminar which is based on the “harmful” toys. This seminar was organized in the Centre of games and toys in MSUPE. The theme of the seminar is linked with the requirements of the public and parental controls to restrict the production and sale of these toys which can harm the mental health and the development of children. The discussion was attended by the leading child psychiatrists, psychotherapists and psychologists. They discussed the issues that were associated with the risks and hazards from the toys, and the possibility of studying the potential harmful effects of toys. All participants of this discussion were agree with this fact, that a toy itself cannot harm a mental health, while at the same time, a toy (along with cartoons, multimedia, games and so on. takes part in the formation of certain needs and views of children. This workshop demonstrated the complexity of the problem and the necessity for its further development.

  5. Sex differences in rhesus monkey toy preferences parallel those of children

    OpenAIRE

    Hassett, Janice M.; Siebert, Erin R.; Wallen, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Socialization processes, parents, or peers encouraging play with gender specific toys are thought to be the primary force shaping sex differences in toy preference. A contrast in view is that toy preferences reflect biologically determined preferences for specific activities facilitated by specific toys. Sex differences in juvenile activities, such as rough and tumble play, peer preferences, and infant interest, share similarities in humans and monkeys. Thus if activity preferences shape toy ...

  6. Toys, sociocognitive traits, and occupations: Italian children's endorsement of gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caroli, Maria Elvira; Sagone, Elisabetta

    2007-06-01

    In a sample of 136 Italian children ages 8 to 12 years (M = 9.6, SD = 1.2; 68 boys, 68 girls), gender stereotypes related to gender-typed toys, traits, and occupational choices were examined, using the forced-choice technique between a male and a female silhouette. Stereotypy was established considering boys' and girls' choices for the 70%-100% range. Differences in gender stereotyping for age and sex of participants were verified. Analysis indicated children attributed toys prevalently connected with aesthetic aspect and domestic activities to the female silhouette, while technology, warfare, locomotion, and construction toys were attributed to the male. Children attributed physical and verbal aggressiveness and dominance to the male silhouette; the female profile was exclusively characterized by sweetness. The occupational stereotypical male model was structured in both practical-manual activities and of highly cultural and specialist relevance, while for the female model the number of activities, mainly of a domestic type, were reduced. Significant main effect of sex of children was found, but no significant age-related differences in the three domains. Results were discussed within the framework of gender-stereotype theories.

  7. A Toy Cosmology Using a Hubble-Scale Casimir Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. McCulloch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The visible mass of the observable universe agrees with that needed for a flat cosmos, and the reason for this is not known. It is shown that this can be explained by modelling the Hubble volume as a black hole that emits Hawking radiation inwards, disallowing wavelengths that do not fit exactly into the Hubble diameter, since partial waves would allow an inference of what lies outside the horizon. This model of “horizon wave censorship” is equivalent to a Hubble-scale Casimir effect. This incomplete toy model is presented to stimulate discussion. It predicts a minimum mass and acceleration for the observable universe which are in agreement with the observed mass and acceleration, and predicts that the observable universe gains mass as it expands and was hotter in the past. It also predicts a suppression of variation on the largest cosmic scales that agrees with the low-l cosmic microwave background anomaly seen by the Planck satellite.

  8. Teaching Functional Play Skills to a Young Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder through Video Self-Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sharon Y.; Lo, Ya-yu; Lo, Yafen

    2017-01-01

    The researchers used a single-case, multiple probe design across three sets of toys (i.e., farm toy, doctor's clinic toy, and rescue toy) to examine the effects of video self-modeling (VSM) on the functional play skills of a 5-year-old child with autism spectrum disorder. The findings showed a functional relation between VSM and increased…

  9. A Toy Story: Association between Young Children’s Knowledge of Fast Food Toy Premiums and their Fast Food Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longacre, Meghan R.; Drake, Keith M.; Titus, Linda J.; Cleveland, Lauren P.; Langeloh, Gail; Hendricks, Kristy; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2015-01-01

    Fast food restaurants spend millions of dollars annually on child-targeted marketing, a substantial portion of which is allocated to toy premiums for kids’ meals. The objectives of this study were to describe fast food toy premiums, and examine whether young children’s knowledge of fast food toy premiums was associated with their fast food consumption. Parents of 3- to 5-year old children were recruited from pediatric and WIC clinics in Southern New Hampshire, and completed a cross-sectional survey between April 2013–March 2014. Parents reported whether their children usually knew what toys were being offered at fast food restaurants, and whether children had eaten at any of four restaurants that offer toy premiums with kids’ meals (McDonald’s, Burger King, Subway, Wendy’s) during the 7 days preceding the survey. Seventy-one percent of eligible parents participated (N=583); 48.4% did not receive any education beyond high school, and 27.1% of children were non-white. Half (49.7%) the children had eaten at one or more of the four fast food restaurants in the past week; one-third (33.9%) had eaten at McDonald’s. The four restaurants released 49 unique toy premiums during the survey period; McDonald’s released half of these. Even after controlling for parent fast food consumption and sociodemographics, children were 1.38 (95% CI=1.04, 1.82) times more likely to have consumed McDonald’s if they usually knew what toys were offered by fast food restaurants. We did not detect a relationship between children’s toy knowledge and their intake of fast food from the other restaurants. In this community-based sample, young children’s knowledge of fast food toys was associated with a greater frequency of eating at McDonald’s, providing evidence in support of regulating child-directed marketing of unhealthy foods using toys. PMID:26471803

  10. Quantification of toy sword kinematics with male pediatric volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, Stephanie M; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2014-01-01

    While extensive research in toy safety has been performed, data is unavailable with regard to the kinematics of toy swords. To improve upon design criteria, knowledge of a child’s physical capacity is essential. The purpose of this study was to quantify the linear and angular velocities generated by children swinging toy swords. A total of 36 male subjects, ages 4-14 years old, each participated in one trial. Subjects were instructed to swing a toy sword as fast and hard as possible for ~10 seconds. A Vicon motion analysis system was used to capture subject and sword kinematics. Peak linear and angular sword velocities were calculated. A strong correlation was identified between age and velocity. The 8-14 year old males were not significantly different. The 4 year old males generated significantly lower velocities than the 8-14 year old males. The 6 year old males produced significantly lower velocities than the 10- 14 year old males. It was concluded that age had a significant effect on the linear and angular velocities generated by children. The trends observed within this study likely result from typical pediatric and adolescent development. By accounting for the physical capabilities of a specific population, toys can be designed with decreased inherent risks of injury.

  11. Optomechanical Analogy for Toy Cosmology with Quantized Scale Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A. Smiga

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The simplest cosmology—the Friedmann–Robertson–Walker–Lemaître (FRW model— describes a spatially homogeneous and isotropic universe where the scale factor is the only dynamical parameter. Here we consider how quantized electromagnetic fields become entangled with the scale factor in a toy version of the FRW model. A system consisting of a photon, source, and detector is described in such a universe, and we find that the detection of a redshifted photon by the detector system constrains possible scale factor superpositions. Thus, measuring the redshift of the photon is equivalent to a weak measurement of the underlying cosmology. We also consider a potential optomechanical analogy system that would enable experimental exploration of these concepts. The analogy focuses on the effects of photon redshift measurement as a quantum back-action on metric variables, where the position of a movable mirror plays the role of the scale factor. By working in the rotating frame, an effective Hubble equation can be simulated with a simple free moving mirror.

  12. Sex differences in rhesus monkey toy preferences parallel those of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Janice M; Siebert, Erin R; Wallen, Kim

    2008-08-01

    Sex differences in toy preferences in children are marked, with boys expressing stronger and more rigid toy preferences than girls, whose preferences are more flexible. Socialization processes, parents, or peers encouraging play with gender-specific toys are thought to be the primary force shaping sex differences in toy preference. A contrast in view is that toy preferences reflect biologically-determined preferences for specific activities facilitated by specific toys. Sex differences in juvenile activities, such as rough-and-tumble play, peer preferences, and infant interest, share similarities in humans and monkeys. Thus if activity preferences shape toy preferences, male and female monkeys may show toy preferences similar to those seen in boys and girls. We compared the interactions of 34 rhesus monkeys, living within a 135 monkey troop, with human wheeled toys and plush toys. Male monkeys, like boys, showed consistent and strong preferences for wheeled toys, while female monkeys, like girls, showed greater variability in preferences. Thus, the magnitude of preference for wheeled over plush toys differed significantly between males and females. The similarities to human findings demonstrate that such preferences can develop without explicit gendered socialization. We offer the hypothesis that toy preferences reflect hormonally influenced behavioral and cognitive biases which are sculpted by social processes into the sex differences seen in monkeys and humans.

  13. A study on the visual effect of toy in children life

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamreza Azarbouyeh Dinaky; Khashayar Ghazizadeh

    2013-01-01

    This research is aimed at studying features and visual qualities of images in toys and toys packaging. This research is trying to find answers for toys and toys packaging processes from design to production, what should be considered by an illustrator and also collecting information for interested people and students in arrival to the labor market and recognizing the existing challenges. This research method was fundamental and theoretical and the most important research question was that, wh...

  14. Commercial Television Exposure, Fast Food Toy Collecting, and Family Visits to Fast Food Restaurants among Families Living in Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Jennifer A; Bernhardt, Amy M; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D

    2016-01-01

    To assess the associations between children's exposure to television (TV) networks that aired child-directed advertisements for children's fast food meals with the collection of fast food meal toy premiums and frequency of family visits to those restaurants. One hundred parents of children 3-7 years old were recruited from a rural pediatrics clinic during 2011; families receiving Medicaid were oversampled. Parents reported the child's TV viewing habits and family visit frequency to the fast food restaurants participating in child-directed TV marketing at the time, and their child's requests for visits to and the collecting of toy premiums from those restaurants. Logistic regression models assessed adjusted associations between a child's TV viewing with more frequent restaurant visits (≥monthly in this population). Structural equation modeling assessed if child requests or toy collecting mediated that association. Thirty-seven percent of parents reported ≥monthly visits to the select fast food restaurants. Among children, 54% requested visits to and 29% collected toys from those restaurants. Greater child commercial TV viewing was significantly associated with more frequent family visits to those fast food restaurants (aOR 2.84 for each 1-unit increase in the child's commercial TV viewing scale, P children to commercial TV networks that aired child-directed ads for children's fast food meals was associated with more frequent family visits to those fast food restaurants. Child desire for toy premiums may be a mediating factor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 78 FR 2281 - Certain Robotic Toys and Components Thereof; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... COMMISSION Certain Robotic Toys and Components Thereof; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of... entitled Certain Robotic Toys and Components Thereof, DN 2930; the Commission is soliciting comments on any... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain robotic toys and components...

  16. Early androgens, activity levels and toy choices of children in the second year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Gerianne M; Saenz, Janet

    2012-09-01

    The hypothesis that stronger preferences for active play styles contribute to stronger preferences for male-typical toys was examined in 47 boys and 37 girls at 19-months of age using ambulatory monitoring technology (i.e., actigraphy) to measure activity levels during contact with male-typical, female-typical, and gender-neutral toys. Digit ratios and salivary testosterone levels were measured earlier in children at 3-4 months of age. There were no significant sex differences in digit ratios, salivary testosterone levels, or overall activity levels during toy play. In contrast, contact times showed large sex differences in infants' toy preferences. The within-sex comparisons showed that infant girls had significant preferences for female-typical toys over male-typical toys, whereas infant boys showed only a small preference for male-typical toys over female-typical toys. More male-typical digit ratios in early infancy predicted higher activity counts during toy play and less female-typical toy preferences in girls. However, in both sexes, activity levels were unrelated to toy preferences suggesting that factors other than activity level preferences contribute to the early emergence of gender-linked toy preferences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Digital Music Toys for Young Children: Parents' Review of the "Munchkin Mozart Magic™ Cube"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia; Hunt, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to gather information about caregivers' views of the value of a digital music toy, its musical features, as well as their comments about children's responses to the toy. Instead of asking parents to provide their opinions about a broad category of interactive music toys, the authors selected one of the many toys…

  18. Noise levels of toys for children between the ages of birth and 3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The majority of toys adhere to the current American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International standards for toy noise. Frequency spectra analysis revealed that the loudest continuous noise levels for all toys were recorded at the frequencies that are the most important for hearing speech. Conclusions. There is a ...

  19. A study on the visual effect of toy in children life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Azarbouyeh Dinaky

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at studying features and visual qualities of images in toys and toys packaging. This research is trying to find answers for toys and toys packaging processes from design to production, what should be considered by an illustrator and also collecting information for interested people and students in arrival to the labor market and recognizing the existing challenges. This research method was fundamental and theoretical and the most important research question was that, what is the first impression of images on the toys and packaging surfaces containing toys? And what are the most important features of images on the toys and toys packaging surfaces? The most important obtained results were that although the quick attraction of the purchaser is the most effective factor in images, it cannot be the first effect on toys and toys packaging surfaces. Features such as color, attractive design and revealing the inside containing of the packaging are the most important features of images in this packaging. Now we can say that images as visual part of the toys and toys packaging have the most important role in introducing the capabilities, function and the attractiveness of a production. Images especially for children who have a closer relationship with fiction world is more attractive than other visual elements and also despite of the visual attraction such as color coordination, adaptation of plan with packaging and etc.

  20. Essential concepts in Toy Design Education : Aimlessness, Empathy and Play Value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper aims at contributing to the professional development of toy design education programs. It draws from the practice of a children’s toy design course at Delft University of Technology. It identifies three major concepts that greatly influence toy quality and that students find difficult to

  1. Toys for Early Development of the Young Blind Child: A Guide for Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Springfield.

    A booklet is presented for parents of blind children. This booklet lists various toys that are useful for the child in his development and cognitive growth. Three kits of toys are presented. Each of these kits was developed for children of approximate age groups. Kit #1 is for the very young blind infants and contains toys that usually interest…

  2. Commercial TV exposure, fast-food toy collecting and family visits to fast food restaurants among families living in rural communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Jennifer A.; Bernhardt, Amy M.; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the associations between children's exposure to TV networks that aired child-directed advertisements for children's fast food meals with the collection of fast food meal toy premiums and frequency of family visits to those restaurants. Study design One hundred parents of children 3–7 years old were recruited from a rural pediatrics clinic during 2011; families receiving Medicaid were oversampled. Parents reported the child's television viewing habits and family visit frequency to the fast food restaurants participating in child-directed TV marketing at the time, and their child's requests for visits to and the collecting of toy premiums from those restaurants. Logistic regression models assessed adjusted associations between a child's TV viewing with more frequent restaurant visits (≥monthly in this population). Structural equation modeling assessed if child requests or toy collecting mediated that association. Results Thirty-seven percent of parents reported ≥monthly visits to the select fast food restaurants. Among children, 54% requested visits to and 29% collected toys from those restaurants. Greater child commercial TV viewing was significantly associated with more frequent family visits to those fast food restaurants (adjusted odds ratio 2.84 for each one-unit increase in the child's commercial TV viewing scale, pchildren to commercial TV networks that aired child-directed ads for children's fast food meals was associated with more frequent family visits to those fast food restaurants. Child desire for toy premiums may be a mediating factor. PMID:26526362

  3. Design and Development of a Smart Storytelling Toy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Nuri; Aydin, Cansu Cigdem; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2014-01-01

    Because computers generally make children passive listeners, new technological devices need to support children's storytelling activities. This article introduces the StoryTech, a smart toy that includes a virtual space comprised of computer-based graphics and characters as well as a real space that involves stuffed animals, background cards…

  4. Judging Toy Breakers: Gender Stereotypes Have Devious Effects on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karniol, Rachel; Aida, Amir

    1997-01-01

    Compares second-grade children's judgments and ratings of punishment severity on children who broke neutral, sex-appropriate, or opposite-sex toys. Findings from 80 urban school children illustrate both the direct and the devious impact of gender stereotypes on children's social cognitive processes. (GR)

  5. Toy weapons and firecrackers: a source of hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D; Vishwakarma, S K

    1989-03-01

    Although acoustic injury as a result of exposure to noisy toys and firecrackers has been reported previously, most of these studies have been conducted on adults. The purpose of this prospective study, conducted at the time of Deepawali, an Indian festival of fireworks, was two-fold: 1. to measure the acoustic output of representative samples of toy weapons and firecrackers and the intensity level at critical spectator points from the site of emission; and 2. to determine the auditory status of a cross section of the target population, involving 600 participants from various age groups, before and after exposure to firecracker noise at Deepawali. The average sound level at a distance of 3 m was 150 dB, thus exceeding the damage risk criterion for adults (i.e., 130 dB peak level). An average 30 dB persistent sensorineural hearing loss was found in 2.5% of the target population as a result of toy weapon/firecracker noise during Deepawali. The 9- to 15-year-old age group was most affected. A judicious approach in the manufacture and use of toy weapons and firecrackers, in addition to legal restraints, is advocated.

  6. Exploring Theoretical Computer Science Using Paper Toys (for kids)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose the structure of an exploratory course in theoretical computer science intended for a broad range of students (and especially kids). The course is built on computational cards, a simple paper toy, in which playing cards are computational elements; computing machines can...

  7. TESTOSTERONIC GADGETS: THE 'NEW' TECHNOLOGY OF ORGASM APPLIED TO SEX TOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pérez Freire

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sex toys, and the vibrator as its greatest exponent in the passion party world, have become a totemic sex trend in Western sexual culture, going beyond their functional role for both men and women. In the neoliberal postcapitalist societies – based on compulsive, virtual and hedonist consumption – erotophilia is developed and expanded according to the existing sexual imaginary. An overview of the erotic gadgets and their heterosexual practice provide an interesting element to be analyzed to establish the validity of the sex androcentric model, which has been found poor in terms of female sexual satisfaction.

  8. TESTOSTERONIC GADGETS:THE 'NEW'TECHNOLOGY OF ORGASM APPLIED TO SEX TOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA PÉREZ FREIRE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sex toys, and the vibrator as its greatest exponent in the passion party world, have become a totemic sex trend in Western sexual culture, going beyond their functional role for both men and women. In the neoliberal postcapitalist societies – based on compulsive, virtual and hedonist consumption – erotophilia is developed and expanded according to the existing sexual imaginary. An overview of the erotic gadgets and their heterosexual practice provide an interesting element to be analyzed to establish the validity of the sex androcentric model, which has been found poor in terms of female sexual satisfaction.

  9. Percentage of toxic trace elements; Pb, Cr and Cd in certain plastic toys, Isfahan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Kavehzadeh

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent investigations have detected the presence of significant levels of heavy metals (chromium, lead and cadmium in toys and other PVC products manufactured for children. In some countries, addition of compounds containing toxic metals to toys are limited or prohibited. Methods: To evaluate the safety of some of the plastic toys in the city of Isfahan with respect to toxic trace metals, pb, cr and cd, 75 samples of three types of toys were collected from the toy shop’s and were digested with acid with the two methods ISIRI and ASTM. The heavy metals were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Variance analysis and T-test were used for data analysis. Results: The result of the study showed that the products tested contained lead, chromium and cadmium and the highest and lowest concentration were related to Pb and Cd, respectively. The statistical analysis of the samples showed that there are no significant differences between ASTM and ISIRI digestion methods. The study revealed that none of the heavy metals in the toy samples exceeded the recommended standard levels. Highest average concentration of Pb and Cd were related to toys with green color and the highest Cr concentration was related to yellow toys in this study. Conclusion: Extensive studies are required to evaluate the quality of the toys being used by children and the toxic trace elements should be eliminated from the plastic materials used for making toys.

  10. Effects of age on associating virtual and embodied toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Sandra Y

    2004-08-01

    Technologies such as videos, toys, and video games are used as tools in delivering education to young children. Do children spontaneously transfer between virtual and real-world mediums as they learn? Fifty-six children learned facts about a toy dog presented through varying levels of technology and interactivity (e.g., video game, stuffed animal, picture books). They then met a similar dog character in a new embodiment (e.g., as a stuffed animal if first met the dog as video character). Would children spontaneously generalize the facts they learned about the dog character across mediums (dynamic and static environments)? Results indicate that younger children were more likely to generalize facts across mediums. Specific aspects of the level of technology and interactivity had little effect.

  11. Testing for lead in toys at day care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Martha; Stolz, Julie; Chacon-Baker, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to lead-based paint or material has been found to impact children's cognitive and behavioral development at blood lead levels far below current standards. The purpose of the project was to screen for lead in toy items in daycare centers in order to raise awareness of inside environmental lead exposures and minimize lead-based exposures for children. Occupational therapy students in a service learning class tested for lead in ten daycare or public centers using the XRF Thermo Scientific Niton XL3t, a method accepted by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). A total of 460 items were tested over a two-month period for an average of 66 toys per setting. Fifty six (56) items tested > 100 ppm, which represented 12% of the entire sample. Items with high lead levels included selected toys constructed with lead-based paint, lead metals, plastics using lead as a color enhancer, and decorative objects. While the actual number of lead-based products is small, the cumulative exposure or habitual use may pose an unnecessary risk to children. Indoor exposures occurred for all day care centers regardless of socio-economic levels. Recommendations to minimize exposures are provided.

  12. Test or toy? Materiality and the measurement of infant intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jacy L

    2015-05-01

    Adopting a material culture perspective, this article interrogates the composition of the copy of the Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale housed at the University of Toronto Scientific Instruments Collection. As a deliberately assembled collection of toys, the Cattell Scale makes clear the indefinite boundary between test and toy in 20th-century American psychology. Consideration of the current condition of some of the material constituents of this particular Cattell Scale provides valuable insight into some of the elusive practices of intelligence testers in situ and highlights the dynamic nature of the testing process. At the same time, attending to the materiality of this intelligence test reveals some of the more general assumptions about the nature of intelligence inherent in tests for young children. The scale and others like it, I argue, exposes psychologists' often-uncritical equation of childhood intelligence with appropriate play undertaken with an appropriate toy, an approach complicit in, and fostered by, midcentury efforts to cultivate particular forms of selfhood. This analysis serves as an example of the kind of work that may be done on the history of intelligence testing when the material objects that were (and are) inherently a part of the testing process are included in historical scholarship. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Design of an inclusive & interactive educational textile toy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, C.; Cunha, J.

    2017-10-01

    The market for educational toys is scarce in products specifically developed for blind and low sighted children, aiming not only at their motor and cognitive development as well as to the non-stigmatization of these children. Considering the development of educational toys, and based in previous research work [1], we found that textile materials offer an enormous application capability in this regard due not only to their flexibility in use and maintenance of properties, but also because of our familiarity with these materials. The main goal of this project is the study of the emotional response to an interactive educational textile toy by children with visual impairments - blind or partially sighted. In this way the project is based on four main axes: knowing the user, identifying his specific needs; knowing the product-user relationship with a special focus on tactile and emotional perception; study textile structures to best fit the design; and, finally, evaluate the user’s response to the developed product by evaluating the product experience.

  14. Plenteous and limited play, transmedia storytelling-toys in light of individualist and social esthetics

    OpenAIRE

    Gulden, Tore

    2016-01-01

    Transmedia storytelling toys are toys that are presented along with an associated cartoon or game for marketing and entertainment purposes. This article explores a play experiment in which children aged six to nine played with such toys and with other materials. The empirical data engendered through participatory observation during the play experiment were explored within the framework of individualist esthetics (Shusterman/Dewey) and social esthetics (Adorno and Horkheim...

  15. Rapid identification of regulated organic chemical compounds in toys using ambient ionization and a miniature mass spectrometry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiangyu; Bai, Hua; Lv, Yueguang; Xi, Guangcheng; Li, Junfang; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Ren, Yue; Ouyang, Zheng; Ma, Qiang

    2018-04-01

    Rapid, on-site analysis was achieved through significantly simplified operation procedures for a wide variety of toy samples (crayon, temporary tattoo sticker, finger paint, modeling clay, and bubble solution) using a miniature mass spectrometry system with ambient ionization capability. The labor-intensive analytical protocols involving sample workup and chemical separation, traditionally required for MS-based analysis, were replaced by direct sampling analysis using ambient ionization methods. A Mini β ion trap miniature mass spectrometer was coupled with versatile ambient ionization methods, e.g. paper spray, extraction spray and slug-flow microextraction nanoESI for direct identification of prohibited colorants, carcinogenic primary aromatic amines, allergenic fragrances, preservatives and plasticizers from raw toy samples. The use of paper substrates coated with Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles allowed a great increase in sensitivity for paper spray. Limits of detection as low as 5μgkg -1 were obtained for target analytes. The methods being developed based on the integration of ambient ionization with miniature mass spectrometer represent alternatives to current in-lab MS analysis operation, and would enable fast, outside-the-lab screening of toy products to ensure children's safety and health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Smart Toy to Enhance the Decision-Making Process at Children’s Psychomotor Delay Screenings: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background EDUCERE (“Ubiquitous Detection Ecosystem to Care and Early Stimulation for Children with Developmental Disorders”) is an ecosystem for ubiquitous detection, care, and early stimulation of children with developmental disorders. The objectives of this Spanish government-funded research and development project are to investigate, develop, and evaluate innovative solutions to detect changes in psychomotor development through the natural interaction of children with toys and everyday objects, and perform stimulation and early attention activities in real environments such as home and school. Thirty multidisciplinary professionals and three nursery schools worked in the EDUCERE project between 2014 and 2017 and they obtained satisfactory results. Related to EDUCERE, we found studies based on providing networks of connected smart objects and the interaction between toys and social networks. Objective This research includes the design, implementation, and validation of an EDUCERE smart toy aimed to automatically detect delays in psychomotor development. The results from initial tests led to enhancing the effectiveness of the original design and deployment. The smart toy, based on stackable cubes, has a data collector module and a smart system for detection of developmental delays, called the EDUCERE developmental delay screening system (DDSS). Methods The pilot study involved 65 toddlers aged between 23 and 37 months (mean=29.02, SD 3.81) who built a tower with five stackable cubes, designed by following the EDUCERE smart toy model. As toddlers made the tower, sensors in the cubes sent data to a collector module through a wireless connection. All trials were video-recorded for further analysis by child development experts. After watching the videos, experts scored the performance of the trials to compare and fine-tune the interpretation of the data automatically gathered by the toy-embedded sensors. Results Judges were highly reliable in an interrater

  17. A Smart Toy to Enhance the Decision-Making Process at Children's Psychomotor Delay Screenings: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez García, María Angeles; Martín Ruiz, María Luisa; Rivera, Diego; Vadillo, Laura; Valero Duboy, Miguel Angel

    2017-05-19

    EDUCERE ("Ubiquitous Detection Ecosystem to Care and Early Stimulation for Children with Developmental Disorders") is an ecosystem for ubiquitous detection, care, and early stimulation of children with developmental disorders. The objectives of this Spanish government-funded research and development project are to investigate, develop, and evaluate innovative solutions to detect changes in psychomotor development through the natural interaction of children with toys and everyday objects, and perform stimulation and early attention activities in real environments such as home and school. Thirty multidisciplinary professionals and three nursery schools worked in the EDUCERE project between 2014 and 2017 and they obtained satisfactory results. Related to EDUCERE, we found studies based on providing networks of connected smart objects and the interaction between toys and social networks. This research includes the design, implementation, and validation of an EDUCERE smart toy aimed to automatically detect delays in psychomotor development. The results from initial tests led to enhancing the effectiveness of the original design and deployment. The smart toy, based on stackable cubes, has a data collector module and a smart system for detection of developmental delays, called the EDUCERE developmental delay screening system (DDSS). The pilot study involved 65 toddlers aged between 23 and 37 months (mean=29.02, SD 3.81) who built a tower with five stackable cubes, designed by following the EDUCERE smart toy model. As toddlers made the tower, sensors in the cubes sent data to a collector module through a wireless connection. All trials were video-recorded for further analysis by child development experts. After watching the videos, experts scored the performance of the trials to compare and fine-tune the interpretation of the data automatically gathered by the toy-embedded sensors. Judges were highly reliable in an interrater agreement analysis (intraclass correlation 0

  18. Toys and toilets: cross-sectional study using children's toys to evaluate environmental faecal contamination in rural Bangladeshi households with different sanitation facilities and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujcic, Jelena; Ram, Pavani K; Hussain, Faruqe; Unicomb, Leanne; Gope, Partha Sarathi; Abedin, Jaynal; Mahmud, Zahid Hayat; Islam, M Sirajul; Luby, Stephen P

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate household faecal contamination using children's toys among 100 rural Bangladeshi households categorised as 'cleaner' (toilet that reliably separates faeces from the environment and no human faeces in/around living space) or 'less clean' (no toilet or toilet that does not reliably separate faeces from the environment and human faeces in/around living space). We distributed toy balls to each household and rinsed each study toy and a toy already owned by the household in 200 ml of Ringer's solution. We enumerated faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci from each rinse using membrane filtration methods. Study toys from 39 cleaner households had lower mean faecal coliform contamination than toys from 61 less clean households (2.4 log10 colony-forming units (CFU)/200 ml vs. 3.2 log10 CFU/200 ml, P = 0.03). However, wealth measures explained a portion of this relationship. Repeat measures were moderately variable [coefficient of variation (CV) = 6.5 between two toys in the household at the same time, CV = 37.6 between toys in the household at two different times 3-4 days apart]. Too few households owned a non-porous toy to compare groups without risk of bias. In rural Bangladesh, improved sanitation facilities and practices were associated with less environmental contamination. Whether this association is independent of household wealth and whether the difference in contamination improves child health merit further study. The variation found was typical for measures of environmental contamination, and requires large sample sizes to ascertain differences between groups with statistical significance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Periodontal Health vs. Various Preventive Means in Toy Dog Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Capík

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used six toy Chihuahua dogs in relationship. They underwent four 8 week periods differing in type of food (dry, soft, dental diet and preventive means of periodontitis (tooth-brushing and enzymatic chewing strips. The results showed nonsignificant influence of food consistency on dental plaque, calculus and gingivitis scores. Dental diet nonsignificantly decreased dental calculus deposition in comparison to common commercial food. The best results were achieved with toothbrushing. The enzymatic chewing strips significantly decreased dental plaque, calculus and gingivitis scores only on carnassial teeth. These results confirm that there are no absolute preventive measures of periodontitis.

  20. Preferences for "Gender-Typed" Toys in Boys and Girls Aged 9 to 32 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Brenda K.; Barry, John A.; Thommessen, Sara A. O.

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have found that a majority of boys and girls prefer to play with toys that are typed to their own gender but there is still uncertainty about the age at which such sex differences first appear, and under what conditions. Applying a standardized research protocol and using a selection of gender-typed toys, we observed the toy…

  1. Noise levels of toys for children between the ages of birth and 3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Megan Ellis, BA Speech and Hearing Therapy. Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology, University .... Clicking. Musical television Music. Play gym. Music. Guitar with headphones. Music. Toy 3. Rattle. Clunking. Musical train. Music. Arch attached to pram. Music. Cellular phone. Dialling tone. & ringing. Toy 4. Radio.

  2. Selecting Toys and Gifts for Severely Mentally and Physically Handicapped People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Learning Resources System/Child Serve, Scottdale.

    Suggestions are given regarding selection of gifts and toys for severely handicapped persons. General principles (such as safety and durability) are followed by specific suggestions about clothes, food, toys (including musical instruments and balls), books and records, and various types of equipment (such as blenders for food preparation, tape…

  3. Hazardous metals in vintage plastic toys measured by a handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gillian Zaharias; Harris, Zoe E

    2015-01-01

    Over 100 plastic toys from the 1970s and 1980s, both polyvinyl chloride ("vinyl") and nonvinyl, were analyzed in the study described here using a handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometer to quantify hazardous metal content. A sampling of recent vinyl toys was also tested. The majority of nonvinyl samples were Fisher Price brand toys. The vinyl toys consisted largely of Barbie dolls and other dolls. Overall, lead or cadmium was found in 67% of vintage plastic toys, frequently at concentrations exceeding current U.S. and European limits. Arsenic was detected at levels of concern in 16% of the samples. In the nonvinyl toys, heavy metal content was found to correlate with certain colors of plastic. The likely sources of the detected metals are discussed. None of the contemporary vinyl toys contained detectable cadmium, lead, or arsenic. Given that vintage toys remain in widespread use by children in homes and other locations, the results illuminate a potential source of heavy metal exposure for children.

  4. Archaeology and Developmental Psychology: A Brief Survey of Ancient Athenian Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Maria; Sommer, Dion

    2017-01-01

    The authors note that ancient Athens, in important ways, connected children, toys, and play. But they also find the scholarship of toys sparse and scattered. They discuss obstacles that can skew our modern view of the Greek mind, and they caution that modern eyes should not see play where the Greeks saw ritual and religious devotion. With these…

  5. Background Television and Infants' Allocation of Their Attention during Toy Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setliff, Alissa E.; Courage, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of background television on 6- and 12-month-olds' attention during 20 min of toy play was examined. During the first or second half of the session, a clip from a variety of commonly available television programs was presented. The duration and frequency of infants' looks to the toys and to the television indicated that regardless of age…

  6. 25 CFR 309.21 - What are examples of dolls and toys that are Indian products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are examples of dolls and toys that are Indian products? 309.21 Section 309.21 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.21 What are examples of dolls and toys that are Indian...

  7. Playing with Technology: Mother-Toddler Interaction Scores Lower during Play with Electronic Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Michaela B.; Shapka, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    To investigate play with electronic toys (battery-operated or digital), 25 mother-toddler (16-24 months old) dyads were videotaped in their homes playing with sets of age-appropriate electronic and non-electronic toys for approximately 10 min each. Parent-child interactions were coded from recorded segments of both of the play conditions using the…

  8. Bacterial Contamination on Household Toys and Association with Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Conditions in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E. Stauber

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that household water treatment interventions improve microbiological water quality and reduce diarrheal disease risk. Few studies have examined, however, the impact of water treatment interventions on household-level hygiene and sanitation. This study examined the association of four water and sanitation conditions (access to latrines, improved sanitation, improved water and the plastic biosand filter on the levels of total coliforms and E. coli on existing and introduced toys during an on-going randomized controlled trial of the plastic biosand filter (plastic BSF. The following conditions were associated with decreased bacterial contamination on children’s toys: access to a latrine, access to improved sanitation and access to the plastic BSF. Overall, compared to existing toys, introduced toys had significantly lower levels of both E. coli and total coliforms. Results suggest that levels of fecal indicator bacteria contamination on children’s toys may be associated with access to improved water and sanitation conditions in the home. In addition, the fecal indicator bacteria levels on toys probably vary with duration in the household. Additional information on how these toys become contaminated is needed to determine the usefulness of toys as indicators or sentinels of water, sanitation and hygiene conditions, behaviors and risks.

  9. Bacterial contamination on household toys and association with water, sanitation and hygiene conditions in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Christine E; Walters, Adam; Fabiszewski de Aceituno, Anna M; Sobsey, Mark D

    2013-04-18

    There is growing evidence that household water treatment interventions improve microbiological water quality and reduce diarrheal disease risk. Few studies have examined, however, the impact of water treatment interventions on household-level hygiene and sanitation. This study examined the association of four water and sanitation conditions (access to latrines, improved sanitation, improved water and the plastic biosand filter) on the levels of total coliforms and E. coli on existing and introduced toys during an on-going randomized controlled trial of the plastic biosand filter (plastic BSF). The following conditions were associated with decreased bacterial contamination on children's toys: access to a latrine, access to improved sanitation and access to the plastic BSF. Overall, compared to existing toys, introduced toys had significantly lower levels of both E. coli and total coliforms. Results suggest that levels of fecal indicator bacteria contamination on children's toys may be associated with access to improved water and sanitation conditions in the home. In addition, the fecal indicator bacteria levels on toys probably vary with duration in the household. Additional information on how these toys become contaminated is needed to determine the usefulness of toys as indicators or sentinels of water, sanitation and hygiene conditions, behaviors and risks.

  10. Toys as Tools for Skill-building and Creativity in Adult Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katriina Heljakka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous understandings of adult use of toys are connected with ideas of collecting and hobbying, not playing. This study aims to address toys as play objects employed in imaginative scenarios and as learning devices. This article situates toys (particularly, character toys such as Blythe dolls as socially shared tools for skill-building and learning in adult life. The interviews with Finnish doll players and analyses of examples of their productive, toy-related play patterns showcased in both offline and digital playscapes reveal how toy play leads to skill-building and creativity at a mature age.The meanings attached to and developed around playthings expand purposely by means of digital and social media. (Audiovisual content-sharing platforms, such as Flickr, Pinterest, Instagram and YouTube, invite mature audiences to join playful dialogues involving mass-produced toys enhanced through do-it-yourself practices. Activities circulated in digital play spaces, such as blogs and photo management applications, demonstrate how adults, as non-professional ‘everyday players’, approach, manipulate and creatively cultivate contemporary playthings. Mature players educate potential players by introducing how to use and develop skills by sharing play patterns associated with their playthings. Producing and broadcasting tutorials on how to play creatively with toys encourage others to build their skills through play.

  11. Implication of information sharing on Bullwhip effects in a toy supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chee Yew; El-Beheiry, Mohamed; Johansen, John

    2004-01-01

    Coordination of toy supply chains is challenged by volatile and seasonal demand with high forecast errors and bullwhip effects. This paper compares Bullwhip effects in a three-level divergent a toy supply chain between retailers who shared downstream demand information (consumer sales...... using early order commitment has decreased the Bullwhip effect for all supply chain members even if it is applied locally....

  12. Noise Producing Toys and the Efficacy of Product Standard Criteria to Protect Health and Education Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart J. McLaren

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of 28 commercially available toys imported into New Zealand revealed that 21% of these toys do not meet the acoustic criteria in the ISO standard, ISO 8124-1:2009 Safety of Toys, adopted by Australia and New Zealand as AS/NZS ISO 8124.1:2010. While overall the 2010 standard provided a greater level of protection than the earlier 2002 standard, there was one high risk toy category where the 2002 standard provided greater protection. A secondary set of toys from the personal collections of children known to display atypical methods of play with toys, such as those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD, was part of the evaluation. Only one of these toys cleanly passed the 2010 standard, with the remainder failing or showing a marginal-pass. As there is no tolerance level stated in the standards to account for interpretation of data and experimental error, a value of +2 dB was used. The findings of the study indicate that the current standard is inadequate in providing protection against excessive noise exposure. Amendments to the criteria have been recommended that apply to the recently adopted 2013 standard. These include the integration of the new approaches published in the recently amended European standard (EN 71 on safety of toys.

  13. Efficient distribution of toy products using ant colony optimization algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, S.; Nurpraja, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    CV Atham Toys (CVAT) produces wooden toys and furniture, comprises 13 small and medium industries. CVAT always attempt to deliver customer orders on time but delivery costs are high. This is because of inadequate infrastructure such that delivery routes are long, car maintenance costs are high, while fuel subsidy by the government is still temporary. This study seeks to minimize the cost of product distribution based on the shortest route using one of five Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithms to solve the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP). This study concludes that the best of the five is the Ant Colony System (ACS) algorithm. The best route in 1st week gave a total distance of 124.11 km at a cost of Rp 66,703.75. The 2nd week route gave a total distance of 132.27 km at a cost of Rp 71,095.13. The 3rd week best route gave a total distance of 122.70 km with a cost of Rp 65,951.25. While the 4th week gave a total distance of 132.27 km at a cost of Rp 74,083.63. Prior to this study there was no effort to calculate these figures.

  14. Traditional toys in turkey: comparison in a rural and urban setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müge Artar

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between children and adults through playful activities creates possibilities for reciprocal spontaneous and demanded influences and for the development of reciprocal positive feelings. The main aim of this study was to find out the present situation of traditional toys by comparing the rural and urban settings - a mountain village and city center of Bursa (Northwest Anatolia, Turkey. It was questioned, if industrial toys were sold in villages, how village children effected this change. Data was collected by interviews in the houses of the participants, with the answers record permited by the parents. Interviews passed by content analysis. Results show that traditional hand made toys are going to disappear even in villages. This may happen because of the imitations of original toys and their cheap prices but at the same time because of the attractive nature of modern toys have the big impact as well.

  15. 78 FR 9740 - Certain Robotic Toys and Components Thereof; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1337

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... COMMISSION Certain Robotic Toys and Components Thereof; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to 19 U.S.C... of certain robotic toys and components thereof by reason of misappropriation of trade secrets, the... after importation of certain robotic toys and components thereof by reason of misappropriation of trade...

