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Sample records for sasang constitutional medicine

  1. Comparison of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine and Ayurveda

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    Jong Yeol Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM and Ayurveda are three different forms of Asian traditional medicine. Although these traditions share a lot in common as holistic medicines, the different philosophical foundations found in each confer distinguishing attributes and unique qualities. SCM is based on a constitution-based approach, and is in this way relatively more similar to the Ayurvedic tradition than to the TCM, although many of the basic SCM theories were originally derived from TCM, a syndrome-based medicine. SCM and TCM use the same botanical materials that are distributed mainly in the East Asian region, but the basic principles of usage and the underlying rationale are completely different from each other. Meanwhile, the principles of the Ayurvedic use of botanical resources are very similar to those seen in SCM, but the medicinal herbs used in Ayurveda generally originate from the West Asian region which displays a different spectrum of flora.

  2. Sasang Constitutional Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Comparative Overview

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    Junghee Yoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM is a holistic typological constitution medicine which balances psychological, social, and physical aspects of an individual to achieve wellness and increase longevity. SCM has the qualities of preventative medicine, as it emphasizes daily health management based on constitutionally differentiated regimens and self-cultivation of the mind and body. This review's goal is to establish a fundamental understanding of SCM and to provide a foundation for further study. It compares the similarities and differences of philosophical origins, perspectives on the mind (heart, typological systems, pathology, and therapeutics between SCM and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. TCM is based on the Taoist view of the universe and humanity. The health and longevity of an individual depends on a harmonious relationship with the universe. On the other hand, SCM is based on the Confucian view of the universe and humanity. SCM focuses on the influence of human affairs on the psyche, physiology, and pathology.

  3. Sasang Constitutional Medicine as a Holistic Tailored Medicine

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    Jong Yeol Kim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM is a unique traditional Korean therapeutic alternative form of medicine. Based on the Yin and Yang theory and on Confucianism, humans are classified into four constitutions. These differ in terms of (i sensitivity to certain groups of herbs and medicines, (ii equilibrium among internal organic functions, (iii physical features and (iv psychological characteristics. We propose that two main axes in the physiopathology of SCM (food intake/waste discharge and consuming/storing Qi and body fluids are equivalent to the process of internal–external exchange and catabolism/anabolism in modern physiology, respectively. We then used this hypothesis to discuss the physiological and pathological principles of SCM. Constitution-based medicine is based on the theory that some medicinal herbs and remedies are only appropriate for certain constitutions and can cause adverse effects in others. The constitutional approach of SCM share the same vision as tailored medicine; an individualized therapy that can minimize the risk of adverse reaction while increasing the efficacy and an individualized self-regulation that can help prevent specific susceptible chronic disease and live healthily. There is still a long way to this goal for both SCM and tailored medicine, but we may benefit from systems approaches such as systems biology. We suggest that constitutional perspective of SCM and our hypothesis of two main processes may provide a novel insight for further studies.

  4. Perspective of the Human Body in Sasang Constitutional Medicine

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    Junhee Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM, a medical tradition originating from Korea, is distinguished from the traditional Chinese medicine in its philosophical background, theoretical development and especially, the fundamental rationale that analyzes the structure and function of the human body within a quadrifocal scheme. In SCM, the structure of the body is comprehended within the Sasang quadrifocal scheme, and the function of the body is understood within the context of the energy-fluid metabolism and the water-food metabolism controlled by the four main organs (lung, spleen, liver and kidney. Also, the concept of Seong-Jeong is used to explain the structural and functional variations between different constitutional types that arise from the constitutional variations in organ system scheme, which are in turn caused by deviations in the constitutional Seong-Jeong. Therefore, understanding the SCM perspective of the human body is essential in order to fully appreciate the advantages of the constitutional typological system (which focuses on individual idiosyncrasies found in SCM.

  5. Association of Sasang Constitutional Type with Sarcopenia

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    Seung Ku Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM is a unique Korean traditional medicine that classifies human beings as four distinct types named Sasang constitutional types (SCTs, based on physiologic, physical, and psychological traits. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that specific constitutional types are associated with chronic diseases, but no study has investigated the relationship between SCTs and sarcopenia. The aim of this study was to examine the association in a large population-based study. Data from 1,204 participants who completed questionnaires for life style, anthropometric evaluation, and biochemical analysis were analyzed. Classification of the SCTs was done using an integrated diagnostic method. Sarcopenia was defined as appendicular skeletal muscle mass/height2 less than one standard deviation below the gender-specific normal mean of a younger group. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess whole body composition. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 8.6% in the Tae-eum (TE type, 44.7% in the So-eum (SE type, and 20.7% in the So-yang (SY type. Multivariate analysis revealed that the SE and SY types had 9.22 (5.06–16.81; P<0.0001 and 2.90 (1.76–4.76; P<0.0001 greater odds of sarcopenia compared to the TE type, respectively. Our results show that the SE and SY types are significantly associated with increased prevalence of sarcopenia.

  6. Predicting Sasang Constitution Using Body-Shape Information

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    Eunsu Jang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Body measurement plays a pivotal role not only in the diagnosis of disease but also in the classification of typology. Sasang constitutional medicine, which is one of the forms of Traditional Korean Medicine, is considered to be strongly associated with body shape. We attempted to determine whether a Sasang constitutional analytic tool based on body shape information (SCAT-B could predict Sasang constitution (SC. Methods. After surveying 23 Oriental medical clinics, 2,677 subjects were recruited and body shape information was collected. The SCAT-Bs for males and females were developed using multinomial logistic regression. Stepwise forward-variable selection was applied using the score statistic and Wald’s test. Results. The predictive rates of the SCAT-B for Tae-eumin (TE, Soeumin (SE, and Soyangin (SY types in males and females were 80.2%, 56.9%, and 37.7% (males and 69.3%, 38.9%, and 50.0% (females in the training set and were 74%, 70.1%, and 35% (males, and 67.4%, 66.3%, and 53.7% (females in the test set, respectively. Higher constitutional probability scores showed a trend for association with higher predictability. Conclusions. This study shows that the Sasang constitutional analytic tool, which is based on body shape information, may be relatively highly predictive of TE type but may be less predictive when used for SY type.

  7. A Study on the Reliability of Sasang Constitutional Body Trunk Measurement

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    Eunsu Jang; Jong Yeol Kim; Haejung Lee; Honggie Kim; Younghwa Baek; Siwoo Lee

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Body trunk measurement for human plays an important diagnostic role not only in conventional medicine but also in Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM). The Sasang constitutional body trunk measurement (SCBTM) consists of the 5-widths and the 8-circumferences which are standard locations currently employed in the SCM society. This study suggests to what extent a comprehensive training can improve the reliability of the SCBTM. Methods. We recruit...

  8. Current Researches on the Methods of Diagnosing Sasang Constitution: An Overview

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    Si-Woo Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sasang constitution diagnosis has traditionally been conducted by a Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM doctor who examines the external appearance, temperament and various symptoms of an individual and then collectively analyzes this information to determine their own constitutions. However, because this process is subjective and not quantitative, many researchers have been attempting to develop objective and reasonable methods of determining constitutions. In Korea, even though a wide range of research regarding SCM has been conducted, most of the work has not been revealed internationally. So in this review, the authors have searched the Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, as well as other Korean domestic journal databases and Pubmed for research regarding modernized constitution diagnosis methods so to provide the understanding of current research state and outlook for future research.

  9. Psychological typology of Sasang medicine

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    Jung, Seung-Ah

    2015-01-01

    This study briefly reviewed and summarized published studies related to the Sasang typology in order to investigate the common psychological characteristics in each type and suggest conceptual and methodological implications for future research. A total of 44 articles written in Korean between 1990 and 2014, and that used objective measures of personality, were selected from two Korean database for this study. The number of publications, type of scale used, and distribution of each Sasang typ...

  10. Psychological typology of Sasang medicine

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    Seung-Ah Jung

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study briefly reviewed and summarized published studies related to the Sasang typology in order to investigate the common psychological characteristics in each type and suggest conceptual and methodological implications for future research. A total of 44 articles written in Korean between 1990 and 2014, and that used objective measures of personality, were selected from two Korean database for this study. The number of publications, type of scale used, and distribution of each Sasang type were reviewed and summarized. From these works, it was found that there was significant common ground between the classification of Sasang types, which is rooted in Eastern concepts, and the psychological features and types revealed by objective personality measures used in Western psychology. On the basis of these findings, the degree of overlap between Eastern and Western personality typologies was highlighted, and further considerations for developing a more valid and objective classification method, and the limitations of the existing searching method and scope were discussed.

  11. Psychological typology of Sasang medicine.

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    Jung, Seung-Ah

    2015-03-01

    This study briefly reviewed and summarized published studies related to the Sasang typology in order to investigate the common psychological characteristics in each type and suggest conceptual and methodological implications for future research. A total of 44 articles written in Korean between 1990 and 2014, and that used objective measures of personality, were selected from two Korean database for this study. The number of publications, type of scale used, and distribution of each Sasang type were reviewed and summarized. From these works, it was found that there was significant common ground between the classification of Sasang types, which is rooted in Eastern concepts, and the psychological features and types revealed by objective personality measures used in Western psychology. On the basis of these findings, the degree of overlap between Eastern and Western personality typologies was highlighted, and further considerations for developing a more valid and objective classification method, and the limitations of the existing searching method and scope were discussed.

  12. Development of an integrated Sasang constitution diagnosis method using face, body shape, voice, and questionnaire information

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    Do Jun-Hyeong; Jang Eunsu; Ku Boncho; Jang Jun-Su; Kim Honggie; Kim Jong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) is a unique form of traditional Korean medicine that divides human beings into four constitutional types (Tae-Yang: TY, Tae-Eum: TE, So-Yang: SY, and So-Eum: SE), which differ in inherited characteristics, such as external appearance, personality traits, susceptibility to particular diseases, drug responses, and equilibrium among internal organ functions. According to SCM, herbs that belong to a certain constitution cannot be used in pa...

  13. Analysis of Sasang constitutional types using facial features with compensation for photographic distance

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    Jun-Hyeong Do

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: It is noted that the significant facial features represent common characteristics of each SC type in the sense that we collected extensive opinions from many Sasang constitutional medicine doctors with various points of view. Additionally, a compensation method for the photographic distance is needed to find the significant facial features. We expect these findings and the related compensation technique to contribute to establishing a scientific basis for the precise diagnosis of SC types in clinical practice.

  14. Differences in Complexion between Cold- and Heat-Prescription Groups in Sasang Medicine

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    Young Joo Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM is a type of traditional Korean medicine (TKM that classifies the human constitution into four types. The appearance of the complexion is one of the diagnostic factors of SCM but is rarely used in a quantitative and objective manner for diagnosis. In this study, an analysis using actual clinical data was conducted to assess the use of the complexion as a diagnostic element. A total of 528 Sasang medicine prescriptions from Korea Constitutional Multicenter Bank (KCMB were classified into either a Cold-prescription group or a Heat-prescription group, and the complexion differences of the patients were analyzed using the L⁎a⁎b⁎ color space. After adjusting for age, BMI, and systolic blood pressure, significant differences were observed among the Cold- and Heat-prescription groups within each Sasang constitution. However, when the Sasang constitution was ignored, no significant difference was observed for either sex. This study quantitatively analyzed the complexion of patients, which is used as a diagnostic element in clinical practice. It is hoped that the results will contribute to objective medical treatments in the future, such as determining an appropriate herbal prescription based on the patient’s complexion.

  15. A Pilot Study of Psychological Traits in the Sasang Constitution According to the Braverman Nature Assessment

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    Soojin Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological characteristics of the Sasang constitutions by using Braverman nature assessment (BNA. Methods: One hundred seventy-four students participated in this study, and among them, the 142 individuals who had clearly identified Sasang constitutional types were used for the analysis. Sasang constitutions and the Braverman temperaments of the subjects were determined by using a questionnaire for the Sasang constitution classification (QSCC II and BNA, respectively. Body mass index (BMI was used to compare the inclinations of the Sasang constitutions and Braverman temperament types. Results: Significant differences in Braverman temperament type existed among the Sasang constitutions (P = 0.042, and the relations between Soyangin and the dopamine type and between Taeeumin and the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA type were meaningful. Significant differences were also shown in the comparison with the Yin and the Yang constitutions (P = 0.017, and the post-hoc analysis showed a strong and significant relation between the Yang constitution and the dopamine type and between the Yin constitution and the GABA type. The one–way analysis of variance (ANOVA and the independent t-test were conducted to examine the BMI and the degree of obesity among the Sasang constitutions and the Braverman temperament types. Concerning the BMI, Taeeumin showed a bigger BMI than the other constitutions (P < 0.001, but no significant differences in the BMI were observed between the Braverman temperament types. Conclusion: Soyangin has a close relationship to the dopamine type and Taeeumin has a close relationship to the GABA type. The correlation between two types were more clear when the Yin and the Yang types were compared to Braverman temperaments. These results may serve as a basis for identifying the psychological traits of Sasang constitutional types, especially in regard to the characteristics related

  16. A Study on the Reliability of Sasang Constitutional Body Trunk Measurement

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    Eunsu Jang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Body trunk measurement for human plays an important diagnostic role not only in conventional medicine but also in Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM. The Sasang constitutional body trunk measurement (SCBTM consists of the 5-widths and the 8-circumferences which are standard locations currently employed in the SCM society. This study suggests to what extent a comprehensive training can improve the reliability of the SCBTM. Methods. We recruited 10 male subjects and 5 male observers with no experience of anthropometric measurement. We conducted measurements twice before and after a comprehensive training. Relative technical error of measurement (%TEMs was produced to assess intra and inter observer reliabilities. Results. Post-training intra-observer %TEMs of the SCBTM were 0.27% to 1.85% reduced from 0.27% to 6.26% in pre-training, respectively. Post-training inter-observer %TEMs of those were 0.56% to 1.66% reduced from 1.00% to 9.60% in pre-training, respectively. Post-training % total TEMs which represent the whole reliability were 0.68% to 2.18% reduced from maximum value of 10.18%. Conclusion. A comprehensive training makes the SCBTM more reliable, hence giving a sufficiently confident diagnostic tool. It is strongly recommended to give a comprehensive training in advance to take the SCBTM.

  17. The Concept of Sasang Health Index and Constitution-Based Health Assessment: An Integrative Model with Computerized Four Diagnosis Methods

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    Jaeuk U. Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM shares its philosophy with that of personalized medicine: it provides constitution-specific treatment and healthcare individualized for each patient. In this work, we propose the concept of the Sasang Health Index (SHI as an attempt to assess the individualized health status in the framework of SCM. From the target population of females in their fifties and older, we recruited 298 subjects and collected their physiological data, including complexion, radial pulse, and voice, and their questionnaire responses. The health status of each subject was evaluated by two Korean medical doctors independently, and the SHI model was obtained by combining all the integrative features of the phenotype data using a regression technique. As a result, most subjects belonged to either the healthy, subhealthy, or slightly diseased group, and the intraclass correlation coefficient between the two doctors’ health scoring reached 0.95. We obtained an SHI model for each constitution type with adjusted R-squares of 0.50, 0.56, and 0.30, for the TE, SE, and SY constitution types, respectively. In the proposed SHI model, the significant characteristics used in the health assessment consisted of constitution-specific features in accordance with the classic literature and features common to all the constitution types.

  18. Serum Levels of Stress Hormones and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers Differ according to Sasang Constitutional Type

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    Hyeong Geug Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study investigated whether Sasang constitutional type is associated with differences in the serum levels of stress hormones and oxidative stress. Methods. A total of 236 participants (77 males and 159 females were enrolled. The serum levels of cortisol, adrenaline, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and malondialdehyde (MDA were analyzed. Results. The distribution of Sasang constitutional types was as follows: Taeumin, 35.6%; Soumin, 33.0%; and Soyangin, 31.4%. The serum cortisol levels of Taeumin were significantly lower than Soumin (p<0.1 in both sexes and Soyangin (p<0.05 in males and p<0.1 in females. The adrenaline levels were also significantly lower in Taeumin than in Soumin (p<0.05 in males and p<0.1 in females and Soyangin (p<0.1 in males. Serum ROS levels were significantly higher in Soyangin than in Taeumin and Soumin (p<0.05 in males, whereas MDA levels were significantly lower in Taeumin compared with Soumin and Soyangin (p<0.05 in males and p<0.1 in females. Conclusion. Taeumin type may tolerate psychological or oxidative stress better than other types, which suggests a biological mechanism to explain the different pathophysiological features of Sasang constitutional types.

  19. Development of an integrated Sasang constitution diagnosis method using face, body shape, voice, and questionnaire information

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    Do Jun-Hyeong

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM is a unique form of traditional Korean medicine that divides human beings into four constitutional types (Tae-Yang: TY, Tae-Eum: TE, So-Yang: SY, and So-Eum: SE, which differ in inherited characteristics, such as external appearance, personality traits, susceptibility to particular diseases, drug responses, and equilibrium among internal organ functions. According to SCM, herbs that belong to a certain constitution cannot be used in patients with other constitutions; otherwise, this practice may result in no effect or in an adverse effect. Thus, the diagnosis of SC type is the most crucial step in SCM practice. The diagnosis, however, tends to be subjective due to a lack of quantitative standards for SC diagnosis. Methods We have attempted to make the diagnosis method as objective as possible by basing it on an analysis of quantitative data from various Oriental medical clinics. Four individual diagnostic models were developed with multinomial logistic regression based on face, body shape, voice, and questionnaire responses. Inspired by SCM practitioners’ holistic diagnostic processes, an integrated diagnostic model was then proposed by combining the four individual models. Results The diagnostic accuracies in the test set, after the four individual models had been integrated into a single model, improved to 64.0% and 55.2% in the male and female patient groups, respectively. Using a cut-off value for the integrated SC score, such as 1.6, the accuracies increased by 14.7% in male patients and by 4.6% in female patients, which showed that a higher integrated SC score corresponded to a higher diagnostic accuracy. Conclusions This study represents the first trial of integrating the objectification of SC diagnosis based on quantitative data and SCM practitioners’ holistic diagnostic processes. Although the diagnostic accuracy was not great, it is noted that the proposed diagnostic model

  20. Effects of bee venom acupuncture on heart rate variability, pulse wave, and cerebral blood flow for types of Sasang Constitution

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    Lee Sang-min

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available 1. Objectives: To evaluate effects of bee venom acupuncture on cardiovascular system and differences according to each constitution. 2. Methods: Heart rate variability, pulse wave and the velocity of cerebral blood flow were measured before bee venom acupuncture(BVA, right after and after 30 minuets, had been applied to 20 subjects. 3. Results: 1. BVA did not have effects on measurement variables of heart rate variability. 2. BVA had effects on pulse wave, showing total time, radial augmentation index up and height of percussion wave, time to percussion wave, sum of pulse pressure down. 3. BVA did not have effects on the cerebral blood flow velocity when considering not Sasang Constitution 4. Considering Sasang Constitution, BVA demonstrates different responses in time to preincisura wave, mean blood flow velocity, peak systolic velocity and end diastolic velocity. 4.Conclusion: From those results, the following conclusions are obtained. Cause BVA alters pulse wave and makes differences in the cerebral blood flow velocity according to Sasang Constitution. Various methods of BVA treatment are needed considering Sasang Constitution.

  1. A Bibliographical Research of the Correlation Among Sasang Constitutional Disease and the Pulse Diagnosis

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    Kim Dong-jun

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the correlation Among Sasang Constitutional Disease and Examination of the pulse. I have gone over literatures of mainly 「Dongyi Soose Bowon」and the others Oriental Medical book was studied about the Pulse Diagnosis. And then I came to get some conclusion as follows. 1. Soeumin(소음인 the initial-stage symptoms of wulkwang disease(울광증; when the Superficial Pulse and the Superficial+Moderate Pulse is made a diagnosis, Ceongunggyegitang(천궁계지탕 and Gunggyuhyangsosan(궁귀향소산 can be used. 2. Soeumin(소음인 the initial-stage blood disease symptoms of wulkwang disease(울광증; when the Minute+deep Pulse is made a diagnosis, Palmulgunjatang(팔물군자탕 and Guakhyanggeonggisan(곽향정기산 can be used. 3. Soeumin(소음인 the initial-stage symptoms of mangyang disease(망양증; when the Yang region Superficial Pulse and the Yin region Weak Pulse is made a diagnosis, Hwanggigyegitang(황기계지탕, Bojungikgitang(보중익기탕 and Sengyangikgitang(승양익기탕 can be used. 4. Soeumin(소음인 the symptoms of taeum disease(태음증; when the Minute Pulse and Deep+Thin Pulse is made a diagnosis, Sasang Prescription can be used. 5. Soeumin(소음인 the symptoms of soeum disease(소음증; when the Minute+Thin Pulse, Deep Pulse and Thin+Deep+Rapid Pulse is made a diagnosis, Sasang Prescription can be used. 6. Soyangin(소양인 Wind of soyang disease(소양상풍증; when the Superficial+Tight Pulse is made a diagnosis, Hungbangpaedogsan(형방패독산 can be used. And when the Deep+Full with strong power Pulse is made a diagnosis, Hyungbangdojeoksan(형방도적산 can be used. 7. Soyangin(소양인 the symptoms of mangyeum disease(망음증; when the Superficial+Large+Rapid Pulse and Flood+Large Pulse is made a diagnosis, Hungbangsabaeksan(형방사백산 can be used. And when the Wiry+Thin Pulse is made a diagnosis, Hungbanggiwhangtang(형방지황탕 can

  2. Comparative Study on the Pulse Wave Variables and Sasang Constitution in Cerebral Infarction Patients and Healthy Subjects

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    Ko KiDuk

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine whether a pulse analyzer was useful 1 to characterize the variables of pulse wave of cerebral infarction patieno (CI, compared with those of healthy subjects, as well as 2 to determine Sasang Constitution in CI and healthy subjects. 1. Calibrated in Gwan, the amount of energy(Energy, height of main peak(H1, height of aorticvalley(H2, height of aortic peak(H3, total area of pulse wave(At, and area of main peak width(Aw of the CI group were higher than those of the healthy group. 2. Calibrated in Cheek, Energy, H1, H2, H3, height of valve valley(H4, At, Aw, and main peak angle(MPA of the CI group were higher than those of the healthy group. 3. Among the healthy (subjects group, Taeumin showed the highest contact pressure(CP and height of valve peak(H5 calibrated in Chon. The main peak width divided by whole time of pulse wave(MPW/T calibrated in Gwan and Cheok, was highest in Soyangin and was lowest in Taeumin. The H3 divided by H1(H3/H1 and the time to valve valley minus the time to main peak and divided by T[(T4-T1/T] calibrated in Cheek were highest in Soyangin. The time to main peak(T1 was longest in Soumin. 4. Among the CI group, At calibrated in Chon was widest in Taeumin and was narrowest in Soumin The time to aortic peak(T3 calibrated in Cheek was longest in Soumin and was shortest in Soyangin. The time to valve peak(T5 was shortest in Soyangin. 5. There were main effects of cerebral infarction in the area of systolic period(As and area of diastolic period(Ad calibrated in Chon, Energy calibrated in Cwan, and Energy, H1, H2, H3, (H4+H5/Hl, and MPA calibrated in Cheek. 6. There were main effects of Sasang Constitution in (T4-T1/T, area of systolic period(As, and Ad calibrated in Chon. 7. The interactions between the cerebral infarction and Sasang Constitution were observed in H5/H1 , T, At, As, Ad, and MPA calibrated in Chon, H4, T4, (T4-T1/T, As, and Ad calibrated in Cwan, and 74,75, and MPW calibrated

  3. Traditional Chinese Medicine and Constitutional Medicine in China, Japan and Korea: A Comparative Study.

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    Yu, Wenjun; Ma, Mingyue; Chen, Xuemei; Min, Jiayu; Li, Lingru; Zheng, Yanfei; Li, Yingshuai; Wang, Ji; Wang, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Japanese-Chinese medicine, and Korean Sasang constitutional medicine have common origins. However, the constitutional medicines of China, Japan, and Korea differ because of the influence of geographical culture, social environment, national practices, and other factors. This paper aimed to compare the constitutional medicines of China, Japan, and Korea in terms of theoretical origin, constitutional classification, constitution and pathogenesis, clinical applications and basic studies that were conducted. The constitutional theories of the three countries are all derived from the Canon of Internal Medicine or Treatise on Febrile and Miscellaneous Diseases of Ancient China. However, the three countries have different constitutional classifications and criteria. Medical sciences in the three countries focus on the clinical applications of constitutional theory. They all agree that different pathogenic laws that guide the treatment of diseases govern different constitutions; thus, patients with different constitutions are treated differently. The three countries also differ in terms of drug formulations and medication. Japanese medicine is prescribed only based on constitution. Korean medicine is based on treatment, in which drugs cannot be mixed. TCM synthesize the treatment model of constitution differentiation, disease differentiation and syndrome differentiation with the treatment thought of treating disease according to three categories of etiologic factors, which reflect the constitution as the characteristic of individual precision treatment. In conclusion, constitutional medicines of China, Japan, and Korea have the same theoretical origin, but differ in constitutional classification, clinical application of constitutional theory on the treatment of diseases, drug formulations and medication.

  4. Sasang constitutional types for the risk prediction of metabolic syndrome: a 14-year longitudinal prospective cohort study.

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    Lee, Sunghee; Lee, Seung Ku; Kim, Jong Yeol; Cho, Namhan; Shin, Chol

    2017-09-02

    To examine whether the use of Sasang constitutional (SC) types, such as Tae-yang (TY), Tae-eum (TE), So-yang (SY), and So-eum (SE) types, increases the accuracy of risk prediction for metabolic syndrome. From 2001 to 2014, 3529 individuals aged 40 to 69 years participated in a longitudinal prospective cohort. The Cox proportional hazard model was utilized to predict the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. During the 14 year follow-up, 1591 incident events of metabolic syndrome were observed. Individuals with TE type had higher body mass indexes and waist circumferences than individuals with SY and SE types. The risk of developing metabolic syndrome was the highest among individuals with the TE type, followed by the SY type and the SE type. When the prediction risk models for incident metabolic syndrome were compared, the area under the curve for the model using SC types was significantly increased to 0.8173. Significant predictors for incident metabolic syndrome were different according to the SC types. For individuals with the TE type, the significant predictors were age, sex, body mass index (BMI), education, smoking, drinking, fasting glucose level, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and triglyceride level. For Individuals with the SE type, the predictors were sex, smoking, fasting glucose, HDL cholesterol level, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and triglyceride level, while the predictors in individuals with the SY type were age, sex, BMI, smoking, drinking, total cholesterol level, fasting glucose level, HDL cholesterol level, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and triglyceride level. In this prospective cohort study among 3529 individuals, we observed that utilizing the SC types significantly increased the accuracy of the risk prediction for the development of metabolic syndrome.

  5. Essential Medicines in National Constitutions

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    Toebes, Brigit; Hogerzeil, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A constitutional guarantee of access to essential medicines has been identified as an important indicator of government commitment to the progressive realization of the right to the highest attainable standard of health. The objective of this study was to evaluate provisions on access to essential medicines in national constitutions, to identify comprehensive examples of constitutional text on medicines that can be used as a model for other countries, and to evaluate the evolution of constitutional medicines-related rights since 2008. Relevant articles were selected from an inventory of constitutional texts from WHO member states. References to states’ legal obligations under international human rights law were evaluated. Twenty-two constitutions worldwide now oblige governments to protect and/or to fulfill accessibility of, availability of, and/or quality of medicines. Since 2008, state responsibilities to fulfill access to essential medicines have expanded in five constitutions, been maintained in four constitutions, and have regressed in one constitution. Government commitments to essential medicines are an important foundation of health system equity and are included increasingly in state constitutions. PMID:27781006

  6. Re-interpretation of traditional Asian medicine with constitutional perspective

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    Duong Duc Pham

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rapid increase in tailored medicine that emphasizes the complex inter-individual interactions, and this increase has paralleled recent significant achievements in genomics and Systems Biology. However, attempts to create a virtual human have been limited to low-levels of organization, such as gene-protein networks, due to the lack of systematic concepts at the higher levels of organisms (organ, individual, and environment. Constitutional perspective of various forms of traditional Asian medicine through the ancient, middle, and modern eras, particularly the holistic approach of Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM, may provide a novel framework for creating tailored medicine. This article aims to review the theoretical development of traditional Chinese medicine and the initiation of SCM in addition to summarizing current evidence on the genetic basis, bio-physiological features, and risk of disease of different SCM phenotypes. We also suggest that the patho-physiological principle and scientific evidence underlying SCM, particularly for the TaeEum type, can be effective in dealing with obesity-linked disease, which is a predominant disease in today's society.

  7. Psychological Profile of Sasang Typology: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Han Chae; Soo Hyun Park; Soo Jin Lee; Myoung-geun Kim; Danny Wedding; Young-Kyu Kwon

    2009-01-01

    A systematic review of studies related to the psychological characteristics of Sasang types was conducted with the goal of delineating generalizable psychological profiles based on Sasang typology, a traditional Korean medical typology with medical herbs and acupuncture that is characterized as personalized medicine. Journal articles pertaining to Sasang typology were collected using five electronic database systems in Korea and in the USA. As a result, 64 potentially relevant studies were id...

  8. Changes in Body Water Caused by Sleep Deprivation in Taeeum and Soyang Types in Sasang Medicine: Prospective Intervention Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Min Hong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is a negative relationship between sleep deprivation and health. However, no study has investigated the effect of sleep deprivation on individuals with different body composition. The aim of this study was to determine the differential effect of sleep deprivation in individuals with different body compositions (fluid according to Soyang type (SY and Taeeum type (TE. Methods. Sixty-two cognitively normal, middle-aged people with normal sleep patterns were recruited from the local population. The duration of participants’ sleep was restricted to 4 h/day during the intervention phase. To examine the physiological changes brought on by sleep deprivation and recovery, 10 ml of venous blood was obtained. Results. Total Body Water (TBW and Extracellular Water (ECW were significantly different between the groups in the intervention phase. Physiological parameters also varied from the beginning of the resting phase to the end of the experiment. Potassium levels changed more in SY than TE individuals. Conclusion. Participants responded differently to the same amount of sleep deprivation depending on their Sasang constitution types. This study indicated that SY individuals were more sensitive to sleep deprivation and were slower to recover from the effects of sleep deprivation than TE individuals.

  9. Pharmacognostic outlooks on medical herbs of Sasang typology

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    Su Hye Lim

    2017-09-01

    Pharmacognostic understandings on Sasang type-specific medical herbs with consideration of type-specific pathophysiological features were provided for the first time. This study would contribute to in-depth understandings on the pathophysiology of Sasang typology and integration of East-Asian and Western personalized medicine.

  10. [Comparative research into the process of forming the theory of constitution in ancient western medicine and that of four trigrams constitution in Korean medicine and contents of two theories of constitution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joo-Hong

    2009-06-01

    After conducting comparative research into the process of forming the Theory of Constitution in Ancient Western Medicine and that of Four Trigrams Constitution(Sasang Constitution) in Korean Medicine and contents of two Theories of Constitution in terms of medical history, both theories were found to be formed by an interaction between philosophy and medicine, followed by a combination of the two, on a philosophical basis. The Theory of Constitution in Ancient Western Medicine began with the Theory of Four Elements presented by Empedocles, followed by the Theory of Four Humors presented by Hippocrates and the Theory of Four Temperaments by Galenos, forming and developing the Theory of Constitution. After the Middle Ages, there was no significant advance in the Theory of Constitution by modern times ; however, it developed into the theory of constitution type of Kretschmer and others after the 19th century and into the scientific theory of constitution based on genetics presented by Garrod and others early in the 20th century. The Theory of Four Trigrams Constitution began with the Theory of Constitution in Huangdi Neijing, followed by developments and influences of existing medicine called beginning, restoration, and revival periods and DongeuisoosebowonSaSangChoBonGwon based on the original philosophy of Four Trigrams presented by Lee Je-ma, which is found in GyeokChiGo, DongMuYuGo and so on, ultimately forming and developing into the Theory of Four Trigrams Constitution in Dongeuisoosebowon. Recently, a lot of research is being conducted into making it objective in order to achieve reproducibility in diagnosis and so forth of Four Trigrams Constitution.

  11. Body temperature regulation: Sasang typology-based perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong Duc Pham

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Global warming induces a dramatic elevation of heat-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Individual variation of heat stress vulnerability depends on various factors such as age, gender, living area and conditions, health status, and individual innate characteristics. Sasang typology is a unique form of Korean traditional medicine, which is based on the hypothesis that constitution-specific traits of an individual determine the particular distinctive tendency in various aspects, including responses to the external environment. Recent scientific evidence shows that Sasang types differ in body composition, metabolic profile, susceptibility to certain disease patterns, and perspiration. This review aims to interpret these findings under the context of heat balance consisting of heat production (Hprod, heat loss (Hloss, and heat load (Hload. Based on the published data, at a given body mass, the TaeEum type tended to have a lower Hprod at rest and at the exhaustion state, which may indicate the lower metabolic efficiency of this type. Meanwhile, the surface-to-mass ratio and heat capacity of the TaeEum type appear to be lower, implying a lower heat dissipation capacity and heat storage tolerance. Thus, because of these characteristics, the TaeEum type seems to be more vulnerable to heat stress than the other constitutions. Differences in temperature regulation across constitutional types should be taken into account in daily physical activity, health management, and medical research.

  12. Analysis of Skin Humidity Variation Between Sasang Types

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    Soon-Oh Jung

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between variations in skin humidity (SH induced by perspiration across Sasang types and to identify novel and effective Sasang classification factors. We also analyzed the responses of each Sasang type to sweating-related QSCC II items. The results revealed a significant difference in SH across gender and significant differences in SH before and after perspiration between Tae-Eum and So-Eum men. In addition, Tae-Eum women showed significant differences in SH compared with women classified as another Sasang type. Furthermore, evaluation of the items related to sweating in the QSCC II and their relationship to each constitution revealed a significant difference between Tae-Eum and other Sasang types. Overall, the results of this study indicate that there is a distinct SH difference following perspiration between Tae-Eum and other Sasang types. Such findings may aid in Sasang typology diagnostic testing with the support of further sophisticated clinical studies.

  13. Pharmacognostic outlooks on medical herbs of Sasang typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Su Hye; Jeon, Eun Sang; Lee, Jeongyun; Han, Sang Yun; Chae, Han

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the pharmacognostic characteristics of Sasang type-specific medical herbs and suggest biological mechanisms that might be related to the personalized treatment of the East. Major compounds and their pharmacological activities of medical herbs for each Sasang types were systematically reviewed. The pharmacognostic characteristics of its main compounds were systematically analyzed with previous studies and three web-based databases. Sasang type-specific medical herbs were selected, and biological effects of their phytochemicals were reviewed from the pathophysiological features of each Sasang types. Phenolics were dominant in Tae-Yang type-specific herbs, iridoids and triterpenes with antipyretic and diuretic effects were in So-Yang type-specific, saponins (triterpene saponins and steroidal saponins) with antitussive effects were in Tae-Eum type-specific, and monoterpene and sesquiterpenes with stomachic effect were in So-Eum type-specific herbs. Pharmacognostic understandings on Sasang type-specific medical herbs with consideration of type-specific pathophysiological features were provided for the first time. This study would contribute to in-depth understandings on the pathophysiology of Sasang typology and integration of East-Asian and Western personalized medicine.

  14. Temperament and Character Profiles of Sasang Typology in an Adult Clinical Sample

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    Soo Hyun Park

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the biopsychological personality profiles of traditional Korean Sasang typology based on the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI in a Korean adult clinical sample. A total of 97 adults completed the Korean version of the TCI. The participants were classified as one of three traditional Korean Sasang types (31 So-Yang, 41 Tae-Eum, 25 So-Eum by three specialists in Sasang typology. The seven dimensions of TCI were compared between the different Sasang types using analysis of variance (ANOVA and profile analysis. There were no significant differences in age, gender and education across the Sasang types. The TCI profile for each of the Sasang types was significantly different (profile analysis, df = 5.038, F = 3.546, P = .004. There were significant differences in the temperament dimensions of Novelty Seeking (F = 3.43, P = .036 and Harm Avoidance (F = 5.43, P = .006 among the Sasang types. The Novelty Seeking score of the So-Yang type (31.90 ± 9.87 was higher than that of the So-Eum type (25.24 ± 9.21; P = .019 while the So-Eum type (44.64 ± 8.47 scored higher on the Harm Avoidance score compared to the So-Yang type (35.16 ± 11.50; P = .003. There were no significant differences in the temperament dimension of Reward Dependence and Persistence, and the three character dimensions of Self-Directedness, Cooperativeness and Self-Transcendence. Results demonstrated distinct temperament traits associated with traditional Korean Sasang types using an objective biopsychological personality inventory. With further study, the Sasang typology may lead to enhanced clinical safety and efficacy as part of personalized medicine with traditional medicine.

  15. Psychological Profile of Sasang Typology: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Chae

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic review of studies related to the psychological characteristics of Sasang types was conducted with the goal of delineating generalizable psychological profiles based on Sasang typology, a traditional Korean medical typology with medical herbs and acupuncture that is characterized as personalized medicine. Journal articles pertaining to Sasang typology were collected using five electronic database systems in Korea and in the USA. As a result, 64 potentially relevant studies were identified and 21 peer-reviewed research articles that employed psychometric inventories were included. Beginning with the use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory in 1992, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, NEO-Personality Inventory, Temperament and Character Inventory and other personality assessment tools were employed in the identified studies. Because data synthesis could not be carried out due to the heterogeneity of the studies, the present review article sought to delineate the mutual relevance of the studies based on research results pertaining to the correlation between the aforementioned psychological assessment instruments. Results of the review indicate that two super-factors, Extraversion and Neuroticism, serve as the foundation in regards to delineating personality constructs, such that the So-Yang type scored high on the Extraversion dimension and low on the Neuroticism dimension, while the So-Eum type scored low on the Extraversion dimension and high on the Neuroticism dimension. The present systematic review indicates that Sasang typology shares similarities with the Western psychological tradition.

  16. Psychological profile of sasang typology: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Han; Park, Soo Hyun; Lee, Soo Jin; Kim, Myoung-Geun; Wedding, Danny; Kwon, Young-Kyu

    2009-09-01

    A systematic review of studies related to the psychological characteristics of Sasang types was conducted with the goal of delineating generalizable psychological profiles based on Sasang typology, a traditional Korean medical typology with medical herbs and acupuncture that is characterized as personalized medicine. Journal articles pertaining to Sasang typology were collected using five electronic database systems in Korea and in the USA. As a result, 64 potentially relevant studies were identified and 21 peer-reviewed research articles that employed psychometric inventories were included. Beginning with the use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory in 1992, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, NEO-Personality Inventory, Temperament and Character Inventory and other personality assessment tools were employed in the identified studies. Because data synthesis could not be carried out due to the heterogeneity of the studies, the present review article sought to delineate the mutual relevance of the studies based on research results pertaining to the correlation between the aforementioned psychological assessment instruments. Results of the review indicate that two super-factors, Extraversion and Neuroticism, serve as the foundation in regards to delineating personality constructs, such that the So-Yang type scored high on the Extraversion dimension and low on the Neuroticism dimension, while the So-Eum type scored low on the Extraversion dimension and high on the Neuroticism dimension. The present systematic review indicates that Sasang typology shares similarities with the Western psychological tradition.

