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Sample records for sasa borealis leaves

  1. Seasonal Variations of the Antioxidant Composition in Ground Bamboo Sasa argenteastriatus Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youzuo Zhang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sasa argenteastriatus, with abundant active compounds and high antioxidant activity in leaves, is a new leafy bamboo grove suitable for exploitation. To utilize it more effectively and scientifically, we investigate the seasonal variations of antioxidant composition in its leaves and antioxidant activity. The leaves of Sasa argenteastriatus were collected on the 5th day of each month in three same-sized sample plots from May 2009 to May 2011. The total flavonoids (TF: phenolics (TP and triterpenoid (TT of bamboo leaves were extracted and the contents analyzed by UV-spectrophotometer. Our data showed that all exhibited variations with the changing seasons, with the highest levels appearing in November to March. Antioxidant activity was measured using DPPH and FRAP methods. The highest antioxidant activity appeared in December with the lowest in May. Correlation analyses demonstrated that TP and TF exhibited high correlation with bamboo antioxidant activity. Eight bamboo characteristic compounds (orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, homovitexin and p-coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid were determined by RP-HPLC synchronously. We found that chlorogenic acid, isoorientin and vitexin are the main compounds in Sasa argenteastriatus leaves and the content of isovitexin and chlorogenic acid showed a similar seasonal variation with the TF, TP and TT. Our results suggested that the optimum season for harvesting Sasa argenteastriatus leaves is between autumn and winter.

  2. Anti-Halitosis Effect of Toothpaste Supplemented with Alkaline Extract of the Leaves of Sasa senanensis Rehder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, Hiroshi; Sheng, Hong; Ono, Koki; Komine, Yusuke; Miyadai, Tomoharu; Terada, Yuji; Nakada, Daisuke; Tanaka, Shoji; Matsumoto, Masaru; Yasui, Toshikazu; Watanabe, Koichi; Junye, Jia; Natori, Takenori; Suguro-Kitajima, Madoka; Oizumi, Hiroshi; Oizumi, Takaaki

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown activity against viruses, bacteria, inflammation and oral lichenoid dysplasia of alkaline extract of the leaves of Sasa senanensis Rehder (SE), suggesting its possible application to oral diseases. In the present study, we performed a small-scale clinical test to investigate whether SE is effective against halitosis and in oral bacterial reduction. A total of 12 volunteers participated in this study. They brushed their teeth immediately after meals three times each day with SE-containing toothpaste (SETP) or placebo toothpaste. Halitosis in the breath and bacterial number on the tongue were measured by commercially available portable apparatuses at a specified time in the morning. Some relationship was observed between halitosis and bacterial number from each individual, especially when those with severe halitosis were included. Repeated experiments demonstrated that SETP significantly reduced halitosis but not the bacterial number on the tongue. The present study provides for the first time the basis for anti-halitosis activity of SE. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  3. Allelopathy ofSasa cernua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H H; Nishimura, H; Hasegawa, K; Mizutani, J

    1992-10-01

    Sasa (Sasa cernua Makino) is a very serious weed pest. Its allelopathy was studied using lettuce, wheat, timothy, and green amaranth as testing species. Cultured in the rhizosphere soil ofSasa cernua, the seedlings were inhibited by 42-80% compared with the controls cultured in normal soil and vermiculite. The phenolic fraction extracted with 1 M NaOH from the rhizosphere soil ofS. cernua caused significant inhibitions on the seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce, timothy, green amaranth, and barnyard grass.p-Coumaric, ferulic, vanillic, andp-hydroxybenzoic acids andp-hydroxybenzaldehyde were identified as the main allelochemicals in sasa soil by HPLC and [(1)H]NMR. Their contents in the rhizosphere soil were 5640, 1060, 860, 810 and 630 μg/100 g soil. The neutral fraction inhibited the seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce in the TLC direct bioassay. Volatile compounds released from sasa leaves also inhibited the growth of lettuce, wheat, timothy, and green amaranth grown under light, and the growth of etiolated seedlings of barley and wheat. These results confirm thatS. cernua produces typical allelopathy through its rhizosphere soil and air space.

  4. Potent Anti-Inflammatory and Antiadipogenic Properties of Bamboo (Sasa coreana Nakai) Leaves Extract and Its Major Constituent Flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji Hye; Choi, Moon-Hee; Yang, Seung Hwa; Cho, Sam Seok; Park, Su Jung; Shin, Hyun-Jae; Ki, Sung Hwan

    2017-08-09

    The pro-inflammatory response and recruitment of macrophages into adipose tissue contribute to metabolic dysfunction. Here, we reported the anti-inflammatory and antiadipogenic effects of the methanol (MeOH) extract and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of bamboo leaf and its molecular mechanism in RAW264.7 cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes, respectively. Functional macrophage migration assays also were performed. Surprisingly, the EtOAc fraction of MeOH extracts from native Korean plant species Sasa coreana Nakai (SCN) has shown potent anti-inflammatory properties; SCN pretreatment inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production (p 0.05). Similar to leaf extracts of other bamboo species, we identified that SCN contained several flavonoids including orientin, isoorientin, and vitexin; these compounds inhibited LPS-induced NO production (p flavonoids of SCN also inhibited adipogenesis. Furthermore, conditioned medium obtained from adipocytes stimulated macrophage chemotaxis, whereas medium from adipocytes treated with SCN significantly inhibited macrophage migration. Therefore, SCN is a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention of inflammation and obesity.

  5. Genetic profiling of Sasa species by analysis of chloroplast intron between rbcL and ORF106 and partial ORF106 regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yohei; Komatsu, Katsuko; Takido, Michio; Takeshita, Kazuo; Kashiwagi, Harutsugu; Nagumo, Seiji

    2007-08-01

    Kuma-zasa is Japanese folk medicine derived from plants of genus Sasa, family Bambusaceae. Although the plants of origin of Kuma-zasa were reported to be Sasa palmata, S. senanensis, S. yahikoensis, and S. kurilensis, authentication of those plants was difficult because of similarity in morphology. Several methods for the classification of genus Sasa are available, but none involve a genetic approach. Here, we performed the genetic profiling of genus Sasa, including the four species used medicinally. Thirteen sequences were observed in chloroplast DNA intron between rbcL and ORF106 and partial ORF106 regions of 34 specimens of 16 Sasa species and one specimen of Phyllostachys pubescens. We observed differences in alignment in this region among the specimens. The analyzed lengths varied from 759 to 821 bp depending on the specimen. There were nine base substitutions, eight successive thymines or adenines, and one to three repeat units of 31 bp. Moreover, we could not find species-specific alignment: different alignments were observed in specimens of the same species, while the same alignment was observed in specimens of different species. In the phylogenetic tree reconstructed by maximum parsimony analysis, medicinally used species did not form a cluster, although most of them were positioned close to each other. The genetic profiling of Sasa species would be of use in determining the botanical origin of the herbal medicine derived from the leaves of Sasa plants.

  6. Xanthomendoza borealis - a bipolar lichen species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LIndblom, Louise; Søchting, Ulrik

    It has been uncertain whether the two xanthorioid taxa known as Xanthoria mawsonii and Xanthomen-doza borealis truly are distinct species or if they should best be treated as one species. They are morphologically very similar, but inhabit two disjunct geographical areas, that is, circumpolar on t...

  7. Life History Strategies in Linnaea borealis

    OpenAIRE

    Niva, Mikael

    2003-01-01

    About 70% of the plant species in the temperate zone are characterised by clonal growth, clonal species are also in majority in the Arctic and Subarctic where they affect the structure and composition of the vegetation. It is therefore of great importance to increase our knowledge about clonal plants and their growth and life histories. I have investigated how ramets of the stoloniferous plant Linnaea borealis are affected by the naturally occurring variation in environmental factors, such as...

  8. Taxonomic revision of Xanthomendoza borealis and Xanthoria mawsonii (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindblom, Louise; Søchting, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    the Northern Hemisphere. Some specimens named X. mawsonii from the Antarctic are wrongly determined specimens of Xanthoria candelaria (L.) Th. Fr, including the holotype of Xanthoria mawsonii C. W. Dodge. Accordingly, Xanthoria mawsonii C. W. Dodge is a synonym to Xanthoria candelaria (L.) Th. Fr. The only...... available correct name for the bipolar species, which comprises material previously determined as X. borealis and X. mawsonii, and is distinct from the more widespread taxon X. candelaria, is Xanthomendoza borealis (R. Sant. & Poelt) Søchting, Kärnefelt & S. Kondratyuk....

  9. Evolving R Coronae Borealis Stars with MESA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Lauer, Amber; Chatzopoulos, Emmanouil; Frank, Juhan

    2018-01-01

    R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars form a small class of cool, carbon-rich supergiants that have almost no hydrogen. They undergo extreme, irregular declines in brightness of up to 8 magnitudes due to the formation of thick clouds of carbon dust. Two scenarios have been proposed for the origin of an RCB star: the merger of a CO/He white dwarf (WD) binary and a final helium-shell flash. We are using a combination of 3D hydrodynamics codes and the 1D MESA (Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics) stellar evolution code including nucleosynthesis to construct post-merger spherical models based on realistic merger progenitor models and on our hydrodynamical simulations, and then following the evolution into the region of the HR diagram where RCB stars are located. We are investigating nucleosynthesis in the dynamically accreting material of CO/He WD mergers which may provide a suitable environment for significant production of 18O and the very low 16O/18O values observed.Our MESA modeling consists of two steps: first mimicking the WD merger event using two different techniques, (a) by choosing a very high mass accretion rate with appropriate abundances and (b) by applying "stellar engineering" to an initial CO WD model to account for the newly merged material by applying an entropy adjusting procedure. Second, we follow the post-merger evolution using a large nuclear reaction network including the effects of convective and rotational instabilities to the mixing of material in order to match the observed RCB abundances. MESA follows the evolution of the merger product as it expands and cools to become an RCB star. We then examine the surface abundances and compare them to the observed RCB abundances. We also investigate how long fusion continues in the He shell near the core and how this processed material is mixed up to the surface of the star. We then model the later evolution of RCB stars to determine their likely lifetimes and endpoints when they have returned to

  10. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A): Measuring Social Anxiety among Finnish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranta, Klaus; Junttila, Niina; Laakkonen, Eero; Uhmavaara, Anni; La Greca, Annette M.; Niemi, Paivi M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms of social anxiety and the psychometric properties of the "Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents" (SAS-A) among Finnish adolescents, 13-16 years of age. Study 1 (n = 867) examined the distribution of SAS-A scores according to gender and age, and the internal consistency and factor structure…

  11. Short Communication A stranding of Balaenoptera borealis (Lesson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strandings of baleen whales are uncommon in Patagonia, Argentina. We report on a stranding of an individual sei whale Balaenoptera borealis on the east coast of San Antonio (40°43.5′ S, 64°55.8′ W), Río Negro province, Argentina. It was the eighth reported stranding of this species along the Argentinean coastline.

  12. Northern Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) Recruitment in West Greenland Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S. A.; Storm, L. M.

    2002-01-01

    Lipid class and fatty acid compositions were determined in shrimp larvae (Pandalus borealis and P. montagui) collected along transects across banks on the West Greenland shelf in June 1999, May and July 2000. The lipid class contents were investigated as indices of larval shrimp lipid condition a...

  13. Aurora Borealis, A Painting by Frederic Edwin Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    This year marks the sesquicentennial anniversary of the end of the American Civil War. In 1865, the same year as the War's end, the great American landscape artist, Frederic Edwin Church, unveiled Aurora Borealis, a painting that depicts a fantastic, far-northern place, an auroral arch stretched across a quiet night-time sky, above dark mountains and a frozen sea. Church was born in Connecticut, lived in New York, and traveled to Labrador; he would have often seen the northern lights. Church might have also been influenced by the spectacular displays of aurora that were caused by some unusually intense magnetic storms in 1859. Aurora Borealis can certainly be interpreted in terms of 19th-century romanticism, scientific philosophy, and Arctic missions of exploration, all subjects of interest to Church. As with so many of his paintings, Church's meticulous attention to detail in Aurora Borealis reveals his deep admiration of nature. But his depiction of auroral light is a curious and possibly intentional departure from natural verisimilitude. Some art historians have suggested that Church painted Aurora Borealis as a subdued tribute to the end of the Civil War, with the drapery of auroral light forming an abstract representation of the American flag. If so, then colors of the flag have been unfurled across a cold and barren landscape, not in extravagant celebration, but in somber recognition of the reality of post-war desolation and an uncertain future.

  14. Impact of different partitioned solvents on chemical composition and bioavailability of Sasa quelpaertensis Nakai leaf extract

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    Masaya Nakamura

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Sasa quelpaertensis Nakai were extracted with 80% ethanol and further partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous fractions to evaluate the biological activity through assessment via various in vitro assays, including total phenol content; 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazothiazoline-6-sulfornic acid (ABTS radical scavenging; reducing power; α-glucosidase and tyrosinase inhibitory; and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH activity assays. The highest activity was found in the ethyl acetate fraction for all assays and showed stronger DPPH radical scavenging, reducing power, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity than the positive controls (butylated hydroxytoluene, α-tocopherol, and arbutin, respectively. When compared to the ethyl acetate fraction, the n-butanol fraction had lower rates, but it still demonstrated relatively high activity. The activity of the n-hexane fraction was high for DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity and contained significant amounts of phenol content, whereas the chloroform fraction possessed the highest reducing power, tyrosinase inhibitory, and ADH and ALDH activity, despite having the lowest phenol content when compared to the other fractions. These findings clearly indicate that S. quelpaertensis Nakai leaves can be a good natural source of antioxidants and tyrosinase inhibitors, as well as ADH and ALDH activity inducers, suggesting that may have potential for treating various diseases and improving human health.

  15. Realizatinon of “zero emission” of mining water effluents from Sasa mine

    OpenAIRE

    Mirakovski, Dejan; Doneva, Nikolinka; Hadzi-Nikolova, Marija; Gocevski, Borce

    2015-01-01

    Sasa mine continuously takes actions to minimize the environmental impact of mining activities, in order to fulfill the national legislation in the field of environmental protection which comply with European legislation. This paper shows the drainage system of the horizon 830, which is performed in order to prevent free leakage of mining groundwater, as a part of these actions. This system provides a zero emission of mining water in the environment from Sasa mine. Key words: mining water...

  16. Audio collection in the SASA Institute of Musicology

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    Lajić-Mihajlović Danka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is relating to audio collection of the Institute of Musicology SASA as extremely important part of this institution’s fund. The collection comprises of valuable sound materials, especially significant collections of fieldwork recordings of traditional folk and church music, as also recordings of pieces of the 19th and 20th century Serbian composers. Information on sound carriers, methodologies and circumstances in which the recordings have been made, their preservation and further treatment with modern technologies, are a part of ethnomusicological and musicological histories in Serbia. According to number of sound recordings, diachronical dimensions that encompass, geographical areas and genre diversity, this collection is one of the most important sound collections of scientific profile in Serbia.

  17. Squared eigenfunctions for the Sasa-Satsuma equation

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    Yang, Jianke; Kaup, D. J.

    2009-02-01

    Squared eigenfunctions are quadratic combinations of Jost functions and adjoint Jost functions which satisfy the linearized equation of an integrable equation. They are needed for various studies related to integrable equations, such as the development of its soliton perturbation theory. In this article, squared eigenfunctions are derived for the Sasa-Satsuma equation whose spectral operator is a 3×3 system, while its linearized operator is a 2×2 system. It is shown that these squared eigenfunctions are sums of two terms, where each term is a product of a Jost function and an adjoint Jost function. The procedure of this derivation consists of two steps: First is to calculate the variations of the potentials via variations of the scattering data by the Riemann-Hilbert method. The second one is to calculate the variations of the scattering data via the variations of the potentials through elementary calculations. While this procedure has been used before on other integrable equations, it is shown here, for the first time, that for a general integrable equation, the functions appearing in these variation relations are precisely the squared eigenfunctions and adjoint squared eigenfunctions satisfying, respectively, the linearized equation and the adjoint linearized equation of the integrable system. This proof clarifies this procedure and provides a unified explanation for previous results of squared eigenfunctions on individual integrable equations. This procedure uses primarily the spectral operator of the Lax pair. Thus two equations in the same integrable hierarchy will share the same squared eigenfunctions (except for a time-dependent factor). In the Appendix, the squared eigenfunctions are presented for the Manakov equations whose spectral operator is closely related to that of the Sasa-Satsuma equation.

  18. AURORA BOREALIS - European Research Icebreaker With Drilling Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biebow, N.; Lembke-Jene, L.; Kunz-Pirrung, M.; Thiede, J.

    2008-12-01

    The polar oceans are the least known areas of the globe, in although they hold the key to many of our climate´s secrets. How does the sea ice coverage and the sea water properties change? How do plants and animals survive under the most extreme conditions of the earth? Which information of past climate change can be read from the sediments at the sea-floor and how can the future changing climate be predicted? In order to answer such and further questions, for the moment a hypermodern research vessel, the AURORA BOREALIS, is planned, which can handle the cool summers and freezing winters of the polar oceans and which can drill deep into the sea floor. AURORA BOREALIS will be the most advanced Research Icebreaker in the world with a multi-functional role of drilling in deep ocean basins and supporting climate/environmental research and decision support for stakeholder governments for the next 35-40 years. It will have a high icebreaking capacity to penetrate autonomously (single ship operation) into the central Arctic Ocean with more than 2.5 meters of ice cover, during all seasons of the year. The new technological features will include dynamic positioning in closed sea- ice cover, satellite navigation and ice-management support and the deployment and operation of Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) from the twin moon-pools. A unique feature of the vessel is the deep-sea drilling rig, which will enable sampling of the ocean floor and sub-sea up to 5000 m water and 1000 m penetration at the most inhospitable places on earth. The drilling capability will be deployed in both Polar Regions on the long run and AURORA BOREALIS will be the only vessel worldwide that could undertake this type of scientific investigation.

  19. Isolamento do vírus rábico de morcego insetívoro , Lasyurus borealis Rabies virus isolation in insectivorous bat Lasyurus borealis

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    Luzia Fatima Alves Martorelli

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se um caso de raiva em morcego insetívoro, Lasyurus borealis, na região urbana, em bairro residencial, no Município de Jundiaí, SP (Brasil.A case of rabies in an insectivorous bat, Lasyurus borealis , in a residential suburb in an urban area in the southern region of Brazil, is reported.

  20. A new threat to honey bees, the parasitic phorid fly Apocephalus borealis.

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    Andrew Core

    Full Text Available Honey bee colonies are subject to numerous pathogens and parasites. Interaction among multiple pathogens and parasites is the proposed cause for Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD, a syndrome characterized by worker bees abandoning their hive. Here we provide the first documentation that the phorid fly Apocephalus borealis, previously known to parasitize bumble bees, also infects and eventually kills honey bees and may pose an emerging threat to North American apiculture. Parasitized honey bees show hive abandonment behavior, leaving their hives at night and dying shortly thereafter. On average, seven days later up to 13 phorid larvae emerge from each dead bee and pupate away from the bee. Using DNA barcoding, we confirmed that phorids that emerged from honey bees and bumble bees were the same species. Microarray analyses of honey bees from infected hives revealed that these bees are often infected with deformed wing virus and Nosema ceranae. Larvae and adult phorids also tested positive for these pathogens, implicating the fly as a potential vector or reservoir of these honey bee pathogens. Phorid parasitism may affect hive viability since 77% of sites sampled in the San Francisco Bay Area were infected by the fly and microarray analyses detected phorids in commercial hives in South Dakota and California's Central Valley. Understanding details of phorid infection may shed light on similar hive abandonment behaviors seen in CCD.

  1. AFSC/ABL: Rockfish allozyme species identification (Sebastes aleutianus and borealis)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rougheye rockfish (Sebastes aleutianus) and shortraker rockfish (Sebastes borealis) were collected from the Washington coast, the Gulf of Alaska, the southern Bering...

  2. The unified transform method for the Sasa-Satsuma equation on the half-line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Fan, Engui

    2013-11-08

    We implement the unified transform method to the initial-boundary value (IBV) problem of the Sasa-Satsuma equation on the half line. In addition to presenting the basic Riemann-Hilbert formalism, which linearizes this IBV problem, we also analyse the associated general Dirichlet to Neumann map using the so-called global relation.

  3. Quality and efficiency of horizontal mining facilities construction, using smooth blasting in Sasa Mine, Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Doneva, Nikolinka; Despodov, Zoran; Mirakovski, Dejan; Hadzi-Nikolova, Marija; Ivanovski, Dejan

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents data from a research that has been conducted in Sasa mine, M. Kamenica. For this purpose, collected data about construction of horizontal mining facilities in several rock types was analyzed. Also, comparison of construction technology using smooth blasting and NONEL system for initiating to previously applied technology has been conducted.

  4. AURORA BOREALIS: a polar-dedicated European Research Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff-Boenisch, Bonnie; Egerton, Paul; Thiede, Joern; Roberto, Azzolini; Lembke-Jene, Lester

    2010-05-01

    Polar research and in particular the properties of northern and southern high latitude oceans are currently a subject of intense scientific debate and investigations, because they are subject to rapid and dramatic climatic variations. Polar regions react more rapidly and intensively to global change than other regions of the earth. A shrinking of the Arctic sea-ice cover, potentially leading to an opening of sea passages to the north of North America and Eurasia, on the long to a "blue" Arctic Ocean would additionally have a strong impact on transport, commerce and tourism bearing potential risk for humans and complex ecosystems in the future. In spite of their critical role processes and feedbacks, especially in winter but not exclusively, are virtually unknown: The Arctic Ocean for example, it is the only basin of the world's oceans that has essentially not been sampled by the drill ships of the Deep-Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) or the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and its long-term environmental history and tectonic structure is therefore poorly known. Exceptions are the ODP Leg 151 and the more recent very successful ACEX-expedition of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) in 2004. To help to address the most pressing questions regarding climate change and related processes, a Pan-European initiative in the field of Earth system science has been put in place: AURORA BOREALIS is the largest environmental research infrastructure on the ESFRI roadmap of the European Community. AURORA BOREALIS is a very powerful research icebreaker, which will enable year-round operations in the Arctic and the Antarctic as well as in the adjacent ocean basins. Equipped with its drilling rig, the vessel is also capable to explore the presently completely unknown Arctic deep-sea floor. Last but not least, the ship is a floating observatory and mobile monitoring platform that permits to measure on a long-term basis comprehensive time series in all research fields relevant to

  5. The Grand Aurorae Borealis Seen in Colombia in 1859

    CERN Document Server

    Cárdenas, Freddy Moreno; Domínguez, Santiago Vargas

    2015-01-01

    On Thursday, September 1, 1859, the British astronomer Richard Carrington, for the first time ever, observes a spectacular gleam of visible light on the surface of the solar disk, the photosphere. The Carrington Event, as it is nowadays known by scientists, occurred because of the high solar activity that had visible consequences on Earth, in particular reports of outstanding aurorae activity that amazed thousands of people in the western hemisphere during the dawn of September 2. The geomagnetic storm, generated by the solar-terrestrial event, had such a magnitude that the auroral oval expanded towards the equator, allowing low latitudes, like Panama's 9$^\\circ$ N, to catch a sight of the aurorae. An expedition was carried out to review several historical reports and books from the northern cities of Colombia, allowing the identification of a narrative from Monter\\'ia, Colombia (8$^\\circ$ 45' N), that describes phenomena resembling those of an aurorae borealis, such as fire-like lights, blazing and dazzling ...

  6. Twinflower (Linnaea borealis L. – plant species of potential medicinal properties

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    Thiem Barbara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Twinflower (Linnaea borealis L. is a widespread circumboreal plant species belonging to Linnaeaceae family (previously Caprifoliaceae. L. borealis commonly grows in taiga and tundra. In some countries in Europe, including Poland, twinflower is protected as a glacial relict. Chemical composition of this species is not well known, however in folk medicine of Scandinavian countries, L. borealis has a long tradition as a cure for skin diseases and rheumatism. It is suggested that twinflower has potential medicinal properties. The new study on lead secondary metabolites responsible for biological activity are necessary. This short review summarizes very sparse knowledge on twinflower: its biology, distribution, conservation status, chemical constituents, and describes the role of this plant in folk tradition of Scandinavian countries.

  7. Microfilms and photographs of neumatic manuscripts in the SASA Institute of Musicology Archives

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    Peno Vesna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microfilms of neumatic MSS, and photographs of some folia taken from neumed codices kept at the SASA Institute of Musicology Archives, are represented in this paper. In the microfilms, there are mainly heirmologia from Byzantine and late-Byzantine period and sticherarios and antologies as well. The selected folia from the Chilandar manuscripts, primarily with the Greek text, constitute the collection of photographs.

  8. Een vergelijkend ecologisch onderzoek in opstanden van Quercus borealis Michx F. en Quercus robur L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, J.G.P.M.

    1957-01-01

    Extensive investigations into the biotic, edaphic and climatic factors of the growth site and timber production figures showed that Quercus borealis Michx.f. was a very useful hardwood species for the Netherlands, especially on well drained but moist sites. The great-adaptability of this

  9. A redescription of Zavrelia simantoneoa (Sasa, Suzuki and Sakai, 1998 comb. nov.

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    Tadashi Kobayashi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Examination of the holotype of Micropsectra simantoneoa Sasa, Suzuki and Sakai, 1998 revealed that the species should be transferred to the genus Zavrelia. The male adult has hairy eyes, antennae with 10 flagellomeres, a costa ending proximal to the tip of M3+4, and a short and flattened superior volsella. This is the second Zavrelia species from Japan, and the 11th in the world.Article submitted 25. September 2014, accepted 16. October 2014, published 22. December 2014.

  10. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A: Psychometric properties in a Spanish-speaking population

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    José Olivares

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio instrumental fue estudiar la estructura factorial y propiedades psicométricas de la Escala de Ansiedad Social para Adolescentes (SASA. Participaron 2407 adolescentes (1263 chicos y 1144 chicas, con una edad media de 15 años, alumnos de nueve institutos de la región de Murcia. Los resultados obtenidos apoyan la estructura tri-factorial propuesta por los autores de la escala (FNE, SAD-New, SAD-General. Se encontraron correlaciones interescalas significativas y niveles de consistencia interna elevados para las subescalas, así como respecto de los efectos del sexo en la puntuación SAS-A/Total y en sus subescalas, alcanzando las chicas las puntuaciones más elevadas. Sólo se hallaron diferencias significativas para la edad en la subescala FNE y no se constataron efectos de interacción entre los dos factores. Estos hallazgos parecen avalar el uso de la SAS-A en población adolescente de habla española.

  11. The world modern mineral processing trends in the reconstruction of Sasa lead-zinc concentrator – M. Kamenica, R. of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Fidancev, Boris; Aleksandrov, Marin; Krstev, Boris; Pavlovski, Borko

    2006-01-01

    The Sasa lead-zinc mine, with increasing annual production and ore processing capacity of 0,92M tones, given in the "Business plan for restarting" (according to the program and the planned total investments from US $ 26,4M, for the modernization of the mine and the reconstruction of the concentrator), foresees a production of the largest quantities of concentrates with lead metals in Europe. According to the planed reconstruction of the concentrator of the Sasa Mine, foresees the following...

  12. Using 16O/18O to Determine the Evolutionary History of the R Coronae Borealis Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Geoffrey; Geballe, Tom; Welch, Douglas; Tisserand, Patrick

    2014-08-01

    All of the Galactic hydrogen-deficient carbon (HdC) and R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars for which oxygen isotopic ratios can be measured, show 16O/18O evolution models. This proposal is to use Gemini/Flamingos-2 to survey all of the Magellanic Cloud stars, which are cool enough to show CO bands, for the presence of 18O near 2.3 micron. This survey, combined with our stellar evolution models, will reveal the true fraction of RCB stars formed by each of the proposed scenarios.

  13. Common protein sequence signatures associate with Sclerotinia borealis lifestyle and secretion in fungal pathogens of the Sclerotiniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eBadet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fungal plant pathogens produce secreted proteins adapted to function outside fungal cells to facilitate colonization of their hosts. In many cases such as for fungi from the Sclerotiniaceae family the repertoire and function of secreted proteins remains elusive. In the Sclerotiniaceae, whereas Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea are cosmopolitan broad host-range plant pathogens, Sclerotinia borealis has a psychrophilic lifestyle with a low optimal growth temperature, a narrow host range and geographic distribution. To spread successfully, S. borealis must synthesize proteins adapted to function in its specific environment. The search for signatures of adaptation to S. borealis lifestyle may therefore help revealing proteins critical for colonization of the environment by Sclerotiniaceae fungi. Here, we analyzed amino acids usage and intrinsic protein disorder in alignments of groups of orthologous proteins from the three Sclerotiniaceae species. We found that enrichment in Thr, depletion in Glu and Lys, and low disorder frequency in hot loops are significantly associated with S. borealis proteins. We designed an index to report bias in these properties and found that high index proteins were enriched among secreted proteins in the three Sclerotiniaceae fungi. High index proteins were also enriched in function associated with plant colonization in S. borealis, and in in planta-induced genes in S. sclerotiorum. We highlight a novel putative antifreeze protein and a novel putative lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase identified through our pipeline as candidate proteins involved in colonization of the environment. Our findings suggest that similar protein signatures associate with S. borealis lifestyle and with secretion in the Sclerotiniaceae. These signatures may be useful for identifying proteins of interest as targets for the management of plant diseases.

  14. Mass spectrometric measurement of neuropeptide secretion in the crab, Cancer borealis, by in vivo microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhidan; Schmerberg, Claire M; Li, Lingjun

    2015-06-07

    Neuropeptides (NPs), a unique and highly important class of signaling molecules across the animal kingdom, have been extensively characterized in the neuronal tissues of various crustaceans. Because many NPs are released into circulating fluid (hemolymph) and travel to distant sites in order to exhibit physiological effects, it is important to measure the secretion of these NPs from living animals. In this study, we report on extensive characterization of NPs released in the crab Cancer borealis by utilizing in vivo microdialysis to sample NPs from the hemolymph. We determined the necessary duration for collection of microdialysis samples, enabling more comprehensive identification of NP content while maintaining the temporal resolution of sampling. Analysis of in vivo microdialysates using a hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap™ Q-Exactive mass spectrometer revealed that more than 50 neuropeptides from 9 peptide families-including the allatostatin, RFamide, orcokinin, tachykinin-related peptide and RYamide families - were released into the circulatory system. The presence of these peptides both in neuronal tissues as well as in hemolymph indicates their putative hormonal roles, a finding that merits further investigation. Preliminary quantitative measurement of these identified NPs suggested several potential candidates that maybe associated with the circadian rhythm in Cancer borealis.

  15. SASA! is the medicine that treats violence’. Qualitative findings on how a community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women created change in Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyegombe, Nambusi; Starmann, Elizabeth; Devries, Karen M.; Michau, Lori; Nakuti, Janet; Musuya, Tina; Watts, Charlotte; Heise, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) violates women's human rights and is a serious public health concern. Historically strategies to prevent IPV have focussed on individuals and their relationships without addressing the context under which IPV occurs. Primary prevention of IPV is a relatively new focus of international efforts and what SASA!, a phased community mobilisation intervention, seeks to achieve. Methods Conducted in Kampala, Uganda, between 2007 and 2012, the SASA! Study is a cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the community-level impact of SASA! This nested qualitative study explores pathways of individual- and community-level change as a result of SASA! Forty in-depth interviews with community members (20 women, 20 men) were conducted at follow-up, audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis complemented by constant comparative methods. Results SASA! influenced the dynamics of relationships and broader community norms. At the relationship level, SASA! is helping partners to explore the benefits of mutually supportive gender roles; improve communication on a variety of issues; increase levels of joint decision-making and highlight non-violent ways to deal with anger or disagreement. Not all relationships experienced the same breadth and depth of change. At the community level, SASA! has helped foster a climate of non-tolerance of violence by reducing the acceptability of violence against women and increasing individuals’ skills, willingness, and sense of responsibility to act to prevent it. It has also developed and strengthened community-based structures to catalyse and support on-going activism to prevent IPV. Discussion This paper provides evidence of the ways in which community-based violence prevention interventions may reduce IPV in low-income settings. It offers important implications for community mobilisation approaches and for prevention of IPV against women. This research has demonstrated the

  16. 'SASA! is the medicine that treats violence'. Qualitative findings on how a community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women created change in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyegombe, Nambusi; Starmann, Elizabeth; Devries, Karen M; Michau, Lori; Nakuti, Janet; Musuya, Tina; Watts, Charlotte; Heise, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) violates women's human rights and is a serious public health concern. Historically strategies to prevent IPV have focussed on individuals and their relationships without addressing the context under which IPV occurs. Primary prevention of IPV is a relatively new focus of international efforts and what SASA!, a phased community mobilisation intervention, seeks to achieve. Conducted in Kampala, Uganda, between 2007 and 2012, the SASA! Study is a cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the community-level impact of SASA! This nested qualitative study explores pathways of individual- and community-level change as a result of SASA! Forty in-depth interviews with community members (20 women, 20 men) were conducted at follow-up, audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis complemented by constant comparative methods. SASA! influenced the dynamics of relationships and broader community norms. At the relationship level, SASA! is helping partners to explore the benefits of mutually supportive gender roles; improve communication on a variety of issues; increase levels of joint decision-making and highlight non-violent ways to deal with anger or disagreement. Not all relationships experienced the same breadth and depth of change. At the community level, SASA! has helped foster a climate of non-tolerance of violence by reducing the acceptability of violence against women and increasing individuals' skills, willingness, and sense of responsibility to act to prevent it. It has also developed and strengthened community-based structures to catalyse and support on-going activism to prevent IPV. This paper provides evidence of the ways in which community-based violence prevention interventions may reduce IPV in low-income settings. It offers important implications for community mobilisation approaches and for prevention of IPV against women. This research has demonstrated the potential of social norm change

  17. SASA! is the medicine that treats violence’. Qualitative findings on how a community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women created change in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nambusi Kyegombe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV violates women's human rights and is a serious public health concern. Historically strategies to prevent IPV have focussed on individuals and their relationships without addressing the context under which IPV occurs. Primary prevention of IPV is a relatively new focus of international efforts and what SASA!, a phased community mobilisation intervention, seeks to achieve. Methods: Conducted in Kampala, Uganda, between 2007 and 2012, the SASA! Study is a cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the community-level impact of SASA! This nested qualitative study explores pathways of individual- and community-level change as a result of SASA! Forty in-depth interviews with community members (20 women, 20 men were conducted at follow-up, audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis complemented by constant comparative methods. Results: SASA! influenced the dynamics of relationships and broader community norms. At the relationship level, SASA! is helping partners to explore the benefits of mutually supportive gender roles; improve communication on a variety of issues; increase levels of joint decision-making and highlight non-violent ways to deal with anger or disagreement. Not all relationships experienced the same breadth and depth of change. At the community level, SASA! has helped foster a climate of non-tolerance of violence by reducing the acceptability of violence against women and increasing individuals’ skills, willingness, and sense of responsibility to act to prevent it. It has also developed and strengthened community-based structures to catalyse and support on-going activism to prevent IPV. Discussion: This paper provides evidence of the ways in which community-based violence prevention interventions may reduce IPV in low-income settings. It offers important implications for community mobilisation approaches and for prevention of IPV against women. This research

  18. Taking Leave?

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Planning a holiday? Then if you're a member of the personnel, you'll need to use the Laboratory's new leave system that will be put in place on 1 October. Leave allocations don't change - you are entitled to just as much holiday as before - but instead of being credited annually, your leave will be credited on a monthly basis, and this information will be communicated on your salary slip. The reason for the change is that with the various new leave schemes such as Recruitment by Saved Leave (RSL) and the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP), a streamlined procedure was required for dealing with all kinds of leave. In the new system, each member of the personnel will have leave accounts to which leave will be credited monthly from the payroll and debited each time an absence is registered in the CERN Electronic Document Handling system (EDH). Leave balances will appear on monthly pay slips, and full details of leave transactions and balances will be available through EDH at all times. As the leave will be c...

  19. Drilling Polar Oceans with the European Research Icebreaker AURORA BOREALIS: the IODP Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembke-Jene, Lester; Wolff-Boenisch, Bonnie; Azzolini, Roberto; Thiede, Joern; Biebow, Nicole; Eldholm, Olav; Egerton, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Polar oceans are characterized by extreme environmental conditions for humans and materials, and have remained the least accessible regions to scientists of the IODP. DSDP and ODP have for long faced specific technical and logistical problems when attempting to drill in ice-covered polar deep-sea basins. The Arctic Ocean and large areas of the high-latitude Southern Ocean remained largely un-sampled by ODP and remain one of the major scientific and technological challenges for IODP. Drilling in these regions has been discussed and anticipated for decades and the scientific rationales are reflected in the science plans of the international Nansen Arctic Drilling Program (NAD) or the Arctic Program Planning Group (APPG) of ODP/IODP, amongst others. More recently, the rationale to investigate the polar oceans in a holistic approach has been outlined by workshops, leading to strategic assessments of the scientific potential and new drilling proposals. The European Polar Board took the initiative to develop a plan for a novel and dedicated research icebreaker with technical capabilities hitherto unrealised. This research icebreaker will enable autonomous operations in the central Arctic Ocean and the Southern Ocean, even during the severest ice conditions in the deep winter, serving all marine disciplines of polar research including scientific drilling: The European Research Icebreaker and Deep-Sea Drilling Vessel AURORA BOREALIS. AURORA BOREALIS is presently planned as a multi-purpose vessel. The ship can be deployed as a research icebreaker in all polar waters during any season of the year, as it shall meet the specifications of the highest ice-class attainable (IACS Polar Code 1) for icebreakers. During the times when it is not employed for drilling, it will operate as the most technically advanced multi-disciplinary research vessel in the Arctic or polar Southern Ocean. AURORA BOREALIS will be a "European scientific flagship facility" (fully open to non

  20. A study of stomach contents of Cory's shearwater, Calonectris diomedea borealis (Cory, 1881) (Aves: Procellariidae), from the Macaronesian Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den J.C.; Clarke, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    Data are presented on the diet of Cory's Shearwater Calonectris diomedea borealis (Cory, 1881) resulting from stomach investigations based on 18 birds from Hierro (Canary Islands), 5 from Selvagem Grande (Selvagens or Salvage Islands), 2 from São Miguel and 1 from São Jorge (Azores), collected

  1. The 203 kbp Mitochondrial Genome of the Phytopathogenic Fungus Sclerotinia borealis Reveals Multiple Invasions of Introns and Genomic Duplications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardanov, Andrey V.; Beletsky, Alexey V.; Kadnikov, Vitaly V.; Ignatov, Alexander N.; Ravin, Nikolai V.

    2014-01-01

    Here we report the complete sequence of the mitochondrial (mt) genome of the necrotrophic phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia borealis, a member of the order Helotiales of Ascomycetes. The 203,051 bp long mtDNA of S. borealis represents one of the largest sequenced fungal mt genomes. The large size is mostly determined by the presence of mobile genetic elements, which include 61 introns. Introns contain a total of 125,394 bp, are scattered throughout the genome, and are found in 12 protein-coding genes and in the ribosomal RNA genes. Most introns contain complete or truncated ORFs that are related to homing endonucleases of the LAGLIDADG and GIY-YIG families. Integrations of mobile elements are also evidenced by the presence of two regions similar to fragments of inverton-like plasmids. Although duplications of some short genome regions, resulting in the appearance of truncated extra copies of genes, did occur, we found no evidences of extensive accumulation of repeat sequences accounting for mitochondrial genome size expansion in some other fungi. Comparisons of mtDNA of S. borealis with other members of the order Helotiales reveal considerable gene order conservation and a dynamic pattern of intron acquisition and loss during evolution. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that horizontal DNA transfer has played a significant role in the evolution and size expansion of the S. borealis mt genome. PMID:25216190

  2. Breaking the Ice: Strategies for Future European Research in the Polar Oceans - The AURORA BOREALIS Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembke-Jene, L.; Biebow, N.; Wolff-Boenisch, B.; Thiede, J.; European Research Icebreaker Consortium

    2011-12-01

    Research vessels dedicated to work in polar ice-covered waters have only rarely been built. Their history began with Fritjof Nansen's FRAM, which he used for his famous first crossing of the Arctic Ocean 1893-1896. She served as example for the first generation of polar research vessels, at their time being modern instruments planned with foresight. Ice breaker technology has developed substantially since then. However, it took almost 80 years until this technical advance also reached polar research, when the Russian AKADEMIK FEDEROV, the German POLARSTERN, the Swedish ODEN and the USCG Cutter HEALY were built. All of these house modern laboratories, are ice-breakers capable to move into the deep-Arctic during the summer time and represent the second generation of dedicated polar research vessels. Still, the increasing demand in polar marine research capacities by societies that call for action to better understand climate change, especially in the high latitudes is not matched by adequate facilities and resources. Today, no icebreaker platform exists that is permanently available to the international science community for year-round expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean or heavily ice-infested waters of the polar Southern Ocean around Antarctica. The AURORA BOREALIS concept plans for a heavy research icebreaker, which will enable polar scientists around the world to launch international research expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean and the Antarctic continental shelf seas autonomously during all seasons of the year. The European Research Icebreaker Consortium - AURORA BOREALIS (ERICON-AB) was established in 2008 to plan the scientific, governance, financial, and legal frameworks needed for the construction and operation of this first multi-nationally owned and operated research icebreaker and polar scientific drilling platform. By collaborating together and sharing common infrastructures it is envisioned that European nations make a major contribution to

  3. Microbial changes and growth of Listeria monocytogenes during chilled storage of brined shrimp ( Pandalus borealis )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Kjeldgaard, J.; Modberg, A.