  16. Gender Stereotypes of Children's Toys: Investigating the Perspectives of Adults Who Have and Do Not Have Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekee, Kristy; Brown, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Often certain types of toys are considered more appropriate either for boys or for girls to play with. Therapists often use toys to engage children in intervention activities to promote skill development. This study investigated the gender stereotype perspectives of children's toys held by adults who were and were not parents. Fifty-two…

  17. Can a Toy Encourage Lower Calorie Meal Bundle Selection in Children? A Field Experiment on the Reinforcing Effects of Toys on Food Choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Reimann

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to test whether including an inexpensive nonfood item (toy with a smaller-sized meal bundle (420 calories, but not with the regular-sized meal bundle version (580 calories, would incentivize children to choose the smaller-sized meal bundle, even among children with overweight and obesity. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect in a between-subjects field experiment of a toy on smaller-sized meal choice (here, a binary choice between a smaller-sized or regular-sized meal bundles. A random sample of 109 elementary school children from two schools in the Tucson, Arizona metropolitan area (55 females; Mage = 8.53 years, SDage = 2.14; MBMI = 18.30, SDBMI = 4.42 participated. Children's height and weight were measured and body-mass-index (BMI was calculated, adjusting for age and sex. In our sample, 21 children were considered to be either overweight or obese. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of a toy on smaller-sized meal choice. Results revealed that the inclusion of a toy with a smaller-sized meal, but not with the regular-sized version, predicted smaller-sized meal choice (P < .001, suggesting that children can be incentivized to choose less food when such is paired with a toy. BMI neither moderated nor nullified the effect of toy on smaller-sized meal choice (P = .125, suggesting that children with overweight and obesity can also be incentivized to choose less. This article is the first to suggest that fast-food restaurant chains may well utilize toys to motivate children to choose smaller-sized meal bundles. Our findings may be relevant for consumers, health advocates, policy makers, and marketers who would benefit from a strategy that presents healthier, but still desirable, meal bundle options.

  18. Can a Toy Encourage Lower Calorie Meal Bundle Selection in Children? A Field Experiment on the Reinforcing Effects of Toys on Food Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Martin; Lane, Kristen

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this research was to test whether including an inexpensive nonfood item (toy) with a smaller-sized meal bundle (420 calories), but not with the regular-sized meal bundle version (580 calories), would incentivize children to choose the smaller-sized meal bundle, even among children with overweight and obesity. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect in a between-subjects field experiment of a toy on smaller-sized meal choice (here, a binary choice between a smaller-sized or regular-sized meal bundles). A random sample of 109 elementary school children from two schools in the Tucson, Arizona metropolitan area (55 females; Mage = 8.53 years, SDage = 2.14; MBMI = 18.30, SDBMI = 4.42) participated. Children's height and weight were measured and body-mass-index (BMI) was calculated, adjusting for age and sex. In our sample, 21 children were considered to be either overweight or obese. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of a toy on smaller-sized meal choice. Results revealed that the inclusion of a toy with a smaller-sized meal, but not with the regular-sized version, predicted smaller-sized meal choice (P food when such is paired with a toy. BMI neither moderated nor nullified the effect of toy on smaller-sized meal choice (P = .125), suggesting that children with overweight and obesity can also be incentivized to choose less. This article is the first to suggest that fast-food restaurant chains may well utilize toys to motivate children to choose smaller-sized meal bundles. Our findings may be relevant for consumers, health advocates, policy makers, and marketers who would benefit from a strategy that presents healthier, but still desirable, meal bundle options.

  19. Investigating the obesogenic effects of marketing snacks with toys: an experimental study in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, Dario; Ballali, Simonetta; Gafare, Claudia Elena; Casella, Adriana; Stefanini, Giulia; de Sousa Alves, Rogenia; Franchin, Laura; Amador, Ignacio; Da Silva, Neila Maria Almedia; Dibildox, Javier

    2013-07-10

    The inclusion of toys in food packages is a common marketing practice, and it is suspected of promoting obesogenic behaviours. This study aimed to determine whether toys packaged with food are indeed increasing the amount of food eaten by children, and if this effect is enhanced by contemporary exposure to TV and/or advertising. A total of 600 children (balanced according to gender and age groups, 3-6 and 7-10 years old) were randomized in three school facilities in Argentina, Brazil and Mexico and exposed to food (snacks) alone or food associated with toys in an experimental setting. All of the children received the same meal at lunchtime. The products were packages in which chocolate was associated with toys in an egg-shaped container partially filled by chocolate. The children were asked to eat ad libitum for 20 minutes during the afternoon break. In addition, the children were randomized into two groups and either shown or not shown a movie cartoon, with three different levels of exposure to commercials in the TV viewing condition (1, 2 or 3 advertisements). No significant differences emerged between the "toys" and "no toys" groups even after taking into account exposure to TV, commercials and other confounding factors. The inclusion of toys in food packages was not shown per se to lead to an increase in the caloric intake of children.

  20. Characteristics of particulate matter emissions from toy cars with electric motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Williams, Brent J; Biswas, Pratim

    2015-04-01

    Aerosol emissions from toy cars with electric motors were characterized. Particle emission rates from the toy cars, as high as 7.47×10(7) particles/s, were measured. This emission rate is lower than other indoor sources such as smoking and cooking. The particles emitted from toy cars are generated from spark discharges inside the electric motors that power the toy cars. Size distribution measurements indicated that most particles were below 100 nm in diameter. Copper was the dominant inorganic species in these particles. By deploying aerosol mass spectrometers, high concentrations of particulate organic matter were also detected and characterized in detail. Several organic compounds were identified using a thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatography. The mass size distribution of particulate organic matter was bimodal. The formation mechanism of particulate organic matter from toy cars was elucidated. A possible new source of indoor air pollution, particles from electric motors in toy cars, was identified. This study characterized aerosol emissions from toy cars in detail. Most of these particles have a diameter less than 100 nm. Copper and some organics are the major components of these particles. Conditions that minimize these emissions were determined.

  1. Detection of pathogenic micro-organisms on children's hands and toys during play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Bastidas, T; Castro-del Campo, N; Mena, K D; Castro-del Campo, N; León-Félix, J; Gerba, C P; Chaidez, C

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to determine if the children's leisure activities impact the presence of pathogens on their hands and toys. To assess the microbiological hazard in playground areas, a pilot study that included 12 children was conducted. We then conducted an intervention study; children's hands and toys were washed before playing. Faecal coliforms, pathogenic bacteria and Giardia lamblia were quantified by membrane filtration, selective media and flotation techniques, respectively; rotavirus, hepatitis A and rhinovirus by RT-PCR. Pilot study results revealed faecal contamination on children's hands and toys after playing on sidewalks and in public parks. Pathogenic bacteria, hepatitis A and G. lamblia on children's hands were also found. In the intervention study, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae were found on children's hands at concentrations up to 2·5 × 10(4) and 1 × 10(4) CFU hands(-1), respectively. E. coli and Kl. pneumoniae were detected on toys (2·4 × 10(3) and 2·7 × 10(4) CFU toy(-1), respectively). Salmonella spp, Serratia spp and G. lamblia cysts were also present on toys. Children's play activities influence microbial presence on hands and toys; the transfer seems to occur in both ways. Control strategy needs to be implemented to protect children from infectious diseases. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Aerodynamics of a single-degree-of-freedom toy ornithopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez Alarcon, Ramiro; Balakumar, B. J.; Allen, James J.

    2009-11-01

    The flow field around a flight-worthy toy ornithopter is investigated using PIV diagnostics in combination with load cells to understand the aerodynamics during nominally steady flight and turning. Phase-locked measurements of the wake and inflow are performed using an automated PIV system around the flapping wings of the ornithopter with the ornithopter fixed to a load-cell inside a 1.3m x 1.2m wind tunnel test section. The mildly oscillating free flight of the ornithopter is compared to the wake measurements to understand the causes of the unsteadiness. Further, the modulation of the wake that causes the turning motion of the ornithopter is explained using the wake structure measurements.

  3. Electric toy vehicle powered by a PEMFC stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beneito, Ruben; Vilaplana, Joaquin; Gisbert, Santiago [Technological Institute for Toy (AIJU), 03440 Ibi (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    The article describes the design and development of an electric toy vehicle powered by a fuel cell stack. The system consisted of a 150 W PEMFC stack powered by hydrogen/air, a tank of metal hydrides of AB (TiFe) alloy type with a capacity of 300 standard litres, for storing hydrogen, and an electronic power device based on electrolytic capacitors, to supply peak power demands during acceleration and start up of the vehicle. The air supply was provided by a fan preceded by a filter, and in a similar manner the stack was cooled by an air ventilation system. An electrovalve was used to supply H{sub 2} in dead-ended mode. All the components were integrated in the vehicle, and the prototype was tested in real working conditions, in a test bench and by children. (author)

  4. Instrumented toys for assessing spatial cognition in infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campolo, Domenico; Taffoni, Fabrizio; Formica, Domenico; Keller, Flavio; Guglielmelli, Eugenio

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes an interdisciplinary approach to the assessment on infants' behavior, with a focus on the technology. The goal is an objective, quantitative analysis of concurrent maturation of sensory, motor and cognitive abilities in young children, in relation to the achievement of developmental milestones. An instrumented block-box toy specifically developed to assess the ability to insert objects into holes is presented. The functional specifications are derived from experimental protocols devised by neuroscientists to assess spatial cognition skills. Technological choices are emphasized with respect to ecological requirements. An ad hoc calibration procedure is also presented which is suitable to unstructured environments. Finally, preliminary tests carried out at a local day-care with 12-24 months old infants are presented which prove the in-field usability of the proposed technology.

  5. [Toxicity effects of phthalate substitute plasticizers used in toys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata-Koizumi, Mutsuko; Takahashi, Mika; Matsumoto, Mariko; Kawamura, Tomoko; Ono, Atsushi; Hirose, Akihiko

    2012-01-01

    Phthalate esters are widely used as plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride products. Because of human health concerns, regulatory authorities in Japan, US, Europe and other countries control the use of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, butylbenzyl phthalate, diisodecyl phthalate and di-n-octyl phthalate for the toys that can be put directly in infants' mouths. While these regulatory actions will likely reduce the usage of phthalate esters, there is concern that other plasticizers that have not been sufficiently evaluated for safety will be used more frequently. We therefore collected and evaluated the toxicological information on di(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHT), 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, diisononyl ester (DINCH), diisononyl adipate (DINA), 2,2,4-trimetyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate (TXIB), tri-n-butyl citrate (TBC) and acetyl tri-n-butyl citrate (ATBC) which were detected at a relatively high frequency in toys. The collected data have shown that chronic exposure to DEHT affects the eye and nasal turbinate, and DINCH exerts effects on the thyroid and kidney in rats. DINA and TXIB have been reported to have hepatic and renal effects in dogs or rats, and ATBC slightly affected the liver in rats. The NOAELs for repeated dose toxicity are relatively low for DINCH (40 mg/kg bw/day) and TXIB (30 mg/kg bw/day) compared with DEHT, DINA and ATBC. DEHT, TXIB and ATBC have been reported to have reproductive/developmental effects at relatively high doses in rats. For DINA and TBC, available data are insufficient for assessing the hazards, and therefore, adequate toxicity studies should be conducted. In the present review, the toxicity information on 6 alternatives to phthalate plasticizers is summarized, focusing on the effects after oral exposure, which is the route of most concern.

  6. Estimation of Lead (Pb in Toys Using X-Ray Fluorescence Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandipayan Dutta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead exists extensively in the environment and it is a heavy metal, which is neurotoxic in nature which is harmful to children. In contrast to trace elements such as iron (Fe and zinc (Zn, lead has no recognized benecial effects in human body. With the economic development in India in recent years, the concentration of lead has increased in the environment and henceforth, lead pollution has become a severe problem in the country. Lead poisoning can create an immense damage and irreversible harm to foetal growth, the growth of teenagers and psychological, behavioural and cognitive development. Aim and Objectives: To estimate the lead content in the sample of toys. Material and Methods: 97 different toys were collected and coded as TS, these toys were kept in plastic lock cover which were lead proof. At rst the toys were arranged in order according to the serial number of the code (TS1 – TS97. The FP X-ray uorescence (Innov-X ray analyzer instrument was placed with the window of the analyzer on the surface of the toy vertically in such a way that there was no gap between the toy surface and the sampling window. The parts per million (ppm values of all toys were recorded. Results: Out of 97 samples tested, 22 samples were above permissible limits. The different materials demonstrate signicant correlation with the lead content in ppm. Lead is used as a stabilizer in some toys as well as children's items made from PVC plastic. Baby toys made up of plastic have higher concentration of lead. Lead can leach out of products when children handle and swallow them involuntarily.

  7. Brinquedo, gênero e educação na brinquedoteca Toys, gender and education in a toy library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tizuko Morchida Kishimoto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma pesquisa realizada com crianças de 2 a 10 anos de idade, freqüentadoras da Brinquedoteca da Faculdade de Educação da USP, de março de 2005 a março de 2006, tendo como objetivo o estabelecimento de relações entre brinquedo, gênero e educação. A pesquisa qualitativa, etnográfica, utiliza: diário de bordo, filmagens, transcrições de episódios de brincadeira e relatos. A partir da teoria pós-estruturalista feminista, que usa uma concepção de subjetividade precária, contraditória e constantemente se reconstituindo no discurso, propomos uma concepção de gênero performativa, instaurada pela performance repetida de atores sociais, para desenvolver a eqüidade no brincar de meninos e meninas. Os resultados indicam a difícil tarefa de eliminar os preconceitos de gênero, que dependem de fatores externos à Brinquedoteca, mas há indícios de mudança, reforçando a crença de que é possível adotar uma política de valorização de eqüidade no brincar infantil, estimulando meninos e meninas a brincarem juntos.This text is about a research project carried out with children ranging from age 2 to 10, at the Education College Toy Library at the University of São Paulo from March 2005 to March 2006, with the objective of establishing relations between toys, gender and education. The qualitative and ethnographic research includes a logbook, video recordings, transcriptions of episodes in which children are playing and personal stories. Drawing on the post-structural feminist theory, based on a conception of subjectivity as precarious, contradictory and constantly reconstructed in discourse, the author suggests a concept of gender based on the performance of social actors as a means to develop equity in playing for both boys and girls. The results show the difficult task of eliminating gender preconceptions, which depends on factors that are external to the Toy Library environment. They also reveal the evidence of

  8. Determination of the Composition and Quantity of Phthalate Ester Additives in PVC Children's Toys. Greenpeace Research Laboratories Technical Note 06/97.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Ruth; Labounskaia, Irina; Santillo, David; Johnston, Paul; Siddorn, John; Stephenson, Angela

    Polyvinyl chloride (vinyl or PVC) is widely used in toys and other children's products. This study, conducted by Greenpeace, examined the composition and quantity of phthalate ester additives in children's PVC toys, used to give the toys added flexibility. Drawn from 17 countries, a total of 71 toys designed to be chewed by babies and young…

  9. Barriers and drivers in creating greener plastic toys: A technology management methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk Jensen, Maibritt; Liltorp, Helle; Tambo, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Given materials scarcity and drive for greener consumer products, marketers strive for redesigning products and realigning supply chains to accomplish these challenges. Plastic toys impose a complicated challenge as entertainment value, product safety, durability, globalization, cost, and environ...

  10. Lead migration from toys by anodic stripping voltammetry using a bismuth film electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, M Fernanda C; Catarino, Rita I L; Pimenta, Adriana M; Souto, M Renata S; Afonso, Christelle S; Fernandes, Ana F Q

    2016-09-02

    Metals may be released from toys via saliva during mouthing, via sweat during dermal contact, or via gastric and intestinal fluids after partial or whole ingestion. In this study, we determined the lead migration from toys bought on the Portuguese market for children below 3 years of age. The lead migration was performed according to the European Committee for Standardization EN 71-3, which proposes a 2-hour migration test that simulates human gastric conditions. The voltammetric determination of migrated lead was performed by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) at a bismuth film electrode (BiFE). For all the analyzed toys, the values of migrated lead did not exceed the limits imposed by the European Committee for Standardization EN 71-3 (90 mg kg(-1)) and by the EU Directive 2009/48/EC (13.5 mg kg(-1)) on the safety of toys.

  11. Effective use of non-traditional visual aids at fine arts lessons, dedicated to Dymkovo toy

    OpenAIRE

    Ekaterina Iovleva

    2015-01-01

    The paper provides an example of the set of visual aids and non-traditional visual material for lesson on “Dymkovo toy”. The author analyzes composition of decorative paintings based onDymkovo toys.

  12. Investigating the Quality of Time Kindergarten Children Spend with Television, Computer, Books, and Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali ÇAKMAK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to understand the place of four stimuli in lives of children attending early childhood; television, computer, books and toys. In the present study, data obtained from children’s drawing and interviews was analyzed. Fifty-one children between the age of 5 and 6 participated in the study. They were attending three private kindergartens. First, the children were asked to draw themselves with a television, computer, books and toys. Then, they were interviewed to learn about their use of television, computer, books and toys. Following, the pictures and interview transcripts were analyzed and coding categories were determined via content analysis. The findings indicate that children mention watching cartoons most; and they draw themselves as playing with popular cartoon characters. Children have positive feelings towards all of the stimuli; however, they used more powerful and detailed explanations of their feelings towards books and toys

  13. Characters of Modern Animated Series in Games and Toys of Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolova M.V.; Mazurova M.V.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a comparative research on how preschool children play with various modern cartoon character toys. Three popular animated series were used in the research: "Winx", "SpiderMan" and "Pettson and Findus". One series of each was previously analysed in terms of microplots, descriptions of the main characters and their actions etc. The children watched the series, one at a time, and were then invited to play with its character toys. The outcomes of the research indicate that the s...

  14. Gender constancy and the effects of sex-typed televised toy commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruble, D N; Balaban, T; Cooper, J

    1981-06-01

    The present study represented a cognitive-developmental analysis of the effects of televised, sex-stereotypic information on children's behavior and attitudes toward toy play. The subjects were 50 male and 50 female 4-6-year-olds divided into high and low gender-constancy levels. As the children watched a cartoon, they either saw a commercial of a gender-neutral toy that showed 2 boys or 2 girls playing with the toy, or they saw no commercial (control). As predicted, only the high gender-constant children were differentially affected by the sex-role information in the different commercial conditions. Children at this stage who saw opposite-sex children playing with the toy avoided spending time with the toy and stated verbally that the toy was more appropriate for an opposite-sex sibling, relative to children in the 2 other conditions. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for theories of sex-role development and in terms of the role that television may play in maintaining sex stereotypes and sex-typed behavior.

  15. Analysis of Underactuated Dynamic Locomotion Systems Using Perturbation Expansion: The Twistcar Toy Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakon, Ofir; Or, Yizhar

    2017-08-01

    Underactuated robotic locomotion systems are commonly represented by nonholonomic constraints where in mixed systems, these constraints are also combined with momentum evolution equations. Such systems have been analyzed in the literature by exploiting symmetries and utilizing advanced geometric methods. These works typically assume that the shape variables are directly controlled, and obtain the system's solutions only via numerical integration. In this work, we demonstrate utilization of the perturbation expansion method for analyzing a model example of mixed locomotion system—the twistcar toy vehicle, which is a variant of the well-studied roller-racer model. The system is investigated by assuming small-amplitude oscillatory inputs of either steering angle (kinematic) or steering torque (mechanical), and explicit expansions for the system's solutions under both types of actuation are obtained. These expressions enable analyzing the dependence of the system's dynamic behavior on the vehicle's structural parameters and actuation type. In particular, we study the reversal in direction of motion under steering angle oscillations about the unfolded configuration, as well as influence of the choice of actuation type on convergence properties of the motion. Some of the findings are demonstrated qualitatively by reporting preliminary motion experiments with a modular robotic prototype of the vehicle.

  16. Impact of DIY Home Manufacturing with 3D Printing on the Toy and Game Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily E. Petersen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The 2020 toy and game market is projected to be US$135 billion. To determine if 3D printing could affect these markets if consumers offset purchases by 3D printing free designs, this study investigates the 100 most popular downloaded designs at MyMiniFactory in a month. Savings are quantified for using a Lulzbot Mini 3D printer and three filament types: commercial filament, pellet-extruded filament, and post-consumer waste converted to filament with a recyclebot. Case studies probed the quality of: (1 six common complex toys; (2 Lego blocks; and (3 the customizability of open source board games. All filaments analyzed saved the user over 75% of the cost of commercially available true alternative toys and over 90% for recyclebot filament. Overall, these results indicate a single 3D printing repository among dozens is saving consumers well over $60 million/year in offset purchases. The most common savings fell by 40%–90% in total savings, which came with the ability to make novel toys and games. The results of this study show consumers can generate higher value items for less money using the open source distributed manufacturing paradigm. It appears clear that consumer do-it-yourself (DIY manufacturing is set to have a significant impact on the toy and game markets in the future.

  17. Concentrations and migratabilities of hazardous elements in second-hand children's plastic toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew

    2018-01-19

    About 200 second-hand plastic toys sourced in the UK have been analysed by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry for hazardous elements (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Sb, Se) and Br as a proxy for brominated flame retardants. Each element was detected in > 20 toys or components thereof with the exception of As, Hg and Se, with the frequent occurrence of Br, Cd and Pb and at maximum concentrations of about 16,000, 20,000 and 5000 μg g-1, respectively, of greatest concern from a potential exposure perspective. Migration was evaluated on components of 26 toys under simulated stomach conditions (0.07 M HCl) with subsequent analysis by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. In eight cases, Cd or Pb exceeded their migration limits as stipulated by the current EU Toy Safety Directive (17 and 23 μμ g-1, respectively), with Cd released from yellow and red Lego bricks exceeding its limit by an order of magnitude. Two further cases were potentially non-compliant based on migratable Cr, with one item also containing > 250 μg g-1 migratable Br. While there is no retroactive regulation on second-hand toys, consumers should be aware that old, mouthable, plastic items may present a source of hazardous element exposure to infants.

  18. Lift, Drag and Flow-field Measurements around a Single-degree-of-freedom Toy Ornithopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez Alarcon, Ramiro; Balakumar, B. J.; Allen, James

    2010-11-01

    The aerodynamics of a flight-worthy toy ornithopter under laminar inflow conditions are studied using a combination of load cell, flow visualization, high speed camera and PIV experiments. All the experiments were performed in the large wind tunnel facility at New Mexico State University, with the exception of a free flight test of the model. Measurements from a six-axis load cell were used to capture the variation of the lift and drag forces at various angles of attack, flapping frequencies and free-speed velocities. Smoke visualization is used to clearly demonstrate that the momentum flux in the downward direction during downstroke exceeds the upward momentum flux during upstroke due to the flexion of the wing and its angle of attack. This net surplus creates the lift in such ornithopter designs despite the stroke symmetry. PIV measurements are then performed at suitable locations to identify flow structures around the wing at various spanwise locations. A control volume analysis is performed to compare the momentum deficit in the wake to the load cell measurements.

  19. Consumer behaviour and environmental education in the field of waste electrical and electronic toys: A Spanish case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-Belis, V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering & Construction, Universitat Jaume I, Av. Sos Baynat s/n, 12071 Castellón (Spain); Bovea, M.D., E-mail: bovea@uji.es [Department of Mechanical Engineering & Construction, Universitat Jaume I, Av. Sos Baynat s/n, 12071 Castellón (Spain); Simó, A. [Department of Mathematics, Universitat Jaume I, Av. Sos Baynat s/n, E12071 Castellón (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Consumption/disposal habits of waste electrical and electronic toys. • Environmental education as a key factor to improve WEEE management. • Three environmental education actions to increase the collection of waste toys. - Abstract: This paper reports on a project focused on obtaining the current consumption and disposal habits of electrical and electronic toys from a survey aimed at parents of children of nine pre- and primary schools. In addition, it is also focused on identifying the most effective way of transmitting environmental information to parents and children to promote the collection of electrical and electronic toys at their end-of-life. The study was implemented in a Spanish municipality. With regard to the consumption habits, aspects related to the amount of toys that children receive annually and percentage of those which are electrical and electronic toys have been obtained and classified according to the family size. Results from Chi-squared analysis and Ordinal Logistic Regression show that there is a statistically significance relationship among these variables. Regarding disposal habits, aspects related to the reasons and way for discarding electrical and electronic toys, time that toys are kept at home or the willingness to rent or buy second hand e-toys have been obtained. What really attracts attention is that, apart from consumers who donate the toy to family or social associations, 67.1% of consumers discard them along with other waste fractions in domestic bins, whereas only 32.9% do so at recycling points, as Directive 2012/19/EU requires. To increase this percentage, three environmental education actions (distinguishing from each other by the way used to transmit the environmental information: paper, audiovisual or personal communication) have been designed, applied and evaluated their efficiency according to the amount of waste toys collected.

  20. Child toy safety: An interdisciplinary approach to unravel the microbiological hazard posed by soap bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoruso, Irene; Bertoncello, Chiara; Caravello, Gianumberto; Giaccone, Valerio; Baldovin, Tatjana

    2015-11-01

    In 2012 some children developed sepsis after playing together with a soap bubble toy. Microbiological testing revealed heavy contamination of the soap solution, which reasonably represented the vehicle of infection. We investigated the issue with a multidisciplinary approach: review of toy safety legislation; microbiological testing of additional samples; query of the RAPEX database for non-compliant soap bubbles; identification of major manufacturing districts. Microbiological contamination of industrial soap bubbles was widespread. Sixty-three notifications of batches contaminated by environmental microorganisms and opportunistic pathogens had been reported. The Chinese had a virtual monopoly of the soap bubble market. We identified two main manufacturing districts in Guangdong Province, both notable for degradation of their water resources. The use of untreated water for the industrial production of soap bubbles may explain the bacterial contamination. Existing legislation provides an unsatisfactory approach for managing microbiological hazards in sensitive toy categories and for identifying responsible parties in import and export of the products.

  1. Multimodal interactions in free game play of children with autism and a mobile toy robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopulu, Irini; Pradel, Gilbert

    2010-01-01

    Autism is a complex neuropsychological disorder characterized by qualitative alterations in social interaction and interpersonal communication. The aim of this study is to estimate the interaction between autistic children and a mobile toy robot during free spontaneous game play. The duration of different criteria including eye contact, touch, manipulation, and posture have been considered. The variety of interactions of children with autism and the mobile toy robot show that the children take an interest in playing with the robot. This study suggests that the mobile toy robot in an ecological situation such as free, spontaneous game play could be used as a mediator of social stimuli in order to reduce the impairment of autistic children skills related to social information understanding and interaction.

  2. Modified ride-on toy cars for early power mobility: a technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiang-Han; Galloway, James C

    2012-01-01

    Children with significantly decreased mobility have limited opportunities to explore their physical and social environment. A variety of assistive technologies are available to increase mobility; however, no single device provides the level of functional mobility that children developing typically enjoy. The purpose of this technical report is to formally introduce a new power mobility option--the modified ride-on toy car. This report will provide (a) an overview of toy car features, (b) examples of basic electrical and mechanical modifications, and (c) a brief clinical case. With creative use and customized modifications, toy cars can function as a "general learning environment" for use in the clinic, home, and school. As such, we anticipate that these cars will become a multiuse clinical tool to address not only mobility goals but also goals involving body function and structure such as posture and movement impairments.

  3. The implications of information sharing on bullwhip effects in a toy supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chee Yew; El-Beheiry, Mohamed Mostafa; Johansen, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares actual bullwhip effects provided by retailers who shared downstream demand information and retailers who did not share in a three-level (divergent) toy supply chain. The toy supply chain faces high forecast errors and bullwhip effects due to unpredictable and seasonal demand...... demand information. To reduce the bullwhip effect, two solutions using the shared information are tested. They are a proposed premature replenishment rule and a simple forecast updating mechanism. Both solutions are proven capable in reducing bullwhip effects of the toy supply chain even without...... patterns. The results indicate a reduction of the bullwhip effect and an improvement of the fill rate due to the increase of retailers who shared downstream demand information. This paper also addresses two main causes of the bullwhip effect, which are the supply variability and limited use of the shared...

  4. Contents of fragrance allergens in children's cosmetics and cosmetic-toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, S C; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, T

    1999-01-01

    Fragrances are one of the major causes of allergic contact dermatitis from use of cosmetics. The aim of the current study was to assess the possible exposure of infants and children to fragrance allergens from cosmetic products and "toy-cosmetics". 25 children's cosmetics or toy-cosmetic products...... was present in a maximum concentration of 0.07%. In one cosmetic-toy, cinnamic alcohol was present at 3.7% which exceeds the current industry guideline for safe products by a factor of 5. In all types of products other fragrance allergens were frequently found. In conclusion, children are already exposed...... at an early age to well-known allergens, sometimes at concentrations which are considered to be unsafe. As contact allergy usually persists for life, manufacturers of children's cosmetics should be aware of their special responsibility and apply the highest possible safety standards....

  5. Linux toys II 9 Cool New Projects for Home, Office, and Entertainment

    CERN Document Server

    Negus, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Builds on the success of the original Linux Toys (0-7645-2508-5) and adds projects using different Linux distributionsAll-new toys in this edition include a car computer system with built-in entertainment and navigation features, bootable movies, a home surveillance monitor, a LEGO Mindstorms robot, and a weather mapping stationIntroduces small business opportunities with an Internet radio station and Internet caf ̌projectsCompanion Web site features specialized hardware drivers, software interfaces, music and game software, project descriptions, and discussion forumsIncludes a CD-ROM with scr

  6. The potential of artificial intelligence toys:a technology-based design approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Artificial intelligence is moving to a next step of development and application areas. From electronic games to human-like robots, AI toy is a good choice for next step during this process.Technology-based design is fit to the development of AI toy. It can exert the advantages and explore more value for existing resources. It combines AI programs and common sensors to realize the function of intelligence input and output.Designers can use technology-based criteria to design and need to consid...

  7. Toying with Twin Peaks: Fans, artists and re-playing of a cult-series

    OpenAIRE

    Katriina Heljakka

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the playful dimensions of Twin Peaks (1990-1991) fandom by analyzing adult created toy tributes to the cult series. Through a study of fans and artists “toying” with the characters and story worlds of Twin Peaks, I will demonstrate how the re-playing of the series happens again and again through mimetic practices such as re-creation of characters and through photoplay. Earlier studies indicate that adults are showing increased interest in character toys such as dolls, so...

  8. Association of the Type of Toy Used During Play With the Quantity and Quality of Parent-Infant Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Anna V

    2016-02-01

    The early language environment of a child influences language outcome, which in turn affects reading and academic success. It is unknown which types of everyday activities promote the best language environment for children. To investigate whether the type of toy used during play is associated with the parent-infant communicative interaction. Controlled experiment in a natural environment of parent-infant communication during play with 3 different toy sets. Participant recruitment and data collection were conducted between February 1, 2013, and June 30, 2014. The volunteer sample included 26 parent-infant (aged 10-16 months) dyads. Fifteen-minute in-home parent-infant play sessions with electronic toys, traditional toys, and books. Numbers of adult words, child vocalizations, conversational turns, parent verbal responses to child utterances, and words produced by parents in 3 different semantic categories (content-specific words) per minute during play sessions. Among the 26 parent-infant dyads, toy type was associated with all outcome measures. During play with electronic toys, there were fewer adult words (mean, 39.62; 95% CI, 33.36-45.65), fewer conversational turns (mean, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.12-2.19), fewer parental responses (mean, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.87-1.77), and fewer productions of content-specific words (mean, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.49-2.35) than during play with traditional toys or books. Children vocalized less during play with electronic toys (mean per minute, 2.9; 95% CI, 2.16-3.69) than during play with books (mean per minute, 3.91; 95% CI, 3.09-4.68). Parents produced fewer words during play with traditional toys (mean per minute, 55.56; 95% CI, 46.49-64.17) than during play with books (mean per minute, 66.89; 95% CI, 59.93-74.19) and use of content-specific words was lower during play with traditional toys (mean per minute, 4.09; 95% CI, 3.26-4.99) than during play with books (mean per minute, 6.96; 95% CI, 6.07-7.97). Play with electronic toys is associated with

  9. Prenatal Hormones and Postnatal Socialization by Parents as Determinants of Male-Typical Toy Play in Girls With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasterski, Vickie L.; Geffner, Mitchell E.; Brain, Caroline; Hindmarsh, Peter; Brook, Charles; Hines, Melissa

    2005-01-01

    Toy choices of 3- to 10-year-old children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and of their unaffected siblings were assessed. Also assessed was parental encouragement of sex-typed toy play. Girls with CAH displayed more male-typical toy choices than did their unaffected sisters, whereas boys with and without CAH did not differ. Mothers and…

  10. 76 FR 55056 - Toy Safety Standard: Strategic Outreach and Education Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... manufacturers and others, including retailers, in the toy industry? We are interested particularly in medium.... Cohen, Small Business Ombudsman, Consumer Product Safety Commission, Bethesda, MD 20814; telephone: (301... the small business community and other stakeholders clear and detailed information to enable them to...

  11. The Effects of Background Television on the Toy Play Behavior of Very Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Marie Evans; Pempek, Tiffany A.; Kirkorian, Heather L.; Lund, Anne Frankenfield; Anderson, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment tests the hypothesis that background, adult television is a disruptive influence on very young children's behavior. Fifty 12-, 24-, and 36-month-olds played with a variety of toys for 1 hr. For half of the hour, a game show played in the background on a monaural TV set. During the other half hour, the TV was off. The children…

  12. User Study of a New Smart Toy for Children's Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Nuri; Aydin, Cansu Cigdem; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces StoryTech, a smart storytelling toy that offers children a mixed reality environment in which to tell imaginative stories. During usability testing, an empirical study was carried out with 90 child participants. The findings indicated that StoryTech creates a rich storytelling experience, especially for ages five and six.

  13. Engagement with Toys in Two-Year-Old Children with Autism: Teacher Selection versus Child Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhartsen, Debra B.; Garfinkle, Ann N.; Wolery, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Three two-year-old boys with autism participated in a study comparing effects on time engaged when a toy was selected by either teacher or child. The data suggest the child-choice condition resulted in more engaged time for each participant and less problematic behaviors for two of the children. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)

  14. 78 FR 44971 - Certain Robotic Toys and Components Thereof; Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Robotic Toys and Components Thereof; Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial Determination Granting a Joint Motion for Termination of the Investigation; Entry of Consent Orders; Termination...

  15. 16 CFR 1500.20 - Labeling requirement for advertising toys and games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and games. 1500.20 Section 1500.20 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL... REGULATIONS § 1500.20 Labeling requirement for advertising toys and games. (a) Scope. This section applies to..., that is used in various children's games, generally as a playing piece or marker. The term “marble...

  16. The Advertising of Toys. Considerations on the lack of values and contribution to gender inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pereira Domínguez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The toy has always existed. To state that it is ageless presupposes a sentimental regret typical of the adult who denies the inevitable gradual disappearance of the child within us. However it is expedient to take note of how, year after year, our society is losing the fundamental essence of what an object gives us. The essence which we refer to is imagination. It is through imagination that fantasy, enjoyment and perhaps ephemeral happiness are born. The toy has undergone a long journey on its way to the present: from stone figures, rough homemade wooden forms, scraps or lines traced on a surface which have become the attractive and simple pastime that we nowadays call board games. In this document we set out to analyse the major advertising catalogues from 2006 and 2007 paying particular attention to those pertaining to Christmas advertising campaigns. We consider the different types of toys and their potential market, along with the images, messages, slogans, colours and prices. The paper concludes by identifying stereotypes, roles and division of household tasks, drawing out the clearly consumer driven intentions of companies operating in the toy sector.

  17. Becoming a Child's Advocate for Toys--Instead of TV, Video Games, or Computers!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Marie

    2001-01-01

    Discusses problems with computer use by young children, including activation of neural pathways that hinder learning and a drop in emotional competence. Argues that instead of television and computer time, children need open-ended play time, concrete materials such as board games and building toys, and interaction with caring adults. (JPB)

  18. Get up and move : An interactive cuddly toy that stimulates physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leal Penados, A.; Gielen, M.A.; Stappers, P.J.; Jongert, T.

    Health experts are worried about the increase in the number of overweight children and the decrease in activity levels among this age group. This project explores the possibilities of using interactive toys and social interaction in encouraging children to become more physically active. To arrive at

  19. Finding the Average Speed of a Light-Emitting Toy Car with a Smartphone Light Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapucu, Serkan

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to demonstrate how the average speed of a light-emitting toy car may be determined using a smartphone's light sensor. The freely available Android smartphone application, "AndroSensor," was used for the experiment. The classroom experiment combines complementary physics knowledge of optics and kinematics to find the…

  20. Play Complexity and Toy Engagement in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Do Girls and Boys Differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; Green, Jonathan; Hudry, Kristelle

    2017-01-01

    While sex differences in play have been extensively observed in typical development, only a handful of studies have explored this phenomenon in depth with children with autism spectrum disorders. This study explored sex differences in play complexity and toy engagement within caregiver-child interaction samples for preschool-aged children (2-5…

  1. Toy-related injuries among children treated in US Emergency Departments, 1990-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Vihas M; Gaw, Christopher E; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Smith, Gary A

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates the epidemiology of injuries associated with toys among US children by analyzing data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. During 1990-2011, an estimated 3278073 (95% confidence interval = 2762281-3793865) children prevent these injuries. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. THE UTILIZATION OF THE THERAPEUTIC TOY IN THE NURSING OPERA TORY VISIT TO THE INFANT

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia Silveira Viera; Marister Piccoli; Silvana Machiavelli Schmitz

    2003-01-01

    The systematization of the peroperative nursing occurs in the moments pre, trans and postoperativeand also they happen in children, adolescents, adults and elders. Being like this, ours objective went verify thebenefits of the utilization of the therapeutic toy in the visit preoperative by the nurse of surgical center.

  3. Measuring a Pig's Preference for Suspended Toys by Using an Automated Recording Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonderland, J.J.; Vermeer, H.M.; Vereijken, P.F.G.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Not all suspended materials for finishing pigs are equally suited to meet the natural behavior of the animal, but the required physical properties of the toys have yet to be identified. The present study aimed to develop a labor saving electronic recording device for animal-material interactions.

  4. Using Interlocking Toy Building Blocks to Assess Conceptual Understanding in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    A current emphasis on teaching conceptual chemistry via the particulate nature of matter has led to the need for new, effective ways to assess students' conceptual understanding of this view of chemistry. This article provides a simple, inexpensive way to use interlocking toy building blocks (e.g., LEGOs) in both formative and summative…

  5. The Role of Context in the Categorization of Hybrid Toy Stimuli by 18-Month-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareschal, Denis; Tan, Seok Hui

    2008-01-01

    Using a sequential touching procedure, we examined whether 18-month-olds could use different categorization strategies adaptively as a function of context. Infants were presented with test toys of land animals (quadrupeds), cars, and hybrids made by recombining car parts with animal parts. Infants who experienced a context emphasizing a taxonomic…

  6. The Effects of Choice Making on Toy Engagement in Nonambulatory and Partially Ambulatory Preschool Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liso, Danielle R.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of an experimenter-delivered choice-making procedure. Three nonambulatory and partially ambulatory preschoolers were given access to six teacher-nominated preferred toys in two conditions: child choice and interventionist choice. Using an alternating treatment design and a 10-second momentary time-sampling…

  7. Toying with Twin Peaks: Fans, artists and re-playing of a cult-series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katriina Heljakka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the playful dimensions of Twin Peaks (1990-1991 fandom by analyzing adult created toy tributes to the cult series. Through a study of fans and artists “toying” with the characters and story worlds of Twin Peaks, I will demonstrate how the re-playing of the series happens again and again through mimetic practices such as re-creation of characters and through photoplay. Earlier studies indicate that adults are showing increased interest in character toys such as dolls, soft toys (or plush and action figures and various play patterns around them (Heljakka, 2013. In this essay, the focus is, on the one hand on industry-created Twin Peaks merchandise, and on the other hand, fans’ creative cultivation and play with the series scenes and its characters. The aim is to shed light on the object practices of fans and artists and how their creativity manifests in current Twin Peaks fandom. The essay shows how fans of Twin Peaks have a desire not only to influence how toyified versions of e.g. Dale Cooper and the Log Lady come to existence, but further, to re-play the series by mimicking its narrative with toys.

  8. Psychological Masculinity and Femininity in Children and Its Relationship to Trait Stereotypes and Toy Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Janet T.; And Others

    This study investigated the relationship of psychological masculinity and feminity in children to trait stereotyping and toy preferences. Subjects (157 boys and 157 girls in Grades K-4) were tested on a Child Test Battery, including the Child's Personal Attributes Questionnaire based on the adult PAQ (Spence, Helmreich & Stapp, 1974, 1975),…

  9. Could a burst toy balloon cause a major ocular injury like cataract in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ocular injuries in children remain a largely preventable phenomenon, and the resulting morbidity may be life-long. A variety of objects have been implicated as causes of ocular injuries in children, but that resulting from a burst balloon on the face is rare, as this toy may not be recognised as potentially hazardous, especially ...

  10. Designing Science Games and Science Toys from the Perspective of Scientific Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir Kaçan, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted with the participation of 21 pre-service science teachers attending the faculty of education of a university in Turkey. The study aims to evaluate pre-service science teachers' science games and science toy designs in terms of scientific creativity. Participants were given a four-week period to design science games or…

  11. 16 CFR 1507.9 - Toy smoke devices and flitter devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... shall not be of such color and configuration so as to be confused with banned fireworks such as M-80 salutes, silver salutes, or cherry bombs. (c) Toy smoke devices shall not incorporate plastic as an exterior material if the pyrotechnic composition comes in direct contact with the plastic. ...