  17. Essential Medicines in National Constitutions: Progress Since 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrina Perehudoff, S; Toebes, Brigit; Hogerzeil, Hans

    2016-06-01

    A constitutional guarantee of access to essential medicines has been identified as an important indicator of government commitment to the progressive realization of the right to the highest attainable standard of health. The objective of this study was to evaluate provisions on access to essential medicines in national constitutions, to identify comprehensive examples of constitutional text on medicines that can be used as a model for other countries, and to evaluate the evolution of constitutional medicines-related rights since 2008. Relevant articles were selected from an inventory of constitutional texts from WHO member states. References to states' legal obligations under international human rights law were evaluated. Twenty-two constitutions worldwide now oblige governments to protect and/or to fulfill accessibility of, availability of, and/or quality of medicines. Since 2008, state responsibilities to fulfill access to essential medicines have expanded in five constitutions, been maintained in four constitutions, and have regressed in one constitution. Government commitments to essential medicines are an important foundation of health system equity and are included increasingly in state constitutions.

  18. Systematic review of type-specific pathophysiological symptoms of Sasang typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Ri Han

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on the Sasang typology have focused on the differential diagnosis of each Sasang type with type-specific pathophysiological symptoms (TSPS. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the latent physiological mechanism related to these clinical indicators. We searched six electronic databases for articles published from 1990 to 2015 using the Sasang typology-related keywords, and found and analyzed 35 such articles. The results were summarized into six TSPS categories: perspiration, temperature preference, sleep, defecation, urination, and susceptibility to stress. The Tae-Eum and So-Eum types showed contrasting features with TSPS, and the So-Yang type was in the middle. The Tae-Eum type has good digestive function, regular bowel movement and defecation, high sleep quality, and low susceptibility to stress and cold. The Tae-Eum type has relatively large volumes of sweat and feels fresh after sweating; however, the urine is highly concentrated. These clinical features might be related to the biopsychological traits of the Tae-Eum type, including a low trait anxiety level and high ponderal and body mass indices. This study used the autonomic reactivity hypothesis for explaining the pathophysiological predispositions in the Sasang typology. The Tae-Eum and So-Eum Sasang types have a low threshold in parasympathetic and sympathetic activation, respectively. This study provides a foundation for integrating traditional Korean personalized medicine and Western biomedicine.

  19. Constitution-specific features of perspiration and skin visco-elasticity in SCM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Min; Ku, Boncho; Jung, Chang Jin; Kim, Jaeuk U; Jeon, Young Ju; Kim, Keun Ho; Kim, Jong Yeol

    2014-01-15

    Human skin properties have been used as an important diagnostic component in traditional medicine as they change with health conditions. Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) puts emphasis on the recognition of the constitution-specific skin features prior to the diagnostic decision of health. In this work, in search of skin-characteristics effectively reflecting SCM features, we compared several skin properties such as perspiration, visco-elasticity, elasticity, and elasticity hysteresis, in several candidate body parts. We conducted a clinical study in which a total of 111 healthy females aged 50 - 70 years participated with their Sasang constitution (SC) types determined objectively by the Sasang constitutional analytic tool. Perspiration on the skin surface was estimated by using a capacitance sensor to measure the amount of moisture on the palm, forehead, and philtrum before and after a heating stimulus. We acquired the visco-elasticity, elasticity, and elasticity hysteresis at the forearm by Dermalab's elasticity sensing device. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted to evaluate the effect of SC on the nine skin features acquired. The visco-elasticity of the forearm of the Soeum-in (SE) group was significantly lower than that of the Taeeum-in (TE) group (F = 68.867, p SCM literature; the visco-elasticity, elasticity hysteresis, perspiration on the forehead and philtrum. Our findings are based on a novel interpretation of the SCM literature and will contribute to developing the constitutional health status evaluation system in SCM.

  20. Analysis of seven animation characters in Pororo the Little Penguin with Sasang typology

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    Yeo-Jin Yoon

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that SPQ and BMI are useful objective measures for analyzing the biopsychosocial features of animation characters as well as patients. The interdisciplinary research methodology of Sasang typology suggested here would provide useful tools for educating healthcare professionals and the general public about Korean medicine, and also contribute to the development of animation characters.

  1. Essential Medicines in National Constitutions : Progress since 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perehudoff, S. Katrina; Toebes, Brigit; Hogerzeil, Hans

    A constitutional guarantee of access to essential medicines has been identified as an important indicator of government commitment to the progressive realization of the right to the highest attainable standard of health. The objective of this study was to evaluate provisions on access to essential

  2. Temperament profiles of Sasang typology in a child clinical sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Jin Lee

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: These results demonstrated distinct temperament traits associated with traditional Korean Sasang types in children using an objective biopsychological personality inventory. With further investigation into the biopsychological profiles of the children, the longitudinal stability of the Sasang typology can be examined.

  3. Validation of the constitution in chinese medicine questionnaire: does the traditional chinese medicine concept of body constitution exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wendy; Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen; Wong, Vivian Taam; Yang, Zhi Min; Ziea, Eric T C; Kwan, Andrew Ka Lun

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to adapt and validate the Constitution in Chinese Medicine Questionnaire (CCMQ) in Hong Kong Chinese people. 10 patients and 10 Chinese medicine practitioners (CMP) confirmed the content validity (CVI: 50%-100%) of CCMQ. 1084 HK subjects completed a cross-sectional study with 98.6% who could be classified into one or more BC types. Scaling success rates were 85.7%-100% for the 9 BC scales. Construct validity was supported by moderate correlations between CCMQ and SF-12v2 scores. The confirmatory factor analysis showed a reproducible structure as hypothesized. People with gentleness BC type had better health-related quality of life, HRQOL, than those with other (imbalanced) BC types. Internal consistency (reliability) (Cronbach's alpha  >  0.6) and test-retest reliability were also satisfactory (ICC > 0.6) for all scales. However, the sensitivity and specificity in predicting the BC types diagnosed by CMP were only fair, ranging from 42.7% to 82.7%. 27.6% of subjects had a change from the imbalanced BC types to gentleness BC type after 6 months. The CCMQ was adapted for HK Chinese people and proved to be valid, reliable, and responsive. People classified to have imbalanced BC types had significantly lower HRQOL than gentleness BC type, which supported the validity and importance of the TCM concept of the physiological BC type.

  4. CONSTITUTIONALISM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    1 Hilaire Barnett, Constitutional and Administrative Law 5 (London: Cavendish ... 3(2) Mizan Law Rev. NOTES ON CONSTITUTIONALISM. 359 independent judiciary, respect for individual rights and the right to self- determination as essential ..... “Our principle is the party commands the gun, and the gun must never be.

  5. Reliability studies of diagnostic methods in Indian traditional Ayurveda medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurande, Vrinda Hitendra; Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Toft, Egon

    2013-01-01

    as prakriti classification), method development (pulse diagnosis), quality assurance for diagnosis and treatment and in the conduct of clinical studies. Several reliability studies are conducted in western medicine. The investigation of the reliability of traditional Chinese, Japanese and Sasang medicine...

  6. A New Method of Diagnosing Constitutional Types Based on Vocal and Facial Features for Personalized Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bum Ju Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to develop an accurate constitution diagnostic method based solely on the individual’s physical characteristics, irrespective of psychologic traits, characteristics of clinical medicine, and genetic factors. In this paper, we suggest a novel method for diagnosing constitutional types using only speech and face characteristics. Based on 514 subjects, the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC values of classification models in age and gender groups ranged from 0.64 to 0.89. We identified significant features showing statistical differences among three constitutional types by performing statistical analysis. Also, we selected a compact and discriminative feature subset for constitution diagnosis in each age and gender group. Our method may support the direction of improved diagnosis prediction and will serve to develop a personal and automatic constitution diagnosis software for improvement of the effectiveness of prescribed medications and development of personalized medicine.

  7. Thermoregulatory Responses to Graded Exercise Differ among Sasang Types

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    Duong Duc Pham

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared sweat rate and variables such as workload (We, metabolic heat production (Hprod, and temperature increment load (Tinc across Sasang types. 304 apparently healthy participants aged 20–49 years with their Sasang type determined were enrolled. Local sweat rates on the chest (LSRchest and back (LSRback were measured using a perspiration meter during a maximum treadmill exercise test. Oxygen uptake was measured continuously using a breath-by-breath mode indirect calorimeter. The TaeEum (TE type had a larger body size, a higher percent body fat, and a lower body area surface area (BSA to body mass compared with the other Sasang types, particularly the SoEum (SE type. The TE type tended to have a shorter exercise time to exhaustion and lower maximal oxygen uptake (mL·kg−1·min−1 than the other types. LSRchest in TE types was greater than that of the SE and SoYang (SY types in men, whereas LSRback was higher in the TE type than that of the other types in women. After normalizing LSR for We, Hprod, Tinc, and BSA, this tendency still remained. Our findings suggest that the thermoregulatory response to graded exercise may differ across Sasang types such that the TE type was the most susceptible to heat stress.

  8. Personal computer wallpaper user segmentation based on Sasang typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joung-Youn Lee

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: By proposing the Sasang typology as a factor in influencing an HCI usage pattern in this study, it can be used to predict the user's HCI experience, or suggest a native design methodology that can actively cope with the user's psychological environment.

  9. [Logistic regression analysis on relationships between traditional Chinese medicine constitutional types and overweight or obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan-bo; Wang, Qi; Wu, Cheng-yu; Pang, Guo-ming; Zhao, Jian-xiong; Shen, Shi-lin; Xia, Zhong-yuan; Yan, Xue

    2010-11-01

    To explore the relationships between traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) constitutional types and overweight or obesity so as to provide evidence for adjusting constitutional bias and preventing and treating obesity. The data comes from a cross-sectional survey on TCM constitution of 18 805 samples aged above 18 in Beijing and 8 provinces (Jiangsu, Anhui, Gansu, Qinghai, Fujian, Jilin, Jiangxi and Henan) in China. The survey of TCM constitution was performed by standardized constitution in Chinese medicine questionnaire (CCMQ). Discriminatory analysis method was used to judge the individual's constitutional type (gentleness type, qi-deficiency type, yang-deficiency type, yin-deficiency type, phlegm-dampness type, dampness-heat type, blood-stasis type, qi-depression type and special diathesis type). The relationships between TCM constitution types and overweight or obesity was investigated by logistic regression analysis. Compared with gentleness type, the risk of overweight (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.79-2.35) and obesity (OR, 4.34; 95% CI, 3.52-5.36) in phlegm-dampness type is significantly increased; the risk of obesity (OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.30-1.98) in qi-deficiency type is significantly higher; the risk of overweight and obesity in yang-deficiency type, blood-stasis type, and qi-depression type is significantly lower. Phlegm-dampness type and qi-deficiency type are the main constitutional risk factors of overweight or obesity.

  10. Holistic medicine: A new medical system based on body constitution and functional status

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Bing

    2017-01-01

    At present, modern medicine is a scientific system in the following sense: it uses observation of static states and analysis of single factors to determine the relationship between structure and function in the human body in states of health and disease. Physiology and pathology are based on observation from multiple perspectives and at multiple levels. The study of human body constitution and overall functional status is relatively unexplored territory in the field of modern medicine. Thi...

  11. [The role of the Constitutional Court on the analysis of contracts of prepaid medicine programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana-Cepeda, Anamaría

    2016-01-01

    Since 1991, when the current Colombian Constitution came into force and the Constitutional Court was appointed as its guardian and protector, constitutional values have permeated all subjects and areas of law, even those that were previously considered as private matters. Prepaid medicine contracts are a good example of this phenomenon, since the Colombian Constitutional Court has limited individual freedom of contract to private parties -prepaid medical companies- for the benefit of final users of this service through "acción de tutela", in order to protect the right to healthcare and to prevent some behaviors that violate the principle of good faith. The Court has demanded private companies to assess the health condition of patients and has prohibited pre-existent and exclusion clauses that diminish the responsibilities of said companies. Nevertheless, there is a gap in the law regarding the duties of good faith that concern the user, which will be addressed in this paper.

  12. Personal computer wallpaper user segmentation based on Sasang typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joung-Youn

    2015-03-01

    As human-computer interaction (HCI) is becoming a significant part of all human life, the user's emotional satisfaction is an important factor to consider. These changes have been pointed out by several researchers who claim that a user's personality may become the most important factor in the design. The objective of this study is to examine Sasang typology as a user segmentation method in the area of HCI design. To test HCI usage patterns in terms of the user's personality and temperament, this study focuses on personal computer (PC) or lap-top wallpaper settings. One hundred and four Facebook friends completed a QSCC II survey assessing Sasang typology type and sent a captured image of their personal PC or lap-top wallpaper. To classify the computer usage pattern, folder organization and wallpaper setting were investigated. The research showed that So-Yang type organized folders and icons in an orderly manner, whereas So-Eum type did not organize folders and icons at all. With regard to wallpaper settings, So-Yang type used the default wallpaper provided by the PC but So-Eum type used landscape images. Because So-Yang type was reported to be emotionally stable and extrovert, they tended to be highly concerned with online privacy compared with So-Eum type. So-Eum type use a lot of images of landscapes as the background image, which demonstrates So-Eum's low emotional stability, anxiety, and the desire to obtain analogy throughout the computer screen. Also, So-Yang's wallpapers display family or peripheral figures and this is due to the sociability that extrovert So-Yang types possess. By proposing the Sasang typology as a factor in influencing an HCI usage pattern in this study, it can be used to predict the user's HCI experience, or suggest a native design methodology that can actively cope with the user's psychological environment.

  13. A Study of Traditional Chinese Medicine Body Constitution Associated with Overweight, Obesity, and Underweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mihui; Mo, Shuming; Lv, Yubao

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to investigate the associations among the nine types of body constitution in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with the outcomes of overweight, obesity, and underweight. Method Participants aged 30 to 90 years were recruited from communities in Shanghai and assessed using a self-administered questionnaire pertaining to their demographics, lifestyles, and self-reported medical history. The data of 3748 participants with complete information was available for the analysis. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR) analysis was performed to determine the associations among the TCM constitution variables and the health outcomes. Results The standards of classification and determination of the constitution in TCM were used to gauge the patients' constitution type. MLR revealed independent and significant associations among the Qi_Deficient and Yang_Deficient groups with the outcomes of overweight, obesity, and underweight (P underweight (P underweight. On the other hand, positive correlations were found between Phlegm_Dampness and the outcomes of overweight and obesity. PMID:29234426

  14. A Study of Traditional Chinese Medicine Body Constitution Associated with Overweight, Obesity, and Underweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihui Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate the associations among the nine types of body constitution in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM with the outcomes of overweight, obesity, and underweight. Method. Participants aged 30 to 90 years were recruited from communities in Shanghai and assessed using a self-administered questionnaire pertaining to their demographics, lifestyles, and self-reported medical history. The data of 3748 participants with complete information was available for the analysis. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR analysis was performed to determine the associations among the TCM constitution variables and the health outcomes. Results. The standards of classification and determination of the constitution in TCM were used to gauge the patients’ constitution type. MLR revealed independent and significant associations among the Qi_Deficient and Yang_Deficient groups with the outcomes of overweight, obesity, and underweight (P<0.10 for all. MLR revealed independent and significant associations among the Qi_Deficient and Yang_Deficient groups with the outcomes of overweight, obesity, and underweight (P<0.05 for all. Conclusion. Our study revealed significant negative correlations between the Qi_Deficient and Yang_Deficient groups with the outcomes of overweight, obesity, and underweight. On the other hand, positive correlations were found between Phlegm_Dampness and the outcomes of overweight and obesity.

  15. Influence of traditional Chinese medicine constitution type on the susceptibility of hypertensive cases to intracerebral haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shu-hui; Zheng, Jian-ming; Li, Kang-zeng; Liu, You-rong; Ye, Ming-yan

    2014-12-01

    To explore the influence of Chinese medicine constitution type on the susceptibility of hypertensive patients to intracerebral haemorrhage. Primary hypertensive patients were studied and divided into the hypertension and the hypertensive intracerebral haemorrhage groups, depending on whether or not the patients had intracerebral haemorrhage. The demographic characteristics, physiological characteristics, living habits, biochemical tests, other chronic diseases, Chinese medicine constitution type, etc. were collected and compared between the two groups. The neurological deficit in the hypertensive intracerebral haemorrhage group was also compared among the different constitution types. A total of 304 patients participated in this investigation, including 213 cases in the hypertension group and 91 cases in the hypertensive intracerebral haemorrhage group. The percentages of dampness-heat and qi-depression types in the intracerebral haemorrhage group were greater than those with the same types in the hypertension group (20.9% vs 6.1%, 22.0% vs 8.0%; Ptype were different between genders in both groups. In addition, there were more male cases (14/20) with qi-depression type and more female cases (7/8) with phlegm-dampness type in the hypertensive intracerebral haemorrhage group than those with the same types (3/17 and 9/34, respectively) in the hypertension group (Ptypes had greater levels of blood lipids in the intracerebral haemorrhage group than those with the same types in the hypertension group (Ptype presented with a more severe neurological deficit than those with the other types (Ptype might have an impact on the susceptibility of hypertensive patients to have an intracerebral haemorrhage. The heat-dampness and qi-depression types might lead to greater susceptibility than the other types. In addition, the patient's gender and blood lipids might also influence the susceptibility along with the constitution type.

  16. Traditional Indian medicine (TIM) and traditional Korean medicine (TKM): aconstitutional-based concept and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Young Min; Komakech, Richard; Karigar, Chandrakant Shivappa; Saqib, Asma

    2017-06-01

    Traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM) plays an integral role in providing health care worldwide. It is based on sound fundamental principles and centuries of practices. This study compared traditional Indian medicine (TIM) and traditional Korean medicine (TKM) basing on data obtained from peer reviewed articles, respective government institutional reports and World Health Organization reports. Despite the fact that TIM and TKM have individual qualities that are unique from each other including different histories of origin, they share a lot in common. Apart from Homeopathy in TIM, both systems are hinged on similar principle of body constitutional-based concept and similar disease diagnosis methods of mainly auscultation, palpation, visual inspection, and interrogation. Similarly, the treatment methods of TIM and TKM follow similar patterns involving use of medicinal herbs, moxibustion, acupuncture, cupping, and manual therapy. Both T&CM are majorly practiced in well-established hospitals by T&CM doctors who have undergone an average of 6-7 years of specialized trainings. However, unlike TIM which has less insurance coverage, the popularity of TKM is majorly due to its wide national insurance coverage. These two medical traditions occupy increasingly greater portion of the global market. However, TIM especially Ayurveda has gained more global recognition than TKM although the emergence of Sasang Constitutional Medicine in TKM is beginning to become more popular. This comparative analysis between TIM and TKM may provide vital and insightful contribution towards constitutional-based concept for further development and future studies in T&CM.

  17. Traditional Indian medicine (TIM and traditional Korean medicine (TKM: aconstitutional-based concept and comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Min Kang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM plays an integral role in providing health care worldwide. It is based on sound fundamental principles and centuries of practices. This study compared traditional Indian medicine (TIM and traditional Korean medicine (TKM basing on data obtained from peer reviewed articles, respective government institutional reports and World Health Organization reports. Despite the fact that TIM and TKM have individual qualities that are unique from each other including different histories of origin, they share a lot in common. Apart from Homeopathy in TIM, both systems are hinged on similar principle of body constitutional-based concept and similar disease diagnosis methods of mainly auscultation, palpation, visual inspection, and interrogation. Similarly, the treatment methods of TIM and TKM follow similar patterns involving use of medicinal herbs, moxibustion, acupuncture, cupping, and manual therapy. Both T&CM are majorly practiced in well-established hospitals by T&CM doctors who have undergone an average of 6–7 years of specialized trainings. However, unlike TIM which has less insurance coverage, the popularity of TKM is majorly due to its wide national insurance coverage. These two medical traditions occupy increasingly greater portion of the global market. However, TIM especially Ayurveda has gained more global recognition than TKM although the emergence of Sasang Constitutional Medicine in TKM is beginning to become more popular. This comparative analysis between TIM and TKM may provide vital and insightful contribution towards constitutional-based concept for further development and future studies in T&CM.

  18. Digestive system-related pathophysiological symptoms of Sasang typology: Systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Suk Lee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to review clinical studies on digestive system-related pathophysiological symptoms of each Sasang type to obtain the generalizable typespecific clinical features, which are important for the diagnosis of the Sasang type and subsequent disease treatment. Sasang typology and digestive system symptom-related keywords were used to search through eight domestic and foreign databases up to March 2012. The results were organized and analyzed based on four categories [digestive function, appetite, eating pattern, and body mass index (BMI] to elucidate type-specific symptoms. Sasang type-specific digestive system-related symptoms were identified by reviewing 30 related articles that were gathered by searching through the databases. The Tae-Eum (TE type had the highest digestive functions and the So-Eum (SE type had the lowest. The TE type appeared to have larger volume with fast eating speed compared with the SE type and individuals in the TE category preferred fatty or salty food, which is responsible for the high occurrence rates of organic digestive diseases such as gastritis. Moreover, BMI was higher in the TE type and lower in the SE type. We systematically reviewed previously published clinical reports on digestive functions, which can be used to meet the objective of Sasang-type differentiation and pathophysiological pattern identification.

  19. Primary packaging considerations in developing medicines for children: oral liquid and powder for constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Gossett A; Vallejo, Erick

    2015-01-01

    The packaging presentation of oral liquid pediatric medicines is a critical step in maintaining chemical and physical stability, compliance, adherence, and proper handling by the target patient population, guardians, caregivers, and health-care professionals. The common packaging presentations for commercial oral liquid pediatric drug products are glass bottle, plastic bottle, sachet, and stick pack configurations. The type of pack presentation selected is driven by the quality target product profile (QTPP) that is designed around the physicochemical properties of the drug substance and the desired drug product suitability for the target population. The QTPP defines the intended use of the drug product, drug product quality criteria, dose strength, dosage form, container closure system, storage conditions, stability criteria, dosing device, shelf life, and attributes affecting the pharmacokinetic characteristics. Oral liquid pediatric formulations are typically prepared from a powder that is constituted at the time of use as a suspension or a solution for single or multiple use depending on the stability of the constituted formulation. Active ingredients with high aqueous solubility can be developed as a powder for oral solution and presented in a bottle for multiple use product and a stick pack, packet, or sachet for single-use product. Active ingredients with low aqueous solubility can be developed as a powder for oral suspension and presented in a bottle for multiple use product and a stick pack or sachet for single-use product. A secondary package may be used in cases where the primary pack failed to provide adequate protection against light degradation. This work will help formulation scientists select the most appropriate pack presentation in the early stages of pediatric clinical development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  20. Physical and mental health conditions of young college students with different Traditional Chinese Medicine constitutions in Zhejiang Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Heli; Zhu, Li; Chen, Zhiqiang; Jin, Huijuan; Jin, Lei

    2015-12-01

    To investigate Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) constitutions of youths in colleges, and their physical and mental health conditions of different TCM constitutions, so as to provide a theoretical basis for the TCM way to improve young people's physical and mental health. The Standard TCM Constitutions' Classification and Determination Questionnaire was used to measure the body health condition, and the Symptom Checklist 90 Questionnaire and the Questionnaire of the National Student Physical Health Standards were used to determine mental and physical health conditions respectively in 1421 young participants validly answering the questionnaires in Zhejiang Province. The participants had a mean age of 19.96 years (SD = 0.95 years) with the majority of females (55.10%). One fourth of the 1421 participants were the Ping-he constitution and others were the tendency constitutions. Participants with Pinghe module (which has characteristics of moderate posture, rosy, energetic and is a healthy condition in TCM) were healthier than those with tendency constitutions in physical and mental health, with 65.81 ± 7.83 (men) and 77.99 ± 7.24 (women) scores in the physical test and around 1.25 scores in the mental health test. College students with combined biased constitutions were more likely suffer force, sensitive, depression and anxiety. Most of college students have a tendency or biased constitution which could be more likely to suffer suboptimal health status and diseases. Youths in college themselves and health providers should pay more attention to their potential health issues and make proper healthcare plan according to their own TCM constitution.

  1. Traditional Chinese medicine perspective on constitution transformations in perinatal women: A prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Shih-Hsien; Wang, Hsiao-Ling; Lee, Tzu-Chi; Chan, Te-Fu; Chou, Fan-Hao; Chen, Lih-Mih; Lin, Wei-Ting

    2015-06-01

    Pregnancy is an important stage in life for many women. Humans are complex organisms that are prone to exhibiting gradual alterations in their constitutions that fluctuate with age, diet, and living environment. This is particularly true during the pre- and postnatal periods, in which qi and blood are required to ensure foetal growth. To examine women's constitutional transformation of pre-pregnancy, pregnancy, and postpartum. A prospective, longitudinal study was conducted, and structural questionnaires were used to collect data. The participants were healthy pregnant women 21-49 years of age. Data were collected at six times: during the first (weeks 6-13), second (weeks 14-27), and third (weeks 28-40) trimesters and during the postnatal admission (1-week postnatal) and home self-care (6-week and 6-month postnatal) periods, yielding 86 valid questionnaires. A cubic polynomial regression analyses with generalised estimation equations (GEEs) method was used to reveal the trend of constitution score by different constitutions. Significant differences (p women's constitutions underwent changes throughout the perinatal stages. These findings provide a valuable reference for healthcare professionals in administering perinatal care and demonstrate empirical evidence for use in future intervention-based research. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Repeatability of pulse diagnosis and body constitution diagnosis in traditional Indian Ayurveda medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurande, Vrinda; Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Toft, Egon

    2012-01-01

    In Ayurveda, pulse and body constitution diagnosis have a long historical use; still there is lack of quantitative measure on e.g. reliability of this diagnostic method. Reliability means consistency of information. Consistent diagnosis leads to consistent treatment and is important for clinical...... practice, education and research. The objective of this study is to study the methodology to evaluate the test-retest reliability (repeatability) of pulse and body constitution diagnosis. A double-blinded, controlled, clinical trial was conducted in Copenhagen. The same doctor, expert in Ayurvedic pulse...

  3. Feasibility of assessing health state by detecting redox state of human body based on Chinese medicine constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling-Ru; Wang, Qi; Wang, Ji; Wang, Qian-Fei; Yang, Ling-Ling; Zheng, Lu-Yu; Zhang, Yan

    2016-08-01

    This article discussed the feasibility of assessing health state by detecting redox state of human body. Firstly, the balance of redox state is the basis of homeostasis, and the balance ability of redox can reflflect health state of human body. Secondly, the redox state of human body is a sensitive index of multiple risk factors of health such as age, external environment and psychological factors. It participates in the occurrence and development of multiple diseases involving metabolic diseases and nervous system diseases, and can serve as a cut-in point for treatment of these diseases. Detecting the redox state of high risk people is signifificantly important for early detection and treatment of disease. The blood plasma and urine could be selected to detect, which is convenient. It is pointed that the indexes not only involve oxidation product and antioxidant enzyme but also redox couple. Chinese medicine constitution reflflects the state of body itself and the ability of adapting to external environment, which is consistent with the connotation of health. It is found that there are nine basic types of constitution in Chinese population, which provides a theoretical basis of health preservation, preventive treatment of disease and personalized treatment. With the combination of redox state detection and the Chinese medicine constitution theory, the heath state can be systemically assessed by conducting large-scale epidemiological survey with classifified detection on redox state of human body.

  4. Correlation between tobacco and alcohol use and Traditional Chinese Medicine constitutions: an analysis based on a sample from general population of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yangyang; Zhu, Yanbo; Di, Jie; Lin, Lin

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between smoking and drinking and constitution types from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory. The Constitution in Chinese Medicine Questionnaire (CCMQ) was used. A sample of 8448 subjects from nine provinces and municipalities was chosen from the database of the TCM constitution and health status survey. Constituent ratio and correspondence analysis were used to find the relationship between smoking and drinking and TCM constitution. There was an association between smoking and drinking and the Gentleness, phlegm-dampness, and dampness-heat type constitutions. People that did not smoke tobacco or drink alcohol tended to have Yang-deficiency, Yin-deficiency, Qi-depression, Qi-deficiency, special diathesis, or blood-stasis type constitutions. There was a significant correlation between tobacco and alcohol use and TCM constitutions. To improve patient health, more attention should be paid to tobacco and alcohol control.

  5. Efficacy of constitutional support to enhance access to essential medicines as a human right to health in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, L M

    2012-01-01

    Access to essential medicines is an element of the international agreements on the human right to health. This review summarizes the current situation concerning access to medicines in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) by examining the policies, constitutional provisions and other legal instruments of the Member States. The constitutions of 18 out of 22 EMR countries enshrine health as a human right (8 countries have a duty statement, 5 have a programmatic statement and 5 specify entitlement); only 4 EMR countries do not enshrine health as a human right in a clause in their constitution. More than half the countries (i.e. 12) have an official national medicines policy, 4 have a draft policy and 6 have no national medicines policy. A total of 11 countries operate an essential medicines list. Realization of this right to health necessitates that duty bearers take all necessary legislative measures to respect, protect and fulfil this right.

  6. [Comparison of Dongeuisoosebowon sasung caobenjuan (The Four Constitutional Medicine of A Draft Volume of Longevity and Life Preservation in Eastern Medicine) and Dongeuisoosebowon (Longevity and Life Preservation in Eastern Medicine)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hai-Ying

    2013-07-01

    In 1894, Lee Je-ma finished the book Dongeuisoosebowon sasung caobenjuan (The Four Constitutional Medicine of A Draft Volume of Longevity and Life Preservation in Eastern Medicine), and later, in 1900, he started revising the book. However, he passed away and didn't finish his work. In 1901, Lee's disciples edited the revised edition, and published it in the title Dongeuisoosebowon (Longevity and Life Preservation in Eastern Medicine). Some hand-copied versions of Dongeuisoosebowon sasung caobenjuan were still available. After comparing these two books, it was found that Lee's disciples made rather more changes: including addition of its contents, adjustment of its order, modification of the texts and prescriptions, etc. By comparison, the contents in the hand-copied edition more closely reflects Lee's recognition on the Sasung Euihak (Four-Constitution medicine), while those of the published ones were deleted a bulk of the original contents of the Four-Constitutional medicine, yet supplemented much contents of traditional Chinese medicine.

  7. Remission of Unresectable Lung Metastases from Rectal Cancer After Herbal Medicine Treatment: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungsuk; Lee, Sanghun

    2016-01-01

    Lung metastasis is frequent in rectal cancer patients and has a poor prognosis, with an expected three-year survival rate of about 10%. Though western medicine has made great strides in the curative resection of liver metastases, resection of lung metastases has lagged far behind. Many preclinical studies have suggested that herbal treatments block metastasis, but few clinical studies have addressed this topic. We present the case of a 57-year-old Asian male with lung metastases from rectal cancer. He first underwent resection of the primary lesion (stage IIA, T3N0M0) and six cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. Unfortunately, lung metastases were confirmed about one year later. Palliative chemotherapy was begun, but his disease continued to progress after three cycles and chemotherapy was halted. The patient was exclusively treated with herbal medicine-standardized allergen-removed Rhus verniciflua stokes extract combined with Dokhwaljihwang-tang (Sasang constitutional medicine in Korea). After seven weeks of herbal medicine treatment, the lung metastases were markedly improved. Regression of lung metastases has continued; also, the patient's rectal cancer has not returned. He has been receiving herbal medicine for over two years and very few side effects have been observed. We suggest that the herbal regimen used in our patient is a promising candidate for the treatment of lung metastases secondary to rectal cancer, and we hope that this case stimulates further investigation into the efficacy of herbal treatments for metastatic colorectal cancer patients. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Upholding Indigenous Freedoms of Religion and Medicine: Peyotists at the 1906-1908 Oklahoma Constitutional Convention and First Legislature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedman, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    In the five hundred years of European and American globalization of the world, seldom have Indigenous peoples been invited to a constitutional convention and first legislature to express their perspectives and concerns. Rarely in the five-hundred-year history of the European and American colonization of the world were the rights of the Indigenous…

  9. Effects of oriental medicine music therapy in an ovarian cancer patient with So-Eum-type constitution: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hyun; Song, Eunhye; Kim, Seul-Ki

    2015-03-01

    The cancer incidence in Korea has been increasing, although there is a serious lack of supportive care for the treatment and management of the rapidly increasing number of cancer patients, and there is an immense need for therapeutic interventions to support cancer patients. A 47-year-old So-Eum-type Korean female patient, who was diagnosed with ovarian cancer, had been receiving chemotherapies. She was experiencing pain due to swelling of her hands and feet, and under extreme stress due to hardships of life. During the patient's fourth chemotherapy treatment, she received oriental medicine music therapy twice per week for 2 weeks, for 1 hour each time (4 sessions in total). A self-administered questionnaire and the visual analog scale were used to assess and determine the level of negative and positive feelings. After receiving the oriental medicine music therapy, her negative and positive feelings as well as the visual analog scale score that reflects subjective health conditions have improved and stabilized. This case report suggests the potential of oriental medicine music therapy as a complementary and alternative medical treatment method to promote and enhance quality of life and health conditions of cancer patients in postsurgical care and chemotherapy treatment.

  10. Effects of oriental medicine music therapy in an ovarian cancer patient with So-Eum-type constitution: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hyun Lee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The cancer incidence in Korea has been increasing, although there is a serious lack of supportive care for the treatment and management of the rapidly increasing number of cancer patients, and there is an immense need for therapeutic interventions to support cancer patients. A 47-year-old So-Eum-type Korean female patient, who was diagnosed with ovarian cancer, had been receiving chemotherapies. She was experiencing pain due to swelling of her hands and feet, and under extreme stress due to hardships of life. During the patient's fourth chemotherapy treatment, she received oriental medicine music therapy twice per week for 2 weeks, for 1 hour each time (4 sessions in total. A self-administered questionnaire and the visual analog scale were used to assess and determine the level of negative and positive feelings. After receiving the oriental medicine music therapy, her negative and positive feelings as well as the visual analog scale score that reflects subjective health conditions have improved and stabilized. This case report suggests the potential of oriental medicine music therapy as a complementary and alternative medical treatment method to promote and enhance quality of life and health conditions of cancer patients in postsurgical care and chemotherapy treatment.

  11. Individualized prevention against hypertension based on Traditional Chinese Medicine Constitution Theory: A large community-based retrospective, STROBE-compliant study among Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Li, Xiao-Hui; Huang, Xin; Yin, Lu; Guo, Cheng-Xian; Liu, Chang; He, Yong-Mei; Liu, Xing; Yuan, Hong

    2017-11-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine Constitution (TCMC) theory states that individuals with a biased TCMC are more likely to suffer from specific diseases. However, little is known regarding the influence of TCMC on susceptibility to hypertension. The aim of this study is to examine the possible relationship between TCMC and hypertension. Retrospective evaluation and observation were performed using the STROBE guidelines checklist. A large community-based cross-sectional study was conducted between 2009 and 2013 in Changsha, China. TCMC was assessed using a questionnaire that included 68 items. TCMC distributions and the associations of different TCMCs with hypertension risk were analyzed. In total, 144,439 subjects underwent evaluations of TCMC and blood pressure (BP). There were significant differences in the hypertension prevalence among the various TCMC groups (P medicine criteria; for example, phlegm wetness with hypertension was similar to obesity-related hypertension. Our results suggest that phlegm wetness, yin deficiency, blood stasis, and qi deficiency have different effects on the prevalence of hypertension. More attention should be paid to TCMCs associated with susceptibility to hypertension, and corresponding preventive and therapeutic treatments should be developed according to different TCMCs.

  12. Authoritarian Constitutionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Tushnet, Mark V.

    2015-01-01

    Legal scholars and political theorists interested in constitutionalism as a normative concept tend to dichotomize the subject. There is liberal constitutionalism of the sort familiar in the modern West, with core commitments to human rights and self-governance implemented by means of varying institutional devices, and there is authoritarianism, rejecting human rights entirely and governed by unconstrained power-holders. This Article explores the possibility of forms of constitutionalism other...

  13. Health rights litigation and access to medicines: priority classification of successful cases from Costa Rica's constitutional chamber of the Supreme Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Wilson, Bruce M

    2014-12-11

    Although Costa Rica has no explicit constitutional right to health, its constitutional chamber of the Supreme Court (Sala IV) has become increasingly central to the resolution of many health care decisions. Some argue that courts' decisions about individuals' access to very expensive medications could upset the country's medical priorities and harm the state's general health care provision capacity. This article assesses whether health rights litigation concerning the right to medications leads to more fairness in access to medications in Costa Rica. We review randomly selected access to medicines cases successfully claimed at the Sala IV in 2008 and classify them into four priority groups using standard priority-setting criteria. We find that 2.7% of the successful cases fall into priority group I (highest priority), 27% in group II, 48.6% in group III, and 21.6% in group IV (experimental treatment). Our analysis reveals a majority of successful health rights litigation for medications results in court-mandated provision of new, expensive drugs, many with only marginal benefits. More than 70% of the successful cases evaluated concerned medications judged to be of low priority. Based on these cases, we cannot conclude that litigation leads to more fairness in access to medications. Copyright © 2014 Norheim and Wilson. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  14. CONSTITUTION AND CONSTITUTIONALISM CONTEMPORARY ISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius ANDREESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In a democratic society, the judicial legitimacy of the state and its power, of its institutions, but also the social and political grounds are generated and determined by the Constitution, defined as expressively as possible as being: “The fundamental political and judicial settlement of a people” (I. Deleanu. The supremacy of the Constitution has as main effect the conformity of the entire system of law with the constitutional norms. Guaranteeing the compliance with this principle, essential for the state of law, is first of all an attribution of the Constitutional Court, but also an obligation of the legislative power to receive, through the adopted normative acts, in content and in form, the constitutional norms. Altering the fundamental law of a state represents a political and judicial act extremely complex with major meanings and implications for the socio-political and national systems, but also for each individual. This is why such measure should be very well justified, to answer certain socio-political and legal needs well shaped and mainly to match the principles and rules specific to a democratic constitutional and state system, by insuring its stability and functionality. These are a few aspects of the Romanian contemporary constitutionalism that this study shall critically analyse in order to differentiate between the constitutional ideal and reality.