    2008-01-01

    Thirteen storage trials and ten challenge tests were carried out to examine microbial changes, spoilage and the potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes in brined shrimp (Pandalus borealis). Shrimp in brine as well as brined and drained shrimp in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) were produced...... and they included 53 lactic acid bacteria, 6 coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp., 18 Pseudomonas fluorescens and 5 yeast isolates. After storage at 7 degrees C, P. fluorescens, Enterococcus-like isolates, E. malodoratus, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. and Lactobacillus...... conditions. Shrimp in brine with benzoic. citric and sorbic acids prevented growth of L monocytogenes during more than 40 days at 7 degrees C when the preserving parameters resembled those of commercial products. However, small changes in the preserving parameters and, particularly, reduced concentrations...

  4. Caryospora uptoni n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis borealis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D S; Blagburn, B L

    1986-10-01

    Oocysts of Caryospora uptoni n. sp. were described from the feces of red-tailed hawks, Buteo jamaicensis borealis. Sporulated oocysts were spherical or subspherical and measured 28.1 by 26.4 micron. The oocyst wall was composed of a yellowish outer layer and brownish inner layer and was about 1.5 micron thick. Neither micropyle, polar granules, nor oocyst residuum were present. A single, spherical sporocyst 18.2 by 17.9 micron was present; a Stieda body was absent. A spherical eccentrically located sporocyst residuum was present in many sporocysts, but it degenerated to form a dispersed granular residuum in other sporocysts. Eight randomly arranged sporozoites, 12.6 by 4.2 micron, were present in each sporocyst; they contained a centrally or slightly posteriorly located nucleus.

  5. Caryospora uptoni and Frenkelia sp.-like coccidial infections in red-tailed hawks (Buteo borealis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D S; Blagburn, B L

    1989-07-01

    The feces from 16 red-tailed hawks (Buteo borealis) were examined by fecal flotation for the presence of coccidial oocysts or sporocysts. Oocysts of Caryospora uptoni were found in five (31%), sporocysts of a Frenkelia sp.-like coccidium were found in eight (50%), and mixed infections with both species of coccidia were found in three (19%) red-tailed hawks. Neither oocysts nor sporocysts were found in six (38%) red-tailed hawks. Sexual stages of C. uptoni were found in the duodenum and jejunum of a naturally infected red-tailed hawk. Sexual stages were located in enterocytes on the distal three-fourths of the villi. This study shows that over 60% of red-tailed hawks may be passing coccidial oocysts/sporocysts in their feces and provides morphological information for diagnosing C. uptoni infections in histological sections.

  6. The taxonomic implication of frontal tubercles in Polypedilum subgenera diagnoses, with re-description of Polypedilum isigabeceum Sasa & Suzuki (Diptera, Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Nao; Yamamoto, Masaru

    2016-11-15

    Polypedilum isigabeceum Sasa et Suzuki, 2000 was described as belonging to subgenus Polypedilum s. str. However, if we accept the conclusion of Sæther et al. (2010), the species might be placed into Kribionympha with P. unagiquartum Sasa, 1985 because of the presence of distinct frontal tubercles in the adult males. However, other taxonomic characters do not support their treatment. P. isigabeceum is re-described and reconfirmed to be assigned to the subgenus Polypedilum s. str. The taxonomic meaning of frontal tubercles is discussed for defining the subgeneric rankings within genus Polypedilum.

  7. Ecological pathways to prevention: How does the SASA! community mobilisation model work to prevent physical intimate partner violence against women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Abramsky

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV against women is a global public health concern. While community-level gender norms and attitudes to IPV are recognised drivers of IPV risk, there is little evidence on how interventions might tackle these drivers to prevent IPV at the community-level. This secondary analysis of data from the SASA! study explores the pathways through which SASA!, a community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women, achieved community-wide reductions in physical IPV. Methods From 2007 to 2012 a cluster randomised controlled trial (CRT was conducted in eight communities in Kampala, Uganda. Cross-sectional surveys of a random sample of community members, aged 18–49, were undertaken at baseline (n = 1583 and 4 years post intervention implementation (n = 2532. We used cluster-level intention to treat analysis to estimate SASA!’s community-level impact on women’s past year experience of physical IPV and men’s past year perpetration of IPV. The mediating roles of community-, relationship- and individual-level factors in intervention effect on past year physical IPV experience (women/perpetration (men were explored using modified Poisson regression models. Results SASA! was associated with reductions in women’s past year experience of physical IPV (0.48, 95 % CI 0.16–1.39, as well as men’s perpetration of IPV (0.39, 95 % CI 0.20–0.73. Community-level normative attitudes were the most important mediators of intervention impact on physical IPV risk, with norms around the acceptability of IPV explaining 70 % of the intervention effect on women’s experience of IPV and 95 % of the effect on men’s perpetration. The strongest relationship-level mediators were men’s reduced suspicion of partner infidelity (explaining 22 % of effect on men’s perpetration, and improved communication around sex (explaining 16 % of effect on women’s experience. Reduced acceptability of IPV

  8. Population models for social species: lessons learned from models of Red‐cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Sara L; Walters, Jeffrey R

    Behavior can have major impacts on the population dynamics of social species and should be incorporated into demographic models to realistically evaluate population trends and extinction risk. We compared the predictions of a stage- and age-based matrix model, an individual-based model (IBM, developed in the program Vortex), and a spatially explicit individual-based model (SEPM) with the actual dynamics of a population of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (RCW; Picoides borealis) in the Sandhills of North Carolina, USA. Predictions, including population size, composition, and growth rate, differed the most from actual population characteristics for models that did not incorporate social structure. The SEPM most closely predicted actual population dynamics, underestimating the population by 2.3%. This model, specifically developed to simulate RCW population dynamics, contains many of the features that we assert are important for adequately incorporating social behavior into demographic and population modeling. These features include the ability to (1) differentiate individuals based on their stage class, (2) capture the dynamics of the population at both the individual and group level, (3) incorporate the positive or negative effects of subdominants, (4) include environmental and demographic stochasticity, and (5) capture dispersal and other spatial factors. The RCW SEPM, although currently species-specific, provides a strong blueprint for how population models for social species could be constructed in the future when data allow.

  9. Leaves, stem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... leaves pale yellowish green in colour with greenish cream scented flower and yellow fruits oval in shape ... When an herbal product is ingested the body interacts with it in an attempt to get rid of any harmful toxins, especially if the body cannot convert the foreign subs- tances into cellular components. In this ...

  10. Findings from the SASA! Study: a cluster randomized controlled trial to assess the impact of a community mobilization intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV risk in Kampala, Uganda

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abramsky, Tanya; Devries, Karen; Kiss, Ligia; Nakuti, Janet; Kyegombe, Nambusi; Starmann, Elizabeth; Cundill, Bonnie; Francisco, Leilani; Kaye, Dan; Musuya, Tina; Michau, Lori; Watts, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    .... While it is recognized that they share common social drivers, there is limited evidence surrounding the potential of community interventions to reduce violence and HIV risk at the community level. The SASA...

  11. Vector single- and double-hump solitons for the coupled Sasa-Satsuma equations in optical media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Tian, Bo

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the coupled Sasa-Satsuma equations are investigated for the propagation of the ultrashort pulse in such optical media as multi-mode and birefringent fibers. With the Hirota method and introduction of three auxiliary functions, a different bilinear form is obtained. Vector one- and two-soliton solutions in the bright-bright form are constructed. Based on the vector one-soliton solutions, parametric conditions for the existence of the vector single- and double-hump solitons are presented. From the vector two-soliton solutions, elastic and inelastic interactions can both be observed between the (i) two vector single-hump solitons, (ii) two vector double-hump solitons, and (iii) vector single- and double-hump solitons.

  12. Niche Partitioning of Feather Mites within a Seabird Host, Calonectris borealis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Laura M; Gómez-Díaz, Elena; Elguero, Eric; Proctor, Heather C; McCoy, Karen D; González-Solís, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    According to classic niche theory, species can coexist in heterogeneous environments by reducing interspecific competition via niche partitioning, e.g. trophic or spatial partitioning. However, support for the role of competition on niche partitioning remains controversial. Here, we tested for spatial and trophic partitioning in feather mites, a diverse and abundant group of arthropods. We focused on the two dominant mite species, Microspalax brevipes and Zachvatkinia ovata, inhabiting flight feathers of the Cory's shearwater, Calonectris borealis. We performed mite counts across and within primary and tail feathers on free-living shearwaters breeding on an oceanic island (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands). We then investigated trophic relationships between the two mite species and the host using stable isotope analyses of carbon and nitrogen on mite tissues and potential host food sources. The distribution of the two mite species showed clear spatial segregation among feathers; M. brevipes showed high preference for the central wing primary feathers, whereas Z. ovata was restricted to the two outermost primaries. Morphological differences between M. brevipes and Z. ovata support an adaptive basis for the spatial segregation of the two mite species. However, the two mites overlap in some central primaries and statistical modeling showed that Z. ovata tends to outcompete M. brevipes. Isotopic analyses indicated similar isotopic values for the two mite species and a strong correlation in carbon signatures between mites inhabiting the same individual host suggesting that diet is mainly based on shared host-associated resources. Among the four candidate tissues examined (blood, feather remains, skin remains and preen gland oil), we conclude that the diet is most likely dominated by preen gland oil, while the contribution of exogenous material to mite diets is less marked. Our results indicate that ongoing competition for space and resources plays a central role in

  13. Niche Partitioning of Feather Mites within a Seabird Host, Calonectris borealis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Stefan

    Full Text Available According to classic niche theory, species can coexist in heterogeneous environments by reducing interspecific competition via niche partitioning, e.g. trophic or spatial partitioning. However, support for the role of competition on niche partitioning remains controversial. Here, we tested for spatial and trophic partitioning in feather mites, a diverse and abundant group of arthropods. We focused on the two dominant mite species, Microspalax brevipes and Zachvatkinia ovata, inhabiting flight feathers of the Cory's shearwater, Calonectris borealis. We performed mite counts across and within primary and tail feathers on free-living shearwaters breeding on an oceanic island (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands. We then investigated trophic relationships between the two mite species and the host using stable isotope analyses of carbon and nitrogen on mite tissues and potential host food sources. The distribution of the two mite species showed clear spatial segregation among feathers; M. brevipes showed high preference for the central wing primary feathers, whereas Z. ovata was restricted to the two outermost primaries. Morphological differences between M. brevipes and Z. ovata support an adaptive basis for the spatial segregation of the two mite species. However, the two mites overlap in some central primaries and statistical modeling showed that Z. ovata tends to outcompete M. brevipes. Isotopic analyses indicated similar isotopic values for the two mite species and a strong correlation in carbon signatures between mites inhabiting the same individual host suggesting that diet is mainly based on shared host-associated resources. Among the four candidate tissues examined (blood, feather remains, skin remains and preen gland oil, we conclude that the diet is most likely dominated by preen gland oil, while the contribution of exogenous material to mite diets is less marked. Our results indicate that ongoing competition for space and resources plays a

  14. DISCOVERY OF BRIGHT GALACTIC R CORONAE BOREALIS AND DY PERSEI VARIABLES: RARE GEMS MINED FROM ACVS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, A. A.; Richards, J. W.; Bloom, J. S.; Cenko, S. B.; Silverman, J. M.; Starr, D. L. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Stassun, K. G., E-mail: amiller@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)

    2012-08-20

    We present the results of a machine-learning (ML)-based search for new R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars and DY Persei-like stars (DYPers) in the Galaxy using cataloged light curves from the All-Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) Catalog of Variable Stars (ACVS). RCB stars-a rare class of hydrogen-deficient carbon-rich supergiants-are of great interest owing to the insights they can provide on the late stages of stellar evolution. DYPers are possibly the low-temperature, low-luminosity analogs to the RCB phenomenon, though additional examples are needed to fully establish this connection. While RCB stars and DYPers are traditionally identified by epochs of extreme dimming that occur without regularity, the ML search framework more fully captures the richness and diversity of their photometric behavior. We demonstrate that our ML method can use newly discovered RCB stars to identify additional candidates within the same data set. Our search yields 15 candidates that we consider likely RCB stars/DYPers: new spectroscopic observations confirm that four of these candidates are RCB stars and four are DYPers. Our discovery of four new DYPers increases the number of known Galactic DYPers from two to six; noteworthy is that one of the new DYPers has a measured parallax and is m Almost-Equal-To 7 mag, making it the brightest known DYPer to date. Future observations of these new DYPers should prove instrumental in establishing the RCB connection. We consider these results, derived from a machine-learned probabilistic classification catalog, as an important proof-of-concept for the efficient discovery of rare sources with time-domain surveys.

  15. Stable hydrogen isotopes record the summering grounds of eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortney L. Pylant

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bats face numerous threats associated with global environmental change, including the rapid expansion of wind-energy facilities, emerging infectious disease, and habitat loss. An understanding of the movement and migration patterns of these highly dispersive animals would help reveal how spatially localized the impacts from these threats are likely to be on bat populations, thus aiding in their conservation. Stable hydrogen isotope ratios (δ2H can be used to infer regions where bats have foraged during the summer molt season, thus allowing an assessment of summering location and distance of movement of bats sampled during other times of year. However, a major impediment to the application of δ2H for inference of bat movements is that the relationship between δ2H of bat hair and precipitation tends to be species specific and is still unknown for some key species of conservation concern. We addressed this issue by using geo-referenced museum specimens to calibrate the relationship between δ2H of hair (δ2Hhair and long-term δ2H of growing-season precipitation (δ2HGSprecip at the site of collection for eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis, one of the main species of bats experiencing large numbers of fatalities at wind-energy facilities in North America. Based on comparison of δ2Hhair and δ2HGSprecip values for males we estimated a period of molt of June 14–August 7. Within this period, male and female red bats exhibited a significant positive relationship between δ2Hhair and δ2HGSprecip. These results establish the relationship between δ2Hhair and δ2HGSprecip for red bats, which is necessary for the use of δ2Hhair to infer the movement and migration patterns of this important species. These results provide a critical resource to conservation biologists working to assess the impacts of environmental change on bat populations.

  16. THE CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVIRONMENT OF R CORONAE BOREALIS: WHITE DWARF MERGER OR FINAL-HELIUM-SHELL FLASH?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Andrews, J. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Sugerman, Ben E. K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Goucher College, 1021 Dulaney Valley Rd., Baltimore, MD 21204 (United States); Adam Stanford, S. [IGPP, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Whitney, B. A. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut St. Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Honor, J.; Babler, B. [Department of Astronomy, 475 North Charter St., University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Barlow, M. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Gordon, K. D.; Bond, Howard E.; Matsuura, M. [STScI, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Geballe, T. R. [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); De Marco, O. [Department of Physics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Lawson, W. A. [School of PEMS, University of New South Wales, ADFA, P.O. Box 7916, Canberra, ACT 2610 (Australia); Sibthorpe, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Olofsson, G. [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, Roslagstullsbacken 21, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Polehampton, E. [Space Science and Technology Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Gomez, H. L.; Hargrave, P. C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, 5 The Parade, Cardiff, Wales CF24 3YB (United Kingdom); Ivison, R. J., E-mail: gclayton@phys.lsu.edu, E-mail: jandrews@phys.lsu.edu, E-mail: ben.sugerman@goucher.edu, E-mail: stanford@physics.ucdavis.edu, E-mail: bwhitney@spacescience.org, E-mail: jhonor@astro.wisc.edu, E-mail: brian@astro.wisc.edu, E-mail: mjb@star.ucl.ac.uk [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, ROE, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); and others

    2011-12-10

    In 2007, R Coronae Borealis (R CrB) went into a historically deep and long decline. In this state, the dust acts like a natural coronagraph at visible wavelengths, allowing faint nebulosity around the star to be seen. Imaging has been obtained from 0.5 to 500 {mu}m with Gemini/GMOS, Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2, Spitzer/MIPS, and Herschel/SPIRE. Several of the structures around R CrB are cometary globules caused by wind from the star streaming past dense blobs. The estimated dust mass of the knots is consistent with their being responsible for the R CrB declines if they form along the line of sight to the star. In addition, there is a large diffuse shell extending up to 4 pc away from the star containing cool 25 K dust that is detected all the way out to 500 {mu}m. The spectral energy distribution of R CrB can be well fitted by a 150 AU disk surrounded by a very large diffuse envelope which corresponds to the size of the observed nebulosity. The total masses of the disk and envelope are 10{sup -4} and 2 M{sub Sun }, respectively, assuming a gas-to-dust ratio of 100. The evidence pointing toward a white dwarf merger or a final-helium-shell flash origin for R CrB is contradictory. The shell and the cometary knots are consistent with a fossil planetary nebula. Along with the fact that R CrB shows significant lithium in its atmosphere, this supports the final-helium-shell flash. However, the relatively high inferred mass of R CrB and its high fluorine abundance support a white dwarf merger.

  17. The impact of SASA!, a community mobilization intervention, on reported HIV-related risk behaviours and relationship dynamics in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyegombe, Nambusi; Abramsky, Tanya; Devries, Karen M; Starmann, Elizabeth; Michau, Lori; Nakuti, Janet; Musuya, Tina; Heise, Lori; Watts, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) violates women's human rights, and it is a serious public health concern associated with increased HIV risk. SASA!, a phased community mobilization intervention, engages communities to prevent IPV and promote gender equity. The SASA! study assessed the community-level impact of SASA! on reported HIV-related risk behaviours and relationship dynamics. Data were collected as part of a cluster randomized controlled trial conducted between 2007 and 2012 in eight communities in Kampala. An adjusted cluster-level intention to treat analysis, compares secondary outcomes in intervention and control communities at follow-up. The qualitative evaluation explored participants' subjective experience of SASA!. A total of 82 in-depth interviews were audio recorded at follow-up, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis. Men in intervention communities were significantly more likely than controls to report a broad range of HIV-protective behaviours, including higher levels of condom use (aRR 2.03, 95% CI 1.22-3.39), HIV testing (aRR 1.50, 95% CI 1.13-2.00) and fewer concurrent partners (aRR 0.60, 95% CI 0.37-0.97). They were also more likely to report increased joint decision-making (aRR 1.92, 95% CI 1.27-2.91), greater male participation in household tasks (aRR 1.48, 95% CI 1.09-2.01), more open communication and greater appreciation of their partner's work inside (aRR 1.31, 95% CI 1.04-1.66) and outside (aRR 1.49, 95% CI 1.08-2.06) the home. For women, all outcomes were in the hypothesized direction, but effect sizes were smaller. Only some achieved statistical significance. Women in intervention communities were significantly more likely to report being able to refuse sex with their partners (aRR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00-1.35), joint decision-making (aRR 1.37, 95% CI 1.06-1.78) and more open communication on a number of indicators. Qualitative interviews suggest that shifts operated through broader improvements in relationships, including

  18. Assessment of the International Fishery for Shrimp (Pandalus borealis)in Division 3M (Flemish Cap), 1993-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Casas-Sánchez, J.M. (José Miguel)

    2014-01-01

    The development of the international shrimp (Pandalus borealis) fishery in NAFO Division 3M is described. Various indices show that even the stock was in high levels in 2006 and 2007 the lack of good recruitments in the last years and the progressive disappearance of the strong year classes 2001 and 2002 have caused a drastic decline of the stock. Although the fishing effort in recent years was low and from 2011 a moratorium over shrimp fishery was established, the increase of cod biomass (th...

  19. Assessment of the International Fishery for Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) in Division 3M (Flemish Cap), 1993-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Casas-Sánchez, J.M. (José Miguel)

    2013-01-01

    The development of the international shrimp (Pandalus borealis) fishery in NAFO Division 3M is described. Various indices show that even the stock was in high levels in 2006 and 2007 the lack of good recruitments in the last years and the progressive disappearance of the strong year classes 2001 and 2002 have caused a drastic decline of the stock. Although the fishing effort in recent years was low and from 2011 a moratorium over shrimp fishery was established, the increase of cod biomass (th...

  20. Assessment of the International Fishery for Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) in Division 3M (Flemish Cap), 1993-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Casas-Sánchez, J.M. (José Miguel)

    2012-01-01

    The development of the international shrimp (Pandalus borealis) fishery in NAFO Division 3M is described. Various indices show that even the stock was in high levels in 2006 and 2007 the lack of good recruitments in the last years and the progressive disappearance of the strong year classes 2001 and 2002 have caused a drastic decline of the stock. Although the fishing effort in recent years was low and from 2011 a moratorium over shrimp fishery was established, the increase of cod biomass (th...

  1. Immunochemical Cross-Reactivity of β-Glucan in the Medicinal Plant, Sasa veitchii (Japanese Folk Medicine Kumazasa), and Medicinal Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Yoshida, Mia; Ishibashi, Ken-Ichi; Takeshita, Kazuo; Tsuboi, Masamichi; Kanamori, Masato; Miura, Noriko N; Adachi, Yoshiyuki; Ohno, Naohito

    2016-01-01

    Fungal β-glucan is a representative pathogen-associated molecular pattern from mushroom, yeast, and fungi and stimulates innate as well as acquired immune systems. This β-glucan is widely applied in functional food to enhance immunity. Humans and animals generally become sensitized to this β-glucan and gradually produce specific antibodies to β-glucans. The extracts of plants have been used as folk medicine and are reported to possess various biological activities that are beneficial for human health, such as antitumor, antiallergic, and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, the immunochemical cross-reactivity of Sasa extract and fungal β-glucan was analyzed. We found that the anti-β-glucan antibody in human sera strongly cross-reacted with the Sasa extract. This result strongly suggested that plant extracts modulate the immunostimulating effects of medicinal mushrooms. The cooperative effects of plants and mushrooms may be an important issue for functional foods.

  2. Combined SAXS/EM Based Models of the S. elongatus Post-Translational Circadian Oscillator and its Interactions with the Output His-Kinase SasA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattanayek, Rekha; Williams, Dewight R.; Rossi, Gian; Weigand, Steven; Mori, Tetsuya; Johnson, Carl H.; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Egli, Martin (Vanderbilt); (NWU)

    2012-03-15

    The circadian clock in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus is composed of a post-translational oscillator (PTO) that can be reconstituted in vitro from three different proteins in the presence of ATP and a transcription-translation feedback loop (TTFL). The homo-hexameric KaiC kinase, phosphatase and ATPase alternates between hypo- and hyper-phosphorylated states over the 24-h cycle, with KaiA enhancing phosphorylation, and KaiB antagonizing KaiA and promoting KaiC subunit exchange. SasA is a His kinase that relays output signals from the PTO formed by the three Kai proteins to the TTFL. Although the crystal structures for all three Kai proteins are known, atomic resolution structures of Kai and Kai/SasA protein complexes have remained elusive. Here, we present models of the KaiAC and KaiBC complexes derived from solution small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), which are consistent with previous EM based models. We also present a combined SAXS/EM model of the KaiC/SasA complex, which has two N-terminal SasA sensory domains occupying positions on the C-terminal KaiC ring reminiscent of the orientations adopted by KaiB dimers. Using EM we demonstrate that KaiB and SasA compete for similar binding sites on KaiC. We also propose an EM based model of the ternary KaiABC complex that is consistent with the sequestering of KaiA by KaiB on KaiC during the PTO dephosphorylation phase. This work provides the first 3D-catalogue of protein-protein interactions in the KaiABC PTO and the output pathway mediated by SasA.

  3. Combined SAXS/EM based models of the S. elongatus post-translational circadian oscillator and its interactions with the output His-kinase SasA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Pattanayek

    Full Text Available The circadian clock in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus is composed of a post-translational oscillator (PTO that can be reconstituted in vitro from three different proteins in the presence of ATP and a transcription-translation feedback loop (TTFL. The homo-hexameric KaiC kinase, phosphatase and ATPase alternates between hypo- and hyper-phosphorylated states over the 24-h cycle, with KaiA enhancing phosphorylation, and KaiB antagonizing KaiA and promoting KaiC subunit exchange. SasA is a His kinase that relays output signals from the PTO formed by the three Kai proteins to the TTFL. Although the crystal structures for all three Kai proteins are known, atomic resolution structures of Kai and Kai/SasA protein complexes have remained elusive. Here, we present models of the KaiAC and KaiBC complexes derived from solution small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, which are consistent with previous EM based models. We also present a combined SAXS/EM model of the KaiC/SasA complex, which has two N-terminal SasA sensory domains occupying positions on the C-terminal KaiC ring reminiscent of the orientations adopted by KaiB dimers. Using EM we demonstrate that KaiB and SasA compete for similar binding sites on KaiC. We also propose an EM based model of the ternary KaiABC complex that is consistent with the sequestering of KaiA by KaiB on KaiC during the PTO dephosphorylation phase. This work provides the first 3D-catalogue of protein-protein interactions in the KaiABC PTO and the output pathway mediated by SasA.

  4. The Accretion Disk and the Boundary Layer of the Symbiotic Recurrent Nova T Corona Borealis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Koji; Luna, Gerardo; Nelson, Thomas; Sokoloski, Jennifer L.; Lucy, Adrian; Nuñez, Natalia

    2017-08-01

    T Corona Borealis is one of four known Galactic recurrent symbiotic novae, red giant-white dwarf binaries from which multiple thermonuclear runaway (TNR) events, or nova eruptions, have been observed. TNR requires high pressure at the base of the accreted envelope, and a recurrence time of less than a century almost certainly requires both high white dwarf mass and high accretion rate. The eruptions of T CrB were observed in 1866 and 1946; if the 80 year interval is typical, the next eruption would be expected within the next decade or two. Optical observations show that T CrB has entered a super-active state starting in 2015, similar to that seen in 1938, 8 years before the last eruption. In quiescence, T CrB is a known, bright hard X-ray source that has been detected in the Swift/BAT all-sky survey. Here we present the result of our NuSTAR observation of T CrB in 2015, when it had started to brighten but had not yet reached the peak of the super-active state. We were able to fit the spectrum with an absorbed cooling flow model with reflection, with a reflection amplitude of 1.0. We also present recent Swift and XMM-Newton observations during the peak of the super-active state, when T CrB had faded dramatically in the BAT band. T CrB is found to be much more luminous in the UV, while the X-ray spectrum became complex including a soft, optically thick component. We present our interpretation of the overall variability as due to instability of a large disk, and of the X-rays as due to emission from the boundary layer. In our view, the NuSTAR observation was performed when the boundary layer was optically thin, and the reflection was only from the white dwarf surface that subtended 2π steradian of the sky as seen from the emission region. With these assumptions, we infer the white dwarf in the T CrB system to have a mass of ~1.2 Msun. During the very active state, the boundary layer had turned partially optically thick and produced the soft X-ray component, while

  5. Population structure and maturity stages of Fritillaria borealis (Appendicularia, Tunicata: seasonal cycle in Ushuaia Bay (Beagle Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Presta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFritillaria borealis is a cosmopolitan species, very frequent in sub-antarctic and antarctic waters. The objective of this paper was to analyze its size structure and maturity stages at two sites in Ushuaia Bay: a coastal site exposed to anthropogenic pressure (E1 and a reference site (E2 located in the external zone of the bay. Zooplankton was collected during the 2012 seasonal cycle. The sampling method involved the use of a 67 µm-mesh net. Appendicularians were classified in four maturity stages: I undifferentiated gonads, II testis and ovary differentiated, III expanded testis, IV discharged testis, expanded ovary. Our results showed that the highest densities of F. borealisoccurred in spring and summer at both sites; coinciding with high values of chlorophyll-a. The percentage of juveniles (I and II exhibited a spatial and temporal pattern similar to that observed for chlorophyll-a values. During spring-summer, juveniles and mature specimens (III and IV showed a greater gonadal development than those individuals found in autumn-winter. In conclusion, the mismatching in the population structure and the pattern of densities of F. borealis between coastal and external zones would suggest the existence of two sub-populations susceptible to the influence of the anthropogenic impact in the bay.

  6. Characteristics of green-blue fluorescence generated from the adaxial sides of leaves of tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Masayoshi; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2017-03-01

    We discovered that some tree species have leaves whose adaxial sides show bright green-blue fluorescence upon exposure to ultraviolet irradiation. In total, 141 native Japanese species belonging to 47 families were analyzed, and the brightness of the leaf fluorescence, represented by the L* values (Lab color space) of the pictures, was evaluated. The species possessing the brightest fluorescent leaves, with L* > 50, were Camellia japonica, Camellia sasanqua, and Cleyera japonica of Theaceae, Osmanthus heterophyllus and Ligustrum japonicum of Oleaceae, Aucuba japonica of Garryaceae, and Trochodendron aralioides of Trochodendraceae. These species are propagated by pollination or seed dispersion by birds, except T. aralioides. The fluorescence was specifically observed in the cuticle tissues of the epidermal cells, indicating that the fluorescence is a signal to other organisms that can perceive the fluorescence under natural light. Species possessing the bright leaves represented 5% of the total species tested, while species possessing dark leaves, with L* ≤ 40, represented 88.6%. We deduce that the fluorescence enables the organisms to easily distinguish the minority species possessing bright leaves from the surrounding plants, which were mostly trees species with dark leaves. The structure of A. japonica var. borealis, in which dark leaves only surround its fruits while the rest of the tree is covered by bright leaves, may be useful to signal the presence of fruits to the organisms. We hypothesize that the fluorescence contributes to the propagation of the tree species by helping birds to distinguish these particular trees and/or locate the fruits.

  7. Leaving liza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futcher, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Abstract This is Chapter Thirteen of Leaving Liza, a novel about life, death, love, friendship, jealousy and lesbian ex-lovers. In the novel, six women are spending the weekend at a beach house in Long Island's Hamptons, where they have gathered to be with their friend Liza, who is battling terminal ovarian cancer. Liza's lover, Jill, has agreed to the house party and helped plan the guest list. But, as she smolders with resentment at the attention Liza is getting and the depth of the women's friendships, she begins to come unraveled. After a severe asthma attack that requires an emergency room visit the day before, Jill conducts a seance, purporting to have contacted another of Liza's ex-lovers, who died a few months earlier. Now, on this last night of the house party, she lets Liza and her friends know what she's really feeling. The editors have asked me to add some "commentary" on the questions this story raises about the roles of ex-lovers. I would hope the scene reflects some of the tensions that can occur when ex-lovers choose to remain friends, particularly when those bonds provoke profound jealousy in both current and ex-lovers. For many of us, the job of assuaging and reassuring the current lover while maintaining intimate friendships with an ex-lover is simply too exhausting and prickly to endure. For others, it is worth the struggle. Liza and her friends clearly think it is. But at what point, they all wonder at this house party, does their hunger for honesty and their anger at being insulted and manipulated become more important than keeping the peace, and possibly their friendship with Liza? Perhaps only Liza's death will free them from this compromising coexistence.

  8. The impact of SASA!, a community mobilization intervention, on reported HIV-related risk behaviours and relationship dynamics in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nambusi Kyegombe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intimate partner violence (IPV violates women's human rights, and it is a serious public health concern associated with increased HIV risk. SASA!, a phased community mobilization intervention, engages communities to prevent IPV and promote gender equity. The SASA! study assessed the community-level impact of SASA! on reported HIV-related risk behaviours and relationship dynamics. Methods: Data were collected as part of a cluster randomized controlled trial conducted between 2007 and 2012 in eight communities in Kampala. An adjusted cluster-level intention to treat analysis, compares secondary outcomes in intervention and control communities at follow-up. The qualitative evaluation explored participants’ subjective experience of SASA!. A total of 82 in-depth interviews were audio recorded at follow-up, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: Men in intervention communities were significantly more likely than controls to report a broad range of HIV-protective behaviours, including higher levels of condom use (aRR 2.03, 95% CI 1.22–3.39, HIV testing (aRR 1.50, 95% CI 1.13–2.00 and fewer concurrent partners (aRR 0.60, 95% CI 0.37–0.97. They were also more likely to report increased joint decision-making (aRR 1.92, 95% CI 1.27–2.91, greater male participation in household tasks (aRR 1.48, 95% CI 1.09–2.01, more open communication and greater appreciation of their partner's work inside (aRR 1.31, 95% CI 1.04–1.66 and outside (aRR 1.49, 95% CI 1.08–2.06 the home. For women, all outcomes were in the hypothesized direction, but effect sizes were smaller. Only some achieved statistical significance. Women in intervention communities were significantly more likely to report being able to refuse sex with their partners (aRR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00–1.35, joint decision-making (aRR 1.37, 95% CI 1.06–1.78 and more open communication on a number of indicators. Qualitative interviews suggest that shifts

  9. Rhubarb leaves poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002876.htm Rhubarb leaves poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Rhubarb leaves poisoning occurs when someone eats pieces of leaves ...

  10. Parental Leave in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; Christoffersen, Mogens; Weise, Hanne

    This artcle considders the political aims for different leave schemes and reviews studies af these schemes. The use of parental leave is sensitive to the financial loss involved in taking leave: a decrease in the benefit payments has had a significant influence on take-up, while, in general......, families'' loss of income is less if leave is taken up by the mothers. Only few fathers participate in parental leave....

  11. Constraints on the pre-impact orbits of Theia, the Borealis impactor and the progenitor of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Alan P.; Gabriel, Travis; Asphaug, Erik

    2016-10-01

    Many aspects of the current dynamical and compositional configuration of the inner Solar System, such as Mercury's large core mass fraction, the angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system, and the reorientation of Mars, have been achieved through the effects of giant impacts. It is possible to relate the impact conditions, especially the velocity, to the pre-impact orbits. This in turn provides insight into the source regions for the terrestrial planets for comparison with N-body accretion models. For example, in the case of the canonical model for the formation of the Moon, previous studies have investigated regions in which the Mars-size impactor, Theia, could be quasi-stable for millions of years. We can however obtain constraints on the orbit of an impactor immediately prior to collision simply by knowing the impact velocity. We consider the canonical Moon formation model, as well as the models of Cuk & Stewart (2012), Canup (2012) and Reufer et al. (2012), to derive from each model its constraints on the pre-impact orbit of Theia. We also consider Mars, and provide constraints on the pre-impact orbit of the impactor suggested to have formed the Borealis basin, and Mercury, namely the Benz et al. (2007) scenario for the formation of Mercury. We discuss the implication of these pre-impact orbits for the origin of the bodies and their compositions.

  12. Genetic approaches to the conservation of migratory bats: a study of the eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten J. Vonhof

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Documented fatalities of bats at wind turbines have raised serious concerns about the future impacts of increased wind power development on populations of migratory bat species. However, for most bat species we have no knowledge of the size of populations and their demographic trends, the degree of structuring into discrete subpopulations, and whether different subpopulations use spatially segregated migratory routes. Here, we utilize genetic data from eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis, one of the species most highly affected by wind power development in North America, to (1 evaluate patterns of population structure across the landscape, (2 estimate effective population size (Ne, and (3 assess signals of growth or decline in population size. Using data on both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation, we demonstrate that this species forms a single, panmictic population across their range with no evidence for the historical use of divergent migratory pathways by any portion of the population. Further, using coalescent estimates we estimate that the effective size of this population is in the hundreds of thousands to millions of individuals. The high levels of gene flow and connectivity across the population of eastern red bats indicate that monitoring and management of eastern red bats must integrate information across the range of this species.

  13. Characterization of Shrimp Oil from Pandalus borealis by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangling Jiao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis oil, which is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, was recovered from the cooking water of shrimp processing facilities. The oil contains significant amounts of omega-3 fatty acids in triglyceride form, along with substantial long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs. It also features natural isomeric forms of astaxanthin, a nutritional carotenoid, which gives the oil a brilliant red color. As part of our efforts in developing value added products from waste streams of the seafood processing industry, we present in this paper a comprehensive characterization of the triacylglycerols (TAGs and astaxanthin esters that predominate in the shrimp oil by using HPLC-HRMS and MS/MS, as well as 13C-NMR. This approach, in combination with FAME analysis, offers direct characterization of fatty acid molecules in their intact forms, including the distribution of regioisomers in TAGs. The information is important for the standardization and quality control, as well as for differentiation of composition features of shrimp oil, which could be sold as an ingredient in health supplements and functional foods.

  14. The relative effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on population genetic variation in the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Douglas J; Wiegand, Thorsten; Fernández, Néstor

    2010-09-01

    The relative influence of habitat loss, fragmentation and matrix heterogeneity on the viability of populations is a critical area of conservation research that remains unresolved. Using simulation modelling, we provide an analysis of the influence both patch size and patch isolation have on abundance, effective population size (N(e)) and F(ST). An individual-based, spatially explicit population model based on 15 years of field work on the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) was applied to different landscape configurations. The variation in landscape patterns was summarized using spatial statistics based on O-ring statistics. By regressing demographic and genetics attributes that emerged across the landscape treatments against proportion of total habitat and O-ring statistics, we show that O-ring statistics provide an explicit link between population processes, habitat area, and critical thresholds of fragmentation that affect those processes. Spatial distances among land cover classes that affect biological processes translated into critical scales at which the measures of landscape structure correlated best with genetic indices. Therefore our study infers pattern from process, which contrasts with past studies of landscape genetics. We found that population genetic structure was more strongly affected by fragmentation than population size, which suggests that examining only population size may limit recognition of fragmentation effects that erode genetic variation. If effective population size is used to set recovery goals for endangered species, then habitat fragmentation effects may be sufficiently strong to prevent evaluation of recovery based on the ratio of census:effective population size alone.

  15. Leaving home in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Skovgaard

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on ethnic differences in the timing and patterns of leaving the parental home. Leaving home is a key transition in the life course of the individual, and extensive research has been conducted on the timing and patterns of leaving it. However, ethnic differences in these patterns...... of leaving home. Results showed that while some differences disappeared when controlling for covariates, others persisted, thus indicating ethnic differences in home-leaving patterns. A strong link between leaving home and marriage was substantiated for Turks, but not for Somalis. The home-leaving patterns...... of Somalis were much more similar to those of Danes. Overall, Turkish descendants were similar to Turkish immigrants but with some differentiation. The analyses identified the existence of ethnic differences in home-leaving patterns but also found evidence of a shift towards less traditional patterns, i...

  16. Leaving an Abusive Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... restraining order Leaving an abusive relationship Effects of domestic violence on children Sexual assault and rape Sexual assault Rape Sexual ... restraining order Leaving an abusive relationship Effects of domestic violence on children Sexual assault and rape Other types of violence ...

  17. SAVED LEAVE BONUS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    Staff members participating in the RSL programme are entitled to one additional day of saved leave for each full period of 20 days remaining in their saved leave account on 31 December 1999.Allowing some time for all concerned to make sure that their periods of leave taken in 1999 are properly registered, HR division will proceed with the crediting of the appropriate number of days in the saved leave accounts from 25 January 2000.Human Resources DivisionTel.73359

  18. Peptide-binding motif prediction by using phage display library for SasaUBA*0301, a resistance haplotype of MHC class I molecule from Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Heng; Hermsen, Trudi; Stet, Rene J M

    2008-01-01

    class I molecule might have a very similar binding motif at the C-terminus compared with a known mouse class I molecule H2-Kb which has L, or I, V, M at p8. Previous work showed that Atlantic Salmon carrying the allele SasaUBA*0301 are resistant to infectious Salmon aneamia virus......The structure of the peptide-binding specificity of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I has been analyzed extensively in human and mouse. For fish, there are no crystallographic models of MHC molecules, neither are there data on the peptide-binding specificity. In this study, we describe...... for the first time the identification of a fish class I peptide-MHC ligand binding motif. Phage display technology using both 7mer and 12mer libraries enabled us to identify peptide ligands with unique specificity that interacts with the recombinant Salmon MHC class I molecule. The recombinant proteins, beta(2...

  19. What is the potential for interventions designed to prevent violence against women to reduce children's exposure to violence? Findings from the SASA! study, Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyegombe, Nambusi; Abramsky, Tanya; Devries, Karen M; Michau, Lori; Nakuti, Janet; Starmann, Elizabeth; Musuya, Tina; Heise, Lori; Watts, Charlotte

    2015-12-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment often co-occur in households and lead to negative outcomes for children. This article explores the extent to which SASA!, an intervention to prevent violence against women, impacted children's exposure to violence. Between 2007 and 2012 a cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in Kampala, Uganda. An adjusted cluster-level intention to treat analysis, compares secondary outcomes in intervention and control communities at follow-up. Under the qualitative evaluation, 82 in-depth interviews were audio recorded at follow-up, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis complemented by constant comparative methods. This mixed-methods article draws mainly on the qualitative data. The findings suggest that SASA! impacted on children's experience of violence in three main ways. First, quantitative data suggest that children's exposure to IPV was reduced. We estimate that reductions in IPV combined with reduced witnessing by children when IPV did occur, led to a 64% reduction in prevalence of children witnessing IPV in their home (aRR 0.36, 95% CI 0.06-2.20). Second, among couples who experienced reduced IPV, qualitative data suggests parenting and discipline practices sometimes also changed-improving parent-child relationships and for a few parents, resulting in the complete rejection of corporal punishment as a disciplinary method. Third, some participants reported intervening to prevent violence against children. The findings suggest that interventions to prevent IPV may also impact on children's exposure to violence, and improve parent-child relationships. They also point to potential synergies for violence prevention, an area meriting further exploration. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  1. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  2. Changes in recruitment, growth, and stock size of northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) at West Greenland: temperature and density-dependent effects at released predation pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai

    2005-01-01

    increased in all survey regions since the mid-1990s. Length-at-age was positively correlated with temperature in general, but a trend towards slower growth was observed in areas with the highest stock densities in the most recent years. It is concluded that the moderate increase in temperature above a lower......Stock size of northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) in West Greenland waters has been fairly stable from the late 1980s to the mid-1990s. Thereafter, survey estimates of biomass increased substantially, and the exploitation rate declined slightly in the most recent years. The present analysis...