  12. Effects of Toy Crane Design-Based Learning on Simple Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korur, Fikret; Efe, Gülfem; Erdogan, Fisun; Tunç, Berna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this 2-group study was to investigate the following question: Are there significant differences between scaffolded design-based learning controlled using 7 forms and teacher-directed instruction methods for the toy crane project on grade 7 students' posttest scores on the simple machines achievement test, attitude toward simple…

  13. Block Building for Children: Making Buildings of the World with the Ultimate Construction Toy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Lester

    This book presents a series of projects for children of all levels of expertise, beginning with abstract patterns, rows, and towers and progressing to step-by-step instructions for 18 projects, including a bridge, boat dock, airport, shopping mall, skyscraper, castle, Greek temple, Toy Store City, City of the Future, and The Emerald City of Oz.…

  14. Get up and move : An interactive cuddly toy that stimulates physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leal Penados, A.; Gielen, M.A.; Stappers, P.J.; Jongert, T.

    2009-01-01

    Health experts are worried about the increase in the number of overweight children and the decrease in activity levels among this age group. This project explores the possibilities of using interactive toys and social interaction in encouraging children to become more physically active. To arrive at

  15. THE INTERVENTION BY THE OCCUPATIONAL THERAPIST IN OUTPATIENT TOY LIBRARY: REPORT OF AN EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Soares Bernardes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Playing children develop essential skills to guarantee the performance of roles and activities, making it essential to maintain the play in different contexts. The objective is to describe and discuss the possible role of the occupational therapist in outpatient toy library. This is an experience report of Occupational Therapy undergraduate students on their activities in field (internship on Care for Children and Adolescents, in outpatients toy libraries based on the analysis of the reports, in which are registered gender and age of the participants, objectives of the intervention, description of activities, strategies employed and results observed. The proposal to establish toy libraries in outpatient constitutes an alternative to humanize the care for children through a safe and welcoming environment. The role of the occupational therapist in this context seems to be proper and efficient, as the health professional who can mediate human actions, using their knowledge to enable important experiences in the development of physical, cognitive, social and social skills among children who attend health services. This study allowed to reaffirm the toy libraries as recreational spaces, capable of generating learning and improve human issues, thus making the child active and subject on their actions.

  16. THE UTILIZATION OF THE THERAPEUTIC TOY IN THE NURSING OPERA TORY VISIT TO THE INFANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Silveira Viera

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The systematization of the peroperative nursing occurs in the moments pre, trans and postoperativeand also they happen in children, adolescents, adults and elders. Being like this, ours objective went verify thebenefits of the utilization of the therapeutic toy in the visit preoperative by the nurse of surgical center.

  17. Get up and move: An interactive cuddly toy that stimulates physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leal Penados, A.; Gielen, M.; Stappers, P.-J.; Jongert, T.

    2010-01-01

    Health experts are worried about the increase in the number of overweight children and the decrease in activity levels among this age group. This project explores the possibilities of using interactive toys and social interaction in encouraging children to become more physically active. To arrive at

  18. Children's and Adults' Recall of Sex-Stereotyped Toy Pictures: Effects of Presentation and Memory Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Isabelle D.

    2005-01-01

    Gender schema theories predict a memory bias toward sex-congruent information. The present study examined how presentation of stimuli and encoding conditions influence gender schematic processing in children and adults. One hundred and sixty 5- to 13-year olds and adult males and females viewed 36 sex-stereotyped toy pictures that were presented…

  19. Brinquedos e materiais pedagógicos nas escolas infantis Toys and pedagogical materials at schools for children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tizuko Morchida Kishimoto

    2001-07-01

    influence its users’ representations, determining in part the manner in which adults and children feel, think, and interact in this space, defining forms of socialization and appropriation of culture. The present work intended to diagnose, through data collection, interviews and observations, the conceptions underlying the choice and use of toys and pedagogical materials. The results indicate that child education in the school network investigated demonstrates conceptions of children with no autonomy and the acquisition of contents as the objective of child education. The classroom emerges as the workplace, and the playground as the ludic space. It is the model of basic education that prevails in the physical space, routine, selection of materials, and in the adult-child interaction. In accordance with the perspective of schooling, the most significant toys and pedagogical materials are the so-called educational materials, graphical, and communication materials for the classroom, and the physical education materials for the external space. Toys that stimulate symbolism and socialization, such as games of pretending, building, and socialization appear in insignificant percentage, pointing to the little value given to symbolic representation and to playing.

  20. Consumer behaviour and environmental education in the field of waste electrical and electronic toys: a Spanish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Belis, V; Bovea, M D; Simó, A

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports on a project focused on obtaining the current consumption and disposal habits of electrical and electronic toys from a survey aimed at parents of children of nine pre- and primary schools. In addition, it is also focused on identifying the most effective way of transmitting environmental information to parents and children to promote the collection of electrical and electronic toys at their end-of-life. The study was implemented in a Spanish municipality. With regard to the consumption habits, aspects related to the amount of toys that children receive annually and percentage of those which are electrical and electronic toys have been obtained and classified according to the family size. Results from Chi-squared analysis and Ordinal Logistic Regression show that there is a statistically significance relationship among these variables. Regarding disposal habits, aspects related to the reasons and way for discarding electrical and electronic toys, time that toys are kept at home or the willingness to rent or buy second hand e-toys have been obtained. What really attracts attention is that, apart from consumers who donate the toy to family or social associations, 67.1% of consumers discard them along with other waste fractions in domestic bins, whereas only 32.9% do so at recycling points, as Directive 2012/19/EU requires. To increase this percentage, three environmental education actions (distinguishing from each other by the way used to transmit the environmental information: paper, audiovisual or personal communication) have been designed, applied and evaluated their efficiency according to the amount of waste toys collected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The potential health effects of phthalate esters in children's toys: a review and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, C F; Lamb, J C

    1999-10-01

    Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) is one of several dialkyl phthalate esters that are widely used as plasticizers to impart softness and flexibility to normally rigid polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products. During the past 2 years, concern has been voiced by public interest groups and regulatory agencies in Europe, Canada, and the United States regarding the potential adverse health effects of DINP migrating from children's toys during mouthing activities. Concern has focused on potential chronic effects on the kidney and liver. In chronic high-dose studies with rodents, DINP causes a dose-related decrease in body weight, an increase in liver weight, and changes in liver cell histopathology (hypertrophy). To a lesser extent, the rodent kidney is also a target for prolonged high-level exposures of DINP. Prolonged high-level exposure of rodents to DINP leads to an increased incidence of liver tumors (adenomas and carcinomas). The chronic cancer and noncancer effects of DINP on rodent liver are consistent with its known action as a peroxisome proliferator. Peroxisome proliferation is a threshold-based effect that is reversible on cessation of exposure to proliferators such as DINP. Because rodents are uniquely responsive and humans and nonhuman primates are particularly nonresponsive to peroxisome proliferators, rodents are very poor animal models for use in human risk assessment of adverse effects mediated through peroxisome proliferation. Because DINP exerts its effects on rodent liver through a known threshold-based mechanism of little, if any, relevance to humans, a highly conservative risk assessment can be conducted using a NOAEL uncertainty factor approach. Chronic rodent no-observed-effect levels (NOELs) based on end points such as increased liver weight and changes in liver pathology that are early indicators of peroxisome proliferation but should not be considered adverse range from about 100 to 400 mg/kg/day. Application of a 100-fold uncertainty factor yields

  2. A pilot study on early home-based intervention through an intelligent baby gym (CareToy) in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sgandurra, Giuseppina; Bartalena, Laura; Cecchi, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    and Teller Acuity Cards as secondary measures. Moreover, 202 pre-programmed training scenarios were developed and instructions for the management of CareToy intervention were defined as general guidelines. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: All infants received 4 weeks of their allocated intervention and were evaluated...... with the selected tests before and immediately after the 4 weeks. The mean difference changes in IMP total score and Teller Acuity Cards over the intervention period were higher in the CareToy group than in the Standard Care group. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: CareToy seems a feasible device for providing EI...

  3. Implications of Sex Typed Child Rearing Practices, Toys, and Mass Media Materials in Restricting Occupational Choices of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacerguis, Mary Ann; Adams, Gerald R.

    1979-01-01

    A review of child-rearing practices, toy materials, mass media literature and television programing indicates the presence of gender stereotyping. Using these data, an argument is presented that suggests gender stereotyping may limit females' occupational choice and aspirations. (Author)

  4. Home-based, early intervention with mechatronic toys for preterm infants at risk of neurodevelopmental disorders (CARETOY)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sgandurra, Giuseppina; Bartalena, Laura; Cioni, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    , individualized, home-based and family-centred early intervention, managed remotely by rehabilitation staff. A randomised controlled trial (RCT) has been designed to evaluate the efficacy of CareToy training in a first sample of low-risk preterm infants. METHODS/DESIGN: The trial, randomised, multi...... parents will sign a written informed consent for participation, will be randomized in CareToy training and control groups at baseline (T0). CareToy group will perform four weeks of personalized activities with the CareToy system, customized by the rehabilitation staff. The control group will continue...... standard care. Infant Motor Profile Scale is the primary outcome measure and a total sample size of 40 infants has been established. Bayley-Cognitive subscale, Alberta Infants Motor Scale and Teller Acuity Cards are secondary outcome measures. All measurements will be performed at T0 and at the end...

  5. Prohibition of Children’s Toys and Child Care Articles Containing Specified Phthalates. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-27

    The United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (Commission or CPSC) issues this final rule prohibiting children's toys and child care articles that contain concentrations of more than 0.1 percent of diisononyl phthalate (DINP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), di-n-pentyl phthalate (DPENP), di-n-hexyl phthalate (DHEXP), and dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP). Section 108 of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008 (CPSIA) established permanent and interim prohibitions on the sale of certain consumer products containing specific phthalates. That provision also directed the CPSC to convene a Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate alternatives as used in children's toys and child care articles and to provide recommendations to the Commission regarding whether any phthalates or phthalate alternatives, other than those already permanently prohibited, should be prohibited. The CPSIA requires the Commission to promulgate a final rule after receiving the final CHAP report. This rule fulfills that requirement.

  6. Childhood cancer: feelings expressed by children in chemotherapy during therapeutic toy sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Paulo Souza e Souza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at understanding the feelings experienced by the child with cancer manifested during Therapeutic Toy sessions. This qualitative research was performed with five children aged between three and twelve years, of both sexes. Data collection was carried out through a participatory and systematic observation, coupled with interviews intermediated by Therapeutic Toy Sessions. The data was worked using discourse analysis. The child with cancer was shown as a being full of feelings. The fear of death, pain, sadness on the limitations imposed by the disease, the withdrawal and rebellion with the procedures, the anguish in the face of uncertainties were negative feelings expressed by the children in the dramatizations. However, the development of treatment, the manifestation of a good prognosis and outcome of cure were emerging feelings of hope and happiness before the treatment, optimism in return to usual activities and overcoming amidst the difficulties experienced.

  7. [Laser pointers are not toys; eye injury with permanent loss of visual acuity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keunen, Jan E E; Delbecq, Ann-Laure M H; Cruysberg, J R M Hans; van Meurs, Jan C; Gan, Ivan M; Berendschot, Tos T J M

    2014-01-01

    In the nineteen-nineties, there was much hype in the European media about presumed laser pointer maculopathy. However, the recent introduction of more powerful and therefore more dangerous laser pointers and their easy availability on the internet necessitates vigilance on the issue. This is an urgent matter, as here we report three cases of proven maculopathy due to an unsafe laser pointer. Three boys aged 13, 9 and 12 years used an unsafe laser pointer as a toy and looked repeatedly into the pointer, resulting in a permanent reduction in visual acuity due to macular damage. Laser pointers are not designed to be children's toys or instruments to annoy people in a crowd. Health authorities and the ophthalmic community should be aware of the potential danger of improper use of high-output laser pointers and warn the general public before the widespread availability of unsafe laser pointers and consequently laser pointer-induced macular damage becomes a true social problem.

  8. A pilot study on early home-based intervention through an intelligent baby gym (CareToy) in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgandurra, Giuseppina; Bartalena, Laura; Cecchi, Francesca; Cioni, Giovanni; Giampietri, Matteo; Greisen, Gorm; Herskind, Anna; Inguaggiato, Emanuela; Lorentzen, Jakob; Nielsen, Jens Bo; Orlando, Martina; Dario, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    CareToy is an intelligent system, inspired by baby gyms, aimed to provide an intensive, individualized, home-based and family-centred early intervention (EI) program. A pilot study was carried out to explore the feasibility of CareToy intervention in preterm infants, aged 3-9 months of corrected age. Twenty low-risk preterm infants, without brain lesion or other clinical complications (14 allocated to CareToy intervention and 6 to Standard Care) were recruited. The Infant Motor Profile (IMP) was predefined as the primary outcome measure and Alberta Infant Motor Scale and Teller Acuity Cards as secondary measures. Moreover, 202 pre-programmed training scenarios were developed and instructions for the management of CareToy intervention were defined as general guidelines. All infants received 4 weeks of their allocated intervention and were evaluated with the selected tests before and immediately after the 4 weeks. The mean difference changes in IMP total score and Teller Acuity Cards over the intervention period were higher in the CareToy group than in the Standard Care group. CareToy seems a feasible device for providing EI. An adequately powered randomized clinical trial is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Toy trains, loaded dice and the origin of life: dimerization on mineral surfaces under periodic drive with Gaussian inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Rowena; Brindley, John

    2017-11-01

    In a major extension of previous work, we model the putative hydrothermal rock pore setting for the origin of life on Earth as a series of coupled continuous flow units (the toy train). Perfusing through this train are reactants that set up thermochemical and pH oscillations, and an activated nucleotide that produces monomer and dimer monophosphates. The dynamical equations that model this system are thermally self-consistent. In an innovative step that breaks some new ground, we build stochasticity of the inputs into the model. The computational results infer various constraints and conditions on, and insights into, chemical evolution and the origin of life and its physical setting: long, interconnected porous structures with longitudinal non-uniformity would have been favourable, and the ubiquitous pH dependences of biology may have been established in the prebiotic era. We demonstrate the important role of Gaussian fluctuations of the inputs in driving polymerization, evolution and diversification. In particular, we find that the probability distribution of the resulting output fluctuations is left-skewed and right-weighted (the loaded dice), which could favour chemical evolution towards a living RNA world. We tentatively name this distribution 'Goldilocks'. These results also vindicate the general approach of constructing and running a simple model to learn important new information about a complex system.

  10. Nickel and Cobalt Release From Children's Toys Purchased in Denmark and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P.; Hamann, Dathan; Hamann, Carsten R.

    2014-01-01

    Background : Nickel is the most common allergen detected by patch testing in children. There is an increasing number of cases in children who have not had exposure to piercing. Although the clinical relevance of nickel patch test reactions in children is sometimes uncertain, continued vigilance...... reactions should be told that toys may release nickel and be a potential chemical source in the manifestation of allergic contact dermatitis....

  11. Assessment of problem behavior evoked by disruption of ritualistic toy arrangements in a child with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Yanerys; Lazarchick, William N; Rooker, Griffin W; DeLeon, Iser G

    2013-01-01

    A functional analysis suggested that the problem behavior of a 9-year-old girl with autism was maintained by gaining the opportunity to restore ritualistic toy arrangements that had been disrupted. Functional communication training and extinction produced clear decreases in problem behavior in 2 contexts: 1 in which we removed a play item, and 1 in which we merely relocated the item and blocked its rearrangement. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF PROBLEM BEHAVIOR EVOKED BY DISRUPTION OF RITUALISTIC TOY ARRANGEMENTS IN A CHILD WITH AUTISM

    OpenAIRE

    Leon, Yanerys; Lazarchick, William N.; Rooker, Griffin W.; Deleon, Iser G.

    2013-01-01

    A functional analysis suggested that the problem behavior of a 9-year-old girl with autism was maintained by gaining the opportunity to restore ritualistic toy arrangements that had been disrupted. Functional communication training and extinction produced clear decreases in problem behavior in 2 contexts: 1 in which we removed a play item, and 1 in which we merely relocated the item and blocked its rearrangement.

  13. Contents of fragrance allergens in children's cosmetics and cosmetic-toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, S C; Johansen, J D; Menné, T; Frosch, P; Bruze, M; Andersen, K E; Lepoittevin, J P; Wakelin, S; White, I R

    1999-08-01

    Fragrances are one of the major causes of allergic contact dermatitis from use of cosmetics. The aim of the current study was to assess the possible exposure of infants and children to fragrance allergens from cosmetic products and "toy-cosmetics". 25 children's cosmetics or toy-cosmetic products were analysed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. Target substances were the fragrance allergens from the fragrance mix and 14 other fragrance substances, most of which have been described as contact allergens. The fragrance mix ingredients were either not present in children's shampoos/shower gels and cream/lotions, or they were present in fairly low concentrations. In hydro-alcoholic products, such as eau de parfum, eau de toilette, several ingredients of the fragrance mix were found: geraniol was present in 7/7 products, hydroxycitronellal in 6/7 and isoeugenol in 2/7 products. Isoeugenol was present in a maximum concentration of 0.07%. In one cosmetic-toy, cinnamic alcohol was present at 3.7% which exceeds the current industry guideline for safe products by a factor of 5. In all types of products other fragrance allergens were frequently found. In conclusion, children are already exposed at an early age to well-known allergens, sometimes at concentrations which are considered to be unsafe. As contact allergy usually persists for life, manufacturers of children's cosmetics should be aware of their special responsibility and apply the highest possible safety standards.

  14. Conventional bone plate fixation of distal radius and ulna fractures in toy breed dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, J M; Macías, C

    2016-03-01

    To describe the outcome of bone plate fixation of distal radius and ulna fractures in toy breed dogs treated with conventional bone plates. Records of 15 toy breed dogs with distal radius and ulna fractures were retrospectively reviewed for signalment, method of fixation, complications and clinical and radiographic assessments. A telephone-based owner questionnaire was conducted to determine long-term function and client satisfaction. Age ranged from 4 months to 6 years. Body weight ranged from 1 to 4 kg. Dynamic compression plates were used in 13 dogs and veterinary cuttable plates were used in 2 dogs as the means of fixation. Full radiographic and clinical follow-up data were available for 10 dogs and follow-up was performed between 6 and 8 weeks postoperatively. At that time, all fractures had healed and return to function was considered excellent in all 10 dogs. Five dogs did not return for hospital evaluation because they were judged by their owners to be free of lameness. In two cases, owners could not be contacted by telephone, but the referring veterinarians reported the dogs to be asymptomatic. No major complications occurred. Conventional bone plates are suitable choices for stabilisation of distal radius and ulna fractures in toy breed dogs and are not necessarily correlated with high rates of complication. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  15. Characters of Modern Animated Series in Games and Toys of Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolova M.V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative research on how preschool children play with various modern cartoon character toys. Three popular animated series were used in the research: "Winx", "SpiderMan" and "Pettson and Findus". One series of each was previously analysed in terms of microplots, descriptions of the main characters and their actions etc. The children watched the series, one at a time, and were then invited to play with its character toys. The outcomes of the research indicate that the series with plots and characters appropriate for preschool age (such as "Pettson and Findus" promote longer and richer periods of play activity as compared to the series addressed to children of older age. Children tend to take the role of the main character more frequently if s/he is of about the same age (irrespective of sex; they reproduce familiar and clear plots and engage themselves in longer periods of meaningful play. The outcomes also show that the effect of the animated series on the children's play depends on the quality and content of the animations, on their correspondence with the specifics of preschool age as well as on the quality of the character toys

  16. Dorsal stabilization of atlantoaxial subluxation using non-absorbable sutures in toy breed dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Masian, D; Luján-Feliu-Pascual, A; Font, C; Mascort, J

    2014-01-01

    To describe a novel dorsal technique for stabilization of atlantoaxial subluxation in toy breed dogs using 3-metric nylon suture. Retrospective study. Fifteen toy breed dogs with a body weight of 2 kg or less with atlantoaxial subluxation. The atlantoaxial joint of each dog was surgically stabilized through a dorsal approach by placing a double strand of non-absorbable, 3-metric, nylon suture material between the dorsal muscles of the atlanto-occipital and the atlantoaxial joint muscles. Pre- and postoperative neurological status, diagnostic imaging, and complications were reviewed. Clinical follow-up examination was performed at six months. For long-term assessment, a telephone follow-up was performed. No intra-operative complications were observed. Functional improvement occurred in 12 dogs. One dog did not improve and four dogs required revision surgery. In two of those four cases, suture material breakage was proven and it was suspected in the other two. Two cases underwent a second dorsal approach with the same suture material and two cases underwent a ventral approach (transarticular fixation and multiple implants embedded with polymethylmethacrylate). Dorsal stabilization using 3-metric nylon may be adequate as a safe, effective, and simple alternative technique for atlantoaxial stabilization in toy breed dogs of ≤1.5 kg of weight, in which the use of ventral screws and pins is challenging.

  17. Toy Library: space research on the play of children in school of infantile education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Sommerhalder

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the toy library as an area of research on child's play and on the child. In dialogue with psychoanalysis, the article aims to address aspects that characterize the children play in an environment of toy library. The study presents a reflection from the results of six sessions of observation of the ‘house play’ among children of the school of infantile education. The observation of the play activity was accompanied by the daily record in the field of actions and words of the thirteen children participating in the study. The study shows that the child is playing in a subjective space and is a preferred vehicle for achieving symbolic of desires and fantasies, the reality of transformation and creation of new knowledge. Therefore, it emphasizes the importance of valuing the toy library at school as a way of redemption and make of play in school of infantile education and highlights the value of play for learning and development of children in school of infantile education.

  18. From the Theory of Play into the Practice in Kindergarten: Verification of the Original Didactic Toys for Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navrátilová Hana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study deals with the phenomenon of play in the preschool environment. Based on establishing the links between theories and practice applicable in preschool conditions, the students from study programme of Preschool Teacher Training at Faculty of Humanities at Tomas Bata University in Zlín created a set of original didactic toys for preschool children. The main objective of the study was to verify this set in kindergartens and to find out how teachers perceive play and how they work with toys in preschools. The study also focused on preschool children´s view of play and toys. Methods: We have chosen a qualitative research design to explore the research problem and to answer the research questions. The data collection in this research was based on participant observation and interviews with the participants who were preschool children and their teachers from four selected kindergartens in Zlín Region in the Czech Republic. These were 12 teachers with secondary or university education (Bc. degree, aged 23 to 48, with a length of practice from 1 year to 25 years at the position of kindergarten teacher. The research study then included interviews and video recordings of 77 preschool children (age 2 to 6 years. Results: Data gathered by a qualitative research with preschool children in the kindergarten environment represent a partial picture on the importance of toys and playing with them. The results emerging from the observation and interviewing the preschool children and their teachers shows the way of toy selection with the importance of variability of possible modifications of the toys offered to children in the preschool environment. The progress of play with the verified didactic toys was influenced by the need for a partner in the play, the role of the teacher, the chances to freely discover the elements of toys. We found a restrictive perspective expressed by the participating preschool teachers about the dominant

  19. Cost effective aero-photogrammetry toys at active volcanoes: On the use of drones, balloons and kites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Thomas R.

    2014-05-01

    The availability of aerial photographs allows spatial mapping of flows and fractures, generation of digital elevation models and other change detection. Therefore aerial photographs significantly improve our understanding of volcanic processes. The common problem is the lack of available data for most volcanoes, and the lack of systematic and chronologic repeat surveys. This work summarizes the current state of knowledge and technical implementations that currently revolutionize the field of aero-photogrammetry. By the use of unmanned vehicles, such as octocopters, helicopters and small airplanes, photo data can be acquired from almost any place at distances up to kilometres from the operator. Moreover, by the use of helium balloons, kites or their hybrid helikites, near field aero-photographs are obtained. In combination with modern stitching procedures and computer vision algorithms, the positioning of the camera and the digital elevation model of the ground can be extracted, and the active volcano and its eruption cloud be imaged from almost any perspective. This field is increasingly gaining flexibility, as lightweight cameras are available from visible, infrared and other spectral bands. Here example data are provided from volcanoes that are difficult to access by regular airplanes, showing the strengths and the limits of these new aero-photogrammetry toys.

  20. Presence of lead in paint of toys sold in stores of the formal market of Bogotá, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus-García, A; Ramos-Bonilla, J P

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a non-essential metal. Exposure to lead has been associated with adverse health effects in both children and adults. Lead content in paint used in toys or children's products has been identified as both a potential and preventable source of childhood lead exposure. Twenty-four stores located in Bogotá (Colombia) were selected by cluster sampling to participate in the study. A random sample of 96 toys was purchased at these stores. Since one toy can have different paint colors, a total of 116 paint samples from 96 toys were analyzed for lead content. Paint samples were prepared by microwave digestion and lead was quantified using ICP-OES. For quality control purposes of the analytical method, spike samples and a certified reference material (NIST SRM 2582) were used. The lead content in paint ranged from below the method detection limit (5ppm) to 47,600ppm, with an average Pb concentration of 1024ppm and a median concentration of 5ppm. Eight (8) paint samples removed from five toys had lead concentrations exceeding the US regulatory limit for total lead content (90ppm). Brown paint and toys manufactured in Colombia were significantly associated with high concentrations of lead in paint. Furthermore, a statistically significant interaction between these two variables was also found. The results suggest that there is a potential risk of lead exposure from paint of toys sold in the formal market of Bogotá. Therefore, the implementation of a national surveillance program of lead content in children products is urgently needed. The risk of children's lead exposure identified in this study, which is completely preventable, could be present also in other developing countries. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Dyadic social interaction of C57BL/6 mice versus interaction with a toy mouse: conditioned place preference/aversion, substrain differences, and no development of a hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Barbara S; Seidl, Simon S; Habazettl, Eva; Gruber, Bernadette E; Bregolin, Tanja; Zernig, Gerald

    2016-04-01

    Impaired social interaction is a hallmark symptom of many psychiatric diseases, including dependence syndromes (substance use disorders). Helping the addict reorient her/his behavior away from the drug of abuse toward social interaction would be of considerable therapeutic benefit. To study the neural basis of such a reorientation, we have developed several animal models in which the attractiveness of a dyadic (i.e. one-to-one) social interaction (DSI) can be compared directly with that of cocaine as a prototypical drug of abuse. Our models are based on the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. In an ongoing effort to validate our experimental paradigms in C57BL/6 mice to make use of the plethora of transgenic models available in this genus, we found the following: (a) DSI with a live mouse produced CPP, whereas an interaction with an inanimate mouse-like object (i.e. a 'toy mouse'; toy mouse interaction) led to conditioned place aversion - but only in the Jackson substrain (C57BL/6J). (b) In the NIH substrain (C57BL/6N), both DSI and toy mouse interaction produced individual aversion in more than 50% of the tested mice. (c) Four 15 min DSI episodes did not result in the development of an observable hierarchy, that is, dominance/subordination behavior in the overwhelming majority (i.e. 30 of 32) of the tested Jackson mouse pairs. Therefore, dominance/subordination does not seem to be a confounding variable in our paradigm, at least not in C57BL/6J mice. Respective data for NIH mice were too limited to allow any conclusion. The present findings indicate that (a) DSI with a live mouse produces CPP to a greater degree than an interaction with an inanimate object resembling a mouse and that (b) certain substrain differences with respect to CPP/aversion to DSI do exist between the Jax and NIH substrain of C57BL/6 mice. These differences have to be considered when choosing a proper mouse substrain model for investigating the neural basis of DSI reward versus

  2. [Sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. isolated from toys used in a teaching hospital playroom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boretti, Vanessa Stolf; Corrêa, Renata Nunes; dos Santos, Silvana Soléo Ferreira; Leão, Mariella Vieira Pereira; Gonçalves e Silva, Célia Regina

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the presence of microorganisms of the genus Staphylococcus and Streptococcus on toys in the playroom of a teaching hospital, as well to as analyze the antimicrobial from the isolated strains. Samples were collected from 60 toys, using wet swabs, soon after being used by the children. The samples were inoculated in enriched and selective agar for isolation and later identification of the microorganisms. Antibiogram testing was performed by agar diffusion technique. The genus Staphylococcus was present in 87.0% (52/60) of the toys. Seventythree strains were isolated, with 29.0% (21/73) coagulase-positive and 71.0% (52/73) coagulase-negative. Among the coagulase-negative strains, 90.4% were resistant to penicillin, 65.4% to oxacillin, 28.8% to clarithromycin, 61.5% to clindamycin, and none to vancomycin. Among the coagulase-positive strains, 76.2% were resistant to penicillin, 23.8% to oxacillin, 23.8% to clarithromycin, 47.6% to clindamycin, and none to vancomycin. The genus Streptococcus was not detected in any of the evaluated toys. Toys can be contaminated with potentially pathogenic bacteria with antimicrobial resistance, representing a possible source of nosocomial infection for patients who are already debilitated. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. [Study of relationship between consumption of potassium permanganate and total organic carbon on plastic kitchen utensils, food packages and toys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Masako; Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko

    2009-10-01

    Consumption of potassium permanganate and total organic carbon (TOC) were investigated as indices of total organic matter migrated into water from plastic kitchen utensils, food packages and toys for children. The samples were soaked in water at 60 or 95 degrees C for 30 min for kitchen utensils and food packages, and at 40 degrees C for 30 min for toys and the eluates were examined, using the two indices. The quantitation limits were both 0.5 microg/mL. Among 97 kitchen utensils and food packages tested, consumption of potassium permanganate and TOC were 0.5-10.9 microg/mL and ND-18.9 microg/mL for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tea-pot spouts and nylon kitchen utensils, respectively. Among 32 toys tested, the levels were 0.8-45.5 microg/mL and 0.5-8.9 microg/mL from PVC toys and block toys made by ethylene vinyl acetate resin. The levels for other samples were very low. There were large discrepancies between consumption of potassium permanganate and TOC for some PVC products and nylon kitchen utensils. The cause may be a marked difference of the oxidation decomposition rate by potassium permanganate, depending on the kind of organic matter that migrated from the plastics.

  4. Sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. isolated from toys used in a teaching hospital playroom☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boretti, Vanessa Stolf; Corrêa, Renata Nunes; dos Santos, Silvana Soléo Ferreira; Leão, Mariella Vieira Pereira; Silva, Célia Regina Gonçalves e

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the presence of microorganisms of the genus Staphylococcus and Streptococcus on toys in the playroom of a teaching hospital, as well to as analyze the antimicrobial resistance from isolated strains. Methods: Samples were collected from 60 toys, using wet swabs, soon after being used by the children. The samples were inoculated in enriched and selective agar for isolation and later identification of the microorganisms. Antibiogram testing was performed by agar diffusion technique. Results: The genus Staphylococcus was present in 87.0% (52/60) of the toys. Seventy-three strains were isolated, with 29.0% (21/73) coagulase-positive and 71.0% (52/73) coagulasenegative. Among the coagulase-negative strains, 90.4% were resistant to penicillin, 65.4% to oxacillin, 28.8% to clarithromycin, 61.5% to clindamycin, and none to vancomycin. Among the coagulase-positive strains, 76.2% were resistant to penicillin, 23.8% to oxacillin, 23.8% to clarithromycin, 47.6% to clindamycin, and none to vancomycin. The genus Streptococcus was not detected in any of the evaluated toys. Conclusions: Toys can be contaminated with potentially pathogenic bacteria with antimicrobial resistance, representing a possible source of nosocomial infection for patients who are already debilitated. PMID:25479842

  5. Survey on plasticizers currently found in PVC toys on the Swiss market: Banned phthalates are only a minor concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCombie, Gregor; Biedermann, Sandra; Suter, Gaby; Biedermann, Maurus

    2017-04-16

    Plasticizers in toys are a recurring source of criticism and concern, as consumers feel they may endanger the health of their children. Most of the information available in literature concerns the presence or absence of certain phthalic acid ester plasticizers. Very little information can be found in the public domain with respect to the actually used plasticizers at a given time and place. In this paper, we present the plasticizer composition of 118 samples from 88 polyvinyl chloride toys found on the Swiss market in autumn 2015. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHT) was by far the most frequent main plasticizer in the analyzed samples, which is a change when compared to the plasticizers found in toys and child care articles in 2007. Furthermore, the data show that the banned phthalates in toys are only a minor concern. The occurrence, however, is not evenly distributed between importers. If a toy is not designed to be sold on the European market by the manufacturer, it seems to be more likely to contain a banned phthalic acid ester.

  6. Paperfuge: An ultralow-cost, hand-powered paper-centrifuge inspired by the mechanics of a whirligig toy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhamla, M. Saad; Benson, Brandon; Chai, Chew; Katsikis, Georgios; Johri, Aanchal; Prakash, Manu

    From a global-health context, commercial centrifuges are expensive, bulky and electricity-powered, and thus constitute a critical bottleneck in the development of decentralized, battery-free-point-of-care (POC) diagnostic devices. Here, we report an ultralow-cost (20 cents), lightweight (2 g), human-powered paper centrifuge (which we name 'paperfuge') designed on the basis of a theoretical model inspired by the fundamental mechanics of an ancient whirligig (or buzzer toy; 3300 B.C.E). The paperfuge achieves speeds of 125,000 rpm (and equivalent centrifugal forces of 30,000 g), with theoretical limits predicting one million rpm. We demonstrate that the paperfuge can separate pure plasma from whole blood in less than 1.5 minutes, and isolate malaria parasites in 15 minutes. We also show that paperfuge-like centrifugal microfluidic devices can be made of polymethylsiloxane, plastic and 3D-printed polymeric materials. Ultracheap, power-free centrifuges should open up opportunities for POC diagnostics in resource-poor settings.

  7. Sustaining Competitiveness: Moving Towards Upstream Manufacturing in Specialized-Market-Based Clusters in the Chinese Toy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huasheng Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Western industrial cluster literature pays little attention to specialized markets (SMs and the geographical agglomeration of distributors or sale agencies (SAs. This paper takes Linyin, Shandong, a famous commodity city in Northeastern China, as an example, to discuss the determinants that make SAs in SMs of the toy industry move towards upstream manufacturing. A structured questionnaire survey and subsequent interviews were carried out during 2011 and 2012 to collect data, and a Binary Logistic Regression Model was used to process the data. This paper looks from the perspective of global production networks theory, establishes an analytical framework that combines individual motivations of intra-firm coordination, local inter-firm relationships and dynamic cross-regional level relationships. The findings indicate that the expansion of SAs towards manufacturing allows them to sustain competitiveness under changing circumstances. The local inter-firm relationships within SM-based clusters not only makes it easy to obtain material and human resources with lower manufacturing costs, but also facilitates the access to production knowledge and technologies for an expansion of production scale. Cross-regional relationships with suppliers provide an informal channel for SAs to obtain skills, which is fundamental for an expansion into manufacturing. In addition, it is a preference for strengthening competitiveness rather than the simple pursuit of economic profit that encourages SAs to invest in manufacturing.

  8. Accumulation of gas-phase methamphetamine on clothing, toy fabrics, and skin oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, G; Shakila, N V; Parker, K

    2015-08-01

    To better understand methamphetamine exposure and risk for occupants of former residential clandestine methamphetamine laboratories, we measured the dynamic accumulation of methamphetamine in skin oil, cotton and polyester (PE) clothing, upholstery, and toy fabric (substrates) exposed to 15-30 ppb (91-183 μg/m(3)) neutral methamphetamine in air for up to 60 days. The average equilibrium partition coefficients at 30% RH, in units of μg of methamphetamine per gram of substrate per ppb, are 3.0 ± 0.2 for a PE baby blanket, 5.6 ± 3.5 for a PE fabric toy, 3.7 ± 0.2 for a PE shirt, 18.3 ± 8.0 for a PE/cotton upholstery fabric, and 1200 ± 570 in skin oil. The partition coefficients at 60% RH are 4.5 ± 0.4, 5.2 ± 2.1, 4.5 ± 0.6, 36.1 ± 3.6, and 1600 ± 1100 μg/(g ppb), respectively. There was no difference in the partition coefficient for a clean and skin-oil-soiled cotton shirt [15.3 ± 2.1 μg/(g ppb) @ 42 days]. Partition coefficients for skin oil may be sensitive to composition. 'Mouthing' of cloth is predicted to be the dominant exposure pathway [60 μg/(kg body weight*ppb)] for a toddler in former meth lab, and indoor air concentrations would have to be very low (0.001 ppb) to meet the recommended reference dose for children. Gas-phase methamphetamine transfers to and accumulates on clothing, toys and other fabrics significantly increases risk of ingestion of methamphetamine. Current remediation methods should consider measurement of postremediation gas-phase air concentrations of methamphetamine in addition to surface wipe samples. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Impact of San Francisco's toy ordinance on restaurants and children's food purchases, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Jennifer J; Saelens, Brian E; Kapphahn, Kristopher I; Hekler, Eric B; Buman, Matthew P; Goldstein, Benjamin A; Krukowski, Rebecca A; O'Donohue, Laura S; Gardner, Christopher D; King, Abby C

    2014-07-17

    In 2011, San Francisco passed the first citywide ordinance to improve the nutritional standards of children's meals sold at restaurants by preventing the giving away of free toys or other incentives with meals unless nutritional criteria were met. This study examined the impact of the Healthy Food Incentives Ordinance at ordinance-affected restaurants on restaurant response (eg, toy-distribution practices, change in children's menus), and the energy and nutrient content of all orders and children's-meal-only orders purchased for children aged 0 through 12 years. Restaurant responses were examined from January 2010 through March 2012. Parent-caregiver/child dyads (n = 762) who were restaurant customers were surveyed at 2 points before and 1 seasonally matched point after ordinance enactment at Chain A and B restaurants (n = 30) in 2011 and 2012. Both restaurant chains responded to the ordinance by selling toys separately from children's meals, but neither changed their menus to meet ordinance-specified nutrition criteria. Among children for whom children's meals were purchased, significant decreases in kilocalories, sodium, and fat per order were likely due to changes in children's side dishes and beverages at Chain A. Although the changes at Chain A did not appear to be directly in response to the ordinance, the transition to a more healthful beverage and default side dish was consistent with the intent of the ordinance. Study results underscore the importance of policy wording, support the concept that more healthful defaults may be a powerful approach for improving dietary intake, and suggest that public policies may contribute to positive restaurant changes.

  10. Contents of fragrance allergens in children's cosmetics and cosmetic-toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    1999-01-01

    /shower gels and cream/lotions, or they were present in fairly low concentrations. In hydro-alcoholic products, such as eau de parfum, eau de toilette, several ingredients of the fragrance mix were found: geraniol was present in 7/7 products, hydroxycitronellal in 6/7 and isoeugenol in 2/7 products. Isoeugenol...... was present in a maximum concentration of 0.07%. In one cosmetic-toy, cinnamic alcohol was present at 3.7% which exceeds the current industry guideline for safe products by a factor of 5. In all types of products other fragrance allergens were frequently found. In conclusion, children are already exposed...

  11. A beginner's guide to 3D printing 14 simple toy designs to get you started

    CERN Document Server

    Rigsby, Mike

    2014-01-01

    A Beginner''s Guide to 3D Printing is the perfect resource for those who would like to experiment with 3D design and manufacturing, but have little or no technical experience with the standard software. Author Mike Rigsby leads readers step-by-step through 15 simple toy projects, each illustrated with screen caps of Autodesk 123D Design, the most common free 3D software available. The projects are later described using Sketchup, another free popular software package. Beginning with basics projects that will take longer to print than design, readers are then given instruction on more advanced t

  12. Resolving the chemical structures of off-odorants and potentially harmful substances in toys-example of children's swords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denk, Philipp; Velasco-Schön, Cristina; Buettner, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Most children's toys on the market are primarily made out of plastic and other complex composite materials. Consumer complaints about offensive odors or irritating effects associated with toy products have increased in recent years. One example is the strongly perceivable negative odor reported for a particular series of toy swords. Characterizing the presence of contaminants, including those that have the potential to be deleterious to health, in such products is a significant analytical challenge due to the high baseline abundance of chemical constituents of the materials used in the products. In the present study, the nature of offensive odorants associated with toy sword products was examined by gas chromatography (GC). After initial sensory evaluations, the volatile compounds from the toy products were recovered using solvent extraction and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation. The extracts were analyzed using GC-olfactometry (GC-O) and two-dimensional GC-O coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-GC-MS/O). A total of 26 odor-active compounds, including aromatic hydrocarbons and phenols, were identified among numerous non-odorous volatile by-products. These substances also included polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which were analyzed by GC-MS. Representative substances were naphthalene and 1,2-dihydronaphthalene that exhibited moldy, mothball-like odor impressions, and phenol derivatives with leather-like, phenolic, horse-stable-like smells. The odorants detected correlated with the assigned attributes from the sensory analyses. This study clearly shows that the detection and identification of such odorous contaminants can provide key indications of potentially harmful yet unknown substances in everyday products such as toys. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  13. 16 CFR 1500.53 - Test methods for simulating use and abuse of toys and other articles intended for use by children...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... methods for simulating use and abuse of toys and other articles intended for use by children over 36 but... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test methods for simulating use and abuse of toys and other articles intended for use by children over 36 but not over 96 months of age. 1500.53...