  15. Constitutive Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Piccolo, Chiara; Heitzig, Martina

    2011-01-01

    This chapter presents various types of constitutive models and their applications. There are 3 aspects dealt with in this chapter, namely: creation and solution of property models, the application of parameter estimation and finally application examples of constitutive models. A systematic...... procedure is introduced for the analysis and solution of property models. Models that capture and represent the temperature dependent behaviour of physical properties are introduced, as well as equation of state models (EOS) such as the SRK EOS. Modelling of liquid phase activity coefficients are also...... covered, illustrating several models such as the Wilson equation and NRTL equation, along with their solution strategies. A section shows how to use experimental data to regress the property model parameters using a least squares approach. A full model analysis is applied in each example that discusses...

  16. Changes in Body Water Caused by Sleep Deprivation in Taeeum and Soyang Types in Sasang Medicine: Prospective Intervention Study

    OpenAIRE

    Seung Min Hong; Byung Joo Kim; Seungwon Shin; Minwoo Hwang

    2017-01-01

    Background. There is a negative relationship between sleep deprivation and health. However, no study has investigated the effect of sleep deprivation on individuals with different body composition. The aim of this study was to determine the differential effect of sleep deprivation in individuals with different body compositions (fluid) according to Soyang type (SY) and Taeeum type (TE). Methods. Sixty-two cognitively normal, middle-aged people with normal sleep patterns were recruited from th...

  17. utilizing constitutional values in constitutional comparison

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    COMPARISON. Francois Venter. 1. Constitutional comparison. We are living in an era in which constitutional law has become a comparative science. This is not true .... inevitably followed by a search for authoritative native interpretation. Such a ..... an approach of "colour-blind" interpretation of the Constitution, allowing for.

  18. Constitutional changes and the dilemmas of constitutionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Bačić, Arsen

    2009-01-01

    The need to develop constitutional mechanisms whose aim is to resolve fundamental relations in society demands the widest possible inclusion of all of society’s active participants in the discussion on the need to adopt or revise the Constitution. The opening of every new round of constitutional changes is of great importance because it always unlocks certain new and important questions. The answers to those questions should be offered by state authority (policy) and civil society including s...

  19. The Constitution by Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhut, Stephanie; Jones, Megan

    2010-01-01

    On their visit to the National Archives Experience in Washington, D.C., students in Jenni Ashley and Gay Brock's U.S. history classes at the Potomac School in McLean, Virginia, participated in a pilot program called "The Constitution by Cell." Armed with their cell phones, a basic understanding of the Constitution, and a willingness to…

  20. Interpreting the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, William J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

  1. Reliability studies of diagnostic methods in Indian traditional Ayurveda medicine: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurande, Vrinda Hitendra; Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Toft, Egon; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    Recently, a need to develop supportive new scientific evidence for contemporary Ayurveda has emerged. One of the research objectives is an assessment of the reliability of diagnoses and treatment. Reliability is a quantitative measure of consistency. It is a crucial issue in classification (such as prakriti classification), method development (pulse diagnosis), quality assurance for diagnosis and treatment and in the conduct of clinical studies. Several reliability studies are conducted in western medicine. The investigation of the reliability of traditional Chinese, Japanese and Sasang medicine diagnoses is in the formative stage. However, reliability studies in Ayurveda are in the preliminary stage. In this paper, examples are provided to illustrate relevant concepts of reliability studies of diagnostic methods and their implication in practice, education, and training. An introduction to reliability estimates and different study designs and statistical analysis is given for future studies in Ayurveda. PMID:23930037

  2. Democratic constitutions and education

    OpenAIRE

    Pinzani, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    This essay shall analyze the idea of the possibility of education to freedom through democratic institutions and the role of the constitution in this process. The question shall not be considered from an empirical perspective, but from a theoretical perspective. In the first part democratic institutions will be defined in such a way, that it is possible to speak of democratic habit as a necessary component of democracy. The second part shall introduce a concept of State constitution that take...

  3. [Trends in research on the history of medicine in Korea before the modern era].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dongwon

    2010-06-30

    /or Korean traditional medicine; the spread of variolation; attempts to introduce smallpox vaccination ; Korean-Japanese medical exchange through the dispatch of Korean goodwill missions to Japan; a great vogue for the Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine in both China and Japan; the emergence of independent medical texts on acupuncture; the successful cultivation and massive export of ginseng; and the birth of the Sasang (4-type) constitutional typology, a native medical tradition.

  4. CONSTITUTIONAL FOUNDATIONS OF JURISDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Jamal Batista

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available At the current stage of our State of Law there is no way to separate the study of the civil procedural law from the Federal Constitution, especially the jurisdiction, because it is in the Constitution that there are the legitimizing foundations of the jurisdiction institute. In this article, we carry on about the constitutional foundations of jurisdiction, such as: the principle of natural justice, principle of access to justice, principle of impartiality, principle of publicity, principle of motivation and principle of submission to res judicata. The conclusion is, after all, that jurisdiction, as one of the bulwarks of the citizen, finds in the “Citizen Constitution” of 1988 its foundations and decisive bases.

  5. Personalized medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    engineered anti-TNF-alpha antibody constructs now constitute one of the heaviest medicinal expenditures in many countries. All currently used TNF antagonists may dramatically lower disease activity and, in some patients, induce remission. Unfortunately, however, not all patients respond favorably, and safety...

  6. Constituting children's bodily integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, B Jessie

    2015-04-01

    Children have a constitutional right to bodily integrity. Courts do not hesitate to vindicate that right when children are abused by state actors. Moreover, in at least some cases, a child's right to bodily integrity applies within the family, giving the child the right to avoid unwanted physical intrusions regardless of the parents' wishes. Nonetheless, the scope of this right vis-à-vis the parents is unclear; the extent to which it applies beyond the narrow context of abortion and contraception has been almost entirely unexplored and untheorized. This Article is the first in the legal literature to analyze the constitutional right of minors to bodily integrity within the family by spanning traditionally disparate doctrinal categories such as abortion rights; corporal punishment; medical decisionmaking; and nontherapeutic physical interventions such as tattooing, piercing, and circumcision. However, the constitutional right of minors to bodily integrity raises complex philosophical questions concerning the proper relationship between family and state, as well as difficult doctrinal and theoretical issues concerning the ever-murky idea of state action. This Article canvasses those issues with the ultimate goal of delineating a constitutional right of bodily security and autonomy for children.

  7. The Constitution Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Schneider

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with certain questions and problems of the constitutionalization of the European Union which did not receive very much attention from the ‘Convention on the Future of Europe’ and from the observers of that Convention’s work, but which, nevertheless, may be relevant whenever the results of the Convention’s work are assessed and evaluated. The paper mainly deals with ‘background’ problems associated with traditions of political thought in general and with basic understandings of European integration in particular. The paper also expounds on how the more recent constitution discussion, initiated due to the founding of the European Union, manifests continuities with the debates that have taken place over the past decades (since the start of the integration policy based on the ‘Community method’. However, it shows that the discussion context has become more complex. In the last section of the paper, the relationship of ‘statics’ and ‘dynamics’ in relation to European constitutional conceptions is treated as a subject. The question arises as to whether and to what extent the constitution concept itself is in doubt and whether or not, in connection with this, important functions, whose very performance is expected of a constitution of the European Union, remain unfulfilled.

  8. Gender and the Constitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Ruth Bader

    1975-01-01

    In discussing the constitutional aspects of the sex-role debate in the U.S. the author traces the tradition, compares the present criterion of equal protection to the equal rights argument, and analyzes the equality principle with reference to affirmative action and to childbearing and childrearing, supporting the proposed equal rights amendment.…

  9. The Constitution Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Schneider

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with certain questions and problems of the constitutionalization of the European Union which did not receive very much attention from the Convention on the Future of Europe and from the observers of that Conventions work, but which, nevertheless, may be relevant whenever the results of the Conventions work are assessed and evaluated. The paper mainly deals with background problems associated with traditions of political thought in general and with basic understandings of European integration in particular. The paper also expounds on how the more recent constitution discussion, initiated due to the founding of the European Union, manifests continuities with the debates that have taken place over the past decades (since the start of the integration policy based on the Community method. However, it shows that the discussion context has become more complex. In the last section of the paper, the relationship of statics and dynamics in relation to European constitutional conceptions is treated as a subject. The question arises as to whether and to what extent the constitution concept itself is in doubt and whether or not, in connection with this, important functions, whose very performance is expected of a constitution of the European Union, remain unfulfilled.

  10. Communicative Constitution of Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeneborn, Dennis; Vasquez, Consuelo

    2017-01-01

    The notion of the communicative constitution of organizations (CCO) is at the center of a growing theoretical development within organizational communication studies. CCO scholarship is based on the idea that organization emerges in and is sustained and transformed by communication. This entry...

  11. Judiciary on Russian Constitutional System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Arkhipov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is about new constitutional order in Russia emphasizing fundamental areas as the role of judiciary in the Russian Constitutional System from 1993 Constitution, the one which replaced the 1978 Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Constitution based on communist ideology. Therefore, it is intended to examine the principle of separation of powers, constitutionally recognized human rights and liberties, relationship between international bodies’ case law of human rights and the Russian Constitutional Court, among others issues.

  12. What constitutes information integrity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Flowerday

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information security is not achievable and the notion that adequate security is the goal, using appropriate countermeasures. The main contribution of this article is to illustrate the importance of and provide a macro view of what constitutes information integrity. The findings are in harmony with Samuel Johnson's words (1751: 'Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.'

  13. What constitutes information integrity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Flowerday

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information security is not achievable and the notion that adequate security is the goal, using appropriate countermeasures. The main contribution of this article is to illustrate the importance of and provide a macro view of what constitutes information integrity. The findings are in harmony with Samuel Johnson's words (1751: 'Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.'

  14. Transnational Governance and Constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joerges, Christian; Sand, Inger-Johanne; Teubner, Gunther

    The term transnational governance designates untraditional types of international and regional collaboration among both public and private actors. These legally-structured or less formal arrangements link economic, scientific and technological spheres with political and legal processes. They are ......The term transnational governance designates untraditional types of international and regional collaboration among both public and private actors. These legally-structured or less formal arrangements link economic, scientific and technological spheres with political and legal processes....... They are challenging the type of governance which constitutional states were supposed to represent and ensure. They also provoke old questions: Who bears the responsibility for governance without a government? Can accountability be ensured? The term 'constitutionalism' is still widely identified with statal form...... of democratic governance. The book refers to this term as a yardstick to which then contributors feel committed even where they plead for a reconceptualisation of constitutionalism or a discussion of its functional equivalents. 'Transnational governance' is neither public nor private, nor purely international...

  15. Constitutionality of CEPA challenged

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attaran, A.

    1997-02-24

    The Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) was challenged by Hydro-Quebec in the Supreme Court of Canada. Hydro-Quebec argued that in the absence of any explicit jurisdiction, federal environmental law must be rooted in either the Constitution`s criminal law power, or in its power to legislate for the peace, order and good government of Canada. When accused under CEPA of dumping PCBs into the the St. Maurice River in 1990, Hydro-Quebec, joined in its case by the Attorney Generals of Quebec and Saskatchewan, and IPSCO Inc., argued that the law failed to meet these criteria, and is, therefore unconstitutional and invalid. The Supreme Court case focused primarily on the validity of the Federal Government`s right to declare substances toxic in its pursuit of protecting the environment from immediate or long-term harm, in as much as the criminal law power is understood to protect human life and health, but heretofore, not the environment. Although the Justices were anxious to circumscribe the limits of federal environmental jurisdiction, they also appeared disinclined to explode all of Canada`s toxic waste laws. The most likely outcome is that the CEPA will be allowed to stand, but will be severed of the environmental protection purpose, while preserving the Federal Government`s jurisdiction over toxic substances under the protection of human life and health provisions of the Constitution.

  16. Constitutionalism and Development in Nigeria: The 1999 Constitution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    IKPEZE: Constitutionalism and Development in Nigeria: The 1999 Constitution and Role of Lawyers. Modern Constitutional concepts, which were based on Constitution as a social contract, were originated by philosophers like Thomas Hobbes who also was an English Scientist, (1588-. 1679), John Locke in English (1632 ...

  17. [The right to live one's own death and its constitutionality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussinguer, Elda Coelho de Azevedo; Barcellos, Igor Awad

    2013-09-01

    The article seeks to reflect on the legality of the early manifestation of will, established in Brazil through Resolution No. 1.995/12 of the Federal Council of Medicine in the face of the legislative omission and considering the possible linkage of physicians and relatives of terminally ill patients in drafting the Last Will and Testament. It examines the constitutionality of these policies and, therefore, the constitutionality of the resolution itself in light of the new Brazilian constitutional paradigm.

  18. The Bicentennial and State Constitutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Henry

    1988-01-01

    Illustrates how the Bicentennial of the U.S. Constitution provides an opportunity to teach about the broader concept of constitutionalism through study of the state constitutions. Presents an argument for teaching about state constitutions, their role in the federal system, and the values they convey. (LS)

  19. Thomas Jefferson and the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Merrill D.

    1987-01-01

    Examines Thomas Jefferson's role in the making and interpretation of the United States Constitution. Discusses the dominant features of Jefferson's constitutional theory; the character of Jefferson's presidency; and Jefferson's ongoing concern about constitutional preservation and change. Lists important dates in the history of the constitution.…

  20. The constitutive sofa cushion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanghøj, Sara

    2009-01-01

    personal values materialize through a hand-made everyday artefact, and how can the artefact constitute action and self-perception? The empirical research and analysis concerns how a former textile crafts teacher's subjective values and professional identity materialize through a hand-woven sofa cushion...... body, space and artefact, thereby revealing the materialization process. Based on results of the analysis, ANT (Actor-Network- Theory) is used in order to discuss how The Danish Folk High School's conception of simplicity as an aesthetic and gendered ideal in the formal education of female handcraft-teachers...

  1. Legal theology in imposed constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    discusses both the imposition of a constitution and constitutionalism. The examples that the drafters of the Kazanistan´s constitution analysed are “successful” imposed texts such as in Germany and Japan, where both constitutions were made by elites under the humiliating supervision of foreign occupiers....... On the theme of imposed constitutionalism, the paper reflects on; the inconsistency of the idealistic discourse that permeates a constitutional text; the inability of an imposed text to be enveloped by principles that reflect the nation’s fundamental concepts; and finally, the denaturalisation...... of the understanding of a constitution as the juridification of the People or Nation. Related to the topic of imposed constitutionalism, the paper focuses on the systemic inconsistencies that imposed constitutionalism generates, such as the unviability of the idea of an implicit constitutional text (invisible ink...

  2. The Constitution of Partnering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer

    The constitution of partnering. Afhandlingen behandler konstitueringen af ledelseskonceptet partnering og dets anvendelse i dansk byggeri. Partnering er et udbredt koncept i byggeriet som betoner samarbejde, tillid og gensidighed mellem de deltagende parter, og konceptet har de senere år har været...... om, hvordan partnering som koncept er fremkommet og har udviklet sig og hvilke konstitutive effekter partnering har på byggeriets praksis. Det teoretiske udgangspunkt i Foucault begrundes i behovet for at fastholde en mangefacetteret og historisk analyse af partnering i modsætning til de...... ledelseskoncept (partnering) medvirker til at strukturere byggeprocesser ved at skabe bestemte muligheder for handling samtidig med at der opretholdes en betydelig stabilitet. Afhandlingen har en række praktiske implikationer ved at identificere de dispositiver eller sociale teknologier som en forandring af...

  3. Constitutive models in LAME.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Scherzinger, William Mark

    2007-09-01

    The Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering (LAME) provides a common repository for constitutive models that can be used in computational solid mechanics codes. A number of models including both hypoelastic (rate) and hyperelastic (total strain) constitutive forms have been implemented in LAME. The structure and testing of LAME is described in Scherzinger and Hammerand ([3] and [4]). The purpose of the present report is to describe the material models which have already been implemented into LAME. The descriptions are designed to give useful information to both analysts and code developers. Thus far, 33 non-ITAR/non-CRADA protected material models have been incorporated. These include everything from the simple isotropic linear elastic models to a number of elastic-plastic models for metals to models for honeycomb, foams, potting epoxies and rubber. A complete description of each model is outside the scope of the current report. Rather, the aim here is to delineate the properties, state variables, functions, and methods for each model. However, a brief description of some of the constitutive details is provided for a number of the material models. Where appropriate, the SAND reports available for each model have been cited. Many models have state variable aliases for some or all of their state variables. These alias names can be used for outputting desired quantities. The state variable aliases available for results output have been listed in this report. However, not all models use these aliases. For those models, no state variable names are listed. Nevertheless, the number of state variables employed by each model is always given. Currently, there are four possible functions for a material model. This report lists which of these four methods are employed in each material model. As far as analysts are concerned, this information is included only for the awareness purposes. The analyst can take confidence in the fact that model has been properly implemented

  4. Start Of The French Constitutionalism: Constitution Of 1791

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Bochkarev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author analyzes questions of French constitutionalism origin. Author notes that in France, over the past two centuries, a state of law, which is based on the principles of popular sovereignty has been formed; observance of human rights and freedoms by the state; parliamentary democracy; supremacy of constitution in relation to all other laws and regulations; separation of powers and institute of authorities responsibility as an organizational framework for the legal state; independence of the judiciary; compliance with commitments taken by the State during international relations. These principles were laid down in the constitutional history of the country. In the present article an attempt to explore the beginning of the French constitutionalism through the prism of the Constitution of 1791 was made. Author makes concludes that in the Constitution of 1791 the fundamental principles of constitutional law were laid, some of which are reflected in the Constitution of the Fifth Republic in France and continue to operate. Constitution of the Fifth Republic proclaimed commitment to "human rights and principles of national sovereignty as defined by the Declaration of 1789, confirmed and complemented by the Preamble to the Constitution of 1946, and despite many disputes, Constitutional Council reaffirmed inviolability of the equality before the law principle, which exists in the Declaration.

  5. Ontoteleological Constitution of Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Luiz Teixeira Boava

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is a pluri-disciplinary phenomenon, object of research in several areas of knowledge. However, studies on this theme present approaches that start to consider entrepreneurship as a field of private knowledge in the phase of epistemological construction. In this context, the aim of this investigation is to contribute to the discussions on the theme, through studies on the ontoteleological constitution of entrepreneurship, in propaedeutic character, deflagrating new approaches. Thus, there is a presentation concerning the study of entrepreneurship, which may emphasize its ontical and ontological aspects. In addition, the reason why it is complex to define entrepreneurship is investigated. Subjects regarding the philosophy of entrepreneurship are introduced, seeking to present the bases for an ontoteleological approach to the phenomenon. Such an approach assumes that the finality of the entrepreneurial act relates to the main principles and transformations required into the organization. Finally, it is concluded that man is an entrepreneurial being, the meta-entrepreneur, and his entrepreneurial actions are not determined by external factors, but rather by the condition of his potentiality.

  6. The diffusion of constitutional rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goderis, B.V.G.; Versteeg, M.

    Constitutions are commonly regarded as uniquely national products, shaped by domestic ideals and politics. This paper develops and empirically investigates a novel hypothesis, which is that constitutions are also shaped by transnational influence, or “diffusion.” Constitutional rights can diffuse

  7. VALUATION IN THE CONSTITUTIONAL ERA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brimer

    VALUATION IN THE CONSTITUTIONAL ERA. WJ du Plessis *. Which way you ought to go depends on where you want to get to... - Lewis Carroll, Alice in Wonderland1. 1. Introduction. The Constitution established a single system of law shaped by the Constitution itself.2 It protected certain existing rights but it also initiated ...

  8. Constitutional judges (guarantee of the Constitution and responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Ansuátegui Roig

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available My aim in this paper is to propose a reflection on the position and the importance that the constitutional judge has in the legal systems of contemporary constitutionalism. The figure of the judge responsible of protecting the Constitution is a key institution, without which we cannot understand the laws of constitutional democracies, their current lines of development, and the guarantee of rights and freedoms that constitute the normative core of these systems. Moreover, the reflection on the exercise of the powers of the judge, its scope and its justification is an important part of contemporary legal discussion, still relevant, albeit not exclusively - in the field of legal philosophy. The object of attention of my reflection is the judge who has the power of judicial review, in a scheme of defense of the Constitution, regardless the specific ways of this defense.

  9. Constitutionalism and Constitutional Anomie in the New Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Blokker, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The recent (re-)establishment of constitutional democracies in Central and Eastern Europe is affected by a paradoxical situation: while modern constitutionalism was significantly strenghtened by the ‘new constitutionalism’ in the region, it is itself increasingly seen as out of touch with (pluralist) reality. In the paper, I explore to what extent it can be claimed that the new constitutionalism adopted in the former communist countries is a reinvigorated version of ‘traditional’ modern const...

  10. Constitutions compared. An introduction to comparative constitutional law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heringa, A.W.; Kiiver, P.

    2012-01-01

    This handbook provides a user-friendly introduction to comparative constitutional law. For each area of constitutional law, a general introduction and a comparative overview is provided, which is then followed by more detailed country chapters on that specific area. The subjects covered are the

  11. Constitutions compared : An introduction to comparative constitutional law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heringa, Aalt Willem

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a user-friendly introduction to comparative constitutional law. For each area of constitutional law, a general introduction and a comparative overview is provided, which is then followed by more detailed country chapters on that specific area. The subjects covered are the origins

  12. La Constitution économique parmi les Constitutions européennes

    OpenAIRE

    Kaarlo Tuori

    2011-01-01

    In the European context, the place of the revolutionary notions of constitutive power, demos and constitutional moment is occupied by the evolutionary concept of constitutionalisation. Economic constitution is merely one aspect in multi-dimensional European constitution (alisation). My tentative proposal is to distinguish between the following dimensions of constitution : economic constitution ; juridical constitution ; political constitution ; social constitution ; and security constitution....

  13. National constitutional courts in the European Constitutional Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komárek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This article critically assesses the transformation of national constitutional courts’ place in the law and politics of the EU and its member states. This process eliminates the difference between constitutional and ordinary national courts, which is crucial for the institutional implementation...... the EU and its member states, understood together as the European Constitutional Democracy—the central notion developed in this article in order to support an argument that should speak to both EU lawyers and national constitutionalists....... of the discourse theory of law and democracy. It also disrupts the symbiotic relationship between national constitutional democracies established after World War II and European integration. The article argues that maintaining the special place of national constitutional courts is in the vital interest of both...

  14. Constitutive description of human femoropopliteal artery aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenskiy, Alexey; Seas, Andreas; Deegan, Paul; Poulson, William; Anttila, Eric; Sim, Sylvie; Desyatova, Anastasia; MacTaggart, Jason

    2017-04-01

    Femoropopliteal artery (FPA) mechanics play a paramount role in pathophysiology and the artery's response to therapeutic interventions, but data on FPA mechanical properties are scarce. Our goal was to characterize human FPAs over a wide population to derive a constitutive description of FPA aging to be used for computational modeling. Fresh human FPA specimens ([Formula: see text]) were obtained from [Formula: see text] predominantly male (80 %) donors 54±15 years old (range 13-82 years). Morphometric characteristics including radius, wall thickness, opening angle, and longitudinal pre-stretch were recorded. Arteries were subjected to multi-ratio planar biaxial extension to determine constitutive parameters for an invariant-based model accounting for the passive contributions of ground substance, elastin, collagen, and smooth muscle. Nonparametric bootstrapping was used to determine unique sets of material parameters that were used to derive age-group-specific characteristics. Physiologic stress-stretch state was calculated to capture changes with aging. Morphometric and constitutive parameters were derived for seven age groups. Vessel radius, wall thickness, and circumferential opening angle increased with aging, while longitudinal pre-stretch decreased ([Formula: see text]). Age-group-specific constitutive parameters portrayed orthotropic FPA stiffening, especially in the longitudinal direction. Structural changes in artery wall elastin were associated with reduction of physiologic longitudinal and circumferential stretches and stresses with age. These data and the constitutive description of FPA aging shed new light on our understanding of peripheral arterial disease pathophysiology and arterial aging. Application of this knowledge might improve patient selection for specific treatment modalities in personalized, precision medicine algorithms and could assist in device development for treatment of peripheral artery disease.

  15. Constitutive rules, language, and ontology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, Frank

    It is a commonplace within philosophy that the ontology of institutions can be captured in terms of constitutive rules. What exactly such rules are, however, is not well understood. They are usually contrasted to regulative rules: constitutive rules (such as the rules of chess) make institutional

  16. Constitutive Modelling in Geomechanics Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Puzrin, Alexander M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to bridge the gap between the traditional Geomechanics and Numerical Geotechnical Modelling with applications in science and practice. Geomechanics is rarely taught within the rigorous context of Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics, while when it comes to Numerical Modelling, commercially available finite elements or finite differences software utilize constitutive relationships within the rigorous framework. As a result, young scientists and engineers have to learn the challenging subject of constitutive modelling from a program manual and often end up with using unrealistic models which violate the Laws of Thermodynamics.  The book is introductory, by no means does it claim any completeness and state of the art in such a dynamically developing field as numerical and constitutive modelling of soils. The author gives basic understanding of conventional continuum mechanics approaches to constitutive modelling, which can serve as a foundation for exploring more advanced theories....

  17. The significance of constitutional values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HN Nisihara

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the question of the meaning and legal significance of constitutional values in contemporary times. The article attends also to related questions namely, what constituteconstitutional values” and what are the limitations of the meaning afforded to this notion. Attention is paid in the particular, to freedom, equality and democracy as value-neutral criteria of fairness and government neutrality with reference to the South African and German contexts as well as to value-neutrality as a culturally conditioned value. The author concludes with a cosmopolitan view of freedom and the right to peace with reference to the constitutional texts of Japan and the United States.

  18. Constitutional orders in multinational firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    Multinationals are faced with the problem of how to coordinate different actors and stop `fiefdoms' emerging that inhibits the achievement of transnational cooperation? We identify this as a problem of `constitutional ordering' in the firm. Drawing on Varieties of Capitalism approaches, we explore...... how multinationals from different contexts seek to create constitutional orders. We argue that the models which exist appear to be destructive of coordination. We explore the implications for MNCs....

  19. Right Product, Wrong Packaging: Not 'Constitution', but 'Constitutional Charter'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Law

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to locate the principal cause of Europe’s prevailing ratification crisis in the inappropriate title arrived at in the European Convention, Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe. This over-ambitious styling led the media to characterise the text as simply an ‘EU Constitution’. Yet, the text was not a Constitution as we traditionally understand the term, i.e. the founding document of a State: scholars are agreed that the EU is not, and will not become upon ratification, a State.In terms of substance, whilst the text certainly strengthened some emerging constitutional aspects, it was not a major departure from the status quo like the Single European Act and Treaty on European Union had been; and it remained technically a treaty like all its predecessors. Arguably, therefore, it did not require referenda to ratify. However, confusion over the scale and importance of what was proposed, stemming from ambiguity in the title, pushed politicians down this unfortunate path.The article identifies a high level of consensus among commentators as to the true nature of the text: most are happy designating it a treaty (noun with constitutional (adjective aspects. The early proposed title Constitutional Treaty for Europe was arguably, therefore, the correct one; but it is now too late to choose this option, as the terms Constitution and Constitutional Treaty have already been muddled in debate. A more distinctive change is required. One idea could be to follow the principle employed elsewhere in the text of codifying the generally accepted but presently unwritten legal concepts of the European Court of Justice, as was done for example for ‘primacy’ and ‘direct effect’. The Court has characterised the EU treaties as a ‘constitutional charter’ for over twenty years now, and on this basis a modified title could read Treaty Establishing a Constitutional Charter for Europe. Importantly, the term ‘charter’ is recognised

  20. Ayurvedic genomics, constitutional psychology, and endocrinology: the missing connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo-Sierra, Carlos V

    2011-05-01

    A recent methodological approach for human classification, diagnosis, and therapeutics through the combination of current Western constitutional psychology somatotypes and traditional Indian medicine (prakriti) body types and mind (manas) is herein presented. The striking similarities between psychologic somatotypes and Indian medicine body types permits proposal of a finite genopsycho-somatotyping of humans. Genopsycho-somatotyping of humans consists of a set of common physiologic, physical, and psychologic attributes related to a common basic birth constitution that remains somewhat permanent during human lifetime, since it is proposed that this birth constitution is programmed in the person's DNA (genes). This mainly provides a tool for classifying the human population based on broad and finite phenotype clusters across different ethnicity, languages, geographical location, or self-reported ancestry. In spite of any social or environmental traumatic event, I propose for males that every basic constitution has an associated identification organ, a measured property or marker, a soma, and some psyche general tendencies suggesting specific behavior or recurrent conduct. Three (3) basic extreme genopsycho-somatotypes or birth constitutions are enunciated: mesomorphic or andrus (Pitta), endomorphic or thymus (Khapa), and ectomorphic or thyrus (Vata). The method further predicts that male andrus constitution across races shares similarities in androgen (An) nuclear receptor behavior, whereas thymus constitutions are mainly regulated by T-cells (Tc) nuclear receptor behavior. Moreover, it suggests that thyrus constitutions share similarities in thyroxine (Th) nuclear receptor behavior. These proposed nuclear receptors are expected to regulate the expression of specific genes, thereby controlling the embryonic development, adult homeostasis, and metabolism of the human organism in a very profound way. The method finally predicts small differences in measured property

  1. Body composition and personality traits in so-Yang type males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jiwon; Nam, Jiho; Leem, Chae Hun; Kim, Jong Yeol

    2017-08-22

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the body composition of So-Yang type males according to Sasang constitutional medicine, which is popular in Korea. Different Sasang constitutional types are associated with different muscle distributions, body shapes, and disease susceptibilities. We used the Sasang Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) as a measure of the temperament of each Sasang type. In total, 953 subjects aged over 20 years were recruited in Korea. We collected anthropometric parameters and bioimpedence information from the subjects and administered the SPQ. A logistic regression was conducted to calculate propensity scores. The percentage of skeletal muscle mass in So-Yang (SY) and non-So-Yang (non-SY) males was 45.8 ± 2.7 and 44.2 ± 3.3, respectively, before matching and 45.8 ± 2.6 and 44.9 ± 3.0, respectively, after propensity score matching. The extracellular water (ECW)/intracellular water (ICW) and extracellular water (ECW)/total body water (TBW) ratios and SPQ scores were significantly different between the SY and non-SY types. This study suggested that the SY type may be significantly and independently associated with body composition and could be associated with personality.

  2. What Constitutes The Domain of Family Medicine in West Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a convenient sample of key informants who were faculty officers in the National postgraduate medical college of Nigeria and the West African college of physicians faculty of General medical practice /family practice who sourced information from documents and the internet this paper explores the extent to which ...

  3. Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Classifying Body Constitution Based on Face Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er-Yang Huan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Body constitution classification is the basis and core content of traditional Chinese medicine constitution research. It is to extract the relevant laws from the complex constitution phenomenon and finally build the constitution classification system. Traditional identification methods have the disadvantages of inefficiency and low accuracy, for instance, questionnaires. This paper proposed a body constitution recognition algorithm based on deep convolutional neural network, which can classify individual constitution types according to face images. The proposed model first uses the convolutional neural network to extract the features of face image and then combines the extracted features with the color features. Finally, the fusion features are input to the Softmax classifier to get the classification result. Different comparison experiments show that the algorithm proposed in this paper can achieve the accuracy of 65.29% about the constitution classification. And its performance was accepted by Chinese medicine practitioners.

  4. The Spanish Constitution, the Constitutional Court and the Catalan Referendum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    politics in a concrete state, but they also represented the conquest of fundamental rights, liberties and the juridification of each new independent state. This epic and romantic aura helped the universal triumph of constitutionalism around the world. But at the same time, the conflict between demos...

  5. Constitutional Analysis of Intellectual Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJ van der Walt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the Constitutional Court’s treatment of property interests in the face of state regulation to gain an understanding of the type of state interference that is justifiable in terms of section 25(1 of the Bill of Rights. This is done by examining the Constitutional Court’s dicta relating to the meaning of deprivation and how these inform the meaning of property in the constitutional context. The methodology that the Constitutional Court has formulated to assess if state interference complies with the provisions of section 25 is explained to show the type of state regulation that has been found legitimate. We then consider how this understanding of constitutional property and the state’s legitimate exercise of its inherent police power interact in the setting of intellectual property by contrasting the various policy objectives underlying the different statutory regimes governing intellectual property. This theoretical analysis is then applied to two contemporary examples of feasible state interference with existing intellectual property interests, namely the proposed plain packaging measures which severely restrict the use of tobacco trade marks, and a fair dealing exception allowing the use of copyright works for the purpose of parody. These examples serve to illustrate the context and manner in which intellectual property interests may come before the Court and the necessary differentiation with which these interests should be treated. The appropriate judicial assessment of the true impact that state action could have on vested property interests is explained and contrasted with the balancing exercise that is employed at the earlier stage of policy making. This discussion is concluded by highlighting some of the interpretational issues that will arise and how some constitutional values could be curtailed in the absence of legislative intervention.

  6. Structures of human constitutive nitric oxide synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiying; Jamal, Joumana; Plaza, Carla; Pineda, Stephanie Hai; Chreifi, Georges; Jing, Qing; Cinelli, Maris A; Silverman, Richard B; Poulos, Thomas L

    2014-10-01

    Mammals produce three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS): neuronal NOS (nNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS). The overproduction of NO by nNOS is associated with a number of neurodegenerative disorders; therefore, a desirable therapeutic goal is the design of drugs that target nNOS but not the other isoforms. Crystallography, coupled with computational approaches and medicinal chemistry, has played a critical role in developing highly selective nNOS inhibitors that exhibit exceptional neuroprotective properties. For historic reasons, crystallography has focused on rat nNOS and bovine eNOS because these were available in high quality; thus, their structures have been used in structure-activity-relationship studies. Although these constitutive NOSs share more than 90% sequence identity across mammalian species for each NOS isoform, inhibitor-binding studies revealed that subtle differences near the heme active site in the same NOS isoform across species still impact enzyme-inhibitor interactions. Therefore, structures of the human constitutive NOSs are indispensible. Here, the first structure of human neuronal NOS at 2.03 Å resolution is reported and a different crystal form of human endothelial NOS is reported at 1.73 Å resolution.

  7. Jonathan's Constitutional Conference in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ian

    2013-10-01

    Oct 1, 2013 ... commitment to work with recommendations of the Conference. The Conference wound up with the remarks by the. Chairman. President Jonathan, like many of the regimes before him, saw the inherent weaknesses and contradictions in the governing constitution, upon which his government had based its ...

  8. Unconstitutional constitutional amendments in Ethiopia: the practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Such constitutional provisions serve to confine the power to amend the constitution within the prescribed legal requirements as well as help to control arbitrary changes to the constitution, which consequently promotes constitutionalism within the country. The FDRE Constitution has been amended twice within these twenty ...

  9. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  10. Constitutions as Intergenerational Contracts: Flexible or fixed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Tremmel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Constitutions enshrine the fundamental values of a people and build a framework for a state’s public policy. With regard to intergenerational justice, their endurance gives rise to two concerns: the (forgone welfare concern and the sovereignty concern. In this paper, I outline a procedure for constitution- amending that is intergenerationally just. In its line of reasoning, the paper debates ideas such as perpetual constitutions, sunset constitutions, constitutional reform commissions and constitutional conventions both historically and analytically. It arrives at the conclusion that recurrent constitutional reform commissions in fixed time intervals strike the best balance between the necessary rigidity and the necessary flexibility of constitutions.

  11. The Constitutive Power of Twitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa; Etter, Michael Andreas

    Twitter is an increasingly used new information and communication technology (ICT) in organizational settings. Predominant research, however, tends to adopt functionalist standpoints and investigates new ICTs as platforms of information transmission through which organizations interact...... organizations. The analysis illustrates how specific Twitter interactions, i.e., hashtags, become hypertexts—a type of authoritative texts—which simultaneously constitute an organizational actor or act as a pastiche of it. The study contributes to extant research by illustrating how hypertextuality...... with their constituents. Such focus leaves little knowledge concerning the tensions new ICTs bring to organizational life. For a more nuanced understanding of the constitutive role of new ICTs in organizing, this paper unfolds a communication centered perspective and examines the strategic Twitter use in two...

  12. Constitutional collisions of criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey M. Inshakov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify and resolve conflicts between the norms of constitutional and criminal law which regulate the issue of legal liability of senior officials of the state. Methods formallogical systematic comparativelegal. Results the article analyzes the embodiment of the principle of citizensrsquo equality under the law regarding the criminal responsibility of the President of the Russian Federation as one of the segments of the elite right other criminal and legal conflicts are considered associated with the creation of conditions for derogation from the principle of equality. Basing on this analysis the means of overcoming collisions between the norms of constitutional and criminal law are formulated. Scientific novelty in the article for the first time it has been shown that in the Russian criminal law there are exceptions to the principle of citizensrsquo equality under the law relating to the President of the Russian Federation the conflicts are identified between the norms of constitutional and criminal law regulating the issue of legal liability of senior officials of the state ways of overcoming conflicts are suggested. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in research and teaching in the consideration of issues of senior state officialsrsquo criminal liability.

  13. Constitutive Effects of Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahler-Larsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The idea that performance indicators in public management have unintended consequences is almost as old as performance measurement itself. But, is ‘unintended consequences’ an appropriate and insightful idea? The very term rests on an identification of intentions and assumptions about validity...... that are demonstrably problematic. Based on a distinction between trivial and advanced measure fixation, an argument is made for constitutive effects that are based on less problematic assumptions. Through this conceptual move, the political dimension of performance indicators is appreciated. The conceptual dimensions...

  14. A Communicatively Constituted Online Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara; Romenti, Stefania; Kruckeberg, Dean

    2017-01-01

    This chapter presents a theoretical proposition that could serve as foundation to explain how people become aware, develop an understanding, and create meanings about specific critical situations through social media conversations and how, eventually, these transform critical situations into spec......This chapter presents a theoretical proposition that could serve as foundation to explain how people become aware, develop an understanding, and create meanings about specific critical situations through social media conversations and how, eventually, these transform critical situations...... into specific public crisis perceptions. Drawing from a communicative constitution perspective, the authors argue that if crises are perceptions or experiences of difficult situations that exceed a person’s current resources and coping mechanisms, and if perceptions and experiences in social media are typically...... by offering suggestions on how to study online critical conversations through the lens of a communicative constitution perspective that could inform how critical issues eventually transform and become crises and how crisis perceptions evolve and are discursively shaped by communicative practices occurring...