  3. The Temporary Leave Dilemma -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Lone mothers have to take care of a sick child with little or no help from the child’s other parent and have to carry all costs connected to leave-taking. This paper empirically tests whether lone mothers take more temporary parental leave to care for sick children than partnered mothers...... and whether parental leave is associated with a signaling cost. The results from this study of Swedish mothers show that lone mothers use more temporary parental leave than partnered mothers. Further, within the group of lone mothers, those with higher socioeconomic status take less temporary parental leave...... than those with lower socioeconomic status, whereas no such differences are found within the group of partnered mothers. One possible interpretation is that signaling costs negatively influence the utilization of temporary parental leave for lone mothers....

  4. Acidicapsa borealis gen. nov., sp. nov. and Acidicapsa ligni sp. nov., subdivision 1 Acidobacteria from Sphagnum peat and decaying wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulichevskaya, Irina S; Kostina, Lilia A; Valásková, Vendula; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; de Boer, Wietse; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2012-07-01

    Two strains of subdivision 1 Acidobacteria, a pink-pigmented bacterium KA1(T) and a colourless isolate WH120(T), were obtained from acidic Sphagnum peat and wood under decay by the white-rot fungus Hyploma fasciculare, respectively. Cells of these isolates were Gram-negative-staining, non-motile, short rods, which were covered by large polysaccharide capsules and occurred singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Strains KA1(T) and WH120(T) were strictly aerobic mesophiles that grew between 10 and 33 °C, with an optimum at 22-28 °C. Both isolates developed under acidic conditions, but strain WH120(T) was more acidophilic (pH growth range 3.5-6.4; optimum, 4.0-4.5) than strain KA1(T) (pH growth range 3.5-7.3; optimum , 5.0-5.5). The preferred growth substrates were sugars. In addition, the wood-derived isolate WH120(T) grew on oxalate, lactate and xylan, while the peat-inhabiting acidobacterium strain KA1(T) utilized galacturonate, glucuronate and pectin. The major fatty acids were iso-C(15:0) and iso-C(17:1)ω8c; the cells also contained significant amounts of 13,16-dimethyl octacosanedioic acid. The quinone was MK-8. The DNA G+C contents of strains KA1(T) and WH120(T) were 54.1 and 51.7 mol%, respectively. Strains KA1(T) and WH120(T) displayed 97.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to each other. The closest recognized relatives were Acidobacterium capsulatum and Telmatobacter bradus (93.4-94.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). These species differed from strains KA1(T) and WH120(T) by their ability to grow under anoxic conditions, the absence of capsules, presence of cell motility and differing fatty acid composition. Based on these differences, the two new isolates are proposed as representing a novel genus, Acidicapsa gen. nov., and two novel species. Acidicapsa borealis gen. nov., sp. nov. is the type species for the new genus with strain KA1(T) (=DSM 23886(T)=LMG 25897(T)=VKM B-2678(T)) as the type strain. The name Acidicapsa ligni sp. nov. is proposed for

  5. Endoparasite survey of free-swimming baleen whales (Balaenoptera musculus, B. physalus, B. borealis) and sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) using non/minimally invasive methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Silva, Liliana M R; Kleinertz, Sonja; Prieto, Rui; Silva, Monica A; Taubert, Anja

    2016-02-01

    A number of parasitic diseases have gained importance as neozoan opportunistic infections in the marine environment. Here, we report on the gastrointestinal endoparasite fauna of three baleen whale species and one toothed whale: blue (Balaenoptera musculus), fin (Balaenoptera physalus), and sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis) and sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) from the Azores Islands, Portugal. In total, 17 individual whale fecal samples [n = 10 (B. physalus); n = 4 (P. macrocephalus); n = 2 (B. musculus); n = 1 (B. borealis)] were collected from free-swimming animals as part of ongoing studies on behavioral ecology. Furthermore, skin biopsies were collected from sperm whales (n = 5) using minimally invasive biopsy darting and tested for the presence of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, and Besnoitia besnoiti DNA via PCR. Overall, more than ten taxa were detected in whale fecal samples. Within protozoan parasites, Entamoeba spp. occurred most frequently (64.7%), followed by Giardia spp. (17.6%) and Balantidium spp. (5.9%). The most prevalent metazoan parasites were Ascaridida indet. spp. (41.2%), followed by trematodes (17.7%), acanthocephalan spp., strongyles (11.8%), Diphyllobotrium spp. (5.9%), and spirurids (5.9%). Helminths were mainly found in sperm whales, while enteric protozoan parasites were exclusively detected in baleen whales, which might be related to dietary differences. No T. gondii, N. caninum, or B. besnoiti DNA was detected in any skin sample. This is the first record on Giardia and Balantidium infections in large baleen whales.

  6. Habitat quantity of Red-cockaded Woodpecker Picoides borealis (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae in its former historic landscape near the Big Thicket National Preserve, Texas, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Thapa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We quantified pine-forested habitat suitable for Red-cockaded Woodpecker Picoides borealis in the former historic range of the species to assess the potential for possible re-colonization.  We used a remotely-sensed image and geographic information systems (GIS to create a land-use/land (LU/LC binary cover map, from which we calculated the habitat suitability index (HSI based on an estimated home range of 50ha.  A sensitivity analysis revealed the necessity for more data to make an accurate estimate, but our analysis of landscape metrics indicates more than 930ha of suitable habitat patches.  These patches are heavily fragmented and mostly located on private lands.  They can be assessed for understory and herbaceous vegetation and can be restored for possible re-establishment of approximately 18 groups/colonies of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers. 

  7. Histopathological Investigations on Rickettsiella-like sp. and Nonoccluded Viruses Infecting the Pecan Weevil Curculio caryae, the Squash Beetle Epilachna borealis, and the Mexican Bean Beetle Epilachna varivestis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark; Tompkins; Neel; Schroder; Schaefer

    1997-03-01

    Electron microscopic observations of abnormal specimens of pecan weevils, Curculio caryae, squash beetles, Epilachna borealis, and Mexican bean beetles, Epilachna varivestis, obtained from insect-rearing facilities and from field collections revealed that rickettsia-like organisms (RLOs) and viruses caused disease in these species. Several pleomorphic forms of the RLOs which were similar to those of Rickettsiella sp. were found in tissues of the fat body, hypodermis, tracheal matrix, muscle, and midgut of each insect species. In addition, RLOs also were found in heart and silk gland tissues of the pecan weevil. Stalked knobs or "pili" were found on the cell membranes of the RLOs in the infected tissues of the pecan weevil and the squash beetle. Crystals often associated with Rickettsiella infections were not observed. Virus-like particles of 18-42 nm were found in various tissues of the three species examined.

  8. Species on the menu of a generalist predator, the eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis): using a molecular approach to detect arthropod prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Elizabeth L; Fraser, Erin E; Braid, Heather E; Fenton, M Brock; Hebert, Paul D N

    2009-06-01

    One of the most difficult interactions to observe in nature is the relationship between a predator and its prey. When direct observations are impossible, we rely on morphological classification of prey remains, although this is particularly challenging among generalist predators whose faeces contain mixed and degraded prey fragments. In this investigation, we used a polymerase chain reaction and sequence-based technique to identify prey fragments in the guano of the generalist insectivore, the eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis), and evaluate several hypotheses about prey selection and prey defences. The interaction between bats and insects is of significant evolutionary interest because of the adaptive nature of insect hearing against echolocation. However, measuring the successes of predator tactics or particular prey defences is limited because we cannot normally identify these digested prey fragments beyond order or family. Using a molecular approach, we recovered sequences from 89% of the fragments tested, and through comparison to a reference database of sequences, we were able to identify 127 different species of prey. Our results indicate that despite the robust jaws of L. borealis, most prey taxa were softer-bodied Lepidoptera. Surprisingly, more than 60% of the prey species were tympanate, with ears thought to afford protection against these echolocating bats. Moths of the family Arctiidae, which employ multiple defensive strategies, were not detected as a significant dietary component. Our results provide an unprecedented level of detail for the study of predator-prey relationships in bats and demonstrate the advantages which molecular tools can provide in investigations of complex ecological systems and food-web relationships.

  9. The enzyme and the cDNA sequence of a thermolabile and double-strand specific DNase from Northern shrimps (Pandalus borealis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge W Nilsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously isolated a thermolabile nuclease specific for double-stranded DNA from industrial processing water of Northern shrimps (Pandalus borealis and developed an application of the enzyme in removal of contaminating DNA in PCR-related technologies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A 43 kDa nuclease with a high specific activity of hydrolysing linear as well as circular forms of DNA was purified from hepatopancreas of Northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis. The enzyme displayed a substrate preference that was shifted from exclusively double-stranded DNA in the presence of magnesium to also encompass significant activity against single-stranded DNA when calcium was added. No activity against RNA was detected. Although originating from a cold-environment animal, the shrimp DNase has only minor low-temperature activity. Still, the enzyme was irreversibly inactivated by moderate heating with a half-life of 1 min at 65 degrees C. The purified protein was partly sequenced and derived oligonucleotides were used to prime amplification of the encoding cDNA. This cDNA sequence revealed an open reading frame encoding a 404 amino acid protein containing a signal peptide. By sequence similarity the enzyme is predicted to belong to a family of DNA/RNA non-specific nucleases even though this shrimp DNase lacks RNase activity and is highly double-strand specific in some respects. These features are in agreement with those previously established for endonucleases classified as similar to the Kamchatka crab duplex-specific nuclease (Par_DSN. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses confirmed that the Northern shrimp nuclease resembles the Par_DSN-like nucleases and displays a more distant relationship to the Serratia family of nucleases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The shrimp nuclease contains enzyme activity that may be controlled by temperature or buffer compositions. The double-stranded DNA specificity, as well as the thermolabile feature

  10. TRAVEL AND HOME LEAVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative procedures for : Travel to the home station and home leave (hl) Additional travel to the home station (at) Travel to the home station and home leave for family reasons (hlf) As part of the process of simplifying administrative procedures, HR and AS Divisions have devised a new, virtually automatic procedure for payment of travel expenses to the home station. The changes are aimed at rationalising administrative procedures and not at reducing benefits. The conditions of eligibility are unchanged. The new procedure, which will be operational with effect from 1st June 2002, will greatly simplify the administrative processing of claims for travel expenses and the recording of home leaves. Currently, requests for payment are introduced manually into the Advances and Claims system (AVCL) by divisional secretariats. All travel to the home station starting prior to 1st June 2002 will be processed according to the existing system whereas that starting on 1st June and after will be processed accordi...

  11. Aerosol deposition on plant leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    James B. Wedding; Roger W. Carlson; James J. Stukel; Fakhri A. Bazzaz

    1976-01-01

    An aerosol generator and wind tunnel system designed for use in aerosol deposition is described. Gross deposition on rough pubescent leaves was nearly 7 times greater than on smooth, waxy leaves. Results suggest that aerosol deposition, on a per unit area basis, for single horizontal streamlining leaves is similar to that for arrays of leaves under similar flow...

  12. Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

    2009-01-01

    One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students…

  13. Does Leave Work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heleen van Luijn; Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2004-01-01

    More and more people have to combine work and care responsibilities, and work part-time or use daycare and after-school care facilities to help them do so. The Work and Care Act, which came into force on 1 December 2001, combined all the existing schemes - such as parental and maternity leave -

  14. REMINDER: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'* annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2003 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they ar...

  15. Vom Klangrausch des Nordwinds und der leeren Tafel der Seele. Lepo Sumeras vierte Symphonie "Serena Borealis" in Karlsruhe uraufgeführt: Eri Klas dirigierte im Konzert der Badischen Staatskapelle zu den Kulturtagen auch Musik von Arvo Pärt und Edua

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hartmann, Ulrich

    1992-01-01

    Lepo Sumera neljanda sümfoonia "Serena Borealis" esiettekanne Karlsruhes: Eri Klas dirigeeris kontserdil kultuuripäevade raames ka Arvo Pärdi ja Eduard Tubina muusikat. Eesti muusikute esinemisest Karlsruhe kultuuripäevadel

  16. The chemical composition of leaves from indigenous fodder trees in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    sasas.co.za/Sajas.html. 72 ... only are many game species dependent on this food source, but commercial and small holder farmers make extensively use of ... many tree species is limited by anti-nutritional factors such as tannins. This study was ...

  17. The prevalence of sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette; Damm, Peter; Bendix, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Objective We aimed to investigate the prevalence of sick leave and self-reported reasons given for sick leave during pregnancy. Furthermore, we aimed to estimate the frequency of long-term sick leave during pregnancy in relation to pre-baseline maternal characteristics and to identify predictors...... on sick leave and the associated reasons. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were applied. Results The prevalence of sick leave was 56% of employed pregnant women in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four reported long-term sick leave (>20 days, continuous...... was a negative predictor. Conclusions The prevalence of sick leave was 56% in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four women reported long-term sick leave. The majority of reasons for sick leave were pregnancy-related and low back pain was the most frequently given reason....

  18. Effect of Sasa veitchii extract on immunostimulating activity of β-glucan (SCG) from culinary-medicinal mushroom Sparassis crispa Wulf.:Fr. (higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Mia; Hida, Toshie H; Takeshita, Kazuo; Tsuboi, Masamichi; Kanamori, Masato; Akachi, Natsuko; Miura, Noriko N; Adachi, Yoshiyuki; Ohno, Naohito

    2012-01-01

    Fungal β-glucan is a representative pathogen-associated microbial pattern (PAMP) from mushroom, yeast, and fungi, and stimulates innate as well as acquired immune systems. It is a widely used functional food to enhance immunity. Such plant extracts have been known as folk medicines and reported to show various biological activities beneficial to human health, such as anti-tumor, anti-allergic, and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, the cooperative effect of bamboo water-soluble methanol precipitation (BWMP), a macromolecular fraction of the hot-water extract of Sasa veitchii (Japanese folk medicine Kumazasa), and the β-glucan from the medicinal mushroom Sparassis crispa (SCG) was analyzed in vitro using DBA/2 mice. The splenocytes from male DBA/2 mice were cultured with BWMP in the presence of SCG, and the responses were assessed by measuring cytokines. BWMP suppressed IFN-γ and GM-CSF production by SCG, but not TNF-α production. To analyze the specificity of the reaction, similar experiments were conducted with BWMP in the presence of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS); however, none of the cytokines were inhibited. Cytokine production of splenocytes by SCG was suggested to be largely dependent on the binding of lymphocytes with dendritic cells. Functions of BWMP were also analyzed by mixed lymphocyte reaction, and IFN-γ production was suppressed. These findings suggested that BWMP modulated the cell-to-cell contact induced by SCG and inhibited cytokine production. It is strongly suggested that the plant extracts modulate the immunostimulating effects of medicinal mushrooms. Cooperative effects of plants and mushrooms would be an important issue for functional foods.

  19. [Poisoning with oleander leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, G A; Mombelli, G

    1990-04-21

    After ingestion of seven leaves of oleander (Nerium oleander) in a suicide attempt, a 37-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with symptoms of digitalis intoxication. The serum digoxin level on arrival was 5.69 nmol/l. The course was uneventful. The usefulness of digoxin radioimmunoassay to demonstrate poisoning with oleander (but not to predict the degree of toxicity) and the potential use of digoxin-specific Fab-antibody fragments in this situation are discussed.

  20. Immunostimulation-Mediated Anti-Tumor Activity of Bamboo (Sasa senanensis Leaf Extracts Obtained under ‘Vigorous’ Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Seki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Japanese medicine uses the leaves of Kumaizasa bamboo extracted in hot water at 100°C. For this study, we developed a new, ‘vigorous’ extraction method involving steps at 100, 121 and 196°C. This procedure not only yielded greater amounts of extract but also with significant increase in immunostimulating activity, which induces activation of human natural killer (NK cells, macrophages and potent induction of IL-2, IL-12 and IFN-γ in tumor bearing mice. The efficacy of the extract to facilitate phagocytosis and nitric oxide production by mouse peritoneal macrophages was determined and compared with that of 1,3-β-glucan. Anti-tumor activity was evaluated in vivo in several mouse tumor models (S-180, C38 and Meth-A. Oral administration of the extracts was carried out when tumor reached size of approximately 6 mm at concentrations of 0.05% or higher. The extracts significantly suppressed tumor growth in S-180 and C38 tumor models. Overall survival was significantly prolonged in the treatment group than that of control. Activation of macrophages and NK cells by the extracts suggests that the anti-tumor efficacy of the extract is mediated by immunopotentiation. The extracts resolved into three major fractions (F-I, F-II and F-III in Sephadex gel chromatography. Fraction F-I consists of 1,3-β-glucan and stimulated both macrophages and NK cells suggesting that it may be the primary immunopotentiating factor in suppressing cancer. Fraction F-III has potent free radical scavenging effects and may play an important role in cancer prevention. These results warrant further translation and clinical investigations.

  1. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2002-01-01

    Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'*) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that, since last year, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2002 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they are still participants in the schem...

  2. Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22 B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the ...

  3. Sabbatical Leaves in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, August W.; Thompson, Robert E.

    This document presents a status report of various sabbatical leave policies and plans at 386 higher education institutions across the U.S. The report provides information that can serve as a guide for institutions that do not presently provide sabbatical leaves of absence or that can be compared with existing sabbatical leave plans. It was found…

  4. Findings from the SASA! Study: a cluster randomized controlled trial to assess the impact of a community mobilization intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV risk in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramsky, Tanya; Devries, Karen; Kiss, Ligia; Nakuti, Janet; Kyegombe, Nambusi; Starmann, Elizabeth; Cundill, Bonnie; Francisco, Leilani; Kaye, Dan; Musuya, Tina; Michau, Lori; Watts, Charlotte

    2014-07-31

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV are important and interconnected public health concerns. While it is recognized that they share common social drivers, there is limited evidence surrounding the potential of community interventions to reduce violence and HIV risk at the community level. The SASA! study assessed the community-level impact of SASA!, a community mobilization intervention to prevent violence and reduce HIV-risk behaviors. From 2007 to 2012 a pair-matched cluster randomized controlled trial (CRT) was conducted in eight communities (four intervention and four control) in Kampala, Uganda. Cross-sectional surveys of a random sample of community members, 18- to 49-years old, were undertaken at baseline (n = 1,583) and four years post intervention implementation (n = 2,532). Six violence and HIV-related primary outcomes were defined a priori. An adjusted cluster-level intention-to-treat analysis compared outcomes in intervention and control communities at follow-up. The intervention was associated with significantly lower social acceptance of IPV among women (adjusted risk ratio 0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38 to 0.79) and lower acceptance among men (0.13, 95% CI 0.01 to 1.15); significantly greater acceptance that a woman can refuse sex among women (1.28, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.52) and men (1.31, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.70); 52% lower past year experience of physical IPV among women (0.48, 95% CI 0.16 to 1.39); and lower levels of past year experience of sexual IPV (0.76, 95% CI 0.33 to 1.72). Women experiencing violence in intervention communities were more likely to receive supportive community responses. Reported past year sexual concurrency by men was significantly lower in intervention compared to control communities (0.57, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.91). This is the first CRT in sub-Saharan Africa to assess the community impact of a mobilization program on the social acceptability of IPV, the past year prevalence of IPV and levels of sexual concurrency. SASA

  5. A community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV/AIDS risk in Kampala, Uganda (the SASA! Study: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramsky Tanya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender based violence, including violence by an intimate partner, is a major global human rights and public health problem, with important connections with HIV risk. Indeed, the elimination of sexual and gender based violence is a core pillar of HIV prevention for UNAIDS. Integrated strategies to address the gender norms, relations and inequities that underlie both violence against women and HIV/AIDS are needed. However there is limited evidence about the potential impact of different intervention models. This protocol describes the SASA! Study: an evaluation of a community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV/AIDS risk in Kampala, Uganda. Methods/Design The SASA! Study is a pair-matched cluster randomised controlled trial being conducted in eight communities in Kampala. It is designed to assess the community-level impact of the SASA! intervention on the following six primary outcomes: attitudes towards the acceptability of violence against women and the acceptability of a woman refusing sex (among male and female community members; past year experience of physical intimate partner violence and sexual intimate partner violence (among females; community responses to women experiencing violence (among women reporting past year physical/sexual partner violence; and past year concurrency of sexual partners (among males. 1583 women and men (aged 18–49 years were surveyed in intervention and control communities prior to intervention implementation in 2007/8. A follow-up cross-sectional survey of community members will take place in 2012. The primary analysis will be an adjusted cluster-level intention to treat analysis, comparing outcomes in intervention and control communities at follow-up. Complementary monitoring and evaluation and qualitative research will be used to explore and describe the process of intervention implementation and the pathways through which change is achieved

  6. A community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV/AIDS risk in Kampala, Uganda (the SASA! Study): study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramsky, Tanya; Devries, Karen; Kiss, Ligia; Francisco, Leilani; Nakuti, Janet; Musuya, Tina; Kyegombe, Nambusi; Starmann, Elizabeth; Kaye, Dan; Michau, Lori; Watts, Charlotte

    2012-06-29

    Gender based violence, including violence by an intimate partner, is a major global human rights and public health problem, with important connections with HIV risk. Indeed, the elimination of sexual and gender based violence is a core pillar of HIV prevention for UNAIDS. Integrated strategies to address the gender norms, relations and inequities that underlie both violence against women and HIV/AIDS are needed. However there is limited evidence about the potential impact of different intervention models. This protocol describes the SASA! an evaluation of a community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV/AIDS risk in Kampala, Uganda. The SASA! STUDY is a pair-matched cluster randomised controlled trial being conducted in eight communities in Kampala. It is designed to assess the community-level impact of the SASA! intervention on the following six primary outcomes: attitudes towards the acceptability of violence against women and the acceptability of a woman refusing sex (among male and female community members); past year experience of physical intimate partner violence and sexual intimate partner violence (among females); community responses to women experiencing violence (among women reporting past year physical/sexual partner violence); and past year concurrency of sexual partners (among males). 1583 women and men (aged 18-49 years) were surveyed in intervention and control communities prior to intervention implementation in 2007/8. A follow-up cross-sectional survey of community members will take place in 2012. The primary analysis will be an adjusted cluster-level intention to treat analysis, comparing outcomes in intervention and control communities at follow-up. Complementary monitoring and evaluation and qualitative research will be used to explore and describe the process of intervention implementation and the pathways through which change is achieved. This is one of few cluster randomised trials globally to assess

  7. Leave and professional development benefits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martyniak, Cathleen; Keith, Brian

    2009-01-01

    ...; and professional development leaves such as dedicated research time and sabbaticals. Other professional development topics include financial support and relief from duties for conference attendance...

  8. The Dust Properties of Hot R Coronae Borealis Stars and a Wolf-Rayet Central Star of a Planetary Nebula: In Search of the Missing Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Geoffrey C.; De Marco, O.; Whitney, B. A.; Babler, B.; Gallagher, J. S.; Nordhaus, J.; Speck, A. K.; Wolff, M. J.; Freeman, W. R.; Camp, K. A.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present new Spitzer IIRS spectra of two hot R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars, one in the Galaxy,V348 Sgr, and one lying in the Large Magellanic Cloud, HV 2671. These two objects constitute a link between the RCB stars and the [WCL] class of central stars of planetary nebula (CSPNe) that has little or no hydrogen in their atmospheres such as CPD -560 8032. HV 2671 and V348 Sgr are members of a rare subclass that has significantly higher effective temperatures than most RCB stars, but sharing the traits of hydrogen deficiency and dust formation that define the cooler RCB stars. The [WC] CSPNe star, CPD -560 8032, displays evidence for dual-dust chemistry showing both PAHs and crystalline silicates in its mid-IR spectrum. HV 2671 shows strong PAH emission but shows no sign of having crystalline silicates. The spectrum of V348 Sgr is very different from those of CPD -56deg 8032 and HV 2671. The PAH emission seen strongly in the other two stars is only weakly present. Instead, the spectrum is dominated by a broad emission centered at about 8.5 microns. This feature is not identified with either PAHs or silicates. Several other novae and post-asymptotic giant branch stars show similar features in their IR spectra. The mid-IR spectrum of CPD -56deg 8032 shows emission features associated with C60 . The other two stars do not show evidence for C60. The nature of the dust around these stars does not help us in establishing further links that may indicate a common origin.

  9. Parental Leave Policies and Parents' Employment and Leave-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen-Jui; Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

    2009-01-01

    We describe trends in maternal employment and leave-taking after birth of a newborn and analyze the extent to which these behaviors are influenced by parental leave policies. Data are from the June Current Population Survey (CPS) Fertility Supplements, merged with other months of the CPS, and cover the period 1987 to 1994. This time span is one…

  10. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2)Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the interest of all parties concerned. This automatic transfer procedure has a number of advantages for participants in the SLS scheme. First, staff members will no longer have to take any administrative steps. Secondly, the new proced...

  11. Family Leave: It's the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jean B.

    1993-01-01

    The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) gives employees the right to take up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave a year for medical or family reasons. Provides key provisions of FMLA as they apply to schools and advises districts to consult school attorneys to help ensure compliance with the act and with the interim regulations issued last summer. (MLF)

  12. 5 CFR 630.1003 - Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishing leave banks and leave bank... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1003 Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards. (a) Each agency that participates in the voluntary leave bank program shall, in accordance with...

  13. New statement of leave format

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Following the communication of the Standing Concertation Committee published in Weekly Bulletin No. 18-19 of 27 April 2009, the current statement of leave on monthly pay slips has been replaced with the EDH Leave Transactions report that displays the up-to-date situation of individual leave balances at all times. The report is available on EDH. Additionally, the layout of the pay slip has been modernised. The new version of the pay slip will be send out from September 2009 onwards. Finance and Purchasing Department, Personnel Accounting Human Resources Department, Organisation and Procedures General Infrastructure Services Department, Administrative Information Services

  14. Key Obama officials leave administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar is one of the latest members of the Obama administration to announce that he is leaving his position near the start of President Obama's second term in office. Salazar, who has served as interior secretary since January 2009, intends to leave the department by the end of March, the department noted on 16 January. Salazar joins a number of other key officials who are planning to leave the administration. They include Environmental Protection Agency administrator Lisa Jackson, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration administrator Jane Lubchenco, and U.S. Geological Survey director Marcia McNutt.

  15. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Medical Leave Act § 825.202 Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule. (a) Definition. FMLA... period of six months, such as for chemotherapy. A pregnant employee may take leave intermittently for...

  16. 5 CFR 630.1204 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule. 630.1204 Section 630.1204 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1204 Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule...

  17. [Disability leave and sick leave in Spain. 2016 legislative update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Herrero, María Teófila; Terradillos-García, María Jesús; Capdevila-García, Luisa M; Ramírez-Íñiguez de la Torre, María Victoria; Aguilar-Jiménez, Encarna; Aguado-Benedí, María José; López-González, Angel Arturo; Torres-Alberich, José Ignacio

    2018-01-01

    In Spanish, the concepts of discapacidad (disability leave) and incapacidad (sick leave) jointly refer to the impairment of a person due to injuries, diseases or deficiencies that limit their activity in a social, personal or occupational field. However, this common link does not imply that both concepts are the same. Statistical data from INE (Instituto Nacional de Estadística: Statistic National Institute) show that Spain had in 2015 3.85 million persons with a disability (59.8% were women). Statistical data from 2015 from INSS (Instituto Nacional de Seguridad Social: Social Security National Institute) show high levels in the number of processes and in workers affected by temporary sick leave, with social costs to the social security system. Both concepts have been updated: about disability leave, Law 39/2006 adjusted terminology by avoiding the use of concepts with discriminating or pejorative connotation. Regarding sick leave, the Ley General de Seguridad Social (General Social Security Law)has been amended and came into effect in January, 2016. It is necessary to know and distinguish these aspects for a better administrative management, and a more oriented information to the affected patient.

  18. Why People Leave Their Jobs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R. Domínguez A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show the results of the review of literature of relevant studies of the causal elements of intention to leave in the last five years (2009-2013. The method used to evaluate the literature was based on the seven steps for research synthesis: problem formulation, literature search, obtaining information from studies, quality assessment studies, analysis and integration of results, interpretation of evidence and presentation of results. 48 studies from 15 different countries with a sample of 35804 employees of different companies were evaluated. The findings suggest the existence of 89 different variables influencing the intention to leave of employees in an organization. The results of this study will allow researchers to better understand the variables that can be studied to verify the impact of variables such as causal elements, but also see those that have a mediating effect between them for predicting intention to leave as an element of employee turnover. This study makes three important contributions to literature of turnover. First, in this study all the parameters associated with the intention to leave were checked. Second, this study categorizes and displays in proportion relevant interests to the scientific community whom studying employee turnover across the intention to leave. And thirdly provides clues organizations to improve some of its structural and contextual features to control turnover.

  19. Maternity leave, what about Paternity leave?: child care and social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, it is noteworthy that in child development and care, the roles of both parents are important. Analysis of the paper is done with the review of literatures and interviews conducted randomly among working women and men in Abeokuta on their experiences and views about maternity and paternity leaves respectively.

  20. 76 FR 60701 - Absence and Leave; Qualifying Exigency Leave

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... parent-teacher conference to submit a signed statement of the need for the exigency leave, along with a... measures, parent-teacher conferences, or meetings with school counselors, for a child when such meetings... arise when the spouse, son, daughter, or parent of an employee is on covered active duty in the Armed...

  1. [Sick leave and nursing personnel management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estorce, Thiago Puliesi; Kurcgant, Paulina

    2011-10-01

    Sick leaves in the nursing team demand immediate managerial actions when health care has quality as a goal. This descriptive-exploratory, quantitative study was performed with the purpose of characterizing that phenomenon in a university hospital between 2003 and 2007. The medical leaves added up to 3,207 leaves and 32,022 days lost. Leaves lasting up to two days accounted for 54% of the total leaves and to 7% of the days lost; leaves of more than 15 days, 5% of the total, and 66% of the lost days. Hence, sick leaves consist of an important tool in nursing personnel management.

  2. Nutrient resorption from seagrass leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapel, J.; Hemminga, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The resorption of nutrients (C, N and P) from senescent leaves of six seagrass species from nine different locations in tropical (Indonesia and Kenya), Mediterranean (Spain) and temperate (The Netherlands) regions has been investigated. Resorption was quantitatively assessed by calculating the

  3. Watch out for the leaves!

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    Now that autumn is here, dead leaves falling from the trees form a colourful carpet that is pleasing to the eye. However, the reality is less pleasant for pedestrians, since these leaves increase the risk of slipping and falling, especially when the ground is wet.   These conditions are also hazardous for two- and four-wheeled vehicles, whose grip on the ground can be severely reduced, thereby increasing the risk of them skidding out of control. Cyclists are among the most vulnerable road users when faced with these hazards. It is therefore essential to be alert to the dangers, which can be lessened by taking a few simple precautions such as moderating your speed and wearing suitable shoes. We also invite you to notify the Service Desk if you notice a road or pavement where there is a high concentration of dead leaves. The CERN Roads and Drainage Service will then ensure that the leaves are cleared in order to reduce the risk of accidents in the area.

  4. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF NERIUM OLEANDER LEAVES AND MOMORDICA CHARANTIA LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    Santhi R; Lakshmi G; Priyadharshini A.M; Anandaraj L

    2011-01-01

    The developing countries mostly rely on traditional medicines. The traditional medicine involves the use of different plant extracts or the bioactive constituents. This type of study provides the health application at affordable cost. This study such as ethnomedicine keenly represents one of the best avenues in searching new economic plants for medicine. In keeping this view in mind the present investigation is carried out in Nerium oleander and Momordica charantia leaves. Qualitative ph...

  5. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2015-01-06

    The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants.

  6. 20 CFR 638.532 - Annual leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... regardless of the date of enrollment provided that the student was not AWOL or on administrative leave... shall be suspended only when the student is AWOL or on administrative leave without allowances. (c...

  7. Sugar beet leaves for functional ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamayo Tenorio, Angelica

    2017-01-01

    Plant leaves are recognised as a potential source for food applications based on their nutritional profile and interesting technological properties of leaf components, and based on the large availability of plant leaves in agricultural waste streams. Besides proteins, leaves have a rich nutritional

  8. Officer Sabbaticals. Analysis of Extended Leave Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    in a nonmilitary job market (e.g., working in a family business for a year). • Social service leaves, or longer leaves with a specific purpose, such...education or gain experience in a nonmilitary job market (e.g., work in a family business for a year). These leaves would be granted on an individual basis

  9. Leaving a joint audit system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Thinggaard, Frank

    2014-01-01

    with the auditors than in a equally shared joint audit, and that the auditors' incentives to offer an initial fee discount are bigger. Research limitations/implications: The number of observations is constrained by the small Danish capital market. Future research could take a more qualitative research approach...... deciding to switch to single auditors. Fee discounts do not seem to reflect long-lasting efficiency gains on the part of the audit firm. Orginality/value: Denmark is the first country to leave a mandatory joint audit system, so this is the first time that it is possible to study fee effects related to this....

  10. Resource capture by single leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. On the Sharing of Temporary Parental Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This paper views temporary parental leave (leave from work to take care of a sick child) as a household public good, produced with time inputs of the parents as the only input. Assuming equal productivities in the production of temporary parental leave and equal utility functions of the spouses......-point of the female is found to push the intra household allocation of temporary parental leave towards greater sharing between the spouses. In addition, an increase in the insurance ceiling will further sharing of temporary parental leave in some families, while reducing it in others....

  12. Phytic acid in green leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi Alkarawi, H; Zotz, G

    2014-07-01

    Phytic acid or phytate, the free-acid form of myo-inositolhexakiphosphate, is abundant in many seeds and fruits, where it represents the major storage form of phosphorus. Although also known from other plant tissues, available reports on the occurrence of phytic acid, e.g. in leaves, have never been compiled, nor have they been critically reviewed. We found 45 published studies with information on phytic acid content in leaves. Phytic acid was almost always detected when studies specifically tried to detect it, and accounted for up to 98% of total P. However, we argue that such extreme values, which rival findings from storage organs, are dubious and probably result from measurement errors. Excluding these high values from further quantitative analysis, foliar phytic acid-P averaged 2.3 mg·g(-1) , and represented, on average, 7.6% of total P. Remarkably, the ratio of phytic acid-P to total P did not increase with total P, we even detected a negative correlation of the two variables within one species, Manihot esculenta. This enigmatic finding warrants further attention. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. RECRUITMENT FINANCED BY SAVED LEAVE (RSL PROGRAMME)

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel; Tel. 73903

    1999-01-01

    Transfer to the saved leave account and saved leave bonusStaff members participating in the RSL programme may opt to transfer up to 10 days of unused annual leave or unused compensatory leave into their saved leave account, at the end of the leave year, i.e. 30 September (as set out in the implementation procedure dated 27 August 1997).A leave transfer request form, which you should complete, sign and return, if you wish to use this possibility, has been addressed you. To allow the necessary time for the processing of your request, you should return it without delay.As foreseen in the implementation procedure, an additional day of saved leave will be granted for each full period of 20 days remaining in the saved leave account on 31 December 1999, for any staff member participating in the RSL programme until that date.For part-time staff members participating in the RSL programme, the above-mentioned days of leave (annual, compensatory and saved) are adjusted proportionally to their contractual working week as...

  14. Definition and characterization of data needs to describe the potential effects of increased atmospheric CO2 on marine fisheries from the northeast Pacific Ocean. [Theragra chalcogramma; Clupea harengus pallasi; Pandalus borealis; Limanda aspera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, R.M.; Grosse, D.J.; Stubin, A.I.; Ostrander, G.K.; Sibley, T.H.

    1985-12-01

    Four northeast Pacific region case study species were studied to determine individual fishery responses to climate change. These fishes (Alaska pollock, Theragra chalcogramma; Pacific herring, Clupea harengus pallasi; pink shrimp, Pandalus borealis; and yellowfin sole, Limanda aspera) represent a spectrum of habitats and life cycles among commercially important species, and the northeast Pacific (including the eastern Bering Sea) is relatively well-studied and representative of subpolar continental shelf areas that also are important in the North Atlantic. In addition to the general effects of climate, these fisheries have specific climate-related environmental sensitivities: (a) pollock sensitivity to ice extent, cannibalism, and bird and mammal predation in the Bering Sea, and to coastal currents in the Gulf of Alaska; (b) sensitivity of herring to waves, dessication, and probably currents in the immediate vicinity of discrete spawning beaches along the British Columbia coast; (c) the relative insensitivity of bottom-dwelling shrimp to temperature changes; and (d) the probable sensitivity of yellowfin sole to ice extent and to associated changes in food supply caused by alterations in plankton species composition. It is difficult to extrapolate from the results of the present case studies to other fisheries. These results are particularly inapplicable to other major categories of fisheries, including open-ocean, upwelling, and tropical and subtropical shelf fisheries. Such fisheries should be the focus of additional case studies. Possible temperature effects on the incidence of disease and parasitism in fish also should be investigated.

  15. Paid Sick Leave and Job Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Heather D.

    2013-01-01

    A compelling, but unsubstantiated, argument for paid sick leave legislation is that workers with leave are better able to address own and family member health needs without risking a voluntary or involuntary job separation. This study tests that claim using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and regression models controlling for a large set of worker and job characteristics, as well as with propensity score techniques. Results suggest that paid sick leave decreases the probability of job separation by at least 2.5 percentage points, or 25%. The association is strongest for workers without paid vacation leave and for mothers. PMID:24235780

  16. Fathers on Parental Leave in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinicke, Kenneth; Cybulski, Franz Wilhelm; Drews, Lea Vedel

    2005-01-01

    In the article it is argued that contemporary fatherhood and masculinity differ increasingly from hegemonic masculinity according to which men are primarily responsible for ensuring the financial basis of the family. The article “Fathers on Parental Leave in Denmark”, based on interviews with 15......, parental leave and domestic affairs. The article also demonstrates that the issue of parental leave may cause a conflict of interest between an employer and en employee although the majority of employers in this study emphasize that parental leave is unproblematic for them....

  17. Developing an Alternative Sabbatical Leave Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleman, John J.

    A study was conducted at Vista College to compare the sabbatical leave policy of the Peralta Community College District with those of other districts and to develop alternative policies that would permit a greater number of faculty to obtain sabbatical leaves. Policy statements were received from nine of the twelve districts surveyed, and…

  18. Resilience and Young People Leaving Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Mike

    2008-01-01

    How do we promote the resilience of young people leaving care? This article explores this question by bringing together research findings on the resilience of young people from disadvantaged family backgrounds with research studies on young people leaving care. These findings are applied to young people during their journey to adulthood: their…

  19. Recovery of protein from green leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamayo Tenorio, Angelica; Gieteling, Jarno; Jong, De Govardus A.H.; Boom, Remko M.; Goot, Van Der Atze J.

    2016-01-01

    Plant leaves are a major potential source of novel food proteins. Till now, leaf protein extraction methods mainly focus on the extraction of soluble proteins, like rubisco protein, leaving more than half of all protein unextracted. Here, we report on the total protein extraction from sugar beet

  20. INTRODUCTION OF A NEW LEAVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    CERN Multimedia

    DIVISION HR

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of new leave rules (arising from the RSL, PRP and other programs) has made the present leave management system rather complicated and difficult to manage. It has therefore been decided to replace it with a more flexible and adaptable system, which will come into force on 1st October 2000. Henceforth, days of leave will be credited monthly instead of annually. Members of the personnel will have round-the-clock direct access to more detailed, confidential information regarding their various kinds of leave. They will also receive a personal monthly statement with their pay slips. The new system does not require any amendment of the regulations, except with respect to the frequency of leave calculations (monthly instead of annual). I. Main characteristics of the new leave system1. The main feature of the new system is the creation of accounts to which leave will be credited or debited as appropriate. Depending on their circumstances, members of the personnel may have up to four individual leave a...

  1. INTRODUCTION OF A NEW LEAVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of new leave rules (arising from the RSL, PRP and other programmes) has made the present leave management system rather complicated and difficult to manage. It has therefore been decided to replace it with a more flexible and adaptable system, which will come into force on 1st October 2000. Henceforth, days of leave will be credited monthly instead of annually. Members of the personnel will have round-the-clock direct access to more detailed, confidential information regarding their various kinds of leave.They will also receive a personal monthly statement with their pay slips. The new system does not require any amendment of the regulations, except with respect to the frequency of leave calculations (monthly instead of annual). I. Main characteristics of the new leave system 1. The main feature of the new system is the creation of accounts to which leave will be credited or debited as appropriate. Depending on their circumstances, members of the personnel may have up to four individual leave...