  14. 16 CFR 1500.51 - Test methods for simulating use and abuse of toys and other articles intended for use by children...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... simulating use and abuse of toys and other articles intended for use by children 18 months of age or less. (a... foreseeable use, damage, or abuse of toys and other articles intended for use by children 18 months of age or... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test methods for simulating use and abuse of...

  15. 16 CFR 1500.52 - Test methods for simulating use and abuse of toys and other articles intended for use by children...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... methods for simulating use and abuse of toys and other articles intended for use by children over 18 but... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test methods for simulating use and abuse of toys and other articles intended for use by children over 18 but not over 36 months of age. 1500.52...

  16. Effect of cleaning and disinfection of toys on infectious diseases and micro-organisms in daycare nurseries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, T.; Engelund, E. H.; Schultz, Anna Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Background: The rising number of children in daycare nurseries increases opportunities for the transmission of infectious diseases. Pathogens may be transmitted directly from child to child via sneezing, coughing and touching, or indirectly via the environment. Toys are among the fomites with the......Background: The rising number of children in daycare nurseries increases opportunities for the transmission of infectious diseases. Pathogens may be transmitted directly from child to child via sneezing, coughing and touching, or indirectly via the environment. Toys are among the fomites...

  17. Statistical analyses and risk assessment of potentially toxic metals (PTMS in children’s toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderonke O. Oyeyiola

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical exposure of children, especially from toys, is an engineering concern. The concentration and availability of potentially toxic metals (PTM in children’s toys were determined to assess the risk that these metals pose to children. Samples of 25 toys imported from China to Nigeria were purchased. Ternary acid digestion, followed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry, was used to determine the concentration of PTM in the sample. Simulations of the saline and stomach acid extraction conditions were performed to determine the concentrations of PTM that could leach out from the toys during children’s mouthing behaviours (available PTM, including chewing, sucking and swallowing. The total concentrations of PTM in the toys ranged from 3.55–40.7, 3.21–38.2, 9.78–159, 3.55–11.2, and 36.1–106 mg/kg for Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb, respectively. Availability studies showed concentrations ranging from 2.60–5.60 mg/kg for Pb, 0.53–2.03 mg/kg for Cd and 0.15–2.88 mg/kg for Ni after saline extraction, and the concentrations after stomach acid extractions ranged from 3.33–7.10 mg/kg, 1.15–3.15 mg/kg and 1.33–1.81 mg/kg for Pb, Cd and Ni, respectively. Statistical analysis showed a positive correlation between the total concentration of PTM and toys made from PVC materials. The risk assessment study showed that Cd posed the highest risk, with a hazard index (HI as high as 4.50 for saline extraction. The study revealed that more precaution is needed during the manufacture of children’s toys. Keywords: Availability, Polyvinyl chloride (PVC, Potentially toxic metals (PTM, Risk assessment, Toys

  18. How do guide dogs and pet dogs (Canis familiaris) ask their owners for their toy and for playing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunet, Florence

    2010-03-01

    When apes are not fully understood by humans, they persist with attempts to communicate, elaborating their behaviours to better convey their meaning. Such abilities have never been investigated in dogs. The present study aimed to clarify any effect of the visual attentional state of the owner on dogs' (Canis familiaris) social-communicative signals for interacting with humans, and to determine whether dogs persist and elaborate their behaviour in the face of failure to communicate a request. Gaze at a hidden target or at the owner, gaze alternation between a hidden target and the owner, vocalisations and contacts in 12 guide and 12 pet dogs were analysed (i) when the dogs were asked by their owners (blind or sighted) to fetch their inaccessible toy and (ii) when the dogs were subsequently given an unfamiliar object (apparent unsuccessful communication) or their toy (apparent successful communication). No group differences were found, indicating no effect of the visual status of the owner on the dogs' socio-communicative modes (i.e. no sensitivity to human visual attention). Results, however, suggest that the dogs exhibited persistence (but not elaboration) in their "showing" behaviours in each condition, except that in which the toy was returned. Thus, their communication was about a specific item in space (the toy). The results suggest that dogs possess partially intentional non-verbal deictic abilities: (i) to get their inaccessible toy, the dogs gazed at their owners as if to trigger their attention; gaze alternation between the owner and the target direction, and two behaviours directed at the target were performed, apparently to indicate the location of the hidden toy; (ii) after the delivery of the toy, the dogs behaved as if they returned to the play routine, gazing at their owner whilst holding their toy. In conclusion, this study shows that dogs possess partially intentional non-verbal deictic abilities: they exhibit successive visual orienting between a

  19. [Migration tests of cadmium and lead from paint film of baby toys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Yoko; Mutsuga, Motoh; Yamauchi, Tomoko; Ueda, Shinji; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2009-04-01

    The migration tests of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) from paint film on baby toys set out in the Japanese Food Sanitation Law (official standard) and International Standard 8124-3 (ISO) were compared. Vinyl chloride resin enamel and acrylic resin enamel containing 1,000 mg/kg Cd and Pb on a dried basis were painted on glass plates and then dried. According to the official standard, the paint films on the glass plates were soaked in water at 40 degrees C for 30 min and the solutions were analyzed by ICP-AES. Cd and Pb were below the limit of determinotion (paint was scratched from the glass plates and the powder was soaked in 0.07 mol/L HCl at 37 degrees C for 1 hr either with shaking and without shaking. The migration of Cd and Pb reached 310 to 910 mg/kg, i.e., 3.5-12 times more than the migration limits. Cd migrated more extensively than Pb, and they both migrated more readily from the acrylic resin enamel than from the vinyl chloride enamel. In conclusion, the migration test of Cd and Pb from paint films on toys based on the ISO standards is stricter than that based on the Japanese Food Sanitation Low.

  20. Análise acústica em brinquedos ruidosos Acoustics analysis of the noisy toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Linhares Taxini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar os níveis de ruídos emitidos por brinquedos nacionalmente comercializados, utilizados por crianças de 1 a 5 anos; comparar os valores entre os brinquedos com e sem selo do Inmetro (Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalização e Qualidade Industrial e analisar o espectro acústico dos brinquedos, com o intuito de identificar a área da cóclea que pode ser mais afetada por esses ruídos. MÉTODO: as medições foram realizadas em 20 brinquedos sonoros (10 com o selo do Inmetro e 10 sem o selo com o uso do decibelímetro digital em sala acusticamente tratada, e a análise dos sons emitidos pelos brinquedos foi realizada por meio do programa Praat. RESULTADOS: a intensidade do ruído dos brinquedos com o selo do Inmetro posicionados a 2,5 cm do equipamento variou de 61,50 a 91,55 dB(A e 69,75 a 95,05 dB(C e a referente à distância de 25 cm variou entre 58,30 a 79,85 dB(A e 62,50 a 83,65 dB(C. A intensidade do ruído dos brinquedos sem o selo do Inmetro a 2,5 cm variou entre 67,45 a 94,30 dB(A e 65,4 a 99,50 dB(C e na distância de 25 cm registrou desde 61,30 a 87,45 dB(A e 63,75 a 97,60 dB(C, portanto os achados demonstraram que existem brinquedos ruidosos que ultrapassam os valores recomendados pela legislação vigente em ambos os grupos, com e sem selo do Inmetro. CONCLUSÃO: os brinquedos sem o selo do Inmetro apresentaram valores de intensidade significantemente maior em relação ao outro grupo, oferecendo maior risco à saúde auditiva das crianças.PURPOSE: to analyze the levels of noise emitted by nationally-sold toys for use by children from 1 to 5 year old; to compare the values among the toys with and without the seal of Inmetro (National Institute of Metrology, Standardization and Industrial Quality and to analyze the sound spectrum of toys, in order to identify the area of the cochlea that may be more affected by these noises. METHOD: measurements were performed on 20 sound toys (10 with the seal of the

  1. Evaluation of short term effects of the IROMEC robotic toy for children with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Tanja; Gelderblom, Gert Jan; de Witte, Luc; Vanstipelen, Silvie

    2011-01-01

    Research shows a reduced playfulness in children with developmental disabilities. This is a barrier for participation and children's health and wellbeing. IROMEC is a purposely designed robot to support play in impaired children. The reported study evaluates short-term effects of the IROMEC robot toy supporting play in an occupational therapy intervention for children with developmental disabilities. Two types of play intervention (standard occupational therapy versus robot-facilitated play intervention) were compared regarding their effect on the level of playfulness, on children's general functional development, goal achievement as well as the therapist's evaluation of the added value of a robot-facilitated play intervention. Three young children took part in this single-subject design study. Evaluation was performed through Test of Playfulness (ToP), the IROMEC evaluation questionnaire and qualitative evaluation by the therapists. Results confirmed the IROMEC robot did partly meet the needs of the children and therapists, and positive impact on TOP results was found with two children. This suggests robotic toys can support children with developmental disabilities in enriching play. Long term effect evaluation should verify these positive indications resulting from use of this innovative social robot for children with developmental disabilities. But it also became clear further development of the robot is required. © 2011 IEEE

  2. The Influence of Toy Design Activities on Middle School Students' Understanding of the Engineering Design Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ninger; Pereira, Nielsen L.; George, Tarun Thomas; Alperovich, Jeffrey; Booth, Joran; Chandrasegaran, Senthil; Tew, Jeffrey David; Kulkarni, Devadatta M.; Ramani, Karthik

    2017-10-01

    The societal demand for inspiring and engaging science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) students and preparing our workforce for the emerging creative economy has necessitated developing students' self-efficacy and understanding of engineering design processes from as early as elementary school levels. Hands-on engineering design activities have shown the potential to promote middle school students' self-efficacy and understanding of engineering design processes. However, traditional classrooms often lack hands-on engineering design experiences, leaving students unprepared to solve real-world design problems. In this study, we introduce the framework of a toy design workshop and investigate the influence of the workshop activities on students' understanding of and self-efficacy beliefs in engineering design. Using a mixed method approach, we conducted quantitative analyses to show changes in students' engineering design self-efficacy and qualitative analyses to identify students' understanding of the engineering design processes. Findings show that among the 24 participants, there is a significant increase in students' self-efficacy beliefs after attending the workshop. We also identified major themes such as design goals and prototyping in students' understanding of engineering design processes. This research provides insights into the key elements of middle school students' engineering design learning and the benefits of engaging middle school students in hands-on toy design workshops.

  3. Toy Safety Act. Hearings before the Subcommittee on the Consumer of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on S.2650 (June 8 and July 2, 1984).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

    Passage of the Toy Safety Act of 1984 (S.2650) would allow the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) to order the immediate recall of toys and children's articles that create a substantial risk of injury to children. The CPSC would no longer be required to issue a final rule banning a hazardous toy or article before it may begin a recall…

  4. Children's exposure to harmful elements in toys and low-cost jewelry: characterizing risks and developing a comprehensive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Mert; Zagury, Gerald J

    2014-04-30

    Contamination problem in jewelry and toys and children's exposure possibility have been previously demonstrated. For this study, risk from oral exposure has been characterized for highly contaminated metallic toys and jewelry ((MJ), n=16) considering three scenarios. Total and bioaccessible concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb were high in selected MJ. First scenario (ingestion of parts or pieces) caused unacceptable risk for eight items for Cd, Ni, and/or Pb (hazard index (HI)>1, up to 75, 5.8, and 43, respectively). HI for ingestion of scraped-off material scenario was always 1 in three samples (two for Cd, one for Ni). Risk characterization identified different potentially hazardous items compared to United States, Canadian, and European Union approaches. A comprehensive approach was also developed to deal with complexity and drawbacks caused by various toy/jewelry definitions, test methods, exposure scenarios, and elements considered in different regulatory approaches. It includes bioaccessible limits for eight priority elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Sb). Research is recommended on metals bioaccessibility determination in toys/jewelry, in vitro bioaccessibility test development, estimation of material ingestion rates and frequency, presence of hexavalent Cr and organic Sn, and assessment of prolonged exposure to MJ. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. "This Is Spiderman's Mask." "No, It's Green Goblin's": Shared Meanings during Boys' Pretend Play with Superhero and Generic Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Amy; Howe, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Preschool boys' pretense and coconstruction of shared meanings during two play sessions (superhero and generic toys) were investigated with 58 middle-class boys ("M" age = 54.95 mos.). The frequency of dyadic pretense and the coconstruction of shared meanings in the play were coded. The frequency of pretense did not vary across the two…

  6. 16 CFR 1145.2 - Paint (and other similar surface-coating materials) containing lead; toys, children's articles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Paint (and other similar surface-coating materials) containing lead; toys, children's articles, and articles of furniture bearing such paint (or... TO OTHER ACTS UNDER THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT § 1145.2 Paint (and other similar surface-coating...

  7. TV Viewing Compared to Book Reading and Toy Playing Reduces Responsive Maternal Communication with Toddlers and Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Amy I.; Rasmussen, Eric E.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the amount and style of maternal communication with toddlers and preschoolers while mother-child pairs watched TV, read books, and played with toys. We found that mother-child communication was less frequent and less verbally responsive when dyads viewed TV compared with when they read books, and in many cases, when they played…

  8. Caregiver Input in English and Korean: Use of Nouns and Verbs in Book-Reading and Toy-Play Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soonja

    2000-01-01

    Investigates structural and pragmatic aspects of caregiver input in English and Korean that relate to the early development of nouns and verbs. Twenty mothers in each language were asked to interact with their children in two contexts: Book-reading and toy-play. Data suggest that systematic comparisons of caregiver input within and across…

  9. “Mood-modules”: Interconnected Wireless Toy Units for Studies of Social Play through Musical and Sonic Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Marie; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    This paper outlines the research background, focus and methods that will be used in the study of musical and sonic games that are embedded in interconnected wireless toy modules. Seen in the light of the idea: “The ensemble as a musical and social experience”, an approach for designing electronic...

  10. 78 FR 48172 - Minimizing Risk for Children's Toy Laser Products; Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2013-19018] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-D-1092] Minimizing Risk for Children's Toy Laser Products; Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION...

  11. Evidence of bad recycling practices: BFRs in children's toys and food-contact articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzonato, A; Puype, F; Harrad, S J

    2017-07-19

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been used intentionally in a wide range of plastics, but are now found in an even wider range of such materials (including children's toys and food contact articles) as a result of recycling practices that mix BFR-containing waste plastics with "virgin" materials. In this study Br was quantified in toy and food contact samples on the assumption that its concentration can be used as a metric for BFR contamination. Subsequently, compound specific determination of BFRs was performed to evaluate the validity of the aforementioned assumption, crucial to render rapid, inexpensive, in situ Br determination in non-laboratory environments (such as waste handling facilities) a viable option for sorting wastes according to their BFR content. We report semi-quantitative compound specific BFR concentrations to give an overview of the distribution of individual BFRs in the analyzed samples. Finally, we evaluated the correlations between waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) related substances (Ca, Sb and rare earth elements (REEs)) and Br as a proxy for identifying poor sorting practices in different waste streams. 26 samples of toys, food-contact articles and WEEE were analyzed with a suite of different techniques in order to obtain comprehensive information about their elemental and molecular composition. The information obtained from principal component analysis about WEEE-related compounds provides new insights into the influence of sorting practices on the extent of products' contamination and bringing out polymer-related trends in the pollutants' signature. 61% of all samples were Br positive: of these samples, 45% had decaBDE concentrations exceeding the concentration limits for PBDEs and their main constituent polymer was - according to the REE signature of such samples - Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS), uses of which include copying equipment, laptops and computers. The ability to better track chemicals of concern

  12. Measuring the impact of invasive species on popular culture: a case study based on toy turtles from Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Yamamoto, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    The red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) is native to portions of the United States of America (USA) and adjacent northeastern Mexico. The bright and colorful hatchlings have long been popular as pets globally but numerous individuals have been released into the wild establishing populations in areas well outside their native range. As a result, slider turtles are now introduced worldwide on all continents, with the exception of Antarctica, and many temperate and tropical islands, including Japan. They are very successful at establishing breeding populations in a variety of habitats, even those in proximity to human development. Once established in large populations, they compete with native turtle species sometimes to the detriment of the latter. Tin toy turtles were popular in Japan for decades, and they were an important export item after World War II. From the 1920s to the 1950s, prior to the widespread establishment of slider populations in Japan, the toys were characterized by muted earth-tone colors representative of native species of Japanese turtles. After the 1950s, toy turtles exhibited brighter combinations of yellow, red and green more typical of slider turtles. This transition may reflect demand for more colorful toys by importing countries like the USA. Alternatively, the change was coincident with the importation of large numbers of colorful slider turtles to Japan via the pet trade and their subsequent establishment and numerical dominance in Japanese wetlands. This switch in toy turtle colors may reflect a cultural transition in awareness of what constitutes the appearance of a typical turtle in Japan. Sliders appear to have been accepted by Japanese consumers as a new cultural norm in the appearance of turtles, a case of art imitating life.

  13. No toy for you! The healthy food incentives ordinance: paternalism or consumer protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etow, Alexis M

    2012-01-01

    The newest approach to discouraging children's unhealthy eating habits, amidst increasing rates of childhood obesity and other diet-related diseases, seeks to ban something that is not even edible. In 2010, San Francisco enacted the Healthy Food Incentives Ordinance, which prohibits toys in kids' meals if the meals do not meet certain nutritional requirements. Notwithstanding the Ordinance's impact on interstate commerce or potential infringement on companies' commercial speech rights and on parents' rights to determine what their children eat, this Comment argues that the Ordinance does not violate the dormant Commerce Clause, the First Amendment, or substantive due process. The irony is that although the Ordinance likely avoids the constitutional hurdles that hindered earlier measures aimed at childhood obesity, it intrudes on civil liberties more than its predecessors. This Comment analyzes the legality of the Healthy Food Incentives Ordinance to understand its implications on subsequent legislation aimed at combating childhood obesity and on the progression of public health law.

  14. The sexual consumer: characteristics, expectations, and experiences of women attending in-home sex toy parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Vanessa; Herbenick, Debby; Jozkowski, Kristen N; Jawed-Wessel, Sofia; Reece, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Sexuality education efforts tend to focus on adolescents and risk-reduction strategies. Outside of clinical settings, there are few sexuality education opportunities focusing on enhancing the sexual lives (e.g., desire, arousal, orgasm) of adult women in long-term monogamous relationships. In-home sex toy parties may enrich women's sexual experiences by providing attendees with an opportunity to learn in a nontraditional setting. In the present study, more than 2,500 party attendees were surveyed regarding their party experience and sexual history. Participants reported high scores on the Female Sexual Function Index with repeat attendees scoring significantly higher than their counterparts. Recommendations are discussed regarding the use of parties as a source for sexuality information distribution and screening for therapeutic referrals.

  15. Canine toys and training devices as sources of exposure to phthalates and bisphenol A: quantitation of chemicals in leachate and in vitro screening for endocrine activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Kimberly J; Smith, Philip N

    2013-11-01

    Chewing and mouthing behaviors exhibited by pet dogs are likely to lead to oral exposures to a variety of environmental chemicals. Products intended for chewing and mouthing uses include toys and training devices that are often made of plastics. The goal of the current study was to determine if a subset of phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA), endocrine disrupting chemicals commonly found in plastics, leach out of dog toys and training devices (bumpers) into synthetic canine saliva. In vitro assays were used to screen leachates for endocrine activity. Bumper leachates were dominated by di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and BPA, with concentrations reaching low μg mL(-1) following short immersions in synthetic saliva. Simulated chewing of bumpers during immersion in synthetic saliva increased concentrations of phthalates and BPA as compared to new bumpers, while outdoor storage had variable effects on concentrations (increased DEHP; decreased BPA). Toys leached substantially lower concentrations of phthalates and BPA, with the exception of one toy which leached considerable amounts of diethyl phthalate. In vitro assays indicated anti-androgenic activity of bumper leachates, and estrogenic activity of both bumper and toy leachates. These results confirm that toys and training devices are potential sources of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in pet dogs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Threads: theory of Vygotsky to learning processes and child development in early childhood education mediated by toy construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Tadeu Reina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article has the objectivity to point out some of the threads of the cultural historical theory of Vygotsky partner to the process of learning and development of children in early childhood education mediated by the construction of toys and games. In this direction, looking to approach the foundations of this theory in order to internalize the reader in his work in search of reflections and readings on the theme proposed here.

  17. The material culture of children's play: Space, toys and the commoditization of childhood in a Greek community.

    OpenAIRE

    Gougoulis, G-C

    2004-01-01

    This thesis is an ethnography of children's play in Palaia Phocaea of Attica Greece, with a particular focus on its material aspects: the spaces and objects of children's playful interactions with the social world. The evidence is also used to discuss various theories as to the impact of the commoditization of toys. Chapter 1 introduces the theoretical perspectives adopted throughout the thesis and the key concepts employed such as the notion of interpretive reproduction and cultural appropri...

  18. The material culture of children's play: space, toys and the commoditization of childhood in a Greek community.

    OpenAIRE

    Gougoulis, G-C

    2003-01-01

    This thesis is an ethnography of children's play in Palaia Phocaea of Attica Greece, with a particular focus on its material aspects: the spaces and objects of children's playful interactions with the social world. The evidence is also used to discuss various theories as to the impact of the commoditization of toys. Chapter 1 introduces the theoretical perspectives adopted throughout the thesis and the key concepts employed such as the notion of interpretive reproduction and ...

  19. Analysis of Wooden Toy Manufacturing Costs Through the Application of a Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing System

    OpenAIRE

    PONGWASIT, Ramida; CHOMPU-INWAI, Rungchat

    2016-01-01

    The case study company, which manufactures wooden toys, encounters problems when fixing its product prices, since its experienced owners tend to dictate the prices of all the products, yet do not have available the appropriate product price and cost data. Currently, the company’s product costs are calculated using traditional accounting methods, but these are unable to accurately record the costs associated with the resources used and activities that occur during manufacture. Furthermore, whe...

  20. Evaluation of bone deformities of the femur, tibia, and patella in Toy Poodles with medial patellar luxation using computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukawa, Shinji; Edamura, Kazuya; Tanegashima, Koji; Seki, Mamiko; Teshima, Kenji; Asano, Kazushi; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Hayashi, Kei

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate morphological parameters of the femur, tibia, and patella in Toy Poodles with medial patellar luxation (MPL) using three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) and to compare these parameters between radiography and CT. Thirty-five hindlimbs of Toy Poodles were divided into normal and grade 2 and 4 MPL groups. The anatomical and mechanical lateral proximal femoral angle, anatomical and mechanical lateral distal femoral angle (aLDFA, mLDFA), femoral varus angle (FVA), inclination of the femoral head angle, procurvation angle, anteversion angle (AA), frontal angle of the femoral neck, mechanical medial proximal or distal tibial angle, mechanical cranial proximal or distal tibial angle, tibial plateau angle, tibial torsion angle (TTA), Z angle, relative tibial tuberosity width, ratio of the medial distance of tibial tuberosity to the proximal tibial width (MDTT/PTW), patella size, and the patellar ligament length: patellar length (L:P) ratio were evaluated on radiography and 3D CT. The aLDFA, mLDFA, FVA, and TTA were significantly larger and the AA, MDTT/PTW, and patella were significantly smaller in the grade 4 MPL group. There were significant differences in many parameters between imaging tools, and CT was considered less susceptible to potential artefacts and rotational deformities. Toy Poodles with grade 4 MPL had significant femoral varus deformity, medial displacement of the tibial tuberosity, internal torsion of the proximal tibia, and hypoplasia of the patella.

  1. Utilizing Smart Textiles-Enabled Sensorized Toy and Playful Interactions for Assessment of Psychomotor Development on Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Vega-Barbas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging pervasive technologies like smart textiles make it possible to develop new and more accessible healthcare services for patients independently of their location or time. However, none of these new e-health solutions guarantee a complete user acceptance, especially in cases requiring extensive interaction between the user and the solution. So far, researchers have focused their efforts on new interactions techniques to improve the perception of privacy and confidence of the people using e-health services. In this way, the use of smart everyday objects arises as an interesting approach to facilitate the required interaction and increase user acceptance. Such Smart Daily Objects together with smart textiles provide researchers with a novel way to introduce sophisticated sensor technology in the daily life of people. This work presents a sensorized smart toy for assessment of psychomotor development in early childhood. The aim of this work is to design, develop, and evaluate the usability and playfulness of a smart textile-enabled sensorized toy that facilitates the user engagement in a personalized monitoring healthcare activity. To achieve this objective the monitoring is based on a smart textile sensorized toy as catalyzer of acceptance and multimodal sensing sources to monitor psychomotor development activities during playtime.

  2. Preliminary studies of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry for the determination of Ba, Cd, Cr and Pb in toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoi, Quienly; Santos, Dario, Jr.; Nunes, Lidiane C.; Leme, Flávio O.; Rufini, Iolanda A.; Agnelli, José A. M.; Trevizan, Lilian C.; Krug, Francisco J.

    2009-06-01

    The performance of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) for the determination of Ba, Cd, Cr and Pb in toys has been evaluated by using a Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm and an Echelle spectrometer with intensified charge-coupled device detector. Samples were purchased in different cities of São Paulo State market and analyzed directly without sample preparation. Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry experimental conditions (number of pulses, delay time, integration time gate and pulse energy) were optimized by using a Doehlert design. Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry signals correlated reasonably well with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) concentrations after microwave-assisted acid digestion of selected samples. Thermal analysis was used for polymer identification and scanning electron microscopy to visualize differences in crater geometry of different polymers employed for toy fabrication. Results indicate that laser-induced breakdown spectrometry can be proposed as a rapid screening method for investigation of potentially toxic elements in toys. The unique application of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry for identification of contaminants in successive layers of ink and polymer is also demonstrated.

  3. Locking compression plate stabilization of 20 distal radial and ulnar fractures in toy and miniature breed dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, S; Ragetly, G R; Boudrieau, R J

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate retrospectively the effectiveness of the Locking Compression Plate® (LCP), in the form of either a straight or notched head T-plate, for the treatment of fractures of the distal radius and ulna in a series of 20 toy and miniature breed dogs. The medical records of toy and miniature breed dogs (plate). Twenty fractures (20 dogs) satisfied the inclusion criteria; eight straight and 12 notched head T-plates were used, either 2.0 mm (n = 13) or 2.4 mm (n = 7). Hybrid fixation was performed in all dogs in one or both fragments. Mean time to radiographic union was 6.9 ± 2.5 weeks (range: 4-12 weeks) in 18/20 dogs with radiographic follow-up. One complication was observed: infection that resolved with antibiotic medication and implant removal. No other major complications occurred by the time of last follow-up. In all cases (mean follow-up: 15 ± 7 months), the reported limb function as evaluated by the referring veterinarian or owner was excellent. The LCP, used as a hybrid construct for the treatment of distal radial and ulnar fractures was shown to yield excellent clinical results with both uncomplicated healing and excellent functional outcomes in this series of toy and miniature breed dogs.

  4. Augmented Repair of an Achilles Tendon Rupture Using the Flexor Digitorum Lateralis Tendon in a Toy Poodle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Masaaki

    2016-11-01

    To report appositional augmentation of Achilles tendon rupture in a toy breed dog with an intact flexor digitorum lateralis (FDL) muscle tendon. Clinical case report. Two-year-old spayed female Toy Poodle with Achilles tendon rupture. The Achilles tendon was accidentally ruptured by hair clippers during grooming. The dog demonstrated a plantigrade stance without digital flexion of the right hind limb. The ruptured gastrocnemius and superficial digital flexor tendons were sutured to their respective cut ends using a simple locking loop pattern under a surgical microscope. The repair site was appositionally augmented by the caudally retracted intact FDL. An aluminum splint was applied on the plantar aspect to immobilize the tarsal joint for the first 2 weeks, after which a soft bandage was applied for another 2 weeks. At the 7 month follow-up no lameness was detected during walking and no complications associated with decreased FDL function such as digital contracture were observed. The range of motion of the tarsal joint had improved and could be flexed to ∼60° and extended fully. Use of the FDL is feasible for augmenting Achilles tendon repair in toy breed dogs. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  5. Ghost Images in Helioseismic Holography? Toy Models in a Uniform Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dan

    2018-02-01

    Helioseismic holography is a powerful technique used to probe the solar interior based on estimations of the 3D wavefield. The Porter-Bojarski holography, which is a well-established method used in acoustics to recover sources and scatterers in 3D, is also an estimation of the wavefield, and hence it has the potential of being applied to helioseismology. Here we present a proof-of-concept study, where we compare helioseismic holography and Porter-Bojarski holography under the assumption that the waves propagate in a homogeneous medium. We consider the problem of locating a point source of wave excitation inside a sphere. Under these assumptions, we find that the two imaging methods have the same capability of locating the source, with the exception that helioseismic holography suffers from "ghost images" ( i.e. artificial peaks away from the source location). We conclude that Porter-Bojarski holography may improve the method currently used in helioseismology.

  6. Tyng Toy, 1949. Resonancias desde los inicios de una pionera desconocida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Juárez Chicote

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Anne Griswold Tyng (1920-2011, una de las primeras mujeres que estudia en la GSD de Harvard y coautora con Louis I. Kahn del proyecto de la City Tower –entre otras obras–, desarrolla —y patenta en 1949— el proyecto de un pequeño juguete de madera contrachapada cuyas piezas, organizadas en combinaciones diferentes, pueden ensamblarse formando objetos muy diversos. El proyecto, conocido como Tyng Toy, anticipa el pensamiento investigador de su autora sobre la geometría como “principio de la forma” y condensa las inquietudes de la época y el nuevo sueño de la arquitectura americana tras la segunda guerra mundial. El juguete manifiesta una particular visión del papel del arquitecto como educador social y transformador del medio que le rodea y más allá de la necesidad de reconstrucción que reinaba en los años de posguerra, trasciende los imperativos del momento para hablarnos de otra necesidad paralela y universal: la de reconstruir el universo lúdico, imaginario, educativo y proyectual del ser humano. El pequeño conjunto de cinco piezas de madera, como metáfora simbólica, nos habla de un mundo que es también el nuestro: complejo y ramificado, pedagógico y abierto, y en su planteamiento —sintético e intenso— abarca resonancias universales y profundas.

  7. The terminator "toy" chemistry test: a simple tool to assess errors in transport schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. H. Lauritzen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This test extends the evaluation of transport schemes from prescribed advection of inert scalars to reactive species. The test consists of transporting two interacting chemical species in the Nair and Lauritzen 2-D idealized flow field. The sources and sinks for these two species are given by a simple, but non-linear, "toy" chemistry that represents combination (X + X → X2 and dissociation (X2 → X + X. This chemistry mimics photolysis-driven conditions near the solar terminator, where strong gradients in the spatial distribution of the species develop near its edge. Despite the large spatial variations in each species, the weighted sum XT = X + 2X2 should always be preserved at spatial scales at which molecular diffusion is excluded. The terminator test demonstrates how well the advection–transport scheme preserves linear correlations. Chemistry–transport (physics–dynamics coupling can also be studied with this test. Examples of the consequences of this test are shown for illustration.

  8. From 'Hard' Neuro-Tools to 'Soft' Neuro-Toys? Refocussing the Neuro-Enhancement Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenninkmeijer, Jonna; Zwart, Hub

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1990's, the debate concerning the ethical, legal and societal aspects of 'neuro-enhancement' has evolved into a massive discourse, both in the public realm and in the academic arena. This ethical debate, however, tends to repeat the same sets of arguments over and over again. Normative disagreements between transhumanists and bioconservatives on invasive or radical brain stimulators, and uncertainties regarding the use and effectivity of nootropic pharmaceuticals dominate the field. Building on the results of an extensive European project on responsible research and innovation in neuro-enhancement (NERRI), we observe and encourage that the debate is now entering a new and, as we will argue, more realistic and societally relevant stage. This new stage concerns those technologies that enter the market as ostensibly harmless contrivances that consumers may use for self-care or entertainment. We use the examples and arguments of participants in NERRI debates to describe three case studies of such purportedly innocent 'toys'. Based upon this empirical material, we argue that these 'soft' enhancement gadgets are situated somewhere in the boundary zone between the internal and the external, between the intimate and the intrusive, between the familiar and the unfamiliar, between the friendly and the scary and, in Foucauldian terms, between technologies of the self and technologies of control. Therefore, we describe their physiognomy with the help of a term borrowed from Jacques Lacan, namely as "extimate" technologies.

  9. One of several 'toys' for smoking: young adult experiences with electronic cigarettes in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Emily Anne; Ling, Pamela M

    2015-11-01

    This qualitative research explores the use of electronic cigarettes and other similar 'vapor' delivery devices among young adults in New York City. We employed 17 focus groups followed by 12 semistructured interviews to understand the beliefs, opinions and practices related to the use of electronic cigarettes among young adult smokers (N=87). Participants were mainly daily (52%) and non-daily (41%) smokers. While experimentation with electronic cigarette devices was frequently reported, participants related an overall lack of information about the devices and what they did know often reflected messages in e-cigarette marketing campaigns. Participants also used their own bodily sensations as a way to gauge potential risks and benefits of the products. Finally, young adults, steeped in a culture of personal technologies, perceived e-cigarettes as one more 'toy' among other technologies integrated into their everyday lives. E-cigarettes were also frequently used with other tobacco products, including conventional cigarettes. Our research indicates that public health campaigns may be needed to counter current industry marketing and inform the public that electronic cigarettes are currently unregulated, understudied and contain toxicants and carcinogens. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Self-reported frequency of sex as self-injury (SASI) in a national study of Swedish adolescents and association to sociodemographic factors, sexual behaviors, abuse and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredlund, Cecilia; Svedin, Carl Göran; Priebe, Gisela; Jonsson, Linda; Wadsby, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Sex as self-injury has become a concept in Swedish society; however it is a largely unexplored area of research, not yet conceptualized and far from accepted in the research field. The use of sex as a way of affect regulation is known in the literature and has, in interviews with young women who sell sex, been compared to direct self-injury, such as cutting or burning the skin. The aim of this study was to investigate the self-reported frequency of sex as self-injury and the association to sociodemographic factors, sexual orientation, voluntary sexual experiences, sexual risk-taking behaviors, sexual, physical and mental abuse, trauma symptoms, healthcare for psychiatric disorders and non-suicidal self-injury. A representative national sample of 5750 students in the 3rd year of Swedish high school, with a mean age of 18 years was included in the study. The study was questionnaire-based and the response rate was 59.7%. Mostly descriptive statistics were used and a final logistic regression model was made. Sex as self-injury was reported by 100 (3.2%) of the girls and 20 (.8%) of the boys. Few correlations to sociodemographic factors were noted, but the group was burdened with more experiences of sexual, physical and emotional abuse. Non-heterosexual orientation, trauma symptoms, non-suicidal self-injury and healthcare for suicide attempts, depression and eating disorders were common. Sex used as self-injury seems to be highly associated with earlier traumas such as sexual abuse and poor mental health. It is a behavior that needs to be conceptualized in order to provide proper help and support to a highly vulnerable group of adolescents.

  11. Concentrations of trace metals, phthalates, bisphenol A and flame-retardants in toys and other children's products in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negev, Maya; Berman, Tamar; Reicher, Shay; Sadeh, Maya; Ardi, Ruti; Shammai, Yaniv

    2017-11-02

    Trace metals and synthetic chemicals including phthalates, bisphenol A and flame retardants, are widely used in toys and childcare products, and may pose acute or chronic adverse health effects in children. In Israel, certain chemicals are regulated in childcare products, but there are still regulatory gaps. We tested regulated and unregulated contaminants in 174 item parts from 70 childcare items with potentially high oral or dermal exposure, including 22 children's jewelry items, 14 toys, 7 diaper-changing mats, 6 baby mattresses, 7 baby textiles and 14 feeding and bathing items. In children's jewelry, an unregulated product in Israel, 23% of samples exceeded the US standard for lead. In toys, a regulated product, we did not detect trace metals above the Israeli standard. In textiles, baby mattresses and diaper-changing mats, phthalates exceeded the European Union standard in 14-45% of tests with a mean of 6.74% by mass for diisononyl phthalate, and 1.32% by mass for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. BPA migration exceeded the EU standard in 14-45% of tests with a mean of 1.03 ppm. The flame retardants polybrominated biphenyls, pentabromodiphenyl, octabromodiphenyl ether, tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate and tris-(aziridinyl)-phosphine oxide were not detected. For products regulated in Israel, our findings suggest general compliance with mandatory standards. However, a lack of comprehensive chemical regulation means that there are regulatory gaps, and products not regulated in Israel may contain high levels of chemical contamination, exceeding US or EU regulations. The results of this study have prompted the development of an Israeli safety standard for children's jewelry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Learning Science from Toys: A Pathway to Successful Integrated STEM Teaching and Learning in Thai Middle School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raksapol Thananuwong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A textbook, Science of Toys, developed by the Secondary Science Department of the Institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology (IPST, is designed to be used in an elective course of the Thai middle school science curriculum. The book contains lessons and learning activities that offer students opportunities to learn science in an integrated approach; that is, students learn scientific concepts and principles such as center of gravity, electronics and simple machines through inquiring and designing, building, testing and playing with toys. An investigation on opinions and suggestions from teachers and students who have used a trial version of the book was undertaken. Three teachers and a total of 124 students from Grade 7 to Grade 9 participated. Data were collected through interviews, questionnaires and classroom observations. The results show that all students and teachers were very satisfied with the content, learning activities and integrated approach of the book. Because of the comparable features between the approach in the textbook and the STEM Guiding Principles (Vasquez, Sneider and Comer, 2013, the results suggest that the approach of teaching science through toys as described in the textbook could have promising implications on teaching and learning integrated STEM in Thai middle school. To be more conclusive on the implications, further investigations are needed to answer several questions; for example, Would STEM literacy and learning achievement of students improve after learning integrated STEM under the approach? Which level of integration (Vasquez, Sneider and Comer, 2013 gives the best results? Could the same approach be applied to teach mathematics? Much more data from teachers and students from all types of schools are also needed.

  13. Inside the ordering room: characteristics of women's in-home sex toy parties, facilitators and sexual communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbenick, Debra; Reece, Michael; Hollub, Ariane

    2009-12-01

    Previous research suggests that adult bookstores are a unique way through which individuals may learn about sexuality or practice sexual communication. Recently, the woman-oriented in-home sex toy party industry has rapidly expanded in several countries. The purpose of this study was to document the characteristics of the parties, the women who run the parties ('facilitators') and facilitator-consumer communication about sexual health topics. Female facilitators for a large in-home sex toy party company in the USA were invited to participate in an anonymous, cross-sectional online survey. A total of 1197 completed surveys were received. Most respondents were white (85.2%), heterosexual (91.6%), had at least some college education (76.3%) and were married (59.4%). Most parties were held in another woman's home (88.3%), lasted 1-2 h (72.2%) and had 10 or fewer women in attendance (65.1%). At their most recent party facilitated, most respondents were asked questions about increasing desire/arousal (75.3%), orgasm (57.8%), desire discrepancy (56.4%), erection and ejaculation (73.8%), and vaginal dryness and lubrication (64.5%). Respondents who encountered sexual health questions or disclosures by consumers (those that were more 'askable') scored significantly higher on the Sexual Opinion Survey, indicating greater erotophilia. Results suggest that female in-home sex toy party facilitators have the potential to provide a diverse group of women with opportunities to access sexuality information, products and communication and that facilitators' 'askability' is related to erotophilia. Implications for sexual health professionals are discussed.

  14. Differences in energy balance-related behaviours in European preschool children: the ToyBox-study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke De Craemer

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to compare levels of energy balance-related behaviours (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and dietary behaviours (more specifically water consumption, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and unhealthy snacking in four- to six-year-old preschoolers from six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland, and Spain within the ToyBox cross-sectional study.A sample of 4,045 preschoolers (4.77 ± 0.43 years; 52.2% boys had valid physical activity data (steps per day, parents of 8,117 preschoolers (4.78 ± 0.46 years; 53.0% boys completed a parental questionnaire with questions on sedentary behaviours (television viewing, computer use, and quiet play, and parents of 7,244 preschoolers (4.77 ± 0.44 years; 52.0% boys completed a food frequency questionnaire with questions on water consumption, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and unhealthy snacking.The highest levels of physical activity were found in Spain (12,669 steps/day on weekdays, while the lowest levels were found in Bulgaria and Greece (9,777 and 9,656 steps/day on weekdays, respectively. German preschoolers spent the least amount of time in television viewing (43.3 min/day on weekdays, while Greek preschoolers spent the most time in television viewing (88.5 min/day on weekdays. A considerable amount of time was spent in quiet play in all countries, with the highest levels in Poland (104.9 min/day on weekdays, and the lowest levels in Spain (60.4 min/day on weekdays. Belgian, German, and Polish preschoolers had the lowest intakes of water and the highest intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages. The intake of snacks was the highest in Belgian preschoolers (73.1 g/day and the lowest in Greek preschoolers (53.3 g/day.Across six European countries, differences in preschoolers' energy balance-related behaviours were found. Future interventions should target European preschoolers' energy balance-related behaviours simultaneously, but should

  15. A randomized clinical trial in preterm infants on the effects of a home-based early intervention with the 'CareToy System'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sgandurra, Giuseppina; Lorentzen, Jakob; Inguaggiato, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    of Standard Care. Infant Motor Profile (IMP) was primary outcome measure, Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) and Teller Acuity Cards were secondary ones. Assessments were carried out at baseline (T0) and at the end of CareToy training or Standard Care period (T1). T1 was the primary endpoint. After RCT phase...... (PCards, while no differences between groups were found for AIMS. No differences were found in any outcome measure results (T2-T0), between infants who started CareToy training before or after...