  15. Essence and constitution in Zubiri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Gómez Fernández

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to expound Zubiri’s concept of essence and to begin a critical discussion and evaluation of his proposal. Before explaining what essence is, it is necessary to observe that, for our author, not all things have an essence: only «reality-things» but not «meaning-things» form part of the «essentiable domain». This distinction between «reality-things» and «meaning-things» supposes a new conception of nature. (Nature is not the opposite of the artificial, as the Greek term physis is.«Reality-things» form a constitutional and «closed» system of non-causal and non-«external» characteristics or traits. These «foundational characteristics» of constitution, then, are precisely the essence. The article discusses critically the assumptions of this doctrine (reality, ontological pluralism, foundation and its possible limits in the light of contemporary science. It can be a useful theory for the philosophy of language.

  16. CONSTITUTIONAL LANDMARKS OF POLITICAL PLURALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERHARD NICULESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order for democracy to result from freedom, the citizens’ participation in the creation and exercise of democratic power must be structured in a pluralist way. Art. 8(1 of the Romanian Constitution firstly imposes the organization of the company in parallel with the State’s organic structure as an indispensable requisite for the existence of democracy. In other words, there is no democracy without a civil society, distinct from the State. The organization of the civil society is necessary because the individual alone cannot determine a certain attitude of the political power: structuring gives weight to the action; the organization of citizens contributes to rendering their political participation more efficient. But the organization, structuring limits the freedom of people adhering to the structure.

  17. 17 CFR 200.54 - Constitutional obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... against any infringement of the constitutional rights, privileges, or immunities of those who are subject... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Constitutional obligations... ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.54 Constitutional...

  18. Antithetical Ethics: Kenneth Burke and the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Virginia

    1995-01-01

    Shows how the textuality of the United States Constitution, the most venerable of classic democratic icons, might be exploited to nurture postmodern ethics. Shows how Kenneth Burke's reading of the Constitution accords with and augments the postmodern theories of J.-F. Lyotard and S. Jarratt. Discusses a postmodern Constitution and the…

  19. How Does the Constitution Secure Rights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwin, Robert A., Ed.; Schambra, William A., Ed.

    Third in a series designed to help prepare the nation for a thoughtful observance of the Constitutional bicentennial, this publication presents six essays addressing the issue of human rights and the Constitution. "How the Constitution Protects Our Rights: A Look at the Seminal Years" (Robert A. Rutland) focuses on James Madison's role…

  20. Teaching about Democratic Constitutionalism. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, John J.

    There are more than 100 democracies in the world today. All but three of them--Great Britain, Israel, and New Zealand --have written constitutions. This digest examines the importance of constitutions and constitutionalism and the teaching of these concepts through the use of comparisons. The primary objectives of civic education for democratic…

  1. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Raamat sisaldab ka: The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia amendment act ; The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia implementation act ; Act to amend the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia for election of local government councils for term of four years

  2. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Sisaldab ka: The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Amendment Act. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Implementation Act. Act to Amend the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia for Election of Local Government Councils for Term of Four Years

  3. Medicinal cannabis in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Frederike K; de Jong, Floris A; Mathijssen, Ron H J; Erkens, Joëlle A; Herings, Ron M; Verweij, Jaap

    2007-12-01

    In The Netherlands, since September 2003, a legal medicinal cannabis product, constituting the whole range of cannabinoids, is available for clinical research, drug development strategies, and on prescription for patients. To date, this policy, initiated by the Dutch Government, has not yet led to the desired outcome; the amount of initiated clinical research is less than expected and only a minority of patients resorts to the legal product. This review aims to discuss the background for the introduction of legal medicinal cannabis in The Netherlands, the past years of Dutch clinical experience in oncology practice, possible reasons underlying the current outcome, and future perspectives.

  4. Aerospace Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Vince

    2015-01-01

    NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.

  5. Change of position of constitutional judiciary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Slobodan P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Constitutional judiciary is the youngest branch of authority in the horizontal level of state power. Constitutional judiciary has, during its existence - during two centuries as an ordinary court and during one century as a special authority, changed its position, role and importance. Those characteristics of constitutional judiciary had an increasing way - the position became better, in political and law sense, its role has expanded and the importance has increased. Today, constitutional judiciary is an inevitable subject of constitutional regimes in huge number of states (between them are almost all federations but, in the same time, constitutional judiciary is an authority which is at least limited by the constitution. The constitution is "soft" to the constitutional judiciary because the judiciary interpreted the constitution in accordance to its political and law attitudes, hidden by the guise of protection. Different separation of power, a rise of executive power, requests for better protections of fundamental human rights, a changed role of state and executive power, altogether, have influenced to change of position of constitutional judiciary.

  6. Constitutional and Non-Constitutional Governments...Similarities and Differences throughout History. Resource Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallasch, Brian Thomas

    This civic education resource packet is designed to provide teachers, community leaders, and other civic educators with an understanding of the differences between constitutional and non-constitutional governments. Six papers discussing the topic are included: "The Differences bewteen Constitutional and Non-Constitutional Governments" (John…

  7. State Constitutionalism: Completing the Interdisciplinary Study of Constitutional Law and Political Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that a complete and accurate understanding of constitutional history and constitutional law requires the study of state constitutions. Maintains that state constitutions contain a coherent political theory that is, in important respects, at variance with the concept of federalism. (CFR)

  8. Constitutional Amendment and Political Constitutionalism: The Potential Mitigation of Critiques on Judicial Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Néia Lima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The criticisms toward judicial review from Richard Bellamy and Jeremy Waldron’s political constitutionalism approach demonstrate that they do not exclude constitutional courts entirely, as they accept mechanisms of legislative responses, except constitutional amendments. This paper concludes that the high number of constitutional amendments in Brazil does not mitigate judicial review critiques. The extensive structure of the Brazilian Constitution imposes frequent changes, which do not modify its essence. Furthermore, the possibility of judicial review over constitutional amendments represents that constitutional court could overrule legislative response.

  9. The Jurisdiction of The Constitutional Court In Controlling The Constitutionality of Criminal Judgments: Kosovo Case

    OpenAIRE

    BRAHA, Florentina Shala; Vilard BYTYQI; VUNIQI, Dardan; Berisha, Fadil

    2016-01-01

    This paper will deal with individual requests that are submitted at the Constitutional Court in order to assess the constitutionality of criminal judicial decisions. The right to submit issues for assessing the constitutionality of criminal court decisions is a constitutionally guaranteed right. Many individuals who are dissatisfied with the decisions of the judicial instances use their right to oppose such a decision even at the Constitutional Court.Not all the cases submitted to the Court a...

  10. Autonomous Province of Vojvodina between the Constitution and the decision of the Constitutional court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čiplić Svetozar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author deals individual assessments Constitutional court of the Competent in Law, as well as its different interpretation of constitutional and legal provisions. The author is of the opinion that the Constitutional Court amended the constitution and the law guaranteed the position of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina and that the 'conservative interpretation of' diminished the rights of citizens by the constitution itself by.

  11. Constitutionalism and Democracy in Contemporary International Community

    OpenAIRE

    Padjen, Ivan

    1992-01-01

    Starting from the insight that jurisprudence of legal theory should be concerned primarily with,on the one hand, international law, and, on the other, constitutional developments, the paper; analyzes some prominent conceptions of constitutionalism and democracy in international community and municipal legal orders; formulates a new set of criteria for the analysis of constitutionalism and democracy in international law; and argues that Laswell and McDougal's policy oriented jurisprudence offe...

  12. Human Rights in Indonesian Constitutional Amendments

    OpenAIRE

    Kharlie, Ahmad Tholabi

    2013-01-01

    Human Rights in Indonesian Constitutional Amendments. Indonesian constitutional amendments incorporated human rights principles into the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia 1945 (UUD NRI), especially in the second amendment in 2000. Under that amendment, the UUD NRI currently stipulates human rights principles as provided for in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). However, there are some important notes, which at its core is a lack of emphasis on the vision and mission of ...

  13. Inferring Mechanisms for Global Constitutional Progress

    OpenAIRE

    Rutherford, Alex; Lupu, Yonatan; Cebrian, Manuel; Rahwan, Iyad; LeVeck, Brad; Garcia-Herranz, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Constitutions help define domestic political orders, but are known to be influenced by two international mechanisms: one that reflects global temporal trends in legal development, and another that reflects international network dynamics such as shared colonial history. We introduce the provision space; the growing set of all legal provisions existing in the world's constitutions over time. Through this we uncover a third mechanism influencing constitutional change: hierarchical dependencies b...

  14. Apps and intensive care medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Posadilla, D; Gómez-Marcos, V; Hernández-Tejedor, A

    2017-05-01

    Technological advances have played a key role over the last century in the development of humankind. Critical Care Medicine is one of the greatest examples of this revolution. Smartphones with multiple sensors constitute another step forward, and have led to the development of apps for use by both professionals and patients. We discuss their main medical applications in the field of Critical Care Medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  15. Heart failure - medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHF - medicines; Congestive heart failure - medicines; Cardiomyopathy - medicines; HF - medicines ... You will need to take most of your heart failure medicines every day. Some medicines are taken once ...

  16. Culture (and religion in constitutional adjudication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Rautenbach

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The faculty of law of the Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education in corroboration with the Konrad-Adenauer-Stifttung embarked on a study on Politics, Socio-Economic Issues and Culture in Constitutional Adjudication. The aim of the project is twofold. The first aim is to analyse the influence of political, socio-economic and cultural considerations on the constitutional court’s interpretation and application of the Bill of Rights. The second aim is to develop practical guidelines (based on the findings during the analysing process for South African courts confronted with issues of a political, socio-economic and cultural nature. This article is concerned with initiating discussions of the decisions of the constitutional court with regard to cultural and religious rights.Before we can explore the role of political, socio-economic and cultural (and religious rights in the decisions of the constitutional court it is important to discuss a few preliminary issues. In this article the meaning of culture and religion within the South African context receives some attention. Secondly, some preliminary comments regarding constitutional protection of culturally and religiously based rights will be made.We are well aware that this is a daunting task, not only in view of the seemingly abysmal gap between the applicable constitutional rights and values enshrined in the 1996 Constitution that, in some instances over centuries, brought about customs and practices within “traditional” communities which, seemingly, infringe on certain constitutional values and rights.

  17. Distinguishing Limitation on Constitutional Rights from Their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suspension of and limitation on fundamental rights and freedoms are justified violations of constitutional rights. Temporary suspension of some fundamental rights and freedoms can be made on the ground of a state of emergency. Since most constitutional rights are not absolute, they can be limited on basis of national ...

  18. Constitutional Government: The Soul of Modern Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Harvey C., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the dilemma faced by constitutionalism today: limited, constitutional government requires that people and society be independent and distrustful of the state, but if the people are too independent and capable of ruling, they may wish to extend their powers and attempt to rule over others. (PS)

  19. World Studies through a Comparative Constitutional Prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Donald

    1992-01-01

    Emphasizes the importance of understanding the development of democracy around the world by comparative study of constitutions. Uses the development of the Japanese constitution after World War II as a case study. Describes the work of the team appointed by General Douglas MacArthur and the significance of the clause guaranteeing equal rights for…

  20. The Meaning of Religion: A Constitutional Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, Edward R.

    The problems of formulating a legal definition of religion as used in the U.S. Constitution may be traced through the Supreme Court's interpretation of the word. According to the U.S. Constitution, religious tests cannot be required for any office or public trust under the central government. The Bill of Rights states that the national government…

  1. Herbal Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are one type of dietary supplement. They are ... and fresh or dried plants. People use herbal medicines to try to maintain or improve their health. ...

  2. Diabetes Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. If you can't control your diabetes with wise food choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends ...

  3. CONSTITUTIONAL INTERPRETATION OF ROMANIA: POST MODERNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. RATHNASWAMY

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Austria had in 1920 Constitutional Court followed by Italy in 1946, Germany in 1949, Romania in 1989, South Africa in 1991, and Ethiopia in 1995. Each Constitution has its provisions on the constitutional interpretation. Romania has its own provisions and it is considered here its legality and the best possible measures and recommendations for future. Judicial power is vested in judiciary to interpret constitution, laws, and actions of other organs of government. Judicial review is the function resulted upon judicial power. Political body joins through the appointment of its members in the judicial review and it limits the independence of judiciary. It also reduces the values of separation of powers. Challenges and opportunities of growth and development do influence the spirit of separation of powers and judicial independence. The principle of inherent judicial power in judiciary inducts upon the constitutional interpretation. Thus, the principles of constitutional interpretation are varying in Romania and other similar constitutional courts of Germany, Ethiopia, and Italy but not in South Africa.

  4. Closing in on the constitution of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Miller

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The science of consciousness is a nascent and thriving field of research that is founded on identifying the minimally sufficient neural correlates of consciousness. However, I have argued that it is the neural constitution of consciousness that science seeks to understand and that there are no evident strategies for distinguishing the correlates and constitution of (phenomenal consciousness. Here I review this correlation/constitution distinction problem and challenge the existing foundations of consciousness science. I present the main analyses from a longer paper in press on this issue, focusing on recording, inhibition, stimulation and combined inhibition/stimulation strategies, including proposal of the Jenga analogy to illustrate why identifying the minimally sufficient neural correlates of consciousness should not be considered the ultimate target of consciousness science. Thereafter I suggest that while combined inhibition and stimulation strategies might identify some constitutive neural activities — indeed minimally sufficient constitutive neural activities — such strategies fail to identify the whole neural constitution of consciousness and thus the correlation/constitution distinction problem is not fully solved. Various clarifications, potential objections and related scientific and philosophical issues are also discussed and I conclude by proposing new foundational claims for consciousness science.

  5. [The right to health. Constitutional dimensions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestalozza, C

    2007-09-01

    A fundamental "right to health" is expressly guaranteed by the constitutions of several Bundesländer, but unknown to the German Federal Constitution. Instead the Federal Constitutional Court has - especially on the basis of related human rights - developed the obligation of the State to protect everybody's life and physical integrity, which in some respects comes near to a "right to health". The State's autonomy in financial matters, the scarcity of its financial resources and the individual's natural responsibility for his own health though advise against exaggerated hopes set in a "right to health".

  6. The constitutional control system in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Javier Moreno Ortiz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The system of constitutional control in Colombia designed in the Legislative Act n.º 3 of 1910 is a milestone in a long and fruitful political and constitutional tradition owes much to his Hispanic roots and its American developments. Both the public action of unconstitutionality as the plea of unconstitutionality have clear precedents in the constitutionalism of Spain and the Colony were prepared by a Constituent Assembly acted with knowledge and faithfulness to that tradition and have been and are institutions of our capital social and democratic state of law.

  7. Competition And Antitrust Law In Ecuadorian Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Marín Sevilla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work allows us to establish the Economic Constitution and the Competition Law (C.L in the Constitution. Additionally, the paper analyzes whether the rules outlined in the C. L. and in doctrine are consistent and appropriate with the Constitution of Ecuador. The Competition and Antitrust Laws has rules for investigating and punishing the cartels, the abuses of power market (dominant position, the rules for merger control, the behaviors of Abuse of economic dependence, and unfair competition behaviors. Always the Antitrust Authority will analyze these behaviors in terms of welfare of both: the consumer and the market.

  8. [SPORT MEDICINE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantini, Naama; Mann, Gideon

    2016-06-01

    Sports Medicine is a relatively new subject in medicine and includes a variety of medical and paramedical fields. Although sports medicine is mistakenly thought to be mainly for sports professionals/athletes, it actually encompasses the entire population, including the active and non-active healthy populations, as well as the sick. Sports medicine also engages amateur sportsmen and strives to promote physical activity and quality of life in the general population. Hence, the field involves all ages from childhood to old age, aiming to preserve and support every person at every age. Sports medicine, which started developing in the 19th century, is today a specialty, primary or secondary, in many countries, while in others it is a fellowship or under the jurisdiction of local or sports authorities. In Israel, the field exists since the 1950's and is advanced. The Sports Medicine Society founded a 3-year course of continued education in sport medicine as part of the Tel-Aviv University Faculty of Medicine. Later on, a fellowship in general Sports Medicine and in Orthopedic Sports Medicine were developed within the Israel Medical Association. A year ago, Israel formally became a member of the global "Exercise is Medicine" foundation, and under this title promotes education for health care providers on exercise prescription. The understanding of the importance of physical activity and fitness as part of a healthy lifestyle is increasing in Israel, as well as the number of amateur athletes, and the profession of sports medicine takes a big part in this process.

  9. Constitutional Aneuploidy in the Normal Human Brain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rehen, Stevens K; Yung, Yun C; McCreight, Matthew P; Kaushal, Dhruv; Yang, Amy H; Almeida, Beatriz S. V; Kingsbury, Marcy A; Cabral, Katia M. S; McConnell, Michael J; Anliker, Brigitte; Fontanoz, Marisa; Chun, Jerold

    2005-01-01

    .... Chromosome 21 aneuploid cells constitute approximately 4% of the estimated one trillion cells in the human brain and include non-neuronal cells and postmitotic neurons identified by the neuronspecific nuclear protein marker...

  10. Quantum interference distinguishes between constitutional isomers

    OpenAIRE

    Tüxen, Jens; Gerlich, Stefan; Eibenberger, Sandra; Arndt, Markus; Mayor, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Matter waves, as introduced by de Broglie in 1923, are a fundamental quantum phenomenon, describing the delocalized center of mass motion of massive bodies and we show here their sensitivity to the molecular structure of constitutional isomers.

  11. 'i'iElectoral Systems, Constitutionalism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strongly that for democratic governance and constitutionalism to be nurtured and consolidated ... big role in whether economies grow7 whether children go to school, whether human ..... Source: SAPES Trust Data Bank. M PLA. BDP. LCD.

  12. Constitutive modeling of metastable austenitic stainless steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Huetink, Han; Khan, A.

    2010-01-01

    A physically based, macroscale constitutive model has been developed that can describe the complex mechanical behavior of metastable austenitic stainless steels. In the developed model a generalized model for the mechanically induced martensitic transformation is introduced. Mechanical tests have

  13. Dynamic constitutional frameworks for DNA biomimetic recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catana, Romina; Barboiu, Mihail; Moleavin, Ioana; Clima, Lilia; Rotaru, Alexandru; Ursu, Elena-Laura; Pinteala, Mariana

    2015-02-07

    Linear and cross-linked dynamic constitutional frameworks generated from reversibly interacting linear PEG/core constituents and cationic sites shed light on the dominant coiling versus linear DNA binding behaviours, closer to the histone DNA binding wrapping mechanism.

  14. Constituting objectivity transcendental perspectives on modern physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bitbol, Michael; Petitot, Jean

    2009-01-01

    This book pins down the methodological core of transcendental epistemology that must be used in order to throw light on the foundations of modern physics. A renewed understanding of modern physics is offered by the concept of constitution of objectivity.

  15. Social rights constitutionalism: an antagonistic endorsement

    OpenAIRE

    Christodoulidis, Emilios

    2017-01-01

    The article discusses how we might understand solidarity as the organizing concept behind the institutionalization of social rights. I argue that writing solidarity into social rights constitutionalism carries productive tension into constitutional thinking because it disturbs the smooth passage from civil to political and finally to social rights. Marshall's influential argument that social rights are continuous to civil and political rights has become both the grounding assumption in consti...

  16. Urgency of Attorney Governed by the Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommy Patra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Attorney existence in the Indonesian constitutional structure has a dilemma for this position. On one side is the Prosecutor’s law enforcement agencies to exercise power independently prosecution while on the other hand is part of a government institution under Law No. 16 of 2004 regarding the Attorney. The position of Attorney as an institution of government has been led to the independence of the Prosecutor is not optimal so that it appears stigma that the Prosecutor merely as a tool of the ruling power. In addition the terms of the arrangement just under the Act, the Attorney General has no legal standing as a constitutional organ that has the constitutional authority so that the current position does not reflect the urgency of its duties and functions. In an effort to organize the next Attorney institutions should be regulated directly by the Constitution. It is intended to make the Attorney as part of the main state organs have the same legal standing as other law enforcement agencies, the police and the courts (Supreme Court and Constitutional Court. As well as to strengthen and clarify the position as a state institution, prosecution authorities are focusing on the Attorney as central of authority, to fix the institutional relations between the members of law enforcement and related agencies and strengthen the independence of the Prosecutor in performing the function of prosecution in the constitutional structure of Indonesia.

  17. The Practice of Informal Changes to the Ethiopian Constitution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigussie Afesha

    FDRE Constitution, informal constitutional changes, constitutional amendment, constitutional interpretation, political .... over time without textual changes, typically by means of constitutional court rulings and, less visibly, ..... indeterminate, the courts are called upon to fashion a meaning”.98 It is in this sense that “constitution ...

  18. Between constitution and interpretation: Identity as history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilt Annette

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the possibilities to constitute meaning in the „borderline- situations“ (Jaspers of the social sphere, such as the loss of validity of orientation within and experience of reality in the socially shared structures of the lifeworld. On the one hand, I will refer to A. Schutz’ and his constitution-analysis of foreign understanding and of shared meaning; on the other hand, I bear onto I. Kertész literary project to narrate the biography of an Auschwitz-survivor as close to his experiential perspective as possible. I will focus both on the concept of constitution and of interpretation with respect to their enabling of the transcending of a typologized everyday’s world which suppresses subjective meaning and its individual articulation. The main guideline is the problem how identity – i.e. a life-story – is configured out of subjective meaning without recourse to everyday reality. A. Schutz’s and Th. Luckmann’s note on a range of social transcendences and on biographical categories referring to the constitution of a socially shared meaning offer a theoretical perspective for dealing with constitutive differences within the reach of understanding social meaning; Kertész’ narrative mode expandes this theoretical stance as it problematizes exemplary subjective experience.

  19. A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Reis, Martina; Wang, Yongqi; Bono Maurizio Sacchi Bassi, Adalberto

    2013-11-01

    A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures is formulated. The intermolecular interactions among the constituents of the mixture are accounted for through additional freedom degrees to each constituent of the mixture. Balance equations for polar reacting continuum mixtures are accordingly formulated and a proper set of constitutive equations is derived with basis in the Müller-Liu formulation of the second law of thermodynamics. Moreover, the non-equilibrium and equilibrium responses of the reacting mixture are investigated in detail by emphasizing the inner and reactive structures of the medium. From the balance laws and constitutive relations, the effects of molecular structure of constituents upon the fluid flow are studied. It is also demonstrated that the local thermodynamic equilibrium state can be reached without imposing that the set of independent constitutive variables is time independent, neither spatially homogeneous nor null. The resulting constitutive relations presented throughout this work are of relevance to many practical applications, such as swelling of clays, developing of bio and polymeric membranes, and use of electrorheological fluids in industrial processes. The first author acknowledges financial support from National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq) and German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD).

  20. [Expedition medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlagić, Lana

    2009-01-01

    Expedition and wildeness medicine is a term that combines rescue medicine, sport medicine as well as more specific branches as polar or high altitude medicine. It is being intensively studied both at the reaserch institutes and on expeditions. Ophtalmologists are concentrated on the reaserch of HARH (High Altitude Retinal Hemorrhage), neurologists on HACE reaserch (High Altitude Cerebral Edema), psychologists are developing tests to decsribe cognitive functions and many physicians are being trained to work in extreme enviroment. The result of all this effort are numerous new findings in pathophysiology and therapy of altitude illness, increased security on expedition and further development of expeditionism.

  1. Herbal Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menu Diseases and Conditions Tests and Procedures Recipes Nutrition Information Prevention Guidelines ... Prostate Cancer: Herbal Supplements Topic Index - Complementary and Alternative Medicine ...

  2. Constitutional Fundamentals of Conscription and Some Aspects of the Ordinary Legal Regulation of Constitutionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenstavičienė Kristina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Article 139 of the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania is one of the constitutional fundamentals of state defense and stipulates the defense of the state as the right of citizens on the one hand and the duty on the other. This article of the Constitution gives the legislative power the right of discretion to detail by law the order of the implementation of citizens’ duty to perform military or alternative country defense service. Due to the reorganization of the armed forces into a professional and volunteer army, the issue of some ordinary regulation rules concerning the constitutionality of nationwide conscription, though at present suspended but not abolished, is becoming urgent. Though the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania presented their ruling on the constitutionality of the suspension of military conscription, it does not mean that all problems related to conscription have been settled. The aim of this article is to analyze the constitutional basis of nationwide conscription as well as the constitutionality of some ordinary regulation provisions related to nationwide conscription. Therefore, the issue to be analyzed is whether nationwide conscription, if it were to be implemented, complies with the constitutional principles of human equality and military justice1. Consequently, the question is posed how the constitutional objective of ensuring the defense of the state determines conscription. Because of the growing employment of the army abroad, yet the dwindling demand for conscripts, it should be explored whether the suspension of the nationwide conscription as a part of the defense reform is further feasible in order to guarantee the defense of the state. In answering the raised questions, the author will analyze the abundant and long-lasting constitutional doctrine of Germany which provides clarifications of the Basic Law, as the legal act of the establishing power, which can doubtless be of assistance in

  3. The Trials and Tribulations of Constitutionalism and the Constitution Making Process in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Mapuva, Jephias

    2015-01-01

    Constitutionalism in Zimbabwe has been characterised by controversy with citizens getting a raw deal. The colonial era was characterised by deprivation of basic rights and civil liberties. A plethora of constitutions were established to try and create a semblance of black representativity. The post-colonial era was informed by governance structures provided by the Lancaster House Constitutional document which was a surrender document that brought the protracted liberation struggle to an end. ...

  4. Cultural, social and economic rights in the Constitution corpus and Constitutional Court’s Case Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Rubio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with Cultural, Social and Economic Rights established in the Constitution and in Constitutional Case Law. So, after explaining its nature, state’s role according preservation and enforceability,relationship with other fundamental rights, among other key points, it isi ntended to answer, dealing with those rights, which of two scenarios have prevailed: internationalization of constitutional law or constitutionalization of international law.

  5. Extended constitutive laws for lamellar phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Deuk Yoo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Classically, stress and strain rate in linear viscoelastic materials are related by a constitutive relationship involving the viscoelastic modulus G(t. The same constitutive law, within Linear Response Theory, relates currents of conserved quantities and gradients of existing conjugate variables, and it involves the autocorrelation functions of the currents in equilibrium. We explore the consequences of the latter relationship in the case of a mesoscale model of a block copolymer, and derive the resulting relationship between viscous friction and order parameter diffusion that would result in a lamellar phase. We also explicitly consider in our derivation the fact that the dissipative part of the stress tensor must be consistent with the uniaxial symmetry of the phase. We then obtain a relationship between the stress and order parameter autocorrelation functions that can be interpreted as an extended constitutive law, one that offers a way to determine them from microscopic experiment or numerical simulation.

  6. The regularity theory of mechanistic constitution and a methodology for constitutive inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbecke, Jens

    2015-12-01

    This paper discusses a Boolean method for establishing constitutive regularity statements which, according to the regularity theory of mechanistic constitution, form the core of any mechanistic explanation in neuroscience. After presenting the regularity definition for the constitution relation, the paper develops a set of inference rules allowing one to establish constitutive hypotheses in light of certain kinds of empirical evidence. The general methodology consisting of these rules is characterized as having formed the basis of many successful explanatory projects in neuroscience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Theological Reform, Bernhardt Varenius and the Constitution of Geographic Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Vitte

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to demonstrate that the relationship among science and religion has been of great importance for the development of a mechanical conception of nature since the seventeenth century that was by the Protestant Reform. Such reform has led to the desecration of the Nature, the formation of a mechanical conception of it, including a strong imaginative and practical component which conducted to the construction of the telescope and the microscope, furthermore the innovations in chemistry and medicine. In this context the geographic work of Bernhardt Varenius started the modern geographical thought due to the reflection on the empirical validity of the works of Galileo Galilei, Kepler and Descartes. Varenius understood the surface of as an articulated set of different areas identified by each part that constitutes the product of a complex crossroads between culture,religion and nature.

  8. Vulnerable Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochner, Arthur P.

    2009-01-01

    In "Narrative Medicine: Honoring the Stories of Illness," Rita Charon paints an original and humane portrait of what it can mean to be a doctor, to live a life immersed in sickness and dedicated to wellness. Charon drops the veil, inviting readers to look at the secret, subjective, emotional face of medicine, a zone of self-censored feelings and…

  9. [Evolutionary medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wjst, M

    2013-12-01

    Evolutionary medicine allows new insights into long standing medical problems. Are we "really stoneagers on the fast lane"? This insight might have enormous consequences and will allow new answers that could never been provided by traditional anthropology. Only now this is made possible using data from molecular medicine and systems biology. Thereby evolutionary medicine takes a leap from a merely theoretical discipline to practical fields - reproductive, nutritional and preventive medicine, as well as microbiology, immunology and psychiatry. Evolutionary medicine is not another "just so story" but a serious candidate for the medical curriculum providing a universal understanding of health and disease based on our biological origin. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. The Place of Constitutional Courts in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komárek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    constitutional courts defend the scope for political autonomy – Against national constitutional courts' displacement – Simmenthal II – After the ‘Rights Revolution’ in Europe – National constitutional courts' references to the ECJ – Ordinary courts challenging national constitutional courts through......Going beyond ‘judicial dialogues’ and ‘conflict-and-power’ approaches to the analysis of national constitutional courts' role in the EU – The idea of European constitutional democracy – National constitutional courts constrain individual autonomy expanded by European integration – National...... the preliminar y reference procedure – Parallel references – National constitutional courts enforcing EU law – National constitutional courts challenging EU law...

  11. Constitutional values, therapeutic jurisprudence and legal education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition to an extensive knowledge of legal principles, critical thinking and research skills, law students should critically engage with our constitutional values. The question remains: How do we transform legal education in South Africa? How do we change the way we teach law students? The introduction of concepts ...

  12. Institutional independence and the constitutionality of legislation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The independence of the judiciary is the bedrock of the democratic system of government. Judicial independence is the gateway to the proper performance of the courts of their role of keeping all organs of state within the boundaries of their powers under the Constitution. The test for determining whether judicial ...

  13. globalisation, the development of constitutionalism and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Tanya du Plessis

    This article will investigate the effect of globalisation on the development of constitutionalism in South Africa, ... For the purpose of this article "globalisation" means the accelerated integration of economies throughout the ... employer based in an African country, or a foreign employer who has business interests in Africa.

  14. Notes: Constitutionalism | Bazezew | Mizan Law Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mizan Law Review. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 2 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Notes: Constitutionalism. M Bazezew. Abstract. (No abstract). Full Text: EMAIL FREE ...

  15. LEGAL AND CONSTITUTIONAL EVALUATION OF THE NIGERIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LLM (Uyo) (Barrister & solicitor of the Supreme Court of Nigeria; lecturer in law, Depart- ment of Public Law, Faculty of ..... revenues derived from oil and gas to meet the needs of the present and future generations as well as ..... the application of practicality in the interpretation of the Constitution. In. Adesanya v President of ...

  16. Legal nature of the positive constitutional responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Bobrova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is theoretical justification of legal nature of positive constitutionalresponsibility legal institute. The evolution of views on the institution of positive constitutionalresponsibility from the first works on it (S.A. Avak`yan, Yu.P. Eremenko, F.M. Rudinsky, N.A. Bobrova to the present time is analyzed.The purpose is to clarify its role in establishment and maintaining the regime of constitutionallegality.The results, scope of application. Doubts about the legal nature of positive constitutionalresponsibility up to its complete denial are identical with doubts about the legal nature ofmany constitutional norms, the denial of their direct action. These disputes will last forever.Direct service of constitutional and legal responsibility to the quality of governance is a featureof this type of legal responsibility along with its pronounced political character, as wellas the specific guilt of the subject of constitutional tort (liability not only for their acts butfor the acts of their subordinates.The emphasis on positive moral aspect to the detriment of "sanction" (retrospective aspectof the constitutional responsibility does not meet the challenges of the new time.Proponents of affirmative responsibility had good purpose to build its high creative andeducational role from the positive side of the legal liability. However, this good purpose inpractice has not led to optimistic results.The authors come to the conclusion the legal regulation of mechanisms of responsibilityenforcement in Russia is necessary.

  17. Constitutional characteristics of zones of prostate structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinnik Y.Y.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The research article is devoted to the study of structural characteristics of prostate according to the young men constitution. Materials and methods: 540 vertical and horizontal sections of prostate have been investigated. Results: Size characteristics of prostate have been established in men of different somatotypes

  18. Between availability and entitlement: The Constitution, Grootboom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between availability and entitlement: The Constitution, Grootboom and the right to food. Danie Brand. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  19. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  20. Constitutive behavior of reconsolidating crushed salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1998-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe deformation of crushed salt is presented in this paper. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Recently completed creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from shear consolidation tests and a combination of shear and hydrostatic tests produces two sets of material parameter values for the model. Changes in material parameter values from test group to test group indicate the empirical nature of the model but show significant improvement over earlier work. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on fitting statistics and ability of the model to predict test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  1. Culture (and religion) in constitutional adjudication | Rautenbach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The faculty of law of the Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education in corroboration with the Konrad-Adenauer-Stifttung embarked on a study on Politics, Socio-Economic Issues and Culture in Constitutional Adjudication. The aim of the project is twofold. The first aim is to analyse the influence of political, ...

  2. Language question and the constitutional challenges of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... rather than a curse; an asset, rather than a liability. While making Nigeria a focal point of reference, especially the language component of her constitutional history, it is posited that linguistic pluralism is no less valuable to a nation or continent than the wide variety of flowers in a garden or divergent cuisine in a community.

  3. Preliminary Validation of Composite Material Constitutive Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    John G. Michopoulos; Athanasios lliopoulos; John C. Hermanson; Adrian C. Orifici; Rodney S. Thomson

    2012-01-01

    This paper is describing the preliminary results of an effort to validate a methodology developed for composite material constitutive characterization. This methodology involves using massive amounts of data produced from multiaxially tested coupons via a 6-DoF robotic system called NRL66.3 developed at the Naval Research Laboratory. The testing is followed by...

  4. Language question and the constitutional challenges of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to the analogy of the Tower of Babel_ a linguistic confusion. This paper puts multilingualism in its proper perspective as a blessing, which must be accorded a full constitutional recognition, rather than a curse; an asset, rather than a liability. While making Nigeria a focal point of reference, especially the language component ...

  5. 1 HUMAN DIGNITY - OUR SUPREME CONSTITUTIONAL VALUE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    BA LLB (University of Cape Town) MCL (International Islamic University, Malaysia. 3 S 10 of the Constitution of the ... the values of equality and freedom or between the value of equality and freedom. On the contrary, it is highly .... world's cultures, our forms of expression and ways of being human. It is fostered by knowledge ...

  6. A model for TRIP steel constitutive behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Menari, G

    2011-01-01

    A constitutive model is developed for TRIP steel. This is a steel which contains three or four different phases in its microstructure. One of the phases in TRIP steels is metastable austenite (Retained Austenite) which transforms to martensite upon deformation. The accompanying transformation strain

  7. income tax assignment under the ethiopian constitution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    Constitution from an income tax point of view. And finally, the article ends with some concluding remarks. 1. Theories of Fiscal Federalism In Income Tax Assignment. Few countries pursue the course of decentralization on grounds of its perceived economic efficiency or equity. Political, social, cultural or historical forces are.

  8. Optimizing culture medium for debittering constitutive enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate nutrient requirements for extracellular constitutive naringinase production by Aspergillus oryzae JMU316. The one-factor-at-a-time method was used to determine the impact of different carbon and nitrogen sources on naringinase production. Naringin exhibited the highest ...

  9. 1 HUMAN DIGNITY - OUR SUPREME CONSTITUTIONAL VALUE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    structures. In short, the Constitutional Court envisions the Basic Law as a unified structure of objective principles and rights crowned by the master value of human dignity.14. 11 S v Makwanyane 1995 (6) BCLR 665 (CC); S v Makwanyane 1995 (3) SA 391 (CC). 12 Supra at par 328. 13 Jones Kant's Principle of Personality ...

  10. Constitutional Provisions And Administrative Disciplinary Powers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Medical and Dental Practitioners Disciplinary Tribunal is empowered to deal with all cases of professional discipline under the Medical and Dental Practitioners Act. This process of administrative adjudication is examined against the background of constitutional provision that affects the exercise of the powers of the ...

  11. Constitutional interpretation : a view from a distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores how the notion of distance works in the practice of interpretation by studying the philosophical underpinnings of the originalism debate in American constitutionalism. Focusing on some of its most important spokespeople, the paper shows that they start from the historicist

  12. Rapping the 27 Amendments to the Constitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaresborough, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Early in the year, the students of history and government at Mountain View High School in Stafford, Virginia, began to devise hand motions to help memorize the 27 amendments to the Constitution for government class. Three students in the school who are interested in hip hop music then suggested composing a rap song about the topic. Working with…

  13. Great Constitutional Ideas: Justice, Equality, and Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Isidore

    1987-01-01

    Examines the ideas of justice, equality, and property as they are represented in the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Discusses how these ideas affect the way public schools operate and the lessons educators teach or don't teach about our society. Includes ideas for classroom activities. (JDH)

  14. Constitutional provisions regarding juristic persons | Pienaar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The circumstances where juristic persons act as organs of state are discussed with reference to case law. Difference of opinion exists regarding the horizontal application of the Bill of Rights, that is the application of the Bill of Rights to private law relationships. In terms of the interim Constitution the Bill of Rights was applied ...

  15. Constitutive modelling of sandvik 1RK91

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datta, K.; Datta, K.; Hommes, M.; Post, J.; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Huetink, Han; Beyer, J.; Onate, E; Owen, D.R.J

    2003-01-01

    A physically based constitutive equation is being developed for the maraging stainless steel Sandvik 1RK91. The steel is used to make precision parts. These parts are formed through multistage forming operations and heat treatments from cold rolled and annealed sheets. The specific alloy is designed

  16. Theoretical (dis-) position and strategic leitmotivs in constitutional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four leitmotivs pertinent to certain constellations of events in constitutional interpretation are discussed and their applicability and utility assessed, drawing on examples from constitutional case-law. The leitmotivs are: (i) transitional constitutionalism; (ii) transformative constitutionalism; (iii) monumental constitutionalism; and ...