  2. A Feminist Perspective on Parental Leave Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallee, Margaret W.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the ways that three feminist theories--liberal feminism, cultural feminism, and feminist poststructuralism--might be used to craft parental leave policies. After examining each theory in detail, the article concludes by offering one example of an ideal parental leave policy that combines the best features of each theory to…

  3. Influence of pesticides on yeasts colonizing leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadkertiová, Renata; Sláviková, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The effect of nine different pesticides on the growth of yeasts isolated from the leaves of fruit and forest trees was investigated. Four insecticides (with the active ingredients: thiacloprid, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, and thiamethoxam) and five fungicides (with the effective substances: bitertanol, kresoxim-methyl, mancozeb, trifloxystrobin, and cupric oxychloride) were tested. The concentrations of chemicals were those recommended by the manufacturers for the spraying of trees. The yeast strains isolated from the leaves of fruit trees were not sensitive to any of the insecticides. The majority of yeast strains isolated from the leaves of forest trees were either not sensitive or only to a small extent. While Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Pichia anomala were not affected by any insecticide, the strains of Cryptococcus laurentii and Rhodotorula glutinis showed the highest sensitivity. The effects of fungicides on the growth of isolated yeasts were more substantial. The fungicide Dithane DG (mancozeb) completely inhibited the growth of all yeasts. All strains isolated from fruit tree leaves were more resistant to the tested fungicides than those isolated from the leaves of forest trees. The most resistant strains from the leaves of fruit trees belonged to the species Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia anomala, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas Cryptococcus albidus and C. laurentii, originating from the leaves of forest trees, showed the highest sensitivity to fungicides.

  4. 38 CFR 21.6340 - Leaves of absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Recipients Leaves of Absence § 21.6340 Leaves of absence. (a) General. VA may approve leaves of absence under vertain conditions. During approved leaves of absence, a ceteran shall be considered to be pursuing...

  5. Anthelmintic activity of leaves of justicia beddomei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, U; Rao, J Venkateshwara; Krupanidhi, A M; Shanmukhappa, S

    2007-01-01

    Ethanolic and Chloroform extract of leaves of Justicia beddomei were evaluated separately for anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms Pheretima posthuma, using Piperazine citrate as reference standard. The results indicated that ethanolic extract was more potent than the chloroform extract.

  6. Occupational exposures and sick leave during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate associations between work postures, lifting at work, shift work, work hours, and job strain and the risk of sick leave during pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnancy weeks in a large cohort of Danish pregnant women. METHODS: Data from 51 874 pregnancies...... episode of sick leave as the primary outcome. RESULTS: We found statistically significant associations between all the predictors and risk of sick leave; for non-sitting work postures (HRrange 1.55-2.79), cumulative lifting HRtrend 1.29, 95% CI 1.26-1.31, shift work (HRevening 1.90, 95% CI 1...... previous findings and suggest that initiatives to prevent sick leave during pregnancy could be based on work conditions. Preventive measures may have important implications for pregnant women and workplaces....

  7. Early School Leaving: Reasons and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika GYÖNÖS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Early school leaving represents a loss of potential that has effects on both social and economic scale (reduced social cohesion, lower financial incomes, increase of social allocations. Early school leaving has various reasons that can be either social or economic. Due to the average statistics of the 27 countries of the European Union, in 2008 78,5% of the populations of these countries went to school regularly, whereas the same statistics applied for Romania showed an extent of 78,3%. The statistics of early school leaving showed some 14, 9% in the countries of the EU, whereas in Romania this index was higher (15, 9%. Sequel to some analyses we can state that there is a strong relationship between the variables named participation in education and early school leaving; more than that, there is a strong relationship between the extent of school studies completion and the rate of unemployment.

  8. Maternity Leave: Tips for Returning to Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day your maternity leave ends? Don't despair. Working mothers face many challenges, but with some planning you ... there is no such thing as a perfect mother. Working outside the home doesn't make you a ...

  9. Auxin level and regeneration of Begonia leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heide, O M

    1968-06-01

    As previously found, both the level of ether-extractable auxin (presumably indole-3-acetic acid) and the root-forming ability of B.xcheimantha leaves are increased under long-day conditions by high temperature, whereas the capacity for adventitious bud formation is reduced. However, this relation is present under relatively high light intensity only. Under the low light intensities in late fall neither auxin level nor regeneration ability were significantly affected by temperature.Dark treatment of detached leaves for 2 to 16 days greatly counteracted the inhibitory effect of high temperature on bud formation and reduced both the auxin level and the root-forming ability of the leaves.The great seasonal changes in the regeneration ability of Begonia leaves seem to be the result of a complex interaction of temperature, day-length, and daily light energy on the level of endogenous auxin and other growth regulators.

  10. Fathers, Parental Leave and Gender Norms

    OpenAIRE

    Unterhofer, Ulrike; Wrohlich, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Social norms and attitudes towards gender roles have been shown to have a large effect on economic outcomes of men and women. Many countries have introduced policies that aim at changing gender stereotypes, for example fathers' quota in parental leave schemes. In this paper, we analyze whether the introduction of the fathers' quota in Germany in 2007, that caused a sharp increase in the take-up of parental leave by fathers, has changed the attitudes towards gender roles in the grandparents' g...

  11. Peer effects in parental leave decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Welteke, Clara; Wrohlich, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes to what extent parental leave decisions of mothers with young children depend on the decisions made by their coworkers. The identification of peer effects, which are defined as indirect effects of the behavior of a social reference group on individual outcomes, bears various challenges due to correlated characteristics within social groups and endogenous group membership. We overcome these challenges by exploiting quasi-random variation in the costs of parental leave durin...

  12. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new im-plementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme ...

  13. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new implementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme a...

  14. A compositional study of Moringa stenopetala leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuye, C; Urga, K; Knapp, H; Selmar, D; Omwega, A M; Imungi, J K; Winterhalter, P

    2003-05-01

    To investigate nutrient composition in moringa leaves and compare with those of kale (Brassica carinata) and Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris). Laboratory based study, nutrient composition of fresh and cooked leaves of M. stenopetala were analyzed. Gama-Gofa, south-western Ethiopia. Raw M. stenopetala leaves contain 9% dry matter as crude protein, about 3-fold lower than in kale and swiss chard. M. stenopetala leaves contain higher percentage of carbohydrate, crude fiber and calcium compared to both raw and cooked kale and swiss chard. Vitamins are present at nutritionally significant levels averaging 28 mg/100g of vitamin C and 160 microg/100g of beta-carotene. Minerals such as potassium, iron, zinc, phosphorus and calcium also exist in significant concentrations with the average values of 3.08 mg/100g iron and 792.8 mg/100g calcium. Although the nutrient composition of M. stenopetala leaves in most cases is lower compared to kale and swiss chard they can be a good source of nutrients in dry season potentially when other vegetables are scarce. However, the presence of small amount of cyanogenic glucosides in M. stenopetala leaves may have a health risk in areas of high incidence of endemic goitre as an exacerbating factor if consumed more for a long period of time.

  15. Office design's impact on sick leave rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin Danielsson, Christina; Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Wulff, Cornelia; Westerlund, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    The effect of office type on sickness absence among office employees was studied prospectively in 1852 employees working in (1) cell-offices; (2) shared-room offices; (3) small, (4) medium-sized and (5) large open-plan offices; (6) flex-offices and (7) combi-offices. Sick leaves were self-reported two years later as number of (a) short and (b) long (medically certified) sick leave spells as well as (c) total number of sick leave days. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used, with adjustment for background factors. A significant excess risk for sickness absence was found only in terms of short sick leave spells in the three open-plan offices. In the gender separate analysis, this remained for women, whereas men had a significantly increased risk in flex-offices. For long sick leave spells, a significantly higher risk was found among women in large open-plan offices and for total number of sick days among men in flex-offices. A prospective study of the office environment's effect on employees is motivated by the high rates of sick leaves in the workforce. The results indicate differences between office types, depending on the number of people sharing workspace and the opportunity to exert personal control as influenced by the features that define the office types.

  16. [Extraction and determination of essential oils in Indocalamus latifolius leaves and Indocalamus tessellatus leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuifang; Wen, Ruizhi; Zeng, Dong; Li, Zhonghai

    2007-01-01

    Indocalamus leaves are the generic name of the leaves of Indocalamus (Graminales) plants. The essential oils in Indocalamus latifolius leaves and Indocalamus tessellatus leaves were extracted by steam distillation method. Ether was used as the solvent to extract volatile compounds many times. Both the volatile compounds in Indocalamus latifolius leaves and Indocalamus tessellatus leaves were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that thirty-seven compounds were identified for the essential oils extracted from Indocalamus latifolius leaves, and its main components were found to be 3-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-; 1-hexanol; benzyl alcohol; hexanal; furan, 2-ethyl-; 3-buten-2-one, 4-(2,6, 6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl), (E)-; etc. Forty-nine components were identified for the essential oils extracted from Indocalamus tessellatus leaves, and its main components were found to be 3-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-; benzyl alcohol; 3-buten-2-one, 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-, (E)-; 2-hexenal; phenylethyl alcohol, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol; furan, 2-ethyl-; etc. 3-Hexen-1-ol, (Z)- was the most abundant compound in the essential oils from both Indocalamus leaves. There were ketone, aldehyde, alcohol, phenol and ester in them. The contents of ketones, aldehydes, and alcohols were found higher than those of other compounds in the two essential oils.

  17. The extraction of characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves based on LCTF imaging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Peng-fei; Feng, Jie; Li, Hong-ning

    2013-08-01

    In order to identify and classify horticultural crops rapidly, it is great importance of selecting effective characteristic wavebands from a large number of imaging data. Extracting effective characteristic wavebands can nearly represent holistic information of the research target from rich imaging spectral data, mainly used for rapid characteristic identification, cluster analysis and establishing database, especially in high spectral sensing to recognize targets for a long distance. The experiment chooses radish leaves and rice leaves as research samples so as to obtain spectral information from the surface of samples by interval of 5nm based on LCTF imaging; then, the standard deviation and correlation coefficient of the gray images are calculated for these two kinds of leaves; next, we calculate the value of waveband index according to standard deviation and correlation coefficient, and extract the effective characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves through the sorting of waveband index. By those, the experimental results show there are six ideal wavebands at 530nm, 550nm, 555nm, 715nm, 510nm and 565nm for radish leaves, 645nm, 675nm, 685nm, 670nm, 690nm and 660nm for rice leaves separately. Further, according to the principle of Euclidean distance, we also give an assessment of classification accuracy for these two samples by comparing characteristic wavebands with full wavebands, and the classification accuracy of radish leaves and rice leaves is 80.00% and 86.67% respectively. Therefore, choosing these wavebands can be used as effective characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves.

  18. University Students Leaving Relationships (USLR): Scale Development and Gender Differences in Decisions to Leave Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Helen M.; Can, S. Hakan; Joseph, Lauren J.; Scherer, Cory R.

    2013-01-01

    The University Students Leaving Relationships scale was developed to identify student concerns when contemplating dissolution of romantic relationships. Participants included 1,106 students who rated the importance of issues when deciding to leave relationships. Factor analysis produced three dimensions: Missing the Relationship, Social…

  19. Leaving home and leaving the state: evidence from the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.H.; Clark, W.A.V.

    2000-01-01

    Leaving the parental home is an important first step in a long-term housing career. We extend the previous research on this topic by examining the impact of housing market factors on the risks of leaving with or without a partner in the United States. We also re-examine the role of the income of the

  20. [Chemical Constituents from Leaves of Liquidambar formosana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yuan-yue; Fu, Hui-zheng; Zhou, Guo-ping; Zhong, Rui-jian; Yuan, Hui; Guo, Qing; Yan, Qing-wei

    2014-12-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the leaves of Liquidambarformosana. The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by column chromatography on silicagel, Sephadex LH-20 and MPLC. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and special analysis. Eight compounds were isolated from the leaves of Liquidambar formosana, whose structures were elucidated as gallic acid (1), p-hydroxy-benzoic acid (2), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid (3), 3,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-benzoic acid (4) kaempferol (5), 3,4-dihydroxy-benzoic acid (6), 3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-benzoic acid (7) and 3β,23,29-trihydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (8). Compounds 1-8 are isolated from the leaves of Liquidambar formosana for the first time.

  1. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a... absence. The VR&E case manager may grant the child leaves of absence for periods during which the child...

  2. Research and Literature on the Sabbatical Leave: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boening, Carl H.; Miller, Michael T.

    This paper reviews the literature on college faculty sabbatical leave and sabbatical leave programs often described as 'paid vacations' with no accountability. The literature indicates that sabbatical leave was an important part of any faculty development program. Those who took sabbatical leaves overwhelmingly reported the experience as a…

  3. Constituents of Kawal , fermented Cassia obtusifolia leaves, a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examination of the protein fraction from leaves indicated 20.2% in the crude leaves and 12.9% in the fermented leaves. The participation of 10 g of fermented C. obtusifolia leaves to the daily requirements in essential amino acids of an adult is from 13 to 25% of needed amount. Moreover this traditional food had a high ...

  4. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave accounting policy. 21.342 Section 21.342 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing one...

  5. [Considerations on a room for leave taking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drlicek, M; Kraml, P

    2006-05-01

    Many patients die in hospitals and care centers. It is therefore necessary to create an environment for the dying person, as well as for relatives, which allows death to occur with dignity while also permitting a dignified farewell. A special room should be available for taking leave of the loved one and for the mourning of the relatives. This room should, as far as possible, be neutrally decorated while at the same time it should be appropriate for various cultures and religious requirements. In order to be able to take leave symbolically, it is necessary to place the departed in the light, for example from a window.

  6. Paid maternity and paternity leave: rights and choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Claire

    2007-01-01

    From April 2007 onwards, maternity leave will be raised to nine months Paid maternity leave is associated with significant health benefits for babies, including reduced infant mortality The Government proposes to increase paid maternity leave to one year and introduce additional paternity leave by around 2009 The U.K's provision for maternity leave and child care is more generous than the U.S.A. or Australia but less than in the Scandinavian countries

  7. GRAPE LEAVES AND METHODS OF CONSERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Terentyeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study of different varieties of grape leaves showing its morphological data and physico-chemical parameters. Studying shows canned grape leaf in various ways for the food industry.

  8. ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF THE LEAVES OF VERNONIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elemental analysis of the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina Del., revealed adequate concentrations of some elements, such as iron (1500+111 ppm) and calcium 10100+895 ppm) that are believed to be essential for normal growth. The plant was evaluated in relation to tissue damage, in sixteen male rats (Wistar strains) with ...

  9. Tomato leaves methanol extract possesses anti- inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... and antioxidant (lycopene) (Junichiro, 2006). Since S. lycopersicum has long been used for the treatment of variety of disease, the present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory activity of tomato leaves against PGE2 using. RAW264.7 macrophages cells and introduce a new potential of anti-inflammatory ...

  10. How does Phytophthora ramorum infect Rhododendron leaves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabine Werres; Marko Riedel

    2013-01-01

    In most parts of Europe, rhododendron is the most important host for the spread of Phytophthora ramorum. To get a better knowledge of leaf infection and capacity for sporulation, infection studies were carried out. Detached leaves of the Rhododendron cultivar 'Catawbiense Grandiflorum' (CG) and the R. insigne hybrid `...

  11. Pharmacognostic standardisation of the leaves of Sansevieria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chromatographic fingerprints of both water and ethanol extracts of the leaves were obtained using analytical thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and the retardation factors (Rf-values) of the individual spots were calculated. Macroscopic examination showed dark green coloration on the upper surface and pale green on the ...

  12. Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000867.htm Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan To use the sharing features on this ... need any special equipment or supplies, such as: Hospital bed Wheelchair Walker or cane Shower ... Checklist Your discharge planner will give you a ...

  13. Utilization of bitter vegetable leaves ( Gongronema latifolium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of bitter vegetable leaves ( Gongronema latifolium , Vernonia amygdalina ) and Garcinia kola extracts as substitutes for hops in sorghum beer production. ... titratable acidity (0.107 - 0.328%), volatile acidity (0.003 - 0.103%), soluble solids (0.12 - 0.97%), moisture content (95.71 - 98.37%), protein (0.17 - 0.85%), ...

  14. Sabbatical Leave: Who Gains and How Much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Oranit B.; Eden, Dov; Westman, Mina; Cohen-Charash, Yochi; Hammer, Leslie B.; Kluger, Avraham N.; Krausz, Moshe; Maslach, Christina; O'Driscoll, Michael; Perrewe, Pamela L.; Quick, James Campbell; Rosenblatt, Zehava; Spector, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    A rigorous quasi-experiment tested the ameliorative effects of a sabbatical leave, a special case of respite from routine work. We hypothesized that (a) respite increases resource level and well-being and (b) individual differences and respite features moderate respite effects. A sample of 129 faculty members on sabbatical and 129 matched controls…

  15. Early school leaving and lifelong guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter; Oomen, Annemarie

    Early school leaving (ESL) is costly for the individual, for society and for the economy. Not just in economic terms, but also in terms of low self esteem, and the risk of social exclusion. More, and, in particular, better education can lead to positive outcomes, in relation to employment, level...

  16. Comparative morphology on leaves of Daphniphyllum (Daphniphyllaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, M.-S.; Yang, Y.-P.; Sheue, C.-R.

    2009-01-01

    A comparative anatomical study on the leaves of nine out of 29 species of the genus Daphniphyllum was performed to seek support for the present infrageneric classification. Daphniphyllum is composed of two sections, Lunata (with one subsection Lunata) and Daphniphyllum (with two subsections,

  17. Institutional Practices and Faculty Who Leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Carl V.

    1983-01-01

    A variety of incentives offered to faculty to leave an institution in difficult financial circumstances are outlined. They include: liberalizing the actuarial pension reduction, lump-sum severance payments, annuity enhancements, phased retirement, retirement perquisites, retraining for outplacement, paid retraining, and earnings supplements during…

  18. Paid Educational Leave in Five European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttringer, Jean-Marie; Pasquier, Bernard

    1980-01-01

    Examining and comparing the features of paid educational leave in Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, and Sweden, the authors conclude that it remains a marginal institution. But as a means of achieving social justice and industrial change, it deserves an adequate financing system and institutional base. (Author/SK)

  19. Leaving Care: The Need to Make Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Deirdre; Pinkerton, John

    2012-01-01

    For too many years the phrase "after care, an after thought" summed up the lack of attention given to preparing young people in care for adult life and to the development of leaving-care and aftercare services. That stance has changed in the United Kingdom, however, and indeed has shifted positively and dramatically over the last decade.…

  20. Thaumatococcus daniellii leaves: its chemical compositions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanol extract of the plant exhibited low 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity with IC50 of 615.14 μg/ml. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) characterization of n-hexane, ethylacetate and methanol extracts of T. daniellii leaves identified , thirteen and fifteen compounds, with ...

  1. Isolation of chlorophyll a from spinach leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Dikio

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for separating chlorophyll a from spinach leaves by column chromatography and solvent extraction techniques has been developed. The purity and identity of the chlorophyll a have been confirmed by UV-Vis, IR and mass spectrometry. Yields from 100 g of freeze-dried spinach were 23 – 24 mg of chlorophyll a.

  2. Antinociceptive effect of Hyptis pectinata leaves extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, Ana C C D; Mello, Iderjane C M; Nunes, Rogeria S; Dos Santos, Marquês A; Antoniolli, Angelo R; Marçal, Rosilene M; Cavalcanti, Sócrates C de H

    2006-09-01

    Oral administration of hexanes, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of Hyptis pectinata significantly reduced the number of writhing induced by acetic acid and increased the response to thermal stimuli in hot-plate test. Such effect was completely reversed by the opioid antagonist naloxone.

  3. Fathers' Leave, Fathers' Involvement and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Carmen Huerta, Maria; Lausten, Mette; Baxter, Jennifer

    Previous research has shown that fathers taking some time off work around childbirth, especially periods of leave of 2 or more weeks, are more likely to be involved in childcare related activities than fathers who do not do so. Furthermore, evidence suggests that children with fathers who are ‘mo...

  4. Causes and Consequences of a Father's Child Leave: Evidence from a Reform of Leave Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    are the most progressive when it comes to family-friendly policies. An extensive reform of child leave schemes in Denmark affected couples differently depending on whether the parents where employed in the same or in different parts of the public sector. Based on a difference-in-differences strategy, I find...... that economic incentives are very important for intra-household leave-sharing. Increasing the couples' after tax income by $9 per day of leave which is transferred from the mother to the father is found to lead to a one day transfer. This corresponds to a supply elasticity close to unity....

  5. Women's Reasons for Leaving the Engineering Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Nadya A; Chang, Wen-Hsin; Wan, Min; Singh, Romila

    2017-01-01

    Among the different Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math fields, engineering continues to have one of the highest rates of attrition (Hewlett et al., 2008). The turnover rate for women engineers from engineering fields is even higher than for men (Frehill, 2010). Despite increased efforts from researchers, there are still large gaps in our understanding of the reasons that women leave engineering. This study aims to address this gap by examining the reasons why women leave engineering. Specifically, we analyze the reasons for departure given by national sample of 1,464 women engineers who left the profession after having worked in the engineering field. We applied a person-environment fit theoretical lens, in particular, the Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA) (Dawis and Lofquist, 1984) to understand and categorize the reasons for leaving the engineering field. According to the TWA, occupations have different "reinforcer patterns," reflected in six occupational values, and a mismatch between the reinforcers provided by the work environment and individuals' needs may trigger departure from the environment. Given the paucity of literature in this area, we posed research questions to explore the reinforcer pattern of values implicated in women's decisions to leave the engineering field. We used qualitative analyses to understand, categorize, and code the 1,863 statements that offered a glimpse into the myriad reasons that women offered in describing their decisions to leave the engineering profession. Our results revealed the top three sets of reasons underlying women's decision to leave the jobs and engineering field were related to: first, poor and/or inequitable compensation, poor working conditions, inflexible and demanding work environment that made work-family balance difficult; second, unmet achievement needs that reflected a dissatisfaction with effective utilization of their math and science skills, and third, unmet needs with regard to lack of recognition

  6. Don’t leave your baggage unattended

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    “Don’t leave your baggage unattended” is a familiar request to anyone who travels by air, but it’s good advice wherever you may be.    At CERN, if an unattended bag is found anywhere on the site, the Fire and Rescue service will be called to evacuate the area, maintain a security perimeter for as long as necessary, and attempt to identify the owner. If the owner cannot be found in a reasonable amount of time, there’s a very strong chance that the bag will be destroyed. You can take two simple steps to avoid this fate: Don’t leave your baggage unattended;   Make sure that your contact details are clearly visible on the bag or suitcase so that, should you find yourself separated from it, you can easily be reunited.

  7. 'Dew nucleation' by hygroscopic particles on leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, J.; Hunsche, M.; Pariyar, S.

    2010-07-01

    Theoretical explanations of dew formation usually consider a pure, plain surface and do not include any contributions of hygroscopic material present on this surface. A significant amount of hygroscopic material, however, is present on most real leaves, due to accumulated deposited aerosols, salt exudations, leached ions, or agricultural sprays. Similarly to cloud nucleation, hygroscopic material on leaves leads to a significant reduction of saturation vapor pressure and enables 'dew nucleation', where the condensation of minute amounts of water is still too small to be visible without a microscope. This may happen at humidities far below saturation, dependent on the composition and deliquescence point of the particles; additionally plant transpiration often raises the humidity on the leaf surface. While the amounts of water involved are not significant in terms of the energy or water balance, the ecological consequences of such condensation mechanisms on leaves may be considerable. Highly concentrated but mobile solutions are formed by the deliquescence of hygroscopic particles, which may provide important nutrients for the plant. Their chemistry differs considerably from dilute solutions. When viewed by an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), oscillating humidity led to the expansion of salts even on hydrophobic leaf surfaces. This may lead to the ’hydraulic activation of stomata (HAS)’, a process leading to the extension of liquid water films into the plant and subsequent transport of liquid water and solutes on the stomatal pathway, a meanwhile well-proven contradiction to previous concepts. Apart from the nutritional aspects, hygroscopic substances on leaves will interact with plant water relations. Depending on the degree of stomatal activation, this may trigger useful hydraulic signaling or provoke deleterious wicking and reduced drought tolerance of the plant.

  8. The Antidiabetic Potential Of Jatropha tanjorensis Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Southwest Nigeria, infusion of Jatropha tanjorensisi leaves is taken orally for the treatment of diabetic symptoms. The hypoglycemic effect of EtOH/H2O (1:1) leaf extract was evaluated in fasted and glucose-loaded rats at the doses of 1 and 2g/kg in-vivo, while three fractions of the extract were assessed for their ...

  9. A new sesquiterpene lactone from yacon leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Win Aung, Khin Khin; Ran, Xiao-Ku; Wang, Xiao-Tong; Dou, De-Qiang; Dong, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The chemical constituents of 60% EtOH extract of yacon leaves were separated to yield a new compound, together with four known compounds, which were isolated for the first time from yacon. The new compound was characterised and named as chlorodalin (1) on the basis of NMR (1D and 2D), HR-MS and other spectral methods. The cytotoxic activities of 1-5 were evaluated on two human tumour cell lines and the new compound showed significant cytotoxic activity.

  10. Research of photoinduced potentials of pepper leaves

    OpenAIRE

    D. V. Chernetchenko; MOTSNYJ M.P.; N. P. Botsva; О. V. Elina

    2015-01-01

    Bioelectrical potentials of the plants during photostimulation with various intensity values and wave lengths are studied. Such stimulation provides light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. The universal scheme of registration of bioelectric potentials, which allows to carry out the experimental study of light stimuli effect on the plant is proposed. All registrations of potentials are observed on the pepper leaves. Photoinduced stimuli are different with intensity changed from 150 to 450...

  11. Newbouldia laevis leaves extract: Nutritive value, Phytochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected on weekly performance and faecal egg count of experimental rams. The Newbouldia laevis leaves extract contained 55% moisture, 5.68% crude protein, 5.61% crude fat, 10.54% crude fibre, 2.15% total ash, 21.02% NFE and 20.22% NDF. It also had 0.00015 %, 0.00229 %, 39.2 %, 2.5 %, 0.00296 % ...

  12. Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juheini Amin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves. Preminelary experiment showed that ethanolic extract ofgandarusa leaves (Justicia gendarussa Burm. could decreased uric acid blood level on rats. The aim of this experimentwas to determine of the value LD50 and liver function based on activities of aminotransferase. Animals test which wereused in this experiment were 50 males and 50 females white mice. They were divided into 5 groups. Group 1 as controlgroup was given aquadest. Group 2-5 were treated by ethanolic extract of gandarusa leaves with dosage 4, 8, 16, and 32g/kg bw. The LD50 value was determined by the amount of death in group during 24 hours after giving a single dose oftest substance. The result showed that the highest dose was practically non toxic with LD50 value of 31.99 g/kg bw(male groups and 27.85 g/kg bw (female groups. Measurement of aminotransferase activity was done by usingcolorimetric method. The result of ANOVA analysis for liver function showed that the giving test substance 4 g/kg bw–16 g/kg bw was not significantly different between treated groups and control group.

  13. Why Patients Leave the Hospital Against Doctor's Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166746.html Why Patients Leave the Hospital Against Doctor's Orders It's a growing ... are much more likely than older patients to leave the hospital against the advice of their doctor. ...

  14. Can elemental composition data of crop leaves be used to estimate radionuclide transfer to tree leaves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2010-11-01

    Estimation of radionuclide concentrations in trees may be required to estimate their radiation exposure. However, concentration ratios of radionuclides from soil to tree species are limited for many radionuclide-tree combinations. To fill this gap, it is investigated in the present paper whether stable element concentration data for leafy vegetables are representative of those for wild tree leaves, and consequently, if these stable element data for leafy vegetables can be used as analogues to describe radionuclides transfer from soil to trees. Data for stable elements in leafy vegetables collected in Japan were compared with those in leaves of about 20 tree species worldwide. The correlation coefficients of element concentrations between leafy vegetables and tree leaves were higher than 0.90 with p elements were within the range of data for leafy vegetables. Thus, transfer parameters derived from stable element data for leafy vegetables could generally be used to estimate concentrations in tree leaves if data for the latter are not available. However, some trees accumulate a few elements (e.g., Al, Co, Mn and Si) in their leaves to higher concentrations than observed for leafy vegetables.

  15. 78 FR 8833 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... leave to family members of members of the Regular Armed Forces for qualifying exigencies arising out of... leave provision to include leave for eligible family members of members of the Regular Armed Forces and... FY 2008 NDAA, is expanded to include family members of members of the Regular Armed Forces. The...

  16. Early School Leaving and the Cultural Geography of High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, John; Hattam, Robert

    2002-01-01

    States early school leaving is a protracted educational problem throughout the world. Examines early school leaving from the position of young Australians (n=209) who left school or were considering leaving. Provides tentative theorizing traversing aspects of the cultural geography of high school as partial explanation of what is occurring. (BT)

  17. Determinants of sick-leave duration : A tool for managers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, P.A.; Krol, B.; Groothoff, J.W.

    AIMS: To provide managers with tools to manage episodes of sick-leave of their employees, the influence of factors such as age, gender, duration of tenure, working full-time or part-time, cause and history of sick-leave, salary and education on sick-leave duration was studied. METHOD: In a

  18. Utilization of Cassava Leaves as a Vegetable in Rwanda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prices of leaves at farm gate and retail levels were highly different (p= 0.0016), averaging 32 and 65 Frw by bunch in the rainy season, respectively. Despite the high consumption and trade of cassava leaves, post-harvest losses were high, especially in the rainy season. Cassava leaves were mainly cooked fresh, but 15.4 ...

  19. Utilisation of vegetable leaves for carp production

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, A.K.; Rai, S.P.; Datta, A.K.; Das, C.R.; Ghosh, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    The results of two sets of experiments on mono-culture of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and mixed culture of carps (grass carp 50 : catla 20 : rohu 15 : mrigal 15) fed exclusively with vegetable leaves are reported. The experiments were conducted with two replicates each in 0.02 ha ponds of Wastewater Aquaculture Division of the Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Rahara during 1991-93. Monoculture of grass carp stocked at 1000/ha demonstrated an average net production of 21.0...

  20. [Xanthones from leaves of Calophyllum inophyllum Linn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Li, Zhan-Lin; Liu, Ming-Sheng; Li, Dan-Yi; Zhang, Hui; Hua, Hui-Ming

    2009-02-01

    To study the xanthones from the leaves of Calophyllum inophyllum Linn., several chromatography methods were employed to isolate the constituents. Investigation on the CHCl3 extract led to the isolation of a new xanthone named inophyxanthone A (1) and four known compounds, which were pancixanthone A (2), gerontoxanthone B (3), jacareubin (4) and pyranojacareubin (5). Among them, compound 2 was obtained from this plant firstly, and compound 3 was obtained for the first time from this genus. The structure of inophyxanthone A (1) was identified as 1, 3, 5-trihydroxy-2-(1, 1-dimethylallyl)xanthone by spectral analysis.

  1. IS POLARIS LEAVING THE CEPHEID INSTABILITY STRIP?

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, D. G.

    2017-01-01

    Although Polaris is generally regarded as an overtone pulsator that may soon switch to pulsation in the fundamental mode, it is argued that the variable is actually crossing the instability strip for the first time and is in the process of leaving the instability strip altogether. The luminosity of Polaris inferred from its optical F3 V companion, as well as from A, F, and G-type stars lying within a few degrees of it and populating a group main sequence coincident with that for Polaris B...

  2. Take It, Leave It, Fold It

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Camelia

    2008-01-01

    This introduction to the volume sets the tone for a reading experience of Federman's works. Since the early 60s, Raymond Federman has been one of the most important American writers. In his highly experimental fictions, in works that bear such titles as Take It or Leave It, Double or Nothing......, and The Twofold Vibrations, he has explored cultural and personal memory, invented intricate narrative strategies, and above all has given readers an experience that exceeds the ordinary. Creating situations that make one really think and really laugh is a tall order for any writer. But Federman did it. He is one...

  3. Gender codes why women are leaving computing

    CERN Document Server

    Misa, Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    The computing profession is facing a serious gender crisis. Women are abandoning the computing field at an alarming rate. Fewer are entering the profession than anytime in the past twenty-five years, while too many are leaving the field in mid-career. With a maximum of insight and a minimum of jargon, Gender Codes explains the complex social and cultural processes at work in gender and computing today. Edited by Thomas Misa and featuring a Foreword by Linda Shafer, Chair of the IEEE Computer Society Press, this insightful collection of essays explores the persisting gender imbalance in computing and presents a clear course of action for turning things around.

  4. Chemical constituents of Breynia glauca leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butsarakham Supudompol

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available From the leaves of Breynia glauca, eight compounds including friedelin (1, 3-oxo- 4,5-sitosterone (2, friedelan-3β-ol (3, β-sitosterol (4, kaempferol (5, arbutin (6, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (7 and quercetion-3-O-glucoside (8 were isolated. The presence of these compounds supports the traditional use of this plant as a detoxifying agent. In addition, all of these chemical constituents were tested for antiviral potential against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, but were found to be inactive at 50 μg/ml.

  5. Impact of Ozone Gradient on Grapevine Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alebic-Juretic, Ana; Bokan-Vucelic, Itana; Mifka, Boris; Zatezalo, Marija; Zubak, Velimir

    2017-04-01

    Due to complex orography and air mass circulation, the Rijeka Bay area is characterized by O3 gradient, with concentrations risen with the altitude (1). Therefore AOT40 values were often exceeded and should result in harmful effects on vegetation. Based on previous controlled experiments (2), we examined the possible effect of atmospheric ozone on grape leaves under natural O3 gradient. Grapevine leaves (2-5) were collected from May to September 2016 at two sampling points in the proximity of two AQM stations: Site 1 in the city centre (20m asl) and Site 2 (186m asl) in the suburban settlement. Subsequent to weighing and determination of surface area, the leaves (0,5 g) were extracted in 95% ethanol and analysed on chlorophyl a (Chla), chlorophyl b (Chlb) and carotene (Car) content by UV-VIS spectrometry on 3 wavelengths (664, 649, 470 nm) (3) In summer 2016 O3 gradient was not that pronounced as usual (1), but stil the concentrations differed by approx. 20%, exceeding national AOT40 value at both sites (22.360 and 28.061 μg m-3 h, respectively, at Sites 1 and 2). The concentrations of other pollutants were bellow limit values (LV). The Cha and Chb in a sample leaves collected at the end of May at Site 2 are equal to that with filtered O3 in control experiment (2), i.e. without damage caused by ozone, while the Car content is lower approx. 50% and is kept at the same level. The con-centrations of pigments obtained in July prooved the possible damage by O3, while in subsequent months could speed up natural ageing. This is the first evidence of O3 damage on plants in the Rijeka Bay area, in spite of weaker O3 gradient and lacking visible signs of damage. Preliminary results indicate the need for more frequent sampling, particularly in the period included in AOT40 (May-July). References: 1. Alebić-Juretić A (2012) Int J Remote Sensing, 33(2): 335-345 2. Britvec M, Reichenauer T, Soja G., Ljubešić N, Pećina M (2001) Biologia (Bratislava),56/4: 417-424 3. Sumanata

  6. Terpenoid constituents from leaves of Guarea kunthiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcez, Fernanda R.; Garcez, Walmir S.; Bazzo, Rita de Cassia [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: frgarcez@nin.ufms.br; Silva, Ana Francisca G. da [Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, Mundo Novo, MS (Brazil). Unidade Universitaria de Mundo Novo; Resende, Ubirazilda M. [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia

    2004-10-01

    From leaves of Guarea kunthiana one new kaurene diterpene (ent-kaur-16-en-2-one) was isolated along with eight known diterpenes (ent-kaur-16-ene, ent-3{alpha}- and 3{beta}-hydroxykaur-16-ene, kolavelool, kolavenol, kolavenal, ent-13-epi-manoyloxide and (-)-nephthenol), four sesquiterpenes (alismol, alismoxide, spathulenol and 4{beta},10{alpha}-aromadendranediol), polyprenol-12 and {alpha}- and {delta}-tocopherols. Kolavenal is reported for the first time as a natural product, as well as the occurrence of cembrane- and ent-kaurane-type diterpenes in the Meliaceae. (author)

  7. Antioxidant lignoids from leaves of Ribes nigrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tatsunori; Li, Wei; Zaike, Shinnosuke; Asada, Yoshihisa; Li, Qin; Ma, Fenghua; Zhang, Qingbo; Koike, Kazuo

    2013-11-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Ribes nigrum resulted in the isolation of fourteen compounds, including four 7,7'-epoxylignans, three tetrahydrofuran-type sesquilignans, and a spirocyclic dilignan. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses and by chemical transformations. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant activities using superoxide anion scavenging assay and DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Ribesin D and ribesin G showed the most potent superoxide anion scavenging activity with EC50 values of 1.24 and 1.12 μM, respectively, and the structure-activity relationship was discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ozone injury and infection of potato leaves by Botrytis cinerea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, W.J.; Feder, W.A.; Perkins, I.; Glickman, M.

    1969-09-01

    Symptoms of ozone injury were observed on older leaves of potato cultivars Norland and Katahdin under experimental conditions. This symptom expression closely resembled flecks observed on potato leaves also blighted by Botrytis cinerea in the field. Inoculation of ozone-injured and noninjured potato leaves with B. cinerea showed that infection was more rapid and disease development more severe on ozone-injured leaves. Infection was frequently observed to originate in ozone-injured leaf areas. Ozone injury, under experimental conditions, appeared to increase the susceptibility of potato leaves to infection by B. cinerea. 6 references.

  9. Physical and mechanical of breadfruit leaves-polyethylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoto, R.; Rohmah, S.; Suhandi, A.

    2017-03-01

    A degradable polymeric composite was prepared from polyethylene (PE) and breadfruit leaves tree powders. Breadfruit leaves tree powders were mixed with PE in an internal mixer at a temperature above the glass transition of PE without additives. Formulations were based on PE/leaves ratio of 100/0, 90/10, 85/15, 80/20 and 75/25 on a dry weight basis. The effect of leaves powders of 140 and 100 meshon the composite mechanical properties was evaluated by means of universal testing machine (UTM) and hardness Rockwell tester. The results showed increases of elastic modulus and flexural modulus of the composites with increasing leaves powders. Tensile strength, yield strength, yield strain, and hardness decreased with increasing percentage of leaves powders in the composites. Flexural strength was slightly decreased with the presence of the leaves powders but independent on the percentage of the leaves powders. In general, the composite properties of 140 mesh leaves powders were more enhanced compare with that of 100 mesh. PE/leaves composites increased water absorption and caused the bulk composite surface more porous. Hence, oxo-biodegradation processes will more easily take place in the PE/leaves composites.

  10. Synthetic Leaves: Pumping at Negative Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Tobias; Stroock, Abraham; Havenstrite, Karen

    2004-03-01

    A common process that is rarely considered in detail is the circulation of fluid in trees. As with most multi-cellular organisms, the internal convective transport of nutrients and the evacuation of waste are essential to their survival. What is unique to flowering plants is that the convectively transported fluid (water) is under tension. According to the Cohesion-Tension Theory (Dixon & Joly), this tension is induced by siphoning: capillary forces replenish water lost to evaporation at the air-water interface in leaves. Intermolecular forces between water molecules ensure that the column of water suspended from the air-water interface remains continuous. Integral to this passive pumping is a dynamic meniscus, which changes curvature and thereby the capillary pressure at the interface to allow the leaf to pump against variable loads as environmental conditions (convection, relative humidity) change. I will present our efforts to harness the capabilities of dynamic menisci in a synthetic system. We use hydraulic resistances as loads to assess the pumping ability of these systems and their susceptibility to cavitation. The goal is to understand the physico-chemical aspects of pumping in plants and the design constraints of vascular networks of leaves.

  11. Biophotonic in situ sensor for plant leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conejo, Elian; Frangi, Jean-Pierre; Rosny, Gilles de

    2010-04-01

    Knowledge of the water concentration of plants can be helpful in several environmental and agricultural domains. There are many methods for the determination of water content in plant leaves; however, most of them give a relative moisture level or an analytical measure after a previous calibration procedure. Even for other biochemical compounds such as dry matter or chlorophyll, the measurement techniques could be destructive. For this reason, a nondestructive method has been developed to measure the biochemical compounds of a plant leaf, using an infrared spectroscopy technique. One important advantage is the simplicity of the device (RAdiometre portatif de Mesure In Situ, RAMIS) and its capability to perform measurements in situ. The prototype is a leaf-clip configuration and is made of LEDs at five wavelengths (656, 721, 843, 937, and 1550 nm), and a silicon/germanium photosensor. To compute the water content of vegetative leaves, the radiative transfer model PROSPECT was implemented. This model can accurately predict spectral transmittances in the 400 nm to 2500 nm spectral region as a function of the principal leaf biochemical contents: water, dry matter, and chlorophyll. Using the transmittance measured by RAMIS into an inversion procedure of PROSPECT: A Model of Leaf Optical Properties Spectra, we are able to compute the values of water contents that show an agreement with the water contents measured directly using dry weight procedures. This method is presented as a possibility to estimate other leaf biochemical compounds using appropriate wavelengths.