  16. Sucata vira brinquedo: tradução a partir de restos Scraps turn into toys: translations made from rubbish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Aranha de Queiroz e Melo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, chamamos a atenção para a necessidade de assumirmos a responsabilidade sobre o destino de nosso lixo, propondo para ele uma nova utilização. Tomamos a Teoria Ator-Rede como instrumento teórico metodológico para seguir a ação desenvolvida por uma das equipes da Brinquedoteca da Universidade no que chamamos de Projeto Sucata cujo objetivo tem sido transformar sucata em brinquedo com um grupo de crianças de uma comunidade de baixo poder aquisitivo de uma cidade mineira, tendo os conceitos de tradução e mediação como suportes para a descrição das transformações operadas nas partes envolvidas.In this article we call attention to the necessity of taking responsibility for the destination of the waste we generate, proposing an alternative use. The Actor-Network Theory was used as a theoretical methodological instrument for the Projeto Sucata (Scrap Project developed by the staff of the Brinquedoteca da Universidade (University's Toy Library and whose goal has been to transform waste scraps into toys with the participation of children from a low-income neighborhood of a city in Minas Gerais. Translation and mediation were used as concepts for describing the process of transformation that occurred among all the parts involved.

  17. [Determination of bisphenol A from toys and food contact materials by derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yonggang; Zhang, Yanyan; Gao, Jianguo; Zhang, Huiling; Zheng, Lisha; Chen, Jing

    2012-10-01

    A method was developed for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA) in toys and food contact materials. The BPA was extracted with Soxhlet extraction method from the sample and reacted with acetic anhydride. The final product was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). To achieve the optimum derivatization performance, the derivatization time and dosage of derivatization reagent etc. were investigated. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the final product was stable and the peak shape was good. The linearity of the derivative was good in the range of 0.05 to 50 mg/L with the correlation coefficient (r2) above 0.999. The recoveries ranged from 80% to 93% at the spiked levels of 0.05, 1.00, 10.00 mg/kg with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 3.7%. The limit of detection (S/N = 3) was 10 microg/kg. The method is accurate and has high recovery. The method is suitable for the inspection of bisphenol A in toys and food contact materials.

  18. Use of a 1.5 mm butterfly locking plate for stabilization of atlantoaxial pathology in three toy breed dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickomeit, M; Alves, L; Pekarkova, M; Gorgas, D; Forterre, F

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the use of a titanium 1.5 mm locking plate in the stabilization of atlantoaxial pathology in three toy breed dogs. Two dogs with atlantoaxial subluxation and another dog with an axial fracture, confirmed by diagnostic imaging, were stabilized via a ventral approach with a 1.5 mm titanium 5-hole locking butterfly-plate. Surgical reduction and stabilization were assessed by computed tomography and radiography after surgery. Follow-up evaluation for resolution of neurological signs and possible complications was performed in all three dogs. For long-term assessment, a telephone follow-up was performed. A considerable improvement of neurological signs occurred within two to four weeks after surgery. An excellent clinical outcome was identified in all three patients. Adequate stabilization and resolution of neurological signs in all three dogs was achieved. The stabilization of atlantoaxial surgical conditions in toy breeds with the 1.5 mm titanium 5-hole butterfly locking plate appears to be an effective means of surgical treatment.

  19. RESCUING THE TOY IN ITS TRANSFORMATIONS AND INFLUENCES: study with middle aged people and senior people from the rural and urban area of the cities of Venâncio Aires and Mato Leitão – RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Beatriz Heisler

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional toys and games are part of the recreational culture, handed down from generation to generation. Facing the current transformations, it is possible to realize the necessity to rescue these games. This study aims to describe the toys used by middle aged and the senior citizens from the country and urban areas of the cities of Venâncio Aires e Mato Leitão – RS in their childhood and of those toys, which ones were experienced by their children and, or are experienced by their grandchildren. 70 individuals of both sexes (20 male and 50 female between 50 and 80 years old constitute the subjects of this study. The methodology approach is characterized as an exploratory description study in which structured questionnaires on the topic and objectives of the study were applied, forming direct questions, adapted from Burgos. As a result of this study, it was observed that the toys which were most used by the subjects in their childhood are the rag doll, soapbox car and four wheel cart. The toys were handcrafted, parents taught their children mainly how to build the toys, although the majority of the seniors did not learn to build these toys and do not know the origin of the toys. Most games were played in the fields and in the yard and, mainly on weekends, and the games were play house, ride downhill or down the field on the soapbox car and hide and seek. The four wheel cart and the rag doll were the toys used in their childhood and experienced by the children. The grandchildren use as toys the video game, computers, remote control toy cars, balls and dolls. To the subjects in the study, the toys are modern and technological, and are purchased not handcrafted anymore. Therefore, it is noticed that toys are not handed down to the new generations, and facing the current transformations it is important to rescue the richness of different cultures, establishing social relations and group interaction which is important for the development of the

  20. Cancer risk assessment of azo dyes and aromatic amines from tattoo bands, folders of paper, toys, bed clothes, watch straps and ink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeilmaker MJ; Kranen HJ van; Veen MP van; Janus J; LBM

    2000-01-01

    A quantitative assessment was performed to estimate the cancer risk to individuals using tattoo bands, folders of paper, toys, bed clothes, watch straps and ink which are coloured with azo dyes. In these products benzidine and the benzidine related amines o-anisidine, 2,4-toluenediamine,

  1. How the Elderly Can Use Scientific Knowledge to Solve Problems While Designing Toys: A Retrospective Analysis of the Design of a Working UFO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Yung; Hong, Jon-Chao; Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Wong, Wan-Tzu

    2013-01-01

    The venerable aphorism "an old dog cannot learn new tricks" implies that the elderly rarely learn anything new--in particular, scientific knowledge. On the basis of "learning by doing," the present study emphasized knowledge application (KA) as elderly subjects collaborated on the design of a toy flying saucer (UFO). Three…

  2. 16 CFR 1500.50 - Test methods for simulating use and abuse of toys and other articles intended for use by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... articles intended for use by children as well as the reasonably foreseeable damage or abuse to which the... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test methods for simulating use and abuse of toys and other articles intended for use by children. 1500.50 Section 1500.50 Commercial Practices...

  3. The Development of Sex Role Stereotypes in the Third Year: Relationships to Gender Labeling, Gender Identity, Sex-Typed Toy Preference, and Family Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinraub, Marsha; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The onset and development of preschoolers' awareness of sex role stereotypes, gender labeling, gender identity, and sex-typed toy preference were explored in 26-, 31-, and 36-month-old children. Family characteristics that affect early sex role development also were investigated. (Author/RH)

  4. Israeli Kindergarten Children's Gender Constancy for Others' Counter-Stereotypic Toy Play and Appearance: The Role of Sibling Gender and Relative Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karniol, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    To test divergent theoretical predictions as to the impact of having a younger or older, same-sex sibling or opposite-sex sibling on other gender constancy, Israeli kindergarten children in two-child families responded to a gender constancy task in which a male and female picture target engaged in counter-stereotypic toy play and adopted…

  5. In-Home Sex Toy Party Facilitators as Sex Educators: What Questions Are They Asked and What Makes Them More "Askable"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbenick, Debra; Reece, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Data from an Internet-based survey of 1,197 women who facilitate in-home sex toy parties in the United States were analyzed to explore facilitators' potential to serve as resources for sexual health promotion. Findings indicate that many facilitators had had sexuality education or work experience related to health, education, or sexuality. Also,…

  6. Using the intervention mapping protocol to reduce European preschoolers' sedentary behavior, an application to the ToyBox-Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Decker, Ellen; De Craemer, Marieke; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Verbestel, Vera; Duvinage, Kristin; Iotova, Violeta; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Wildgruber, Andreas; Mouratidou, Theodora; Manios, Yannis; Cardon, Greet

    2014-02-19

    High levels of sedentary behavior are often measured in preschoolers, but only a few interventions have been developed to counteract this. Furthermore, detailed descriptions of interventions in preschoolers targeting different forms of sedentary behavior could not be located in the literature. The aim of the present paper was to describe the different steps of the Intervention Mapping Protocol used towards the development of an intervention component of the ToyBox-study focusing on decreasing preschoolers' sedentary behavior. The ToyBox-study focuses on the prevention of overweight in 4- to 6-year-old children by implementing a multi-component kindergarten-based intervention with family involvement in six different European countries. Applying the Intervention Mapping Protocol, six different steps were systematically completed for the structured planning and development of the intervention. A literature search and results from focus groups with parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers were used as a guide during the development of the intervention and the intervention materials. The application of the different steps in the Intervention Mapping Protocol resulted in the creation of matrices of change objectives, followed by the selection of practical applications for five different intervention tools that could be used at the individual level of the preschool child, at the interpersonal level (i.e., parents/caregivers) and at the organizational level (i.e., kindergarten teachers). No cultural differences regarding preschoolers' sedentary behavior were identified between the participating countries during the focus groups, so cultural and local adaptations of the intervention materials were not necessary to improve the adoption and implementation of the intervention. A systematic and evidence-based approach was used for the development of this kindergarten-based family-involved intervention targeting preschoolers, with the inclusion of parental involvement. The

  7. Using the intervention mapping protocol to reduce European preschoolers’ sedentary behavior, an application to the ToyBox-Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background High levels of sedentary behavior are often measured in preschoolers, but only a few interventions have been developed to counteract this. Furthermore, detailed descriptions of interventions in preschoolers targeting different forms of sedentary behavior could not be located in the literature. The aim of the present paper was to describe the different steps of the Intervention Mapping Protocol used towards the development of an intervention component of the ToyBox-study focusing on decreasing preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. The ToyBox-study focuses on the prevention of overweight in 4- to 6-year-old children by implementing a multi-component kindergarten-based intervention with family involvement in six different European countries. Methods Applying the Intervention Mapping Protocol, six different steps were systematically completed for the structured planning and development of the intervention. A literature search and results from focus groups with parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers were used as a guide during the development of the intervention and the intervention materials. Results The application of the different steps in the Intervention Mapping Protocol resulted in the creation of matrices of change objectives, followed by the selection of practical applications for five different intervention tools that could be used at the individual level of the preschool child, at the interpersonal level (i.e., parents/caregivers) and at the organizational level (i.e., kindergarten teachers). No cultural differences regarding preschoolers’ sedentary behavior were identified between the participating countries during the focus groups, so cultural and local adaptations of the intervention materials were not necessary to improve the adoption and implementation of the intervention. Conclusions A systematic and evidence-based approach was used for the development of this kindergarten-based family-involved intervention targeting preschoolers, with

  8. Children's exposure to harmful elements in toys and low-cost jewelry: Characterizing risks and developing a comprehensive approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guney, Mert; Zagury, Gerald J., E-mail: gerald.zagury@polymtl.ca

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Risk for children up to 3 years-old was characterized considering oral exposure. • Saliva mobilization, ingestion of parts and of scraped-off material were considered. • Ingestion of parts caused hazard index (HI) values >>for Cd, Ni, and Pb exposure. • HI were lower (but > for saliva mobilization and <1 for scraped material ingestion. • Comprehensive approach aims to deal with drawbacks of current toy safety approaches. - Abstract: Contamination problem in jewelry and toys and children's exposure possibility have been previously demonstrated. For this study, risk from oral exposure has been characterized for highly contaminated metallic toys and jewelry ((MJ), n = 16) considering three scenarios. Total and bioaccessible concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb were high in selected MJ. First scenario (ingestion of parts or pieces) caused unacceptable risk for eight items for Cd, Ni, and/or Pb (hazard index (HI) > 1, up to 75, 5.8, and 43, respectively). HI for ingestion of scraped-off material scenario was always <1. Finally, saliva mobilization scenario caused HI > 1 in three samples (two for Cd, one for Ni). Risk characterization identified different potentially hazardous items compared to United States, Canadian, and European Union approaches. A comprehensive approach was also developed to deal with complexity and drawbacks caused by various toy/jewelry definitions, test methods, exposure scenarios, and elements considered in different regulatory approaches. It includes bioaccessible limits for eight priority elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Sb). Research is recommended on metals bioaccessibility determination in toys/jewelry, in vitro bioaccessibility test development, estimation of material ingestion rates and frequency, presence of hexavalent Cr and organic Sn, and assessment of prolonged exposure to MJ.

  9. From Playroom to Lab: Tough Stretchable Electronics Analyzed with a Tabletop Tensile Tester Made from Toy-Bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Richard; Kettlgruber, Gerald; Siket, Christian M; Drack, Michael; Graz, Ingrid M; Cakmak, Umut; Major, Zoltan; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Bauer, Siegfried

    2016-04-01

    Toy bricks are an ideal platform for the cost-effective rapid prototyping of a tabletop tensile tester with measurement accuracy on par with expensive, commercially available laboratory equipment. Here, a tester is presented that is not only a versatile demonstration device in mechanics, electronics, and physics education and an eye-catcher on exhibitions, but also a powerful tool for stretchable electronics research. Following the "open-source movement" the build-up of the tester is described and all the details for easy reproduction are disclosed. A a new design of highly conformable all-elastomer based graded rigid island printed circuit boards is developed. Tough bonded to this elastomer substrate are imperceptible electronic foils bearing conductors and off-the-shelf microelectronics, paving the way for next generation smart electronic appliances.

  10. Developing a System for Processing Health Data of Children Using Digitalized Toys: Ethical and Privacy Concerns for the Internet of Things Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Ruíz, María Luisa; Fernández-Aller, Celia; Portillo, Eloy; Malagón, Javier; Del Barrio, Cristina

    2017-08-16

    EDUCERE (Ubiquitous Detection Ecosystem to Care and Early Stimulation for Children with Developmental Disorders) is a government funded research and development project. EDUCERE objectives are to investigate, develop, and evaluate innovative solutions for society to detect changes in psychomotor development through the natural interaction of children with toys and everyday objects, and perform stimulation and early attention activities in real environments such as home and school. In the EDUCERE project, an ethical impact assessment is carried out linked to a minors' data protection rights. Using a specific methodology, the project has achieved some promising results. These include use of a prototype of smart toys to detect development difficulties in children. In addition, privacy protection measures which take into account the security concerns of health data, have been proposed and applied. This latter security framework could be useful in other Internet of Things related projects. It consists of legal and technical measures. Special attention has been placed in the transformation of bulk data such as acceleration and jitter of toys into health data when patterns of atypical development are found. The article describes the different security profiles in which users are classified.

  11. The use of nouns and verbs by Japanese children and their caregivers in book-reading and toy-playing contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Tamiko; Dale, Philip S; Yamashita, Yukie; Murase, Toshiki; Mahieu, Aki

    2006-02-01

    Japanese provides a valuable contrast for crosslinguistic studies of noun and verb dominance in early child language, and the effect of input on the early lexicon. In this study, 31 Japanese children between 1;0 and 2;0 and their caregivers were recorded in two contexts: joint bookreading and play with toys. Context had the largest effect, as nouns were much more frequent in the book context. Noun dominance was constant across development in the book context, but in the toy context there was a shift away as children developed from single words through the presyntactic stage to the syntactic stage. Caregiver language was verb dominant in a number of respects across development in the toy context, and thus was not closely related to child lexical balance. We conclude that in early lexical development, all children have a conceptual disposition to learn nouns. With vocabulary growth and the emergence of grammar, the proportion of verbs increases substantially, and at this stage properties of the input language may influence development.

  12. Process evaluation design and tools used in a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention to prevent obesity in early childhood. The ToyBox-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androutsos, O; Apostolidou, E; Iotova, V; Socha, P; Birnbaum, J; Moreno, L; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Koletzko, B; Manios, Y

    2014-08-01

    Process evaluation (PE) is used for the in-depth evaluation of the implementation process of health promotion programmes. The aim of the current paper was to present the PE design and tools used in the ToyBox-intervention. The PE design was based on a three-step approach, including the identification of ToyBox-specific PE elements (step 1), the development of PE tools and harmonization of procedures (step 2), and the implementation of PE using standardized protocol and tools across the intervention countries (step 3). Specifically, to evaluate the implementation of the intervention, teachers' monthly logbooks were recorded (dose delivered, fidelity, dose received); post-intervention questionnaires were completed by parents/caregivers and teachers (dose received); participation and attrition rates were recorded (recruitment, reach); and audit questionnaires and retrospective information on weather conditions were collected (physical and social environment within which the intervention was implemented). Regarding the teachers' training sessions, the researchers who performed the trainings completed evaluation forms and documented teachers' attendance after each training (dose delivered, fidelity, dose received) and teachers completed evaluation forms after each training (dose received). The PE performed in the ToyBox-intervention may contribute in the evaluation of its effectiveness, guide the revision of the intervention material and provide insights for future health promotion programmes and public health policy. © 2014 World Obesity.

  13. Hacking and securing the AR.Drone 2.0 quadcopter: investigations for improving the security of a toy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleban, Johann-Sebastian; Band, Ricardo; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2014-02-01

    In this article we describe the security problems of the Parrot AR.Drone 2.0 quadcopter. Due to the fact that it is promoted as a toy with low acquisition costs, it may end up being used by many individuals which makes it a target for harmful attacks. In addition, the videostream of the drone could be of interest for a potential attacker due to its ability of revealing confidential information. Therefore, we will perform a security threat analysis on this particular drone. We will set the focus mainly on obvious security vulnerabilities like the unencrypted Wi-Fi connection or the user management of the GNU/Linux operating system which runs on the drone. We will show how the drone can be hacked in order to hijack the AR.Drone 2.0. Our aim is to sensitize the end-user of AR.Drones by describing the security vulnerabilities and to show how the AR.Drone 2.0 could be secured from unauthorized access. We will provide instructions to secure the drones Wi-Fi connection and its operation with the official Smartphone App and third party PC software.

  14. Social interaction, food, scent or toys? A formal assessment of domestic pet and shelter cat (Felis silvestris catus) preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale Shreve, Kristyn R; Mehrkam, Lindsay R; Udell, Monique A R

    2017-08-01

    Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) engage in a variety of relationships with humans and can be conditioned to engage in numerous behaviors using Pavlovian and operant methods Increasingly cat cognition research is providing evidence of their complex socio-cognitive and problem solving abilities. Nonetheless, it is still common belief that cats are not especially sociable or trainable. This disconnect may be due, in part, to a lack of knowledge of what stimuli cats prefer, and thus may be most motivated to work for. The current study investigated domestic cat preferences at the individual and population level using a free operant preference assessment. Adult cats from two populations (pet and shelter) were presented with three stimuli within each of the following four categories: human social interaction, food, toy, and scent. Proportion of time interacting with each stimulus was recorded. The single most-preferred stimulus from each of the four categories were simultaneously presented in a final session to determine each cat's most-preferred stimulus overall. Although there was clear individual variability in cat preference, social interaction with humans was the most-preferred stimulus category for the majority of cats, followed by food. This was true for cats in both the pet and shelter population. Future research can examine the use of preferred stimuli as enrichment in applied settings and assess individual cats' motivation to work for their most-preferred stimulus as a measure of reinforcer efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 16 CFR 1500.47 - Method for determining the sound pressure level produced by toy caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... decibels from 50 hertz to 70 kilohertz or beyond and a dynamic range covering the interval 70 to 160 decibels relative to 20 micronewtons per square meters. Depending on the model, the microphone shall be... accurate to within ±1 decibel. If the calibration is of the pressure type or of the piston-phone plus...

  16. 16 CFR 1500.18 - Banned toys and other banned articles intended for use by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... other products, and the potential costs to consumers are likely to be offset by the availability of... availability of substitutes and the expected low cost of modifying dive sticks to conform to the rule, the... recalls because the impalement hazard affects all dive sticks, not a specific brand or model. Awaiting...

  17. Playing with a Concept: Teaching Job Characteristics Model with a Tinkertoy[R] Builder Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrt, Diana Lazarova; Nelson, Reed Elliot

    2013-01-01

    Using a toy construction set, we introduce to students the job characteristics model in a fun and engaging way. The activity not only describes the theoretical variables of the model but also allows students to (a) experience the dynamic interaction among these variables and (b) gain a better, hands-on understanding of the model. The exercise…

  18. Electrically Charged Matter in Permanent Rotation around Magnetized Black Holes: A Toy Model for Self-gravitating Fluid Tori

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trova, Audrey; Karas, Vladimír; Slaný, P.; Kovář, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 226, č. 1 (2016), 12/1-12/16 ISSN 0067-0049 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37086G Grant - others:COST(XE) LD15061; COST(XE) MP1304 Program:LD Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : gravitation * magnetic fields * numerical methods Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 8.955, year: 2016

  19. Sexual behaviours, sex toy and sexual safety methods reported by women who have sex with women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Vanessa; Dodge, Brian; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Baldwin, Aleta; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2015-08-01

    Background Relative to women who engage in sex with exclusively men or women, women who have sex with women and men (WSWM) are more likely to report a history of sexually transmissible infections. Knowledge of the diversity and specificity of the sexual behaviours in which they engage may provide insight into the behavioural modes of infection. The present study sought to document a range of behaviours including concurrent multi-person sexual activity (e.g. orgy, threesome), anal sexual activity and sex toy use. Barrier use methods during specific behaviours were also assessed. Eighty women who reported recent genital contact with at least one man and one woman were recruited via targeted Internet, venue-based and snowball sampling methods. Consenting participants were directed to an online survey. During an in-person timeline follow-back interview (the SEQUENCE(©) calendar method), a subset of participants (n=53) provided detailed sexual behaviour data for each sexual partner over the previous 12 months. Almost three-quarters of the sample reported at least one concurrent multi-person sexual activity. Nearly two-thirds of participants reported engaging in sexual behaviour that involved their own (66.7%) or their partner's (49.4%) anus in the past year. Barrier use for sexual behaviours other than penile-vaginal intercourse was uncommon. Behaviours and safety strategies were similar with men and women regardless of partner gender. The sexual repertoires reported by participants in this study were diverse. Understanding the range of diverse sexual behaviours of the participants may enable the construction of tailored recommendations for sexual health maintenance among WSWM.

  20. Clustering of energy balance-related behaviours and parental education in European preschool children: the ToyBox study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Berges, María L; Zachari, Konstantina; Santaliestra-Pasias, Alba M; Mouratidou, Theodora; Androutsos, Odysseas; Iotova, Violeta; Galcheva, Sonya; De Craemer, Marieke; Cardon, Greet; Koletzko, Berthold; Kulaga, Zbigniew; Manios, Yannis; Moreno, Luis A

    2017-12-01

    Energy balance-related behaviours (EBRB) are established in childhood and seem to persist through to adulthood. A lower parental educational level was associated with unhealthy behavioural patterns. The aim of the study is to identify clusters of EBRB and examine their association with preschool children's BMI and maternal, paternal and parental education. A subsample of the ToyBox study (n 5387) conducted in six European countries was used. Six behavioural clusters ('healthy diet and low activity', 'active', 'healthy lifestyle', 'high water and screen time; low fruits and vegetables (F&V) and physical activity (PA)', 'unhealthy lifestyle' and 'high F&V consumers') emerged. The healthiest group characterised by high water and F&V consumption and high PA z scores ('healthy lifestyle') was more prevalent among preschool children with at least one medium- or higher-educated parent and showed markedly healthier trends for all the included EBRB. In the opposite, the 'unhealthy lifestyle' cluster (characterised by high soft drinks and screen time z scores, and low water, F&V and PA z scores) was more prevalent among children with lower parental, paternal and maternal education levels. OR identified that children with lower maternal, paternal and parental education levels were less likely to be allocated in the 'healthy lifestyle' cluster and more likely to be allocated in the 'unhealthy lifestyle' cluster. The 'unhealthy lifestyle' cluster was more prevalent among children with parents in lower parental educational levels and children who were obese. Therefore, parental educational level is one of the key factors that should be considered when developing childhood obesity prevention interventions.

  1. Concepts and strategies on how to train and motivate teachers to implement a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention to prevent obesity in early childhood. The ToyBox-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payr, A; Birnbaum, J; Wildgruber, A; Kreichauf, S; Androutsos, O; Lateva, M; De Decker, E; De Craemer, M; Iotova, V; Manios, Y; Koletzko, B

    2014-08-01

    The key person for the implementation of kindergarten-based behavioural interventions is the kindergarten teacher. When conducting intervention studies in kindergartens, training sessions are needed to train and motivate kindergarten teachers for programme implementation. This paper presents the systematic development of the teachers' trainings executed in the ToyBox-intervention - a kindergarten-based and family-involved obesity prevention programme for children aged 4-6. Based on concepts for the education of kindergarten teachers, on general strategies for successful programme implementation and on the ToyBox programme-specific requirements, the aims of the teachers' trainings were defined and an overall concept was deduced. Regarding the concept for the ToyBox teachers' training sessions, it is concluded that the training modules should focus on presenting information on the practical implementation of the intervention. Furthermore, these modules should also include self-efficacy enhancing components and should give kindergarten teachers opportunities to share experiences. Regarding the didactic methods applied in the ToyBox teachers' training sessions, constructivist learning approaches that facilitate active participation, reflective thinking and personal involvement were implemented. Emphasis was put not only on the content but especially on the didactic methods of teachers' trainings in order to enhance devotion to, and quality and sustainability of the ToyBox-intervention. © 2014 World Obesity.

  2. The enzyme-substrate complex as a cat state: A toy quantum analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlichny, George

    2017-12-01

    We introduce a quantum model system incorporating qualitative aspects of tunneling in enzyme action and analyze the possibilities of quantum superposition of several conformations of the enzyme-substrate complex. There is a potential barrier in each conformation which for simplicity's sake is assumed to be of zero width making the system explicitly solvable. Such a system exhibits generic features of quantum dynamics that should be present to some extent in real enzyme action. We find that depending on the parameters of the system, the rate of conversion of substrate to product can be either enhanced or suppressed in relation to the rates that can be achieved in fixed conformations. There are also solutions in which a component of the quantum state exists as a bound state, something that cannot happen in a fixed conformation. This may provide some measure of stability to the complex. Paradoxically enough, superposition of a finite barrier with an infinite barrier can also enhance the conversion of substrate to product in relation to the finite barrier alone. We suggest that binding to a superposition of conformations could be preferred in relation to binding to a fixed conformation, and analyze the conditions in living cells that could support enzyme action by conformations in superposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of stem-cell sheets expressing bone morphogenetic protein-7 in the management of a nonunion radial fracture in a Toy Poodle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jaeyong; Kim, Yongsun; Kweon, Oh-Kyeong; Kang, Byung-Jae

    2017-12-31

    A 12-year-old castrated Toy Poodle was referred to the Kangwon National University Animal Hospital with an oligotrophic nonunion fracture in the distal 1/3 of the left radius and an intact ulna. After fixation by a locking plate and screws, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem-cell sheets expressing bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) were transplanted to the fracture site to enhance the healing activity. The fracture was healed at 9 weeks after surgery. In the present case, the mesenchymal stem-cell sheets expressing BMP-7 promoted bone regeneration and healing in a nonunion fracture.

  4. The Finslerian wormhole models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahaman, Farook; Paul, Nupur; Banerjee, Ayan [Jadavpur University, Department of Mathematics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); De, S.S. [University of Calcutta, Department of Applied Mathematics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Usmani, A.A. [Aligarh Muslim University, Department of Physics, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2016-05-15

    We present models of wormhole under the Finslerian structure of spacetime. This is a sequel of our previous work (Eur Phys J 75:564, 2015) where we constructed a toy model for compact stars based on the Finslerian spacetime geometry. In the present investigation, a wide variety of solutions are obtained, which explore the wormhole geometry by considering different choices for the form function and energy density. The solutions, like in the previous work, are revealed to be physically interesting and viable models for the explanation of wormholes as far as the background theory and literature are concerned. (orig.)

  5. Virtual and Physical Toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Eva; Brooks, Tony

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the integrated toy—both physical and virtual—as an essential resource for collaborative learning. This learning incorporates rehabilitation, training, and education. The data derived from two different cases. Pedagogical issues related to non-formal learning and open...

  6. Simultaneous GC-MS determination of eight phthalates in total and migrated portions of plasticized polymeric toys and childcare articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Natsheh, Mais; Alawi, Mahmoud; Fayyad, Manar; Tarawneh, Ibrahim

    2015-03-15

    A gas chromatography/mass spectrometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of eight phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in toys and child care articles that are made of plasticized plastic. The novel method was used to determine the total concentration of the PAEs in addition to the migrated PAEs values into artificial saliva, under conditions that simulate real life situations. The extraction method, which was developed for the first time to determine the total concentration of PAEs, utilized a novel optimization of four parameters involving the solvent, time, temperature and weight of sample. The PAEs were extracted with tetrahydrofuran, as extraction the solvent, and using the ultrasonic water bath shaker for 30min, at room temperature. Another extraction method was developed to determine the migrated PAEs into artificial saliva at pH 6.2 and 37°C, implementing a liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform. Both methods were subjected to validation steps in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy and recovery, which ensured that all obtained results were well within the norms of acceptable limits and specifications. The analytes were separated at the following retention times: 4.99, 5.21, 5.31, 6.63, 7.41, 9.05min for di-"isobutyl" phthalate (DIBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-methoxyethyl)phthalate (DMEP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), respectively. The chromatographic peaks corresponding to di-"isononyl" phthalate (DINP) and di-"isononyl" phthalate (DIDP), were separated, using the extracted ion chromatogram (EIC) mode within the time ranges of 8.05-12.10min for DINP and 8.50-14.50min for DIDP. The instrument detection limits for DIBP, DBP, DMEP, BBP, DEHP, DnOP, DINP and DIDP were determined at 0.100, 0.100, 0.045, 0.035, 0.015, 0.370, 0.320, 0.260μg/ml, respectively. The calibration curve working ranges were determined at 0.5-25μg/ml for DIBP, DBP, DMEP, BBP and DEHP, 2-100μg/ml for

  7. Wrist range of motion and motion frequency during toy and game play with a joint-specific controller specially designed to provide neuromuscular therapy: A proof of concept study in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisco, Joseph J; Schwartz, Joel B; Wilcox, Bethany; Brideau, Holly; Basseches, Benjamin; Kerman, Karen

    2015-08-20

    Upper extremities affected by hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) and other neuromuscular disorders have been demonstrated to benefit from therapy, and the greater the duration of the therapy, the greater the benefit. A great motivator for participating in and extending the duration of therapy with children is play. Our focus is on active motion therapy of the wrist and forearm. In this study we examine the wrist motions associated with playing with two toys and three computer games controlled by a specially-designed play controller. Twenty children (ages 5-11) with no diagnosis of a muscular disorder were recruited. The play controller was fitted to the wrist and forearm of each child and used to measure and log wrist flexion and extension. Play activity and enjoyment were quantified by average wrist range of motion (ROM), motion frequency measures, and a discrete visual scale. We found significant differences in the average wrist ROM and motion frequency among the toys and games, yet there were no differences in the level of enjoyment across all toys and games, which was high. These findings indicate which toys and games may elicit the greater number of goal-directed movements, and lay the foundation for our long-term goal to develop and evaluate innovative motion-specific play controllers that are engaging rehabilitative devices for enhancing therapy and promoting neural plasticity and functional recovery in children with CP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. El cine de Pérez Arroyo y los proyectores de juguete de posguerra / The Cinema of Pérez Arroyo and the Postwar Toy Projectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl González-Monaj

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available La historia de la animación de posguerra en nuestro país, conocida como «la edad dorada», siempre ha resultado fascinante por el contexto en que se desarrolló y por ello se ha convertido en objeto de estudio, pero todavía quedan algunos episodios menores por ultimar. El presente trabajo pretende completar una de esas lagunas, la referente a la obra de Joaquín Pérez Arroyo y su posterior relación con el cine doméstico de juguete y su entorno. A través de esta investigación profundizaremos en las películas de este animador, apenas conocido, y en su decisiva participación en dos de los ejemplos más populares del cine de juguete nacional: Payá y Jefe. Casos que estuvieron conectados gracias a él y que se mueven entre el cine de papel y los 35 mm, entre el salón comedor y la sala de cine, entre Mikito y Quinito.Palabras clave: cortometraje de animación, CIFESA, proyector de juguete, Payá, Saludes, Jefe, Quinito. AbstractThe story of the postwar animation in Spain, known as the « Golden Age», has always been fascinating due to the context where it happened and so, it became object of study. Nevertheless, there are still some episodes to be finished. This study aims to complete one of these gaps as the one related to Joaquín Pérez Arroyo's work and his later connection to home cinema as a toy and its context. All through this research, we'll analyze films of this barely known author and his decisive participation in two of the most popular toy cinema examples in Spain: Payá and Jefe. Thanks to him, these two cases became connected, two worlds that coexist within the paper film and the 35 mm, between the living room and the movie theatre, between Mikito and Quinito.Keywords: animation short film, CIFESA, toy projector, Payá, Saludes, Jefe, Quinito.

  9. Teaching Einsteinian Physics at Schools: Part 2, Models and Analogies for Quantum Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Tejinder; Blair, David; Moschilla, John; Zadnik, Marjan

    2017-01-01

    The Einstein-First project approaches the teaching of Einsteinian physics through the use of physical models and analogies. This paper presents an approach to the teaching of quantum physics which begins by emphasising the particle-nature of light through the use of toy projectiles to represent photons. This allows key concepts including the…

  10. Adaptive and self-averaging Thouless-Anderson-Palmer mean-field theory for probabilistic modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opper, Manfred; Winther, Ole

    2001-01-01

    of the distribution of couplings between the random variables is required, our method adapts to the concrete set of couplings. We show the significance of the approach in two ways: Our approach reproduces replica symmetric results for a wide class of toy models (assuming a nonglassy phase) with given disorder...

  11. Behavioral Responses of Nursing Home Residents to Visits From a Person with a Dog,a Robot Seal or a Toy Cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Karen; Sørensen, Lisbeth U; Videbech, Poul B

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that contact with dogs can positively affect the wellbeing of elderly people in nursing homes, but there is a lack of research investigating the causal pathways of these effects. One such path- way may relate to the behavioral responses of the elderly when interacting...... with a dog. The present study compared the immediate behavioral responses of nursing home residents to bi-weekly visits from a person accompanied by either a dog, a robot seal (PARO®), or a soft toy cat, using a randomized controlled design. A total of 100 nursing home residents com- pleted the study. Each......, and gender were collected. We found that the immediate responses to, and interaction with, the visiting animal depended on the type of animal that was brought along. The dog and the interactive robot seal triggered the most interaction, in the form of physical contact (F(2,103) = 7.50, p

  12. Taking a toy gun to school: a consideration of the determinants of adolescent forensic behavior in the aftermath of the Sandy Hook shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Timothy R; Hoffman, Leon

    2015-05-01

    Adolescent forensic behavior can have a variety of meanings. A consideration of the range of meanings can inform the practice of the psychiatric forensic evaluation. This case report describes the history of an adolescent in individual treatment for disruptive and self-defeating behaviors who brought a concealed toy gun into his high school in the aftermath of the Sandy Hook shooting. The overdetermined nature of this act, as well as a consideration of its multiple meanings in the context of the young man's psychology, his educational and family systems, and his relationship with his treatment provider, will be described and developed. The discussion will broaden to consider the parameters of indicated therapeutic programs to address this subset of adolescent forensic behaviors. The role of deficient implicit emotion regulation capacities in adolescents and the corrective measures to target these neurobehavioral deficits will be described. The report concludes with implications for primary prevention of future adolescent forensic behaviors.

  13. Effects of a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention on motor performance ability in 3- to 6-year-old children: the ToyBox-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Julia; Geyer, Christine; Kirchberg, Franca; Manios, Yannis; Koletzko, Berthold

    2017-02-01

    This study targeted to examine the effect of the ToyBox-intervention, a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention, aiming to improve preschooler's energy-related behaviours (e.g., physical activity) on motor performance ability. Physical activity sessions, classroom activities, environmental changes and tools for parents were the components of the 1-year intervention. The intervention and control were cluster-randomised, and children's anthropometry and two motor test items (jumping from side to side, JSS and standing long jump, SLJ) were assessed. A total of 1293 (4.6 ± 0.69 years; 52% boys) from 45 kindergartens in Germany were included (intervention, n = 863; control, n = 430). The effect was assessed using generalised estimating equation. The intervention group showed a better improvement in JSS (Estimate 2.19 jumps, P = 0.01) and tended to improve better in SLJ (Estimate 2.73 cm, P = 0.08). The intervention was more effective in boys with respect to SLJ (P of interaction effect = 0.01). Children aged <4.5 years did not show a significant benefit while older children improved (JSS, Estimate 3.38 jumps, P = 0.004; SLJ, Estimate 4.18 cm, P = 0.04). Children with low socio-economic status improved in JSS (Estimate 5.98 jumps, P = 0.0001). The ToyBox-intervention offers an effective strategy to improve specific components of motor performance ability in early childhood. Future programmes should consider additional strategies specifically targeting girls and younger aged children. BMI: body mass index; SES: socio-economic status; JSS: jumping from side to side; SLJ: standing long jump; SD: standard deviation; GEE: generalised estimating equation.

  14. Creación de juegos personalizados para niños y adolescentes hospitalizados = The creation of personalized toys for children and adolescent hospitalized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zapatero Guillén

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Desde el año 2003, el Departamento de Didáctica de la Expresión Plástica de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid, el Museo Pedagógico de Arte Infantil y Departamento de Psicología Social de la Universidad de Salamanca están desarrollando una serie de investigaciones en torno a las posibilidades de mejora de los niños y adolescentes hospitalizados a través del juego, la creatividad y el arte, enmarcadas en el proyecto curArte. En este proyecto, desde 2008, se ha trabajado en el diseño de materiales de juego creativo especialmente adaptados para el contexto hospitalario. Entre otras actividades, los talleres “Tuning” se han centrado en el diseño y creación de un muñeco estándar susceptible de ser tuneado en donde han participado adolescentes hospitalizados, educadores, investigadores y diseñadores1. Palabras clave: Talleres creativos, diseño juguetes, niños hospitalizados Abstract From 2003, the Didactic Department of art education of the Universidad Complutense de Madrid, the pedagogical museum of children art and the department of social psychology of the Universidad de Salamanca are developing investigations (Curarte Project around the possibilities to improve the stay of children hospitalized through games, creativity and art. In this project, from 2008, they have been working in the materials designs for creative toys specially adapted into a hospital context. The “tuning” workshops were focus on the design and creation of a standard doll that hospitalized children, educators, researchers and designers could modify. Key words: Creative workshops, toys design, children hospitalized.

  15. Effect of Toys and Preoperative Visit on Reducing Children’s Anxiety and their Parents before Surgery and Satisfaction with the Treatment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ghabeli

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hospital anxiety and surgery has an unpleasant and disturbing feeling for a child and his/her family. This study aimed to determine the effect of toys and visit in reducing children’s anxiety before the surgery and their mothers and satisfaction with the treatment process. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study in posttest design with a control group. 60 children aged 3 to 8 years, who were undergoing ear, nose and throat surgery in Tabriz Amiralmomenin hospital, were chosen, and regarding their age and gender, were recruited into the control or experiment group. For the experiment group, the interventions before surgery were applied. The level of anxiety in children and parents was evaluated by Observation Scale of Behavioral Distress (OSBD-R and Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory (STAI. The level of parental satisfaction with the treatment process before being discharged from the hospital was evaluated by the process of treatment satisfaction questionnaire (PSQ-18. Data were analyzed by SPSS ver.13. Results: Mean anxiety scores of the children and mothers in the experimental group were lower than the control group. Mean maternal satisfaction score of the treatment process in the experimental group was higher than the mean scores of the control group. However, in the subscales of general satisfaction, interpersonal behavior, and financial aspects of satisfaction with treatment, no statistical significant difference was found between the experimental and control groups. Conclusion: Based on the findings, providing toys for children and informing the parents about medical information has a major effect in reducing children’s and other’s anxiety and increasing maternal satisfaction with the treatment process.

  16. Scalar Potential Model of photon diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, John

    2011-04-01

    Some observations of light are inconsistent with a wave-like model. Other observations of light are inconsistent with a traditional particle-like model. A single model of light has remained a mystery. Newton's speculations, Democritus's speculations, the Bohm interpretation, and the fractal philosophy are combined with the cosmological Scalar Potential Model (SPM). The resulting model of photon structure and dynamics is tested by a toy computer experiment. The simulations included light from a distance and Young's experiment. The patterns on the screens showed diffraction wave patterns fit by the Fresnel equation. The model is consistent with the Afshar experiment and with the concepts of Bohmian mechanics.