  17. Making medicine; producing pleasure: A critical examination of medicinal cannabis policy and law in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Kari; Seear, Kate; Ritter, Alison

    2017-11-01

    Several jurisdictions around the world have introduced policies and laws allowing for the legal use of cannabis for therapeutic purposes. However, there has been little critical discussion of how the object of 'medicinal cannabis' is enacted in policy and practice. Informed by Carol Bacchi's poststructuralist approach to policy analysis and the work of science and technology studies scholars, this paper seeks to problematise the object of 'medicinal cannabis' and examine how it is constituted through governing practices. In particular, we consider how the making of the object of 'medicinal cannabis' might constrain or enact discourses of pleasure. As a case example, we take the Victorian Law Reform Commission's review of law reform options to allow people in the Australian state of Victoria to be treated with medicinal cannabis. Through analysis of this case example, we find that although 'medicinal cannabis' is constituted as a thoroughly medical object, it is also constituted as unique. We argue that medicinal cannabis is enacted in part through the production of another object (so-called 'recreational cannabis') and the social and political meanings attached to both. Although both 'substances' are constituted as distinct, 'medicinal cannabis' relies on the 'absent presence' of 'recreational cannabis' to define and shape what it is. However, we find that contained within this rendering of 'medicinal cannabis' are complex enactments of health and wellbeing, which open up discourses of pleasure. 'Medicinal cannabis' appears to challenge the idea that the effects of 'medicine' cannot be understood in terms of pleasure. As such, the making of 'medicinal cannabis' as a medical object, and its invocation of broad notions of health and wellbeing, expand the ways in which drug effects can be acknowledged, including pleasurable and desirable effects, helping us to think differently about both medicine and other forms of drug use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  18. A Associação Brasileira de Medicina do Trabalho: locus do processo de constituição da especialidade medicina do trabalho no Brasil na década de 1940 The Brazilian Association of Workers' Medicine: a space for the constitution of occupational health as a medical specialty in Brazil in the 1940s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Beatriz de Sá Almeida

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a Associação Brasileira de Medicina do Trabalho (ABMT, criada em fins de 1944 como lócus de consolidação do campo da medicina do trabalho no Brasil. O grupo dos primeiros especialistas no campo da higiene e medicina do trabalho que trabalhavam no Ministério do Trabalho, Indústria e Comércio (MTIC foi o responsável pela fundação da ABMT, nas próprias dependências do Ministério. Contando com um núcleo inicial de 35 médicos e cinco engenheiros, todos oriundos do MTIC, a ABMT destacava como seu objetivo primordial, o estudo, a discussão e a divulgação dos assuntos referentes à medicina do trabalho. Entre as principais atividades promovidas pela ABMT, destacavam-se as reuniões científicas mensais (palestras de médicos convidados e de médicos e engenheiros do próprio MTIC, a organização de eventos científicos e a publicação de um periódico especializado. Logo após a sua criação, já em 1945, a ABMT passou a integrar o Bureau Internacional de Segurança do Trabalho, com sede em Montreal, Canadá e o Bureau Internacional do Trabalho, da Organização Internacional do Trabalho. Em dezembro de 1945, no momento da eleição da nova diretoria, criou-se a Revista Médica do Trabalho, cuja primeira publicação foi em 1946.This article analyzes the Brazilian Association of Workers' Medicine, created in the end of 1944 as a space for consolidating occupational health as a medical specialty in Brazil. The Association was founded by the first group of specialists in the field of occupational hygiene and medicine with seat at the facilities of the proper Ministry of Work, Industry and Commerce, where the founders were working. Counting on an initial core group of 35 physicians and five engineers, all of them coming from the Ministry, the main objective of the Association was to study, discuss and promote the issues related to workers' medicine. Among the most relevant activities promoted by the Association were

  19. Herbal Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Diseases and Conditions Acupuncture Art, Dance, and Music Ayurveda Biofeedback Body Movement Chinese Medicine Electromagnetic Therapy ... American word for "rough" (referring to its root structure). It is generally used for menopausal conditions, painful ...

  20. Medicinal cannabis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murnion, Bridin

    2015-01-01

    .... The Regulator of Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2014 is under consideration in Australia to address this. Nabiximols is the only cannabinoid on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods at present, although cannabidiol has been recommended for inclusion in Schedule 4.

  1. Hans Kelsen and the Austrian Constitutional Court (1918-1929)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sara Lagi

    2012-01-01

      This article intends to examine Hans Kelsen's contribution to the establishing of the first Austrian Constitutional court, analyzing the key differences between Kelsen's model of Constitutional court...

  2. In quest of constitutional principles of "neurolaw".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzetti, Federico Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    The growing use of brain imaging technology and the developing of cognitive neuroscience pose unaccustomed challenges to legal systems. Until now, the fields of Law much affected are the civil and criminal law and procedure, but the constitutional dimension of "neurolaw" cannot be easily underestimated. As the capacity to investigate and to trace brain mechanisms and functional neural activities increases, it becomes urgent the recognition and definition of the unalienable rights and fundamental values in respect of this new techno-scientific power, that must be protected and safeguard at "constitutional level" of norms such as: human dignity, personal identity, authenticity and the pursuit of individual "happiness". As the same as for the law regulating research and experimentation on human genome adopted in the past years, one may also argue if the above mentioned fundamental principles of "neurolaw" must be fixed and disciplined also at European and International level.

  3. Constitutive Equations of Rock with Shear Dilatancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    AD-AOll 402 CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS OF ROCK WITH SHEAR DILATANCY Alfred M. Freudenthal George Washington University Prepared for: Army Research...Freudenthal April 1975 U.S. Army Research Office - Durham Grant No. DA-ARO-D-31-124-73-G194 The George Washington University School of Engineering and...diagonalizes the matrix [A]. The Hamilton- Cayley theorem,which states that a symetric matrix satisfies its own characteristic equation, transforms Eq.(2.2

  4. How Star Wars Illuminates Constitutional Law

    OpenAIRE

    Sunstein, Cass Robert

    2015-01-01

    Human beings often see coherence and planned design when neither exists. This is so in movies, literature, history, economics, and psychoanalysis – and constitutional law. Contrary to the repeated claims of George Lucas, its principal author, the Star Wars series was hardly planned in advance; it involved a great deal of improvisation and surprise, even to Lucas himself. Serendipity and happenstance, sometimes in the forms of eruptions of new thinking, play a pervasive and overlooked role in ...

  5. Constitutive relations for multiphase flow modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, H.; Vaeth, L.; Thurnay, K. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik

    1998-01-01

    The constitutive relations that are used in the three-field fluid dynamics code IVA-KA for determining the drag in three-phase mixtures and the heat transferred by radiation are described together with some comparisons of calculational results with experiments. In these experiments (QUEOS), large quantities of solid particles are injected into water. Potential deficiencies of the present drag model are discussed. (author)

  6. What's So Democratic in " democratic constitutionalism " ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alcebíades de Oliveira Junior

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of this paper is to raise questions on the democratic character of “con- temporary constitutionalism”. In this sense, we present the ideas of four renowned scholars and the core of their theses, whose influence – especially in the “Latin world” – is undenia- ble. They are Manuel Atienza, Luigi Ferrajoli, Luis Prieto Sanchís and Gustavo Zagrebel- sky. Among the many differences that characterize them, their accounts have at least one thing in common: enthusiasm for the constitutional project. To that extent, they stress the normativity of the Constitution and the “civilizing feature” of constitutional values. We address several objections to this understanding, taking into consideration the fundamen- tal right to participate on political affairs, including issues related to substantive rights, which require political and moral developments. To do so, we must take seriously the fact of disagreement and the fact of pluralism as elements of the process of protection and realization of fundamental rights. These rights are also subject to a decision-making process.

  7. A constitutive law for degrading bioresorbable polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samami, Hassan; Pan, Jingzhe

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a constitutive law that predicts the changes in elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio and ultimate tensile strength of bioresorbable polymers due to biodegradation. During biodegradation, long polymer chains are cleaved by hydrolysis reaction. For semi-crystalline polymers, the chain scissions also lead to crystallisation. Treating each scission as a cavity and each new crystal as a solid inclusion, a degrading semi-crystalline polymer can be modelled as a continuum solid containing randomly distributed cavities and crystal inclusions. The effective elastic properties of a degrading polymer are calculated using existing theories for such solid and the tensile strength of the degrading polymer is predicted using scaling relations that were developed for porous materials. The theoretical model for elastic properties and the scaling law for strength form a complete constitutive relation for the degrading polymers. It is shown that the constitutive law can capture the trend of the experimental data in the literature for a range of biodegradable polymers fairly well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Global Survey of National Constitutions: Mapping Constitutional Commitments to Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzarossa, Lucía Berro; Perehudoff, Katrina

    2017-12-01

    General Comment No. 22, issued in 2016 by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR), clarifies states' legal duties to respect, protect, and fulfill the right to sexual and reproductive health (SRH). Our study analyzes domestic constitutions around the world to investigate whether and to what extent the right to sexual and reproductive health is respected, protected, and fulfilled; to what extent these provisions are inclusive and non-discriminatory; and to what degree the interlinkages between this and other human rights are acknowledged. Of the 195 constitutions accessed, 27 enshrine sexual and/or reproductive health, and seven adopt restrictive approaches to this right. In the 27 constitutions, provisions most frequently enshrine respect of one's sexual health and family planning decisions, the protection of sexual health, and the provision of reproductive health care and family planning services (fulfillment). Most of the 27 constitutions fail to adequately respect reproductive health rights; to protect reproductive health, family planning, and abortion services from third-party interference; and to fulfill all dimensions of sexual health and access to abortion. Three of the 27 constitutions enshrine a universal right to SRH, and additional constitutions protect specific vulnerable groups (such as women, children) and/or restrict the scope of rights holders to couples. Among the 27 constitutions, nine explicitly link the right to sexual and reproductive health to the rights to education, science, and/or to make autonomous decisions about sexuality and reproduction. Our results can serve as a baseline measure to track constitutional reforms in pursuit of the realization of sexual and reproductive health and rights, and as building blocks for future lawmakers committed to realizing these rights through domestic legal reform.

  9. Study of a Vocal Feature Selection Method and Vocal Properties for Discriminating Four Constitution Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun Ho Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The voice has been used to classify the four constitution types, and to recognize a subject's health condition by extracting meaningful physical quantities, in traditional Korean medicine. In this paper, we propose a method of selecting the reliable variables from various voice features, such as frequency derivative features, frequency band ratios, and intensity, from vowels and a sentence. Further, we suggest a process to extract independent variables by eliminating explanatory variables and reducing their correlation and remove outlying data to enable reliable discriminant analysis. Moreover, the suitable division of data for analysis, according to the gender and age of subjects, is discussed. Finally, the vocal features are applied to a discriminant analysis to classify each constitution type. This method of voice classification can be widely used in the u-Healthcare system of personalized medicine and for improving diagnostic accuracy.

  10. Travel medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To define the practice of travel medicine, provide the basics of a comprehensive pretravel consultation for international travelers, and assist in identifying patients who might require referral to travel medicine professionals. Sources of information Guidelines and recommendations on travel medicine and travel-related illnesses by national and international travel health authorities were reviewed. MEDLINE and EMBASE searches for related literature were also performed. Main message Travel medicine is a highly dynamic specialty that focuses on pretravel preventive care. A comprehensive risk assessment for each individual traveler is essential in order to accurately evaluate traveler-, itinerary-, and destination-specific risks, and to advise on the most appropriate risk management interventions to promote health and prevent adverse health outcomes during travel. Vaccinations might also be required and should be personalized according to the individual traveler’s immunization history, travel itinerary, and the amount of time available before departure. Conclusion A traveler’s health and safety depends on a practitioner’s level of expertise in providing pretravel counseling and vaccinations, if required. Those who advise travelers are encouraged to be aware of the extent of this responsibility and to refer all high-risk travelers to travel medicine professionals whenever possible. PMID:25500599

  11. Constitutionalism and good governance in Nigeria (1999-2014 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria operates a governmental system based on a written constitution. The idea of constitution and constitutionalism is of a more recent one as the country has witnessed a long era of military rule. While the country, at present, has a written constitution which in reality, was derived from a military decree, there has been ...

  12. he Obligations on Government and Society in our Constitutional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constitutional democracy limits this principle by subjecting the democratically elected government and the will of the majority subject to a written constitution and the norms embodied in it. Such constitution is enshrined as the supreme law of the country in question. An almost universal feature of modern constitutionalism is a ...

  13. An Integrated Theory of Constitutionalism in World Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    both been regarded a indicating a triumph as well as a failure of constitutionalism. This article circumvents this standoff by questioning the very foundation of constitutional theory in the public/private and the national/transnational distinctions. It is argued that the object of constitutions...... for compatibility between orders through constitutionalisation and the idea of constitutionalism as a way of approaching the future....

  14. Ubuntu versus the core values of the South African Constitution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the dawn of South Africa's new era of constitutionalism the Constitutional Court introduced “African law and legal thinking” and ubuntu to South African jurisprudence as part of the Constitution's source of democratic values. Whereas the Constitutional Court averred on the one hand that African law sustains firmly ...

  15. Habermas on European Constitution and European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Biró-Kaszás

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For the last two decades or so philosophers have been reflecting on a set of practical and political concerns in connection with the new political structural arrangements beyond the nation-state. In this article two essays by Jürgen Habermas shall be examined. An attempt shall be made to tackle Habermas’ philosophical concepts of personal and collective identity as well as the role that a constitution may play in building the post-national constellation. It has been shown that Habermas has normative answers. Firstly, according to him, the fragile balance between the legal order and the particular cultures and traditions of a community has to be protected by the constitutional state. For that reason the political culture has to be “decoupled” from the majority culture. Secondly, the democratically structured attempt to achieve shared meaning has to find the delicate balance between the context-transcending universal normative claims and the claims of particular individual and collective life. Thirdly, it is possible to expand legally mediated civil solidarity trans-nationally, across Europe – we may recognize this development as the emergence of European identity –, since the process of democratic will-formation of citizens may get loose from the structures provided by the state if both shared democratic political cultures as well as a European-wide public sphere exist. The European Constitution may have a catalytic function in materialization of these conditions. It has been shown that in his deliberations Habermas tried to find a reflective equilibrium between the normative and the empirical.

  16. The Constitutional Deficiencies of the German 'Rechtsgutslehre'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl-Friedrich Stuckenberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper questions the theoretical merits and constitutional validity of the “Rechtsgutslehre” (doctrine of the protection of legal goods, a widely held doctrine about the limits of legitimate criminalization in Germany and some other jurisdictions. The immediate cause for this reassessment is a recent decision of the German constitutional court which upheld the German incest prohibition and simultaneously rejected the traditional “Rechtsgutslehre” as constitutionally irrelevant, thereby stirring up considerable controversy among academic criminal lawyers. The paper tries to show why the court’s view is correct by pointing out the main deficiencies of the doctrine and what criteria a better theory must fulfil. Este artículo cuestiona los méritos teóricos y la validez constitucional de la "Rechtsgutslehre" (doctrina de la protección de los bienes jurídicos, una doctrina muy extendida acerca de los límites de la criminalización legítima en Alemania y algunas otras jurisdicciones. La causa inmediata de esta nueva valoración es una decisión reciente del Tribunal Constitucional alemán que ratificó la prohibición del incesto en Alemania y al mismo tiempo rechazó el tradicional "Rechtsgutslehre" por ser constitucionalmente irrelevante, lo que provocó una considerable controversia entre la comunidad académica de abogados criminalistas. El artículo trata de mostrar por qué la decisión de la corte es correcta, señalando las deficiencias principales de la doctrina y los criterios que una teoría más adecuada debe cumplir. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2200870

  17. Engineering and the constitution. Technik und Verfassung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, R.

    1988-01-01

    We can see at every turn how instruments once used for the good of mankind become blunt right before our very eyes. They still serve their purpose, but each further step brings about less additional benefit ('residual benefit'). This is a fundamental problem rather than a detail problem, as it is the self-concept, reliability and stability of our public order that is at risk. 'Constitution' in this sense is more than just the legal basis of the state; as used by the author it refers to the laws governing a society's life. (orig./HSCH).

  18. Evaluation of constitutive models for crushed salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hurtado, L.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1996-05-01

    Three constitutive models are recommended as candidates for describing the deformation of crushed salt. These models are generalized to three-dimensional states of stress to include the effects of mean and deviatoric stress and modified to include effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt is used to determine material parameters for the models. To evaluate the capability of the models, parameter values obtained from fitting the complete database are used to predict the individual tests. Finite element calculations of a WIPP shaft with emplaced crushed salt demonstrate the model predictions.

  19. Towards constitutive equations for the deep Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett, B. L. N.

    2017-09-01

    A new formulation of constitutive equations for states of high compression is introduced for isotropic media, exploiting a separation between hydrostatic and deviatoric components in strain energy. The strain energy is represented as functions of strain invariants, with one purely volumetric component and the other which vanishes for purely hydrostatic deformation. This approach preserves the form of familiar equations of state through the volumetric component, but allows the addition of volume and pressure dependence of the shear modulus from the deviatoric term. A suitable shear modulus representation to accompany a Keane equation of state is demonstrated.

  20. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Ritual Slaughter in the Modern Constitutional State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afsah, Ebrahim

    In this proposed presentation I intend to give a historical overview of the political and constitutional debates in selected European countries – including Germany, France, Great Britain, Holland and Scandinavia – from the nineteenth century to the present day, paying special attention to the shi....... Similar in nature if not necessarily in intensity to questions of forced and/or underage marriage, male circumcision and female genital mutilation, the commitment of the secular state to animal welfare cannot summarily be rejected by demands for religious freedom....

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  5. General Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Nuclear Medicine Nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of radioactive ... of General Nuclear Medicine? What is General Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses ... limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  8. The Scottish Constitutional Tradition: A Very British Radicalism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulmer W. Elliot

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses recent developments in Scottish nationalist constitutional thought during the period of 2002 to 2014, showing how the Scottish constitutional conversation has diverged from, but continues to be influenced by, the UK-wide constitutional conversation at Westminster. It presents Scottish nationalist constitutional thought as a ‘very British radicalism’, which is characterised by certain constitutional forms and ideas that are radical in a British context (such as popular sovereignty, proportional representation, a written constitution, and a commitment to covenantal socio-economic and environmental provisions while at the same time retaining a persistent ‘Britishness’ in terms of specific institutional proposals and ambivalence towards the principles of constitutional government. Finally, I will discuss possible designs of a future constitutional settlement in Scotland and the United Kingdom. Notably, I will explore how far the Scottish constitutional tradition might impact on the constitutional shape of the United Kingdom.

  9. [Medicinal cannabis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Meersch, H; Verschuere, A P; Bottriaux, F

    2006-01-01

    Pharmaceutical grade cannabis is available to Dutch patients from public pharmacies in the Netherlands. The first part of this paper reviews the pharmaceutical and pharmacological properties of medicinal cannabis. Detailed information about its composition and quality, potential applications, methods of administration, adverse reactions, drug interactions and safety during pregnancy or breastfeeding are given. The second part deals with the legal aspects of dispensing medicinal cannabis through pharmacies in view of the Belgian and Dutch legislation. The last part discusses the present Belgian regulation about the possession of cannabis.

  10. HOW STAR WARS ILLUMINATES CONSTITUTIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cass R. Sunstein

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Human beings often see coherence and planned design when neither exists. This is so in movies, literature, history, economics, and psychoanalysis – and constitutional law. Contrary to the repeated claims of George Lucas, its principal author, the Star Wars series was hardly planned in advance; it involved a great deal of improvisation and surprise, even to Lucas himself. Serendipity and happenstance, sometimes in the forms of eruptions of new thinking, play a pervasive and overlooked role in the creative imagination, certainly in single authored works, and even more in multi-authored ones extending over time. Serendipity imposes serious demands on the search for coherence in art, literature, history, and law. That search leads many people (including Lucas to misdescribe the nature of their own creativity and authorship. The misdescription appears to respond to a serious human need for sense-making and pattern-finding, but it is a significant obstacle to understanding and critical reflection. Whether Jedi or Sith, many authors of constitutional law are a lot like the author of Star Wars, disguising the essential nature of their own creative processes.

  11. Constitutional moments in governing science and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    2011-12-01

    Scholars in science and technology studies (STS) have recently been called upon to advise governments on the design of procedures for public engagement. Any such instrumental function should be carried out consistently with STS's interpretive and normative obligations as a social science discipline. This article illustrates how such threefold integration can be achieved by reviewing current US participatory politics against a 70-year backdrop of tacit constitutional developments in governing science and technology. Two broad cycles of constitutional adjustment are discerned: the first enlarging the scope of state action as well as public participation, with liberalized rules of access and sympathetic judicial review; the second cutting back on the role of the state, fostering the rise of an academic-industrial complex for technology transfer, and privatizing value debates through increasing delegation to professional ethicists. New rules for public engagement in the United Sates should take account of these historical developments and seek to counteract some of the anti-democratic tendencies observable in recent decades.

  12. The Eurozone Crisis: A Constitutional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sting

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available “Every power comes through crisis” has long been a motif of European integration. The financial and sovereign debt crises, which have shaken the European Union (EU in recent years, are at first glance no different. Treaty reforms, intergovernmental treaties such as the Fiscal Compact and the Treaty Establishing a European Stability Mechanism (ESM Treaty have significantly altered the constitutional landscape of the EU and its Member States. The crisis has also inspired many European legal scholars to critically analyse the EU’s system of economic governance, as have other events throughout the history of the European Union, from the Empty Chair Crisis to the referenda in the aftermath of the Treaty of Maastricht and the failure of the Constitution for the European Union. What does seem to be different is the way in which scholars approach the issue of the Eurozone crisis. Instead of a purely legal perspective on economic governance, European legal scholars have realised that in order to understand and analyse the euro crisis, interdisciplinarity is the word of the moment.

  13. Relationships among certain joint constitutive models.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segalman, Daniel Joseph; Starr, Michael James

    2004-09-01

    In a recent paper, Starr and Segalman demonstrated that any Masing model can be represented as a parallel-series Iwan model. A preponderance of the constitutive models that have been suggested for simulating mechanical joints are Masing models, and the purpose of this discussion is to demonstrate how the Iwan representation of those models can yield insight into their character. In particular, this approach can facilitate a critical comparison among numerous plausible constitutive models. It is explicitly shown that three-parameter models such as Smallwood's (Ramberg-Osgood) calculate parameters in such a manner that macro-slip is not an independent parameter, yet the model admits macro-slip. The introduction of a fourth parameter is therefore required. It is shown that when a macro-slip force is specified for the Smallwood model the result is a special case of the Segalman four-parameter model. Both of these models admit a slope discontinuity at the inception of macro-slip. A five-parameter model that has the beneficial features of Segalman's four-parameter model is proposed. This model manifests a force-displacement curve having a continuous first derivative.

  14. We the People: Indiana and the United States Constitution. Lectures in Observance of the Bicentennial of the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Partick J.; And Others

    These lectures, presented in observance of the U.S. Constitution bicentennial celebration, consider selected constitutionally significant law cases that occurred in Indiana. These cases are representative of U.S. constitutional development and of the relationship of Indiana to the U.S. Constitution. Patrick Furlong, in "The South Bend…

  15. Medicinal Mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindequist, U.; Won Kim, H.; Tiralongo, E.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    Since beginning of mankind nature is the most important source of medicines. Bioactive compounds produced by living organisms can be used directly as drugs or as lead compounds for drug development. Besides, the natural material can be used as crude drug for preparation of powder or extracts. Plants

  16. Oral medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correspondence to: P Botha (p.mbotha@mweb. co.za). Clinical setting. The causes of oral signs and symptoms could include medicine side-effects, trauma, autoimmune disease, nutritional deficiency, fungal infection (Fig. 1), premalignant disease (Fig. 2), oral carcinoma (Fig. 3), or sequelae of cancer treatment. What is.

  17. Travel Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Daniel T; LaRocque, Regina C; Ryan, Edward T

    2018-01-02

    International travel can result in new illness or exacerbate existing conditions, and primary care clinicians have the opportunity to provide both pre- and posttravel health care. Providers should be familiar with destination-specific disease risks, be knowledgeable about travel and routine vaccines, be prepared to prescribe chemoprophylaxis and self-treatment regimens, and be aware of travel medicine resources.

  18. Ayurvedic Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lead poisoning in pregnant women who used Ayurvedic medications from India—New York City, 2011-2012. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2012; 61(33):641–646. Chopra A, Doiphode VV. Ayurvedic medicine. Core concept, therapeutic principles, and current relevance. . Medical Clinics of ...

  19. Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  20. Constitution and religiosity of/in the constitutional order of the National Socialist Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velez, Pedro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we will analyse the National Socialist regime as a politico-constitutional reality. We will do it from a new way of looking at politico-constitutional phenomena, interpreting them as registered in a religious grounding. It seeks to show that the National Socialist regime was characterised by having identified the political community – a racially interpreted and raised community to the Absolute – with an empirical historic personality regarded as eminently communitarian. It suggests that the regime constitutes a sui generis case, either in a context of regimes conventionally classified as "right-wing authoritarian and/or totalitarian" or in a larger context of contemporary politics.

  1. [Birth and succession of a current of learning in Korean medicine: the supporting yang current of learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chaekun

    2014-04-01

    In this study, I aim to reveal how Lee Gyoojoons medicine has given birth to a current of learning, the supporting yang current of learning, and describe its historical significance. Before anything, I'd like to throw the question of whether if there were any currents within the traditional Korean medicine. There are no records of medical currents being widely discussed until now in medical history of Korea; however, the current of Lee Jema's sasang medicine is the most noticeable one. Among the contemporaries of Lee Jema, during the late Chosun, there was also another famed medical practitioner called Lee Gyoojoon. Lee Gyoojoon mainly practiced his medicine within Pohang, Gyeongsangbuk-do area, his apprentices have formed a group and have succeeded his medical practice. Based on the analyses of Lee Gyoojoon's apprentices and the Somun Oriental Medical Society, which is known as a successor group to Lee Gyoojoon's medicine today, they are fully satisfying the five requirements to establish a medical current: first, they held Lee Gyoojoon as the first and foremost, representative practitioner of their current; second, they advocate the supporting yang theory suggested by Lee Gyoojoon, which is originated from his theory of Mind; third, books such as the Major Essentials of Huangdi's Internal Classic Plain Questions, and the Double Grinded Medical Mirror, were being used as the main textbooks to educate their students or to practice medicine. Fourth, Lee Gyoojoon's medical ideas were being transcended quite clearly within his group of apprentices, including Seo Byungoh, Lee Wonse, and the Somun Oriental Medical Society. Fifth, Lee Gyoojoon's apprentices were first produced through the Sukgok School, however, nowadays they are being produced through medical groups formed by Lee Wonse, the Somun Oriental Medical Society, regarding the propagation of medical theories, compilation of textbooks, publication of academic journals, etc. Then, what do the existence of the

  2. The Role of Rumination and Stressful Life Events in the Relationship between the Qi Stagnation Constitution and Depression in Women: A Moderated Mediation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfan Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The qi stagnation constitution is associated with depression in traditional Chinese medicine. It is unclear how rumination and stressful life events affect the relationship between the qi stagnation constitution and depression. The Qi Stagnation Constitution Scale, Ruminative Response Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist were used to assess this association in 1200 female college students. The results revealed that the qi stagnation constitution was positively associated with depression. Furthermore, rumination was a partial mediator of the relationship between the qi stagnation constitution and depression. In addition, stressful life events moderated the direct effect and mediating effect of the qi stagnation constitution on depression. These findings indicate that rumination and stressful life events may affect the relationship between the qi stagnation constitution and depression in women.

  3. The Constitutional Court and the Imperative of its Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gilia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent debates on the upcoming review of the Constitution have determined us to pay close attention to the basic institution in a democratic state, that is the Constitutional Court. Being caught in the crossfire between power and opposition, the Constitutional Court had a hard time lately, facing severe attacks. The aim of our study is to analyze the evolution of the Constitutional Court within the inland constitutional system, particularly bringing up the flaws describing the Court’s activity. We have also analyzed the proposals put forth by several bodies or experts regarding the constitutional contentious court. At the end of our study, following an analysis of different constitutional types of constitutional review, used by a number of states in Europe, we introduced several resolutions that may improve the role, the course and, last but not least, the activity of the Romanian Constitutional Court.

  4. [Multifaceted body. I. The bodies of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraga, M; Bourquin, C; Wykretowicz, H; Stiefel, F

    2015-02-11

    The human body is the object upon which medicine is acting, but also lived reality, image, symbol, representation and the object of elaboration and theory. All these elements which constitute the body influence the way medicine is treating it. In this series of three articles, we address the human body from various perspectives: medical (1), phenomenological (2), psychosomatic and socio-anthropological (3). This first article discusses four distinct types of representation of the body within medicine, each related to a specific epistemology and shaping a distinct kind of clinical legitimacy: the body-object of anatomy, the body-machine of physiology, the cybernetic body of biology, the statistical body of epidemiology.

  5. Constitutive and ligand-induced TCR degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Essen, Marina; Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Siersma, Volkert

    2004-01-01

    divergent models for TCR down-regulation and degradation have been suggested. The aims of this study were to determine the rate constants for constitutive and ligand-induced TCR degradation and to determine whether the TCR subunits segregate or are processed as an intact unit during TCR down...... to the lysosomes. Similar results were obtained in studies of primary human Vbeta8+ T cells stimulated with superantigen. Based on these results, the simplest model for TCR internalization, sorting, and degradation is proposed.......Modulation of TCR expression levels is a central event during T cell development and activation, and it probably plays an important role in adjusting T cell responsiveness. Conflicting data have been published on down-regulation and degradation rates of the individual TCR subunits, and several...

  6. Constitutive model with time-dependent deformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsbøll, Anette

    1998-01-01

    In many geological and Engineering problems it is necessary to transform information from one scale to another. Data collected at laboratory scale are often used to evaluate field problems on a much larger scale. This is certainly true for geological problems where extreme scale differences...... are common in time as well as size. This problem is adressed by means of a new constitutive model for soils. It is able to describe the behavior of soils at different deformation rates. The model defines time-dependent and stress-related deformations separately. They are related to each other and they occur...... simultanelously. The model is based on concepts from elasticity and viscoplasticity theories. In addition to Hooke's law for the elastic behavior, the framework for the viscoplastic behavior consists, in the general case (two-dimensional or three-dimensional), of a yield surface, an associated flow rule...

  7. Constituting objectivity: Transcendental perspectives on modern physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Jonathan

    2012-05-01

    There is increasing interest in exploring Kantian approaches in the study of the history and philosophy of physics. The most well-known examples of this trend-Friedman's (2001), Ryckman's (2005) and DiSalle's (2006)-focus on Kantianism in the context of the development of the general theory of relativity. The edited collection Constituting Objectivity seeks to develop key Kantian insights-in the most part-in the context of later developments in physics: as well as discussing relativity the volume also provides Kantian interpretations of Bohr's development of quantum theory and continues to provide Kantian insight from later interpretations of quantum mechanics all the way through to considering noncommutative geometry and loop quantum gravity. The volume contains papers on a wide variety of subjects and offers an essential introduction to the breadth of Kantian trends in modern physics.

  8. Comparative oncology: Integrating human and veterinary medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancer constitutes the major health problem both in human and veterinary medicine. Comparative oncology as an integrative approach offers to learn more about naturally occurring cancers across different species. Canine models have many advantages as they experience spontaneous disease, have many genes similar ...

  9. The Causes of Failure of the European Constitution From the Perspective of the Constitution-Making Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Podolnjak

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic argument of the article is that the main causes of failure of the European Constitution stem from an inadequate preparation and implementation of a complex procedure of constitution-making for a federation of countries on a continental scale. This process includes the issues of temporal aspects of constitutionmaking, the subject of constitution-making, the text of the constitution, the strategy of constitutional ratifi cation and the constitution-makers themselves. The principal causes of failure of the European Constitution will be presented in the form of certain preliminary assumptions, which will then be examined in the light of certain comparative experiences of constitution-making in two federal systems – the American and the Swiss system. The primary mistakes of the European constitution-making are refl ected in the lack of an appropriate moment for making the constitution, in the vagueness of the document in terms of its constitutional or contractual quality, in the creation of a text of the Constitution which is completely incomprehensible to the average citizen, in the making of the Constitution without a vision or ambition, in the complete lack of any strategy of ratifi cation of the Constitution, in the insistence on the direct participation of the people in the adoption of the Constitution, which is legally and politically considered primarily an international treaty, and in badly managed media presentation and defence of the Constitution before the European public. The most important mistakes, crucial to the failure of the Constitution, are the ambivalent approach of the European constitutionmakers to the mode of ratifi cation of the Constitution, and their disregard of the constitution-making experience of other federal countries.

  10. 3 CFR 8418 - Proclamation 8418 of September 16, 2009. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Americans have a solemn obligation to participate in our democracy so that it remains vibrant, strong, and responsive to the needs of our citizens. To succeed, the democracy established in our Constitution requires... as leaders of civic, social, and educational organizations, to conduct ceremonies and programs that...

  11. 77 FR 57981 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Vol. 77 Tuesday, No. 181..., Constitution Week, 2012 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 181... duties and responsibilities of citizenship, the Congress, by joint resolution of February 29, 1952 (36 U...

  12. The Balancing Act between the Constitutional Right to Strike and the Constitutional Right to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    While the South African Constitution enshrines both children's right to a basic education and teachers' right to strike, conflict between these two often occurs when the way in which teachers' unions conduct strike actions detracts from learners' education. This article identifies the parties affected by industrial action in the school context,…

  13. 76 FR 58705 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... September 21, 2011 Part V The President Proclamation 8714--Constitution Day and Citizenship Day..., delegates from the States gathered in Philadelphia to build a new framework for our young republic. Our....) [FR Doc. 2011-24438 Filed 9-20-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ...

  14. Global Survey of National Constitutions : Mapping Constitutional Commitments to Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berro Pizzarossa, Lucia; Perehudoff, Katrina

    2017-01-01

    General Comment No. 22, issued in 2016 by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR), clarifies states' legal duties to respect, protect, and fulfill the right to sexual and reproductive health (SRH). Our study analyzes domestic constitutions around the world to investigate

  15. Global survey of national constitutions : Mapping constitutional commitments to sexual and reproductive health and rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berro Pizzarossa, Lucia; Perehudoff, Katrina

    2017-01-01

    General Comment No. 22 clarifies States’ legal duties to respect, protect, and fulfill the right to sexual and reproductive health (SRH). Our study analyzes domestic constitutions to investigate whether and to what extent the provisions respect, protect, and/or fulfil the right to sexual and

  16. Transfusion Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Sibinga CT

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cees Th. Smit Sibinga ID Consulting, Zuidhorn, The NetherlandsTransfusion Medicine is a bridging science, spanning the evidence-based practice at the bedside with the social sciences in the community.     Transfusion Medicine starts at the bedside. Surprisingly, only recently that has become rediscovered with the development of ‘patient blood management’ and ‘patient centered’ approaches to allow the growth of an optimal and rational patient care through supportive hemotherapy – safe and effective, affordable and accessible.1    Where transfusion of blood found its origin in the need of a patient, it has drifted away for a long period of time from the bedside and has been dominated for almost a century by laboratory sciences. At least the first ten editions of the famous and well reputed textbook Mollison’s Blood Transfusion in Clinical Medicine contained only a fraction on the actual bedside practice of transfusion medicine and did not focus at all on patient blood management.2    This journal will focus on all aspects of the transfusion chain that immediately relate to the bedside practice and clinical use of blood and its components, and plasma derivatives as integral elements of a human transplant tissue. That includes legal and regulatory aspects, medical, ethical and cultural aspects, pure science and pathophysiology of disease and the impact of transfusion of blood, as well as aspects of the epidemiology of blood transfusion and clinical indications, and cost-effectiveness. Education through timely and continued transfer of up to date knowledge and the application of knowledge in clinical practice to develop and maintain clinical skills and competence, with the extension of current educational approaches through e-learning and accessible ‘apps’ will be given a prominent place.

  17. Transfusion medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murawski, K.; Peetoom, F.

    1986-01-01

    These proceedings contain 24 selections, including papers presented at the conference of American Red Cross held in May 1985, on the Subject of transfusion medicine. Some of the titles are: Fluosol/sup R/-DA in Radiation Therapy; Expression of Cloned Human Factor VIII and the Molecular Basis of Gene Defects that Cause Hemophilia; DNA-Probing Assay in the Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Genome in Human Peripheral Blood Cells; and Monoclonal Antibodies: Convergence of Technology and Application.

  18. Haptic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Cindy; Mason, Earl

    2009-01-01

    The paper introduces haptic medicine--healthcare based on loving touch for healing and preventing disease. We describe the effects of loving touch (a square inch of our skin has over 1000 nerves) on the body, brain and mind. We describe two web-based health education and media projects. The first, HYPERLINK "http://www.21stcenturymed.org" www.21stcenturymed.org is a place for health practitioners to start learning about touch and resources. The second project, Humans Without Borders, is a multi-lingual self help education website for everyday people. Teaching materials for these projects are based on our previous work with a form of haptic medicine known as psychophysiophilosophy with patients at Stanford Hospital, Kaiser Permanente and Lucille Packard Children's Hospital. We describe psychophysiophilosophy, relate motherly love to recent discoveries in neurosciences and give hints on ways to increase motherly love in each of us. We present a plan for moving into the future by re-introducing haptic medicine into our daily lives through self-help and as an adjunct for current physician practice. There is an exercise in self-help for the reader and an appendix of recent clinical research with profound benefits on the use of human touch for over 40 conditions.

  19. The Theory of Global Governance, Constitutionalization and Comparative Constitutional Law

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blahož, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2013), s. 195-207 ISSN 1805-8396 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : globalization of political culture * global constitutionalism * comparative constitutional law Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  20. Approaches to a constitutional function on theory of crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvan Montoya Vivanco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available After presenting assumptions of neo constitutionalism impact incriminal law, this article raises the possibilities of rebuild contents of categories on crime’s theory towards fundamental principles and rights recognized (explicitly or implicitly in the Constitution.

  1. Constitutive Theory Developed for Monolithic Ceramic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janosik, Lesley A.

    1998-01-01

    With the increasing use of advanced ceramic materials in high-temperature structural applications such as advanced heat engine components, the need arises to accurately predict thermomechanical behavior that is inherently time-dependent and that is hereditary in the sense that the current behavior depends not only on current conditions but also on the material's thermomechanical history. Most current analytical life prediction methods for both subcritical crack growth and creep models use elastic stress fields to predict the time-dependent reliability response of components subjected to elevated service temperatures. Inelastic response at high temperatures has been well documented in the materials science literature for these material systems, but this issue has been ignored by the engineering design community. From a design engineer's perspective, it is imperative to emphasize that accurate predictions of time-dependent reliability demand accurate stress field information. Ceramic materials exhibit different time-dependent behavior in tension and compression. Thus, inelastic deformation models for ceramics must be constructed in a fashion that admits both sensitivity to hydrostatic stress and differing behavior in tension and compression. A number of constitutive theories for materials that exhibit sensitivity to the hydrostatic component of stress have been proposed that characterize deformation using time-independent classical plasticity as a foundation. However, none of these theories allow different behavior in tension and compression. In addition, these theories are somewhat lacking in that they are unable to capture the creep, relaxation, and rate-sensitive phenomena exhibited by ceramic materials at high temperatures. The objective of this effort at the NASA Lewis Research Center has been to formulate a macroscopic continuum theory that captures these time-dependent phenomena. Specifically, the effort has focused on inelastic deformation behavior associated

  2. Keterbatasan Pengadilan untuk Melakukan Pengujian Konstitusional (Constitutional Review): Pengalaman Jepang

    OpenAIRE

    Isharyanto,

    2015-01-01

    The realm of political practice today , a mechanism for checking the legalnorms by the court to ensure the coherence of the legislation of the constitution becomes inevitable (judicial constitutional review ) . Learning the Japanese experience , that constitutionalism is the reconstruction of post-war Japan ystem ystem kenegaran of civil law -based rule by law be a constitutionalism which is based on the rule of law .