  12. Interactions of Salmonella enterica with lettuce leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroupitski, Y; Pinto, R; Brandl, M T; Belausov, E; Sela, S

    2009-06-01

    To investigate the interactions of Salmonella enterica with abiotic and plant surfaces and their effect on the tolerance of the pathogen to various stressors. Salmonella strains were tested for their ability to form biofilm in various growth media using a polystyrene plate model. Strong biofilm producers were found to attach better to intact Romaine lettuce leaf tissue compared to weak producers. Confocal microscopy and viable count studies revealed preferential attachment of Salmonella to cut-regions of the leaf after 2 h at 25 degrees C, but not for 18 h at 4 degrees C. Storage of intact lettuce pieces contaminated with Salmonella for 9 days at 4 degrees C resulted only in small changes in population size. Exposure of lettuce-associated Salmonella cells to acidic conditions (pH 3.0) revealed increased tolerance of the attached vs planktonic bacteria. Biofilm formation on polystyrene may provide a suitable model to predict the initial interaction of Salmonella with cut Romaine lettuce leaves. Association of the pathogen with lettuce leaves facilitates its persistence during storage and enhances its acid tolerance. Understanding the interactions between foodborne pathogens and lettuce might be useful in developing new approaches to prevent fresh produce-associated outbreaks.

  13. Antiamnesic potential of Murraya koenigii leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Mani; Parle, Milind

    2009-03-01

    Murraya koenigii leaves commonly known as curry patta are added routinely to Indian gravy and vegetarian dishes as a favorite condiment. The effects of Murraya koenigii leaves (MKL) on cognitive functions, total serum cholesterol level and brain cholinesterase activity in young and aged mice fed orally with a diet containing 2%, 4% and 8% w/w of MKL for 30 days consecutively, were investigated. The memory scores were measured using various exteroceptive and interoceptive behavioral models. The MKL diets produced a significant dose-dependent improvement in the memory scores of young and aged mice and significantly reduced the amnesia induced by scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.). Also, brain cholinesterase activity and total cholesterol levels were reduced by the MKL diets. The underlying mechanism of action for the observed nootropic effect may be attributed to pro-cholinergic activity and a cholesterol lowering property. Therefore, it would be worthwhile to investigate specifically the therapeutic potential of MKL in the management of Alzheimer patients. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Research of photoinduced potentials of pepper leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Chernetchenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrical potentials of the plants during photostimulation with various intensity values and wave lengths are studied. Suchstimulation provides light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. The universal scheme of registration of bioelectric potentials, which allowsto carry out the experimental study of light stimuli effect on the plant is proposed. All registrations of potentials are observed on the pepper leaves. Photoinduced stimuli are different with intensity changed from 150 to 450 lux and different spectrums of white light and red light with wave length 690 nm. Different parameters of stimuli drive to different types of biopotentials of the plant, quantitative and qualitative relationships of this process are obtained. It is also found that bioelectrical reaction of the leaves is quantitatively different in various spectral ranges of light, but the quality remains the same for all cases, as shown in the study of bioelectric responses during exposure to the light in red spectrum range. The explanation of the additional depolarization phase that occurs during the running of dark reparative process of photosynthesis is given. Light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis are accompanied by significant changes in the electrical potential of chloroplasts’ membrane. Besides, the dependence of bioelectrical reaction of the plant on different spectra of light is found. By this way, biophysical relation of plant potentials to the intracellular biophysical mechanisms during photo stimulation is obtained.

  15. Bioactivities examination of Cinchona leaves ethanol extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artanti, Nina; Udin, Linar Z.; Hanafi, M.; Jamilah, Kurniasih, Ida Rahmi; Primahana, Gian; Anita, Yulia; Sundowo, Andini; Kandace, Yoice Sri

    2017-01-01

    Cinchona species especially the barks are commonly known for commercial production of quinine as antimalarial. Although it is also reported for treatment of depurative, whooping cough, influenza and dysentery. In this paper we reported in vitro examination of other bioactivities (antidiabetes, antioxidant and in vitro cytotoxicity) of 70% ethanol extract of Cinchona ledgeriana and C. succirubra leaves as well as qunine, quinidine, and cinchonine the major alkaloids found in Cinchona species. Antidiabetes was conducted using α-glucosidase inhibitory activity assay. Antioxidant was conducted using DPPH free radical scavenging activity assay. In vitro cytotoxic activity was concucted by microscopic observation on growth of breast cancer cell line MCF-7. The results showed that at concentration of 100 µg/ml, C. ledgeriana leaves ethanol extracts showed the best activity as antidiabetes (98% inhibitory of α-glucosidase activity) and antioxidant (92% DPPH free radical scavenging activity), whereas at the same concentration C. succirubra, quinine, quinidine and cinchonine showed very low activities of antidiabetes and antioxidant. Microscopic observation of in vitro cytotoxicity showed that C. ledgeriana also has excellent cytotoxicity to breast cancer cell line MCF-7 which better than quinine, quinidine and cinchonine, whereas C. succirubra showed low cytotoxicity. These results suggest that cinchona species have many potential as the source of drugs discovery and development other than just for malaria treatment. Therefore it is important to conduct further studies and to maintain the available Cinchona plantation in Indonesia.

  16. [Study of the relationship between incidence of sick leave due to mental health failure and work rules about sick leave].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Naoki; Sasahara, Shin-ichiro; Tomotsune, Yusuke; Doki, Sho-taro; Ohi, Yuichi; Haoka, Takeshi; Sho, Naoaki; Umeda, Tadahiro; Yoshino, Satoshi; Matsuzaki, Ichiyo

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among the support system for return to work, work rules about sick leave, and incidence of sick leave due to mental health failure. A questionnaire was distributed to 150 workplaces with a history of use of the occupational health promotion center of a certain prefecture. The questionnaire asked about the number and duration of sick leaves due to mental health failure, the support system for return to work, and work rules about sick leave. A significant correlation between the number of permanent staff and maximum period of sick leave was found (r=0.489, pmonetary compensation during sick leave (r=0.315, p=0.031). In addition, in 9 workplaces with more than 1,000 permanent staff, a significant correlation between the period of monetary compensation period during sick leave and incidence of sick leave was found (r=0.670, p=0.048), as well as a significant correlation between the period of monetary compensation during sick leave and the average length of sick leave (r=0.866, pmonetary compensation is associated with the duration of sick leave due to mental health failure. Hereafter, to construct a support system for mental health, consideration of the effect of monetary compensation appears to be required.

  17. Environmental controls over methanol emission from leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Harley

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Methanol is found throughout the troposphere, with average concentrations second only to methane among atmospheric hydrocarbons. Proposed global methanol budgets are highly uncertain, but all agree that at least 60% of the total source arises from the terrestrial biosphere and primary emissions from plants. However, the magnitude of these emissions is also highly uncertain, and the environmental factors which control them require further elucidation.

    Using a temperature-controlled leaf enclosure, we measured methanol emissions from leaves of six plant species by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, with simultaneous measurements of leaf evapotranspiration and stomatal conductance. Rates of emission at 30°C varied from 0.2 to 38 μg g (dry mass−1 h−1, with higher rates measured on young leaves, consistent with the production of methanol via pectin demethylation in expanding foliage. On average, emissions increased by a factor of 2.3 for each 10°C increase in leaf temperature. At constant temperature, emissions were also correlated with co-varying incident photosynthetic photon flux density and rates of stomatal conductance. The data were analyzed using the emission model developed by Niinemets and Reichstein (2003a, b, with the incorporation of a methanol production term that increased exponentially with temperature. It was concluded that control of emissions, during daytime, was shared by leaf temperature and stomatal conductance, although rates of production may also vary diurnally in response to variations in leaf growth rate in expanding leaves. The model, which generally provided reasonable simulations of the measured data during the day, significantly overestimated emissions on two sets of measurements made through the night, suggesting that production rates of methanol were reduced at night, perhaps because leaf growth was reduced or possibly through a direct effect of light on production

  18. [Analysis of sick leaves due to mental and behavioral problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Gonzalo H; Alvarado, Sergio O; Kaufman, Jay S

    2012-02-01

    In Chile, the number of sick leaves due to mental health problems has systematically increased in recent years. To perform an analysis of sick leaves due to mental problems managed by the Fondo Nacional de Salud (FONASA) during 2008. Analysis of all sick leaves awarded during 2008 for mental or behavioral problems, that were managed at FONASA. A negative binomial regression, was performed to predict the effects of different variables on the total duration of sick leaves. A total of 546,477 sick leaves were awarded to 198,752 individuals (2.27 per subject). The mean duration of each leave was 15.6 days. Summing all leaves, the lapse off work was 98 ± 96 days (median 65 days). Women had longer leaves than men. The type of medical leave, occupation, working for private or public institutions, economic activity and diagnosis were significantly associated with duration of time off work. Sick leaves for mental problems are prolonged and related to gender and socioeconomic variables.

  19. Xyloglucan from the leaves of Hymenaea courbaril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busato, A P; Vargas-Rechia, C G; Reicher, F

    2001-10-01

    A fucosylated xyloglucan was isolated from the leaves of Hymenaea courbaril by alkaline extraction, followed by ethanol precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography. The isolated polysaccharide showed Glc:Xyl:Gal:Fuc in molar ratio of 8:5:2.5:1 and (D)(25) +40.5 degrees. Composition and linkage analyses, supported by NMR spectroscopic measurements, showed that the polysaccharide has a glucan backbone which is highly substituted at O-6 with D-xylopyranose residues, about a half of which are substituted at O-2 by D-galactopyranosyl units. Some of the galactose residues are further substituted by L-fucopyranose at O-2. The M(r), as determined by HPSEC, was 49,500.

  20. Phytochemical study of Juglans regia L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindl, Sebastian; Kraus, Birgit; Heilmann, Jörg

    2017-12-01

    A methanolic extract of Juglans regia L. leaves was fractioned by various chromatographic techniques yielding a total of 40 metabolites belonging to megastigmane, tetralone, phenylpropanoid, neolignane and juglone glycosides. Ten unknown megastigmane glucoside derivatives (juglanionosides A-K, 1-10) and six unknown tetralone glucoside derivatives (juglanosides J-O, 11-16) together with 24 known compounds - among them 16 described for the first time in Juglans - were isolated. As characteristic structural feature, the previously undescribed compounds showed acylation of the sugar units with sinapic, ferulic, coumaric, benzoic or salicylic acid. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR techniques, HRESIMS as well as CD spectroscopy. Absolute stereochemistry was revealed by mild alkaline hydrolysis and comparison of CD and polarimetric data to literature values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Medicinal properties of neem leaves: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subapriya, R; Nagini, S

    2005-03-01

    Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, has attracted worldwide prominence in recent years, owing to its wide range of medicinal properties. Neem has been extensively used in Ayurveda, Unani and Homoeopathic medicine and has become a cynosure of modern medicine. Neem elaborates a vast array of biologically active compounds that are chemically diverse and structurally complex. More than 140 compounds have been isolated from different parts of neem. All parts of the neem tree- leaves, flowers, seeds, fruits, roots and bark have been used traditionally for the treatment of inflammation, infections, fever, skin diseases and dental disorders. The medicinal utilities have been described especially for neem leaf. Neem leaf and its constituents have been demonstrated to exhibit immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycaemic, antiulcer, antimalarial, antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. This review summarises the wide range of pharmacological activities of neem leaf.

  2. Leaving and entering a career in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Shobhana; Tajima, Setsuko; Yoon, Jin-Hee

    2013-03-01

    Although a continuous research career is desirable for physicists, women often face situations that force them to interrupt their careers. Concerning the career-break problem, we discussed four issues. First, we analyzed the factors that force women to leave physics. Second, we discussed the effects of an interruption in a physics career. Should women continue to work as scientists without any break, at all costs? Or is it possible (and perhaps even better) to choose a more flexible career path? Third, we discussed the ways to retain women in physics. As an example, we focused on one of the most difficult problems: dual-career couples. Finally, we also discussed some possible ways in which one could support and facilitate women returning to a physics career after a break.

  3. Zeatin-binding proteins in barley leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, G.A.; Kulaeva, O.N.; Taryan, V.Y.

    1986-01-01

    Highly labelled tritium-zeatin was used in the work to clarify for the first time a protein factor that is present in cytokinin-sensitive vegetative organs of plants (barley leaves) and which possesses the properties of a cytokinin receptor. Aliquots of tritium-zeatin were mixed with a solution of protein and incubated for several hours in buffer. Following incubation, protein was precipitated by ammonium sulfate at 90% of saturation, and radioactivity of the precipitate was checked in a dioxane scintillator with an efficiency of about 35%. It is shown that the characteristics of interaction of the clarified specific protein sites with cytokinins in regard to a number of criteria correspond to the characteristics expected of receptors of these phytohormones.

  4. THE JOY SAD TO LEAVE THE COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita de Nobrega

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research study was established with the purpose of reflecting on the Sorrowful Joy Leave the Country, ie relate the phenomenon of migration toward Venezuelans abroad, especially destined to the United States. Regarding the research methodology used was qualitative in nature and implemented the method was phenomenological, which took into account the views of some Venezuelans who are abroad. Among the most important findings: that migration in the world is not a new phenomenon , however , migration in Venezuela began slowly in the eighties , but over time has grown significantly , the people who migrate do so in search of better pay and conditions for quality of life. In addition to the above, hundreds of Venezuelans have gone abroad without the possibility of return in the short or medium term the country, contributing to the deterioration of economic development in Venezuela.

  5. Pressurized liquid extraction of mate tea leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Rosângela Assis; Dariva, Cláudio; de Oliveira, José Vladimir; Caramão, Elina Bastos

    2008-09-05

    The objective of this work is to investigate the influence of process parameters on the pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of Ilex paraguariensis leaves. A factorial 2(6-2) experimental design was employed using responses as the extraction yield and the chromatographic profile of the extracts. The extraction time, polarity of solvent, amount of sample, numbers of PLE cycles, flushing volume and extraction temperature were selected as independent variables (factors). Results obtained indicated that the solvent polarity was the most significant variable in the study, while the amount of sample and extraction temperature also showed significant effect. The other variables did not present significant influence in the yield of extraction. GC/MS analysis of the extract enabled the identification of saturated hydrocarbons, fatty acids, fatty acid methyl esters, phytosterols and theobromine in the extracts. Quantitative analysis of four compounds presented in the extracts (caffeine, phytol, vitamin E and squalene) was performed by the GC/MS in the SIM mode.

  6. Work-family balance after childbirth: the association between employer-offered leave characteristics and maternity leave duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Goodman, Julia; Kharrazi, Martin; Lahiff, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Early return to work after childbirth has been increasing among working mothers in the US. We assessed the relationship between access to employer-offered maternity leave (EOML) (both paid and unpaid) and uptake and duration of maternity leave following childbirth in a socio-economically diverse sample of full-time working women. We focus on California, a state that has long provided more generous maternity leave benefits than those offered by federal maternity leave policies through the State Disability Insurance program. The sample included 691 mothers who gave birth in Southern California in 2002-2003. Using weighted logistic regression, we examined the EOML-maternity leave duration relationship, controlling for whether the leave was paid, as well as other occupational, personality and health-related covariates. Compared with mothers who were offered more than 12 weeks of maternity leave, mothers with maternity leave significantly determine timing of return to work following childbirth, potentially affecting work-family balance. Policy makers should recognize the pivotal role of employers in offering job security during and after maternity leave and consider widening the eligibility criteria of the Family and Medical Leave Act.

  7. A MODELING METHOD OF FLUTTERING LEAVES BASED ON POINT CLOUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaves falling gently or fluttering are common phenomenon in nature scenes. The authenticity of leaves falling plays an important part in the dynamic modeling of natural scenes. The leaves falling model has a widely applications in the field of animation and virtual reality. We propose a novel modeling method of fluttering leaves based on point cloud in this paper. According to the shape, the weight of leaves and the wind speed, three basic trajectories of leaves falling are defined, which are the rotation falling, the roll falling and the screw roll falling. At the same time, a parallel algorithm based on OpenMP is implemented to satisfy the needs of real-time in practical applications. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is amenable to the incorporation of a variety of desirable effects.

  8. Anatomical structure of moss leaves and their photosynthetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krupa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The photosynthetic activity of the leaf area unit increases depending on the degree of differentiation of the anatomical structure of the leaves of six chosen moss species. There is a correlation between the leaf area and the degree of differentiation of the anatomical structure resulting in enlargement of the area of contact of the assimilating cells with air. The leaves of Catharinea undulata having a one-layer blade and provided with several lamellae show a higher photosynthesis per 1 cm2 of their surface than the one-layer leaves of Mniurnm or Funaria. Aloina leaves are the smallest in area among those of the moss species discussed, however, their photosynthetic rate is almost 4.5 times higher than in Funaria leaves. By analogy to the structure of leaves and their function in vascular, plants, these changes and correlations may be considered as attempts of primeval adaptation of mosses to terrestrial conditions of living.

  9. Age-Dependent Decrease of Nucleoside Pools in Cereal Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Axel, Sawert; Anke I., Backer; Karl G., Wagner; Ag. Enzymologie, Gesellschaft fur Biotechnologische Forschung

    1988-01-01

    The amounts of nucleosides, the nucleobase adenine, and the adenine-containing nucleotides were determined in leaves of barley and wheat using recently developed methods of extract purification and HPLC analysis. There were large amounts of nucleosides in the flag leaves but markedly lower amounts in the older leaves. Their role as nucleotide precursors in grain development or transport vehicles in leaf senescence is discussed. The adenine nucleotide concentration slightly increased with leaf...

  10. EVALUATION OF ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF LEAVES EXTRACT OF POPULUS DELTOIDES

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeev Jha, *, Nagalakshmi N.C., Shiva Kumar Swamy , Bishnu Adhikari

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The study was designed to evaluate the Antidiabetic activity of ethanolic leaves extract of P. deltoides. Method: The P. deltoides ethanolic leaves extract was tested for the presence of various phytoconstituents using standard procedure. The leaves extract was tested for its hypoglycaemic property in healthy albino rats and glucose loaded rats. The effect of extract was evaluated for its antidiabetic action in alloxan induced rats. The effect of extract on heart and kidney was determine...

  11. The evolution, morphology, and development of fern leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra eVasco; Robbin C. Moran; Ambrose, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Leaves are lateral determinate structures formed in a predictable sequence (phyllotaxy) on the flanks of an indeterminate shoot apical meristem. The origin and evolution of leaves in vascular plants has been widely debated. Being the main conspicuous organ of nearly all vascular plants and often easy to recognize as such, it seems surprising that leaves have had multiple origins. For decades, morphologists, anatomists, paleobotanists, and systematists have contributed data to this debate. Mor...

  12. Responce of leaves of three plant species to aluminium stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Konarska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Water culture experiments were undertaken for 14 days to examine the effect of increasing aluminum level (0, 10, 20 40 mg·dm-3 AlCl3·6 H2O on growth of sunflower, red pepper and radish leaves. The early stage of Al toxicity was characterized by curling or rolling of young leaves, marginal and veinal chlorosis, dark green leaves as soon as purpling of margins and veins of leaves. Reduction of leaf size and increased stomata density were observed with increasing Al concentration. Additionally, length of stomata cells decreased after Al-treatment.

  13. GPs' negotiation strategies regarding sick leave for subjective health complaints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsen, Stein Tore; Malterud, Kirsti; Werner, Erik L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To explore general practitioners ’(GPs’) specific negotiation strategies regarding sick-leave issues with patientssuffering from subjective health complaints. Design: Focus-group study. Setting: Nine focus-group interviews in three citiesin different regions of Norway. Participants: 48...... to sick leave. Conclusions and implications: GPs seem to have a conscious approach to negotiations of sickness certification, as they report applying specific strategies to limit the duration of sick leave due to subjective health complaints. This give-and-take way of handling sick leave negotiations has...

  14. The Length of Maternity Leave and Family Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beuchert-Pedersen, Louise Voldby; Humlum, Maria Knoth; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    of maternity leave on a range of health indicators including the number of hospital admissions for both mother and child and the probability of the mother receiving antidepressants. The reform led to an increase in average post-birth maternity leave matters for child or maternal health outcomes and thus we...... complement the existing evidence on maternity leave expansions that tends to find limited effects on children's later deveopmental, educational, and labor market outcomes. Our results suggest that any beneficial effects of increasing the lenght of maternity leave are greater for low-resource families....

  15. A Wound- and Systemin-Inducible Polygalacturonase in Tomato Leaves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel R. Bergey; Martha Orozco-Cardenas; Daniel S. De Moura; Clarence A. Ryan

    1999-01-01

    Oligogalacturonide fragments that activate defensive genes in plant leaves heretofore have been thought to be generated only by pathogen-derived pectin-degrading enzymes, because polygalacturonase (PG...

  16. Physicians' intention to leave direct patient care: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degen, Christiane; Li, Jian; Angerer, Peter

    2015-09-08

    In light of the growing shortage of physicians worldwide, the problem of physicians who intend to leave direct patient care has become more acute, particularly in terms of quality of care and health-care costs. A literature search was carried out following Cooper's five-stage model for conducting an integrative literature review. Database searches were made in MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Web of Science in May 2014. A total of 17 studies from five countries were identified and the study results synthesized. Measures and percentages of physicians' intention to leave varied between the studies. Variables associated with intention to leave were demographics, with age- and gender-specific findings, family or personal domain, working time and psychosocial working conditions, job-related well-being and other career-related aspects. Gender differences were identified in several risk clusters. Factors such as long working hours and work-family conflict were particularly relevant for female physicians' intention to leave. Health-care managers and policy-makers should take action to improve physicians' working hours and psychosocial working conditions in order to prevent a high rate of intention to leave and limit the number of physicians actually leaving direct patient care. Further research is needed on gender-specific needs in the workplace, the connection between intention to leave and actually leaving and measures of intention to leave as well as using qualitative methods to gain a deeper understanding and developing validated questionnaires.

  17. Father's Rights to Paid Parental Leave in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; Haas, L.

    2011-01-01

    European Union policy encourages men and women to share parental leave to balance work and family life and promote gender equality in the labor market. A new directive extends parental leave to four months and introduces a quota, so one month is reserved for each parent. This article explores...... time between men and women. Findings contribute to the conceptual as well as empirical understanding of whether fathers' rights and use of parental leave can help bring about an egalitarian division of leave between mothers and fathers, often thought to be the foundation for gender equality....

  18. Male bumblebees perform learning flights on leaving a flower but not when leaving their nest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Théo; Frasnelli, Elisa; Collett, Thomas S; Hempel de Ibarra, Natalie

    2017-03-01

    Female bees and wasps demonstrate, through their performance of elaborate learning flights, when and where they memorise features of a significant site. An important feature of these flights is that the insects look back to fixate the site that they are leaving. Females, which forage for nectar and pollen and return with it to the nest, execute learning flights on their initial departure from both their nest and newly discovered flowers. To our knowledge, these flights have so far only been studied in females. Here, we describe and analyse putative learning flights observed in male bumblebees Bombus terrestris L. Once male bumblebees are mature, they leave their nest for good and fend for themselves. We show that, unlike female foragers, males always fly directly away from their nest, without looking back, in keeping with their indifference to their natal nest. In contrast, after males have drunk from artificial flowers, their flights on first leaving the flowers resemble the learning flights of females, particularly in their fixation of the flowers. These differences in the occurrence of female and male learning flights seem to match the diverse needs of the two sexes to learn about disparate, ecologically relevant places in their surroundings. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Positive and negative consequences of sick leave for the individual, with special focus on part-time sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieurin, Leif; Josephson, Malin; Vingård, Eva

    2009-01-01

    To describe the consequences of long-term sick leave (>28 days) on working situation, health and lifestyle among employees from the public sector in Sweden. Employees in four county councils and two municipalities on long term sick leave on 1 November 2005 (n = 1,128) answered a questionnaire in February 2006. The response rate was 71.7%. Eighty seven per cent were still on sick leave when the questionnaire was answered: 54% part time and 33% full time. Reporting positive consequences was rare but reporting negative consequences, such as effects on the development of salary, the possibilities of pursuing a career or to change to another job were common. Sick leave seemed to lead to a considerable loss of zest for work, even if the respondents were back in work full time. Regardless of the negative consequences at work, 92% of those on part-time sick leave believed that the part-time sick leave was good for them even if many thought it had negative consequences for employer and colleagues. Long-term sick leave has negative consequences for the individual in work situations, even for those back at work full time. The development of salary and career seem to be most affected. The attitude towards part-time sick leave was positive and this result indicates that there is a potential for an increased degree of partial return to work in the group of people on long-term sick leave.

  20. Ensilage of cardboard and date palm leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroon, Z; El-Nawawy, A S; Al-Othman, A

    2004-01-01

    Eight treatments of cardboard (CB) and date palm leaves (DPL) with or without alkali treatments plus molasses, dates, and ammonium sulfate were ensiled in laboratory silos. Latobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculants were added at an application rate of 10(5) cfu/g of silage to study their possible influence on the fermentation process. Silos were sealed and incubated at 30 degrees C. The anaerobic ensiling was evaluated for chemical and microbiological variables by opening the silos after 30, 60, and 90 days. After 90 days, significantly low pH values (5.2-3.5) were obtained. The percentages of hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, and ash were determined. Concentrations of reducing sugars, ether extract, and crude protein tended to be acceptable among treatments. Silages showed a significantly high lactic acid concentration (up to 4.3%) and only traces of butyric acid (below 1%). Also changes in acetic and propionic acids concentrations were determined. Lactobacillus populations remained almost static while yeast and molds populations tended to be lower after 90 days of ensilage. Neither alkali treatment nor microbial inoculants showed a relationship with the ensiling process. Thus, overall, it was concluded that CB and DPL can be effectively ensiled and the resultant silages are acceptable to merit their use as ruminant feed in arid regions.

  1. Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Andreas P.M.

    2008-04-25

    Transitory starch builds up in photosynthesizing leaves during the day and is then degraded each night. It has recently been shown through mutant analysis and genetically engineered plants that transitory starch is required for maximal rates of photosynthesis, especially in high carbon dioxide atmospheres. Understanding the pathway by which carbon is exported from chloroplasts at night is limited. Previous work has shown that starch conversion to sucrose at night involves maltose export from chloroplasts. This pathway for carbon export from chloroplasts normally does not occur during the day. The regulation of maltose formation, the transporters that allow export of maltose from the chloroplast, and the cytosolic reactions by which maltose is converted to sucrose remain obscure. Genomic and biochemical approaches are proposed here to address maltose metabolism and transport. The research will cover three areas (1) how are hydrolytic and phosphorylytic starch degradation regulated, (2) how is maltose exported from chloroplasts, and (3) how is maltose converted to sucrose in the cytosol? It is expected that this research will lead to new insights about photosynthesis at high carbon dioxide levels, how carbon is partitioned in plants, and how partitioning can be altered to adapt plants to human needs.

  2. Protein Metabolism in Senescing Wheat Leaves 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamattina, Lorenzo; Lezica, Rafael Pont; Conde, Rubén D.

    1985-01-01

    Wheat leaves (Triticum aestivum L.) at the moment of their maximum expansion were detached and put in darkness. Their protein, RNA and DNA contents, as well as their rates of protein synthesis and degradation, were measured at different times from 0 to 5 days after detachment. Rates of protein synthesis were measured by incorporation into proteins of large amounts of [3H]leucine. Fractional rates of protein degradation were estimated either from the difference between the rates of synthesis and the net protein change or by the disappearance of radioactivity from proteins previously labeled with [3H]leucine or [14C]proline. Protein loss reached a value of 20% during the first 48 hours of the process. RNA loss paralleled that of protein, whereas DNA content proved to be almost constant during the first 3 days and decreased dramatically thereafter. Measurements of protein synthesis and degradation indicate that, in spite of a slowdown in rate of protein synthesis, an increased rate of protein breakdown is mainly responsible for the observed rapid protein loss. PMID:16664103

  3. Summer survival of Phytophthora ramorum in California bay laurel leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth J. Fichtner; David M. Rizzo; Shannon C. Lynch; Jennifer Davidson; Gerri Buckles; Jennifer Parker

    2008-01-01

    Sudden oak death manifests as non-lethal foliar lesions on bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), which support sporulation and survival of Phytophthora ramorum in forest ecosystems. Infected bay laurel leaves are more likely to abscise than uninfected leaves, resulting in an accumulation of inoculum at the forest floor. The pathogen survives the dry...

  4. Phenolic Compounds And Bioactivity Of Leaves Of Mayodendron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... igneum leaves exhibited significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. LD50 determination of the extract indicated the safety of the leaves of the plant. Keywords: Mayodendron igneum, Bignoniaceae, apigenin glycosides, anti- inflammatory activity. African Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine Vol.

  5. Carbon isotopic composition of fossil leaves from the Early ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stable carbon isotope analysis of fossil leaves from the Bhuj Formation, western India was carried out to infer the prevailing environmental conditions. Compression fossil leaves such as Pachypteris indica, Otozamite kachchhensis, Brachyphyllum royii and Dictyozamites sp. were recovered from three sedimentary ...

  6. Nutritional composition of Corchorus olitorius leaves | Idirs | Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate and mineral composition of Corchorus olitorius leaves collected from a farm site at Barkin-Saleh in Minna town, Niger State, Nigeria, were carried out using standard methods of food analysis. The results of proximate composition showed that the leaves contained 18.38±0.32% ash, 12.54±0.10% crude ...

  7. Identification of phytochemical compounds in Calophyllum inophyllum leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Febrilliant Susanto

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: C. inophyllum leaves may be used as a good source of fiber. It was found that C. inophyllum leaves have the potential as herbal drugs due to their phytochemical content. The separation, isolation, and purification of bioactive compounds from this methanolic crude extract and their biological activity are under further investigation.

  8. 77 FR 22519 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... family members of members of the Regular Armed Forces for qualifying exigencies arising out of the... Hour Division 29 CFR Part 825 RIN 1215-AB76 and RIN 1235-AA03 The Family and Medical Leave Act AGENCY... certain regulations of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA). On February 15, 2012, the...

  9. Perceptions of the use of indigenous leaves as packaging materials ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although alternative food packaging materials are available, Ghanaians still use leaves to package some ready-to-eat cornmeal products. This study examines the perceptions of a representative community sample of 70 producers, 40 sellers and 120 consumers of ready-to-eat leaves-packaged cornmeal products in ...

  10. Organizational Justice and Social Workers' Intentions to Leave Agency Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kuen; Solomon, Phyllis; Jang, Cinjae

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated the impact of organizational justice on social workers' intention to leave Korean social service agencies. Specifically, this study concentrated on the moderating effect of organizational justice on the relationship between burnout and intention to leave. The authors surveyed 218 front-line social workers from 51 social…

  11. Pharmacognostic evaluation of the leaves and stem-bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacognostic evaluation of the leaves and stem-bark of Commiphora africana (A. Rich) Engl. (Burseraceae) ... Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine ... Evaluation of the fresh, powdered and anatomical sections of the leaves and stem bark were carried out to determine the macromorphological, ...

  12. Effect of ethanol extract of Pyrenacantha staudtii leaves on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of ethanol extract of Pyrenacantha staudtii leaves on carbontetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. ... total and conjugated bilirubin were also significantly lowered by the extract. These results show that the extract of Pyrenacantha staudtii leaves has protective effect against CCl4 induced liver toxicity and damage.

  13. Pharmacognostic Evaluation of the Leaves of Secamone afzelii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Pharmacognostic Evaluation of the Leaves of. Secamone afzelii (Schult) K Schum (Asclepiadaceae). Tavs A Abere and Doris N Onwukaeme. Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City 300001, Nigeria . Abstract. Purpose: Establishment of the pharmacognostic profile of the leaves ...

  14. Extraction and application of dyestuffs from the leaves of guinea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work is aimed at assessing the dyeing and colouring potentials of ethanol extracts from the leaves of guinea corn and the skin of onion. It is intended to apply the purified dye extracts on textile, drink and food. The leaves of guinea corn (Sorghum bicolor) and the skin of onion (Allium cepa) were collected, ...

  15. Genotoxicity of Nicotiana tabacum leaves on Helix aspersa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda R. da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco farmers are routinely exposed to complex mixtures of inorganic and organic chemicals present in tobacco leaves. In this study, we examined the genotoxicity of tobacco leaves in the snail Helix aspersa as a measure of the risk to human health. DNA damage was evaluated using the micronucleus test and the Comet assay and the concentration of cytochrome P450 enzymes was estimated. Two groups of snails were studied: one fed on tobacco leaves and one fed on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L leaves (control group. All of the snails received leaves (tobacco and lettuce leaves were the only food provided and water ad libitum. Hemolymph cells were collected after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. The Comet assay and micronucleus test showed that exposure to tobacco leaves for different periods of time caused significant DNA damage. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes occurred only in the tobacco group. Chemical analysis indicated the presence of the alkaloid nicotine, coumarins, saponins, flavonoids and various metals. These results show that tobacco leaves are genotoxic in H. aspersa and inhibit cytochrome P450 activity, probably through the action of the complex chemical mixture present in the plant.

  16. The study of henna leaves extract as green corrosion inhibitor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chaudhari H.G and Vashi R.T

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... oil and gas industries [1-4]. Generally lower molecular ... The extract of plant leaves also known as green inhibitors such as Newbouldia leavis [6], Carica Papaya and Camellia ... In order to study the adsorption of henna leaves extract, on mild steel surface, best agreement was obtained with Langmuir ...

  17. Fathers' use of parental leave. What do we know?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhelyazkova, N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the the literature on fathers' use of parental leave. Parental leave is a work-life reconciliation instrument with great potential to bring about a more equal distribution of paid and unpaid work between men and women. However, policy evaluation studies reveal that simply making

  18. Phytochemical, Proximate and Metal Content Analysis of the Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the phytochemicals and some other constituents of the powdered leaves of Psidium guajava Linn and to evaluate the tolerability profile of the leaves because of their profound medicinal and non-medicinal uses. Methods: The phytochemical analysis of Psidium guajava was carried out by using a ...

  19. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni Leaves

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical Phamacy

    and their antimicrobial activities were examined against few selected microorganisms including B. ... screening of them may result in the discovery of ... rebaudiana leaves against the selected microorganisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Plant Material and Microorganisms: Dried stevia leaves were supplied by Growmore.

  20. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825.120 Labor... pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. Eligible employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth... condition. Note, too, that many State pregnancy disability laws specify a period of disability either before...

  1. Chicoric Acid Found in Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first report to identify the presence of chicoric acid (cichoric acid; also known as dicaffeoyltartaric acid) in basil leaves. Rosmarinic acid, chicoric acid, and caftaric acid (in the order of most abundant to least; all derivatives of caffeic acid) were identified in fresh basil leaves...

  2. Investigation of anti-inflammatory lignans from the leaves of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The methanol extract of S. sumuntia leaves showed strong inhibitory effects on nitric oxide. (NO) production and expression of iNOS and COX-2 in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. A phytochemical assay-guided fractionation of the methanol extract of S. sumuntia leaves led to the isolation of four lignans which are ...

  3. Some Pharmacological Studies Of Aqueous Extract Of Leaves Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was set out to identify the pharmacological basis for the laxative effect of leaves of Euphorbia heterophylla as well as identify its other pharmacological properties: Material/ Methods: Effect of aqueous extract of the leaves was tested on isolated guinea pig ileum and isolated pregnant rat uterus using organ bath ...

  4. Algebraic Geometry of Error Amplification: the Prony leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Batenkov, Dmitry; Goldman, Gil; Salman, Yehonatan; Yomdin, Yosef

    2017-01-01

    We provide an overview of some results on the "geometry of error amplification" in solving Prony system, in situations where the nodes near-collide. It turns out to be governed by the "Prony foliations" $S_q$, whose leaves are "equi-moment surfaces" in the parameter space. Next, we prove some new results concerning explicit parametrization of the Prony leaves.

  5. Wisconsin Maternity Leave and Fringe Benefits: Policies, Practices and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Jennifer

    The study examines the economic implications in Wisconsin of the 1972 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission guideline which requires employers to treat maternity leave as a temporary disability. First, the static cost of the maternity leave guideline to employers is estimated for the State of Wisconsin. Second, some examination of the economic…

  6. Parental leave: comparing children's hospitals with Fortune 500 companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, A H; Gordon, E J; O'Connor, M E

    1998-07-01

    To identify parental leave policies and availability of support systems for new parents employed by children's hospitals and compare these benefits with those offered by Fortune 500 companies. Telephone or facsimile survey of all (n=118) children's hospitals and pediatric medical centers in the National Association of Children's Hospitals and Related Institutions 1995 Directory of Members, and 118 geographically matched Fortune 500 companies. Policies for maternity and paternity leave, adoption benefits, and support services for new parents were compared. Ninety-four children's hospitals (80%) and 82 Fortune 500 companies (69%) responded to the survey. No difference in duration of maternity (P>.30) or paternity (P=.12) leave was found. Sixty-two companies (77%) classified maternity leave as short-term disability while 47 hospitals (50%) classified it as sick time (Pmaternity leave as short-term disability generally gives better benefits to employees with short duration of service, whereas classifying maternity leave as sick time usually favors employees with longer employment. Companies provided more financial support for adoption expenses (P<.05), but there was no difference in duration of paid or unpaid leave for adoption (P=.14). Hospitals provided more on-site day care (69% vs 42%; P<.001) and better support systems for breast-feeding mothers (49% vs 24%; P<.002). Children's hospitals do not offer better parental leave benefits than Fortune 500 companies; however, they offer better support systems for parents returning to work after the birth of a child.

  7. Effect of dietary incorporation of Vernonia colorata (Willd) leaves on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of 5 and 10% dietary incorporation of leaves of Vernonia colorata on serum triacyglycerol, cholesterol, high density lipoproteins (HDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) was studied in albino rats. Processed and unprocessed leaves of Vernonia colorata (PVC and UPVC) ...

  8. Determination of some trace metal levels in onion leaves from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentration (mg kg-1 dry weight) of Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn were determined in onion leaves samples using atomic absorption spectrometry. A total of 16 samples each of onion leaves freshly harvested were collected from the exposed and control sites for analysis. The trace metal (Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn) levels in the onion ...

  9. Genotoxicity of Nicotiana tabacum leaves on Helix aspersa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Fernanda R; Erdtmann, Bernardo; Dalpiaz, Tiago; Nunes, Emilene; Ferraz, Alexandre; Martins, Tales L C; Dias, Johny F; da Rosa, Darlan P; Porawskie, Marilene; Bona, Silvia; da Silva, Juliana

    2013-07-01

    Tobacco farmers are routinely exposed to complex mixtures of inorganic and organic chemicals present in tobacco leaves. In this study, we examined the genotoxicity of tobacco leaves in the snail Helix aspersa as a measure of the risk to human health. DNA damage was evaluated using the micronucleus test and the Comet assay and the concentration of cytochrome P450 enzymes was estimated. Two groups of snails were studied: one fed on tobacco leaves and one fed on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) leaves (control group). All of the snails received leaves (tobacco and lettuce leaves were the only food provided) and water ad libitum. Hemolymph cells were collected after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. The Comet assay and micronucleus test showed that exposure to tobacco leaves for different periods of time caused significant DNA damage. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes occurred only in the tobacco group. Chemical analysis indicated the presence of the alkaloid nicotine, coumarins, saponins, flavonoids and various metals. These results show that tobacco leaves are genotoxic in H. aspersa and inhibit cytochrome P450 activity, probably through the action of the complex chemical mixture present in the plant.

  10. Observation of antioxidant activity of leaves, callus and suspension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of leaves, callus culture and cell suspension culture of J. gendarussa. Callus was induced from green and matured leaves of J. gendarussa cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with different concentrations of 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and ...

  11. Nutritional, antinutritional and phytochemical status of okra leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to analyze the nutritional quality and antinutritional factors of okra leaves subjected to different process. Proximate composition, calcium, magnesium, potassium were determined, as well as lectin, tannin, saponin and total phenolic compounds. The okra leaves showed a predominance of ...

  12. Sick leave analysis among self-employed Dutch farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, E.; Oude Vrielink, H.H.E.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Background Agriculture is one of the most physically demanding and risky industries. Aim The objective of this study was to provide baseline data on the diagnoses, occurrence and duration of sick leave of self-employed Dutch farmers. Method A database of 22807 sick leave claims of 12627 farmers

  13. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leave system for education personnel. 38.12 Section 38.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.12 Leave system for education personnel. (a) Full-time school-term employees. Employees on a full-time school-term...

  14. Isolation of flavonoids from mulberry ( Morus alba L.) leaves with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flavonoids are major active constituents in mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves and possess various pharmacological activities. In the present study, the extraction technology and preparative separation of total flavonoids (TFs) in mulberry leaves extracts by macroporous resins were studied systematically, and the column ...