  17. Molecular pop-up toy: a molecular machine based on folding/unfolding motion of alkyl chains bound to a host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Young Ho; Hwang, Ilha; Kim, Hyunuk; Kim, Youngkook; Kim, Kimoon

    2015-01-01

    We have designed and synthesized a new type of molecular machine based on the folding/unfolding motion of an alkyl chain bound to a host, triggered by a redox stimulus. A guest molecule containing a viologen unit with a long alkyl chain 1(2+) and its one-electron reduced species 1 + . form very stable 1:1 host-guest complexes 2(2+) and 2 + ., respectively, with cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]), where the long alkyl chain of the guests is in a folded conformation inside the host cavity. Upon addition of 2,6-dihydroxynaphthalene as an electron donor, the binary complex 2(2+) turns into a ternary complex 3(2+) through host-stabilized charge-transfer complex formation with the alkyl chain extended into the solution outside the host cavity. The ternary complex behaves like a molecular machine reminiscent of a pop-up toy, as it shows reversible folding/unfolding motion of the alkyl chain of the guest in response to a redox stimulus. For example, one-electron reduction of 3(2+) results in the rapid generation of the 2 + . complex, accompanied by a dramatic conformational change of the alkyl chain from an extended to a folded conformation, and the process can be reversed by oxidation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Applying the Intervention Mapping protocol to develop a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention to increase European preschool children's physical activity levels: the ToyBox-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Craemer, M; De Decker, E; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Verloigne, M; Duvinage, K; Koletzko, B; Ibrügger, S; Kreichauf, S; Grammatikaki, E; Moreno, L; Iotova, V; Socha, P; Szott, K; Manios, Y; Cardon, G

    2014-08-01

    Although sufficient physical activity is beneficial for preschoolers' health, activity levels in most preschoolers are low. As preschoolers spend a considerable amount of time at home and at kindergarten, interventions should target both environments to increase their activity levels. The aim of the current paper was to describe the six different steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol towards the systematic development and implementation of the physical activity component of the ToyBox-intervention. This intervention is a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention implemented across six European countries. Based on the results of literature reviews and focus groups with parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers, matrices of change objectives were created. Then, theory-based methods and practical strategies were selected to develop intervention materials at three different levels: (i) individual level (preschoolers); (ii) interpersonal level (parents/caregivers) and (iii) organizational level (teachers). This resulted in a standardized intervention with room for local and cultural adaptations in each participating country. Although the Intervention Mapping protocol is a time-consuming process, using this systematic approach may lead to an increase in intervention effectiveness. The presented matrices of change objectives are useful for future programme planners to develop and implement an intervention based on the Intervention Mapping protocol to increase physical activity levels in preschoolers. © 2014 World Obesity.

  19. Projekts: Koka rotaļlietu ražošanas uzņēmuma "Wood toys factory" dibināšana

    OpenAIRE

    Čoičs, Andris

    2013-01-01

    Maģistra darba nosaukums ir „Projekts: Koka rotaļlietu ražošanas uzņēmuma „Wood toys factory” dibināšana”. Maģistra darba mērķis ir izveidot projektu jaundibināma uzņēmuma sekmīgas saimnieciskās darbības izvērtēšanai. Plānotā uzņēmuma pamatdarbības veids ir koka rotaļlietu ražošana, bērnu rotaļu laukumu ražošana un nestandarta koka konstrukciju ražošana. Darbā analizētais periods ir no 2013. gada aprīļa, līdz 2016. gada decembrim. Uzņēmuma plānotā koncepcija balstās uz ekoloģiski t...

  20. Evaluation of the behavior of the preschool one just admitted in the unit of pediatrics and the use of the therapeutic toy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Coelho Campos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the behavior of children before and after a therapeutic play session. Methods: A quantitative and descriptive study was carried out in a major hospital of the city of Santos, State of São Paulo, involving 30 preschool children recently admitted to a pediatric ward. A behavior scale was applied before and after a therapeutic play session. This scale comprises six categories: moving, gazing, expressing feelings, talking, playing, and not responding to stimuli or requests. Each category is scored from 1 to 3, the lowest score representing the least interaction. Results: Before therapeutic play sessions, children showed no interest and were scored 1 and 2: moving parts of their bodies and expressing emotions, such as seriousness, and gazing rapidly to a place as if expecting something. After therapeutic play, the children progressed to level 3: changing position, moving with a purpose, observing attentively to what they saw, and expressing emotions such as joy. Conclusion: Children interact well with the toys, representing home and hospital situations, and expressing feelings of anger and love. We also observed that therapeutic play improved the interactions of children with this new situation, making it easier for them to accept treatment and perceiving hospitalization as less aggressive and painful.

  1. Effect and process evaluation of a kindergarten-based, family-involved cluster randomised controlled trial in six European countries on four- to six-year-old children's steps per day: the ToyBox-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Craemer, Marieke; Verloigne, Maïté; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Androutsos, Odysseas; Iotova, Violeta; Moreno, Luis; Koletzko, Berthold; Socha, Piotr; Manios, Yannis; Cardon, Greet

    2017-08-29

    The ToyBox-intervention is a theory- and evidence-based intervention delivered in kindergartens to improve four- to six-year-old children's energy balance-related behaviours and prevent obesity. The current study aimed to (1) examine the effect of the ToyBox-intervention on increasing European four- to six-year-old children' steps per day, and (2) examine if a higher process evaluation score from teachers and parents was related to a more favourable effect on steps per day. A sample of 2438 four- to six-year-old children (51.9% boys, mean age 4.75 ± 0.43 years) from 6 European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain) wore a motion sensor (pedometer or accelerometer) for a minimum of two weekdays and one weekend day both at baseline and follow-up to objectively measure their steps per day. Kindergarten teachers implemented the physical activity component of the ToyBox-intervention for 6 weeks in total, with a focus on (1) environmental changes in the classroom, (2) the child performing the actual behaviour and (3) classroom activities. Children's parents received newsletters, tip cards and posters. To assess intervention effects, multilevel repeated measures analyses were conducted for the total sample and the six intervention countries separately. In addition, process evaluation questionnaires were used to calculate a total process evaluation score (with implementation and satisfaction as a part of the overall score) for teachers and parents which was then linked with the physical activity outcomes. No significant intervention effects on four- to six-year-old children' steps per weekday, steps per weekend day and steps per average day were found, both in the total sample and in the country-specific samples (all p > 0.05). In general, the intervention effects on steps per day were least favourable in four- to six-year-old children with a low teachers process evaluation score and most favourable in four- to six-year-old children with a

  2. Filler Network Model of Filled Rubber Materials to Estimate System Size Dependence of Two-Dimensional Small-Angle Scattering Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagita, Katsumi; Tominaga, Tetsuo; Hatazoe, Takumi; Sone, Takuo; Takano, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    We proposed a filler network toy (FN-toy) model in order to approximately forecast changes in two-dimensional scattering patterns (2DSPs) of nanoparticles (NPs) in crosslinked polymer networks in ultrasmall-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) experiments under uniaxial elongation. It enables us to estimate the system size dependence of the 2DSP of the NPs. In the FN-toy model, we considered NPs connected by harmonic springs with excluded-volume interactions among the NPs. In this study, we used the NP configurations estimated by reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) analysis for USAXS data observed in SPring-8 experiments on filler-filled styrene butadiene rubber (SBR). In the FN-toy model, we set a bond between every pair of NPs whose distance is less than Cd, where d is the diameter of an NP and C is a parameter that characterizes network properties. We determined the optimal value of C by comparison with 2DSPs of the NPs at 200% elongation for end-modified and unmodified SBR. These 2DSPs are obtained from the results of a large-scale coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) simulation with 8,192 NPs and 160 million Lennard-Jones (LJ) particles in previous works. For the end-modified SBR, the fitted value is C = 1.367 and for the unmodified SBR, C = 1.258. The difference in C can be regarded as originating from the difference in polymer-NP interactions. We found that the harmonic potential used in the current FN-toy model is not sufficient to reproduce stress-strain curves and local structures of NPs obtained in the previous CGMD simulations, although the FN-toy model can reproduce the 2DSPs. Using the FN-toy model with the fitted value of C, we calculated the 2DSPs of 65,536 and 524,288 NPs, whose initial positions were estimated by RMC analysis for the same USAXS data. It was found that CGMD simulations with 10 billion LJ particles and 524,288 NPs can provide a high-resolution 2DSP that is comparable to the 2DSP observed in USAXS experiments.

  3. Sisekliima Tallinna Püha Vaimu kirikus / Targo Kalamees, Lennart Sasi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalamees, Targo, 1972-

    2007-01-01

    OÜ Rändmeister ja Tallinna Kultuuriväärtuste Ameti tellimusel Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli ehitusfüüsika ja arhitektuuri õppetooli poolt Tallinna Püha Vaimu kirikus ajavahemikul märts 2006 - november 2006 läbi viidud sisekliima uuringutest, mille alusel anti soovitused kirikus sisekliima renoveerimisprojekti koostamiseks

  4. Noise Exposure of Teachers in Nursery Schools—Evaluation of Measures for Noise Reduction When Dropping DUPLO Toy Bricks into Storage Cases by Sound Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstanze Gebauer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although noise is one of the leading work-related health risk factors for teachers, many nursery schools lack sufficient noise reduction measures. Methods: This intervention study evaluated the noise exposure of nursery school teachers when dropping DUPLO toy bricks into storage cases. Sound analyses of the impact included assessment of the maximum sound pressure level (LAFmax as well as frequency analyses with 1/3 octave band filter. For the purpose of standardization, a customized gadget was developed. Recordings were performed in 11 cases of different materials and designs to assess the impact on sound level reduction. Thereby, the acoustic effects of three damping materials (foam rubber, carpet, and PU-foam were investigated. Results: The lowest LAFmax was measured in cases consisting of “metal grid” (90.71 dB or of a woven willow “basket” (91.61 dB, whereas a case of “aluminium” (103.34 dB generated the highest impact LAFmax. The frequency analyses determined especially low LAFmax in the frequency bands between 80 and 2500 Hz in cases designs “metal grid” and “basket”. The insertion of PU-foam achieved the most significant attenuation of LAFmax (−13.88 dB and, in the frequency analyses, the best sound damping. Conclusion: The dropping of DUPLO bricks in cases contributes to the high noise level in nursery schools, but measured LAFmax show no evidence for the danger of acute hearing loss. However, continuous exposure may lead to functional impairment of the hair cells and trigger stress reactions. We recommend noise reduction by utilizing cases of woven “basket” with an insert of PU-foam.

  5. Noise Exposure of Teachers in Nursery Schools-Evaluation of Measures for Noise Reduction When Dropping DUPLO Toy Bricks into Storage Cases by Sound Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Konstanze; Scharf, Thomas; Baumann, Uwe; Groneberg, David A; Bundschuh, Matthias

    2016-07-04

    Although noise is one of the leading work-related health risk factors for teachers, many nursery schools lack sufficient noise reduction measures. This intervention study evaluated the noise exposure of nursery school teachers when dropping DUPLO toy bricks into storage cases. Sound analyses of the impact included assessment of the maximum sound pressure level (LAFmax) as well as frequency analyses with 1/3 octave band filter. For the purpose of standardization, a customized gadget was developed. Recordings were performed in 11 cases of different materials and designs to assess the impact on sound level reduction. Thereby, the acoustic effects of three damping materials (foam rubber, carpet, and PU-foam) were investigated. The lowest LAFmax was measured in cases consisting of "metal grid" (90.71 dB) or of a woven willow "basket" (91.61 dB), whereas a case of "aluminium" (103.34 dB) generated the highest impact LAFmax. The frequency analyses determined especially low LAFmax in the frequency bands between 80 and 2500 Hz in cases designs "metal grid" and "basket". The insertion of PU-foam achieved the most significant attenuation of LAFmax (-13.88 dB) and, in the frequency analyses, the best sound damping. The dropping of DUPLO bricks in cases contributes to the high noise level in nursery schools, but measured LAFmax show no evidence for the danger of acute hearing loss. However, continuous exposure may lead to functional impairment of the hair cells and trigger stress reactions. We recommend noise reduction by utilizing cases of woven "basket" with an insert of PU-foam.

  6. Noise Exposure of Teachers in Nursery Schools—Evaluation of Measures for Noise Reduction When Dropping DUPLO Toy Bricks into Storage Cases by Sound Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Konstanze; Scharf, Thomas; Baumann, Uwe; Groneberg, David A.; Bundschuh, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although noise is one of the leading work-related health risk factors for teachers, many nursery schools lack sufficient noise reduction measures. Methods: This intervention study evaluated the noise exposure of nursery school teachers when dropping DUPLO toy bricks into storage cases. Sound analyses of the impact included assessment of the maximum sound pressure level (LAFmax) as well as frequency analyses with 1/3 octave band filter. For the purpose of standardization, a customized gadget was developed. Recordings were performed in 11 cases of different materials and designs to assess the impact on sound level reduction. Thereby, the acoustic effects of three damping materials (foam rubber, carpet, and PU-foam) were investigated. Results: The lowest LAFmax was measured in cases consisting of “metal grid” (90.71 dB) or of a woven willow “basket” (91.61 dB), whereas a case of “aluminium” (103.34 dB) generated the highest impact LAFmax. The frequency analyses determined especially low LAFmax in the frequency bands between 80 and 2500 Hz in cases designs “metal grid” and “basket”. The insertion of PU-foam achieved the most significant attenuation of LAFmax (−13.88 dB) and, in the frequency analyses, the best sound damping. Conclusion: The dropping of DUPLO bricks in cases contributes to the high noise level in nursery schools, but measured LAFmax show no evidence for the danger of acute hearing loss. However, continuous exposure may lead to functional impairment of the hair cells and trigger stress reactions. We recommend noise reduction by utilizing cases of woven “basket” with an insert of PU-foam. PMID:27384575

  7. Open reduction and cranial bone plate fixation of fractures involving the distal aspect of the radius and ulna in miniature- and toy-breed dogs: 102 cases (2008-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Arburn Parent, Rebecca; Benamou, Jérôme; Gatineau, Matthieu; Clerfond, Pierre; Planté, Jérôme

    2017-06-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine outcomes and complication rates of open reduction and cranial bone plate fixation of fractures involving the distal aspect of the radius and ulna in miniature- and toy-breed dogs. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 102 miniature- and toy-breed dogs (105 fractures) weighing ≤ 7 kg (15.4 lb) that had undergone open reduction and cranial bone plate fixation of a fracture involving the distal aspect of the radius and ulna from 2008 through 2015. PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed and information extracted regarding dog and fracture characteristics, surgical variables, and follow-up examination data (including postoperative complications). Postoperative radiographs were examined for distal fragment size, implant placement, apposition, alignment, and healing stage. A long-term follow-up questionnaire was completed by telephone interview with dog owners at least 6 months after surgery. RESULTS Mean length of the distal bone fragment in all fractures was 19.2 mm, with a mean distal-to-total radial length ratio of 0.21. At last follow-up examination (typically 6 weeks after surgery), 97 (95%) dogs had no signs of lameness; minor lameness was identified in 5 (5%) dogs. Complications developed in 26 (25%) fractures (23 [22%] minor and 3 [3%] major complications). Sixty-eight of 71 (96%) owners rated the overall and long-term outcome as excellent and 3 (4%) as good; 68 of 71 (96%) dogs reportedly had no signs of residual lameness. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Open reduction and cranial bone plate fixation for the treatment of radius-ulna fractures in miniature- and toy-breed dogs provided an excellent outcome with a low complication rate.

  8. That's a boy's toy: gender-typed knowledge in toddlers as a function of mother's marital status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Julie M; Smith, Jessi L; Coleman, Jill M; Brunell, Amy B

    2010-01-01

    A child who is highly gender schematic readily uses gender when processing new information. In the current study, we examined whether and how family structure predicts a child's level of gender-typed knowledge (as assessed by a gender-stereotype sorting task) once the category of gender is in place (as assessed by a gender-labeling task). It was predicted that children from more "traditional" family structures (married mothers) would have more gender-typed knowledge compared to children from less traditional families (unmarried mothers). Moreover, we explored if this relationship would be related to, at least in part, the greater frequency of androgynous behaviors (i.e., both masculine and feminine household activities) an unmarried mother performs. Twenty-eight children (age 2 to 3) were tested at local childcare centers. The mother of each child reported her marital status as well as how often she engaged in stereotypically masculine and feminine behaviors. As expected, mothers' marital status was associated with children's level of gender-typed knowledge, such that children with unmarried mothers had less gender-typed knowledge, in part due to the unmarried mother's greater frequency of androgynous behaviors. Implications for children's acquisition of gender-related stereotypes and the possible benefit of having mothers model both masculine and feminine behaviors are discussed.

  9. Efetividade da higienização de brinquedos infantis na redução microbiana: revisão sistemática da literatura Effectiveness of infant toys sanitation on microbial reduction: systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Guedelha Blasi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a efetividade de estratégias de higienização de brinquedos infantis, quando comparadas a nenhuma intervenção na redução da carga microbiana dos brinquedos, em diferentes ambientes onde há o cuidado de crianças. Método: Revisão sistemática da literatura de 2003 a 2013, realizada nas bases de dados SciELO, Lilacs, IBECS, MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, PubMed e bancos de dissertações e teses das bibliotecas digitais da USP, Unesp e Unicamp. Os dados foram tabulados e submetidos a análise de subgrupos de forma descritiva. Resultados: Foram levantados 7762 trabalhos, que após avaliação dos revisores, resultaram em 12 pesquisas relevantes ao tema. Predominantemente estudos comparativos de cargas microbianas, com grande variabilidade metodológica, trazendo propostas de higienização diversas. Conclusão: Várias estratégias de higienização foram consideradas eficazes, porém a heterogeneidade de métodos não possibilitou a identificação da melhor evidência, mostrando a necessidade de maior investigação do tema para a elaboração de estratégias de higienização de brinquedos infantis. ======================================================= Objective: To assess the effectiveness of infant toys sanitation, when compared to no intervention, on the reduction of toys microbial load, in different environments where the care of children exists. Method: Systematic literature review from 2003 to 2013, using databases SciELO, Lilacs, IBECS, MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, PubMed, and USP, Unesp and Unicamp master and doctoral thesis digital libraries. Obtained data were tabulated and submitted to a descriptive analysis of subgroups. Results: In total, 7762 researches were retrieved. After reviewers’ assessment, 12 studies were identified as relevant. These were predominantly comparative studies, assessing the microbial loads before and after toys sanitation using several methods of sanitation. Conclusion: Several sanitation

  10. One-dimensional Ising model with k-spin interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Yale, E-mail: yalefan@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    We examine a generalization of the one-dimensional Ising model involving interactions among neighbourhoods of k adjacent spins. The model is solved by exploiting a connection to an interesting computational problem that we call 'k-SAT on a ring', and is shown to be equivalent to the nearest-neighbour Ising model in the absence of an external magnetic field. The aim of this paper is to explore an interplay of ideas in the context of a toy problem, while introducing a way of thinking about exactly solvable models in terms of 'computational analogues'.

  11. Identification of novel genetic risk loci in Maltese dogs with necrotizing meningoencephalitis and evidence of a shared genetic risk across toy dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrauwen, Isabelle; Barber, Renee M; Schatzberg, Scott J; Siniard, Ashley L; Corneveaux, Jason J; Porter, Brian F; Vernau, Karen M; Keesler, Rebekah I; Matiasek, Kaspar; Flegel, Thomas; Miller, Andrew D; Southard, Teresa; Mariani, Christopher L; Johnson, Gayle C; Huentelman, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME) affects toy and small breed dogs causing progressive, often fatal, inflammation and necrosis in the brain. Genetic risk loci for NME previously were identified in pug dogs, particularly associated with the dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) class II complex on chromosome 12, but have not been investigated in other susceptible breeds. We sought to evaluate Maltese and Chihuahua dogs, in addition to pug dogs, to identify novel or shared genetic risk factors for NME development. Genome-wide association testing of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Maltese dogs with NME identified 2 regions of genome-wide significance on chromosomes 4 (chr4:74522353T>A, p = 8.1×10-7) and 15 (chr15:53338796A>G, p = 1.5×10-7). Haplotype analysis and fine-mapping suggests that ILR7 and FBXW7, respectively, both important for regulation of immune system function, could be the underlying associated genes. Further evaluation of these regions and the previously identified DLA II locus across all three breeds, revealed an enrichment of nominal significant SNPs associated with chromosome 15 in pug dogs and DLA II in Maltese and Chihuahua dogs. Meta-analysis confirmed effect sizes the same direction in all three breeds for both the chromosome 15 and DLA II loci (p = 8.6×10-11 and p = 2.5×10-7, respectively). This suggests a shared genetic background exists between all breeds and confers susceptibility to NME, but effect sizes might be different among breeds. In conclusion, we identified the first genetic risk factors for NME development in the Maltese, chromosome 4 and chromosome 15, and provide evidence for a shared genetic risk between breeds associated with chromosome 15 and DLA II. Last, DLA II and IL7R both have been implicated in human inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system such as multiple sclerosis, suggesting that similar pharmacotherapeutic targets across species should be investigated.

  12. Educar a la infancia a través de juegos y juguetes tradicionales: experiencias pedagógicas al aire libre. Educate children through traditional games and toys: outdoor pedagogical experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Tejero Muñoz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available (ES En la sociedad actual, los juegos y juguetes tradicionales merecen ser considerados como una parte importante de nuestro patrimonio cultural e histórico educativo, que se ha de salvaguardar y poner en valor, si realmente queremos legarlos a las generaciones futuras. A través del presente trabajo tratamos de poner de manifiesto algunas de las posibilidades que tiene el juego y el juguete tradicional para favorecer la socialización y el desarrollo integral de la infancia. Así, nos encargamos de reconocer el compromiso que tiene la sociedad con la tarea de dar a conocer tantos juegos y juguetes que históricamente han venido sirviendo para educar a los más pequeños de la sociedad. Con la intención de demostrar que unos y otros siguen siendo necesarios y beneficiosos para los niños, se ha diseñado, implementado y evaluado una yincana tradicional y un salón de juegos y juguetes al aire libre, con los que se ha pretendido evidenciar que unos y otros como patrimonio histórico educativo, tienen un gran potencial educador para formar a la infancia actual. Los resultados de este trabajo, que se basan en una investigación más amplia ligada a un trabajo de fin de grado de la titulación de Educación Infantil, nos permiten llegar a la conclusión de que una mirada al mundo lúdico del ayer nos ayuda a construir el futuro de nuestra sociedad desde el presente. Con ello, reconocemos que el patrimonio histórico educativo, en general, y con él los juegos y juguetes tradicionales, en particular, merecen ser considerados de manera especial y desde una perspectiva histórica en la educación actual. (EN In present day society, traditional games and toys deserve to be considered an important part of our cultural heritage, which must be protected and valued in order to bequeathed to future generations. The aim of this project is to research the opportunities of games and traditional toys to promote the socialization and integral development of

  13. Physics Fun with Toy Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    According to the National Science Education Standards, students should be able to describe an object by its position, direction of motion, and speed (NRC 1996). During a unit on motion, the author decided to use Hot Wheels cars as the object students would describe. The first two activities are used to introduce students to the equipment and the…

  14. Therapy toy for spider phobics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold S. Chamove

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación previa ha mostrado que ver imágenes en la computadora o a otra persona en contacto con arañas es efectivo para la desensibilización, pero ni es tan efectivo como el contacto real con arañas, ni tampoco proporciona al cliente control sobre el estímulo. En este estudio de caso único con réplica, dos mujeres con fobia a las arañas montaron y desmontaron maquetas de arañas de madera en sus casas, de tal forma que mantenían niveles de ansiedad bajos. La comparación con otros tres clientes con fobia a las arañas a los que no se les daban las maquetas, pero que dedicaban un tiempo similar a dibujar arañas, muestra una reducción entre el 20-30% del periodo con el terapeuta, resultando más eficiente la terapia con maquetas. El autor sugiere que el realismo del modelo-maqueta y el control sobre el estímulo permiten al cliente adaptarse a la araña de forma progresiva.

  15. Robust model identification applied to type 1diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finan, Daniel Aaron; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2010-01-01

    In many realistic applications, process noise is known to be neither white nor normally distributed. When identifying models in these cases, it may be more effective to minimize a different penalty function than the standard sum of squared errors (as in a least-squares identification method). Thi...... accurate estimates of parameters than the standard least-squares solution, and more accurate model predictions for test data. The identification techniques are demonstrated on a simple toy problem as well as a physiological model of type 1 diabetes....

  16. Many-body localization in the quantum random energy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumann, Chris; Pal, Arijeet

    2014-03-01

    The quantum random energy model is a canonical toy model for a quantum spin glass with a well known phase diagram. We show that the model exhibits a many-body localization-delocalization transition at finite energy density which significantly alters the interpretation of the statistical ``frozen'' phase at lower temperature in isolated quantum systems. The transition manifests in many-body level statistics as well as the long time dynamics of on-site observables. CRL thanks the Perimeter Institute for hospitality and support.

  17. Adventures in Holographic Dimer Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC; Karch, Andreas; /Washington U., Seattle; Yaida, Sho; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-12

    We abstract the essential features of holographic dimer models, and develop several new applications of these models. Firstly, semi-holographically coupling free band fermions to holographic dimers, we uncover novel phase transitions between conventional Fermi liquids and non-Fermi liquids, accompanied by a change in the structure of the Fermi surface. Secondly, we make dimer vibrations propagate through the whole crystal by way of double trace deformations, obtaining nontrivial band structure. In a simple toy model, the topology of the band structure experiences an interesting reorganization as we vary the strength of the double trace deformations. Finally, we develop tools that would allow one to build, in a bottom-up fashion, a holographic avatar of the Hubbard model.

  18. Adventures in holographic dimer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachru, Shamit; Karch, Andreas; Yaida, Sho

    2011-03-01

    We abstract the essential features of holographic dimer models, and develop several new applications of these models. Firstly, semi-holographically coupling free band fermions to holographic dimers, we uncover novel phase transitions between conventional Fermi liquids and non-Fermi liquids, accompanied by a change in the structure of the Fermi surface. Secondly, we make dimer vibrations propagate through the whole crystal by way of double trace deformations, obtaining nontrivial band structure. In a simple toy model, the topology of the band structure experiences an interesting reorganization as we vary the strength of the double trace deformations. Finally, we develop tools that would allow one to build, in a bottom-up fashion, a holographic avatar of the Hubbard model.

  19. Utilização do brinquedo terapêutico na assistência à criança hospitalizada Using therapeutic toys in care with hospitalized children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiana Mendes Bertoncello Fontes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudo exploratório e descritivo, parte integrante de um projeto de parceria entre o Serviço de Enfermagem e de Terapia Ocupacional no preparo da criança para as cirurgias eletivas no Hospital de Reabilitação de Anomalias Craniofaciais da Universidade de São Paulo. OBJETIVO: utilizar o brinquedo como recurso terapêutico no alívio das tensões reais e inconscientes da criança em relação à hospitalização. MÉTODO: Foi construído um instrumento de coleta dos dados em forma de roteiro observacional, e aplicado em dois momentos: o primeiro consiste no dia anterior à realização da cirurgia e o segundo momento no dia da cirurgia imediatamente antes de sua realização. Utilizamos a contação de história e a demonstração das intervenções de enfermagem nos brinquedos (bonecos com equipamentos e materiais comumente utilizados na hospitalização (luvas, aventais cirúrgico, máscara facial e gorro cirúrgico. RESULTADOS: Dentre as 21 variáveis de comportamento observadas, oito obtiveram diferença estatisticamente significativa com teste de McNemar (p>0,05. CONCLUSÃO: brincar interativamente proporciona à criança hospitalizada interagir com o ambiente hospitalar, expressar os seus sentimentos e emoções e provê recursos para a assistência humanizada.This is an exploratory and descriptive study that was jointly carried out by Nursing Care and Occupational Therapy as part of a Research Project that intended to prepare children for elective surgery at the University of São Paulo's Hospital de Reabilitação de Anomalias Craniofaciais. OBJECTIVE: using toys as a therapeutic resource for relieving the child's real and unconscious tensions concerning hospitalization for surgical treatment at the HRAC - USP. METHOD: 44 children participated in the study. An observation form was used to collect data and it was applied at two separate times: the first time was the day before the surgery was to take place and the second on the day of

  20. Equivalence of interest rate models and lattice gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirjol, Dan

    2012-04-01

    We consider the class of short rate interest rate models for which the short rate is proportional to the exponential of a Gaussian Markov process x(t) in the terminal measure r(t)=a(t)exp[x(t)]. These models include the Black-Derman-Toy and Black-Karasinski models in the terminal measure. We show that such interest rate models are equivalent to lattice gases with attractive two-body interaction, V(t(1),t(2))=-Cov[x(t(1)),x(t(2))]. We consider in some detail the Black-Karasinski model with x(t) as an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, and show that it is similar to a lattice gas model considered by Kac and Helfand, with attractive long-range two-body interactions, V(x,y)=-α(e(-γ|x-y|)-e(-γ(x+y))). An explicit solution for the model is given as a sum over the states of the lattice gas, which is used to show that the model has a phase transition similar to that found previously in the Black-Derman-Toy model in the terminal measure.

  1. The KM phase in semi-realistic heterotic orbifold models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giedt, Joel

    2000-07-05

    In string-inspired semi-realistic heterotic orbifolds models with an anomalous U(1){sub X},a nonzero Kobayashi-Masakawa (KM) phase is shown to arise generically from the expectation values of complex scalar fields, which appear in nonrenormalizable quark mass couplings. Modular covariant nonrenormalizable superpotential couplings are constructed. A toy Z{sub 3} orbifold model is analyzed in some detail. Modular symmetries and orbifold selection rules are taken into account and do not lead to a cancellation of the KM phase. We also discuss attempts to obtain the KM phase solely from renormalizable interactions.

  2. shiftNMFk 1.1: Robust Nonnegative matrix factorization with kmeans clustering and signal shift, for allocation of unknown physical sources, toy version for open sourcing with publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-19

    This code is a toy (short) version of CODE-2016-83. From a general perspective, the code represents an unsupervised adaptive machine learning algorithm that allows efficient and high performance de-mixing and feature extraction of a multitude of non-negative signals mixed and recorded by a network of uncorrelated sensor arrays. The code identifies the number of the mixed original signals and their locations. Further, the code also allows deciphering of signals that have been delayed in regards to the mixing process in each sensor. This code is high customizable and it can be efficiently used for a fast macro-analyses of data. The code is applicable to a plethora of distinct problems: chemical decomposition, pressure transient decomposition, unknown sources/signal allocation, EM signal decomposition. An additional procedure for allocation of the unknown sources is incorporated in the code.

  3. Model Answers to Lipid Membrane Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, O. G.

    2011-01-01

    Ever since it was discovered that biological membranes have a core of a bimolecular sheet of lipid molecules, lipid bilayers have been a model laboratory for investigating physicochemical and functional properties of biological membranes. Experimental and theoretical models help the experimental ...... to pursue. Here we review some membrane models for lipid self-assembly, monolayers, bilayers, liposomes, and lipid-protein interactions and illustrate how such models can help answering questions in modern lipid cell biology....... scientist to plan experiments and interpret data. Theoretical models are the theoretical scientist's preferred toys to make contact between membrane theory and experiments. Most importantly, models serve to shape our intuition about which membrane questions are the more fundamental and relevant ones...

  4. Stochastic species abundance models involving special copulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huillet, Thierry E.

    2018-01-01

    Copulas offer a very general tool to describe the dependence structure of random variables supported by the hypercube. Inspired by problems of species abundances in Biology, we study three distinct toy models where copulas play a key role. In a first one, a Marshall-Olkin copula arises in a species extinction model with catastrophe. In a second one, a quasi-copula problem arises in a flagged species abundance model. In a third model, we study completely random species abundance models in the hypercube as those, not of product type, with uniform margins and singular. These can be understood from a singular copula supported by an inflated simplex. An exchangeable singular Dirichlet copula is also introduced, together with its induced completely random species abundance vector.

  5. Modelling with uncertainties: The role of the fission barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lü Hongliang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fission is the dominant decay channel of super-heavy elements formed in heavy ions collisions. The probability of synthesizing heavy or super-heavy nuclei in fusion-evaporation reactions is then very sensitive to the height of their fission barriers. This contribution will firstly address the influence of theoretical uncertainty on excitation functions. Our second aim is to investigate the inverse problem, i.e., what information about the fission barriers can be extracted from excitation functions? For this purpose, Bayesian methods have been used with a simplified toy model.

  6. Cylindrically symmetric models of gravitational collapse to black holes: A short review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Filipe C.

    2015-07-01

    We survey results about exact cylindrically symmetric models of gravitational collapse in General Relativity. We focus on models which result from the matching of two spacetimes having collapsing interiors which develop trapped surfaces and vacuum exteriors containing gravitational waves. We collect some theorems from the literature which help to decide a priori about eventual spacetime matchings. We revise, in more detail, some toy models which include some of the main mathematical and physical issues that arise in this context, and compute the gravitational energy flux through the matching boundary of a particular collapsing region. Along the way, we point out several interesting open problems.

  7. Supersymmetric SYK model and random matrix theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianlin; Liu, Junyu; Xin, Yuan; Zhou, Yehao

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of supersymmetry on the symmetry classification of random matrix theory ensembles. We mainly consider the random matrix behaviors in the N=1 supersymmetric generalization of Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK) model, a toy model for two-dimensional quantum black hole with supersymmetric constraint. Some analytical arguments and numerical results are given to show that the statistics of the supersymmetric SYK model could be interpreted as random matrix theory ensembles, with a different eight-fold classification from the original SYK model and some new features. The time-dependent evolution of the spectral form factor is also investigated, where predictions from random matrix theory are governing the late time behavior of the chaotic hamiltonian with supersymmetry.

  8. Effect and process evaluation of a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention with a randomized cluster design on sedentary behaviour in 4- to 6- year old European preschool children: The ToyBox-study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latomme, Julie; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Iotova, Violeta; Koletzko, Berthold; Socha, Piotr; Moreno, Luis; Androutsos, Odysseas; Manios, Yannis; De Craemer, Marieke

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study evaluated the effect and process of the ToyBox-intervention on proxy-reported sedentary behaviours in 4- to 6-year-old preschoolers from six European countries. Methods In total, 2434 preschoolers’ parents/primary caregivers (mean age: 4.7±0.4 years, 52.2% boys) filled out a questionnaire, assessing preschoolers’ sedentary behaviours (TV/DVD/video viewing, computer/video games use and quiet play) on weekdays and weekend days. Multilevel repeated measures analyses were conducted to measure the intervention effects. Additionally, process evaluation data were included to better understand the intervention effects. Results Positive intervention effects were found for computer/video games use. In the total sample, the intervention group showed a smaller increase in computer/video games use on weekdays (ß = -3.40, p = 0.06; intervention: +5.48 min/day, control: +8.89 min/day) and on weekend days (ß = -5.97, p = 0.05; intervention: +9.46 min/day, control: +15.43 min/day) from baseline to follow-up, compared to the control group. Country-specific analyses showed similar effects in Belgium and Bulgaria, while no significant intervention effects were found in the other countries. Process evaluation data showed relatively low teachers’ and low parents’ process evaluation scores for the sedentary behaviour component of the intervention (mean: 15.6/24, range: 2.5–23.5 and mean: 8.7/17, range: 0–17, respectively). Higher parents’ process evaluation scores were related to a larger intervention effect, but higher teachers’ process evaluation scores were not. Conclusions The ToyBox-intervention had a small, positive effect on European preschoolers’ computer/video games use on both weekdays and weekend days, but not on TV/DVD/video viewing or quiet play. The lack of larger effects can possibly be due to the fact that parents were only passively involved in the intervention and to the fact that the intervention was too

  9. Effect and process evaluation of a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention with a randomized cluster design on sedentary behaviour in 4- to 6- year old European preschool children: The ToyBox-study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Latomme

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study evaluated the effect and process of the ToyBox-intervention on proxy-reported sedentary behaviours in 4- to 6-year-old preschoolers from six European countries.In total, 2434 preschoolers' parents/primary caregivers (mean age: 4.7±0.4 years, 52.2% boys filled out a questionnaire, assessing preschoolers' sedentary behaviours (TV/DVD/video viewing, computer/video games use and quiet play on weekdays and weekend days. Multilevel repeated measures analyses were conducted to measure the intervention effects. Additionally, process evaluation data were included to better understand the intervention effects.Positive intervention effects were found for computer/video games use. In the total sample, the intervention group showed a smaller increase in computer/video games use on weekdays (ß = -3.40, p = 0.06; intervention: +5.48 min/day, control: +8.89 min/day and on weekend days (ß = -5.97, p = 0.05; intervention: +9.46 min/day, control: +15.43 min/day from baseline to follow-up, compared to the control group. Country-specific analyses showed similar effects in Belgium and Bulgaria, while no significant intervention effects were found in the other countries. Process evaluation data showed relatively low teachers' and low parents' process evaluation scores for the sedentary behaviour component of the intervention (mean: 15.6/24, range: 2.5-23.5 and mean: 8.7/17, range: 0-17, respectively. Higher parents' process evaluation scores were related to a larger intervention effect, but higher teachers' process evaluation scores were not.The ToyBox-intervention had a small, positive effect on European preschoolers' computer/video games use on both weekdays and weekend days, but not on TV/DVD/video viewing or quiet play. The lack of larger effects can possibly be due to the fact that parents were only passively involved in the intervention and to the fact that the intervention was too demanding for the teachers. Future interventions

  10. Effect and process evaluation of a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention with a randomized cluster design on sedentary behaviour in 4- to 6- year old European preschool children: The ToyBox-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latomme, Julie; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Iotova, Violeta; Koletzko, Berthold; Socha, Piotr; Moreno, Luis; Androutsos, Odysseas; Manios, Yannis; De Craemer, Marieke

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study evaluated the effect and process of the ToyBox-intervention on proxy-reported sedentary behaviours in 4- to 6-year-old preschoolers from six European countries. In total, 2434 preschoolers' parents/primary caregivers (mean age: 4.7±0.4 years, 52.2% boys) filled out a questionnaire, assessing preschoolers' sedentary behaviours (TV/DVD/video viewing, computer/video games use and quiet play) on weekdays and weekend days. Multilevel repeated measures analyses were conducted to measure the intervention effects. Additionally, process evaluation data were included to better understand the intervention effects. Positive intervention effects were found for computer/video games use. In the total sample, the intervention group showed a smaller increase in computer/video games use on weekdays (ß = -3.40, p = 0.06; intervention: +5.48 min/day, control: +8.89 min/day) and on weekend days (ß = -5.97, p = 0.05; intervention: +9.46 min/day, control: +15.43 min/day) from baseline to follow-up, compared to the control group. Country-specific analyses showed similar effects in Belgium and Bulgaria, while no significant intervention effects were found in the other countries. Process evaluation data showed relatively low teachers' and low parents' process evaluation scores for the sedentary behaviour component of the intervention (mean: 15.6/24, range: 2.5-23.5 and mean: 8.7/17, range: 0-17, respectively). Higher parents' process evaluation scores were related to a larger intervention effect, but higher teachers' process evaluation scores were not. The ToyBox-intervention had a small, positive effect on European preschoolers' computer/video games use on both weekdays and weekend days, but not on TV/DVD/video viewing or quiet play. The lack of larger effects can possibly be due to the fact that parents were only passively involved in the intervention and to the fact that the intervention was too demanding for the teachers. Future interventions targeting

  11. Ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using the Taguchi design method for bisphenol migration studies from thermal printer paper, toys and baby utensils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñas, Pilar; López-García, Ignacio; Campillo, Natalia; Rivas, Ricardo E; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2012-08-01

    The optimization of a clean procedure based on ultrasound-assisted emulsification liquid-liquid microextraction for the sensitive determination of four bisphenols is presented. The miniaturized technique was coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after derivatization by in situ acetylation. The Taguchi experimental method, an orthogonal array design, was applied to find the optimal combination of seven factors (each factor at three levels) influencing the emulsification, extraction and collection efficiency, namely acetic anhydride volume, sodium phosphate concentration, carbon tetrachloride volume, aqueous sample volume, sodium chloride concentration and ultrasound power and application time. A second factorial design was applied with four factors and five levels for each factor, 25 experiments being performed in this instance. The matrix effect was evaluated, and it was concluded that sample quantification can be done by calibration with aqueous standards. The detection limits ranged from 0.01 to 0.03 ng mL(-1) depending on the compound. The environmentally friendly sample pretreatment procedure was applied to study the migration of the bisphenols from different types of samples: thermal printer paper, compact discs, digital versatile discs, small tight-fitting waistcoats, baby's bottles, baby bottle nipples of different materials and children's toys.

  12. Energy Consumption Model and Measurement Results for Network Coding-enabled IEEE 802.11 Meshed Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paramanathan, Achuthan; Rasmussen, Ulrik Wilken; Hundebøll, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an energy model and energy measurements for network coding enabled wireless meshed networks based on IEEE 802.11 technology. The energy model and the energy measurement testbed is limited to a simple Alice and Bob scenario. For this toy scenario we compare the energy usages...... a flexible, low cost tool to be able to measure at any given node in a meshed network. We verify the precision of our tool by comparing it to a sophisticated device. Our main results in this paper are the derivation of an analytical energy model, the implementation of a distributed energy measurement testbed...