  3. STABILITY AND DYNAMICS OF THE CONSTITUTION OF UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Nikolaievna Lazareva

    2014-01-01

    This article contains a brief review of the constitutional events that took place in Ukraine since its Declaration of Independence to the Presidential elections in 2014. The main attention is given to the transformation of the text of the Ukrainian Constitution of 1996 and the legal instruments of its conversion, including acts of the Constitutional Court. The author emphasizes the idea of the similarity of the constitutional and legal institutions of Ukraine and Russia, comparing them with e...

  4. The Constitution of the Cultural Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Seydel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the first half of the twentieth century, the sociologist Maurice Halbwachs and the literary critic and philosopher Walter Benjamin, published a pioneering work on the social dimension of memory as well as the first considerations about the transmission of personal experience and of what a member of a collectivity heard. Although both emphasize the importance of oral communication,it is possible to glimpse, in both texts, the seed for what since the 1980’s began to be called “cultural memory”, a memory that’s not only created on thebasis of oral stories and the everyday inteaction —that is to say, the mediumof the voice— but through the use of various media. These allow to store anddivulge the versions of the past in larger spaces than those which constitute thememory surroundings of which Halbwachs talked. Jan Assmann describes th estabilization processes of cultural memory on which the various institutionsand media intervene, while Astrid Erll explores the dynamization processes of cultural memory that occur in our current mediatic societies through remediatizationand premediatization, as well as the biggest accessibility of electronicmedia for a wide audience. Thus, it is possible to articulate memory latenciesand to question hegemonic versions of the past.

  5. Financial Accounting Constitution or its Referential Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae Feleaga

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Using a simplified approach it may be stated that the financial accounting theoretical framework is structured on three levels. At the first level, reference is made to the accounting objectives. These objectives are fundamental for the theoretical framework. At the second level, we find the accounting information characteristics and explicit mentions about the headings of financial statements. The mentioned characteristics of accounting information represent the basic issues for ensuring its utility. The headings represent the main categories of elements disclosed in the financial statements, like assets and liabilities – these two elements’ definitions brought radical changes both in the accounting thinking and practices. Overall, the second level’s components represent the basis for building the practice directives as a matter of recognition (identification and measurement (evaluation. Inside the third level, the recognition and measurement directives are being detailed, which will be further used by the accounting specialist in order to identify and apply the accounting standards. These two directives enclose postulates, principles and restrictions. Such specifications prove to be useful whenever precise answers must be given to relative financial information issues. Usually, it is accepted that the theoretical framework, also called the accounting framework is the standard-setting, metaphorically speaking is actually the constitution of financial accounting, or in other words, its reference matrix.

  6. [Body constitution in children in Cuentepec, Morelos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Rodríguez, R M

    1981-01-01

    A somatometric estimation of the body constitution was made in 87 females and 72 males applying the values of weight and height, the muscle circumference and medial section of the left arm and fat area of that section. The material represented 28.57 and 23.61% respectively of the total number of the 5 to 19 years-old inhabitants of the Nahua community of Cuentepec, Morelos. Weight and height, -but specially the latter-were impaired, both in males as in females, but more markedly in the latter. The weight as expected for the height was not affected. The behavior of the total area of the arm was quite similar to that of the body weight. In contrast, in females under 14 years old, the muscle area of the arm was located as an average, slightly below the limits of normality; subsequently, it was normal. In males it was significantly lower than in females. The fat area was the most deteriorated and the defect was persistently greater in females than in males. All this means protection mechanisms of the active tissue mass (homeorrhesis) leading to a greater resistance in females, but at the same time, being responsible for a decrease in magnitude of the somatometric expression of the sexual dimorphism.

  7. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Parents - or Other Adults Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth > For Teens > Complementary and Alternative Medicine Print ... replacement. continue How Is CAM Different From Conventional Medicine? Conventional medicine is based on scientific knowledge of ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a ... top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging is ...

  9. Medicines by Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Science Education > Medicines By Design Medicines By Design Spotlight Nature's Medicine Cabinet A Medicine's Life Inside ... Free Booklet | Feedback | More Publications | Search Publications Social Media Links Bookmark & Share Free Subscriptions Twitter Facebook Instagram ...

  10. Unquenched thirst: the need for a constitutionally recognized right to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As demonstrated in South Africa, the codification of the right to water in its constitution has improved access to adequate water, sparked government concern and action on water and sanitation issues, and provided citizens with various avenues to compel government adherence to the constitutional right. Is constitutional ...

  11. Legitimacy of the Vidovdan Constitution and relationships established thereby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksić Sava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Vidovdan Constitution (1921 was the first constitution of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians. Serbian ruling parties advocated that the constitution should be adopted in Parliament by a simple majority vote of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians all together, considering that it was to be the constitution of 'one nation with three names'. On the other hand, Croatian and Slovenian parties took the position that the constitution should be approved by a majority vote of each of the three nations (Serbs, Croats and Slovenians separately. The Constitution was adopted on Vidovdan (St. Vitus Day, on 28th June 1921, by the Serbian and Muslim majority. However, this constitution was not legitimate, because the provisions it rested on were not approved by the parliamentary majority of each nation separately but by the parliamentary majority of all nations together, where the three nations had unequal number of representative. Under the Vidovdan Constitution, the territory of the state was centralized, church authorities did not have the status of state authority, and the Church was only acknowledged the status of an autonomous organization. This Constitution established constitutional monarchy as a form of government. It further envisaged that the King did not have any authorities outside the Constitution, and that there were no authorities that could not be taken away from him under the Constitution.

  12. Avoiding Mazibuko : water security and constitutional rights in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 2009 judgment by the Constitutional Court of South Africa in Mazibuko v City of Johannesburg is seen by many as a watershed in the interpretation of the fundamental constitutional right of access to water. The Constitutional Court ruled that the right of access to sufficient water does not require that the state provide ...

  13. ALL ABOUT WORDS ON THE PROCEDURE OF CONSTITUTIONAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'unconstitutional declaration of unconstitutionality' of laws in Melaku's case. ... employed in the process of adjudicating constitutional issues, the ' law to re-enact for .... interpretation, but even then, courts do not follow civil procedures like that of civil suit. Constitutional interpretation is all about maintaining constitutionalism.

  14. Reflections on the Establishment of Constitutional Government in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varat, Jonathan D.

    Establishing constitutional government involves not simply the creation of a written document that purports to create the political structure of a nation and guarantee rights to its people, but "constitutionalism" in the sense of meaningful and effective adherence to constitutional norms of democratic organization and the protection of…

  15. BOOK REVIEW Gyorfi T Against the New Constitutionalism (Edward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    2017-05-16

    May 16, 2017 ... Review. This notable addition to the series Elgar Monographs in Constitutional and. Administrative Law is a thought-provoking contribution to the "legal versus political constitutionalism" debate. The author, a Hungarian scholar working in the UK, takes a sceptical view of constitutional judicial review. He.

  16. CHAPTER FOUR LİBERTY AND TURKISH CONSTITUTIONS:

    OpenAIRE

    FENDOĞLU, Doç.Dr.Hasan Tahsin

    2014-01-01

    CHAPTER FOUR LIBERTY AND TURKISH CONSTITUTIONS: Doç.Dr.Hasan Tahsin FENDOĞLU ABSTRACT: Turkish Constitution of 1982 is the first and only Turkish Constitution that has a main purpose on strengthening the political power not the liberty or democr...

  17. Zelalem Eshetu Degifie Abstract The Constitution of the Federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This amending formula which is built-in the constitution serves to confine the right to amend within the prescribed legal ... Trends in Africa and Their Potential Impact on Constitutionalism, 1, 20-21 (Paper Presented at the World Congress .... eternity clauses which define the immutable elements of the constitution. At this time,.

  18. do the new Zimbabwean constitutional provisions on judicial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RV

    BA English (Solusi University); LLB, LLM (University of Fort Hare) and and is currently undertaking a .... The Constitution of Zimbabwe stipulates, in line with international norms, that no person or organ of ..... Ex Parte Chairperson of the Constitutional Assembly: in re Certification of the Constitution of the. Republic of South ...

  19. Human Rights under the Ethiopian Constitution: A Descriptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article summarizes human rights under the Ethiopian Constitution (mainly surrounding Chapter 3 of Constitution and related constitutional provisions on human and democratic rights), and forwards some insights. It, inter alia, covers various aspects of the application and interpretation of human rights provisions, ...

  20. Constitutive Laws for Geomaterials Lois constitutives pour les géomatériaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papamichos E.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An abundance of constitutive laws exists to approximate the behavior of geomaterials under various stresses, boundary conditions and loading paths, pore pressures, temperatures and so on. The construction of constitutive laws is driven by two competing trends: the tendency for a unifying law describing the material behavior under the most general conditions, and the need for laws that can be used efficiently in practice. The latter incorporates both the possibility of calibration from available specimens and the user-friendliness of the law. For engineering purposes, the second tendency dominates and the engineer scientist has to evaluate the problem and select the most appropriate model to describe the dominant phenomena on hand. A review of various constitutive laws for geomaterials is presented with an emphasis on their application. Various examples of engineering problems and geomaterials with emphasis on petroleum applications are used to demonstrate that the law must be as simple as possible but not simpler. Il existe un nombre important de lois constitutives permettant d'approcher le comportement des géomatériaux sous diverses contraintes, conditions aux limites et divers chemins de chargement, pressions de pore, températures, etc. L'élaboration de lois constitutives suit deux tendances concurrentes : la tendance à élaborer une loi unifiée décrivant le comportement du matériau sous les conditions les plus générales, et le besoin de lois justifié par une utilisation efficace dans la pratique. La dernière tendance inclut à la fois la possibilité d'une calibration par des essais sur des échantillons disponibles, et la convivialité de la loi. À des fins d'ingénierie, la seconde tendance domine, l'ingénieur doit évaluer le problème et sélectionner le modèle le plus approprié pour décrire le phénomène dominant observé. Dans cet article, un examen des diverses lois constitutives pour les géomatériaux, et en

  1. The Globalizing Turn in the Relationship Between Constitutionalism and Democracy: Some Reiterations from the Perspective of Constitutional Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, Leonard F.M.

    2011-01-01

    This essay compliments Neil Walker's Constitutionalism and the Incompleteness of Democracy: An Iterative Relationshipon, with some historical and constitutional observations. It submits that Walker's analysis is based to a large extent on reasoning derived from a particular continental European

  2. Mountain medicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn; Hjuler, Kasper Fjellhaugen

    2016-01-01

    Travelling to high altitudes is an increasingly popular form of recreational holiday. Individual medical advice may be essential for certain groups of individuals such as patients with chronic disorders, pregnant women or children. This is the second part in a series of two articles on mountain...... medicine. The first part covered high-altitude physiology and medical aspects of objective alpine dangers and the increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation. This part covers altitude sickness, fluid balance, nutrition, and precautions for patients with pre-existing medical conditions, pregnant women...

  3. Post-Revolution Constitutionalism: The Impact of Drafting Processes on the Constitutional Documents in Tunisia and Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsayed, Ahmed Mohamed Abdelfattah

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to address the constitutional paths that followed the Arab awakening in both Tunisia and Egypt. The Tunisian constitutional process, despite some tensions, was largely peaceful and consensual. On the other hand, the process in Egypt of establishing a new constitutional arrangemen...

  4. The spirit of the constitution. The institutionalized unsociability in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savvas MAVRIDIS

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available With this article attempts a comparison of the Greek Constitution of 1975, the constitutions of Germany, USA, Switzerland, Austria, France, UK and Italy on the issue of property relations and general interest, in order to highlight those notified differences relating to these communities and resulted in specific social situations. While the constitutions of the other countries, which are among the most representative democracies of the Western world, are characterized by an increased institutionalization of sociability, the Greek constitution on the issue of general interest takes an antisocial and, at best, neutral attitude. The convergence of the Greek constitution on this issue with the other constitutions is considered a prerequisite for overcoming the crisis and, more generally, for social development. This little effort hopes to contribute to a more social future formulation of the Greek constitution and a corresponding behaviour of Greek society.

  5. Constitution-making in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Saunders

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Constitutions have been made or changed in major ways in more than half the countries of the world in recent decades. This article deals with contemporary approaches to constitution-making, organising the analysis around three key phases: setting the agenda, in terms of both substance and process; design, drafting and approval; and implementation. It argues that, while all constitution-making processes are different, there are some distinctive features of constitution-making in the 21st century that include popular participation, the need to build trust, internationalisation in its various forms and the importance of process. The article canvasses examples of constitution-making practices that have been or are likely to be influential. It identifies and briefly explores some of the key tensions in constitution-making between, for example, international involvement and domestic ownership of a Constitution and public participation and leadership.

  6. Predominant constitutive CFTR conductance in small airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lytle Christian

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathological hallmarks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are inflammation of the small airways (bronchiolitis and destruction of lung parenchyma (emphysema. These forms of disease arise from chronic prolonged infections, which are usually never present in the normal lung. Despite the fact that primary hygiene and defense of the airways presumably requires a well controlled fluid environment on the surface of the bronchiolar airway, very little is known of the fluid and electrolyte transport properties of airways of less than a few mm diameter. Methods We introduce a novel approach to examine some of these properties in a preparation of minimally traumatized porcine bronchioles of about 1 mm diameter by microperfusing the intact bronchiole. Results In bilateral isotonic NaCl Ringer solutions, the spontaneous transepithelial potential (TEP; lumen to bath of the bronchiole was small (mean ± sem: -3 ± 1 mV; n = 25, but when gluconate replaced luminal Cl-, the bionic Cl- diffusion potentials (-58 ± 3 mV; n = 25 were as large as -90 mV. TEP diffusion potentials from 2:1 NaCl dilution showed that epithelial Cl- permeability was at least 5 times greater than Na+ permeability. The anion selectivity sequence was similar to that of CFTR. The bionic TEP became more electronegative with stimulation by luminal forskolin (5 μM+IBMX (100 μM, ATP (100 μM, or adenosine (100 μM, but not by ionomycin. The TEP was partially inhibited by NPPB (100 μM, GlyH-101* (5–50 μM, and CFTRInh-172* (5 μM. RT-PCR gave identifying products for CFTR, α-, β-, and γ-ENaC and NKCC1. Antibodies to CFTR localized specifically to the epithelial cells lining the lumen of the small airways. Conclusion These results indicate that the small airway of the pig is characterized by a constitutively active Cl- conductance that is most likely due to CFTR.

  7. Medicinal cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnion, Bridin

    2015-12-01

    A number of therapeutic uses of cannabis and its derivatives have been postulated from preclinical investigations. Possible clinical indications include spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis, cancer-associated nausea and vomiting, cancer pain and HIV neuropathy. However, evidence is limited, may reflect subjective rather than objective outcomes, and is not conclusive. Controversies lie in how to produce, supply and administer cannabinoid products. Introduction of cannabinoids therapeutically should be supported by a regulatory and educational framework that minimises the risk of harm to patients and the community. The Regulator of Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2014 is under consideration in Australia to address this. Nabiximols is the only cannabinoid on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods at present, although cannabidiol has been recommended for inclusion in Schedule 4.

  8. Report between the President and Constitutional Court and its influence on the functioning of the Constitutional System in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Muçaj

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at clarifying the report between the President and the Constitutional Court. If we take as a starting point the constitutional mandate of these two institutions it follows that their final mission is the same, i.e., the protection and safeguarding of the constitutional system. This paper, thus, will clarify the key points in which this report is expressed. Further, this paper examines the theoretical aspects of the report between the President and the Constitutional Court, starting from the debate over this issue between Karl Schmitt and Hans Kelsen. An important part of the paper will examine the Constitution of Kosovo, i.e., the contents of the constitutional norm and its application. The analysis focuses on the role such report between the two institutions has on the functioning of the constitutional system. In analyzing the case of Kosovo, this paper examines Constitutional Court cases in which the report between the President and the Constitutional Court has been an issue of review. Such cases assist us in clarifying the main theme of this paper. Therefore, the reader will be able to understand the key elements of the report between the President as a representative of the unity of the people on the one hand and the Constitutional Court as a guarantor of constitutionality on the other hand.

  9. [Constitution identification and treatment with acupuncture-moxibustion for menopausal women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Bin; Li, Xiao-Hong; Sun, Zhi-Fang; Mo, Jie; Wang, Jing; He, Long

    2011-12-01

    According to the theory of constitution and disease prevention of Chinese medicine, kidney deficiency, lack of nourishment of the Thoroughfare Vessel and the Conception Vessel as well as qi sufficiency and blood deficiency are taken as the main features of body constitutions of women during menopausal period. Acupuncture-moxibustion treatment before or in the early stage of menopausal period are discussed initially. Methods of tonifying the kidney and regulate qi and blood are held as the main treating principles. Acupuncture points such as Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Shenshu (BL 23), Guanyuan (CV 4) and Baihui (GV 20) are adopted as the main points. And proper stimulation of needling and moxibustion are applied. Thus, a new way of thinking is provided for disease prevention and health keeping of women during menopausal period in China.

  10. Territory in the Constitutional Standards of Unitary States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Markhgeym

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the analysis of the constitutions of seven European countries (Albania, Hungary, Greece, Spain, Malta, Poland, Sweden. The research allows to reveal general and specific approaches to consolidation of norms on territories in a state and give the characteristic of the corresponding constitutional norms. Given the authors ' comprehensive approach to the definition of the territory of the state declared constitutional norms were assessed from the perspective of the fundamental principles and constituent elements of the territory. Considering the specifics of the constitutional types of state territories authors suggest typical and variative models and determine the constitutions of unitary states, distinguished by their originality in the declared group of legal relations. The original constitutional language areas associated with the introduction at the state level, these types of areas that are not typical for other countries.

  11. Constitutional Crowdsourcing to Reconcile Demos with Aristos and Nomos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    After the failed Icelandic experience of constitutional crowdsourcing (2009-2012), some of the country’s legal community, parliamentarians and policymakers affirmed that the constitutional draft proposed by the constitutional council of 25 citizens and approved unanimously on 27 July 2011....... This paper first remarks on how revolutionary and innovative the constitutional crowdsourcing experience was. From Solon, Ephialtes and Cleisthenes that laid out the foundation of democratic Athens, to modern constitutions that have been penned by few people men, regardless of the political system in which...... it is framed, been liberal democracies or authoritarian states. Derrida stated there is a sort of “semantic indeterminacy” at the core of democracy and that constitutional crowdsourcing is a way to intervene in this indeterminacy. The Icelandic example enlightened that there is a way to mediate between...

  12. Constitutive phosphorylation of Shc proteins in human tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelicci, G; Lanfrancone, L; Salcini, A E

    1995-01-01

    cells. In tumor cells with known TK gene alterations Shc proteins were constitutively phosphorylated and complexed with the activated TK. No constitutive Shc phosphorylation was found in primary cell cultures and normal tissues. In 14 of 27 tumor cell lines with no reported TK alterations, Shc proteins...... activated TKs and that the analysis of Shc phosphorylation allow the identification of tumors with constitutive TK activation....

  13. The New Ukranian Constitution: In Pursuit of a Compromise

    OpenAIRE

    Wolczuk, K

    1997-01-01

    This paper analyses the new 1996 Ukrainian constitution as a product of far-reaching compromise; in particular it looks at the resolution of the ‘national question’, the form of government and the issue of socio-economic guarantees. Constitutions are most often perceived as an instrument of restraining governments and providing a bill of civil rights and freedoms. In new states, however, constitutions purport not only to redefine but often to set up the political and socio-economic structures...

  14. Islamization in Malaysia: the constitutional and legal dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Choo, Kah Sing

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines the legitimacy of the Islamization of the politics, society and law in Malaysia. The Islamization plan was carried out by the federal government in the early 1980s under the Mahathir administration. The legitimacy of the Islamization plan is measured against the original intent of the Independence Constitution, with particular reference to the position of Islam in the Constitution. Those constitutional provisions which have been claimed to have granted I...

  15. THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONCEPTS OF THE REFORM TREATY (THE LISBON TREATY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Ciongaru

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon Treaty also known as the Reform Treaty provides only an amendment of the treaties considered as fundamental, namely the Treaty on the European Union and the Treaty on the functioning of the European Union and is the result of the constitutional process triggered by the Laeken Declaration adopted by the European Council. The Lisbon Treaty is still built on the content of the European Constitution from which they eliminated the most controversial provisions, first of all the title of Constitution that might produce concern and panic among the European Union population through the symbolic power it contained, and for Romania this new treaty was the first it signed in quality of a Union member state. Even if does not bear the name of European Constitution, the Lisbon Treaty is a European Constitution for the following reasons: first it is a Constitution because it gathers together most of the fundamental elements of the Constitutional Treaty, even if it does not have the structure or the name thereof, and second the treaties after the Lisbon reform have become small constitutions from the operational viewpoint, they develop the functions of a constitution, limit power and organize the operation of the organization.

  16. Thermodynamic restrictions on the constitutive equations of electromagnetic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, B. D.; Dill, E. H.

    1971-01-01

    Thermodynamics second law restrictions on constitutive equations of electromagnetic theory for nonlinear materials with long-range gradually fading memory, considering dissipation principle consequences

  17. On the constitutional order in/of Italian fascism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Velez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will analyse the fascist regime as a politico-constitutional reality. From a new way of looking at politico-constitutional phenomena, we will interpret them as inscribed on religious grounds. We seek to show that the fascist regime was characterised as having identified the political community as Absolute. It suggests that it appears to constitute a different case in a generic politico-constitutional family of regimes that are characterised as making the political community a supreme good.

  18. Introducing considerations in the Translation of Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritzker, Sonya E; Hui, Ka-Kit

    2014-07-01

    This article introduces the document, Considerations in the Translation of Chinese Medicine, published in PDF form online in both Chinese and English. This 20-page document includes several sections describing why the Considerations is necessary, the specificity of texts in Chinese medicine; the history of translation in Chinese medicine; who constitutes an ideal translator of Chinese medicine; what types of language exist in Chinese medicine; and specific issues in the translation of Chinese medicine, such as domestication versus foreignization, technical terminology, period-specific language, style, polysemy, and etymological translation. The final section offers a brief advisory for consumers, and concludes with a call to further discussion, and action, specifically in the development of international collaborative efforts towards the creation of more rigorous guidelines for the translation of Chinese medicine. The current article provides an overview of several of these sections, and includes links to the original document.

  19. Family medicine in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alemañy Pérez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 50 years, the Cuban health system has been developing a roster of programs to ensure its social mission: to achieve a health status of the population consistent with the priority established by the highest authorities of the country. In response to the call of the Commander in Chief, Fidel Castro Ruz, to create a different doctor and a new specialist that would take into account the needs of the Cuban population; the family doctor model was implemented. Thus, in the decade of the eighties, the “Family Doctor and Nurse Working Program” was established, together with the corresponding polyclinic and hospital. At the same time, comprehensive general medicine as a medical specialty was created to serve the primary health care services. Both actions constituted a vital component in the development of Cuban public health services in recent decades. This article presents an account of the unique characteristics of these processes, while highlighting their impact on health indicators, as well as the participation of this specialty in the training of human resources for the health system.

  20. Complementary and Integrative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical treatments that are not part of mainstream medicine. When you are using these types of care, it may be called complementary, integrative, or alternative medicine. Complementary medicine is used together with mainstream medical ...

  1. Medicines in Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... developing 85 medicines for Alzheimer's. Report Medicines in Development for Arthritis 2014 Report America’s biopharmaceutical research companies are developing 92 innovative new medicines to help the millions of Americans affected ...

  2. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Your Parents - or Other Adults Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... resfriado Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...

  3. Depression - stopping your medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000570.htm Depression - stopping your medicines To use the sharing features ... prescription medicines you may take to help with depression, anxiety, or pain. Like any medicine, there are ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is ... this time is PET/MRI. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's ( ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... previous nuclear medicine exam. top of page What are the limitations of Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine procedures can be time consuming. It can take several hours to days ...

  6. Obstetric medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Balbi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Obstetric assistance made major advances in the last 20 years: improved surgical technique allows quicker caesarean sections, anaesthesiology procedures such as peripheral anaesthesia and epidural analgesia made safer operative assistance, remarkably reducing perioperative morbidity and mortality, neonatology greatly improved the results of assistance to low birth weight newborns. A new branch of medicine called “obstetric medicine” gained interest and experience after the lessons of distinguished physicians like Michael De Swiet in England. All together these advances are making successful pregnancies that 20 years ago would have been discouraged or even interrupted: that’s what we call high risk pregnancy. High risk of what? Either complications of pregnancy on pre-existing disease or complications of pre-existing disease on pregnancy. Nowadays, mortality in pregnancy has a medical cause in 80% of cases in Western countries (Confidential Enquiry on Maternal Deaths, UK, 2004. DISCUSSION The background is always changing and we have to take in account of: increase of maternal age; widespread use of assisted fertilization techniques for treatment of infertility; social feelings about maternity desire with increasing expectations from medical assistance; immigration of medically “naive” patients who don’t know to have a chronic disease, but apt and ready to conceive; limited knowledge of feasibility of drug use in pregnancy which may induce both patients and doctors to stopping appropriate drug therapy in condition of severe disease. Preconception counseling, planning the pregnancy, wise use of drugs, regular follow-up throughout the pregnancy and, in selected cases, preterm elective termination of pregnancy may result in excellent outcome both for mother and foetus. CONCLUSIONS Highly committed and specifically trained physicians are required to counsel these patients and to plan their treatment before and during pregnancy.

  7. African Customary laws and the new constitution of the post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the state can be seen to be in conflict with values of majority, within the society. In the case of this article, those of the African majority versus various rights of the minorities as guaranteed in the Constitution. Keywords: Constitution, Bill of Rights, Human Rights, Gays, Lesbian, Civil Union Act, homophobia, Social Policy.

  8. Constitutional Basis for the Enforcement of ''Executive'' Policies that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this article is to critically reflect on the status and possible constitutional basis for the enforceability of "executive" policies that give effect to socio-economic rights in South Africa. Based on the jurisprudence of courts and some examples of "executive" policies, this article demonstrates that the constitutional basis ...

  9. The U.S. Constitution and Its Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yale Univ., New Haven, CT. Law School.

    The report presents a collection of articles on constitutional issues from a 1976 social studies conference. It is intended to be used by teachers in planning and implementing curriculum materials on development of the U.S. Constitution. The booklet is divided into eight articles. The first article discusses interpretive problems in the formation…

  10. Constitutionalism and Republicanism in the American Founding: 1776-1787.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry, Murray

    1986-01-01

    Illustrates the development of constitutionalism and republicanism from 1776 to 1787. Discusses the Declaration of Independence, arguments leading up to the Revolution, framing of the Constitution based on compromise, and opposing views of the ratification debate, all of which reveal disagreements over the precise meaning of republicanism. (TRS)

  11. The South African constitutional court's use of foreign precedent in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Court or whether it is a characteristic of a court which is confident enough that its independence will remain intact in spite of its looking elsewhere for answers. KEYWORDS: transjudicialism; foreign precedent, comparative judicialism, stare decisis; foreign case law; comparative constitutionalism; Constitutional Court.

  12. Sub-National Constitutions in Ethiopia: Towards Entrenching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4 Thus this paper offers an overview of state constitutions in Ethiopia with a view to highlighting their significance in the public life of Ethiopians. It also provides an analysis of how we can deepen and entrench constitutionalism in the states of ...

  13. Damaging the Legitimacy of the Spanish Constitutional Court

    OpenAIRE

    Urías, Joaquín

    2017-01-01

    The Spanish legislative burdens the Constitutional Court with the task to prevent Catalonia from pursuing independence. To use the Constitutional Court as the main barricade against any attempt at starting the independence process does tremendous damage to the Court itself as it undermines its perception as neutral arbiter and, thereby, its legitimation.

  14. Europe-building through private law : Lessons from constitutional theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mak, C.

    2012-01-01

    Questioning the link between private law and the nation-state that is implied by nationalist perceptions of the law, this paper seeks to find support for a transnational (Europeanist,constitutional-patriotist or cosmopolitan) view on private law in constitutional theory. Normative theories of

  15. The emerging international constitutional order: the implications of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article examines the contours and implications of the emerging international constitutional order. The "constitutional" nature of this order relates to the fact that it contains certain fundamental substantive and structural norms that form a supreme legal framework for the exercise of public power. The substantive elements ...

  16. Constitutional Review and Referendums in Kenya | Kersting | Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2005 the Kenya constitutional referendum failed. This led to a crisis in government which culminated in postelection violence in 2007. In 2008 the new power-sharing agreement re-started a constitutional process, but this time a Committee of Experts was engaged and citizen involvement was smaller. The Committee of ...

  17. Income Tax Assignment under the Ethiopian Constitution: Issues to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article uses the income tax assignment in the Ethiopian Constitution to highlight some of these questions and concerns. There is ample evidence to show that the assignment formula adopted by the Constitution, indeed its predecessor - the 1992 law - was motivated by the desire to divide the power of taxation over ...

  18. Educational Research as a Reflexive Science of Constitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Martin

    2010-01-01

    "Constitution" is a relationship of mutual formation between people and their form of life. Neither can exist without the other. In the 1970s, proposals were made in various social sciences, including anthropology, political science, and sociology, for a new kind of inquiry that would focus squarely on constitution. It would be an explicitly…

  19. Author: IM Rautenbach CONSTITUTIONAL COURT 1995 – 2012 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    Only a few of the cases noted were not reported in the Butterworths Constitutional Law Reports or the South ..... laws and actions of Parliament and actions of the President - see Rautenbach Constitutional Law. 177-178. 27 ...... Magajane v Chairperson, North West Gambling Board 2006 10 BCLR 1133 (CC), 2006 5 SA 250.

  20. a selection of constitutional perspectives on human kidney sales

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bonnie

    Common law includes both the private law and the public law rules. 32. Du Plessis v De Klerk ... doctrine of constitutional supremacy.45 Constitutionalism now meant that the government could derive its ..... international community as a whole and in the enforcement of which all states have interest (Dugard International Law.

  1. Legal Pluralism, Sharia Courts and Constitutional Issues in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Another option is to adopt a hands-off approach whereby the norms and practices of cultural and/or religious groups are permitted to operate and are not necessarily required to meet constitutional and human rights standards. Against the backdrop of the notion of legal pluralism adopted by the FDRE Constitution, this article ...

  2. The constitutional mandate for social welfare – systemic differences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... imperative to provide stronger land and housing rights. Important connections exist between these divergent constitutional imperatives that should be acknowledged to ensure the efficient realisation of social welfare concerns. KEYWORDS: property law; constitutional property law; land law; land reform; restorative justice; ...

  3. New Zimbabwe Constitution and the Right to Health Campaign 2010

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In September 2008 the three main political parties in Zimbabwe signed a Global Political Agreement (GPA), undertaking to engage in the development of a new democratic constitution of over the next 24 months. This project will feed into that process by promoting the inclusion of right to health in the new constitution.

  4. Page 1 CONSTITUTION OF HIBISCITRIN. PART I By P ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IN an earlier paper" the isolation of a new flavonol glucoside, hibiscitrin from the flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa was described. The constitution of the aglucone, hibiscetin was also established as 3: 5: 7:8: 3': 4'; 5'- heptahydroxy-flavone (I) and later confirmed by synthesis.” The exact constitution of hibiscitrin has ...

  5. Legal and Constitutional Evaluation of the Nigerian Sovereign ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The central aim of this paper is to examine the constitutionality of Nigeria's sovereign wealth fund (SWF) which was established in August 2012, pursuant to the Nigeria Sovereign Investment Authority (Establishment etc) Act 2011 (the NSIA Act). The paper reviews and discusses how questions on the constitutionality of a ...

  6. Children's rights in the South African Constitution | Robinson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children were in many respects defenceless victims of discriminatory practices in 'apartheid South Africa'. In fact, discrimination on the basis of gender, race and other inequalities were inscribed in the social fabric of the previous constitutional dispensation. The constitutional dispensation that came into effect on the 27th ...

  7. South Dakota's System of Financing Public Education: Is It Constitutional?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Lee A.

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes the South Dakota system of financing education in light of major cases considering the constitutionality of state finance systems and of the approaches courts have used in determining constitutionality. Examines the particular finance problems that face the school systems of South Dakota. Available from University of South Dakota School…

  8. Constitutional obligations of a person and a citizen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Yu. Ogurtsov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The constitution of the Russian Federation does not contain the list of obligations, but theoretically each legal right is supposed to correspond to a legal obligation. Such conformity is achieved by means of attaching obligations not only by Constitution, but by the branch legislation either.

  9. Alternative medicine studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2011-01-01

    A peer-reviewed, open-access journal about alternative medicine systems including acupuncture, anthroposophic medicine, ayurveda, chiropractic, herbalism and natural products, homeopathy, naturopathy...

  10. Medicines for sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzodiazepines; Sedatives; Hypnotics; Sleeping pills; Insomnia - medicines; Sleep disorder - medicines ... are commonly used to treat allergies. While these sleep aids are not addictive, your body becomes used ...

  11. Medicines for osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teriparatide (Forteo); Denosumab (Prolia); Low bone density - medicines; Osteoporosis - medicines ... when: A bone density test shows you have osteoporosis, even if you have not had a fracture ...

  12. New Constitutionalism for Biosiversity vs. Neoconstitutionalism of Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Carducci

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2177-7055.2016v37n73p255 Based on an “eco-systemic” democracy that seeks to preserve biodiversity through the recognition of the co-evolutionary link between nature and culture, the Andean Constitutionalism emerges as the expression of a counter-hegemonic constitutionalism committed to the construction of a new institutional framework through the inclusion of new participatory and intercultural mechanisms. Departing from western constitutional paradigms, this groundbreaking constitutionalism revisits the “Gaia hypothesis” and legitimizes a real “social contract” among the people and nature, and instead of considering it as an “object” of ownership, exploitation, or conservation, it regards nature as a legal “subject” and primary source of society itself and the Constitution as its “legal grantor and protector”.

  13. Constitutive Modeling of Geomaterials Advances and New Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jian-Min; Zheng, Hong; Yao, Yangping

    2013-01-01

    The Second International Symposium on Constitutive Modeling of Geomaterials: Advances and New Applications (IS-Model 2012), is to be held in Beijing, China, during October 15-16, 2012. The symposium is organized by Tsinghua University, the International Association for Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics (IACMAG), the Committee of Numerical and Physical Modeling of Rock Mass, Chinese Society for Rock Mechanics and Engineering, and the Committee of Constitutive Relations and Strength Theory, China Institution of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, China Civil Engineering Society. This Symposium follows the first successful International Workshop on Constitutive Modeling held in Hong Kong, which was organized by Prof. JH Yin in 2007.   Constitutive modeling of geomaterials has been an active research area for a long period of time. Different approaches have been used in the development of various constitutive models. A number of models have been implemented in the numerical analyses of geote...

  14. STABILITY AND DYNAMICS OF THE CONSTITUTION OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Nikolaievna Lazareva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contains a brief review of the constitutional events that took place in Ukraine since its Declaration of Independence to the Presidential elections in 2014. The main attention is given to the transformation of the text of the Ukrainian Constitution of 1996 and the legal instruments of its conversion, including acts of the Constitutional Court. The author emphasizes the idea of the similarity of the constitutional and legal institutions of Ukraine and Russia, comparing them with each other, and focuses on the need to comply with current legislation by all the legal subjects, primarily in the field of human rights and freedoms. Incompleteness of the constitutional process in modern Ukraine requires development and adoption of new legal solutions based on broad public support.

  15. Do preventive medicine physicians practice medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Paul; Lushniak, Boris D

    2018-02-14

    As some preventive medicine physicians have been denied medical licenses for not engaging in direct patient care, this paper attempts to answer the question, "Do preventive medicine physicians practice medicine?" by exploring the requirements of licensure, the definition of "practice" in the context of modern medicine, and by comparing the specialty of preventive medicine to other specialties which should invite similar scrutiny. The authors could find no explicit licensure requirement for either a certain amount of time in patient care or a number of patients seen. No physicians board certified in Public Health and General Preventive Medicine sit on any state medical boards. The authors propose that state medical boards accept a broad standard of medical practice, which includes the practice of preventive medicine specialists, for licensing purposes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. The brazilian constitution as third generation product: convergence and differences between the latin american constitutionalism and legal garantism theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Urquhart Cademartori

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the phenomenon of the latinamerican constitutionalism, its characteristics, critical issues and its challenges facing the European constitutional models, such as the legal garantism and neoconstitutionalism. That being said, this work compares the recent theoretical proposals within the Latin American constitutional theory with the European tradition. In this way, we delimit the aspects of main Latin American constitutionalism theory and contrast European constitutional theories, such as Ferrajoli’s legal garantism and representatives of neoconstitutionalism such as Dworkin, Alexy, Müller and Haberle. In this work, we seek to understand and explain the so-called "third generation constitutions”, in order to think properly of the Brazilian constitutionalism and the influence of the new legal institutions and procedural safeguards contained in our Constitution which give means to make possible fundamental and social rights. After that, we examine the affinities that Latin American constitutionalism has found in the legal garantism theory, which enables fundamental and social rights, and which has been largely accepted in countries similar to Brazil despite of its European origins.

  17. Constitutionalism in Education for Democracy: The Continuing Relevance of Arguments on Constitutional Government of the American Founding Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, John J.