  15. Effect of ethanolic leave extract of phyllantus amarus on carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peters

    of ethanolic leaves extract of phyllantus amarus on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotocity in albino rats. Thirty six (36) rats were divided into 9 groups (n=4rats) ... cardenolides, steroids, tannins, carbohydrate and anthraquinones. Thus, ethanolic leaves extract of phyllantus amarus ameliorated the damage ...

  16. Evaluation of Mineral and Amino Acid Composition of Leaves of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to determine the mineral and amino acid composition of the leave of Ocimum gratissimum. The mineral composition showed major minerals such as Na, K, Ca and Mg should essential and non-essential amino acids. The amino acids compared favorably with FAO reference protein. The leave were ...

  17. Home leaving trajectories in Canada: exploring cultural and gendered dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen M. Gee

    2003-12-01

    leaving trajectory are larger among the Chinese and Indo-Canadians than among persons of European origins. Overall, we conclude that the theorized trend of the individualized family life course holds for only some ethnocultural groups in Canada. We conclude with suggestions for future research directions on the topic of ethnicity and the home leaving life course transitions.

  18. Ethnic differences in leaving home : Timing and pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zorlu, A.; Mulder, Clara H.

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of leaving home for youth from migrant families in the Netherlands are examined using individual administrative data on the 1977 and 1983 birth cohorts for the period 1999–2004. A competing-risks approach is applied to distinguish leaving home for union formation, to live independently,

  19. Ethnic differences in leaving home: timing and pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zorlu, A.; Mulder, C.H.

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of leaving home for youth from migrant families in the Netherlands are examined using individual administrative data on the 1977 and 1983 birth cohorts for the period 1999-2004. A competing-risks approach is applied to distinguish leaving home for union formation, to live independently,

  20. Influence of different varieties of mulberry leaves ( Morus alba ) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of anti nutrients presents on the variety mulberry leaves used as feed on silkworm performance were further examined. The result revealed that there were significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) between varieties of mulberry leaves used as feed on mortality of larva and cocooning, while its influence on good cocoon, ...

  1. Nutritional and chemical value of Amaranthus hybridus L. leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritional and chemical value of Amaranthus hybridus were investigated using standard analytical methods in order to assess the numerous potential of the plant leaves. The Proximate analysis showed the percentage moisture content, ash content, crude protein, crude lipid, crude fibre and carbohydrate of the leaves ...

  2. with varying Levels of Moringa oleifera Leaves Powder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the organoleptic properties of soy meatball at varying levels of Moringa oleifera leaves powder inclusion. The result of the sensory evaluation of the products showed that they were generally accepted above average (3.5). However, soy meatball sample without Moringa oleifera leaves ...

  3. Leaves as composites of latent developmental and evolutionary shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Across plants, leaves exhibit profound diversity in shape. As a single leaf expands, its shape is in constant flux. Additionally, plants may also produce leaves with different shapes at successive nodes. Because leaf shape can vary in many different ways, theoretically the effects of distinct proces...

  4. Isolation of Mesophyll Protoplasts from Leaves of Dalbergia sissoo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    described a procedure for the rapid isolation, in high yield, of photosynthetically active mesophyll protoplasts from young leaves of D. sissoo. The present ... Plant material: Fully expended young leaves age of. 3~4 wk were collected from mature ... sharp razor blade without tissue crushing at the cutting site to ensure proper ...

  5. Regulation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activity in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leegood, R C; Walker, D A

    1982-12-01

    Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.11) activity increased markedly (greater than 10-fold) upon illumination of wheat leaves. Darkening caused a relatively slow but complete reversal of light activation. The effects of O2 and CO2 concentration and light intensity on fructose-bisphosphatase activation were measured. In ratelimiting light, 2% O2 stimulated enzyme activity, whereas varying the CO2 concentration had little effect. In saturating light, lowering the oxygen tension had no effect, but CO2 at near-saturating concentrations for photosynthesis inhibited enzyme activity. Dark inactivation of the enzyme was completely prevented by incubation of leaves in N2, but was facilitated by O2, indicating that O2 is the major oxidant in darkened leaves. It is argued that while fructose bisphosphatase is redox-regulated in leaves, modulation of enzyme activity by this mechanism is unlikely to contribute to the regulation of CO2 fixation in leaves.

  6. [Chemical components from essential oil of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Kai; Ge, Fa-Huan

    2014-04-01

    To analyze the chemical compositions of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves essential oil extracted by steam distillation. The essential oil of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrum, and the relative content of each component was determined by area normalization method. 128 peaks were separated and 95 compounds were identified, which weighed 97.75%. The main chemical components of the essential oil were phytol (42.15%), squalene (16.81%), what's more pentadecanal (6.17%), pentadecanoic acid (4.49%), 3, 7, 11, 15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol (3.83%), phytone (2.05%) and the other 74 chemical compositions were firstly identified from the essential oil of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves. The chemical compositions of Pandanu samaryllifolius leaves essential oil was systematically, deeply isolated and identified for the first time. This experiment has provided scientific foundation for further utilization of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves.

  7. Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Malus domestica Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viškelis, Pranas; Uselis, Norbertas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the composition and content of phenolic compounds in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of these extracts. The total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically, as well as the total flavonoid content in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and the antioxidant activity of these extracts, by the ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays. The highest amount of phenolic compounds and flavonoids as well as the highest antioxidant activity was determined in the ethanol extracts obtained from the apple leaves of the cv. Aldas. The analysis by the HPLC method revealed that phloridzin was a predominant component in the ethanol extracts of the apple leaves of all cultivars investigated. The following quercetin glycosides were identified and quantified in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves: hyperoside, isoquercitrin, avicularin, rutin, and quercitrin. Quercitrin was the major compound among quercetin glycosides. PMID:25302319

  8. Leaves coverage of spray liquid and influence on herbicide efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Prokop

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of spray liquid leaves coverage on efficacy of herbicides was investigated. Five nozzles sizes were used to reach different percentage coverage. The effect of leaves coverage on Elytrigia repens (L. Desv. was evaluated using systemic herbicide (clethodim 240 g / l + surfactant and the effect of leaves coverage on Chenopodium album L. and Galium aparine L. was evaluated using contact herbicides (bentazone 600 g / l and the mixture of bentazone 480 g / l + activator 150 g / l. No significant differences of the efficacy were observed between different percentages of leaves coverage in case of systemic herbicides. Vice versa the efficacy significantly increased with higher percentage of leaves coverage in case of contact herbicides.

  9. Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas D. Sharkey

    2010-01-28

    Final Technical Report for DOE grant DE-FG02-04ER15565 Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves PI Thomas D. Sharkey University of Wisconsin-Madison Starch is a desirable plant product for both food and biofuel. Leaf starch is ideal for use in biofuels because it does not compete with grain starch, which is used for food. Starch is accumulated in plant leaves during the day and broken down at night. If we can manipulate leaf starch breakdown it may be possible to design a plant that provides both grain starch for food and leaf starch for biofuel. The pathway of leaf starch breakdown was not known when this work started. Preliminary evidence had shown that maltose was the primary product of leaf starch breakdown (Weise, Weber & Sharkey, 2004) and that it was metabolized by a disproportionating enzyme called amylomaltase but given the initials DPE2 (Lu & Sharkey, 2004). In this work we showed that only one form of maltose was metabolically active (Weise et al., 2005a) and that maltose was located in two different places when the amylomaltase was knocked out but only inside the chloroplast when the maltose transporter was knocked out (Lu et al., 2006a). This allowed us to estimate the energetics of maltose export and to show that maltose export is more efficient than glucose export (Weise et al., 2005b). We examined how daylength affected starch breakdown rate and found that starch breakdown rate could respond to changes in daylength within one day (Lu, Gehan & Sharkey, 2005). We also were able to show a second starch breakdown pathway by chloroplastic starch phosphorylase (Weise et al., 2006). Work to this point was summarized in a review (Lu & Sharkey, 2006). We were able to show that the amylomaltase in plants could substitute for the amylomaltase in bacteria (Lu et al., 2006b). In this paper we also showed the importance of a second enzyme called alpha-glucan phosphorylase in starch breakdown. Finally, we were able to determine the enzymatic mechanism of

  10. 29 CFR 825.310 - Certification for leave taken to care for a covered servicemember (military caregiver leave).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... leave to care; (3) Whether the covered servicemember is a current member of the Armed Forces, the...) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993... or to a unit established for the purpose of providing command and control of members of the Armed...

  11. 0144 Sick leave patterns as predictors of disability pension or long-term sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stapelfeldt, Christina; Vinther Nielsen, Claus; Trolle Andersen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The public health care sector is challenged by high sick leave rates among home-care personnel. This group also has a high probability of being granted a disability pension. We studied whether a workplace-registered frequent short-term sick leave spell pattern was an early indicator...... of future disability pension or future long-term sick leave among eldercare workers. METHOD: 2774 employees' sick leave days were categorised: 0-2 and 3-17 short (1-7 days) spells, 2-13 mixed short and long (8+ days) spells, and long spells only. Disability pension and long-term sick leave were subsequently...... pattern was not associated with a significantly increased RR compared with a non-frequent short-term pattern. The risk of long-term sick leave was significantly increased (1.35-1.64 (95% CI: 1.12-2.03) for all sick leave patterns beyond 0-2 short spells. CONCLUSIONS: Sick leave length was a better...

  12. Relationships between job satisfaction, intentions to leave family practice and actually leaving among family physicians in England.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hann, M.; Reeves, D.; Sibbald, B.S.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A national survey of family physicians working in the National Health Service (NHS) of England in 2001 revealed that 1/10 under 50 years of age were intending to leave direct patient care within 5 years, and that the principal predictor of their intention to leave was job satisfaction.

  13. Relationship between Zingiberaceae Leaves Compounds and its Tyrosinase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmanida Batubara

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Zingiberaceae family has not been much explored its potential, especially as a skin lightening. The relationship between total anthocyanins, chlorophyll, carotenoids and tannins contents of Zingiberaceae leaves and tyrosinase activity were determined. Ten species of Zingiberaceae were separated by n-hexane and the residues were extracted with ethyl acetate. The total anthocyanins, chlorophyll, carotenoids, tannins contents and the activities of ethyl acetate extracts were determined by spectrometric method. The tyrosinase inhibition was determined by using L-tyrosine (monophenolase and L-DOPA (diphenolase substrates. The most active extract was the leaves extract of Zingiber purpureum which exhibited 82.86% for monophenolase inhibition and the leaves extract of Curcuma zedoaria which exhibited 90.20% for diphenolase inhibition. The correlation between carotenoids content and monophenolase inhibition was 52%, while between tannin content and diphenolase inhibition was only 15%. Therefore, among 10 leaves species of Zingiberaceae, Zingiber purpureum Roscoe and Curcuma zedoaria leaves are the most potential for tyrosinase inhibitors and can be developed as whitening agent.How to CiteBatubara, I., Kartika, Y. & Darusman, L. K. (2016. Relationship between Zingiberaceae Leaves Compounds and its Tyrosinase Activity. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(3, 371-377. 

  14. Ingress of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium into tomato leaves through hydathodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganyu Gu

    Full Text Available Internal contamination of Salmonella in plants is attracting increasing attention for food safety reasons. In this study, three different tomato cultivars "Florida Lanai", "Crown Jewel", "Ailsa Craig" and the transgenic line Sp5 of "Ailsa Craig" were inoculated with 1 µl GFP-labeled Salmonella Typhimurium through guttation droplets at concentrations of 10(9 or 10(7 CFU/ml. Survival of Salmonella on/in tomato leaves was detected by both direct plating and enrichment methods. Salmonella cells survived best on/in the inoculated leaves of cultivar "Ailsa Craig" and decreased fastest on/in "Florida Lanai" leaves. Increased guttation in the abscisic acid over-expressing Sp5 plants may have facilitated the entrance of Salmonella into leaves and the colonization on the surface of tomato leaves. Internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in tomato leaves through guttation drop inoculation was confirmed by confocal laser microscopy. For the first time, convincing evidence is presented that S. enterica can enter tomato leaves through hydathodes and move into the vascular system, which may result in the internal translocation of the bacteria inside plants.

  15. Optimization and Characterization of Cinnamon Leaves (Cinnamomum burmannii) Oleoresin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanah, L. U.; Kawiji; Prasetyawan, P.; Utami, R.; Atmaka, W.; Manuhara, G. J.; Sanjaya, A. P.

    2017-04-01

    This research aimed to determine the optimum yield condition on cinnamon leaves oleoresin production at various temperature and contact time during maceration and to find out the characteristics of cinnamon leaves oleoresin such as active compound, cinnamon leaves oil content, and solvent residue levels at optimum yield. This research used the variations of extraction temperature (70, 75 and 80°C) and extraction time (4, 5 and 6 h). Based on Response Surface Methodology (RSM), the equation of cinnamon leaves oleoresin sample optimization as follow: Y = 13 - 1.0167X1- 0.2833X2- 0.6833X12- 0.5833X22- 0.3250 X1X2. The optimum yield of cinnamon leaves oleoresin (13.3790%) was obtained at 77.754°C for 4.9185 h. The characteristics of cinnamon leaves oleoresin that showed the optimum yield were 59.56% eugenol level, 9.50% cinnamon leaves oil content and 22700 ppm solvent residue level.

  16. Antiinflammatory evaluation of leaves of Plumeria acuminata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M; Mazumder, UK; Gomathi, P; Selvan, V Thamil

    2006-01-01

    Backround Plumeria acuminata belonging to the family Apocynaceae is commonly known as 'perungalli' in Tamil and is widely distributed throughout the Southern parts of India. In traditional medicinal system different parts of the plant have been mentioned to be useful in a variety of diseases. The plant material is widely used as a purgative, remedy for diarrhoea and cure for itch. The milky juice is employed for the treatment of inflammation and rheumatism. The bark has been reported to be useful in hard tumors, diarrhoea and gonorrhoea. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antiinflammatory activity of methanol extract of leaves of Plumeria acuminata on carrageenan, dextran, histamine and serotonin-induced inflammation in rat hind paw oedema models. Methods Acute and chronic inflammation models were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract. Wistar albino rats of either sex weighing 180–200 g were used. In acute model carrageenan, dextran, histamine and serotonin models were used to induce inflammation in rat hind paw and cotton pellet-induced granuloma method was used for chronic inflammation model. In each model four groups of six animals were used. In all the models Group I served as control (0.9% normal saline, 5 mlkg-1 b.w) and group IV as standard (Indomethacin 10 mgkg-1 b.w). Group II and III received extract at the doses of 250 and 500 mgkg-1 b.w respectively. Results The methanol extract of Plumeria acuminata exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity on the tested experimental animal models. The extract (500 mgkg-1 b.w) exhibited maximum antiinflammatory effect i.e., 30.51, 47.06, 34.48 and 32.50% (P < 0.001) at the end of 3 h with carrageenan, dextran, histamine and serotonin respectively. Administration of MEPA (500 mgkg-1 b.w) and indomethacin (10 mgkg-1 b.w) significantly reduced the formation of granuloma tissue induced by cotton pellet method at a rate of 45.06 and 51.57% respectively. The effect

  17. Water-leaving contribution to polarized radiation field over ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Peng-Wang; Knobelspiesse, Kirk; Ibrahim, Amir; Franz, Bryan A; Hu, Yongxiang; Gao, Meng; Frouin, Robert

    2017-08-07

    The top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation field from a coupled atmosphere-ocean system (CAOS) includes contributions from the atmosphere, surface, and water body. Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery is to retrieve water-leaving radiance from the TOA measurement, from which ocean bio-optical properties can be obtained. Knowledge of the absolute and relative magnitudes of water-leaving signal in the TOA radiation field is important for designing new atmospheric correction algorithms and developing retrieval algorithms for new ocean biogeochemical parameters. In this paper we present a systematic sensitivity study of water-leaving contribution to the TOA radiation field, from 340 nm to 865 nm, with polarization included. Ocean water inherent optical properties are derived from bio-optical models for two kinds of waters, one dominated by phytoplankton (PDW) and the other by non-algae particles (NDW). In addition to elastic scattering, Raman scattering and fluorescence from dissolved organic matter in ocean waters are included. Our sensitivity study shows that the polarized reflectance is minimized for both CAOS and ocean signals in the backscattering half plane, which leads to numerical instability when calculating water leaving relative contribution, the ratio between polarized water leaving and CAOS signals. If the backscattering plane is excluded, the water-leaving polarized signal contributes less than 9% to the TOA polarized reflectance for PDW in the whole spectra. For NDW, the polarized water leaving contribution can be as much as 20% in the wavelength range from 470 to 670 nm. For wavelengths shorter than 452 nm or longer than 865 nm, the water leaving contribution to the TOA polarized reflectance is in general smaller than 5% for NDW. For the TOA total reflectance, the water-leaving contribution has maximum values ranging from 7% to 16% at variable wavelengths from 400 nm to 550 nm from PDW. The water leaving contribution to the TOA total reflectance can

  18. The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA): Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    Family and Medical Leave Inclusion Act (S. 846, S. 857, and H.R. 1751) would allow an employee to take FMLA leave to care for an adult child, sibling...Industries with below-average percentages of employees who may have been eligible for leave were Wholesale and Retail Trade (53.1%), Professional and...10,804 4,298 100.0% 71.5% 28.5% 10.6% 13.5% 6.9% Wholesale and retail trade 20,413 10,835 9,577 100.0% 53.1% 46.9% 14.3% 13.5% 15.4% Transportation and

  19. Anatomical structure and chloroplasts ultrastructural peculiarity of some hydrophytes leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena M. Nedukha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of the anatomical study, chloroplast ultrastructure and pigments content of submerged leaves of Potamogeton perfoliatus, P. pectinatus and Myriophyllum spіcatum at budding-flowering stage with light microscopy, transmission electron microscopic and biochemical methods were realized. The absent of stomata, the presence of undifferentiated mesophyll was shown with anatomical study of hydrophytes leaves. The common and distinctions signs of chloroplast ultrastructure in leaf photosynthesizing parenchyma were revealed in dependent from species. The structural changes of leaf phonotypical plasticity are examined as adaptative device of submerged leaves under influence of altered environment.

  20. Ozone injury increases infection of geranium leaves by Botrytis cinerea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, W.J.; Feder, W.A.; Perkins, I.

    1970-04-01

    Detached and attached, inoculated and noninoculated, ozone-injured and noninjured leaves from the lower, middle, and terminal regions of plants of geranium cultivars Enchantress and White Mountain were observed for infection by Botrytis cinerea. Previous exposure to ozone did not appreciably influence the susceptibility of leaves of either geranium cultivar to infection by B. cinerea, unless there was visible ozone injury. Ozone-injured, necrotic tissues on older attached and detached geranium leaves of both cultivars served as infection courts for B. cinerea. 14 references, 1 table.

  1. The duration of paid parental leave and cildren's scholastic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qian; Nordström Skans, Oskar

    2009-01-01

    We study how the duration of paid parental leave affects the accumulation of cognitive skills among children. We use a reform which extended parental leave benefits from 12 to 15 months for Swedish children born after August 1988 to evaluate the effects of prolonged parental leave on children’s test scores and grades at age 16. We show that, on average, the reform had no effect on children’s scholastic performance. However, we do find positive effects for children of well-educated mothers, a ...

  2. Transcriptome Phase Distribution Analysis Reveals Diurnal Regulated Biological Processes and Key Pathways in Rice Flag Leaves and Seedling Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meina; Xing, Zhuo; Yang, Wenqiang; Chen, Guang; Guo, Han; Gong, Xiaojie; Du, Zhou; Zhang, Zhenhai; Hu, Xingming; Wang, Dong; Qian, Qian; Wang, Tai; Su, Zhen; Xue, Yongbiao

    2011-01-01

    Plant diurnal oscillation is a 24-hour period based variation. The correlation between diurnal genes and biological pathways was widely revealed by microarray analysis in different species. Rice (Oryza sativa) is the major food staple for about half of the world's population. The rice flag leaf is essential in providing photosynthates to the grain filling. However, there is still no comprehensive view about the diurnal transcriptome for rice leaves. In this study, we applied rice microarray to monitor the rhythmically expressed genes in rice seedling and flag leaves. We developed a new computational analysis approach and identified 6,266 (10.96%) diurnal probe sets in seedling leaves, 13,773 (24.08%) diurnal probe sets in flag leaves. About 65% of overall transcription factors were identified as flag leaf preferred. In seedling leaves, the peak of phase distribution was from 2:00am to 4:00am, whereas in flag leaves, the peak was from 8:00pm to 2:00am. The diurnal phase distribution analysis of gene ontology (GO) and cis-element enrichment indicated that, some important processes were waken by the light, such as photosynthesis and abiotic stimulus, while some genes related to the nuclear and ribosome involved processes were active mostly during the switch time of light to dark. The starch and sucrose metabolism pathway genes also showed diurnal phase. We conducted comparison analysis between Arabidopsis and rice leaf transcriptome throughout the diurnal cycle. In summary, our analysis approach is feasible for relatively unbiased identification of diurnal transcripts, efficiently detecting some special periodic patterns with non-sinusoidal periodic patterns. Compared to the rice flag leaves, the gene transcription levels of seedling leaves were relatively limited to the diurnal rhythm. Our comprehensive microarray analysis of seedling and flag leaves of rice provided an overview of the rice diurnal transcriptome and indicated some diurnal regulated biological

  3. Transcriptome phase distribution analysis reveals diurnal regulated biological processes and key pathways in rice flag leaves and seedling leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenying Xu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant diurnal oscillation is a 24-hour period based variation. The correlation between diurnal genes and biological pathways was widely revealed by microarray analysis in different species. Rice (Oryza sativa is the major food staple for about half of the world's population. The rice flag leaf is essential in providing photosynthates to the grain filling. However, there is still no comprehensive view about the diurnal transcriptome for rice leaves. In this study, we applied rice microarray to monitor the rhythmically expressed genes in rice seedling and flag leaves. We developed a new computational analysis approach and identified 6,266 (10.96% diurnal probe sets in seedling leaves, 13,773 (24.08% diurnal probe sets in flag leaves. About 65% of overall transcription factors were identified as flag leaf preferred. In seedling leaves, the peak of phase distribution was from 2:00am to 4:00am, whereas in flag leaves, the peak was from 8:00pm to 2:00am. The diurnal phase distribution analysis of gene ontology (GO and cis-element enrichment indicated that, some important processes were waken by the light, such as photosynthesis and abiotic stimulus, while some genes related to the nuclear and ribosome involved processes were active mostly during the switch time of light to dark. The starch and sucrose metabolism pathway genes also showed diurnal phase. We conducted comparison analysis between Arabidopsis and rice leaf transcriptome throughout the diurnal cycle. In summary, our analysis approach is feasible for relatively unbiased identification of diurnal transcripts, efficiently detecting some special periodic patterns with non-sinusoidal periodic patterns. Compared to the rice flag leaves, the gene transcription levels of seedling leaves were relatively limited to the diurnal rhythm. Our comprehensive microarray analysis of seedling and flag leaves of rice provided an overview of the rice diurnal transcriptome and indicated some diurnal regulated

  4. Studies on Antibacterial Effect of The Leaves Of Phyllanthus Niruri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Studies were carried out on the antibacterial effect of Phyllanthus niruri (Linn) leaves using ... Results of the Minimum Bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the ethanolic extracts ... The therapeutic action has been reported in the following.

  5. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDIES ON LEAVES OF COMMIPHORA CAUDATA (WIGHT & ARN) ENGL

    OpenAIRE

    Latha, S.; Selvamani, P.; Pal, T.K.; Gupta, J.K.; Ghosh, L.K.

    2006-01-01

    Commiphora caudata (Wight & Arn) is a potential medicinal plant used for its antispasmodic activity, cytotoxic activity and hypothermic activity. Owing to its medicinal importance, macroscopic and microscopic characters of leaves of Commiphora caudata were studied.

  6. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDIES ON LEAVES OF COMMIPHORA CAUDATA (WIGHT & ARN) ENGL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, S.; Selvamani, P.; Pal, T.K.; Gupta, J.K.; Ghosh, L.K.

    2006-01-01

    Commiphora caudata (Wight & Arn) is a potential medicinal plant used for its antispasmodic activity, cytotoxic activity and hypothermic activity. Owing to its medicinal importance, macroscopic and microscopic characters of leaves of Commiphora caudata were studied. PMID:22557220

  7. Meaningful work and secondary school teachers' intention to leave ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    role fit, job enrichment, supervisor relationships, co-worker relationships, psychological meaningfulness of work and intention to leave. A cross-sectional survey was used. The participants were 502 secondary school teachers in Namibia.

  8. Nutritional characteristics of guava leaves and its effects on lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional characteristics of guava leaves and its effects on lipid metabolism in hypercholesterolemic rats. JM Freire, CM Patto de Abreu, S Maris da Silveira Duarte, FB Araujo de Paula, AR Lima, RAZ Lima, DA Rocha, AA Simao ...

  9. Assessment of mercury content in poplar leaves of Novokuznetsk agglomeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyapina, E. E.; Yusupov, D. V.; Tursunalieva, E. M.; Osipova, V. V.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, the content of mercury in poplar leaves in the Novokuznetsk industrial agglomeration and along the automobile route Novokuznetsk-Mezhdurechensk is assessed. The geoecological indicators are also calculated.

  10. Resveratrols in grape berry skins and leaves in vitis germplasm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Lijun; Xu, Man; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Junfang; Xi, Huifen; Wu, Benhong; Loescher, Wayne; Duan, Wei; Fan, Peige; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    .... The composition and content of resveratrols were investigated by HPLC for assessing genotypic variation in berry skins and leaves of 75 grape cultivars, belonging to 3 species and 7 interspecific hybrids...

  11. An Analysis of Sabbatical Leaves for Navy Surface Warfare Officers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yardley, Roland J; Thie, Harry J; Brancato, Kevin; Abbott, Megan

    2004-01-01

    ... or to attend to other personal needs. In response to these retention concerns, the Navy is considering several programs that allow greater accommodation of the personal needs of its SWOs, particularly through the increased use of sabbatical leaves...

  12. Evaluation of Chemical Properties of Mistletoe Leaves from Three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Viscum album) growing on three different trees: avocado pear (Persea Americana), African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) and kola (Kola nitida) was undertaken. Fresh mistletoe leaves were obtained from the three different trees and thoroughly ...

  13. Longitudinal data assessment of global stability index in kale leaves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Azevedo, Alcinei Mistico; Andrade Júnior, Valter Carvalho de; Pedrosa, Carlos Enrrik; Valadares, Nermy Ribeiro; Ferreira, Marcos Aurélio Miranda; Cecon, Paulo Roberto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Kale plants are usually sold “in natura” in street markets and malls. Kale leaves can have their appearance compromised by dehydration and discoloration due to increased post-harvest time exposure...

  14. Effect Of Green Leaves And Germination And Boiling Treatments Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trigonella foenum graecum L.) were commercial, Giza 2 and Giza 30 and fenugreek green leaves and raw, boiled and germinated commercial sweet lupin seeds (lupinus termis forssk L.) were analyzed for its chemical composition, alkaloids and ...

  15. Efficacy of Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. leaves extracts against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacy of Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. leaves extracts against some atmospheric fungi. M Afzal, FS Mehdi, FM Abbasi, H Ahmad, R Masood, J Alam, G Jan, M Islam, NU Amin, A Majid, M Fiaz, AH Shah ...

  16. Family and medical leave. Office of Personnel Management. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-08

    The Office of Personnel Management is issuing final regulations on the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 to ensure that both employees' and agencies' rights are protected and their responsibilities fulfilled.

  17. CHARACTERISTIC SYMPTOMS OF Phytophthora palmivora ON COCOA LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Sriwati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to determine the characteristics symptoms of Phytophthora palmivora on cocoa leaves, and was conducted in Plant Diseases Laboratory, the Faculty of Agriculture Syiah Kuala University. Mature cacao leaves with almost the same size in the quotation were used at Lab. Plant disease. Suspensions of P. palmivora were inoculated on leaves by spraying techniques with several concentrations of treatment, 1x102, 1x104, 1x106. The results showed that cocoa leaves’ symptoms were getting yellow colour around the veins and the whole leaves eventually showed lesion on the third day after spraying. The higher spores’ population of P. palmivora could impact higher invasive infections. Characteristic symptoms will be very helpful in the process of observation of early disease in the nursery.

  18. Phytochemical and nutrient compositions of the leaves of Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    western Nigeria. The leaf is used for the treatment of gastrointestinal problems and also for the preparation of local soups. The phytochemical and nutrient compositions of its leaves were investigated using established analytical procedures.

  19. Munatsi Shoko Abstract After leaving their home country ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Munatsi Shoko Abstract After leaving their home country, international migrants are faced with a challenge to seek a new family, friends, support networks, accommodation and employment. Married migrants may be forced to live separately from their spouses.

  20. Editorial Leaving the party - withdrawal of South African essential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Editorial Leaving the party - withdrawal of South African essential medicines. Jo M Wilmshurst, Marc Blockman, Andrew Argent, Eugenie Gordon-Graham, Jenny Thomas, Andrew Whitelaw, Mignon McCulloch, Malitha Ramiah, H Dyeshana, Joe Ireland ...

  1. Regenerative properties of Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. Leaves cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kukułczanka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The regenerative properties of Saintpaulia ionantha leaves ware investigated in culture in vitro. The leaves acquire this ability after the end of growth. Restitution regeneration was found to be polar and the sequence in organogenesis of roots and buds was different than on a peat-sand substratum. NAA inhibits growth of isolated leaves and stimulates callus and root development. Kinetin abolishes the polarity of regeneration, stimulates leaf growth, initiates formation of numerous buds and inhibits rhizogenesis. The interaction of kinetin with NAA or IAA in dependence on the order in which these substances are applied stimulates in various extents the growth of isolated leaves and callus, and bud and root formation.

  2. Variation of arbutin content in Bergenia sp. leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Galambosi, B.; Galambosi, Zs; Siivari, J.; Siivari, K.; Sankelo, T.; Shikov, A.

    2007-01-01

    The common garden perennial, Bergenia, should be utilized as a special new crop for raw material production in the cosmetic industry, producing arbutin. Under open field and full sun conditions, the arbutin contents of Bergenia leaves have not changed significantly.

  3. Phytochemical and termiticidal study of Lantana camara var. aculeata leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajesh K; Verma, Suman K

    2006-09-01

    Extracts of Lantana camara var. aculeata leaves were studied for their phytochemical constituents and termiticidal effects against adult termite workers. The 5% chloroform extract was found to be significantly effective against termite workers.

  4. In vivo Spondias mombin leaves and detoxification of reactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vivohypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effects of aqueous extract of Spondias mombin leaves and detoxification of reactive oxygen species in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Etah Etah Nkanu, Sikirullai Olatunde Jeje, Daniel Ewa Ikpi, Gabriel Otu Ujong ...

  5. Therapeutic potentials of ethanolic extract of leaves of Holarrhena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therapeutic potentials of ethanolic extract of leaves of Holarrhena floribunda (G. Don) Dur. And schinz (apocynaceae). Yao Patrick Hoekou, Tchadjobo Tchacondo, Simplice Damintoti Karou, Rakiswende Serge Yerbanga, Elom Achoribo, Ollo Da, Wouyo Atakpama, Komlan Batawila ...

  6. In Vivo Digestibility of Molasses-Treated Fresh Banana Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treated fresh banana leaves in West African Dwarf sheep was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm and Animal Nutrition Laboratory of the University of Dschang between August and September 2009. For this, six sheep were used and ...

  7. Collection of apoplastic fluids from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Svend Roesen; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2016-01-01

    The leaf apoplast comprises the extracellular continuum outside cell membranes. A broad range of processes take place in the apoplast, including intercellular signaling, metabolite transport, and plant-microbe interactions. To study these processes, it is essential to analyze the metabolite conte...... in apoplastic fluids. Due to the fragile nature of leaf tissues, it is a challenge to obtain apoplastic fluids from leaves. Here, methods to collect apoplastic washing fluid and guttation fluid from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves are described....

  8. Anti-fatigue Activity of Extracts of Syzygium cumini Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Bhanumathy M; Shivaprasad HN; Manohar D; Nargund LVG

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the anti-fatigue effect of extracts (aqueous, methanolic and ethylacetate) of Syzygium cumini leaves was evaluated against swimming endurance followed by post swimming muscle coordination (rota-rod test) and spontaneous motor activity using actophotometer in rats. Animals were treated for 21 days at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg leaves extracts and these activities were tested using Withania somnifera as a standard drug. At the end of the treatment all animals were individu...

  9. Antipyretic Activity of Peperomia pellucida Leaves in Rabbit

    OpenAIRE

    KHAN, Alam; RAHMAN, Moizur; ISLAM, Shariful

    2014-01-01

    Antipyretic effects of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate soluble fractions of ethanol extract of the leaves of Peperomia pellucida (Linn.) HBK (Fam. Piperaceae) were investigated. Intraperitoneal administration of boiled milk at a dose of 0.5 ml/kg body weight in albino rabbit leads to pyrexia. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate soluble fractions of ethanol extract of the leaves of P. pellucida at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight significantly reduced the...

  10. Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Leaves and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves and fruits of Ficus sycomorus were collected, air dried and grounded. Each of the samples (100g) was extracted with 400ml each of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol sequentially, using Soxhlet extraction technique. They were labeled as FS1-1 to FS1-4 for leaves extract and FS2-1 to FS2-4 for ...

  11. Nurse manager job satisfaction and intent to leave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshawsky, Nora E.; Havens, Donna S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The nurse manager role is critical to staff nurse retention and often the portal to senior nursing leadership, yet little is known about nurse managers' job satisfaction and career plans. The purpose of this study was to describe nurse managers' job satisfaction and intent to leave. Methods An electronic survey was used to collect data from 291 nurse managers working in U.S. hospitals. Findings Seventy percent were satisfied or very satisfied with their jobs and 68% were either likely or very likely to recommend nursing management as a career choice. Seventy-two percent of these nurse managers were also planning to leave their positions in the next five years. The four most common reasons reported for intent to leave included burnout, career change, retirement, and promotion. Burnout was the most common reason cited by the entire sample but the fourth most common reason for leaving cited by those nurse managers who were planning to leave and also satisfied or very satisfied with their positions. Conclusions Recommendations for nursing leaders include evaluating the workload of nurse managers, providing career counseling, and developing succession plans. Additional research is needed to understand the determinants and consequences of nurse manager job satisfaction, intent to leave, and turnover. PMID:24689156

  12. The nutritional value of leaves of selected berry species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Biel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Although the medicinal properties of berry fruit are well known, there is relatively little information available concerning the applications of other parts of berry plants. Thus, in this study we determined the nutritional value of the leaves of selected berry species and their possible application in health promoting diets. The levels of nutrients, and macro- and microelements in the leaves of four species collected from allotment gardens in the city of Szczecin, Poland (53°26′17″ N, 14°32′32″ E; altitude 7 m a.s.l. were identified: raspberry (Rubus idaeus L., blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L., chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa L., and sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.. Sea buckthorn leaves were the richest source of protein, raspberry leaves had the highest levels of lipids, and the leaves of all four species studied were a rich source of crude fibre and dietary fibre fractions. Desirable Ca:P and Na:K ratios indicated their potential as a good source of minerals essential to bone formation and the treatment of hypertension. Sea buckthorn leaves contained high but also safe Fe levels (within recommended WHO limits and, therefore, may become an alternative rich source of this element.

  13. Fathers’ Experience of Shared Parental Leave in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Chronholm

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of the Swedish parental leave reform in 1974, fathers have had the same rights to use parental leave as mothers. Between 2000 and 2003, a research project at the Department of Sociology, University of Gothenburg, focused on fathers who had taken more than four months of paid parental leave. The approach of the study was mainly qualitative, based upon a combination of a survey and interviews. A majority of the fathers who answered the questionnaire had been the main caregivers for their children during their parental leave. During the interviews many of the men described their mothers as role models for their fatherhood. The men also described their own partner as both anxious to get back to her work after her own parental leave period and convinced of the importance of a nurturing father. An early decision to take part of the parental leave probably made it easier for the men to reach workplace agreements. Most of the men described themselves as both nurturing fathers and as sharing housework equally. They stressed the importance of being alone with their child during a long period, to be able to develop a deep relationship with their child.

  14. [SPAD prediction of leave based on reflection spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hai-Qing; Yao, Jian-Song; He, Yong

    2009-06-01

    Handheld SPAD meter is often used to measure chlorophyll content of plant and nitrogen level for some species. For plant production automation, however, it loses its popularity due to its point-by-point checking. The authors need to monitor the growing conditions of plant remotely, instantly and nondestructively. In the test, we examined optical fiber reflection spectroscopy used to measure chlorophyll content of some plant leaves, or for their SPAD prediction. The authors picked 120 leaves randomly from our campus ground or trees, among which 70 samples were chosen as calibration set and others as verification set. Each sample was water-cleaned and air-dried. To locate each measuring point precisely when using SPAD meter and spectrometer, the authors drew a circle with a diameter of 10 mm on each leave to be measured. By comparing the spectral curves of various leaves, the authors found that the spectral band between 650-750 nm was significant for SPAD modeling since this range of spectral data of leaves with the same SPAD reading was close to each other. It was showed that leave color was an unnecessary factor for SPAD prediction by reflection spectroscopy. Besides, the authors discovered that LED's narrow spectral range used by SPAD meter should be concerned because optical fiber spectrometer has much more wide spectral range. Based on this awareness, the authors designed an adjustment factor of light to linearly rebuild spectrometer's reflective intensity so that it reached zero outside the band 650-750 nm. Moreover, leave thickness was another influential factor for SPAD prediction since the light of SPAD meter goes through the leave while the reflective spectrometer does not. First, an equation for SPAD prediction was built with uncertain parameters. Then, a standard genetic algorithm was designed with Visual Basic 6.0 for parameter optimization. As a result, the optimal reflection band was narrowed within 683.24-733.91 nm. The result showed that leave

  15. GPs' negotiation strategies regarding sick leave for subjective health complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Stein; Malterud, Kirsti; Werner, Erik L; Maeland, Silje; Magnussen, Liv Heide

    2015-03-01

    To explore general practitioners' (GPs') specific negotiation strategies regarding sick-leave issues with patients suffering from subjective health complaints. Focus-group study. Nine focus-group interviews in three cities in different regions of Norway. 48 GPs (31 men, 17 women; age 32-65), participating in a course dealing with diagnostic practice and assessment of sickness certificates related to patients with subjective health complaints. The GPs identified some specific strategies that they claimed to apply when dealing with the question of sick leave for patients with subjective health complaints. The first step would be to build an alliance with the patient by complying with the wish for sick leave, and at the same time searching for information to acquire the patient's perspective. This position would become the basis for the main goal: motivating the patient for a rapid return to work by pointing out the positive effects of staying at work, making legal and moral arguments, and warning against long-term sick leave. Additional solutions might also be applied, such as involving other stakeholders in this process to provide alternatives to sick leave. GPs seem to have a conscious approach to negotiations of sickness certification, as they report applying specific strategies to limit the duration of sick leave due to subjective health complaints. This give-and-take way of handling sick-leave negotiations has been suggested by others to enhance return to work, and should be further encouraged. However, specific effectiveness of this strategy is yet to be proven, and further investigation into the actual dealings between doctor and patients in these complex encounters is needed.

  16. Variability of 13C-labeling in plant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Tu, Thanh Thuy; Biron, Philippe; Maseyk, Kadmiel; Richard, Patricia; Zeller, Bernd; Quénéa, Katell; Alexis, Marie; Bardoux, Gérard; Vaury, Véronique; Girardin, Cyril; Pouteau, Valérie; Billiou, Daniel; Bariac, Thierry

    2013-09-15

    Plant tissues artificially labeled with (13)C are increasingly used in environmental studies to unravel biogeochemical and ecophysiological processes. However, the variability of (13)C-content in labeled tissues has never been carefully investigated. Hence, this study aimed at documenting the variability of (13)C-content in artificially labeled leaves. European beech and Italian ryegrass were subjected to long-term (13)C-labeling in a controlled-environment growth chamber. The (13)C-content of the leaves obtained after several months labeling was determined by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The (13)C-content of the labeled leaves exhibited inter- and intra-leaf variability much higher than those naturally occurring in unlabeled plants, which do not exceed a few per mil. This variability was correlated with labeling intensity: the isotope composition of leaves varied in ranges of ca 60‰ and 90‰ for experiments that led to average leaf (13)C-content of ca +15‰ and +450‰, respectively. The reported variability of isotope composition in (13)C-enriched leaves is critical, and should be taken into account in subsequent experimental investigations of environmental processes using (13)C-labeled plant tissues. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Persistence and metabolism of fipronil in sugarcane leaves and juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Kousik; Singh, Balwinder

    2014-02-01

    Fipronil gives effective control of early shoot borer and termites in sugarcane. The persistence and metabolism of fipronil in sugarcane leaves and juice were studied following application of fipronil (Regent 0.3 G) at 75 and 300 g a.i. ha(-1). Samples of sugarcane leaves were collected at various time intervals. Samples of sugarcane juice were collected at harvest. Residues of fipronil and its metabolites were quantified by gas liquid chromatograph. The limit of quantification of fipronil and its metabolites was 0.01 mg kg(-1) for sugarcane leaves and juice. Total residues of fipronil and its metabolites in sugarcane leaves after 7 days of its application at 75 and 300 g a.i. ha(-1) were 0.26 and 0.66 mg kg(-1), respectively. Residues could not be detected after 60 and 90 following fipronil application at either concentration. In sugarcane leaves, fipronil was found to be the main constituent, followed by its metabolites amide, desulfinyl, sulfone and sulfide. Samples of sugarcane juice did not reveal the presence of fipronil or its metabolites following its application at both the dosages at harvest.