  13. Dimensional reduction of Markov state models from renormalization group theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orioli, S; Faccioli, P

    2016-09-28

    Renormalization Group (RG) theory provides the theoretical framework to define rigorous effective theories, i.e., systematic low-resolution approximations of arbitrary microscopic models. Markov state models are shown to be rigorous effective theories for Molecular Dynamics (MD). Based on this fact, we use real space RG to vary the resolution of the stochastic model and define an algorithm for clustering microstates into macrostates. The result is a lower dimensional stochastic model which, by construction, provides the optimal coarse-grained Markovian representation of the system's relaxation kinetics. To illustrate and validate our theory, we analyze a number of test systems of increasing complexity, ranging from synthetic toy models to two realistic applications, built form all-atom MD simulations. The computational cost of computing the low-dimensional model remains affordable on a desktop computer even for thousands of microstates.

  14. O brinquedo no hospital: uma análise da produção acadêmica dos enfermeiros brasileiros El juguete en el hospital: un análisis de la producción Académica de los Enfermeros Brasileños The toy in the hospital: an analysis of the Brazilian Nurses' academic production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Maria Coelho Leite

    2007-06-01

    of this study was to analyze the thesis and dissertations produced by Brazilian nursing personnel on the use of toys in hospitals. A data survey was conducted using the Capes, Cepen and Ibict Websites and the studies references were consulted and qualitatively analyzed. The results of this study showed that the objectives frequently referred to the child's experiences during hospitalization, the significance and importance of the toy and the difficulty encountered in its implantation. The use of the toy was used more often before and after the operative periods and these analysis were based on the effects of the toy on children. It became evident to the nursing personnel that the toy is an indispensable tool for childcare. Therefore, we recommended that both the therapeutic toy and the practice toy be used in the nursing pediatric care plan.

  15. An evolutionary model with Turing machines

    CERN Document Server

    Feverati, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    The development of a large non-coding fraction in eukaryotic DNA and the phenomenon of the code-bloat in the field of evolutionary computations show a striking similarity. This seems to suggest that (in the presence of mechanisms of code growth) the evolution of a complex code can't be attained without maintaining a large inactive fraction. To test this hypothesis we performed computer simulations of an evolutionary toy model for Turing machines, studying the relations among fitness and coding/non-coding ratio while varying mutation and code growth rates. The results suggest that, in our model, having a large reservoir of non-coding states constitutes a great (long term) evolutionary advantage.

  16. On Supersymmetry Breaking in Intersecting Brane Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, M

    2004-01-13

    We discuss a framework to analyze the transmission of supersymmetry breaking in models of intersecting D-branes. Generically, different intersections preserve different fractions of an extended bulk supersymmetry, thus breaking supersymmetry completely but in a nonlocal way. We analyze this mechanism in a 5D toy model where two brane intersections, which are separated in the fifth dimension, break different halves of an extended {Nu} = 2 supersymmetry. The sector of the theory on one brane intersection feels the breakdown of the residual {Nu} = 1 supersymmetry only through two-loop interactions involving a coupling to fields from the other intersection. We compute the diagrams that contribute to scalar masses on one intersection and find that the masses are proportional to the compactification scale up to logarithmic corrections. We also compute the three-loop diagrams relevant to the Casimir energy between the two intersections and find a repulsive Casimir force.

  17. Model.

    OpenAIRE

    Zachary Patterson

    2008-01-01

    Social scientists appear to be divided into two camps: those who use models and those who do not. In order to understand this phenomenon, a clear understanding of what a model is is required. Unfortunately, this is more complicated than one might think. To be sure, few social scientists would have trouble identifying what they consider to be a model: defining what a model is, however, is more difficult. To echo Associate Justice Potter Stewart's famous quote about pornography, most social...

  18. Analysis of acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, and related compounds in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers for kitchen utensils and children's toys by headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Kawamura, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    A headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the residual levels of acrylonitrile (AN), 1,3-butadiene (1,3-BD), and their related compounds containing propionitrile (PN) and 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene (4-VC) in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) copolymers for kitchen utensils and children's toys. A sample was cut into small pieces, then N,N-dimethylacetamide and an internal standard were added in a sealed headspace vial. The vial was incubated for 1 h at 90 degrees C and the headspace gas was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The recovery rates of the analytes were 93.3-101.8% and the coefficients of variation were 0.3-6.5%. In ABS copolymers, the levels were 0.3-50.4 microg/g for AN, ND-4.5 microg/g for PN, 0.06-1.58 microg/g for 1,3-BD, and 1.1-295 microg/g for 4-VC. The highest level was found for 4-VC, which is a dimer of 1,3-BD, and the next highest was for AN, which is one of the monomers of the ABS copolymer. Furthermore, the method was also applied to acrylonitrile-styrene (AS) copolymers and polystyrenes (PS) for kitchen utensils, and nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) gloves. In AS copolymers, AN and PN were detected at 16.8-54.5 and 0.8-6.9 microg/g, respectively. On the other hand, the levels in PS and NBR samples were all low.

  19. Symmetry analysis for hyperbolic equilibria using a TB/dengue fever model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoukou, R. Y. M.'Pika; Govinder, K. S.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the interplay between Lie symmetry analysis and dynamical systems analysis. As an example, we take a toy model describing the spread of TB and dengue fever. We first undertake a comprehensive dynamical systems analysis including a discussion about local stability. For those regions in which such analyzes cannot be translated to global behavior, we undertake a Lie symmetry analysis. It is shown that the Lie analysis can be useful in providing information for systems where the (local) dynamical systems analysis breaks down.

  20. Combination of Alternative Models by Mutual Data Assimilation: Supermodeling With A Suite of Primitive Equation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duane, G. S.; Selten, F.

    2016-12-01

    Different models of climate and weather commonly give projections/predictions that differ widely in their details. While averaging of model outputs almost always improves results, nonlinearity implies that further improvement can be obtained from model interaction in run time, as has already been demonstrated with toy systems of ODEs and idealized quasigeostrophic models. In the supermodeling scheme, models effectively assimilate data from one another and partially synchronize with one another. Spread among models is manifest as a spread in possible inter-model connection coefficients, so that the models effectively "agree to disagree". Here, we construct a supermodel formed from variants of the SPEEDO model, a primitive-equation atmospheric model (SPEEDY) coupled to ocean and land. A suite of atmospheric models, coupled to the same ocean and land, is chosen to represent typical differences among climate models by varying model parameters. Connections are introduced between all pairs of corresponding independent variables at synoptic-scale intervals. Strengths of the inter-atmospheric connections can be considered to represent inverse inter-model observation error. Connection strengths are adapted based on an established procedure that extends the dynamical equations of a pair of synchronizing systems to synchronize parameters as well. The procedure is applied to synchronize the suite of SPEEDO models with another SPEEDO model regarded as "truth", adapting the inter-model connections along the way. The supermodel with trained connections gives marginally lower error in all fields than any weighted combination of the separate model outputs when used in "weather-prediction mode", i.e. with constant nudging to truth. Stronger results are obtained if a supermodel is used to predict the formation of coherent structures or the frequency of such. Partially synchronized SPEEDO models give a better representation of the blocked-zonal index cycle than does a weighted average

  1. Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel-Christiansen, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen fremhæver den visuelle rotation - billeder, tegninger, modeller, værker - som det privilligerede medium i kommunikationen af ideer imellem skabende arkitekter......Artiklen fremhæver den visuelle rotation - billeder, tegninger, modeller, værker - som det privilligerede medium i kommunikationen af ideer imellem skabende arkitekter...

  2. Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Spädtke, P

    2013-01-01

    Modeling of technical machines became a standard technique since computer became powerful enough to handle the amount of data relevant to the specific system. Simulation of an existing physical device requires the knowledge of all relevant quantities. Electric fields given by the surrounding boundary as well as magnetic fields caused by coils or permanent magnets have to be known. Internal sources for both fields are sometimes taken into account, such as space charge forces or the internal magnetic field of a moving bunch of charged particles. Used solver routines are briefly described and some bench-marking is shown to estimate necessary computing times for different problems. Different types of charged particle sources will be shown together with a suitable model to describe the physical model. Electron guns are covered as well as different ion sources (volume ion sources, laser ion sources, Penning ion sources, electron resonance ion sources, and H$^-$-sources) together with some remarks on beam transport.

  3. Antiferromagnetic Ising model in an imaginary magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcoiti, Vicente; Di Carlo, Giuseppe; Follana, Eduardo; Royo-Amondarain, Eduardo

    2017-09-01

    We study the two-dimensional antiferromagnetic Ising model with a purely imaginary magnetic field, which can be thought of as a toy model for the usual θ physics. Our motivation is to have a benchmark calculation in a system which suffers from a strong sign problem, so that our results can be used to test Monte Carlo methods developed to tackle such problems. We analyze here this model by means of analytical techniques, computing exactly the first eight cumulants of the expansion of the effective Hamiltonian in powers of the inverse temperature, and calculating physical observables for a large number of degrees of freedom with the help of standard multiprecision algorithms. We report accurate results for the free energy density, internal energy, standard and staggered magnetization, and the position and nature of the critical line, which confirm the mean-field qualitative picture, and which should be quantitatively reliable, at least in the high-temperature regime, including the entire critical line.

  4. Topology in the 2d Heisenberg Model under Gradient Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, I. O.; Bietenholz, W.; de Forcrand, P.; Gerber, U.; Mejía-Díaz, H.

    2017-10-01

    The 2d Heisenberg model — or 2d O(3) model — is popular in condensed matter physics, and in particle physics as a toy model for QCD. Along with other analogies, it shares with 4d Yang-Mills theories, and with QCD, the property that the configurations are divided in topological sectors. In the lattice regularisation the topological charge Q can still be defined such that Q\\in {Z}. It has generally been observed, however, that the topological susceptibility {{χ }t}= /V does not scale properly in the continuum limit, i.e. that the quantity {{χ }t}{{ξ }2} diverges for ξ → ∞ (where ξ is the correlation length in lattice units). Here we address the question whether or not this divergence persists after the application of the Gradient Flow.

  5. model

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    distress, or culture—bound syndrome, not listed in DSM—lV. It may correspond to various DS/Vl-ll/ disorders, depending on its exact clinical presentation, e.g. dissociative disorder, adiustment disorder, or schizophrenia.1g As with other local idioms ot distress, the explanatory model takes precedence over the descriptive ...

  6. A toy quantum analog of enzymes

    CERN Document Server

    Svetlichny, George

    2015-01-01

    We present a quantum system incorporating qualitative aspects of enzyme action in which the possibility of quantum superposition of several conformations of the enzyme-substrate complex is investigated. We present numerical results showing quantum effects that transcend the case of a statistical mixture of conformations.

  7. Distracting laying hens with a 'toy'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a systematic treatment difference, or simply to the differ- ences normally observed in biological material. Two strains of commercial layer were used in the experiment, viz. a white strain (Lohmann Silver) and a red strain (Loh- mann Brown). The white birds were housed at five birds per cage, and the red at four per cage.

  8. Another Surprise in Mechanics: Styrofoam and Toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Ed; Bonifacio, Nestor; Embalzado, Renante; Ravelo, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Describes a safe but qualitative alternative to an experiment in which bullets are shot into wooden blocks from below, with some bullets hitting the blocks in the center and others off-center. Explains why the off-center blocks reach greater heights in spite of the fact that the bullet's energy is divided between translational and rotational…

  9. Making a Toy Educative Using Electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dertien, Edwin Christian; Dijkstra, Jelle; Mader, Angelika H.; Nijholt, Antinus; Romao, T.; Reidsma, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    We present building blocks equipped with electronics for educational purposes. The blocks have changeable colors, a simple LED screen, and a mechanism for decentralized communication between blocks that touch each other. Using these simple elements, we introduced functionality to implicitly support

  10. Variations of the fine-structure constant α in exotic singularity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, Mariusz P.; Denkiewicz, Tomasz; Martins, C. J. A. P.; Vielzeuf, P. E.

    2014-06-01

    Various classes of exotic singularity models have been studied as possible mimic models for the observed recent acceleration of the Universe. Here we further study one of these classes and, under the assumption that they are phenomenological toy models for the behavior of an underlying scalar field that also couples to the electromagnetic sector of the theory, obtain the corresponding behavior of the fine-structure constant α for particular choices of model parameters that have been previously shown to be in reasonable agreement with cosmological observations. We then compare this predicted behavior with available measurements of α, thus constraining this putative coupling to electromagnetism. We find that values of the coupling that would provide a good fit to spectroscopic measurements of α are in more than three-sigma tension with local atomic clock bounds. Future measurements by ESPRESSO and ELT-HIRES will provide a definitive test of these models.

  11. Using video modeling with substitutable loops to teach varied play to children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupere, Sally; MacDonald, Rebecca P F; Ahearn, William H

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism often engage in repetitive play with little variation in the actions performed or items used. This study examined the use of video modeling with scripted substitutable loops on children's pretend play with trained and untrained characters. Three young children with autism were shown a video model of scripted toy play that included a substitutable loop that allowed various characters to perform the same actions and vocalizations. Three characters were modeled with the substitutable loop during training sessions, and 3 additional characters were present in the video but never modeled. Following video modeling, all the participants incorporated untrained characters into their play, but the extent to which they did so varied. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  12. Revisiting the Global Electroweak Fit of the Standard Model and Beyond with Gfitter

    CERN Document Server

    Flächer, Henning; Haller, J; Höcker, A; Mönig, K; Stelzer, J

    2009-01-01

    The global fit of the Standard Model to electroweak precision data, routinely performed by the LEP electroweak working group and others, demonstrated impressively the predictive power of electroweak unification and quantum loop corrections. We have revisited this fit in view of (i) the development of the new generic fitting package, Gfitter, allowing flexible and efficient model testing in high-energy physics, (ii) the insertion of constraints from direct Higgs searches at LEP and the Tevatron, and (iii) a more thorough statistical interpretation of the results. Gfitter is a modular fitting toolkit, which features predictive theoretical models as independent plugins, and a statistical analysis of the fit results using toy Monte Carlo techniques. The state-of-the-art electroweak Standard Model is fully implemented, as well as generic extensions to it. Theoretical uncertainties are explicitly included in the fit through scale parameters varying within given error ranges. This paper introduces the Gfitter projec...

  13. A Worm Algorithm for the Lattice CP(N-1) Model arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias

    The CP(N-1) model in 2D is an interesting toy model for 4D QCD as it possesses confinement, asymptotic freedom and a non-trivial vacuum structure. Due to the lower dimensionality and the absence of fermions, the computational cost for simulating 2D CP(N-1) on the lattice is much lower than the one for simulating 4D QCD. However to our knowledge, no efficient algorithm for simulating the lattice CP(N-1) model has been tested so far, which also works at finite density. To this end we propose and test a new type of worm algorithm which is appropriate to simulate the lattice CP(N-1) model in a dual, flux-variables based representation, in which the introduction of a chemical potential does not give rise to any complications.

  14. Opinion formation model for markets with a social temperature and fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Sebastian M.; Bornholdt, Stefan

    2012-11-01

    In the spirit of behavioral finance, we study the process of opinion formation among investors using a variant of the two-dimensional voter model with a tunable social temperature. Further, a feedback acting on the temperature is introduced, such that social temperature reacts to market imbalances and thus becomes time dependent. In this toy market model, social temperature represents nervousness of agents toward market imbalances representing speculative risk. We use the knowledge about the discontinuous generalized voter model phase transition to determine critical fixed points. The system exhibits metastable phases around these fixed points characterized by structured lattice states, with intermittent excursions away from the fixed points. The statistical mechanics of the model is characterized, and its relation to dynamics of opinion formation among investors in real markets is discussed.

  15. Intrinsic dynamics of heart regulatory systems on short time-scales: from experiment to modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Khovanov, I A; McClintock, P V E; Stefanovska, A

    2009-01-01

    We discuss open problems related to the stochastic modeling of cardiac function. The work is based on an experimental investigation of the dynamics of heart rate variability (HRV) in the absence of respiratory perturbations. We consider first the cardiac control system on short time scales via an analysis of HRV within the framework of a random walk approach. Our experiments show that HRV on timescales of less than a minute takes the form of free diffusion, close to Brownian motion, which can be described as a non-stationary process with stationary increments. Secondly, we consider the inverse problem of modeling the state of the control system so as to reproduce the experimentally observed HRV statistics of. We discuss some simple toy models and identify open problems for the modelling of heart dynamics.

  16. Geometric and Textural Blending for 3D Model Stylization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Jheng; Lin, Wen-Chieh; Yeh, I-Cheng; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2018-02-01

    Stylizing a 3D model with characteristic shapes or appearances is common in product design, particularly in the design of 3D model merchandise, such as souvenirs, toys, furniture, and stylized items. A model stylization approach is proposed in this study. The approach combines base and style models while preserving user-specified shape features of the base model and the attractive features of the style model with limited assistance from a user. The two models are first combined at the topological level. A tree-growing technique is utilized to search for all possible combinations of the two models. Second, the models are combined at textural and geometric levels by employing a morphing technique. Results show that the proposed approach generates various appealing models and allows users to control the diversity of the output models and adjust the blending degree between the base and style models. The results of this work are also experimentally compared with those of a recent work through a user study. The comparison indicates that our results are more appealing, feature-preserving, and reasonable than those of the compared previous study. The proposed system allows product designers to easily explore design possibilities and assists novice users in creating their own stylized models.

  17. HPLC Analysis of Colorants Migrated from Children's Modeling Clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Eri; Ozaki, Asako; Ooshima, Tomoko; Yamano, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    A method using high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) was developed for the identification of colorants migrated from colored modeling clays, which are popular toys for children. Twelve permitted dyes and 25 non-permitted dyes were analyzed in 20 clays (10 wheat clays, 2 rice clays, 2 corn clays, 3 paper clays and 3 resin clays). As a result, 13 products which were labeled for children's use (under 6 years old) met the specifications of the Japanese Food Sanitation Law, while non-permitted colorants were eluted from 2 products. In additon, unknown colorants were eluted from 3 products for people over 6 years old, although these are not covered by the Japanese regulation. It was suggested that some type of clays contained pigments, which are generally used in printing ink and plastics.

  18. Uso do brinquedo no hospital: o que os enfermeiros brasileirosestão estudando? Uso del juguete en el hospital: ¿qué están estudiando los enfermeros brasileños? Use of toys in hospitals: what are brazilian nurses studying?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Maria Coelho Leite

    2008-06-01

    corpus del presente estudio. El juguete fue más utilizado en el pre y post-operatorio, por enfermeros docentes, con niños pre-escolares y escolares, padres y enfermeros. Los trabajos analizados refuerzan los resultados positivos de esta práctica. Recomendamos que las enfermeras pediátricas utilicen el juguete en todas las instituciones donde el niño necesite cuidado.Care for the emotional needs of hospitalized children has had the attention of nursing professionals in Brazil, although not as a general rule. The chance to play is known as a relief from suffering, especially in childhood, which justifies the importance of this theme. This study had the objective of analyzing Brazilian nurses#&39; academic production on the use of toys during the attention to children in hospitals in strictu sensu Graduate programs. Data were taken from Portal CAPES, CEPEn, IBICT and papers#&39; references. Of the 15 theses/dissertations found in the literature only 14 are available; they were analyzed and comprise the corpus of this study. It was found that toys have been used mostly in pre and post-surgery, by Nursing professors, with preschool and school age children, parents and nurses. All of the works reinforce the positive results of toys#&39; use. We recommend to pediatric nurses the use of toys in all institutions where children need care.

  19. Benefícios da utilização do brinquedo durante o cuidado de enfermagem prestado a criança hospitalizada Beneficios de la utilización del juguete durante el cuidado de enfermería dispensado al niño hospitalizado Benefits from the use of toys during nursing care delivered to hospitalized children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Ferraz Jansen

    2010-06-01

    . Las características del juguete facilitaron la comunicación, la participación, la aceptación de procedimientos y motivación del niño, lo que posibilitó manutención de la individualidad, disminución del estrés y posibilidad de implementación de un cuidado atraumático al niño y su familia.It is a qualitative research study, descriptive-exploratory in nature, which aims to verify the benefits from the use of toys during nursing care to hospitalized children. Ten subjects participated in the study, that is, three children and seven mothers of hospitalized children. Data were collected between May and July of 2008 by means of specific instruments for each age group and further organized in thematic categories: the use of toys to lessen hospitalization stress; toys facilitating understanding and acceptance of procedures and the experience of using toys and hospitalization process. It is concluded that the use of toys is an excellent nursing resource in order to render care to admitted children. The features of the toys facilitated communication, participation, acceptance of procedure and child motivation which enabled them to keep their individuality, lessen the stress and the possibility to implement children's and families' non-traumatic care.

  20. arXiv Topology in the 2d Heisenberg Model under Gradient Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Sandoval, Ilya O.; de Forcrand, Philippe; Gerber, Urs; Mejía-Díaz, Héctor

    2017-10-28

    The 2d Heisenberg model — or 2d O(3) model — is popular in condensed matter physics, and in particle physics as a toy model for QCD. Along with other analogies, it shares with 4d Yang-Mills theories, and with QCD, the property that the configurations are divided in topological sectors. In the lattice regularisation the topological charge Q can still be defined such that $Q\\in \\mathbb{Z}$. It has generally been observed, however, that the topological susceptibility ${{\\chi }_{t}}=\\langle {{Q}^{2}}\\rangle /V$ does not scale properly in the continuum limit, i.e. that the quantity ${{\\chi }_{t}}{{\\xi }^{2}}$ diverges for ξ → ∞ (where ξ is the correlation length in lattice units). Here we address the question whether or not this divergence persists after the application of the Gradient Flow.

  1. Collapse models and perceptual processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo Ghirardi, Gian; Romano, Raffaele

    2014-04-01

    Theories including a collapse mechanism have been presented various years ago. They are based on a modification of standard quantum mechanics in which nonlinear and stochastic terms are added to the evolution equation. Their principal merits derive from the fact that they are mathematically precise schemes accounting, on the basis of a unique universal dynamical principle, both for the quantum behavior of microscopic systems as well as for the reduction associated to measurement processes and for the classical behavior of macroscopic objects. Since such theories qualify themselves not as new interpretations but as modifications of the standard theory they can be, in principle, tested against quantum mechanics. Recently, various investigations identifying possible crucial test have been discussed. In spite of the extreme difficulty to perform such tests it seems that recent technological developments allow at least to put precise limits on the parameters characterizing the modifications of the evolution equation. Here we will simply mention some of the recent investigations in this direction, while we will mainly concentrate our attention to the way in which collapse theories account for definite perceptual process. The differences between the case of reductions induced by perceptions and those related to measurement procedures by means of standard macroscopic devices will be discussed. On this basis, we suggest a precise experimental test of collapse theories involving conscious observers. We make plausible, by discussing in detail a toy model, that the modified dynamics can give rise to quite small but systematic errors in the visual perceptual process.

  2. SKIRT: The design of a suite of input models for Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baes, M.; Camps, P.

    2015-09-01

    The Monte Carlo method is the most popular technique to perform radiative transfer simulations in a general 3D geometry. The algorithms behind and acceleration techniques for Monte Carlo radiative transfer are discussed extensively in the literature, and many different Monte Carlo codes are publicly available. On the contrary, the design of a suite of components that can be used for the distribution of sources and sinks in radiative transfer codes has received very little attention. The availability of such models, with different degrees of complexity, has many benefits. For example, they can serve as toy models to test new physical ingredients, or as parameterised models for inverse radiative transfer fitting. For 3D Monte Carlo codes, this requires algorithms to efficiently generate random positions from 3D density distributions. We describe the design of a flexible suite of components for the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code SKIRT. The design is based on a combination of basic building blocks (which can be either analytical toy models or numerical models defined on grids or a set of particles) and the extensive use of decorators that combine and alter these building blocks to more complex structures. For a number of decorators, e.g. those that add spiral structure or clumpiness, we provide a detailed description of the algorithms that can be used to generate random positions. Advantages of this decorator-based design include code transparency, the avoidance of code duplication, and an increase in code maintainability. Moreover, since decorators can be chained without problems, very complex models can easily be constructed out of simple building blocks. Finally, based on a number of test simulations, we demonstrate that our design using customised random position generators is superior to a simpler design based on a generic black-box random position generator.

  3. Inference of Calmodulin's Ca2+-Dependent Free Energy Landscapes via Gaussian Mixture Model Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, Annie M; Harpole, Tyler J; Blau, Christian; Delemotte, Lucie

    2018-01-09

    A free energy landscape estimation method based on the well-known Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is used to compare the efficiencies of thermally enhanced sampling methods with respect to regular molecular dynamics. The simulations are carried out on two binding states of calmodulin, and the free energy estimation method is compared with other estimators using a toy model. We show that GMM with cross-validation provides a robust estimate that is not subject to overfitting. The continuous nature of Gaussians provides better estimates on sparse data than canonical histogramming. We find that diffusion properties determine the sampling method effectiveness, such that diffusion-dominated apo calmodulin is most efficiently sampled by regular molecular dynamics, while holo calmodulin, with its rugged free energy landscape, is better sampled by enhanced sampling methods.

  4. Models of glassy behavior that attempt to understand mode coupling theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, Kyozi,

    2002-01-01

    Glass transitions are said to be long time scale and short length scale phenomena. This makes the problem extremely difficult to treat theoretically. In this respect the current mode coupling theory (MCT) for glassy behavior, which is the only existing first principle dynamical theory has conceptual problems despite its spectacular successes. Proper understanding for the reasons of success is still lacking. There is an urgent need for deeper understanding and proper extention of the theory below the so-called mode coupling temperature below which the theory generally fails. With this aim in mind we have been developing a mean field type toy model. We are also developing a dynamical generalization of van der Waals model with Kac-type long range interaction. The talk will try to explain these and related developments in a plain language.

  5. State-time spectrum of signal transduction logic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNamara, Aidan; Terfve, Camille; Henriques, David; Bernabé, Beatriz Peñalver; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio

    2012-08-01

    Despite the current wealth of high-throughput data, our understanding of signal transduction is still incomplete. Mathematical modeling can be a tool to gain an insight into such processes. Detailed biochemical modeling provides deep understanding, but does not scale well above relatively a few proteins. In contrast, logic modeling can be used where the biochemical knowledge of the system is sparse and, because it is parameter free (or, at most, uses relatively a few parameters), it scales well to large networks that can be derived by manual curation or retrieved from public databases. Here, we present an overview of logic modeling formalisms in the context of training logic models to data, and specifically the different approaches to modeling qualitative to quantitative data (state) and dynamics (time) of signal transduction. We use a toy model of signal transduction to illustrate how different logic formalisms (Boolean, fuzzy logic and differential equations) treat state and time. Different formalisms allow for different features of the data to be captured, at the cost of extra requirements in terms of computational power and data quality and quantity. Through this demonstration, the assumptions behind each formalism are discussed, as well as their advantages and disadvantages and possible future developments.

  6. Una mirada a los juegos y juguetes del ayer. Encuentro intergeneracional entre abuelos/as y nietos/as para la recuperación del patrimonio educativo. // A look at the games and toys of yesterday. Intergenerational encounter between grandparents and grandchildren for the recovery of educational heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa Ortiz Moreno

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available (ES El patrimonio histórico educativo forma parte del patrimonio cultural de la humanidad. Conscientes de ello, muchos son los trabajos que, especialmente en la última década, están contribuyendo al estudio, investigación, recuperación, puesta en valor y difusión de la memoria y el patrimonio de la educación. En este artículo, la preocupación por sensibilizar a los más pequeños de la sociedad en la salvaguarda y conservación del patrimonio histórico educativo nos lleva a describir una experiencia didáctica consistente en el diseño e implementación de un encuentro intergeneracional entre niños/as y abuelos/as, desarrollado en el marco universitario desde el Museo Pedagógico de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación de la Universidad de Sevilla. Se trata de una práctica pedagógica concebida para que pequeños y mayores intercambien pensamientos, vivencias y sentimientos, relacionados con los juegos y juguetes del ayer. Todo ello, con la intención de reconocer la importancia que tiene propiciar oportunidades didácticas que contribuyan a reconocer que tanto los juegos, como los juguetes del pasado, son una parte importante de nuestra herencia patrimonial histórico educativa. // (EN The educational heritage is part of the cultural heritage of humanity. In the last decade, there are many trials that are contributing to the study, research, recovery, valorisation and dissemination of memory and heritage education. This article describes a teaching experience in the design and implementation of an intergenerational encounter between children and grandparents, developed from the Pedagogical Museum of the Faculty of Education at the University of Seville. The experience is to sensitize younger members of the society in safeguarding and preservation of historical heritage education. This is a pedagogical practice designed for young and old alike to exchange thoughts, experiences and feelings related to yesterday games and toys

  7. Gravitational wave signals from 3D neutrino hydrodynamics simulations of core-collapse supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, H.; Müller, B.; Müller, E.; Janka, H.-Th.

    2017-06-01

    We present gravitational wave (GW) signal predictions from four 3D multigroup neutrino hydrodynamics simulations of core-collapse supernovae of progenitors with 11.2, 20 and 27 M⊙. GW emission in the pre-explosion phase strongly depends on whether the post-shock flow is dominated by the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) or convection and differs considerably from 2D models. SASI activity produces a strong signal component below 250 Hz through asymmetric mass motions in the gain layer and a non-resonant coupling to the proto-neutron star (PNS). Both convection- and SASI-dominated models show GW emission above 250 Hz, but with considerably lower amplitudes than in 2D. This is due to a different excitation mechanism for high-frequency l = 2 motions in the PNS surface, which are predominantly excited by PNS convection in 3D. Resonant excitation of high-frequency surface g modes in 3D by mass motions in the gain layer is suppressed compared to 2D because of smaller downflow velocities and a lack of high-frequency variability in the downflows. In the exploding 20 M⊙ model, shock revival results in enhanced low-frequency emission due to a change of the preferred scale of the convective eddies in the PNS convection zone. Estimates of the expected excess power in two frequency bands suggest that second-generation detectors will only be able to detect very nearby events, but that third-generation detectors could distinguish SASI- and convection-dominated models at distances of ˜ 10 kpc.

  8. Modelling the costs of natural hazards in games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru-Dan, M.

    2012-04-01

    We will present the application of (socio-)economic models coming from games theory to urban planning and to large scale architectural tasks, the most frequent one presented being that of the church. The importance of games will be seen as a continuation of the role played by toys for the development of skills of the architects. While toys dealt with the development of 3D viewing and more realistic "building" focusing, for example, on details, games use stylized construction management models with "symbols" for resources, being it in a board game or in a computer supported social environment. 22 October 1997 to 31 May 1998 the Canadian Centre of Architecture hosted the exhibition "Toy Town". Apart of architecture toys, a field where principles of city building apply are architecture games. City building games are a subgenre of construction and management games, the best know of each is SimCity. In its initial version of 1989 SimCity included disaster scenarios including the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, but also flooding, fire etc. During the further development only the fire remained as well implemented as the initial scenarios. It was a way to look at the role of disasters in urban planning, not only as way for a new begin, but also as mitigation and earthquake management. It is to be noted that disasters represented in SimCity 2000 are converted to such which develop in surface, such as fire and flood. Earthquake damage which occures at random buildings is not modelled. Also, the fight against the consequences of the disaster, fire and flood are done in a realtime first hand action game, not as construction management game. However, there are costs associated to mitigating the disaster, such as the costs for fire fighters. Today such city building games evolved to 3D applications, the semantic enrichment of which involves the economic model. The digital 3D model will be compared with the "hard copy" 3D model which architecture toys represent. Models for Sim

  9. Effects of Rotation on Stochasticity of Gravitational Waves in the Nonlinear Phase of Core-collapse Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotake, Kei; Iwakami-Nakano, Wakana; Ohnishi, Naofumi

    2011-08-01

    By performing three-dimensional (3D) simulations that demonstrate the neutrino-driven core-collapse supernovae aided by the standing accretion shock instability (SASI), we study how the spiral modes of the SASI can impact the properties of the gravitational-wave (GW) emission. To see the effects of rotation in the nonlinear postbounce phase, we give a uniform rotation on the flow advecting from the outer boundary of the iron core, the specific angular momentum of which is assumed to agree with recent stellar evolution models. We compute fifteen 3D models in which the initial angular momentum and the input neutrino luminosities from the protoneutron star are changed in a systematic manner. By performing a ray-tracing analysis, we accurately estimate the GW amplitudes generated by anisotropic neutrino emission. Our results show that the gravitational waveforms from neutrinos in models that include rotation exhibit a common feature; otherwise, they vary much more stochastically in the absence of rotation. The breaking of the stochasticity stems from the excess of the neutrino emission parallel to the spin axis. This is because the compression of matter is more enhanced in the vicinity of the equatorial plane due to the growth of the spiral SASI modes, leading to the formation of the spiral flows circulating around the spin axis with higher temperatures. We point out that recently proposed future space interferometers like Fabry-Perot-type DECIGO would permit the detection of these signals for a Galactic supernova.

  10. Teaching Einsteinian physics at schools: part 2, models and analogies for quantum physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Tejinder; Blair, David; Moschilla, John; Zadnik, Marjan

    2017-11-01

    The Einstein-First project approaches the teaching of Einsteinian physics through the use of physical models and analogies. This paper presents an approach to the teaching of quantum physics which begins by emphasising the particle-nature of light through the use of toy projectiles to represent photons. This allows key concepts including the spacing between photons, and photon momentum to be introduced. This in-turn allows an intuitive understanding of the uncertainty principle. We present optical interference in the context of individual photons, using actual videos showing the development of images one at a time. This enables simple laser interference experiments to be interpreted through the statistical arrival of photons. The wave aspects of quantum phenomenon are interpreted in terms of the wavelike nature of the arrival probabilities.

  11. 3D shape modeling by integration visual and tactile cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hanwei; Xu, Jun; Xu, Chenxi; Pan, Ming

    2015-10-01

    With the progress in CAD (Computer Aided Design) systems, many mechanical components can be designed efficiently with high precision. But, such a system is unfit for some organic shapes, for example, a toy. In this paper, an easy way to dealing with such shapes is presented, combing visual perception with tangible interaction. The method is divided into three phases: two tangible interaction phases and one visual reconstruction. In the first tangible phase, a clay model is used to represent the raw shape, and the designer can change the shape intuitively with his hands. Then the raw shape is scanned into a digital volume model through a low cost vision system. In the last tangible phase, a desktop haptic device from SensAble is used to refine the scanned volume model and convert it into a surface model. A physical clay model and a virtual clay mode are all used in this method to deal with the main shape and the details respectively, and the vision system is used to bridge the two tangible phases. The vision reconstruction system is only made of a camera to acquire raw shape through shape from silhouettes method. All of the systems are installed on a single desktop, make it convenient for designers. The vision system details and a design example are presented in the papers.

  12. On the use of inexact, pruned hardware in atmospheric modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düben, Peter D; Joven, Jaume; Lingamneni, Avinash; McNamara, Hugh; De Micheli, Giovanni; Palem, Krishna V; Palmer, T N

    2014-06-28

    Inexact hardware design, which advocates trading the accuracy of computations in exchange for significant savings in area, power and/or performance of computing hardware, has received increasing prominence in several error-tolerant application domains, particularly those involving perceptual or statistical end-users. In this paper, we evaluate inexact hardware for its applicability in weather and climate modelling. We expand previous studies on inexact techniques, in particular probabilistic pruning, to floating point arithmetic units and derive several simulated set-ups of pruned hardware with reasonable levels of error for applications in atmospheric modelling. The set-up is tested on the Lorenz '96 model, a toy model for atmospheric dynamics, using software emulation for the proposed hardware. The results show that large parts of the computation tolerate the use of pruned hardware blocks without major changes in the quality of short- and long-time diagnostics, such as forecast errors and probability density functions. This could open the door to significant savings in computational cost and to higher resolution simulations with weather and climate models.

  13. Model control of image processing for telerobotics and biomedical instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, An Huu

    1993-06-01

    This thesis has model control of image processing (MCIP) as its major theme. By this it is meant that there is a top-down model approach which already knows the structure of the image to be processed. This top-down image processing under model control is used further as visual feedback to control robots and as feedforward information for biomedical instrumentation. The software engineering of the bioengineering instrumentation image processing is defined in terms of the task and the tools available. Early bottom-up image processing such as thresholding occurs only within the top-down control regions of interest (ROI's) or operating windows. Moment computation is an important bottom-up procedure as well as pyramiding to attain rapid computation, among other considerations in attaining programming efficiencies. A distinction is made between initialization procedures and stripped down run time operations. Even more detailed engineering design considerations are considered with respect to the ellipsoidal modeling of objects. Here the major axis orientation is an important additional piece of information, beyond the centroid moments. Careful analysis of various sources of errors and considerable benchmarking characterized the detailed considerations of the software engineering of the image processing procedures. Image processing for robotic control involves a great deal of 3D calibration of the robot working environment (RWE). Of special interest is the idea of adapting the machine scanpath to the current task. It was important to pay careful attention to the hardware aspects of the control of the toy robots that were used to demonstrate the general methodology. It was necessary to precalibrate the open loop gains for all motors so that after initialization the visual feedback, which depends on MCIP, would be able to supply enough information quickly enough to the control algorithms to govern the robots under a variety of control configurations and task operations

  14. Worm Algorithm for CP(N-1) Model

    CERN Document Server

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    The CP(N-1) model in 2D is an interesting toy model for 4D QCD as it possesses confinement, asymptotic freedom and a non-trivial vacuum structure. Due to the lower dimensionality and the absence of fermions, the computational cost for simulating 2D CP(N-1) on the lattice is much lower than that for simulating 4D QCD. However, to our knowledge, no efficient algorithm for simulating the lattice CP(N-1) model has been tested so far, which also works at finite density. To this end we propose a new type of worm algorithm which is appropriate to simulate the lattice CP(N-1) model in a dual, flux-variables based representation, in which the introduction of a chemical potential does not give rise to any complications. In addition to the usual worm moves where a defect is just moved from one lattice site to the next, our algorithm additionally allows for worm-type moves in the internal variable space of single links, which accelerates the Monte Carlo evolution. We use our algorithm to compare the two popular CP(N-1) l...

  15. Geometric Modeling and Reasoning of Human-Centered Freeform Products

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Charlie C L

    2013-01-01

    The recent trend in user-customized product design requires the shape of products to be automatically adjusted according to the human body’s shape, so that people will feel more comfortable when wearing these products.  Geometric approaches can be used to design the freeform shape of products worn by people, which can greatly improve the efficiency of design processes in various industries involving customized products (e.g., garment design, toy design, jewel design, shoe design, and design of medical devices, etc.). These products are usually composed of very complex geometric shapes (represented by free-form surfaces), and are not driven by a parameter table but a digital human model with free-form shapes or part of human bodies (e.g., wrist, foot, and head models).   Geometric Modeling and Reasoning of Human-Centered Freeform Products introduces the algorithms of human body reconstruction, freeform product modeling, constraining and reconstructing freeform products, and shape optimization for improving...

  16. Worm algorithm for the CP N - 1 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias; de Forcrand, Philippe

    2017-05-01

    The CP N - 1 model in 2D is an interesting toy model for 4D QCD as it possesses confinement, asymptotic freedom and a non-trivial vacuum structure. Due to the lower dimensionality and the absence of fermions, the computational cost for simulating 2D CP N - 1 on the lattice is much lower than that for simulating 4D QCD. However, to our knowledge, no efficient algorithm for simulating the lattice CP N - 1 model for N > 2 has been tested so far, which also works at finite density. To this end we propose a new type of worm algorithm which is appropriate to simulate the lattice CP N - 1 model in a dual, flux-variables based representation, in which the introduction of a chemical potential does not give rise to any complications. In addition to the usual worm moves where a defect is just moved from one lattice site to the next, our algorithm additionally allows for worm-type moves in the internal variable space of single links, which accelerates the Monte Carlo evolution. We use our algorithm to compare the two popular CP N - 1 lattice actions and exhibit marked differences in their approach to the continuum limit.

  17. The Physics of a Walking Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guemez, J.; Fiolhais, M.

    2013-01-01

    The physics of walking is explored, using a toy as a concrete example and a "toy model" applied to it. Besides using Newton's second law, the problem is also discussed from the thermodynamical perspective. Once the steady state (constant velocity) is achieved, we show that the internal energy of the toy is dissipated as heat in the…

  18. Brinquedo terapêutico: estratégia de alívio da dor e tensão durante o curativo cirúrgico em crianças El juguete terapéutico: estrategia de alivio del dolor y tensión durante la curación quirúrgica en niños Therapeutic toy: strategy for pain management and tension relief during dressing change in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Toni Kiche

    2009-01-01

    therapeutic toy. METHODS: The sample consisted of 34 children who underwent a surgical procedure in a pediatric public hospital in São Paulo City. Data on children's reactions and pain during dressing change were collected before and after the use of the therapeutic toy. RESULTS: Children who had dressing change after the use of therapeutic toy had better adaptation and acceptance of dressing change. In addition, they also had lower pain score. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that therapeutic toy was an effective strategy in reducing frightening, relieving tension, and managing pain in children during dressing change.