    This paper contends that the issues of constitutional government debated during the founding of the United States should be in the core curriculum of any school that seeks to educate students to become responsible citizens of a constitutional democracy. For purposes of teaching students, the issues debated by founding-era political thinkers can be…

  18. The Obligations on Government and Society in our Constitutional State to Respect and Support Independent Constitutional Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LWH Ackermann

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Constitutional democracy recognises the ancient democratic principle that government of a country is based on and legitimated by the will and consent of the governed, which is determined by regular multi-party elections based on universal adult franchise. Constitutional democracy limits this principle by subjecting the democratically elected government and the will of the majority subject to a written constitution and the norms embodied in it. Such constitution is enshrined as the supreme law of the country in question. An almost universal feature of modern constitutionalism is a Bill of Rights that forms part of the Constitution and which is designed to protect and enforce individual rights principally, although not exclusively, against the state. Constitutionalism also embodies the principle of the separation of powers. A competent and independent judiciary, with the power to review all legislative and executive conduct that is inconsistent with the Constitution, is regarded, almost universally, as the prime and most effective check on the legislative and executive branches of government. Recently it has come to be realised that for the truly effective and meaningful operation of constitutionalism, other independent state institutions are necessary. The collective objective of these institutions is to ensure that the Constitution in fact produces what it proclaims: that constitutionalism becomes a way of life in all institutional structures. The South African Constitution has clearly designated the judiciary as the prime upholder and enforcer of the Constitution. The Constitution has, however, gone further and makes provision for a variety of independent state institutions whose purpose is to "strengthen constitutional democracy in the Republic". Apart from these state institutions the Constitution also makes provision for other independent bodies designed to play an important checking and balancing role. The regular effective functioning of

  19. Review on medicinal uses, pharmacological, phytochemistry and immunomodulatory activity of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, M; Hamid, A; Khalil, A; Ghaffar, A; Tayyaba, N; Saeed, A; Ali, M; Naveed, A

    2014-01-01

    Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Researchers have discovered some important compounds from plants. The present work constitutes a review of the medicinal plants whose immunomodulant activity has been proven. We performed PUBMED, EMBASE, Google scholar searches for research papers of medicinal plants having immunomodulant activity. Medicinal plants used by traditional physicians or reported as having immunomodulant activity include Acacia concocinna, Camellia sinensis, Lawsonia inermis Linn, Piper longum Linn, Gelidium amansii, Petroselinum crispum, Plantago major and Allium sativum. Immunomodulant activities of some of these medicinal plants have been investigated. The medicinal plants documented have immunomodulant activity and should be further investigated via clinical trial.

  20. La légitimité de la Constitution dans la doctrine constitutionnelle japonaise The Legality of the Constitution in the Japanese constitutional Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Serverin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La Constitution japonaise, promulguée en novembre 1946 et entrée en vigueur en mai 1947, pose à la théorie constitutionnelle un certain nombre de problèmes qui ne sont toujours pas résolus. Adoptée sous occupation américaine, rédigée par les services du GHQ dirigés par le général MacArthur, la Constitution a en outre été promulguée comme une simple révision de la Charte impériale de 1889, dite Constitution de Meiji, alors que par les principes démocratiques nouveaux qu’elle instaurait, elle p...

  1. Prospects of the Constitutional State of Indonesia: Ideas and Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdan Zoelva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia since its inception has asserted itself as a constitutional state. It may be inferred through the clear regulation related to powers and functions of each state institution in the form of checks and balances system, the protection of human rights, the clarity of the principles of democratic mechanism, as well as the guarantee of an independent judiciary. Although the constitution has been set in such a way, efforts to achieve a constitutional state is not an easy road. Nowadays, it seems that the trip of the Indonesian as a constitutional state was still hobbled. A variety of legal issues that disturb the sense of justice continues to emerge one after another. The outcomes of the research indicate that over the last decade, Indonesia has made many changes to realize the ideal of a constitutional state. As it turns out in practice, however, legal development was still far short from the expectations. The success of building a constitutional state can not be measured by the ability to produce legislation and to create or revitalize legal institutions. Moreover, the success of a constitutional state must also be measured by the implementation and law enforcement which able to create justice for all people. Therefore, the main focus of various studies of law and legal policy, must be oriented in the judicial institutions and law enforcement.

  2. The balancing act between the constitutional right to strike and the constitutional right to education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H J (Jaco Deacon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available While the South African Constitution enshrines both children's right to a basic education and teachers' right to strike, conflict between these two often occurs when the way in which teachers' unions conduct strike actions detracts from learners' education. This article identifies the parties affected by industrial action in the school context, and then proceeds to examine educators' right to strike as defined by the provisions of the Labour Relations Act. The unique implications of picketing in the education environment are then discussed, covering relevant questions such as where pickets may be held, the issue of picketing rules as well as unprotected pickets. Even though we are faced with a qualified right to strike as opposed to an unqualified right to education, the South African reality seems to be that striking teachers are handled with kid gloves. It is therefore concluded that the vast range of existing laws regulating protest action should be applied more effectively. One of the most important aspects should be the picketing rules, which should clearly determine whether picketing in fact contributes to resolution of the dispute, and how learners' interests and rights may best be actualised.

  3. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the

  4. Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Asim A.; Trask, Jennifer; Ali, Ather

    2016-01-01

    During 2012, the USDHHS’s Health Resources and Services Administration funded 12 accredited preventive medicine residencies to incorporate an evidence-based integrative medicine curriculum into their training programs. It also funded a national coordinating center at the American College of Preventive Medicine, known as the Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education (IMPriME) Center, to provide technical assistance to the 12 grantees. To help with this task, the IMPriME Center established a multidisciplinary steering committee, versed in integrative medicine, whose primary aim was to develop integrative medicine core competencies for incorporation into preventive medicine graduate medical education training. The competency development process was informed by central integrative medicine definitions and principles, preventive medicine’s dual role in clinical and population-based prevention, and the burgeoning evidence base of integrative medicine. The steering committee considered an interdisciplinary integrative medicine contextual framework guided by several themes related to workforce development and population health. A list of nine competencies, mapped to the six general domains of competence approved by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education, was operationalized through an iterative exercise with the 12 grantees in a process that included mapping each site’s competency and curriculum products to the core competencies. The competencies, along with central curricular components informed by grantees’ work presented elsewhere in this supplement, are outlined as a roadmap for residency programs aiming to incorporate integrative medicine content into their curricula. This set of competencies adds to the larger efforts of the IMPriME initiative to facilitate and enhance further curriculum development and implementation by not only the current grantees but other stakeholders in graduate medical education around integrative medicine

  5. Stochastic Properties of Plasticity Based Constitutive Law for Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, Christian; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    The purpose of this paper is to obtain a stochastic model for the parameters in a constitutive model for concrete based on associated plasticity theory and with emphasis placed on the pre-failure range. The constitutive model is based on a Drucker Prager yield surface augmented by a Rankine cut......-off criterion. The statistics of the material parameters are obtained by applying biaxial test results for plane concrete slabs to the constitutive model using the maximum likelihood method. Response surfaces are used to obtain the statistics for a parameter depending on other previously obtained parameters...

  6. Stohastic Properties of Plasticity Based Constitutive Law for Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, Christian; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to obtain a stochastic model for the parameters in a constitutive model for concrete based on associated plasticity theory and with emphasis placed on the pre-failure range. The constitutive model is based on a Drucker Prager yield surface augmented by a Rankine cut......-off criterion. The statistics of the material parameters are obtained by applying biaxial test results for plane concrete slabs to the constitutive model using the maximum likelihood method. Response surfaces are used to obtain the statistics for a parameter depending on other previously obtained parameters...

  7. Organic Law Of Judicial Guarantees And Constitutional Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto López Freire

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the various unconstitutional and fallacies of the Organic Law of Judicial guarantees and Constitutional Control. For that, there will be a comprehensive collation between the mentioned law and the Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador and force. Through this analysis shows a lack of knowledge of Ecuadorian law or legal science by their authors. This study elucidated, inter alia, the inconsistencies in matters relating to the interpretation of constitutional provisions, full compensation, material and integral; challenge administrative acts, judicial unit.

  8. Book review: Advanced Introduction to Comparative Constitutional Law.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainhoa Martinez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tushnet presents a thoughtful introduction to the field of comparative constitutional law through a review of recent literature and an analysis of the key contemporary issues in constitutional design and structure. In the following lines a review of his book is presented.Book review of Mark Tushnet. Advanced Introduction to Comparative Constitutional Law. Cheltenham; Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014. ISBN (Hb 978 1 78100 731 0 £58.50, ISBN (Pb 978 1 78347 351 9 £12.76.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2887014

  9. Personalized laboratory medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazzagli, M.; Malentacchi, F.; Mancini, I.

    2015-01-01

    Developments in "omics" are creating a paradigm shift in Laboratory Medicine leading to Personalised Medicine. This allows the increasing in diagnostics and therapeutics focused on individuals rather than populations. In order to investigate whether Laboratory Medicine is able to implement new...... diagnostic tools and expertise and commands proper state-of-the-art knowledge about Personalized Medicine and Laboratory Medicine in Europe, the joint Working Group "Personalized Laboratory Medicine" of the EFLM and ESPT societies compiled and conducted the Questionnaire "Is Laboratory Medicine ready...... for the era of Personalized Medicine?". 48 laboratories from 18 European countries participated at this survey. The answers of the participating Laboratory Medicine professionals indicate that they are aware that Personalized Medicine can represent a new and promising health model. Whereas they are aware...

  10. Molecular fingerprinting of the Egyptian medicinal plant Cocculus pendulus

    OpenAIRE

    Shadia, A. Fathi; Fareida, M. El-Saied; Sengab, A.B.; Naglaa, M. Sherif; Osman, A.M.; El-Shaimaa, S. El-Demerdash

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: The genus Cocculus belongs to the family Menispermaceae which comprises about 35 species of shrubs or woody climbers. Only one species, Cocculus pendulus is found in Egypt. This plant is reported to have good medicinal values in traditional system of medicine. Despite the wide occurrence of C. pendulus in the Egyptian deserts, attention was paid only to its distribution and morphological description ignoring the biochemical constitution, the genome makeup and environmenta...

  11. Sleep Medicine Textbook

    OpenAIRE

    Bassetti, Claudio; Dogas, Zoran; Peigneux, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The Sleep Medicine Textbook provides comprehensive, all-in-one educational material (550 pages) structured around the Catalogue of knowledge and skills for sleep medicine (Penzel et al. 2014, Journal of Sleep Research). Written by experts in the field and published by the ESRS, it provides an European approach to sleep medicine education, and represents the knowledge-base for the ESRS-endorsed sleep medicine examinations.The book is available at http://www.esrs.eu/esrs/sleep-medicine-textbook...

  12. Contesting a World-Constitution? Anti-Systemic Movements and Constitutional Forms in Ireland, 1848-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Murray

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent accounts of constitutional development have emphasised commonalities among diverse constitutions in terms of the transnational migration of legal institutions and ideas. World-systems analysis gives critical expression to this emergent intellectual trajectory. Since the late 18th century, successive, international waves of constitution-making have tended to correspond with decisive turning points in the contested formation of the historical capitalist world-system. The present article attempts to think through the nature of this correspondence in the Irish context. Changes to the Irish constitution, I suggest, owed to certain local manifestations of anti-systemic movements within the historical capitalist world-system and to constitution-makers’ attempts to contain – militarily, politically and ideologically – these movements’ democratic and egalitarian ideals and practices. Various configurations of the balance of power in Irish society between ‘national’ (core-peripheral and ‘social’ (capital-labour/‘other’ forces crystallised in constitutional form. Thus far, conservative and nationalist constitutional projects have tended to either dominate or incorporate social democratic and radical ones, albeit a process continually contested at critical junctures by civil society and by the organised left, both old and new.

  13. AASERT: Constitutive and Failure Behavior of Granular Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhou, Min

    2000-01-01

    .... The objective of this research is to obtain material response data and constitutive characterization for these materials at strain rates of up to 105 S-1, to analyze the evolution of load-carrying...

  14. the emerging international constitutional order: the implications of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Tanya du Plessis

    IMPLICATIONS OF HIERARCHY IN INTERNATIONAL LAW FOR THE. COHERENCE AND ... (Zurich); Professor of International Constitutional Law, Universiteit van Amsterdam, The. Netherlands; Extraordinary Professor ..... Covenant on Civil and Political Rights of 1966 (ICCPR) and the International. Covenant on Economic ...

  15. Modernity, Rationality and Constitutional Law in Muslim-Majority Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    Are Islamic law, human rights and constitutionalism compatible? In answering this question, this paper first discusses the concept of modernity (understood in terms of rationality and standardization), analysing its abrupt implementation in the MENA countries and the role that the first modern...... constitutions played in institutionalising a new sort of dominion in the newly established states. Against this background, the paper discusses the relationship between constitutionalism and Shari’a law, presenting this as a clash between two competing normative visions that are conceptually difficult...... to reconcile and which each claim exclusivity and hierarchical superiority. The paper advocates for a deconstruction of the ideas of human rights and constitutionalism in order to allow for the incorporation of elements of Muslim traditions, thus challenging the understanding of human rights...

  16. The Politics-Administration Dichotomy: Toward a Constitutional Perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overeem, P.

    2012-01-01

    The politics-administration dichotomy is much mentioned and often criticized in the Public Administration literature. The Politics-Administration Dichotomy: Toward a Constitutional Perspective, Second Edition offers a book-length treatment of this classical notion. While public administration

  17. New Zimbabwe Constitution and the Right to Health Campaign 2010

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    based organizations that aim to enhance community participation in health through a health literacy approach. This grant will enable CWCH to actively participate in the right to health campaign with a view to having it enshrined in the constitution.

  18. DyNAvectors: dynamic constitutional vectors for adaptive DNA transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clima, Lilia; Peptanariu, Dragos; Pinteala, Mariana; Salic, Adrian; Barboiu, Mihail

    2015-12-25

    Dynamic constitutional frameworks, based on squalene, PEG and PEI components, reversibly connected to core centers, allow the efficient identification of adaptive vectors for good DNA transfection efficiency and are well tolerated by mammalian cells.

  19. Competition is constitutional: Four fallacies in the argument that transmission access constitutes a taking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schotland, S.D. [Gottlieb, Steen & Hamilton, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-11-01

    New transmission regulations may cause a change in property value or property access, however, this alone does not constitute a regulatory taking. In an industry with a long history of regulation and some degree of shared transmission access, the utilities are going to be hard pressed to show that recent open access mandates are in violation of the Takings Clause of the Fifth Amendment. In a recent article, John Rowe and Paige Graening of the NEES Companies argued that transmission access is the twentieth century equivalent of {open_quotes}piracy{close_quotes} - forcing utilities to provide transmission access to third parties violates the Taking Clause of the Fifth Amendment. The authors stated that transmission access represents a permanent physical invasion of property - which is unconstitutional without {open_quotes}just compensation.{close_quotes} The same arguments have been raised by Michigan utilities in a pending court challenge to the retail wheeling experiment ordered by the Michigan Public Service Commission. Rowe and Graening complain that {open_quotes}under the Jolly Roger of open competition{close_quotes} regulators will limit utilities to {open_quotes}mere embedded costs,{close_quotes} thereby committing an act of {open_quotes}piracy.{close_quotes} Contrary to Rowe and Graening`s claim, the flag of competition is better represented by the Stars and Stripes, since orders to provide transmission access at the cost of service do not result in a regulatory taking. Four fallacies led NEES down the gangplank: (1) The authors argued that reductions in the value of an investment are necessarily takings. Regulatory impairment of property value is a fact of life. (2) Contrary to NEES, transmission access does not effect a permanent physical invasion of property. (3) NEES claimed that transmission access defeats reasonable investment expectations. (4) NEES relied on case law that affords utilities the opportunity to realize a profit.

  20. Gagasan Kewenangan Mahkamah Konstitusi dalam Menyelesaikan Perkara Constitutional Complaint Berdasarkan Undang-undang Dasar 1945

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Indah Permata; Indra, Mexsasai; ', Junaidi

    2016-01-01

    The Constitution of the Republic Indonesia 1945 and law of No. 8 of 2011 about Constitutional court haven't constitutional complaint as constitutional court's authority.that's because be important to think again will add constitutional court's authority to complete about constitutional complaint that violation of constitutional right that there is no path of its legal settlement can be handled by the constitutional court. The kind of research can be classified normative law research. The idea...

  1. A simple hysteretic constitutive model for unsaturated flow

    OpenAIRE

    Soldi, Mariangeles; Guarracino, Luis; Jougnot, Damien

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present a constitutive model to describe unsaturated flow that considers the hysteresis phenomena. This constitutive model provides simple mathematical expressions for both saturation and hydraulic conductivity curves, and a relationship between permeability and porosity. The model is based on the assumption that the porous media can be represented by a bundle of capillary tubes with throats or "ink-bottles" and a fractal pore size distribution. Under these hypotheses, hyster...

  2. The Constitution of Intellectual Property as an Academic Subject

    OpenAIRE

    Bellido, Jose

    2017-01-01

    This essay offers a reinterpretation of the constitution of intellectual property as an academic subject by focusing on the work of Thomas Anthony Blanco White (1916–2006). His textbooks were fundamental for the development of ‘intellectual property’ in Britain and the Commonwealth. Not only did they provide the basis for a discipline in the making, their timely publication also helped to connect and, more importantly, constitute a diverse audience of articled clerks, practitioners and studen...

  3. Association and exclusion: the paradox of liberal constitutionalism

    OpenAIRE

    H.N. Hirsch

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that a central paradox of liberal constitutionalism can be found by closely examining the freedom of association.  Freedom of association includes the right not to associate; thus a regime of individual rights facilitates the creation of marginalized individuals and groups.  These groups then seek social recognition, which liberal constitutionalism cannot easily grant, unless the state itself becomes complicit in discriminatory action.  The existence and protection ...

  4. LEGAL SYSTEM IN BRAZILIAN CONSTITUTIONALISM: PERPLEXITIES REFERRING TO CIVIL LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Iribure Júnior, Hamilton da Cunha; Guimarães, Henrique Cassalho

    2017-01-01

    The contemporaneous constitutionalism outlines a new manner to conceive and interpret the legal system, considering the alignment of law with society and society with law in order to emancipate the individual in the factual level. This results in the repercussion of humanization purpose in the Constitution of Federative Republic of Brazil of 1988 in civil law, to the extent of approaching it under a new perspective. However, such relationship involves several aspects which cannot be neglected...

  5. Adaptative displays of body constitution in gravity cyclists

    OpenAIRE

    Siriški, Damjan; Novotný, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate somatotype, body constitution and motor skills of elite cyclists of technical gravity disciplines (freestyle MTB, biketrial) and downhill gravity disciplines (fourcross, downhill) and to characterize the impact of specific training process on body constitution and level of motor skills. Test group consisted of 30 riders (15 technical gravity disciplines, 15 downhill gravity disciplines). We used Heath-Carter method to define somatotype and Matiegk...

  6. Adaptive displays of body constitution in gravity cyclists

    OpenAIRE

    Siriški Damjan; Novotný Jan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate somatotype, body constitution and motor skills of elite cyclists of technical gravity disciplines (freestyle MTB, biketrial) and downhill gravity disciplines (fourcross, downhill) and to characterize the impact of specific training process on body constitution and level of motor skills. Test group consisted of 30 riders (15 technical gravity disciplines, 15 downhill gravity disciplines). We used Heath-Carter method to define somatotype and Matiegk...

  7. Constitutional Model and Rationality in Judicial Decisions from Proportionality Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Feio, Thiago Alves

    2016-01-01

    In the current legal systems, the content of the Constitutions consists of values that serve to limit state action. The department in charge of the control of this system is, usually, the Judiciary. This choice leads to two major problems, the tension between democracy and constitutionalism and the subjectivity that control. One of the solutions to subjectivity is weighting of principles through the proportionality technique, which aims to give rational decisions. This technique doesn’t elimi...

  8. Wide variation in understanding about what constitutes 'binge-drinking'

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Richard; David P French; Falko F. Sniehotta

    2010-01-01

    Two studies investigated undergraduates' knowledge of the UK government recommendations about binge drinking and sensible drinking, and also examined how labelling oneself as a binge drinker is associated with binge drinking perceptions. In Study 1, 325 undergraduates reported how many units constitute binge drinking, and labelled themselves as a 'binge drinker' or 'non-binge drinker'. Participants overestimated how many units constitute binge drinking relative to the UK government recommenda...

  9. Constitutional Reform and Political Participation in the Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    Khalaf, Abdulhadi; Luciani, Giacomo

    2006-01-01

    Abstract : This collection of ten essays adds a new and original perspective to the debate on political reform in the Gulf countries which has intensified in recent years. Rather than couching the issue in the more frequently heard terms of authoritarianism vs. democratization, the book focuses on the evolution of Gulf constitutions and on the widening of political participation. It is shown that constitutional reforms have served the purpose of consolidating the absolute power of the rulers,...

  10. Constitutional Principles of State Control in the Republic of Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel K. Balayan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article some of the provision of the RA Constitution’s basic principles of state control, which, in my opinion, should be guided by regulatory authorities during the inspection are discussed. These principles are considered by the author as the basis of the constitutionality of state control. Some of the control principles are divided by the author into positive and negative. Positive defines the principles that provide the freedom of action of man and citizen. Negative same principles are for government agencies, since they restrict their activities. A separate analysis is subject to the presidency on the basis of the principle of separation and balance of powers. In conclusion, author concludes that, based on the interpretation of the constitutional principles discussed, the term "law" applies only to natural and legal persons on the other hand can not be used as an analogue of the terms "authority" and "authority." According to the author, the fundamental constitutional principles of state control are expressed formally in a single system as defined in the first chapter of the Constitution of the Republic of Armenia. Compliance and reform of constitutional principles provide the synergy and the constitutionality of the process of governance.

  11. Relationships among Constitution, Stress, and Discomfort in the First Trimester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Ling Wang

    2012-01-01

    trimester of pregnancy. We adopted a descriptive and correlational research design and collected data from 261 pregnant women during their first trimester in southern Taiwan using structured questionnaires. Results showed that (1 stress was significantly and positively correlated with Yang-Xu, Yin-Xu, and Tan-Shi-Yu-Zhi constitutions, respectively; (2 Yin-Xu and Tan-Shi-Yu-Zhi constitutions had significant correlations with all symptoms of discomfort, while Yang-Xu had significant correlations with all symptoms of discomfort except for “running nose”; (3 Tan-Shi-Yu-Zhi constitution and stress were two indicators for “fatigue”; Tan-Shi-Yu-Zhi was the indicator for “nausea”; Yang-Xu and Yin-Xu were indicators for “frequent urination.” Our findings also indicate that stress level affects constitutional changes and that stress and constitutional change affect the incidence of discomfort. This research can help healthcare professionals observe these discomforts and provide individualized care for pregnant women, to nurture pregnant women into neutral-type constitution, minimize their levels of discomfort, and promote the health of the fetus and the mother.

  12. Right to Freedom of Speech and Expression (constitutional legal framework and Constitutional Court practice in the Republic of Croatia)

    OpenAIRE

    Mato Arlović

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the connection and inter relationship of freedom as the highest value of constitutional order of the Republic of Croatia and the highest ideal of contemporary democracy and constitutional state with the right to freedom of speech and expression. By analysing that interrelationship, the intention to confirm the thesis that the right to freedom of speech and expression is just one (albeit very important)human right and fundamental freedom arises. It has been extracted from f...

  13. Rate constitutive theories for ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids: polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surana, K. S.; Nunez, D.; Reddy, J. N.; Romkes, A.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents development of rate constitutive theories for compressible as well as in incompressible ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids, i.e., polymeric fluids in Eulerian description. The polymeric fluids in this paper are considered as ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids in which the stress rate of a desired order, i.e., the convected time derivative of a desired order ` m' of the chosen deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor, and the heat vector are functions of density, temperature, temperature gradient, convected time derivatives of the chosen strain tensor up to any desired order ` n' and the convected time derivative of up to orders ` m-1' of the chosen deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor. The development of the constitutive theories is presented in contravariant and covariant bases, as well as using Jaumann rates. The polymeric fluids described by these constitutive theories will be referred to as ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids due to the fact that the constitutive theories are dependent on the orders ` m' and ` n' of the convected time derivatives of the deviatoric Cauchy stress and conjugate strain tensors. The highest orders of the convected time derivative of the deviatoric Cauchy stress and strain tensors define the orders of the polymeric fluid. The admissibility requirement necessitates that the constitutive theories for the stress tensor and heat vector satisfy conservation laws, hence, in addition to conservation of mass, balance of momenta, and conservation of energy, the second law of thermodynamics, i.e., Clausius-Duhem inequality must also be satisfied by the constitutive theories or be used in their derivations. If we decompose the total Cauchy stress tensor into equilibrium and deviatoric components, then Clausius-Duhem inequality and Helmholtz free-energy density can be used to determine the equilibrium stress in terms of thermodynamic pressure for compressible fluids and in terms of mechanical pressure for incompressible fluids, but the second

  14. The Constitutionality of a Biological Father's Recognition as a Parent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Louw

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increased recognition afforded to biological fathers as legal parents, the Children's Act 38 of 2005 still does not treat fathers on the same basis as mothers as far as the automatic allocation of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned. This article investigates the constitutionality of the differential treatment of fathers in this respect, given South Africa's international obligations, especially in terms of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, to ensure that both parents have common responsibilities for the upbringing of their child. After a brief consideration of the constitutionality of the mother's position as parent, the constitutionality of the father's position is investigated, firstly, with reference to Section 9 of the Constitution and the question of whether the differentiation between mothers and fathers as far as the allocation of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned, amounts to unfair discrimination. The inquiry also considers whether the differentiation between committed fathers (that is, those who have shown the necessary commitment in terms of Sections 20 and 21 of the Children's Act to acquire parental responsibilities and rights and uncommitted fathers may amount to discrimination on an unspecified ground. Since the limitation of the father's rights to equality may be justifiable, the outcomes of both inquiries are shown to be inconclusive. Finally, the legal position of the father is considered in relation to the child's constitutional rights – the rights to parental care and the right of the child to the paramountcy of its interests embodied in Section 28 of the Constitution. While there appears to be some justification for the limitation of the child's right to committed paternal care, it is submitted that an equalisation of the legal position of mothers and fathers as far as the automatic acquisition of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned, is not

  15. Evaluation of potential crushed-salt constitutive models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Sambeek, L.L. Van; Chen, R.; Pfeifle, T.W.; Nieland, J.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Dept.

    1995-12-01

    Constitutive models describing the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Ten constitutive models with potential to describe the phenomenological and micromechanical processes for crushed salt were selected from a literature search. Three of these ten constitutive models, termed Sjaardema-Krieg, Zeuch, and Spiers models, were adopted as candidate constitutive models. The candidate constitutive models were generalized in a consistent manner to three-dimensional states of stress and modified to include the effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt was used to determine material parameters for the candidate constitutive models. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the hydrostatic consolidation tests, the shear consolidation tests, and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic tests produces three sets of material parameter values for the candidate models. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the models. To evaluate the predictive capability of the candidate models, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the models to predict the test data, the Spiers model appeared to perform slightly better than the other two candidate models. The work reported here is a first-of-its kind evaluation of constitutive models for reconsolidation of crushed salt. Questions remain to be answered. Deficiencies in models and databases are identified and recommendations for future work are made. 85 refs.

  16. Evaluation for rheological constitutive relations, using the indentation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lei

    1992-01-01

    A simple experimental method of determining the rheological constitutive relations is proposed. The method relies upon an analysis of the frictionless contact of a rigid spherical indenter and the rheological materials. The proposal addresses problems in two fields: rheological constitutive models and contact mechanics. It attempts to evaluate the rheological constitutive relations using an indentation technique. A systematic, optimization-based material parameter/function indentation model is proposed. The identification algorithm is based on a modified Marquardt-Levenberg method. A new integral constitutive equation for viscoelastic materials is derived. The derivation is carried out so that a damage function is included in the model in a relatively convenient form. Inclusion of damage effects makes this constitutive equation considerably more general than the widely accepted K-BKZ integral model. The single-step and double-step stress relaxation indentation experiments on asphalt materials were performed. The K-BKZ, Wagner, and nonlinear Volterra models were evaluated. It is demonstrated that the new integral constitutive model shows a very good agreement with the experimental data. The idea of damage function is introduced not only to have a better fit of data, but the damage (or irreversibility) is observed experimentally. Also, the creep indentation tests on composites were presented. A multiaxial theory of creep deformation for particle-strengthened metal matrix composites (Zhu-Weng Theory) was evaluated. The goal of the proposed research is to develop the indentation technique for use in basic mechanical studies. From the indentation test, material response is measured. The data are used in conjunction with the material parameter identification model to optimally back calculate the constitutive relations.

  17. Herbal medicinal oils in traditional Persian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedi, Azadeh; Zarshenas, Mohammad M; Sohrabpour, Maryam; Zargaran, Arman

    2013-09-01

    In Iran, conventional production methods of herbal oils are widely used by local practitioners. Administration of oils is rooted in traditional knowledge with a history of more than 3000 years. Scientific evaluation of these historical documents can be valuable for finding new potential use in current medicine. The current study (i) compiled an inventory of herbal oils used in ancient and medieval Persia and (ii) compared the preparation methods and therapeutic applications of ancient times to current findings of medicinal properties in the same plant species. Information on oils, preparation methods and related clinical administration was obtained from ancient Persian documents and selected manuscripts describing traditional Persian medicine. Moreover, we investigated the efficacy of medicinal plant species used for herbal oils through a search of the PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases. In Iran, the application of medicinal oils date back to ancient times. In medieval Persian documents, 51 medicinal oils produced from 31 plant species, along with specific preparation methods, were identified. Flowers, fruits and leaves were most often used. Herbal oils have been traditionally administered via oral, topical and nasal routes for gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and neural diseases, respectively. According to current investigations, most of the cited medicinal plant species were used for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Medicinal oils are currently available in Iranian medicinal plant markets and are prepared using traditional procedures for desirable clinical outcomes. Other than historical clarification, the present study provides data on clinical applications of the oils that should lead to future opportunities to investigate their potential medicinal use.

  18. Medicinal plants with cholinesterase inhibitory activity: A Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A potential source of AChE and BChE inhibitors is provided by the abundance of plants in nature, and natural products continue to provide useful drugs and templates for the development of other compounds. The present work constitutes a review of the literature on 123 species of medicinal plants that have been tested for ...

  19. CONSTITUTIONAL ECONOMICS APPROACH TO FISCAL POLICY IMPLEMENTATIONS IN TRANSITION ECONOMIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlter ÜNLÜKAPLAN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the "Constitutional Economics", which formes the basic point of view of the application of the Public Choice Theory to the economic policy, it is essential to make an economic analysis of the behavior of the actors who take part in the political process in order to determine the constitutional level of the authorities of the state and the limits of the state. The view that dominated until the beginning of the 1970s in economics was that the state would be able to achieve desirable macroeconomic targets with active demand policies. However, developments that emerged in these years can not be explained by traditional economic theories have brought with it a doubt that they will lead to demandoriented economic policies. The Constitutional Economics Approach, which finds its roots from the Social Contract Theory and Public Choice Theory, argues that the behavior of the units taking part in the political and economic field, questioning the active role of the state, can be transformed into arbitrary applications by acting from the Maximand primacy is regarded as an alternative to active economic policies. In this study, the foundations, assumptions and proposals of the theory of the Constitutional Economics will be examined, then the concept of transition economy will be explained and the role of the state in transition economies will be questioned and the importance of creating a fiscal constitution in this countries will be emphasized

  20. Gospel and constitutional imperatives: the right to life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Giles

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Gospel and constitutional imperatives: the right to life In the Republic of South Africa, Christians are called to live out gospel imperatives within the legal framework of the Constitution. Ethical issues about the right to life are considered from the perspectives of selected gospel and constitutional imperatives. Gospel imperatives impose themselves as a consequence of Christian discipleship. These are many and diverse, both explicit and implicit. Christian vocation, discipleship, witness and perseverance, are foundational and integral to the praxis of Christian daily living. These facets of Christian life are illustrated by the selected gospel imperatives, “Follow me” (Matt. 4:19 and synoptic parallels, “Love God, and your neighbour as yourself” (Matt. 22:34-40 and synoptic parallels, and “Take up your cross” (Matt. 10:38 and synoptic parallels. The central theoretical argument of this article is driven from a reformed ethical perspective. Gospel imperatives have priority over constitutional imperatives since gospel imperatives are of divine origin and constitutional imperatives of human origin. Acknowledgement of these priorities informs the Christian ethical perspective on the right to life and on abortion.

  1. Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Herbal Medicine URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... child is taking as well as vitamins and herbal supplements and if he or she has any ... What are the limitations of Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine procedures can be time consuming. It ...

  3. Alternative and Integrative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for e-updates Please leave this field empty Alternative & Integrative Medicine SHARE Home > Treatment and Care > Treatments Listen Alternative medicine is a term used to define therapies other ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... at birth) or that develop during childhood. Physicians use nuclear medicine imaging to evaluate organ systems, including ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential to ... otherwise, your child may resume his/her normal activities after the nuclear medicine scan. If the child ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bones. liver and gallbladder. gastrointestinal tract. heart. lungs. brain. thyroid. Nuclear medicine scans are typically used to ... A radiologist or other physician who has specialized training in nuclear medicine will interpret the images and ...

  7. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-10-20

    . 1Department of Internal Medicine, General Hospital of Larissa, Larissa, Greece. &Corresponding author: Theocharis Koufakis, Department of Internal Medicine, General Hospital of Larissa, Larissa, Greece. Key words: Still´s ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... function of the thyroid gland. top of page How does the nuclear medicine procedure work? With ordinary ... area of your child's body. top of page How is the procedure performed? Nuclear medicine imaging is ...

  9. Sports Medicine Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Allan J.

    1978-01-01

    Includes a general discussion of sports medicine including exercise and conditioning techniques, prevention of illness and injury, treatment of and rehabilitation after sports injury, and the future of sports medicine. (BB)

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential ... or imaging device that produces pictures and provides molecular information. In many centers, nuclear medicine images can ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page How does the nuclear medicine procedure work? With ordinary x-ray examinations, an image is ... with other imaging techniques, such as CT or MRI. However, nuclear medicine scans are more sensitive than ...

  12. Giving Medicine to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Articulos en Espanol Giving Medicine to Children Share Tweet ... right medicine and the right amount More in Articulos en Espanol Alimentos y Bebidas Cosméticos Dispositivos ...

  13. Doctor of osteopathic medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to practice in any specialty of medicine. However, osteopathic physicians receive an additional 300 to 500 hours in the study of hands-on manual medicine and the body's musculoskeletal system. Osteopathic physicians hold to the principle that a patient's ...

  14. Managing Your Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... workload of the heart. Antithrombotics (Anti-platelet/anti-coagulant medicines): These medicines are used to prevent blood ... preferred platform: Digi-Edition | iOS | Android | Kindle Fire | PDF Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tell your doctor about your child’s recent illnesses, medical conditions, medications and allergies. Depending on the type ... Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material ...

  16. Use Medicines Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chances of side effects from medicines by carefully following the directions on the medicine label or from your pharmacist, ... too much or don’t use them correctly. Following the directions on the Drug Facts label will lower your ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging is performed ... the thyroid gland. top of page How does the nuclear medicine procedure work? With ordinary x-ray ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. jaundice in newborns and older children. epilepsy . location, anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. top ... Epilepsy Images related to Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Videos related to Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Sponsored by ...

  19. Probabilistic risk assessment of veterinary medicines applied to four major aquaculture species produced in ASIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, A.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture production constitutes one of the main sources of pollution with veterinary medicines into the environment. About 90% of the global aquaculture production is produced in Asia and the potential environmental risks associated with the use of veterinary medicines in Asian aquaculture have

  20. Essential Medicines in a High Income Country: Essential to Whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Mai; Moles, Rebekah J; Chaar, Betty; Chen, Timothy F

    2015-01-01

    To explore the perspectives of a diverse group of stakeholders engaged in medicines decision making around what constitutes an "essential" medicine, and how the Essential Medicines List (EML) concept functions in a high income country context. In-depth qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 32 Australian stakeholders, recognised as decision makers, leaders or advisors in the area of medicines reimbursement or supply chain management. Participants were recruited from government, pharmaceutical industry, pharmaceutical wholesale/distribution companies, medicines non-profit organisations, academic health disciplines, hospitals, and consumer groups. Perspectives on the definition and application of the EML concept in a high income country context were thematically analysed using grounded theory approach. Stakeholders found it challenging to describe the EML concept in the Australian context because many perceived it was generally used in resource scarce settings. Stakeholders were unable to distinguish whether nationally reimbursed medicines were essential medicines in Australia. Despite frequent generic drug shortages and high prices paid by consumers, many struggled to describe how the EML concept applied to Australia. Instead, broad inclusion of consumer needs, such as rare and high cost medicines, and consumer involvement in the decision making process, has led to expansive lists of nationally subsidised medicines. Therefore, improved communication and coordination is needed around shared interests between stakeholders regarding how medicines are prioritised and guaranteed in the supply chain. This study showed that decision-making in Australia around reimbursement of medicines has strayed from the fundamental utilitarian concept of essential medicines. Many stakeholders involved in medicine reimbursement decisions and management of the supply chain did not consider the EML concept in their approach. The wide range of views of what stakeholders

  1. Essential Medicines in a High Income Country: Essential to Whom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Duong

    Full Text Available To explore the perspectives of a diverse group of stakeholders engaged in medicines decision making around what constitutes an "essential" medicine, and how the Essential Medicines List (EML concept functions in a high income country context.In-depth qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 32 Australian stakeholders, recognised as decision makers, leaders or advisors in the area of medicines reimbursement or supply chain management. Participants were recruited from government, pharmaceutical industry, pharmaceutical wholesale/distribution companies, medicines non-profit organisations, academic health disciplines, hospitals, and consumer groups. Perspectives on the definition and application of the EML concept in a high income country context were thematically analysed using grounded theory approach.Stakeholders found it challenging to describe the EML concept in the Australian context because many perceived it was generally used in resource scarce settings. Stakeholders were unable to distinguish whether nationally reimbursed medicines were essential medicines in Australia. Despite frequent generic drug shortages and high prices paid by consumers, many struggled to describe how the EML concept applied to Australia. Instead, broad inclusion of consumer needs, such as rare and high cost medicines, and consumer involvement in the decision making process, has led to expansive lists of nationally subsidised medicines. Therefore, improved communication and coordination is needed around shared interests between stakeholders regarding how medicines are prioritised and guaranteed in the supply chain.This study showed that decision-making in Australia around reimbursement of medicines has strayed from the fundamental utilitarian concept of essential medicines. Many stakeholders involved in medicine reimbursement decisions and management of the supply chain did not consider the EML concept in their approach. The wide range of views of

  2. THE MEDICINE OF YESTERDAY

    OpenAIRE

    Sforza, Mario

    2005-01-01

    This article escribes family and popular medicine in the region of the Lake Como at the time of the Second World War. It also describes new developments in herbal medicine and the vertiginous evolution of medicine in the last fifty years.

  3. Annals of African Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Annals of African Medicine is published by the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria and the Annals of African Medicine Society. The Journal is intended to serve as a medium for the publication of research findings in the broad field of Medicine in Africa and other developing countries, and ...

  4. Is Marijuana Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Publications » DrugFacts » Marijuana as Medicine Marijuana as Medicine Email Facebook Twitter Revised April 2017 What is ... isn’t the marijuana plant an FDA-approved medicine? The FDA requires carefully conducted studies (clinical trials) ...

  5. Workflow in nuclear medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laet, G D; Naudts, J; Vandevivere, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses a workflow management system for nuclear medicine. It augments the more conventional PACS with automatic transfer of studies along the chain of activities making up an examination in nuclear medicine. A prototype system has been designed, built, and installed in a department of nuclear medicine, active in a network of hospitals.