  18. Oxalate Content of Taro Leaves Grown in Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Du Thanh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves were harvested from four different cultivars of Colocasia esculenta and three cultivars of Alocasia odora that were growing on nine different farms in central Vietnam. The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the leaves were extracted and measured using HPLC chromatography. Total calcium determinations were also carried out on the same samples. The total oxalate content of the leaves ranged from 433.8 to 856.1 mg/100 g wet matter (WM while the soluble oxalate ranged from 147.8 to 339.7 mg/100 g WM. The proportion of soluble oxalate ranged from 28% to 41% (overall mean 35% of the total oxalate content of the leaves. The equivalent insoluble oxalate proportion ranged from 59% to 72% of the total (overall mean 65%. There was little difference between the Colocasia esculenta and Alocasia odora taro cultivars, although the total oxalate content was significantly higher in Alocasia odora cultivars. The overall mean total calcium content was 279.5 mg/100 WM and the percentage of insoluble calcium bound as calcium oxalate ranged from 31.7% to 57.3% of the total calcium content (overall mean 47.1%. The oxalate content in taro leaves is a major factor to consider when different cultivars of taro are recommended for human or animal consumption.

  19. Antioxidant Activity of Leaves and Fruits of Iranian Conifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Emami

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cupressus semipervirens var. horizontalis, Cupressus semipervirens var. semipervirens, Cupressus semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, Juniperus excelsa subsp. excelsa, Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos, Juniperus foetidissima, Juniperus oblonga, Juniperus sabina, Platycladus orientalis and Taxus baccata are Iranian conifers. The antioxidant activity of leaves and fruits of these 11 different taxons were evaluated. The leaves of both male and female, and fruits of these plants were collected from different areas of the country. Methanol extract of leaves and fruits of these taxons were prepared. Antioxidant activity of each extracts was measured using two different tests of the ferric thiocyanate method and thiobarbituric acid. Results indicated that the methanol extracts of leaves, of male and female, and fruits of all these species (27 samples possessed antioxidant activity when tested with both methods. The antioxidant activity was then compared with those of α-tocopherol (a natural antioxidant and butylated hydroxytoluene (a synthetic antioxidant. Methanol extract of fruits of C. semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis showed the highest antioxidant activity while the methanol extract of leaves of C. semipervirens var. semipervirens possessed the lowest antioxidant activity. However, our finding showed that most of the tested extracts were showing strong antioxidant activity even higher than α-tocopherol.

  20. Fathers’ Leave and Fathers’ Involvement: Evidence from Four OECD Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Maria C.; Adema, Willem; Baxter, Jennifer; Han, Wen-Jui; Lausten, Mette; Lee, RaeHyuck; Waldfogel, Jane

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, several OECD countries have taken steps to promote policies encouraging fathers to spend more time caring for young children, thereby promoting a more gender equal division of care work. Evidence, mainly for the United States and United Kingdom, has shown fathers taking some time off work around childbirth are more likely to be involved in childcare related activities than fathers who do not take time off. This paper conducts a first cross-national analysis on the association between fathers’ leave taking and fathers’ involvement when children are young. It uses birth cohort data of children born around 2000 from four OECD countries: Australia, Denmark, the United Kingdom and the United States. Results show that the majority of fathers take time off around childbirth independent of the leave policies in place. In all countries, except Denmark, important socio-economic differences between fathers who take leave and those who do not are observed. In addition, fathers who take leave, especially those taking two weeks or more, are more likely to carry out childcare related activities when children are young. This study adds to the evidence that suggests that parental leave for fathers is positively associated with subsequent paternal involvement. PMID:28479865

  1. Paternity leave in Sweden: costs, savings and health gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsdotter, Anna; Lindholm, Lars; Winkvist, Anna

    2007-06-01

    The initial objective is to examine the relationship between paternity leave in 1978-1979 and male mortality during 1981-2001, and the second objective is to calculate the cost-effectiveness of the 1974 parental insurance reform in Sweden. Based on a population of all Swedish couples who had their first child together in 1978 (45,801 males), the risk of death for men who took paternity leave, compared with men who did not, was estimated by odds ratios. The cost-effectiveness analysis considered costs for information, administration and production losses, minus savings due to decreased sickness leave and inpatient care, compared to health gains in life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). It is demonstrated that fathers who took paternity leave have a statistically significant decreased death risk of 16%. Costs minus savings (discounted values) stretch from a net cost of EUR 19 million to a net saving of EUR 11 million, and the base case cost-effectiveness is EUR 8000 per QALY. The study indicates that that the right to paternity leave is a desirable reform based on commonly stated public health, economic, and feminist goals. The critical issue in future research should be to examine impact from health-related selection.

  2. Bioactive Components in Moringa Oleifera Leaves Protect against Chronic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Vergara-Jimenez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Moringa Oleifera (MO, a plant from the family Moringacea is a major crop in Asia and Africa. MO has been studied for its health properties, attributed to the numerous bioactive components, including vitamins, phenolic acids, flavonoids, isothiocyanates, tannins and saponins, which are present in significant amounts in various components of the plant. Moringa Oleifera leaves are the most widely studied and they have shown to be beneficial in several chronic conditions, including hypercholesterolemia, high blood pressure, diabetes, insulin resistance, non-alcoholic liver disease, cancer and overall inflammation. In this review, we present information on the beneficial results that have been reported on the prevention and alleviation of these chronic conditions in various animal models and in cell studies. The existing limited information on human studies and Moringa Oleifera leaves is also presented. Overall, it has been well documented that Moringa Oleifera leaves are a good strategic for various conditions associated with heart disease, diabetes, cancer and fatty liver.

  3. Genetic variation in alkaloid accumulation in leaves of Nicotiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Zhang, Fen; Zhou, Guo-jun; Chu, Guo-hai; Huang, Fang-fang; Wang, Qiao-mei; Jin, Li-feng; Lin, Fu-cheng; Yang, Jun

    2013-12-01

    Alkaloids are plant secondary metabolites that are widely distributed in Nicotiana species and contribute greatly to the quality of tobacco leaves. Some alkaloids, such as nornicotine and myosmine, have adverse effects on human health. To reduce the content of harmful alkaloids in tobacco leaves through conventional breeding, a genetic study of the alkaloid variation among different genotypes is required. In this study, alkaloid profiles in leaves of five Nicotiana tabacum cultivars and Nicotiana tomentosiformis were investigated. Six alkaloids were identified from all six genotypes via gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Significant differences in alkaloid content were observed both among different leaf positions and among cultivars. The contents of nornicotine and myosmine were positively and significantly correlated (R(2)=0.881), and were also separated from those of other alkaloids by clustering. Thus, the genotype plays a major role in alkaloid accumulation, indicating a high potential for manipulation of alkaloid content through traditional breeding.

  4. Genetic variation in alkaloid accumulation in leaves of Nicotiana *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Zhang, Fen; Zhou, Guo-jun; Chu, Guo-hai; Huang, Fang-fang; Wang, Qiao-mei; Jin, Li-feng; Lin, Fu-cheng; Yang, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Alkaloids are plant secondary metabolites that are widely distributed in Nicotiana species and contribute greatly to the quality of tobacco leaves. Some alkaloids, such as nornicotine and myosmine, have adverse effects on human health. To reduce the content of harmful alkaloids in tobacco leaves through conventional breeding, a genetic study of the alkaloid variation among different genotypes is required. In this study, alkaloid profiles in leaves of five Nicotiana tabacum cultivars and Nicotiana tomentosiformis were investigated. Six alkaloids were identified from all six genotypes via gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Significant differences in alkaloid content were observed both among different leaf positions and among cultivars. The contents of nornicotine and myosmine were positively and significantly correlated (R 2=0.881), and were also separated from those of other alkaloids by clustering. Thus, the genotype plays a major role in alkaloid accumulation, indicating a high potential for manipulation of alkaloid content through traditional breeding. PMID:24302710

  5. [Impact of sabbatical leave on hospital and university promotions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asenjo, M A; Vernet, E; Trilla, A; Rodés, J; Terés, J; Grau, J

    1998-10-03

    The aim of this study was the assessment of the scientific production and impact on academic and/or hospital promotion ob sabbatical leaves of medical staff from a University hospital. A matched case-control design was used. The Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio (ORMH) and its 95% confidence intervals were calculated. A total of 52 sabbaticals leaves were analyzed with successful matching for 43 pairs. Taking a sabbatical leaves is associated with a significant higher chance of hospital promotion (ORMH = 7.5; CI 95%, 1.71-32.78; o = 0.004), but there is not a significantly higher chance of academic promotion (ORMH = 0.66; CI del 95%, 0.23-1.83; p = 0.60).

  6. Analysis preliminary phytochemical raw extract of leaves Nephrolepis pectinata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natally Marreiros Gomes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Nephrolepis pectinata popularly known as paulista fern, ladder-heaven, cat tail, belongs to the family Davalliaceae. For the beauty of the arrangements of their leaves ferns are quite commercialized in Brazil, however, have not been described in the literature studies on their pharmacological potential. Thus, the objective of this research was to analyze the phytochemical properties of the crude extract of the leaves of Nephrolepis pectinata. To perform the phytochemical analysis were initially made the collection of the vegetable, preparation of voucher specimen, washing, drying and grinding. Then, extraction by percolation method and end the phytochemical analysis. Preliminary results phytochemicals the crude extract of the leaves of Nephrolepis pectinata tested positive for reducing sugars, phenols/tannins (catechins tannins and catechins.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Péres-Roses, Renato; Urdaneta-Laffita, Imilci; Camacho-Pozo, Miladis Isabel; Rodríguez-Amado, Jesús; Licea-Jiménez, Irina

    2010-07-01

    Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts.

  8. Don’t Leave U.S. Behind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Arellano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the pace at which Federal and State legislation were implemented to provide working parents and caregivers the ability to take time off for the birth or adoption of a child, to care for the elderly, sick or disabled family members, and others in need of care. Compared with many industrialized nations, the United States ranks alongside the least generous countries in terms of providing a balanced lifestyle between work and family life. For instance, the United States does not even provide national paid family leave. This article provides the history, purpose, and scope of the Family and Medical Leave Act, and later implementations of State programs. Furthermore, this article will present a brief survey of the paternal, maternal, and parental leave policies of other countries and will provide suggestions for changing existing federal policies to provide a more conducive family and work balance for employees.

  9. [Maternity leave and experience of working mothers in Lebanon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadé, N; Barbour, B; Salameh, P

    2010-09-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study of 802 Lebanese mothers to evaluate effect of rapid return to work on their health and that of their child. Breastfeeding practices were also assessed. The duration of maternity leave was insufficient for 72.8% of the women. Rapid return to work could cause physical and psychological problems depending on the type of work. The average length of breastfeeding was 4.7 months and while the average desired length was 10.9 months. Breastfeeding depended on the duration of the maternity leave, the possibility of breaks for breastfeeding and the presence of nurseries at work. Urgent interventions are necessary to prolong maternity leave and promote breastfeeding among working women.

  10. Bioactive Components in Moringa Oleifera Leaves Protect against Chronic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Jimenez, Marcela; Almatrafi, Manal Mused; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2017-11-16

    Moringa Oleifera (MO), a plant from the family Moringacea is a major crop in Asia and Africa. MO has been studied for its health properties, attributed to the numerous bioactive components, including vitamins, phenolic acids, flavonoids, isothiocyanates, tannins and saponins, which are present in significant amounts in various components of the plant. Moringa Oleifera leaves are the most widely studied and they have shown to be beneficial in several chronic conditions, including hypercholesterolemia, high blood pressure, diabetes, insulin resistance, non-alcoholic liver disease, cancer and overall inflammation. In this review, we present information on the beneficial results that have been reported on the prevention and alleviation of these chronic conditions in various animal models and in cell studies. The existing limited information on human studies and Moringa Oleifera leaves is also presented. Overall, it has been well documented that Moringa Oleifera leaves are a good strategic for various conditions associated with heart disease, diabetes, cancer and fatty liver.

  11. Densitometric determination of arbutin in cowberry leaves (Vaccinium vitis idaeae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyka, Alina; Bober, Katarzyna; Stolarczyk, Adam

    2007-01-01

    Densitometry was used for quantitative determination of arbutin (Vaccinium vitis idaeae) in leaves of cowberry collected from region of Suwalszczyzna, Poland. Arbutin was extracted using methanol. Chromatography was performed on glass TLC plates with layers of silica gel. The quantitative densitometric analysis was performed using internal standard solution method. On the base of densitometric analysis it was shown that the band characteristic for absorption maximum of arbutin is placed at lambda(max) = 285 nm. The second absorption band is at lambda = 225 nm. It was stated that contents of arbutin are ca. 35 mg and 47 mg in 1 g of herbs, in cowberry leaves coming from collections in 2005 and 2006 year, respectively. The presented method is accurate, selective, and precise, and can be used for routine quality control analysis and quantitative determination of arbutin in cowberry leaves.

  12. Bioactive Components in Moringa Oleifera Leaves Protect against Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Jimenez, Marcela; Almatrafi, Manal Mused

    2017-01-01

    Moringa Oleifera (MO), a plant from the family Moringacea is a major crop in Asia and Africa. MO has been studied for its health properties, attributed to the numerous bioactive components, including vitamins, phenolic acids, flavonoids, isothiocyanates, tannins and saponins, which are present in significant amounts in various components of the plant. Moringa Oleifera leaves are the most widely studied and they have shown to be beneficial in several chronic conditions, including hypercholesterolemia, high blood pressure, diabetes, insulin resistance, non-alcoholic liver disease, cancer and overall inflammation. In this review, we present information on the beneficial results that have been reported on the prevention and alleviation of these chronic conditions in various animal models and in cell studies. The existing limited information on human studies and Moringa Oleifera leaves is also presented. Overall, it has been well documented that Moringa Oleifera leaves are a good strategic for various conditions associated with heart disease, diabetes, cancer and fatty liver. PMID:29144438

  13. Mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) as environmental contamination biomonitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vivianne L.B. de; Santos, Suzana O.; Fonseca, Cassia K.L.; Paiva, Ana Claudia de; Silva, Waldecy A. da, E-mail: vlsouza@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: suzirecifeusa@hotmail.com, E-mail: cassia.kellen@hotmail.com, E-mail: acpaiva@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: waldecy@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Sometimes, plants growing in contaminated sediments by trace metals can not avoid absorption of these metals, but only to limit its translocation, so that the accumulated metals in their tissues will have different levels of concentrations. Some trace metals (copper, zinc, manganese, among others) are essential for plants, although they are toxic at high concentrations, damaging its growth, production or quality. The aim of this work from is to verify the presence of metals such as copper, manganese and iron in mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) collected in some beaches of the Northeast of Brazil (such as: Maceio, Sao Jose da Coroa Grande, Japaratinga, Croa do Gore, Ponta das Pedras). Leaves' metals content (extracted by adding acids) were determined by a fast sequential atomic absorption spectrometer (SpectrAA-220FS/VARIAN). The results showed that there are more Fe and Mn in mangrove leaves than in other metals comparing with all study areas (Fe > Mn > Co > Zn > Cu). (author)

  14. Secondary Metabolites from Leaves of Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Fernanda Borges; Fernandes, Caio Pinho; Romao, Wanderson; Vanini, Gabriela; Costa, Helber Barcelos; França, Hildegardo Seibert; Santos, Marcelo Guerra; Carvalho, José Carlos Tavares; Falcão, Deborah Quintanilha; Rocha, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Manilkara subsericea (Sapotaceae) is a species widely spread in the sandbanks of Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). It is commonly known as “maçaranduba”, “maçarandubinha” and “guracica”, being used in this locality as food, and timber. However, M. subsericea remains almost unexplored regarding its chemical constituents, including secondary metabolites from the leaves. Objective: Identify the chemical constituents from the leaves of M. subsericea. Materials and Methods: Leaves were macerated with ethanol (96% v/v), and dried crude ethanolic extract was sequentially washed with the organic solvents in order to obtain an ethyl acetate fraction. Substances from this fraction were identified by different techniques, such as negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Fresh leaves from M. subsericea were also submitted to hydrodistillation in order to obtain volatile substances, which were identified by gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometer. Results: NMR1H and 13C spectra allowed for the identification of the compounds myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol from the ethyl acetate fraction. The negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry mass spectrum also revealed the presence in this fraction of a polyhydroxytriterpene acid (pomolic acid), and some flavonoids, such as quercitrin, and myricitrin. In all 34 volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and long chain hydrocarbons. Conclusion: This study describes the first reports concerning the phytochemical information about leaves from M. subsericea. SUMMARY Manilkara subsericea fruits proved to be a rich source of triterpenes. However, no phytochemical studies were carried out with leaves. Thus, we described identification of volatile substances from its essential oils, in addition to

  15. Association of Paid Sick Leave Laws With Foodborne Illness Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsuan, Charleen; Ryan-Ibarra, Suzanne; DeBurgh, Kat; Jacobson, Dawn M

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies suggest an association between paid sick leave (PSL) and better population health, including fewer infectious and nosocomial gastrointestinal disease outbreaks. Yet few studies examine whether laws requiring employers to offer PSL demonstrate a similar association. This mixed-methods study examined whether laws requiring employers to provide PSL are associated with decreased foodborne illness rates, particularly laws that are more supportive of employees taking leave. The four earliest PSL laws were classified by whether they were more or less supportive of employees taking leave. Jurisdictions with PSL were matched to comparison jurisdictions by population size and density. Using difference-in-differences, monthly foodborne illness rates (2000-2014) in implementation and comparison jurisdictions before and after the laws were effective were compared, stratifying by how supportive the laws were of employees taking leave, and then by disease. The empirical analysis was conducted from 2015-2017. Foodborne illness rates declined after implementation of the PSL law in jurisdictions with laws more supportive of employees taking leave, but increased in jurisdictions with laws that are less supportive. In adjusted analyses, PSL laws that were more supportive of employees taking sick leave were associated with an adjusted 22% decrease in foodborne illness rates (p=0.005). These results are driven by campylobacteriosis. Although the results suggest an association between more supportive PSL laws and decreased foodborne illness rates, they should be interpreted cautiously because the trend is driven by campylobacteriosis, which has low person-to-person transmission. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Distribution of Salmonella typhimurium in romaine lettuce leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroupitski, Yulia; Pinto, Riky; Belausov, Eduard; Sela, Shlomo

    2011-08-01

    Leafy greens are occasionally involved in outbreaks of enteric pathogens. In order to control the plant contamination it is necessary to understand the factors that influence enteric pathogen-plant interactions. Attachment of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium to lettuce leaves has been demonstrated before; however, only limited information is available regarding the localization and distribution of immigrant Salmonella on the leaf surface. To extend our knowledge regarding initial pathogen-leaf interactions, the distribution of green-fluorescent protein-labeled Salmonella typhimurium on artificially contaminated romaine lettuce leaves was analyzed. We demonstrate that attachment of Salmonella to different leaf regions is highly variable; yet a higher attachment level was observed on leaf regions localized close to the petiole (7.7 log CFU g(-1)) compared to surfaces at the far-end region of the leaf blade (6.2 log CFU g(-1)). Attachment to surfaces located at a central leaf region demonstrated intermediate attachment level (7.0 log CFU g(-1)). Salmonella displayed higher affinity toward the abaxial side compared to the adaxial side of the same leaf region. Rarely, Salmonella cells were also visualized underneath stomata within the parenchymal tissue, supporting the notion that this pathogen can also internalize romaine lettuce leaves. Comparison of attachment to leaves of different ages showed that Salmonella displayed higher affinity to older compared to younger leaves (1.5 log). Scanning electron microscopy revealed a more complex topography on the surface of older leaves, as well as on the abaxial side of the examined leaf tissue supporting the notion that a higher attachment level might be correlated with a more composite leaf landscape. Our findings indicate that initial attachment of Salmonella to romaine lettuce leaf depends on multiple plant factors pertaining to the specific localization on the leaf tissue and to the developmental stage of the leaf

  17. Reducing sick leave of Dutch vocational school students: adaptation of a sick leave protocol using the intervention mapping process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kroon, Marlou L A; Bulthuis, Jozien; Mulder, Wico; Schaafsma, Frederieke G; Anema, Johannes R

    2016-12-01

    Since the extent of sick leave and the problems of vocational school students are relatively large, we aimed to tailor a sick leave protocol at Dutch lower secondary education schools to the particular context of vocational schools. Four steps of the iterative process of Intervention Mapping (IM) to adapt this protocol were carried out: (1) performing a needs assessment and defining a program objective, (2) determining the performance and change objectives, (3) identifying theory-based methods and practical strategies and (4) developing a program plan. Interviews with students using structured questionnaires, in-depth interviews with relevant stakeholders, a literature research and, finally, a pilot implementation were carried out. A sick leave protocol was developed that was feasible and acceptable for all stakeholders. The main barriers for widespread implementation are time constraints in both monitoring and acting upon sick leave by school and youth health care. The iterative process of IM has shown its merits in the adaptation of the manual 'A quick return to school is much better' to a sick leave protocol for vocational school students.

  18. The Link between National Paid Leave Policy and Work-Family Conflict among Married Working Parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, T.D.; Lapierre, L.M.; Spector, P.E.; Poelmans, S.A.Y.; O'Driscoll, M.P.; Sanchez, J.I.; Cooper, G.L.; Walvoord, A.G.; Antoniou, A.S.; Brough, P.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Kinnunen, U.; Pagon, M.; Shima, S.; Woo, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated relationships between four dimensions of work–family conflict (time- and strain-based work interference with family, time- and strain-based family interference with work) and three key national paid leave policies (paid parental leave, paid sick leave, paid annual leave) among a

  19. State Maternity/Parental Leave Laws. Facts on Working Women No. 90-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The status of state maternity/parental leave laws throughout the United States is depicted in eight figures and three tables. Information is reported by state for maternity/parental leave laws, months of available leave, maternity/family illness laws, days of leave for family illness, temporary disability insurance laws, temporary disability…

  20. In vitro antitrypanosomal activity of Moringa stenopetala leaves and roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Y; Yardley, V; Rock, P; Croft, S

    1999-09-01

    The leaves and the root extracts of Moringa stenopetala were tested in vitro against trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and L. donovani amastigotes. The fresh root wood ethanol extract and the dried leaves acetone extract were found to be active against T. brucei with an ED(50) value of 9.2 microg/mL and 10.0 microg/mL respectively. All the other extracts were inactive against all the tested parasite forms. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Fungal diversity on fallen leaves of Ficus in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Kai; Hyde, Kevin D; Soytong, Kasem; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2008-10-01

    Fallen leaves of Ficus altissima, F. virens, F. benjamina, F. fistulosa and F. semicordata, were collected in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand and examined for fungi. Eighty taxa were identified, comprising 56 anamorphic taxa, 23 ascomycetes and 1 basidiomycete. Common fungal species occurring on five host species with high frequency of occurrence were Beltraniella nilgirica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Ophioceras leptosporum, Periconia byssoides and Septonema harknessi. Colletotrichum and Stachybotrys were also common genera. The leaves of different Ficus species supported diverse fungal taxa, and the fungal assemblages on the different hosts showed varying overlap. The fungal diversity of saprobes at the host species level is discussed.

  2. Is There Spectral Variation in the Polarized Reflectance of Leaves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, V. C.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

    2014-01-01

    The light scattered by plant canopies depends in part on the light scattering/absorbing properties of the leaves and is key to understanding the remote sensing process in the optical domain. Here we specifically looked for evidence of fine spectral detail in the polarized portion of the light reflected from the individual leaves of five species of plants measured at Brewsters angle over the wavelength range 450 to 2300nm. Our results show no strong, unambiguous evidence of narrow band spectral variation of the polarized portion of the reflectance factor.

  3. Extraction and identification of bioactive compounds from agarwood leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, N. Y.; Yunus, M. A. C.; Idham, Z.; Ruslan, M. S. H.; Aziz, A. H. A.; Irwansyah, N.

    2016-11-01

    Agarwood commonly known as gaharu, aloeswood or eaglewood have been used as traditional medicine for centuries and its essential oil also being used as perfumery ingredients and aroma enhancers in food products. However, there is least study on the agarwood leaves though it contains large number of biomolecules component that show diverse pharmacological activity. Previous study showed that the extracted compounds from the leaves possess activities like anti-mutagenic, anti-tumor and anti-helminthic. The main objectives of this research were to determine bioactive compounds in agarwood leaves; leaves extract and oil yield obtained from maceration and soxhlet extraction methods respectively. The maceration process was performed at different operating temperature of 25°C, 50°C and 75°C and different retention time at 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes. Meanwhile, various solvents were used to extract the oil from agarwood leaves using soxhlet method which are hexane, water, isopropanol and ethanol. The extracted oil from agarwood leaves by soxhlet extraction was analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The results showed that the highest extract of 1.53% was obtained when increase the temperature to 75 °C and longest retention time of 120 minutes gave the highest oil yield of 2.10 % by using maceration. This is because at higher temperature enhances the solubility solute and diffusivity coefficient, thus increase the extract yield while longer retention time allow the reaction between solvent and solute occurred more rapidly giving higher extract. Furthermore, the soxhlet extraction using n-hexane as the solvent gave the highest oil yield as compared to other solvent due to the non-polar properties of n-hexane increase the efficiency of oil which is also non-polar to soluble in the solvent. In addition, the results also reported that the oil extracted from agarwood leaves contains bioactive compounds which are phytol, squalene, n-hexadecanoic acid and

  4. Increasing the Length of Parents' Birth-Related Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    2010-01-01

    in Denmark. The causal effect of the reform is identified using regression discontinuity design to compare a population sample of children born shortly before and shortly after the reform took effect. Results indicate that increasing parents' access to birth-related leave has no measurable effect on children......Investments in children are generally seen as investments in the future economy. In this study I focus on time investments in children as I investigate the long-term educational effects on children of increasing parents' birth-related leave from 14 to 20 weeks using a natural experiment from 1984...

  5. Bioactive triterpenes and phenolics of leaves of Eugenia brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Debiase Alberton Magina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A chemical investigation of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae leaves led to the isolation of α-amyrin and β-amyrin (in a mixture, betulin, 29-hydroxy-oleanolic acid, quercetin, catechin and gallocatechin. Herein, the identification of 29-hydroxy-oleanolic acid is reported for the first time in the Myrtaceae family. Moreover, in this study, the extract, fractions and six of the seven compounds were monitored for toxicity toward Artemia salina, antibacterial and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. The crude ethanol extract of the leaves and fractions were found be active on A. salina toxicity bioassay.

  6. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticle using Bambusa arundinacea leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Bharat; Shyam, Vasvani; Kaushik, Babiya; Vasoya, Jaydeep; Joseph, Joyce; Savaliya, Chirag; Kumar, Sumit; Parikh, Sachin P.; Thakar, C. M.; Pandya, D. D.; Ravalia, A. B.; Markna, J. H.; Shah, N. A.

    2017-05-01

    The synthesis of nanoparticles using ecofriendly way is an interesting area in advance nanotechnology. Silver (Ag) nanoparticles are usually synthesized by chemicals route, which are quite flammable and toxic in nature. This study deals with a biosynthesis process (environment friendly) of silver nanoparticles using Bambusa arundinacea leaves for its antibacterial activity. The formation and characterization of AgNPs was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from AgNO3 through a simple green route using the latex of Bambusa arundinacea leaves as reducing as well as capping agent. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) study indicates the formation of grains (particles) with different size and shape.

  7. Phytochemical investigation and antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwally, A. M.; Omar, A. A.; Harraz, F. M.; El Sohafy, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    Psidium guajava L. leaves were subjected to extraction, fractionation and isolation of the flavonoidal compounds. Five flavonoidal compounds were isolated which are quercetin, quercetin-3-O-α-L-arabinofuranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-arabinopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactoside. Quercetin-3-O-β-D-arabinopyranoside was isolated for the first time from the leaves. Fractions together with the isolates were tested for their antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial studies showed good activities for the extracts and the isolated compounds. PMID:20931082

  8. Administrative circular n°3 (Rev. 2) – Home leave, travel to home station and assimilated leave and travel

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 3 (Rev. 2) entitled “Home leave, travel to the home station and assimilated leave and travel”, approved by the Director-General following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 11 October 2012 and entering into force on 1 January 2013, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department.   This circular is applicable to employed members of the personnel. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 3 (Rev. 1) entitled “Travel to the home station and home leave” of June 2002. The circular was revised in order to take into account the new status of Associate Member State and the fact that henceforth, home stations may be situated on territory outside of Europe. It is proposed to introduce a new system of determination of the benefits (Travel expenses, travel time and distance indemnity) granted in the context of home leave and supplementary journeys to the home station.  For t...

  9. Parental Leave Policies, Intra-household Time Allocations and Children's Human Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, Raquel; Fruttero, Anna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a general equilibrium model of marriage and divorce to assess how public policies on parental leave and leave benefits affect intra-household decision making, family structure, intergenerational mobility, and the distribution of income. The benchmark economy is calibrated to US data to replicate some characteristics relevant to the interaction between the marriage and labor markets. The effects of unpaid leave, paid leave benefits, and mandated leave on human capital investmen...

  10. An Anticonvulsant Diterpene Lactone Isolated From the Leaves of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical, physical and pharmacological methods were used to isolate, identify and evaluate an anticonvulsant diterpene lactone obtained from the leaves of Leonotis leonorus. Tonic seizures were chemically induced in mice using pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) at a dose of 95 mg/kg intraperitoneally. Extracts of the plant ...

  11. Effects of different levels of supplementation with cassava leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighteen West African Dwarf goats aged 14 to 18 months, were divided into 3 groups of 6 animals each, based on their body weight and age: group 0 was kept as ... Also, supplementations with fresh cassava leaves do not affect red blood cells, white blood cells, haematocrite and sedimentation speed of the blood of Dwarf ...

  12. Two New Sphingolipids from the Leaves of Piper betle L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yong Jiang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new sphingolipids, pipercerebrosides A (1 and B (2, were isolated from the leaves of Piper betle L. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were determined by spectroscopic analysis and chemical degradation. These two compounds did not show significant cytotoxic activity against the cancer cell lines K562 and HL-60 in a MTT assay.

  13. Antimicrobial Activity of UV-Induced Phenylamides from Rice Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Lin Park

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice produces a wide array of phytoalexins in response to pathogen attacks and UV-irradiation. Except for the flavonoid sakuranetin, most phytoalexins identified in rice are diterpenoid compounds. Analysis of phenolic-enriched fractions from UV-treated rice leaves showed that several phenolic compounds in addition to sakuranetin accumulated remarkably in rice leaves. We isolated two compounds from UV-treated rice leaves using silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. The isolated phenolic compounds were identified as phenylamide compounds: N-trans-cinnamoyltryptamine and N-p-coumaroylserotonin. Expression analysis of biosynthetic genes demonstrated that genes for arylamine biosynthesis were upregulated by UV irradiation. This result suggested that phenylamide biosynthetic pathways are activated in rice leaves by UV treatment. To unravel the role of UV-induced phenylamides as phytoalexins, we examined their antimicrobial activity against rice fungal and bacterial pathogens. N-trans-Cinnamoyltryptamine inhibited the growth of rice brown spot fungus (Bipolaris oryzae. In addition to the known antifungal activity to the blast fungus, sakuranetin had antimicrobial activity toward B. oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani (rice sheath blight fungus. UV-induced phenylamides and sakuranetin also had antimicrobial activity against rice bacterial pathogens for grain rot (Burkholderia glumae, blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and leaf streak (X. oryzae pv. oryzicola diseases. These findings suggested that the UV-induced phenylamides in rice are phytoalexins against a diverse array of pathogens.

  14. Using hyperspectral imaging technology to identify diseased tomato leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiling; Wang, Xiu; Zhao, Xueguan; Meng, Zhijun; Zou, Wei

    2016-11-01

    In the process of tomato plants growth, due to the effect of plants genetic factors, poor environment factors, or disoperation of parasites, there will generate a series of unusual symptoms on tomato plants from physiology, organization structure and external form, as a result, they cannot grow normally, and further to influence the tomato yield and economic benefits. Hyperspectral image usually has high spectral resolution, not only contains spectral information, but also contains the image information, so this study adopted hyperspectral imaging technology to identify diseased tomato leaves, and developed a simple hyperspectral imaging system, including a halogen lamp light source unit, a hyperspectral image acquisition unit and a data processing unit. Spectrometer detection wavelength ranged from 400nm to 1000nm. After hyperspectral images of tomato leaves being captured, it was needed to calibrate hyperspectral images. This research used spectrum angle matching method and spectral red edge parameters discriminant method respectively to identify diseased tomato leaves. Using spectral red edge parameters discriminant method produced higher recognition accuracy, the accuracy was higher than 90%. Research results have shown that using hyperspectral imaging technology to identify diseased tomato leaves is feasible, and provides the discriminant basis for subsequent disease control of tomato plants.

  15. Effect of Mangifera Indica Leaves Extract on Growth Response of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decrease in growth was observed as the inclusion level increases, fish mortality was also observed to increase as the inclusion levels increases. Mangifera indica leaves which are widely available and easily assessable throughout the country, could serve as growth promoter especially when incorporated at a very low ...

  16. Isolation of two flavonoids from Bauhinia Monandra (KURZ) leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bauhinia monandra (Kurz), traditionally use in the treatment of diabetes with established significant anti-diabetic activity was investigated for its antioxidant constituents since the activity demonstrated can be linked to the presence of antioxidant compounds. Bioassay directed fractionation of the ethyl acetate soluble leaves ...

  17. Aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis leaves reduces blood sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of the aqueous extract of the leaves of Telfairia Occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) were studied on some haematological indices, sperm parameters and blood glucose in male albino rats. The experiment was divided into two parts. In the first part, twelve (12) male rats were divided into two groups of six (6) rats each.

  18. Isolation of three compounds from the leaves of Spondias mombin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae) had been implicated for a lot of biological activities with no attempt to isolate the active principle(s). This study isolated three compounds from the leaves of ethanol extract of S. mombin using chromatographic techniques, and they were characterized using information obtained from ...

  19. Optimization of the drying of Moringa oleifera leaves by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moringa oleifera leaves are increasingly used as a dietary supplement. The present study deals with the estimation of its thermophysical properties. It is based on the Clausius-Clayperon and Gibbs-Helmholtz equations. This study required knowledge of the sorption isotherms obtained by the static gravimetric method in the ...

  20. Active principle from Moringa oleifera Lam leaves effective against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Active principle from Moringa oleifera Lam leaves effective against two leukemias and a hepatocarcinoma. Mutasim M. Khalafalla, Eltayb Abdellatef, Hussain Mohammed Dafalla, Amr A. Nassrallah, Khalid M. Aboul-Enein, David A. Lightfoot, Fadl E. El-Deeb, Hany A. El-Shemy ...

  1. In vitro anthelmintic effects of Moringa oleifera leaves (FHI 109897 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to control helminths resistance to the conventional anthelmintics necessitated the evaluation of phytochemicals in Moringa oleifera leaves for their possible in vitro anthelmintic effects on bovine helminth eggs. The quantitative faecal egg counts (FEC) were determined using the modified McMaster technique.

  2. Pharmacognostical Studies On Leaves And Stem Of Cocculus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacognostical studies were carried out on the leaves and stem of Cocculus hirsutus Linn, which showed covering trichomes, epidermal cells in leaf and fragments of fibres, sclerenchymatous tissues with xylem vessels in stem. Physicochemical parameters such as water, alcohol soluble extractive values were found to ...

  3. Plasticity in bundle sheath extensions of heterobaric leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Douglas J; McInerney, Francesca A; Kouwenberg, Lenny L R; Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel A

    2012-07-01

    Leaf venation is linked to physiological performance, playing a critical role in ecosystem function. Despite the importance of leaf venation, associated bundle sheath extensions (BSEs) remain largely unstudied. Here, we quantify plasticity in the spacing of BSEs over irradiance and precipitation gradients. Because physiological function(s) of BSEs remain uncertain, we additionally explored a link between BSEs and water use efficiency (WUE). We sampled leaves of heterobaric trees along intracrown irradiance gradients in natural environments and growth chambers and correlated BSE spacing to incident irradiance. Additionally, we sampled leaves along a precipitation gradient and correlated BSE spacing to precipitation and bulk δ(13)C, a proxy for intrinsic WUE. BSE spacing was quantified using a novel semiautomatic method on fresh leaf tissue. With increased irradiance or decreased precipitation, Liquidambar styraciflua decreased BSE spacing, while Acer saccharum showed little variation in BSE spacing. Two additional species, Quercus robur and Platanus occidentalis, decreased BSE spacing with increased irradiance in growth chambers. BSE spacing correlated with bulk δ(13)C, a proxy for WUE in L. styraciflua, Q. robur, and P. occidentalis leaves but not in leaves of A. saccharum. We demonstrated that BSE spacing is plastic with respect to irradiance or precipitation and independent from veins, indicating BSE involvement in leaf adaptation to a microenvironment. Plasticity in BSE spacing was correlated with WUE only in some species, not supporting a function in water relations. We discuss a possible link between BSE plasticity and life history, particularly canopy position.

  4. The Total Energy Flux Leaving the Ocean's Mixed Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rimac, Antonija; von Storch, Jin-Song; Eden, Carsten

    The total energy flux leaving the ocean’s spatially and seasonally varying mixed layer is estimated using a global ⅝1/10° ocean general circulation model. From the total wind-power input of 3.33 TW into near-inertial waves (0.35 TW), subinertial fluctuations (0.87 TW), and the time-mean circulation

  5. microscopical studies on the leaves of momordica charantia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Momordica charantia Linn. is a monoecious plant of the family Cucurbitaceae. It is known to contain various chemical constituents, which has the hypoglycaemic activity. This work reports the microscopical and even the macroscopical features of the leaves of this plant species. Features among which identified were the ...

  6. Anti-Inflammatory Constituents of Alchornea cordifolia Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alchornea cordifolia (Schum and Thonn) Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) is a traditional medicinal plant widely distributed in West Africa including Nigeria.The plant has been used for ethnomedicinal purposes against wounds, ulcers, and sores. The decoction of the leaves has been reported to provide remedies for bronchial ...

  7. Cassava leaves as protein source for pigs in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to evaluate the use of cassava leaves as protein sources for pigs when used at high levels in the diet, either in fresh form or with simplified methods of processing. In twenty cassava varieties taken from the upper part of the plant at the root

  8. Antimicrobial activities of the leaves and roots of Elaeagnus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AZHAR

    2013-11-27

    Nov 27, 2013 ... Plants are the rich natural source of bioactive compounds. The more diversified composition of the plants makes their role as biomedicine. These bioactive molecules are often lethal to both plants and animals. Based on ethnomedical use, the leaves and root of Elaeagnus umbellata (Elaeagnaceae) were.

  9. Cane Tops and Leaves as Boiler Fuel | Gukhool | University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper finds that it is possible to burn cane tops and leaves (CTL) as a fuel for boilers in sugar factories. Best results were however obtained when it is mixed with bagasse in the ratio 30% CTL and 70% bagasse with respect to energy content, exhaust particles and necessity for not modifying existing systems for burning ...

  10. Studies on Antibacterial Effect of The Leaves Of Phyllanthus Niruri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    The plant is indigenous to the rain forests in the Amazon and tropical areas including Bahamas, India, Pakistan and China (Jones and Kenneth, 1995; Grewal, 2000). The plant has several tribal names based on it uses or the arrangement of the flower on the leaves. Chanca piedra is the Spanish name meaning “stone ...

  11. Optimization of the drying of Moringa oleifera leaves by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moringa oleifera leaves are increasingly used as a dietary supplement. The present study deals with the estimation of its thermophysical properties. It is based on the Clausius-Clayperon and Gibbs-Helmholtz equations. This study required knowledge of the sorption isotherms obtained by the static gravimetric method.

  12. New dipyranocoumarin from the leaves of Calophyllum apetalum Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Swati P; Kulkarni, Smita R; Phalgune, Usha D; Puranik, Vedavati G

    2013-10-01

    A new dipyranocoumarin, α-hydroxytomentolide A (1) was isolated from the leaves of Calophyllum apetalum together with the known compounds friedelin (2), apetalactone (3), inophyllum C (4) and canophyllol (5). The structure of the new compound was established by spectroscopic studies which include (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, NOESY, HetCOSY, COLOC experiments and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.

  13. Antioxidant activity, phenolic and flavonoid content in leaves, flowers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutraceutical composition (phenolics and flavonoids) of all leaves, flowers, stems and seeds of mallow, Malva sylvestris L., as well as their antioxidant properties were studied using in vitro methods: ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, by scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and total ...

  14. ( Tephrosia vogelii ) leave extract exposed to freshwater Cichlid fish

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a degeneration of kidney tubules. Phytochemical analysis of the leaves extract indicated the presence of alkaloid, tannin, saponin, cardiac glycoside, rotenone, steroids, balsam, phenol and volatile oil. The result of this study calls for the need to discourage the use of toxic plants for catching fish in Nigeria water bodies.