  19. Tensor renormalization group methods for spin and gauge models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Haiyuan

    The analysis of the error of perturbative series by comparing it to the exact solution is an important tool to understand the non-perturbative physics of statistical models. For some toy models, a new method can be used to calculate higher order weak coupling expansion and modified perturbation theory can be constructed. However, it is nontrivial to generalize the new method to understand the critical behavior of high dimensional spin and gauge models. Actually, it is a big challenge in both high energy physics and condensed matter physics to develop accurate and efficient numerical algorithms to solve these problems. In this thesis, one systematic way named tensor renormalization group method is discussed. The applications of the method to several spin and gauge models on a lattice are investigated. theoretically, the new method allows one to write an exact representation of the partition function of models with local interactions. E.g. O(N) models, Z2 gauge models and U(1) gauge models. Practically, by using controllable approximations, results in both finite volume and the thermodynamic limit can be obtained. Another advantage of the new method is that it is insensitive to sign problems for models with complex coupling and chemical potential. Through the new approach, the Fisher's zeros of the 2D O(2) model in the complex coupling plane can be calculated and the finite size scaling of the results agrees well with the Kosterlitz-Thouless assumption. Applying the method to the O(2) model with a chemical potential, new phase diagram of the models can be obtained. The structure of the tensor language may provide a new tool to understand phase transition properties in general.

  20. Deep ART Neural Model for Biologically Inspired Episodic Memory and Its Application to Task Performance of Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gyeong-Moon; Yoo, Yong-Ho; Kim, Deok-Hwa; Kim, Jong-Hwan

    2017-06-26

    Robots are expected to perform smart services and to undertake various troublesome or difficult tasks in the place of humans. Since these human-scale tasks consist of a temporal sequence of events, robots need episodic memory to store and retrieve the sequences to perform the tasks autonomously in similar situations. As episodic memory, in this paper we propose a novel Deep adaptive resonance theory (ART) neural model and apply it to the task performance of the humanoid robot, Mybot, developed in the Robot Intelligence Technology Laboratory at KAIST. Deep ART has a deep structure to learn events, episodes, and even more like daily episodes. Moreover, it can retrieve the correct episode from partial input cues robustly. To demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed Deep ART, experiments are conducted with the humanoid robot, Mybot, for performing the three tasks of arranging toys, making cereal, and disposing of garbage.

  1. Primordial black holes from single field models of inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bellido, Juan; Ruiz Morales, Ester

    2017-12-01

    Primordial black holes (PBH) have been shown to arise from high peaks in the matter power spectra of multi-field models of inflation. Here we show, with a simple toy model, that it is also possible to generate a peak in the curvature power spectrum of single-field inflation. We assume that the effective dynamics of the inflaton field presents a near-inflection point which slows down the field right before the end of inflation and gives rise to a prominent spike in the fluctuation power spectrum at scales much smaller than those probed by Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and Large Scale Structure (LSS) observations. This peak will give rise, upon reentry during the radiation era, to PBH via gravitational collapse. The mass and abundance of these PBH is such that they could constitute the totality of the Dark Matter today. We satisfy all CMB and LSS constraints and predict a very broad range of PBH masses. Some of these PBH are light enough that they will evaporate before structure formation, leaving behind a large curvature fluctuation on small scales. This broad mass distribution of PBH as Dark Matter will be tested in the future by AdvLIGO and LISA interferometers.

  2. Primordial black holes from single field models of inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Bellido, Juan

    Primordial black holes (PBH) have been shown to arise from high peaks in the matter power spectra of multi-field models of inflation. Here we show, with a simple toy model, that it is also possible to generate a peak in the curvature power spectrum of single-field inflation. We assume that the effective dynamics of the inflaton field presents a near-inflection point which slows down the field right before the end of inflation and gives rise to a prominent spike in the fluctuation power spectrum at scales much smaller than those probed by Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and Large Scale Structure (LSS) observations. This peak will give rise, upon reentry during the radiation era, to PBH via gravitational collapse. The mass and abundance of these PBH is such that they could constitute the totality of the Dark Matter today. We satisfy all CMB and LSS constraints and predict a very broad range of PBH masses. Some of these PBH are light enough that they will evaporate before structure formation, leaving behind a ...

  3. Modelling the application of integrated photonic spectrographs to astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R. J.; Allington-Smith, J. R.

    2012-09-01

    One of the well-known problems of producing instruments for Extremely Large Telescopes is that their size (and hence cost) scales rapidly with telescope aperture. To try to break this relation alternative new technologies have been proposed, such as the use of the Integrated Photonic Spectrograph (IPS). Due to their diraction limited nature the IPS is claimed to defeat the harsh scaling law applying to conventional instruments. The problem with astronomical applications is that unlike conventional photonics, they are not usually fed by diraction limited sources. This means in order to retain throughput and spatial information the IPS will require multiple Arrayed Waveguide Gratings (AWGs) and a photonic lantern. We investigate the implications of these extra components on the size of the instrument. We also investigate the potential size advantage of using an IPS as opposed to conventional monolithic optics. To do this, we have constructed toy models of IPS and conventional image sliced spectrographs to calculate the relative instrument sizes and their requirements in terms of numbers of detector pixels. Using these models we can quantify the relative size/cost advantage for dierent types of instrument, by varying dierent parameters e.g. multiplex gain and spectral resolution. This is accompanied by an assessment of the uncertainties in these predictions, which may prove crucial for the planning of future instrumentation for highly-multiplexed spectroscopy.

  4. Transition to success on the model room task: the importance of improvements in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartstein, Lauren E; Berthier, Neil E

    2017-02-22

    Previous work has shown that children under age 3 often perform very poorly on the model room task, in which they are asked to find a hidden toy based on its location in a scale model. One prominent theory for their failure is that they lack the ability to understand the model as both a physical object and as a symbolic representation of the larger room. A hypothesized additional component is that they need to overcome weak, competing representations of where the object was on a previous trial, and where it is in the present trial, in order to succeed in their search. Children aged 33-39 months were tested on the model room task, as well as on measures of cognitive inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and working memory. Results showed that performance on the model room task was not predicted by measures of inhibitory control or cognitive flexibility, but was predicted by performance on the Delayed Recognition Span Test (DRST), a measure of working memory. These findings lend support to the theory of competing representations and demonstrate the necessity of updating and maintaining strong representations in working memory to succeed in the search task. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A Minimal Self-affine Stable Model for Space Physics Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, N. W.; Credgington, D.; Freeman, M. P.; Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B.

    2006-12-01

    Direct inspiration for the measurement of scaling in space physics has come from inherently multiscale physics such as self-organised criticality and turbulence. Additionally, the ability to assess the likelihood of a fluctuation of a given size has "space weather" implications. However, we have elsewhere argued that it is also useful to capture the "stylised facts" of the scaling behaviour of auroral indices and solar wind quantities by much simpler, purely phenomenological models. To make this idea more concrete we here illustrate it by studying the use of fractional Lévy motion as a model for solar wind and auroral index time series, although this example could be taken as a prototype for other possible models. In fLm there are only three exponents, the Lévy exponent μ, the persistence exponent β and the selfsimilarity exponent H which depends additively on the other two. By postulating an fLm description we explore how the previously experimentally measured scaling exponents for quantities like superposed epoch averaged activity, or the probability distribution of the differenced time series, would depend on the model's parameters. We can then also derive predictions for the exponents of the more complicated measurements which have also been made, such as size and duration of bursts above a threshold, or the survival probability of a burst. Comparison of these predictions with data is then used to assess the usefulness of fLm as a toy model for space physics time series.

  6. Modeling and replicating statistical topology and evidence for CMB nonhomogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert J; Agami, Sarit; Pranav, Pratyush

    2017-11-07

    Under the banner of "big data," the detection and classification of structure in extremely large, high-dimensional, data sets are two of the central statistical challenges of our times. Among the most intriguing new approaches to this challenge is "TDA," or "topological data analysis," one of the primary aims of which is providing nonmetric, but topologically informative, preanalyses of data which make later, more quantitative, analyses feasible. While TDA rests on strong mathematical foundations from topology, in applications, it has faced challenges due to difficulties in handling issues of statistical reliability and robustness, often leading to an inability to make scientific claims with verifiable levels of statistical confidence. We propose a methodology for the parametric representation, estimation, and replication of persistence diagrams, the main diagnostic tool of TDA. The power of the methodology lies in the fact that even if only one persistence diagram is available for analysis-the typical case for big data applications-the replications permit conventional statistical hypothesis testing. The methodology is conceptually simple and computationally practical, and provides a broadly effective statistical framework for persistence diagram TDA analysis. We demonstrate the basic ideas on a toy example, and the power of the parametric approach to TDA modeling in an analysis of cosmic microwave background (CMB) nonhomogeneity. Published under the PNAS license.

  7. Play Therapy Utilizing the Sony EyeToy®

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Tony; Petersson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    to the potentials of games utilizing mirrored user embodiment in therapy. Results highlight the positive aspects of gameplay and the evaluand potential in the field. Conclusions suggest a continuum where presence state is a significant interim mode toward a higher order aesthetic resonance state that we claim...

  8. Internet Use among College Students: Tool or Toy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, Fred; Terregrossa, Ralph A.; Wang, Zhaobo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between the grade performance of 128 students in an introductory micro-economics course and the average number of hours per week these students report spending on the Internet. The literature review offers a "priori" arguments supporting both positive and negative relationships.…

  9. Toys are me: children's extension of self to objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesendruck, Gil; Perez, Reut

    2015-01-01

    Adults tend to believe that objects can function as extensions of people's selves. This belief has been demonstrated in that changes to people's sense of self affect their attachment to personally valuable objects, and vice-versa. Here we tested the development of this belief. In Study 1 we found that manipulating 5-year-olds' self-worth via positive or negative feedback on performance, affected their willingness to part with personally valuable objects, but had no effect vis-à-vis non-valuable objects. In Study 2 we found that 9-, but not 5-year-olds were more willing to give a personally valuable object to someone morally repulsive after the object had been cleaned of all remnants of the child's self, than before. Study 2b showed an analogous effect in 5-year-olds' willingness to receive an object from someone morally repulsive. These findings intimate that the extension of self to objects via contagion may derive not only from cultural values such as consumerism, materialism, or individualism, but also from basic human needs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Smartphones in ophthalmology : Relief or toys for physicians?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanzel, B V; Meyer, C H

    2012-01-01

    Smartphones offer a number of so-called medical and ophthalmic "apps" and their use will be investigated in this survey. An Internet analysis was performed to identify available medical "apps" and evaluate their utilization. Search engines, developers' websites and webstores were screened with key words such as: "smartphone", "medical apps" and "eye test". The "apps" were evaluated for usability and with respective published reviews. In addition, an international survey among ophthalmologists asked about the use of a Smartphone and "apps" preferences. Direct inquiries were undertaken with developers on selected promising novel "apps". The more than 70 identified "apps" examined were subdivided into different categories A) examining function, B) photo and video recordings, C) office, D) patient education and informed consent as well as E) medical continued education functions and literature searching. The survey determined the iPhone to be the most popular Smartphone among the sampled ophthalmologists worldwide. Many popular "apps" have become available only recently and hence suffer in part from some initial technical problems. Some ophthalmic "apps" are very helpful in the emergency room or during consultations. Only a few "apps" were approved as medical products and therefore cannot substitute a full ophthalmic examination. The increasing distribution of Smartphone "apps" in ophthalmology may have the potential to facilitate patient treatment, data management and communication.

  11. It's Not about the Toys: Putting Technology in Its Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewington, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Across the country, with tight budgets and constant pressure to upgrade in the name of "21st century learning," school boards are struggling to put technology in its place. In British Columbia, two boards with different profiles have come to the same conclusion--that effective integration of technology in the classroom requires…

  12. Treatment of the lateral patellar luxation in toy poodles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padilha Filho João Guilherme

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this retrospective study was to report the occurrence of lateral patellar luxation in poodles. The animals were referred to the Orthopedics Service of the Veterinary Hospital, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, - Jaboticabal Campus, São Paulo, Brazil, twelve client-owned poodles, seven females and five males poodles ranging in age from three to nine months. Clinical examination showed lameness, pain and deformities of the affected limbs. Surgical trochleoplasties were performed with medial retinacular overlap and medial tibial tuberosity transposition. The animals recovered their normal activity within a period of one to two weeks after surgery. Although this was a rarely occurring pathological condition in poodles, surgical repair was easy to execute because of its similarity to correction of medial patellar luxation. Lateral patellar luxation in small dogs is rare and, when present, is of congenital origin, at times progressing to marked functional impotence of the affected limbs.

  13. Toys and Gadgets: Construct Validity of Apathy in Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferencz, Beata; Scholtissen, Bart; Bogorodskaya, Milana; Okun, Michael S.; Bowers, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Apathy is one of the primary neuropsychiatric signatures in Parkinson’s disease, yet little research has addressed the construct validity of two commonly used apathy measures, the Apathy Scale and the Lille Apathy Rating Scale. The authors tested the hypothesis that apathy is associated with reduced initiative/engaged behaviors on a laboratory-based measure of apathy. Support was found for the hypothesis that apathy, as indexed by the Lille Apathy Rating Scale, is associated with reduced initiative/engagement on an experimental measure of apathy in Parkinson patients. These findings provide independent evidence for the construct validity of self-report apathy scales, beyond clinician judgment. PMID:23224453

  14. Toys and gadgets: construct validity of apathy in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferencz, Beata; Scholtissen, Bart; Bogorodskaya, Milana; Okun, Michael S; Bowers, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Apathy is one of the primary neuropsychiatric signatures in Parkinson's disease, yet little research has addressed the construct validity of two commonly used apathy measures, the Apathy Scale and the Lille Apathy Rating Scale. The authors tested the hypothesis that apathy is associated with reduced initiative/engaged behaviors on a laboratory-based measure of apathy. Support was found for the hypothesis that apathy, as indexed by the Apathy Scale and the Lille Apathy Rating Scale, is associated with reduced initiative/engagement on an experimental measure of apathy in Parkinson's disease patients. These findings provide independent evidence for the construct validity of self-report apathy scales, beyond clinician judgment.

  15. [Non-device-based telemonitoring : Toy or tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockburger, Martin

    2017-08-22

    Non-device-based telemedical management can be useful to prevent decompensation and death in patients suffering from easily disequilibrated conditions like diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart failure (HF). This article summarizes current knowledge on non-device-based telemedical care for patients with HF. Several parameters (heart rate, heart rate variability, systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, body weight, physical activity as derived from accelerometry, and occurrence of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias) have been identified as being associated with imminent clinical deterioration of HF patients. Structured telephone-based support and noninvasive telemonitoring with integrated electronic transfer of physiological data have been applied to care for HF patients and have been evaluated in multiple studies. The impact of telemedical care on clinical outcome appears to depend on the applied telemedical configuration and on the disease severity of targeted populations. The exclusive use of an automated telephone response system has not been successful. In patients with optimal medical therapy and relatively low decompensation risk noninvasive telemonitoring did not significantly reduce mortality. Nevertheless meta-analyses of structured telephone support and of noninvasive telemonitoring combining knowledge from available randomized trials suggest that both of these telemedical approaches may reduce the mortality risk of HF patients by 13-20%. The results of the Telemedical Interventional Management in Heart Failure II (TIM-HF II) trial on noninvasive telemonitoring versus usual care in 1500 high-risk HF patients are awaited in 2018 and will further clarify the usefulness of telemedical care in this field.

  16. Computer as a didactic toy: Computers' use in preschool education

    OpenAIRE

    Arsović, Branka

    2011-01-01

    ICT technology is used to facilitate teaching and learning in the preschool educational program. Although some pedagogues and psychologists have expressed concern about the usefulness of computer usage at this children age, numerous studies point out the positive effects of the use of IT on the children's cognitive aspects, as well as on children's social and emotional development. Appropriate educational software can enhance the development of children's symbolic thinking. Children can also ...

  17. 'Toy' laser macular burns in children: 12-month update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoof, N; O'Hagan, J; Pawlowska, N; Quhill, F

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that high-powered hand-held laser devices cause retinal injury. We present 12-month follow-up data for three patients that we previously reported with such retinal injuries. A retrospective case series of three children with maculopathy secondary to exposure to high-power hand-held laser devices. All children underwent clinical examination and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) at presentation and follow-up. Fundus-controlled microperimetry was also undertaken 12-19 months after exposure. Three children sustained macular injury after exposure to a high-powered hand-held laser. Acutely, they presented with a 'vitelliform-like' maculopathy with reduced vision. Over the course of follow-up, the best corrected Snellen acuity in all three patients improved to 'normal' levels (range 6/6-6/9). Long-term deficits in foveal retinal sensitivity were identified in two patients using fundus-controlled microperimetry. SD-OCT imaging showed persistent disruption of the foveal outer photoreceptor layers in all three children. Although visual acuity improved over time, deficits in microperimetry and SD-OCT persisted. All three children had retinal pigment epithelium changes, requiring follow-up for longer-term sequelae of laser injuries such as expansion of retinal atrophy and development of choroidal neovascular membranes.

  18. Tactual Resources at the College Level: Toys for Adult Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given, Barbara K.; Tyler, Edward P.; Hall, Nora; Wood, Margaret; And Others

    This report, a review of literature combined with two case studies, poses the question of whether tactual resources-hands-on, manipulative materials--help reduce college attrition and foster development of necessary academic skills. At George Mason University (Virginia), an exploratory, embedded case study was designed to investigate experiential…

  19. Scientific publishing. Chemists toy with the preprint future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Service, R F

    2000-09-01

    Last week, the giant publishing house Elsevier Science launched the first electronic archive for chemistry preprints through its ChemWeb subsidiary. The new site (preprint.chemweb.com) will be a common repository for reports on a wide range of chemistry topics and a forum for authors and readers to discuss the results. But ChemWeb could face an uphill battle in convincing authors to post their papers on the site, as many of the field's premier journals decline to accept papers that have already been posted on the Web.

  20. Once Upon a Tablet: A School Toy in the Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The current paper introduces the definitions of playful literacy and multimodal hyper-intertextuality, key concepts when researching children’s use of digital tablets. The pilot investigation, which took place in spring 2014 in Denmark, is part of a larger cross-cultural comparative project explo...

  1. The Wearable Cardioverter/Defibrillator - Toy Or Tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, David; Veltmann, Christian

    2016-01-01

    After the success story of implantable cardioverter/defibrillator systems, prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD) remains one of the main duties in cardiology. For patients with unkown or transient risk profile for SCD, a wearable cardioverter/defibrillator (WCD) has been established for temporary and effective prevention of sudden arrhythmic death. Several studies have shown safety and efficacy of the WCD, even though randomized studies proving a mortality benefit are still lacking. This review provides an overview of actual WCD data and usage, special indications and possible risks and complications. WCD use is effective and adequate for temporary prevention of SCD in chosen populations. In particular, it provides secured time for sophisticated risk stratification to identify patients at persistent risk for SCD. Nevertheless, prospective randomized trials seem mandatory to prove a prognostic relevance and the economic value of this device.

  2. Explorations In Theoretical Computer Science For Kids (using paper toys)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    and learners with a physical, tangible metaphor for exploring core concepts of computer science, such as deterministic and probabilistic state machines, frequencies and probability distributions, and the central elements of Shannon's information theory, like information, communication, errors and error...... detection. Our idea is implemented both with paper cards and by an editor/simulator software (a prototype realized in javascript). We also designed the structure of a course in (theoretical) computer science, based on c-cards, and we will test it this summer.......The computational card (c-cards for short) project is a study and realization of an educational tool based on playing cards. C-cards are an educational tool to introduce children 8 to 10 (or older) to the concept of computation, seen as manipulation of symbols. The game provides teachers...

  3. Density perturbations in f (R ,ϕ ) gravity with an application to the varying-power-law model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Fayçal

    2017-09-01

    Density perturbations in the cosmic microwave background within general f (R ,ϕ ) models of gravity are investigated. The general dynamical equations for the tensor and scalar modes in any f (R ,ϕ )-gravity model are derived. An application of the equations to the varying-power-law modified gravity toy model is then made. Formulas and numerical values for the tensor-to-scalar ratio, the scalar tilt, and the tensor tilt are all obtained within this specific model. While the model cannot provide a theoretical reason for the value of the energy scale at which inflation should occur, it is found, based on the latest observations of the density perturbations in the sky, that the model requires inflation to occur at an energy scale less than the grand unified theory scale, namely, ˜1014 GeV . The different energy intervals examined here show that the density perturbations recently obtained from observations are recovered naturally, with very high precision, and without fine tuning the model's parameters.

  4. Thermal equilibrium solution to new model of bipolar hybrid quantum hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Michele, Federica; Mei, Ming; Rubino, Bruno; Sampalmieri, Rosella

    2017-08-01

    In this paper we study the hybrid quantum hydrodynamic model for nano-sized bipolar semiconductor devices in thermal equilibrium. By introducing a hybrid version of the Bhom potential, we derive a bipolar hybrid quantum hydrodynamic model, which is able to account for quantum effects in a localized region of the device for both electrons and holes. Coupled with Poisson equation for the electric potential, the steady-state system is regionally degenerate in its ellipticity, due to the quantum effect only in part of the device. This regional degeneracy of ellipticity makes the study more challenging. The main purpose of the paper is to investigate the existence and uniqueness of the weak solutions to this new type of equations. We first establish the uniform boundedness of the smooth solutions to the modified bipolar quantum hydrodynamic model by the variational method, then we use the compactness technique to prove the existence of weak solutions to the original hybrid system by taking hybrid limit. In particular, we account for two different kinds of hybrid behaviour. We perform the first hybrid limit when both electrons and holes behave quantum in a given region of the device, and the second one when only one carrier exhibits hybrid behaviour, whereas the other one is presented classically in the whole domain. The semi-classical limit results are also obtained. Finally, the theoretical results are tested numerically on a simple toy model.

  5. A Brinquedoteca como possibilidade para desvelar o cotidiano da criança com câncer em tratamento ambulatorial La ludoteca como posibilidad para desvelar la rutina del niño con cáncer en tratamiento ambulatorio The toy library as a possibility to unveil the daily life of children with cancer under outpatient treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana de Lione Melo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A proposta deste estudo é desvelar o sentido de Ser-criança com câncer em tratamento ambulatorial, utilizando a brinquedo-teca como possibilidade de favorecer a expressão, pela criança, de seu mundo cotidiano. Participaram sete crianças entre três e nove anos, com diagnóstico de algum tipo de câncer infantil. A fim de desvelar o sentido das vivências das crianças com câncer, foi realizada uma análise à luz da fenomenologia existencial de Martin Heidegger. A criança-com-câncer configurou-se como um ir e vir permeado ora pela autenticidade, quando a criança assumia sua doença e seu ser-para-a-morte, ora pela inautenticidade, quando se deixava levar pelo modo de ser da decadência dos familiares e da equipe de saúde. O brincar pôde favorecer um rico acesso às vivências da criança gravemente doente.La propuesta de este estudio es develar el sentido del Ser-niño con cáncer en tratamiento ambulatorio, utilizando la ludoteca como posibilidad de favorecer la expresión, por parte del niño, de su mundo cotidiano. Participaron siete niños de entre tres y nueve años con diagnóstico de algún tipo de cáncer infantil. A los efectos de develar el sentido de las experiencias de los niños con cáncer, se realizó un análisis a la luz de la fenomenología existencial de Martin Heidegger. El niño-con-cáncer exhibió un movimiento de ida y vuelta, permeado algunas veces por la autenticidad, cuando el niño asumía su enfermedad y su ser-para-la-muerte, y otras veces por la inauten-ticidad, cuando se dejaba llevar por el modo de ser de la decadencia de los familiares y del equipo de salud. El jugar puede favorecer un rico acceso a las experiencias del niño gravemente enfermo.The purpose of this study is to learn the meaning of being-a-child with cancer submitted to ambulatory treatment and using the toy library as a possibility to enable their expression about their world. Participants were seven children of ages 3 to 9 years, who

  6. Physics Bus: An Innovative Model for Public Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Claire

    The Physics Bus is about doing science for fun. It is an innovative model for science outreach whose mission is to awaken joy and excitement in physics for all ages and walks of life - especially those underserved by science enrichment. It is a mobile exhibition of upcycled appliances-reimagined by kids-that showcase captivating physics phenomena. Inside our spaceship-themed school bus, visitors will find: a microwave ionized-gas disco-party, fog rings that shoot from a wheelbarrow tire, a tv whose electron beam is controlled by a toy keyboard, and over 20 other themed exhibits. The Physics Bus serves a wide range of public in diverse locations from local neighborhoods, urban parks and rural schools, to cross-country destinations. Its approachable, friendly and relaxed environment allows for self-paced and self-directed interactions, providing a positive and engaging experience with science. We believe that this environment enriches lives and inspires people. In this presentation we will talk about the nuts and bolts that make this model work, how the project got started, and the resources that keep it going. We will talk about the advantages of being a grassroots and community-based organization, and how programs like this can best interface with universities. We will explain the benefits of focusing on direct interactions and why our model avoids ``teaching'' physics content with words. Situating our approach within a body of research on the value of informal science we will discuss our success in capturing and engaging our audience. By the end of this presentation we hope to broaden your perception of what makes a successful outreach program and encourage you to value and support alternative outreach models such as this one. In Collaboration with: Eva Luna, Cornell University; Erik Herman, Cornell University; Christopher Bell, Ithaca City School District.

  7. Taking Error Into Account When Fitting Models Using Approximate Bayesian Computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vaart, Elske; Prangle, Dennis; Sibly, Richard M

    2017-11-25

    Stochastic computer simulations are often the only practical way of answering questions relating to ecological management. However, due to their complexity, such models are difficult to calibrate and evaluate. Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) offers an increasingly popular approach to this problem, widely applied across a variety of fields. However, ensuring the accuracy of ABC's estimates has been difficult. Here, we obtain more accurate estimates by incorporating estimation of error into the ABC protocol. We show how this can be done where the data consist of repeated measures of the same quantity and errors may be assumed to be normally distributed and independent. We then derive the correct acceptance probabilities for a probabilistic ABC algorithm, and update the 'coverage test' with which accuracy is assessed. We apply this method - which we call 'error-calibrated ABC' - to a toy example and a realistic 14-parameter simulation model of earthworms that is used in environmental risk assessment. A comparison with exact methods and the diagnostic 'coverage test' show that our approach improves estimation of parameter values and their credible intervals for both models. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. The Newtonian and MOND dynamical models of NGC 5128: Investigation of the dark matter contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samurović S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the well-known nearby early-type galaxy NGC 5128 (Centaurus A and use the sample of its globular clusters to analyze its dynamics. We study both Newtonian and MOND models assuming three cases of orbital anisotropies: isotropic case, mildly tangentially anisotropic case and the radially anisotropic case based on the literature. We find that there are two regions with different values of the velocity dispersion: interior to ~ 3 effective radii the value of the velocity dispersion is approximately 150 km s−1 , whereas beyond ~ 3 effective radii its value increases to approximately 190 km s−1 , thus implying the increase of the total cumulative mass which is indicative of the existence of dark matter there in the Newtonian approach: the mass-to-light increases from M/LB = 7 in the inner regions to M/LB = 26 in the outer regions. We found that the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW model with dark halo provides good description of the dynamics of NGC 5128. Using three MOND models (standard, simple and toy, we find that they all provide good fits to the velocity dispersion of NGC 5128 and that no additional dark component is needed in MOND. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176021: Visible and Invisible Matter in Nearby Galaxies: Theory and Observations

  9. Models of Disability in Children's Pretend Play: Measurement of Cognitive Representations and Affective Expression Using the Affect in Play Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Stefano; Meloni, Fabio; Catarinella, Antonio; Mazzeschi, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Play is a natural mode of children's expression and constitutes a fundamental aspect of their life. Cognitive, affective, and social aspects can be assessed through play, considered as a "window" to observe a child's functioning. According to Russ's model, cognitive and affective components and their reciprocal connections can be assessed through the Affect in Play Scale (APS). The aim of the present study was to investigate children's representations of the three main models of disability (medical, social, and biopsychosocial) and how these models affected cognitive and affective components of children's play. Sixty-three children, aged 6-10 years, were assessed by means of the APS. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two APS task orders: the standard APS task followed by the modified APS task (including a wheelchair toy), or vice versa. The standard and modified APS sessions were coded according to the APS system. The modified APS sessions were also coded for the model of disability expressed by children. A one-way ANOVA conducted on the APS affective and cognitive indexes revealed an effect of condition on the affective components of play and no effect on cognitive components and variety of affect as assessed by the APS. In addition, when children are involved in pretend play from which concepts of disability emerge, these concepts are almost exclusively related to the medical model of disability. Results suggested implications for intervention with children in educational contexts that aim to teach children about disability.

  10. On the use of programmable hardware and reduced numerical precision in earth‐system modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Francis P.; Niu, Xinyu; Luk, Wayne; Palmer, T. N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Programmable hardware, in particular Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), promises a significant increase in computational performance for simulations in geophysical fluid dynamics compared with CPUs of similar power consumption. FPGAs allow adjusting the representation of floating‐point numbers to specific application needs. We analyze the performance‐precision trade‐off on FPGA hardware for the two‐scale Lorenz '95 model. We scale the size of this toy model to that of a high‐performance computing application in order to make meaningful performance tests. We identify the minimal level of precision at which changes in model results are not significant compared with a maximal precision version of the model and find that this level is very similar for cases where the model is integrated for very short or long intervals. It is therefore a useful approach to investigate model errors due to rounding errors for very short simulations (e.g., 50 time steps) to obtain a range for the level of precision that can be used in expensive long‐term simulations. We also show that an approach to reduce precision with increasing forecast time, when model errors are already accumulated, is very promising. We show that a speed‐up of 1.9 times is possible in comparison to FPGA simulations in single precision if precision is reduced with no strong change in model error. The single‐precision FPGA setup shows a speed‐up of 2.8 times in comparison to our model implementation on two 6‐core CPUs for large model setups. PMID:27642499

  11. Mass segregation phenomena using the Hamiltonian Mean Field model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, J. R.; Zolacir, T. O.

    2018-02-01

    Mass segregation problem is thought to be entangled with the dynamical evolution of young stellar clusters (Olczak, 2011 [1]). This is a common sense in the astrophysical community. In this work, the Hamiltonian Mean Field (HMF) model with different masses is studied. A mass segregation phenomenon (MSP) arises from this study as a dynamical feature. The MSP in the HMF model is a consequence of the Landau damping (LD) and it appears in systems that the interactions belongs to a long range regime. Actually HMF is a toy model known to show up the main characteristics of astrophysical systems due to the mean field character of the potential and for different masses, as stellar and galaxies clusters, also exhibits MSP. It is in this sense that computational simulations focusing in what happens over the mass distribution in the phase space are performed for this system. What happens through the violent relaxation period and what stands for the quasi-stationary states (QSS) of this dynamics is analyzed. The results obtained support the fact that MSP is observed already in the violent relaxation time and is maintained during the QSS. Some structures in the mass distribution function are observed. As a result of this study the mass distribution is determined by the system dynamics and is independent of the dimensionality of the system. MSP occurs in a one dimensional system as a result of the long range forces that acts in the system. In this approach MSP emerges as a dynamical feature. We also show that for HMF with different masses, the dynamical time scale is N.

  12. Class 1 neural excitability, conventional synapses, weakly connected networks, and mathematical foundations of pulse-coupled models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izhikevich, E M

    1999-01-01

    Many scientists believe that all pulse-coupled neural networks are toy models that are far away from the biological reality. We show here, however, that a huge class of biophysically detailed and biologically plausible neural-network models can be transformed into a canonical pulse-coupled form by a piece-wise continuous, possibly noninvertible, change of variables. Such transformations exist when a network satisfies a number of conditions; e.g., it is weakly connected; the neurons are Class 1 excitable (i.e., they can generate action potentials with an arbitrary small frequency); and the synapses between neurons are conventional (i.e., axo-dendritic and axo-somatic). Thus, the difference between studying the pulse-coupled model and Hodgkin-Huxley-type neural networks is just a matter of a coordinate change. Therefore, any piece of information about the pulse-coupled model is valuable since it tells something about all weakly connected networks of Class 1 neurons. For example, we show that the pulse-coupled network of identical neurons does not synchronize in-phase. This confirms Ermentrout's result that weakly connected Class 1 neurons are difficult to synchronize, regardless of the equations that describe dynamics of each cell.

  13. Fermion loops in the effective potential of N = 1 supergravity, with application to no-scale models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, J.W.

    1990-03-27

    Powerful and quite general arguments suggest that N = 1 supergravity, and in particular the superstring-inspired no-scale models, may describe the physics of the four-dimensional vacuum at energy densities below the Planck scale. These models are not renormalizable, since they arise as effective theories after the large masses have been integrated out of the fundamental theory; thus, they have divergences in their loop amplitudes that must be regulated by imposing a cutoff. Before physics at experimental energies can be extracted from these models, the true vacuum state or states must be identified: at tree level, the ground states of the effective theories are highly degenerate. Radiative corrections at the one-loop level have been shown to break the degeneracy sufficiently to identify the states of vanishing vacuum energy. As the concluding step in a program to calculate these corrections within a self-consistent cutoff prescription, all fermionic one-loop divergent corrections to the scalar effective potential are evaluated. (The corresponding bosonic contributions have been found elsewhere.) The total effective scalar Lagrange density for N = 1 supergravity is written down, and comments are made about cancellations between the fermionic and bosonic loops. Finally, the result is specialized to a toy no-scale model with a single generation of matter fields, and prospects for eventual phenomenological constraints on theories of this type are briefly discussed. 48 refs.

  14. Pseudospectral Maxwell solvers for an accurate modeling of Doppler harmonic generation on plasma mirrors with particle-in-cell codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaclard, G.; Vincenti, H.; Lehe, R.; Vay, J. L.

    2017-09-01

    With the advent of petawatt class lasers, the very large laser intensities attainable on target should enable the production of intense high-order Doppler harmonics from relativistic laser-plasma mirror interactions. At present, the modeling of these harmonics with particle-in-cell (PIC) codes is extremely challenging as it implies an accurate description of tens to hundreds of harmonic orders on a broad range of angles. In particular, we show here that due to the numerical dispersion of waves they induce in vacuum, standard finite difference time domain (FDTD) Maxwell solvers employed in most PIC codes can induce a spurious angular deviation of harmonic beams potentially degrading simulation results. This effect was extensively studied and a simple toy model based on the Snell-Descartes law was developed that allows us to finely predict the angular deviation of harmonics depending on the spatiotemporal resolution and the Maxwell solver used in the simulations. Our model demonstrates that the mitigation of this numerical artifact with FDTD solvers mandates very high spatiotemporal resolution preventing realistic three-dimensional (3D) simulations even on the largest computers available at the time of writing. We finally show that nondispersive pseudospectral analytical time domain solvers can considerably reduce the spatiotemporal resolution required to mitigate this spurious deviation and should enable in the near future 3D accurate modeling on supercomputers in a realistic time to solution.

  15. Hyper-Fit: Fitting Linear Models to Multidimensional Data with Multivariate Gaussian Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robotham, A. S. G.; Obreschkow, D.

    2015-09-01

    Astronomical data is often uncertain with errors that are heteroscedastic (different for each data point) and covariant between different dimensions. Assuming that a set of D-dimensional data points can be described by a (D - 1)-dimensional plane with intrinsic scatter, we derive the general likelihood function to be maximised to recover the best fitting model. Alongside the mathematical description, we also release the hyper-fit package for the R statistical language (http://github.com/asgr/hyper.fit) and a user-friendly web interface for online fitting (http://hyperfit.icrar.org). The hyper-fit package offers access to a large number of fitting routines, includes visualisation tools, and is fully documented in an extensive user manual. Most of the hyper-fit functionality is accessible via the web interface. In this paper, we include applications to toy examples and to real astronomical data from the literature: the mass-size, Tully-Fisher, Fundamental Plane, and mass-spin-morphology relations. In most cases, the hyper-fit solutions are in good agreement with published values, but uncover more information regarding the fitted model.

  16. Baryons and baryonic matter in four-fermion interaction models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urlichs, K.

    2007-02-23

    In this work we discuss baryons and baryonic matter in simple four-fermion interaction theories, the Gross-Neveu model and the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in 1+1 and 2+1 space-time dimensions. These models are designed as toy models for dynamical symmetry breaking in strong interaction physics. Pointlike interactions (''four-fermion'' interactions) between quarks replace the full gluon mediated interaction of quantum chromodynamics. We consider the limit of a large number of fermion flavors, where a mean field approach becomes exact. This method is formulated in the language of relativistic many particle theory and is equivalent to the Hartree-Fock approximation. In 1+1 dimensions, we generalize known results on the ground state to the case where chiral symmetry is broken explicitly by a bare mass term. For the Gross-Neveu model, we derive an exact self-consistent solution for the finite density ground state, consisting of a one-dimensional array of equally spaced potential wells, a baryon crystal. For the Nambu- Jona-Lasinio model we apply the derivative expansion technique to calculate the total energy in powers of derivatives of the mean field. In a picture akin to the Skyrme model of nuclear physics, the baryon emerges as a topological soliton. The solution for both the single baryon and dense baryonic matter is given in a systematic expansion in powers of the pion mass. The solution of the Hartree-Fock problem is more complicated in 2+1 dimensions. In the massless Gross-Neveu model we derive an exact self-consistent solution by extending the baryon crystal of the 1+1 dimensional model, maintaining translational invariance in one spatial direction. This one-dimensional configuration is energetically degenerate to the translationally invariant solution, a hint in favor of a possible translational symmetry breakdown by more general geometrical structures. In the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, topological soliton configurations induce a finite baryon

  17. Causal Inference Using Graphical Models with the R Package pcalg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Kalisch

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The pcalg package for R can be used for the following two purposes: Causal structure learning and estimation of causal effects from observational data. In this document, we give a brief overview of the methodology, and demonstrate the package’s functionality in both toy examples and applications.

  18. Gfitter - Revisiting the global electroweak fit of the Standard Model and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaecher, H.; Hoecker, A. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Goebel, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)]|[Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik; Haller, J. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik; Moenig, K.; Stelzer, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2008-11-15

    The global fit of the Standard Model to electroweak precision data, routinely performed by the LEP electroweak working group and others, demonstrated impressively the predictive power of electroweak unification and quantum loop corrections. We have revisited this fit in view of (i) the development of the new generic fitting package, Gfitter, allowing flexible and efficient model testing in high-energy physics, (ii) the insertion of constraints from direct Higgs searches at LEP and the Tevatron, and (iii) a more thorough statistical interpretation of the results. Gfitter is a modular fitting toolkit, which features predictive theoretical models as independent plugins, and a statistical analysis of the fit results using toy Monte Carlo techniques. The state-of-the-art electroweak Standard Model is fully implemented, as well as generic extensions to it. Theoretical uncertainties are explicitly included in the fit through scale parameters varying within given error ranges. This paper introduces the Gfitter project, and presents state-of-the-art results for the global electroweak fit in the Standard Model, and for a model with an extended Higgs sector (2HDM). Numerical and graphical results for fits with and without including the constraints from the direct Higgs searches at LEP and Tevatron are given. Perspectives for future colliders are analysed and discussed. Including the direct Higgs searches, we find M{sub H}=116.4{sup +18.3}{sub -1.3} GeV, and the 2{sigma} and 3{sigma} allowed regions [114,145] GeV and [[113,168] and [180,225

  19. Modeling the effect of changing selective pressures on polymorphism and divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benger, Etam; Sella, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The most common models of sequence evolution used to make inferences about adaptation rely on the assumption that selective pressures at a site remain constant through time. Instead, one might plausibly imagine that a change in the environment renders an allele beneficial and that when it fixes, the site is now constrained – until another change in the environment occurs that affects the selective pressures at that site. With this view in mind, we introduce a simple dynamic model for the evolution of coding regions, in which non-synonymous sites alternate between being fixed for the favored allele and being neutral with respect to other alleles. We use the pruning algorithm to derive closed forms for observable patterns of polymorphism and divergence in terms of the model parameters. Using our model, estimates of the fraction of beneficial substitutions α would remain similar to those obtained from existing approaches. In this framework, however, it becomes natural to ask how often adaptive substitutions originate from previously constrained or previously neutral sites, i.e., about the source of adaptive substitutions. We show that counts of coding sites that are both polymorphic in a sample from one species and divergent between two others carry information about this parameter. We also extend the basic model to include the effects of weakly deleterious mutations and discuss the importance of assumptions about the distribution of deleterious mutations among constrained non-synonymous sites. Finally, we derive a likelihood function for the parameters and apply it to a toy example, variation data for coding regions from chromosome 2 of the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup. This modeling work underscores how restrictive assumptions about adaptation have been to date, and how further work in this area will help to reveal unexplored and yet basic characteristics of adaptation. PMID:23178187

  20. Models and Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesh, Richard; Carmona, Guadalupe; Post, Thomas

    In this workshop, we will continue to reflect on a models and modeling perspective to understand how students and teachers learn and reason about real life situations encountered in a mathematics and science classroom. We will discuss the idea of a model as a conceptual system that is expressed by using external representational media, and that is…