  6. Performing Narrative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langellier, Kristin M.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author weaves narrative medicine and performance together to consider what might it mean to call narrative medicine a performance. To name narrative medicine as performance is to recognize the texts and bodies, the stories and selves, that participate in its practice--patients' and physicians' embodied stories as well as the…

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medicine refers to imaging examinations done in babies, young children and teenagers. Nuclear medicine imaging procedures are noninvasive ... exams at the same time. An emerging imaging technology, but not readily available at ... procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging is performed to help ...

  8. New constitutionalism and the social reproduction of caring institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Stephen; Bakker, Isabella

    2006-01-01

    This essay analyzes neo-liberal economic agreements and legal and political frameworks or what has been called the "new constitutionalism," a governance framework that empowers market forces to reshape economic and social development worldwide. The article highlights some consequences of new constitutionalism for caring institutions specifically, and for what feminists call social reproduction more generally: the biological reproduction of the species; the reproduction of labor power; and the reproduction of social institutions and processes associated with the creation and maintenance of communities. New constitutional governance frameworks fundamentally reshape conditions under which the care of human beings takes place. Caring institutions once governed by enabling professions geared to universal care are now determined increasingly by market values and private forces, and driven directly by the profit motive. This is one of the reasons why neo-liberalism is increasingly contested in both the North and the global South.

  9. Probabilistic estimation of the constitutive parameters of polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siviour C.R.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mulliken-Boyce constitutive model predicts the dynamic response of crystalline polymers as a function of strain rate and temperature. This paper describes the Mulliken-Boyce model-based estimation of the constitutive parameters in a Bayesian probabilistic framework. Experimental data from dynamic mechanical analysis and dynamic compression of PVC samples over a wide range of strain rates are analyzed. Both experimental uncertainty and natural variations in the material properties are simultaneously considered as independent and joint distributions; the posterior probability distributions are shown and compared with prior estimates of the material constitutive parameters. Additionally, particular statistical distributions are shown to be effective at capturing the rate and temperature dependence of internal phase transitions in DMA data.

  10. Enacting and Re-Enacting the Constitution of Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum, Louise; Clausen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Many companies find it difficult to enable radical innovation within the organization and its structure. The problem is described by many and tried solved by proposing of new development tools and processes or applying a different organizational structure and culture. This paper presents a case...... study that will show how there in a development company exits a constitution of development. This constitution of development is perceived as a set of development rules and guidelines that are implicitly enacted by the employees and for certain development opportunities. Through the case study we...... will present different strategies for re-enactment of the constitution of development that frame for alternative development spaces with perceived different rules, and therefor make space for the development of a more radical nature....

  11. A Characteristic-Based Constitutive Law for Dispersed Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Biological tissues are typically constituted of dispersed fibers. Modeling the constitutive laws of such tissues remains a challenge. Direct integration over all fibers is considered to be accurate but requires very expensive numerical integration. A general structure tensor (GST) model was previously developed to bypass this costly numerical integration step, but there are concerns about the model's accuracy. Here we estimate the approximation error of the GST model. We further reveal that the GST model ignores strain energy induced by shearing motions. Subsequently, we propose a new characteristic-based constitutive law to better approximate the direct integration model. The new model is very cost-effective and closely approximates the “true” strain energy as calculated by the direct integration when stress–strain nonlinearity or fiber dispersion angle is small. PMID:27138358

  12. Exploring patients' rights: what does the NHS Constitution tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Jean V

    On 8 March 2012, the NHS published the latest version of its Constitution. In this article, the author explores the background of the debate regarding patients' rights and entitlements in the NHS. The author also discusses the provisions of the NHS Constitution, noting that it is largely a statement of existing principles, rather than a bold statement of rights. The paper suggests that, in some instances, its discussion of rights may suggest that patients have broader rights than may in fact be the case. The Constitution is currently under review, and the author recommends that the way forward for a society where the provision of care is likely to be more complex would be the introduction of a Patients' Rights Act.

  13. Constitutive mixed mode model for cracks in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, J.S.; Poulsen, P.N.; Olesen, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    The scope of the paper is to set up a constitutive mixed mode model for cracks in concrete. The model is formulated at macro level and includes the most important micro scale effects. An associated plasticity model inspired by the modified Cam clay model is established. The hardening parameters...... are based on the standard Mode I tensile softening response and the response for Mode I crushing. The roughness of the crack is included through a topographic description of the crack surface. The constitutive behavior is based on the integration of local contributions. The local mixed mode ratio...... is determined from the topographic information and the constitutive model is thereby purely mechanically based. Using the actual topographic description the model is validated against experimental results for mixed mode crack openings....

  14. CONSTITUTIONAL ECONOMICS APPROACH TO FISCAL POLICY IMPLEMENTATIONS IN TRANSITION ECONOMIE

    OpenAIRE

    Ünlükaplan, İlter; Volkan YURDADOĞ; AKÇA, Haşim

    2017-01-01

    According to the "Constitutional Economics", which formes the basic point of view of the application of the Public Choice Theory to the economic policy, it is essential to make an economic analysis of the behavior of the actors who take part in the political process in order to determine the constitutional level of the authorities of the state and the limits of the state. The view that dominated until the beginning of the 1970s in economics was that the state would be able to achieve desirabl...

  15. The constitutive representation of high-temperature creep damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K. S.

    1988-01-01

    The elastic-viscoplastic constitutive equations of Bodner-Partom were applied to modeling creep damage in a high temperature Ni-alloy, B1900 + Hf. Both tertiary creep in bulk materials and creep crack growth in flawed materials were considered. In the latter case, the energy rate line integral was used for characterizing the crack driving force, and the rate of crack extension was computed using a local damage formulation that assumed fracture was controlled by cavitation occurring within the crack-tip process zone. The results of this investigation were used to assess the evolution equation for isotropic damage utilized in the Bodner-Partom constitutive equations.

  16. [Study on the flavanone constitutes of Buddleja davidii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xue-Jing; Li, Chong

    2011-10-01

    To study the chemical constitutes of Buddleja davidii. The constitutes were isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography, polyamide column chromatography and macroporous absorption resin and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Seven compounds including Apigenin (1), Apigenin-7-O-beta-D-glucoside (2), Acacetin (3), Acacetin-7-O-beta-D-glucoside(4), Acacetin-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), Luteolin (6), Luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glueoside (7). All these compounds are obtained from this plant for the first time.

  17. Constitutive models for rubber networks undergoing simultaneous crosslinking and scission.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Aidan Patrick; Curro, John G.; Rottach, Dana R. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Grest, Gary Stephen; Budzien, Joanne L.; Lo, David Chi S.

    2006-01-01

    Constitutive models for chemically reacting networks are formulated based on a generalization of the independent network hypothesis. These models account for the coupling between chemical reaction and strain histories, and have been tested by comparison with microscopic molecular dynamics simulations. An essential feature of these models is the introduction of stress transfer functions that describe the interdependence between crosslinks formed and broken at various strains. Efforts are underway to implement these constitutive models into the finite element code Adagio. Preliminary results are shown that illustrate the effects of changing crosslinking and scission rates and history.

  18. Constitution and magnetism of iron and its alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Pepperhoff, Werner

    2001-01-01

    Iron played an important role in the development of the industrial society and has not lost any of its significance since today. This book provides the foundations of understanding the physical nature of iron and its alloys. Basics and recent developments concerning its constitution and magnetism are presented as well as its thermal properties. The exceptional role of iron with its wide spectrum of most different technological and physical properties relies on its versatility, its polymorphism of its crystal structure and its magnetism. Therefore it is the aim of the book to link together the constitution and magnetism of iron.

  19. MEDICINAL CANNABIS LAW REFORM IN AUSTRALIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Attempts at medicinal cannabis law reform in Australia are not new. However, in historical perspective 2015 and 2016 will be seen as the time when community debate about legalisation of medicinal cannabis reached a tipping point in a number of Australian jurisdictions and when community impetus for change resulted in major reform initiatives. In order to contextualise the changes, the August 2015 Report of the Victorian Law Reform Commission (VLRC) and then the Access to Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2015 (Vic) introduced in December 2015 into the Victorian Parliament by the Labor Government are scrutinised. In addition, this editorial reviews the next phase of developments in the course of 2015 and 2016, including the Commonwealth Narcotic Drugs Amendment Act 2016 and the Queensland Public Health (Medicinal Canna- bis) Bill 2016. It identifies the principal features of the legislative initiatives against the backdrop of the VLRC proposals. It observes that the principles underlying the Report and the legislative developments in the three Australian jurisdictions are closely aligned and that their public health approach, their combination of evidence-based pragmatism, and their carefully orchestrated checks and balances against abuse and excess constitute a constructive template for medicinal cannabis law reform.

  20. Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Visitor Information RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine Small Text Medium Text Large Text Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine YESTERDAY ...

  1. [Metallic Elemental Analysis of Tibetan Herbal Medicines and Tibetan Medicine Preparations by Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray Fluorescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong-xia; Li Cen; Du, Yu-zhi; Wei, Li-xin

    2015-06-01

    To discuss the relationship between metallic element and disease through determine the elementals in Tibetan Herbal Medicines and Tibetan Medicine Preparations that have obvious effect on hepatobiliary diseases by Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Source, then to reveal the substance foundation of pharmacological action. The results show that all the Tibetan Herbal Medicines used in the experiment have the 9 kinds of metallic elements of potassium(K), calcium(Ca), titanium(Ti), vanadium(V), chromium(Cr), manganese(Mn), ferrum(Fe), zinc(Zn) and lead(Pb), the content of the elements are in the ppb or ppm level though the element constitute and the content have obvious difference. Tibetan Medicine Preparations have another 6 kinds of metallic elements of nickel(Ni), copper(Cu), rubidium(Rb), mercury(Hg), cobalt(Co), gallium(Ga) and 1 kind of nonmetallic elements of arsenic(As) when compare with Herbal Medicines, and the element constitute and the content also have obvious difference. Take advantage of SR-XRF, the test gets the basic data of elements of Tibetan Herbal Medicines and Preparations, supply the scientific support to discuss the interaction of pharmacological mechanism and the metallic elements, and find the suitability of the technique for the metallic elements detection in Tibetan Medicines.

  2. Bibliographic guide to publications in aerospace medicine and related topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antuñano, M J

    1993-04-01

    This bibliographic guide is a comprehensive listing of international publications (books) in Clinical Aerospace Medicine, Operational Aerospace Medicine, Aerospace Physiology, Environmental Medicine/Physiology, Diving Medicine/Physiology, Aerospace Human Factors, as well as other important topics directly or indirectly-related to aerospace medicine. This guide will be useful as a primary source of consultation for bibliographic information; especially to those colleagues who are in their formative years, and to those who do not have easy access to computer-aided literature search systems. This bibliographic guide does not constitute a recommendation or an endorsement of any of the publications listed herein and the merits or limitations of each publication should be judged by the reader.

  3. Complementary medicine as a path toward empowerment of Arab-Palestinian women in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper-Giveon, Ariela; Keshet, Yael

    2015-01-01

    Arab-Palestinians in Israel compose a traditional minority population that previously relied on traditional folk medicine and religious healing. Today some among this minority population are adopting imported complementary medicine. We interviewed Arab-Palestinians of the first generation of complementary medicine practitioners. Their decision to study complementary medicine constitutes a path toward empowerment, providing healers with an aura of modernity, enabling integration into the predominantly Jewish Israeli medical establishment to gain professional recognition as experts, and to acquire a sense of belonging. Practicing complementary medicine provides financial independence, liberation, and self-fulfillment and an opportunity to help female patients break through constraining barriers.

  4. Rights of Minors and Constitutional Politics in the German Länder. Legal Framework, Party Strategies, and Constitutional Amendments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Astrid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses constitutional politics in the German Länder in the field of minors’ rights. Since this issue seems a purely legal matter dealt with at the federal, European and international level, we should expect similar, almost identically shaped policies at the Länder level. However, the analysis brings considerable variations of constitutional activities in this field to the fore: time, frequency, and contents of respective initiatives vary significantly in the period from 1999 to 2014. These variations were due to different party strategies, diverging party platforms and majority constellations in the Länder. The analysis also shows that the public arguments brought forward in favour of constitutional amendments refer only weakly and randomly to legal provisions and processes at other levels. The political debate supporting extended children's rights rather refers to general observations, to the specific regional context, and constitutional provisions in other Länder. At least with regard to this issue, the multi-level system did not systematically impact on constitutional politics in the Länder. It rather can be understood as an opportunity structure providing parties with multiple realms in which they can pursue their goals. Thus the study shows that federal and regional party strategies are key factors in explaining policy diffusion in multilevel systems.

  5. Nuclear medicine physics

    CERN Document Server

    De Lima, Joao Jose

    2011-01-01

    Edited by a renowned international expert in the field, Nuclear Medicine Physics offers an up-to-date, state-of-the-art account of the physics behind the theoretical foundation and applications of nuclear medicine. It covers important physical aspects of the methods and instruments involved in modern nuclear medicine, along with related biological topics. The book first discusses the physics of and machines for producing radioisotopes suitable for use in conventional nuclear medicine and PET. After focusing on positron physics and the applications of positrons in medicine and biology, it descr

  6. Economic and social rights in the Constitution of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapajić Milan M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is an attempt of the author to, in a relatively systematic way, presents the norms of Economic and Social Rights in the Constitution of Serbia from 2006. Before that, in the introduction the author refers to the commonplace with regard to human rights and their institutionalization, constitutionalization and internationalization. The process of institutionalization of human rights was started in England by adoption of the Great Charter of Freedoms (Magna Carta Libertatum in 1215. Constitutionalization of human rights begins with the adoption of the first ten amendments to the US Constitution in 1791. French writers of the Constitution unlike the American in Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen proclaimed certain new rights such as freedom of movement, freedom of assembly, the right to free expression of thought, right to petition or freedom of culture. At first human rights were an asset to limit state power, but with new theories by which the state can not be seen only as a political organization, but as a community that has a socio-economic content, the state must guarantee to the citizens a certain corpus of economic and social rights by Constitution. Economic, social and cultural rights are classified as second generation of rights. Economic and social rights are directed to the fact that individuals are brought to the position that they can enjoy their civil and political rights. These rights, known as social welfare, are rights based on the principles of equality and solidarity, and their purpose is, inter alia, to help to the socially vulnerable members of the community. Constitutional act, which is important for the world the constitutional recognition of these rights is the Weimar Constitution from 1919. which predicted legislative measures to implement these rights. For the internationalization of these rights very important is Universal Declaration of Human Rights from 1948 and the International Covenant on

  7. Establishment of a national program for quality control of nuclear medicine instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca Perez, Marco A; Torres Aroche, Leonel A; Bejerano, Gladys López; Mayor, Roberto Fraxedas; Corona, Consuelo Varela; López, Adlin

    2008-12-01

    Monitoring the quality of instrumentation used in nuclear medicine is mandatory to guarantee the clinical efficacy of medical practice. A national program for the quality control of nuclear medicine instruments was established in Cuba and was certified and approved by the regulatory authorities. The program, which establishes official regulations and audit services, sets up educational activities, distributes technical documentation, and maintains a national phantom bank, constitutes a valuable and useful tool to guarantee the quality of nuclear medicine instrumentation.

  8. Essential travel medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Zuckerman, Jane N; Leggat, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This 1st edition of Essential Travel Medicine provides an excellent concise introduction to the specialty of Travel Medicine. This core text will enable health care practitioners particularly those new to the clinical practice of Travel Medicine, to gain a fundamental understanding of the diverse and complex issues which can potentially affect the health of the many millions of people who undertake international travel. Jane N Zuckerman is joined by Gary W Brunette from CDC and Peter A Leggat from Australia as Editors. Leading international specialists in their fields have contributed authoritative chapters reflecting current knowledge to facilitate best clinical practice in the different aspects of travel medicine. The aim of Essential Travel Medicine is to provide a comprehensive guide to Travel Medicine as well as a fundamental knowledge base to support international undergraduate and postgraduate specialty training programmes in the discipline of Travel Medicine. The 1st edition of Essential Travel ...

  9. HLA class II polymorphisms associated with the physiologic characteristics defined by Traditional Chinese Medicine: linking modern genetics with an ancient medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shangwu; Lv, Fengjuan; Gao, Jie; Lin, Jianghai; Liu, Zehuan; Fu, Yonggui; Liu, Yin; Lin, Bin; Xie, Yi; Ren, Xiangpeng; Xu, Yunping; Fan, Xinlan; Xu, Anlong

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether human leukocyte antigen (HLA) polymorphism contributes to the physical constitutions classified in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Seven hundred six (706) individuals of the Han ethnic group inhabiting South China were classified into 7 TCM constitution groups, according to the criteria described in Theories of Physical Constitutions of Traditional Chinese Medicine, and the distributions of HLA-DRB1, DPB1, and DQB1 were investigated using the polymerase chain reaction-sequencing-based typing method. The allele frequencies of DPB1*0501 in the Yin-deficiency group, DRB1*09012 in the Phlegm-wetness group, and DQB1*03032 in the Qi-deficiency and Phlegm-wetness groups were significantly different from that of the corresponding alleles in the Normality constitution, suggesting those alleles might be group-specific alleles and thus related to a particular constitution. Based on our analysis of serological groups of HLA, the associations of DR*04 with the Blood-stasis group and DQ*09 with the Qi-deficiency and Phlegm-wetness groups were observed. This was the first study to systematically investigate the relationship between HLA and TCM constitution using a high-resolution typing technique. The results suggested a genetic basis for the classification of physical constitution in TCM. This study laid the foundation, for the first time ever, toward gaining insight into the theory of traditional medicine using modern biological approaches.

  10. Constitutional and occupational risk factors associated with bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrís, J; Garcia, J; Berbel, O; Ortega, J A

    2013-09-01

    Bladder carcinoma (BC) is the fourth most common type of cancer in males from Western countries, with primary prevention an important healthcare challenge. We review the associated constitutional and occupational risk factors (RF), with greater or lesser scientific evidence, in the aetiology of BC. Literature review of the last 25 years of the constitutional and occupational RF associated with BC, conducted on MedLine, CancerLit, Science Citation Index and Embase. The search profiles were Risk factors/Genetic factors/Genetic polymorphisms/Epidemiology/Occupational factors and Bladder cancer. The main RF were a) age and gender (diagnosed at age 65 and over, with a 4:1 ratio of males to females); b) race, ethnicity and geographic location (predominantly in Caucasians and in Southern European countries); c) genetic (N-acetyltransferase-2 and glutathione s-transferase M1 gene mutations, which significantly increase the risk for BC); d) occupational, which represent 5%-10% of BC RF; and f) occupations with high BC risk, such as aluminium production, the manufacture of dyes, paints and colourings, the rubber industry and the extraction and industrial use of fossil fuels. BC is the end result of the variable combination of constitutional and environmental RF, the majority of which are unknown. The most significant constitutional RF are related to age, gender, race, ethnicity geographic location and genetic polymorphisms. The main occupational RF are those related to aromatic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. the south african constitutional court and the rule of law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cmps073

    of the rule of law, the Court has opted for a context-sensitive, thus more substantive, interpretation of the rule of law. This is evident from the judgment of the. Constitutional Court in President of the Republic of South Africa v South African. Rugby Football Union. 110. The Court made it clear that the power of the President to.

  12. Bladder tissue biomechanical behavior: Experimental tests and constitutive formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, A N; Audenino, A L; Artibani, W; Fontanella, C G; Carniel, E L; Zanetti, E M

    2015-09-18

    A procedure for the constitutive analysis of bladder tissues mechanical behavior is provided, by using a coupled experimental and computational approach. The first step pertains to the design and development of mechanical tests on specimens from porcine bladders. The bladders have been harvested, and the specimens have been subjected to uniaxial cyclic tests at different strain rates along preferential directions, considering the distribution of tissue fibrous components. Experimental results showed the anisotropic, non-linear and time-dependent stress-strain behavior, due to tissue conformation with fibers distributed along preferential directions and their interaction phenomena with ground substance. In detail, experimental data showed a greater tissue stiffness along transversal direction. Viscous behavior was assessed by strain rate dependence of stress-strain curves and hysteretic phenomena. The second step pertains the development of a specific fiber-reinforced visco-hyperelastic constitutive model, in the light of bladder tissues structural conformation and experimental results. Constitutive parameters have been identified by minimizing the discrepancy between model and experimental data. The agreement between experimental and model results represent a term for evaluating the reliability of the constitutive models by means of the proposed operational procedure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The independence of South African judges: a constitutional and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Judicial independence is fundamental to democracy. It is in that context that this paper considers whether the existing constitutional and legislative mechanisms provide sufficient judicial independence to South African judges. In so doing, the paper focuses on impartiality, judicial appointments and security of tenure.

  14. The Bengwenyama Trilogy: Constitutional Rights and the Fight for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although developments subsequent to the judgment have undermined the value of the decision for the community involved, the Constitutional Court's judgment in the Bengwenyama matter provides a welcome precedent on the provisions of the Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act 28 of 2002 that deal with ...

  15. How dead is the federal constitutional right to assisted suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paola, F A

    1998-06-01

    The US Supreme Court recently upheld state laws in New York and Washington that prohibit assisted suicide. In both cases, the judgment of the Court was unanimous. Closer scrutiny of the opinions in the cases, however, suggests that we may not have seen the last of a federal constitutional right to assisted suicide.

  16. The Argument for a Constitutional Right to Communication and Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Lawrence

    2002-01-01

    This article argues that the need for and right to communication and language is fundamental to the human condition. It contends that given the historic difficulties children who are deaf and hard-of-hearing face, a constitutional right to communication is both necessary and legally sound. Relevant case law is reviewed. (Contains references.) (CR)

  17. The "brown" environmental agenda and the constitutional duties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This discussion subsequently feeds into the argument that South Africa's constitutional environmental right also foresees the advancement of the brown environmental agenda, which has implications for the interpretation and enforcement of local government's service delivery mandate. This link between municipal service ...

  18. De Vos NO v Minister of Justice and Constitutional Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Section 35 of the Constitution protects an accused's right to a fair trial. In order for an accused to make a substantial defence, both his physical and his mental presence is required in court. The incapacity of an accused person to understand criminal proceedings in a court will affect his right to a fair trial. Section 77 of the ...

  19. On the Constitution and Configuration of Higher-order Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. On the Constitution and Configuration of Higher-order Compounds. Alfred Werner. Reflections Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 90-94. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  20. "Contested Rights": The Pedagogy and Logistics of Hosting Constitution Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miracle, Amanda; Smith, Michael; Anderson, Kevin; Catlett, Rob

    2016-01-01

    To seriously consider one's rights under the US Constitution, one must grapple with the realization that many rights are not absolute. Instead, they are contested. But how to introduce younger students to such a complex concept, given short attention spans? In this article, we discuss the opportunities, pitfalls, and planning logistics of the 2013…

  1. Human Rights Education, Constitutionalism and Their Interrelations in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusy, Miroslav

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews national and cultural traditions that inform human rights consciousness in Slovakia and examines the role of constitutionalism in human rights protection and education on human rights. A prospering civil society is possible only in the context of a well-functioning civil state, making education in human rights and…

  2. The political constitution of the EU citizen rights regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    2011-01-01

    communities and institutions to the good life of citizens, both individually and collectively. Taking the contestation between the different views seriously, the article argues in favour of political constitutionalism, according to which the development of the EU citizen rights regime is the responsibility...

  3. Domains of Civic Engagement in a Constitutional Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Will

    This paper suggests that a well-composed scheme of civic education does not merely predispose the citizen to political engagement, but more fundamentally, the considered systematic design of civic education parallels the essentials of both the constitutionalism and the democracy to which it gives access and control. This paper aims to draw out…

  4. Contemporary Perspectives on the Enduring Constitution: A Bicentennial Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Special Committee on Youth Education for Citizenship.

    The 17 essays included in this book are designed to provide educators and other interested readers with contemporary perspectives on a broad range of themes and topics concerning the U.S. Constitution. The authors are a distinguished group of historians, political scientists, legal scholars, and jurists. The essays include: "The Achievement…

  5. The Arab Spring: An Essay on Revolution and Constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni; Tushnet, Mark

    Approaching the concept of Islamic constitutionalism from a comparative perspective, this thought-provoking study by Antoni Abat i Ninet and Mark Tushnet uses traditional Western political theory as a lens to develop a framework for analyzing the events known as the ‘Arab Spring’. Writing...

  6. The Constitutional Court and ubuntu's “inseparable trinity" | Keevy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article is to deconstruct the Constitutional Court's definitions of ubuntu as humanness, group solidarity, umuntu ngumuntu ngabantu, personhood and a moral philosophy. It is submitted that the philosophy of ubuntu or ethnophilosophy represents a religious worldview as it is inseparable from African ...

  7. Generalized Constitutive Model for Stabilized Quick Clay | Bujulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experimentally-based two yield surface constitutive model for cemented quick clay has been developed at NTNU, Norway, to reproduce the mechanical behavior of the stabilized quick clay in the triaxial p'-q stress space. The model takes into account the actual mechanical properties of the stabilized material, such as ...

  8. The constitutional right to freedom of expression: how enforceable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reaching consequences on society. As organs of state, schools have been directly affected by the need to ensure that their operations and rules are constitutionally and legislatively compatible. Human rights do not exist purely as an ideal but must ...

  9. Criminal adjudication by state courts under the FDRE constitution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the introduction of federal arrangement with the FDRE Constitution, the issue of distribution of powers between the Federal Government and the states in general and that of criminal adjudicative jurisdiction between the Federal courts and state courts in particular has become a controversial point. This controversy has ...

  10. Robotic and Multiaxial Testing for the Constitutive Characterization of Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Michopoulos; Athanasios Iliopoulos; John Hermanson

    2012-01-01

    As wind energy production drives the manufacturing of wind turbine blades, the utilization of glass and carbon fiber composites as a material of choice continuousiy increases. Consequently, the needs for accurate structural design and material qualification and certification as well as the needs for aging predictions furlher underline the need for accurate constitutive...

  11. Judges as Fiscal Activists: Can Constitutional Review Shape Public Finance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantorowicz Jarosław

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The judicialization of politics, or alternatively, politization of the judiciary has been much discussed over the last twenty years. Despite this, the way judges influence fiscal policy outcomes remains, to a large extent, unexplored. This paper attempts, at least partially, to fill this research gap. A judicial (constitutional review constitutes the central element of the current analysis since it is considered as a key institutional device through which Constitutional (Supreme Courts intervene in politics, including public finance. Specifically, this paper seeks to investigate empirically whether there is any systematic pattern according to which judges executing judicial review shape fiscal outcomes. The conceptual framework is based on the strategic interaction model and the assumption that the Constitutional Courts reflect public opinion (i.e. the Court as a majoritarian institution. Some preliminary results for a panel of 24 EU countries in the period 1995–2005 suggest that a strong judicial review correlates with a smaller size of government, measured as government income to GDP.

  12. Problem of Change and Stability in Constitutional Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, David A. J.

    1979-01-01

    Sketches some of the ways in which the jurisprudence of rights furthers a better understanding of the historic and contemporary mission of constitutional law in the United States. Available from University of Dayton Law Review, 300 College Park, Dayton, OH 45469; $4.00 per issue. (Author/IRT)

  13. 20 CFR 645.300 - What constitutes an allowable match?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What constitutes an allowable match? 645.300 Section 645.300 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING WELFARE-TO-WORK GRANTS Additional Formula Grant Administrative Standards and Procedures § 645.300...

  14. The EU and constitutional change: a research proposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsbouts, W.T.; Beukers, T.W.

    2010-01-01

    The first punctual question arising is how, in its (single) constitutional being, a body such as the Union combines its constituent roots in the original founding authorities (the states) with those, autonomous, in its own institutions. These are the ECJ for interpretation; the political

  15. Octopods, as do other cephalopods, constitute eco- nomically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Octopods, as do other cephalopods, constitute eco- nomically significant fisheries in many areas of the world. The type species of the genus, Octopus vulgaris. Cuvier, 1797, is widely spread throughout the world in tropical, subtropical and ... 1996), all of which complicate the interpretation of such field data. Therefore ...

  16. Review of constitutive models and failure criteria for concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Moon; Choun, Young Sun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    The general behavior, constitutive models, and failure criteria of concrete are reviewed. The current constitutive models for concrete cannot satisfy all of mechanical behavior of concrete. Among several constitutive models, damage models are recommended to describe properly the structural behavior of concrete containment buildings, because failure modes and post-failure behavior are important in containment buildings. A constitutive model which can describe the concrete behavior in tension is required because the containment buildings will reach failure state due to ultimate internal pressure. Therefore, a thorough study on the behavior and models under tension stress state in concrete and reinforced concrete has to be performed. There are two types of failure criteria in containment buildings: structural failure criteria and leakage failure criteria. For reinforced or prestressed concrete containment buildings, concrete cracking does not mean the structural failure of containment building because the reinforcement or post-tensioning system is able to resist tensile stress up to yield stress. Therefore leakage failure criteria will be prior to structural failure criteria, and a strain failure criterion for concrete has to be established. 120 refs., 59 figs., 1 tabs. (Author)

  17. Using international human rights law to promote constitutional rights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parliaments are guardians of human rights due to their role of representing the people in the management of public affairs. The activities of parliaments cover the entire spectrum of human rights and have an immediate impact on the enjoyment, protection andpromotion of rights. In South Africa, the Constitution requires ...

  18. Constitutive equation for polymer networks with phonon fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rasmus; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Hassager, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Recent research by Xing [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 075502 (2007)] has provided an expression for the Helmholtz free energy related to phonon fluctuations in polymer networks. We extend this result by constructing the corresponding nonlinear constitutive equation, usable for entirely general, volume...

  19. human rights under the ethiopian constitution: ad escriptive overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    Human Rights and International Law (SAIFAC) 'Business and Human Rights: The responsibilities of ... Considering the effects of globalization and the ever increasing presence of foreigners and the increasing ..... the charge may entail. 55 This provision may be invoked to challenge the constitutionality of the Federal Courts.

  20. A constitutional critique on the regulations relating to artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-30

    Jun 30, 2017 ... donor) can be prosecuted at least as accomplices, given that they actively assisted B, the perpetrator. A constitutional critique on the regulations relating to artificial fertilisation of persons. D W Jordaan, BLC, LLB, MPPS, PGDipSI, PhD. School of Law, Howard College, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, ...

  1. European Crises of Legally-constituted Public Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2017-01-01

    . The dual (trans-)national re-constitution of Western Europe in the years immediately after the Second World War, which the European integration process was an integrated part of, successfully remedied this development. However, over the last decades, Europe has experienced a ‘turn to governance’, which...

  2. League Constitution and Bylaws for Girls' Interscholastic Programs (Suggested Guide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Mary Ann

    This guide was developed to assist with the problems of organization and administration of girls' interscholastic sports programs. Guidelines are presented for the following: (a) a statement of basic principles, (b) a constitution, (c) league bylaws, (d) operating codes, (e) conduct of contests, (f) archery, (g) badminton, (h) basketball, (i)…

  3. Jonathan's Constitutional Conference in Nigeria: A reflection and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, the focus of this discourse, the process of constitution-making is as old as the country itself but such processes had always followed the same pattern: elite engineered, paternalistically-driven and above all, devoid of citizens' imprints via a referendum. It is against this backdrop that this article, in a retrospective ...

  4. Constitutively activated ERK sensitizes cancer cells to doxorubicin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-02-03

    Feb 3, 2017 ... Constitutively activated ERK sensitizes cancer cells to doxorubicin: Involvement of p53-EGFR-ERK pathway. RATNA KUMARI. 1,†. , SURBHI CHOUHAN. 1,†. , SNAHLATA SINGH. 1,†. , RISHI RAJ CHHIPA. 2. ,. AMRENDRA KUMAR AJAY. 3 and MANOJ KUMAR BHAT*. National Centre for Cell Science, ...

  5. Religious freedom and its limitations under the 1999 constitution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper critically reviewed the provisions of the 1999 Constitution of Nigeria on freedom of religion and its limitations as a result of the long history of religious tensions Nigeria has witnessed particularly between the two major religious groups, Christians and Muslims and as a result of the violence created constantly by ...

  6. Target Soil Impact Verification: Experimental Testing and Kayenta Constitutive Modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broome, Scott Thomas [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flint, Gregory Mark [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dewers, Thomas [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Newell, Pania [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report details experimental testing and constitutive modeling of sandy soil deformation under quasi - static conditions. This is driven by the need to understand constitutive response of soil to target/component behavior upon impact . An experimental and constitutive modeling program was followed to determine elastic - plastic properties and a compressional failure envelope of dry soil . One hydrostatic, one unconfined compressive stress (UCS), nine axisymmetric compression (ACS) , and one uniaxial strain (US) test were conducted at room temperature . Elastic moduli, assuming isotropy, are determined from unload/reload loops and final unloading for all tests pre - failure and increase monotonically with mean stress. Very little modulus degradation was discernable from elastic results even when exposed to mean stresses above 200 MPa . The failure envelope and initial yield surface were determined from peak stresses and observed onset of plastic yielding from all test results. Soil elasto - plastic behavior is described using the Brannon et al. (2009) Kayenta constitutive model. As a validation exercise, the ACS - parameterized Kayenta model is used to predict response of the soil material under uniaxial strain loading. The resulting parameterized and validated Kayenta model is of high quality and suitable for modeling sandy soil deformation under a range of conditions, including that for impact prediction.

  7. Deliberating the rule of law and constitutional supremacy from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A legal lacuna opens up - that is, an area not regulated by existing legal norms. ... KEYWORDS: Critique of rule of law and constitutional supremacy; faith strengthening language of the doctrine; factual dimension / requisite (of law); justice (ideal) dimension / requisite (of law); substituting law; lapsed law; legal lacunae; ...

  8. Designing Viable Republican Constitutions for Modern African States

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper I argue for the adoption of an unmitigated republican constitutional system by modern African nation states as a necessary condition for the realisation of their democratic aspirations. I identify the continued retention of the traditional kingship institution, even in a much whittled down form, as a major impediment ...

  9. Developing Constitutional Rights of, in, and for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Robert A.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses U.S. Supreme Court decisions dealing with the constitutional rights of children and parents against state interventions on the behalf of children and attempts to generalize about the Court's stance on the permissible scope of state substitute-parenting activities. Available from Law and Contemporary Problems, Duke Station, Durham, North…

  10. A constitutional critique on the regulations relating to artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is constitutionally impermissible for legislation to over-medicalise, that is, to legally enforce medical influence and supervision over certain actions, without good reason why such medical influence and supervision are required. Various parts of the regulations relating to artificial fertilisation of persons made in terms of the ...

  11. The Constitutional Implications of Expenditure Limits in Student Government Elections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, David M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide student affairs professionals with an overview of the law regarding the constitutionality of expenditure limits in student government elections. Unlike campaigns for federal and state office, it is clear that the limited case law on this topic does allow universities to limit the amount of money that student…

  12. A Selection of Constitutional Perspectives on Human Kidney Sales ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To establish the constitutional acceptability of the reimbursement of kidney donors the following rights are analysed: the right to life, the right to human dignity, the right to self-determination, the right to privacy, and the right of access to healthcare services. Case law regarding the above is also included. After careful ...

  13. Fundamental Laws of the State: The Spanish Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio de Informacion y Turismo, Madrid (Spain).

    This political document is introduced by the head of the Spanish State, His Excellency Don Francisco Franco Bahamonde in a speech given on 22 November 1966 to the session of the Spanish Cores. The speech outlines in general terms the political and philosophical ideals of His Excellency. The Constitution is presented in several sections including:…

  14. Wide Variation in Understanding about What Constitutes "Binge-Drinking"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Richard; French, David P.; Sniehotta, Falko F.

    2010-01-01

    Two studies investigated undergraduates' knowledge of the UK government recommendations about binge drinking and sensible drinking, and also examined how labelling oneself as a binge drinker is associated with binge drinking perceptions. In Study 1, 325 undergraduates reported how many units constitute binge drinking, and labelled themselves as a…

  15. "Brexit": A constitutional, diplomatic and democratic crisis. A view ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A discussion of the recent referendum in the United Kingdom (UK) on membership of the European Union (EU) and, in particular, to consider the immediate aftermath and longer-term implications of the decision to leave. Keywords: Brexit; referendum; European Union; constitutional law; international law ...

  16. A Gradient-Based Constitutive Model for Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabesh, Majid; Boyd, James; Lagoudas, Dimitris

    2017-06-01

    Constitutive models are necessary to design shape memory alloy (SMA) components at nano- and micro-scales in NEMS and MEMS. The behavior of small-scale SMA structures deviates from that of the bulk material. Unfortunately, this response cannot be modeled using conventional constitutive models which lack an intrinsic length scale. At small scales, size effects are often observed along with large gradients in the stress or strain. Therefore, a gradient-based thermodynamically consistent constitutive framework is established. Generalized surface and body forces are assumed to contribute to the free energy as work conjugates to the martensite volume fraction, transformation strain tensor, and their spatial gradients. The rates of evolution of these variables are obtained by invoking the principal of maximum dissipation after assuming a transformation surface, which is a differential equation in space. This approach is compared to the theories that use a configurational force (microforce) balance law. The developed constitutive model includes energetic and dissipative length scales that can be calibrated experimentally. Boundary value problems, including pure bending of SMA beams and simple torsion of SMA cylindrical bars, are solved to demonstrate the capabilities of this model. These problems contain the differential equation for the transformation surface as well as the equilibrium equation and are solved analytically and numerically. The simplest version of the model, containing only the additional gradient of martensite volume fraction, predicts a response with greater transformation hardening for smaller structures.

  17. Constitutional adjudication in Ethiopia: Exploring the experience of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopia has adopted a federal system de facto since 1991, and de jure since 1995 with a view to decentralizing power and resources from the center and to accommodate the diverse ethno-linguistic groups that exist in the country. As constitutionally entrenched division of power between federal and state governments is at ...

  18. The constitutional court ruling against child marriages in Zimbabwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the 20th of January 2016, the Constitutional Court of Zimbabwe went a step ahead to protect children's rights by banning child marriages and other harmful practices that are detrimental to childhood. The ruling comes at an opportune time to denounce the inadequacy of marriage laws, and to ban all archaic practices ...

  19. 27 CFR 27.206 - Bottles not constituting approved containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... approved containers. 27.206 Section 27.206 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 27.206 Bottles not constituting approved containers. The appropriate TTB...

  20. Local constitutive behavior of paper determined by an inverse method

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Considine; C. Tim Scott; Roland Gleisner; Junyong Zhu

    2006-01-01

    The macroscopic behavior of paper is governed by small-scale behavior. Intuitively, we know that a small-scale defect with a paper sheet effectively determines the global behavior of the sheet. In this work, we describe a method to evaluate the local constitutive behavior of paper by using an inverse method.