  15. Effects of ethanol extract of Bersama engleriana leaves on oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pesticides are used to improve agricultural yields; meanwhile they have detrimental effects on human and animal reproduction. This study aimed at evaluating the protective effects of ethanol extract of Bersama engleriana leaves against cypermethrin-induced oxidative stress and reproductive toxicity. Fifty male guinea pigs ...

  16. Pharmacognostic studies of the leaves of terminalia macroptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... extractive value, 12.7%w/w, water soluble extractive value, 17.0%w/w. These results can be used in the identification and preparation of a monograph on the plant. Keywords: Terminalia macroptera, combretaceae, leaves, pharmacognostic evaluation. Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine Vol. 9 2005: 14-18 ...

  17. Dietary inclusion of dried Artemisia annua leaves for management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coccidiosis constitutes a major problem in poultry rearing. Recourse to the use of prophylactic chemotherapy, for example, is only a short-term solution. Ostensibly, the drugs used are effective but they are also expensive. In the present study, the influence of adding dried Artemisia annua L. leaves as a botanical coccidistat ...

  18. Antihyperglycemic Activities of Leaves of Three Edible Fruit Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), Ficus hispida L.f. (Moraceae), and Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr. & L.M. Perry (Myrtaceae) are three common plants in Bangladesh, the fruits of which are edible. The leaves and fruits of A. carambola and F. hispida are used by folk medicinal practitioners for treatment of ...

  19. Metabolite modifications in Solanum lycopersicum roots and leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of cadmium (Cd) were investigated on growth and metabolite profiling in roots and leaves of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., Var. Ibiza F1) plants exposed for 3 and 10 days to various CdCl2 concentrations (0 - 300 ìM). The aim of this study was to describe metabolite modifications in response to Cd stress and ...

  20. Senna alata leaves are a good source of propelargonidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Aina; Mueller-Harvey, Irene

    2016-07-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PA) in Senna alata leaves were investigated by thiolysis with benzyl mercaptan, LC-MS and NMR and consisted of almost pure propelargonidins with 94%) and epicatechin a minor constituent (6.4%) in residual PA and mainly detected as an extension unit.

  1. Organizational Ethics and Teachers' Intent to Leave: An Integrative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Rosenblatt, Zehava

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The present study focuses on developing a conceptual framework that explores the relationships between teachers' intent to leave and a spectrum of ethics perceptions. The authors argue that these relationships are mediated by organizational commitment (affective and normative). Research Design: Organizational ethics was measured by…

  2. Leaving Education: The Agony and the Ecstasy of Changing Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Christopher I.

    A description is given of a workshop format that is being successfully used to motivate and guide teachers who are changing careers. Reasons cited for teachers leaving the profession include a heavily supplied market with reduced demand, economic stagnation and noncompetitive salaries, and job burnout. The workshop is designed to promote the…

  3. Cultivation of mushroom ( Volvariella volvacea ) on banana leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following the solid state fermentation of banana leaves (Musa sapientum lina) by lignin degrading mushroom (Volvariella volvacea), yield of fruiting bodies and compositional changes of the substrate were evaluated using a student parametric “T” test model. The biological efficiency was 5.21 while the total weight of fruit ...

  4. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Phyllanthus amarus Leaves on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was therefore design to scientifically test the effect of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus (AEPA) leaves on implantation and pregnancy. Animals were divided into two groups of 18 rats each after pregnancy has been established. Group I received 0.2mg/100g body weight of AEPA from day 1 of ...

  5. Effects of feeding sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas ) leaves on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty-five (45) weaner rabbits were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments (T) to evaluate the effects of graded levels of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaves (SPL) and pelletized concentrate feed (PCF) on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of rabbits. The treatments were: T1 (0% SPL; 100% PCF); T2 (25% ...

  6. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

    2011-08-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×10(3)/µL, 8.10×10(3)/µL, 84.0% to 55×10(3)/µL, 3.7×10(3)/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×10(3)/µL to 168×10(3)/µL, WBC from 3.7×10(3)/µL to 7.7×10(3)/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases.

  7. Nutritional characterization of Moringa ( Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional characterization of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves. B Moyo, PJ Masika, A Hugo, V Muchenje. Abstract. Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam. moringaceae) is a highly valued plant that is mostly cultivated in the tropics and subtropics. It is used for food, medication and industrial purposes. The objective of the ...

  8. 5 CFR 630.401 - Granting sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... section, an agency must grant sick leave to an employee when he or she— (1) Receives medical, dental, or..., dental, or optical examination or treatment; or (ii) Provides care for a family member with a serious... exposure to a communicable disease; or (6) Must be absent from duty for purposes relating to his or her...

  9. Predicting stay/leave behavior among volleyball referees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.

    1998-01-01

    This study aimed to predict stay/leave behavior among volleyball referees. The predictor variables reflect commitment aspects from the literature: attraction, perceived lack of alternatives, personal investments, and feelings of obligation to remain. Intent to quit was assumed to mediate the link

  10. Three new megastigmanes from the leaves of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushige, Ayano; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Kotake, Yaichiro; Otsuka, Hideaki; Ohta, Shigeru

    2012-04-01

    Three new megastigmanes (1-3), named annoionols A and B (1, 2) and annoionoside (3), were isolated from the leaves of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) together with 14 known compounds (4-17). Among the known compounds, annoionol C (4) was isolated from a natural source for the first time. The structures of all compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical analyses.

  11. Oil extract from Gongronema latifolium leaves exhibit anti-diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Air-dried, pulverized leaves of Gongronema latifolium were subjected to step wise fractionation using first, ethanol and subsequently fractionation of the dried ethanol extract using solvents of increasing polarity, n-hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate and ethanol. Column fractionation of the n-hexane extract using graded ...

  12. Effective methods of preserving SCWL-diseased sugarcane leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diseased leaf tissues were preserved by air-drying and stored at room temperature or stored fresh at 4 or -20°C in two types of bags: brown paper bags and plastic bags with punctured holes. Leaf materials were stored for up to 32 days prior to DNA extraction. The best storage condition was placing fresh leaves at -20°C ...

  13. Leaving home in the Netherlands: Timing and first housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.H.; Hooimeijer, P.

    2002-01-01

    Successive birth cohorts have left the parental home at an accelerating pace in the early post-war decades in the Netherlands. A second trend, starting later but lasting longer, is that people increasingly leave the parental home to live alone. Both trends have had implications for the housing

  14. Leaving home in the Netherlands : timing and first housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.H.; Hooimeijer, P.

    2002-01-01

    Successive birth cohorts have left the parentalhome at an accelerating pace in the earlypost-war decades in the Netherlands. A secondtrend, starting later but lasting longer, isthat people increasingly leave the parentalhome to live alone. Both trends have hadimplications for the housing market as

  15. Chemical composition of essential oil from the leaves of Premna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the chemical composition of the essential oil of Premna coriacea leaves was investigated. Extraction by hydrodistillation followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) yielded 27 compounds representing 99.89% of the oil. The major volatile components of the oil were aromadendrene ...

  16. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Rosmarinus Officinalis L. Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Türkmen, Necla; Öz, Ayşenur; Sönmez, Aslı; Erol, Tuğçe; Gülümser, Deniz; Yurdakul, Burcu; Kayır, Ömer; Elmastas, Mahfuz; Erenler, Ramazan

    2015-01-01

    – The chemical constituents of the essential oil from leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis L. was produced by steam distillation using the Clevenger apparatus. The oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituent of the oil was 1,8-cineole with 81.47% which is important for medicinal and pharmaceutical

  17. Meaningful work and secondary school teachers' intention to leave

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    job enrichment affected intention to leave due to the concomitant experience of low psychological meaningfulness. These findings have .... Waldman, 2009). The meaningful life is iden- tified by Peterson, Park and Seligman (2005) as one of the components that contribute significantly to happiness. Due to the fact that ...

  18. Faculty Sabbatical Leaves: Evidence from NSOPF, 1999 and 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamiseishvili, Ketevan; Miller, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    In the context of increased expectations for accountability and growing controversy surrounding sabbatical leave programs, it is important to address seemingly simple questions of who is or should be awarded a sabbatical and what the rationale is for the award. The study attempted to offer some insight on these issues by examining the factors that…

  19. Testing an Evaluative Strategy for Faculty Sabbatical Leave Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michale T.; Bai, Kang

    2003-01-01

    Attempts to identify the impact of one sabbatical recipient's leave on those around the faculty member, including fellow faculty, department chairs, deans, other administrators, and students. Examines outcomes in relation to teaching, campus citizenship, and research. Research instrument is appended. (Contains 15 references, two figures, and three…

  20. Sedative properties of Mitracarpus villosus leaves in mice | John ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our results revealed that the ethylacetate extract of Mitracarpus villosus leaves may contain psychoactive principles that are sedative in nature, thus supporting further development of the psychoactive components of this plant for management of stress-related diseases. Keywords: Mitracarpus villosus, sedation, diazepam, ...

  1. Why Do Student Nurses Leave? Suggestions from a Delphi Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, Lynn; Fulbrook, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Focus groups and interviews gathered professional opinions about why students leave nursing; results were formulated into a questionnaire administered to 32 students in a three-round Delphi. Factors contributing to attrition included theory-practice gap, university-clinical site relationships, unmet expectations, stress, and not feeling valued.…

  2. Nutrient content of dried leaves of Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicated that both locally and solar dryer dried leaves contained sufficient concentration of nutrients that were within the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) except for Vitamins A and C. Attainment of the RDA for Vitamins A and C could be achieved through intake of green vegetables in the diet. Concentration of ...

  3. Proximate and Amino Acid Composition of Celosia argentea Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    amino acids with the WHO recommended values, the vegetable is adequate in these acids. ... Vegetables are sources of vitamins, ascorbic acid, niacin, riboflavin and thiamine and minerals, calcium and iron, as well as supplementary protein and calories. (FAO, 1988). ... pupa and cultivars with deep green narrow leaves.

  4. Assessment of the effect of Artemisia annua leave extract infusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The influence of abiotic factors of water which may affect Artemesia annua (A. annua) efficiency as a disinfectant is not clearly elucidated. This study aimed to assess the potential effects of various water pH values of the infusion of A. annua leaves extract on some bacteria of hygiene and sanitary evaluation.

  5. Hepatic Potentials of Xylopia Aethiopica Leaves in Adult Wistar Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... transferase (GGT) and Alanine amino transferase (ALT) of the test groups were not significantly different (P>0.05) from that of the control. Therefore, the observed changes in the parameters accessed, signifies the hepatotoxic impact of Xylopia aethiopica leaves. Keywords: Xylopia aethiopica, hepatoxicity, Herbs, Nigeria.

  6. Aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis leaves reduces blood sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... The effects of the aqueous extract of the leaves of Telfairia Occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) were studied on some haematological indices, sperm parameters and blood glucose in male albino rats. The experiment was divided into two parts. In the first part, twelve (12) male rats were divided into two groups of ...

  7. Protective effect of the leaves of Vitex negundo against ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... investigated the effect of the various fractions of hydromethanolic extract of the leaves of Vitex negundo (Verbenaceae) against ethanol-induced cerebral oxidative stress in rats. Cerebral oxidative stress was induced by the administration of 20% ethanol (5 ml/100g bw) for a period of 28 days. The petroleum ether (PEF), ...

  8. Cytotoxic compounds from the leaves of Combretum paniculatum Vent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is used locally in the treatment of carcinomous tumors. The cytotoxic activity of pheophorbide a and pheophorbide a-methyl ester isolated from the leaves of C. paniculatum were investigated. In vitro cytotoxicity of the compounds were evaluated against HT-29, MCF-7 and HeLa cancer cell lines using the methyl thiazolyl ...

  9. evaluation of pawpaw leaves extract as anti-corrosion agent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Pawpaw leaves extract was examined as anti-corrosion agent for aluminium in hydrochloric acid medium. The extract and corrosion product were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR). Thermometric, gravimetric, potentiodynamic polarization and scanning electron microscopic methods were ...

  10. The study of henna leaves extract as green corrosion inhibitor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chaudhari H.G and Vashi R.T

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... ABSTRACT. The inhibitive action of henna (Lawsonia Inermis) leaves on mild steel in acetic acid solution have been investigated by weight-loss, A C impedance and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The study indicates that as acid concentration increases corrosion rate increases.

  11. Costus afer leave extract as nontoxic corrosion inhibitor for mild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The corrosion inhibition performance of the ethanol extracts of Costus afer leaves (EECAL) on the corrosion of mild steel in 5 M H2SO4 solutions at 303K and elevated temperatures of 313, 323 and 333 K was investigated using weight loss method (gravimetric) and hydrogen evolution (gasometric) techniques respectively.

  12. Is Your Sick Leave Bank in Good Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Sick leave banks are a common staple of teacher contracts. Although these banks may benefit employees, they expose school districts to a variety of complications and unintended consequences, including administrative complexity, potential cash flow implications, cost disparities, increased absenteeism, instructional instability, privacy issues, and…

  13. Cadmium accumulation and antioxidative defenses in leaves of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corn (Zea Mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ) seedlings were grown in four cadmium (Cd) concentration levels (0 - 1 mg/l) in a hydroponic system to analyze the antioxidant enzyme system, Cd concentration in the shoots and roots of plants, proline contents, growth responses and chlorophyll contents in the leaves of ...

  14. Antimicrobial Activity of the Leaves of Endemic Stachys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Stachys pseudopinardii in Turkey. G Dulger* and C Aki. Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Arts, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17100 Canakkale, Turkey. Abstract. Purpose: The ethanol extract of the leaves of Stachys pseudopinardii R. Bhattacharjee and Hub.–Mor. (Lamiaceae) were investigated for their ...

  15. Einstein's Tea Leaves and Pressure Systems in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Amit; Marshall, John

    2010-01-01

    Tea leaves gather in the center of the cup when the tea is stirred. In 1926 Einstein explained the phenomenon in terms of a secondary, rim-to-center circulation caused by the fluid rubbing against the bottom of the cup. This explanation can be connected to air movement in atmospheric pressure systems to explore, for example, why low-pressure…

  16. Controlling bruchid pests of stored cowpea seeds with dried leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insecticidal activities of dried Artemisia annua L. leaves were evaluated against bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus F.) pests in comparison with those of Azadirachta indica, Ocimum gratissimum and a conventional grain storage insecticide, Actellic® 2% dust. Each treatment was added to a mixture of 250 g cowpea seeds ...

  17. (emodin) isolated from the leaves of Cassia n

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-04

    Dalziel, 1956; Abegaz et al., 1996). Akah et al. (1998) reported that the aqueous extract of the leaves is used by traditional healers in Nigeria for the treatment of peptic ulcer. The extract is also used to treat other gastro-intestinal ...

  18. Leave or Stay? Battered Women's Decision after Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinseok; Gray, Karen A.

    2008-01-01

    Battered women's reasons for staying with or leaving their male partners are varied and complex. Using data from the Domestic Violence Experience in Omaha, Nebraska, a discrete-time hazard model was employed to examine a woman's decision based on four factors: financial independence, witness of parental violence, psychological factors, and the…

  19. Isolation of two flavonoids from Bauhinia Monandra (KURZ) leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioassay directed fractionation of the ethyl acetate soluble leaves extract has led to isolation of two active compounds identified as: Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (1) and Quercetin (2). The molecular structures elucidations of both compounds were carried out using spectroscopic studies (1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS).

  20. Phytochemical, Proximate and Mineral contents of Leaves and Back ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical, proximate and mineral contents of Ficus capensis (leaves & bark) were analyzed, using Trease and Evans and Harboure procedure, the Association of Official Analytical Chemist (AOAC) method and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry and Flame Photometry respectively. This study is aimed at ...

  1. Phytochemical Analysis of the Leaves of Phyllanthus amarus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of two plants in the family Euphorbiaceae; Phyllanthus amarus Schum and Thonn and Euphorbia hirta Linn, which are commonly used for medicinal purposes and also occurring among Nigerian pasture were analyzed using spectrophotometric and titrimetric methods to ascertain their levels of inorganic ...

  2. Antimicrobial and phytochemical analysis of leaves and bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While quarter strength (5 g/ml) concentrations of the bark methanol and ethanol extracts were the MICs against Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus. The phytochemical analysis carried out on B. ferruginea leaves and bark detected the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannin, cardiac glycosides, anthraquinone, ...

  3. Toxicological evaluation of methanol leaves extract of Vernonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tissues of each animal were taken and processed for light microscopy. Results: Almost .... Animals were kept in a temperature-controlled environment. 23±20C with 12 hours light-dark cycle. Food and water were freely available for a week before the be- ginning of ..... cute toxicities of aqueous ethanolic extract of leaves of.

  4. Tendu leaves refuse as a Biosorbent for COD removal from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioline

    Langmuir model, maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 48.54 mg and 154.8 mg COD per g for tendu leaves ... discharges (Lewicki, 2001). In terms of ..... Baig, S; Liechti, P A (2001). Ozone treatment for biorefractory COD removal. Water Sci Technol. 43:197-204. Casey, T J (1997). Unit Treatment Processes in.

  5. Trypanocidal activity of the aqueous leave extract of Holarrhena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the trypanocidal activity of aqueous extracts of leaves of young Holarrhena africana. The trypanocidal activity was evaluated by treatment of mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei at the peak of infection. The aqueous extract was administered intraperitoneally for 5 consecutive days with varied ...

  6. Quantitative estimation of biogas produced from the leaves and stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concept of using aquatic plants for the production of energy (methane) is gaining attention in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world, where warm climate is connected to the plant growth throughout the year. This research work investigated the overall quantity of biogas produced by the leaves, stem and the ...

  7. Antitumour Activity of Methanolic Extract of Plumeria alba L. Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antitumour Activity of Methanolic Extract of Plumeria alba L. Leaves Against Dalton Lymphoma Ascites in Mice. ... haematological parameters (e.g., heamoglobin content, red and white blood cells count, and differential cell count) following MPA treatment of the tumour bearing mice. Results: MPA was found to be cytotoxic in ...

  8. Effect Of Ethanolic Extract From Elaeophorbia drupifera Leaves On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect Of Ethanolic Extract From Elaeophorbia drupifera Leaves On The Gastrointestinal Smooth Muscle Of The Rabbi. ... The rabbit intestine was removed and separated into three segments (duodenum, jejunum and ileum). About 3-4cm of each segment was mounted in an organ bath containing Tyrode solution at 37 ...

  9. Estimating chlorophyll content from Eucalyptus dunnii leaves by reflectance values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alexandre Lopes Dranski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate photosynthetic pigments contents from leaves of Eucalyptus dunni Maiden based on values of reflectance spectra of red, green and blue colors obtained with a digital color analyzer. We collected fifty leaves from the lower third of the crown of twenty trees including young as well as mature leaves. From each leaf an area of 14 cm2 of the leaf blade was cut in which we measured reflectance values on the red, green and blue spectra with a portable digital colorimeter, obtained relative index of chlorophyll with a SPAD – 502 and determined the content of the chlorophyll a, b, and a + b by classic method of solvent extraction. We submitted the data to multiple linear regression and nonlinear analysis at 5% of error probability. It was evaluated the occurrence of multicollinearity. The negative exponential model resulted in good fit when data from red spectrum was used for chlorophyll a, green spectrum for chlorophyll b and a + b, making possible correlation coefficients between the estimated values and the extracted above 0.85. Except for the chlorophyll a content, the accuracy in estimates of photosynthetic pigments were higher than estimated by the chlorophyll meter, even with linearity between methods. Therefore, it is possible to estimate photosynthetic pigments on E. dunni leaves through values of red and green wavelengths from a digital color analyser.

  10. Comparative analgesic activity of the root bark, stem bark, leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analgesic activity of the water extracts (50,100 and150 mg/Kg body weight) of the root bark, stem bark, leaves, fruits and seeds of Carissa edulis were evaluated in mice using the mechanical method (tail-chip method) and chemical method (acetic acid induced writhing). The plant was found to have analgesic activity, ...

  11. Antifungal activity of selected plant leaves crude extracts against a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antifungal activities of the leaves extract of 15 selected medicinal plants; Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd., Alstonia spatulata Blume., Annona muricata L., Blechnum orientale L., Blumea balsamifera L., Centella asiatica L., Dicranopteris linearis (Burm. f.) Underw., Dillenia suffruticosa (Griff ex Hook.f. and Thomson) Martelli, ...

  12. Alkaline protease from senesced leaves of invasive weed Lantana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... The easy availability of the senesced leaves of this common weed makes it a cheaper ... generate new enzymes with altered properties (Rao et al., 1998). .... The activity of the enzyme was determined by incubating the reac- ..... Microbial alkaline proteases: from bio ... Phytochemistry, 49(3): 643-649.

  13. TDZ x IBA induced shoot regeneration from cotyledonary leaves and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carthamus tinctorius L.) cv. Dinçer with high yield (Turkish cultivar) using cotyledonary leaves of 10 day-old seedlings were optimized by studying the influence of different combinations of thidiazuron (TDZ) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Cotyledonary ...

  14. Sugar beet leaves: from biorefinery to techno-functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiskini, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Sugar beet leaves (SBL), which are a side stream of the sugar beets cultivation, are currently left unexploited after sugar beets have been harvested. The general aim of this thesis was to study the biorefinery of SBL, with a special focus on the isolation of proteins. To reach this aim the research

  15. Enzymatic Browning in Sugar Beet Leaves (Beta vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, Anne; Kiskini, Alexandra; Hilgers, Roelant; Marinea, Marina; Wierenga, Peter Alexander; Gruppen, Harry; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2017-01-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves of 8 month (8m) plants showed more enzymatic browning than those of 3 month (3m). Total phenolic content increased from 4.6 to 9.4 mg/g FW in 3m and 8m, respectively, quantitated by

  16. Effect of Nauclea latifolia leaves aqueous extracts on blood glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Northern Nigeria, different parts of Nauclea latifolia (family: Rubiaceae) are prescribed as remedy for diabetes mellitus. This study was designed to evaluate the hypoglycemic property of aqueous extract of the leaves of the plant in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The aqueous extracts at (200 mg/kg bw.) ...

  17. Isolation and Characterization of Phosphatidyl Choline from Spinach Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devor, Kenneth A.

    1979-01-01

    This inexpensive but informative experiment for undergraduate biochemistry students involves isolating phosphatidyl choline from spinach leaves. Emphasis is on introducing students to techniques of lipid extraction, separation of lipids, identification using thin layer chromatography, and identification of fatty acids. Three periods of three hours…

  18. Stomatal design principles in synthetic and real leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwieniecki, Maciej A.; Haaning, Katrine S; Boyce, C. Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Stomata are portals in plant leaves that control gas exchange for photosynthesis, a process fundamental to life on Earth. Gas fluxes and plant productivity depend on external factors such as light, water and CO2 availability and on the geometrical properties of the stoma pores. The link between...

  19. Pharmacognostic Studies on the Leaves of Vernonia amygdalina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anomocytic stomata (in the upper and lower epidermis), calcium oxalate crystals (rosette and prism type), starch grains and covering trichomes were identified. Quantitative- leaf microscopy and extractive value evaluation of the powdered leaves were also carried out. These could serve useful in the identification of this plant ...

  20. leaves extracts as counter stain in gram staining reaction 56

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Lawsonia inamis L.) ... and finger nails, as a dye and preservative for leather and cloth ... It is a small shrub of the family Lythraceae that produces dye in its leaves. The shrub, which is also called alkanna and mignonette tree grows in moist places.

  1. Photosynthesis in Plants with Non-Green Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, Rehka

    2006-01-01

    Enquiry based learning is an important tool in science teaching. Students of Class XI (16-17 years old) were asked to hypothesise on the role of different pigments found in plants with non-green leaves. The majority hypothesised that these plants were devoid of chlorophylls and some other pigments performed the function of photosynthesis. Their…

  2. Protective effect of Moringa peregrina leaves extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acetaminophen is a common antipyretic drug but at overdose can cause severe hepatotoxicity that may further develop into liver failure and hepatic centrilobular necrosis in experimental animals and humans. This study was undertaken to assess the ameliorative role of Moringa peregrina leaves extract ...

  3. Optimization of the drying of Moringa oleifera leaves by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017 International Formulae Group. All rights reserved. Keywords: Desorption isotherm, Modelization, Isosteric heat, Differential Entropy, Activation energy. INTRODUCTION. The Moringa oleifera leaves, a plant with the multiple uses, are used as a food supplement for the fight against protein related energy malnutrition and ...

  4. Isolation and chemical characterization of phosphatidyl glycerol from spinach leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkate, E.; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    1965-01-01

    Pure phosphatidyl glycerol was obtained from spinach leaves after repeated chromatography on silica columns. Ascertainment of the configuration of the hydrolysis products formed by the action of phospholipases C (EC 3.1.4.3) and D (EC 3.1.4.4) demonstrated that this phospholipid is identical with

  5. Phomalactone from a phytopathogenic fungus infecting Zinnia elegans (Asteraceae) leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinnia elegans plants are infected by a fungus that causes necrosis with dark red spots particularly in late spring to the middle of summer in the Mid-South part of the United States. This fungal disease when untreated causes the leaves to wilt and eventually kills the plant. The fungus was isolated...

  6. 77 FR 8959 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... important to foster strong relationships among military families. 73 FR 67961. The Department believes it is... February 15, 2012 Part II Department of Labor Wage and Hour Division 29 CFR Part 825 The Family and Medical...-AA03 The Family and Medical Leave Act AGENCY: Wage and Hour Division, Department of Labor. ACTION...

  7. antispasmodic actions of the leaves of daniellia oliveri

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of the plant Daniellia oliveri are usually prescribed traditionally in northern Nigeria for varieties of gastrointestinal complaints. ... in vitro on isolated guinea pig ileum against three spasmogen; Acetylcholine, Histamine and Barium chloride, and on isolated rabbit jejunum against acetylcholine and Barium chloride.

  8. Gender Inequality and the Family and Medical Leave Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prohaska, Ariane; Zipp, John F.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we use feminist theories of the state to examine why the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) has had relatively little impact on increasing men's caregiving after the birth or adoption of a child. An analysis of witness testimonies and of the language of the proposed bill at three different stages of its development revealed that…

  9. In Vitro Antioxidant and In Vivo Hepatoprotective Activity of Leave ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Raphanus sativus is reported to have a variety of biological activities. This work screened the hepato-protective and antioxidant activity of ethanol (ERS), and aqueous (ARS), extracts of leaves of Raphanus sativus in Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), model in rats. Material and Methods: The extracts were subjected ...

  10. Comparative Study of Antioxidant Activities of the Leaves and Stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaves and stem extracts of Ipomoea aquatic Forsk were analysed for their antioxidant activities. Folin-Ciocalteu and AlCl3 methods were used to quantify total phenolic and flavonoid contents while 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay was used to examine the antioxidant activity of the extracts.

  11. Heterosis profile of sunflower leaves: a label free proteomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohayeji, Mehdi; Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; Piovesana, Susy; Samperi, Roberto; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Toorchi, Mahmood; Lagana, Aldo

    2014-03-17

    Heterosis is the superior performance of heterozygous F1-hybrid plants compared with their homozygous genetically distinct parents. The proteome of leaves of one sunflower hybrid and its parental inbred lines was analyzed by label free LC-MS/MS. A total of 1998 proteins were identified. Among them 38 proteins indicated heterosis pattern in hybrid compared with midparents. The results showed an increment of photosynthesis capacity, assimilation rate, nitrogen fixation, cell growth and reducing in some energy-consuming processes like protein production, response to stresses and respiration. These results suggest that heterosis mechanisms increase input energy of plant with reinforcement of carbon fixation pathway and reduction in consumed energy toward production of superior hybrid. This study could help to better elucidate what mechanisms are involved in heterosis of sunflower leaves and what happens at proteome level. The current work describes the first study in which gel-free shotgun proteomics was used to compare the proteome of leaves of one sunflower hybrid to its parental inbred lines. In this study 1998 proteins were identified from sunflower leaves with label free nano LC-MS/MS. The numbers of 38 proteins significantly showed heterosis pattern. The comparison between hybrid and parental inbred lines showed that hybrid vigor is actually linked by emphasizing the assimilation rate and low energy consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sensory evaluation of different preparations of cassava leaves from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aikay Shaikh

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... The drying was done in tunnel solar drier ... Key words: Cassava leaves, cassava species, sensory characteristics, tunnel solar drying, processing methods .... The panel comprised of females and males of age ≥ 21 years old. A five point hedonic scales as described by Larmond (1977) were used, where.

  13. alkaloid content of the leaves of three nbigerian datura species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Datura species are sources of the tropane alkaloids employed as sedatives, antispasmodic and mydiatic agents. Three species of Datura grow naturally in Nigeria. These are D. innoxia Mill, D. metel L. and D. stramonium L. TLC analysis of the individual alkaloids in the leaves of these species indicated the presence of ...

  14. Assessment of Annona reticulata Linn. leaves fractions for invitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prasad G. Jamkhande

    2015-01-31

    Jan 31, 2015 ... Aleurone grains and inulin. +. 13. Acidic compound. А. +, positive; А, negative. 0. 10. 20. 30. 40. 50. 60. 70. 80. 90. 0. 20. 40. 60. 80. 100. 120. % inhibition. Concentration (µg/ml). ME. Ascorbic acid. Figure 1. DPPH radical scavenging activity of ME of Annona reticulata leaves and ascorbic acid. 0. 10. 20. 30.

  15. Mineral Composition of Leaves and Tubers of Potato (Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of low yield and quality of potato in Ethiopia is attributable to nutrient deficiencies. Therefore, a survey was conducted to elucidate the problem through plant tissue analyses. Mature and fully expanded potato leaves and tubers were sampled randomly from purposively selected smallholder potato farms across ...

  16. Antiviral phenolics from the leaves of Cleistocalyx operculatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ha, Thi Kim Quy; Dao, Trong Tuan; Nguyen, Ngoc Hieu

    2016-01-01

    During the screening program for anti-influenza agents from medicinal plants, the ethanolic extract of Cleistocalyx operculatus leaves was found to exhibit potential neuraminidase (NA) inhibitory activity. Bioassay-directed fractionation led to the isolation of two new acetophenones (1 and 2) and...

  17. Mangifera indica Leave Extracts as Organic Inhibitors on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inhibition efficiency and adsorption characteristics of alkaloids, flavonoids and tannins extracts of Mangifera indica leaves in controlling corrosion of Zinc sheet in 5 M hydrogentetraoxosulphate (VI) acid solution has been evaluated by gasometric method. The formulation consisting of 2 g/L of extract offers 96.2%, 85.3% ...

  18. Meaningful Work and Secondary School Teachers' Intention to Leave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, M.; Rothmann, S.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relations between secondary school teachers' work-role fit, job enrichment, supervisor relationships, co-worker relationships, psychological meaningfulness of work and intention to leave. A cross-sectional survey was used. The participants were 502 secondary school teachers in Namibia. The following measuring instruments…

  19. Ethanol extracts of Newbouldia laevis stem and leaves modulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes is known to involve oxidative stress and changes in antioxidant enzymes. Many plants metabolites have been shown to possess antioxidant activities, improving the effects of oxidative stress complications in diabetic conditions. This study evaluated the effects of extracts from Newbouldia laevis leaves and stem on ...

  20. Effect of ethanol extract of Pyrenacantha staudtii leaves on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr J. T. Ekanem

    The effect of ethanol extract of Pyrenacantha staudtii leaves on carbontetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity in rats was studied. Sixteen male wistar rats of 100-170g body weight divided into four groups of four rats each, designated – group I, II, III and IV were used. Groups. II, III and IV were injected intraperitoneally ...

  1. Assessment of biofuel potential of dead neem leaves ( Azadirachta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dead leaves of neem trees in the Sahelian urban zone are among the wastes that are underutilized, since it is either buried or burnt, and thus, contribute to increased environmental pollution. Unfortunately, the lack of information on the biomass and energy potentials of these wastes empedes any initiative for its industrial ...

  2. production of materials from Raffia palm leaves: Their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The palm family which is very versatile, of great service to man, and in great abundance in the tropics has not attracted the desired research efforts. In this work, raffia palm leaves, serving as raw materials, have been processed into a refined, researchful, value added form and produced into specimens which are then ...

  3. Methyl Jasmonate Induces Papain Inhibitor(s) in Tomato Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolter, C. J.

    1993-12-01

    Leaves of 18- to 24-d-old tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants exposed to gaseous methyl jasmonate (MJ) for 24 h at 30[deg]C in continuous light contained high levels of soluble protein that inhibited papain. Chromatographic analysis demonstrated that the active protein had a molecular mass of 80 to 90 kD. Induction of papain inhibitor was directly related to the concentration of air-borne MJ up to a maximum of 0.1 [mu]L MJ per treatment and depended on the duration of exposure up to 18 h. Inhibitor activity in plants treated for less than 18 h increased with time after treatment. Levels remained constant for up to 4 d after treatment, after which time activity decreased. The youngest leaf, leaf 5, consistently lost activity at a faster rate than older, lower leaves. Inhibitor concentration in all leaves was reduced to minimum levels by 11 d after MJ treatment, but did not return to control levels. Treatment with MJ in the dark did induce inhibitor activity, but at a significantly lower rate. Polyclonal antibodies raised to purified potato tuber skin cysteine proteinase inhibitors (CPI) cross-reacted with the tomato inhibitor, suggesting that the tomato papain inhibitor and the potato CPI are closely related. No papain inhibitor activity was observed in extracts from wounded tomato leaves, nor was there any immunoreactivity with antibodies raised to potato tuber skin CPI.

  4. Optimization of the drying of Moringa oleifera leaves by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Desorption isotherm, Modelization, Isosteric heat, Differential Entropy, Activation energy. INTRODUCTION. The Moringa oleifera leaves, .... The temperature dependency of the. GAB parameters was given by the following ...... European Scientific Newspaper, 11(12):. 355 -370. Kaymak-Ertekin F, Gedik A. 2004.

  5. Evaluation of antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of leaves of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    2013-08-21

    Aug 21, 2013 ... The crude methanol extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruit and Emex spinosa leaves were examined for antimicrobial and antioxidant potentialities. The phytochemical analysis revealed presence of some bioactive principles, such as alkaloids, flavonoids and anthraquinones for E. spinosa and saponin,.

  6. Antipsychotic Effect of the Leaves of Stachytarpheta Cayennensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antipsychotic effect of the extracts of the leaves of Stachytarpheta cayennensis was examined following ethnomedicinal claims for its use in the management of mental illness in Nigeria, Ghana and other tropical parts of the globe. The apomorphine and amphetamine-induced stereotyped behavior models were used in ...

  7. Redistribution of boron in leaves reduces boron toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Robert J; Fitzpatrick, Kate L

    2009-11-01

    High soil boron (B) concentrations lead to the accumulation of B in leaves, causing the development of necrotic regions in leaf tips and margins, gradually extending back along the leaf. Plants vary considerably in their tolerance to B toxicity, and it was recently discovered that one of the tolerance mechanisms involved extrusion of B from the root. Expression of a gene encoding a root B efflux transporter was shown to be much higher in tolerant cultivars. In our current research we have shown that the same gene is also upregulated in leaves. However, unlike in the root, the increased activity of the B efflux transporter in the leaves cannot reduce the tissue B concentration. Instead, we have shown that in tolerant cultivars, these transporters redistribute B from the intracellular phase where it is toxic, into the apoplast which is much less sensitive to B. These results provide an explanation of why different cultivars with the same leaf B concentrations can show markedly different toxicity symptoms. We have also shown that rain can remove a large proportion of leaf B, leading to significant improvements of growth of both leaves and roots.

  8. A new arbutin derivative from the leaves of Heliciopsis lobata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingsheng; Kang, Shengli; Zhang, Junqing; Zhang, Xiaopo

    2010-11-01

    A new arbutin derivative, 6'-(2,5-dihydroxycinnamoyl) arbutin, was isolated from the n-BuOH extract of leaves of Heliciopsis lobata (Merr.) Sleum. Its structure was characterised by extensive spectrometric methods, including 1-D and 2-D NMR experiments.

  9. Phytochemical and antibacterial properties of leaves of Alstonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical and antibacterial activity of leaves of Alstonia scholaris R.Br. was investigated. The different solvent extracts showed the presence of Iridoids, alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids, leucoanthocyanins, reducing sugars, simple phenolics, steroids, saponins and tannins. Antibacterial activity was tested against both ...

  10. The Nutritive Potentials Of Cotton ( Gossypium barbadense ) Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sample of cotton plants (Gossypium barbadense) leaves were analyzed for phytochemical contents, heavy metals, trace elements, proximate composition and toxic/ anti nutritional components. On screening of the leaf extract it was found to contain alkaloids such as quinoline, indole and morphine, but tropane was absent.

  11. The evolution, morphology and development of fern leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra eVasco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaves are lateral determinate structures formed in a predictable sequence (phyllotaxy on the flanks of an indeterminate shoot apical meristem. The origin and evolution of leaves in vascular plants has been widely debated. Being the main conspicuous organ of nearl all vascular plants and often easy to recognize as such, it seems surprising that leaves have had multiple origins. For decades, morphologists, anatomists, paleobotanists, and systematists have contributed data to this debate. More recently, molecular genetic studies have provided insight into leaf evolution and development mainly within angiosperms and, to a lesser extent, lycophytes. There has been recent interest in extending leaf evolutionary developmental studies to other species and lineages, particularly in lycophytes and ferns. Therefore, a review of fern leaf morphology, evolution and development is timely. Here we discuss the theories of leaf evolution in ferns, morphology and diversity of fern leaves, and experimental results of fern leaf development. We summarize what is known about the molecular genetics of fern leaf development and what future studies might tell us about the evolution of fern leaf development.

  12. comparison of protein extraction methods for the leaves of ficus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F. I. Abdullah

    2017-05-01

    May 1, 2017 ... Author Correspondence, e-mail: lschua@ibd.utm.my ..... Effect of pH for Tris buffered phenol on protein extraction ... polyphenols and pigments would have weak interaction with protein in mild alkaline medium. [29]. ... ground leaves were subjected to cold acetone wash (2 mL) for twice within the process of ...

  13. Pharmacognostic Evaluation of the Leaves of Secamone afzelii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Establishment of the pharmacognostic profile of the leaves of Secamone afzelii (Schult) K. Schum, known for its antimicrobial, antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties, will assist in standardization, quality assurance, purity and sample identification. Methods: Evaluation of the fresh, powdered and ...

  14. Pharmacognostic evaluation and antisickling activity of the leaves of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Securinega virosa (Euphorbiaceae) together with condiments from natural sources serve as antisickling remedies in Nigeria. This study was aimed at establishing the pharmacognostic profile as well as the antisickling activity of the leaves of S. virosa Roxb. ex Willd (Euphorbiaceae). Evaluation of the fresh, powdered and ...

  15. Pharmacognostic evaluation of the leaves of Mitracarpus scaber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The methanolic extract and isolated constituents of Mitracarpus scaber Zucc have been reported to exhibit hepatoprotective, antibacterial and antimycotic activities. Establishment of Pharmacognostic profile of the leaves will assist in standardization for quality, purity and sample identification. Method: Evaluation of ...

  16. The essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of leaves of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bmayekiso

    2012-05-10

    May 10, 2012 ... hydro-distillation during summer and winter months. Both essential oils were analyzed by gas .... Hydro-distillation of leaves and branches of S. hippifolium yielded an essential oil which was light blue in .... to the out-membrane structure of Gram-negative bacteria. (Delamare et al., 2005; Page et al., 1997).

  17. (Ipomoea batatas) leaves on growth performance and nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Abonyi

    2012-02-21

    Feb 21, 2012 ... (2005) indicated several advantages rabbit has over other livestock in the tropics ... Dietary treatments ratio of pelletized concentrate feed (PCF) and sweet potato leaves (SPL). Diet. Treatment. T1. T2. T3. T4 ... analysis of variance using the PROC ANOVA statement as found in the SAS computer software ...

  18. Antiplasmodial diterpenoid from the leaves of Hyptis suaveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwujekwu, J C; Smith, P; Coombes, P H; Mulholland, D A; van Staden, J

    2005-11-14

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the petroleum ether extract of the leaves of Hyptis suaveolens, widely used in Traditional Medicine, has led to the isolation of an abietane-type diterpenoid endoperoxide, 13 alpha-epi-dioxiabiet-8(14)-en-18-ol, displaying high antiplasmodial activity (IC(50) 0.1 microg/ml).

  19. Alkaline protease from senesced leaves of invasive weed | Gaur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    step procedure involving ammonium sulfate precipitation and Sephadex G-250 gel permeation chromatography. The Sephadex-G-250 fraction of senesced leaves of Lantana camara showed 28.31 fold with a yield of 6.19%. The enzyme was ...

  20. Determination of Fe, Zn, and Cu concentrations in tobacco leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ABSTRACT: This paper reports the results of the determination of the concentrations of. Zn, Cu, and Fe in tobacco leaves and snuff products on sale in some regional markets in. Imo State, Southeastern Nigeria. The samples were ashed at 550°C, mineralized with acid and the metal concentrations measured using flame ...